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Sample records for calculous gallbladder disease

  1. MUC Expression in Gallbladder Epithelial Tissues in Cholesterol-Associated Gallbladder Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Kyo-Sang; Choi, Ho Soon; Jun, Dae Won; Lee, Hang Lak; Lee, Oh Young; Yoon, Byung Chul; Lee, Kyeong Geun; Paik, Seung Sam; Kim, Yong Seok; Lee, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Gallstone pathogenesis is linked to mucin hypersecretion and bacterial infection. Several mucin genes have been identified in gallbladder epithelial cells (GBECs). We investigated MUC expression in cholesterol-associated gallbladder disease and evaluated the relationship between mucin and bacterial infection. Methods The present study involved 20 patients with cholesterol stones with cholecystitis, five with cholesterol stones with cholesterolosis, six with cholesterol polyps, two with gallbladder cancer, and six controls. Canine GBECs treated with lipopolysaccharide were also studied. MUC3, MUC5AC, MUC5B, and MUC6 antibodies were used for dot/slot immunoblotting and immunohistochemical studies of the gallbladder epithelial tissues, canine GBECs, and bile. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed to evaluate MUC3 and MUC5B expression. Results MUC3, MUC5AC, MUC5B, and MUC6 were expressed in the normal gallbladder epithelium, and of those, MUC3 and MUC5B exhibited the highest expression levels. Greatly increased levels of MUC3 and MUC5B expression were observed in the cholesterol stone group, and slightly increased levels were observed in the cholesterol polyp group; MUC3 and MUC5B mRNA was also upregulated in those groups. Canine GBECs treated with lipopolysaccharide also showed upregulation of MUC3 and MUC5B. Conclusions The mucin genes with the highest expression levels in gallbladder tissue in cholesterol-associated diseases were MUC3 and MUC5B. Cholesterol stones and gallbladder infections were associated with increased MUC3 and MUC5B expression. PMID:27563024

  2. Epidemiology of Gallbladder Disease: Cholelithiasis and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stinton, Laura M.

    2012-01-01

    Diseases of the gallbladder are common and costly. The best epidemiological screening method to accurately determine point prevalence of gallstone disease is ultrasonography. Many risk factors for cholesterol gallstone formation are not modifiable such as ethnic background, increasing age, female gender and family history or genetics. Conversely, the modifiable risks for cholesterol gallstones are obesity, rapid weight loss and a sedentary lifestyle. The rising epidemic of obesity and the metabolic syndrome predicts an escalation of cholesterol gallstone frequency. Risk factors for biliary sludge include pregnancy, drugs like ceftiaxone, octreotide and thiazide diuretics, and total parenteral nutrition or fasting. Diseases like cirrhosis, chronic hemolysis and ileal Crohn's disease are risk factors for black pigment stones. Gallstone disease in childhood, once considered rare, has become increasingly recognized with similar risk factors as those in adults, particularly obesity. Gallbladder cancer is uncommon in developed countries. In the U.S., it accounts for only ~ 5,000 cases per year. Elsewhere, high incidence rates occur in North and South American Indians. Other than ethnicity and female gender, additional risk factors for gallbladder cancer include cholelithiasis, advancing age, chronic inflammatory conditions affecting the gallbladder, congenital biliary abnormalities, and diagnostic confusion over gallbladder polyps. PMID:22570746

  3. Usefulness of lavage cytology during endoscopic transpapillary catheterization into the gallbladder in the cytological diagnosis of gallbladder disease.

    PubMed

    Naito, Yoshiki; Okabe, Yoshinobu; Kawahara, Akihiko; Taira, Tomoki; Isida, Yusuke; Kaji, Ryouhei; Sata, Michio; Ureshino, Hiroki; Mikagi, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Hisafumi; Yasumoto, Makiko; Kusano, Hironori; Kage, Masayoshi; Yano, Hirohisa

    2009-06-01

    Many studies have reported methods of cell collection involving percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage (PTCD) and fine-needle aspiration cytology for the diagnosis of gallbladder disease. However, few studies have described the use of a transpapillary approach, i.e., endoscopic transpapillary catheterization into the gallbladder (ETCG). In this study, we analyzed cells collected by ETCG to evaluate its usefulness in the cytological diagnosis of gallbladder disease. The subjects were 19 patients who had undergone ETCG for the diagnosis of gallbladder disease. Of these patients, 11 and 8 had gallbladder cancer and benign gallbladder disease, respectively. We also evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of PTCD cytology performed in 15 patients with gallbladder cancer.Specimens were cytologically diagnosed as normal or benign, indeterminate, suspected malignancy, malignant, and inadequate in 47% (9/19), 11% (2/19), 0% (0/19), 37% (7/19), and 5% (1/19) of patients, respectively. Specimens were diagnosed as malignant, indeterminate, normal or benign, and inadequate in 7, 2, 1, and 1, respectively, of the 11 patients diagnosed with gallbladder cancer. The sensitivity and specificity of ETCG cytology were 78 and 100%, respectively, whereas the diagnostic accuracy of PTCD cytology was 20% (3/15). None of the patients developed complications of ETCG. Despite its technical difficulty, ETCG for bile cytology allows the collection of adequate cell numbers from patients with benign disease or gallbladder cancer and facilitates a cytological diagnosis, making it a useful method for collecting cells. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Identification of Helicobacter spp. in bile and gallbladder tissue of patients with symptomatic gallbladder disease

    PubMed Central

    Sabbaghian, M Shirin; Ranaudo, Jeffrey; Zeng, Lin; Alongi, Alexandra P; Perez-Perez, Guillermo; Shamamian, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background: This experimental study was designed to determine if Helicobacter spp. contribute to benign gallbladder disease using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Methods: Patients with benign gallbladder disease scheduled for elective cholecystectomy at New York University Langone Medical Center were recruited from February to May 2008. Bile, gallbladder tissue and gallstones were collected. DNA was isolated from these specimens and amplified via PCR using C97F and C98R primers specific for Helicobacter spp. Appropriate positive and negative controls were used. Products were analysed with agarose gel electrophoresis, sequenced and results aligned using sequencher. Plasma was collected for detection of anti-Helicobacter pylori antibodies via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Of 36 patients, 12 patients' bile and/or tissue were positive for Helicobacter spp. by PCR. Species were most homologous with H. pylori, although other Helicobacter spp. were suggested. Six of 12 patients demonstrated anti-Helicobacter antibodies in plasma, suggesting that the remaining six might have demonstrated other species besides H. pylori. Four of six plasma samples with anti-Helicobacter antibodies were anti-CagA (cytotoxin associated gene) negative. Discussion: Helicobacter spp. can be detected in bile and gallbladder tissue of patients with benign gallbladder disease. The contribution of these bacteria to the pathophysiology of gallbladder disease and gallstone formation requires further study. PMID:20495657

  5. A cross-sectional study of cardiorespiratory fitness and gallbladder disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Changqing; Mikus, Catherine; Ahmed, Ali; Hu, Gang; Xiong, Kaiyu; Zhang, Yimin; Sui, Xuemei

    2017-04-01

    To determine the association of different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), an objective indicator of habitual physical activity, with gallbladder disease. In the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS) database, 41,528 men and 13,206 women aged 20-90 years, with body mass index of 18.5 or more and without history of cardiovascular disease and cancer, received a preventive examination at the Cooper Clinic in Dallas, Texas, between 1970 and 2003. CRF was quantified as maximal metabolic equivalents and classified as low, moderate, and high based on traditional ACLS cut points. Gallbladder disease was defined as physician-diagnosed gallbladder disease. When compared with low CRF, adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for gallbladder disease for those with moderate and high CRF were 0.74 (0.55-0.99) and 0.59 (0.42-0.82), respectively when adjusted for all the potential confounders. Each one metabolic equivalent increment of CRF was associated with 10% lower odds of gallbladder disease in all participants (P for trend <.001), 13% lower in women (P for trend <.001), and 8% lower in men (P for trend = .08). The association was consistent across age, history of diabetes mellitus, and physical inactivity subgroups. CRF is inversely related to the prevalence of gallbladder disease among relatively healthy men and women in the ACLS cohort. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Spontaneous cholecystocutaneous fistula as a primary manifestation of gallbladder adenocarcinoma associated with gallbladder lithiasis - case report.

    PubMed

    Micu, Bogdan Vasile; Andercou, Octavian Aurel; Micu, Carmen Maria; Militaru, Valentin; Jeican, IonuŢ Isaia; Bungărdean, Cătălina Ileana; Mogoantă, Stelian ŞtefăniŢă; Miclăuş, Dan Radu; Pop, Tudor Radu

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous cholecystocutaneous fistula (SCF) is a rare complication of neglected calculous biliary disease and also an extremely rare complication of gallbladder neoplasm. This pathology has become even rarer because of prompt diagnosis and expedient surgical intervention for gallstones. So far, there is one published report of a SCF due to gallbladder adenocarcinoma. We present the case of a woman aged 87 years, admitted to the Vth Department of Surgery, Clinical Municipal Hospital of Cluj-Napoca (Romania) for a tumoral mass located in the epigastrium. In the epigastrium, the patient had three skin orifices of about 1-2 mm each, through which purulent secretion occurred. The abdominal ultrasound highlighted a cholecystocutaneous fistula with the presence of a subcutaneous gallstone. Intraoperatively, we found a cholecystocutaneous fistula, a 1 cm subcutaneous gallstone, gallbladder with thickened walls containing a cylinder-shaped gallstone of 5÷3 cm. Fistulectomy, gallstones extraction and cholecystectomy were performed. The histopathological examination highlighted gallbladder adenocarcinoma. In conclusion, SCF can be the first significant manifestation of gallbladder cancer associated with neglected calculous biliary disease.

  7. Age, Predisposing Diseases, and Ultrasonographic Findings in Determining Clinical Outcome of Acute Acalculous Inflammatory Gallbladder Diseases in Children

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated clinical factors such as age, gender, predisposing diseases and ultrasonographic findings that determine clinical outcome of acute acalculous inflammatory gallbladder diseases in children. The patients were divided into the four age groups. From March 2004 through February 2014, clinical data from 131 children diagnosed as acute acalculous inflammatory gallbladder disease by ultrasonography were retrospectively reviewed. Systemic infectious diseases were the most common etiology of acute inflammatory gallbladder disease in children and were identified in 50 patients (38.2%). Kawasaki disease was the most common predisposing disease (28 patients, 21.4%). The incidence was highest in infancy and lowest in adolescence. The age groups were associated with different predisposing diseases; noninfectious systemic disease was the most common etiology in infancy and early childhood, whereas systemic infectious disease was the most common in middle childhood and adolescence (P = 0.001). Gallbladder wall thickening was more commonly found in malignancy (100%) and systemic infection (94.0%) (P = 0.002), whereas gallbladder distension was more frequent in noninfectious systemic diseases (60%) (P = 0.000). Ascites seen on ultrasonography was associated with a worse clinical course compared with no ascites (77.9% vs. 37.7%, P = 0.030), and the duration of hospitalization was longer in patients with ascites (11.6 ± 10.7 vs. 8.0 ± 6.6 days, P = 0.020). In conclusion, consideration of age and predisposing disease in addition to ultrasonographic gallbladder findings in children suspected of acute acalculous inflammatory gallbladder disease might result in better outcomes. PMID:27550491

  8. Genetic epidemiology of gallbladder disease in Mexican Americans and cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase gene variation

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, J.P.; Hanis, C.L.; Boerwinkle, E.

    1994-09-01

    Among Mexican Americans the prevalence of gallbladder disease is markedly elevated. Previous data from both genetic admixture and family studies indicate that there is genetic component to the occurrence of gallbladder disease in Mexican Americans. However, prior to this study no formal genetic analysis of gallbladder disease had been carried out nor had any contributing gene been identified. The results of complex segregation analysis in a sample of 232 Mexican Americans with age- and gender-specific effects influencing the occurrence of gallbladder disease. The estimated frequency of the allele increasing susceptibility was 0.39. The lifetime probabilities that an individual will bemore » affected by gallbladder disease were 1.0, 0.54, and 0.00 for females of genotypes {open_quotes}AA{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}Aa{close_quotes}, and {open_quotes}aa{close_quotes}, respectively, and 0.68, 0.30, and 0.00 for males, respectively. Human cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase is the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid synthesis. The results of an association study in both a random sample and a matched case/control sample showed that there is a significant association between cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase gene variation and the occurrence of gallbladder disease in Mexican Americans males but not in females. For loci in the 5{prime}-end of the cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase gene, the frequency of the susceptibility alleles was twice as high in gallbladder disease patients compared to controls. The results of a linkage analysis provide evidence that the cholesterol 7a-hydroxylase gene and the inferred gallbladder disease gene are genetically linked.« less

  9. Oral contraceptives and the risk of gallbladder disease: a comparative safety study

    PubMed Central

    Etminan, Mahyar; Delaney, Joseph A.C.; Bressler, Brian; Brophy, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent concerns have been raised about the risk of gallbladder disease associated with the use of drospirenone, a fourth-generation progestin used in oral contraceptives. We conducted a study to determine the magnitude of this risk compared with other formulations of oral contraceptives. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the IMS LifeLink Health Plan Claims Database. We included women who were using an oral contraceptive containing ethinyl estradiol combined with a progestin during 1997–2009. To be eligible, women had to have been taking the oral contraceptive continuously for at least six months. We computed adjusted rate ratios (RRs) for gallbladder disease using a Cox proportional hazards model. In the primary analysis, gallbladder disease was defined as cholecystectomy; in a secondary analysis, it was defined as hospital admission secondary to gallbladder disease. Results We included 2 721 014 women in the cohort, 27 087 of whom underwent surgical or laparoscopic cholecystectomy during the follow-up period. Compared with levonorgestrel, an older second-generation progestin, a small, statistically significant increase in the risk of gallbladder disease was associated with desogestrel (adjusted RR 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–1.09), drospirenone (adjusted RR 1.20, 95% CI 1.16–1.26) and norethindrone (adjusted RR 1.10, 95% CI 1.06–1.14). No statistically significant increase in risk was associated with the other formulations of oral contraceptive (ethynodiol diacetate, norgestrel and norgestimate). Interpretation In a large cohort of women using oral contraceptives, we found a small, statistically significant increase in the risk of gallbladder disease associated with desogestrel, drospirenone and norethindrone compared with levonorgestrel. However, the small effect sizes compounded with the possibility of residual biases in this observational study make it unlikely that these differences are clinically

  10. Profile of gallbladder diseases diagnosed at Afyon Kocatepe University: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Mazlum, Mustafa; Dilek, Fatma Hüsniye; Yener, Arzu Neşe; Tokyol, Ciğdem; Aktepe, Fatma; Dilek, Osman Nuri

    2011-01-01

    Gallbladder is one of the most commonly encountered specimen in a pathology laboratory. A diverse spectrum of diseases affect the biliary system, often presenting with similar clinical signs and symptoms. We aimed to define the profile of gallbladder diseases in our region, and to determine potential correlations between histopathologic features we observed. We reviewed all cholecystectomies processed in Department of Pathology of Afyon Kocatepe University Hospital between January 2000 and March 2008. Gross and histopathologic features of the specimens were reevaluated. Among 1500 patients; 69.9% were women and 30.1% were men. We found out fourteen primary gallbladder carcinomas (0.93%) with adenocarcinomas being the most frequent type (78.57%). The rate of cholelithiasis was found as 89.9%. The most common type of gallstones was mixed cholesterol type gallstones with 67.5% followed by black pigment and brown pigment types as 23.83% and 5.89%, respectively. The association of metaplasia with dysplasia and also gallstones were statistically significant (p < 0.001, p < 0.005). The rate of the gallbladder polyps was 2.6% with the cholesterol polyps being the most common type (56.4%). Gallbladder diseases often present with similar clinical signs and symptoms and a surgical pathologist should be alert especially of precancerous lesions. With our results, we also conclude that elderly women with longstanding gallstone disease should undergo elective surgery even when no symptoms are present.

  11. Clinical characteristics and risk factors for symptomatic pediatric gallbladder disease.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Seema; Lopez, Monica E; Chumpitazi, Bruno P; Mazziotti, Mark V; Brandt, Mary L; Fishman, Douglas S

    2012-01-01

    Our center previously reported its experience with pediatric gallbladder disease and cholecystectomies from 1980 to 1996. We aimed to determine the current clinical characteristics and risk factors for symptomatic pediatric gallbladder disease and cholecystectomies and compare these findings with our historical series. Retrospective, cross-sectional study of children, 0 to 18 years of age, who underwent a cholecystectomy from January 2005 to October 2008. We evaluated 404 patients: 73% girls; 39% Hispanic and 35% white. The mean age was 13.10 ± 0.91 years. The primary indications for surgery in patients 3 years or older were symptomatic cholelithiasis (53%), obstructive disease (28%), and biliary dyskinesia (16%). The median BMI percentile was 89%; 39% were classified as obese. Of the patients with nonhemolytic gallstone disease, 35% were obese and 18% were severely obese; BMI percentile was 99% or higher. Gallstone disease was associated with hemolytic disease in 23% (73/324) of patients and with obesity in 39% (126/324). Logistic regression demonstrated older age (P = .019) and Hispanic ethnicity (P < .0001) as independent risk factors for nonhemolytic gallstone disease. Compared with our historical series, children undergoing cholecystectomy are more likely to be Hispanic (P = .003) and severely obese (P < .0279). Obesity and Hispanic ethnicity are strongly correlated with symptomatic pediatric gallbladder disease. In comparison with our historical series, hemolytic disease is no longer the predominant risk factor for symptomatic gallstone disease in children.

  12. Megalin and cubilin in the human gallbladder epithelium.

    PubMed

    Tsaroucha, Alexandra K; Chatzaki, Ekaterini; Lambropoulou, Maria; Despoudi, Kaliopi; Laftsidis, Prodromos; Charsou, Chara; Polychronidis, Alexandros; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos; Simopoulos, Constantinos E

    2008-09-01

    Although the role of cholesterol absorption by the gallbladder epithelium in gallstone formation is well established, the exact process is poorly understood. Potential candidates for regulation of transepithelial cholesterol transport are suggested to be two large membrane multiple ligand receptors, megalin and cubilin. We studied the expression of these two proteins in both acalculous and calculous human gallbladder epithelia. Adult human gallbladder tissues were received from 21 patients (9 men, 12 women) who had undergone cholecystectomy. The patients were divided into two groups: group A (calculous gallbladder group; 5 men, 6 women; mean age 64.4 +/- 11.1 years) with cholelithiasis, and group B (acalculous gallbladder group; 4 men, 6 women; mean age 55.3 +/- 16.1 years). In the gallbladder tissues megalin and cubilin expression was studied by immunohistochemistry and conventional RT-PCR, and gene expression levels were estimated by real-time RT-PCR. Both megalin and cubilin gene transcripts were found in total RNA preparations from acalculous gallbladder. In contrast, in preparations from calculous gallbladder, none or only one of the proteins was detected. Immunoreactive proteins were detected in the simple columnar acalculous gallbladder epithelium but not in the calculous gallbladder epithelium. Our results show different expression patterns of the two proteins in calculous gallbladders and acalculous gallbladders. In the latter both proteins are expressed, suggesting an association with gallstone formation and implying a putative role of the two proteins in cholesterol endocytosis. In other words, the presence of both proteins may be essential for the prevention of stone formation.

  13. Diagnosis and management of gallbladder polyps.

    PubMed

    Andrén-Sandberg, Ake

    2012-05-01

    Gallbladder cancer is a rather uncommon disease, when it gives symptoms it has usually reached an incurable stage. Therefore, every attempt must be made to find the asymptomatic stages and look for premalignant gallbladder polyps. Even if gallbladder cancer is a rare disease, gallbladder polyps are common, only a few polyps develop to cancer. This makes gallbladder polyps another problem: which are the polyps that must be surgically removed, which shall be followed-up, or for how long? The author used the keyword "gallbladder polypsn" in PubMed and reviewed the scientific literatures published from January 2000 to December 2011. The present review article has summarized almost all respects of gallbladder polyp, including the risk factors, clinical diagnosis and management, and comments made from the author, in which clinical treatments are recommended. It is author's purpose that the 11-year-knowledge about gallbladder polyps summarized from all worlds' literatures is enough to know how clinicians will handle the next patient with gallbladder polyp.

  14. Diagnosis and Management of Gallbladder Polyps

    PubMed Central

    Andrén-Sandberg, Åke

    2012-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer is a rather uncommon disease, when it gives symptoms it has usually reached an incurable stage. Therefore, every attempt must be made to find the asymptomatic stages and look for premalignant gallbladder polyps. Even if gallbladder cancer is a rare disease, gallbladder polyps are common, only a few polyps develop to cancer. This makes gallbladder polyps another problem: which are the polyps that must be surgically removed, which shall be followed-up, or for how long? The author used the keyword “gallbladder polypsn” in PubMed and reviewed the scientific literatures published from January 2000 to December 2011. The present review article has summarized almost all respects of gallbladder polyp, including the risk factors, clinical diagnosis and management, and comments made from the author, in which clinical treatments are recommended. It is author's purpose that the 11-year-knowledge about gallbladder polyps summarized from all worlds’ literatures is enough to know how clinicians will handle the next patient with gallbladder polyp. PMID:22655278

  15. Expression and subcellular localization of NHE3 in the human gallbladder epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yongsheng; Kong, Jing; Wu, Shuodong

    2014-01-01

    Background: Enhanced gallbladder concentrating function is an important factor for the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstone disease (CGD), but the mechanism is unknown. Potential candidates for regulation of gallbladder ion absorption are suggested to be Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3). In this study, we investigated the expression and subcellular localization of NHE3 in both acalculous and calculous human gallbladders. Methods: Adult human gallbladder tissue was obtained from 23 patients (7 men, 16 women) who had undergone cholecystectomy. The patients were divided into two groups: Group A (acalculous group) and Group B (calculous group). Gene expression of NHE3 was quantitatively estimated by real-time PCR. Protein expression was studied by Western blotting assays. Furthermore, expression of immunoreactive NHE3 was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Results: There was no significant difference in the NHE3 mRNA expression between calculous and acalculous human gallbladders. NHE3 protein expression in gallbladders from patients with cholelithiasis is increased compared to those without gallstones. Immunohistochemistry studies prove that NHE3 is located both on the apical plasma membrane and in the intracellular pool in human GBECs. Conclusions: NHE3 may play a role in the pathogenesis of human CGD. Additional studies are required to further delineate the underlying mechanisms. PMID:25674247

  16. Management of cancer gallbladder found as a surprise on a resected gallbladder specimen.

    PubMed

    Misra, Mahesh Chandra; Guleria, Sandeep

    2006-06-15

    Carcinoma gallbladder is associated with an overall 5-year survival rate reported less than 5% due to late diagnosis. Advent of ultrasound scanning may help in detecting gallbladder polyps and an early gallbladder cancer. Excellent 5-year survival (up to 100%) has been reported for Stage Ia disease and the survival has significantly improved for Stage Ib, II, and III if appropriate re-operation is carried out soon after the incidental detection of gallbladder cancer. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is contraindicated in the presence of gallbladder cancer. It is recommended to excise all laparoscopic port sites, at the time of re-operation. Re-operation for Stage II gallbladder cancer is associated with a 90-100% 3-year survival rate. Patients with Stage III and IV tumors also benefit from an extended cholecystectomy. Patients with bulky primary tumors without lymph node metastases (T4N0) seem to have a better prognosis than those with distant lymph node metastases, and should be treated aggressively. It is advantageous to perform the appropriate extent of surgery for gallbladder cancer at the initial operation. Heightened awareness of the presence of cancer and the knowledge of appropriate management are important. For patients whose cancer is an incidental finding on pathologic review, re-resection is indicated for all disease except Stage Ia. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy have not been found effective as an adjuvant or palliative therapy in gallbladder cancer. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. A new exploration for gallbladder polyps: gallbladder polypectomy by endolap technique.

    PubMed

    Wang, JingMin; Tan, YuYan; Zhao, Gang; Wang, Dong; Ji, ZhenLing

    2014-12-01

    Abstract Gallbladder polyps are most commonly treated with cholecystectomy, which is associated with various complications. For benign disease, preserving the gallbladder is preferable. Since 1994, we have been exploring percutaneous polypectomy and have recently developed an improved new technique. This study reports a new endoscopic-laparoscopic (Endolap) technique for the removal of polyps and the preservation of the gallbladder. Nine Chinese mini-pigs were used to observe mucosal regeneration. Microwaves of 50-70 mA for 9 seconds were safe, and the gallbladder mucosa of pigs recovered to nearly normal 2 weeks later. In the clinical cases, 60 patients with gallbladder polyps were studied. With the patient under general anesthesia, each polyp stem was coagulated, and then the polyp was removed. All procedures were successful at between 60 and 135 minutes. The success rate was 93.33% (56/60). A retrospective analysis was conducted to assess the recovery of gallbladder function. All patients were followed up and symptom-free, without recurrence of the polyps; 3 months after the operation, the volume and contraction of the gallbladder recovered to preoperative levels. Thus the Endolap technique is reliable for removing benign gallbladder polyps and is applicable to a wider range of clinical situations than percutaneous polypectomy.

  18. Sludge and stone formation in the gallbladder in bedridden elderly patients with cerebrovascular disease: influence of feeding method.

    PubMed

    Onizuka, Y; Mizuta, Y; Isomoto, H; Takeshima, F; Murase, K; Miyazaki, M; Ogata, H; Otsuka, K; Murata, I; Kohno, S

    2001-05-01

    The incidence of gallbladder sludge or gallstone formation in bedridden patients with cerebrovascular disease (CVD) remains obscure. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, relationship to feeding method, and mechanisms of gallbladder sludge and gallstone formation in elderly patients with CVD. Using ultrasonography, we determined the development of gallbladder sludge and gallstone over a 12-month period, the area of the gallbladder, the gallbladder contractile response to cerulein, and fasting levels of plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) in 40 bedridden elderly patients with CVD. The patients were divided into three groups based on the feeding method: oral ingestion (OI), nasogastric feeding (NF), and total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Gallbladder sludge and gallstone were not observed in any of the 14 OI patients, but occurred in 6 and 1 of the 11 NF patients, and in 14 and 3 of the 15 TPN patients, respectively. Fasting gallbladder areas were significantly larger in the TPN group than in the other two groups. The TPN group showed a marked decrease in cerulein-induced gallbladder contractility. Fasting plasma CCK levels were lower in the TPN group than in the OI group. Our results indicate that elderly patients with CVD confined to bed over long periods are not necessarily at risk of gallbladder sludge or gallstone formation, and the development of these features may be associated with the feeding method. The predisposition of CVD patients on TPN to gallbladder disease is probably caused by failure of gallbladder contraction, resulting from insufficient secretion of CCK and impaired sensitivity of the gallbladder to CCK.

  19. Genetics and epidemiology of gallbladder disease in New World native peoples.

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, K M; Ferrell, R E; Hanis, C L; Styne, P N

    1984-01-01

    Native peoples of the New World, including Amerindians and admixed Latin Americans such as Mexican-Americans, are highly susceptible to diseases of the gallbladder. These include cholesterol cholelithiasis (gallstones) and its complications, as well as cancer of the gallbladder. Although there is clearly some necessary dietary or other environmental risk factor involved, the pattern of disease prevalence is geographically associated with the distribution of genes of aboriginal Amerindian origin, and levels of risk generally correspond to the degree of Amerindian admixture. This pattern differs from that generally associated with Westernization, which suggests a gene-environment interaction, and that within an admixed population there is a subset whose risk is underestimated when admixture is ignored. The risk that an individual of a susceptible New World genotype will undergo a cholecystectomy by age 85 can approach 40% in Mexican-American females, and their risk of gallbladder cancer can reach several percent. These are heretofore unrecognized levels of risk, especially of the latter, because previous studies have not accounted for admixture or for the loss of at-risk individuals due to cholecystectomy. A genetic susceptibility may, thus, be as "carcinogenic" in New World peoples as any known major environmental exposure; yet, while the risk has a genetic basis, its expression as gallbladder cancer is so delayed as to lead only very rarely to multiply-affected families. Estimates in this paper are derived in part from two studies of Mexican-Americans in Starr County and Laredo, Texas. PMID:6517051

  20. Carcinoma gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Biswas, P K

    2010-07-01

    Carcinoma gallbladder (CaGb) is a rare disease. The aetiology of CaGb is yet not known. However the risk of CaGb is increased in anomalous pancreaticobiliary duct junction (APBDJ), gall stones, xanthogranulomatus cholecystitis, calcified or porcelain gallbladder, cholelithiasis with typhoid carriers, gallbladder adenoma, red meat consumption and tobacco uses. There are protective effects of vegetables on CaGb. Most of the cases present with advanced disease. In early carcinoma of a gallbladder sign and symptoms mimic benign disease. The diagnosis is established by ultrasonography, computerized tomography and guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Biochemical tests are of very little value in making a diagnosis. The treatment depends on the clinical stage at presentation. Surgery offers the best chance of cure. In stage T1a, laparoscopic or open cholecystectomy alone is curative, and in T1b, cholecystectomy with hepatoduodenal lymph node dissection without combined resection of an adjacent organ is required. Segment S4a+5 hepatectomy combined with extrahepatic bile duct resection (BDR) and D2 lymph node dissection is a highly recommended operation for the treatment of T2 and T3 CaGb. The dye injection method is useful in determining the appropriate extent of hepatic resection for advanced CaGb. Resurgery is required only in those cases where tumour has invaded the serosa and/ or adjacent structures when diagnosed postoperatively. Biliary bypass is required for palliation. Prognosis depends on early diagnosis and appropriate surgical excision.

  1. Design and application of a new series of gallbladder endoscopes that facilitate gallstone removal without gallbladder excision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Tie; Huang, Wan-Chao; Luo, Xiao-Bing; Zhang, Yang-De

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, some Chinese doctors have proposed a new concept, gallstone removal without gallbladder excision, along with transition of the medical model. As there is no specialized endoscope for gallstone removal without gallbladder excision, we designed and produced a new series of gallbladder endoscopes and accessories that have already been given a Chinese invention patent (No. ZL200810199041.2). The design of these gallbladder endoscopes was based on the anatomy and physiology of the gallbladder, characteristics of gallbladder disease, ergonomics, and industrial design. This series of gallbladder endoscopes underwent clinical trials in two hospitals appointed by the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The clinical trials showed that surgeries of gallstones, gallbladder polyps, and cystic duct calculus could be smoothly performed with these products. In summary, this series of gallbladder endoscopes is safe, reliable, and effective for gallstone removal without gallbladder excision. This note comprehensively introduces the research and design of this series of gallbladder endoscopes.

  2. Gallbladder stones and gallbladder polyps associated with increased risk of colorectal adenoma in men.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yen-Ling; Wu, Jin-Shang; Yang, Yi-Ching; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Lee, Chih-Ting; Lin, Wan-Ju; Chang, Chih-Jen

    2018-04-01

    Most cases of colorectal cancer develop via an adenoma to carcinoma sequence. Gallbladder polyps share some risk factors with colorectal polyps. Little is known about the relationship between gallbladder diseases and different status of colorectal polyps by gender. This study was to investigate the association of gallbladder stones and polyps with colorectal adenomas by gender in a Taiwanese population. A total of 7066 eligible subjects who underwent a total colonoscopy as a part of health check-up between January 2001 and August 2009 were recruited. Colonoscopic findings were classified into polyp-free, non-neoplastic polyps and colorectal adenomas. Gallbladder stones and gallbladder polyps were diagnosed based on ultrasonographic findings. There was a significant difference in the status of colon polyps between subjects with and without gallbladder polyps. However, the status of colon polyps was not significantly different between subjects with or without gallbladder stones. After adjusting obesity, fasting plasma glucose, and other variables, there was a positive relationship between gallbladder polyps and colorectal adenomas (odds ratio [OR]: 1.396, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.115-1.747) but not non-neoplastic polyps in all subjects. In men, gallbladder polyps (OR: 1.560, 95% CI: 1.204-2.019) and gallbladder stones (OR: 1.465, 95% CI 1.081-1.984) were positively associated with colorectal adenomas. In women, neither gallbladder polyps nor gallbladder stones were significantly related to colon polyps. Both gallbladder polyps and gallbladder stones were associated with an increased risk of colorectal adenomas in men but not in women. Gender difference was significant for the association between gallbladder lesions and colorectal polyps. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Gallbladder Polyps in Metachromatic Leukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Almarzooqi, Saeeda; Quadri, Asif; Albawardi, Alia

    2018-04-01

    Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease, caused by a deficiency of arylsulfatase A, and leads to demyelination of the nervous system. A putative association between MLD and gallbladder pathology including malignancy is documented in the medical literature. A 10-year-old boy with MLD was found to have a papillary growth within a cystically dilated gallbladder. The lesion was confirmed to be papillomatosis/polyp with focal intestinal metaplasia. Dysplasia was not identified. MLD may be associated with a spectrum of gallbladder pathology including neoplastic conditions. Pathologists and clinicians should be aware of this association/risk. The patient may be offered regular ultrasound screening of the gallbladder.

  4. Spontaneous asymptomatic gallbladder perforation

    PubMed Central

    Seçil, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Gallstone disease is common. However, a proportion of patients are asymptomatic and remain undiagnosed until the occurrence of complications. Common complications include acute cholecystitis, biliary obstruction, acute pancreatitis and cholangitis. Severe complications include gallbladder perforation, Mirizzi syndrome and fistula formation are usually associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We report a case of asymptomatic spotaneous gallbladder perforation due to acute cholecystitis. PMID:24914424

  5. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in double gallbladder with dual pathology.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sumanta Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Double gallbladder is a rare embryological anomaly of clinical significance. Despite availability of modern imaging, only 50% of recently reported cases had preoperative diagnosis, which is desirable in every case to avoid serious operative complications. Double pathology in double gallbladder is extremely rare with only 3 reporting's available till date to the best of author's knowledge. With a preoperative diagnosis of double gallbladder, laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be safely and successfully performed with meticulous dissection, aided by operative cholangiogram. However in all such attempts a lower threshold should be kept for conversion to open surgery. Awareness about this anomaly amongst radiologists and surgeons is of crucial importance. Double gallbladder does not present with any specific symptom, neither it increases disease possibility in either lobe. Prophylactic cholecystectomy has no role in asymptomatic cases diagnosed accidentally. Author reports a case of a symptomatic young male with double gallbladder who presented with short history of dyspepsia, abdominal pain and fever. Definite preoperative diagnosis was reached with ultrasound scan and magnetic resonance cholangio pancreatography and subsequently dealt with laparoscopically. Calculous cholecystitis affected one lobe and acalculous empyema the other. While the 1st lobe drained though a cystic duct into common bile duct (CBD), the 2nd was without any communication with either CBD or its counterpart, thus remained as a blind vesicle.

  6. Expression of CCK Receptors in Carcinoma Gallbladder and Cholelithiasis: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Faridi, Mohammad Shazib; Jaiswal, Mahabir Saran Das; Goel, Sudhir K

    2015-07-01

    Gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors are trophic for various gastrointestinal malignancies. Their role in gallbladder cancer has not been widely studied. To identify expression of CCK-A and CCK-B receptors in the tissue and blood of patients suffering from carcinoma (CA) gallbladder and gallstone disease and to compare expression of CCK A and B receptors in the gall bladder tissue and blood of healthy individuals and patients of CA gallbladder, and gallstone diseases. Forty nine subjects of both genders were recruited, comprising of 22 patients of CA gall bladder, 19 cases of cholelithiasis and, 8 normal gallbladders obtained from patients operated for trauma of the biliary system or Whipple's procedure. RNA extraction and cDNA formation for CCK-A and CCK-B receptors were carried out. Real Time PCR was performed on cDNA and threshold cycle (Ct) value of each sample was obtained and ΔCt was calculated. Chi-square test for comparing two groups and ANOVA test for comparing multiple groups were applied and if p<0.05 then Dunnett-C test was performed. Both CCK-A and CCK-B receptors were expressed irrespective of its origin in all tissues and blood samples studied; be it normal, Cholelithiasis or CA gallbladder and there was no difference among them (p>0.05). This preliminary study showed higher expression of CCK-A receptors in patients of cholelithiasis and decreased expression of CCK-A receptors in patients of CA gallbladder as compared to normal gallbladder although it did not rise to statistical significance.

  7. Bile acid composition of gallbladder contents in dogs with gallbladder mucocele and biliary sludge.

    PubMed

    Kakimoto, Toshiaki; Kanemoto, Hideyuki; Fukushima, Kenjiro; Ohno, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine bile acid composition of gallbladder contents in dogs with gallbladder mucocele and biliary sludge. ANIMALS 18 dogs with gallbladder mucocele (GBM group), 8 dogs with immobile biliary sludge (i-BS group), 17 dogs with mobile biliary sludge (m-BS group), and 14 healthy dogs (control group). PROCEDURES Samples of gallbladder contents were obtained by use of percutaneous ultrasound-guided cholecystocentesis or during cholecystectomy or necropsy. Concentrations of 15 bile acids were determined by use of highperformance liquid chromatography, and a bile acid compositional ratio was calculated for each group. RESULTS Concentrations of most bile acids in the GBM group were significantly lower than those in the control and m-BS groups. Compositional ratio of taurodeoxycholic acid, which is 1 of 3 major bile acids in dogs, was significantly lower in the GBM and i-BS groups, compared with ratios for the control and m-BS groups. The compositional ratio of taurocholic acid was significantly higher and that of taurochenodeoxycholic acid significantly lower in the i-BS group than in the control group. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In this study, concentrations and fractions of bile acids in gallbladder contents were significantly different in dogs with gallbladder mucocele or immobile biliary sludge, compared with results for healthy control dogs. Studies are needed to determine whether changes in bile acid composition are primary or secondary events of gallbladder abnormalities.

  8. Polypoid lesions of the gallbladder: disease spectrum with pathologic correlation.

    PubMed

    Mellnick, Vincent M; Menias, Christine O; Sandrasegaran, Kumar; Hara, Amy K; Kielar, Ania Z; Brunt, Elizabeth M; Doyle, Maria B Majella; Dahiya, Nirvikar; Elsayes, Khaled M

    2015-01-01

    Gallbladder polyps are seen on as many as 7% of gallbladder ultrasonographic images. The differential diagnosis for a polypoid gallbladder mass is wide and includes pseudotumors, as well as benign and malignant tumors. Tumefactive sludge may be mistaken for a gallbladder polyp. Pseudotumors include cholesterol polyps, adenomyomatosis, and inflammatory polyps, and they occur in that order of frequency. The most common benign and malignant tumors are adenomas and primary adenocarcinoma, respectively. Polyp size, shape, and other ancillary imaging findings, such as a wide base, wall thickening, and coexistent gallstones, are pertinent items to report when gallbladder polyps are discovered. These findings, as well as patient age and risk factors for gallbladder cancer, guide clinical decision making. Symptomatic polyps without other cause for symptoms, an age over 50 years, and the presence of gallstones are generally considered indications for cholecystectomy. Incidentally noted pedunculated polyps smaller than 5 mm generally do not require follow-up. Polyps that are 6-10 mm require follow-up, although neither the frequency nor the length of follow-up has been established. Polyps that are larger than 10 mm are typically excised, although lower size thresholds for cholecystectomy may be considered for patients with increased risk for gallbladder carcinoma, such as patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis. (©)RSNA, 2015.

  9. A comprehensive review on Primary gallbladder tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ashish; Gupta, Amit; Anjum, Rohik; Agrawal, Saumya; Mallik, Dhiraj

    2018-04-30

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease that can affect any organ system of the body. Abdominal TB can be gastrointestinal, lymph nodal, visceral or peritoneal. The gallbladder (GB) is rarely involved in abdominal TB as a primary organ. Extensive research literature on gallbladder TB is limited to case reports. There has been no review on this rare abdominal pathology. GB tuberculosis is a difficult diagnosis preoperatively. It is a rare differential among the more common gallbladder pathologies such as cholelithiasis, or a gallbladder malignancy. Typical histopathology of the resected specimen helps to establish this rare diagnosis. Subjecting every specimen to histopathological examination followed by medical treatment offers the chance of cure. Through this review, the authors attempt to provide an insight into this disease entity.

  10. Gallbladder Cancer: expert consensus statement

    PubMed Central

    Aloia, Thomas A; Járufe, Nicolas; Javle, Milind; Maithel, Shishir K; Roa, Juan C; Adsay, Volkan; Coimbra, Felipe J F; Jarnagin, William R

    2015-01-01

    An American Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association (AHPBA)-sponsored consensus meeting of expert panellists was convened on 15 January 2014 to review current evidence on the management of gallbladder carcinoma in order to establish practice guidelines. In summary, within high incidence areas, the assessment of routine gallbladder specimens should include the microscopic evaluation of a minimum of three sections and the cystic duct margin; specimens with dysplasia or proven cancer should be extensively sampled. Provided the patient is medically fit for surgery, data support the resection of all gallbladder polyps of >1.0 cm in diameter and those with imaging evidence of vascular stalks. The minimum staging evaluation of patients with suspected or proven gallbladder cancer includes contrasted cross-sectional imaging and diagnostic laparoscopy. Adequate lymphadenectomy includes assessment of any suspicious regional nodes, evaluation of the aortocaval nodal basin, and a goal recovery of at least six nodes. Patients with confirmed metastases to N2 nodal stations do not benefit from radical resection and should receive systemic and/or palliative treatments. Primary resection of patients with early T-stage (T1b–2) disease should include en bloc resection of adjacent liver parenchyma. Patients with T1b, T2 or T3 disease that is incidentally identified in a cholecystectomy specimen should undergo re-resection unless this is contraindicated by advanced disease or poor performance status. Re-resection should include complete portal lymphadenectomy and bile duct resection only when needed to achieve a negative margin (R0) resection. Patients with preoperatively staged T3 or T4 N1 disease should be considered for clinical trials of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Following R0 resection of T2–4 disease in N1 gallbladder cancer, patients should be considered for adjuvant systemic chemotherapy and/or chemoradiotherapy. PMID:26172135

  11. Gallbladder cancer: expert consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Aloia, Thomas A; Járufe, Nicolas; Javle, Milind; Maithel, Shishir K; Roa, Juan C; Adsay, Volkan; Coimbra, Felipe J F; Jarnagin, William R

    2015-08-01

    An American Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association (AHPBA)-sponsored consensus meeting of expert panellists was convened on 15 January 2014 to review current evidence on the management of gallbladder carcinoma in order to establish practice guidelines. In summary, within high incidence areas, the assessment of routine gallbladder specimens should include the microscopic evaluation of a minimum of three sections and the cystic duct margin; specimens with dysplasia or proven cancer should be extensively sampled. Provided the patient is medically fit for surgery, data support the resection of all gallbladder polyps of >1.0 cm in diameter and those with imaging evidence of vascular stalks. The minimum staging evaluation of patients with suspected or proven gallbladder cancer includes contrasted cross-sectional imaging and diagnostic laparoscopy. Adequate lymphadenectomy includes assessment of any suspicious regional nodes, evaluation of the aortocaval nodal basin, and a goal recovery of at least six nodes. Patients with confirmed metastases to N2 nodal stations do not benefit from radical resection and should receive systemic and/or palliative treatments. Primary resection of patients with early T-stage (T1b-2) disease should include en bloc resection of adjacent liver parenchyma. Patients with T1b, T2 or T3 disease that is incidentally identified in a cholecystectomy specimen should undergo re-resection unless this is contraindicated by advanced disease or poor performance status. Re-resection should include complete portal lymphadenectomy and bile duct resection only when needed to achieve a negative margin (R0) resection. Patients with preoperatively staged T3 or T4 N1 disease should be considered for clinical trials of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Following R0 resection of T2-4 disease in N1 gallbladder cancer, patients should be considered for adjuvant systemic chemotherapy and/or chemoradiotherapy. © 2015 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  12. Value of gallbladder B-scan ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Tabrisky, J; Lindstrom, R R; Herman, M W; Castagna, J; Sarti, D

    1975-05-01

    The gallbladder B-scans of 20 patients who had subsequent surgery were separated into three categories based upon certain sonographic criteria. Our data, in this limited series, revealed gallbladder pathology in each patient who had any one or combination of the following scan characteristics: (1) internal echos, (2) irregular wall, or (3) absence of recognizable gallbladder sonolucency. The category which demonstrated a normal sonographic gallbladder, namely a smooth wall and no internal echos, contained a number of false negatives which proved to have either small stone cholelithiasis or extraphepatic ductal obstruction. Within the described limitations, the B-scan can be a valuable test in confirming the significance of a radiographically nonvisualized gallbladder or in detecting a biliary tract lesion in a patient with a disease entity that precludes radiographic visualization by conventional techniques.

  13. Characteristics of gallbladder cancer in South India.

    PubMed

    Sachidananda, Sandeep; Krishnan, Arunkumar; Janani, K; Alexander, P C; Velayutham, Vimalraj; Rajagopal, Surendran; Venkataraman, Jayanthi

    2012-09-01

    Gallbladder cancer is common in north India. It is also a well established fact that gall bladder cancer is frequently associated with gallstone disease in north India, similar to reports from the West. The magnitude of the problem of gallbladder cancer in south India and its link to gallstone disease is not clearly established. The aim of the study was to determine retrospectively, the characteristics of individuals with GBC in south India and to determine its association with gallstone disease. Retrospective data was obtained from records of proven cases of gallbladder cancer and patients undergoing cholecystectomy for gallstone disease between Jan 2001 and Dec 2010. Data retrieved included age, gender, and clinical presentation, findings on imaging, histology and details of management. The number of proven cases of gallbladder cancer each year ranged from 8 to 17. There were 38 men and 23 women. Male female ratio was 1.6:1. There were more men in the successive decades. Right upper quadrant pain (42 %) followed by jaundice (27 %) and a presence of a palpable mass (12 %) were the common clinical presentation. Pre-operative diagnosis of gall bladder cancer was possible in 80 %. Twelve patients had co-existing gallstones (19.6 %). Forty patients (50 %) had stage IV disease; only 6 patients had Stage I operable disease (9.8 %). During the same time 758 patients had cholecystectomy for gallstone disease. Only one patient had an incidental gall bladder cancer, who had an extended cholecystectomy. Gallbladder cancer is uncommon in south India and its association with gallstone is also low.

  14. Expression of CCK Receptors in Carcinoma Gallbladder and Cholelithiasis: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Mahabir Saran Das; Goel, Sudhir K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK) receptors are trophic for various gastrointestinal malignancies. Their role in gallbladder cancer has not been widely studied. Objectives: To identify expression of CCK-A and CCK-B receptors in the tissue and blood of patients suffering from carcinoma (CA) gallbladder and gallstone disease and to compare expression of CCK A and B receptors in the gall bladder tissue and blood of healthy individuals and patients of CA gallbladder, and gallstone diseases. Materials and Methods: Forty nine subjects of both genders were recruited, comprising of 22 patients of CA gall bladder, 19 cases of cholelithiasis and, 8 normal gallbladders obtained from patients operated for trauma of the biliary system or Whipple’s procedure. RNA extraction and cDNA formation for CCK-A and CCK-B receptors were carried out. Real Time PCR was performed on cDNA and threshold cycle (Ct) value of each sample was obtained and ΔCt was calculated. Chi-square test for comparing two groups and ANOVA test for comparing multiple groups were applied and if p<0.05 then Dunnett-C test was performed. Observation and Results: Both CCK-A and CCK-B receptors were expressed irrespective of its origin in all tissues and blood samples studied; be it normal, Cholelithiasis or CA gallbladder and there was no difference among them (p>0.05). Conclusion: This preliminary study showed higher expression of CCK-A receptors in patients of cholelithiasis and decreased expression of CCK-A receptors in patients of CA gallbladder as compared to normal gallbladder although it did not rise to statistical significance. PMID:26393162

  15. Gallbladder carcinoma: Prognostic factors and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Goetze, Thorsten Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The outcome of gallbladder carcinoma is poor, and the overall 5-year survival rate is less than 5%. In early-stage disease, a 5-year survival rate up to 75% can be achieved if stage-adjusted therapy is performed. There is wide geographic variability in the frequency of gallbladder carcinoma, which can only be explained by an interaction between genetic factors and their alteration. Gallstones and chronic cholecystitis are important risk factors in the formation of gallbladder malignancies. Factors such as chronic bacterial infection, primary sclerosing cholangitis, an anomalous junction of the pancreaticobiliary duct, and several types of gallbladder polyps are associated with a higher risk of gallbladder cancer. There is also an interesting correlation between risk factors and the histological type of cancer. However, despite theoretical risk factors, only a third of gallbladder carcinomas are recognized preoperatively. In most patients, the tumor is diagnosed by the pathologist after a routine cholecystectomy for a benign disease and is termed ‘‘incidental or occult gallbladder carcinoma’’ (IGBC). A cholecystectomy is performed frequently due to the minimal invasiveness of the laparoscopic technique. Therefore, the postoperative diagnosis of potentially curable early-stage disease is more frequent. A second radical re-resection to complete a radical cholecystectomy is required for several IGBCs. However, the literature and guidelines used in different countries differ regarding the radicality or T-stage criteria for performing a radical cholecystectomy. The NCCN guidelines and data from the German registry (GR), which records the largest number of incidental gallbladder carcinomas in Europe, indicate that carcinomas infiltrating the muscularis propria or beyond require radical surgery. According to GR data and current literature, a wedge resection with a combined dissection of the lymph nodes of the hepatoduodenal ligament is adequate for T1b and T2

  16. Courvoisier's gallbladder: law or sign?

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, J Edward F; White, Matthew J; Lobo, Dileep N

    2009-04-01

    Variously described as Courvoisier's law, sign, or even gallbladder, this eponymous "law" has been taught to medical students since the publication of Courvoisier's treatise in 1890. We reviewed Courvoisier's original "law," the modern misconceptions surrounding it, and the contemporary evidence supporting and explaining his observations. Courvoisier never stated a "law" in the context of a jaundiced patient with a palpable gallbladder. He described 187 cases of common bile duct obstruction, observing that gallbladder dilatation seldom occurred with stone obstruction of the bile duct. The classic explanation for Courvoisier's finding is based on the underlying pathologic process. With the presence of gallstones come repeated episodes of infection and subsequent fibrosis of the gallbladder. In the event that a gallstone causes the obstruction, the gallbladder is shrunken owing to fibrosis and is unlikely to be distensible and, hence, palpable. With other causes of obstruction, the gallbladder distends as a result of the back-pressure from obstructed bile flow. However, recent experiments show that gallbladders are equally distensible in vitro, irrespective of the pathology, suggesting that chronicity of the obstruction is the key. Chronically elevated intraductal pressures are more likely to develop with malignant obstruction owing to the progressive nature of the disease. Gallstones cause obstruction in an intermittent fashion, which is generally not consistent enough to produce such a chronic rise in pressure. We hope that reminding clinicians of Courvoisier's actual observations will reestablish the usefulness of this clinical sign in the way he intended.

  17. Gallbladder Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... your gallbladder and liver to your small intestine. Cancer of the gallbladder is rare. It is more ... the abdomen It is hard to diagnose gallbladder cancer in its early stages. Sometimes doctors find it ...

  18. Concomitant gastroparesis occurs in functional gallbladder disease and may negatively impact clinical outcome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Functional gallbladder disease, commonly known as Biliary Dyskinesia (BD), is an increasingly recognized cause of chronic abdominal pain and dyspepsia in adults and children. Similar symptoms may occur in those with Gastroparesis (GP). The potential role and impact of concomitant GP in those with BD...

  19. Preneoplastic lesions in gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Roa, Iván; de Aretxabala, Xabier; Araya, Juan C; Roa, Juan

    2006-06-15

    Gallbladder cancer is an uncommon disease except in countries like Chile and areas of India and Japan. The knowledge regarding the etiology and mechanisms through which this neoplasia is developed is significantly less compared to other malignant tumors. The epithelial lesions involved in gallbladder carcinogenesis are dysplasia and adenomas that represent two biologically distinct carcinogenetic models. Dysplasia progresses to carcinoma in situ (CIS) and subsequently becomes invasive. Over 80% of invasive gallbladder cancers present areas adjacent to the CIS and epithelial dysplasia. Other authors have demonstrated adenomatous areas in carcinomas, or malignant transformation in an adenoma. The low incidence of gallbladder adenomas (0.14% of cholecystectomies) and the presence of adenomatous remnants in the neighboring mucosa to early carcinomas in less than 3% of the cases suggest the limited importance of this carcinogenic pathway. Epithelial dysplasia which is not associated with gallbladder cancer is observed in approximately 1% of cholecystectomies for symptomatic lithiasis. Metaplasia, dysplasia, and CIS are present in the mucosa adjacent to the cancer in 66%, 81.3%, and 69%, respectively. The average ages of patients with dysplasia not associated to cancer (51.9 years), early carcinomas (56.8 years), and advanced carcinomas (62.9 years) demonstrate a gradient which suggests the progression of these lesions. From the morphological point of view, the dysplasia-carcinoma sequence is the most plausible carcinogenic pathway for gallbladder cancer, a process which would require a period of approximately 10 years. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Nonsurgical resolution of gallbladder mucocele in two dogs.

    PubMed

    Walter, Romanie; Dunn, Marilyn E; d'Anjou, Marc-André; Lécuyer, Manon

    2008-06-01

    A gallbladder mucocele was diagnosed in 2 dogs. In both dogs, the mucocele resolved with medical treatment but without the need for surgical intervention. A 12-year-old spayed female Miniature Schnauzer had a history of signs of gastrointestinal tract disease and high serum liver enzyme activities. Gallbladder mucocele and hypothyroidism were diagnosed. A 6-year-old neutered mixed-breed dog had chronic intermittent diarrhea and recurrent otitis; gallbladder mucocele and hypothyroidism were diagnosed. The first dog was treated with S-adenosyl-methionine, omega-3 fatty acids, famotidine, ursodiol, and levothyroxine. Substantial improvement in the gastrointestinal tract condition and complete resolution of the gallbladder mucocele within 3 months were evident, but the dog was not available for further follow-up monitoring. The second dog was treated with fenbendazole, ursodiol, and levothyroxine and fed a hypoallergenic diet. One month after evaluation, abdominal ultrasonography revealed that the gallbladder mucocele was resolving, and treatment was continued. Ultrasonographic evaluation 2 and 4 months later revealed complete resolution of the mucocele. Review of the clinical course of 2 dogs in which there was nonsurgical resolution of gallbladder mucocele revealed that surgery is not necessary in all dogs with gallbladder mucocele. Hypothyroidism may have resulted in delayed gallbladder emptying, and its role in the pathogenesis of gallbladder mucocele merits investigation. Despite this information, until further prospective trials with a control group and standardized treatments and follow-up monitoring can be performed, the authors recommend surgical intervention for treatment of dogs with gallbladder mucocele.

  1. Gallbladder Boundary Segmentation from Ultrasound Images Using Active Contour Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciecholewski, Marcin

    Extracting the shape of the gallbladder from an ultrasonography (US) image allows superfluous information which is immaterial in the diagnostic process to be eliminated. In this project an active contour model was used to extract the shape of the gallbladder, both for cases free of lesions, and for those showing specific disease units, namely: lithiasis, polyps and changes in the shape of the organ, such as folds or turns of the gallbladder. The approximate shape of the gallbladder was found by applying the motion equation model. The tests conducted have shown that for the 220 US images of the gallbladder, the area error rate (AER) amounted to 18.15%.

  2. Gallbladder removal - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/presentations/100021.htm Gallbladder removal - Series—Normal anatomy To use the ... gallbladder is located in the abdomen, on the right side, underneath the liver. The gallbladder stores bile produced by the liver, ...

  3. [Primary Malignant Melanoma of the Gallbladder].

    PubMed

    Ujiie, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Kotaro; Onozawa, Hisashi; Hoshi, Nobuhiro; Nakayama, Koichi; Urazumi, Kojiro; Takenoshita, Seiichi; Kusakabe, Takashi

    2016-11-01

    Primary malignant melanoma of the gallbladder is a rare disease, and 37 cases have been reported in the literature.The current patient was a 78-year-old man who was admitted with a pelvic tumor and left leg edema due to compression of the external iliac vein by the pelvic tumor.The edema improved following resection of the tumor, which was diagnosed at pathology as a malignant melanoma.After surgery, the patient became anorexic and complained of discomfort in the upper right abdomen.A whole body FDG-PET scan demonstrated significant uptake in the gallbladder and in the lymph nodes of the lower abdomen.The patient underwent open cholecystectomy, and the pathological diagnosis was malignant melanoma. Junctional activity was seen in the gallbladder, suggesting that this was the primary site.No melanocytic lesions of the skin or eyes were detected, further supporting the diagnosis of primary malignant melanoma of the gallbladder.Chemotherapy was initiated, but the patient died on February 28, 2016.

  4. The G Protein-Coupled Bile Acid Receptor, TGR5, Stimulates Gallbladder Filling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tingting; Holmstrom, Sam R.; Kir, Serkan; Umetani, Michihisa; Schmidt, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    TGR5 is a G protein-coupled bile acid receptor present in brown adipose tissue and intestine, where its agonism increases energy expenditure and lowers blood glucose. Thus, it is an attractive drug target for treating human metabolic disease. However, TGR5 is also highly expressed in gallbladder, where its functions are less well characterized. Here, we demonstrate that TGR5 stimulates the filling of the gallbladder with bile. Gallbladder volume was increased in wild-type but not Tgr5−/− mice by administration of either the naturally occurring TGR5 agonist, lithocholic acid, or the synthetic TGR5 agonist, INT-777. These effects were independent of fibroblast growth factor 15, an enteric hormone previously shown to stimulate gallbladder filling. Ex vivo analyses using gallbladder tissue showed that TGR5 activation increased cAMP concentrations and caused smooth muscle relaxation in a TGR5-dependent manner. These data reveal a novel, gallbladder-intrinsic mechanism for regulating gallbladder contractility. They further suggest that TGR5 agonists should be assessed for effects on human gallbladder as they are developed for treating metabolic disease. PMID:21454404

  5. [Research of conjugated bile acids in gallbladder bile of patients with polypoid lesions of gallbladder].

    PubMed

    Ge, Chunlin; Sun, Tao; Meng, Jingjuan; Wang, Kun; Huang, Peng

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the difference in conjugated bile acids in the gallbladder bile between gallbladder cholesterol polyps and adenomatous polyps patients, and screen the differential diagnosis-markers for polypoid lesions of gallbladder (PLG). From January to June 2013, the 20 cholesterol polyps patients, 10 adenomatous polyps patients and 10 patients without gallbladder diseases were enrolled. High performance liquid chromatography assay with ultraviolet detection was used to test 8 conjugated bile acids in gallbladder bile. The 8 conjugated bile acids were completely analyzed in 10 minutes, and the assay was liner in the range 8-500 µg/ml. The correlation coeffients for linear regression was from 0.9996-0.9999 and the detection limits ranged from 3.90-7.81 µg/ml. The level of taurocholic acid (TCA) in adenomatous polyps group ((75 ± 51) µg/ml) was significantly lower than that in the cholesterol polyps ((228 ± 206) µg/ml, q = 3.120, P = 0.014) and control groups ((104 ± 40) µg/ml, q = 2.950, P = 0.027). The level of taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) in cholesterol polyps group ((604 ± 444) µg/ml) was significantly higher than that in the adenomatous polyps ((310 ± 182) µg/ml, q = 2.560, P = 0.048) and control groups ((308 ± 21) µg/ml, q = 2.970, P = 0.023). The levels of TCA and TCDCA in the gallbladder biles in cholesterol polyps patients were higher than those in adenomatous polyps patients, which may be the differential diagnosis-markers for PLG.

  6. Gallbladder cancer worldwide: geographical distribution and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Randi, Giorgia; Franceschi, Silvia; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2006-04-01

    Gallbladder cancer is a relatively rare neoplasm that shows, however, high incidence rates in certain world populations. The interplay of genetic susceptibility, lifestyle factors and infections in gallbladder carcinogenesis is still poorly understood. Age-adjusted rates were calculated by cancer registry-based data. Epidemiological studies on gallbladder cancer were selected through searches of literature, and relative risks were abstracted for major risk factors. The highest gallbladder cancer incidence rates worldwide were reported for women in Delhi, India (21.5/100,000), South Karachi, Pakistan (13.8/100,000) and Quito, Ecuador (12.9/100,000). High incidence was found in Korea and Japan and some central and eastern European countries. Female-to-male incidence ratios were generally around 3, but ranged from 1 in Far East Asia to over 5 in Spain and Colombia. History of gallstones was the strongest risk factor for gallbladder cancer, with a pooled relative risk (RR) of 4.9 [95% confidence interval (CI): 3.3-7.4]. Consistent associations were also present with obesity, multiparity and chronic infections like Salmonella typhi and S. paratyphi [pooled RR 4.8 (95% CI: 1.4-17.3)] and Helicobacter bilis and H. pylori [pooled RR 4.3 (95% CI: 2.1-8.8)]. Differences in incidence ratios point to variations in gallbladder cancer aetiology in different populations. Diagnosis of gallstones and removal of gallbladder currently represent the keystone to gallbladder cancer prevention, but interventions able to prevent obesity, cholecystitis and gallstone formation should be assessed.

  7. Population-based cohort study of outcomes following cholecystectomy for benign gallbladder diseases.

    PubMed

    2016-11-01

    The aim was to describe the management of benign gallbladder disease and identify characteristics associated with all-cause 30-day readmissions and complications in a prospective population-based cohort. Data were collected on consecutive patients undergoing cholecystectomy in acute UK and Irish hospitals between 1 March and 1 May 2014. Potential explanatory variables influencing all-cause 30-day readmissions and complications were analysed by means of multilevel, multivariable logistic regression modelling using a two-level hierarchical structure with patients (level 1) nested within hospitals (level 2). Data were collected on 8909 patients undergoing cholecystectomy from 167 hospitals. Some 1451 cholecystectomies (16·3 per cent) were performed as an emergency, 4165 (46·8 per cent) as elective operations, and 3293 patients (37·0 per cent) had had at least one previous emergency admission, but had surgery on a delayed basis. The readmission and complication rates at 30 days were 7·1 per cent (633 of 8909) and 10·8 per cent (962 of 8909) respectively. Both readmissions and complications were independently associated with increasing ASA fitness grade, duration of surgery, and increasing numbers of emergency admissions with gallbladder disease before cholecystectomy. No identifiable hospital characteristics were linked to readmissions and complications. Readmissions and complications following cholecystectomy are common and associated with patient and disease characteristics. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Presence and distribution of leptin and leptin receptor in the canine gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sungin; Lee, Aeri; Kweon, Oh-Kyeong; Kim, Wan Hee

    2016-09-01

    The hormone leptin is produced by mature adipocytes and plays an important role in regulating food intake and energy metabolism through its interaction with the leptin receptor. In addition to roles in obesity and obesity-related diseases, leptin has been reported to affect the components and secretion of bile in leptin-deficient mice. Furthermore, gallbladder diseases such as cholelithiasis are known to be associated with serum leptin concentrations in humans. We hypothesized that the canine gallbladder is a source of leptin and that the leptin receptor may be localized in the gallbladder, where it plays a role in regulating the function of this organ. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the presence and expression patterns of leptin and its receptors in normal canine gallbladders using reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Clinically normal gallbladder tissue samples were obtained from four healthy beagle dogs with similar body condition scores. RT-PCR and sequencing of the amplified PCR products revealed the presence of leptin mRNA and its receptors in the gallbladder. Immunohistochemical investigations demonstrated the expression of leptin and its receptors in the luminal single columnar and tubuloalveolar glandular epithelial cells. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrated the presence of leptin and its receptors in the gallbladders of dogs. Leptin and its receptor were both localized throughout the cytoplasm of luminal and glandular epithelial cells. These results suggested that the gallbladder is not only a source of leptin, but also a target of leptin though autocrine/paracrine mechanisms. The results of this study could increase the understanding of both the normal physiological functions of the gallbladder and the pathophysiological mechanisms of gallbladder diseases characterized by leptin system dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  9. Complete body-neck torsion of the gallbladder: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pu, Ta-Wei; Fu, Chun-Yu; Lu, Huai-En; Cheng, Wei-Tung

    2014-10-14

    Gallbladder torsion is a rare, acute abdominal disease. It was first reported by Wendell in 1898. Since then, only 500 cases have been reported. Gallbladder torsion occurs in all age groups, although it usually appears in the latter stages of life. The occurrence ratio between women and men is 3:1. Most cases are diagnosed during surgery. The main treatment is surgical detorsion and cholecystectomy. Despite progress in radiologic imaging diagnosis, it is not easy to obtain a precise preoperative diagnosis of gallbladder torsion. In previous reports, only 9.8% of all gallbladder torsion cases were diagnosed preoperatively. We present a case of acute body-neck gallbladder torsion in an elderly man, and we review the radiologic findings of magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, and ultrasonography. The radiologic findings in the present case were helpful in obtaining a preoperative diagnosis of gallbladder torsion. The diagnosis was confirmed by T2-weighted magnetic resonance images, which showed an intra-gallbladder segment located between the body and neck of the gallbladder, with a notable crease within this segment.

  10. Gallbladder cancer: epidemiology and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Hundal, Rajveer; Shaffer, Eldon A

    2014-01-01

    stage. The last decade has witnessed improved outcomes as aggressive surgical management and preoperative adjuvant therapy has helped prolong survival in patients with gallbladder cancer. In the future, the development of potential diagnostic markers for disease will yield screening opportunities for those at risk either with ethnic susceptibility or known anatomic anomalies of the biliary tract. Meanwhile, clarification of the value of prophylactic cholecystectomy should provide an opportunity for secondary prevention. Primary prevention will arrive once the predictive biomarkers and environmental risk factors are more clearly identified. PMID:24634588

  11. Comparison between ultrasonographic and clinical findings in 43 dogs with gallbladder mucoceles.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jihye; Kim, Ahyoung; Keh, Seoyeon; Oh, Juyeon; Kim, Hyunwook; Yoon, Junghee

    2014-01-01

    Cholecystectomy is the current standard recommended treatment for dogs with gallbladder mucoceles. However, medical management with monitoring has also been recommended for asymptomatic dogs. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare ultrasonographic patterns of gallbladder mucoceles with clinical disease status in a group of dogs. For each included dog, the ultrasonographic pattern of the mucocele was classified into one of six types: type 1, immobile echogenic bile; type 2, incomplete stellate pattern; type 3, typical stellate pattern; type 4, kiwi like pattern and stellate combination; type 5, kiwi like pattern with residual central echogenic bile; and type 6, kiwi like pattern. A total of 43 dogs were included. Twenty-four dogs, including 11 dogs with gallbladder rupture, were symptomatic. Nineteen dogs were asymptomatic. Cholecystectomy (n = 19), medical therapy (n = 17), or monitoring (n = 6) treatments were applied according to clinical signs and owners' requests. One dog suspected of having gallbladder rupture was euthanized. Frequencies of gallbladder mucocele patterns were as follows: type 1 = 10 (23%), type 2 = 13 (30%), type 3 = 5 (12%), type 4 = 11 (26%), type 5 = 4 (9%), and type 6 = 0. In dogs with gallbladder rupture, type 2 (8/13) was the most common. No significant correlations were found between ultrasonographic patterns of gallbladder mucoceles and clinical disease status or gallbladder rupture. Findings indicated that ultrasonographic patterns of gallbladder mucoceles may not be valid bases for treatment recommendations in dogs. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  12. Infected Peri-Pancreatic Necrosis Causing Gallbladder Necrosis by Direct Extension

    PubMed Central

    Assalia, Ahmad; Schmulevski, Pavel; Meislin, Vladimir; Hashmonai, Moshe

    1993-01-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis may develop in patients suffering from necrotizing pancreatitis. Conversely, acute pancreatitis may complicate acute gallbladder disease. We present a case that lends support to the existence of another possibility: gallbladder necrosis caused by direct extension of the necrotizing pancreatitic process. PMID:8260438

  13. Gallbladder Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer that arises in the gallbladder is uncommon. Almost all gallbladder cancers are adenocarcinomas. The most common symptoms caused by gallbladder cancer are jaundice, pain, and fever. Find evidence-based information on gallbladder cancer treatment.

  14. Gallbladder Cancer—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Gallbladder cancer is a rare cancer that is usually diagnosed late due a to lack of early signs and symptoms. It is sometimes found when the gallbladder is checked for gallstones or removed. Start here to find information on gallbladder cancer treatment.

  15. Gallbladder radionuclide scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gallbladder scan; Biliary scan; Cholescintigraphy; HIDA; Hepatobiliary nuclear imaging scan ... test results. This test is combined with other imaging (such as CT or ultrasound). After the gallbladder ...

  16. Gallbladder removal - open

    MedlinePlus

    Cholecystectomy - open; Gallbladder - open cholecystectomy; Cholecystitis - open cholecystectomy; Gallstones - open cholecystectomy ... a medical instrument called a laparoscope ( laparoscopic ... Open gallbladder surgery is used when laparoscopic surgery cannot ...

  17. [Hydrops of the gallbladder and hepatitis associated with scarlet fever].

    PubMed

    Rocco, Roberto; Benedetti, Laura; Escudero, Gabriela; Jordán, Federico

    2010-03-01

    Hydrops of the gallbladder is a rare pediatric disease. It consists of acute distension of the gallbladder without associated congenital anomalies, biliary calculi or acute local inflammation. Although the etiology is unknown, it appears frequently associated with systemic illnesses. Hepatitis is a rare complication of scarlet fever in the pediatric population. We report a four years old girl with gallbladder hydrops and hepatitis associated to scarlet fever. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case report in the medical literature describing an association of these three conditions

  18. Are histological alterations observed in the gallbladder precancerous lesions?

    PubMed Central

    Meirelles-Costa, Adriana Lúcia Agnelli; Bresciani, Claudio José Caldas; Perez, Rodrigo Oliva; Bresciani, Barbara Helou; Siqueira, Sheila Aparecida C.; Cecconello, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Gallbladder cancer, which is characterized by rapid progression and a poor prognosis, is a complex disease to treat. Unfortunately, little is known currently about its etiology or pathogenesis. A better understanding of its carcinogenesis and determining risk factors that lead to its development could help improve the available treatment options. METHOD Based on this better understanding, the histological alterations (such as acute cholecystitis, adenomyomatosis, xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis, polyps, pyloric metaplasia, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, cancer and others) in gallbladders from 1,689 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for cholecystolithiasis were analyzed. The association of these gallbladder histological alterations with clinical data was studied. RESULTS Gender analysis revealed a greater incidence of inflammatory changes in males, while dysplasia and cancer were only found in women. The incidence of cholesterolosis was greater in the patients 60 years of age and under, and the incidence of adenomyomatosis and gangrene was greater in the elderly patients. A progressive increase in the average age was observed as alterations progressed through pyloric metaplasia, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and then cancer, suggesting that the metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence may occur in gallbladder cancer. Gallbladder histological alterations were also observed in asymptomatic patients. CONCLUSION The results of this study suggest that there could be an association between some histological alterations of gallbladder and cancer, and they also suggest that the metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence could in fact be true in the case of gallbladder cancer. Nevertheless, further studies directed towards a perfect understanding of gallbladder carcinogenesis are required. PMID:20186297

  19. Monopolar electrocautery versus ultrasonic dissection of the gallbladder from the gallbladder bed in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Mahabaleshwar, Varun; Kaman, Lileswar; Iqbal, Javid; Singh, Rajinder

    2012-01-01

    Background Ultrasonic dissection has been suggested as an alternative to monopolar electrocautery in laparoscopic cholecystectomy because it generates less tissue damage and may have a lower incidence of gallbladder perforation. We compared the 2 methods to determine the incidence of gallbladder perforation and its intraoperative consequences. Methods We conducted a prospective randomized controlled trial between July 2008 and December 2009 involving adult patients with symptomatic gall stone disease who were eligible for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Patients were randomly assigned before administration of anesthesia to electrocautery or ultrasonic dissection. Both groups were compared for incidence of gallbladder perforation during dissection, bile leak, stones spillage, lens cleaning, duration of surgery and estimation of risk of gall-bladder in the presence of complicating factors. Results We included 60 adult patients in our study. The groups were comparable with respect to demographic characteristics, symptomatology, comorbidities, previous abdominal surgeries, preoperative ultrasonography findings and intraoperative complications. The overall incidence of gallbladder perforation was 28.3% (40.0% in the electrocautery v. 16.7% in the ultrasonic dissection group, p = 0.045). Bile leak occurred in 40.0% of patients in the electrocautery group and 16.7% of patients in ultrasonic group (p = 0.045). Lens cleaning time (p = 0.015) and duration of surgery (p = 0.001) were longer in the electrocautery than the ultrasonic dissection group. There was no statistical difference in stone spillage between the groups (p = 0.62). Conclusion Ultrasonic dissection is safe and effective, and it improves the operative course of laparoscopic cholecystectomy by reducing the incidence of gallbladder perforation. PMID:22854110

  20. Monopolar electrocautery versus ultrasonic dissection of the gallbladder from the gallbladder bed in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mahabaleshwar, Varun; Kaman, Lileswar; Iqbal, Javid; Singh, Rajinder

    2012-10-01

    Ultrasonic dissection has been suggested as an alternative to monopolar electrocautery in laparoscopic cholecystectomy because it generates less tissue damage and may have a lower incidence of gallbladder perforation. We compared the 2 methods to determine the incidence of gallbladder perforation and its intraoperative consequences. We conducted a prospective randomized controlled trial between July 2008 and December 2009 involving adult patients with symptomatic gall stone disease who were eligible for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Patients were randomly assigned before administration of anesthesia to electrocautery or ultrasonic dissection. Both groups were compared for incidence of gallbladder perforation during dissection, bile leak, stones spillage, lens cleaning, duration of surgery and estimation of risk of gallbladder in the presence of complicating factors. We included 60 adult patients in our study. The groups were comparable with respect to demographic characteristics, symptomatology, comorbidities, previous abdominal surgeries, preoperative ultrasonography findings and intraoperative complications. The overall incidence of gallbladder perforation was 28.3% (40.0% in the electrocautery v. 16.7% in the ultrasonic dissection group, p = 0.045). Bile leak occurred in 40.0% of patients in the electrocautery group and 16.7% of patients in ultrasonic group (p = 0.045). Lens cleaning time (p = 0.015) and duration of surgery (p = 0.001) were longer in the electrocautery than the ultrasonic dissection group. There was no statistical difference in stone spillage between the groups (p = 0.62). Ultrasonic dissection is safe and effective, and it improves the operative course of laparoscopic cholecystectomy by reducing the incidence of gallbladder perforation.

  1. Oedema of gallbladder wall: correlation with chronic hepatitis B on MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Shu, Jian; Zhao, Jian Nong; Han, Fu Gang; Tang, Guang Cai; Luo, Yin Deng; Chen, Xin; Luo, Li

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise gallbladder wall oedema and correlate it with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Sixty-seven patients who were clinically and histologically diagnosed with CHB and 18 healthy individuals without any history of liver disease underwent abdominal MR imaging. Hepatic inflammation (grade 0-4) and fibrosis (stage 0-4) for patients were assessed histologically. Gallbladder wall oedema was noted. Twelve patients showed gallbladder wall oedema on MR imaging, including six with grade 3 and six with grade 4 disease. There was a statistically significant difference for the presence of gallbladder wall oedema among groups with grade 0-4 (p=0.000), but not between groups with grades 3 and 4 (p=0.729). Gallbladder wall oedema was related to moderate-severe inflammatory activity (p<0.05), alanine transaminase (ALT) (p=0.012) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (p=0.027) levels but not to fibrosis or other laboratory data, including serum quantitative DNA for hepatitis B virus (HBV), with the p=0.105-0.846. Sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of hepatic moderate-severe inflammation using gallbladder wall oedema were 33.33% and 100%, respectively. Gallbladder wall oedema for patients with CHB can be specifically demonstrated on MR imaging and is correlated with hepatic moderate-severe inflammatory activity, elevated ALT and AST levels but not with fibrosis or other laboratory data, including viremia.

  2. Computer analysis of gallbladder ultrasonic images towards recognition of pathological lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogiela, M. R.; Bodzioch, S.

    2011-06-01

    This paper presents a new approach to gallbladder ultrasonic image processing and analysis towards automatic detection and interpretation of disease symptoms on processed US images. First, in this paper, there is presented a new heuristic method of filtering gallbladder contours from images. A major stage in this filtration is to segment and section off areas occupied by the said organ. This paper provides for an inventive algorithm for the holistic extraction of gallbladder image contours, based on rank filtration, as well as on the analysis of line profile sections on tested organs. The second part concerns detecting the most important lesion symptoms of the gallbladder. Automating a process of diagnosis always comes down to developing algorithms used to analyze the object of such diagnosis and verify the occurrence of symptoms related to given affection. The methodology of computer analysis of US gallbladder images presented here is clearly utilitarian in nature and after standardising can be used as a technique for supporting the diagnostics of selected gallbladder disorders using the images of this organ.

  3. Gallbladder removal - laparoscopic

    MedlinePlus

    ... you have nausea and vomiting Images Gallbladder Gallbladder anatomy Laparoscopic surgery - series References Jackson PG, Evans SRT. Biliary system. In: Townsend CM Jr, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery: The Biological Basis of Modern Surgical ...

  4. Learning curve of transumbilical single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILS): a preliminary study of 80 selected patients with benign gallbladder diseases.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhengjun; Sun, Jing; Pu, Ying; Jiang, Tao; Cao, Jun; Wu, Weidong

    2011-09-01

    Transumbilical single incision laparoscopic surgery (SILS) is a new laparoscopic procedure in which only one transumbilical incision is made, demonstrated as a scarless procedure. Here we report a single-center preliminary experience of transumbilical single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) in the treatment of benign gallbladder diseases, defining a single surgeon's learning curve. A total of 80 patients underwent SILC successfully by a single experienced laparoscopic surgeon. The operation was performed following the routine LC procedure. Then the perioperative demographics were recorded and the operative time was used to define the learning curve. The study group included 27 male and 53 female patients with gallstones (56 cases), cholesterol polyps (16 cases), an adenomatous polyp (3 cases), adenomyomatosis (1 case), or complex diseases (4 cases), and all consented to undergo SILC. No patient was converted to normal LC or open surgery. There were no perioperative port-related or surgical complications. The average operative time was 46.9 ± 14.6 min. The average postoperative hospital stay was 1.8 ± 1.3 days. The learning curve of the SILC procedures for this series of selected patients confirmed that SILC is a feasible, safe, and effective approach to the treatment of benign gallbladder diseases. For experienced laparoscopic surgeons, SILC is an easy and safe procedure. Patients benefit from milder pain, a lower incidence of port-related complications, better cosmesis, and fast recovery. The SILC procedure may become another option for the treatment of benign gallbladder diseases for selected patients.

  5. Surgical approach to gallbladder disease in rural Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Imran, Jonathan B; Ochoa-Hernandez, Annie; Herrejon, Juan; Madni, Tarik D; Clark, Audra T; Huerta, Sergio

    2017-10-01

    In this article, we report the current surgical approach to gallbladder disease at a major referral hospital in rural Guatemala. Complications in a cohort of patients undergoing open versus laparoscopic cholecystectomy were catalogued. We reviewed cholecystectomies performed by surgeons at the Hospital Nacional de San Benito in El Peten, Guatemala, after the adoption of the laparoscopic approach. Laparoscopic cholecystectomies (LCs) between 2014 and 2015 (n = 42) were reviewed and matched by 58 randomly selected open cholecystectomies (OCs) during the same period. Patient demographics were similar in the LC and OC groups. Of the 63 patients who had elective surgery, 43 (68%) underwent OC. Conversion rate, hospital length of stay, and readmission rate were 4%, 4.8 days, and 5%, respectively. Complications were similar between groups. Despite the low number of LCs, their complications were not different from that of OCs. During the study period, a large number of cholecystectomies continued to be open, even in the elective setting. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Mechanism of resveratrol-induced relaxation in the human gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ching-Chung; Lee, Ming-Che; Tey, Shu-Leei; Liu, Ching-Wen; Huang, Shih-Che

    2017-05-08

    Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound extracted from plants and is also a constituent of red wine. Resveratrol produces relaxation of vascular smooth muscle and may prevent cardiovascular diseases. Although resveratrol has been reported to cause relaxation of the guinea pig gallbladder, limited data are available about the effect of resveratrol on the gallbladder smooth muscle in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relaxation effects of resveratrol in human gallbladder muscle strips. We studied the relaxant effects of resveratrol in human gallbladder. In addition, we also investigated mechanism of resveratrol-induced relaxation in human gallbladder by tetraethylammonium (a non-selective potassium channels blocker), iberiotoxin (an inhibitor of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel), glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker), charybdotoxin (an inhibitor of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels and slowly inactivating voltage-gated potassium channels), apamine (a selective inhibitor of the small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel), KT 5720 (a cAMP-dependent protein kinase A inhibitor), KT 5823 (a cGMP-dependent protein kinase G inhibitor), NG-Nitro-L-arginine (a competitive inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase), tetrodotoxin (a selective neuronal Na + channel blocker), and ω-conotoxin GVIA (a selective neuronal Ca 2+ channel blocker). The present study showed that resveratrol has relaxant effects in human gallbladder muscle strips. In addition, we found that resveratrol-induced relaxation in human gallbladder is associated with nitric oxide, ATP-sensitive potassium channel, and large conductance calcium-activated potassium channel pathways. This study provides the first evidence concerning the relaxant effects of resveratrol in human gallbladder muscle strips. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that resveratrol is a potential new drug or health supplement in the treatment of

  7. MUC5AC, a Gel-Forming Mucin Accumulating in Gallstone Disease, Is Overproduced via an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Pathway in the Human Gallbladder

    PubMed Central

    Finzi, Laetitia; Barbu, Véronique; Burgel, Pierre-Regis; Mergey, Martine; Kirkwood, Kimberly S.; Wick, Elizabeth C.; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Peschaud, Frédérique; Paye, François; Nadel, Jay A.; Housset, Chantal

    2006-01-01

    Despite evidence that mucin overproduction is critical in the pathogenesis of gallstones, the mechanisms triggering mucin production in gallstone disease are unknown. Here, we tested the potential implication of an inflammation-dependent epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) pathway in the regulation of gallbladder mucin synthesis. In gallbladder tissue sections from subjects with cholesterol gallstones, mucus accumulation was associated with neutrophil infiltration and with increased expressions of EGF-R and of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). In primary cultures of human gallbladder epithelial cells, TNF-α induced EGF-R overexpression. In the presence of TNF-α, EGF-R ligands (either EGF or transforming growth factor-α) caused significant increases in MUC5AC mRNA and protein production, whereas expression of the other gallbladder mucins MUC1, MUC3, and MUC5B was unchanged. In addition, on gallbladder tissue sections from subjects with gallstones, increased MUC5AC immunoreactivity was detected in the epithelium and within mucus gel in the lumen. Studies in primary cultures demonstrated that MUC5AC up-regulation induced by the combination of TNF-α with EGF-R ligands was completely blunted by inhibitors of EGF-R tyrosine kinase and mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-related kinase kinase. In conclusion, an inflammation-dependent EGF-R cascade causes overproduction of the gel-forming mucin MUC5AC, which accumulates in cholesterol gallstone disease. The ability to interrupt this cascade is of potential interest in the prevention of cholesterol gallstones. PMID:17148666

  8. Cancer of the gallbladder-Chilean statistics.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Chile has the world's highest rate of incidence as well as death from cancer of the gallbladder and biliary ducts. The problem is most acute in the southern provinces. These areas constitute the low average income associated with low educational attainment and a high rate of obesity compared with the rest of Chile. We could also include genetic factors related to processes of lithogenesis to these elements which are more common among the Mapuche. This population sub-group could benefit from special government programmes for early diagnosis and treatment of lithiasic disease and for the management of risk factors such as obesity. In this way, we could reduce the mortality rate of gallbladder cancer.

  9. Dietary Patterns and Risk of Gallbladder Disease: A Hospital-based Case-Control Study in Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Jessri, Mahsa

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gallbladder disease is one of the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorders that may result from a complex interaction of genetic and environmental factors. This study examined the association of dietary patterns with gallstone disease among Iranian women. This case-control study was conducted in general teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Participants were 101 female cases and 204 female controls aged 40-65 years who were admitted for problems other than GBD. Dietary patterns were identified using principal components analysis based on food frequency questionnaire. Compared to the control group, cases were less educated, less physically active, and consumed more total energy (p<0.02). Having ≥3 livebirths increased the risk of gallstone by more than 5 times, followed by having rapid weight loss, being single, having familial history of gallstone, and consuming high total energy. Two distinct dietary patterns were identified in women (healthy and unhealthy). After adjustment for several confounding variables, healthy dietary pattern was associated with a decreased risk of gallstone disease (OR=0.14, 95% CI 0.048-0.4) while unhealthy dietary pattern was associated with an increased risk (OR=3.77, 95% CI 1.52-9.36). These findings confirm that dietary pattern approach provides potentially useful and relevant information on the relationship between diet and disease. Identifying risk factors will provide an opportunity for prevention of gallbladder disease in developing countries facing an increased risk of obesity. PMID:25995720

  10. Endoscopic Gallbladder Drainage for Acute Cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Widmer, Jessica; Alvarez, Paloma; Sharaiha, Reem Z.; Gossain, Sonia; Kedia, Prashant; Sarkaria, Savreet; Sethi, Amrita; Turner, Brian G.; Millman, Jennifer; Lieberman, Michael; Nandakumar, Govind; Umrania, Hiren; Gaidhane, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Surgery is the mainstay of treatment for cholecystitis. However, gallbladder stenting (GBS) has shown promise in debilitated or high-risk patients. Endoscopic transpapillary GBS and endoscopic ultrasound-guided GBS (EUS-GBS) have been proposed as safe and effective modalities for gallbladder drainage. Methods Data from patients with cholecystitis were prospectively collected from August 2004 to May 2013 from two United States academic university hospitals and analyzed retrospectively. The following treatment algorithm was adopted. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with sphincterotomy and cystic duct stenting was initially attempted. If deemed feasible by the endoscopist, EUS-GBS was then pursued. Results During the study period, 139 patients underwent endoscopic gallbladder drainage. Among these, drainage was performed in 94 and 45 cases for benign and malignant indications, respectively. Successful endoscopic gallbladder drainage was defined as decompression of the gallbladder without incidence of cholecystitis, and was achieved with ERCP and cystic duct stenting in 117 of 128 cases (91%). Successful endoscopic gallbladder drainage was also achieved with EUS-guided gallbladder drainage using transmural stent placement in 11 of 11 cases (100%). Complications occurred in 11 cases (8%). Conclusions Endoscopic gallbladder drainage techniques are safe and efficacious methods for gallbladder decompression in non-surgical patients with comorbidities. PMID:26473125

  11. The Impact of Gallbladder Status on Biliary Complications After the Endoscopic Removal of Choledocholithiasis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myung Hi; Yeo, Seong Jae; Jung, Min Kyu; Cho, Chang Min

    2016-04-01

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) with stone extraction is the standard management for choledocholithiasis. However, the necessity for subsequent management of gallstone to prevent the biliary complications remained controversial and few data were evaluated for the impact of status of gallbladder on recurrent biliary complications. We retrospectively investigated the relationship between the status of gallbladder and the occurrence of biliary complications after endoscopic removal of choledocholithiasis. Between January 1998 and December 2008, we enrolled 453 patients with intact gallbladder who underwent EST for choledocholithiasis and allocated into two groups: calculous gallbladder (n = 256) and acalculous gallbladder (n = 197). By reviewing patients' medical records, we compared the occurrence of biliary complications according to the presence or absence of gallstone in GB in situ. In total, biliary complications occurred in 83 patients (18.3 %) during the follow-up period. Calculous GB group had higher rate of overall complications (22.7 vs. 12.7 %; p = 0.007) and GB-associated complications (11.3 vs. 2.5 %; p = 0.001) than acalculous GB group. On the multivariate analysis, only the presence of gallstone was shown to be significant risk factor for overall biliary complication (OR 2.029; 95 % CI 1.209-3.405; p = 0.007) and GB-associated complications (OR 5.077; 95 % CI 1.917-13.446; p = 0.001). Mean event-free period was shorter in calculous GB group than acalculous GB group for overall complications (1774 vs. 2159 days; p = 0.012) and GB-associated complication (2153 vs. 2591 days; p = 0.001). Prophylactic cholecystectomy may not be necessary to prevent biliary complication in patients with acalculous gallbladder after endoscopic removal of pigment stones from bile duct.

  12. Association of carcinoma of the gallbladder with typhoid carriage in a typhoid endemic area using nested PCR.

    PubMed

    Nath, Gopal; Singh, Yogesh Kumar; Kumar, Kailash; Gulati, Anil Kumar; Shukla, Vijay Kumar; Khanna, Ajay Kumar; Tripathi, Sunil Kumar; Jain, Ashok Kumar; Kumar, Mohan; Singh, Tej Bali

    2008-08-30

    Although well studied the association between chronic typhoid carrier state and carcinoma of the gallbladder (CaGB) remains unproven. The study was performed at a tertiary care medical center in North India and involved 52 patients with CaGB, 223 patients with benign gallbladder diseases, 508 healthy individuals and, 424 corpses. For the detection of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, hepatobiliary specimens were subjected to DNA extraction for specific nested- PCR amplification of the S. Typhi flagellin gene. Anti-Vi S. Typhi antibodies were detected in serum samples from patients by indirect haemagglutination. Thirty five of the 52 (67.3%) CaGB patients were PCR-positive for the S. Typhi flagellin gene; significantly higher than for patients with benign gallbladder diseases (95/223, 42.6%; p<0.01) and corpses (35/424, 8.2%; p<0.001). The numbers of individuals that had significant anti-Vi antibody titres (> or = 160) in their serum were 20/52 (38.5%) for CaGB patients, 31/223 (13.9%) for patients with benign gallbladder diseases, and 47/508 (9.2%) for healthy individuals. Specific nested-PCR amplification of the S. Typhi flagellin gene in hepato-biliary specimens was more sensitive for detection of S. Typhi carriage than anti-Vi antibody titres in serum. The results demonstrate an association between typhoid carriage and gallbladder diseases, both CaGB and benign. S. Typhi specific immunosuppression is also suggested in patients with gallbladder diseases.

  13. Successful elimination of Ascaris lumbricoides from the gallbladder by conservative medical therapy.

    PubMed

    Cha, Dong Youb; Song, In Kwan; Choi, Hwan Won; Chung, Eun A; Shin, Bong Seok; Song, Young Wook; Lee, Sang Mi; Kim, Hong Min; Kim, Young Kwan; Lee, Young-Ha; Lee, Gye Sung

    2002-01-01

    Migration of Ascaris lumbricoides into the gallbladder is rare, unlike ascariasis of the bile duct, and, when it does occur, treatment is generally by endoscopic or surgical extraction. We describe a case of the successful treatment of gallbladder ascariasis with conservative therapy. A 44-year-old Korean man was admitted because of nausea and right upper quadrant pain that did not respond to medical control and had worsened 1 day before admission. Abdominal ultrasonography showed a long, linear, moving echogenic structure in the distended lumen of the gallbladder, but no abnormal dilation of the bile duct. Computerized tomography showed a linear soft-tissue density in the dependent portion of the gallbladder. The patient presented with eosinophilia, and abnormal liver function results, but no fever or hepatomegaly. Based on these findings, and presuming a diagnosis of gallbladder ascariasis, we administered antiparasitic medication (albendazole 400 mg/day for 1 day). Seven days later, we obtained one adult female A. lumbricoides from the feces. The symptoms were fully resolved, and no moving structure could be visualized in the gallbladder by ultrasonography. We recommend that initial therapy for gallbladder ascariasis should involve conservative treatment, unless an associated disease is present or a complication arises.

  14. Estrogen-dependent gallbladder carcinogenesis in LXRbeta-/- female mice.

    PubMed

    Gabbi, Chiara; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Barros, Rodrigo; Korach-Andrè, Marion; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake

    2010-08-17

    Gallbladder cancer is a highly aggressive disease with poor prognosis that is two to six times more frequent in women than men. The development of gallbladder cancer occurs over a long time (more than 15 y) and evolves from chronic inflammation to dysplasia/metaplasia, carcinoma in situ, and invasive carcinoma. In the present study we found that, in female mice in which the oxysterol receptor liver X receptor-beta (LXRbeta) has been inactivated, preneoplastic lesions of the gallbladder developed and evolved to cancer in old animals. LXRbeta is a nuclear receptor involved in the control of lipid homeostasis, glucose metabolism, inflammation, proliferation, and CNS development. LXRbeta(-/-) female gallbladders were severely inflamed, with regions of dysplasia and high cell density, hyperchromasia, metaplasia, and adenomas. No abnormalities were evident in male mice, nor in LXRalpha(-/-) or LXRalpha(-/-)beta(-/-) animals of either sex. Interestingly, the elimination of estrogens with ovariectomy prevented development of preneoplastic lesions in LXRbeta(-/-) mice. The etiopathological mechanism seems to involve TGF-beta signaling, as the precancerous lesions were characterized by strong nuclear reactivity of phospho-SMAD-2 and SMAD-4 and loss of E-cadherin expression. Upon ovariectomy, E-cadherin was reexpressed on the cell membranes and immunoreactivity of pSMAD-2 in the nuclei was reduced. These findings suggest that LXRbeta in a complex interplay with estrogens and TGF-beta could play a crucial role in the malignant transformation of the gallbladder epithelium.

  15. The Difficult Gallbladder: A Safe Approach to a Dangerous Problem.

    PubMed

    Santos, B Fernando; Brunt, L Michael; Pucci, Michael J

    2017-06-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a common surgical procedure, and remains the gold standard for the management of benign gallbladder and biliary disease. While this procedure can be technically straightforward, it can also represent one of the most challenging operations facing surgeons. This dichotomy of a routine operation performed so commonly that poses such a hidden risk of severe complications, such as bile duct injury, must keep surgeons steadfast in the pursuit of safety. The "difficult gallbladder" requires strict adherence to the Culture of Safety in Cholecystectomy, which promotes safety first and assists surgeons in managing or avoiding difficult operative situations. This review will discuss the management of the difficult gallbladder and propose the use of subtotal fenestrating cholecystectomy as a definitive option during this dangerous situation.

  16. Trends in management of gallbladder disorders in children.

    PubMed

    Lugo-Vicente, H L

    1997-07-01

    Gallbladder disorders have been recognized with increasing frequency in pediatric patients. This study aimed to identify recent trends in management and compare the effectiveness of laparoscopic (LC) over open cholecystectomy (OC) by a retrospective chart analysis of all cholecystectomies from 1990 through 1995. Information obtained included demographics, symptoms, predisposing conditions, associated illnesses, family history, imaging studies, type of cholecystectomy, complications, operative time, pain medication, diet recommencement, pathologic findings, and length of hospital stay. The type of cholecystectomy (OC vs. LC) was compared with the clinical variables using standard statistics. Eighty-three patients between 21 months and 18 years of age were identified; their mean age was 14.8 years. Females (76%) with classic biliary symptoms predominated;12% of the patients developed gallstone pancreatitis and 7% jaundice. Abnormal liver chemistry values, obesity, and elevated triglyceride levels comprised the most significant predisposing factors. Indications for surgery were cholelithiasis in 71 patients (86%), gallbladder dyskinesia in 10 (12%), and sludge/polyp in 2. Fifty-nine cholecystectomies (71%) were done laparoscopically and 24 (29%) open. Choledocholithiasis in 6 children (7%) was managed by open extraction with t-tube placement or endoscopic papillotomy followed by LC. No major ductal complication was identified. The predominant pathologic finding was chronic cholecystitis, including the subgroup with biliary dyskinesia. Statistical comparison showed that LC is superior to OC in regard to length of stay, diet resumption, use of pain medication, operating time, and cosmetic results. It is concluded that a contemporary diet, obesity, and abnormal liver chemistry are the main predisposing conditions of gallbladder disease in children in this decade. Females in their teenage years with typical symptoms continue to be the most commonly affected group

  17. The role of the gallbladder in humans.

    PubMed

    Turumin, J L; Shanturov, V A; Turumina, H E

    2013-01-01

    The basic function of the gallbladder in humans is one of protection. The accumulation of the primary bile acids (cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid) in the gallbladder reduces the formation of the secondary bile acids (deoxycholic acid and lithocholic acid), thus diminishing their concentration in the so-called gallbladder-independent enterohepatic circulation and protecting the liver, the stomach mucosa, the gallbladder, and the colon from their toxic hydrophobic effects. The presence or absence of the gallbladder in mammals is a determining factor in the synthesis of hydrophobic or hydrophilic bile acids. Because the gallbladder contracts 5-20 min after food is in the stomach and the "gastric chyme" moves from the stomach to the duodenum 1-3 h later, the function of the gallbladder bile in digestion may be insignificant. The aim of this article was to provide a detailed review of the role of the gallbladder and the mechanisms related to bile formation in humans. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  18. Gallbladder shape extraction from ultrasound images using active contour models.

    PubMed

    Ciecholewski, Marcin; Chochołowicz, Jakub

    2013-12-01

    Gallbladder function is routinely assessed using ultrasonographic (USG) examinations. In clinical practice, doctors very often analyse the gallbladder shape when diagnosing selected disorders, e.g. if there are turns or folds of the gallbladder, so extracting its shape from USG images using supporting software can simplify a diagnosis that is often difficult to make. The paper describes two active contour models: the edge-based model and the region-based model making use of a morphological approach, both designed for extracting the gallbladder shape from USG images. The active contour models were applied to USG images without lesions and to those showing specific disease units, namely, anatomical changes like folds and turns of the gallbladder as well as polyps and gallstones. This paper also presents modifications of the edge-based model, such as the method for removing self-crossings and loops or the method of dampening the inflation force which moves nodes if they approach the edge being determined. The user is also able to add a fragment of the approximated edge beyond which neither active contour model will move if this edge is incomplete in the USG image. The modifications of the edge-based model presented here allow more precise results to be obtained when extracting the shape of the gallbladder from USG images than if the morphological model is used. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gallbladder filling and emptying during cholesterol gallstone formation in the prairie dog. A cholescintigraphic study

    SciTech Connect

    Pellegrini, C.A.; Ryan, T.; Broderick, W.

    1986-01-01

    We studied gallbladder bile flow before, during, and after cholesterol gallstone formation in the prairie dog using infusion cholescintigraphy with /sup 99m/Tc-diethyl iminodiacetic acid. In 18 fasting animals partitioning of bile between gallbladder and intestine was determined every 15 min for 140 min, and gallbladder response to cholecystokinin (5 U/kg X h) was calculated from the gallbladder ejection fraction. Ten prairie dogs were then placed on a 0.4% cholesterol diet and 8 on a regular diet, and the studies were repeated 1, 2, and 6 wk later. The proportion of hepatic bile that entered the gallbladder relative to the intestinemore » varied from one 15-min period to the next, and averaged 28.2% +/- 5.1% at 140 min. Partial spontaneous gallbladder emptying (ejection fraction 11.5% +/- 5.6%) was intermittently observed. Neither the number nor the ejection fraction of spontaneous gallbladder contractions changed during gallstone formation. By contrast, the percent of gallbladder emptying in response to cholecystokinin decreased from 72.1% +/- 5% to 25.9% +/- 9.3% (p less than 0.025) in the first week and was 14.3% +/- 5.5% at 6 wk (p less than 0.01 from prediet values, not significant from first week). Gallbladder filling decreased from 28.2% +/- 5.1% to 6.7% +/- 3% (p less than 0.01), but this change was only observed after 6 wk, when gallstones had formed. This study shows that bile flow into the gallbladder during fasting is not constant; the gallbladder contracts intermittently; gallbladder emptying in response to exogenous cholecystokinin is altered very early during gallstone formation; and gallbladder filling remains unaffected until later stages, when gallstones have formed.« less

  20. [Gallbladder agenesis. Case report].

    PubMed

    Cavazos-García, Ricardo; Díaz-Elizondo, José Antonio; Flores-Villalba, Eduardo; Rodríguez-García, Héctor Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Gallbladder agenesis is a very rare congenital abnormality of the biliary tract. The diagnosis is made during surgery, because all preoperative studies have failed to identify this malformation. The purpose of this article is to present a case of gallbladder agenesis diagnosed during surgery, its management, and a review of the literature. The case involves a sixty-two year- old female, referring to repeated biliary colic symptoms. The abdominal ultrasound diagnosed cholelithiasis. It was impossible to identify the gallbladder during surgery. Diagnosis was confirmed by intra-operative cholangiography. Preoperative diagnostic workup has failed to recognise patients with gallbladder agenesis. It is currently recommended to abandon the surgery once this diagnosis is suspected and confirm it by a cholangio-magnetic resonance scan in order to avoid a bile duct injury. Agenesis of the gallbladder is a rare congenital abnormality of the biliary tree. Every surgeon must keep this rare entity in mind when a "difficult dissection" or an anatomic variant is identified during surgery, and make use of an intra-operative cholangiography, mainly to prevent a bile duct injury. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  1. Single-Organ Gallbladder Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Rodríguez, José; Tan, Carmela D.; Rodríguez, E. René; Hoffman, Gary S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Systemic vasculitis (SV) involving abdominal structures usually has a poor prognosis. Gallbladder vasculitis (GV) has been reported as part of SV (GB-SV) and focal single-organ vasculitis (GB-SOV). We analyzed clinical and histologic characteristics of patients with GV to identify features that differentiate GB-SOV from the systemic forms of GV. To identify affected patients with GV we used pathology databases from our institution and an English-language PubMed search. Clinical manifestations, laboratory and histologic features, treatment administered, and outcomes were recorded. Patients were divided in 2 groups, GB-SOV and GB-SV. As in previous studies of single-organ vasculitis, GB-SOV was only considered to be a sustainable diagnosis if disease beyond the gallbladder was not apparent after a follow-up period of at least 6 months. Sixty-one well-characterized patients with GV were included (6 from our institution). There was no significant sex bias (32 female patients, 29 male). Median age was 52 years (range, 18–94 yr). GB-SOV was found in 20 (33%) and GB-SV in 41 (67%) patients. No differences were observed in age, sex frequency, or duration of gallbladder symptoms between groups. Past episodes of recurrent right-upper quadrant or abdominal pain and lithiasic cholecystitis were more frequent in GB-SOV patients, whereas acalculous cholecystitis occurred more often in GB-SV. In GB-SV, gallbladder-related symptoms occurred more often concomitantly with or after the systemic features, but they sometimes appeared before SV was fully developed (13.5%). Constitutional and musculoskeletal symptoms were reported only in GB-SV patients. Compared to GB-SOV, GB-SV patients presented more often with fever (62.5% vs 20%; p = 0.003) and exhibited higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate levels (80 ± 28 vs 37 ± 25 mm/h, respectively; p = 0.006). All GB-SV patients required glucocorticoids and 50% of them also received cytotoxic agents. Mortality in

  2. “Adenomatous Polyps Of The Gallbladder” Adenomas oF the Gallbladder

    PubMed Central

    Pacella, Antonio; Cetta, Francesco; Sianesi, Mario

    1991-01-01

    The finding of adenomatous polyps of the gallbladder is a rare occurrence and an unusual clinical problem. Among 2,145 patients who underwent cholecystectomy for gallbladder disease only 9 (0.4 per cent) presented with adenomatous polyps. There were 6 women and 3 men, aged 17 to 70 years. Preoperative ultrasonographic diagnosis was made in only 1 of 7 patients with gallstones, in contrast polypoid lesions within a gallbladder without stones were easily confirmed by both ultrasonography and oral cholecystography in the remaining 2 patients. All polyps were 1.0 cm or less in size and without histologic evidence of malignant change. The clinical significance of this rare condition is discussed, with particular reference to a possible role in development of gallbladder carcinoma. Surgical treatment should be advocated regardless of clinical manifestation when the polyp exceeds 1.0 cm in diameter or rapid growth of the lesion is seen on ultrasonographic follow-up examinations. PMID:1859800

  3. The Helicobacter pylori L-form: formation and isolation in the human bile cultures in vitro and in the gallbladders of patients with biliary diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan N; Ding, Wen J; Pan, Yao Z; Tang, Ke L; Wang, Tao; She, Xiao L; Wang, He

    2015-04-01

    The Helicobacter pylori is considered the important causative agent causing biliary diseases, but the H. pylori can be isolated from very few gallbladder specimens with diseases. We studied the formation of H. pylori L-forms in bile in vitro and isolated the H. pylori L-forms from gallbladder of patients with biliary diseases. We inoculated the H. pylori into the human bile to induce the L-form in vitro. The gallbladder specimens were collected from patients with biliary diseases to isolate the bacterial L-forms by the nonhigh osmotic isolation technique, and the H. pylori L-forms in the L-form isolates were identified by the gene assay for the H. pylori-specific genes 16S rRNA and UreA. The H. Pylori cannot be isolated from the bile-induced cultures, but the H. pylori L-form can be isolated from the H. pylori-negative bile-induced cultures. The L-form isolates of bile-induced cultures showed a positive reaction of the H. pylori-specific genes by PCR, and the coincidence ratio of the nucleotide sequences between the L-forms and the H. pylori is 99%. The isolation rate of bacteria L-form is 93.2% in the gallbladder specimens with bacteria-negative isolation culture by the nonhigh osmotic isolation technique, and the positive rate of the H. pylori-specific genes in the L-form isolates is 7.1% in the bacterial L-form-positive isolation cultures by the PCR. H. pylori can be rapidly induced into the L-form in the human bile; the L-form, as the latent bacteria, can live in the host gallbladder for a long times, and they made the host became a latent carrier of the H. pylori L-form. The H. pylori L-form can be isolated by the nonhigh osmotic isolation technique, and the variant can be identified by the gene assay for the H. pylori-specific genes 16S rRNA and reA. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Association between Gallbladder Ultrasound Findings and Bacterial Culture of Bile in 70 Cats and 202 Dogs.

    PubMed

    Policelli Smith, R; Gookin, J L; Smolski, W; Di Cicco, M F; Correa, M; Seiler, G S

    2017-09-01

    Bacterial cholecystitis often is diagnosed by combination of gallbladder ultrasound (US) findings and positive results of bile culture. The value of gallbladder US in determining the likelihood of bile bacterial infection in cats and dogs with suspected biliary disease is unknown. To determine the value of gallbladder US in predicting bile bacterial culture results, identify most common bacterial isolates from bile, and describe complications after cholecystocentesis in cats and dogs with suspected hepatobiliary disease. Cats (70) and dogs (202) that underwent an abdominal US and submission of bile for culture were included in the study. A cross-sectional study design was used to determine the association of gallbladder US abnormalities and the results of bile cultures, and complications of cholecystocentesis. Abnormal gallbladder US had high sensitivity (96%) but low specificity (49%) in cats with positive and negative results of bile bacterial culture, respectively. Cats with normal gallbladder US findings were unlikely to have positive bile bacterial culture (negative predictive value of 96%). Gallbladder US had lower sensitivity (81%), specificity (31%), positive predictive value (20%), and negative predictive value (88%) in dogs. The most common bacterial isolates were of enteric origin, the prevalence being higher in cats. Incidence of complications after cholecystocentesis was 3.4%. Gallbladder US has a high negative predictive value for bile culture results in cats. This modality is less predictive of infection in dogs. Percutaneous US-guided cholecystocentesis has a low complication rate. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  5. Value of initial radiological investigations in patients admitted to hospital with appendicitis, acute gallbladder disease or acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Bhangu, Aneel; Richardson, Charlotte; Winter, Hannah; Bleetman, Anthony

    2010-10-01

    To determine the value of abdominal radiography (AXR) for investigating patients attending hospital with a first episode of appendicitis (requiring appendicectomy), acute gallbladder disease or acute pancreatitis, and to identify if early (within 18 h) ultrasound or CT scanning reduces the use of AXR. Setting Two acute teaching hospitals during August-September 2008 and February-March 2009. Audit of 355 patients (179 patients (50%) who underwent appendicectomy, 128 (36%) admitted with acute gallbladder disease and 48 (14%) with acute pancreatitis). AXR was performed in 53 patients (30%) who underwent appendicectomy, 73 (57%) with acute gallstone disease and 38 (78%) with acute pancreatitis. The useful abnormality pick-up rate was low; 9% (n=5), 5% (n=4) and 0% (n=0), respectively. When used, ultrasound confirmed the diagnosis in 84% (140/166) and CT scanning (either after AXR or as first line) in 97% (34/35). 42 patients underwent early ultrasound (n=27) or CT scanning (n=15), which together reduced the rate of AXR usage by 34% (14/42 early vs 107/159 delayed, p<0.001). AXR does not aid diagnosis of these conditions but is still performed. Early ultrasound or CT scanning reduces the use of AXR and are more sensitive; methods of providing these should be explored.

  6. Ultrasonographically detected gallbladder polyps: a reason for concern? A seven-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Kratzer, Wolfgang; Haenle, Mark M; Voegtle, Andrea; Mason, Richard A; Akinli, Atilla S; Hirschbuehl, Klaus; Schuler, Andreas; Kaechele, Volker

    2008-09-15

    The management of coincidental detected gallbladder polyps (GP) is still nebulous. There are few published data regarding their long-term growth. Objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and growth of gallbladder polyps in a survey of unselected subjects from the general population of a complete rural community. A total of 2,415 subjects (1,261 women; 1,154 men) underwent ultrasound examination of the gallbladder, in November 1996 as part of a prospective study. Subjects in whom GP were detected at the initial survey underwent follow-up ultrasound examinations after 30 and 84 months. At the initial survey gallbladder polyps were detected in 34 subjects (1.4%; females: 1.1%, range 14 to 74 years; males: 1.7%, range 19 to 63 years). Median diameter was 5 +/- 2.1 mm (range 2 to 10 mm) at the initial survey, 5 mm +/- 2.8 mm (range 2 to 12 mm) at 30 months and 4 +/- 2.3 mm (range 2 to 9 mm) at 84 months. At the time of first follow-up no change in diameter was found in 81.0% (n = 17), reduction in diameter in 4.8% (n = 1) and increase in diameter in 14.3% (n = 3). At the time of second follow-up no increase in polyp diameter was found in 76.9% (n = 10) and reduction in diameter in 7.7% (n = 1). No evidence of malignant disease of the gallbladder was found. Over a period of seven years little change was measured in the diameter of gallbladder polyps. There was no evidence of malignant disease of the gallbladder in any subject.

  7. Salmonella Extracellular Matrix Components Influence Biofilm Formation and Gallbladder Colonization.

    PubMed

    Adcox, Haley E; Vasicek, Erin M; Dwivedi, Varun; Hoang, Ky V; Turner, Joanne; Gunn, John S

    2016-11-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, the causative agent of typhoid fever in humans, forms biofilms encapsulated by an extracellular matrix (ECM). Biofilms facilitate colonization and persistent infection in gallbladders of humans and mouse models of chronic carriage. Individual roles of matrix components have not been completely elucidated in vitro or in vivo To examine individual functions, strains of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, the murine model of S Typhi, in which various ECM genes were deleted or added, were created to examine biofilm formation, colonization, and persistence in the gallbladder. Studies show that curli contributes most significantly to biofilm formation. Expression of Vi antigen decreased biofilm formation in vitro and virulence and bacterial survival in vivo without altering the examined gallbladder pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines. Oppositely, loss of all ECM components (ΔwcaM ΔcsgA ΔyihO ΔbcsE) increased virulence and bacterial survival in vivo and reduced gallbladder interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels. Colanic acid and curli mutants had the largest defects in biofilm-forming ability and contributed most significantly to the virulence increase of the ΔwcaM ΔcsgA ΔyihO ΔbcsE mutant strain. While the ΔwcaM ΔcsgA ΔyihO ΔbcsE mutant was not altered in resistance to complement or growth in macrophages, it attached and invaded macrophages better than the wild-type (WT) strain. These data suggest that ECM components have various levels of importance in biofilm formation and gallbladder colonization and that the ECM diminishes disseminated disease in our model, perhaps by reducing cell attachment/invasion and dampening inflammation by maintaining/inducing IL-10 production. Understanding how ECM components aid acute disease and persistence could lead to improvements in therapeutic treatment of typhoid fever patients. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Incidental non-benign gallbladder histopathology after cholecystectomy in an United Kingdom population: Need for routine histological analysis?

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Krashna; Dajani, Khaled; Iype, Satheesh; Chatzizacharias, Nikolaos A; Vickramarajah, Saranya; Singh, Prateush; Davies, Susan; Brais, Rebecca; Liau, Siong S; Harper, Simon; Jah, Asif; Praseedom, Raaj K; Huguet, Emmanuel L

    2016-01-01

    AIM To analyse the range of histopathology detected in the largest published United Kingdom series of cholecystectomy specimens and to evaluate the rational for selective histopathological analysis. METHODS Incidental gallbladder malignancy is rare in the United Kingdom with recent literature supporting selective histological assessment of gallbladders after routine cholecystectomy. All cholecystectomy gallbladder specimens examined by the histopathology department at our hospital during a five year period between March 2008 and March 2013 were retrospectively analysed. Further data was collected on all specimens demonstrating carcinoma, dysplasia and polypoid growths. RESULTS The study included 4027 patients. The majority (97%) of specimens exhibited gallstone or cholecystitis related disease. Polyps were demonstrated in 44 (1.09%), the majority of which were cholesterol based (41/44). Dysplasia, ranging from low to multifocal high-grade was demonstrated in 55 (1.37%). Incidental primary gallbladder adenocarcinoma was detected in 6 specimens (0.15%, 5 female and 1 male), and a single gallbladder revealed carcinoma in situ (0.02%). This large single centre study demonstrated a full range of gallbladder disease from cholecystectomy specimens, including more than 1% neoplastic histology and two cases of macroscopically occult gallbladder malignancies. CONCLUSION Routine histological evaluation of all elective and emergency cholecystectomies is justified in a United Kingdom population as selective analysis has potential to miss potentially curable life threatening pathology. PMID:27830040

  9. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in diagnosis of gallbladder adenoma.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hai-Xia; Cao, Jia-Ying; Kong, Wen-Tao; Xia, Han-Sheng; Wang, Xi; Wang, Wen-Ping

    2015-04-01

    Gallbladder adenoma is a pre-cancerous neoplasm and needs surgical resection. It is difficult to differentiate adenoma from other gallbladder polyps using imaging examinations. The study aimed to illustrate characteristics of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and its diagnostic value in gallbladder adenoma. Thirty-seven patients with 39 gallbladder adenomatoid lesions (maximal diameter ≥10 mm and without metastasis) were enrolled in this study. Lesion appearances in conventional ultrasound and CEUS were documented. The imaging features were compared individually among gallbladder cholesterol polyp, gallbladder adenoma and malignant lesion. Adenoma lesions showed iso-echogenicity in ultrasound, and an eccentric enhancement pattern, "fast-in and synchronous-out" contrast enhancement pattern and homogeneous at peak-time enhancement in CEUS. The homogenicity at peak-time enhancement showed the highest diagnostic ability in differentiating gallbladder adenoma from cholesterol polyps. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy and Youden index were 100%, 90.9%, 92.9%, 100%, 95.8% and 0.91, respectively. The characteristic of continuous gallbladder wall shown by CEUS had the highest diagnostic ability in differentiating adenoma from malignant lesion (100%, 86.7%, 86.7%, 100%, 92.9% and 0.87, respectively). The characteristic of the eccentric enhancement pattern had the highest diagnostic ability in differentiating adenoma from cholesterol polyp and malignant lesion, with corresponding indices of 69.2%, 88.5%, 75.0%, 85.2%, 82.1% and 0.58, respectively. CEUS is valuable in differentiating gallbladder adenoma from other gallbladder polyps (≥10 mm in diameter). Homogeneous echogenicity on peak-time enhancement, a continuous gallbladder wall, and the eccentric enhancement pattern are important indicators of gallbladder adenoma on CEUS.

  10. Mucin and phospholipids determine viscosity of gallbladder bile in patients with gallstones

    PubMed Central

    Jüngst, Dieter; Niemeyer, Anna; Müller, Iris; Zündt, Benedikta; Meyer, Günther; Wilhelmi, Martin; del Pozo, Reginald

    2001-01-01

    AIM: An increased viscosity of gallbladder bile has been considered an important factor in the pathogenesis of gallstone disease. Besides lipids and proteins, mucin has been suggested to affect the viscosity of bile. To further clarify these issues we compared mucin, protein and the lipid componEnts of hepatic and gallbladder bile and its viscosity in patients with gallstones. METHODS: Viscosity of bile (mPa.s) was measured using rotation viscosimetry in regard to the non Newtonian property of bile at low shear rates. RESULTS: Biliary viscosity was markedly higher in gallbladder bile of patients with cholesterol (5.00 ± 0.60 mPa.s, mean ± SEM, n = 28) and mixed stones (3.50 ± 0.68 mPa.s; n = 8) compared to hepatic bile (0.92 ± 0.06 mPa.s, n = 6). A positive correlation between mucin and viscosity was found in gallbladder biles (r = 0. 65; P < 0.001) but not in hepatic biles. The addition of physiologic and supraphysiologic amounts of mucin to gallbladder bile resulted in a dose dependent non linear increase of its viscosity. A positive correlation was determined between phospholipid concentration and viscosity (r = 0.34, P < 0.005) in gallbladder biles. However, no correlation was found between total protein or the other lipid concentrations and viscosity in both gallbladder and hepatic biles. CONCLUSION: The viscosity of gallbladder bile is markedly higher than that of hepatic bile in patients with gallstones. The concentration of mucin is the major determinant of biliary viscosity and may contribute by this mechanism to the role of mucin in the pathogenesis of gallstones. PMID:11819761

  11. Qualitative metabolomics profiling of serum and bile from dogs with gallbladder mucocele formation.

    PubMed

    Gookin, Jody L; Mathews, Kyle G; Cullen, John; Seiler, Gabriela

    2018-01-01

    Mucocele formation is characterized by secretion of abnormally thick mucus by the gallbladder epithelium of dogs that may cause obstruction of the bile duct or rupture of the gallbladder. The disease is increasingly recognized and is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. The cause of gallbladder mucocele formation in dogs is unknown. There is a strong breed predisposition and affected dogs have a high incidence of concurrent endocrinopathy or hyperlipidemia. These observations suggest a significant influence of both genetic and metabolic factors on disease pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated a theory that mucocele formation is associated with a syndrome of metabolic disruption. We surmised that a global, untargeted metabolomics approach could provide unique insight into the systemic pathogenesis of gallbladder mucocele formation and identify specific compounds as candidate biomarkers or treatment targets. Moreover, concurrent examination of the serum and hepatic duct bile metabolome would enable the construction of mechanism-based theories or identification of specific compounds responsible for altered function of the gallbladder epithelium. Abnormalities observed in dogs with gallbladder mucocele formation, including a 33-fold decrease in serum adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP), lower quantities of precursors required for synthesis of energy transporting nucleotides, and increases in citric acid cycle intermediates, suggest excess metabolic energy and a carbon surplus. Altered quantities of compounds involved in protein translation and RNA turnover, together with accumulation of gamma-glutamylated and N-acetylated amino acids in serum suggest abnormal regulation of protein and amino acid metabolism. Increases in lathosterol and 7α-hydroxycholesterol suggest a primary increase in cholesterol synthesis and diversion to bile acid formation. A number of specific biomarker compounds were identified for their ability to distinguish between control

  12. Multiple metastatic malignant melanoma presenting intraluminal gallbladder bleeding.

    PubMed

    Onozawa, Hisashi; Saito, Motonobu; Yoshida, Sayaka; Sakuma, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Masami; Katagata, Naoto; Watanabe, Fumiaki; Yamaguchi, Yoshiko; Takenoshita, Seiichi; Nomizu, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of malignant melanoma of unknown primary origin presenting metastasis in various organs as well as intraluminal gallbladder bleeding due to gallbladder metastasis. A 58-year-old woman was diagnosed with stage IV metastatic malignant melanoma. Because she exhibited acute cholecystitis and hemobilia due to malignant melanoma of the gallbladder, laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed to relieve the symptoms. The resected gallbladder specimen showed a pedunculated black mass indicating malignant melanoma. Pathologic examination and immunohistochemical analysis revealed malignant melanoma of the gallbladder. Only a few cases of gallbladder malignant melanoma presenting hemobilia have been reported; here we present our case, including the experience of multidisciplinary treatment.

  13. Effect of a high-fat-high-cholesterol diet on gallbladder bile acid composition and gallbladder motility in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kakimoto, Toshiaki; Kanemoto, Hideyuki; Fukushima, Kenjiro; Ohno, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2017-12-01

    OBJCTIVE To investigate the effects of dietary lipid overload on bile acid metabolism and gallbladder motility in healthy dogs. ANIMALS 7 healthy Beagles. PROCEDURES In a crossover study, dogs were fed a high-fat-high-cholesterol diet (HFCD) or a low-fat diet (LFD) for a period of 2 weeks. After a 4-month washout period, dogs were fed the other diet for 2 weeks. Before and at the end of each feeding period, the concentrations of each of the gallbladder bile acids, cholecystokinin (CCK)-induced gallbladder motility, and bile acid metabolism-related hepatic gene expression were examined in all dogs. RESULTS The HFCD significantly increased plasma total cholesterol concentrations. The HFCD also increased the concentration of taurochenodeoxycholic acid and decreased the concentration of taurocholic acid in bile and reduced gallbladder contractility, whereas the LFD significantly decreased the concentration of taurodeoxycholic acid in bile. Gene expression analysis revealed significant elevation of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase mRNA expression after feeding the HFCD for 2 weeks, but the expression of other genes was unchanged. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Feeding the HFCD and LFD for 2 weeks induced changes in gallbladder bile acid composition and gallbladder motility in dogs. In particular, feeding the HFCD caused an increase in plasma total cholesterol concentration, an increase of hydrophobic bile acid concentration in bile, and a decrease in gallbladder sensitivity to CCK. These results suggested that similar bile acid compositional changes and gallbladder hypomotility might be evident in dogs with hyperlipidemia.

  14. Effects of peptide YY on gallbladder motility

    SciTech Connect

    Conter, R.L.; Roslyn, J.J.; Taylor, I.L.

    1987-06-01

    The effects of peptide YY (PYY) on cholecystokinin-stimulated gallbladder contraction were investigated in the prairie dog model. Twelve animals underwent laparotomy with catheter placement into the gallbladder and common bile duct (vent). The gallbladder was continuously perfused with (/sup 14/C)polyethylene glycol-labeled lactated Ringer at 0.03 ml/min, and vent effluent was collected at 2.5-min intervals. All animals received 20 min of intravenous infusion of cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-OP), 2.5 ng x kg/sup -1/ x min/sup -1/, immediately followed by 60-min infusions of either lactated Ringer (LR) or synthetic PYY, 10 or 50 ng x kg/sup -1/ x min/sup -1/. When LR wasmore » infused after CCK-OP, gallbladder filling increased by 15.4 +/- 10.5% with minimal changes in gallbladder pressure. Infusion of PYY/sub 10/ resulted in a significant increase in gallbladder volume and filling with a significant decrease in intragallbladder pressure. Similar findings were noted with PYY/sub 50/. These data indicate that synthetic PYY significantly augments gallbladder filling after CCK-OP-stimulated gallbladder contraction. These finding, coupled with the observation that PYY inhibits pancreatic secretion, suggest that this peptide may be the anti-CCK hormone and may have an important role in regulating biliary activity postprandially.« less

  15. Ultrasonographically detected gallbladder polyps: A reason for concern? A seven-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Kratzer, Wolfgang; Haenle, Mark M; Voegtle, Andrea; Mason, Richard A; Akinli, Atilla S; Hirschbuehl, Klaus; Schuler, Andreas; Kaechele, Volker

    2008-01-01

    Background The management of coincidental detected gallbladder polyps (GP) is still nebulous. There are few published data regarding their long-term growth. Objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and growth of gallbladder polyps in a survey of unselected subjects from the general population of a complete rural community. Methods A total of 2,415 subjects (1,261 women; 1,154 men) underwent ultrasound examination of the gallbladder, in November 1996 as part of a prospective study. Subjects in whom GP were detected at the initial survey underwent follow-up ultrasound examinations after 30 and 84 months. Results At the initial survey gallbladder polyps were detected in 34 subjects (1.4%; females: 1.1%, range 14 to 74 years; males: 1.7%, range 19 to 63 years). Median diameter was 5 ± 2.1 mm (range 2 to10 mm) at the initial survey, 5 mm ± 2.8 mm (range 2 to 12 mm) at 30 months and 4 ± 2.3 mm (range 2 to 9 mm) at 84 months. At the time of first follow-up no change in diameter was found in 81.0% (n = 17), reduction in diameter in 4.8% (n = 1) and increase in diameter in 14.3% (n = 3). At the time of second follow-up no increase in polyp diameter was found in 76.9% (n = 10) and reduction in diameter in 7.7% (n = 1). No evidence of malignant disease of the gallbladder was found. Conclusion Over a period of seven years little change was measured in the diameter of gallbladder polyps. There was no evidence of malignant disease of the gallbladder in any subject. PMID:18793401

  16. High-resolution sonography for distinguishing neoplastic gallbladder polyps and staging gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Hoon; Lee, Jae Young; Baek, Jee Hyun; Eun, Hyo Won; Kim, Young Jae; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2015-02-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purposes of this study were to compare staging accuracy of high-resolution sonography (HRUS) with combined low- and high-MHz transducers with that of conventional sonography for gallbladder cancer and to investigate the differences in the imaging findings of neoplastic and nonneoplastic gallbladder polyps. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Our study included 37 surgically proven gallbladder cancer (T1a = 7, T1b = 2, T2 = 22, T3 = 6), including 15 malignant neoplastic polyps and 73 surgically proven polyps (neoplastic = 31, nonneoplastic = 42) that underwent HRUS and conventional transabdominal sonography. Two radiologists assessed T-category and predefined polyp findings on HRUS and conventional transabdominal sonography. Statistical analyses were performed using chi-square and McNemar tests. RESULTS. The diagnostic accuracy for the T category was T1a = 92-95%, T1b = 89-95%, T2 = 78-86%, and T3 = 84-89%, all with good agreement (κ = 0.642) using HRUS. The diagnostic accuracy for differentiating T1 from T2 or greater than T2 was 92% and 89% on HRUS and 65% and 70% with conventional transabdominal sonography. Statistically common findings for neoplastic polyps included size greater than 1 cm, single lobular surface, vascular core, hypoechoic polyp, and hypoechoic foci (p < 0.05). The value of HRUS in the differential diagnosis of a gallbladder polyp was more clearly depicted internal echo foci than conventional transabdominal sonography (39 vs 21). A polyp size greater than 1 cm was independently associated with a neoplastic polyp (odds ratio = 7.5, p = 0.02). The AUC of a polyp size greater than 1 cm was 0.877. The sensitivity and specificity were 66.67% and 89.13%, respectively. CONCLUSION. HRUS is a simple method that enables accurate T categorization of gallbladder carcinoma. It provides high-resolution images of gallbladder polyps and may have a role in stratifying the risk for malignancy.

  17. New-Style Laparoscope and Endoscope Cooperative Gallbladder-Preserving Surgery for Polyps.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Wu, Haorong; Wei, Shaohua

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and safety of a new style of Laparoscope and Endoscope Cooperative gallbladderpreserving Surgery (LECS), an improved method of minimally invasive gallbladder-preserving polypectomy. An experimental study. Department of General Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, China, from January 2009 to July 2013. Clinical data of patients subjected to LECS and Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy (LC) was analysed. The inclusion criteria were normal size clear gallbladder bile with total volume (FV) of the gallbladder = 15 - 25 ml, the Residual Volume (RV) = 5 ml, and the Emptying Figure (EF) > 75%, with polyps diagnosed definitively by B-type ultrasonic imaging or CTdesirous of preserving gallbladder. Exclusion criteria were a history of midsection surgery, serious diseases of any organ, hepatic injury, or coagulation disturbance. Mean hospital stay and complications were also noted. Independent sample t-test, the frequency comparison used chi-square test (N > 5), and Fisher's exact test (N < 5) were used for statistical test. The mean hospital stay after LECS was 3.50 ±0.31 days, and 3.50 ±0.31 days for the LC group. The mean age in LC and LECS group was 50 ±25.4 and 44 ±12.1 years, respectively. Complications after operation in the LECS were indigestion and diarrhea; LC group had indigestion (9.33%), diarrhea (10.67%), and gastroesophageal reflux (6.6.7%). In the 3 months follow-up after discharging from the hospital, no patient had recurrence of any gallbladder disease; at 1 year follow-up, 1 patient (1.28%) developed cholesterol crystals; at 3-year follow-up, 3 cases (3.84%) were found to have recurring polyps (2~4 pieces), and 2 (2.56%) patients developed cholesterol crystals. Minimally invasive gallbladder-preserving polypectomy which used a CHIAO cholecystoscopy compared with a laparoscope is safe, feasible, and can effectively reduce the vestiges and recrudescence of polyps in gallbladderpreserving surgery.

  18. Outcome of gallbladder preservation in surgical management of primary bile duct stones.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ming-Guo; Shi, Wei-Jin; Wen, Xin-Yuan; Yu, Hai-Wen; Huo, Jing-Shan; Zhou, Dong-Feng

    2003-08-01

    To evaluate the methods and outcome of gallbladder preservation in surgical treatment of primary bile duct stones. Thirty-five patients with primary bile duct stones and intact gallbladders received stone extraction by two operative approaches, 23 done through the intrahepatic duct stump (RBD-IDS, the RBD-IDS group) after partial hepatectomy and 12 through the hepatic parenchyma by retrograde puncture (RBD-RP, the RBD-RP group). The gallbladders were preserved and the common bile duct (CBD) incisions were primarily closed. The patients were examined postoperatively by direct cholangiography and followed up by ultrasonography once every six months. In the RBD-IDS group, residual bile duct stones were found in three patients, which were cleared by a combination of fibrocholedochoscopic extraction and lithotripsy through the drainage tracts. The tubes were removed on postoperative day 22 (range: 16-42 days). In the RBD-RP group, one patient developed hemobilia and was cured by conservative therapy. The tubes were removed on postoperative day 8 (range: 7-11 days). Postoperative cholangiography showed that all the gallbladders were well opacified, contractile and smooth. During 54 (range: 6-120 months) months of follow-up, six patients had mildly thickened cholecystic walls without related symptoms and further changes, two underwent laparotomies because of adhesive intestinal obstruction and gastric cancer respectively, three died of cardiopulmonary diseases. No stones were found in all the preserved gallbladders. The intact gallbladders preserved after surgical extraction of primary bile duct stones will not develop gallstones. Retrograde biliary drainage is an optimal approach for gallbladder preservation.

  19. Traumatic Gallbladder Rupture Treated by Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Egawa, Noriyuki; Ueda, Junji; Hiraki, Masatsugu; Ide, Takao; Inoue, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Yuichiro; Noshiro, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gallbladder rupture due to blunt abdominal injury is rare. There are few reports of traumatic gallbladder injury, and it is commonly associated with other concomitant visceral injuries. Therefore, it is difficult to diagnose traumatic gallbladder rupture preoperatively when it is caused by blunt abdominal injury. We report a patient who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy after an exact preoperative diagnosis of traumatic gallbladder rupture. A 43-year-old man was admitted to our hospital due to blunt abdominal trauma. The day after admission, abdominal pain and ascites increased and a muscular defense sign appeared. Percutaneous drainage of the ascites was performed, and the aspirated fluid was bloody and almost pure bile. He was diagnosed with gallbladder rupture by the cholangiography using the endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography technique. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed safely, and he promptly recovered. If accumulated fluids contain bile, endoscopic cholangiography is useful not only to diagnose gallbladder injury but also to determine the therapeutic strategy. PMID:27462188

  20. The Systematic Classification of Gallbladder Stones

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Tie; Ma, Rui-hong; Luo, Xiao-bing; Yang, Liu-qing; Luo, Zhen-liang; Zheng, Pei-ming

    2013-01-01

    Background To develop a method for systematic classification of gallbladder stones, analyze the clinical characteristics of each type of stone and provide a theoretical basis for the study of the formation mechanism of different types of gallbladder stones. Methodology A total of 807 consecutive patients with gallbladder stones were enrolled and their gallstones were studied. The material composition of gallbladder stones was analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and the distribution and microstructure of material components was observed with Scanning Electron Microscopy. The composition and distribution of elements were analyzed by an X-ray energy spectrometer. Gallbladder stones were classified accordingly, and then, gender, age, medical history and BMI of patients with each type of stone were analyzed. Principal Findings Gallbladder stones were classified into 8 types and more than ten subtypes, including cholesterol stones (297), pigment stones (217), calcium carbonate stones (139), phosphate stones (12), calcium stearate stones (9), protein stones (3), cystine stones (1) and mixed stones (129). Mixed stones were those stones with two or more than two kinds of material components and the content of each component was similar. A total of 11 subtypes of mixed stones were found in this study. Patients with cholesterol stones were mainly female between the ages of 30 and 50, with higher BMI and shorter medical history than patients with pigment stones (P<0.05), however, patients with pigment, calcium carbonate, phosphate stones were mainly male between the ages of 40 and 60. Conclusion The systematic classification of gallbladder stones indicates that different types of stones have different characteristics in terms of the microstructure, elemental composition and distribution, providing an important basis for the mechanistic study of gallbladder stones. PMID:24124459

  1. Gallbladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Types of treatment for gallbladder cancer include surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Treatment of gallbladder cancer that has spread to other parts of the body, cannot be removed by surgery, or has come back after treatment is often within a clinical trial. Find out about treatment options for gallbladder cancer.

  2. Hepatitis, gallbladder hydrops, splenomegaly, and ascites in a child with scarlet fever.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li Yueh; Young, Ton-Ho

    2012-11-01

    We report a case of scarlet fever associated with hepatitis, gallbladder hydrops, splenomegaly, and ascites in a 15-year-old girl. The girl presented with fever and skin rash. Leukocyte, liver enzyme, and serum C-reactive protein concentrations were elevated. Ultrasonography revealed marked gallbladder wall thickening, diffuse liver parenchymal disease with moderate splenomegaly, and moderate ascites throughout the abdominal and pelvic cavities. Blood cultures for group A β-hemolytic streptococci were negative. Complete recovery was facilitated with antibiotic treatment.

  3. New approach to gallbladder ultrasonic images analysis and lesions recognition.

    PubMed

    Bodzioch, Sławomir; Ogiela, Marek R

    2009-03-01

    This paper presents a new approach to gallbladder ultrasonic image processing and analysis towards detection of disease symptoms on processed images. First, in this paper, there is presented a new method of filtering gallbladder contours from USG images. A major stage in this filtration is to segment and section off areas occupied by the said organ. In most cases this procedure is based on filtration that plays a key role in the process of diagnosing pathological changes. Unfortunately ultrasound images present among the most troublesome methods of analysis owing to the echogenic inconsistency of structures under observation. This paper provides for an inventive algorithm for the holistic extraction of gallbladder image contours. The algorithm is based on rank filtration, as well as on the analysis of histogram sections on tested organs. The second part concerns detecting lesion symptoms of the gallbladder. Automating a process of diagnosis always comes down to developing algorithms used to analyze the object of such diagnosis and verify the occurrence of symptoms related to given affection. Usually the final stage is to make a diagnosis based on the detected symptoms. This last stage can be carried out through either dedicated expert systems or more classic pattern analysis approach like using rules to determine illness basing on detected symptoms. This paper discusses the pattern analysis algorithms for gallbladder image interpretation towards classification of the most frequent illness symptoms of this organ.

  4. Gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Gourgiotis, Stavros; Kocher, Hemant M; Solaini, Leonardo; Yarollahi, Arvin; Tsiambas, Evangelos; Salemis, Nikolaos S

    2008-08-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GC) is a relatively rare but highly lethal neoplasm. We review the epidemiology, etiology, pathology, symptoms, diagnosis, staging, treatment, and prognosis of GC. A Pubmed database search between 1971 and February 2007 was performed. All abstracts were reviewed and articles with GC obtained; further references were extracted by hand-searching the bibliography. The database search was done in the English language. The accurate etiology of GC remains unclear, while the symptoms associated with primary GC are not specific. Treatment with radical cholecystectomy is curative but possible in only 10% to 30% of patients. For patients whose cancer is an incidental finding on pathologic review, re-resection is indicated, where feasible, for all disease except T1a. Patients with advanced disease should receive palliative treatment. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is contraindicated in the presence of GC. Prognosis generally is extremely poor. Improvements in the outcome of surgical resection have caused this approach to be re-evaluated, while the role of chemotherapy and radiotherapy remains controversial.

  5. Gallbladder Duplication: Evaluation, Treatment, and Classification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-01

    2009; revised 16 December 2009; accepted 16 December 2009h o th 0 d Key words: Duplicate gallbladder; Hepatobiliary embryology ; Multiple gallbladders...anatomic variations [5]. These three types vary depending upon the embryologic development and occur in the same manner as duplicated gallbladders. Given... embryology and adds a third group that occurs when there is a combination of types 1 and 2 anatomy. The triple combined group occurs from a split in

  6. Composition of gallbladder bile in healthy individuals and patients with gallstone disease from north and South India.

    PubMed

    Jayanthi, V; Sarika, S; Varghese, Joy; Vaithiswaran, V; Sharma, Malay; Reddy, Mettu Srinivas; Srinivasan, Vijaya; Reddy, G M M; Rela, Mohamed; Kalkura, S

    2016-09-01

    Gallstones (GS) in south India (SI) are predominantly pure pigment or mixed, while in North India (NI), these are either pure cholesterol or mixed. While cholesterol rich gallbladder (GB) bile predicts cholesterol GS, constituent of bile in primary pigment GS is not known. We compared the composition of GB bile from healthy liver donors and patients with GS from north and south India. Gallbladder bile from healthy liver donors from north (10) and south India (8) served as controls. Cases were patients from north (21) and south India (17) who underwent cholecystectomy for GS disease. Gallbladder bile from both cases and controls was analyzed for cholesterol, lecithin (phospholipid), and bile salts. Gallstones were classified as cholesterol, mixed, and pigment based on morphology and biochemical analysis. The median cholesterol concentration in control bile from north was significantly high compared to south (p<0.001) with no difference in lecithin and bile salts (p NS). Except for one sample each from north and south, the cholesterol solubility of controls was within the critical micellar zone. Mixed GS were most frequent in north India (61.9 %) while pigment GS dominated in south (61.9 %). The median cholesterol concentration in bile samples of cholecystectomy patients from north India was significantly high GS (p < 0.00001) with significant lowering of bile salts and lecithin (p < 0.00001). In south India, patients with mixed GS had high cholesterol content in bile compared to controls and patients with pigment GS; bile in latter had significantly higher concentration of bile salt compared to controls and mixed GS. The ternary plot confirmed the composition of GB bile from north and south India. Gallbladder bile in controls and patients with GS from north India had significantly high cholesterol concentration. In south India, patients with mixed GS had cholesterol rich bile while pigment GS had higher concentrations of bile salts.

  7. Expression of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 1 and 2 receptor mRNA in gallbladder tissue of patients with gallstone or gallbladder polyps.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Wu, Shuo-Dong; Gao, Hong; Shi, Gang; Jin, Jun-Zhe; Kong, Jing; Tian, Zhong; Su, Yang

    2006-03-07

    To detect the expression of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide receptor 1 (VPCAP1-R)and VPCAP2-R mRNA in gallbladder tissues of patients with gallstone or gallbladder polyps. The expression of VPCAP1-R and VPCAP2-R mRNA in gallbladder tissues was detected in 25 patients with gallstone,8 patients with gallbladder polyps and 7 donors of liver transplantation by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The VPCAP2-R mRNA expression level in the control group (1.09+/-0.58) was lower than that in the gallbladder polyp group (1.64+/-0.56) and the gallstone group (1.55+/-0.45) (P<0.05) while the VPCAP1-R mRNA expression level in the control group (1.15+/-0.23) was not apparently different from that in the gallbladder polyp group (1.28+/-0.56) and the gallstone group (1.27+/-0.38). The abnormal expression of VPCAP2-R mRNA in gallbladder tissue may play a role in the formation of gallbladder stone and gallbladder polyps.

  8. Gallbladder carcinoma late metastases and incisional hernia at umbilical port site after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Ciulla, A; Romeo, G; Genova, G; Tomasello, G; Agnello, G; Cstronovo, Gaetano

    2006-05-01

    A potentially serious complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the inadvertent dissemination of unsuspected gallbladder carcinoma. There are increasing reports of seeding of tumor at the trocar sites following laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients with unexpected or inapparent gallbladder carcinoma. Although the mechanism of the abdominal wall recurrence is still unclear, laparoscopic handling of the tumor, perforation of the gallbladder, and extraction of the specimen without an endobag may be risk factors for the spreading of malignant cells. The Authors report the case of late development of umbilical metastasis after laparoscopic cholecystectomy; the presence of an incisional hernia and the finding of a stone in subcutaneous tissue demonstrate the diffusion of tumor cells into subcutaneous tissue during the extraction of gallbladder. The patient underwent an excision of the metastases. She is disease free two years after surgical treatment.

  9. Role of ROCK expression in gallbladder smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Ding, You-Ming; Wang, Chun-Tao; Wang, Wei-Xing

    2015-08-01

    Cholelithiasis is a common medical condition whose incidence rate is increasing yearly, while its pathogenesis has yet to be elucidated. The present study assessed the expression of Rho-kinase (ROCK) in gallbladder smooth muscles and its effect on the contractile function of gallbladder smooth muscles during gallstone formation. Thirty male guinea pigs were randomly divided into three groups: The control group, the gallstone model group and the fasudil interference group. The fasting volume (FV) and bile capacity of the gallbladder (FB) as well as the total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) contents of the gallbladder bile were determined. In addition, the gallbladder was dissected to identify whether any gallstones had formed. Part of the gallbladder tissue specimens were used for immunohistochemical analysis of ROCK expression in gallbladder smooth muscles. The results showed that four guinea pigs in the model group and eight in the fasudil group displayed gallstone formation, while there was no gallstone formation in the control group. The FV and FB were significantly increased in the model and fasudil groups. Similarly, the TC and TG contents of gallbladder bile were increased in these groups. The positive expression rate of ROCK in gallbladder smooth muscles in the model and fasudil groups was significantly reduced compared with that in the control group (P<0.05). The results of the present study indicated that the reduction of ROCK expression in guinea pig gallbladder smooth muscles weakened gallbladder contraction and thereby promoted gallstone formation.

  10. Gallbladder Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Gallbladder cancer treatment for cancer found during routine gallbladder surgery is often surgery alone. Unresectable, recurrent or metastatic gallbladder cancer treatment options include relief of biliary obstruction, radiation, and chemotherapy. Get more information in this clinician summary.

  11. Qualitative metabolomics profiling of serum and bile from dogs with gallbladder mucocele formation

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Kyle G.; Cullen, John; Seiler, Gabriela

    2018-01-01

    Mucocele formation is characterized by secretion of abnormally thick mucus by the gallbladder epithelium of dogs that may cause obstruction of the bile duct or rupture of the gallbladder. The disease is increasingly recognized and is associated with a high morbidity and mortality. The cause of gallbladder mucocele formation in dogs is unknown. There is a strong breed predisposition and affected dogs have a high incidence of concurrent endocrinopathy or hyperlipidemia. These observations suggest a significant influence of both genetic and metabolic factors on disease pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated a theory that mucocele formation is associated with a syndrome of metabolic disruption. We surmised that a global, untargeted metabolomics approach could provide unique insight into the systemic pathogenesis of gallbladder mucocele formation and identify specific compounds as candidate biomarkers or treatment targets. Moreover, concurrent examination of the serum and hepatic duct bile metabolome would enable the construction of mechanism-based theories or identification of specific compounds responsible for altered function of the gallbladder epithelium. Abnormalities observed in dogs with gallbladder mucocele formation, including a 33-fold decrease in serum adenosine 5’-monophosphate (AMP), lower quantities of precursors required for synthesis of energy transporting nucleotides, and increases in citric acid cycle intermediates, suggest excess metabolic energy and a carbon surplus. Altered quantities of compounds involved in protein translation and RNA turnover, together with accumulation of gamma-glutamylated and N-acetylated amino acids in serum suggest abnormal regulation of protein and amino acid metabolism. Increases in lathosterol and 7α-hydroxycholesterol suggest a primary increase in cholesterol synthesis and diversion to bile acid formation. A number of specific biomarker compounds were identified for their ability to distinguish between control

  12. Galled by the Gallbladder?: Your Tiny, Hard-Working Digestive Organ

    MedlinePlus

    ... Galled by the Gallbladder? Your Tiny, Hard-Working Digestive Organ En español Send us your comments Most ... among the most common and costly of all digestive system diseases. By some estimates, up to 20 ...

  13. Direct Gallbladder Indocyanine Green Injection Fluorescence Cholangiography During Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Graves, Claire; Ely, Sora; Idowu, Olajire; Newton, Christopher; Kim, Sunghoon

    2017-10-01

    Intravenous injection of indocyanine green (ICG) is used to illuminate extrahepatic biliary anatomy. Fluorescence of biliary structures may lower surgical complications that can arise due to inadvertent injury to the common bile duct. We describe a method of injecting ICG directly into the gallbladder to define the cystic duct and common bile duct anatomy. A standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed using a laparoscope with near-infrared imaging capability. Before dissection, the gallbladder was punctured with a cholangiogram catheter or a pigtail catheter to aspirate the bile within the gallbladder. The aspirated bile is mixed with ICG solution, which is reinjected into the gallbladder to fluoresce the gallbladder, cystic duct, and common bile duct structures. Eleven patients underwent direct gallbladder ICG injection for fluorescence cholangiography during cholecystectomy. Direct gallbladder ICG injection clearly defined the extrahepatic biliary anatomy, including the cystic duct-common bile duct junction, by fluorescence. In addition, the dissection plane between the gallbladder and the liver is highlighted with the gallbladder ICG fluorescence. Direct gallbladder ICG injection provides immediate visualization of extrahepatic biliary structures and clarifies the dissection plane between the gallbladder and the liver bed.

  14. Expression of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 1 and 2 receptor mRNA in gallbladder tissue of patients with gallstone or gallbladder polyps

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Wu, Shuo-Dong; Gao, Hong; Shi, Gang; Jin, Jun-Zhe; Kong, Jing; Tian, Zhong; Su, Yang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To detect the expression of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide receptor 1 (VPCAP1-R) and VPCAP2-R mRNA in gallbladder tissues of patients with gallstone or gallbladder polyps. METHODS: The expression of VPCAP1-R and VPCAP2-R mRNA in gallbladder tissues was detected in 25 patients with gallstone, 8 patients with gallbladder polyps and 7 donors of liver transplantation by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: The VPCAP2-R mRNA expression level in the control group (1.09±0.58) was lower than that in the gallbladder polyp group (1.64 ± 0.56) and the gallstone group (1.55±0.45) (P < 0.05) while the VPCAP1-R mRNA expression level in the control group (1.15 ± 0.23) was not apparently different from that in the gallbladder polyp group (1.28±0.56) and the gallstone group (1.27 ± 0.38). CONCLUSION: The abnormal expression of VPCAP2-R mRNA in gallbladder tissue may play a role in the formation of gallbladder stone and gallbladder polyps. PMID:16552823

  15. [Fortuitous discovery of gallbladder cancer].

    PubMed

    Chiche, L; Metairie, S

    2001-12-01

    The prognosis of gallbladder cancer is basically dependent on the histological stage at diagnosis. In practice, the discovery of a small cancer of the bladder, generally during cholecystectomy give the patient a better care for curative treatment. The advent of laparoscopy has increased the number of cholecstectomies and could increase the frequency of this situation but also raises the difficult problem of metastatic dissemination. In the literature the figures on parietal metastasis after laparoscopy have ranged from 125% to 19%. The median delay to diagnosis of recurrence is 6 months. The cause of this phenomenon (role of the pneumoperitoneum) remains poorly elucidated. Risk factors for the development of a metastasis on the trocar orifice are: rupture of the gallbladder perioperatively and extraction of the gallbladder without protection. It is important to keep in mind this exceptional but serious risk and apply rigorous operative technique. In case of suspected gallbladder we do not advocate laparoscopy. Surgery (hepatectomy, lymphodenectomy, possibly resection of the biliary tract) would be indicted for all stages except pTis and T1a, taking into consideration the localization of the tumor and the patient's general status. It is also classical to recommend resection of the trocar orifices after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. There is a dual challenge today for small-sized gallbladder cancer: improving treatment and avoiding poorer prognosis due to the specific problems raised by laparoscopy.

  16. Gallbladder Cancer Incidence and Death Rates

    MedlinePlus

    ... Radon What We Know What States Can Do Case Study: Reducing Radon in Illinois What Comprehensive Cancer Control ... Quick Facts About Gallbladder Cancer Gallbladder cancer is one of the few cancers more common among women ...

  17. Type 1 free perforation of the gallbladder.

    PubMed Central

    Harland, C; Mayberry, J F; Toghill, P J

    1985-01-01

    A series of 4 cases of free perforation of the gallbladder into the peritoneal cavity associated with peritonitis are reported. Two were diagnosed at laparotomy and 2 at post-mortem. The 3 patients who died were men who were either elderly or had serous concomitant diseases, including diabetes, atherosclerosis or alcoholism. The sole survivor was a fit young woman. PMID:4045903

  18. Gallbladder torsion with acute cholecystitis and gross necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Alkhalili, Eyas; Bencsath, Kalman

    2014-01-01

    A 92-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with a 2-week history of worsening right-sided abdominal pain. On examination she had right mid-abdominal tenderness. Laboratory studies demonstrated leukocytosis with normal liver function tests. A CT of the abdomen was remarkable for a large fluid collection in the right abdomen and no discernible gallbladder in the gallbladder fossa. An ultrasound confirmed the suspicion of a distended, floating gallbladder. The patient was taken to the operating room for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The gallbladder was found to have volvulised in a counter -clockwise manner around its pedicle, with gross necrosis of the gallbladder. She underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Pathological examination revealed acute necrotising calculus cholecystitis. PMID:24862426

  19. Human gallbladder carcinoma: Role of neurotrophins, MIB-1, CD34 and CA15-3

    PubMed Central

    Artico, M.; Bronzetti, E.; Alicino, V.; Ionta, B.; Bosco, S.; Grande, C.; Bruno, M.; Tranquilli Leali, F. M.; Ionta, G.; Fumagalli, L.

    2010-01-01

    Gallbladder carcinoma is the most common biliary tract tumor and the fifth most common gastrointestinal tract cancer. The prognosis of gallbladder carcinoma is poor and less than 5% of the patients are still alive five years postoperatively. Gallbladder specimens were obtained during surgical operations performed in eleven patients for resection of a gallbladder carcinoma, and during five autopsies (control cases selected among patients who died from for other causes, excluding those suffering from biliary or hepatic diseases). Immunohistochemical characterization and distribution of neurotrophins, with their respective receptors, were analyzed. The actual role played by these neurotrophic factors in the general regulation, vascular permeability, algic responsiveness, release of locally active substances and potential tumorigenesis in the gallbladder and biliary ducts compartment remains controversial. Our study revealed an increased immunohistochemical expression of NGF and TrKA in the epithelium and in the epithelial glands of the gallbladder carcinoma together with an evident immunoreactivity for BDNF in the same neoplastic areas. An evident immunoreactivity for NGF, TrKA and BDNF was observed in control specimens of gallbladder obtained during autopsies, whereas a weak or quite absent immunoreactivity was observed in the same specimens for NT4, TrKC and p75. On the contrary an appreciable immunoreactivity for p75 was observed in the specimens harvested from patients with gallbladder carcinoma. We also investigated the expression of some known tumor markers such as MIB-1 (anti Ki-67), CD34 and CA15-3, to identify a possible correlation between the expression of these molecular factors and the prognosis of gallbladder carcinoma. They resulted highly expressed in the stroma (CD34 and CA 15-3) and in the epithelium/epithelial glands (MIB-1) of the neoplastic areas and appeared to be almost absent in the control cases, suggesting that these markers, taken together

  20. Human gallbladder carcinoma: Role of neurotrophins, MIB-1, CD34 and CA15-3.

    PubMed

    Artico, M; Bronzetti, E; Alicino, V; Ionta, B; Bosco, S; Grande, C; Bruno, M; Tranquilli Leali, F M; Ionta, G; Fumagalli, L

    2010-03-11

    Gallbladder carcinoma is the most common biliary tract tumor and the fifth most common gastrointestinal tract cancer .The prognosis of gallbladder carcinoma is poor and less than 5% of the patients are still alive five years postoperatively. Gallbladder specimens were obtained during surgical operations performed in eleven patients for resection of a gallbladder carcinoma, and during five autopsies (control cases selected among patients who died from for other causes, excluding those suffering from biliary or hepatic diseases). Immunohistochemical characterization and distribution of neurotrophins, with their respective receptors, were analyzed. The actual role played by these neurotrophic factors in the general regulation, vascular permeability, algic responsiveness, release of locally active substances and potential tumorigenesis in the gallbladder and biliary ducts compartment remains controversial. Our study revealed an increased immunohistochemical expression of NGF and TrKA in the epithelium and in the epithelial glands of the gallbladder carcinoma together with an evident immunoreactivity for BDNF in the same neoplastic areas. An evident immunoreactivity for NGF, TrKA and BDNF was observed in control specimens of gallbladder obtained during autopsies, whereas a weak or quite absent immunoreactivity was observed in the same specimens for NT4, TrKC and p75. On the contrary an appreciable immunoreactivity for p75 was observed in the specimens harvested from patients with gallbladder carcinoma. We also investigated the expression of some known tumor markers such as MIB-1 (anti Ki-67), CD34 and CA15-3, to identify a possible correlation between the expression of these molecular factors and the prognosis of gallbladder carcinoma. They resulted highly expressed in the stroma (CD34 and CA 15-3) and in the epithelium/epithelial glands (MIB-1) of the neoplastic areas and appeared to be almost absent in the control cases, suggesting that these markers, taken together

  1. Primary melanoma of the gallbladder: Does it exist? Report of a case and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Safioleas, Michail; Agapitos, Emmanouil; Kontzoglou, Konstantinos; Stamatakos, Michail; Safioleas, Panagiotis; Mouzopoulos, George; Kostakis, Alkiviadis

    2006-01-01

    With the occasion of a case of malignant melanoma of the gallbladder, which appeared to be primary, we have reviewed the literature and the result of this research was that primary melanoma of the gallbladder remains a questionable medical entity. Only few cases of both primary and metastatic gallbladder melanoma have been reported so far, and the only agreement is that surgery is the mainstay treatment. The role of adjuvant chemotherapy, hormonotherapy or immunotherapy for both primary and metastatic disease remains undefined. PMID:16830389

  2. Comparison of clinical outcomes of incidental and non- incidental gallbladder cancers: a single-center cross- sectional study.

    PubMed

    Cha, Byung Hyo; Bae, Jong-Myun

    2014-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a rare malignancy characterized by high invasiveness and poor survival. In a nation-wide cancer survey, the age-standardized incidence rate of GBC was the highest in Jeju Island compared to 15 other provinces in Korea. The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcomes of GBC according to the nature of diagnosis, that is, incidental versus non-incidental. Consecutive patients who were newly diagnosed with GBC at the Digestive Disease Center and Department of Internal Medicine, Cheju Halla General Hospital, between November 2008 and November 2011, were enrolled and divided into 2 groups: incidental gallbladder cancer (IGBC) and non-incidental gallbladder cancer (NIGBC). Clinical outcomes were retrospectively compared between the two groups. Seventy-nine patients were enrolled and analyzed in our study. Thirty-three (41.8%) and 46 (58.2%) were identified as IGBC and NIGBC, respectively. The proportions of patients with gallstone disease, gallbladder polyp, and cholecystectomy were significantly different between the two groups. Additionally, the median survival rate was significantly higher for patients with IGBC than for those with NIGBC (11.4, 95% confidence interval, 5.6-13.7 vs 4.0, 95% confidence interval 3.03-5.96 months; p=0.01) during a median follow-up period of 5.7 months. Patients with IGBC showed better clinical prognosis than those with NIGBC. Therefore, patients with gallstone disease or gallbladder polyps, major predictive risk factors for IGBC, should undergo advanced work-up for chelecystectomy.

  3. Clinical, pathological and sonographic characteristics of unexpected gallbladder carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin-Huan; Liu, Bo-Ji; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Sun, Li-Ping; Li, Dan-Dan; Guo, Le-Hang; Liu, Lin-Na; Xu, Xiao-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the clinical, pathological, and sonographic characteristics of unexpected gallbladder carcinoma (UGC). Methods: Of 5424 patients who had undergone cholecystectomy from December 2006 to October 2013, 54 patients with primary gallbladder carcinomas confirmed by pathological diagnosis were identified. The patients were divided into two groups: diagnosed before operation (n=34) and UGC groups (n=20), of whom the clinical, pathological, and sonographic characteristics were compared. Results: No significant differences in age, gender, location of lesion, histological type, length of the gallbladder, existence of biliary sludge, and intestinal gas interference between the two groups were found (all P>0.05). The clinical symptoms, laboratory abnormalities, tumor markers, coexisting gallbladder stones, lesion size, lesion type, degree of differentiation, and tumor staging showed statistically significant differences between the two groups (all P<0.05). On ultrasound, the width of the gallbladder, gallbladder wall thickness, vascularity on color Doppler ultrasound, and bile volume in the gallbladder showed significant differences (all P<0.05). Conclusions: UGCs are commonly found at an early stage, often well-differentiated, wall thickened, and are generally accompanied with cholelithiasis. UGCs should be taken into consideration in cases with cholelithiasis or small gallbladder on ultrasound. PMID:26379911

  4. Gallstones: A Worldwide Multifaceted Disease and Its Correlations with Gallbladder Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Raj Kumar; Sonkar, Kanchan; Sinha, Neeraj; Rebala, Pradeep; Albani, Ahmad Ebrah; Behari, Anu; Reddy, Duvvuri Nageshwar; Farooqui, Alvina; Kapoor, Vinay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Gallstones (GS) associated diseases are among the most recurrent and frequent diseases delineated in India and United Arab Emirates. Several reports suggest that the association of GS with gallbladder cancer (GBC) is very high in Northern part of India; however, its occurrence in UAE and Southern part of India is notably low. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to perform compositional analysis of GS in three different geographical areas by Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Fourier Transformed Infrared spectroscopy. Natural abundance 13C cross polarization magic angle spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy is employed for the analysis of human gallstone. Cholesterol, bilirubin and calcium carbonate were present in variant concentrations in GS obtained from three different geographical regions. Cholesterol was present predominantly in gallstones from North India. Bilirubin was found to be a main constituent in gallstones pertaining to South India. Whereas GS from UAE showed both cholesterol and bilirubin as their major constituents. Calcium carbonate was found in varying concentrations in gallstones acquired from different regions. Variation in environmental condition and dietary habits may contribute and affect the GS formation. Alterations in bile composition influence the GB and augment the crystallization of cholesterol. Analysis of different geographical regions GS could be an important stride to understand the etiology of GS diseases.

  5. C-Kit expression in the gallbladder of guinea pig with chronic calculous cholecystitis and the effect of Artemisia capillaris Thunb on interstitial cells of Cajal.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hua; Wang, Fang; Wang, Changmiao

    2016-07-01

    To study the c-Kit expression in the gallbladder of cholesterol lithogenic guinea pig model and the effect of Artemisia capillaris Thunb on interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs). A total of 45 guinea pigs were randomly assigned into three groups: the control group (guinea pigs fed a standard diet, normal group); the model group (guinea pigs fed a cholesterol gallstone-inducing diet); and the Chinese medicine group (guinea pigs fed the cholesterol gallstone-inducing diet and treated with A. capillaris through intragastric administration, therapy group). Each group had 15 guinea pigs. The gallbladders of the guinea pigs were harvested after 8 weeks. C-Kit expression was detected using an immunohistochemistry staining, real-time PCR, and Western blot analyses. The effect of A. capillaris on ICCs was evaluated by muscle strip contraction experiments. C-Kit expression significantly decreased in the gallbladder of model group, but increased in the Chinese medicine group. The Contractility of guinea pig gallbladder muscle strip significantly improved in the Chinese medicine group. Our results indicated that A. capillaris improves gallbladder impairment by up-regulating c-Kit expression, and it also can improve the contractile response of in vitro guinea pig gallbladder muscle strips.

  6. The risk of gallbladder cancer from polyps in a large multiethnic series.

    PubMed

    Aldouri, A Q; Malik, H Z; Waytt, J; Khan, S; Ranganathan, K; Kummaraganti, S; Hamilton, W; Dexter, S; Menon, K; Lodge, J P; Prasad, K R; Toogood, G J

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is assess whether patients with Indian ethnic background are at an increased risk of developing gallbladder cancer (GBC) if they have been diagnosed with ultrasonic abnormalities of the gallbladder. Between January 1998 and July 2006, 137,655 abdominal ultrasound examinations were performed in Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust. After the exclusion of repeat scans and those performed for renal or pelvic disease, 71,431 reports were included in this analysis. Patients in whom the diagnosis of GBC has been made without histology have been identified from the database of Northern and Yorkshire Cancer Registry and the presence of GBC was correlated with ultrasonic gallbladder abnormalities. Gallbladder polyps (GBP) were detected in 3.3% of patients and these were larger than 10 mm in 0.1% of the cases. Age above 60 years, Indian ethnic background, single GBP larger than 10mm, the presence of gallstones, severe gallbladder wall thickening and irregular thickening were independently associated with the higher odds of developing GBC. The prevalence of malignancy in those with GBP was significantly higher among patients with Indian ethnic background compared to Caucasian patients, 5.5% versus 0.08%, p<0.001. The presence of GBP, irrelevant of size, amongst patients of Indian ethnic decent, is an indication for further investigation and/or cholecystectomy.

  7. Metastatic polyp of the gallbladder from renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shyr, Bor-Uei; Chen, Shih-Chin; Shyr, Yi-Ming; Lee, Rheun-Chuan; Wang, Shin-E

    2017-04-04

    Gallbladder metastasis from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is extremely rare. The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of metastatic RCC to gallbladder. The pooled data for analysis were collected from the case of metastatic RCC to gallbladder encountered by our institution along with sporadic cases reported in literature from 1991 to 2015. A total of 50 cases of metastatic RCC to gallbladder were recruited for study. Fifty-seven percentage of the primary RCC was from the right kidney and 43% from the left. The median interval between diagnoses of primary and metastatic RCC to gallbladder was 36 months, with the longest duration up to 324 months. Most (70%) were asymptomatic. The size of metastatic RCC to gallbladder ranged from 0.8 cm to 9 cm, with median of 2.6 cm. Majority (91%) of the metastatic RCCs presented as a polypoid mass with narrow stalk, and 82% were hypervascular lesion. The overall 1 year, 3 year and 5 year survival rate was 91.5%, 76.2% and 59.3% respectively, with a median of 26.5 months. Number of the metastatic site, timing of gallbladder metastasis, symptom, tumor size and operation type of cholecystectomy seemed to have no impact on survival. Metastatic RCC to the gallbladder should be taken into account for a gallbladder polypoid mass with narrow hypervascular stalk during the diagnosis and/or follow-up of primary RCC. Gallbladder metastasis from RCC is not necessarily to be an advanced stage with poor outcome, and cholecystectomy is recommended whenever possible.

  8. Gallbladder mucin production and calcium carbonate gallstones in children.

    PubMed

    Sayers, Craig; Wyatt, Judy; Soloway, Roger D; Taylor, Donald R; Stringer, Mark D

    2007-03-01

    In contrast to adults, calcium carbonate gallstones are relatively common in children. Their pathogenesis is poorly understood. Cystic duct obstruction promotes calcium carbonate formation in bile and increases gallbladder mucin production. We tested the hypothesis that mucin producing epithelial cells would be increased in gallbladders of children with calcium carbonate gallstones. Archival gallbladder specimens from 20 consecutive children who had undergone elective cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis were examined. In each case, gallstone composition was determined by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. Gallbladder specimens from six children who had undergone cholecystectomy for conditions other than cholelithiasis during the same period were used as controls. Multiple sections were examined in a blinded fashion and scored semiquantitatively for mucin production using two stains (alcian blue and periodic acid-Schiff). Increased mucin staining was observed in 50% or more epithelial cells in five gallbladder specimens from seven children with calcium carbonate stones, compared to 5 of 13 with other stone types (P = 0.17) and none of the control gallbladders (P = 0.02). Gallbladders containing calcium carbonate stones were significantly more likely than those containing other stone types or controls to contain epithelial cells with the greatest mucin content (P = 0.03). Gallbladders containing calcium carbonate stones were also more likely to show the ulcer-associated cell lineage. These results demonstrate an increase in mucin producing epithelial cells in gallbladders from children containing calcium carbonate stones. This supports the hypothesis that cystic duct obstruction leading to increased gallbladder mucin production may play a role in the development of calcium carbonate gallstones in children.

  9. The clinical application of the hard gallbladder endoscope combined with soft choledochoscope in the surgery of laparoscopic microscopic trauma for the removal of calculi and preservation of gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shaohua

    2013-02-01

    To explore the value of minimally invasive surgery for the removal of calculus and preservation of the gallbladder with the combination of a hard gallbladder endoscope and a soft choledochoscope. A retrospective analysis was conducted of the clinical data of 42 patients with cholecystolithiasis who underwent minimally invasive surgery for the removal of calculus and preservation of the gallbladder from April 2009 to April 2011. None of the 42 cases had bile flowing from the gallbladder neck tube to the gallbladder lumen after removal of stones in the gallbladder lumen by the hard gallbladder endoscope; all the 42 cases had residual stones in the gallbladder tube when probed by the soft choledochoscope. The numbers of stones range from one to three, while the diameters of the stones range from 0.5 cm to 1.0 cm. In 8 cases, there was one calculus embedded. In 39 cases, the calculi were taken out through the soft choledochoscope, and the gallbladders were preserved successfully; yet the other 3 cases failed to receive surgery to preserve the gallbladder because of calculi embedded in the gallbladder tube, which were finally treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A hard gallbladder endoscope combined with a soft choledochoscope for removing calculi and preserving the gallbladder in laparoscopic microscopic trauma surgery can effectively find residual stones in the gallbladder tube and help to increase the rate of complete removal of calculi and preserving the gallbladder.

  10. [Cancer of the gallbladder in Chile].

    PubMed

    Nervi, F

    2001-09-01

    This issue of the Revista brings two articles relayed to gallbladder cancer (GC), a highly prevalent cancer among Chileans. The first papaer relates to therapy for Stage II NO GC. Authors from Universidad de la Frontera corroborate the bad results usually obatined with adjunct chemotheraphy and radiotheraphy, associated to a second operation. The second paper discusses the negative influences that the new Xth Edition of the International Classification of Diseases might have on GC control. This cancer appears now with a dramatic 100% decrease in mortality rate in the last 3 years, associated to a simultaneous increase of the digit related to biliary tract cancer of "undefined orgin", which in the great majority of cases truly corresponds to GC throughout the world. This involuntary bias could have a strong negative effect on health policy makers, because health resources will not be derived to perform more cholecystectomies needed to significantly decrease the number of gallbladders at risk. This is a major issue for the Chilean health system, since GC represents the first cause of deaths due to cancer among Chilean women.

  11. [Endoscopic extraction of gallbladder calculi].

    PubMed

    Kühner, W; Frimberger, E; Ottenjann, R

    1984-06-29

    Endoscopic extraction of gallbladder stones were performed, as far as we know for the first time, in three patients with combined choledochocystolithiasis. Following endoscopic papillotomy (EPT) and subsequent mechanical lithotripsy of multiple choledochal concrements measuring up to 3 cm the gallbladder stones were successfully extracted with a Dormia basket through the cystic duct. The patients have remained free of complications after the endoscopic intervention.

  12. Trends in port-site metastasis after laparoscopic resection of incidental gallbladder cancer: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Berger-Richardson, David; Chesney, Tyler R; Englesakis, Marina; Govindarajan, Anand; Cleary, Sean P; Swallow, Carol J

    2017-03-01

    The risk of port-site metastasis after laparoscopic removal of incidental gallbladder cancer was previously estimated to be 14-30%. The present study was designed to determine the incidence of port-site metastasis in incidental gallbladder cancer in the modern era (2000-2014) versus the historic era (1991-1999). We also investigated the site of port-site metastasis. Using PRISMA, a systematic review was conducted to identify papers that addressed the development of port-site metastasis after laparoscopic resection of incidental gallbladder cancer. Studies that described cancer-specific outcomes in ≥5 patients were included. A validated quality appraisal tool was used, and a weighted estimate of the incidence of port-site metastasis was calculated. Based on data extracted from 27 papers that met inclusion criteria, the incidence of port-site metastasis in incidental gallbladder cancer has decreased from 18.6% prior to 2000 (95% confidence interval 15.3-21.9%, n = 7) to 10.3% since then (95% confidence interval 7.9-12.7%, n = 20) (P < .001). The extraction site is at significantly higher risk than nonextraction sites. The incidence of port-site metastasis in incidental gallbladder cancer has decreased but remains high relative to other primary tumors. Any preoperative finding that raises the suspicion of gallbladder cancer should prompt further investigation and referral to a hepato-pancreato-biliary specialist. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cystoisospora belli Infection of the Gallbladder in Immunocompetent Patients: A Clinicopathologic Review of 18 Cases.

    PubMed

    Lai, Keith K; Goyne, Hannah E; Hernandez-Gonzalo, David; Miller, Kennon A; Tuohy, Marion; Procop, Gary W; Lamps, Laura W; Patil, Deepa T

    2016-08-01

    Cystoisospora belli, previously known as Isospora belli, is an obligate intracellular coccidian parasite that is most often associated with gastrointestinal disease in immunocompromised patients. In this study, we detail the clinicopathologic features of 18 cases of Cystoisospora infection affecting the gallbladder in immunocompetent individuals and compare them with a control group. Each case was reviewed for cholecystitis (none, acute, chronic), epithelial disarray, presence of intraepithelial lymphocytes (none, rare [≤5 per 20 epithelial cells], present [>5 per 20 epithelial cells]), architectural distortion, intramucosal eosinophilia, and mural thickening/serositis. The mean age of patients with Cystoisospora infection was 33 years and the male to female ratio 1:4.3. Cholecystectomy was performed for biliary dyskinesia (n=7), abdominal pain (n=7), suspected cholelithiasis (n=5), and cholecystitis (n=3). In 2 cases, Cystoisospora was found in donor gallbladders resected at the time of liver transplantation. Each case was characterized by eosinophilic, oval or banana-shaped intraepithelial parasites within perinuclear parasitophorous vacuoles. Most cases showed epithelial disarray and minimal intraepithelial lymphocytosis. Of the 11 cases with an average follow-up of 15 months, none had evidence of disease related to Cystoisospora infection within the biliary tract or elsewhere in the gastrointestinal tract. We present the largest series of gallbladder cystoisosporiasis in immunocompetent patients to date. Cystoisospora infection is underrecognized in the gallbladders of immunocompetent patients, in part due to the subtle findings in routine cholecystectomy specimens. On the basis of the clinical follow-up, gallbladder cystoisosporiasis in immunocompetent individuals appears to be a self-limited infection.

  14. Gallbladder Agenesis with Refractory Choledocholithiasis.

    PubMed

    Tjaden, Jamie; Patel, Kevin; Aadam, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Congenital agenesis of the gallbladder is a rare anomaly which is usually asymptomatic and found incidentally. In some cases, however, patients are symptomatic. Common symptoms include right upper quadrant abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Jaundice is present in some symptomatic cases and is due to associated choledocholithiasis (Fiaschetti et al. 2009). In this case, a 63-year-old female presents with jaundice and episodic right upper quadrant abdominal pain with nausea and vomiting. Bilirubin and alkaline phosphatase were found to be markedly elevated. Upper endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) revealed choledocholithiasis, and the patient required multiple endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) sessions before successful extraction of all stones. Subsequent surgical exploration revealed congenital agenesis of the gallbladder. Although this is a rare finding, patients with agenesis of the gallbladder are at increased risk of developing de novo choledocholithiasis which may be challenging to extract.

  15. BMS-247550 in Treating Patients With Liver or Gallbladder Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-05-13

    Adult Primary Cholangiocellular Carcinoma; Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Cholangiocarcinoma of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct; Cholangiocarcinoma of the Gallbladder; Localized Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Localized Gallbladder Cancer; Localized Resectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Unresectable Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Unresectable Gallbladder Cancer

  16. Gallbladder and the risk of polyps and carcinoma in metachromatic leukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    van Rappard, Diane F; Bugiani, Marianna; Boelens, Jaap J; van der Steeg, Alida F W; Daams, Freek; de Meij, Tim G J; van Doorn, Martine M A C; van Hasselt, Peter M; Gouma, Dirk J; Verbeke, Jonathan I M L; Hollak, Carla E M; van Hecke, Wim; Salomons, Gajja S; van der Knaap, Marjo S; Wolf, Nicole I

    2016-07-05

    To assess frequency of gallbladder polyposis and carcinoma in metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD). We evaluated 34 patients with MLD (average age 16.7 years, age range 2-39 years) screened for gallbladder abnormalities by ultrasound. In the case of cholecystectomy, findings at pathology were reviewed. Only 8 of 34 patients (23%) had a normal gallbladder at ultrasound. Gallbladder polyps were visible in 8 patients (23%). Cholecystectomy was performed in 11 patients (32%). In these, pathology revealed various abnormalities, including hyperplastic polyps, intestinal metaplasia, prominent Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses, and sulfatide storage. Our results demonstrate that gallbladder involvement is the rule rather than the exception in MLD. The high prevalence of hyperplastic polyps, a known precancerous condition, and one death from gallbladder carcinoma at a young age suggest that MLD predisposes to neoplastic gallbladder abnormalities. As novel therapies for this patient group are emerging leading to increased life expectancy, we recommend screening for gallbladder abnormalities by ultrasound in order to prevent early death. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  17. Chronic Diarrhea: A Concern After Gallbladder Removal?

    MedlinePlus

    Chronic diarrhea: A concern after gallbladder removal? I had my gallbladder removed six months ago, and I'm still having diarrhea. Is this ... mild diarrhea after cholecystectomy is not cause for concern, but speak to your doctor if you are ...

  18. Diagnosis and management of gallbladder polyps.

    PubMed

    Gallahan, William C; Conway, Jason D

    2010-06-01

    Gallbladder polyps are frequently encountered on cross-sectional imaging, often in asymptomatic patients. Most are benign and of little clinical importance. However, some polyps do have a malignant potential. This article discusses the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and natural history of gallbladder polyps and risk factors for malignant polyps and indications for cholecystectomy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Gallbladder cancer: review of a rare orphan gastrointestinal cancer with a focus on populations of New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Nemunaitis, Jacklyn M; Brown-Glabeman, Ursa; Soares, Heloisa; Belmonte, Jessica; Liem, Ben; Nir, Itzhak; Phuoc, Victor; Gullapalli, Rama R

    2018-06-18

    Gallbladder cancer is a rare malignancy of the biliary tract with a poor prognosis, frequently presenting at an advanced stage. While rare in the United States overall, gallbladder cancer has an elevated incidence in geographically distinct locations of the globe including Chile, North India, Korea, Japan and the state of New Mexico in the United States. People with Native American ancestry have a much elevated incidence of gallbladder cancer compared to Hispanic and non-Hispanic white populations of New Mexico. Gallbladder cancer is also one of the few bi-gendered cancers with an elevated female incidence compared to men. Similar to other gastrointestinal cancers, gallbladder cancer etiology is likely multi-factorial involving a combination of genomic, immunological, and environmental factors. Understanding the interplay of these unique epidemiological factors is crucial in improving the prevention, early detection, and treatment of this lethal disease. Previous studies have failed to identify a distinct genomic mutational profile in gallbladder cancers, however, work to identify promising clinically actionable targets is this form of cancer is ongoing. Examples include, interest in the HER2/Neu signaling pathway and the recognition that chronic inflammation plays a crucial role in gallbladder cancer pathogenesis. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of gallbladder cancer epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, and treatment with a specific focus on the rural and Native American populations of New Mexico. We conclude this review by discussing future research directions with the goal of improving clinical outcomes for patients of this lethal malignancy.

  20. Gallbladder cancer epidemiology, pathogenesis and molecular genetics: Recent update.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Aarti; Sharma, Kiran Lata; Gupta, Annapurna; Yadav, Alka; Kumar, Ashok

    2017-06-14

    Gallbladder cancer is a malignancy of biliary tract which is infrequent in developed countries but common in some specific geographical regions of developing countries. Late diagnosis and deprived prognosis are major problems for treatment of gallbladder carcinoma. The dramatic associations of this orphan cancer with various genetic and environmental factors are responsible for its poorly defined pathogenesis. An understanding to the relationship between epidemiology, molecular genetics and pathogenesis of gallbladder cancer can add new insights to its undetermined pathophysiology. Present review article provides a recent update regarding epidemiology, pathogenesis, and molecular genetics of gallbladder cancer. We systematically reviewed published literature on gallbladder cancer from online search engine PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed). Various keywords used for retrieval of articles were Gallbladder, cancer Epidemiology, molecular genetics and bullion operators like AND, OR, NOT. Cross references were manually searched from various online search engines (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed,https://scholar.google.co.in/, http://www.medline.com/home.jsp). Most of the articles published from 1982 to 2015 in peer reviewed journals have been included in this review.

  1. Nomogram for Predicting the Benefit of Adjuvant Chemoradiotherapy for Resected Gallbladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Samuel J.; Lemieux, Andrew; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Ord, Celine B.; Walker, Gary V.; Fuller, C. David; Kim, Jong-Sung; Thomas, Charles R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Although adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for resected gallbladder cancer may improve survival for some patients, identifying which patients will benefit remains challenging because of the rarity of this disease. The specific aim of this study was to create a decision aid to help make individualized estimates of the potential survival benefit of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for patients with resected gallbladder cancer. Methods Patients with resected gallbladder cancer were selected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) –Medicare database who were diagnosed between 1995 and 2005. Covariates included age, race, sex, stage, and receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Propensity score weighting was used to balance covariates between treated and untreated groups. Several types of multivariate survival regression models were constructed and compared, including Cox proportional hazards, Weibull, exponential, log-logistic, and lognormal models. Model performance was compared using the Akaike information criterion. The primary end point was overall survival with or without adjuvant chemotherapy or CRT. Results A total of 1,137 patients met the inclusion criteria for the study. The lognormal survival model showed the best performance. A Web browser–based nomogram was built from this model to make individualized estimates of survival. The model predicts that certain subsets of patients with at least T2 or N1 disease will gain a survival benefit from adjuvant CRT, and the magnitude of benefit for an individual patient can vary. Conclusion A nomogram built from a parametric survival model from the SEER-Medicare database can be used as a decision aid to predict which gallbladder patients may benefit from adjuvant CRT. PMID:22067404

  2. Risk factors for gallbladder contractility after cholecystolithotomy in elderly high-risk surgical patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Luo, Hao; Yan, Hong-tao; Zhang, Guo-hu; Liu, Wei-hui; Tang, Li-jun

    2017-01-01

    Objective Cholecystolithiasis is a common disease in the elderly patient. The routine therapy is open or laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In the previous study, we designed a minimally invasive cholecystolithotomy based on percutaneous cholecystostomy combined with a choledochoscope (PCCLC) under local anesthesia. Methods To investigate the effect of PCCLC on the gallbladder contractility function, PCCLC and laparoscope combined with a choledochoscope were compared in this study. Results The preoperational age and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) scores, as well as postoperational lithotrity rate and common biliary duct stone rate in the PCCLC group, were significantly higher than the choledochoscope group. However, the pre- and postoperational gallbladder ejection fraction was not significantly different. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses indicated that the preoperational thickness of gallbladder wall (odds ratio [OR]: 0.540; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.317–0.920; P=0.023) and lithotrity (OR: 0.150; 95% CI: 0.023–0.965; P=0.046) were risk factors for postoperational gallbladder ejection fraction. The area under receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.714 (P=0.016; 95% CI: 0.553–0.854). Conclusion PCCLC strategy should be carried out cautiously. First, restricted by the diameter of the drainage tube, the PCCLC should be used only for small gallstones in high-risk surgical patients. Second, the usage of lithotrity should be strictly limited to avoid undermining the gallbladder contractility and increasing the risk of secondary common bile duct stones. PMID:28138229

  3. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for a left-sided gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Mazen E; Radzio, Agnes; Krikhely, Merab; Leitman, I Michael

    2013-09-21

    Cholecystectomy is a common procedure. Abnormalities in the anatomy of the biliary system are common but an abnormal location of the gallbladder is much rarer. Despite frequent pre-operative imaging, the aberrant location of the gallbladder is commonly discovered at surgery. This article presents a case of a patient with the gallbladder located to the left of the falciform ligament in the absence of situs inversus totalis that presented with right upper quadrant pain. A laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed and it was noted that the cystic duct originated from the right side. The presence of a left sided gall bladder is often associated with various biliary, portal venous and other anomalies that might lead to intra-operative injuries. The spectrum of unusual positions and anatomical gallbladder abnormalities is reviewed in order to facilitate elective and emergent cholecystectomy as well as other hepatobiliary procedures. With proper identification of the anatomy, minimally invasive approaches are still considered safe.

  4. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for a left-sided gallbladder

    PubMed Central

    Iskandar, Mazen E; Radzio, Agnes; Krikhely, Merab; Leitman, I Michael

    2013-01-01

    Cholecystectomy is a common procedure. Abnormalities in the anatomy of the biliary system are common but an abnormal location of the gallbladder is much rarer. Despite frequent pre-operative imaging, the aberrant location of the gallbladder is commonly discovered at surgery. This article presents a case of a patient with the gallbladder located to the left of the falciform ligament in the absence of situs inversus totalis that presented with right upper quadrant pain. A laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed and it was noted that the cystic duct originated from the right side. The presence of a left sided gall bladder is often associated with various biliary, portal venous and other anomalies that might lead to intra-operative injuries. The spectrum of unusual positions and anatomical gallbladder abnormalities is reviewed in order to facilitate elective and emergent cholecystectomy as well as other hepatobiliary procedures. With proper identification of the anatomy, minimally invasive approaches are still considered safe. PMID:24124340

  5. Value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the differential diagnosis of gallbladder lesion

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hui-Ping; Bai, Min; Gu, Ji-Ying; He, Ying-Qian; Qiao, Xiao-Hui; Du, Lian-Fang

    2018-01-01

    AIM To describe contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) features and evaluate differential diagnosis value of CEUS and conventional ultrasound for patients with benign and malignant gallbladder lesions. METHODS This study included 105 gallbladder lesions. Before surgical resection and pathological examination, conventional ultrasound and CEUS were performed to examine for lesions. Then, all the lesions were diagnosed as (1) benign, (2) probably benign, (3) probably malignant or (4) malignant using both conventional ultrasound and CEUS. The CEUS features of these gallbladder lesions were analyzed and diagnostic efficiency between conventional ultrasound and CEUS was compared. RESULTS There were total 17 cases of gallbladder cancer and 88 cases of benign lesion. Some gallbladder lesions had typical characteristics on CEUS (e.g., gallbladder adenomyomatosis had typical characteristics of small nonenhanced areas on CEUS). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of CEUS were 94.1%, 95.5%, 80.0%, 98.8% and 95.2%, respectively. These were significantly higher than conventional ultrasound (82.4%, 89.8%, 60.9%, 96.3% and 88.6%, respectively). CEUS had an accuracy of 100% for gallbladder sludge and CEUS helped in differential diagnosis among gallbladder polyps, gallbladder adenoma and gallbladder cancer. CONCLUSION CEUS may provide more useful information and improve the diagnosis efficiency for the diagnosis of gallbladder lesions than conventional ultrasound. PMID:29456413

  6. Gallbladder cancer epidemiology, pathogenesis and molecular genetics: Recent update

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Aarti; Sharma, Kiran Lata; Gupta, Annapurna; Yadav, Alka; Kumar, Ashok

    2017-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer is a malignancy of biliary tract which is infrequent in developed countries but common in some specific geographical regions of developing countries. Late diagnosis and deprived prognosis are major problems for treatment of gallbladder carcinoma. The dramatic associations of this orphan cancer with various genetic and environmental factors are responsible for its poorly defined pathogenesis. An understanding to the relationship between epidemiology, molecular genetics and pathogenesis of gallbladder cancer can add new insights to its undetermined pathophysiology. Present review article provides a recent update regarding epidemiology, pathogenesis, and molecular genetics of gallbladder cancer. We systematically reviewed published literature on gallbladder cancer from online search engine PubMed (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed). Various keywords used for retrieval of articles were Gallbladder, cancer Epidemiology, molecular genetics and bullion operators like AND, OR, NOT. Cross references were manually searched from various online search engines (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed,https://scholar.google.co.in/, http://www.medline.com/home.jsp). Most of the articles published from 1982 to 2015 in peer reviewed journals have been included in this review. PMID:28652652

  7. Rare combination of familial adenomatous polyposis and gallbladder polyps.

    PubMed

    Mori, Yasuhisa; Sato, Norihiro; Matayoshi, Nobutaka; Tamura, Toshihisa; Minagawa, Noritaka; Shibao, Kazunori; Higure, Aiichiro; Nakamoto, Mitsuhiro; Taguchi, Masashi; Yamaguchi, Koji

    2014-12-14

    Familial adenomatous polyposis is associated with a high incidence of malignancies in the upper gastrointestinal tract (particularly ampullary adenocarcinomas). However, few reports have described a correlation between familial adenomatous polyposis and gallbladder neoplasms. We present a case of a 60-year-old woman with familial adenomatous polyposis who presented with an elevated mass in the neck of the gallbladder (measuring 16 mm × 8 mm in diameter) and multiple small cholecystic polyps. She had undergone a total colectomy for ascending colon cancer associated with familial adenomatous polyposis 22 years previously. The patient underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy under a preoperative diagnosis of multifocal gallbladder polyps. Pathologic examination of the resected gallbladder revealed more than 70 adenomatous lesions, a feature consistent with adenoma of the gallbladder. This case suggests a requirement for long-term surveillance of the biliary system in addition to the gastrointestinal tract in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis.

  8. Gallbladder emptying to endogenous and exogenous stimulation in chronic pancreatitis patients.

    PubMed

    Meguro, T; Shimosegawa, T; Kashimura, J; Kikuchi, Y; Koizumi, M; Toyota, T

    1994-02-01

    The present study was designed to analyze the underlying mechanism of gallbladder motor disturbance in chronic pancreatitis patients. Gallbladder emptying to endogenous (oral test meal, Daiyan 13 g) and exogenous stimulation (iv cerulein, 30 ng/kg for 5 min) was examined by real-time ultrasonography in 12 patients with chronic pancreatitis and 10 normal subjects (controls). Plasma cholecystokinin levels during the endogenous stimulation were measured by bioassay. In chronic pancreatitis patients compared with controls, the fasting gallbladder volume was significantly increased (29.5 +/- 2.2 vs. 21.5 +/- 2.8 ml), whereas the gallbladder emptying (percent change of the basal volume) to oral test meal was significantly decreased. Neither cholecystokinin secretion induced by the test meal, nor the gallbladder emptying response to intravenous cerulein, differed significantly between the two groups. However, when chronic pancreatitis patients were divided according to pathogenesis, it became clear that gallbladder emptying to intravenous cerulein was significantly greater in patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis than in patients with idiopathic pancreatitis. Gallbladder emptying during the intestinal phase is generally reduced in patients with chronic pancreatitis, but gallbladder responsiveness to exogenous stimulation might be heterogeneous according to the pathogenesis.

  9. True left-sided gallbladder with variations of bile duct and cholecystic vein.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Hiromichi; Noguchi, Akinori; Onishi, Mie; Takao, Koji; Maruyama, Takahiro; Taiyoh, Hiroaki; Araki, Yasunobu; Shimizu, Takeshi; Izumi, Hiroyuki; Tani, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Masahide; Yamane, Tetsuro

    2015-06-07

    A left-sided gallbladder without a right-sided round ligament, which is called a true left-sided gallbladder, is extremely rare. A 71-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to a gallbladder polyp. Computed tomography (CT) revealed not only a gallbladder polyp but also the gallbladder located to the left of the round ligament connected to the left umbilical portion. CT portography revealed that the main portal vein diverged into the right posterior portal vein and the common trunk of the left portal vein and right anterior portal vein. CT cholangiography revealed that the infraportal bile duct of segment 2 joined the common bile duct. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed for a gallbladder polyp, and the intraoperative finding showed that the cholecystic veins joined the round ligament. A true left-sided gallbladder is closely associated with several anomalies; therefore, surgeons encountering a true left-sided gallbladder should be aware of the potential for these anomalies.

  10. True left-sided gallbladder with variations of bile duct and cholecystic vein

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Hiromichi; Noguchi, Akinori; Onishi, Mie; Takao, Koji; Maruyama, Takahiro; Taiyoh, Hiroaki; Araki, Yasunobu; Shimizu, Takeshi; Izumi, Hiroyuki; Tani, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Masahide; Yamane, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    A left-sided gallbladder without a right-sided round ligament, which is called a true left-sided gallbladder, is extremely rare. A 71-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to a gallbladder polyp. Computed tomography (CT) revealed not only a gallbladder polyp but also the gallbladder located to the left of the round ligament connected to the left umbilical portion. CT portography revealed that the main portal vein diverged into the right posterior portal vein and the common trunk of the left portal vein and right anterior portal vein. CT cholangiography revealed that the infraportal bile duct of segment 2 joined the common bile duct. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed for a gallbladder polyp, and the intraoperative finding showed that the cholecystic veins joined the round ligament. A true left-sided gallbladder is closely associated with several anomalies; therefore, surgeons encountering a true left-sided gallbladder should be aware of the potential for these anomalies. PMID:26074714

  11. Subtypes of Native American ancestry and leading causes of death: Mapuche ancestry-specific associations with gallbladder cancer risk in Chile

    PubMed Central

    González Silos, Rosa; Marcelain, Katherine; Baez Benavides, Pablo; Barahona Ponce, Carol; Fischer, Christine; Peil, Barbara; Sinsheimer, Janet; Barajas, Olga; Gonzalez-Jose, Rolando; Cátira Bortolini, Maria; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Gallo, Carla; Ruiz Linares, Andres; Rothhammer, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Latin Americans are highly heterogeneous regarding the type of Native American ancestry. Consideration of specific associations with common diseases may lead to substantial advances in unraveling of disease etiology and disease prevention. Here we investigate possible associations between the type of Native American ancestry and leading causes of death. After an aggregate-data study based on genome-wide genotype data from 1805 admixed Chileans and 639,789 deaths, we validate an identified association with gallbladder cancer relying on individual data from 64 gallbladder cancer patients, with and without a family history, and 170 healthy controls. Native American proportions were markedly underestimated when the two main types of Native American ancestry in Chile, originated from the Mapuche and Aymara indigenous peoples, were combined together. Consideration of the type of Native American ancestry was crucial to identify disease associations. Native American ancestry showed no association with gallbladder cancer mortality (P = 0.26). By contrast, each 1% increase in the Mapuche proportion represented a 3.7% increased mortality risk by gallbladder cancer (95%CI 3.1–4.3%, P = 6×10−27). Individual-data results and extensive sensitivity analyses confirmed the association between Mapuche ancestry and gallbladder cancer. Increasing Mapuche proportions were also associated with an increased mortality due to asthma and, interestingly, with a decreased mortality by diabetes. The mortality due to skin, bladder, larynx, bronchus and lung cancers increased with increasing Aymara proportions. Described methods should be considered in future studies on human population genetics and human health. Complementary individual-based studies are needed to apportion the genetic and non-genetic components of associations identified relying on aggregate-data. PMID:28542165

  12. Subtypes of Native American ancestry and leading causes of death: Mapuche ancestry-specific associations with gallbladder cancer risk in Chile.

    PubMed

    Lorenzo Bermejo, Justo; Boekstegers, Felix; González Silos, Rosa; Marcelain, Katherine; Baez Benavides, Pablo; Barahona Ponce, Carol; Müller, Bettina; Ferreccio, Catterina; Koshiol, Jill; Fischer, Christine; Peil, Barbara; Sinsheimer, Janet; Fuentes Guajardo, Macarena; Barajas, Olga; Gonzalez-Jose, Rolando; Bedoya, Gabriel; Cátira Bortolini, Maria; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Gallo, Carla; Ruiz Linares, Andres; Rothhammer, Francisco

    2017-05-01

    Latin Americans are highly heterogeneous regarding the type of Native American ancestry. Consideration of specific associations with common diseases may lead to substantial advances in unraveling of disease etiology and disease prevention. Here we investigate possible associations between the type of Native American ancestry and leading causes of death. After an aggregate-data study based on genome-wide genotype data from 1805 admixed Chileans and 639,789 deaths, we validate an identified association with gallbladder cancer relying on individual data from 64 gallbladder cancer patients, with and without a family history, and 170 healthy controls. Native American proportions were markedly underestimated when the two main types of Native American ancestry in Chile, originated from the Mapuche and Aymara indigenous peoples, were combined together. Consideration of the type of Native American ancestry was crucial to identify disease associations. Native American ancestry showed no association with gallbladder cancer mortality (P = 0.26). By contrast, each 1% increase in the Mapuche proportion represented a 3.7% increased mortality risk by gallbladder cancer (95%CI 3.1-4.3%, P = 6×10-27). Individual-data results and extensive sensitivity analyses confirmed the association between Mapuche ancestry and gallbladder cancer. Increasing Mapuche proportions were also associated with an increased mortality due to asthma and, interestingly, with a decreased mortality by diabetes. The mortality due to skin, bladder, larynx, bronchus and lung cancers increased with increasing Aymara proportions. Described methods should be considered in future studies on human population genetics and human health. Complementary individual-based studies are needed to apportion the genetic and non-genetic components of associations identified relying on aggregate-data.

  13. Porcelain Gallbladder: Is Observation a Safe Option in Select Populations?

    PubMed

    DesJardins, Haley; Duy, Lindsay; Scheirey, Christopher; Schnelldorfer, Thomas

    2018-06-01

    Management of gallbladder wall calcifications has been controversial for many decades. Although the traditionally perceived strong association with gallbladder cancer mandated prophylactic cholecystectomy, newer evidence suggests a much lesser association and might indicate an observational approach. A retrospective cohort study of 113 patients with gallbladder wall calcifications diagnosed between 2004 and 2016 at a single institution was conducted. Radiographic re-review identified patients with definitive (n = 70) and highly probable (n = 43) gallbladder wall calcifications. Patients were categorized according to their designated treatment plan. In the observation group (n = 90), delayed cholecystectomy for gallbladder-related symptoms was necessary in 4 patients (4%). None of the patients in this group were diagnosed with a gallbladder malignancy during a mean of 3.2 ± 3.2 years follow-up. In the operative group (n = 23), peri-operative complications occurred in 13%, and gallbladder malignancy was found in 2 patients. In comparison, although patients in the observation group were older and had more comorbidities, the rate of adverse events was not significantly different (4% vs 13%; p = 0.15) with an overall low risk for potentially life-threatening complications to the patient when observed clinically. For management of gallbladder wall calcifications, observation appears to provide no significant difference in adverse events, including the risk of gallbladder malignancy developing, compared with an operative approach. Although there is a need for intervention in the presence of symptoms and findings suggestive of malignancy, prophylactic cholecystectomy should be avoided in patients with limited life expectancy and significant comorbidities. Copyright © 2018 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Heterotopic gastric mucosa in gallbladder—A rare differential diagnosis to gallbladder masses

    PubMed Central

    Beeskow, Anne Bettina; Meyer, Hans-Jonas; Schierle, Katrin; Surov, Alexey

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background: Heterotopic gastric tissue can be found in the entire gastrointestinal tract. It is usually located in the upper intestine. Rarely, it can be found in the gallbladder. This study describes several clinically, imaging features as well as histopathology findings of heterotopic gastric tissue in gallbladder (HGM). Methods: The radiologic database of 1 tertiary university hospital was retrospectively screened for HGM. Additionally, a systemic review of the Medline database was conducted to identify previously published cases reports. In all cases clinical, imaging as well as histopathology features were retrieved from the papers. Results: In our databases, 1 patient with HGM was identified. Additionally, the systemic review yielded 32 suitable papers with 34 patients. Clinically, most of the patients suffered from abdominal discomfort. Most of the lesions were located in the lower gallbladder, especially (n = 14, 40%) in the gallbladder neck. On sonography, in 20.7% a broad-based mass was described. In 10.3% a sessile polyp was identified. In 5 cases, the mass was characterized as hyperechoic (55.5%), as isoechoic in 3 (33.3%) cases, and hypoechoic in 1 (11.1%). On computed tomography (CT), the lesions were most frequently hyperdense and all of them showed a slightly enhancement after application of contrast medium. On histopathology, most cases revealed heterotopic gastric mucosa of body-fundic type (60%) with chief and parietal cells, followed by pyloric type glands (20%). Every patient was treated with cholecystectomy and all had an uneventful recovery. Conclusion: HGM is a rare disorder with several differential diagnoses. Typically features were described to identify HGM in clinical routine and rule out malignant diseases like gallbladder carcinoma. PMID:29517663

  15. Isolated rupture of the gallbladder following blunt abdominal trauma: case report

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Marina Gabrielle; da Silva, Dorivaldo Lopes; Elias, Naim Carlos; Sica, Gustavo Tricta Augusto; Fávaro, Murillo de Lima; Ribeiro, Marcelo Augusto Fontenelle

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gallbladder rupture following blunt abdominal trauma is a rare event recognized on evaluation and treatment of other visceral injuries during laparotomy. Isolated gallbladder rupture secondary to blunt abdominal trauma is even more uncommon. The clinical presentation of gallbladder injury is variable, resulting in a delay in diagnosis and treatment. We report the case of a patient who suffered an isolated gallbladder rupture due to blunt abdominal trauma. PMID:23843066

  16. RNA sequencing-based analysis of gallbladder cancer reveals the importance of the liver X receptor and lipid metabolism in gallbladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Mingxin; Rashid, Asif; Wang, Ying; Jain, Apurva; Li, Donghui; Behari, Anu; Kapoor, Vinay Kumar; Koay, Eugene J.; Chang, Ping; Vauthey, Jean Nicholas; Li, Yanan; Espinoza, Jaime A.; Roa, Juan Carlos; Javle, Milind

    2016-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an aggressive malignancy. Although surgical resection may be curable, most patients are diagnosed at an advanced unresectable disease stage. Cholelithiasis is the major risk factor; however the pathogenesis of the disease, from gallstone cholecystitis to cancer, is still not understood. To understand the molecular genetic underpinnings of this cancer and explore novel therapeutic targets for GBC, we examined the key genes and pathways involved in GBC using RNA sequencing. We performed gene expression analysis of 32 cases of surgically-resected GBC along with normal gallbladder tissue controls. We observed that 519 genes were differentially expressed between GBC and normal GB mucosal controls. The liver X receptor (LXR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR) and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) /RXR pathways were the top canonical pathways involved in GBC. Key genes in these pathways, including SERPINB3 and KLK1, were overexpressed in GBC, especially in female GBC patients. Additionally, ApoA1 gene expression suppressed in GBC as compared with normal control tissues. LXR and FXR genes, known to be important in lipid metabolism also function as tumor suppressors and their down regulation appears to be critical for GBC pathogenesis. LXR agonists may have therapeutic value and as potential therapeutic targets. PMID:27167107

  17. Diagnosis of incidental gallbladder cancer after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: our experience

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gallbladder carcinoma is a rare high malignancy neoplasm. The incidence of intra or post-operative incidental gallbladder carcinoma diagnosis is estimated between 0,2 and 2,8%. Primary aim of our study is to evaluate incidental gallbladder carcinoma's incidence in our experience. Methods We retrospectively reviewed our Surgery Division's experience about the totality of laparoscopic cholecystectomies with post-operative histological evidence of incidental gallbladder cancer. We evaluated patients' characteristics, surgical related variables, histological response, surgivcal radicalization characteristics and surgical outcome. Results In the considered sample we observed 7 accidental gallbladder adenocarcinomas in post-operative histological examination. Pathological results were:1 pT1b N0 (G1), 2 pT2 N0 (G2), 2 pT2 N1 (G3b), 2 pT3 N1 (G3b) (Table 1). In 5 cases we performed neoplasm radicalization surgery with standard procedure revision. Two patients died before radicalization. Median global survival was 34 months. Conclusion With the increase of laparoscopic cholecystectomies both elective and urgent performed in our centre we observed also an increase of incidentally diagnosed gallbladder neoplasms. Early diagnosis, meticulous peri-operative study and accurate surgical strategy are essential factors to obtain good results in incidental gallbladder cancer. PMID:24268097

  18. Gallbladder Cancer Symptoms, Tests, Prognosis, and Stages (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Gallbladder cancer is rare. There are no signs or symptoms of gallbladder cancer in the early stages which makes it hard to diagnose. Learn more about possible symptoms, tests to diagnose, prognosis, and staging for gallbladder cancer.

  19. CT biliary cystoscopy of gallbladder polyps

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Ming-Wu; Hu, Wei-Dong; Fan, Yi; Chen, Jin-Hua; E, Zhan-Sen; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: CT virtual endoscopy has been used in the study of various organs of body including the biliary tract, however, CT virtual endoseopy in diagnosis of gallbladder polyps has not yet been reported. This study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of CT virtual endoscopy in polyps of the gallbladder. METHODS: Thirty-two cases of gallbladder polyps were examined by CT virtual endoscopy, ultrasound, CT scan with oral biliary contrast separately and confirmed by operation and pathology. CT biliary cystoscopic findings were analyzed and compared with those of ultrasound and CT scan with oral biliary contrast, and evaluated in comparison with operative and pathologic findings in all cases. RESULTS: The detection rate of gallbladder polyps was 93.8%(90/96), 96.9%(93/96) and 79.2%(76/96) for CT cystoscopy, ultrasound and CT scan with oral contrast, respectively. CT biliary cystoscopy corresponded well with ultrasound as well as pathology in demonstrating the location, size and configuration of polyps. CT endoscopy was superior to ultrasound in viewing the polyps in a more precise way, 3 dimensionally from any angle in space, and showing the surface in details. CT biliary cystoscopy was also superior to CT scan with oral biliary contrast in terms of observation of the base of polyps for the presence of a pedicle, detection rates as well as image quality. The smallest polyp detected by CT biliary cystoscopy was measured 1.5 mm×2.2 mm×2.5 mm. CONCLUSION: CT biliary cystoscopy is a non-invasive and accurate technique for diagnosis and management of gallbladder polyps. PMID:15069726

  20. Imaging and Screening of Cancer of the Gallbladder and Bile Ducts.

    PubMed

    Sandrasegaran, Kumar; Menias, Christine O

    2017-11-01

    Biliary cancers include gallbladder cancer (GBC) and cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). GBC may appear as a mass replacing the gallbladder, thickened gallbladder wall, or polypoid lesion in the gallbladder. Gallbladder polyps with low risk of GBC (eg, 6- to 10-mm polyps without other risk factors) are screened with sonography. In general, polyps smaller than 5 mm are ignored and those larger than 10 mm require surgical consideration. Screening for CCA is less well-established. On imaging, CCA may be divided into mass-forming, periductal infiltrating, and intraductal types. This review discusses the current state of screening and diagnosis of GBC and CCA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Delayed rupture of gallbladder following blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Debajyoti; Agarwal, Himanshu; Aggarwal, Krittika; Garg, Pankaj Kumar

    2014-09-01

    A 29-year-old gentleman presented to surgery emergency with severe upper abdominal pain and vomiting. He reported to had been hit in his abdomen by a ball during a cricket match. Computerized tomogram of the abdomen revealed hematoma within the gallbladder lumen, laceration of segment six of liver, and hemoperitoneum. The patient did not agree for laparotomy advised to him, and so, managed conservatively. The patient reported back to us with high grade fever, jaundice, and painful abdominal distension after seven days of discharge from the hospital. His abdominal examination showed features of generalized peritonitis. Surgical abdominal exploration revealed a single perforation in the fundus of gallbladder with frozen calot'striangle. Subtotal cholecystectomy was done. Histopathology of excised gallbladder revealed xanthogranulomatous inflammation. The present case report highlights that early exploration and cholecystectomy should be considered in patients with gallbladder injury to obviate the risk of delayed perforation.

  2. Adjuvant Therapy for Gallbladder Carcinoma: The Mayo Clinic Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, Douglas G.; Miller, Robert C.; Haddock, Michael G.

    2009-09-01

    Purpose: To analyze the effect of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy on gallbladder carcinoma. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the records from consecutive patients who underwent R0 resection of gallbladder carcinoma between January 1, 1985, and December 31, 2004. Patients had either Stage I (T1-T2N0M0) or Stage II (T3N0M0 or T1-T3N1M0) disease. Patients undergoing adjuvant therapy received 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy concurrently with radiotherapy (median dosage, 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions). Adverse prognostic factors and the effect of adjuvant treatment on overall survival (OS) were evaluated. Results: A total of 73 patients were included in the analysis; of these, 25 received adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Onmore » univariate analysis, no adverse prognostic factors for OS reached statistical significance, but trends were noted for Stage N1 vs. N0 (p = .06), Nx vs. N0 (p = .09), Stage T3 vs. T1-T2 (p = .06), and histologic findings other than adenocarcinoma (p = .13). The median OS for patients receiving adjuvant chemoradiotherapy vs. surgery alone was 4.8 years and 4.2 years, respectively (log-rank test, p = .56). However, a significantly greater percentage of patients receiving adjuvant chemoradiotherapy had Stage II disease (p <.001). In the multivariate Cox model, increasing T and N category and histologic findings other than adenocarcinoma were significant predictors of decreased OS. Additionally, adjuvant chemoradiotherapy was a significant predictor of improved OS after adjusting for these prognostic factors (hazard ratio for death, 0.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.13-0.69; p = .004). Conclusion: After adjusting for the stage parameters and histologic findings, our data suggest that adjuvant chemoradiotherapy might improve OS for patients with gallbladder cancer.« less

  3. Percutaneous transcholecystic biliary interventions using gallbladder anchors: feasibility study in the swine.

    PubMed

    Lopera, Jorge E; Kirsch, David; Qian, Zhong; Ruiz, Bernardo; Brazzini, Augusto; Gonzales, Arturo; Castaneda-Zuniga, Wilfrido

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report our initial experience with a swine model for biliary interventions by using a percutaneous transcholecystic access after suture anchor of the gallbladder. Telepaque tablets were given to five pigs to opacify the gallbladder. Under fluoroscopy, the opacified gallbladder was punctured percutaneously and three suture anchors were used to fix the anterior wall of the gallbladder to the abdominal wall. Two weeks later, the gallbladder was punctured and access into the distal common bile was obtained through the cystic duct. Balloon expandable stents were deployed into the distal common bile duct. Follow-up cholangiograms were obtained at 1 and 2 weeks. Necropsy was performed after 2 weeks to evaluate the relationship between the gallbladder and abdominal wall. Suture anchor placement was successful in all five pigs. One pig with a deep and highly positioned gallbladder developed fever, anorexia, and vomiting secondary to excessive stretch of the gallbladder. Placement of the guidewire through the extremely tortuous and small cystic ducts proved to be the most challenging step of the procedure. Metallic stents were successfully deployed in all four pigs in which it was attempted. Four animals tolerated the procedures without changes in their clinical conditions and no symptoms. Successful follow-up cholangiograms were performed at 1 and 2 weeks post-stent deployment without complications. All stents remained patent during the follow-up period. Necropsy demonstrated close attachment and adherence of the gallbladders to the antero-lateral abdominal wall in all four animals. Suture anchoring of the gallbladder is feasible in most pigs with superficially located gallbladders. This technique allows a safe and repeat access into the biliary system using a transcholecystic approach.

  4. Epigenetic regulation in gallbladder cancer: Promoter methylation profiling as emergent novel biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Tekcham, Dinesh Singh; Tiwari, Pramod Kumar

    2016-12-01

    DNA methylation, once considered to rule the sex determination in Mary Lyon's hypothesis, has now reached the epicenter of human diseases, from monogenic (e.g. Prader Willi syndrome, Angelman syndromes and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome) to polygenic diseases, like cancer. Technological developments from gold standard to high throughput technologies have made tremendous advancement to define the epigenetic mechanism of cancer. Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a fatal health issue affecting mostly the middle-aged women, whose survival rate is very low due to late symptomatic diagnosis. DNA methylation has become one of the key molecular mechanisms in the tumorigenesis of gallbladder. Various molecules have been reported to be epigenetically altered in GBC. In this review, we have discussed the classes of epigenetics, an overview of DNA methylation, technological approaches for its study, profile of methylated genes, their likely roles in GBC, future prospects of biomarker development and other discovery approaches, including therapeutics. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. [Gallbladder polyps: prevalence and risk factors].

    PubMed

    Kratzer, W; Schmid, A; Akinli, A S; Thiel, R; Mason, R A; Schuler, A; Haenle, M M

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of gallbladder polyps and possible risk factors in a random population sample of an urban population. A total of 2099 subjects (1072 women, 1027 men; aged 19 - 65 years, mean age 42.1 (SD ± 12.8 years) were prospectively examined using ultrasound, a standardized questionnaire and laboratory studies. Gallbladder polyps were identified in 6.1 % (128 / 2099) of all subjects (women: 6.1 % [63 / 1027]); men: 6.1 % [65 / 1072]). Solitary polyps were found in 52.4 % (65 / 124), two polyps in 16.1 % (20 / 124), three polyps in 6.5 % (8 / 124), several polyps in 22.6 % (28 / 124) and multiple polyps in 2.4 % (3 / 124) of subjects. The mean polyp diameter was 4.7 mm (SD ± 2.2; range 2 - 20 mm). The polyp diameter was ≤ 7 mm in 94.5 % of subjects. The polyps were described as pedunculate in 82.3 % (102 / 124). The polyps were broad-based in 11.3 % of subjects (14 / 124; men: 18 % women: 4.8 %). The polyps were homogeneously echogenic in 100 % of cases and with irregular contours in only one male subject. Multiple logistic regression failed to demonstrate an influence on the increased occurrence of gallbladder polyps for the risk factors of male sex, age, body-mass index (BMI), alcohol, nicotine or caffeine consumption or diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of gallbladder polyps reported in the present study (6.1 %) is higher than figures previously published for populations in Germany or Europe. The majority of polyps were pedunculate and solitary. A typical risk factor profile for gallbladder polyps could not be identified in the present population sample. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. An unusual case of isolated, serial metastases of gallbladder carcinoma involving the chest wall, axilla, breast and lung parenchyma

    PubMed Central

    Jeyaraj, Pamela; Sio, Terence T.; Iott, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    In the English literature, only 9 cases of adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder with cutaneous metastasis have been reported so far. One case of multiple cutaneous metastases along with deposits in the breast tissue has been reported. We present a case of incidental metastatic gallbladder carcinoma with no intra-abdominal disease presenting as a series of four isolated cutaneous right chest wall, axillary nodal, breast, and pulmonary metastases following resection and adjuvant chemoradiation for her primary tumor. In spite of the metastatic disease coupled with the aggressive nature of the cancer, this patient reported that her energy level had returned to baseline with a good appetite and a stable weight indicating a good performance status and now is alive at 25 months since diagnosis. Her serially-presented, oligometastatic diseases were well-controlled by concurrent chemoradiotherapy and stereotactic radiation therapy. We report this case study because of its rarity and for the purpose of complementing current literature with an additional example of cutaneous metastasis from adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder. PMID:23772306

  7. Microscopic Examination of Gallbladder Stones Improves Rate of Detection of Clonorchis sinensis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Rui-hong; Luo, Xiao-bing; Zheng, Pei-ming; Luo, Zhen-liang; Yang, Liu-qing

    2013-01-01

    To improve the rate of detection of Clonorchis sinensis infection, we compared different specimens from patients with cholecystolithiasis. Feces, gallbladder bile, and gallbladder stones collected from 179 consecutive patients with cholecystolithiasis underwent microscopic examination, and according to the results, 30 egg-positive and 30 egg-negative fecal, gallbladder bile, and gallbladder stone specimens, respectively, underwent real-time fluorescent PCR. The detection rates of eggs in feces, bile, and gallbladder stones were 30.7%, 44.7%, and 69.8%, respectively, and the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.01). The PCR results confirmed that the eggs in the specimens were C. sinensis eggs. Eggs in the feces were “fresh” and in the gallbladder stones were “old.” Microscopic examination of gallbladder stones may improve the detection rates of C. sinensis infection, which is important for developing individualized treatments to prevent the recurrence of gallbladder stones and to prevent the occurrence of severe liver damage and cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:23698535

  8. Percutaneous Transcholecystic Biliary Interventions Using Gallbladder Anchors: Feasibility Study in the Swine

    SciTech Connect

    Lopera, Jorge E., E-mail: jloper@lsuhsc.edu; Kirsch, David; Qian Zhong

    2005-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to report our initial experience with a swine model for biliary interventions by using a percutaneous transcholecystic access after suture anchor of the gallbladder. Telepaque tablets were given to five pigs to opacify the gallbladder. Under fluoroscopy, the opacified gallbladder was punctured percutaneously and three suture anchors were used to fix the anterior wall of the gallbladder to the abdominal wall. Two weeks later, the gallbladder was punctured and access into the distal common bile was obtained through the cystic duct. Balloon expandable stents were deployed into the distal common bile duct. Follow-up cholangiogramsmore » were obtained at 1 and 2 weeks. Necropsy was performed after 2 weeks to evaluate the relationship between the gallbladder and abdominal wall. Suture anchor placement was successful in all five pigs. One pig with a deep and highly positioned gallbladder developed fever, anorexia, and vomiting secondary to excessive stretch of the gallbladder. Placement of the guidewire through the extremely tortuous and small cystic ducts proved to be the most challenging step of the procedure. Metallic stents were successfully deployed in all four pigs in which it was attempted. Four animals tolerated the procedures without changes in their clinical conditions and no symptoms. Successful follow-up cholangiograms were performed at 1 and 2 weeks post-stent deployment without complications. All stents remained patent during the follow-up period. Necropsy demonstrated close attachment and adherence of the gallbladders to the antero-lateral abdominal wall in all four animals. Suture anchoring of the gallbladder is feasible in most pigs with superficially located gallbladders. This technique allows a safe and repeat access into the biliary system using a transcholecystic approach.« less

  9. The use of real-time elastography in the assessment of gallbladder polyps: preliminary observations.

    PubMed

    Teber, Mehmet Akif; Tan, Sinan; Dönmez, Uğur; İpek, Ali; Uçar, Ali Erkan; Yıldırım, Halil; Aslan, Ahmet; Arslan, Halil

    2014-12-01

    Gallbladder polyps often have a benign nature. Current guidelines suggest surgical removal of polyps greater than 10 mm. However, the accuracy of the size criteria is limited because neoplasia can be found in gallbladder polyps less than 10 mm. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of real time elastography for gallbladder polyps and to demonstrate the elasticity properties of the polyps. Fifty-three polypoid lesions of the gallbladder were prospectively examined with real-time elastography. Of these patients, 52 had a diagnosis of benign gallbladder polyps and one patient was accepted as a gallbladder carcinoma due to its clinical and radiological findings. B-mode and real-time elastographic images were simultaneously presented as a two-panel image, and the elastogram was displayed in a color scale that ranged from red (greatest strain, softest component), to green (average strain, intermediate component), to blue (no strain, hardest component). The mean size for benign gallbladder polyps was 7.2 +/- 3 mm (range, 5-21 mm). All benign gallbladder polyps on consecutive real-time elastographic images appeared as having a high-strain elastographic pattern. Only one patient who was accepted with gallbladder carcinoma had a gallbladder polyp with low elasticity properties. Our study showed that real time elastography of gallbladder polyps is feasible. This novel approach may be useful for the characterization of polypoid lesions of the gallbladder.

  10. Effects of matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor doxycycline and CD147 antagonist peptide-9 on gallbladder carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shihang; Liu, Chao; Liu, Xinjiang; He, Yanxin; Shen, Dongfang; Luo, Qiankun; Dong, Yuxi; Dong, Haifeng; Pang, Zhigang

    2017-10-01

    Gallbladder carcinoma is the most common and aggressive malignancy of the biliary tree and highly expresses CD147, which is closely related to disease prognosis in a variety of human cancers. Doxycycline exhibited anti-tumor properties in many cancer cells. CD147 antagonist peptide-9 is a polypeptide and can specifically bind to CD147. The effect of these two drugs on gallbladder cancer cells has not been studied. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of doxycycline and antagonist peptide-9 on gallbladder carcinoma cells and the possible mechanism of inhibition on cancer cell of doxycycline. To investigate the effects of doxycycline and antagonist peptide-9 on gallbladder carcinoma cells (GBC-SD and SGC-996), cell proliferation, CD147 expression, and early-stage apoptosis rate were measured after treated with doxycycline. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activities were measured after treated with different concentrations of doxycycline, antagonist peptide-9, and their combination. The results demonstrated that doxycycline inhibited cell proliferation, reduced CD147 expression level, and induced an early-stage apoptosis response in GBC-SD and SGC-996 cells. The matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activities were inhibited by antagonist peptide-9 and doxycycline, and the inhibitory effects were enhanced by combined drugs in gallbladder carcinoma cell lines. Taken together, doxycycline showed inhibitory effects on gallbladder carcinoma cell lines and reduced the expression of CD147, and this may be the mechanism by which doxycycline inhibits cancer cells. This study provides new information and tries to implement the design of adjuvant therapy method for gallbladder carcinoma.

  11. Association of BDNF and BMPR1A with clinicopathologic parameters in benign and malignant gallbladder lesions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    increased expression of BDNF or decreased expression of BMPR1A was associated with decreased disease specific survival (DSS) rates. Similarly, multivariate Cox regression analysis showed increased expression of BDNF or decreased expression of BMPR1A are independent predictors of poor DSS rates in gallbladder adenocarcinoma. Conclusions In gallbladder malignancies, the increased expression of BDNF and decreased expression of BMPR1A were associated with increased risk of metastasis, regional invasion and mortality. They might serve as novel indicators of gallbladder adenocarcinoma outcomes, which may prove valuable for the development of personalized therapeutic paradigms. PMID:23531103

  12. Gallbladder microbiota variability in Colombian gallstones patients.

    PubMed

    Arteta, Ariel Antonio; Carvajal-Restrepo, Hernan; Sánchez-Jiménez, Miryan Margot; Diaz-Rodriguez, Sergio; Cardona-Castro, Nora

    2017-03-31

    Gallbladder stones are a very frequently occurring condition. Despite bile bactericidal activity, many bacteria have been detected inside the gallbladder, and gallstones facilitate their presence. Between 3% and 5% of the patients with Salmonella spp. infection develop the carrier stage, with the bacteria persisting inside the gallbladder, shedding bacteria in their feces without signs of infection. The aim of this study was to isolate bacteria from Colombian patients with gallstones, using standard culturing methods, and to identify Salmonella spp. carriers by molecular techniques. A total of 149 patients (120 female and 29 male) diagnosed with gallstones who underwent cholecystectomy and who did not have symptoms of acute inflammation were included. Gallbladder tissue and bile were cultured and used for DNA extraction and Salmonella spp. hilA gene detection. Of the 149 patients 28 (19%) had positive cultures. Twenty-one (75%) patients with positive cultures were from Medellin's metropolitan area. In this geographical location, the most frequent isolations were Pseudomonas spp. (38%), Klebsiella spp. (23%), and Proteus spp. (9%) in addition to unique cases of other bacteria. In Apartado, the isolates found were Enterobacter cloacae (50%), Raoultella terrigena (32%), and both Enterobacter cloacae and Raoultella terrigena were isolated in one (18%) male patient. Five (3.3%) of the 149 patients had positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results for the hilA gene of Salmonella spp., all of whom were female and residents of the Medellín metropolitan area. The gallbladder microbiota variability found could be related to geographical, ethnic, and environmental conditions.

  13. Intraabdominal contamination after gallbladder perforation during laparoscopic cholecystectomy and its complications.

    PubMed

    Kimura, T; Goto, H; Takeuchi, Y; Yoshida, M; Kobayashi, T; Sakuramachi, S; Harada, Y

    1996-09-01

    Gallbladder perforation often occurs during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The frequency and causes of gallbladder perforation as well as the relevant clinical background factors were investigated in 110 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We also evaluated intraperitoneal contamination by bacteria and gallstones at the time of gallbladder perforation and investigated whether perforation caused early or late postoperative complications. Intraoperative gallbladder perforation occurred in 29 of the 110 patients (26.3%). It was caused by injury with an electric knife during dissection of the gallbladder bed, injury during gallbladder retraction with grasping forceps, injury during gallbladder extraction from the abdomen, and slippage of cystic duct clips (potentially causing bile and stone spillage). Perforation was more frequent in patients with positive bile cultures and in those with pigment stones (p < 0.02), but not in patients with cholecystitis or cystic duct obstruction. The peritoneal cavity was contaminated by bacteria in 11/29 patients (37.9%) and by spilled stones in 3/29 patients (10.3%). There was no difference in the incidence of postoperative complications between the patients with and without perforation either in the early postoperative period or during follow-up for 24-42 months. Only one patient developed abdominal pain and fever in the early postoperative period, and they were probably related to perforation. Although gallbladder perforation is sometimes unavoidable during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the risk of severe complications appears to be minimized by early closure of perforation, retrieval of as many of the spilled stones as possible, and intraperitoneal lavage.

  14. Gallbladder perforation: case series and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Date, Ravindra S; Thrumurthy, Sri G; Whiteside, Sigrid; Umer, Mohammed A; Pursnani, Kishore G; Ward, Jeremy B; Mughal, M Muntzer

    2012-01-01

    Gallbladder perforation is a serious complication of acute cholecystitis. Its management has evolved considerably since its classification by Niemeier in 1934. This review summarises the evidence surrounding the natural progression of this condition and potential problems with Niemeier's classification, and proposes a management algorithm for the more complex type II perforation. Data from a retrospective case series and a systematic review were combined. The case series included all patients with gallbladder perforations from 2004 to 2008 at a British teaching hospital. The systematic review searched for gallbladder perforation using the MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane Library (2011 Issue 4) databases, as well as recent conference abstracts. The outcome data were analysed using SPSS version 15. No adjustments were made for multiple testing. 198 patients (including 19 patients from the present series) with a mean age of 62.1+/-9.7 years and male gender proportion of 55.4% (range 33.3-76.7%) were included. The most common gallbladder perforations were type II (median 46.2%, range 7.4-83.3%), followed by type I (median 40.6%, range 16.7-70.0%) and type III (median 10.1%, range 0-48.1%). Perforation was associated with cholelithiasis in 86.6% (range 78.9-90.6%) of patients, and the overall median mortality rate was 10.8% (range 0-12.5%). Male gender was weakly associated with mortality (p = 0.089) but age (p = 0.877) and cholelithiasis (p = 0.425) were not. Mortality did not vary significantly with perforation type. Gallbladder perforation should be reported according to the original Neimeier's classification to avoid heterogeneity in data (e.g. varying rates of perforation types). The algorithm proposed in this study aims to guide the management of complex type II gallbladder perforations to minimise subsequent morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2012 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Mimicker of Gallbladder Carcinoma: Cystic Gastric Heterotopia with Intestinal Metaplasia.

    PubMed

    Özgün, Gonca; Adim, Şaduman Balaban; Uğraş, Nesrin; Kiliçturgay, Sadık

    2017-01-01

    Heterotopic gastric mucosa in the gallbladder is an unusual entity and is usually clinically silent. We report a 75-year-old female patient who presented with intermittent upper abdomial pain radiating to the back. Abdominal imaging studies showed a sessile polypoid lesion and a gallstone in the gallbladder. Gallbladder carcinoma was suspected and cholecystectomy performed. Intraoperative frozen section examination suggested mucinous tumor, suspicious for malignancy. However, the permanent sections revealed aberrant gastric tissue consisted of gastric pyloric and fundic glands of heterotopic gastric mucosa with intestinal metaplasia in the gallbladder.

  16. Arctigenin induced gallbladder cancer senescence through modulating epidermal growth factor receptor pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingdi; Cai, Shizhong; Zuo, Bin; Gong, Wei; Tang, Zhaohui; Zhou, Di; Weng, Mingzhe; Qin, Yiyu; Wang, Shouhua; Liu, Jun; Ma, Fei; Quan, Zhiwei

    2017-05-01

    Gallbladder cancer has poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Arctigenin, a representative dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan, occurs in a variety of plants. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the antitumor effect of arctigenin on gallbladder cancer have not been fully elucidated. The expression levels of epidermal growth factor receptor were examined in 100 matched pairs of gallbladder cancer tissues. A positive correlation between high epidermal growth factor receptor expression levels and poor prognosis was observed in gallbladder cancer tissues. Pharmacological inhibition or inhibition via RNA interference of epidermal growth factor receptor induced cellular senescence in gallbladder cancer cells. The antitumor effect of arctigenin on gallbladder cancer cells was primarily achieved by inducing cellular senescence. In gallbladder cancer cells treated with arctigenin, the expression level of epidermal growth factor receptor significantly decreased. The analysis of the activity of the kinases downstream of epidermal growth factor receptor revealed that the RAF-MEK-ERK signaling pathway was significantly inhibited. Furthermore, the cellular senescence induced by arctigenin could be reverted by pcDNA-epidermal growth factor receptor. Arctigenin also potently inhibited the growth of tumor xenografts, which was accompanied by the downregulation of epidermal growth factor receptor and induction of senescence. This study demonstrates arctigenin could induce cellular senescence in gallbladder cancer through the modulation of epidermal growth factor receptor pathway. These data identify epidermal growth factor receptor as a key regulator in arctigenin-induced gallbladder cancer senescence.

  17. [A photo-optical observation of gallbladder motility in dogs (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kudo, N

    1976-03-01

    A photo-optical observation on gallbladder motility was made with the 16 mm cine-cholangiography. The subjects studied were thirty two mongrel dogs. The gallbladder was exposed by a short upper midline abdominal incision under pentothal anesthesia. Gallbladder bile was aspirated and contrast medium was given into the bladder, through a transhepatic route. The cine-cholangiography was done by an image intensifier at a speed of one frame every 2 to 4 seconds. The cinefilms taken were observed repeatedly by the screen projection at various speeds. The drawings were made by tracing the outline of the image of the gallbladder on each frame and were overlapped. Moreover, a contraction curve was made by the cholecystometry using of film motion analyzer in every case. At the same time bile flow into the duodenum was recorded to study a relationship between the gallbladder contraction and motility of the terminal common bile duct. The results obtained are as follows: 1. In a resting state any contraction of the gallbladder was not seen during 30 minutes, and a peristalsis-like movements of the neck portion was observed. However, there was not a relationship between the contraction curve of the gallbladder and the bile flow into the duodenum. 2. Immediately after giving Caerulein, the contrast medium injected into the gallbladder was rapidly discharged into the common bile duct by a peristalsis-like movement of the neck. The size of the gallbladder was markedly decreased into three fifths of the initial state three minutes after administration. At the same time contrast medium was continuously discharged into the duodenum. 3. After giving pilocarpine a marked contraction with forceful movement of the neck and body was observed, and the size of the gallbladder was decreased into three quarters ot the initial state. Bile discharge into the duodenum was markedly increased with an active open- and closing movement of the terminal common bile duct.

  18. Primary malignant melanoma of the gallbladder with multiple metastases: A case report.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun-Ke; Su, Fei; Ma, Wen-Jie; Hu, Hai-Jie; Yang, Qin; Liu, Fei; Li, Quan-Sheng; Li, Fu-Yu

    2017-11-01

    Primary malignant melanoma of the gallbladder is an extremely rare tumor, with fewer than 40 cases reported in the literature worldwide. The majority of patients presented as a solitary lesion in the gallbladder. To our knowledge, only one case of primary malignant melanoma of the gallbladder with multiple metastases has been reported, which involved the stomach, duodenum, pancreas, jejunum and a mesenteric lymph node. We report a case of primary malignant melanoma of the gallbladder with metastases to the duodenal bulb, right adrenal and a celiac lymph node. Primary malignant melanoma of the gallbladder with multiple metastases. Gastrojejunostomy, cholecystectomy, and biopsy of the three metastatic lesions were performed. Histopathologic examination revealed melanin pigments were within the tumor cells of the four lesions, however, junctional activity was noted only in the gallbladder, supporting that the gallbladder was the primary site. No pigmented lesions were detected on the skin or eyes. The postoperative recovery was uneventful, and subsequently, chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin was administered. The patient survived for 16 months due to tumor. progression. The current case was unique due to the adrenal involvement. For patients with multiple metastases of malignant melanoma, gallbladder origin should be considered in the differential diagnosis from cutaneous origin.

  19. Isolated gallbladder injury in a case of blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Birn, Jeffrey; Jung, Melissa; Dearing, Mark

    2012-04-01

    The diagnosis of blunt injury to the gallbladder may constitute a significant challenge to the diagnostician. There is often a delay in presentation with non-specific clinical symptoms. In the absence of reliable clinical symptoms, diagnostic imaging becomes an invaluable tool in the rapid identification of gallbladder injury. We present a case of isolated gallbladder injury following blunt abdominal trauma which was diagnosed by computed tomography and subsequently confirmed by cholecystectomy.

  20. 3D shape decomposition and comparison for gallbladder modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Weimin; Zhou, Jiayin; Liu, Jiang; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Tao; Su, Yi; Law, Gim Han; Chui, Chee Kong; Chang, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents an approach to gallbladder shape comparison by using 3D shape modeling and decomposition. The gallbladder models can be used for shape anomaly analysis and model comparison and selection in image guided robotic surgical training, especially for laparoscopic cholecystectomy simulation. The 3D shape of a gallbladder is first represented as a surface model, reconstructed from the contours segmented in CT data by a scheme of propagation based voxel learning and classification. To better extract the shape feature, the surface mesh is further down-sampled by a decimation filter and smoothed by a Taubin algorithm, followed by applying an advancing front algorithm to further enhance the regularity of the mesh. Multi-scale curvatures are then computed on the regularized mesh for the robust saliency landmark localization on the surface. The shape decomposition is proposed based on the saliency landmarks and the concavity, measured by the distance from the surface point to the convex hull. With a given tolerance the 3D shape can be decomposed and represented as 3D ellipsoids, which reveal the shape topology and anomaly of a gallbladder. The features based on the decomposed shape model are proposed for gallbladder shape comparison, which can be used for new model selection. We have collected 19 sets of abdominal CT scan data with gallbladders, some shown in normal shape and some in abnormal shapes. The experiments have shown that the decomposed shapes reveal important topology features.

  1. Excess Secretion of Gel-Forming Mucins and Associated Innate Defense Proteins with Defective Mucin Un-Packaging Underpin Gallbladder Mucocele Formation in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Kesimer, Mehmet; Cullen, John; Cao, Rui; Radicioni, Giorgia; Mathews, Kyle G.; Seiler, Gabriela; Gookin, Jody L.

    2015-01-01

    Mucosal protection of the gallbladder is vital yet we know very little about the mechanisms involved. In domestic dogs, an emergent syndrome referred to as gallbladder mucocele formation is characterized by excessive secretion of abnormal mucus that results in obstruction and rupture of the gallbladder. The cause of gallbladder mucocele formation is unknown. In these first mechanistic studies of this disease, we investigated normal and mucocele-forming dog gallbladders to determine the source, identity, biophysical properties, and protein associates of the culprit mucins with aim to identify causes for abnormal mucus behavior. We established that mucocele formation involves an adoptive excess secretion of gel forming mucins with abnormal properties by the gallbladder epithelium. The mucus is characterized by a disproportionally significant increase in Muc5ac relative to Muc5b, defective mucin un-packaging, and mucin-interacting innate defense proteins that are capable of dramatically altering the physical and functional properties of mucus. These findings provide an explanation for abnormal mucus behavior and based on similarity to mucus observed in the airways of people with cystic fibrosis, suggest that abnormal mechanisms for maintenance of gallbladder epithelial hydration may be an instigating factor for mucocele formation in dogs. PMID:26414376

  2. Gallbladder radionuclide scan (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... gallbladder radionuclide scan is performed by injecting a tracer (radioactive chemical) into the bloodstream. A gamma camera ... detect the gamma rays being emitted from the tracer, and the image of where the tracer is ...

  3. Gallbladder and Biliary Tract

    MedlinePlus

    ... switch to the Professional version Home Digestive Disorders Biology of the Digestive System Gallbladder and Biliary Tract ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of the Digestive System Overview of the Digestive ...

  4. Agenesis of the gallbladder with hypoplastic cystic duct diagnosed at laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Kwon, A-Hon; Yanagimoto, Hiroaki; Matsui, Yoichi; Imamura, Atsushi

    2006-08-01

    An 86-year-old man was admitted to our department with complaints of intermittent upper abdominal pain. Ultrasonography of the abdomen showed dilated extrahepatic bile ducts containing stones; however, the gallbladder was not clearly identified. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography showed dilated extrahepatic ducts and choledocholithiasis without gallbladder visualization. The stone extraction was performed with endoscopic sphincterotomy. Three-dimensional images using spiral-computed tomography after intravenous-infusion cholangiography clearly demonstrated an obstruction of the cystic duct. The patient was scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. At laparoscopy, the gallbladder fossa was not identified on the undersurface of the liver. Despite a thorough examination of the intrahepatic (left-sided within the lesser omentum), retroperitoneal, retrohepatic (within the falciform ligament), retroduodenal, and retropancreatic areas using laparoscopic ultrasonography, the gallbladder was not found. After careful dissection of the hepatoduodenal ligament, the dilated extrahepatic bile duct and a 1-cm length of hypoplastic cystic duct were found. Gallbladder agenesis is usually accompanied by the lack of the cystic duct. The present case is the third report of gallbladder agenesis with a patent or hypoplastic cystic duct.

  5. Population-based cohort study of variation in the use of emergency cholecystectomy for benign gallbladder diseases.

    PubMed

    2016-11-01

    The aims of this prospective population-based cohort study were to identify the patient and hospital characteristics associated with emergency cholecystectomy, and the influences of these in determining variations between hospitals. Data were collected for consecutive patients undergoing cholecystectomy in acute UK and Irish hospitals between 1 March and 1 May 2014. Potential explanatory variables influencing the performance of emergency cholecystectomy were analysed by means of multilevel, multivariable logistic regression modelling using a two-level hierarchical structure with patients (level 1) nested within hospitals (level 2). Data were collected on 4744 cholecystectomies from 165 hospitals. Increasing age, lower ASA fitness grade, biliary colic, the need for further imaging (magnetic retrograde cholangiopancreatography), endoscopic interventions (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) and admission to a non-biliary centre significantly reduced the likelihood of an emergency cholecystectomy being performed. The multilevel model was used to calculate the probability of receiving an emergency cholecystectomy for a woman aged 40 years or over with an ASA grade of I or II and a BMI of at least 25·0 kg/m 2 , who presented with acute cholecystitis with an ultrasound scan showing a thick-walled gallbladder and a normal common bile duct. The mean predicted probability of receiving an emergency cholecystectomy was 0·52 (95 per cent c.i. 0·45 to 0·57). The predicted probabilities ranged from 0·02 to 0·95 across the 165 hospitals, demonstrating significant variation between hospitals. Patients with similar characteristics presenting to different hospitals with acute gallbladder pathology do not receive comparable care. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. [Detection of Clonorchis sinensis eggs in the ground gallbladder stones by microscopy].

    PubMed

    Ma, Rui-Hong; Qiao, Tie; Luo, Xiao-Bing

    2012-08-30

    Sera, feces, bile and gallbladder stones were collected from 179 patients who accepted gallbladder-preserving cholelithotomy during the period of January to June 2010 at the general surgery department in the Second People's Hospital of Panyu District in Guangzhou. Rapid colloidal gold immunochromatography was used to detect IgG against Clonorchis sinensis. C. sinensis eggs were examined by fecal direct smear, and in bile sediments and ground gallbladder stones. The results showed that the positive rate of rapid colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay for IgG was 51.4%, and the egg positive rate in feces, bile sediments and gallbladder stones was 30.7%, 44.7% and 69.8%, respectively. The detection rate of fecal direct smear was the lowest, while that of the gallbladder stone examination was the highest (P < 0.05). Those patients with egg-positive feces and/or bile sediments were all with egg-positive gallbladder stones.

  7. The role of TRPP2 in agonist-induced gallbladder smooth muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xingguo; Fu, Jie; Song, Kai; Xue, Nairui; Gong, Renhua; Sun, Dengqun; Luo, Huilai; He, Wenzhu; Pan, Xiang; Shen, Bing; Du, Juan

    2016-04-01

    TRPP2 channel protein belongs to the superfamily of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels and is widely expressed in various tissues, including smooth muscle in digestive gut. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that TRPP2 can mediate Ca(2+) release from Ca(2+) stores. However, the functional role of TRPP2 in gallbladder smooth muscle contraction still remains unclear. In this study, we used Ca(2+) imaging and tension measurements to test agonist-induced intracellular Ca(2+) concentration increase and smooth muscle contraction of guinea pig gallbladder, respectively. When TRPP2 protein was knocked down in gallbladder muscle strips from guinea pig, carbachol (CCh)-evoked Ca(2+) release and extracellular Ca(2+) influx were reduced significantly, and gallbladder contractions induced by endothelin 1 and cholecystokinin were suppressed markedly as well. CCh-induced gallbladder contraction was markedly suppressed by pretreatment with U73122, which inhibits phospholipase C to terminate inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3) production, and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2APB), which inhibits IP3 recepor (IP3R) to abolish IP3R-mediated Ca(2+) release. To confirm the role of Ca(2+) release in CCh-induced gallbladder contraction, we used thapsigargin (TG)-to deplete Ca(2+) stores via inhibiting sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase and eliminate the role of store-operated Ca(2+) entry on the CCh-induced gallbladder contraction. Preincubation with 2 μmol L(-1) TG significantly decreased the CCh-induced gallbladder contraction. In addition, pretreatments with U73122, 2APB or TG abolished the difference of the CCh-induced gallbladder contraction between TRPP2 knockdown and control groups. We conclude that TRPP2 mediates Ca(2+) release from intracellular Ca(2+) stores, and has an essential role in agonist-induced gallbladder muscle contraction.

  8. Primary neuroendocrine neoplasm of the gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Kanakala, Venkatesh; Kasaraneni, Ramesh; Smith, David A; Goulbourne, Ian A

    2009-01-01

    Carcinoid tumours are distinct neuroendocrine tumours with characteristic clinical and histological behavioural properties which arise mainly in the gastrointestinal tract (73.7%) or bronchopulmonary system (25.1%). Neuroendocrine tumours of the gallbladder are rare-to date there have been only 42 cases reported in the literature. This case was an incidental finding which was recognised during routine histopathological examination after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic cholelithiasis. The patient recovered well from the operation. There were no concurrent lesions or metastases noted on further investigations, and the final diagnosis was a primary neuroendocrine tumour of the gallbladder.

  9. Laparoscopic completion radical cholecystectomy for T2 gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Gumbs, Andrew A; Hoffman, John P

    2010-12-01

    The role of minimally invasive surgery in the surgical management of gallbladder cancer is a matter of controversy. Because of the authors' growing experience with laparoscopic liver and pancreatic surgery, they have begun offering patients laparoscopic completion partial hepatectomies of the gallbladder bed with laparoscopic hepatoduodenal lymphadenectomy. The video shows the steps needed to perform laparoscopic resection of the residual gallbladder bed, the hepatoduodenal lymph node nodes, and the residual cystic duct stump in a setting with a positive cystic stump margin. The skin and fascia around the previous extraction site are resected, and this site is used for specimen retrieval during the second operation. To date, three patients have undergone laparoscopic radical cholecystectomy with hepatoduodenal lymph node dissection for gallbladder cancer. The average number of lymph nodes retrieved was 3 (range, 1-6), and the average estimated blood loss was 117 ml (range, 50-200 ml). The average operative time was 227 min (range, 120-360 min), and the average hospital length of stay was 4 days (range, 3-5 days). No morbidity or mortality was observed during 90 days of follow-up for each patient. Although controversy exists as to the best surgical approach for gallbladder cancer diagnosed after routine laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the minimally invasive approach seems feasible and safe, even after previous hepatobiliary surgery. If the previous extraction site cannot be ascertained, all port sites can be excised locally. Larger studies are needed to determine whether the minimally invasive approach to postoperatively diagnosed early-stage gallbladder cancer has any drawbacks.

  10. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging to differentiate malignant from benign gallbladder disorders.

    PubMed

    Kitazume, Yoshio; Taura, Shin-Ichi; Nakaminato, Shuichiro; Noguchi, Osamu; Masaki, Yukiyoshi; Kasahara, Ichiro; Kishino, Mitsuhiro; Tateishi, Ukihide

    2016-04-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the utility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and lesion to spinal cord ratio (LSR) in diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (DWI) as compared with morphological assessment alone, for differentiating malignant from benign gallbladder disorders. This study was approved by the ethics committee, and written informed consent was waived. Ninety-one patients (13 malignancy and 78 benignancy) were reviewed. ADC was calculated using two DW images with different motion-probing gradient strengths (b=0, 1000s/mm(2)). LSR was measured by dividing the signal intensity of a thickened gallbladder wall by the maximum signal intensity of the lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord. In addition, the morphology of the gallbladders was assessed with conventional MR imaging. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the areas under the curves for ADC and LSR were 0.861 and 0.906, respectively. Three morphological findings were considered: a massive formation, a disrupted mucosal line, and the absence of a two-layered pattern. When a combination of two or more of these morphological findings was positive for malignancy, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 76.9%, 84.0%, and 83.0%, respectively. When a combination of three or more of the above morphological findings together with ADC of less than 1.2 × 10(-3)mm(2)/s or LSR of more than 0.48 were positive for malignancy, these values were 73.0%, 96.2%, and 92.9%, respectively. There were significant differences in specificity and accuracy. Use of ADC and LSR in DWI can improve diagnostic performance for differentiating malignant from benign gallbladder disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Guadecitabine and Durvalumab in Treating Patients With Advanced Liver, Pancreatic, Bile Duct, or Gallbladder Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-27

    Extrahepatic Bile Duct Adenocarcinoma, Biliary Type; Gallbladder Adenocarcinoma, Biliary Type; Metastatic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Cholangiocarcinoma; Recurrent Gallbladder Carcinoma; Recurrent Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Recurrent Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma; Recurrent Pancreatic Carcinoma; Stage III Gallbladder Cancer AJCC V7; Stage III Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage III Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma AJCC v7; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IIIA Gallbladder Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Gallbladder Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IV Gallbladder Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IV Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer AJCC v6 and v7; Stage IVA Gallbladder Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVA Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVA Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVB Gallbladder Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVB Hepatocellular Carcinoma AJCC v7; Stage IVB Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma AJCC v7; Unresectable Gallbladder Carcinoma; Unresectable Pancreatic Carcinoma

  12. Bovine gallbladder muscularis: Source of a myogenic receptor for cholecystokinin

    SciTech Connect

    Schjoldager, B.; Shaw, M.J.; Powers, S.P.

    1988-03-01

    Despite being a classic target for the gastrointestinal peptide hormone, cholecystokinin (CCK), the gallbladder CCK receptor is not well characterized. Pharmacological studies of small species suggest that CCK action can be mediated by direct myogenic or by both myogenic and neurogenic receptors. To prepare for the biochemical characterization of a gallbladder CCK receptor and to define the subtype of the receptor being studied. The authors have performed autoradiographic localization and pharmacological characterization of CCK receptors on bovine gallbladder. Autoradiography demonstrated high-affinity specific CCK-binding sites only on the muscularis. CCK-8 stimulated tonic contraction of longitudinal strips of gallbladder muscularis in amore » concentration-dependent manner. Antagonism at the cholinergic receptor with 1{mu}M atropine or axonal transmission with 1{mu}M tetrodotoxin did not modify CCK-induced contraction, supporting a direct myogenic effect of this hormone. Optimal electrical field stimulation to elicit a neuronal response resulted in muscle strip relaxation, which was abolished with adrenergic blockade. Although acetylcholine administration stimulated contraction, electrical field stimulation did not, even in the presence of phentolamine, propranolol, and/or CCK. Thus, in bovine gallbladder muscularis, there is evidence for a functional CCK receptor only on smooth muscle cells. Demonstration of a single, high-affinity specific CCK-binding site on an enriched plasma membrane preparation of bovine gallbladder muscularis is consistent with this representing a myogenic CCK receptor.« less

  13. Natural history of small gallbladder polyps is benign: evidence from a clinical and pathogenetic study.

    PubMed

    Colecchia, Antonio; Larocca, Anna; Scaioli, Eleonora; Bacchi-Reggiani, Maria Letizia; Di Biase, Anna Rita; Azzaroli, Francesco; Gualandi, Roberta; Simoni, Patrizia; Vestito, Amanda; Festi, Davide

    2009-03-01

    Little is known about the natural history and pathogenesis of small gallbladder polyps (<10 mm, usually of the cholesterol type), particularly in Western populations. It is unclear if these polyps and gallstones represent different aspects of the same disease. The aim of this study was to characterize the natural history and pathogenesis of small gallbladder polyps. Fifty-six Caucasian patients with small gallbladder polyps, 30 matched gallstone patients, and 30 controls were enrolled in this 5-year prospective study. Patients underwent a symptomatic questionnaire, abdominal ultrasonography, and ultrasonographic evaluation of gallbladder motility at baseline and yearly intervals for 5 years. Cholesterol saturation index, cholesterol crystals in bile, and apolipoprotein E genotype were also determined. Most patients with polyps (mean size: 5.3 mm) were men (61%), asymptomatic, and had multiple polyps (57%). Polyps did not change in 91% of patients during follow-up. No subject experienced biliary pain or underwent cholecystectomy; four developed gallstones. Cholesterol saturation index was higher in patients with polyps or gallstones than in controls (P<0.05). Cholesterol crystals were more frequent in patients with polyps than in controls (P<0.0001) but less common than in gallstone patients (P<0.0001). Polyps and gallstones were associated with nonapolipoprotein E4 phenotypes. The natural history of small gallbladder polyps was benign, as no patient developed specific symptoms and/or morphological changes in polyps. Consequently, a "wait and see" policy is advisable in these patients. Polyps have some pathogenetic mechanisms in common with gallstones, but few patients developed gallstones.

  14. Helicobacter Pylori infection of the gallbladder and the risk of chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cen, Li; Pan, Jiaqi; Zhou, Boyan; Yu, Chaohui; Li, Youming; Chen, Weixing; Shen, Zhe

    2018-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori is coexisted with various diseases, including chronic gastritis, ulcer, and gastric cancer. Besides, chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis are extremely widespread over the world, which are considered as high health-care cost burdens of digestive diseases. Epidemiologic evidence on Helicobacter pylori infection in gallbladder increasing the risk of biliary diseases has been contradictory. Conduct a meta-analysis of overall studies and investigate an association between Helicobacter pylori infection of the gallbladder with chronic cholecystitis/cholelithiasis. We used PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library databases to identify all published studies before August 2017. Pooled odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using the random effects model. Heterogeneity, sensitivity, and stratified analyses were also performed. Eighteen studies involving 1544 participants and 1061 biliary cases with chronic cholecystitis/cholelithiasis were included. Helicobacter pylori infection of the gallbladder was significantly associated with an increased risk of chronic cholecystitis and cholecystitis (OR = 3.022; 95% CI, 1.897-4.815; I 2  = 20.1%). In addition, country-based subgroup analysis also showed a positive association between Helicobacter pylori positivity and chronic cholecystitis/cholelithiasis risk. The ORs (95% CIs) for Asian and non-Asian region studies were 3.75 (1.83-7.71) and 2.25 (1.29-3.89), respectively. This meta-analysis suggests that infection of the gallbladder with Helicobacter pylori is closely related to an increased risk of chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Gallbladder and cystic duct absence. An infrequent malformation in laparoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Cabajo Caballero, M A; Martin del Olmo, J C; Blanco Alvarez, J I; Atienza Sanchez, R

    1997-05-01

    Gallbladder absence is an infrequent anomaly normally accompanied by lack of the cystic duct. Of unknown etiology, in general it is accepted to be a congenital malformation. A male patient (age 59) diagnosed with nonfunctional symptomatic scleroatrophic gallbladder by echography and ERCP was operated on using a laparoscopic approach. Gallbladder and cystic absence was diagnosed during the procedure. A new case of gallbladder and cystic duct absence, diagnosed by laparoscopy, is presented. This type of extrahepatic bile duct malformation is quite rare, but it must be taken into account due to the generalization of laparoscopic surgery in biliar pathology because of the high risk of serious lesions to the hepatocholedochal system.

  16. Gallbladder perforation complicating typhoid fever: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Gali, B M; Ali, N; Agbese, G O; Duna, V D; Dawha, S D; Ismai, G I; Mohammed, M

    2011-01-01

    Gallbladder perforation (GBP) is rare and as a complication of typhoid fever is extremely rare. We present two consecutive patients with GBP diagnosed incidentally at laparotomy. Information on the management of two patients with gallbladder perforation seen at Federal Medical Centre Azare in June and October 2008 was extracted from their case records. The two patients were both males aged 13 years and 16 years. They both presented with high fever of more than 2 weeks duration; and abdominal pain and distension. Both patients had features of generalised peritonitis. Pre-operative diagnoses of typhoid enteric perforation were made based on a positive Widal test. Intra-operative findings however, were that of bile peritonitis and gallbladder perforation. Both had cholecystectomy. Culture of the bile aspirate yielded Salmonella typhi. Gallbladder perforation secondary to typhoid fever should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients with suspected typhoid enteric perforation in typhoid fever endemic region.

  17. Erlotinib in Treating Patients With Unresectable Liver, Bile Duct, or Gallbladder Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-06-03

    Adult Primary Cholangiocellular Carcinoma; Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Cholangiocarcinoma of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct; Cholangiocarcinoma of the Gallbladder; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Unresectable Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Unresectable Gallbladder Cancer

  18. Megalin and cubilin expression in gallbladder epithelium and regulation by bile acids.

    PubMed

    Erranz, Benjamín; Miquel, Juan Francisco; Argraves, W Scott; Barth, Jeremy L; Pimentel, Fernando; Marzolo, María-Paz

    2004-12-01

    Cholesterol crystal formation in the gallbladder is a key step in gallstone pathogenesis. Gallbladder epithelial cells might prevent luminal gallstone formation through a poorly understood cholesterol absorption process. Genetic studies in mice have highlighted potential gallstone susceptibility alleles, Lith genes, which include the gene for megalin. Megalin, in conjunction with the large peripheral membrane protein cubilin, mediates the endocytosis of numerous ligands, including HDL/apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I). Although the bile contains apoA-I and several cholesterol-binding megalin ligands, the expression of megalin and cubilin in the gallbladder has not been investigated. Here, we show that both proteins are expressed by human and mouse gallbladder epithelia. In vitro studies using a megalin-expressing cell line showed that lithocholic acid strongly inhibits and cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids increase megalin expression. The effects of bile acids (BAs) were also demonstrated in vivo, analyzing gallbladder levels of megalin and cubilin from mice fed with different BAs. The BA effects could be mediated by the farnesoid X receptor, expressed in the gallbladder. Megalin protein was also strongly increased after feeding a lithogenic diet. These results indicate a physiological role for megalin and cubilin in the gallbladder and provide support for a role for megalin in gallstone pathogenesis.

  19. Primary neuroendocrine neoplasm of the gallbladder

    PubMed Central

    Kanakala, Venkatesh; Kasaraneni, Ramesh; Smith, David A; Goulbourne, Ian A

    2009-01-01

    Carcinoid tumours are distinct neuroendocrine tumours with characteristic clinical and histological behavioural properties which arise mainly in the gastrointestinal tract (73.7%) or bronchopulmonary system (25.1%). Neuroendocrine tumours of the gallbladder are rare—to date there have been only 42 cases reported in the literature. This case was an incidental finding which was recognised during routine histopathological examination after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic cholelithiasis. The patient recovered well from the operation. There were no concurrent lesions or metastases noted on further investigations, and the final diagnosis was a primary neuroendocrine tumour of the gallbladder. PMID:21686357

  20. Gallbladder Cancer Presenting with Jaundice: Uniformly Fatal or Still Potentially Curable?

    PubMed

    Tran, Thuy B; Norton, Jeffrey A; Ethun, Cecilia G; Pawlik, Timothy M; Buettner, Stefan; Schmidt, Carl; Beal, Eliza W; Hawkins, William G; Fields, Ryan C; Krasnick, Bradley A; Weber, Sharon M; Salem, Ahmed; Martin, Robert C G; Scoggins, Charles R; Shen, Perry; Mogal, Harveshp D; Idrees, Kamran; Isom, Chelsea A; Hatzaras, Ioannis; Shenoy, Rivfka; Maithel, Shishir K; Poultsides, George A

    2017-08-01

    Jaundice as a presenting symptom of gallbladder cancer has traditionally been considered to be a sign of advanced disease, inoperability, and poor outcome. However, recent studies have demonstrated that a small subset of these patients can undergo resection with curative intent. Patients with gallbladder cancer managed surgically from 2000 to 2014 in 10 US academic institutions were stratified based on the presence of jaundice at presentation (defined as bilirubin ≥4 mg/ml or requiring preoperative biliary drainage). Perioperative morbidity, mortality, and overall survival were compared between jaundiced and non-jaundiced patients. Of 400 gallbladder cancer patients with available preoperative data, 108 (27%) presented with jaundice while 292 (73%) did not. The fraction of patients who eventually underwent curative-intent resection was much lower in the presence of jaundice (n = 33, 30%) than not (n = 218, 75%; P < 0.001). Jaundiced patients experienced higher perioperative morbidity (69 vs. 38%; P = 0.002), including a much higher need for reoperation (12 vs. 1%; P = 0.003). However, 90-day mortality (6.5 vs. 3.6%; P = 0.35) was not significantly higher. Overall survival after resection was worse in jaundiced patients (median 14 vs. 32 months; P < 0.001). Further subgroup analysis within the jaundiced patients revealed a more favorable survival after resection in the presence of low CA19-9 < 50 (median 40 vs. 12 months; P = 0.003) and in the absence of lymphovascular invasion (40 vs. 14 months; P = 0.014). Jaundice is a powerful preoperative clinical sign of inoperability and poor outcome among gallbladder cancer patients. However, some of these patients may still achieve long-term survival after resection, especially when preoperative CA19-9 levels are low and no lymphovascular invasion is noted pathologically.

  1. Biofilm Producing Salmonella Typhi: Chronic Colonization and Development of Gallbladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cavallo, Ilaria; Pontone, Martina; Toma, Luigi; Ensoli, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhi is the aetiological agent of typhoid or enteric fever. In a subset of individuals, S. Typhi colonizes the gallbladder causing an asymptomatic chronic infection. Nonetheless, these asymptomatic carriers provide a reservoir for further spreading of the disease. Epidemiological studies performed in regions where S. Typhi is endemic, revealed that the majority of chronically infected carriers also harbour gallstones, which in turn, have been indicated as a primary predisposing factor for the onset of gallbladder cancer (GC). It is now well recognised, that S. Typhi produces a typhoid toxin with a carcinogenic potential, that induces DNA damage and cell cycle alterations in intoxicated cells. In addition, biofilm production by S. Typhi may represent a key factor for the promotion of a persistent infection in the gallbladder, thus sustaining a chronic local inflammatory response and exposing the epithelium to repeated damage caused by carcinogenic toxins. This review aims to highlight the putative connection between the chronic colonization by highly pathogenic strains of S. Typhi capable of combining biofilm and toxin production and the onset of GC. Considering the high risk of GC associated with the asymptomatic carrier status, the rapid identification and profiling of biofilm production by S. Typhi strains would be key for effective therapeutic management and cancer prevention. PMID:28858232

  2. [Gallbladder polyps: correlation between ultrasonographic and histopathological findings].

    PubMed

    Escalona, Alex; León, Francisca; Bellolio, Felipe; Pimentel, Fernando; Guajardo, Matías; Gennero, Rubén; Cruz, Juan Pablo; Viviani, Paola; Ibáñez, Luis

    2006-10-01

    Gallbladder polyps are becoming a common finding. The management of these polyps is complicated considering that they can bear malignant lesions. To analyze the ultrasonographic and histopathologic findings of patients operated due to gallbladder polyps. The records of patients with ultrasonographic diagnosis of gallbladder polyp and that underwent cholecystectomy in a thirteen years period were reviewed, collecting their demographic, ultrasonographic and histopathological data. One hundred and twenty three patients were operated. The mean age was 44+/-13 years, and 69% were women. The mean size of polyps in ultrasonography was 7.3+/-5 mm. Histopathology confirmed the presence of polyps in 79% of patients, with a mean size and number of lesions of 5.1+/-3.8 mm and 2.1+/-2, respectively. Nine percent of polyps were greater than 10 mm, and single polyps were significantly larger than the multiple ones (p =0.003). Four cases of adenoma (3.2%) were diagnosed; one of them had in situ carcinoma. All were single and larger than 10 mm. We found a significant correlation between ultrasonographic and histopathological polyp size determination (r =0.47; p =0.002). Polyp size was also a predictor of the presence of adenoma (p =0.043; confidence intervals: 1.006-1.424). There is a good correlation between the size of the gallbladder polyp in ultrasonography and the size in the histopathology report. Gallbladder adenoma is uncommon and it correlates with the size of the polyp. In this series, size was the only predictor of the presence of adenoma.

  3. Is it necessary to perform prophylactic cholecystectomy for asymptomatic subjects with gallbladder polyps and gallstones?

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung Youn; Kim, Tae Sun; Kim, Hong Joo; Park, Jung Ho; Park, Dong Il; Cho, Yong Kyun; Sohn, Chong Il; Jeon, Woo Kyu; Kim, Byung Ik

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the clinical characteristics of subjects with gallbladder polyps and cholelithiasis compared with those with gallbladder polyps only. Between August 1999 and December 2005, 176 subjects with gallbladder polyps and cholelithiasis (study group) by transabdominal ultrasonography performed during a medical check-up at our institution were recruited and compared with a control group of 185 subjects who had gallbladder polyps only. No significant difference in the mean interval change (delta) of polyp size during the follow-up period between the study and control groups (0.85 +/- 1.39 mm vs 0.84 +/- 1.58 mm, respectively, P = 0.927) was noted. A significantly higher proportion (9/176 [5.1%]) of examinees in the study group had attacks of acute cholecystitis compared with the control group (1/185 [0.5%], P < 0.01). By multivariate logistic regression analysis, gallbladder wall thickening on initial ultrasonography (odds ratio, 13.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-178.0; P = 0.046) and the interval increase in the size of the gallbladder polyps (odds ratio, 14.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-126.9; P = 0.014) were independent risk factors for cholecystectomy. No gallbladder cancer occurred during the follow-up period. There was no significant difference in delta polyp size between the examinees with gallbladder polyps and cholelithiasis and those with gallbladder polyps only. Hence, a small proportion of subjects with gallbladder polyps and cholelithiasis, such as those with thickened gallbladder walls and an interval increase in the size of the gallbladder polyps are candidates for prophylactic cholecytectomy.

  4. Double Gallbladder Originating from Left Hepatic Duct: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gorecki, Piotr J.; Andrei, Valeriu E; Musacchio, Tito

    1998-01-01

    Background: Double gallbladder is a rare anomaly of the biliary tract. Double gallbladder arising from the left hepatic duct was previously reported only once in the literature. Case Report: A case of symptomatic cholelithiasis in a double gallbladder, diagnosed on preoperative ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram (ERCP) is reported. At laparoscopic cholangiography via the accessory gallbladder no accessory cystic duct was visualized. After conversion to open cholecystectomy, the duplicated gallbladder was found to arise directly from the left hepatic duct; it was resected and the duct repaired. Conclusions: We emphasize that a careful intraoperative cholangiographic evaluation of the accessory gallbladder is mandatory in order to prevent inadvertent injury to bile ducts, since a large variety of ductal abnormality may exist. PMID:10036124

  5. [Condition of neurohumoral regulation of bronchial tone and gallbladder in patients with chronic cholecystitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Dudka, T V; Khukhlina, O S; Dudka, I V

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The paper presents data from a study of the neuroendocrine regulation of nonstriated muscles, bronchial tree and the gallbladder tones by means of an assessment of the adrenergic and cholinergic systems state in patients, suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic acalculous cholecystitis. Adrenergic and cholinergic activities as well as cortisol secretion have significantly changed. To study the features of adrenergic and cholinergic regulations of bronchial tone and that of the gallbladder in patients with combined course of chronic acalculous cholecystitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 92 patients were involved in the study: 30 patients with COPD (1st group), 30 patients with COPD of comorbid CAC in the acute phase (2nd group), 32 patients with CAC in the acute phase (3rd group) and a control group--30 practically healthy individuals (PHI) of the respective age. All the patients with COPD and COPD combined with CAC had a marked predominance of the parasympathetic nervous system, as evidenced by the established significant decrease of CDE (Table) in patients with isolated COPD is 1.4 times (p < 0.05), in patients with COPD combined with CAC--there was more intense inhibition of enzyme activity--in 1.8 times (p < 0.05) and in patients with CAC of the 3rd group there were identical changes--a decreased activity of CDE in 1.6 times (p < 0.05) with significant intergroup differences between the groups (p < 0.05). An analysis of the studies showed significant changes in the CDE of the surveyed individuals. For instance, the CDA in the individuals of groups 1 and 2 was lower by 1.6 and 2.4 times respectively (p < 0.001) than in the group of PHI; in the patients of the 3rd group--the changes were minor--a decline of 14.6% (p < 0.05) compared with practically healthy individuals (Table). Participation of sympathoadrenal system in the pathogenesis of COPD occurrence has been proved, however, in patients with COPD and CAC, the

  6. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for melanoma metastatic to the gallbladder: is it an adequate surgical procedure? Report of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Marone, Ugo; Caracò, Corrado; Losito, Simona; Daponte, Antonio; Chiofalo, Maria Grazia; Mori, Stefano; Cerra, Rocco; Pezzullo, Luciano; Mozzillo, Nicola

    2007-12-11

    Only 2% to 4% of patients with melanoma will be diagnosed with gastrointestinal metastasis during the course of their disease. The most common sites of gastrointestinal metastases from melanoma include the small bowel (35%-67%), colon (9%-15%) and stomach (5%-7%), with a median survival of 6-10 months after surgery, and 18% survival at five years. Metastatic melanoma to the gallbladder is extremely rare and it is associated with a very poor prognosis. We report a case of a 54-year old man presented to observation with diagnosis of 6.1 mm thick, Clark's level IV, ulcerated melanoma of the trunk, developing in the course of the disease metastatic involvement of the gallbladder as first site of recurrence, treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy. To date only few cases of patients with metastatic melanoma of the gallbladder treated by this surgical procedure have been reported in literature. Gallbladder metastasis represents a rare event as a first site of recurrence. It must be considered a possible expression of systemic disease also despite radiological absence of other metastatic lesions. Laparoscopic approach has a possible therapeutic role, but open surgery has also a concomitant diagnostic purpose because gives the possibility of manual exploration of abdominal cavity, useful particularly to reveal bowel metastatic lesions, not easily identifiable by preoperative imaging examinations.

  7. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for melanoma metastatic to the gallbladder: is it an adequate surgical procedure? Report of a case and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Marone, Ugo; Caracò, Corrado; Losito, Simona; Daponte, Antonio; Chiofalo, Maria Grazia; Mori, Stefano; Cerra, Rocco; Pezzullo, Luciano; Mozzillo, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    Background Only 2% to 4% of patients with melanoma will be diagnosed with gastrointestinal metastasis during the course of their disease. The most common sites of gastrointestinal metastases from melanoma include the small bowel (35%–67%), colon (9%–15%) and stomach (5%–7%), with a median survival of 6–10 months after surgery, and 18% survival at five years. Metastatic melanoma to the gallbladder is extremely rare and it is associated with a very poor prognosis. Case presentation We report a case of a 54-year old man presented to observation with diagnosis of 6.1 mm thick, Clark's level IV, ulcerated melanoma of the trunk, developing in the course of the disease metastatic involvement of the gallbladder as first site of recurrence, treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy. To date only few cases of patients with metastatic melanoma of the gallbladder treated by this surgical procedure have been reported in literature. Conclusion Gallbladder metastasis represents a rare event as a first site of recurrence. It must be considered a possible expression of systemic disease also despite radiological absence of other metastatic lesions. Laparoscopic approach has a possible therapeutic role, but open surgery has also a concomitant diagnostic purpose because gives the possibility of manual exploration of abdominal cavity, useful particularly to reveal bowel metastatic lesions, not easily identifiable by preoperative imaging examinations. PMID:18072972

  8. Sorafenib Tosylate and Erlotinib Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced, Unresectable, or Metastatic Gallbladder Cancer or Cholangiocarcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-03

    Extrahepatic Bile Duct Adenocarcinoma; Gallbladder Adenocarcinoma; Gallbladder Adenocarcinoma With Squamous Metaplasia; Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Carcinoma; Recurrent Gallbladder Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Gallbladder Carcinoma; Unresectable Extrahepatic Bile Duct Carcinoma; Unresectable Gallbladder Carcinoma

  9. Metagenomics of Microbial Communities in Gallbladder Bile from Patients with Gallbladder Cancer or Cholelithiasis

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Loza, Ernest; Villa-Gomez, Guido; Trujillo, Carlos C; Baez, Sergio; Asai, Takao; Ikoma, Toshikazu; Endoh, Kazuo; Nakamura, Kazutoshi

    2018-04-25

    Salmonella typhi and Helicobacter infections have been shown to increase risk of gallbladder cancer (GBC), but findings have been inconsistent. Other bacterial infections may also be associated with GBC. However, information on microbial pathogens in gallbladder bile of GBC patients is scarce. We aimed to investigate the microbial communities in gallbladder bile of patients with GBC and cholelithiasis (CL). Seven GBC patients and 30 CL patients were enrolled in this study. Genomic DNA was extracted from bile and the V3-V4 region of 16S rRNA was amplified. The sequencing results were compared with the 16S database, and the bacteria were identified by homology searches and phylogenetic analysis. DNA was detected in the bile of three GBC (42.9%; Bolivia, 1; Chile, 2) and four CL patients (13.3%; Bolivia, 1; Chile, 3). Of the 37 patients, 30 (81.1%) were negative and unable to analyze. Salmonella typhi and Helicobacter sp. were not detected in bile from any GBC patients. As the predominant species, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Escherichia coli, and Enetrobacter sp. were detected in bile from GBC patients. Those in bile from CL patients were Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp., and Enerococcus gallinarum. Escherichia coli was detected in bile samples from both GBC and CL patients. Whether the bacteria detected in bile from GBC patients would associated with the development of GBC warrant further investigation. Creative Commons Attribution License

  10. Spontaneous Intrahepatic Type II Gallbladder Perforation: A Rare Cause of Liver Abscess – Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Kumkum; Singh, Amit; Vidyarthi, Shivaji H; Jindal, Satyaprakash; Thounaojam, Chandra Kumar

    2013-01-01

    A liver abscess formation is a rare complication of a gallbladder perforation, with a cholecystohepatic communication. Niemeier, in 1934, classified free gallbladder perforations and generalised biliary peritonitis as an acute or a Type I gallbladder perforation, a pericholecystic abscess and localised peritonitis as a subacute or a Type II gallbladder perforation, and cholecystoenteric fistulas as chronic or Type III gallbladder perforations. We are describing a 50–year–old male patient who presented with right upper quadrant pain and was found to have an intrahepatic perforation of the gallbladder. Our patient had a Type II perforation. We have discussed the diagnostic work-up and the management of this rare entity. Due to the high mortality that can be caused by a delay in making the correct diagnosis, a gallbladder perforation represents a special diagnostic and surgical challenge. PMID:24179927

  11. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound in the Diagnosis of Gallbladder Diseases: A Multi-Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lin-Na; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Lu, Ming-De; Xie, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Wen-Ping; Hu, Bing; Yan, Kun; Ding, Hong; Tang, Shao-Shan; Qian, Lin-Xue; Luo, Bao-Ming; Wen, Yan-Ling

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the usefulness of contrast–enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in differentiating malignant from benign gallbladder (GB) diseases. Methods This study had institutional review board approval. 192 patients with GB diseases from 9 university hospitals were studied. After intravenous bonus injection of a phospholipid-stabilized shell microbubble contrast agent, lesions were scanned with low acoustic power CEUS. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify diagnostic clues from 17 independent variables that enabled differentiation between malignant and benign GB diseases. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed. Results Among the 17 independent variables, multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the following 4 independent variables were associated with the benign nature of the GB diseases, including the patient age, intralesional blood vessel depicted on CEUS, contrast washout time, and wall intactness depicted on CEUS (all P<0.05). ROC analysis showed that the patient age, intralesional vessels on CEUS, and the intactness of the GB wall depicted on CEUS yielded an area under the ROC curve (Az) greater than 0.8 in each and Az for the combination of the 4 significant independent variables was 0.915 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.857–0.974]. The corresponding Az, sensitivity, and specificity for the age were 0.805 (95% CI: 0.746–0.863), 92.2%%, and 59.6%; for the intralesional vessels on CEUS were 0.813 (95% CI: 0.751–0.875), 59.8%, and 98.0%; and for the GB wall intactness were 0.857 (95% CI: 0.786–0.928), 78.4%, and 92.9%. The cut-off values for benign GB diseases were patient age <53.5 yrs, dotted intralesional vessels on CEUS and intact GB wall on CEUS. Conclusion CEUS is valuable in differentiating malignant from benign GB diseases. Branched or linear intralesional vessels and destruction of GB wall on CEUS are the CEUS features highly suggestive of GB malignancy and the patient age

  12. Routine histological analysis of a macroscopically normal gallbladder--a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jamal, K; Ratansingham, K; Siddique, M; Nehra, D

    2014-01-01

    70,000 cholecystectomies were performed in the United Kingdom in 2011-2012. Currently it is standard practice to submit all gallbladder specimens for routine histology to exclude malignancy. The aim of this systematic review was to establish whether a normal macroscopic appearance to the gallbladder at the time of cholecystectomy is sufficient to rule out malignancy and therefore negate the need for routine histology. Relevant articles that were published between 1966 and January 2013 were identified through electronic databases. 21 studies reported on 34,499 histologically analysed specimens. 172/187 (92%) of gallbladder cancers demonstrated intra-operative macroscopic abnormality. Studies that opened the specimens intra-operatively identified all cancers, whereas gross macroscopic visualization resulted in 15 potentially missed cancers (p = 0.10). In patients of European ethnicity, gallbladder cancer in a macroscopically normal looking gallbladder was identified in only one study; however all of these patients were above the age of 60. The incidence of gallbladder cancer was significantly raised in ethnic groups from high risk areas (p = 0.0001). A macroscopically normal gallbladder in patients of European ethnicity under the age of 60 may not require formal histopathology. The best method for intra-operative examination may involve opening the specimen to allow inspection of the mucosa and wall, however this needs further investigation. In the context of the volume of gallbladder surgery being performed there is the potential for significant cost and time savings. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Circular RNA HIPK3 promotes gallbladder cancer cell growth by sponging microRNA-124.

    PubMed

    Kai, Ding; Yannian, Liao; Yitian, Chen; Dinghao, Gong; Xin, Zhao; Wu, Ji

    2018-06-18

    Recent studies have implied that circHIPK3, an abundant circular RNA (circRNA), participates in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. Its expression and potential functions in human gallbladder cancer were examined in this study. We show that circHIPK3 is upregulated in human gallbladder cancer cells. But its level is low in gallbladder epithelial cells. circHIPK3 silencing by targeted siRNA potently inhibited survival and proliferation of established and primary human gallbladder cancer cells, while inducing cell apoptosis. Conversely, ectopic over-expression of circHIPK3 can further promote cancer cell proliferation. In gallbladder cancer cells, circHIPK3 sponged the tumor-suppressive microRNA-124 (miR-124) to sequester and inhibit its activity, thereby leading to increased expression of miR-124 targets, including ROCK1 (rho-associated protein kinase 1) and CDK6 (rho-associated protein kinase). Ectopic over-expression of miR-124 b y a lentiviral vector mimicked and abolished actions by circHIPK3 siRNA in gallbladder cancer cells. At last, we show that circHIPK3 is upregulated in human gallbladder cancer tissues, which is correlated with miR-124 downregulation and ROCK1-CDK6 upregulation. Together, we conclude that circHIPK3 promotes gallbladder cancer cell growth possibly by sponging miR-124. The over-expressed circHIPK3 could be a novel therapeutic target and diagnosis marker of human gallbladder cancer. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Gallbladder Cancer in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Kanthan, Rani; Senger, Jenna-Lynn; Ahmed, Shahid; Kanthan, Selliah Chandra

    2015-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an uncommon disease in the majority of the world despite being the most common and aggressive malignancy of the biliary tree. Early diagnosis is essential for improved prognosis; however, indolent and nonspecific clinical presentations with a paucity of pathognomonic/predictive radiological features often preclude accurate identification of GBC at an early stage. As such, GBC remains a highly lethal disease, with only 10% of all patients presenting at a stage amenable to surgical resection. Among this select population, continued improvements in survival during the 21st century are attributable to aggressive radical surgery with improved surgical techniques. This paper reviews the current available literature of the 21st century on PubMed and Medline to provide a detailed summary of the epidemiology and risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, radiology, pathology, management, and prognosis of GBC. PMID:26421012

  15. H pylori exist in the gallbladder mucosa of patients with chronic cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dong-Feng; Hu, Lu; Yi, Ping; Liu, Wei-Wen; Fang, Dian-Chun; Cao, Hong

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To study whether H pylori locate in the gallbladder mucosa of patients with chronic cholecystitis. METHODS: Using Warthy-Starry (W-S) silver stain and immunohistochemistry stain with anti-H pylori antibodies, we screened paraffin specimens in 524 cases of cholecystitis. H pylori urease gene A (HPUA) and H pylori urease gene B (HPUB) were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the fresh tissue specimens from 81 cases of cholecystitis. RESULTS: H pylori-like bacteria were found in 13.55% of the gallbladders of the cholecystitis patients using W-S stain. Meanwhile, bacteria positive for H pylori antibodies were also found in 7.1% of the gallbladders of patients with cholecystitis by immunohistochemistry. Of 81 gallbladders, 11 were positive for both HPUA and HPUB, 4 were positive for HPUA only and 7 were positive for HPUB only. CONCLUSION: H pylori exist in the gallbladders of patients with chronic cholecystitis. PMID:17461457

  16. Gallbladder mucocoele and concurrent hepatic lipidosis in a cat.

    PubMed

    Bennett, S L; Milne, M; Slocombe, R F; Landon, B P

    2007-10-01

    A 3-year-old Domestic Shorthair cat was presented with weight loss, anorexia and icterus. Feline hepatic lipidosis and gallbladder mucocoele were diagnosed; this is the first report of gallbladder mucocoele in the cat. The case was managed successfully with cholecystojejunostomy, gastrostomy tube placement and tube feeding for 3 months. The cat has survived over the long term with minimal complications.

  17. Spontaneous acalculous gallbladder perforation in a man secondary to chemotherapy and radiation: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jungang; Shen, Guoliang; Shi, Ying; Zhang, Chengwu; Hong, Defei; Jin, Li; Yang, Hongguo; Sun, Wei; Cai, Hanhui; Hu, Zhiming; Wu, Weiding

    2018-05-01

    Gallbladder perforation is a serious clinical condition and associated with high morbidity and mortality. A definitive diagnosis is contentious before surgery. We herein report a case of perforation of the gallbladder neck secondary to chemotherapy and radiation for nasopharyngeal carcinoma patient. Gallbladder perforation secondary to chemotherapy and radiation. To decrease the mortality associated with gallbladder perforation, Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and peritoneal lavage were performed followed for gallbladder perforation patient because of chemotherapy and radiation. The patient recovered fully without serious complication and discharged on the 10th postoperative day. A pathological examination of the resected gallbladder revealed cholecystitis in the thinning of the neck. Early diagnosis and surgical intervention of gallbladder perforation in relation to asopharyngeal carcinoma chemotherapy and radiation are of prime importance. The laparoscopic procedure is safe and feasible in the selected patients.

  18. Development and intra-institutional and inter-institutional validation of a comprehensive new hepatobiliary software: Part 1--Liver and gallbladder function.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Gerbail T; Krishnamurthy, Shakuntala; Gambhir, Sanjiv Sam; Rodrigues, Cesar; Rosenberg, Jarrett; Schiepers, Christiaan; Buxton-Thomas, Muriel

    2009-12-01

    To develop a software tool for quantification of liver and gallbladder function, and to assess the repeatability and reproducibility of measurements made with it. The software tool developed with the JAVA programming language uses the JAVA2 Standard Edition framework. After manual selection of the regions of interest on a 99mTc hepatic iminodiacetic acid study, the program calculates differential hepatic bile flow, basal duodeno-gastric bile reflux (B-DGBR), hepatic extraction fraction (HEF) of both the lobes with deconvolutional analysis and excretion half-time with nonlinear least squares fit. Gallbladder ejection fraction, ejection period (EP), ejection rate (ER), and postcholecystokinin (CCK) DGBR are calculated after stimulation with CCK-8. To assess intra-observer repeatability and intra-observer reproducibility, measurements from 10 normal participants were analyzed twice by three nuclear medicine technologists at the primary center. To assess inter-site reproducibility, measurements from a superset of 24 normal participants were also assessed once by three observers at the primary center and single observer at three other sites. For the 24 control participants, mean+/-SD of hepatic bile flow into gallbladder was 63.87+/-28.7%, HEF of the right lobe 100+/-0%, left lobe 99.43+2.63%, excretion half-time of the right lobe 21.50+6.98 min, left lobe 28.3+/-11.3 min. Basal DGBR was 1.2+/-1.0%. Gallbladder ejection fraction was 80+/-11%, EP 15.0+/-3.0 min, ER 5.8+/-1.6%/min, and DGBR-CCK 1.3+/-2.3%. Left and right lobe HEF was virtually identical across readers. All measures showed high repeatability except for gallbladder bile flow, basal DGBR, and EP, which exhibited marginal repeatability. Ejection fraction exhibited high reproducibility. There was high concordance among the three primary center observers except for basal DGBR, EP, and ER. Concordance between the primary site and one of the other sites was high, one was fair, and one was poor. New United States

  19. The prognostic importance of jaundice in surgical resection with curative intent for gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin-wei; Yuan, Jian-mao; Chen, Jun-yi; Yang, Jue; Gao, Quan-gen; Yan, Xing-zhou; Zhang, Bao-hua; Feng, Shen; Wu, Meng-chao

    2014-09-03

    Preoperative jaundice is frequent in gallbladder cancer (GBC) and indicates advanced disease. Resection is rarely recommended to treat advanced GBC. An aggressive surgical approach for advanced GBC remains lacking because of the association of this disease with serious postoperative complications and poor prognosis. This study aims to re-assess the prognostic value of jaundice for the morbidity, mortality, and survival of GBC patients who underwent surgical resection with curative intent. GBC patients who underwent surgical resection with curative intent at a single institution between January 2003 and December 2012 were identified from a prospectively maintained database. A total of 192 patients underwent surgical resection with curative intent, of whom 47 had preoperative jaundice and 145 had none. Compared with the non-jaundiced patients, the jaundiced patients had significantly longer operative time (p < 0.001) and more intra-operative bleeding (p = 0.001), frequent combined resections of adjacent organs (23.4% vs. 2.8%, p = 0.001), and postoperative complications (12.4% vs. 34%, p = 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that preoperative jaundice was the only independent predictor of postoperative complications. The jaundiced patients had lower survival rates than the non-jaundiced patients (p < 0.001). However, lymph node metastasis and gallbladder neck tumors were the only significant risk factors of poor prognosis. Non-curative resection was the only independent predictor of poor prognosis among the jaundiced patients. The survival rates of the jaundiced patients with preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) were similar to those of the jaundiced patients without PBD (p = 0.968). No significant differences in the rate of postoperative intra-abdominal abscesses were found between the jaundiced patients with and without PBD (n = 4, 21.1% vs. n = 5, 17.9%, p = 0.787). Preoperative jaundice indicates poor prognosis and high postoperative morbidity but is not a

  20. Implications of the Index Cholecystectomy and Timing of Referral for Radical Resection of Advanced Incidental Gallbladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ausania, F; White, SA; French, JJ; Jaques, BC; Charnley, RM; Manas, DM

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Advanced (pT2/T3) incidental gallbladder cancer is often deemed unresectable after restaging. This study assesses the impact of the primary operation, tumour characteristics and timing of management on re-resection. Methods The records of 60 consecutive referrals for incidental gallbladder cancer in a single tertiary centre from 2003 to 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Decision on re-resection of incidental gallbladder cancer was based on delayed interval restaging at three months following cholecystectomy. Demographics, index cholecystectomy data, primary pathology, CA19–9 tumour marker levels at referral and time from cholecystectomy to referral as well as from referral to restaging were analysed. Results Thirty-seven patients with pT2 and twelve patients with pT3 incidental gallbladder cancer were candidates for radical re-resection. Following interval restaging, 24 patients (49%) underwent radical resection and 25 (51%) were deemed inoperable. The inoperable group had significantly more patients with positive resection margins at cholecystectomy (p=0.002), significantly higher median CA19–9 levels at referral (p=0.018) and were referred significantly earlier (p=0.004) than the patients who had resectable tumours. On multivariate analysis, urgent referral (p=0.036) and incomplete cholecystectomy (p=0.048) were associated significantly with inoperable disease following restaging. Conclusions In patients with incidental, potentially resectable, pT2/T3 gallbladder cancer, inappropriate index cholecystectomy may have a significant impact on tumour dissemination. Early referral of breached tumours is not associated with resectability. PMID:25723690

  1. Expression profiling suggests a regulatory role of gallbladder in lipid homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zuo-Biao; Han, Tian-Quan; Jiang, Zhao-Yan; Fei, Jian; Zhang, Yi; Qin, Jian; Tian, Zhi-Jie; Shang, Jun; Jiang, Zhi-Hong; Cai, Xing-Xing; Jiang, Yu; Zhang, Sheng-Dao; Jin, Gang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine expression profile of gallbladder using microarray and to investigate the role of gallbladder in lipid homeostasis. METHODS: 33P-labelled cDNA derived from total RNA of gallbladder tissue was hybridized to a cDNA array representing 17000 cDNA clusters. Genes with intensities ≥2 and variation <0.33 between two samples were considered as positive signals with subtraction of background chosen from an area where no cDNA was spotted. The average gray level of two gallbladders was adopted to analyze its bioinformatics. Identified target genes were confirmed by touch-down polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. RESULTS: A total of 11 047 genes expressed in normal gallbladder, which was more than that predicted by another author, and the first 10 genes highly expressed (high gray level in hybridization image), e.g., ARPC5 (2225.88±90.46), LOC55972 (2220.32±446.51) and SLC20A2 (1865.21±98.02), were related to the function of smooth muscle contraction and material transport. Meanwhile, 149 lipid-related genes were expressed in the gallbladder, 89 of which were first identified (with gray level in hybridization image), e.g., FASN (11.42±2.62), APOD (92.61±8.90) and CYP21A2 (246.11±42.36), and they were involved in each step of lipid metabolism pathway. In addition, 19 of those 149 genes were gallstone candidate susceptibility genes (with gray level in hybridization image), e.g., HMGCR (10.98±0.31), NPC1 (34.88±12.12) and NR1H4 (16.8±0.65), which were previously thought to be expressed in the liver and/or intestine tissue only. CONCLUSION: Gallbladder expresses 11 047 genes and takes part in lipid homeostasis. PMID:15810076

  2. Current Management of Gallbladder Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Theodore S.; Hezel, Aram F.; Kooby, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) represents the most common and aggressive type among the biliary tree cancers (BTCs). Complete surgical resection offers the only chance for cure; however, only 10% of patients with GBC present with early-stage disease and are considered surgical candidates. Among those patients who do undergo “curative” resection, recurrence rates are high. There are no established adjuvant treatments in this setting. Patients with unresectable or metastatic GBC have a poor prognosis. There has been a paucity of randomized phase III data in this field. A recent report demonstrated longer overall survival with gemcitabine in combination with cisplatin than with gemcitabine alone in patients with advanced or metastatic BTCs. Molecularly targeted agents are under development. In this review, we attempt to discuss the current status and key issues involved in the management of GBC. PMID:20147507

  3. A case report of the clear cell variant of gallbladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Maharaj, Ravi; Cave, Christo; Sarran, Kevin; Bascombe, Nigel; Dan, Dilip; Greaves, Wesley; Warner, Wayne A

    2017-01-01

    Clear cell gallbladder carcinoma accounts for less than 1% of all gallbladder malignancies and demonstrates its unique histopathological characteristics in patients with no prior medical illness or familial predisposition. Here we present a case of a 56-year-old female, with no prior medical conditions presented with a 2-month history of upper abdominal pain. Routine hematological and biochemical tests were unremarkable. An abdominal ultrasound revealed the presence of a gallbladder calculi, and a fundic mass while magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed a 8.0cm×3.5cm gallbladder mass. Computed tomography imaging excluded any distant haematogenous metastases. An open cholecystectomy with lymphadenectomy was proceeded by staging laparoscopy. Upon pathologic investigation, the morphologic and immunophenotypic features supported a diagnosis of clear cell variant of gallbladder carcinoma. Pathological prognostications for primary clear cell gall bladder carcinomas are not well defined due to the rarity of cases and possible misidentification as secondary metastases. Foci of adenocarcinoma within the tumor along with immunohistochemical staining probes can be informative in consideration of differential diagnosis. In these cases, clinical case management should be personalized for increased survival with the possible incorporation of next generation sequencing approaches to guide therapeutic algorithms. We discuss this exceedingly rare case of the clear cell variant of gallbladder carcinoma in detail, highlighting some of the diagnostic, and clinical challenges. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Prognostic significance of muc4 expression in gallbladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyeon Kook; Cho, Min-Sun; Kim, Tae Hun

    2012-10-27

    Mucins are high molecular glycoproteins and play protective and lubricating roles in various epithelial tissues. Deregulated expression of mucins is involved in carcinogenesis and tumor invasion. MUC4 expression has been identified as a poor prognostic factor in pancreatobiliary carcinomas. To date, the relation between MUC4 expression and prognosis in gallbladder carcinoma remains to be determined. Authors examined MUC4 expression in gallbladder carcinoma and investigated its impact on prognosis. The expression profiles of MUC4, MUC1, MUC2 mucins in gallbladder carcinoma tissues from 63 patients were investigated using immunohistochemical staining. For gallbladder carcinoma, positive staining of MUC4, MUC1, and MUC2 was 55.6%, 81.0%, 28.6%, respectively. There was a significant correlation between the expression of MUC4 and the expression of MUC1 or MUC2 (p = 0.004, p = 0.009, respectively). Univariate analysis showed that MUC4 expression (p = 0.047), differentiation (p < 0.05), T-stage (p < 0.05) and lymph node metastasis (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with poor survival. Expression of MUC1 and MUC2 was not correlated to survival. The backward stepwise multivariate analysis showed that MUC4 expression (p = 0.039) and lymph node metastasis (p = 0.001) were significant independent risk factors. In combined assessment of MUC4 and MUC2 expression, MUC4 positive and MUC2 negative group showed a significantly worse outcome than MUC4 negative groups(MUC4-/MUC2+ and MUC4-/MUC2-) and MUC4/MUC2 co-expression group(MUC4+/MUC2+) (p < 0.05). MUC4 expression in gallbladder carcinoma is an independent poor prognostic factor. Therefore, MUC4 expression may be a useful marker to predict the outcome of patients with surgically resected gallbladder carcinoma. MUC2 expression may have prognostic value when combined with MUC4 expression.

  5. Prognostic significance of muc4 expression in gallbladder carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mucins are high molecular glycoproteins and play protective and lubricating roles in various epithelial tissues. Deregulated expression of mucins is involved in carcinogenesis and tumor invasion. MUC4 expression has been identified as a poor prognostic factor in pancreatobiliary carcinomas. To date, the relation between MUC4 expression and prognosis in gallbladder carcinoma remains to be determined. Authors examined MUC4 expression in gallbladder carcinoma and investigated its impact on prognosis. Methods The expression profiles of MUC4, MUC1, MUC2 mucins in gallbladder carcinoma tissues from 63 patients were investigated using immunohistochemical staining. Results For gallbladder carcinoma, positive staining of MUC4, MUC1, and MUC2 was 55.6%, 81.0%, 28.6%, respectively. There was a significant correlation between the expression of MUC4 and the expression of MUC1 or MUC2 (p = 0.004, p = 0.009, respectively). Univariate analysis showed that MUC4 expression (p = 0.047), differentiation (p < 0.05), T-stage (p < 0.05) and lymph node metastasis (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with poor survival. Expression of MUC1 and MUC2 was not correlated to survival. The backward stepwise multivariate analysis showed that MUC4 expression (p = 0.039) and lymph node metastasis (p = 0.001) were significant independent risk factors. In combined assessment of MUC4 and MUC2 expression, MUC4 positive and MUC2 negative group showed a significantly worse outcome than MUC4 negative groups(MUC4-/MUC2+ and MUC4-/MUC2-) and MUC4/MUC2 co-expression group(MUC4+/MUC2+) (p < 0.05). Conclusions MUC4 expression in gallbladder carcinoma is an independent poor prognostic factor. Therefore, MUC4 expression may be a useful marker to predict the outcome of patients with surgically resected gallbladder carcinoma. MUC2 expression may have prognostic value when combined with MUC4 expression. PMID:23101681

  6. Gallbladder adenoma with focal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ciurea, S; Matei, E; Petrisor, P; Luca, L; Boros, Mirela; Herlea, V; Popescu, I

    2008-01-01

    The majority of polypoid lesions of the gallbladder are cholesterolosis pseudopolyps. True neoplastic GB polyps are represented mainly by adenomas. The case of a 52-year old male patient with an adenomatous polyp of the GB with focal adenocarcinoma is presented.

  7. Feasibility of liver graft procurement with donor gallbladder preservation in living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jia-Hong; Ye, Sheng; Duan, Wei-Dong; Ji, Wen-Bing; Liang, Yu-Rong

    2015-10-01

    Cholecystectomy is routinely performed at most transplant centers during living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). This study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of liver graft procurement with donor gallbladder preservation in LDLT. Eighty-nine LDLTs (from June 2006 to Dec 2012) were retrospectively analyzed at our hospital. The surgical approach for liver graft procurement with donor gallbladder preservation was assessed, and the anatomy of the cystic artery, the morphology and contractibility of the preserved gallbladder, postoperative symptoms, and vascular and biliary complications were compared among donors with or without gallbladder preservation. Twenty-eight donors (15 right and 13 left-liver grafts) successfully underwent liver graft procurement with gallbladder preservation. Among the 15 right lobectomy donors, for 12 cases (80.0 %) the cystic artery originated from right hepatic artery. From the left hepatic artery and proper hepatic artery accounted for 6.7 % (1/15), respectively. Postoperative symptoms among these 28 donors were slight, although donors with cholecystectomy often complained of fatty food aversion, dyspepsia, and diarrhea during an average follow-up of 58.6 (44-78) months. The morphology and contractibility of the preserved gallbladders were comparable with normal status; the rate of contraction was 53.8 and 76.7 %, respectively, 30 and 60 min after ingestion of a fatty meal. Biliary and vascular complications among donors and recipients, irrespective of gallbladder preservation, were not significantly different. These data suggest that for donors compliant with anatomical requirements, liver graft procurement with gallbladder preservation for the donor is feasible and safe. The preserved gallbladder was assessed as functioning well and postoperative symptoms as a result of cholecystectomy were significantly reduced during long-term follow-up.

  8. Tokyo Guidelines 2018: management strategies for gallbladder drainage in patients with acute cholecystitis (with videos).

    PubMed

    Mori, Yasuhisa; Itoi, Takao; Baron, Todd H; Takada, Tadahiro; Strasberg, Steven M; Pitt, Henry A; Ukai, Tomohiko; Shikata, Satoru; Noguchi, Yoshinori; Teoh, Anthony Yuen Bun; Kim, Myung-Hwan; Asbun, Horacio J; Endo, Itaru; Yokoe, Masamichi; Miura, Fumihiko; Okamoto, Kohji; Suzuki, Kenji; Umezawa, Akiko; Iwashita, Yukio; Hibi, Taizo; Wakabayashi, Go; Han, Ho-Seong; Yoon, Yoo-Seok; Choi, In-Seok; Hwang, Tsann-Long; Chen, Miin-Fu; Garden, O James; Singh, Harjit; Liau, Kui-Hin; Huang, Wayne Shih-Wei; Gouma, Dirk J; Belli, Giulio; Dervenis, Christos; de Santibañes, Eduardo; Giménez, Mariano Eduardo; Windsor, John A; Lau, Wan Yee; Cherqui, Daniel; Jagannath, Palepu; Supe, Avinash Nivritti; Liu, Keng-Hao; Su, Cheng-Hsi; Deziel, Daniel J; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Fan, Sheung Tat; Ker, Chen-Guo; Jonas, Eduard; Padbury, Robert; Mukai, Shuntaro; Honda, Goro; Sugioka, Atsushi; Asai, Koji; Higuchi, Ryota; Wada, Keita; Yoshida, Masahiro; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Hirata, Koichi; Sumiyama, Yoshinobu; Inui, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Masakazu

    2018-01-01

    Since the publication of the Tokyo Guidelines in 2007 and their revision in 2013, appropriate management for acute cholecystitis has been more clearly established. Since the last revision, several manuscripts, especially for alternative endoscopic techniques, have been reported; therefore, additional evaluation and refinement of the 2013 Guidelines is required. We describe a standard drainage method for surgically high-risk patients with acute cholecystitis and the latest developed endoscopic gallbladder drainage techniques described in the updated Tokyo Guidelines 2018 (TG18). Our study confirmed that percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage should be considered the first alternative to surgical intervention in surgically high-risk patients with acute cholecystitis. Also, endoscopic transpapillary gallbladder drainage or endoscopic ultrasound-guided gallbladder drainage can be considered in high-volume institutes by skilled endoscopists. In the endoscopic transpapillary approach, either endoscopic naso-gallbladder drainage or gallbladder stenting can be considered for gallbladder drainage. We also introduce special techniques and the latest outcomes of endoscopic ultrasound-guided gallbladder drainage studies. Free full articles and mobile app of TG18 are available at: http://www.jshbps.jp/modules/en/index.php?content_id=47. Related clinical questions and references are also included. © 2017 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  9. Can gallbladder polyps predict colorectal adenoma or even neoplasia? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Stergios, Konstantinos; Damaskos, Christos; Frountzas, Maximos; Nikiteas, Nikolaos; Lalude, Olutunde

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of the present systematic review is to identify whether an association between gallbladder polyps and colorectal adenoma or neoplasia exists. We conducted a systematic review searching the Medline (1966-2016), Scopus (2004-2016), ClinicalTrials.gov (2008-2016) and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials CENTRAL (1999-2016) databases together with reference lists from included studies. All prospective and retrospective observational cohort studies were included. Four studies were finally included which included 17,437 patients. The association between gallbladder polyps and colorectal adenoma or even neoplasia is not unanimously supported. However, a possible association is clearly depicted. According to one study it seems that this correlation seems to become significant only when the gallbladder polyps exceed the size of 5 mm. However, the impact of size of gallbladder polyps was not investigated in the remaining studies. According to the results of our systematic review there is some evidence to support the hypothesis that gallbladder polyps might adequately predict future risk of colorectal neoplasia. At present, however, current knowledge is very limited and the available data scarce. In this context further studies are necessary to be carried out, before the presence of gallbladder polyps on ultrasound can be recommended as an indication to perform a screening colonoscopy on the same patient. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Cholecystokinin receptors on gallbladder muscle and pancreatic acinar cells: a comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    von Schrenck, T.; Moran, T.H.; Heinz-Erian, P.

    1988-10-01

    To compare receptors for cholecystokinin (CCK) in pancreas and gallbladder, we measured binding of 125I-Bolton-Hunter-labeled CCK-8 (125I-BH-CCK-8) to tissue sections from guinea pig gallbladder and pancreas under identical conditions. In both tissues, binding had similar time-, temperature-, and pH dependence, was reversible, saturable and inhibited only by CCK related peptides or CCK receptor antagonists. Autoradiography localized 125I-BH-CCK-8 binding to the smooth muscle layer in the gallbladder. Binding of 125I-BH-CCK-8 to gallbladder sections was inhibited by various agonists with the following potencies (IC50):CCK-8 (0.4 nM) greater than des(SO3)CCK-8 (0.07 microM) greater than gastrin-17-I (1.7 +/- 0.3 microM) and by various receptormore » antagonists with the following potencies: L364,718 (1.5 nM) greater than CR 1409 (0.19 microM) greater than asperlicin = CBZ-CCK-(27-32)-NH2 (1 microM) greater than Bt2cGMP (120 microM). Similar potencies were found for the agonists and antagonists for pancreas sections. Inhibition of binding of 125I-BH-CCK-8 by 11 different analogues of proglumide gave similar potencies for both pancreas and gallbladder. The potencies of agonists in stimulating and antagonists in inhibiting CCK-stimulated contraction or amylase release correlated closely with their abilities to inhibit 125I-BH-CCK-8 binding to gallbladder or pancreas sections or acini, respectively. The present results demonstrate and characterize a method that can be used to compare the CCK receptors in guinea pig gallbladder and pancreas under identical conditions. Moreover, this study demonstrates that gallbladder and pancreatic CCK receptors have similar affinities for the various agonists and antagonists tested and, therefore, provides no evidence that they represent different subtypes of CCK receptors that can be distinguished pharmacologically.« less

  11. Hepatobiliary and gallium imaging findings in gallbladder perforation: A case report and review of the literature

    SciTech Connect

    Yeo, E.; Chen, D.C.; Siegel, M.E.

    1989-02-01

    Gallbladder perforation is an unusual condition with a high mortality rate. Early detection with prompt surgical intervention can increase the survival rate. Hepatobiliary imaging using Technetium-99m-labeled iminodiacetic acid has been used for the diagnosis of gallbladder perforation. However, the results vary and are somewhat confusing. The authors report a case of gallbladder perforation with hepatobiliary imaging and an unusual gallium image; review the literature; and propose a classification of three different imaging patterns: (1) visualization of the gallbladder with bile leakage, (2) nonvisualization of the gallbladder with a photopenic fluid collection, and (3) nonvisualization of the gallbladder with bile leakage.more » These patterns may provide pathophysiologic information for the surgeon. 27 references.« less

  12. Successful topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones using ethyl propionate.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, A F; Amelsberg, A; Esch, O; Schteingart, C D; Lyche, K; Jinich, H; Vansonnenberg, E; D'Agostino, H B

    1997-06-01

    Topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones using methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is useful in symptomatic patients judged too ill for surgery. Previous studies showed that ethyl propionate (EP), a C5 ester, dissolves cholesterol gallstones rapidly in vitro, but differs from MTBE in being eliminated so rapidly by the liver that blood levels remain undetectable. Our aim was to test EP as a topical dissolution agent for cholesterol gallbladder stones. Five high-risk patients underwent topical dissolution of gallbladder stones by EP. In three patients, the solvent was instilled via a cholecystostomy tube placed previously to treat acute cholecystitis; in two patients, a percutaneous transhepatic catheter was placed in the gallbladder electively. Gallstone dissolution was assessed by chromatography, by gravimetry, and by catheter cholecystography. Total dissolution of gallstones was obtained in four patients after 6-10 hr of lavage; in the fifth patient, partial gallstone dissolution facilitated basketing of the stones. In two patients, cholesterol dissolution was measured and averaged 30 mg/min. Side effects were limited to one episode of transient hypotension and pain at the infusion site; no patient developed somnolence or nausea. Gallstone elimination was associated with relief of symptoms. EP is an acceptable alternative to MTBE for topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones in high-risk patients. The lower volatility and rapid hepatic extraction of EP suggest that it may be preferable to MTBE in this investigational procedure.

  13. Parietal seeding of unsuspected gallbladder carcinoma after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Marmorale, C; Scibé, R; Siquini, W; Massa, M; Brunelli, A; Landi, E

    1998-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (VALC) represents the treatment of choice for the symptomatic gallstones. However the occurrence of an adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder results a controindication for this surgical technique. We present a case of a 52 years old woman who underwent a VALC; histology revealed a gallbladder adenocarcinoma. For this reason the patient underwent a second operation that is right hepatic trisegmentectomy. Six months later the patient presented with a parietal recurrence at the extraction site of the gallbladder. We discuss the possible mechanism responsible for carcinomatous dissemination during laparoscopic surgery and we raccommend the use of some procedures in order to limit the risk and eventually to treat a neoplastic parietal seeding. These complications suggest the problem about the utility and the future played by video assisted laparoscopic surgery in the diagnosis and treatment of intraabdominal malignancies.

  14. Sequential occurrence of preneoplastic lesions and accumulation of loss of heterozygosity in patients with gallbladder stones suggest causal association with gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Jain, Kajal; Mohapatra, Trilochan; Das, Prasenjit; Misra, Mahesh Chandra; Gupta, Siddhartha Datta; Ghosh, Manju; Kabra, Madhulika; Bansal, Virinder Kumar; Kumar, Subodh; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Garg, Pramod Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Causal association of gallbladder stones with gallbladder cancer (GBC) is not yet well established. To study the frequency of occurrence of preneoplastic histological lesions and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of tumor suppressor genes in patients with gallstones. All consecutive patients with gallstones undergoing cholecystectomy from 2007-2011 were included prospectively. Histological examination of the gallbladder specimens was done for preneoplastic lesions. LOH at 8 loci, that is 3p12, 3p14.2, 5q21, 9p21, 9q, 13q, 17p13, and 18q for tumor suppressor genes (DUTT1, FHIT, APC, p16, FCMD, RB1, p53, and DCC genes) that are associated with GBC was tested from microdissected preneoplastic lesions using microsatellite markers. These LOH were also tested in 30 GBC specimens. Of the 350 gallbladder specimens from gallstone patients, hyperplasia was found in 32%, metaplasia in 47.8%, dysplasia in 15.7%, and carcinoma in situ in 0.6%. Hyperplasia, metaplasia, and dysplasia alone were found in 11.7%, 24.6%, and 1.4% of patients, respectively. A combination of hyperplasia and dysplasia, metaplasia and dysplasia, and hyperplasia, metaplasia, and dysplasia was found in 3.4%, 6.3%, and 4.3% of patients, respectively. LOH was present in 2.1% to 47.8% of all the preneoplastic lesions at different loci. Fractional allelic loss was significantly higher in those with dysplasia compared with other preneoplastic lesions (0.31 vs 0.22; P = 0.042). No preneoplastic lesion or LOH was found in normal gallbladders. Patients with gallstones had a high frequency of preneoplastic lesions and accumulation of LOH at various tumor suppressor genes, suggesting a possible causal association of gallstones with GBC.

  15. A Clinician's Guide to the Diagnosis and Management of Gallbladder Volvulus.

    PubMed

    Pottorf, Brian J; Alfaro, Leonardo; Hollis, Harris W

    2013-01-01

    Gallbladder volvulus (GV), or torsion of the gallbladder, is an uncommon surgical emergency. This article reviews the world literature related to GV. We examine the history of gallbladder torsion and highlight the critical constellation of presenting signs and symptoms, which guide the acute care physician and surgeon to accurate and timely diagnosis of GV before surgical intervention. A comprehensive review of all published cases of GV was performed using the National Library of Medicine (PubMed) database. Lists of typical symptoms and clinical presentations are provided to allow clinicians to establish an accurate preoperative diagnosis. GV is frequently undiagnosed before surgical intervention. However, clinical presentation and associated radiographic findings can lead to an accurate diagnosis if the clinician is aware of this uncommon condition. When the diagnosis has been established before operative intervention, expeditious laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be performed safely. Delays in diagnosis may mandate open cholecystectomy if laparoscopic extraction is contraindicated because of undesirable sequelae of gallbladder necrosis, specifically perforation, bilious peritonitis, and hemodynamic instability.

  16. An Aggressive Surgical Approach Leads to Improved Survival in Patients With Gallbladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Elijah; Vollmer, Charles M.; Sahajpal, Ajay; Cattral, Mark; Grant, David; Doig, Christopher; Hemming, Al; Taylor, Bryce; Langer, Bernard; Greig, Paul; Gallinger, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine if an aggressive surgical approach, with an increase in R0 resections, has resulted in improved survival for patients with gallbladder cancer. Summary Background Data: Many physicians express a relatively nihilistic approach to the treatment of gallbladder cancer; consensus among surgeons regarding the indications for a radical surgical approach has not been reached. Methods: A retrospective review of all patients with gallbladder cancer admitted during the past 12 years was conducted. Ninety-nine patients were identified. Cases treated during the 12-year period 1990 to 2002 were divided into 2 time-period (TP) cohorts, those treated in the first 6 years (TP1, N = 35) and those treated in the last 6 years (TP2, N = 64). Results: Disease stratification by stage and other demographic features were similar in the 2 time periods. An operation with curative intent was performed on 38 patients. Nine (26%) R0 resections were performed in TP1 and 24 (38%) in TP2. The number of liver resections, as well as the frequency of extrahepatic biliary resections, was greater in TP2 (P < 0.04). In both time periods, an R0 resection was associated with improved survival (P < 0.02 TP1, P < 0.0001 TP2). Overall survival of all patients in TP2 was significantly greater than in TP1 (P < 0.03), with a median survival of 9 months in TP1 and 17 months in TP2. The median 5-year survival in TP1 was 7%, and 35% in TP2. The surgical mortality rate for the entire cohort was 2%, with a 49% morbidity rate. Conclusions: A margin-negative, R0 resection leads to improved survival in patients with gallbladder cancer. PMID:15729060

  17. Inflammatory metastatic breast cancer with gallbladder metastasis: an incidental finding.

    PubMed

    Ebrahim, Hassan; Graham, David; Rice, David; Ribadeneyra, Michael; Thorner, Kim; Shipley, William; Wehmueller, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women, with an estimated 231,840 new cases representing 14.0% of all new cancer cases in the United States in 2015. Early screening and modern techniques of imaging and diagnosis have led to a significant improvement in detecting early-stage breast cancers and to a decrease in the incidence of metastatic breast cancer (MBC). About 20%-30% of patients who are initially diagnosed with an early-stage, nonmetastatic breast cancer will subsequently develop a distant metastatic disease. Between 6%-10% of the new breast cancer cases present initially as stage IV, referred to as de novo MBC. The most common sites of breast cancer metastases are lymph nodes, chest wall, skeleton, lung, skin, and the central nervous system (CNS). Lobular carcinoma, in particular, may metastasize to the gastrointestinal tract, peritoneum, and retroperitoneum. Gallbladder metastasis from breast cancer is very rare, and only 15-20 cases have been reported in the literature. Most of those cases have been associated particularly with a lobular histology. We report an additional rare case of MBC to the gallbladder, but with a ductal histology. ©2015 Frontline Medical Communications.

  18. [Ultrasound-guided cutaneous intercostal branches nerves block: A good analgesic alternative for gallbladder open surgery].

    PubMed

    Fernández Martín, M T; López Álvarez, S; Mozo Herrera, G; Platero Burgos, J J

    2015-12-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the standard treatment for gallbladder diseases. However, there are still some patients for whom conversion to open surgery is required. This surgery can produce significant post-operative pain. Opioids drugs have traditionally been used to treat this pain, but side effects have led to seeking alternatives (plexus, nerve or fascia blocks or wound). The cases are presented of 4 patients subjected to ultrasound-guided intercostal branches blocks in the mid-axillary line from T6 to T12 with levobupivacaine as an analgesic alternative in open surgery of gallbladder, with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Synchronous gallbladder squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, both as primary tumors in one patient.

    PubMed

    Vahedi, Amir; Azimpouran, Mahzad; Ghavidel, Ali; Karbasi, Mahsa; Farhadi, Mehrdad

    2018-01-01

    Synchronous primary carcinomas of gallbladder are extremely rare. In this paper, we report a case of double primary carcinomas in gallbladder CASE REPORT: A 65 year old male was admitted to the hospital for surgical removal of gallbladder, which was diagnosed as cholecystitis in ultrasonography. Macroscopic examination disclosed a single whitish mass in gallbladder neck and another distinct mass in the fundus as wall thickening. Pathologic findings revealed squamous cell carcinoma of the neck and adenocarcinoma in the fundus. This study represents an example of misdiagnosis. Being cautious is mandatory in order to manage the patient properly. Synchronous primary carcinomas of gallbladder are rare. However this diagnosis should be taken into account in patients with cholecystitis features in order to seeking for the best surgical approach. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. A quadriplegic patient's cholescintigraphic findings: delayed gallbladder visualization and common bile duct dilation.

    PubMed Central

    Shih, W. J.; Magoun, S.; Lu, G.

    1996-01-01

    A Tc-99m DISIDA cholescintigraphic study of a 37-year-old patient with a 20-year history of quadriplegia demonstrated dilation of the common bile duct and delayed gallbladder visualization. A concurrent sonographic study showed an enlarged gallbladder with stones and dilation of the common bile duct. These findings were proved by autopsy. Quadriplegia secondary to a high level of spinal cord injury may result in gallbladder dysfunction. Images Figure PMID:8776068

  1. Gallbladder motility and the sex of the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Kline, Loren; Karpinski, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Progesterone (P), 17β-estradiol (E2), and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) affect gallbladder motility. When gallbladders were taken from women and men, women had more estrogen and P receptors than men. Both P and E2 had an inhibitory effect upon gallbladder contractility in men and premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Similar findings have been reported in gallbladder strips from male and female guinea pigs. In the present study, there was no significant difference in the amount of E2-, P-, or DHT-induced relaxation of CCK-induced tension when the responses in gallbladder strips from male and female guinea pigs were compared. Three metabolites of P were used: 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-P), 20α-hydroxyprogesterone (20-P), and 21-hydroxyprogesterone (21-P). There was no significant difference in the responses from strips from male and female guinea pigs. In order to determine if the effects of E2 and P were additive, strips from male animals were exposed to either E2 or P and the amount of relaxation recorded. After recovery, the strips were exposed to E2 or P in reverse order to ensure the order of treatment had no effect. Then, the strips were treated with both E2 and P simultaneously and the relaxation recorded. This procedure was repeated with strips from female guinea pigs. The effect of E2 and P was found to be additive; however, the response of the strips from each sex were not significantly different. It is concluded that the sex of the guinea pig has no significant effect on the response to the sex hormones used. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  2. Embryonic cholecystitis and defective gallbladder contraction in the Sox17-haploinsufficient mouse model of biliary atresia

    PubMed Central

    Fujino, Ko; Igarashi, Hitomi; Imaimatsu, Kenya; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Hirate, Yoshikazu; Kurohmaru, Masamichi; Saijoh, Yukio; Kanai-Azuma, Masami

    2017-01-01

    The gallbladder excretes cytotoxic bile acids into the duodenum through the cystic duct and common bile duct system. Sox17 haploinsufficiency causes biliary atresia-like phenotypes and hepatitis in late organogenesis mouse embryos, but the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this remain unclear. In this study, transcriptomic analyses revealed the early onset of cholecystitis in Sox17+/− embryos, together with the appearance of ectopic cystic duct-like epithelia in their gallbladders. The embryonic hepatitis showed positive correlations with the severity of cholecystitis in individual Sox17+/− embryos. Embryonic hepatitis could be induced by conditional deletion of Sox17 in the primordial gallbladder epithelia but not in fetal liver hepatoblasts. The Sox17+/− gallbladder also showed a drastic reduction in sonic hedgehog expression, leading to aberrant smooth muscle formation and defective contraction of the fetal gallbladder. The defective gallbladder contraction positively correlated with the severity of embryonic hepatitis in Sox17+/− embryos, suggesting a potential contribution of embryonic cholecystitis and fetal gallbladder contraction in the early pathogenesis of congenital biliary atresia. PMID:28432216

  3. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the treatment of gallbladder polypoid lesions--15 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Matłok, Maciej; Migaczewski, Marcin; Major, Piotr; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Budzyński, Piotr; Winiarski, Marek; Ostachowski, Mateusz; Budzyński, Andrzej; Rembiasz, Kazimierz

    2013-11-01

    Due to the constant increase of public health awareness and widespread "cancerophobia", the progressively larger number of incidentally diagnosed gall-bladder polyps became the source of anxiety, which leads patients and physicians to undertake therapeutic decisions, despite the absence of symptoms. The majority of gall-bladder polyps are benign. It is estimated that only 3 to 5% of polyps are malignant. Currently, there is lack of randomized control trials based on which the clear-cut criteria of qualification of patients with gall-bladder polyps for surgical procedure can be created. The aim of the study was to analyze gall-bladder polyps in patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd Department of General Surgery, Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum. The retrospective study was conducted on 5369 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd Department of General Surgery, Jagiellonian University Collegium Medicum with special attention to 152 (2.8%) patients in whom gall-bladder polyps were diagnosed preoperatively. Qualification criteria for surgery, surgical treatment results, and histopathological examination results were also analyzed. Amongst the 5369 patients qualified for laparoscopic cholecystectomy, 152 (2.8%) were diagnosed with gall-bladder polyps during the preoperative ultrasound examinations. Postoperative histopathological examinations of 41 (27%) patients confirmed the presence of gall-bladder polyps. In 102 (67%) patients, only gall-stones were diagnosed without previously described polyps during the ultrasound examination. Analysis of the histopathological examination results revealed the presence of benign lesions in 35 (23.35%) patients. In 5 (3%) patients the presence of an adenoma, and in one (0.65%) the presence of adenocarcinoma were confirmed. Based on the conducted study and previous personal experience in the treatment of patients with gall-bladder polyps, we believe that due to the potential

  4. A powder-free surgical glove bag for retraction of the gallbladder during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Holme, Jørgen Bendix; Mortensen, Frank Viborg

    2005-08-01

    To test the use of a simple and cheap powder-free glove bag to extract the gallbladder during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). The medical records of 142 consecutive patients who had their gallbladder removed using a powder-free glove bag were reviewed. No complications in the form of bile or stone spillage during extraction were observed. The absence of complications and the low cost make routine use of the glove bag a wise option for extracting the gallbladder during LC. The use of the glove bag seems to reduce the risk of contamination with bacteria, bile, and gallstones and may reduce contamination by malignant cells in case of unexpected gallbladder carcinoma.

  5. [Surgical indications in gallbladder polyps].

    PubMed

    Morera-Ocón, Francisco José; Ballestín-Vicente, Javier; Calatayud-Blas, Ana María; de Tursi-Rispoli, Leonardo Cataldo; Bernal-Sprekelsen, Juan Carlos

    2013-05-01

    The surgery of gallbladder polyps is not well defined due to the lack of evidence-based clinical guidelines. To analyse the management of polyps in Spain, and a review of the literature and treatment standards. The reports on cholecystectomy with gallbladder polyps (GBP) were extracted from the Pathology data base. Patients subjected to surgery with a diagnosis of GBP were identified in the Surgery data base. A single list was prepared and a review was made of the clinical histories, including, age, gender, clinical data, ultrasound report, and histopathology report. A total of 30 patients, with a median age of 51 years (range 22-83), 21 of whom were female, were included. The ultrasound diagnosis was GBP in 19 patients, GBP and calculi in 7 cases, and calculi with no polyps in 4 cases. Other diagnoses concurrent with GBP were multiple haemangiomas (3), large single simple cyst (1), and multiple simple cysts (1). Eleven patients had typical pain (biliary origin), 5 of which showed no calculi on ultrasound. Eight had non-specific pain, which persisted in 3 cases after the cholecystectomy. Pseudopolyps were found in 20 gallbladders, and true polyps in 4 cases. In 3 cases, polyps were not found in the pathology study. The ultrasound report must specify the size, shape, and number of polyps. Patients with biliary type pain would benefit from a cholecystectomy. The probability of malignancy is minimum if the GBP is less than 10mm and aged under 50 years, and a cholecystectomy is not required. A GBP greater than 10mm should be an indication of cholecystectomy. Copyright © 2011 AEC. Published by Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. Successful Elimination of Ascaris lumbricoides from the Gallbladder by Conservative Medical Therapy.

    PubMed

    Misra, Manish Kumar; Singh, Sarabjeet; Bhagat, Tripta Sethi

    2013-06-01

    Migration of Ascaris lumbricoides into the gallbladder is rare, unlike ascariasis of the bile duct and when it does occur, treatment is generally by endoscopic or surgical extraction. We describe a case of the successful treatment of gallbladder ascariasis with conservative therapy.

  7. Radiofrequency Ablation Treatment in Proximity to the Gallbladder Without Subsequent Acute Cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Patti, Jay W.; Neeman, Ziv, E-mail: zneeman@cc.hih.gov; Wood, Bradford J.

    2003-08-15

    Initial reports have suggested that proximity of liver tumors to the gallbladder may increase the risk for cholecystitis after radiofrequency ablation. A colon adenocarcinoma metastasis to the liver in contact with the gallbladder was successfully treated with radiofrequency ablation without subsequent cholecystitis.

  8. Heparanase overexpression down-regulates syndecan-1 expression in a gallbladder carcinoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hao; Yang, Song; Cao, Hai-ming

    2017-01-01

    Objective To discuss the relevance of heparanase and syndecan-1 and regulation of the heparanase-syndecan1 axis in the invasiveness of gallbladder carcinoma cells. Methods 1. Generation of a gallbladder cancer cell line overexpressing a heparanase (GBD-SD) transgene. 2. Western blot analysis of syndecan-1 levels of GBD-SD and control gallbladder carcinoma (GBC-SD) cells. 3. RT-PCR analysis of syndecan-1 mRNA levels of GBD-SD and GBC-SD. 4. Evaluation of invasion and migration of GBD-SD and GBC-SD cells. Results 1. Heparanase expression in GBD-SD cells was significantly increased. 2. The syndecan-1 mRNA level of GBD-SD cells was significantly lower compared with that of GBC-SD cells. 3. The syndecan-1 DNA copy number in GBD-SD cells was significantly lower compared with that of GBC-SD. 4. The invasiveness and migration of GBD-SD cells were significantly higher compared with GBC-SD cells. Conclusions 1. The expression of heparanase negatively correlated with that of syndecan-1 in a gallbladder carcinoma cell line. 2. The expression of heparanase and syndecan-1 in gallbladder carcinomas negatively correlated, similar to other tumours. 3. The heparanase/syndecan1 axis in gallbladder carcinoma plays an important role in the invasion and metastasis, thus providing a new therapeutic target. 4. Further research is required to identify the detailed mechanisms. PMID:28351285

  9. Our experience with a new instrument for laparoscopic gallbladder extraction, the "Bergetrokar".

    PubMed

    Höferlin, A; Höhle, K D

    1993-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become a standardized technique within the last years. However, the extraction of the stone-filled gallbladder often becomes a time-consuming and difficult part of the operation. We have developed a new instrument for quick and safe extraction of the stone-filled gallbladder. The instrument, called "Bergetrokar", is a trocar cannula with a trumpet valve and cone-shaped tip which can be spread. The application of this device is simple. After using the "Bergetrokar" in about 180 cases we have not observed any perforation of the gallbladder or loss of stones. Extraction times were reduced.

  10. Laparoscopic Radical Cholecystectomy for Primary or Incidental Early Gallbladder Cancer: The New Rules Governing the Treatment of Gallbladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Piozzi, Guglielmo Niccolò

    2017-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the technical feasibility and oncologic safety of laparoscopic radical cholecystectomy (LRC) for primary or incidental early gallbladder cancer (GBC) treatment. Methods Articles reporting LRC for GBC were reviewed from the first case reported in 2010 to 2015 (129 patients). 116 patients had a preoperative diagnosis of gallbladder cancer (primary GBC). 13 patients were incidental cases (IGBC) discovered during or after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Results The majority of patients who underwent LRC were pT2 (62.7% GBC and 63.6% IGBC). Parenchyma-sparing operation with wedge resection of the gallbladder bed or resection of segments IVb-V were performed principally. Laparoscopic lymphadenectomy was carried out according to the reported depth of neoplasm invasion. Lymph node retrieved ranged from 3 to 21. Some authors performed routine sampling biopsy of the inter-aorto-caval lymph nodes (16b1 station) before the radical treatment. No postoperative mortality was documented. Discharge mean day was POD 5th. 16 patients had post operative morbidities. Bile leakage was the most frequent post-operative complication. 5 y-survival rate ranged from 68.75 to 90.7 months. Conclusion Laparoscopy can not be considered as a dogmatic contraindication to GBC but a primary approach for early case (pT1b and pT2) treatment. PMID:28690639

  11. Cholecystokinin-Assisted Hydrodissection of the Gallbladder Fossa during FDG PET/CT-guided Liver Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Tewari, Sanjit O., E-mail: tewaris@mskcc.org; Petre, Elena N., E-mail: petree@mskcc.org; Osborne, Joseph, E-mail: osbornej@mskcc.org

    2013-12-15

    A 68-year-old female with colorectal cancer developed a metachronous isolated fluorodeoxyglucose-avid (FDG-avid) segment 5/6 gallbladder fossa hepatic lesion and was referred for percutaneous ablation. Pre-procedure computed tomography (CT) images demonstrated a distended gallbladder abutting the segment 5/6 hepatic metastasis. In order to perform ablation with clear margins and avoid direct puncture and aspiration of the gallbladder, cholecystokinin was administered intravenously to stimulate gallbladder contraction before hydrodissection. Subsequently, the lesion was ablated successfully with sufficient margins, of greater than 1.0 cm, using microwave with ultrasound and FDG PET/CT guidance. The patient tolerated the procedure very well and was discharged home themore » next day.« less

  12. Glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) immunoreactivity in benign, premalignant and malignant lesions of the gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Legan, Mateja; Tevžič, Spela; Tolar, Ana; Luzar, Boštjan; Marolt, Vera Ferlan

    2011-03-01

    GLUT-1 is a transmembrane glucose transport protein that allows the facilitated transport of glucose into cells, normally expressed in tissues which depend mainly on glucose metabolism. Enhanced expression of GLUT-1 can also be found in a large spectrum of carcinomas. This study aimed to investigate GLUT-1 expression in gallbladder tissue: from normal tissue samples, hyperplasias, low-grade and high-grade dysplasias to gallbladder carcinomas. In all, 115 archived samples of gallbladder tissue from 68 patients, presented after cholecystectomy, were immunohistochemically stained for GLUT-1. According to the intensity of GLUT-1 immunoreactivity, samples were divided into negative (stained 0-10% of cells stained), positive with weak to moderate (10-50%) and positive with strong (>50%) GLUT-1 expression. The GLUT-1 immunoreactivity of the samples showed a characteristic increase from premalignant lesions to carcinomas. Normal gallbladder tissue samples did not express GLUT-1 (100%). Weak expression was shown only focally in hyperplasias, but to a greater extent with low-grade dysplasias (20%), high-grade dysplasias (40%) and carcinomas (51.8%). Normal gallbladder tissue is GLUT-1 negative. GLUT-1 expression in carcinoma tissue is significantly higher than in dysplastic lesions. Strong GLUT-1 expression indicates 100% specificity for detecting gallbladder carcinomas. Therefore, GLUT-1 is a candidate as a diagnostic as well as a tissue prognostic marker in gallbladder carcinoma patients.

  13. [Study on genetic instability of nm23H1 gene in Chinese with original gallbladder tumor].

    PubMed

    Lu, Hai Ying; Zhang, Guo Qiang; Li, Ji Cheng

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the microsatellite instability (MSI) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of locus D17S396 on chromosome 17 and their influence on the expression of nm23H1 in gallbladder tumors, which may provide experimental basis for the tumor occurrence and metastasis. Techniques such as DNA extraction from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP), ordinary silver stain were used to study MSI and LOH of locus D17S396. Envision immunohistochemistry and Leica-Qwin computer imaging techniques were used to assess the expression of gene nm23H1. In our experiment, the frequency of genetic instability of malignant gallbladder tumors was 42.55%, which was higher than that of gallbladder adenomas, while there were no genetic instability occurred in chronic cholecystitis tissue. The frequency of LOH seemed higher with the deteriorism of gallbladder tumor. Among 47 gallbladder carcinomas, the frequency of LOH and MSI were different between different differentiation cases (P < 0.05), and the frequency of LOH in liver and lymph node metastasis cases was significantly higher than those without metastasis (P < 0.01). Moreover, the frequency of LOH was higher in stage Nevin IV and V when compared with stage I, II and III. However, the frequency of MSI showed contrary correlation with some clinicopathologic characteristics. The expression of nm23H1 in gallbladder carcinoma, gallbladder adenoma and chronic cholecystitis tissue were different (P < 0.05). The case with lymph node metastasis showed significantly lower nm23H1 expression than those without lymph node metastasis (P < 0.01). Nevin stage IV and V also exhibited lower nm23H1 expression levels compared with stage I, II and Ill. Furthermore, there was no difference in nm23H1 protein expression intensity analyzed by computer imaging techniques. In gallbladder carcinomas, the positive frequency of nm23H1 protein in LOH positive

  14. Prenatal and accurate perinatal diagnosis of type 2 H or ductular duplicate gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Umberto; Farris, Giorgio; Carnevali, Alessandra; Borzani, Irene; Clerici, Paola; Agosti, Massimo; Rossi, Giorgio; Leva, Ernesto

    2018-02-07

    Double gallbladder is a rare biliary anomaly. Perinatal diagnosis of the disorder has been reported in only 6 cases, and in 5 of them the diagnosis was based on ultrasound imaging only. However, the ultrasound technique alone does not provide a sufficiently precise description of cystic ducts and biliary anatomy, an information that is crucial for a correct classification and for a possible future surgery. At 21 weeks of gestational age of an uneventful pregnancy in a 38 year old primipara mother, a routine ultrasound screening detected a biliary anomaly in the fetus suggestive of a double gallbladder. A neonatal abdominal ultrasonography performed on postnatal day 2 confirmed the diagnosis. On day 12 the newborn underwent a Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) that clearly characterized the anatomy of the anomaly: both gallbladders had their own cystic duct and both had a separate insertion in the main biliary duct. We report a case of early prenatal suspected duplicate gallbladder that was confirmed by a neonatal precise diagnosis of a Type 2, H or ductular duplicate gallbladder, using for the first time 3D images of Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in a newborn. An accurate anatomical diagnosis is mandatory in patients undergoing a possible future cholecystectomy, to avoid surgical complications or reoperations. Therefore, in case of a perinatal suspicion of a double gallbladder, neonates should undergo a Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. A review of the Literature about this variant is included.

  15. Complete response in gallbladder cancer to erlotinib plus gemcitabine does not require mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mody, Kabir; Strauss, Edward; Lincer, Robert; Frank, Richard C

    2010-10-20

    Gallbladder cancer typically follows an aggressive course, with chemotherapy the standard of care for advanced disease; complete remissions are rarely encountered. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a promising therapeutic target but the activity of single agent oral EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors is low. There have been no previous reports of chemotherapy plus an EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) to treat gallbladder cancer or correlations of response with the mutation status of the tyrosine kinase domain of the EGFR gene. A 67 year old man with metastatic gallbladder cancer involving the liver and abdominal lymph nodes was treated with gemcitabine (1000 mg/m2) on day 1 and 8 every 21 days as well as daily erlotinib (100 mg). After four cycles of therapy, the CA 19-9 normalized and a PET/CT showed a complete remission; this response was maintained by the end of 12 cycles of therapy. Gemcitabine was then discontinued and single agent erlotinib was continued as maintenance therapy. The disease remains in good control 18 months after initiation of therapy, including 6 months on maintenance erlotinib. The only grade 3 toxicity was a typical EGFR-related skin rash. Because of the remarkable response to erlotinib plus gemcitabine, we performed tumor genotyping of the EGFR gene for response predicting mutations in exons 18, 19 and 21. This disclosed the wild-type genotype with no mutations found. This case report demonstrates a patient with stage IV gallbladder cancer who experienced a rarely encountered complete, prolonged response after treatment with an oral EGFR-TKI plus chemotherapy. This response occurred in the absence of an EGFR gene mutation. These observations should inform the design of clinical trials using EGFR-TKIs to treat gallbladder and other biliary tract cancers; such trials should not select patients based on EGFR mutation status.

  16. Original single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute inflammation of the gallbladder

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Kazunari; Watanabe, Goro; Matsuda, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Masaji

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the safety and feasibility of our original single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) for acute inflamed gallbladder (AIG). METHODS: One hundred and ten consecutive patients underwent original SILC for gallbladder disease without any selection criteria and 15 and 11 of these were diagnosed with acute cholecystitis and acute gallstone cholangitis, respectively. A retrospective review was performed not only between SILC for AIG and non-AIG, but also between SILC for AIG and traditional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (TLC) for AIG in the same period. RESULTS: Comparison between SILC for AIG and non-AIG revealed that the operative time was longer in SILC for AIG (97.5 min vs 85.0 min, P = 0.03). The open conversion rate (2/26 vs 2/84, P = 0.24) and complication rate (1/26 vs 3/84, P = 1.00) showed no differences, but a need for additional trocars was more frequent in SILC for AIG (5/24 vs 3/82, P = 0.01). Comparison between SILC for AIG and TLC for AIG revealed no differences based on statistical analysis. CONCLUSION: Our original SILC technique was adequately safe and feasible for the treatment of acute cholecystitis and acute gallstone cholangitis. PMID:22408354

  17. Ultrasound diagnosis of gallbladder polyps.

    PubMed

    Tomić, Dragan V; Marković, Aleksandra R Pavlović; Alempijević, Tamara M; Davidović, Dragana B; Prsić, Daliborka R; Vucković, Maja S

    2011-01-01

    The most frequent benign gallbladder polyps are cholesterol polyps. Next in frequency were adenomas, which may have malignant potential. The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of ultrasonography in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of cholesterol polyps compared to adenomas. Patients were examined during the period from October 2006. to December 2008. In Department of Ultrasound, Clinic for Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Belgrade. The group of 54 patients analyzed consisted of 30 women (56%) and 24 men (44%). Most (59%) had solitary polyps. In 92.6% of patients the size of polyps was below 10 mm. 74% of respondents were over 50 years. Ultrasonography is the method of choice and gold standard in diagnosis of gallbladder polyps. Based on echoic properties cholesterol polyps can not be distinguished from adenomas. Malignant alteration of polyps also could not be detected. Appropriate ultrasonographic characteristics such as size of polyps, appearance of a broad base that sits on the wall, concomitant lithiasis findings and patient age may be indicative for malignancy.

  18. [Syncrhonous carcinosarcoma of the extrahepatic bile duct and gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Páramo, Ana Alberca; Valverde, David Padilla; Campos, Pedro Villarejo; Santos, Esther Pilar Garcia; Puche, Jose Luis Bertelli; Guerrero, Paloma Núńez; Delgado, Margarita; Fernindez, Jesus Martin

    2016-03-01

    Carcinosarcoma is a malignant neoplasm characterized for intermingled epithelial and mesenchymal components. A preoperative suspected diagnosis will allow a radical therapy avoiding a very bad prognosis. We report on a male patient who was operated in our Service with diagnosis of synchronous carcinosarcoma of gallbladder and extrahepatic bile duct and a review of the Medical Literature. A gallblader carcinosarcoma showing extension into common bile duct is very rare, a carcinosarcoma of the bile duct is exceptional, and a synchronous carcinosarcoma ofthe bile duct and gallbladder has not been reported previously.

  19. Tea polyphenols induce S phase arrest and apoptosis in gallbladder cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiaqi; Pan, Yixuan; Hu, Jiacheng; Ma, Qiang; Xu, Yi; Zhang, Yijian; Zhang, Fei; Liu, Yingbin

    2018-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is the most common malignancy in the biliary tract. Without effective treatment, its prognosis is notoriously poor. Tea polyphenols (TPs) have many pharmacological and health benefits, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-thrombotic, antibacterial, and vasodilatory properties. However, the anti-cancer effect of TPs in human gallbladder cancer has not yet been determined. Cell viability and colony formation assay were used to investigate the cell growth. Cell cycle and apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry analysis. Western blot assay was used to detect the expression of proteins related to cell cycle and apoptosis. Human tumor xenografts were used to examine the effect of TPs on gallbladder cancer cells in vivo. TPs significantly inhibited cell growth of gallbladder cancer cell lines in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cell cycle progression in GBC cells was blocked at the S phase by TPs. TPs also induced mitochondrial-related apoptosis in GBC cells by upregulating Bax, cleaved caspase-3, and cleaved PARP expressions and downregulating Bcl-2, cyclin A, and Cdk2 expressions. The effects of TPs on GBC were further proven in vivo in a mouse xenograft model. Our study is the first to report that TPs inhibit GBC cell growth and these compounds may have potential as novel therapeutic agents for treating gallbladder cancer. PMID:29513793

  20. Laparoscopic approach to suspected T1 and T2 gallbladder carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ome, Yusuke; Hashida, Kazuki; Yokota, Mitsuru; Nagahisa, Yoshio; Okabe, Michio; Kawamoto, Kazuyuki

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate a laparoscopic approach to gallbladder lesions including polyps, wall-thickening lesions, and suspected T1 and T2 gallbladder cancer (GBC). METHODS We performed 50 cases of laparoscopic whole-layer cholecystectomy (LCWL) and 13 cases of laparoscopic gallbladder bed resection (LCGB) for those gallbladder lesions from April 2010 to November 2016. We analyzed the short-term and long-term results of our laparoscopic approach. RESULTS The median operation time was 108 min for LCWL and 211 min for LCGB. The median blood loss was minimal for LCWL and 28 ml for LCGB. No severe morbidity occurred in either procedure. Nine patients who underwent LCWL and 7 who underwent LCGB were postoperatively diagnosed with GBC. One of these patients had undergone LCGB for pathologically diagnosed T2 GBC after LCWL. All of the final surgical margins were negative. Three of these 15 patients underwent additional open surgery. The mean follow-up period was 26 mo, and only one patient developed recurrence. CONCLUSION LCWL and LCGB are safe and useful procedures that allow complete resection of highly suspected or early-stage cancer and achieve good short-term and long-term results. PMID:28465640

  1. Laparoscopic approach to suspected T1 and T2 gallbladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ome, Yusuke; Hashida, Kazuki; Yokota, Mitsuru; Nagahisa, Yoshio; Okabe, Michio; Kawamoto, Kazuyuki

    2017-04-14

    To evaluate a laparoscopic approach to gallbladder lesions including polyps, wall-thickening lesions, and suspected T1 and T2 gallbladder cancer (GBC). We performed 50 cases of laparoscopic whole-layer cholecystectomy (LCWL) and 13 cases of laparoscopic gallbladder bed resection (LCGB) for those gallbladder lesions from April 2010 to November 2016. We analyzed the short-term and long-term results of our laparoscopic approach. The median operation time was 108 min for LCWL and 211 min for LCGB. The median blood loss was minimal for LCWL and 28 ml for LCGB. No severe morbidity occurred in either procedure. Nine patients who underwent LCWL and 7 who underwent LCGB were postoperatively diagnosed with GBC. One of these patients had undergone LCGB for pathologically diagnosed T2 GBC after LCWL. All of the final surgical margins were negative. Three of these 15 patients underwent additional open surgery. The mean follow-up period was 26 mo, and only one patient developed recurrence. LCWL and LCGB are safe and useful procedures that allow complete resection of highly suspected or early-stage cancer and achieve good short-term and long-term results.

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of transabdominal ultrasonography for gallbladder polyps: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Martin, Erin; Gill, Richdeep; Debru, Estifanos

    2018-06-01

    Previous research has shown variable but generally poor accuracy of transabdominal ultrasonography in the diagnosis of gallbladder polyps. We performed a systematic review of the literature with the aim of helping surgeons interpret and apply these findings in the preoperative assessment and counselling of their patients. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE and the Cochrane database using the keywords "gallbladder," "polyp," "ultrasound," "pathology" and "diagnosis" for English-language articles published after 1990 with the full-text article available through our institutional subscriptions. Polyps were defined as immobile features that on transabdominal ultrasonography appear to arise from the mucosa and that lack an acoustic shadow, and pseudopolyps were defined as features such as inflammation, hyperplasia, cholesterolosis and adenomyomatosis that convey no risk of malignant transformation. The search returned 1816 articles, which were narrowed down to 14 primary sources involving 15 497 (range 23-13 703) patients who had preoperative transabdominal ultrasonography, underwent cholecystectomy and had postoperative pathology results available. Among the 1259 patients in whom a gallbladder polyp was diagnosed on ultrasonography, 188 polyps were confirmed as true polyps on pathologic examination, and 81 of these were found to be malignant. Of the 14 238 patients for whom a polyp was not seen on ultrasonography, 38 had a true polyp on pathologic examination, none of which were malignant. For true gallbladder polyps, transabdominal ultrasonography had a sensitivity of 83.1%, specificity of 96.3%, positive predictive value of 14.9% (7.0% for malignant polyps) and negative predictive value of 99.7%. Transabdominal ultrasonography has a high false-positive rate (85.1%) for the diagnosis of gallbladder polyps. Further study of alternative imaging modalities and reevaluation of existing management guidelines are warranted.

  3. Likelihood of malignancy in gallbladder polyps and outcomes following cholecystectomy in primary sclerosing cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Eaton, John E; Thackeray, Erin W; Lindor, Keith D

    2012-03-01

    Patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) have an increased risk for gallbladder cancer. We aimed to define the postoperative outcomes in PSC patients after cholecystectomy and determine if size of a gallbladder lesion on imaging predicts the presence of neoplasia. We conducted a retrospective review of patients with PSC who underwent cholecystectomy at Mayo Clinic between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2008. Patients with a prior history of a liver transplant or cholangiocarcinoma were excluded. A total of 57 patients were included in our primary analysis during the early postoperative period. The most common indication for undergoing a cholecystectomy was the presence of a gallbladder polyp or mass. The sensitivity and specificity of a gallbladder lesion of 0.80 cm and the presence of gallbladder neoplasia was 100% (95% confidence interval (CI) 77-100%) and 70% (95% CI 35-93%), respectively. Of the patients, 23 (40%) had an early postoperative complication. The Child-Pugh score was the only predictor of postoperative outcomes in the multivariate model (odds ratio 1.78, 95% CI 1.11-3.12, P=0.02). Cholecystectomy in patients with PSC is associated with a high morbidity. Gallbladder polyps <0.80 cm are unlikely to be malignant and observation of these small polyps should be considered. A higher Child-Pugh score was associated with early postoperative complications.

  4. Bortezomib in Treating Patients With Unresectable Locally Advanced or Metastatic Adenocarcinoma of the Bile Duct or Gallbladder

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-06-13

    Adenocarcinoma of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct; Adenocarcinoma of the Gallbladder; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Gastrointestinal Cancer; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Gallbladder Cancer; Unresectable Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Unresectable Gallbladder Cancer

  5. Gallstones and gallbladder cancer-volume and weight of gallstones are associated with gallbladder cancer: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Roa, Iván; Ibacache, Gilda; Roa, Juan; Araya, Juan; de Aretxabala, Xabier; Muñoz, Sergio

    2006-06-15

    Gallstones are considered the most important risk factor for gallbladder cancer. To identify differences in the number, weight, volume, and density of gallstones associated with chronic cholecystitis (CC), gallbladder dysplasia (GD), and gallbladder cancer (GBC). A total of 125 cases were selected, of which 93 had gallstones associated with GBC and 31 had gallstones associated with GD. The controls were those with CC, matched by sex and age. The number, weight, volume, and density of these gallstones were examined in order to determine differences and relative cancer risk. Number: Multiple gallstones were present in over 76% of cases (GBC and GD) and controls (P = ns). The average number of multiple stones was 21 in GBC versus 14 in controls (P < 0.01). Weight: The average weight of the gallstones was 9.6 g in GBC versus 6.0 g in controls (P = 0.0004). The average weight in multiple stones over 10 g had strong association with GBC (P = 0.0006). Volume: The average volume was 11.7 and 6.48 ml in GBC and controls (P = 0.0002). Average volumes of 6, 8, and 10 ml had a relative cancer risk of 5, 7, and 11 times, respectively. Size: No differences were shown between GBC, GD, and controls. The volume of gallstones associated with other risk factors of GBC may be helpful in prioritizing cholecystectomies in symptomatic patients. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Primary carcinoma of the gallbladder--review of 143 cases.

    PubMed

    Arnaud, J P; Casa, C; Georgeac, C; Serra-Maudet, V; Jacob, J P; Ronceray, J; Bergamaschi, R

    1995-01-01

    We reviewed a consecutive series of patients with primary cancer of the gallbladder and looked for specific symptoms, signs, laboratory tests, radiological examinations, operative procedures, operative findings and survival. The records of 143 patients with gallbladder carcinoma operatively treated between 1975 and 1990 were retrospectively reviewed. Abdominal pain was the most common symptom and present in 72% of our patients. Jaundice was present in 83 patients (58%) and weight loss in 68 (47.5%). The pre-operative diagnosis was made in only 28.7 per cent of the cases. Surgical procedures included cholecystectomy alone (24 patients), cholecystectomy and resection of the hepatic bed (17 patients), and exploration with biopsy or bypass (20 patients). Only 21.5% of patients underwent curative surgery. Overall five year survival rate was 11%. For patients whose tumor was limited to the gallbladder wall (T1, T2, T3), the acturial 5-year survival rate was respectively 100%, 29% and 23%. For patients with T4 and T5 tumor, the 5 year survival rate was nil.

  7. A Clinician’s Guide to the Diagnosis and Management of Gallbladder Volvulus

    PubMed Central

    Pottorf, Brian J; Alfaro, Leonardo; Hollis, Harris W

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Gallbladder volvulus (GV), or torsion of the gallbladder, is an uncommon surgical emergency. This article reviews the world literature related to GV. We examine the history of gallbladder torsion and highlight the critical constellation of presenting signs and symptoms, which guide the acute care physician and surgeon to accurate and timely diagnosis of GV before surgical intervention. Methods: A comprehensive review of all published cases of GV was performed using the National Library of Medicine (PubMed) database. Results: Lists of typical symptoms and clinical presentations are provided to allow clinicians to establish an accurate preoperative diagnosis. Conclusion: GV is frequently undiagnosed before surgical intervention. However, clinical presentation and associated radiographic findings can lead to an accurate diagnosis if the clinician is aware of this uncommon condition. When the diagnosis has been established before operative intervention, expeditious laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be performed safely. Delays in diagnosis may mandate open cholecystectomy if laparoscopic extraction is contraindicated because of undesirable sequelae of gallbladder necrosis, specifically perforation, bilious peritonitis, and hemodynamic instability. PMID:23704849

  8. Laparoscopic completion cholecystectomy and common bile duct exploration for retained gallbladder after single-incision cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Kroh, Matthew; Chalikonda, Sricharan; Chand, Bipan; Walsh, R Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Recent enthusiasm in the surgical community for less invasive surgical approaches has resulted in widespread application of single-incision techniques. This has been most commonly applied in laparoscopic cholecystectomy in general surgery. Cosmesis appears to be improved, but other advantages remain to be seen. Feasibility has been demonstrated, but there is little description in the current literature regarding complications. We report the case of a patient who previously underwent single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstone disease. After a brief symptom-free interval, she developed acute pancreatitis. At evaluation, imaging results of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography demonstrated a retained gallbladder with cholelithiasis. The patient was subsequently referred to our hospital, where she underwent further evaluation and surgical intervention. Our patient underwent 4-port laparoscopic remnant cholecystectomy with transcystic common bile duct exploration. Operative exploration demonstrated a large remnant gallbladder and a partially obstructed cystic duct with many stones. Transcystic exploration with balloon extraction resulted in duct clearance. The procedure took 75 minutes, with minimal blood loss. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. Final pathology results demonstrated a remnant gallbladder with cholelithiasis and cholecystitis. This report is the first in the literature to describe successful laparoscopic remnant cholecystectomy and transcystic common bile duct exploration after previous single-port cholecystectomy. Although inadvertent partial cholecystectomy is not unique to this technique, single-port laparoscopic procedures may result in different and significant complications.

  9. Is it necessary to perform prophylactic cholecystectomy for all symptomatic gallbladder polyps diagnosed with ultrasound?

    PubMed

    Velidedeoğlu, Mehmet; Çitgez, Bülent; Arıkan, Akif Enes; Ayan, Fadıl

    2017-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to determine the necessity of cholecystectomy in patients with ultrasound diagnosed symptomatic polypoid lesions of the gallbladder. The data of 82 patients with polypoid lesions of the gallbladder who had cholecystectomy between 2000 and 2012 were analyzed retrospectively with preoperative ultrasound and histopathology results. The mean age was 48.05±11.18 years (range 25-74 years). All patients underwent preoperative ultrasound examination. Eighteen (22%) of the 82 patients were asymptomatic; their polypoid lesions of the gallbladder were detected with ultrasound during a check-up or other reasons. In 45 (55%) of cases pathology reported no polypoid lesions of the gallbladder. Right upper quadrant or epigastric pain was the most common symptom (41.46%) that led to hepatobiliary ultrasound, the other symptom was dyspepsia (36.59%). On preoperative ultrasound evaluation, 22 patients had multiple polyps, and 9 of these 22 patients had at least 3 polyps. There is an inaccuracy of ultrasound to detect polypoid lesions of the gallbladder. After diagnosing polypoid lesions of the gallbladder by using standard ultrasound, further pre-operative diagnostic tests are needed to help discriminating benign lesions from malignant ones, which may prevent unnecessary surgery regardless of symptoms.

  10. Resection after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in advanced carcinoma of the gallbladder: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, Veda Padma Priya; Zaidi, Shuaib; Pande, Pankaj; Goel, Ashish; Kumar, Kapil

    2015-03-01

    Although rare over most of the world, Gallbladder cancer is very common in northern india. A delayed presentation, aggressive nature,lack of randomised trials and a poor prognosis have all contributed to the nihilistic halo encircling gallbladder cancer. None of the advances in oncology have been exploited enough to shatter the nihilistic halo. In this background we sought to analyze if the addition of neoadjuvant chemotherapy had any impact on the resectability, overall and disease free survival in patients with advanced carcinoma of the gallbladder. We reviewed the records of all patients who underwent surgery for carcinoma of the gall bladder from 2004 to 2010 at our institute retrospectively. Twenty-one patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy and subsequently taken up for surgery. Outcome analysis of these 21 patients were done by Kaplan meier method and graphs plotted. Out of the 21 patients who were taken up for surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, fourteen patients underwent R0 resection (Group 1). Seven patients had been rendered inoperable on exploration (Group 2). Thus about 66.67 % of patients deemed resectable after neoadjuvant chemotherapy on imaging underwent R0 resection. The mean overall survival of the group 1 was 42.8 months versus 6.6 months of group 2(Hazard Ratio: 3.42). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy improves resectability in some patients with unresectable gall bladder cancer. Resection after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is feasible and may improve survival in a select group of patients. However randomized studies are required to establish its definitive role.

  11. Agenesis of the gallbladder: A dangerously misdiagnosed malformation

    PubMed Central

    Peloponissios, Nicolas; Gillet, Michel; Cavin, René; Halkic, Nermin

    2005-01-01

    Isolated agenesis of the gallbladder is a rare anomaly, often asymptomatic. However, one patient out of four presented with right upper abdominal pain, nausea, and fatty food intolerance. The condition is frequently mistaken with an excluded or sclero-atrophic gallbladder, regardless of the imaging modality used. Consequently, AG often leads to unnecessary and potentially dangerous laparoscopic surgery as described in a few case reports over the last 10 years. The aim of this study is to clarify the diagnostic and therapeutic approach of this unusual pathology. Two cases seen in our institutions were retrospectively reviewed, together with a review of the American and European literature. During laparoscopy, the absence of normal anatomical structures and the impossibility of pulling on the gallbladder to expose and dissect the triangle of Callot increases the risk of iatrogenic injury to biliary or portal structures. Depending on the experiment of the surgeon in laparoscopic procedure, this has to be taken into account to decide a conversion to laparotomy. A high index of suspicion is necessary when interpreting the radiological images. In case of doubt, a MRI-cholangiography is mandatory. Because of possible inherited transmission, relatives with a history of biliary symptoms should be investigated. PMID:16273658

  12. [Gallbladder contractility in children with functional abdominal pain or irritable bowel syndrome].

    PubMed

    Iwańczak, Franciszek; Siedlecka-Dawidko, Jolanta; Iwanczak, Barbara

    2013-07-01

    III Rome Criteria of functional gastrointestinal disorders in children, distinguished the disturbances with abdominal pain, to which irritable bowel syndrome, functional abdominal pains, functional dyspepsia and abdominal migraine were included. THE AIM OF THE STUDY was sonographic assessment of the gallbladder and its contractility in functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome in children. The study comprised 96 children aged 6 to 18 years, 59 girls and 37 boys. Depending on diagnosis, the children were divided into three groups. 38 children with functional abdominal pain constituted the first group, 26 children with irritable bowel syndrome were included to the second group, the third group consisted of 32 healthy children (control group). Diagnosis of functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome was made based on the III Rome Criteria. In irritable bowel syndrome both forms with diarrhea (13) and with constipation (13) were observed. Anatomy and contractility of the gallbladder were assessed by ultrasound examination. The presence of septum, wall thickness, thick bile, vesicle volume in fasting state and 30th and 60th minute after test meal were taken into consideration. Test meal comprised about 15% of caloric requirement of moderate metabolism. Children with bile stones and organic diseases were excluded from the study. Thickened vesicle wall and thick bile were present more frequently in children with irritable bowel syndrome and functional abdominal pain than in control group (p < 0.02). Fasting vesicle volume was significantly greater in children with functional abdominal pain than in irritable bowel syndrome and control group (p = 0.003, p = 0.05). Vesicle contractility after test meal was greatest in children with functional abdominal pain. Evaluation of diminished (smaller than 30%) and enlarged (greater then 80%) gallbladder contractility at 30th and 60th minute after test meal demonstrated disturbances of contractility in children

  13. Promoter methylation profile in gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Roa, Juan Carlos; Anabalón, Leonardo; Roa, Iván; Melo, Angélica; Araya, Juan Carlos; Tapia, Oscar; de Aretxabala, Xavier; Muñoz, Sergio; Schneider, Barbara

    2006-03-01

    Methylation in the promoter region of genes is an important mechanism of inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. Our objective was to analyze the methylation pattern of some of the genes involved in carcinogenesis of the gallbladder, examining the immunohistochemical expression of proteins, clinical features, and patient survival time. Twenty cases of gallbladder cancer were selected from the frozen tumor bank. The DNA extracted was analyzed by means of a methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction test for the CDKN2A (p16), MLH1, APC, FHIT, and CDH1 (E-cadherin) genes. Morphological and clinical data and follow-up information were obtained. All cases were in an advanced stage: histologically moderate or poorly differentiated tumors (95%). Methylation of the promoter area of genes was observed in 5%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 65% of cases, and an altered immunohistochemical pattern (AIP) in 5%, 35%, 21%, 25%, and 66% for the MLH1, CDKN2A, FHIT, APC, and CDH1 genes, respectively. The Kappa concordance index between methylation of the promoter area and AIP for the MLH1 and CDH1 genes was very high (K > 0.75) and substantial for APC (K > 0.45). No correlation was found between survival time and the methylation of the genes studied. The high frequency of gene methylation (with the exception of MLH1) and the high agreement between AIP and methylation of the gene promoter area for the MLH1, APC, and CDH1 genes suggest that the inactivation of tumor suppressor genes and of the genes related to the control of cellular proliferation through this mechanism is involved in gallbladder carcinogenesis.

  14. Ceftriaxone-associated gallbladder sludge. Identification of calcium-ceftriaxone salt as a major component of gallbladder precipitate

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H.Z.; Lee, S.P.; Schy, A.L.

    1991-06-01

    Ceftriaxone, a third-generation cephalosporin, is partially excreted into bile. With its clinical use, the formation of gallbladder sludge detected by ultrasonography has been reported. Four surgical specimens were examined and no gallstones were found. Instead, fine precipitates of 20-250 microns were present. Microscopically, there was a small number of cholesterol monohydrate crystals and bilirubin granules among an abundant amount of granular-crystalline material that was not morphologically cholesterol monohydrate crystals. The chemical composition of the precipitates (n = 4) was determined. There was a small amount of cholesterol (1.7% +/- 0.8%) and bilirubin (13.9% +/- 0.74%). The major component of themore » precipitate was a residue. On further analysis using thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and electron microprobe analysis, the residue was identified as a calcium salt of ceftriaxone. The residue also had identical crystal morphology and chromatographic elution profile as authentic calcium-ceftriaxone standards. It is concluded that ceftriaxone, after excretion and being concentrated in the gallbladder bile, can form a precipitate. The major constituent has been identified as a ceftriaxone-calcium salt.« less

  15. Geographic variation of gallbladder cancer mortality and risk factors in Chile: a population-based ecologic study

    PubMed Central

    Andia, Marcelo E.; Hsing, Ann W.; Andreotti, Gabriella; Ferreccio, Catterina

    2010-01-01

    Chile’s gallbladder cancer rates are among the highest in the world, being the first cancer killer among Chilean women. To provide insights into the etiology of gallbladder cancer, we conducted an ecologic study examining the geographical variation of gallbladder cancer and several putative risk factors. The relative risk of dying from gallbladder cancer (relative to the national average mortality rate) between 1985 and 2003 was estimated for each of the 333 Chilean counties, using a hierarchical Poisson regression model, adjusting for age, sex, and geographical location. The risk of gallbladder cancer mortality was analyzed in relation to region (costal, inland, northern, and southern), poverty, Amerindian (Mapuche) population, typhoid fever, and access to cholecystectomy, using logistic regression analysis. There were 27,183 gallbladder cancer deaths, age-sex-adjusted county mortality rates ranging from 8.2 to 12.4 per 100,000 inhabitants, being higher in inland and southern regions; compare to the north-coastal, the northern-inland region had a 10-fold risk odds ratio (OR) (95% of confidence interval (95% CI): 2.4–42.2) and the southern-inland region had a 26-fold risk (OR 95%CI: 6.0–114.2). Independent risk factors for gallbladder cancer were: ethnicity (Mapuche) OR:3.9 (95%CI 1.8–8.7), typhoid fever OR:2.9 (95%CI 1.2–6.9), poverty OR:5.1 (95%CI 1.6–15.9), low access to cholecystectomy OR:3.9 (95%CI 1.5–10.1), low access to hospital care OR:14.2 (95%CI 4.2–48.7) and high urbanization OR:8.0 (95%CI 3.4–18.7). Our results suggest that gallbladder cancer in Chile may be related to both genetic factors and poor living conditions. Future analytic studies are needed to further clarify the role of these factors in gallbladder cancer etiology. PMID:18566990

  16. Comparison of the gene expression profiles between gallstones and gallbladder polyps.

    PubMed

    Li, Quanfu; Ge, Xin; Xu, Xu; Zhong, Yonggang; Qie, Zengwang

    2014-01-01

    Gallstones and gallbladder polyps (GPs) are two major types of gallbladder diseases that share multiple common symptoms. However, their pathological mechanism remains largely unknown. The aim of our study is to identify gallstones and GPs related-genes and gain an insight into the underlying genetic basis of these diseases. We enrolled 7 patients with gallstones and 2 patients with GP for RNA-Seq and we conducted functional enrichment analysis and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks analysis for identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs). RNA-Seq produced 41.7 million in gallstones and 32.1 million pairs in GPs. A total of 147 DEGs was identified between gallstones and GPs. We found GO terms for molecular functions significantly enriched in antigen binding (GO:0003823, P=5.9E-11), while for biological processes, the enriched GO terms were immune response (GO:0006955, P=2.6E-15), and for cellular component, the enriched GO terms were extracellular region (GO:0005576, P=2.7E-15). To further evaluate the biological significance for the DEGs, we also performed the KEGG pathway enrichment analysis. The most significant pathway in our KEGG analysis was Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction (P=7.5E-06). PPI network analysis indicated that the significant hub proteins containing S100A9 (S100 calcium binding protein A9, Degree=94) and CR2 (complement component receptor 2, Degree=8). This present study suggests some promising genes and may provide a clue to the role of these genes playing in the development of gallstones and GPs.

  17. Trametinib or Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Refractory or Advanced Biliary or Gallbladder Cancer or That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-08-11

    Adult Cholangiocarcinoma; Advanced Adult Hepatocellular Carcinoma; BCLC Stage C Adult Hepatocellular Carcinoma; BCLC Stage D Adult Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma; Localized Non-Resectable Adult Liver Carcinoma; Recurrent Adult Liver Carcinoma; Recurrent Childhood Liver Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Carcinoma; Recurrent Gallbladder Carcinoma; Stage II Gallbladder Cancer; Stage III Childhood Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Gallbladder Cancer; Stage IIIB Gallbladder Cancer; Stage IV Childhood Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Stage IV Distal Bile Duct Cancer; Stage IVA Gallbladder Cancer; Stage IVB Gallbladder Cancer; Unresectable Extrahepatic Bile Duct Carcinoma

  18. [Gallbladder polyps: Clinical and pathological features in Cholecystectomy patients in the Anglo American clinic in the period of 1999-2007].

    PubMed

    Bugosen Tannous, Munira; Tagle Arróspide, Martín; Huerta-Mercado Tenorio, Jorge; Scavino Levy, Yolanda

    2011-01-01

    To describe the clinical and anatomopathologic characteristics of gallbladder polyps found in patients who underwent cholecystectomy at Clinica Anglo Americana for the 1999-2007 period. Descriptive and retrospective study that started at Pathology Department where patients with anatomopathologic finding of gallbladder polyps who underwent cholecystectomy for the 1999-2007 period were selected. Clinical records were reviewed to take ultrasonographic, anatomopathologic and clinical characteristics, which were included and studied in a data base in Microsoft Excel. Gallbladder polyps were found in 172 (10%) of 1707 gallbladders that were analized. Cholesterolosic polyps were found in 95.4% of the cases, 4% were adenomas and 0.6% were hyperplasic polyps. Gallbladder polyps ≥ 10 mm were found in 32,25% of the cases. A 90% of these polyps were cholesterolosic and a 10% were adenomas. No malign polyps were found in this study. The vast majority of gallbladder polyps, including the ≥ 10 mm group, were cholesterolosic. The physician decision to remove the gallbladder must be individualized and discussed with each patient, considering gallbladder polyp characteristics such as size and growth rate of the lesion.

  19. Selumetinib and Akt Inhibitor MK-2206 in Treating Patients With Refractory or Advanced Gallbladder or Bile Duct Cancer That Cannot Be Removed By Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-09-08

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gallbladder; Adenocarcinoma With Squamous Metaplasia of the Gallbladder; Adult Primary Cholangiocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Cholangiocarcinoma of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Metastatic Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Stage II Gallbladder Cancer; Stage IIIA Gallbladder Cancer; Stage IIIB Gallbladder Cancer; Stage IVA Gallbladder Cancer; Stage IVB Gallbladder Cancer; Unresectable Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer

  20. Liver and gallbladder cancer in immigrants to Sweden.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, Kari; Mousavi, Seyed Mohsen; Brandt, Andreas; Ji, Jianguang; Sundquist, Jan

    2010-03-01

    The changes of cancer incidence upon immigration can be used as an estimator of environmental influence on cancer risk. We studied site-specific liver and biliary cancers in first-generation immigrants to Sweden with an aim to search for aetiological clues and to find evidence for indigenous incidence rates. We used the nation-wide Swedish Family-Cancer Database to calculate standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) in immigrants compared to native Swedes. A total of 1428 cancers were identified in immigrants whose median ages (years) at immigration were 27 for men and 26 for women and whose median diagnostic ages were 64 and 66, respectively. The highest SIRs of 6.7 for primary liver cancer were observed for men from East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Increased SIRs were recorded for male immigrants from previous Yugoslavia (1.78), Southern Europe (2.91), Turkey (2.15) and Asian Arab countries (2.89). For gallbladder cancer, only women from the Indian subcontinent (3.84) and Chile (2.34) had increased risk while some Northern European immigrants showed decreased risks. Primary liver cancer was increased in immigrants from endemic regions of hepatitis B virus infection but also from large regions lacking cancer incidence data, North Africa, Asian Arab countries, Turkey and previous Yugoslavia; these are probably intermediary risk regions for this infection. The consideration of these regions as risk areas would justify active diagnostic and vaccination programs. The increase in gallbladder cancer in Chileans and Indians suggests that some persistent damage was inflicted before emigration, characterisation of which will be a challenge for aetiological studies. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biliary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Telocytes in Gallstone Disease

    PubMed Central

    Pasternak, Artur; Bugajska, Jolanta; Szura, Mirosław; Walocha, Jerzy A.; Matyja, Andrzej; Gajda, Mariusz; Sztefko, Krystyna; Gil, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    It has been reported that intake of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) reduces the risk of coronary heart disease. It also influences bile composition, decreasing biliary cholesterol saturation in the bile of patients with gallstones. In addition to bile composition disturbances, gallbladder hypomotility must be a cofactor in the pathogenesis of cholelithiasis, as it leads to the prolonged nucleation phase. Our current knowledge about gallbladder motility has been enhanced by the study of a population of newly described interstitial (stromal) cells—telocytes (TCs). The purpose of this study was to determine whether TC loss, reported by our team recently, might be related to bile lithogenicity, expressed as cholesterol saturation index or the difference in biliary PUFA profiles in patients who suffer from cholecystolithiasis and those not affected by this disease. We determined biliary lipid composition including the fatty acid composition of the phospholipid species in bile. Thus, we investigated whether differences in biliary fatty acid profiles (ω-3 PUFA and ω-6 PUFA) in gallbladder bile may influence its lithogenicity and the quantity of TCs within the gallbladder wall. We conclude that the altered PUFA concentrations in the gallbladder bile, with elevation of ω-6 PUFA, constitute important factors influencing TC density in the gallbladder wall, being one of the possible pathophysiological components for the gallstone disease development. This study established that altered bile composition in patients with cholelithiasis may influence TC quantity within the gallbladder muscle, and we concluded that reduction in TC number may be a consequence of the supersaturated bile toxicity, while some other bile components (ω-3 PUFA, glycocholic, and taurocholic acids) may exert protective effects on TC and thus possibly influence the mechanisms regulating gallbladder and extrahepatic bile duct motility. Thus, ω-3 PUFA may represent a possible option to prevent

  2. Carcinoma of the gallbladder. The Roswell Park experience.

    PubMed

    Silk, Y N; Douglass, H O; Nava, H R; Driscoll, D L; Tartarian, G

    1989-12-01

    The median survival, from diagnosis, of patients with cancer of the gallbladder is 6 months. Our purpose in reviewing our experience was to identify factors, either in patient characteristics or treatment, that influence this statistic. In 22 years 71 cases of gallbladder carcinoma were referred to Roswell Park Memorial Institute in Buffalo, New York. Most had a cholecystectomy that revealed an unsuspected neoplasm, before referral. Mean age was 62 years and 75% were female. Symptoms, signs, and laboratory and imaging studies were uniformly unhelpful in determining the diagnosis. Early diagnosis at a stage amenable to surgical excision remains the sole salvation. Patients who receive chemotherapy did better than those who did not, but this is probably a reflection of patient selection. Newer treatment modalities are urgently needed.

  3. Gallbladder cancer: South American experience.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Gerardo F; Gentile, Alberto; Parada, Luis A

    2016-10-01

    Large differences in terms of incidence and mortality due to gallbladder cancer (GBC) have been reported worldwide. Moreover, it seems that GBC has unique characteristics in South America. We surveyed the literature looking for information about the epidemiology, basic and translational research, and clinical trials performed in South America in order to critically analyze the magnitude of this health problem in the region. Compared to other geographic areas, age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for GBC in women are very high, particularly in many western areas of South America. Genetic, as well as dietary and environmental factors likely contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease in the area. Compared to other regions the profile of abnormalities of key genes such as KRAS and TP53 in GBC seems to slightly differ in South America, while the clinical behavior appears to be similar with a median overall survival (OS) of 6.5 to 8 months in advanced GBC. In contrast to Europe and USA, prophylactic cholecystectomy is a common practice in western areas of South America. GBC particularly affects women in South America, and represents a significant public health problem. It appears to have peculiarities that pose an urgent need for additional research aimed to discover risk factors, molecular events associated with its development and new treatment options for this lethal disease.

  4. RNAseq Reveals Complex Response of Campylobacter jejuni to Ovine Bile and In vivo Gallbladder Environment

    PubMed Central

    Kreuder, Amanda J.; Schleining, Jennifer A.; Yaeger, Michael; Zhang, Qijing; Plummer, Paul J.

    2017-01-01

    Colonization of the gallbladder by enteric pathogens such as Salmonella typhi, Listeria monocytogenes, and Campylobacter jejuni is thought to play a key role in transmission and persistence of these important zoonotic agents; however, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that allow for bacterial survival within this harsh environment. Recently, a highly virulent C. jejuni sheep abortion (SA) clone represented by the clinical isolate IA3902 has emerged as the dominant cause for sheep abortion in the United States. Previous studies have indicated that the C. jejuni clone SA can frequently be isolated from the gallbladders of otherwise healthy sheep, suggesting that the gallbladder may serve as an important reservoir for infection. To begin to understand the molecular mechanisms associated with survival in the host gallbladder, C. jejuni IA3902 was exposed for up to 24 h to both the natural ovine host in vivo gallbladder environment, as well as ovine bile in vitro. Following exposure, total RNA was isolated from the bile and high throughput deep sequencing of strand specific rRNA-depleted total RNA was used to characterize the transcriptome of IA3902 under these conditions. Our results demonstrated for the first time the complete transcriptome of C. jejuni IA3902 during exposure to an important host environment, the sheep gallbladder. Exposure to the host environment as compared to in vitro bile alone provided a more robust picture of the complexity of gene regulation required for survival in the host gallbladder. A subset of genes including a large number of protein coding genes as well as seven previously identified non-coding RNAs were confirmed to be differentially expressed within our data, suggesting that they may play a key role in adaptation upon exposure to these conditions. This research provides valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms that may be utilized by C. jejuni IA3902 to colonize and survive within the inhospitable gallbladder

  5. Prevalences of and risk factors for biliary stones and gallbladder polyps in a large Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qing; Tao, Lian-yuan; Wu, Qiao; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Feng-liang; Yuan, Li; He, Xiao-dong

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to identify the prevalences of and risk factors associated with the development of gallbladder stones and polyps in a large Chinese population. Prevalences of and risk factors for biliary stones and gallbladder polyps were retrospectively investigated among subjects who underwent a general check-up at the Health Screening Centres of Peking Union Medical College Hospital and Beijing Charity Hospital between January 2007 and June 2010. A total of 60,064 people were enrolled in the study. Overall prevalences of biliary stones and gallbladder polyps were 4.2% (n= 2527) and 6.9% (n= 4119), respectively. Risk factors associated with increased odds ratios (ORs) for the development of biliary stones were female gender (OR = 1.51), age ≥ 50 years (OR = 2.09), history of hypertension (OR = 1.37), thickened gallbladder wall (cholecystitis) (OR = 1.98), fasting blood glucose ≥ 6.10 mmol/l (OR = 1.27), body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2) (OR = 1.25), systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg (OR = 1.31) and diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg (OR = 1.44). Factors associated with gallbladder polyps were female gender (OR = 0.66), thickened gallbladder wall (OR = 2.09), negativity for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and positivity for hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) (OR = 2.61), and positivity for both HBsAg and anti-HBc (OR = 3.21).   Prevalences of biliary stones and gallbladder polyps among Chinese people are similar to those reported for other populations. Biliary stones appear to be associated with female gender, age, obesity, blood glucose, blood pressure and cholecystitis. Male gender, hepatitis B virus infection and cholecystitis were strong risk factors for the formation of gallbladder polyps. © 2012 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  6. Prevalences of and risk factors for biliary stones and gallbladder polyps in a large Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qing; Tao, Lian-yuan; Wu, Qiao; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Feng-liang; Yuan, Li; He, Xiao-dong

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to identify the prevalences of and risk factors associated with the development of gallbladder stones and polyps in a large Chinese population. Methods Prevalences of and risk factors for biliary stones and gallbladder polyps were retrospectively investigated among subjects who underwent a general check-up at the Health Screening Centres of Peking Union Medical College Hospital and Beijing Charity Hospital between January 2007 and June 2010. Results A total of 60 064 people were enrolled in the study. Overall prevalences of biliary stones and gallbladder polyps were 4.2% (n = 2527) and 6.9% (n = 4119), respectively. Risk factors associated with increased odds ratios (ORs) for the development of biliary stones were female gender (OR = 1.51), age ≥50 years (OR = 2.09), history of hypertension (OR = 1.37), thickened gallbladder wall (cholecystitis) (OR = 1.98), fasting blood glucose ≥6.10 mmol/l (OR = 1.27), body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 (OR = 1.25), systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg (OR = 1.31) and diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg (OR = 1.44). Factors associated with gallbladder polyps were female gender (OR = 0.66), thickened gallbladder wall (OR = 2.09), negativity for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and positivity for hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) (OR = 2.61), and positivity for both HBsAg and anti-HBc (OR = 3.21). Conclusions Prevalences of biliary stones and gallbladder polyps among Chinese people are similar to those reported for other populations. Biliary stones appear to be associated with female gender, age, obesity, blood glucose, blood pressure and cholecystitis. Male gender, hepatitis B virus infection and cholecystitis were strong risk factors for the formation of gallbladder polyps. PMID:22568413

  7. Complete pancreatic heterotopia of gallbladder with hypertrophic duct simulating an adenomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Pilloni, Luca; Cois, Alessandro; Uccheddu, Alessandro; Ambu, Rossano; Coni, Pierpaolo; Faa, Gavino

    2006-01-01

    The gallbladder is an unusual location of pancreatic heterotopia, defined as the presence of pancreatic tissue lacking anatomical and vascular continuity with the main body of the gland. A 28-year-old man presented with anorexia, nausea and pain in the right upper abdomen. On physical examination, the abdomen was tender to palpation and Murphy sign was positive. The patient underwent a cholecystecomy. This case, in our opinion, is very interesting since it permits to consider a controversial issue in the pathology of the gallbladder. The histological appearance of ductal structure in pancreatic heterotopia resembles the histological picture of both Aschoff-Rokitansky (AR) sinuses and adenomyomas. This finding suggests that these lesions are linked by a common histogenetic origin. We suggest that the finding of an adenomyoma in the gallbladder should prompt an extensive sampling of the organ in order to verify the coexistence of pancreatic rests. PMID:16586554

  8. Effect of pancreatic polypeptide on gallbladder pressure and hepatic bile secretion.

    PubMed

    Adrian, T E; Mitchenere, P; Sagor, G; Bloom, S R

    1982-09-01

    Intraluminal gallbladder pressure, measured by radiotelemetry, and bile output were monitored during infusion of porcine pancreatic polypeptide (PP) at doses of 6, 25, 100, and 400 pmol . kg-1 . h-1 in healthy conscious pigs. Plasma PP concentrations during infusion of the three lower doses, measured by radioimmunoassay, were within the range seen postprandially in these animals. Gallbladder pressure fell in a dose-related manner during PP infusion by 2.2 +/- 0.9, 8.2 +/- 0.4, 11.6 +/- 0.7, and 14.8 +/- 0.8 mmHg, respectively. In addition, a significant reduction in the bile output was observed during infusion of the two higher doses of PP. In a separate series of experiments, using cholecystectomized pigs, PP had no effect on bile output. These findings suggest that the amount of PP released postprandially may be sufficient to influence gallbladder function but not hepatic secretion of bile in the pig.

  9. Tumor location is a strong predictor of tumor progression and survival in T2 gallbladder cancer: an international multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Shindoh, Junichi; de Aretxabala, Xabier; Aloia, Thomas A.; Carlos Roa, Juan; Zimmitti, Giuseppe; Javle, Milind; Conrad, Claudius; Maru, Dipen M.; Aoki, Taku; Vigano, Luca; Ribero, Dario; Roa, Ivan; Kokudo, Norihiro; Capussotti, Lorenzo; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the prognostic impact of tumor location in gallbladder cancer. Summary Background Data Depth of tumor is a strong predictor of survival after curative resection of gallbladder cancer. However, the gallbladder has a unique anatomical relationship with the liver, and the clinical significance of tumor location remains unclear. Methods For 437 patients with gallbladder cancer resected at 4 international institutions, clinicopathologic characteristics and their association with survival were analyzed. Tumor location was defined as “hepatic side” or “peritoneal side”, and the prognostic significance of tumor location was evaluated. Results Among the 252 patients with T2 disease, patients with tumors on the hepatic side (T2h, n=99) had higher rates of vascular invasion, neural invasion, and nodal metastasis than patients with tumors on the peritoneal side (T2p, n=153) (51% vs. 19%, 33% vs. 8%, and 40% vs. 17%, respectively, P<0.01 for all). After a median follow-up of 58.9 months, 3-year and 5-year survival rates were 52.1% and 42.6%, respectively, for T2h tumors and 73.7% and 64.7%, respectively, for T2p tumors (P=0.0006). No such differences were observed in T1 or T3 tumors. Multivariate analysis confirmed the independent association of hepatic-side location with survival in T2 tumors (hazard ratio, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.7 to 4.2; P<0.001). This subclassification of T2 tumors predicted recurrence in the liver (23% vs. 3%, P=0.003) and distant lymph nodes (16% vs. 3%, P=0.019) even after radical resection. Conclusions After curative resection of T2 gallbladder cancer, tumor location predicts the pattern of recurrence and survival. PMID:24854451

  10. Tumor location is a strong predictor of tumor progression and survival in T2 gallbladder cancer: an international multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Shindoh, Junichi; de Aretxabala, Xabier; Aloia, Thomas A; Roa, Juan Carlos; Roa, Ivan; Zimmitti, Giuseppe; Javle, Milind; Conrad, Claudius; Maru, Dipen M; Aoki, Taku; Vigano, Luca; Ribero, Dario; Kokudo, Norihiro; Capussotti, Lorenzo; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    To determine the prognostic impact of tumor location in gallbladder cancer. Depth of tumor is a strong predictor of survival after curative resection of gallbladder cancer. However, the gallbladder has a unique anatomical relationship with the liver, and the clinical significance of tumor location remains unclear. For 437 patients with gallbladder cancer who underwent resection at 4 international institutions, clinicopathologic characteristics and their association with survival were analyzed. Tumor location was defined as "hepatic side" or "peritoneal side," and the prognostic significance of tumor location was evaluated. Among the 252 patients with T2 disease, patients with tumors on the hepatic side (T2h, n = 99) had higher rates of vascular invasion, neural invasion, and nodal metastasis than patients with tumors on the peritoneal side (T2p, n = 153) (51% vs 19%, 33% vs 8%, and 40% vs 17%, respectively; P < 0.01 for all). After a median follow-up of 58.9 months, 3-year and 5-year survival rates were 52.1% and 42.6%, respectively, for T2h tumors and 73.7% and 64.7%, respectively, for T2p tumors (P = 0.0006). No such differences were observed in T1 or T3 tumors. Multivariate analysis confirmed the independent association of hepatic-side location with survival in T2 tumors (hazard ratio, 2.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-4.2; P < 0.001). This subclassification of T2 tumors predicted recurrence in the liver (23% vs 3%; P = 0.003) and distant lymph nodes (16% vs 3%; P = 0.019) even after radical resection. After curative resection of T2 gallbladder cancer, tumor location predicts the pattern of recurrence and survival.

  11. [Factors associated with malignancy in gallbladder polyps without gallbladder stone].

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Seung; Lee, Kyu Taek; Jung, Jae Hong; Ok, Sung Wook; Choi, Sung Chul; Lee, Kwang Hyuck; Lee, Jong Kyun; Heo, Jin Seok; Choi, Seong Ho; Rhee, Jong Chul

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the factors predicting the neoplastic polyp of gallbladder and analyze the size criteria associated with malignancy. A total of 354 subjects with gallbladder polyps confirmed by tissue pathology were included for the analysis. The clinical and radiological features of the polyps were compared between the two groups (neoplastic vs. non-neoplastic) and in the three groups (non-neoplastic vs. adenoma vs. adenocarcinoma). The independent factors associated with malignancy were studied. Of 354 patients, non-neoplastic polyps were observed in 229 (64.7%) patents, adenoma in 85 (24.0%) and adenocarcinoma in 40 (11.3%). The mean diameter of non-neoplastic polyp, adenoma, and adenocarcinoma were 11.3+/-2.8 mm, 16.0+/-7.2 mm, and 27.0+/-8.9 mm, respectively. The mean age of patients with non-neoplastic polyp, adenoma, and adenocarcinoma were 44.8+/-11.3, 49.9+/-12.5, and 60.8+/-9.6, respectively. Age, size of polyp, number of polyp, presence of diabetes, and presence of symptom showed statistically significant difference between the neoplastic polyp and non-neoplastic polyp groups. But only age, size of polyp, number of polyp were statistically independent factors associated with neoplastic polyp (p<0.05). To predict the neoplastic polyp, sensitivity was 94.4%, but specificity was 18.3% on the basis of 10 mm criteria. whereas sensitivity and specificity was 76.0% and 55.5% on the 12 mm-criteria. On the basis of our analysis, the size of polyp is the most important factor to predict the malignancy. In the 10 mm criteria, sensitivity is satisfactory but specificity is very low. Therefore 10 mm size should not be considered to be the absolute size-criterion for surgery.

  12. High resolution chromosome 3p, 8p, 9q and 22q allelotyping analysis in the pathogenesis of gallbladder carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wistuba, I I; Maitra, A; Carrasco, R; Tang, M; Troncoso, P; Minna, J D; Gazdar, A F

    2002-01-01

    Our recent genome-wide allelotyping analysis of gallbladder carcinoma identified 3p, 8p, 9q and 22q as chromosomal regions with frequent loss of heterozygosity. The present study was undertaken to more precisely identify the presence and location of regions of frequent allele loss involving those chromosomes in gallbladder carcinoma. Microdissected tissue from 24 gallbladder carcinoma were analysed for PCR-based loss of heterozygosity using 81 microsatellite markers spanning chromosome 3p (n=26), 8p (n=14), 9q (n=29) and 22q (n=12) regions. We also studied the role of those allele losses in gallbladder carcinoma pathogenesis by examining 45 microdissected normal and dysplastic gallbladder epithelia accompanying gallbladder carcinoma, using 17 microsatellite markers. Overall frequencies of loss of heterozygosity at 3p (100%), 8p (100%), 9q (88%), and 22q (92%) sites were very high in gallbladder carcinoma, and we identified 13 distinct regions undergoing frequent loss of heterozygosity in tumours. Allele losses were frequently detected in normal and dysplastic gallbladder epithelia. There was a progressive increase of the overall loss of heterozygosity frequency with increasing severity of histopathological changes. Allele losses were not random and followed a sequence. This study refines several distinct chromosome 3p, 8p, 9q and 22q regions undergoing frequent allele loss in gallbladder carcinoma that will aid in the positional identification of tumour suppressor genes involved in gallbladder carcinoma pathogenesis. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 87, 432–440. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600490 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:12177780

  13. Design, development, and evaluation of a novel retraction device for gallbladder extraction during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Judge, Joshua M; Stukenborg, George J; Johnston, William F; Guilford, William H; Slingluff, Craig L; Hallowell, Peter T

    2014-02-01

    A source of frustration during laparoscopic cholecystectomy involves extraction of the gallbladder through port sites smaller than the gallbladder itself. We describe the development and testing of a novel device for the safe, minimal enlargement of laparoscopic port sites to extract large, stone-filled gallbladders from the abdomen. The study device consists of a handle with a retraction tongue to shield the specimen and a guide for a scalpel to incise the fascia within the incision. Patients enrolled underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Gallbladder extraction was attempted. If standard measures failed, the device was implemented. Extraction time and device utility scores were recorded for each patient. Patients returned 3-4 weeks postoperatively for assessment of pain level, cosmetic effect, and presence of infectious complications. Twenty (51 %) of 39 patients required the device. Average extraction time for the first eight patients was 120 s. After interim analysis, an improved device was used in 12 patients and average extraction time was 24 s. There were no adverse events. Postoperative pain ratings and incision cosmesis were comparable between patients with and without use of the device. The study device enables safe and rapid extraction of impacted gallbladders through the abdominal wall.

  14. [Severe acute pancreatitis associated with gallbladder gangrene].

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Sánchez, Abel S; Aguirre-Mejía, Rosa Y; Echenique-Martínez, Sergio E

    2014-01-01

    We present a diabetic patient who developed severe acute pancreatitis associated to gallbladder gangrene, in this case we assessed the applicability of classification criteria and management of the pathways for acute pancreatitis and also we suggest some topics that could be investigated in the future.

  15. Carcinoma of the gallbladder. The Roswell Park experience.

    PubMed Central

    Silk, Y N; Douglass, H O; Nava, H R; Driscoll, D L; Tartarian, G

    1989-01-01

    The median survival, from diagnosis, of patients with cancer of the gallbladder is 6 months. Our purpose in reviewing our experience was to identify factors, either in patient characteristics or treatment, that influence this statistic. In 22 years 71 cases of gallbladder carcinoma were referred to Roswell Park Memorial Institute in Buffalo, New York. Most had a cholecystectomy that revealed an unsuspected neoplasm, before referral. Mean age was 62 years and 75% were female. Symptoms, signs, and laboratory and imaging studies were uniformly unhelpful in determining the diagnosis. Early diagnosis at a stage amenable to surgical excision remains the sole salvation. Patients who receive chemotherapy did better than those who did not, but this is probably a reflection of patient selection. Newer treatment modalities are urgently needed. PMID:2589888

  16. Multidetector CT diagnosis of massive hemobilia due to gallbladder polyposis in a child with metachromatic leukodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Wanner, Matthew R; Karmazyn, Boaz; Fan, Rong

    2015-12-01

    Hemobilia secondary to gallbladder polyposis is rare in children but has been reported in a few children with metachromatic leukodystrophy. We present a case with preoperative multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) diagnosis of massive hemobilia caused by gallbladder polyposis in a patient with metachromatic leukodystrophy. Our report highlights the importance of both awareness of the association of gallbladder polyposis with other syndromes such as metachromatic leukodystrophy as well as the possibility of this entity presenting with life-threatening bleeding.

  17. Simultaneous non-traumatic perforation of the right hepatic duct and gallbladder: an atypical occurrence.

    PubMed

    Garg, Pankaj Kumar; Jain, Bhupendra Kumar; Pandey, Satya Deo; Rathi, Vinita; Puri, Amarendra Singh

    2012-07-01

    Simultaneous non-traumatic perforation of the extrahepatic bile duct and the gallbladder is an uncommon occurrence that has been infrequently reported. We describe a patient with a spontaneous perforation of both the extrahepatic bile duct and the gallbladder. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) scan of the abdomen and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) demonstrated a perforation of the gallbladder and a free leak from the right hepatic duct, respectively. Endoscopic biliary drainage following a sphincterotomy and biliary stent placement led to a dramatic improvement in the patient's general condition. He was subsequently scheduled to undergo an elective cholecystectomy. Repeat ERCP performed at 4 weeks after the initial stenting showed a normal cholangiogram and a distally migrated stent, which was there after removed. However, early stent removal led to re-perforation of hepatic duct and gallbladder. A repeat endoscopic biliary drainage did not help, and the patient developed biliary peritonitis. Surgical exploration revealed a perforation at the fundus of the gallbladder, 400 ml of biliopurulent collection and a frozen Calot's triangle. A subtotal cholecystectomy, gall stone removal, and a thorough peritoneal lavage were undertaken. The patient improved postoperatively. The second biliary stent was removed after 4 months. This case report highlights the role of endoscopic biliary drainage in the management of an extrahepatic bile duct perforation and warns against the early removal of a biliary stent.

  18. True left-sided gallbladder: A case report and comparison with the literature for the different techniques of laparoscopic cholecystectomy for such anomalies.

    PubMed

    Saafan, Tamer; Hu, James Yi; Mahfouz, Ahmed-Emad; Abdelaal, Abdelrahman

    2018-01-01

    True left-sided gallbladder (LSG) is a rare finding that may present with symptoms similar to those of a normally positioned gallbladder. Moreover, it may be missed by preoperative imaging studies such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or endoscopic ultrasound. True left-sided gallbladder is a surgical challenge and surgical technique may need to be modified for the completion of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In this case report, we present a case of true left-sided gallbladder that produced right-sided abdominal symptoms. Ultrasound of the abdomen failed to show the left-sided position of the gallbladder. MRI showed the gallbladder located to the left of the ligamentum teres underneath segment III of the liver. Intraoperatively, the gallbladder was grasped and retracted to the right under the falciform ligament and it was removed using classical right-sided ports with no modification to the technique. No complications were encountered intraoperatively or postoperatively. True LSG is a rare anomaly that may present with right-sided symptoms like normally positioned gallbladder. It may be missed in preoperative imaging studies and can be discovered only intraoperatively. Modification of laparoscopic ports, change in patient's position and/or surgeon's position, or conversion to open cholecystectomy may be needed for safe removal of the gallbladder. Classical technique of laparoscopic cholecystectomy is feasible for left-sided gallbladder. However, if the anatomy is not clear, modifications of the surgical technique may be necessary for the safe dissection of the gallbladder. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Claudin-7-positive synchronous spontaneous intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, adenocarcinoma and adenomas of the gallbladder in a Bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps).

    PubMed

    Jakab, Csaba; Rusvai, Miklós; Szabó, Zoltán; Gálfi, Péter; Marosán, Miklós; Kulka, Janina; Gál, János

    2011-03-01

    In this study, synchronous spontaneous, independent liver and gallbladder tumours were detected in a Bearded dragon (Pogona vitticeps). The multiple tumours consisted of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma as well as in situ adenocarcinoma and two adenomas of the gallbladder. The biliary epithelial cells and the cholangiocarcinoma showed membranous cross-immunoreactivity for claudin-7. The gallbladder epithelial cells, its adenoma and adenocarcinoma showed basolateral cross-reactivity for claudin-7. We think that the humanised anti-claudin-7 antibody is a good marker for the detection of different primary cholangiocellular and gallbladder tumours in Bearded dragons. The cholangiocytes, the cholangiocarcinoma, the endothelial cells of the liver and the epithelial cells and gallbladder tumours all showed claudin-5 cross-reactivity. The humanised anti-cytokeratin AE1-AE3 antibody showed cross-reactivity in the biliary epithelial cells, cholangiocarcinoma cells, epithelial cells and tumour cells of the gallbladder. It seems that this humanised antibody is a useful epithelial marker for the different neoplastic lesions of epithelial cells in reptiles. The humanised anti-α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) antibody showed intense cross-reactivity in the smooth muscle cells of the hepatic vessels and in the muscle layer of the gallbladder. The portal myofibroblasts, the endothelial cells of the sinusoids and the stromal cells of the cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder tumours were positive for α-SMA. The antibovine anti-vimentin and humanised anti-Ki-67 antibodies did not show crossreactivity in the different samples from the Bearded dragon.

  20. Increased prevalence of gallbladder polyps in acromegaly.

    PubMed

    Annamalai, Anand K; Gayton, Emma L; Webb, Alison; Halsall, David J; Rice, Caiomhe; Ibram, Ferda; Chaudhry, Afzal N; Simpson, Helen L; Berman, Laurence; Gurnell, Mark

    2011-07-01

    Several studies have suggested an increased prevalence of benign and malignant tumors in acromegaly, particularly colonic neoplasms. The gallbladder's epithelial similarity to the colon raises the possibility that gallbladder polyps (GBP) may occur more frequently in acromegaly. Thirty-one patients with newly diagnosed acromegaly (14 females, 17 males; mean age 54.7 yr, range 27-76 yr) were referred to our center between 2004 and 2008. All had pituitary adenomas and were treated with somatostatin analogs prior to transsphenoidal surgery. Biliary ultrasonography was performed at the time of referral. In a retrospective case-cohort study, we compared the prevalence of GBP in these scans with those of 13,234 consecutive patients (age range 20-80 yr) presenting at the hospital for abdominal/biliary ultrasound during the same time interval. Associations between GH and IGF-I levels and GBP in acromegaly were also examined. There was a higher prevalence of GBP in patients with acromegaly compared with controls (29.03 vs 4.62%, P = 0.000008); relative risk was 6.29 (95% confidence interval 3.61-10.96). Eight of nine patients with acromegaly and GBP were older than 50 yr of age. GH levels were higher in those with GBP (median 30.8 μg/liter, interquartile range 10.9-39.1) than those without (8.2 μg/liter, interquartile range 6.0-16.0), but IGF-I levels were comparable. This is the first study to demonstrate an increased prevalence of GBP in patients with newly diagnosed acromegaly. Further studies are required to determine whether these patients are at increased risk of developing gallbladder carcinoma and to define the role, if any, of biliary ultrasound surveillance.

  1. Design, Development, and Evaluation of a Novel Retraction Device for Gallbladder Extraction During Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Judge, Joshua M.; Stukenborg, George J.; Johnston, William F.; Guilford, William H.; Slingluff, Craig L.; Hallowell, Peter T.

    2015-01-01

    Background A source of frustration during laparoscopic cholecystectomy involves extraction of the gallbladder through port sites smaller than the gallbladder itself. We describe the development and testing of a novel device for the safe, minimal enlargement of laparoscopic port sites to extract large, stone-filled gallbladders from the abdomen. Methods The study device consists of a handle with a retraction tongue to shield the specimen and a guide for a scalpel to incise the fascia within the incision. Patients enrolled underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Gallbladder extraction was attempted. If standard measures failed, the device was implemented. Extraction time and device utility scores were recorded for each patient. Patients returned 3 - 4 weeks post-operatively for assessment of pain level, cosmetic effect, and presence of infectious complications. Results Twenty (51%) of 39 patients required the device. Average extraction time for the first 8 patients was 120 seconds. After interim analysis, an improved device was used in twelve patients, and average extraction time was 24 seconds. There were no adverse events. Post-operative pain ratings and incision cosmesis were comparable between patients with and without use of the device. Conclusion The study device enables safe and rapid extraction of impacted gallbladders through the abdominal wall. PMID:23897085

  2. Expression of MUC1 and MUC4 in gallbladder adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su-Mi; Oh, Sun-Ju; Hur, Bang

    2012-10-01

    Recent reports have indicated that overexpression of mucin (MUC) 1 and/or MUC4 correlates with the occurrence and progression of extra-hepatobiliary malignancy. In this study, we investigated the expression of MUC1 and MUC4 and their prognostic significance in gallbladder adenocarcinoma. We examined 54 surgical gallbladder adenocarcinoma samples by immunohistochemistry for MUC1 and MUC4 expression. Staining was evaluated as a sum score of extent and intensity, dividing the samples into low and high expression groups. The low expression group for both MUC1 and MUC4 was 10 samples (18.5%), and the high expression group was 44 samples (81.5%). High MUC1 expression was significantly correlated with more differentiated tumors (p=0.033), whereas high expression of MUC4 correlated with negative nodal status (p=0.012). Other pathological features were not correlated with MUC expression. Multivariate cox regression analysis showed that neither MUC1 nor MUC4 expression correlated with survival. Although there were some correlations found, a prognostic role for either MUC1 or MUC4 expression in gallbladder carcinoma was not identified in this study. Further investigation is required.

  3. Inflammatory fibroid polyp of the gallbladder bearing a platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha mutation.

    PubMed

    Martini, Maurizio; Santoro, Luisa; Familiari, Pietro; Costamagna, Guido; Ricci, Riccardo

    2013-05-01

    The inflammatory fibroid polyp (IFP) is a benign lesion occurring in the digestive tract, mostly in the stomach and small bowel, composed of fibrovascular tissue infiltrated by inflammatory cells including eosinophils and mastocytes. Its pathogenesis has been controversial (reactive versus neoplastic). The recent finding of mutations in platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRA) in most gastric and small intestinal IFPs supported their neoplastic etiology, moreover helping in their differential diagnosis. In the only gallbladder IFP reported so far, the diagnosis was based on morphologic and immunohistochemical grounds, which in current standards would probably be considered not fully conclusive. Conversely, the gallbladder IFP we report shows typical pathologic features supported by a PDGFRA mutation, similar to its usual gastric and small intestinal counterparts, constituting the first report of an unequivocal IFP at gallbladder level. Thus, IFPs must be considered in the differential diagnosis of gallbladder mesenchymal masses, and genetic analysis of PDGFRA is a helpful tool for this purpose.

  4. miR-125b-5p enhances chemotherapy sensitivity to cisplatin by down-regulating Bcl2 in gallbladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dong; Zhan, Ming; Chen, Tao; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Yunhe; Xu, Sunwang; Yan, Jinchun; Huang, Qihong; Wang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer represents the most common malignancy of the biliary tract and is highly lethal with less than 5% overall 5-year survival rate. Chemotherapy remains the major treatment for late-stage patients. However, insensitivity to these chemotherapeutic agents including cisplatin is common. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown as modulators of drug resistance in many cancer types. We used genome-wide gene expression analysis in clinical samples to identify miR-125b-5p down-regulated in gallbladder cancer. miR-125b-5p up-regulation promoted cell death in gallbladder cancer cells in the presence of cisplatin. In contrast, knockdown of miR-125b-5p reduced cell death in gallbladder cancer cells treated with cisplatin. Up-regulation of miR-125b-5p significantly decreased tumor growth in combination with cisplatin in a mouse model. We identified Bcl2 as a direct target of miR-125b-5p which mediates the function of miR-125b-5p in gallbladder cancer. In clinical samples, miR-125b-5p was down-regulated in gallbladder cancer whereas Bcl2 was up-regulated and their expression was inversely correlated. Moreover, low miR-125b-5p expression or high expression of Bcl2 is correlated with poor prognosis in gallbladder cancer. Taken together, our findings indicate that miR-125b-5p is a potent chemotherapy sensitizer and may function as a new biomarker for the prognosis of gallbladder cancer patients. PMID:28256505

  5. [Polyps of the gallbladder].

    PubMed

    Oestmann, A

    2012-04-25

    Gallbladder polyps are a common incidental finding in ultrasound. They may be clinically significant, because adenomas have a malignant potential, in contrast to the benign cholesterol polyps occuring more frequently. As non-neoplastic polyps and neoplastic polyps cannot be morphologically discriminated in ultrasound, maximal diameter of a polyp has proven to be the best predictor for malignancy. Cholecystectomy is widely accepted as the treatment of choice for patients with polyps >1 cm. Patients with polyps <1 cm should have a follow-up check for a longer period of time (with the exception of very small polyps).

  6. Radical lymph node dissection and assessment: Impact on gallbladder cancer prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Gui-Jie; Li, Xue-Hua; Chen, Yan-Xin; Sun, Hui-Dong; Zhao, Gui-Mei; Hu, San-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the lymph node metastasis patterns of gallbladder cancer (GBC) and evaluate the optimal categorization of nodal status as a critical prognostic factor. METHODS: From May 1995 to December 2010, a total of 78 consecutive patients with GBC underwent a radical resection at Liaocheng People’s Hospital. A radical resection was defined as removing both the primary tumor and the regional lymph nodes of the gallbladder. Demographic, operative and pathologic data were recorded. The lymph nodes retrieved were examined histologically for metastases routinely from each node. The positive lymph node count (PLNC) as well as the total lymph node count (TLNC) was recorded for each patient. Then the metastatic to examined lymph nodes ratio (LNR) was calculated. Disease-specific survival (DSS) and predictors of outcome were analyzed. RESULTS: With a median follow-up time of 26.50 mo (range, 2-132 mo), median DSS was 29.00 ± 3.92 mo (5-year survival rate, 20.51%). Nodal disease was found in 37 patients (47.44%). DSS of node-negative patients was significantly better than that of node-positive patients (median DSS, 40 mo vs 17 mo, χ2 = 14.814, P < 0.001), while there was no significant difference between N1 patients and N2 patients (median DSS, 18 mo vs 13 mo, χ2 = 0.741, P = 0.389). Optimal TLNC was determined to be four. When node-negative patients were divided according to TLNC, there was no difference in DSS between TLNC < 4 subgroup and TLNC ≥ 4 subgroup (median DSS, 37 mo vs 54 mo, χ2 = 0.715, P = 0.398). For node-positive patients, DSS of TLNC < 4 subgroup was worse than that of TLNC ≥ 4 subgroup (median DSS, 13 mo vs 21 mo, χ2 = 11.035, P < 0.001). Moreover, for node-positive patients, a new cut-off value of six nodes was identified for the number of TLNC that clearly stratified them into 2 separate survival groups (< 6 or ≥ 6, respectively; median DSS, 15 mo vs 33 mo, χ2 = 11.820, P < 0.001). DSS progressively worsened with increasing PLNC and

  7. Radical lymph node dissection and assessment: Impact on gallbladder cancer prognosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gui-Jie; Li, Xue-Hua; Chen, Yan-Xin; Sun, Hui-Dong; Zhao, Gui-Mei; Hu, San-Yuan

    2013-08-21

    To investigate the lymph node metastasis patterns of gallbladder cancer (GBC) and evaluate the optimal categorization of nodal status as a critical prognostic factor. From May 1995 to December 2010, a total of 78 consecutive patients with GBC underwent a radical resection at Liaocheng People's Hospital. A radical resection was defined as removing both the primary tumor and the regional lymph nodes of the gallbladder. Demographic, operative and pathologic data were recorded. The lymph nodes retrieved were examined histologically for metastases routinely from each node. The positive lymph node count (PLNC) as well as the total lymph node count (TLNC) was recorded for each patient. Then the metastatic to examined lymph nodes ratio (LNR) was calculated. Disease-specific survival (DSS) and predictors of outcome were analyzed. With a median follow-up time of 26.50 mo (range, 2-132 mo), median DSS was 29.00 ± 3.92 mo (5-year survival rate, 20.51%). Nodal disease was found in 37 patients (47.44%). DSS of node-negative patients was significantly better than that of node-positive patients (median DSS, 40 mo vs 17 mo, χ² = 14.814, P < 0.001), while there was no significant difference between N1 patients and N2 patients (median DSS, 18 mo vs 13 mo, χ² = 0.741, P = 0.389). Optimal TLNC was determined to be four. When node-negative patients were divided according to TLNC, there was no difference in DSS between TLNC < 4 subgroup and TLNC ≥ 4 subgroup (median DSS, 37 mo vs 54 mo, χ² = 0.715, P = 0.398). For node-positive patients, DSS of TLNC < 4 subgroup was worse than that of TLNC ≥ 4 subgroup (median DSS, 13 mo vs 21 mo, χ² = 11.035, P < 0.001). Moreover, for node-positive patients, a new cut-off value of six nodes was identified for the number of TLNC that clearly stratified them into 2 separate survival groups (< 6 or ≥ 6, respectively; median DSS, 15 mo vs 33 mo, χ² = 11.820, P < 0.001). DSS progressively worsened with increasing PLNC and LNR, but no

  8. Defects in Gallbladder Emptying and Bile Acid Homeostasis in Mice With Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Deficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Debray, Dominique; Rainteau, Dominique; Barbu, Véronique; Rouahi, Myriam; Mourabit, Haquima El; Lerondel, Stéphanie; Rey, Colette; Humbert, Lydie; Wendum, Dominique; Cottart, Charles-Henry; Dawson, Paul; Chignard, Nicolas; Housset, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) have poorly defined defects in biliary function. We evaluated the effects of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) deficiency on the enterohepatic disposition of bile acids (BAs). Methods Bile secretion and BA homeostasis were investigated in Cftrtm1Unc (Cftr−/−) and CftrΔF508 (ΔF508) mice. Results Cftr−/− and ΔF508 mice did not grow to normal size, but did not have liver abnormalities. The gallbladders of Cftr−/− mice were enlarged and had defects in emptying, based on99mtechnetiummebrofenin scintigraphy or post-prandial variationsn gallbladder volume; gallbladder contraction in response to cholecystokinin-8 was normal. Cftr−/− mice had abnormal gallbladder bile and duodenal acidity, and overexpressed the vasoactive intestinal peptide—a myorelaxant factor for the gallbladder. The BA pool was larger in Cftr−/− than wild-type mice, although there were no differences in fecal loss of BAs. Amounts of secondary BAs in portal blood, liver, and bile of Cftr−/− mice were much lower than normal. Expression of genes that are induced by BAs, including fibroblast growth factor-15 and BA transporters, was lower in the ileum but higher in the gallbladders of Cftr−/− mice, compared with wild-type mice, whereas enzymes that synthesize BA were down-regulated in livers of Cftr−/− mice. This indicates that BAs underwent a cholecystohepatic shunt, which was confirmed using cholyl-(Ne-NBD)-lysine as a tracer. In Cftr−/− mice, cholecystectomy reversed most changes in gene expression and partially restored circulating levels of secondary BAs. The ΔF508 mice overexpressed vasoactive intestinal peptide and had defects in gallbladder emptying and in levels of secondary BAs, but these features were less severe than in Cftr−/− mice. Conclusions Cftr−/− and CftrΔF508 mice have defects in gallbladder emptying that disrupt enterohepatic circulation of BAs. These defects

  9. A dural metastatic small cell carcinoma of the gallbladder as the first manifestation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tonomura, Shuichi; Kitaichi, Tomoko; Onishi, Rina; Kakehi, Yoshiaki; Shimizu, Hisao; Shimada, Keiji; Kanemasa, Kazuyuki; Fukusumi, Akio; Takahashi, Nobuyuki

    2018-03-16

    A dural metastasis is one of the essential differential diagnoses of meningioma. In general, carcinomas of the breast and lung in females and prostate in males have been the most commonly reported primary lesions of dural metastases. However, dural metastasis of gallbladder carcinoma is extremely rare. Here, we report a unique case of a dural matter metastasis of gallbladder carcinoma as the first manifestation, which was autopsy-defined as small cell carcinoma. A 78-year-old man came to our hospital complaining of left hemianopia. Brain computed tomography (CT) revealed a sizeable parasagittal dural-based extra-axial tumor. However, the findings for meningioma were atypical by magnetic resonance imaging, suggesting a meningioma mimic. A contrast-enhanced CT scan of the abdomen revealed a large gallbladder carcinoma. The patient opted for the best supportive care and died 2 months later. The post-mortem examination revealed small cell carcinoma in gallbladder carcinoma. Moreover, an immunologically similar carcinoma was detected in the dural metastasis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a dural metastasis of gallbladder small cell carcinoma. A systemic examination is essential for clinicians when atypical findings of meningioma are observed, suggesting a meningioma mimic. We present this rare case with a review of the literature.

  10. A hitherto undescribed benign mesenchymal polyp of the gallbladder: edematous angiomyolipoma-like polyp.

    PubMed

    Arcega, R; Wu, J X; Magaki, S; Donahue, T R; Wang, H L

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of two peculiar gallbladder polyps in a sixty-four year old male who presented with symptomatic cholelithiasis. Cholecystectomy was performed, which revealed two polyps measuring 0.6 cm and 1.9 cm, located in the body of the gallbladder. Microscopic examination of the polyps showed composite mesenchymal lesions with vascular proliferation of small-to-medium sized arterioles, myoid stroma, and lipomatous periphery. The myoid component was characterized by wisps of bland smooth muscle fibers loosely separated by proteinaceous and focally myxoid matrix. The surface of the polyps was lined by a single layer of bland epithelial cells. The unique histomorphologic features differentiate the lesions from other known mesenchymal polyps of the gallbladder. We propose the name "edematous angiomyolipoma-like polyp" for these rare lesions given their histomorphologic similarity to angiomyolipoma. (Acta gastroenterol. belg., 2016, 79, 371-374). © Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica.

  11. Functional characterization of Na(+)/H(+) exchangers in primary cultures of prairie dog gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Narins, S C; Park, E H; Ramakrishnan, R; Garcia, F U; Diven, J N; Balin, B J; Hammond, C J; Sodam, B R; Smith, P R; Abedin, M Z

    2004-01-15

    Gallbladder Na(+) absorption is linked to gallstone formation in prairie dogs. We previously reported Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE1-3) expression in native gallbladder tissues. Here we report the functional characterization of NHE1, NHE2 and NHE3 in primary cultures of prairie dog gallbladder epithelial cells (GBECs). Immunohistochemical studies showed that GBECs grown to confluency are homogeneous epithelial cells of gastrointestinal origin. Electron microscopic analysis of GBECs demonstrated that the cells form polarized monolayers characterized by tight junctions and apical microvilli. GBECs grown on Snapwells exhibited polarity and developed transepithelial short-circuit current, I(sc), (11.6 +/- 0.5 microA. cm(-2)), potential differences, V(t) (2.1 +/- 0.2 mV), and resistance, R(t) (169 +/- 12 omega. cm(2)). NHE activity in GBECs assessed by measuring dimethylamiloride-inhibitable (22)Na(+) uptake under a H(+) gradient was the same whether grown on permeable Snapwells or plastic wells. The basal rate of (22)Na(+) uptake was 21.4 +/- 1.3 nmol x mg prot(-1) x min(-1), of which 9.5 +/- 0.7 (approximately 45%) was mediated through apically-restricted NHE. Selective inhibition with HOE-694 revealed that NHE1, NHE2 and NHE3 accounted for approximately 6%, approximately 66% and approximately 28% of GBECs' total NHE activity, respectively. GBECs exhibited saturable NHE kinetics ( V(max) 9.2 +/- 0.3 nmol x mg prot(-1) x min(-1); K(m) 11.4 +/- 1.4 m M Na(+)). Expression of NHE1, NHE2 and NHE3 mRNAs was confirmed by RT-PCR analysis. These results demonstrate that the primary cultures of GBECs exhibit Na(+) transport characteristics similar to native gallbladder tissues, suggesting that these cells can be used as a tool for studying the mechanisms of gallbladder ion transport both under physiologic conditions and during gallstone formation.

  12. Metformin treatment prevents gallstone formation but mimics porcelain gallbladder in C57Bl/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Dorvash, Mohammad Reza; Khoshnood, Mohammad Javad; Saber, Hossein; Dehghanian, Amirreza; Mosaddeghi, Pouria; Firouzabadi, Negar

    2018-06-05

    Gallstone disease (GD) is highly correlated with metabolic syndrome and its related illnesses including type II diabetes (DMII) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). While previous studies claimed that metformin decreases the chance of developing GD in PCOS patients, this phenomenon has not been investigated in animal models to date. Here we fed a high fat diet (HFD) containing 2% of cholesterol and 1% of cholic acid to ten-week-old male C57Bl/6 mice for 105 days. The groups were as follows: Low fat diet; HFD; HFD + Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) (day 1-105); HFD + Metformin (day 1-105); HFD + Metformin (Met) (day 64-105). All drugs were administered by oral gavage (Met = 300 mg/kg & UDCA = 750 mg/kg). Serum lipid profile and gross organ examination were performed after euthanasia. A microscopic evaluation of the paraffin-embedded gallbladders was done after hematoxylin & eosin and Von Kossa staining. HFD successfully induces gallstone (4 out of 4 of the HFD members). While both UDCA and metformin (d 1-105) prevented gallstone formation and cholecystitis, Metformin (d 64-105) group had a few small stones. Additionally, metformin induces mucosal calcification in gallbladder (porcelain GB) of more than 80% of the HFD + Met (day 1-105) and HFD + Met (day 64-105) groups, collectively, which can be a potential problem by itself. While metformin shows a noticeable benefit towards GB health by reducing the chance for gallstone formation, if it induces porcelain gallbladder in humans as well, it might inflict patients with preventable medical charges. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Long-term culture and partial characterization of dog gallbladder epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Oda, D.; Lee, S.P.; Hayashi, A.

    1991-05-01

    We describe the successful isolation and maintenance of primary cultures of dog gallbladder epithelial cells. The surgically removed gallbladder was treated with trypsin/EDTA for 45 minutes and epithelial cells were collected and resuspended in Eagle's minimum essential medium with 10% fetal calf serum, and plated on Vitrogen-coated culture dishes. Each gallbladder yielded approximately 12 to 15 x 10{sup 6} columnar epithelial cells, greater than 95% of which were viable by trypan blue exclusion. In culture, cells maintained their polarity. They were arranged and grew in small and tight clusters that coalesced at confluency. When examined using transmission electron microscopy, prominentmore » and numerous microville were identified on the apical portion of the plasma membrane. Cells were connected by well-formed desmosomes. Scanning electron microscopy revealed clusters of polyhedral cells with numerous papillary projections. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated uniform staining of cells to keratin 35BH11 and AE1. Histochemical studies were positive for gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and negative for glucose-6-phosphatase and albumin. Cells incorporated ({sup 3}H)uridine into intracellular proteins and ({sup 14}C)glucosamine into tissue and secreted mucous glycoproteins linearly over 2 to 24 hours. Flow cytometry studies demonstrated a consistent and reproducible number of cells (10 to 12%) at S-phase. However, the number of cells at S-phase was dramatically reduced to almost negligible as cells reached confluency. This method of culturing primary dog gallbladder epithelial cells is highly reproducible and reliable. These cells preserve their state of differentiation, polarity, histochemical and immunohistochemical profile, morphologic, and metabolic integrity with repeated passaging or after being frozen.« less

  14. US of Right Upper Quadrant Pain in the Emergency Department: Diagnosing beyond Gallbladder and Biliary Disease.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Gayatri; Crawford, Kevin A; Hanna, Tarek N; Herr, Keith D; Dahiya, Nirvikar; Menias, Christine O

    2018-01-01

    Acute cholecystitis is the most common diagnosable cause for right upper quadrant abdominal (RUQ) pain in patients who present to the emergency department (ED). However, over one-third of patients initially thought to have acute cholecystitis actually have RUQ pain attributable to other causes. Ultrasonography (US) is the primary imaging modality of choice for initial imaging assessment and serves as a fast, cost-effective, and dynamic modality to provide a definitive diagnosis or a considerably narrowed list of differential possibilities. Multiple organ systems are included at standard RUQ US, and a variety of ultrasonographically diagnosable disease processes can be identified, including conditions of hepatic, pancreatic, adrenal, renal, gastrointestinal, vascular, and thoracic origin, all of which may result in RUQ pain. In certain cases, subsequent computed tomography, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, MR cholangiopancreatography, or cholescintigraphy may be considered, depending on the clinical situation and US findings. Familiarity with the spectrum of disease processes outside of the gallbladder and biliary tree that may manifest with RUQ pain and recognition at US of these alternative conditions is pivotal for early diagnosis and appropriate management. Diagnosis at the time of initial US can reduce unnecessary imaging and its consequences, including excess cost, radiation exposure, nephrotoxic contrast medium use, and time to diagnosis, thereby translating into improved patient care and outcome. This article (a) reviews the causes of RUQ pain identifiable at US using an organ-system approach, (b) illustrates the US appearance of select conditions from each organ system with multimodality imaging correlates, and (c) discusses the relevant pathophysiology and treatment of these entities to aid in efficient direction of management. Online supplemental material is available for this article. © RSNA, 2018.

  15. Can endoscopic ultrasonography differentiate nonneoplastic from neoplastic gallbladder polyps?

    PubMed

    Akatsu, Tomotaka; Aiura, Koichi; Shimazu, Motohide; Ueda, Masakazu; Wakabayashi, Go; Tanabe, Minoru; Kawachi, Shigeyuki; Kitajima, Masaki

    2006-02-01

    The present study aimed to clarify the endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) features of nonneoplastic (cholesterol polyps and adenomyomatosis) and neoplastic (adenoma and adenocarcinoma) gallbladder polyps and to evaluate the effectiveness and limitation of EUS in the differential diagnosis of these lesions. We retrospectively compared EUS images with histologic findings in 29 surgical cases with gallbladder polyps with a diameter of 10 to 20 mm. Those cases were indicated for surgery based on the findings of a sessile appearance, a solitary lesion, low echogenicity, and/or a lobulated surface. Six of 10 cholesterol polyps were atypically seen as partially or completely hypoechoic due to predominant proliferation of glandular epithelia. Nine of 10 cholesterol polyps demonstrated an aggregation of hyperechoic spots, which represented multiple granules of cholesterosis. All adenomyomatoses (n = 10) showed multiple microcysts, which corresponded to proliferated Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses. However, three of nine neoplastic lesions (three adenomas and six adenocarcinomas) showed one of these signs due to concomitant cholesterosis (n = 2) or proliferated Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses (n = 1). In conclusion, 69% (20/29) of gallbladder polyps larger than 10 mm that were preoperatively suspected of malignancy were nonneoplastic. An aggregation of hyperechoic spots and multiple microcysts are considered to be important predictive factors for cholesterol polyps and adenomyomatosis, respectively. However, we should caution that these findings can also occur in neoplastic polyps when they contain a concomitant nonneoplastic component (cholesterosis or proliferated Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses).

  16. Exposure to Mold Toxin Linked to Gallbladder Cancer Risk

    Cancer.gov

    A study by the National Cancer Institute reports an association between a marker of exposure to aflatoxin, a poisonous chemical produced by a type of mold, and gallbladder cancer in a population of men and women in Shanghai, China.

  17. Long-term follow up of gallbladder polyps.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Youp; Hong, Sung Pil; Kim, Yoon Jae; Kim, Hong Jeoung; Kim, Hee Man; Cho, Jae Hee; Park, Seung Woo; Song, Si Young; Chung, Jae Bock; Bang, Seungmin

    2009-02-01

    The management of gallbladder polyps (GBP) is directly linked to the early diagnosis of gallbladder cancer (GBC). This study aimed to evaluate the malignant risk of GBP. In total, 1558 patients diagnosed with GBP were followed. Neoplastic polyps were defined as GBC and its premalignant lesions. The risk for malignancy was estimated with the cumulative detection rate of neoplastic polyps. Thirty-three cases (2.1%) were diagnosed with neoplastic polyps. The cumulative detection rates of neoplastic polyps were 1.7% at 1 year, 2.8% at 5 years, and 4% at 8 years after diagnosis. The size of GBP and the presence of gallstones were risk factors for neoplastic polyps. Polyps > or = 10 mm had a 24.2 times greater risk of malignancy than polyps < 10 mm. However, 15 of 33 neoplastic polyps (45.5%) were < 10 mm at the time of diagnosis of GBP. During follow up in 36 (3.5%) of 1027 cases, an increase in size was detected; of these, nine (25%) had neoplastic polyps. Even small polyps have a risk of malignancy, and careful long-term follow up of GBP will help detect and treat early GBC.

  18. Hypersecretion of mucus glycoprotein by the gallbladder epithelium in experimental cholelithiasis.

    PubMed

    Lee, S P

    1981-07-01

    In three models of cholelithiasis (dihydrocholesterol-fed rabbits, cholesterol-cholic acid-fed mice, and Lincomycin-treated guinea pigs), the quantity and chemical composition of gallbladder epithelial mucin have been studied using (1) a spectrum of histochemical glycoprotein stains, and (2) biochemical extraction, purification and analysis of the carbohydrate components of epithelial mucin. Despite the diverse mechanism of stone induction and difference in stone composition, a common pattern of response by the epithelial mucin was observed in all three models. There was a quantitative increase in epithelial mucus production at a time before stones were formed and this increase persisted till stones were formed. There was no difference, qualitatively, between mucus produced by normal and stone-forming gallbladders.

  19. [Gallbladder Stone Types in Patients with Cholelithiasis and Clonorchis sinensis Infection in the Endemic Area of Clonorchiasis].

    PubMed

    Ma, Rui-hong; Qiao, Tie; Luo, Zhen-liang; Luo, Xiao-bing; Zheng, Pei-ming; Yang, Liu-qing

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between Clonorchis sinensis infection and the gallbladder stone type in patients with cholelithiasis in the endemic area of clonorchiasis. Gallbladder stones were collected from 598 patients with cholelithiasis through minimally invasive gallbladder-preserving cholelithotomy in the Sixth People's Hospital of Nansha District from May 2009 to October 2012. The stone samples were analyzed for composition by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to identify their types. The Clonorchis sinensis eggs were detected in the stones by microscopic examination, and the detection rates of eggs were calculated for different stone types. Then the clinical characteristics and biochemical indicators were compared among patients with different types of stones, as well as between Clonorchis sinensis egg-positive and -negative patients with the calcium-carbonate type of stones. Some calcium-carbonate stones positive for Clonorchis sinensis eggs were randomly selected for further scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination. Of the stones from 598 patients, 234 (39.1%) were cholesterol type, 133 (22.2%) bile pigment type, 112(18.7%) calcium-carbonate type, 86 (14.4%) mixed types and 33(5.5%) were others. The detection rate of Clonorchis sinensis eggs in these types was 6% (15/234), 44% (59/133), 60% (67/112), 36% (31/ 86) and 30% (10/33), respectively, being highest in calcium-carbonate stones while lowest in cholesterol stones. The Co2-combining power of the plasma was higher in patients with calcium-carbonate and mixed stones than in those with cholesterol stones (P < 0.05), and the CO2-combining power of the bile and biliary pH were both higher in patients with calcium-carbonate types than in those with other types (P < 0.05). In addition, in patients with calcium-carbonate stones, the CO2-combining powers of the plasma and the bile, as well as biliary pH were all higher in the egg-positives than in the egg-negatives. Further, both light

  20. Pathology report assessment of incidental gallbladder carcinoma diagnosed from cholecystectomy specimens: results of a French multicentre survey.

    PubMed

    Chatelain, Denis; Fuks, David; Farges, Olivier; Attencourt, Christophe; Pruvot, François René; Regimbeau, Jean-Marc

    2013-12-01

    To assess the accuracy of pathology reports on gallbladder specimens from patients operated on for incidental gallbladder carcinoma. Demographic data, details on pathological reports including gross and microscopic features section were recorded in 100 selected patients with incidental gallbladder carcinoma diagnosed from 2004 to 2007. Pathology reports had a conventional format in 93% of cases, without any standardization. Turnaround time ranged from 1 to 35 days. Frozen sections were performed in 20% of cases. The reports failed to give information on prognostic histological factors: exact tumour site (missing in 55% of cases), depth of tumour infiltration within the gallbladder wall (missing in 10%), surgical margins (missing in 40% for the cystic duct margin), tumour differentiation (missing in 28%), vascular invasion (missing in 52%) and perineural invasion (missing in 51%). Lymph node status could be assessed in 44% of cases. Distances between the tumour and the cystic duct and circumferential margins were not specified in 68% and 84% of cases. Only 29% of the reports clearly stated the pTNM stage in the conclusion section. The pT stage with margin status and tumour site was only mentioned in 30% of the reports. Pathology reports on gallbladder carcinoma from participating centres frequently lacked important information on key prognostic histological factors. Copyright © 2013 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Serial analysis of gene expression identifies connective tissue growth factor expression as a prognostic biomarker in gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Hector; Corvalan, Alejandro; Roa, Juan C; Argani, Pedram; Murillo, Francisco; Edwards, Jennifer; Beaty, Robert; Feldmann, Georg; Hong, Seung-Mo; Mullendore, Michael; Roa, Ivan; Ibañez, Luis; Pimentel, Fernando; Diaz, Alfonso; Riggins, Gregory J; Maitra, Anirban

    2008-05-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an uncommon neoplasm in the United States, but one with high mortality rates. This malignancy remains largely understudied at the molecular level such that few targeted therapies or predictive biomarkers exist. We built the first series of serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) libraries from GBC and nonneoplastic gallbladder mucosa, composed of 21-bp long-SAGE tags. SAGE libraries were generated from three stage-matched GBC patients (representing Hispanic/Latino, Native American, and Caucasian ethnicities, respectively) and one histologically alithiasic gallbladder. Real-time quantitative PCR was done on microdissected epithelium from five matched GBC and corresponding nonneoplastic gallbladder mucosa. Immunohistochemical analysis was done on a panel of 182 archival GBC in high-throughput tissue microarray format. SAGE tags corresponding to connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) transcripts were identified as differentially overexpressed in all pairwise comparisons of GBC (P < 0.001). Real-time quantitative PCR confirmed significant overexpression of CTGF transcripts in microdissected primary GBC (P < 0.05), but not in metastatic GBC, compared with nonneoplastic gallbladder epithelium. By immunohistochemistry, 66 of 182 (36%) GBC had high CTGF antigen labeling, which was significantly associated with better survival on univariate analysis (P = 0.0069, log-rank test). An unbiased analysis of the GBC transcriptome by SAGE has identified CTGF expression as a predictive biomarker of favorable prognosis in this malignancy. The SAGE libraries from GBC and nonneoplastic gallbladder mucosa are publicly available at the Cancer Genome Anatomy Project web site and should facilitate much needed research into this lethal neoplasm.

  2. Preoperative predictive factors for gallbladder cholesterol polyp diagnosed after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for polypoid lesions of gallbladder

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyojin; Park, Inseok; Cho, Hyunjin; Gwak, Geumhee; Yang, Keunho; Bae, Byung-Noe; Kim, Hong-Ju; Kim, Young Duk

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims We investigated patients' clinical and radiological data to determine preoperative factors that predict cholesterol gallbladder (GB) polyps of large size, which can be helpful for decision on further diagnostic tools. Methods In this study, we retrospectively analyzed 126 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for GB polyps >10 mm diagnosed preoperatively by abdominal ultrasonography between February 2002 and February 2016 in Department of Surgery, Sanggye Paik Hospital. Patients were divided into non-cholesterol polyps group and cholesterol polyps group, based on the postoperative pathologic diagnosis. Clinical and radiological data, such as gender, age, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), laboratory findings, size, number and shape of the polypoid lesions, and presence of the concurrent GB stone were compared between the two groups. Results Of the 126 cases, 73 had cholesterol polyps (57.9%) and 53 cases were non-cholesterol polyps (42.1%). The younger age (<48.5 years), size of polyp <13.25 mm and multiple polyps were independent predictive variables for cholesterol polyps, with odd ratios (OR) of 2.352 (p=0.045), 5.429 (p<0.001) and 0.472 (p<0.001), respectively. Conclusions Age, size and polyp number were used to predict cholesterol GB polyp among polypoid lesions of the gallbladder >10 mm. For cases in which these factors are not applicable, it is strongly recommended to evaluate further diagnostic tools, such as computed tomography, endoscopic ultrasonography and tumor markers. PMID:28261697

  3. Stenting of the Cystic Duct in Benign Disease: A Definitive Treatment for the Elderly and Unwell

    SciTech Connect

    Hersey, N., E-mail: naomi.hersey@sth.nhs.uk; Goode, S. D., E-mail: s.goode@sheffield.sc.uk; Peck, R. J., E-mail: robert.peck@sth.nhs.uk

    PurposeThere have been few case reports describing cystic duct stent insertion in the management of acute cholecystitis secondary to benign disease with no case series published to date. We present our series demonstrating the role of cystic duct stents in managing benign gallbladder disease in those patients unfit for surgery.Materials and MethodsThirty three patients unfit for surgery in our institution underwent cystic duct stent insertion for the management of acute cholecystitis in the period June 2008 to June 2013. Patients underwent a mixture of transperitoneal and transhepatic gallbladder puncture. The cystic duct was cannulated with a hydrophilic guidewire which wasmore » subsequently passed through the common bile duct and into the duodenum. An 8Fr 12-cm double-pigtail stent was placed with the distal end lying within the duodenum and the proximal end within the gallbladder.ResultsTen patients presented with gallbladder perforation, 21 patients with acute cholecystitis, 1 with acute cholangitis and 1 with necrotising pancreatitis. The technical success rate was 91 %. We experienced a 13 % complication rate with 3 % mortality rate at 30 days.ConclusionCystic duct stent insertion can be successfully used to manage acute cholecystitis, gallbladder empyema or gallbladder perforations in those unfit for surgery and should be considered alongside external gallbladder drainage as a definitive mid-term treatment option.« less

  4. Interaction of Muc4 and ErbB2 in a transgenic mouse model of gallbladder carcinoma: potential pathobiological implications.

    PubMed

    Miyahara, Naoki; Shoda, Junichi; Kawamoto, Toru; Ishida, Hiroyasu; Ueda, Tetsuya; Akimoto, Yoshihiro; Kawakami, Hayato; Irimura, Tatsuro

    2014-11-01

    The molecular mechanism of gallbladder carcinogenesis and cancer growth remains unknown. BK5.erbB2 transgenic mice in which erbB2 is overexpressed and activated in the biliary epithelia develop adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder at a high incidence. Although it has been reported that erbB2 plays an important role in tumorigenesis, little is known about the involvement of its ligand(s). The expression level of Muc4, a potential functional ligand for erbB2, and its interaction with erbB2 in the gallbladder of BK5.erbB2 mice were determined. By immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, both Muc4 mRNA and protein levels were strongly expressed in the cancerous epithelia of gallbladder from BK5.erbB2 mice. Also, in the hyperplastic (precancerous) epithelia, the protein levels were modestly expressed. Immunostaining with Muc4 (ASGP2) Ab overlapped with that with erbB2 Ab in the apical membranous components of the cancerous epithelia, indicating the co-localization of Muc4 and erbB2. Immunoprecipitation experiments revealed an interaction between Muc4 and erbB2 in the gallbladders. The interaction was associated with the hyperphosphorylation of erbB2, MAPK and Akt, and also with the overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2. However, in other organs that overexpressed erbB2 (trachea, esophagus and forestomach), Muc4 was expressed in only trace or modest amounts, and erbB2 was not hyperphosphorylated. Collectively, Muc4 is upregulated and interacts with erbB2 in gallbladders from BK5.erbB2 mice. It is likely that Muc4 plays an important role during gallbladder carcinogenesis and/or cancer growth by potentiating erbB2 signaling.

  5. Clonorcis sinensis eggs are associated with calcium carbonate gallbladder stones.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Tie; Ma, Rui-hong; Luo, Zhen-liang; Yang, Liu-qing; Luo, Xiao-bing; Zheng, Pei-ming

    2014-10-01

    Calcium carbonate gallbladder stones were easily neglected because they were previously reported as a rare stone type in adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between calcium carbonate stones and Clonorchis sinensis infection. A total of 598 gallbladder stones were studied. The stone types were identified by FTIR spectroscopy. The C. sinensis eggs and DNA were detected by microscopic examination and real-time fluorescent PCR respectively. And then, some egg-positive stones were randomly selected for further SEM examination. Corresponding clinical characteristics of patients with different types of stones were also statistically analyzed. The detection rate of C. sinensis eggs in calcium carbonate stone, pigment stone, mixed stone and cholesterol stone types, as well as other stone types was 60%, 44%, 36%, 6% and 30%, respectively, which was highest in calcium carbonate stone yet lowest in cholesterol stone. A total of 182 stones were egg-positive, 67 (37%) of which were calcium carbonate stones. The C. sinensis eggs were found adherent to calcium carbonate crystals by both light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Patients with calcium carbonate stones were mainly male between the ages of 30 and 60, the CO2 combining power of patients with calcium carbonate stones were higher than those with cholesterol stones. Calcium carbonate gallbladder stones are not rare, the formation of which may be associated with C. sinensis infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Percutaneous trans-papillary elimination of common bile duct stones using an existing gallbladder drain for access.

    PubMed

    Atar, Eli; Neiman, Chaim; Ram, Eduard; Almog, Mazal; Gadiel, Itai; Belenky, Alexander

    2012-06-01

    The presence of stones in the common bile duct (CBD) may cause complications such as obstructing jaundice or ascending cholangitis, and the stones should be removed. To assess the efficacy of percutaneous elimination of CBD stones from the gallbladder through the papilla. During a 4 year period, six patients (five men and one woman, mean age 71.5 years) who had CBD stones and an existing gallbladder drain underwent percutaneous stone push into the duodenum after balloon dilatation of the papilla, with a diameter equal to that of the largest stone. Access into the CBD was from the gallbladder, using an already existing percutaneous gallbladder drain (cholecystostomy tube). Each patient had one to three CBD stones measuring 7-14 mm. Successful CBD stone elimination into the duodenum was achieved in five of the six patients. The single failure occurred in a patient with choledochal diverticulum, who was operated successfully. There were no major or minor complications during or after the procedures. Trans-cholecystic CBD stone elimination is a safe and feasible percutaneous technique that utilizes existing tracts, thus obviating the need to create new percutaneous access. This procedure can replace endoscopic or surgical CBD exploration.

  7. Treatment and surveillance of polypoid lesions of the gallbladder in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Marangoni, Gabriele; Hakeem, Abdul; Toogood, Giles J; Lodge, J Peter A; Prasad, K Raj

    2012-07-01

    The increase in the routine use of abdominal imaging has led to a parallel surge in the identification of polypoid lesions in the gallbladder. True gallbladder polyps (GBP) have malignant potential and surgery can prevent or treat early gallbladder cancer. In an era of constraint on health care resources, it is important to ensure that surgery is offered only to patients who have appropriate indications. The aim of this study was to assess treatment and surveillance policies for GBP among hepatobiliary and upper gastrointestinal tract surgeons in the UK in the light of published evidence. A questionnaire on the management of GBP was devised and sent to consultant surgeon members of the Association of Upper Gastrointestinal Surgeons (AUGIS) of Great Britain and Ireland with the approval of the AUGIS Committee. It included eight questions on indications for laparoscopic cholecystectomy and surveillance based on GBP (size, number, growth rate) and patient (age, comorbidities, ethnicity) characteristics. A total of 79 completed questionnaires were returned. The vast majority of surgeons (>75%) stated that they would perform surgery when a single GBP reached 10 mm in size. However, there was a lack of uniformity in the management of multiple polyps and polyp growth rate, with different surveillance protocols for patients treated conservatively. Gallbladder polyps are a relatively common finding on abdominal ultrasound scans. The survey showed considerable heterogeneity among surgeons regarding treatment and surveillance protocols. Although no randomized controlled trials exist, national guidelines would facilitate standardization, the formulation of an appropriate algorithm and appropriate use of resources. © 2012 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  8. Treatment and surveillance of polypoid lesions of the gallbladder in the United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Marangoni, Gabriele; Hakeem, Abdul; Toogood, Giles J; Lodge, J Peter A; Prasad, K Raj

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The increase in the routine use of abdominal imaging has led to a parallel surge in the identification of polypoid lesions in the gallbladder. True gallbladder polyps (GBP) have malignant potential and surgery can prevent or treat early gallbladder cancer. In an era of constraint on health care resources, it is important to ensure that surgery is offered only to patients who have appropriate indications. The aim of this study was to assess treatment and surveillance policies for GBP among hepatobiliary and upper gastrointestinal tract surgeons in the UK in the light of published evidence. Methods A questionnaire on the management of GBP was devised and sent to consultant surgeon members of the Association of Upper Gastrointestinal Surgeons (AUGIS) of Great Britain and Ireland with the approval of the AUGIS Committee. It included eight questions on indications for laparoscopic cholecystectomy and surveillance based on GBP (size, number, growth rate) and patient (age, comorbidities, ethnicity) characteristics. Results A total of 79 completed questionnaires were returned. The vast majority of surgeons (>75%) stated that they would perform surgery when a single GBP reached 10 mm in size. However, there was a lack of uniformity in the management of multiple polyps and polyp growth rate, with different surveillance protocols for patients treated conservatively. Conclusions Gallbladder polyps are a relatively common finding on abdominal ultrasound scans. The survey showed considerable heterogeneity among surgeons regarding treatment and surveillance protocols. Although no randomized controlled trials exist, national guidelines would facilitate standardization, the formulation of an appropriate algorithm and appropriate use of resources. PMID:22672544

  9. Rapid formation of cholesterol crystals in gallbladder bile is associated with stone recurrence after laparoscopic cholecystotomy.

    PubMed

    Jüngst, D; del Pozo, R; Dolu, M H; Schneeweiss, S G; Frimberger, E

    1997-03-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystotomy (LCT) with subsequent extraction of gallstones and primary closure of the gallbladder has been introduced as an alternative therapy for patients with cholecystolithiasis and preserved gallbladder function. However, stone recurrence has to be considered as a major drawback that might be related to lithogenic factors of gallbladder bile or the composition of gallbladder stones. Therefore, these were studied in relation to stone recurrence within an observation period of 1 to 5 years (median, 3.6 years) in 50 patients after LCT. The concentrations of total and individual bile acids, phospholipids, cholesterol, total lipids, mucin, protein, and the cholesterol saturation indices in gallbladder bile were not significantly different between 10 patients with and 40 patients without stone recurrence. However, the crystal observation time was significantly (P < .02) shorter (range, 1-2 days; median, 1.5) in the bile of patients with stone recurrence compared to those without (range, 1-21 days, median 3.5). Moreover, all 10 stone recurrences were observed in the 28 patients with a crystal observation time in the bile of less than or equal to 2 days (approximate annual risk: 12%-15%), and no recurrences were observed in the 22 patients with a crystal observation time greater than 2 days (P < .0001) or in patients with pigment stones. The rapid formation of cholesterol monohydrate crystals in bile seems to be the major risk factor for recurrent stones after LCT. These are most likely cholesterol stones and, therefore, are amenable to oral bile-acid prevention or treatment.

  10. Cholecystectomy or gallbladder in situ after endoscopic sphincterotomy and bile duct stone removal in Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Lau, James Y W; Leow, Chon-Kar; Fung, Terence M K; Suen, Bing-Yee; Yu, Ly-Mee; Lai, Paul B S; Lam, Yuk-Hoi; Ng, Enders K W; Lau, Wan Yee; Chung, Sydney S C; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2006-01-01

    In patients with stones in their bile ducts and gallbladders, cholecystectomy is generally recommended after endoscopic sphincterotomy and clearance of bile duct stones. However, only approximately 10% of patients with gallbladders left in situ will return with further biliary complications. Expectant management is alternately advocated. In this study, we compared the treatment strategies of laparoscopic cholecystectomy and gallbladders left in situ. We randomized patients (>60 years of age) after endoscopic sphincterotomy and clearance of their bile duct stones to receive early laparoscopic cholecystectomy or expectant management. The primary outcome was further biliary complications. Other outcome measures included adverse events after cholecystectomy and late deaths from all causes. One hundred seventy-eight patients entered into the trial (89 in each group); 82 of 89 patients who were randomized to receive laparoscopic cholecystectomy underwent the procedure. Conversion to open surgery was needed in 16 of 82 patients (20%). Postoperative complications occurred in 8 patients (9%). Analysis was by intention to treat. With a median follow-up of approximately 5 years, 6 patients (7%) in the cholecystectomy group returned with further biliary events (cholangitis, n = 5; biliary pain, n = 1). Among those with gallbladders in situ, 21 (24%) returned with further biliary events (cholangitis, n = 13; acute cholecystitis, n = 5; biliary pain, n = 2; and jaundice, n = 1; log rank, P = .001). Late deaths were similar between groups (cholecystectomy, n = 19; gallbladder in situ, n = 11; P = .12). In the Chinese, cholecystectomy after endoscopic treatment of bile duct stones reduces recurrent biliary events and should be recommended.

  11. [Gallbladder polyps: how should they be treated and when?].

    PubMed

    Matos, Ana Sofia Bento de; Baptista, Hamilton Neves; Pinheiro, Carlos; Martinho, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the correct therapeutic management for patients with gallbladder polyps (GPs), what type of surveillance should be employed and how to differentiate between benign and malignant polyps in addition to also to providing reassurance in cases of "cancerophobia". This was a 5-years retrospective study. The study was conducted at a Surgery Department at the Hospitais da Universidade de Coimbra. We analyzed all patients operated on at the Surgery Service II from January 2003 to December 2007 who had had a preoperative diagnosis of GP. Clinicopathological correlations were traced for all patients. The following were analyzed: demographic data, clinical presentation, principal symptoms, associated pathologies, supplementary tests and diagnoses. We studied 93 patients, 91 of whom had benign polyps and two of whom had malignant polyps. Of the 91 benign polyps, 73 (78.5%) were cholesterol polyps, 14 (15%) were hyperplastic and two (2.2%) were adenomas. Two (2.2%) patients had malignant polyps, both adenogallbladder carcinomas. The mean diameter of benign polyps was 6 mm and 40 (43%) patients had multiple lesions. The mean diameter of malignant and premalignant polyps taken together was 18.8 mm, all were single polyps and the mean age of this patient subset was 57.7 years. It was concluded that the surgical option for GPs is cholecystectomy and that this should only be undertaken in cases where there are clinical signs of GP; polyps with diameters greater than 10 mm; fast-growing polyps; sessile polyps or wide-based polyps; polyps with long pedicles; patient aged over 50; concurrent gallstones; polyps of the gallbladder infundibulum or abnormal gallbladder wall ultrasound.

  12. Preoperative ultrasound measurements predict the feasibility of gallbladder extraction during transgastric natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Santos, Byron F; Auyang, Edward D; Hungness, Eric S; Desai, Kush R; Chan, Edward S; van Beek, Darren B; Wang, Edward C; Soper, Nathaniel J

    2011-04-01

    Extraction of a gallbladder through an endoscopic overtube during natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) transgastric cholecystectomy avoids potential injury to the esophagus. This study examined the rate of successful gallbladder specimen extraction through an overtube and hypothesized that preoperative ultrasound findings could predict successful specimen passage. Gallbladder specimens from patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were measured, and an attempt was made to pull the specimens through a commercially available overtube with an inner diameter of 16.7-mm. A radiologist blinded to the outcomes reviewed the available preoperative ultrasound measurements from these patients. Ultrasound dimensions including gallbladder length, width, and depth; wall thickness; common bile duct diameter; and size of the largest gallstone (LGS) were recorded. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine whether ultrasound findings and patient characteristics (age, body mass index [BMI], and sex) could predict the ability of a specimen to pass through the overtube. Of 57 patients, 44 (77%) who had preoperative ultrasounds available for electronic review were included in the final analysis. Gallstones were present in 35 (79%) of these 44 patients. Intraoperative gallbladder perforation occurred in 18 (41%) of the 44 patients, and 16 (36%) of the 44 gallbladders could be extracted through the overtube. Measurement of LGS was possible for 23 patients, and indeterminate gallstone size (IGS) was determined for 12 patients. The rate for passage of perforated versus intact gallbladders was similar (40% vs. 23%; p = 0.054). The LGS (odds ratio [OR], 1.17; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.33; p = 0.021) and IGS (OR, 22.97; 95% CI, 1.99-265.63; p = 0.025) predicted failed passage on multivariate logistic regression analysis. The passage rate was 80% for LGS smaller than 10 mm or no stones present, 18% for LGS 10 mm or larger, and 8% for

  13. Characterization of basal hepatic bile flow and the effects of intravenous cholecystokinin on the liver, sphincter, and gallbladder in patients with sphincter of Oddi spasm.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Gerbail T; Krishnamurthy, Shakuntala; Watson, Randy D

    2004-01-01

    The major objectives of this project were to establish the pattern of basal hepatic bile flow and the effects of intravenous administration of cholecystokinin on the liver, sphincter of Oddi, and gallbladder, and to identify reliable parameters for the diagnosis of sphincter of Oddi spasm (SOS). Eight women with clinically suspected sphincter of Oddi spasm (SOS group), ten control subjects (control group), and ten patients who had recently received an opioid (opioid group) were selected for quantitative cholescintigraphy with cholecystokinin. Each patient was studied with 111-185 MBq (3-5 mCi) technetium-99m mebrofenin after 6-8 h of fasting. Hepatic phase images were obtained for 60 min, followed by gallbladder phase images for 30 min. During the gallbladder phase, 10 ng/kg octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK-8) was infused over 3 min through an infusion pump. Hepatic extraction fraction, excretion half-time, basal hepatic bile flow into the gallbladder, gallbladder ejection fraction, and post-CCK-8 paradoxical filling (>30% of basal counts) were identified. Seven of the patients with SOS were treated with antispasmodics (calcium channel blockers), and one underwent endoscopic sphincterotomy. Mean (+/-SD) hepatic bile entry into the gallbladder (versus GI tract) was widely variable: it was lower in SOS patients (32%+/-31%) than in controls (61%+/-36%) and the opioid group (61%+/-25%), but the difference was not statistically significant. Hepatic extraction fraction, excretion half-time, and pattern of bile flow through both intrahepatic and extrahepatic ducts were normal in all three groups. Gallbladder mean ejection fraction was 9%+/-4% in the opioid group; this was significantly lower (P<0.0001) than the values in the control group (54%+/-18%) and the SOS group (48%+/-29%). Almost all of the bile emptied from the gallbladder refluxed into intrahepatic ducts; it reentered the gallbladder after cessation of CCK-8 infusion (paradoxical gallbladder filling) in all

  14. A comparative study of mud-like and coralliform calcium carbonate gallbladder stones.

    PubMed

    Ma, Rui-Hong; Luo, Xiao-Bing; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Qiao, Tie; Huang, Hai-Yi; Zhong, Hai-Qiang

    2017-07-01

    To gain insight to underlying mechanism of the formation of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) gallbladder stones, we did comparative study of stones with mud appearance and those with coralliform appearance. A total of 93 gallbladder stones with mud appearance and 50 stones with coralliform appearance were analyzed. The appearance, color, texture, and the detection of Clonorchis sinensis eggs by microscopic examination were compared between the two groups. Then, the material compositions of stones were analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and the spectrogram characteristics were compared. Moreover, microstructure characteristics of the two kinds of stones were observed and compared with Scanning Electron Microscopy. Mud-like gallbladder stones were mainly earthy yellow or brown with brittle or soft texture, while coralliform stones were mainly black with extremely hard texture, the differences between the two groups was significant (p < .05). The analytic results of FTIR spectroscopy showed that 95.7% (89/93) of the mud-like gallbladder stones were CaCO 3 stones, and mainly aragonite; while all of the coralliform stones were CaCO 3 stones, and mainly calcite (p < .05). Meanwhile, microscopic examination indicated that the detection rate of Clonorchis sinensis eggs in mud-like CaCO 3 stones was lower than that in coralliform CaCO 3 stones (p < .05), and that in aragonite CaCO 3 stones was lower than that in calcite CaCO 3 stones(p < .05). Mud-like CaCO 3 stones mainly happened to patients with cystic duct obstruction. Clonorchis sinensis infection was mainly associated with coralliform (calcite) CaCO 3 stones. Cystic duct obstruction was mainly associated with mud-like (aragonite) CaCO 3 stones. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. US characteristics for the prediction of neoplasm in gallbladder polyps 10 mm or larger.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Sil; Lee, Jeong Kyong; Kim, Yookyung; Lee, Sang Min

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the characteristics of gallbladder polyps 10 mm or larger to predict a neoplasm in US examinations. Fifty-three patients with gallbladder polyps ≥ 10 mm with follow-up images or pathologic diagnosis were included in the retrospective study. All images and reports were reviewed to determine the imaging characteristics of gallbladder polyps. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate predictors for a neoplastic polyp. A neoplastic polyp was verified in 12 of 53 patients and the mean size was 13.9 mm. The univariate analysis revealed that adjacent gallbladder wall thickening, larger size (≥15 mm), older age (≥57 years), absence of hyperechoic foci in a polyp, CT visibility, sessile shape, a solitary polyp, and an irregular surface were significant predictors for a neoplastic polyp. In the multivariate analysis, larger size (≥15 mm) was a significant predictor for a neoplastic polyp. A polyp size ≥15 mm was the strongest predictor for a neoplastic polyp with US. The hyperechoic foci in a polyp and CT visibility would be useful indicators for the differentiation of a neoplastic polyp, in addition to the established predictors. • A polyp size ≥15 mm is the strongest predictor for a neoplastic polyp with US. • Hyperechoic foci in a polyp and CT visibility are new predictors. • The rate of malignancy is low in polyps even 10 mm or larger (15.1 %).

  16. Telocytes: new insight into the pathogenesis of gallstone disease

    PubMed Central

    Matyja, Andrzej; Gil, Krzysztof; Pasternak, Artur; Sztefko, Krystyna; Gajda, Mariusz; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof A; Matyja, Maciej; Walocha, Jerzy A; Kulig, Jan; Thor, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    The major mechanisms of gallstone formation include biliary cholesterol hypersecretion, supersaturation and crystallization, mucus hypersecretion, gel formation and bile stasis. Gallbladder hypomotility seems to be a key event that triggers the precipitation of cholesterol microcrystals from supersaturated lithogenic bile. Telocytes, a new type of interstitial cells, have been recently identified in many organs, including gallbladder. Considering telocyte functions, it is presumed that these cells might be involved in the signalling processes. The purpose of this study was to correlate the quantity of telocytes in the gallbladder with the lithogenicity of bile. Gallbladder specimens were collected from 24 patients who underwent elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstone disease. The control group consisted of 25 consecutive patients who received elective treatment for pancreatic head tumours. Telocytes were visualized in paraffin sections of gallbladders with double immunofluorescence using primary antibodies against c-Kit (anti-CD117) and anti-mast cell tryptase. Cholesterol, phospholipid and bile acid levels were measured in gallbladder bile. The number of telocytes in the gallbladder wall was significantly lower in the study group than that in the control group (3.03 ± 1.43 versus 6.34 ± 1.66 cell/field of view in the muscularis propria, P < 0.001) and correlated with a significant increase in the cholesterol saturation index. The glycocholic and taurocholic acid levels were significantly elevated in the control subjects compared with the study group. The results suggest that bile composition may play an important role in the reduction in telocytes density in the gallbladder. PMID:23551596

  17. Impact of Type of Surgery on Survival Outcome in Patients With Early Gallbladder Cancer in the Era of Minimally Invasive Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jin-Young; Heo, Jin Seok; Han, Youngmin; Chang, Jihoon; Kim, Jae Ri; Kim, Hongbeom; Kwon, Wooil; Kim, Sun-Whe; Choi, Seong Ho; Choi, Dong Wook; Lee, Kyoungbun; Jang, Kee-Taek; Han, Sung-Sik; Park, Sang-Jae

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Laparoscopic surgery has been widely accepted as a feasible and safe treatment modality in many cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. However, most guidelines on gallbladder cancer (GBC) regard laparoscopic surgery as a contraindication, even for early GBC. This study aims to evaluate and compare recent surgical outcomes of laparoscopic and open surgery for T1(a,b) GBC and to determine the optimal surgical strategy for T1 GBC. The study enrolled 197 patients with histopathologically proven T1 GBC and no history of other cancers who underwent surgery from 2000 to 2014 at 3 major tertiary referral hospitals with specialized biliary-pancreas pathologists and optimal pathologic handling protocols. Median follow-up was 56 months. The effects of depth of invasion and type of surgery on disease-specific survival and recurrence patterns were investigated. Of the 197 patients, 116 (58.9%) underwent simple cholecystectomy, including 31 (15.7%) who underwent open cholecystectomy and 85 (43.1%) laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The remaining 81 (41.1%) patients underwent extended cholecystectomy. Five-year disease-specific survival rates were similar in patients who underwent simple and extended cholecystectomy (96.7% vs 100%, P = 0.483), as well as being similar in patients in the simple cholecystectomy group who underwent open and laparoscopic cholecystectomy (100% vs 97.6%, P = 0.543). Type of surgery had no effect on recurrence patterns. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for T1 gallbladder cancer can provide similar survival outcomes compared to open surgery. Considering less blood loss and shorter hospital stay with better cosmetic outcome, laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be justified as a standard treatment for T1b as well as T1a gallbladder cancer when done by well-experienced surgeons based on exact pathologic diagnosis. PMID:27258495

  18. Changes in gallbladder bile composition and crystal detection time in morbidly obese subjects after bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Ulf; Benthin, Lisbet; Granström, Lars; Groen, Albert K; Sahlin, Staffan; Einarsson, Curt

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanisms of development of cholesterol crystals and gallstones during weight reduction in obese subjects. Twenty-five morbidly obese, gallstone-free subjects underwent vertical-banded gastroplasty. Gallbladder bile was collected at the time of the operation via needle aspiration and 1.1-7.3 months after the operation via ultrasound-guided transhepatic puncture of the gallbladder. The mean weight loss was 17 kg. Two patients developed gallstones and 10 patients displayed cholesterol crystals in their bile. In patients with a follow-up time of less than 2 months (n = 13), cholesterol saturation increased from 90% to 114% but tended to decrease in the patients with a follow-up time of more than 2 months. The extraction of the concanavalin-A-binding fraction from gallbladder bile obtained after weight reduction in 7 patients prolonged crystallization detection time from 6 to 10 days. The hexosamine concentration, a marker for mucin, was increased by about 100% in bile obtained in 6 of 7 patients after weight reduction. In conclusion, the results indicate that crystallization-promoting compounds (mucin) are of great importance in the development of cholesterol crystals and gallstones in obese subjects during weight reduction, probably because of defective gallbladder emptying.

  19. Incision extension is the optimal method of difficult gallbladder extraction at laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Bordelon, B M; Hobday, K A; Hunter, J G

    1992-01-01

    An unsolved problem of laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the optimal method of removing the gallbladder with thick walls and a large stone burden. Proposed solutions include fascial dilatation, stone crushing, and ultrasonic, high-speed rotary, or laser lithotripsy. Our observation was that extension of the fascial incision to remove the impacted gallbladder was time efficient and did not increase postoperative pain. We reviewed the narcotic requirements of 107 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Fifty-two patients required extension of the umbilical incision, and 55 patients did not have their fascial incision enlarged. Parenteral meperidine use was 39.5 +/- 63.6 mg in the patients requiring fascial incision extension and 66.3 +/- 79.2 mg in those not requiring fascial incision extension (mean +/- standard deviation). Oral narcotic requirements were 1.1 +/- 1.5 doses vs 1.3 +/- 1.7 doses in patients with and without incision extension, respectively. The wide range of narcotic use in both groups makes these apparent differences not statistically significant. We conclude that protracted attempts at stone crushing or expensive stone fragmentation devices are unnecessary for the extraction of a difficult gallbladder during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  20. Human beta-glucuronidase. Measurement of its activity in gallbladder bile devoid of intrinsic interference.

    PubMed

    Ho, Y C; Ho, K J

    1988-04-01

    Our purpose is to develop a standard method for preparing the bile for beta-glucuronidase determination by removal of bile acids and conjugated bilirubin which interfere with its activity. The bile acids and conjugated bilirubin in their purified solutions and in the diluted gallbladder biles could be extracted completely with cholestyramine in powder form or tetrahexylammonium chloride (THAC) in chloroform or ethyl acetate. The enzyme was, however, partially precipitated with cholestyramine and denatured by chloroform but not by ethyl acetate. A standard procedure, therefore, includes extraction of the diluted gallbladder bile with THAC in ethyl acetate, followed by determination of the maximal velocity (Vmax) of the enzyme by a kinetic method employing phenolphthalein glucuronide as the substrate. The average Vmax of beta-glucuronidase in the 20 normal gallbladder biles was 165 +/- 86 nmol/min/ml (mean +/- SD), a 23.5-fold increase over the activity before extraction. The measured activity represented the true activity of the enzyme in the bile for recovery of activity of the enzyme added to the bile was practically complete.

  1. On the growth rate of gallstones in the human gallbladder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nudelman, I.

    1993-05-01

    The growth rate of a single symmetrically oval shaped gallbladder stone weighing 10.8 g was recorded over a period of six years before surgery and removal. The length of the stone was measured by ultrasonography and the growth rate was found to be linear with time, with a value of 0.4 mm/year. A smaller stone growing in the wall of the gallbladder was detected only three years before removal and grew at a rate of ˜ 1.33 mm/year. The morphology and metallic ion chemical composition of the large stone and of a randomly selected small stone weighing about 1.1 g, extracted from another patient, were analyzed and compared. It was found that the large stone contained besides calcium also lead, whereas the small stone contained mainly calcium. It is possible that the lead causes a difference in mechanism between the growth of a single large and growth of multiple small gallstones.

  2. Routine administration of antibiotics to patients suffering accidental gallbladder perforation during laparoscopic cholecystectomy is not necessary.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Valdivia, Gilberto

    2008-12-01

    Accidental rupture of the gallbladder is an event which occurs in up to 20% of laparoscopic cholecystectomies, mainly in those where dissection is difficult, or during extraction when the gallbladder is withdrawn directly through the laparoscope port. It has been commonly assumed that contamination by bile in the abdominal cavity could be a cause of infection and lead to the formation of a residual abscess or even to surgical wound infection. It is common practice, therefore, for the surgeon to prescribe the application of an antibiotic at the moment when gallbladder perforation occurs. To compare 2 groups of similar patients, to determine whether administration of antibiotics, started during surgery, is actually useful in reducing the risk of residual abscess or infection in the surgical wound. The study considered a total of 166 patients who had suffered accidental perforation of the gallbladder during elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This total was divided at random into 2 groups: group A (80 patients) who received a dose of 1 g of Cefotaxime at the moment of gallbladder rupture, followed by 2 more doses at intervals of 8 hours in the immediate postoperative period; and group B (86 patients) who did not receive any antibiotic treatment at all. The dependent variables observed were surgical wound infection and residual abscess: and the control variables were age, sex, length of operation time, intercurrent illnesses, and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification. Two patients (2.5%) in group A developed a surgical wound infection, against 3 cases (3.4%) in group B, the result having no statistical significance. No patients developed residual abscess. In a multivariant analysis, the following were identified as independent factors significantly associated with the onset of surgical wound infection (P<0.001): diabetes mellitus, being over 60 years of age, operation time lasting longer than 70 minutes, and ASA 3. Routine application of an

  3. A case of Mirizzi syndrome that was successfully treated by laparoscopic choledochoplasty using a gallbladder patch.

    PubMed

    Hiraki, Masatsugu; Ueda, Junji; Kono, Hiroshi; Egawa, Noriyuki; Saeki, Kiyoshi; Tsuru, Yasuhiro; Ide, Takao; Noshiro, Hirokazu

    2017-11-01

    The use of laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of Mirizzi syndrome is considered controversial due to the degree of technical difficulty. We herein describe the case of a 36-year-old woman who was admitted to our hospital due to appetite loss, nausea and back pain. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography revealed a round-shaped filling defect at the confluence of the bile duct. The patient was diagnosed with Mirizzi syndrome Type II according to the Csendes classification. Before surgery, an endoscopic nasobiliary drainage tube was placed for intraoperative cholangiography. Based on the intraoperative findings, the anterior wall of Hartmann's pouch was excised to remove the impacted gallstone. The neck portion of the gallbladder wall was then used to make a gallbladder patch, which was sutured to cover the anterior wall of the common hepatic bile duct. Laparoscopic choledochoplasty using a gallbladder patch was a technically feasible treatment for Mirizzi syndrome Type II.

  4. [Expression of ephrin-A7 and metadherin and its clinicopathological significances in the benign and malignant lesions of gallbladder].

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong-cai; Yang, Zhu-lin

    2011-03-01

    To study the expression of ephrin-A7 (EphA7) and metadherin (MTDH) and their clinicopathological significances in the benign and malignant lesions of gallbladder. EnVisiom immunohistochemical methods was used for determining the expressions of EphA7 and MTDH in routinely paraffin-embedded sections of surgically-resected specimens from 108 cases with gallbladder adenocarcinoma, 15 cases with adenomatous polyp and 35 cases with chronic cholecystitis treated from June 1996 to June 2006. And 46 cases of peritumoral tissues were also harvested as controls (n = 35). The positive expression rates of EphA7 and MTDH were significantly higher in gallbladder adenocarcinoma than those in peritumoral tissues (χ(2)(EphA7) = 12.65, χ(2)(MTDH) = 13.00; P < 0.01), adenomatous polyp (χ(2)(EphA7) = 8.21, χ(2)(MTDH) = 9.39; P < 0.01) and chronic cholecystitis (χ(2)(EphA7) = 21.21, χ(2)(MTDH) = 23.68; P < 0.01); Moderately-or severely-atypical hyperplasia of gallbladder epithelium was found in the benign lesions with positive expression of EphA7 and/or MTDH. The positive rates of EphA7 and MTDH were significantly lower in the cases of well-differentiated adenocarcinoma, maximal diameter of tumor < 2 cm, no-metastasis of lymph node, and tumor with no-invasiveness of regional tissues than those in the poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma (χ(2)(EphA7) = 12.34, χ(2)(MTDH) = 12.80; P < 0.01), maximal diameter of tumor ≥ 2 cm (χ(2)(EphA7) = 5.22, χ(2)(MTDH) = 5.00; P < 0.05), cases with metastasis of lymph node (χ(2)(EphA7) = 5.15, χ(2)(MTDH) = 5.86; P < 0.05) and cases with invasiveness of regional tissues (χ(2)(EphA7) = 7.06, P < 0.01; χ(2)(MTDH) = 4.13; P < 0.05) in gallbladder adenocarcinoma (P < 0.05). The high consistency was found between the expressive levels of EphA7 and MTDH in gallbladder adenocarcinoma (χ(2) = 13.11, P < 0.01). The univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the increased expression of EphA7 (P = 0.023) and MTDH (P = 0.034) was negatively

  5. Analysis of Carcinogenic Heavy Metals in Gallstones and its Role in Gallbladder Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Bikash; Maulik, Dhrubajyoti; Mandal, Mousumi; Sarkar, Gautam Narayan; Sengupta, Sanjay; Ghosh, Debidas

    2017-12-01

    Gallstone is a high-risk factor for gallbladder pre-malignancy or malignancy (GB PM-M) but which substances of gallstones definitely assist to turn out in to GB PM-M, remains unclear. This study aimed to find out the presence of carcinogenic heavy metals in gallstones and to explore the aetiopathogenesis of gallbladder pre-malignancy and malignancy. Presence of elements in gallstones was detected by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and then level of carcinogenic heavy metals was estimated in gallstones using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The experiment was carried out in gallstone samples of 46 patients with gallbladder pre-malignant and malignant condition (PM-M group) and 65 sex and age-matched patients with chronic cholecystitis (C-C group). Gallstones were also classified in to three types such as cholesterol stone, mixed stone, and black pigment stone. EDS analysis detected presence of mercury, lead, and cobalt elements in all types of gallstones of both PM-M and C-C groups. AAS analysis revealed significantly higher amount of mercury (p < 0.001), lead (p < 0.0001), cobalt (p < 0.01), and cadmium (p < 0.01) in the gallstones of PM-M than C-C groups. The presence of these heavy metals also varied among stone types of both groups. EDS phase analysis showed 'dense deposits' of these metals in gallstones. Presence of significantly higher amount of mercury, lead, cobalt, and cadmium in gallstones may play a pivotal role as risk factors in the development of gallbladder malignancy or pre-malignancy. 'Dense deposits' of these metals in the gallstones which is the first observation, may act as crucial doses of carcinogens.

  6. Malignant perivascular epithelioid cell tumor of the gallbladder: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liena; Anders, Karl H

    2014-09-01

    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors are rare mesenchymal neoplasms composed of histologically and immunohistochemically distinctive perivascular epithelioid cells. The perivascular epithelioid cell tumor family includes angiomyolipoma, clear cell sugar tumor of the lung, lymphangioleiomyomatosis, clear cell myomelanocytic tumor of the falciform ligament/ligamentum teres, and rare clear cell tumors of other anatomic sites. Perivascular epithelioid cell tumors have been reported previously in various sites, but to our knowledge not in the gallbladder. We report here, for the first time, a malignant perivascular epithelioid cell tumor arising in the gallbladder.

  7. EVALUATION OF CONTRAST-ENHANCED ULTRASONOGRAPHY AS A METHOD FOR DETECTING GALLBLADDER NECROSIS OR RUPTURE IN DOGS.

    PubMed

    Bargellini, Paolo; Orlandi, Riccardo; Paloni, Chiara; Rubini, Giuseppe; Fonti, Paolo; Peterson, Mark E; Rishniw, Mark; Boiti, Cristiano

    2016-11-01

    Gall bladder necrosis and rupture are life-threatening conditions in dogs requiring surgical intervention and early diagnosis is essential. Human patients with suspected gall bladder necrosis/rupture are commonly evaluated with contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS), however this procedure has not been described in dogs with suspected gall bladder necrosis/rupture. In a prospective diagnostic cohort study, CEUS (using SonoVue contrast medium) was performed in 93 dogs with gallbladder lesions identified by abdominal conventional ultrasonography. Necrosis/rupture was identified by CEUS as a focal lack of enhancement of the gallbladder wall. Dogs with positive CEUS finding for necrosis/rupture (complete lack of regional wall enhancement) underwent immediate surgery as did dogs with other biliary disorders requiring surgery. Dogs with negative CEUS findings or those not requiring surgery were managed medically. In cases undergoing surgery, necrosis/rupture was confirmed intraoperatively (and via histopathology). Absence of necrosis/rupture was confirmed either intraoperatively (via histopathology) or was assumed to be absent by complete recovery with medical management. Forty-nine dogs underwent surgery and cholecystectomy: 24 had necrosis/rupture. CEUS was more accurate (100% sensitive and specific) in diagnosing gallbladder wall necrosis/rupture than conventional ultrasonography (75% sensitive and 81% specific) (P < 0.03). In conclusion, CEUS provides accurate characterization of gallbladder wall integrity that can impact decisions regarding clinical management, either surgical or medical. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  8. Management of late biliary complications in patients with gallbladder stones in situ after endoscopic papillary balloon dilation.

    PubMed

    Tsujino, Takeshi; Kawabe, Takao; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Yashima, Yoko; Yagioka, Hiroshi; Kogure, Hirofumi; Sasaki, Takashi; Arizumi, Toshihiko; Togawa, Osamu; Ito, Yukiko; Matsubara, Saburo; Nakai, Yousuke; Sasashira, Naoki; Hirano, Kenji; Tada, Minoru; Omata, Masao

    2009-04-01

    Patients with untreated gallbladder stones in situ are at high risk for late biliary complications after endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) and bile duct stone extraction. Few data exist on the short-term and long-term results in these patients after the recurrence of bile duct stones and acute cholecystitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of late biliary complications in patients with gallbladder stones in situ after EPBD. Fifty-six patients who developed late biliary complications, including bile duct stone recurrence (n=43) and acute cholecystitis (n=13), were managed at our institutions. We investigated the short-term and long-term outcomes after the management of late biliary complications. Complete removal of recurrent bile duct stones was achieved in 38 of 43 patients (88%) by repeated EPBD alone. Pancreatitis after repeated EPBD occurred in two patients (5%). After successful bile duct stone extraction by EPBD, none of the 16 patients who underwent cholecystectomy developed late biliary complications (mean follow-up period of 5.2 years), wheras re-recurrent bile duct stones occurred in three of the 21 patients (14%) with gallbladder stones left in situ (mean follow-up period of 4.4 years)(P=0.1148). Re-recurrent bile duct stones were successfully treated endoscopically. One of the eight patients who did not undergo cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis had a recurrence of cholecystitis, which was managed conservatively. The long-term outcomes of late biliary complications are favorable when patients with concomitant gallbladder stones undergo cholecystectomy. Re-recurrent bile duct stones are considerable when gallbladder stones are left in situ, but should be treated endoscopically.

  9. Management of late biliary complications in patients with gallbladder stones in situ after endoscopic papillary balloon dilation.

    PubMed

    Tsujino, Takeshi; Kawabe, Takao; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Yashima, Yoko; Yagioka, Hiroshi; Kogure, Hirofumi; Sasaki, Takashi; Arizumi, Toshihiko; Togawa, Osamu; Ito, Yukiko; Matsubara, Saburo; Nakai, Yousuke; Sasashira, Naoki; Hirano, Kenji; Tada, Minoru; Omata, Masao

    2009-04-01

    Patients with untreated gallbladder stones in situ are at high risk for late biliary complications after endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) and bile duct stone extraction. Few data exist on the short-term and long-term results in these patients after the recurrence of bile duct stones and acute cholecystitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of late biliary complications in patients with gallbladder stones in situ after EPBD. Fifty-six patients who developed late biliary complications, including bile duct stone recurrence (n=43) and acute cholecystitis (n=13), were managed at our institutions. We investigated the short-term and long-term outcomes after the management of late biliary complications. Complete removal of recurrent bile duct stones was achieved in 38 of 43 patients (88%) by repeated EPBD alone. Pancreatitis after repeated EPBD occurred in two patients (5%). After successful bile duct stone extraction by EPBD, none of the 16 patients who underwent cholecystectomy developed late biliary complications (mean follow-up period of 5.2 years), whereas re-recurrent bile duct stones occurred in three of the 21 patients (14%) with gallbladder stones left in situ (mean follow-up period of 4.4 years)(P=0.1148). Re-recurrent bile duct stones were successfully treated endoscopically. One of the eight patients who did not undergo cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis had a recurrence of cholecystitis, which was managed conservatively. The long-term outcomes of late biliary complications are favorable when patients with concomitant gallbladder stones undergo cholecystectomy. Re-recurrent bile duct stones are considerable when gallbladder stones are left in situ, but should be treated endoscopically.

  10. Expression of phospho-ERK1/2 and PI3-K in benign and malignant gallbladder lesions and its clinical and pathological correlations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qinglong; Yang, Zhulin

    2009-01-01

    Background An increasing number of studies have shown that ERK and PI3-K/AKT signaling pathways are involved in various human cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. However, few studies have examined gallbladder cancer specimens, and little is known about the clinical and pathological significance of ERK1/2 and PI3-K/AKT signaling changes in gallbladder adenocarcinoma. In this study, we examined phospho-ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2) and PI3K expression and analyzed its clinicopathological impact in gallbladder adenocarcinoma. Methods Immunohistochemistry was used to detect and compare the frequency of p-ERK1/2 and PI3-K expression in gallbladder adenocarcinoma, peri-tumor tissues, adenomatous polyps, and chronic cholecystitis specimens. Results The positive staining for p-EKR1/2 and PI3-K were 63/108 (58.3%) and 55/108 (50.9%) in gallbladder adenocarcinoma; 14/46 (30.4%) and 5/46 (10.1%) in peri-tumor tissues; 3/15 (20%) and 3/15 (20%) in adenomatous polyps; and 4/35 (11.4%) and 3/35 (8.6%) in chronic cholecystitis. The positive rate of p-ERK1/2 or PI3-K in gallbladder adenocarcinoma was significantly higher than that in peri-tumor tissue (both, P < 0.01), adenomatous polyps (p-ERK1/2, P < 0.01; PI3-K, P < 0.05), and chronic cholecystitis (both, P < 0.01). The positive staining for p-ERK1/2 or PI3-K was significantly lower in well/highly-differentiated adenocancinomas with maximal diameter < 2.0 cm, no metastasis to lymph node, and no infiltration of regional tissues or organs compared to poorly-differentiated adenocarcinomas which are characterized by a maximal diameter ≥ 2.0 cm, with metastasis to lymph node and infiltration of regional tissues or organs (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Moreover, the frequency of p-ERK1/2 expression in gallbladder adenocarcinomas without gallstone was significantly lower than those with gallstones. Increased expression of p-ERK1/2 (P < 0.05) and PI3K (P = 0.062) was associated with decreased overall survival

  11. Sluggish gallbladder emptying and gastrointestinal transit after intake of common alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Kasicka-Jonderko, A; Jonderko, K; Gajek, E; Piekielniak, A; Zawislan, R

    2014-02-01

    To study the movement along the gut and the effect upon the gallbladder volume of alcoholic beverages taken in the interdigestive state. The study comprised three research blocks attended by 12 healthy subjects each. Within a given research block volunteers underwent three examination sessions held on separate days, being offered an alcoholic beverage, or an aqueous ethanol solution of an identical proof, or a corresponding volume of isotonic glucose solution; the order of administration of the drinks was randomized. The beverages tested were: beer (4.7% vol, 400 ml), red wine (13.7% vol, 200 ml), whisky (43.5% vol, 100 ml) within the "Beer", "Wine", and "Whisky" research block, respectively. Gastric myoelectrical activity was examined electrogastrographically, gastric emptying with ¹³C-sodium acetate breath test, orocaecal transit with lactulose H₂ breath test, gallbladder emptying with ultrasonography, breath ethanol with alcotest. The study showed that alcoholic beverages were emptied from the stomach significantly slower than isotonic glucose. Alcoholic beverages produced by fermentation only (beer, red wine) were emptied from the stomach more slowly than ethanol solutions of identical proof, while gastric evacuation of whisky (distillation product) and matching alcohol solution was similar. The slower gastric evacuation of alcoholic beverages and ethanol solutions could not be ascribed to a disorganization of the gastric myoelectrical activity. The orocaecal transit of beer and red wine did not differ from that of isotonic glucose, whereas the orocaecal transit of whisky and high proof ethanol was markedly prolonged. Red wine and whisky, and to a similar extent control ethanol solutions caused an inhibition and delay of gallbladder emptying. We concluded that alcoholic beverages taken on an empty stomach exert a suppressive effect upon the transport function of the digestive tract and gallbladder emptying. The extent of this action depends on the type of a

  12. Role of radical resection in patients with gallbladder carcinoma and jaundice.

    PubMed

    Feng, Fei-ling; Liu, Chen; Li, Bin; Zhang, Bai-he; Jiang, Xiao-qing

    2012-03-01

    Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is a commonly-seen malignancy of the biliary tract characterized by difficult early diagnosis, rapid growth, early metastasis, and poor prognosis. Nearly half of GBC patients also have jaundice, which is a mark of the advanced stage of GBC. The role of radical resection in patients of gallbladder carcinoma with jaundice is still a matter of uncertainty, which we attempted to clarify in this study. Totally, 251 GBC patients who received treatment at the Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital (EHBH) from December 2002 to January 2010 were recruited into this study. We divided them into group A (jaundice group, n=117) and group B (non-jaundice group, n=134). Clinical records and follow-up data were collected and retrospectively analyzed in both groups. Compared with group A, patients in group B had a longer median survival time ((6.0±0.5) months vs. (15.0±2.6) months, P<0.01). Even in patients with stage III or stage IV GBC, the median survival time in patients without jaundice (n=111), was still longer than that in patients with jaundice (n=116) (P<0.01). The radical resection rate was lower in group A patients than in group B patients with stage III or stage IV GBC; 31.9% vs. 63.1%. However, the median survival time of patients undergoing radical resection did not show a statistical difference between jaundice patients and non-jaundice patients; (12.0±4.3) months vs. (18.0±3.0) months (P>0.05). GBC with jaundice usually implies advanced stage disease and a poor prognosis for the patients. However, our findings indicate that as long as the patient's condition allows, radical resection is still feasible for GBC patients with jaundice, and may achieve a prognosis close to those GBC patients without jaundice.

  13. Gallbladder Volvulus: A Rare Emergent Cause of Acute Cholecystitis, if Untreated, Progresses to Necrosis and Perforation

    SciTech Connect

    Justin L, Regner, E-mail: Justin.Regner@BSWHealth.org; Angela, Lomas

    An 86 year-old woman with a past medical history significant for abdominal hernia and Alzheimer dementia presented to the Emergency Department with a 24 hour history of acute right upper quadrant pain associated with nausea and non-bilious emesis. Physical exam revealed right sided abdominal tenderness with associated mass. All laboratory values were within normal ranges. Both abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography of the abdomen/pelvis revealed a large distended gallbladder with wall thickening and gallstones. Based on presentation and radiologic findings, the emergency general surgery service was consulted for suspected acute cholecystitis. The patient was then admitted for intravenous antibiotics andmore » scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy the following day. Intra-operative findings revealed volvulus with acute necrosis of the entire gallbladder. The gallbladder had a long pedunculated cystic duct and artery that was detorsed before proceeding with resection. Postoperatively, the patient did well and was discharged a few days later tolerating a regular diet.« less

  14. A case of Mirizzi syndrome that was successfully treated by laparoscopic choledochoplasty using a gallbladder patch

    PubMed Central

    Hiraki, Masatsugu; Ueda, Junji; Kono, Hiroshi; Egawa, Noriyuki; Saeki, Kiyoshi; Tsuru, Yasuhiro; Ide, Takao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The use of laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of Mirizzi syndrome is considered controversial due to the degree of technical difficulty. We herein describe the case of a 36-year-old woman who was admitted to our hospital due to appetite loss, nausea and back pain. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography revealed a round-shaped filling defect at the confluence of the bile duct. The patient was diagnosed with Mirizzi syndrome Type II according to the Csendes classification. Before surgery, an endoscopic nasobiliary drainage tube was placed for intraoperative cholangiography. Based on the intraoperative findings, the anterior wall of Hartmann’s pouch was excised to remove the impacted gallstone. The neck portion of the gallbladder wall was then used to make a gallbladder patch, which was sutured to cover the anterior wall of the common hepatic bile duct. Laparoscopic choledochoplasty using a gallbladder patch was a technically feasible treatment for Mirizzi syndrome Type II. PMID:29230280

  15. An alternative gallbladder extraction technique in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Tang, C N; Wong, D C T

    2006-05-01

    In this era of minimally invasive surgery, the challenge remains in finding techniques to reduce access trauma in terms of fewer and smaller size trocar ports. Our new described technique will allow a smaller subxiphoid port to be used to achieve extraction of the gallbladder without the need to change to a 5 mm laparoscope. We believe this method is easy to learn, safe and with no observable complications from our experience.

  16. Polyp on ultrasound: now what? The association between gallbladder polyps and cancer.

    PubMed

    Donald, Graham; Sunjaya, Dharma; Donahue, Timothy; Hines, O Joe

    2013-10-01

    The association between gallbladder polyps (GBP) and gallbladder cancer (GBC) is unclear. We sought to determine the association between preoperative diagnosis of GBP on imaging and GBC. A retrospective review of patients over 9 years was conducted using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision codes for GBP and GBC who underwent cholecystectomy at our institution. Demographics, imaging findings, and pathology results were recorded. A total of 2416 patients underwent cholecystectomy during the study period. Twenty-seven had an operation for GBP either as a result of concern for size or symptoms. Polyp sizes were categorized as less than 1 cm, 1 to 2 cm, or 2 cm or greater. Twenty-four patients in this group (88.9%) had no evidence of high-grade dysplasia or cancer and all of these benign polyps were 2 cm or less on imaging. One patient with a 2.4-cm polyp had high-grade dysplasia, and two patients with polyps over 3 cm had adenocarcinoma. During the same period, 20 patients had an operation for GBC with two patients common to the polyp group. The group of patients with noncancerous polyps was significantly younger than the cancer group (polyps and no polyps). The cancer group was more likely to be symptomatic. Therefore, polyps over 2 cm should be removed given the risk of high-grade dysplasia and cancer above this size. Polyps less than 2 cm were not associated with high-grade dysplasia or cancer and thus surgery may not be required. Intermediate- and small-sized polyps can be monitored with serial ultrasound, especially in younger, asymptomatic patients in whom the risk of malignancy is low.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of emergency versus delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute gallbladder pathology.

    PubMed

    Sutton, A J; Vohra, R S; Hollyman, M; Marriott, P J; Buja, A; Alderson, D; Pasquali, S; Griffiths, E A

    2017-01-01

    The optimal timing of cholecystectomy for patients admitted with acute gallbladder pathology is unclear. Some studies have shown that emergency cholecystectomy during the index admission can reduce length of hospital stay with similar rates of conversion to open surgery, complications and mortality compared with a 'delayed' operation following discharge. Others have reported that cholecystectomy during the index acute admission results in higher morbidity, extended length of stay and increased costs. This study examined the cost-effectiveness of emergency versus delayed cholecystectomy for acute benign gallbladder disease. Using data from a prospective population-based cohort study examining the outcomes of cholecystectomy in the UK and Ireland, a model-based cost-utility analysis was conducted from the perspective of the UK National Health Service, with a 1-year time horizon for costs and outcomes. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was used to investigate the impact of parameter uncertainty on the results obtained from the model. Emergency cholecystectomy was found to be less costly (£4570 versus £4720; €5484 versus €5664) and more effective (0·8868 versus 0·8662 QALYs) than delayed cholecystectomy. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that the emergency strategy is more than 60 per cent likely to be cost-effective across willingness-to-pay values for the QALY from £0 to £100 000 (€0-120 000). Emergency cholecystectomy is less costly and more effective than delayed cholecystectomy. This approach is likely to be beneficial to patients in terms of improved health outcomes and to the healthcare provider owing to the reduced costs. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Pancreas and gallbladder agenesis in a newborn with semilobar holoprosencephaly, a case report.

    PubMed

    Hilbrands, Robert; Keymolen, Kathelijn; Michotte, Alex; Marichal, Miriam; Cools, Filip; Goossens, Anieta; Veld, Peter In't; De Schepper, Jean; Hattersley, Andrew; Heimberg, Harry

    2017-05-19

    Pancreatic agenesis is an extremely rare cause of neonatal diabetes mellitus and has enabled the discovery of several key transcription factors essential for normal pancreas and beta cell development. We report a case of a Caucasian female with complete pancreatic agenesis occurring together with semilobar holoprosencephaly (HPE), a more common brain developmental disorder. Clinical findings were later confirmed by autopsy, which also identified agenesis of the gallbladder. Although the sequences of a selected set of genes related to pancreas agenesis or HPE were wild-type, the patient's phenotype suggests a genetic defect that emerges early in embryonic development of brain, gallbladder and pancreas. Developmental defects of the pancreas and brain can occur together. Identifying the genetic defect may identify a novel key regulator in beta cell development.

  19. [Laparoscopic cholecystectomy with transgastric gallbladder extraction: a new therapeutic approach].

    PubMed

    Jurczak, F; Pousset, J-P; Raffaitin, P

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate a newly developed cholecystectomy technique which combines classical dissection with currently available mini-instrumentation (3 and 5 mm) and removal of the gallbladder through a short gastrotomy. After a feasibility study, we set up a protocol for this procedure using instrumentation currently available on the market. The resected gallbladder was removed through a short gastrotomy on the anterior gastric wall, thereby minimizing abdominal wall trauma and permitting the patient to resume physical activity more quickly with no risk of trocar herniation. Cholecystectomy was performed by the described technique in 18 of 23 eligible patients between April 2008 and August 2008. There were seven males and 11 females with a mean age of 48 (range: 28-77); median BMI was 30 kg/m2 (range: 22-36). Eleven patients had a gallstone larger than 12 mm. There were no postoperative complications and recovery was rapid for all patients in our study. This procedure is technically feasible, safe and reproducible; results are good with minimal trauma to the abdominal wall. Normal physical activity can be rapidly resumed with no risk of incisional hernia.

  20. Risk and Cost-effectiveness of Surveillance Followed by Cholecystectomy for Gallbladder Polyps.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Vaux; Neal, Christopher P; Dennison, Ashely R; Garcea, Giuseppe

    2012-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To ascertain the best management options for patients presenting with gallbladder polyps. DESIGN Retrospective case-note analysis. SETTING Tertiary referral teaching hospital practice. PATIENTS Patients with ultrasonography-detected gallbladder polyps. INTERVENTIONS Ultrasonography surveillance or surgery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Demographic data and size and number of polyps were recorded as well as size increase and histological findings. Detection rates for potentially neoplastic and frankly neoplastic polyps were recorded and compared with complication rates from cholecystectomy. Cost-effectiveness of ultrasonography surveillance was examined. RESULTS Nine hundred eighty-six patients were identified and 467 patients underwent further follow-up. Only 6.6% of polyps exhibited an increase in size over the surveillance period. Polyps that subsequently progressed in size on surveillance had a significantly greater diameter at first presentation than those polyps that remained static (7 mm vs 5 mm, respectively) (P < .05). Only 3.7% of resected polyps had malignant or potentially malignant histology. Size greater than 10 mm and increase in size during surveillance predicted neoplastic potential. CONCLUSIONS A surveillance with or without selective surgery policy could potentially detect and prevent 5.4 gallbladder cancers per 1000 individuals per year with a cost saving of more than £130 000 (US $201 676) per year. Cancer prevention benefits would exceed the risk ratios from cholecystectomy complications. Polyps greater than 10 mm should be resected; those between 5 and 10 mm should be under ultrasonography surveillance.

  1. Incidental pT2-T3 gallbladder cancer after a cholecystectomy: outcome of staging at 3 months prior to a radical resection

    PubMed Central

    Ausania, Fabio; Tsirlis, Theodoris; White, Steven A; French, Jeremy J; Jaques, Bryon C; Charnley, Richard M; Manas, Derek M

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Patients with incidental pT2-T3 gallbladder cancer (IGC) after a cholecystectomy may benefit from a radical re-resection although their optimal treatment strategy is not well defined. In this Unit, such patients undergo delayed staging at 3 months after a cholecystectomy to assess the evidence of a residual tumour, extra hepatic spread and the biological behaviour of the tumour. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of patients who had delayed staging at 3 months after a cholecystectomy. Methods From July 2003 to July 2011, 56 patients with T2-T3 gallbladder cancer were referred to this Unit of which 49 were diagnosed incidentally on histology after a cholecystectomy. All 49 patients underwent delayed pre-operative staging using multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) followed selectively by laparoscopy at 3 months after a cholecystectomy. Data were collected from a prospectively held database. The peri-operative and long-term outcomes of patients were analysed. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. Results There were 38 pT2 and 11 pT3 tumours. After delayed staging, 24/49 (49%) patients underwent a radical resection, 24/49 (49%) were found to be inoperable on pre-operative assessment and 1/49 (2%) patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy and were found to be unresectable. The overall median survival from referral was 20.7 months (54.8 months for the group who had a radical re-resection versus 9.7 months for the group who had unresectable disease, P < 0.001). These results compare favourably with the reported outcome of fast-track management for incidental pT2-T3 gallbladder cancer from other major series in the literature. Conclusion Delayed staging in patients with incidental T2-T3 gallbladder cancer after a cholecystectomy is a useful strategy to select patients who will benefit from a resection and avoid unnecessary major surgery. PMID:23458168

  2. A case of transgastric gallbladder puncture as a complication during endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage of a pancreatic pseudocyst.

    PubMed

    Hikichi, Takuto; Irisawa, Atsushi; Takagi, Tadayuki; Shibukawa, Goro; Wakatsuki, Takeru; Imamura, Hidemichi; Takahashi, Yuta; Sato, Ai; Sato, Masaki; Oyama, Hitoshi; Sato, Naoto; Yamamoto, Go; Mokonuma, Tatsuyuki; Obara, Katsutoshi; Ohira, Hiromasa

    2007-06-01

    A 43-year-old man, a regular drinker, developed a pseudocyst in the pancreatic tail as a result of acutely worsening chronic pancreatitis. Because the pseudocyst, 10 cm in diameter, did not disappear despite conservative treatment, an internal drainage stent was placed transgastrically under endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) guidance. However, cyst infection occurred, and EUS-guided drainage was performed, when the gallbladder was punctured inadvertently. Immediately a nasocystic drain was placed in the gallbladder. Owing to this timely measure, only mild and localized peritonitis developed. Conservative treatment with fasting and an antibiotic was administered, and peritonitis subsided quickly. On the same day, another nasocystic drain was placed for the pancreatic pseudocyst, and it disappeared. As far as we know, this is the first case in which gallbladder puncture was inadvertently performed during EUS-guided drainage of a pancreatic pseudocyst.

  3. Trypsin level in gallbladder bile and ductitis and width of the cystic duct.

    PubMed

    Vracko, J; Wiechel, K L

    2000-01-01

    The change from laparotomy to laparoscopy for cholecystectomy has raised the question of how to manage concomitant bile duct stones. The present-day interest--and controversy--has focused on a transcystic approach reported to be feasible in 66-96% of cases, but without explaining the necessary prerequisite: the widening of the cystic duct. The cystic duct, wide mainly in patients with bile duct stones, has been reported to be highly variable: from strictured to very wide. The present study aims at comparing the trypsin level in the gallbladder bile and the cystic duct morphology and width in patients with and without bile duct stones. A prospective series of 63 gallstone patients, 30 with and 33 without bile duct stones (controls), underwent cholecystectomy and bile duct clearance. The study includes the trypsin level in the gallbladder bile, the width and morphology of the cystic duct, and the size of the gallstones. The patients with bile duct stones had, in contrast to the controls, higher trypsin levels in the gallbladder bile (P < 0.001) and wider cystic ducts (P < 0.001) with more pronounced signs of chronic ductitis. The obtained results strongly suggest that the increased trypsin level, a sign of reflux of pancreatic juice, caused changes in the cystic duct that facilitate gallstone migration, which also ought to render a transcystic stone extraction feasible.

  4. Body Size Indicators and Risk of Gallbladder Cancer: Pooled Analysis of Individual-Level Data from 19 Prospective Cohort Studies.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Peter T; Newton, Christina C; Kitahara, Cari M; Patel, Alpa V; Hartge, Patricia; Koshiol, Jill; McGlynn, Katherine A; Adami, Hans-Olov; Berrington de González, Amy; Beane Freeman, Laura E; Bernstein, Leslie; Buring, Julie E; Freedman, Neal D; Gao, Yu-Tang; Giles, Graham G; Gunter, Marc J; Jenab, Mazda; Liao, Linda M; Milne, Roger L; Robien, Kim; Sandler, Dale P; Schairer, Catherine; Sesso, Howard D; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Wolk, Alicja; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Zheng, Wei; Gapstur, Susan M

    2017-04-01

    Background: There are few established risk factors for gallbladder cancer beyond gallstones. Recent studies suggest a higher risk with high body mass index (BMI), an indicator of general heaviness, but evidence from other body size measures is lacking. Methods: Associations of adult BMI, young adult BMI, height, adult weight gain, waist circumference (WC), waist-height ratio (WHtR), hip circumference (HC), and waist-hip ratio (WHR) with gallbladder cancer risk were evaluated. Individual-level data from 1,878,801 participants in 19 prospective cohort studies (14 studies had circumference measures) were harmonized and included in this analysis. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: After enrollment, 567 gallbladder cancer cases were identified during 20.1 million person-years of observation, including 361 cases with WC measures. Higher adult BMI (per 5 kg/m 2 , HR: 1.24; 95% CI, 1.13-1.35), young adult BMI (per 5 kg/m 2 , HR: 1.12; 95% CI, 1.00-1.26), adult weight gain (per 5 kg, HR: 1.07; 95% CI, 1.02-1.12), height (per 5 cm, HR: 1.10; 95% CI, 1.03-1.17), WC (per 5 cm, HR: 1.09; 95% CI, 1.02-1.17), WHtR (per 0.1 unit, HR: 1.24; 95% CI, 1.00-1.54), and HC (per 5 cm, HR: 1.13; 95% CI, 1.04-1.22), but not WHR (per 0.1 unit, HR: 1.03; 95% CI, 0.87-1.22), were associated with higher risks of gallbladder cancer, and results did not differ meaningfully by sex or other demographic/lifestyle factors. Conclusions: These findings indicate that measures of overall and central excess body weight are associated with higher gallbladder cancer risks. Impact: Excess body weight is an important, and potentially preventable, gallbladder cancer risk factor. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(4); 597-606. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Subtotal cholecystectomy for "difficult gallbladders": systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Elshaer, Mohamed; Gravante, Gianpiero; Thomas, Katie; Sorge, Roberto; Al-Hamali, Salem; Ebdewi, Hamdi

    2015-02-01

    Subtotal cholecystectomy (SC) is a procedure that removes portions of the gallbladder when structures of the Calot triangle cannot be safely identified in "difficult gallbladders." To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate current studies and present an evidence-based assessment of the outcomes for the techniques available for SC. A literature search of the PubMed/MEDLINE (1954 to November 2013) and EMBASE (1974 to November 2013) databases was conducted. Search criteria included the words subtotal, partial, insufficient or incomplete, and cholecystectomy. Inclusion criteria were all randomized, nonrandomized, and retrospective studies with data on SC techniques and outcomes. Exclusion criteria were studies that reported data on SC along with other interventions (eg, cholecystostomy) without the possibility to discriminate results specific to SC. This systematic review was performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The primary outcome of the study was the occurrence of common bild duct injury. Secondary outcomes included the occurrence of other SC-related morbidities, such as hemorrhage, subhepatic collection, bile leak, retained stones, postoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, wound infection, reoperation, and mortality. Thirty articles were included. Subtotal cholecystectomy was typically performed using the laparoscopic technique (72.9%), followed by the open (19.0%) and laparoscopic converted to open (8.0%) techniques. The most common indications were severe cholecystitis (72.1%), followed by cholelithiasis in liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension (18.2%) and empyema or perforated gallbladder (6.1%). Morbidity rates were relatively low (postoperative hemorrhage, 0.3%; subhepatic collections, 2.9%; bile duct injury, 0.08%; and retained stones, 3.1%); the rate for bile leaks was higher (18.0%). Reoperations were necessary in 1.8% of the cases; the 30-day

  6. Biliary lipids, bile acids, and gallbladder function in the human female:effects of contraceptive steroids

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, F., Jr.; Everson, G.T.; DeMark, B.

    Reported are biliary lipid composition and secretion, bile acid composition and kinetics, and gallbladder function in a group of healthy, nonobese women taking a contraceptive steroid preparation. A comparable group of healthy women served as controls. Biliary lipid secretion rate was measured by the marker perfusion technique. Bile acid distribution was determined by gas-lipid chromatography. The pool size, FTR, and synthesis rate of each bile acid were measured by using CA and CDCA labeled with the stable isotope of carbon, /sup 13/C. In some of the subjects gallbladder storage and emptying were measured during the kinetic study, by real-time ultrasonography.more » Contraceptive steroid use was associated with a significant increase in biliary cholesterol saturation and in the lithogenic index of bile. The rate of cholesterol secretion in the contraceptive steroid group was 50% greater than in the control (p << 0.001) and the rate of bile acid secretion was reduced (p < 0.02). The total bile acid pool size was significantly increased by contraceptive steroids. The major increase occurred in the CA pool (p < 0.04). The daily rate of enterohepatic cycles of the bile acid pool was decreased by contraceptive steroids from 6.6 to 4.3 (p < 0.01). The only effect of contraceptive steroids on gallbladder function was a slower emptying rate in response to intraduodenal amino acid infusion. No index of gallbladder function correlated significantly with any parameter of bile acid kinetics in this small group of subjects. The findings confirm the lithogenic effect of contraceptive steroids and indicate that its causes are an increase in cholesterol secretion and a decrease in bile acid secretion.« less

  7. Connective tissue growth factor immunohistochemical expression is associated with gallbladder cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Patricia; Leal, Pamela; Alvarez, Hector; Brebi, Priscilla; Ili, Carmen; Tapia, Oscar; Roa, Juan C

    2013-02-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an aggressive neoplasia associated with late diagnosis, unsatisfactory treatment, and poor prognosis. Molecular mechanisms involved in GBC pathogenesis remain poorly understood. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is thought to play a role in the pathologic processes and is overexpressed in several human cancers, including GBC. No information is available about CTGF expression in early stages of gallbladder carcinogenesis. Objective.- To evaluate the expression level of CTGF in benign and malignant lesions of gallbladder and its correlation with clinicopathologic features and GBC prognosis. Connective tissue growth factor protein was examined by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays containing tissue samples of chronic cholecystitis (n = 51), dysplasia (n = 15), and GBC (n = 169). The samples were scored according to intensity of staining as low/absent and high CTGF expressers. Statistical analysis was performed using the χ(2) test or Fisher exact probability test with a significance level of P < .05. Survival analysis was assessed by the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test. Connective tissue growth factor expression showed a progressive increase from chronic cholecystitis to dysplasia and then to early and advanced carcinoma. Immunohistochemical expression (score ≥2) was significantly higher in advanced tumors, in comparison with chronic cholecystitis (P < .001) and dysplasia (P = .03). High levels of CTGF expression correlated with better survival (P = .04). Our results suggest a role for CTGF in GBC progression and a positive association with better prognosis. In addition, they underscore the importance of considering the involvement of inflammation on GBC development.

  8. Conjugated bile acids in gallbladder bile and serum as potential biomarkers for cholesterol polyps and adenomatous polyps.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mei-Fen; Huang, Peng; Ge, Chun-Lin; Sun, Tao; Ma, Zhi-Gang; Ye, Fei-Fei

    2016-02-28

    To identify conjugated bile acids in gallbladder bile and serum as possible biomarkers for cholesterol polyps (CPs) and adenomatous polyps (APs). Gallbladder bile samples and serum samples were collected from 18 patients with CPs (CP group), 9 patients with APs (AP group), and 20 patients with gallstones (control group) from March to November, 2013. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay with ultraviolent detection was used to detect the concentration of 8 conjugated bile acids (glycocholic acid, GCA; taurocholic acid, TCA; glycochenodeoxycholic acid, GCDCA; taurochenodeoxycholic acid, TCDCA; glycodeoxycholic acid, GDCA; taurodeoxycholic acid, TDCA; taurolithocholic acid, TLCA; tauroursodeoxycholic acid, TUDCA) in bile samples and serum samples. The diagnostic efficacy of serum GCA, GCDCA and TCDCA was evaluated. These 8 conjugated bile acids in gallbladder bile and serum were completely identified within 10 minutes with good linearity (correlation coefficient: R>0.9900; linearity range: 3.91-500 µg/mL). Among these conjugated bile acids, the levels of gallbladder bile GCDCA and TCDCA in the CP group were significantly higher than those in the AP group (p<0.05). Furthermore, serum GCDCA and TCDCA as well as GCA were significantly higher in the AP group than the CP group (p<0.05). Serum GCDCA alone (≤12 µg/mL) had relatively better diagnostic efficacy than the other conjugated bile acids. The levels of serum GCA, GCDCA and TCDCA may be valuable for differentiation of APs and CPs.

  9. Calculating stage duration statistics in multistage diseases.

    PubMed

    Komarova, Natalia L; Thalhauser, Craig J

    2011-01-01

    Many human diseases are characterized by multiple stages of progression. While the typical sequence of disease progression can be identified, there may be large individual variations among patients. Identifying mean stage durations and their variations is critical for statistical hypothesis testing needed to determine if treatment is having a significant effect on the progression, or if a new therapy is showing a delay of progression through a multistage disease. In this paper we focus on two methods for extracting stage duration statistics from longitudinal datasets: an extension of the linear regression technique, and a counting algorithm. Both are non-iterative, non-parametric and computationally cheap methods, which makes them invaluable tools for studying the epidemiology of diseases, with a goal of identifying different patterns of progression by using bioinformatics methodologies. Here we show that the regression method performs well for calculating the mean stage durations under a wide variety of assumptions, however, its generalization to variance calculations fails under realistic assumptions about the data collection procedure. On the other hand, the counting method yields reliable estimations for both means and variances of stage durations. Applications to Alzheimer disease progression are discussed.

  10. Correlation of nutritional parameters of gallbladder cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Rai, Arundhati; Tewari, Mallika; Mohapatra, S C; Shukla, H S

    2006-06-15

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a highly fatal disease with poor prognosis and 5-year survival <5%. Weight loss and nutritional deterioration are associated with adverse outcomes in terms of cancer prognosis. Protein-calorie malnutrition is the single most common secondary diagnosis in a patient with cancer, and is a direct consequence of the anorexia of malignancy and altered host metabolism induced by the tumor. The present study of nutritional assessment is of particular interest for it helps in better understanding the extent of malnutrition in patients of GBC. A case-control study was designed comprising of 153 cases of GBC and 153 controls of gallstone disease (GSD). To assess the nutritional status of the GBC patients, anthropometric measurements such as height, weight, mid arm circumference, and skinfold thickness were recorded together with the biochemical parameters and their nutrient intake. The present study showed that GBC influences the nutritional status of the patients. Forty-three percent of GBC patients were malnourished with low body mass index (BMI). A significant reduction in all the anthropometric measures was observed for GBC patients compared to those with GSD. GBC patients had significantly low hemoglobin and serum albumin levels compared to the control group. The hemoglobin levels in case and control groups were 10.87 g/dl (+/-1.81 SD) and 11.62 g/dl (+/-1.89 SD), respectively (P < 0.001). Intake of almost all the nutrients was far below the recommendations of Indian Council of Medical Research. GBC patients had anorexia and weight loss. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Sweetened Beverage Consumption and Risk of Biliary Tract and Gallbladder Cancer in a Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Susanna C; Giovannucci, Edward L; Wolk, Alicja

    2016-10-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption raises blood glucose concentration and has been positively associated with weight gain and type 2 diabetes, all of which have been implicated in the development of biliary tract cancer (BTC). This study examined the hypothesis that sweetened beverage consumption is positively associated with risk of BTC in a prospective study. The study population comprised 70 832 Swedish adults (55.9% men, age 45-83 years) from the Swedish Mammography Cohort and Cohort of Swedish Men who were free of cancer and diabetes and completed a food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Incident BTC case patients were ascertained through linkage with the Swedish Cancer Register. Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to analyze the data. All statistical tests were two-sided. During a mean follow-up of 13.4 years, 127 extrahepatic BTC case patients (including 71 gallbladder cancers) and 21 intrahepatic BTC case patients were ascertained. After adjustment for other risk factors, women and men in the highest category of combined sugar-sweetened and artificially sweetened beverage consumption had a statistically significantly increased risk of extrahepatic BTC and gallbladder cancer. The multivariable hazard ratios for two or more servings per day (200 mL/serving) of sweetened beverages compared with no consumption were 1.79 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02 to 3.13) for extrahepatic BTC and 2.24 (95% CI = 1.02 to 4.89) for gallbladder cancer. The corresponding hazard ratio for intrahepatic BTC was 1.69 (95% CI = 0.41 to 7.03). These findings support the hypothesis that high consumption of sweetened beverages may increase the risk of BTC, particularly gallbladder cancer. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. The rotary gallstone lithotrite to aid gallbladder extraction in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Sackier, J M; Hunter, J G; Paz-Partlow, M; Cuschieri, A

    1992-01-01

    During laparoscopic cholecystectomy, a large stone burden may cause difficulty when extracting the gallbladder through the abdominal wall. Currently, the alternatives available to the surgeon include increasing the incision, removing stones singly, or utilizing complex fragmentation techniques like the pulsed dye laser. We have employed an electromechanical rotary gallstone lithotrite (RGL) to fragment stones to an aspiratable size. Initially, cholesterol spheres were pulverized in a latex balloon to demonstrate the efficacy of the device. Then, human gallstones were placed in the balloon and reduced to fragments less than or equal to 1 mm from initial sizes of 4-24 mm. Human stones were then inserted in ex vivo porcine gallbladders in a controlled experiment and treated with the device. Ten out of 12 tests were completed within 30 s; one test required 49 s and one 105 s to achieve complete fragmentation. Blinded histological evaluation demonstrated that tissue abrasion caused by use of the device would not interfere with the diagnosis of unsuspected malignancy. Clinical trials have now commenced under the auspices of the hospital ethical committee.

  13. Arsenic trioxide-mediated growth inhibition in gallbladder carcinoma cells via down-regulation of Cyclin D1 transcription mediated by Sp1 transcription factor

    SciTech Connect

    Ai, Zhilong; Lu, Weiqi; Ton, Saixiong

    2007-08-31

    Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC), an aggressive and mostly lethal malignancy, is known to be resistant to a number of drug stimuli. Here, we demonstrated that arsenic trioxide inhibited the proliferation of gallbladder carcinoma in vivo and in vitro as well as the transcription of cell cycle-related protein Cyclin D1. And, Cyclin D1 overexpression inhibited the negative role of arsenic trioxide in cell cycle progression. We further explored the mechanisms by which arsenic trioxide affected Cyclin D1 transcription and found that the Sp1 transcription factor was down-regulated by arsenic trioxide, with a corresponding decrease in Cyclin D1 promoter activity. Taken together, thesemore » results suggested that arsenic trioxide inhibited gallbladder carcinoma cell proliferation via down-regulation of Cyclin D1 transcription in a Sp1-dependent manner, which provided a new mechanism of arsenic trioxide-involved cell proliferation and may have important therapeutic implications in gallbladder carcinoma patients.« less

  14. Bile salts stimulate mucin secretion by cultured dog gallbladder epithelial cells independent of their detergent effect.

    PubMed

    Klinkspoor, J H; Yoshida, T; Lee, S P

    1998-05-15

    1. Bile salts stimulate mucin secretion by the gallbladder epithelium. We have investigated whether this stimulatory effect is due to a detergent effect of bile salts. 2. The bile salts taurocholic acid (TC) and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDC) and the detergents Triton X-100 (12.5-400 microM) and Tween-20 (0.1-3.2 mM) were applied to monolayers of cultured dog gallbladder epithelial cells. Mucin secretion was studied by measuring the secretion of [3H]N-acetyl-d-glucosamine-labelled glycoproteins. We also attempted to alter the fluidity of the apical membrane of the cells through extraction of cholesterol with beta-cyclodextrin (2.5-15 mM). The effect on TUDC-induced mucin secretion was studied. Cell viability was assessed by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage or 51Cr release. 3. In contrast with the bile salts, the detergents were not able to cause an increase in mucin secretion without causing concomitant cell lysis. Concentrations of detergent that increased mucin release (>100 microM Triton X-100, >0.8 mM Tween-20), caused increased LDH release. Incubation with beta-cyclodextrin resulted in effective extraction of cholesterol without causing an increase in 51Cr release. However, no effect of the presumed altered membrane fluidity on TUDC (10 mM)-induced mucin secretion was observed. 4. The stimulatory effect of bile salts on mucin secretion by gallbladder epithelial cells is not affected by the fluidity of the apical membrane of the cells and also cannot be mimicked by other detergents. We conclude that the ability of bile salts to cause mucin secretion by the gallbladder epithelium is not determined by their detergent properties.

  15. Efficacy and Safety of Radiofrequency Ablation for Focal Hepatic Lesions Adjacent to Gallbladder: Reconfiguration of the Ablation Zone through Probe Relocation and Ablation Time Reduction.

    PubMed

    Choi, In Young; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Lee, Sung Gu; Won, Hyung Jin; Shin, Yong Moon

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of radiofrequency (RF) ablation for treatment of focal hepatic lesions adjacent to the gallbladder with electrode relocation and ablation time reduction. Thirty-nine patients who underwent RF ablation for focal hepatic lesions adjacent to the gallbladder (≤ 10 mm) were evaluated retrospectively from January 2011 to December 2014 (30 men and 9 women; age range, 51-85 y; mean age, 65 y). Of 36 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, 3 had a second treatment for recurrence (mean tumor size, 15 mm ± 6). Patients were divided into 2 subgroups based on lesion distance from the gallbladder: nonabutting (> 5 mm; n = 19) and abutting (≤ 5 mm; n = 20). Electrodes were inserted parallel to the gallbladder through the center of a tumor in the nonabutting group and through the center of the expected ablation zone between a 5-mm safety zone on the liver side and the gallbladder in the abutting group. Ablation time was decreased in proportion to the transverse diameter of the expected ablation zone. Technical success and technical effectiveness rates were 89.7% and 97.4%, respectively, with no significant differences between groups (P = 1.00). Local tumor progression was observed in 3 patients (1 in the nonabutting group and 2 in the abutting group; P = 1.00). There were no major complications. The gallbladder was thickened in 10 patients, with no significant difference between groups (P = .72). Biloma occurred in 1 patient in the nonabutting group. RF ablation with electrode relocation and reduction of ablation time can be a safe and effective treatment for focal hepatic lesions adjacent to the gallbladder. Copyright © 2017 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The effects of caerulein and a meal stimulus on gallbladder intraluminal pressure and bile flow in the pig.

    PubMed

    Mitchenere, P; Adrian, T E; Hobbs, K E; Bloom, S R

    1981-03-01

    The intraluminal gallbladder pressure has been measured in a conscious unsedated pig model by the use of a radiotelemetry pressure capsule. A loop fistula was incorporated to measure bile output simultaneously. Mean fasting intraluminal gallbladder pressure was found to be 15 +/- 4 mmHg above atmospheric pressure, and mean fasting bile output 7.5 +/- 0.8 ml/10 min. Following intravenous caerulein pressure peaked at 2 min with a mean rise of 17 +/- 3 mmHg above basal (P less than 0.005). Bile output was increased for 30 min following caerulein with a total mean increase for this period of 13.5 +/- 2.2 ml (P less than 0.005). Gallbladder pressure rose significantly 5 min after commencing a meal by 6.0 +/- 1.9 mmHg (P less than 0.025) reaching a peak pressure 65 min after the meal with a mean rise of 14.8 +/- 2.3 mmHg (P less than 0.005). Bile output was significantly increased for 50 min following the ingestion of food. The total increments above basal values for bile output being 15.9 +/- 2.7 ml (P less than 0.005) in the first 30 min post-prandially and 1.6 +/- 2.4 ml (P less than 0.005) in the 30--60 min period. This model re-emphasizes the rapidity of the hormonal response and may be valuable for further studies on the physiology of post-prandial gallbladder emptying.

  17. Tumoral Versus Flat Intraepithelial Neoplasia of Pancreatobiliary Tract, Gallbladder, and Ampulla of Vater.

    PubMed

    Jang, Kee-Taek; Ahn, Sangjeong

    2016-05-01

    -The identification of a precursor lesion is important to understanding the histopathologic and genetic alterations in carcinogenesis. There are a plethora of terminologies that describe precursor lesions of the pancreatobiliary tract, ampulla of Vater, and gallbladder. The current terminologies for precursor lesions may make it difficult to understand the tumor biology. Here, we propose the concept of tumoral and flat intraepithelial neoplasia to improve our understanding of precursor lesions of many epithelial organs, including the pancreatobiliary tract, ampulla of Vater, and gallbladder. -To understand the dichotomous pattern of tumoral and flat intraepithelial neoplasia in carcinogenesis of pancreatobiliary tract, ampulla of Vater, and gallbladder. -Review of relevant literatures indexed in PubMed. -Tumoral intraepithelial neoplasia presents as an intraluminal or intraductal, mass-forming, polypoid lesion or a macroscopic, visible, cystic lesion without intracystic papillae. Microscopically, tumoral intraepithelial neoplasia shows various proportions of papillary and tubular architecture, often with a mixed pattern, such as papillary, tubular, and papillary-tubular. The malignant potential depends on the degree of dysplasia and the cell phenotype of the epithelium. Flat intraepithelial neoplasia presents as a flat or superficial, spreading, mucosal lesion that is frequently accompanied by an invasive carcinoma. Tumoral and flat intraepithelial neoplasias are not homogeneous entities and may exhibit histopathologic spectrum changes and different genetic profiles. Although intraepithelial neoplasia showed a dichotomous pattern in the tumoral versus flat types, they can coexist. Tumoral and flat intraepithelial neoplasia can be interpreted as part of a spectrum of changes in the carcinogenesis pathway of each organ.

  18. [Quality of DNA from archival pathological samples of gallbladder cancer].

    PubMed

    Roa, Iván; de Toro, Gonzalo; Sánchez, Tamara; Slater, Jeannie; Ziegler, Anne Marie; Game, Anakaren; Arellano, Leonardo; Schalper, Kurt; de Aretxabala, Xabier

    2013-12-01

    The quality of the archival samples stored at pathology services could be a limiting factor for molecular biology studies. To determine the quality of DNA extracted from gallbladder cancer samples at different institutions. One hundred ninety four samples coming from five medical centers in Chile, were analyzed. DNA extraction was quantified determining genomic DNA concentration. The integrity of DNA was determined by polymerase chain reaction amplification of different length fragments of a constitutive gene (β-globin products of 110, 268 and 501 base pairs). The mean DNA concentration obtained in 194 gallbladder cancer samples was 48 ± 43.1 ng/µl. In 22% of samples, no amplification was achieved despite obtaining a mean DNA concentration of 58.3 ng/ul. In 81, 67 and 22% of samples, a DNA amplification of at least 110, 268 or 501 base pairs was obtained, respectively. No differences in DNA concentration according to the source of the samples were demonstrated. However, there were marked differences in DNA integrity among participating centers. Samples from public hospitals were of lower quality than those from private clinics. Despite some limitations, in 80% of cases, the integrity of DNA in archival samples from pathology services in our country would allow the use of molecular biology techniques.

  19. Decision for surgery in the management of a rare condition, childhood gallbladder polyps, and the role of ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Bayram Kabaçam, Gülşah; Akbıyık, Fatih; Livanelioğlu, Ziya; Tiryaki, H Tuğrul; Karakuş, Esra; Kabaçam, Gökhan

    2013-01-01

    Gallbladder polyps are tumors or tumor-like protrusions of the gallbladder. They are rarely seen in the pediatric age. Most important issue about these mostly incidental lesions is the risk of malignant transformation. Size more than 10 mm is the classicalcutoff for determining this risk, but it is rarely valid in children. Ultrasonography is the method of choice for follow-up, but it rarely demonstrates change of size or malignant transformation. Hereby, we report 6 cases of childhood gallbladder polyps, none of which had a genetic risk factor. Follow-up was uneventful in 4 of them. Two patients had undergone surgery, but none of the lesions were neoplastic. In the follow-up, a single experienced radiologist should handle the patient, in order to prevent inter-observer variation. The cut-off size for deciding surgery should be 10 mm for those cases with genetic background creating malignancy risk (metachromatic leukodystrophy, pancreaticobiliary duct abnormalities, achondroplasia, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome) or with accompanying cholelithiasis, and 15 mm for those without any risk factors to prevent any unnecessary operations.

  20. Gallic acid loaded PEO-core/zein-shell nanofibers for chemopreventive action on gallbladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Francisca; Hermosilla, Jeyson; Sanhueza, Claudia; Mora-Lagos, Barbara; Fuentes, Irma; Rubilar, Mónica; Concheiro, Angel; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen

    2018-07-01

    Coaxial electrospinning was used to develop gallic acid (GA) loaded poly(ethylene oxide)/zein nanofibers in order to improve its chemopreventive action on human gallbladder cancer cells. Using a Plackett-Burman design, the effects of poly(ethylene oxide) and zein concentration and applied voltage on the diameter and morphology index of nanofibers were investigated. Coaxial nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). GA loading efficiency as high as 77% was obtained under optimal process conditions. The coaxial nanofibers controlled GA release in acid and neutral pH medium. Cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production on gallbladder cancer cell lines GB-d1 and NOZ in the presence of GA-nanofibers were assessed. GA-nanofibers triggered an increase in the cellular cytotoxicity compared with free GA on GB-d1 and NOZ cells. Statistically significant differences were found in ROS levels of GA-nanofibers compared with free GA on NOZ cells. Differently, ROS production on GB-d1 cell line was similar. Based on these results, the coaxial nanofibers obtained in this study under optimized operational conditions offer an alternative for the development of a GA release system with improved chemopreventive action on gallbladder cancer cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [Endoscopic sphincterotomy in choledocholithiasis and an intact gallbladder].

    PubMed

    Vladimirov, B; Petkov, R; Viiachki, I; Damianov, D; Iarŭmov, N

    1996-01-01

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) with extraction of calculi is a basic method of treating choledocholithiasis in post-cholecystectomy patients (8, 9). Endoscopic treatment contributes to a considerable reduction of the indications for reoperation. The existing views concerning ES done in patients with preserved gallbladder, especially in the era of laparoscopic surgery, are still conflicting (3, 6). There are several options: cholecystectomy with removal of calculi in the common bile duct by ES in a subsequent stage, or vice versa-primary ES with ensuring cholecystectomy. The undertaking of independent surgical or endoscopic treatment is likewise practicable (2, 6).

  2. Prostaglandin release from in vitro guinea-pig gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Booker, M L; LaMorte, W W

    1983-02-01

    In order to study prostaglandin release from guinea pig gallbladder, full thickness tissue sections were incubated for one hour in Krebs solution. Extraction and two dimensional chromatography of incubation media obtained in the presence of radio-labelled arachidonic acid demonstrated the presence of PGE2, PGF2 alpha, 6-keto-PGF1 alpha and thromboxane B2. These results were supported by radioimmunoassay of incubations conducted in the absence of exogenous arachidonate and in the presence of varying concentrations of unlabelled exogenous arachidonate. The previously reported predominance of PGE2 was only seen at high concentrations of exogenous arachidonate.

  3. Serrated adenoma of the gallbladder: a case report.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Carlos A

    2015-06-01

    A case of serrated adenomatous polyp found in a cholecystectomy specimen is reported. The adenoma was built with mucosal crypts exhibiting unlocked serrations lined with up to high-grade dysplastic cells. A desmoplastic sclerotic tissue having multiple stromal hubs with branched thin spokes replaced the subjacent lamina propia, muscularis mucosae, and submucosa. The generous serrated configurations covering a multi-branched sclerotic stroma, gave the adenoma a papillary appearance. Review of the literature indicates that this appears to be the first reported case of serrated adenoma of the gallbladder. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  4. A population-based case-control study of cancer of the bile ducts and gallbladder in Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Ghadirian, P; Simard, A; Baillargeon, J

    1993-01-01

    In a population-based case-control study of pancreatic cancer in Greater Montreal between 1984 and 1988, a total of 24 patients with cancer of the bile ducts and 33 patients suffering from cancer of the gallbladder were compared to 239 population-based controls. This study was part of the SEARCH program of the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In cases of cancer of the bile ducts, smoking nonfiltered cigarettes produced a relative risk of 2.82 and a 95% confidence interval of 1.01-7.86 after adjustment for age, sex, other smoking habits, alcohol consumption, schooling, and respondent status. Laxative intake was associated with a risk of 2.87 (1.00-8.22). Coffee drinkers were collectively at lower risk than non-drinkers: OR = 0.26 (0.07-0.95). In patients with cancer of the gallbladder, constipation was related to a risk of 3.19 (1.02-9.95) after adjustment for the same factors. In cases with previous gallbladder problems, the risk was found to be significant [OR = 7.96 (2.03-31.2)], 8 times greater in cases than in controls.

  5. Endoscopic ultrasonography does not differentiate neoplastic from non-neoplastic small gallbladder polyps.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Young Koog; Cho, Won Young; Lee, Tae Hee; Cho, Young Deok; Moon, Jong Ho; Lee, Joon Seong; Shim, Chan Sup

    2009-05-21

    To assess the ability of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) to differentiate neoplastic from non-neoplastic polypoid lesions of the gallbladder (PLGs). The uses of EUS and transabdominal ultrasonography (US) were retrospectively analyzed in 94 surgical cases of gallbladder polyps less than 20 mm in diameter. The prevalence of neoplastic lesions with a diameter of 5-10 mm was 17.2% (10/58); 11-15 mm, 15.4% (4/26), and 16-20 mm, 50% (5/10). The overall diagnostic accuracies of EUS and US for small PLGs were 80.9% and 63.9% (P < 0.05), respectively. EUS correctly distinguished 12 (63.2%) of 19 neoplastic PLGs but was less accurate for polyps less than 1.0 cm (4/10, 40%) than for polyps greater than 1.0 cm (8/9, 88.9%) (P = 0.02). Although EUS was more accurate than US, its accuracy for differentiating neoplastic from non-neoplastic PLGs less than 1.0 cm was low. Thus, EUS alone is not sufficient for determining a treatment strategy for PLGs of less than 1.0 cm.

  6. Endoscopic ultrasonography does not differentiate neoplastic from non-neoplastic small gallbladder polyps

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Young Koog; Cho, Won Young; Lee, Tae Hee; Cho, Young Deok; Moon, Jong Ho; Lee, Joon Seong; Shim, Chan Sup

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To assess the ability of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) to differentiate neoplastic from non-neoplastic polypoid lesions of the gallbladder (PLGs). METHODS: The uses of EUS and transabdominal ultrasonography (US) were retrospectively analyzed in 94 surgical cases of gallbladder polyps less than 20 mm in diameter. RESULTS: The prevalence of neoplastic lesions with a diameter of 5-10 mm was 17.2% (10/58); 11-15 mm, 15.4% (4/26), and 16-20 mm, 50% (5/10). The overall diagnostic accuracies of EUS and US for small PLGs were 80.9% and 63.9% (P < 0.05), respectively. EUS correctly distinguished 12 (63.2%) of 19 neoplastic PLGs but was less accurate for polyps less than 1.0 cm (4/10, 40%) than for polyps greater than 1.0 cm (8/9, 88.9%) (P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: Although EUS was more accurate than US, its accuracy for differentiating neoplastic from non-neoplastic PLGs less than 1.0 cm was low. Thus, EUS alone is not sufficient for determining a treatment strategy for PLGs of less than 1.0 cm. PMID:19452579

  7. Two cases of Kawasaki disease presented with acute febrile jaundice.

    PubMed

    Kaman, Ayşe; Aydın-Teke, Türkan; Gayretli-Aydın, Zeynep Gökçe; Öz, Fatma Nur; Metin-Akcan, Özge; Eriş, Deniz; Tanır, Gönül

    2017-01-01

    Kawasaki disease is an acute, systemic vasculitis of unknown etiology. Although gastrointestinal involvement does not belong to the classic diagnostic criteria; diarrhea, abdominal pain, hepatic dysfunction, hydrops of gallbladder, and acute febrile cholestatic jaundice are reported in patients with Kawasaki disease. We describe here two cases presented with fever, and acute jaundice as initial features of Kawasaki disease.

  8. Costs of Chronic Diseases at the State Level: The Chronic Disease Cost Calculator

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Louise B.; Khavjou, Olga A.; Li, Rui; Maylahn, Christopher M.; Tangka, Florence K.; Nurmagambetov, Tursynbek A.; Ekwueme, Donatus U.; Nwaise, Isaac; Chapman, Daniel P.; Orenstein, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Many studies have estimated national chronic disease costs, but state-level estimates are limited. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention developed the Chronic Disease Cost Calculator (CDCC), which estimates state-level costs for arthritis, asthma, cancer, congestive heart failure, coronary heart disease, hypertension, stroke, other heart diseases, depression, and diabetes. Methods Using publicly available and restricted secondary data from multiple national data sets from 2004 through 2008, disease-attributable annual per-person medical and absenteeism costs were estimated. Total state medical and absenteeism costs were derived by multiplying per person costs from regressions by the number of people in the state treated for each disease. Medical costs were estimated for all payers and separately for Medicaid, Medicare, and private insurers. Projected medical costs for all payers (2010 through 2020) were calculated using medical costs and projected state population counts. Results Median state-specific medical costs ranged from $410 million (asthma) to $1.8 billion (diabetes); median absenteeism costs ranged from $5 million (congestive heart failure) to $217 million (arthritis). Conclusion CDCC provides methodologically rigorous chronic disease cost estimates. These estimates highlight possible areas of cost savings achievable through targeted prevention efforts or research into new interventions and treatments. PMID:26334712

  9. Clinicopathologic significance of minichromosome maintenance protein 2 and Tat-interacting protein 30 expression in benign and malignant lesions of the gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong-cai; Yang, Zhu-lin

    2011-11-01

    Gallbladder cancers are aggressive tumors with a poor prognosis and high mortality rate. To find specific biological markers for early diagnosis and prognosis and to develop possible alternative treatment strategies, we examined minichromosome maintenance protein 2 (MCM2) and Tat-interacting protein 30 (TIP30) expression in 108 gallbladder adenocarcinomas, 15 gallbladder polyps, 35 chronic cholecystitis tissues, and 46 peritumoral tissues using immunohistochemistry. Expression of MCM2 was significantly higher in adenocarcinomas than in peritumoral tissues (χ² = 8.41; P < .01), adenomatous polyps (χ² = 6.81; P < .01), and chronic cholecystitis (χ² = 21.00; P < .01). In contrast, Tat-interacting protein 30 expression was significantly less in adenocarcinomas than in peritumoral tissues (χ² = 13.26; P < .01), adenomatous polyps (χ² = 4.76; P < .05), and chronic cholecystitis (χ² = 18.93; P < .01). The benign lesions in gallbladder epithelium with positive MCM2 or negative Tat-interacting protein 30 expression showed moderate to severe atypical hyperplasia. Expression of MCM2 and absence of Tat-interacting protein 30 were significantly associated with poor differentiation, large tumor mass, lymph node metastasis, and invasion of adenocarcinoma. Univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that either elevated MCM2 (P = .006) or lowered Tat-interacting protein 30 (P = .006) expression was closely associated with shorter overall survival. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that expression of MCM2 (P = .007) or nonexpression of Tat-interacting protein 30 (P = .009) was an independent predictor of a poor prognosis in adenocarcinoma. Our results suggest that overexpression of MCM2 or loss of expression of Tat-interacting protein 30 is closely related to carcinogenesis, progression, biological behavior, and prognosis of gallbladder adenocarcinoma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Gender-specific influencing factors on incidence, risk factors and outcome of carcinoma of the liver, gallbladder, extrahepatic bile duct and pancreas].

    PubMed

    Grundmann, R T; Meyer, F

    2014-04-01

    This overview comments on gender-specific differences in incidence, risk factors and prognosis in patients with carcinoma of the liver, gallbladder, extrahepatic bile duct and pancreas. For the literature review, the MEDLINE database (PubMed) was searched under the key words "liver cancer", "gallbladder cancer", "extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma", "pancreatic cancer" AND "gender". There were significant gender differences in the epidemiology of the analysed carcinomas. The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is much higher in men than in women, one of 86 men, but only 1 out of 200 women develop a malignant primary liver tumour in Germany in the course of their life. The lifetime risk for carcinomas of the gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts in Germany amounts to about 0.6 % for women and 0.5 % for men, specifically gallbladder carcinomas are observed more frequently in women than in men. For pancreatic cancer, no clear gender preference exists in Germany, although the mortality risk for men is higher than that for women (age-adjusted standardised death rate in men 12.8/100, 000 persons, in women 9.5). Remarkable is furthermore the shift of the tumour incidence in the last decades. Liver cancer has increased among men in Germany by about 50 % in the last 30 years, the incidence of gallbladder carcinoma has inversely dropped. The prognosis of these cancers across all tumour stages is uniformly bad in an unselected patient population. This is probably the main reason why only little - if any - gender differences in survival are described. In addition to avoiding the known risk factors such as hepatitis B and C virus infection, alcohol abuse, and smoking, the avoidance of overweight and obesity plays an increasingly important role in the prevention of these cancers. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Multifactorial disease risk calculator: Risk prediction for multifactorial disease pedigrees.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Desmond D; Li, Yiming; Sham, Pak C

    2018-03-01

    Construction of multifactorial disease models from epidemiological findings and their application to disease pedigrees for risk prediction is nontrivial for all but the simplest of cases. Multifactorial Disease Risk Calculator is a web tool facilitating this. It provides a user-friendly interface, extending a reported methodology based on a liability-threshold model. Multifactorial disease models incorporating all the following features in combination are handled: quantitative risk factors (including polygenic scores), categorical risk factors (including major genetic risk loci), stratified age of onset curves, and the partition of the population variance in disease liability into genetic, shared, and unique environment effects. It allows the application of such models to disease pedigrees. Pedigree-related outputs are (i) individual disease risk for pedigree members, (ii) n year risk for unaffected pedigree members, and (iii) the disease pedigree's joint liability distribution. Risk prediction for each pedigree member is based on using the constructed disease model to appropriately weigh evidence on disease risk available from personal attributes and family history. Evidence is used to construct the disease pedigree's joint liability distribution. From this, lifetime and n year risk can be predicted. Example disease models and pedigrees are provided at the website and are used in accompanying tutorials to illustrate the features available. The website is built on an R package which provides the functionality for pedigree validation, disease model construction, and risk prediction. Website: http://grass.cgs.hku.hk:3838/mdrc/current. © 2017 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  12. Choleoeimeria ghaffari n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the gallbladder of Eryx jayakari Boulenger (Serpentes: Boidae) in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Duszynski, Donald W

    2014-02-01

    Choleoeimeria ghaffari n. sp. is described from the gallbladder of Eryx jayakari Boulenger in Saudi Arabia. Oöcysts are tetrasporocystic, cylindroidal, 23 × 14 μm, with a smooth bi-layered wall and length/width ratio of 1.5, without micropyle, oöcyst residuum and polar granule. Sporocysts are subspheroidal to ellipsoidal, 8 × 6 μm, with length/width ratio of 1.4, without Stieda, sub-Stieda and para-Stieda bodies but with sporocyst residuum. Sporozoites are banana-shaped measuring 10 × 1.5 μm. The endogenous development was found to occur in the gallbladder epithelium and the extrahepatic bile ducts. Mature meronts are spheroidal, c.10 μm wide, and suspected to produce 12-16 merozoites. Microgamonts are irregular in shape, 13 × 10 μm, whereas macrogamonts are mostly subspheroidal, c.12 μm wide, with a prominent centrally-located nucleus. Based on oöcyst morphology and the site of endogenous development (epithelium of the gallbladder and bile ducts) the new eimeriid coccidian was placed in the genus Choleoeimeria Paperna & Landsberg, 1989.

  13. Concomitant endometrial and gallbladder metastasis in advanced multiple metastatic invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Bezpalko, Kseniya; Mohamed, Mohamed A; Mercer, Leo; McCann, Michael; Elghawy, Karim; Wilson, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    At time of presentation, fewer than 10% of patients have metastatic breast cancer. The most common sites of metastasis in order of frequency are bone, lung, pleura, soft tissue, and liver. Breast cancer metastasis to the uterus or gallbladder is rare and has infrequently been reported in the English literature. A 47 year old female with a recent history of thrombocytopenia presented with abnormal vaginal bleeding. Pelvic ultrasound revealed multiple uterine fibroids and endometrial curettings revealed cells consistent with lobular carcinoma of the breast. Breast examination revealed edema and induration of the lower half of the right breast. Biopsy of the right breast revealed invasive lobular carcinoma. Bone marrow aspiration obtained at a previous outpatient visit revealed extensive involvement by metastatic breast carcinoma. Shortly after discharge, the patient presented with acute cholecystitis and underwent cholecystectomy. Microscopic examination of the gallbladder revealed metastatic infiltrating lobular carcinoma. The final diagnosis was invasive lobular carcinoma of the right breast with metastasis to the bone marrow, endometrium, gallbladder, regional lymph nodes, and peritoneum. The growth pattern of invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast is unique and poses a challenge in diagnosing the cancer at an early stage. Unlike other types of breast cancer, it tends to metastasize more to the peritoneum, ovary, and gastrointestinal tract. Metastasis to the endometrium or gallbladder is rare. Metastatic spread should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with invasive lobular breast carcinoma presenting with abnormal vaginal bleeding or acute cholecystitis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of bile salt binding or protease inactivation on plasma cholecystokinin and gallbladder responses to bombesin.

    PubMed

    Thimister, P W; Hopman, W P; Sloots, C E; Rosenbusch, G; Tangerman, A; Willems, H L; Lamers, C B; Jansen, J B

    1994-12-01

    Bombesin-stimulated plasma cholecystokinin levels decrease after an initial increase despite continuous infusion of bombesin. The aim of this study was to determine if a feedback mechanism, mediated by bile salts or proteolytic enzymes, is responsible for this decline. Bombesin (1.0 ng.kg-1.min-1) was infused into volunteers for 180 minutes on separate occasions. Cholestyramine, colestipol, camostate, or saline were perfused intraduodenally during the second hour of the tests. Cholestyramine was also administered without infusion of bombesin. Colestipol and cholestyramine, dependent on their bile salt-binding capacity, markedly enhanced (P < 0.05) bombesin-stimulated plasma cholecystokinin from 2.1 +/- 0.5 pmol/L to 6.4 +/- 2.2 pmol/L and 12.1 +/- 3.3 pmol/L (P < 0.05 vs. colestipol), respectively, and further decreased gallbladder volume (P < 0.05) from 9.4 +/- 1.6 mL to 2.0 +/- 0.4 mL and 2.2 +/- 0.5 mL, respectively. The protease inhibitor camostate had no effect. Bile salt precipitation also enhanced plasma pancreatic polypeptide responses (P < 0.01) but did not alter gastrin responses. Plasma cholecystokinin responses to cholestyramine without bombesin infusion varied considerably, but increments were highly correlated to decreases in gallbladder volume (r = 0.91; P < 0.005). Bile salt sequestration but not protease inactivation enhances plasma cholecystokinin and gallbladder responses to bombesin infusion in humans.

  15. Differentiation of nonneoplastic and neoplastic gallbladder polyps 1 cm or bigger with multi-detector row computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Park, Ko Woon; Kim, Seong Hyun; Choi, Seong Ho; Lee, Won Jae

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate useful computed tomographic features to differentiate nonneoplastic and neoplastic gallbladder polyps 1 cm or bigger. Thirty-one patients with 32 nonneoplastic polyps and 67 patients with 73 neoplastic polyps 1 cm or bigger underwent unenhanced and dual-phase (arterial and portal venous phases) multi-detector row computed tomography. Gallbladder polyps were diagnosed by cholecystectomy. Computed tomographic features including size (1.5 cm), surface (smooth or irregular), shape (pedunculated or sessile), accompanying wall thickening, basal indentation, perception on unenhanced images, and enhancement pattern between 2 groups were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. On univariate analysis, age 55 years or older (P = 0.0019), size bigger than 1.5 cm (P < 0.0001), irregular surface (P = 0.0033), sessile shape (P = 0.0016), accompanying wall thickening (P = 0.0056), basal indentation (P = 0.0236), and perception on unenhanced images (P < 0.0001) were significantly more frequent in neoplastic polyps as compared with nonneoplastic polyps. On multivariate analysis, size bigger than 1.5 cm (P = 0.0260), sessile shape (P = 0.0397), and perception on unenhanced images (P < 0.0001) were statistically significant. Size bigger than 1.5 cm, sessile shape, and perception on unenhanced images are the main factors that differentiate neoplastic from nonneoplastic gallbladder polyps 1 cm or bigger.

  16. Rapamycin and WYE-354 suppress human gallbladder cancer xenografts in mice

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Stefan; Kunkel, Hana; García, Patricia; Bizama, Carolina; Espinoza, Jaime A.; Riquelme, Ismael; Nervi, Bruno; Araya, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a highly malignant tumor characterized by a poor response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We evaluated the in vitro and in vivo antitumor efficacy of mTOR inhibitors, rapamycin and WYE-354. In vitro assays showed WYE-354 significantly reduced cell viability, migration and invasion and phospho-P70S6K expression in GBC cells. Mice harboring subcutaneous gallbladder tumors, treated with WYE-354 or rapamycin, exhibited a significant reduction in tumor mass. A short-term treatment with a higher dose of WYE-354 decreased the tumor size by 68.6% and 52.4%, in mice harboring G-415 or TGBC-2TKB tumors, respectively, compared to the control group. By contrast, treatment with a prolonged-low-dose regime of rapamycin almost abrogated tumor growth, exhibiting 92.7% and 97.1% reduction in tumor size, respectively, compared to control mice. These results were accompanied by a greater decrease in the phosphorylation status of P70S6K and a lower cell proliferation Ki67 index, compared to WYE-354 treated mice, suggesting a more effective mTOR pathway inhibition. These findings provide a proof of concept for the use of rapamycin or WYE-354 as potentially good candidates to be studied in clinical trials in GBC patients. PMID:26397134

  17. [Laparoscopic cholecystectomy with transgastric gallbladder extraction].

    PubMed

    Jurczak, Florent

    2011-11-01

    To describe and evaluate a new cholecystectomy technique combining classical dissection with currently available mini-instrumentation (3 and 5 mm) and gallbladder removal through a short gastrotomy. After a feasibility study, we set up a protocol for this procedure using instrumentation currently available on the market. We performed 106 procedures, including 99 in a prospective study between January 2008 and July 2010. Cholecystectomy was performed with the described technique in 99 of 106 eligible patients (22 males and 77 females, mean age 45.8 years (range 18-77); median BMI 26.4 kg/m2 (range 22-36)). Forty-eight patients had at least one gallstone larger than 10 mm. There were no postoperative gastric complications and recovery was always rapid. This procedure is technically feasible, safe and reproducible. The results are good, with minimal abdominal wall trauma. Normal physical activity can be resumed rapidly with no risk of incisional hernia.

  18. Inhibitory effect of Survivin promoter-regulated oncolytic adenovirus carrying P53 gene against gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Sun, Bin; An, Ni; Tan, Weifeng; Cao, Lu; Luo, Xiangji; Yu, Yong; Feng, Feiling; Li, Bin; Wu, Mengchao; Su, Changqing; Jiang, Xiaoqing

    2011-12-01

    Gene therapy has become an important strategy for treatment of malignancies, but problems remains concerning the low gene transferring efficiency, poor transgene expression and limited targeting specific tumors, which have greatly hampered the clinical application of tumor gene therapy. Gallbladder cancer is characterized by rapid progress, poor prognosis, and aberrantly high expression of Survivin. In the present study, we used a human tumor-specific Survivin promoter-regulated oncolytic adenovirus vector carrying P53 gene, whose anti-cancer effect has been widely confirmed, to construct a wide spectrum, specific, safe, effective gene-viral therapy system, AdSurp-P53. Examining expression of enhanced green fluorecent protein (EGFP), E1A and the target gene P53 in the oncolytic adenovirus system validated that Survivin promoter-regulated oncolytic adenovirus had high proliferation activity and high P53 expression in Survivin-positive gallbladder cancer cells. Our in vitro cytotoxicity experiment demonstrated that AdSurp-P53 possessed a stronger cytotoxic effect against gallbladder cancer cells and hepatic cancer cells. The survival rate of EH-GB1 cells was lower than 40% after infection of AdSurp-P53 at multiplicity of infection (MOI) = 1 pfu/cell, while the rate was higher than 90% after infection of Ad-P53 at the same MOI, demonstrating that AdSurp-P53 has a potent cytotoxicity against EH-GB1 cells. The tumor growth was greatly inhibited in nude mice bearing EH-GB1 xenografts when the total dose of AdSurp-P53 was 1 × 10(9) pfu, and terminal dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) revealed that the apoptotic rate of cancer cells was (33.4 ± 8.4)%. This oncolytic adenovirus system overcomes the long-standing shortcomings of gene therapy: poor transgene expression and targeting of only specific tumors, with its therapeutic effect better than the traditional Ad-P53 therapy regimen already on market; our system might be used for patients with advanced gallbladder cancer and

  19. Fetal stomach and gallbladder in contact with the bladder wall is a common ultrasound sign of stomach-down left congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Tara A; Basta, Amaya; Filly, Roy A

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify sonographic (US) findings that can assist in prenatal diagnosis of stomach-down left congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), specifically related to positioning of the abdominal contents including the stomach, bladder, and gallbladder. All US examinations with a postnatally confirmed diagnosis of stomach-down left CDH over a 13-year period were retrospectively reviewed for abnormal position of the abdominal contents, including whether the fetal stomach was in contact with the urinary bladder. Normal fetuses that underwent comprehensive US surveys were similarly evaluated for comparison in a 2:1 ratio. Twenty-two fetuses with stomach-down left CDH were identified in a cohort of 278 fetuses with left CDH. In 15/22 (68.2%) cases of stomach-down left CDH, the bladder and stomach walls were in contact. Contact of the fetal gallbladder with the fetal bladder wall was also observed and was present even more commonly (17/22 cases [77.3%]). There was no case of either the stomach or gallbladder in contact with the bladder wall in the normal fetal cohort (n = 44). Recognition of the fetal stomach and/or gallbladder in contact with the bladder wall can help in the detection of stomach-down left CDH. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 45:8-13, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Reprogramming human gallbladder cells into insulin-producing β-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Eric; Wang, Yuhan; Pelz, Carl; Schug, Jonathan; Kaestner, Klaus H.; Grompe, Markus

    2017-01-01

    The gallbladder and cystic duct (GBCs) are parts of the extrahepatic biliary tree and share a common developmental origin with the ventral pancreas. Here, we report on the very first genetic reprogramming of patient-derived human GBCs to β-like cells for potential autologous cell replacement therapy for type 1 diabetes. We developed a robust method for large-scale expansion of human GBCs ex vivo. GBCs were reprogrammed into insulin-producing pancreatic β-like cells by a combined adenoviral-mediated expression of hallmark pancreatic endocrine transcription factors PDX1, MAFA, NEUROG3, and PAX6 and differentiation culture in vitro. The reprogrammed GBCs (rGBCs) strongly induced the production of insulin and pancreatic endocrine genes and these responded to glucose stimulation in vitro. rGBCs also expressed an islet-specific surface marker, which was used to enrich for the most highly reprogrammed cells. More importantly, global mRNA and microRNA expression profiles and protein immunostaining indicated that rGBCs adopted an overall β-like state and these rGBCs engrafted in immunodeficient mice. Furthermore, comparative global expression analyses identified putative regulators of human biliary to β cell fate conversion. In summary, we have developed, for the first time, a reliable and robust genetic reprogramming and culture expansion of primary human GBCs—derived from multiple unrelated donors—into pancreatic β-like cells ex vivo, thus showing that human gallbladder is a potentially rich source of reprogrammable cells for autologous cell therapy in diabetes. PMID:28813430

  1. Current Role of Minimally Invasive Radical Cholecystectomy for Gallbladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Manzoni, Alberto; Guerini, Francesca; Ramera, Marco; Aroldi, Francesca; Zaniboni, Alberto; Rosso, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    Background. For Tis and T1a gallbladder cancer (GbC), laparoscopic cholecystectomy can provide similar survival outcomes compared to open cholecystectomy. However, for patients affected by resectable T1b or more advanced GbC, open approach radical cholecystectomy (RC), consisting in gallbladder liver bed resection or segment 4b-5 bisegmentectomy, with locoregional lymphadenectomy, is considered the gold standard while minimally invasive RC (MiRC) is skeptically considered. Aim. To analyze current literature on perioperative and oncologic outcomes of MiRC for patients affected by GbC. Methods. A Medline review of published articles until June 2016 concerning MiRC for GbC was performed. Results. Data relevant for this review were presented in 13 articles, including 152 patients undergoing an attempt of MiRC for GbC. No randomized clinical trial was found. The approach was laparoscopic in 147 patients and robotic in five. Conversion was required in 15 (10%) patients. Postoperative complications rate was 10% with no mortality. Long-term survival outcomes were reported by 11 studies, two of them showing similar oncologic results when comparing MiRC with matched open RC. Conclusions. Although randomized clinical trials are still lacking and only descriptive studies reporting on limited number of patients are available, current literature seems suggesting that when performed at highly specialized centers, MiRC for GbC is safe and feasible and has oncologic outcomes comparable to open RC. PMID:27885325

  2. Current Role of Minimally Invasive Radical Cholecystectomy for Gallbladder Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zimmitti, Giuseppe; Manzoni, Alberto; Guerini, Francesca; Ramera, Marco; Bertocchi, Paola; Aroldi, Francesca; Zaniboni, Alberto; Rosso, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    Background . For Tis and T1a gallbladder cancer (GbC), laparoscopic cholecystectomy can provide similar survival outcomes compared to open cholecystectomy. However, for patients affected by resectable T1b or more advanced GbC, open approach radical cholecystectomy (RC), consisting in gallbladder liver bed resection or segment 4b-5 bisegmentectomy, with locoregional lymphadenectomy, is considered the gold standard while minimally invasive RC (MiRC) is skeptically considered. Aim . To analyze current literature on perioperative and oncologic outcomes of MiRC for patients affected by GbC. Methods . A Medline review of published articles until June 2016 concerning MiRC for GbC was performed. Results . Data relevant for this review were presented in 13 articles, including 152 patients undergoing an attempt of MiRC for GbC. No randomized clinical trial was found. The approach was laparoscopic in 147 patients and robotic in five. Conversion was required in 15 (10%) patients. Postoperative complications rate was 10% with no mortality. Long-term survival outcomes were reported by 11 studies, two of them showing similar oncologic results when comparing MiRC with matched open RC. Conclusions . Although randomized clinical trials are still lacking and only descriptive studies reporting on limited number of patients are available, current literature seems suggesting that when performed at highly specialized centers, MiRC for GbC is safe and feasible and has oncologic outcomes comparable to open RC.

  3. Comparison of effects of ingested medium- and long-chain triglyceride on gallbladder volume and release of cholecystokinin and other gut peptides.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, P E; Ladas, S; Forgacs, I C; Dowling, R H; Ellam, S V; Adrian, T E; Bloom, S R

    1987-05-01

    In a double-blind, crossover study of the effect of ingested medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) and long-chain triglyceride (LCT) in six normal subjects, the gallbladder did not contract after ingestion of MCT but instead had significantly increased in volume at 2 hr after the meal. Plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) increased after the MCT meal, but gastrin, motilin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), and GIP were unaffected. The long-chain triglyceride meal evoked a brisk and sustained gallbladder contraction, higher levels of CCK, and a significant increase in plasma PP and GIP levels.

  4. Fast approximation for joint optimization of segmentation, shape, and location priors, and its application in gallbladder segmentation.

    PubMed

    Saito, Atsushi; Nawano, Shigeru; Shimizu, Akinobu

    2017-05-01

    This paper addresses joint optimization for segmentation and shape priors, including translation, to overcome inter-subject variability in the location of an organ. Because a simple extension of the previous exact optimization method is too computationally complex, we propose a fast approximation for optimization. The effectiveness of the proposed approximation is validated in the context of gallbladder segmentation from a non-contrast computed tomography (CT) volume. After spatial standardization and estimation of the posterior probability of the target organ, simultaneous optimization of the segmentation, shape, and location priors is performed using a branch-and-bound method. Fast approximation is achieved by combining sampling in the eigenshape space to reduce the number of shape priors and an efficient computational technique for evaluating the lower bound. Performance was evaluated using threefold cross-validation of 27 CT volumes. Optimization in terms of translation of the shape prior significantly improved segmentation performance. The proposed method achieved a result of 0.623 on the Jaccard index in gallbladder segmentation, which is comparable to that of state-of-the-art methods. The computational efficiency of the algorithm is confirmed to be good enough to allow execution on a personal computer. Joint optimization of the segmentation, shape, and location priors was proposed, and it proved to be effective in gallbladder segmentation with high computational efficiency.

  5. Effect of Fructus Psoraleae on motility of gallbladder isolated smooth muscle strips from guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shan; Li, Mei; Lin, Mei-Ling; Ding, Yong-Hui; Qu, Song-Yi; Li, Wei; Zheng, Tian-Zhen

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To observe the effect of Fructus Psoraleae on motility of isolated gallbladder muscle strips of guinea pigs and its mechanism. METHODS: Guinea pigs were hit to lose consciousness and the whole gallbladder was removed quickly. Two or three smooth muscle strips (8 mm × 3 mm) were cut along a longitudinal direction. The mucosa was gently removed. Every longitudinal muscle strip was suspended in a tissue chamber which was continuously perfused with 5 mL Krebs solution (37°C), pH 7.4, and aerated with 950 mL/L O2 and 50 mL /L CO2. The isometric response was recorded with an ink-writing recorder. After 2 h equilibration under 1 g-load, 50 μL Fructus Psoraleae (10, 20, 70, 200, 700, 1000 g/L) was added cumulatively into the tissue chamber in turn every 2 min to observe their effects on gallbladder muscle strips (cumulating final concentration of Fructus Psoraleae was 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0, 10.0, 20.0 g/L). The antagonists, including 4-DAMP, benzhydramine, hexamethonium, phentolamine, verapamil and idomethine were given 2 min before Fructus Psoraleae respectively to investigate the mechanisms involved. RESULTS: Fructus Psoraleae dose-dependently increased the resting tension (r = 0.992, P < 0.001), decreased the mean contractile amplitude (r = 0.970, P < 0.001) and meanwhile increased the contractile frequency of the gallbladder muscle strip in vitro (r = 0.965, P < 0.001). The exciting action of Fructus Psoraleae on the resting tension could be partially blocked by 4-DAMP (the resting tension decreased from 1.37 ± 0.41 to 0.70 ± 0.35, P < 0.001), benzhydramine (from 1.37 ± 0.41 to 0.45 ± 0.38, P < 0.001), hexamethonium (from 1.37 ± 0.41 to 0.94 ± 0.23, P < 0.05), phentolamine ( from 1.37 ± 0.41 to 0.89 ± 0.22, P < 0.01) and verapamil (from 1.37 ± 0.41 to 0.94 ± 0.26, P < 0.05). But the above antagonists had no significant effect on the action of Fructus Psoraleae–induced mean contractile amplitude (P > 0.05). Moreover, the increase of the contractile

  6. Lobular breast cancer metastasis to the colon, the appendix and the gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Molina-Barea, Rocio; Rios-Peregrina, Rosa M; Slim, Mahmoud; Calandre, Elena P; Hernández-García, Maria D; Jimenez-Rios, José A

    2014-12-01

    Metastases of lobular breast cancer are commonly encountered at the level of lungs, bones, brain and liver, whereas lesions in the gastrointestinal tract are rarely seen. A case of a patient with metastases in the right colon and gallbladder originating from an invasive lobular carcinoma is described. Adequate diagnostic procedures should be performed in patients with a history of breast cancer and who show gastrointestinal symptoms to rule out the potential presence of gastrointestinal metastases.

  7. Inhibition of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) in gallbladder cancer cells leads to decreased growth in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Patricia; Leal, Pamela; Ili, Carmen; Brebi, Priscilla; Alvarez, Hector; Roa, Juan C

    2013-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an aggressive neoplasm associated with late diagnosis, unsatisfactory treatment and poor prognosis. Previous work showed that connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression is increased in this malignancy. This matricellular protein plays an important role in various cellular processes and its involvement in the tumorigenesis of several human cancers has been demonstrated. However, the precise function of CTGF expression in cancer cells is yet to be determined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the CTGF expression in gallbladder cancer cell lines, and its effect on cell viability, colony formation and in vitro cell migration. CTGF expression was evaluated in seven GBC cell lines by Western blot assay. Endogenous CTGF expression was downregulated by lentiviral shRNA directed against CTGF mRNA in G-415 cells, and the effects on cell viability, anchorage-independent growth and migration was assessed by comparing them to scrambled vector-transfected cells. Knockdown of CTGF resulted in significant reduction in cell viability, colony formation and anchorage-independent growth (P < 0.05). An increased p27 expression was observed in G-415 cells with loss of CTGF function. Our results suggest that high expression of this protein in gallbladder cancer may confer a growth advantage for neoplastic cells. PMID:23593935

  8. Growth rate and malignant potential of small gallbladder polyps--systematic review of evidence.

    PubMed

    Wiles, Rebecca; Varadpande, Mandar; Muly, Sudha; Webb, Jolanta

    2014-08-01

    The overall aim of this systematic review was to determine whether ultrasound (US) follow up for gallbladder polyps (GBPs) measuring less than 10 mms is necessary. A search was performed in MEDLINE and EMBASE between January 1976 and January 2012 using keywords: gallbladder, polyps, neoplasm, cancer, tumour, carcinoma, malignant, adenoma. Included were studies involving adult patients, examined with transabdominal US at least twice. The outcomes of included studies were gallbladder polyp growth as demonstrated on US over time, followed where available by histological examination of cholecystectomy specimens. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. Altogether 1958 subjects with mean age between 41.5 and 59 years were followed up with US. The percentage of GBPs which showed growth over the follow up period ranged from 1% to 23%. 43 neoplastic polyps were found in total irrespective of size, 20 of which were malignant and at least 7 of those were >10 mms. At least 7 malignancies were present in polyps <10 mms but it was unknown if they had undergone growth on follow up. Level II-2 and below evidence on rate of growth of small GBPs <10 mms exists in the literature. It indicates that growth does occur in a significant minority of small GBPs, but it is slow. Due to deficient reporting and small numbers of cases, the correlation between growth of GBP and development of malignancy cannot be established using currently available evidence. Malignancy can be present in polyps <10 mms although it is significantly more frequent in polyps >10 mms. Cholecystectomy for symptomatic GBPs irrespective of their size, alongside the current practice for removal of gall bladders containing asymptomatic polyps >10 mms, is proposed. No evidence based US follow up schedule can be recommended at present for asymptomatic polyps <10 mms, and in its absence an intuitive follow up with US is likely to continue. Copyright © 2014 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish

  9. [Differential action of non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs on human gallbladder cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase].

    PubMed

    Franchi, A; Di Girolamo, G; Farina, M; de los Santos, A R; Martí, M L; Gimeno, M A

    2000-01-01

    Lysine clonixinate (LC) is a non-steroidal antiinflammatory agent (NSAID) with only few adverse effects. This characteristic has prompted us to suggest that its administration, at levels equivalent to those found in human plasma following therapeutic doses, slightly inhibits cyclooxygenase I (COX I). Three experiments were performed. Experiment 1: to study the in vitro effect of LC at concentrations of 4 and 6 micrograms/ml, comparable with those found in plasma following an oral therapeutic dose of 125 mg. Gallbladder tissue segments were incubated with 0.25 microCi of 14C-arachidonic acid and the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) and 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha (6-keto PGF1 alpha) was measured. LC did not affect basal production of any of the 3 prostaglandins (PGs) but at 6 micrograms/ml slightly reduced the levels of 5-hidroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE). Experiment 2: LC was administered preoperatively to 6 patients by continuous perfusion, to achieve a steady-state concentration between 4 and 6 micrograms/ml. Gallbladder segments from the 6 treated and another 6 control patients were incubated in 14C-arachidonic acid. Gallbladder segments treated with LC did not show a decreased production of any of the three PGs whereas 5-HETE released to the medium was significantly lower. Experiment 3: 18 patients received an i.v. bolus of LC 100 mg (n1 = 6) or LC 200 mg (n2 = 6) or indomethacin (INDO) 50 mg (n3 = 6). Unlike the administration of INDO bolus, LC in the above doses did not inhibit PG synthesis. Both NSAIDs showed different effects when the production of 5-HETE synthesis was assessed. Treatment with INDO did not alter the production of 5-HETE while LC elicited significant inhibition. The three studies conducted, namely in vitro and in vivo continuous perfusion and i.v. bolus, revealed that LC had no effect on prostaglandin synthesis while reducing significantly the levels of 5-HETE.

  10. EVALUATION OF P53, E-CADHERIN, COX-2, AND EGFR PROTEIN IMUNNOEXPRESSION ON PROGNOSTIC OF RESECTED GALLBLADDER CARCINOMA

    PubMed Central

    PAIS-COSTA, Sergio Renato; FARAH, José Francisco de Matos; ARTIGIANI-NETO, Ricardo; MARTINS, Sandro José; GOLDENBERG, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Background Gallbladder carcinoma presents a dismal prognosis. Choice treatment is surgical resection that is associated a high levels of both morbidity and mortality. Best knowledgement of prognostic factors may result a better selection of patients either for surgical or multimodal treatment. Aim To evaluate tecidual immunoexpression of P53, E-cadherin, Cox-2, and EGFR proteins and to correlate these findings with resected gallbladder adenocarcinoma survival. Methods Clinical, laboratorial, surgical, and anatomopathological reports of a series of gallbladder adenocarcinoma patients were collected by individualized questionary. Total sample was 42 patients. Median of age was 72 years (35-87). There were seven men and 35 women. Lesion distribuition in according TNM state was the following: T1 (n=2), T2 (n=5), T3 (n=31), T4 (n=4). Twenty-three patients underwent radical resection (R0), while 19 palliative surgery (R1-R2). A block of tissue microarray with neoplasic tissue of each patient was confected. It was performed evaluation of P53, E-Caderine, COX-2, and EGFR proteins imunoexpression. These findings were correlated with overall survival. Results Five-year survival was 28%. The median of global survival was eight months. Only immunoexpression of EGFR protein was considered independent variable at multivariated analysis. Conclusion Final prognosis was influenced by over-expression of EGFR protein in tumoral tissue. PMID:25004291

  11. Concanavalin A-binding cholesterol crystallization inhibiting and promoting activity in bile from patients with Crohn's disease compared to patients with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Keulemans, Y C; Mok, K S; Slors, J F; Brink, M A; Gouma, D J; Tytgat, G N; Groen, A K

    1999-10-01

    Crohn's disease is a risk factor for gallstone formation. In contrast, patients with ulcerative colitis have an incidence of gallstone formation comparable to the general population. The reason for this difference is not known. The aim of this study was to elucidate the factors controlling cholesterol crystallization in gallbladder bile of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis patients. Gallbladder bile was obtained by aspiration during bowel resections (26 Crohn's disease patients, 20 ulcerative colitis patients). Biliary lipid composition, crystal detection time and the effect of extraction of the concanavalin A-binding fraction on crystal formation were determined. Cholesterol crystals were present in seven of the 26 bile samples of Crohn's disease-patients and one of the 20 ulcerative colitis patients. Four of the bile samples of Crohn's disease patients were fast nucleating. None of the 20 ulcerative colitis patients had fast nucleating bile. Lipid composition, total lipid concentration and CSI were not significantly different between the two groups. In Crohn's disease patients extraction of concanavalin A-binding fraction decreased crystallization in 10 bile samples but accelerated crystallization in one bile sample. In eight bile samples from ulcerative colitis patients crystallization increased after concanavalin A-binding fraction extraction. Compared to ulcerative colitis patients, gallbladder bile of Crohn's disease patients showed increased cholesterol crystallization despite comparable lipid composition and cholesterol saturation index. This difference is caused by increased cholesterol crystallization-promoting activity. Bile from ulcerative colitis patients contains a Con A-binding factor which inhibits cholesterol crystallization.

  12. [Artemisinin inhibits proliferation of gallbladder cancer cell lines through triggering cell cycle arrest and apoptosis].

    PubMed

    Jia, J G; Zhang, L G; Guo, C X; Wang, Y G; Chen, B L; Wang, Y M; Qian, J

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of artemisinin on proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis of gallbladder cancer cells. Gallbladder carcinoma cell lines(GBC-SD and NOZ)were cultured in vitro. The effects of artemisinin in different concentration on proliferation of the two cell lines in vitro were examined using MTT assay. The cell cycle distribution of GBC-SD and NOZ cells 24 h after treatments with artemisinin(20 μmol/L) were examined using flow cytometry. The apoptosis of GBC-SD and NOZ cells 24 h after treatments with artemisinin (20 μmol/L) were examined using Annexin V/PI staining.The expressions of p-ERK1/2, CDK4, cyclin D1, p16, cytochrome C and caspase-3 were examined by Western blot assay. t-test and one way ANOVA were used to evaluate the differences between two groups and more than two groups, respectively. The cell proliferation was significantly inhibited by artemisinin, the IC50 of artemisinin against GBC-SD and NOZ cells were 14.05 μmol/L and 12.42 μmol/L, respectively.Artemisinin induced cycle arrest, and G1 population of GBC-SD and NOZ cells increased to 74.60% and 78.86%. Cell apoptosis and apoptotic population of GBC-SD and NOZ cells were increased to 15.67% and 16.51% after dealt with artemisinin, respectively. In addition, expression of p16 was increased, and expressions of p-ERK1/2, CDK4 and cyclin D1 were down-regulated by artemisinin(all P<0.05). Cytochrome C was released from mitochondria to cytoplasm leading to the activation of caspase-3 and PARP after dealt with artemisinin(P<0.05). The inhibition effect of artemisinin on the proliferation gallbladder cancer cells is accompanied by down-regulation of ERK1/2 signaling pathway, G1 phase arrest and triggering caspase-3-mediate apoptosis.

  13. Gallbladder Agenesis in 17 Dogs: 2006-2016.

    PubMed

    Sato, K; Sakai, M; Hayakawa, S; Sakamoto, Y; Kagawa, Y; Kutara, K; Teshima, K; Asano, K; Watari, T

    2018-01-01

    Gallbladder agenesis (GBA) is extremely rare in dogs. To describe the history, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of dogs with GBA. Seventeen client-owned dogs with GBA. Medical records from 2006 through 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Dogs were included when GBA was suspected on abdominal ultrasonography and confirmed by gross evaluation. Signalment, clinical signs, clinicopathological data, diagnostic imaging, histopathology, treatment, and outcome were recorded. Dogs were of 6 different breeds, and Chihuahuas (10 of 17) were most common. Median age at presentation was 1.9 (range, 0.7-7.4) years. Clinical signs included vomiting (5 of 17), anorexia (2 of 17), ascites (2 of 17), diarrhea (1 of 17), lethargy (1 of 17), and seizures (1 of 17). All dogs had increased serum activity of at least 1 liver enzyme, most commonly alanine aminotransferase (15 of 17). Fifteen dogs underwent computed tomography (CT) cholangiography; common bile duct (CBD) dilatation was confirmed in 12, without evidence of bile duct obstruction. Gross evaluation confirmed malformation of the liver lobes in 14 of 17 dogs and acquired portosystemic collaterals in 5 of 17. Ductal plate malformation was confirmed histologically in 16 of 17 dogs. During follow-up (range, 4-3,379 days), 16 of 17 dogs remained alive. Dogs with GBA exhibit clinicopathological signs of hepatobiliary injury and hepatic histopathological changes consistent with a ductal plate abnormality. Computed tomography cholangiography was superior to ultrasound examination in identifying accompanying nonobstructive CBD distention. Computed tomography cholangiography combined with laparoscopic liver biopsy is the preferable approach to characterize the full disease spectrum accompanying GBA in dogs. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  14. The risk of malignancy in ultrasound detected gallbladder polyps: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Elmasry, Mohamed; Lindop, Don; Dunne, Declan F J; Malik, Hassan; Poston, Graeme J; Fenwick, Stephen W

    2016-09-01

    Gallbladder polyps (GBPs) are a common incidental finding on ultrasound (US) examination. The malignant potential of GBPs is debated, and there is limited guidance on surveillance. This systematic review sought to assess the natural history of ultrasonographically diagnosed GBPs and their malignant potential. The keywords: "Gallbladder" AND ("polyp" OR "polypoid lesion") were used to conduct a search in four reference libraries to identify studies which examined the natural history of GBPs diagnosed by US. Twelve studies were eligible for inclusion in this review. Of the 5482 GBPs reported, malignant GBPs had an incidence of just 0.57%. True GBPs had an incidence of 0.60%. Sixty four patients of adenomatous and malignant polyps were reported. Only in one patient was a malignant GBP reported to be <6mm. Risk factors associated with increased risk of malignancy were GBP >6mm, single GBPs, symptomatic GBPs, age >60 years, Indian ethnicity, gallstones and cholecystitis. With the reported incidence of GBP malignancy at just 0.57%, a management approach based on risk assessment, clear surveillance planning, and multi disciplinary team (MDT) discussion should be adopted. The utilization of endoscopic ultrasound(EUS) should be Only considered on the grounds of its greater sensitivity and specificity when compared to US scans. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of emodin on mobility signal transduction system of gallbladder smooth muscle in Guinea pig with cholelithiasis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Bang-Jiang; Shen, Jun-Yi; Zhang, Hua; Zhou, Shuang; Lyu, Chuan-Zhu; Xie, Yi-Qiang

    2016-10-01

    To study the effect of emodin on protein and gene expressions of the massagers in mobility signal transduction system of cholecyst smooth muscle cells in guinea pig with cholesterol calculus. The guinea pigs were randomly divided into 4 groups, such as control group, gall-stone (GS) group, emodin group and ursodeoxycholic acid (UA) group. Cholesterol calculus models were induced in guinea pigs of GS, emodin and UA groups by lithogenic diet, while emodin or UA were given to the corresponding group for 7 weeks. The histomorphological and ultrastructure change of gallbladder were detected by microscope and electron microscope, the content of plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) and [Ca 2+ ] i were analyzed successively by radioimmunoassay and flow cytometry. The protein and mRNA of Gsα, Giα and Cap in cholecyst cells were determined by western blotting and real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Emodin or UA can relieve pathogenic changes in epithelial cells and muscle cells in gallbladder of guinea pig with cholesterol calculus by microscope and transmission electron microscope. In the cholecyst cells of GS group, CCK levels in plasma and [Ca 2+ ] i decreased, the protein and mRNA of GS were down-regulated, the protein and mRNA of Gi and Cap were up-regulated. Emodin significantly decreased the formative rate of gallstone, improved the pathogenic change in epithelial cells and muscle cells, increased CCK levels in plasma and [Ca 2+ ] i in cholecyst cells, enhanced the protein and mRNA of Gs in cholecyst cells, reduced the protein and mRNA of Gi and Cap in cholecyst cells in guinea pig with cholesterol calculus. The dysfunction of gallbladder contraction gives rise to the disorders of mobility signal transduction system in cholecyst smooth muscle cells, including low content of plasma CCK and [Ca 2+ ] i in cholecyst cells, abnormal protein and mRNA of Gs, Gi and Cap. Emodin can enhance the contractibility of gallbladder and alleviate cholestasis by regulating plasma

  16. Spontaneous right hepatic artery branch gallbladder fistula revealed by haemobilia and upper cataclysmic gastrointestinal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Landolsi, Sana; Landolsi, Manel; Mannai, Saber

    2018-01-03

    Spontaneous right hepatic artery branch gallbladder fistula is a rare condition. Our case reported a spontaneous fistula between the right branch of the hepatic artery and the gall bladder. It constitutes a rare cause of haemobilia. In fact, the most common aetiology of haemobilia is traumatic or iatrogenic secondary to hepatobiliary surgery or interventions. Diagnosis of vascular-biliary fistula is not easy. The gallbladder endoluminal clot can mimic a mass, as in our patient. Selective arterial angiography is helpful in identifying the source of gastrointestinal haemorrhage. It can demonstrate the presence of arteriobiliary fistula. The differential diagnosis is arterial pseudoaneurysm in the vicinity of the vessel. Mini-invasive treatment of this fistula constitutes the best treatment. We here report a case of haemobilia with upper cataclysmic gastrointestinal bleeding revealing a spontaneous fistula between the right branch of the hepatic artery and the gall bladder. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. [Endo-Lap method in the management of biliary lithiasis (gallbladder and common bile duct)].

    PubMed

    Filip, V; Georgescu, St; Stanciu, C; Bălan, Gh; Târcoveanu, E; Neacşu, C N; Cîrdei, C; Drug, V L

    2004-01-01

    To present the results of the biliary endoscopic approach (ERCP) followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in the management of biliary lithiasis (gallbladder and common bile duct--CBD). From 1997 to March 2003 37 patients with biliary lithiasis were treated by endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) with stone extraction, followed after 24-48 hours by LC. The indications for ERCP were presence of an obstructive jaundice (n=32) and a dilated CBD at the ultrasound examination (n=5). Selective biliary cannulation was obtained in 35 (94.6%) cases, in all of them with successful papillotomy. Stones were found in all patients. CBD clearances for calculi (from 1 to 8) was obtained in 33 of 35 patients (94.3%), the rest of 2 being managed by open laparotomy. Antibiotics were administrated in all patients. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed after 24-48 hours, with one conversion (3%). Postoperative morbidity was 12.1%: 2 transitory pancreatic reactions and 2 wound infections. Endo-Lap method is a useful management alternative for combined gallbladder and CBD lithiasis. It has all the advantages of the two mini-invasive procedures (fast recovery, short hospitalization, low costs) and a less postoperative morbidity in patients with high risk.

  18. Emodin As an Effective Agent in Targeting Cancer Stem-Like Side Population Cells of Gallbladder Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin-xing; Dong, Ying; Wang, Wei; Wang, Hao-lu; Chen, Yu-ying; Shi, Gui-ying; Yi, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Side population (SP) cells are previously identified from bone marrow based on their capacity to efflux of the fluorescent dye Hoechst 33342. Recent studies demonstrate that SP cells isolated from various cancer cell lines and primary tumors possess stem-cell-like properties. Thus, targeting tumor SP cells may provide new strategies for treatment in clinic. We previously showed that 1,3,8-trihydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone (emodin), a reactive oxygen species (ROS) generator, enhanced sensitivity of gallbladder cancer SGC-996 cells to cisplatin (CDDP) via generation of ROS and downregulation of multidrug-resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1). To determine whether emodin also acts effectively on cancer stem cells of gallbladder carcinoma, we use SP cells as a model of cancer stem-cell-like cells. Here, we found that emodin, via ROS-related mechanism and suppressing the function of ATP-binding cassette super-family G member (ABCG2), which is known to be associated with Hoechst dye efflux activity of SP cells, not only reduced the ratio, inhibited clone formation, and eliminated sphere formation of SP cells effectively, but also promoted obviously the intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin, the main substrate of the efflux pump ABCG2. In addition, emodin could sensitize CDDP, via inhibition of expression of ABCG2, to overcome chemoresistance of SP cells. Importantly, similar to the experiment in vitro, emodin/CDDP co-treatment in vivo suppressed the tumor growth derived from SP cells through downregulating ABCG2 expression. Our results suggest that emodin is an effective agent targeting cancer stem-like SP cells of gallbladder carcinoma, either alone or acts as a chemotherapy enhancer. PMID:22974371

  19. Inhibition of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) in gallbladder cancer cells leads to decreased growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Patricia; Leal, Pamela; Ili, Carmen; Brebi, Priscilla; Alvarez, Hector; Roa, Juan C

    2013-06-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an aggressive neoplasm associated with late diagnosis, unsatisfactory treatment and poor prognosis. Previous work showed that connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression is increased in this malignancy. This matricellular protein plays an important role in various cellular processes and its involvement in the tumorigenesis of several human cancers has been demonstrated. However, the precise function of CTGF expression in cancer cells is yet to be determined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the CTGF expression in gallbladder cancer cell lines, and its effect on cell viability, colony formation and in vitro cell migration. CTGF expression was evaluated in seven GBC cell lines by Western blot assay. Endogenous CTGF expression was downregulated by lentiviral shRNA directed against CTGF mRNA in G-415 cells, and the effects on cell viability, anchorage-independent growth and migration was assessed by comparing them to scrambled vector-transfected cells. Knockdown of CTGF resulted in significant reduction in cell viability, colony formation and anchorage-independent growth (P < 0.05). An increased p27 expression was observed in G-415 cells with loss of CTGF function. Our results suggest that high expression of this protein in gallbladder cancer may confer a growth advantage for neoplastic cells. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Experimental Pathology © 2013 International Journal of Experimental Pathology.

  20. Photoacoustic Imaging for Differential Diagnosis of Benign Polyps versus Malignant Polyps of the Gallbladder: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Chae, Hee-Dong; Lee, Jae Young; Jang, Jin-Young; Chang, Jin Ho; Kang, Jeeun; Kang, Mee Joo; Han, Joon Koo

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of ex vivo multispectral photoacoustic (PA) imaging in differentiating cholesterol versus neoplastic polyps, and benign versus malignant polyps, of the gallbladder. A total of 38 surgically confirmed gallbladder polyps (24 cholesterol polyps, 4 adenomas, and 10 adenocarcinomas) from 38 patients were prospectively included in this study. The surgical specimens were set on a gel pad immersed in a saline-filled container. The PA intensities of polyps were then measured, using two separate wavelength intervals (421-647 nm and 692-917 nm). Mann-Whitney U test was performed for the comparison of normalized PA intensities between the cholesterol and neoplastic polyps, and between the benign and malignant polyps. Kruskal-Wallis test was conducted for the comparison of normalized PA intensities among the cholesterol polyps, adenomas, and adenocarcinomas. A significant difference was observed in the normalized PA intensities between the cholesterol and neoplastic polyps at 459 nm (median, 1.00 vs. 0.73; p = 0.032). Comparing the benign and malignant polyps, there were significant differences in the normalized PA intensities at 765 nm (median, 0.67 vs. 0.78; p = 0.013), 787 nm (median, 0.65 vs. 0.77; p = 0.034), and 853 nm (median, 0.59 vs. 0.85; p = 0.028). The comparison of the normalized PA intensities among cholesterol polyps, adenomas, and adenocarcinomas demonstrated marginally significant differences at 765 nm (median, 0.67 vs. 0.66 vs. 0.78, respectively; p = 0.049). These preliminary results indicate that benign versus malignant gallbladder polyps might exhibit different spectral patterns on multispectral PA imaging.

  1. Gallbladder perforation during elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy: Incidence, risk factors, and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Altuntas, Yunus Emre; Oncel, Mustafa; Haksal, Mustafa; Kement, Metin; Gundogdu, Ersin; Aksakal, Nihat; Gezen, Fazli Cem

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to reveal the risk factors and outcomes of gallbladder perforation (GP) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: Videotapes of all patients who underwent an elective cholecystectomy at our department were retrospectively analyzed, and the patients were divided into two groups based on the presence of GP. The possible risk factors and early outcomes were analyzed. RESULTS: In total, 664 patients [524 (78.9%) females, 49.7±13.4 years of age] were observed, and GP occurred in 240 (36.1%) patients, mostly while dissecting the gallbladder from its bed (n=197, 82.1%). GP was not recorded in the operation notes in 177 (73.8%) cases. Among the studied parameters, there was no significant risk factor for GP, except preoperatively elevated alanine transaminase level (p=0.005), but the sensitivity and specificity of this measure in predicting GP were 14.2% and 7.4%, respectively. The two groups had similar outcomes, but the operation time (35.4±17.5 vs 41.4±18.7 min, p=0.000) and incidence of drain use (25% vs 45.8%, p=0.000) increased in the GP group. CONCLUSION: The present study reveals that GP occurs in 36.1% of patients who undergo laparoscopic elective cholecystectomy, but it may not be recorded in most cases. We did not find any reliable risk factor that increases the possibility of GP. GP causes an increase in the operation time and incidence of drain use; however, the other outcomes were found to be similar in patients with GP and those without. PMID:29607432

  2. Clostridium perfringens bacteremia caused by choledocholithiasis in the absence of gallbladder stones.

    PubMed

    Atia, Antwan; Raiyani, Tejas; Patel, Pranav; Patton, Robert; Young, Mark

    2012-10-21

    A 67-years-old male presented with periumbilical abdominal pain, fever and jaundice. His anaerobic blood culture was positive for clostridium perfringens. Computed tomogram scan of the abdomen and abdominal ultrasound showed normal gallbladder and common bile duct (CBD). Subsequently magnetic resonance cholangiopancreaticogram showed choledocholithiasis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticogramwith sphincterotomy and CBD stone extraction was performed. The patient progressively improved with antibiotic therapy Choledocholithiasis should be considered as a source of clostridium perfringens bacteremia especially in the setting of elevated liver enzymes with cholestatic pattern.

  3. Long non-coding RNA HOTAIR, a c-Myc activated driver of malignancy, negatively regulates miRNA-130a in gallbladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Protein coding genes account for only about 2% of the human genome, whereas the vast majority of transcripts are non-coding RNAs including long non-coding RNAs. A growing volume of literature has proposed that lncRNAs are important players in cancer. HOTAIR was previously shown to be an oncogene and negative prognostic factor in a variety of cancers. However, the factors that contribute to its upregulation and the interaction between HOTAIR and miRNAs are largely unknown. Methods A computational screen of HOTAIR promoter was conducted to search for transcription-factor-binding sites. HOTAIR promoter activities were examined by luciferase reporter assay. The function of the c-Myc binding site in the HOTAIR promoter region was tested by a promoter assay with nucleotide substitutions in the putative E-box. The association of c-Myc with the HOTAIR promoter in vivo was confirmed by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay and Electrophoretic mobility shift assay. A search for miRNAs with complementary base paring with HOTAIR was performed utilizing online software program. Gain and loss of function approaches were employed to investigate the expression changes of HOTAIR or miRNA-130a. The expression levels of HOTAIR, c-Myc and miRNA-130a were examined in 65 matched pairs of gallbladder cancer tissues. The effects of HOTAIR and miRNA-130a on gallbladder cancer cell invasion and proliferation was tested using in vitro cell invasion and flow cytometric assays. Results We demonstrate that HOTAIR is a direct target of c-Myc through interaction with putative c-Myc target response element (RE) in the upstream region of HOTAIR in gallbladder cancer cells. A positive correlation between c-Myc and HOTAIR mRNA levels was observed in gallbladder cancer tissues. We predicted that HOTAIR harbors a miRNA-130a binding site. Our data showed that this binding site is vital for the regulation of miRNA-130a by HOTAIR. Moreover, a negative correlation between HOTAIR and miRNA-130a was

  4. Trends of Gallbladder Cancer in Jordan Over 2 Decades: Where Are We?

    PubMed Central

    Al Manasra, Abdel Rahman; Bani Hani, Mohammed; Qandeel, Haitham; Al Asmar, Samer; Alqudah, Mohammad; Al-Zoubi, Nabil; Nadig, Satish; Hamouri, Shadi; Obeidat, Khaled; Al-Muqaimi, Nada

    2018-01-01

    Background and Study Aims: The prevalence of gallbladder cancer (GBC) varies between different parts of the world. This study is a review of literature and an update of a previously published study conducted in our university and aims to reassess the incidence of GBC over the past 2 decades. Patients and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study between 2002 and 2016. Data regarding demographics, clinical presentation, risk factors, histopathology, investigations, and treatments were obtained. A diagnosis of GBC established during surgery or primarily detected in the surgical specimen was classified as incidental. Results: Of 11 391 cholecystectomies performed, 31 cases (0.27%) of GBC were found. The mean age of patients with GBC was 68 years (43-103 years), 74% were women. The annual incidence of GBC was 0.2/100 000 (men: 0.1/100 000; women: 0.3/100 000). Biliary colic and acute cholecystitis were the main presentations. Diagnosis of GBC was “incidental” in 67% of cases. About 75% of patients with GBC had gallstones, 13% had polyps, and 3% had porcelain gallbladder. Adenocarcinoma was the dominant (87%) histologic type. Conclusions: The GBC rate in our region, similar to others parts of the world, is still low and has not changed over the past 2 decades. This study consolidates the previously published recommendations regarding the high index of suspicion of GBC in elderly with cholelithiasis. PMID:29760576

  5. Photoacoustic Imaging for Differential Diagnosis of Benign Polyps versus Malignant Polyps of the Gallbladder: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Hee-Dong; Jang, Jin-Young; Chang, Jin Ho; Kang, Jeeun; Kang, Mee Joo; Han, Joon Koo

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility of ex vivo multispectral photoacoustic (PA) imaging in differentiating cholesterol versus neoplastic polyps, and benign versus malignant polyps, of the gallbladder. Materials and Methods A total of 38 surgically confirmed gallbladder polyps (24 cholesterol polyps, 4 adenomas, and 10 adenocarcinomas) from 38 patients were prospectively included in this study. The surgical specimens were set on a gel pad immersed in a saline-filled container. The PA intensities of polyps were then measured, using two separate wavelength intervals (421–647 nm and 692–917 nm). Mann-Whitney U test was performed for the comparison of normalized PA intensities between the cholesterol and neoplastic polyps, and between the benign and malignant polyps. Kruskal-Wallis test was conducted for the comparison of normalized PA intensities among the cholesterol polyps, adenomas, and adenocarcinomas. Results A significant difference was observed in the normalized PA intensities between the cholesterol and neoplastic polyps at 459 nm (median, 1.00 vs. 0.73; p = 0.032). Comparing the benign and malignant polyps, there were significant differences in the normalized PA intensities at 765 nm (median, 0.67 vs. 0.78; p = 0.013), 787 nm (median, 0.65 vs. 0.77; p = 0.034), and 853 nm (median, 0.59 vs. 0.85; p = 0.028). The comparison of the normalized PA intensities among cholesterol polyps, adenomas, and adenocarcinomas demonstrated marginally significant differences at 765 nm (median, 0.67 vs. 0.66 vs. 0.78, respectively; p = 0.049). Conclusion These preliminary results indicate that benign versus malignant gallbladder polyps might exhibit different spectral patterns on multispectral PA imaging. PMID:28860899

  6. Epigenetic regulation of APC in the molecular pathogenesis of gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Tekcham, Dinesh Singh; Poojary, Satish S; Bhunia, Shushruta; Barbhuiya, Mustafa Ahmed; Gupta, Sanjeev; Shrivastav, Braj Raj; Tiwari, Pramod Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Loss of function of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) has been reported in cancer. The two promoters of APC, 1A and 1B also have roles in cancer. But, the epigenetic role of APC promoters is not yet clear in gallbladder cancer (GBC) and gallstone diseases (GSD). We undertook this study to determine the epigenetic role of APC in GBC and GSD. Methylation-specific (MS)-PCR was used to analyze the methylation of APC gene. The expression of APC gene was studied by semi-quantitative PCR, real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC) in GBC, GSD and adjacent normal tissues. Of the two promoters, APC 1A promoter was found methylated in 96 per cent GBC ( P=0.0155) and 80 per cent GSD (P=0.015). Exon 1 was downregulated in grade II (P=0.002) and grade III (P=0.0001) of GBC, while exon 2 was normally expressed. Scoring analysis of IHC revealed 0 or negativity in 34.48 per cent (P=0.057) and 1+ in 24.14 per cent (P=0.005) GBC cases suggesting loss of APC expression. The present findings indicate epigenetic silencing of APC in advanced GBC. The methylation pattern, followed by expression analysis of APC may be suggested for diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic purposes in GBC in future.

  7. A literature-driven method to calculate similarities among diseases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunjin; Yoon, Youngmi; Ahn, Jaegyoon; Park, Sanghyun

    2015-11-01

    "Our lives are connected by a thousand invisible threads and along these sympathetic fibers, our actions run as causes and return to us as results". It is Herman Melville's famous quote describing connections among human lives. To paraphrase the Melville's quote, diseases are connected by many functional threads and along these sympathetic fibers, diseases run as causes and return as results. The Melville's quote explains the reason for researching disease-disease similarity and disease network. Measuring similarities between diseases and constructing disease network can play an important role in disease function research and in disease treatment. To estimate disease-disease similarities, we proposed a novel literature-based method. The proposed method extracted disease-gene relations and disease-drug relations from literature and used the frequencies of occurrence of the relations as features to calculate similarities among diseases. We also constructed disease network with top-ranking disease pairs from our method. The proposed method discovered a larger number of answer disease pairs than other comparable methods and showed the lowest p-value. We presume that our method showed good results because of using literature data, using all possible gene symbols and drug names for features of a disease, and determining feature values of diseases with the frequencies of co-occurrence of two entities. The disease-disease similarities from the proposed method can be used in computational biology researches which use similarities among diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Treatment of gallbladder stone with common bile duct stones in the laparoscopic era.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-jie; Xu, Gui-fang; Huang, Qin; Luo, Kun-lun; Dong, Zhi-tao; Li, Jie-ming; Wu, Guo-zhong; Guan, Wen-xian

    2015-01-26

    Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration (LCBDE) for stone can be carried out by either laparoscopic transcystic stone extraction (LTSE) or laparoscopic choledochotomy (LC). It remains unknown as to which approach is optimal for management of gallbladder stone with common bile duct stones (CBDS) in Chinese patients. From May 2000 to February 2009, we prospective treated 346 consecutive patients with gallbladder stones and CBDS with laparoscopic cholecystectomy and LCBDE. Intraoperative findings, postoperative complications, postoperative hospital stay and costs were analyzed. Because of LCBDE failure,16 cases (4.6%) required open surgery. Of 330 successful LCBDE-treated patients, 237 underwent LTSE and 93 required LC. No mortality occurred in either group. The bile duct stone clearance rate was similar in both groups. Patients in the LTSE group were significantly younger and had fewer complications with smaller, fewer stones, shorter operative time and postoperative hospital stays, and lower costs, compared to those in the LC group. Compared with patients with T-tube insertion, patients in the LC group with primary closure had shorter operative time, shorter postoperative hospital stay, and lower costs. In cases requiring LCBDE, LTSE should be the first choice, whereas LC may be restricted to large, multiple stones. LC with primary closure without external drainage of the CBDS is as effective and safe as the T-tube insertion approach.

  9. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound may distinguish gallbladder adenoma from cholesterol polyps: a prospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Fei, Xiang; Lu, Wen-Ping; Luo, Yu-Kun; Xu, Jian-Hon; Li, Yan-Mi; Shi, Huai-Yin; Jiao, Zi-Yu; Li, Hong-tian

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to find the independent risk factors related with gallbladder (GB) adenoma compared to cholesterol polyp by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). Between January 2010 and September 2014, a total of 122 consecutive patients undergoing cholecystectomy for GB polypoid lesions were enrolled. Before cholecystectomy, each patient underwent conventional US and CEUS examination and all image features were documented. The patients were divided into adenoma group and cholesterol polyp group according to the pathological findings. All the image features between two groups were statistically compared. There were differences in patient age, lesion size, echogenicity, and vascularity of lesion between two groups (P < 0.05). There were differences in stalk width and enhancement intensity between the two groups (P < 0.05). Multiple logistic regression analysis proved that enhancement intensity, stalk of lesion, and vascularity were the independent risk factors related with GB adenoma (P < 0.05). CEUS could offer useful information to distinguish adenoma from cholesterol polyp. The treatment algorithm for gallbladder polyp lesions would likely benefit from CEUS as a routine imaging investigation, especially in cases where the polyp is larger than 1 cm.

  10. Morphology, seasonality and phylogeny of Zschokkella trachini n. sp. (Myxozoa, Myxosporea) infecting the gallbladder of greater weever Trachinus draco (L.) from Tunisian waters.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Ramla; Rangel, Luis F; Castro, Ricardo; Santos, Maria J; Bahri, Sihem

    2016-11-01

    We describe a new myxosporean species, Zschokkella trachini n. sp., infecting the gallbladder of greater weever Trachinus draco Linnaeus 1758 from Tunisia. This is the first record of Zschokkella species in T. draco. Plasmodia were polysporic producing six to eight mature spores; they were attached to the gallbladder epithelium or free floating in the bile. Mature spores were sub-ovoid in the frontal view, measured 15.2 ± 0.6 (14.4-16.0) μm in length and 9.8 ± 0.7 (9.0-10.8) μm in width. Two equal spherical polar capsules 4.0 ± 0.4 (3.6-4.5) μm in diameter, were located separately at the spore's extremities. The prevalence of infection ranged from 23.5 to 87.7 %. Morphological data and molecular analysis of the small subunit rDNA gene identified this parasite as a new species of Zschokkella. Neighbour joining clustered the parasite in a sub-clade containing other Zschokkella species parasiting the gallbladder of marine fish hosts, located within the coelozoic clade of the major freshwater clade. This is the second Zschokkella species reported from Tunisia.

  11. Histopathology of acute acalculous cholecystitis in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Laurila, J J; Ala-Kokko, T I; Laurila, P A; Saarnio, J; Koivukangas, V; Syrjälä, H; Karttunen, T J

    2005-11-01

    To illustrate the histopathological features of acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) of critically ill patients and to compare them with those of acute calculous cholecystitis (ACC) and normal gallbladders. We studied 34 gallbladders with AAC and compared them with 28 cases of ACC and 14 normal gallbladders. Histological features were systematically evaluated. Typical features in AAC were bile infiltration, leucocyte margination of blood vessels and lymphatic dilation. Bile infiltration in the gallbladder wall was more common and extended wider and deeper into the muscle layer in AAC compared with ACC. Epithelial degeneration and defects and widespread occurrence of inflammatory cells were typical features in ACC. Necrosis in the muscle layer was also more common and extended wider and deeper in ACC. There were no differences in the occurrence of capillary thromboses, lymphatic follicles or Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses between the AAC and ACC samples. There are characteristic differences in histopathology between AAC and ACC, although due to overlap, none appeared to be specific as such for either condition. These results suggest that AAC is largely a manifestation of systemic critical illness, whereas ACC is a local disease of the gallbladder.

  12. Incidental gallbladder cancer after routine cholecystectomy: when should we suspect it preoperatively and what are predictors of patient survival?

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Yongchel; Hwang, Shin; Jang, Hyuk-Jai; Choi, Kun-Moo; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In about 1% of cases, incidental gallbladder cancers (iGBC) are found after routine cholecystectomy. The aim of this study is to compare clinical features of iGBC with benign GB disease and to evaluate factors affecting recurrence and survival. Methods Between January 1998 and March 2014, 4,629 patients received cholecystectomy and 73 iGBC patients (1.6%) were identified. We compared clinical features of 4,556 benign GB disease patients with 73 iGBC patients, and evaluated operative outcomes and prognostic factors in 56 eligible patients. Results The iGBC patients were older and concomitant diseases such as hypertension and anemia were more common than benign ones. And an age of more than 65 years was the only risk factor of iGBC. Adverse prognostic factors affecting patients' survival were age over 65, advanced histology, lymph node metastasis, and lymphovascular invasion on multivariate analysis. Age over 65 years, lymph node involvement, and lymphovascular invasion were identified as unfavorable factors affecting survival in subgroup analysis of extended cholecystectomy with bile duct resection (EC with BDR, n = 22). Conclusion Prior to routine cholecystectomy, incidental GB cancer should be suspected especially in elderly patients. And advanced age, lymph node metastasis, and lymphovascular invasion are important prognostic factors in EC with BDR cohorts. PMID:26942156

  13. Guidance to rational use of pharmaceuticals in gallbladder sarcomatoid carcinoma using patient-derived cancer cells and whole exome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Feng, Feiling; Cheng, Qingbao; Yang, Liang; Zhang, Dadong; Ji, Shunlong; Zhang, Qiangzu; Lin, Yihui; Li, Fugen; Xiong, Lei; Liu, Chen; Jiang, Xiaoqing

    2017-01-17

    Gallbladder sarcomatoid carcinoma is a rare cancer with no clinical standard treatment. With the rapid development of next generation sequencing, it has been able to provide reasonable treatment options for patients based on genetic variations. However, most cancer drugs are not approval for gallbladder sarcomatoid carcinoma indications. The correlation between drug response and a genetic variation needs to be further elucidated. Three patient-derived cells-JXQ-3D-001, JXQ-3D-002, and JXQ-3D-003, were derived from biopsy samples of one gallbladder sarcomatoid carcinoma patient with progression and have been characterized. In order to study the relationship between drug sensitivity and gene alteration, genetic mutations of three patient-derived cells were discovered by whole exome sequencing, and drug screening has been performed based on the gene alterations and related signaling pathways that are associated with drug targets. It has been found that there are differences in biological characteristics such as morphology, cell proliferation, cell migration and colony formation activity among these three patient-derived cells although they are derived from the same patient. Their sensitivities to the chemotherapy drugs-Fluorouracil, Doxorubicin, and Cisplatin are distinct. Moreover, none of common chemotherapy drugs could inhibit the proliferations of all three patient-derived cells. Comprehensive analysis of their whole exome sequencing demonstrated that tumor-associated genes TP53, AKT2, FGFR3, FGF10, SDHA, and PI3KCA were mutated or amplified. Part of these alterations are actionable. By screening a set of compounds that are associated with the genetic alteration, it has been found that GDC-0941 and PF-04691502 for PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway inhibitors could dramatically decrease the proliferation of three patient-derived cells. Importantly, expression of phosphorylated AKT and phosphorylated S6 were markedly decreased after treatments with PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway

  14. Overexpression of MTA1 and loss of KAI-1 and KiSS-1 expressions are associated with invasion, metastasis, and poor-prognosis of gallbladder adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjun; Yang, Zhu-lin; Liu, Jie-qiong; Yang, Le-ping; Yang, Xiao-jing; Fu, Xi

    2014-01-01

    Over 90% of patients with gallbladder cancer have invasion and/or metastasis when they are diagnosed at the clinic. Such patients usually have an extremely poor prognosis. The molecular mechanism responsible for the high prevalence of invasion and metastasis remains unknown. We investigated the expression of two metastasis-suppression genes--KAI-1 and KiSS-1--and a metastasis-associated gene--MTA1--in 108 adenocarcinomas, 15 gallbladder polyps, 35 chronic cholecystitis tissues, and 46 peritumoral tissues using in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry. We demonstrated that positive MTA1 expression was significantly higher whereas positive expressions of KAI-1 and KiSS-1 genes were significantly lower in gallbladder adenocarcinoma than in peritumoral tissues, polyps, and chronic cholecystitis. Positive MTA1 expression was significantly lower, but positive KAI-1 and KiSS-1 expressions were significantly higher in cases with well-differentiated adenocarcinoma, smaller tumor mass, no metastasis of lymph node, and no invasion of regional tissues than in cases having poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, larger tumor mass, metastasis and invasion. Univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that increased expression of MTA1 and lowered expression of KAI-1 and KiSS-1 were significantly associated with decreased overall survival. Cox regression analysis showed that tumor mass, lymph node metastasis, invasion, and MTA1 expression levels negatively correlated with survival. Our study suggested that KAI-1, KiSS-1, and MTA1 might be important biological markers involved in the carcinogenesis, metastasis, and invasion of gallbladder adenocarcinoma, but MTA1 is an independent factor of prognosis.

  15. Clinicopathologic Features of Polypoid Lesions of the Gallbladder and Risk Factors of Gallbladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Wooil; Lee, Seung Eun; Hwang, Dae Wook; Kim, Sun-Whe

    2009-01-01

    It is difficult to differentiate benign and malignancy in polypoid lesions of the gallbladder (PLG) by solely depending on imaging studies. Therefore clinicopathologic features of benign and malignant polyps are compared in an attempt to identify the risk factors of malignant polypoid lesions. The medical records of 291 patients who were confirmed to have PLG through cholecystectomy were reviewed and analyzed for age, sex, symptom, associated gallstone, morphology of PLG, size of PLG, number of PLG, and preoperative tumor markers. Benign PLG was found in 256 patients (88.0%) and malignant PLG in 35 patients (12.0%). Compared with benign group, the malignant group were older (61.1 yr vs. 47.1 yr, P<0.001), more often accompanied with symptoms (62.9% vs. 28.9%, P<0.001). Malignant PLG tended to be sessile (60.0% vs. 10.5%, P<0.001), larger (28.0 mm vs. 8.6 mm, P<0.001) and single lesion (65.7% vs. 44.1%, P<0.016). Age over 60 yr (P=0.021, odds ratio [OR], 8.16), sessile morphology (P<0.001, OR, 7.70), and size over 10 mm (P=0.009, OR, 8.87) were identified as risk factors for malignant PLG. Careful decision making on therapeutic plans should be made with consideration of malignancy for patients over 60 yr, with sessile morphology of PLG, and with PLG size of over 10 mm. PMID:19543513

  16. Prothymosin-α and parathymosin expression predicts poor prognosis in squamous and adenosquamous carcinomas of the gallbladder

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kang; Xiong, Li; Yang, Zhuling; Huang, Shengfu; Zeng, Rong; Miao, Xiongying

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the expression patterns of prothymosin-α (PTMA) and parathymosin (PTMS) in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), adenosquamous cell carcinoma (ASC) and adenocarcinoma (AC) of the gallbladder, and to assess their association with the clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of the patients. A retrospective analysis of data pertaining to patients with SCC/ASC (n=46) and AC (n=80) of the gallbladder, who were treated with surgical resection, was conducted. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was also performed to assess the correlation of the expression pattern with survival. The results revealed a higher percentage of patients with a large tumor diameter (>3 cm) in the SCC/ASC group as compared with those in the AC group (P<0.05). No significant differences were observed between patients with SCC/ASC and those with AC with respect to the patient sex, presence of gallstones, TNM stage, lymph node metastasis, invasive growth into anatomically contiguous structures, surgical methods used, survival rate, and the expression levels of PTMA and PTMA (P>0.05). However, positive expression of PTMA and PTMA was associated with tumor size, TNM stage, lymph node metastasis, locally invasive growth, and treatment with radical resection in patients with SCC/ASC and AC (P<0.05). In addition, positive expression of PTMA and PTMA was observed in a significantly lower number of patients with advanced AC as compared with those in early AC (P<0.05), while these expression levels were also associated with shorter survival in the SCC/ASC group and AC group (P<0.05). Cox multivariate analysis also demonstrated a negative correlation between PTMA and PTMA levels, and the postoperative survival rate in the two groups. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the expression levels of PTMA and PTMA were closely associated with the tumorigenesis and progression of SCC, ASC and AC of the gallbladder. Positive expression of PTMA and PTMA

  17. Polypoid lesions of the gallbladder: report of 160 cases with special reference to diagnosis and treatment in China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jingjing; Wu, Gang; Zhou, Zhongwen

    2015-01-01

    Background: The preoperative diagnosis of gallbladder polypoid lesions is difficult, justifying the lack of consensus on the appropriate treatment. Objective: The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics of each type of polypoid lesion of the gallbladder and the indications for surgery. Methods: Between January 1999 and December 2012, clinical data were retrospectively correlated with the histopathologic characteristics of polypoid lesions in 160 patients who underwent cholecystectomy. Results: A total of 160 patients with benign polypoid lesions (including 49 tumor-like lesions and 75 adenomas) and 14 patients with malignant polypoid lesions (including 2 adenocarcinomas and 12 adenomas with malignant changes) were included in this study. One hundred and five (65.6%) of the patients had associated symptoms, and 70 (43.8%) had gallstones. Of the 49 patients with tumor-like lesions, 49 (100%) were correlated with chronic cholecystitis. A total of 72 (83.8%) patients with neoplasms had a single polyp compared with 25 (59.5%) of those with non-neoplastic polyps. The mean age of the patients with malignancy was 59.07±13.465 years, and 12 (85.7%) of these patients were over 50 years of age. The mean diameters of the benign and malignant polyps were 1.0±0.77 cm and 2.15±1.16 cm, respectively. Ten (100%) of the patients with malignancy had polyps of over 1 cm in size, as shown by ultrasound. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that tumor-like lesions, adenomas, and adenocarcinomas are the most common polypoid lesions of the gallbladder. Cholecystecomy should be done in patients with symptoms. The risk of malignancy is high in patients over 50 years of age; those with polyps with diameters of greater than 10 mm; and those with single polypoid lesions. The remainder of PLG patients without cholecystectomy should be followed up at regular intervals. PMID:26617893

  18. Polypoid lesions of the gallbladder: report of 160 cases with special reference to diagnosis and treatment in China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingjing; Wu, Gang; Zhou, Zhongwen

    2015-01-01

    The preoperative diagnosis of gallbladder polypoid lesions is difficult, justifying the lack of consensus on the appropriate treatment. The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics of each type of polypoid lesion of the gallbladder and the indications for surgery. Between January 1999 and December 2012, clinical data were retrospectively correlated with the histopathologic characteristics of polypoid lesions in 160 patients who underwent cholecystectomy. A total of 160 patients with benign polypoid lesions (including 49 tumor-like lesions and 75 adenomas) and 14 patients with malignant polypoid lesions (including 2 adenocarcinomas and 12 adenomas with malignant changes) were included in this study. One hundred and five (65.6%) of the patients had associated symptoms, and 70 (43.8%) had gallstones. Of the 49 patients with tumor-like lesions, 49 (100%) were correlated with chronic cholecystitis. A total of 72 (83.8%) patients with neoplasms had a single polyp compared with 25 (59.5%) of those with non-neoplastic polyps. The mean age of the patients with malignancy was 59.07 ± 13.465 years, and 12 (85.7%) of these patients were over 50 years of age. The mean diameters of the benign and malignant polyps were 1.0 ± 0.77 cm and 2.15 ± 1.16 cm, respectively. Ten (100%) of the patients with malignancy had polyps of over 1 cm in size, as shown by ultrasound. Our findings indicate that tumor-like lesions, adenomas, and adenocarcinomas are the most common polypoid lesions of the gallbladder. Cholecystecomy should be done in patients with symptoms. The risk of malignancy is high in patients over 50 years of age; those with polyps with diameters of greater than 10 mm; and those with single polypoid lesions. The remainder of PLG patients without cholecystectomy should be followed up at regular intervals.

  19. Tumor lysate-based vaccines: on the road to immunotherapy for gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Sepúlveda, Daniel; Tittarelli, Andrés; Gleisner, María Alejandra; Ávalos, Ignacio; Pereda, Cristián; Gallegos, Iván; González, Fermín Eduardo; López, Mercedes Natalia; Butte, Jean Michel; Roa, Juan Carlos; Fluxá, Paula; Salazar-Onfray, Flavio

    2018-03-29

    Immunotherapy based on checkpoint blockers has proven survival benefits in patients with melanoma and other malignancies. Nevertheless, a significant proportion of treated patients remains refractory, suggesting that in combination with active immunizations, such as cancer vaccines, they could be helpful to improve response rates. During the last decade, we have used dendritic cell (DC) based vaccines where DCs loaded with an allogeneic heat-conditioned melanoma cell lysate were tested in a series of clinical trials. In these studies, 60% of stage IV melanoma DC-treated patients showed immunological responses correlating with improved survival. Further studies showed that an essential part of the clinical efficacy was associated with the use of conditioned lysates. Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a high-incidence malignancy in South America. Here, we evaluated the feasibility of producing effective DCs using heat-conditioned cell lysates derived from gallbladder cancer cell lines (GBCCL). By characterizing nine different GBCCLs and several fresh tumor tissues, we found that they expressed some tumor-associated antigens such as CEA, MUC-1, CA19-9, Erb2, Survivin, and several carcinoembryonic antigens. Moreover, heat-shock treatment of GBCCLs induced calreticulin translocation and release of HMGB1 and ATP, both known to act as danger signals. Monocytes stimulated with combinations of conditioned lysates exhibited a potent increase of DC-maturation markers. Furthermore, conditioned lysate-matured DCs were capable of strongly inducing CD4 + and CD8 + T cell activation, in both allogeneic and autologous cell co-cultures. Finally, in vitro stimulated CD8 + T cells recognize HLA-matched GBCCLs. In summary, GBC cell lysate-loaded DCs may be considered for future immunotherapy approaches.

  20. Management and follow-up of gallbladder polyps : Joint guidelines between the European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology (ESGAR), European Association for Endoscopic Surgery and other Interventional Techniques (EAES), International Society of Digestive Surgery - European Federation (EFISDS) and European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE).

    PubMed

    Wiles, Rebecca; Thoeni, Ruedi F; Barbu, Sorin Traian; Vashist, Yogesh K; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael; Dewhurst, Catherine; Arvanitakis, Marianna; Lahaye, Max; Soltes, Marek; Perinel, Julie; Roberts, Stuart Ashley

    2017-09-01

    The management of incidentally detected gallbladder polyps on radiological examinations is contentious. The incidental radiological finding of a gallbladder polyp can therefore be problematic for the radiologist and the clinician who referred the patient for the radiological examination. To address this a joint guideline was created by the European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology (ESGAR), European Association for Endoscopic Surgery and other Interventional Techniques (EAES), International Society of Digestive Surgery - European Federation (EFISDS) and European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). A targeted literature search was performed and consensus guidelines were created using a series of Delphi questionnaires and a seven-point Likert scale. A total of three Delphi rounds were performed. Consensus regarding which patients should have cholecystectomy, which patients should have ultrasound follow-up and the nature and duration of that follow-up was established. The full recommendations as well as a summary algorithm are provided. These expert consensus recommendations can be used as guidance when a gallbladder polyp is encountered in clinical practice. • Management of gallbladder polyps is contentious • Cholecystectomy is recommended for gallbladder polyps >10 mm • Management of polyps <10 mm depends on patient and polyp characteristics • Further research is required to determine optimal management of gallbladder polyps.

  1. High CD8+ and absence of Foxp3+ T lymphocytes infiltration in gallbladder tumors correlate with prolonged patients survival.

    PubMed

    Fluxá, Paula; Rojas-Sepúlveda, Daniel; Gleisner, María Alejandra; Tittarelli, Andrés; Villegas, Pablo; Tapia, Loreto; Rivera, María Teresa; López, Mercedes Natalia; Catán, Felipe; Uribe, Mario; Salazar-Onfray, Flavio

    2018-03-02

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC), although infrequent in industrialized countries, has high incidence rates in certain world regions, being a leading cause of death among elderly Chilean women. Surgery is the only effective treatment, and a five-year survival rate of advanced-stage patients is less than 10%. Hence, exploring immunotherapy is relevant, although GBC immunogenicity is poorly understood. This study examined the relationship between the host immune response and GBC patient survival based on the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes at different disease stages. Tumor tissues from 80 GBC patients were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for the presence of CD3 + , CD4 + , CD8 + , and Foxp3 + T cell populations, and the results were associated with clinical stage and patient survival. The majority of tumor samples showed CD3 + T cell infiltration, which correlated with better prognosis, particularly in advanced disease stages. CD8 + , but not CD4 + , T cell infiltration correlated with improved survival, particularly in advanced disease stages. Interestingly, a < 1 CD4 + /CD8 + T cell ratio was related with increased survival. Additionally, the presence of Foxp3 + T cells correlated with decreased patient survival, whereas a ≤ 1 Foxp3 + /CD8 + T cell ratio was associated with improved patient survival. Depending on the disease stage, the presence of CD8 + and absence of Foxp3 + T cell populations in tumor tissues correlated with improved GBC patient survival, and thus represent potential markers for prognosis and management of advanced disease, and supports testing of immunotherapy.

  2. The emerging roles of long non-coding RNA in gallbladder cancer tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bing; Li, Ya; He, Yuting; Xue, Chen; Xu, Feng

    2018-05-04

    Accumulating evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have important regulatory functions in gallbladder cancer (GBC) tumorigenesis and can serve as potential novel markers and/or targets for GBC. In this review, we critically discuss the emerging alteration of lncRNAs in GBC, the lncRNAs induced epigenetic regulation, the interaction of lncRNAs with microRNAs and lncRNAs effects on tumor-related signaling pathways. Additionally, contributions of lncRNAs in epithelial-mesenchymal transition process and energy metabolism reprogramming in GBC are also addressed. This may pave new ways towards the determination of GBC pathogenesis and lead to the development of new preventive and therapeutic strategies for GBC.

  3. Risk factors for gallbladder cancer: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Jain, Kajal; Sreenivas, V; Velpandian, T; Kapil, Umesh; Garg, Pramod Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Risk factors for gallbladder cancer (GBC) except gallstones are not well known. The objective was to study the risk factors for GBC. In a case-control study, 200 patients with GBC, 200 healthy controls and 200 gallstones patients as diseased controls were included prospectively. The risk factors studied were related to socioeconomic profile, life style, reproduction, diet and bile acids. On comparing GBC patients (mean age 51.7 years; 130 females) with healthy controls, risk factors were chemical exposure [odd ratios (OR): 7.0 (2.7-18.2); p < 0.001)], family history of gallstones [OR: 5.3 (1.5-18.9); p < 0.01)], tobacco [OR: 4.1 (1.8-9.7); p < 0.001)], fried foods [OR: 3.1 (1.7-5.6); p < 0.001], joint family [OR: 3.2 (1.7-6.2); p < 0.001], long interval between meals [OR: 1.4 (1.2-1.6); p < 0.001] and residence in Gangetic belt [OR: 3.3 (1.8-6.2); p < 0.001]. On comparing GBC cases with gallstone controls, risk factors were female gender [OR: 2.4 (1.3-4.3); p = 0.004], residence in Gangetic belt [OR: 2.3 (1.2-4.4); p = 0.012], fried foods [OR: 2.5 (1.4-4.4); p < 0.001], diabetes [OR: 2.7 (1.2-6.4); p = 0.02)], tobacco [OR 3.8 (1.7-8.1); p < 0.001)] and joint family [OR: 2.1 (1.2-3.4); p = 0.004]. The ratio of secondary to primary bile acids was significantly higher in GBC cases than gallstone controls (20.8 vs. 0.44). Fried foods, tobacco, chemical exposure, family history of gallstones, residence in Gangetic belt and secondary bile acids were significant risk factors for GBC. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  4. [Positron tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose in the preoperative evaluation of gall bladder lesions suspicious of malignancy. Diagnostic utility and clinical impact].

    PubMed

    Ramos-Font, C; Gómez Río, M; Rodríguez-Fernández, A; Sánchez Sánchez, R; Llamas Elvira, J M

    2011-01-01

    Gallbladder carcinoma is a neoplasm having a poor prognosis in which the role of the positron emission tomography with (18)F-fluordeoxyglucose as a diagnostic tool, although of possible usefulness, has not been well-defined. It is a prospective cohort of patients with radiologically malignant suspicious gallbladder lesions. A staging diagnostic presurgical FDG-PET study was carried out in each patient using both dedicated PET and multimodality PET-CT scanners. Diagnostic accuracy parameters were calculated from the results of PET imaging and were correlated with the condition and/or the clinical course of the patients. The clinical impact of its implementation in the diagnosis of gallbladder carcinoma was also analyzed. A total of 42 patients were recruited (22 malignant lesions, 20 benign). Overall diagnostic accuracy was 83.33% for the diagnosis of the primary lesion, 88.89% for the evaluation of lymph node involvement and 85.1% for the evaluation of metastatic disease. Mean SUVmax in malignant gallbladder lesions was 6.14±2.89. ROC curve showed a cut-off value of 3.65 in the SUVmax for malignancy. Accuracy of PET studies alone (n=21) was slightly lower than that of the PET/CT (n=21). FDG-PET changed the management of 14.8% of the population due to the identification of unsuspected metastatic disease. FDG-PET accurately diagnoses malignancy or benignity of suspicious gallbladder lesions, with the addition of its capacity to identify unsuspected metastatic disease. PET-CT improves the diagnostic accuracy of the procedure, due to the metabolic-structural complementarity of their information. The SUVmax has a complementary value added to the visual analysis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  5. Isolated Nonvisualization of the Fetal Gallbladder Should Be Considered for the Prenatal Diagnosis of Cystic Fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Bergougnoux, Anne; Jouannic, Jean-Marie; Verneau, Fanny; Bienvenu, Thierry; Gaitch, Natacha; Raynal, Caroline; Girodon, Emmanuelle

    2018-06-19

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) can be revealed during fetal life by diverse ultrasound digestive abnormalities (USDA) such as fetal echogenic bowel or fetal intestinal loop dilatation, nonvisualization of the fetal gallbladder (NVFGB) being rarely observed in isolation. Only 6 cases of CF revealed by isolated NVFGB have been reported so far in the literature. Furthermore, recent studies suggested that this sign is of poor predictive value for CF. We report on the results of a 6-year French tricenter study on 1,124 cases of fetal USDA for whom a comprehensive molecular study was performed for CF. Among the 37 CF fetuses, 5 (13.5%) presented with isolated NVFGB at ultrasound (US) examination at 24-31 weeks of gestation. This sign was more frequently observed in CF fetuses than in non-CF fetuses, with a likelihood ratio of 2.7. The genotypes included three c.1521_1523del (F508del) homozygous cases and two compound heterozygous cases for a frequent and a rare CF-causing variant. These observations highlight the importance to report on the presence and aspect of the fetal gallbladder at the second trimester US scan and to consider prenatal CFTR molecular analysis in cases of isolated NVFGB. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Elevated bile amylase level without pancreaticobiliary maljunction is a risk factor for gallbladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Takaaki; Ohtsuka, Takao; Nakashima, Yohei; Gotoh, Yoshitaka; Date, Kenjiro; Mori, Yasuhisa; Sadakari, Yoshihiko; Takahata, Shunichi; Oda, Yoshinao; Nakamura, Masafumi

    2017-02-01

    Elevated bile amylase level in patients with pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM) or high confluence of pancreaticobiliary ducts (HCPBD) is well known as a risk factor for gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) development. However, the effects of occult pancreaticobiliary reflux (OPR), a condition characterized by high bile amylase level in the presence of an anatomically normal pancreaticobiliary junction, on GBC development remain unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between OPR and GBC. Clinicopathological data of 52 patients who were preoperatively diagnosed with gallbladder (GB) tumor (22 malignant, 30 benign) were retrospectively reviewed. All of the patients underwent preoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography to evaluate pancreaticobiliary junction morphology and bile amylase level. The relationship between the histological diagnosis of GB lesions, and pancreaticobiliary junction morphology and bile amylase level were investigated. Pancreaticobiliary maljunction, HCPBD, and normal pancreaticobiliary junction (NPJ) were identified in 12, nine, and 31 patients, respectively. The rates of GBC in patients with PBM, HCPBD, and NPJ were 58% (7/12), 67% (6/9), and 29% (9/31), respectively. Of the 31 patients with NPJ, 22 had OPR and nine of these had GBC. None of the patients with NPJ and normal bile amylase level had GBC. Additionally, among patients with NPJ, bile amylase level was significantly higher in patients with GBC than in patients with benign tumors. Occult pancreaticobiliary reflux, like PBM and HCPBD, is a risk factor for GBC development. © 2017 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  7. Characterization of cancer stem-like cells derived from a side population of a human gallbladder carcinoma cell line, SGC-996

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xin-xing; Wang, Jian, E-mail: dr_wangjian@yahoo.com.cn; Wang, Hao-lu

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We sorted SP cells from a human gallbladder carcinoma cell lines, SGC-996. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SP cells displayed higher proliferation and stronger clonal-generating capability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SP cells showed more migratory and invasive abilities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SP cells were more resistant and tumorigenic than non-SP counterparts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ABCG2 might be a candidate as a marker for SP cells. -- Abstract: The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis proposes that CSCs, which can renew themselves proliferate infinitely, and escape chemotherapy, become the root of recurrence and metastasis. Previous studies have verified that side population (SP) cells, characterized by their ability to efflux lipophilic substratemore » Hoechst 33342, to share many characteristics of CSCs in multiplying solid tumors. The purpose of this study was to sort SP cells from a human gallbladder carcinoma cell line, SGC-996 and to preliminarily identify the biological characteristics of SP cells from the cell line. Using flow cytometry we effectively sorted SP cells from the cell line SGC-996. SP cells not only displayed higher proliferative, stronger clonal-generating, more migratory and more invasive capacities, but showed stronger resistance. Furthermore, our experiments demonstrated that SP cells were more tumorigenic than non-SP counterparts in vivo. Real-time PCR analysis and immunocytochemistry showed that the expression of ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2) was significantly higher in SP cells. Hence, these results collectively suggest that SP cells are progenitor/stem-like cells and ABCG2 might be a candidate marker for SP cells in human gallbladder cancer.« less

  8. Salmonella L-forms: formation in human bile in vitro and isolation culture from patients' gallbladder samples by a non-high osmotic isolation technique.

    PubMed

    Wang, D N; Wu, W J; Wang, T; Pan, Y Z; Tang, K L; She, X L; Ding, W J; Wang, H

    2015-05-01

    Bacterial L-forms have always been considered as osmotic-pressure-sensitive cell-wall-deficient bacteria and isolation culture of L-forms must use media with high osmotic pressure. However, isolation culture of stable L-forms formed in humans and animals is very difficult because they have adapted to the physiological osmotic pressure condition of the host. We use a non-high osmotic isolation technique to isolate stable L-forms of Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A from bile-inducer cultures in vitro and from patients' gallbladder specimens. Multiplex PCR assay for Salmonella-specific genes and nucleotide sequencing are used to identify the Salmonella L-forms in stable L-form isolates. Using this method, we confirmed that Salmonella Paratyphi A and Salmonella Typhi cannot be isolated from bile-inducer cultures cultured for 6 h or 48 h, but the L-forms can be isolated from 1 h to 45 days. In the 524 gallbladder samples, the positive rate for bacterial forms was 19.7% and the positive rate for Salmonella spp. was 0.6% by routine bacteriological methods. The positive rate for bacterial L-forms was 75.4% using non-high osmotic isolation culture. In the L-form isolates, the positive rate of Salmonella invA gene was 3.1%. In these invA-positive L-form isolates, four were positive for the invA and flic-d genes of Salmonella Typhi, and ten were positive for the invA and flic-a genes of Salmonella Paratyphi A. Copyright © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of thiorphan on response of the guinea-pig gallbladder to tachykinins.

    PubMed

    Maggi, C A; Patacchini, R; Renzi, D; Santicioli, P; Regoli, D; Rovero, P; Drapeau, G; Surrenti, C; Meli, A

    1989-06-08

    Tachykinins produced a concentration-related contraction of the isolated guinea-pig