Science.gov

Sample records for calendula calendula officinalis

  1. Calendula

    MedlinePlus

    Calendula is a plant. The flower is used to make medicine. Calendula flower is used to prevent muscle spasms, start ... menstrual cramps, cancer, and stomach and duodenal ulcers. Calendula is applied to the skin to reduce pain ...

  2. [HPLC fingerprint of Calendula officinalis flower].

    PubMed

    Xing, Zhan-Fen; Cheng, Hong-Da; Zhang, Ping-Ping; Gong, Lei; Ma, Li-Ya

    2014-07-01

    To establish an HPLC fingerprint of Calendula officinalis flower for its quality control. Hypersil ODS C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 μm) was used with acetonitrile and water as mobile phase in a gradient mode at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The detection wavelength was 220 nm and the temperature of column was set at 35 degrees C. The similarity was analyzed with the Estimating System of Similarity on the Chinese Medicine Fingerprint Chromatogram. The HPLC fingerprint of Calendula officinalis flower containing eleven peaks was set up. The similarity of Calendula officinalis flower from different habitats was greater than 0.90. This method is easy and reliable, which can be used to judge the habitat and control the quality of Calendula officinalis flower.

  3. Seed germination of Calendula officinalis 'Carola' in response to temperature

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Calendula (Calendula officinalis 'Carola') is a potential agronomic oilseed crop with application in the paint, coating, and cosmetic industry. Calendula has historically been used for herbal medicinal purposes and an ornamental plant. With the discovery that calendula seeds contain high concentrati...

  4. Final report on the safety assessment of Calendula officinalis extract and Calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    2001-01-01

    Calendula Officinalis Extract is an extract of the flowers of Calendula officinalis, the common marigold, whereas Calendula Officinalis is described as plant material derived from the flowers of C. officinalis. Techniques for preparing Calendula Officinalis Extract include gentle disintegration in soybean oil. Propylene glycol and butylene glycol extractions were also reported. Components of these ingredients are variously reported to include sugars, carotenoids, phenolic acids, sterols, saponins, flavonoids, resins, sterins, quinones, mucilages, vitamins, polyprenylquinones, and essential oils. Calendula Officinalis Extract is reported to be used in almost 200 cosmetic formulations, over a wide range of product categories. There are no reported uses of Calendula Officinalis. Acute toxicity studies in rats and mice indicate that the extract is relatively nontoxic. Animal tests showed at most minimal skin irritation, and no sensitization or phototoxicity. Minimal ocular irritation was seen with one formulation and no irritation with others. Six saponins isolated from C. officinalis flowers were not mutagenic in an Ames test, and a tea derived from C. officinalis was not genotoxic in Drosophila melanogaster. No carcinogenicity or reproductive and developmental toxicity data were available. Clinical testing of cosmetic formulations containing the extract elicited little irritation or sensitization. Absent any basis for concluding that data on one member of a botanical ingredient group can be extrapolated to another in a group, or to the same ingredient extracted differently, these data were not considered sufficient to assess the safety of these ingredients. Additional data needs include current concentration of use data; function in cosmetics; ultraviolet (UV) absorption data; if absorption occurs in the UVA or UVB range, photosensitization data are needed; gross pathology and histopathology in skin and other major organ systems associated with repeated dermal

  5. Effects of Calendula officinalis on human gingival fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Saini, Pragtipal; Al-Shibani, Nouf; Sun, Jun; Zhang, Weiping; Song, Fengyu; Gregson, Karen S; Windsor, L Jack

    2012-04-01

    Calendula officinalis is commonly called the marigold. It is a staple topical remedy in homeopathic medicine. It is rich in quercetin, carotenoids, lutein, lycopene, rutin, ubiquinone, xanthophylls, and other anti-oxidants. It has anti-inflammatory properties. Quercetin, one of the active components in Calendula, has been shown to inhibit recombinant human matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and decrease the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL), IL-6 and IL-8 in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore-stimulated human mast cells. To examine the effects of Calendula on human gingival fibroblast (HGF) mediated collagen degradation and MMP activity. Lactate dehydrogenate assays were performed to determine the non-toxic concentrations of Calendula, doxycycline and quercetin. Cell-mediated collagen degradation assays were performed to examine the inhibitory effect on cell-mediated collagen degradation. Gelatin zymography was performed to examine their effects on MMP-2 activity. The experiments were repeated three times and ANOVA used for statistical analyses. Calendula at 2-3% completely inhibited the MMP-2 activity in the zymograms. Doxycycline inhibited HGF-mediated collagen degradation at 0.005, 0.01, 0.02 and 0.05%, and MMP-2 activity completely at 0.05%. Quercetin inhibited HGF-mediated collagen degradation at 0.005, 0.01 and 0.02%, and MMP-2 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Calendula inhibited HGF-mediated collagen degradation and MMP-2 activity more than the same correlated concentration of pure quercetin. Calendula inhibits HGF-mediated collagen degradation and MMP-2 activity more than the corresponding concentration of quercetin. This may be attributed to additional components in Calendula other than quercetin. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Amelioration of myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury with Calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    Ray, Diptarka; Mukherjee, Subhendu; Falchi, Mario; Bertelli, Aldo; Das, Dipak K

    2010-12-01

    Calendula officinalis of family Asteraceae, also known as marigold, has been widely used from time immemorial in Indian and Arabic cultures as an anti-inflammatory agent to treat minor skin wound and infections, burns, bee stings, sunburn and cancer. At a relatively high dose, calendula can lower blood pressure and cholesterol. Since inflammatory responses are behind many cardiac diseases, we sought to evaluate if calendula could be cardioprotective against ischemic heart disease Two groups of hearts were used: the treated rat hearts were perfused with calendula solution at 50 mM in KHB buffer (in mM: sodium chloride 118, potassium chloride 4.7, calcium chloride 1.7, sodium bicarbonate 25, potassium biphosphate 0.36, magnesium sulfate 1.2, and glucose 10) for 15 min prior to subjecting the heart to ischemia, while the control group was perfused with the buffer only. Calendula achieved cardioprotection by stimulating left ventricular developed pressure and aortic flow as well as by reducing myocardial infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Cardioprotection appears to be achieved by changing ischemia reperfusion-mediated death signal into a survival signal by modulating antioxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways as evidenced by the activation of Akt and Bcl2 and depression of TNFα. The results further strengthen the concept of using natural products in degeneration diseases like ischemic heart disease.

  7. DNA-based identification of Calendula officinalis (Asteraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Schmiderer, Corinna; Lukas, Brigitte; Ruzicka, Joana; Novak, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: For the economically important species Calendula officinalis, a fast identification assay based on high-resolution melting curve analysis was designed. This assay was developed to distinguish C. officinalis from other species of the genus and other Asteraceae genera, and to detect C. officinalis as an adulterant of saffron samples. Methods and Results: For this study, five markers (ITS, rbcL, 5′ trnK-matK, psbA-trnH, trnL-trnF) of 10 Calendula species were sequenced and analyzed for species-specific mutations. With the application of two developed primer pairs located in the trnK 5′ intron and trnL-trnF, C. officinalis could be distinguished from other species of the genus and all outgroup samples tested. Adulterations of Calendula DNA in saffron could be detected down to 0.01%. Conclusions: With the developed assay, C. officinalis can be reliably identified and admixtures of this species as adulterant of saffron can be revealed at low levels. PMID:26649268

  8. Solid lipid nanoparticles for delivery of Calendula officinalis extract.

    PubMed

    Arana, Lide; Salado, Clarisa; Vega, Sandra; Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; de la Arada, Igor; Suarez, Tatiana; Usobiaga, Aresatz; Arrondo, José Luis R; Alonso, Alicia; Goñi, Félix M; Alkorta, Itziar

    2015-11-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) composed of long-chain fatty acids (palmitic acid, stearic acid or arachidic acid), Epikuron 200 (purified phosphatidylcholine), and bile salts (cholate, taurocholate or taurodeoxycholate) have been prepared by dilution of a microemulsion. A total of five different systems were prepared, and characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and infrared spectroscopy. The SLN formulation showing optimal properties (lowest size and polydispersity index and highest zeta potential) was obtained with stearic acid and taurodeoxycholate as cosurfactant. This formulation was loaded with Calendula officinalis extract, a natural compound used on ophthalmic formulations given its anti-inflammatory, emollient, and wound repairing activity. Calendula-loaded SLN preparations were characterized in order to determine loading capacity and entrapment efficiency. In vitro cytotoxicity and wound healing efficacy of Calendula-loaded SLN compared to that of a free plant extract were evaluated on a conjunctival epithelium cell line WKD. Our results suggest that this SLN formulation is a safe and solvent-free Calendula extract delivery system which could provide a controlled therapeutic alternative for reducing disease-related symptoms and improving epithelium repair in ocular surface. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of In vitro Sun Protection Factor of Calendula Officinalis L. (Asteraceae) Essential Oil Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, AK; Mishra, A; Chattopadhyay, P

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the sunscreen activity of herbal formulation. There is no evidence of the sun protection factor (SPF) studies on essential oil of Calendula flowers (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae). The study investigates the in vitro SPF by ultraviolet specrtophotometry method of Calendula flower oil in a cream formulation. Calendula oil was isolated by Clavenger's apparatus, compositions were identified by GC–MS and the cream of calendula flower oil was prepared by homogenization method followed by evaluation for physical parameters. The sun protection factor of cream was evaluated by in vitro method employing UV–visible spectrophotometer (Shimazdu-1600). The SPF of Calendula oil in cream formulation exhibited good activity (SPF = 14.84 ± 0.16). Finding of this study suggested that calendula oil cream can be used to protect the skin from UV radiations in form of sunscreen cream and to maintain the natural pigmentation of the skin. PMID:22523455

  10. Assessment of In vitro Sun Protection Factor of Calendula Officinalis L. (Asteraceae) Essential Oil Formulation.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ak; Mishra, A; Chattopadhyay, P

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the sunscreen activity of herbal formulation. There is no evidence of the sun protection factor (SPF) studies on essential oil of Calendula flowers (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae). The study investigates the in vitro SPF by ultraviolet specrtophotometry method of Calendula flower oil in a cream formulation. Calendula oil was isolated by Clavenger's apparatus, compositions were identified by GC-MS and the cream of calendula flower oil was prepared by homogenization method followed by evaluation for physical parameters. The sun protection factor of cream was evaluated by in vitro method employing UV-visible spectrophotometer (Shimazdu-1600). The SPF of Calendula oil in cream formulation exhibited good activity (SPF = 14.84 ± 0.16). Finding of this study suggested that calendula oil cream can be used to protect the skin from UV radiations in form of sunscreen cream and to maintain the natural pigmentation of the skin.

  11. Topical Calendula officinalis L. successfully treated exfoliative cheilitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Authors describe a case of recurrent exfoliative cheilitis that responded to treatment with a standardized topical preparation of Calendula officinalis L. An eighteen-year-old man was referred to UNESP - São Paulo State University, Department of Biosciences and Oral Diagnosis, São José dos Campos Dental School to investigate a chronic dry scaling lesion on his lips. The patient's main chief was aesthetic compromising. Corticoid therapy was suspended and Calendula officinalis ointment 10% for ad libitum use has been prescribed. The results presented allow the authors to consider Calendula officinalis L. as a potential therapy in cases of cheilitis exfoliative. PMID:20062714

  12. Effect of Calendula officinalis cream on achilles tendon healing.

    PubMed

    Aro, A A; Perez, M O; Vieira, C P; Esquisatto, M A M; Rodrigues, R A F; Gomes, L; Pimentel, E R

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, the scientific community has undertaken research on plant extracts, searching for compounds with pharmacological activities that can be used in diverse fields of medicine. Calendula officinalis L. is known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and wound healing properties when used to treat skin burns. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of C. officinalis on the initial phase of Achilles tendon healing. Wistar rats were separated in three groups: Calendula (Cal)-rats with a transected tendon were treated with topical applications of C. officinalis cream and then euthanized 7 days after injury; Control (C)-rats were treated with only vehicle after transection; and Normal (N)-rats without tenotomy. Higher concentrations of hydroxyproline (an indicator of total collagen) and non-collagenous proteins were observed in the Cal group in relation to the C group. Zymography showed no difference in the amount of the isoforms of metalloproteinase-2 and of metalloproteinase-9, between C and Cal groups. Polarization microscopy images analysis showed that the Cal group presented a slightly higher birefringence compared with the C group. In sections of tendons stained with toluidine blue, the transected groups presented higher metachromasy as compared with the N group. Immunocytochemistry analysis for chondroitin-6-sulfate showed no difference between the C and Cal groups. In conclusion, the topical application of C. officinalis after tendon transection increases the concentrations of collagen and non-collagenous proteins, as well as the collagen organization in the initial phase of healing. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Therapeutic effectiveness of a Calendula officinalis extract in venous leg ulcer healing.

    PubMed

    Buzzi, M; de Freitas, F; de Barros Winter, M

    2016-12-02

    Non-healing venous leg ulcers (VLUs) have a significant effect on patients' quality of life and substantially increase expenditures in health-care systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the Calendula officinalis extract, Plenusdermax, in the treatment of VLUs. Patients treated with Calendula officinalis extract (n=38) and control patients (n=19) were evaluated every two weeks for 30 weeks or until their ulcers healed. Assessments included determination of the wound area by planimetry, infection control, and evaluation of the clinical aspects of the wounds. The percentage of healing velocity per week (%HVw), taking the initial area at baseline into account, was also determined. The proportion of the treatment patients achieving complete epithelialisation was 72 % and 32 % in the treatment and control groups, respectively. The average healing time was approximately 12 weeks in the treatment group and 25 % in control patients. Patients with ulcers treated with Calendula officinalis extract had a significant 4-fold increase in percentage healing velocity per week, 7.4 %, compared with 1.7 % in the control group. No adverse events were observed during the Calendula officinalis extract treatment. Our findings indicate that Calendula officinalis extract is an effective treatment for VLUs. The authors have no conflict of interest.

  14. Morphogenetic variability of faradiol monoesters in marigold Calendula officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Zitterl-Eglseer, K; Reznicek, G; Jurenitsch, J; Novak, J; Zitterl, W; Franz, C

    2001-01-01

    The main compounds of lipophilic extracts of flower heads of marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) are triterpendiol esters, mainly faradiol laurate, faradiol myristate and faradiol palmitate. These faradiol-3-O-monoesters have been quantified for the first time by means of reversed phase HPLC with internal standardisation in different parts of C. officinalis plants, namely ray florets, disk florests, involucral bracts, receptacles, levaes and seeds. The amounts of the esters were highest in ray florets, approximately 10 times lower in disk florets than in the ray florets, and approximately 10 times lower in involucral bracts than in the disk florets. In the leaves only traces of the esters could be detected, and in the receptacles no esters could be detected at all. Quantification in the seed was not possible using this method because of interfering fatty compounds. Concerning the faradiol esters, the dried ray and disk florets only should be preferred as primary products for remedies as demanded in the recently published supplement of the Pharmacopoiea Europaea (1999). Breeding work should focus on varieties with a greater number of ray florets in order to improve the quality of herbal medicinal products derived from marigoid.

  15. Biological Activities of Oleanolic Acid Derivatives from Calendula officinalis Seeds.

    PubMed

    Zaki, Ahmed; Ashour, Ahmed; Mira, Amira; Kishikawa, Asuka; Nakagawa, Toshinori; Zhu, Qinchang; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2016-05-01

    Phytochemical examination of butanol fraction of Calendula officinalis seeds led to the isolation of two compounds identified as 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS1) and oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS2). Biological evaluation was carried out for these two compounds such as melanin biosynthesis inhibitory, hyaluronic acid production activities, anti obesity using lipase inhibition and adipocyte differentiation as well as evaluation of the protective effect against hydrogen peroxide induced neurotoxicity in neuro-2A cells. The results showed that, compound CS2 has a melanin biosynthesis stimulatory activity; however, compound CS1 has a potent stimulatory effect for the production of hyaluronic acid on normal human dermal fibroblast from adult (NHDF-Ad). Both compounds did not show any inhibitory effect on both lipase and adipocyte differentiation. Compound CS2 could protect neuro-2A cells and increased cell viability against H2 O2 . These activities (melanin biosynthesis stimulatory and protective effect against H2 O2 of CS2 and hyaluronic acid productive activities of these triterpene derivatives) have been reported for the first time. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. [Action of Calendula officinalis essence on bone preservation after the extraction].

    PubMed

    Uribe-Fentanes, Laura K; Soriano-Padilla, Fernando; Pérez-Frutos, Jorge Raúl; Veras-Hernández, Miriam Alejandra

    2018-01-01

    Calendula officinalis is a phytodrug used as analgesic, antiseptic and wound-healing agent due to its collagenogenic effect, which is why it is a convenient and affordable treatment that promotes alveolar bone preservation after tooth extraction in vivo. The aim of this study was to use Calendula officinalis during and after tooth extraction to determine its ability to preserve bone after this procedure. We established two groups matched by age, gender and position of the third molar. We used with patients on the experimental group Calendula officinalis diluted 10% as an irrigant during surgical extraction of third molars. We performed the conventional way with the control group irrigating with saline solution. Subsequently, both groups continued to make mouthwash for a week with the irrigating agent. Every week for a month, each patient underwent periapical radiography, out of which we took measurements of alveolar ridges and depth of alveolar bone, which were compared. There is statistically significant evidence to state that Calendula officinalis favorably affects bone preservation after extraction.

  17. Antifungal activity of the essential oil from Calendula officinalis L. (asteraceae) growing in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gazim, Zilda Cristiane; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; Fraga, Sandra Regina; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Cortez, Diógenes Aparicio Garcia

    2008-01-01

    This study tested in vitro activity of the essential oil from flowers of Calendula officinalis using disk-diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay results showed for the first time that the essential oil has good potential antifungal activity: it was effective against all 23 clinical fungi strains tested. PMID:24031180

  18. Medicinal flowers. IV. Marigold. (2): Structures of new ionone and sesquiterpene glycosides from Egyptian Calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    Marukami, T; Kishi, A; Yoshikawa, M

    2001-08-01

    Following the characterization of hypoglycemic, gastric emptying inhibitory, and gastroprotective principles and the structure elucidation of calendasaponins A, B, C, and D, two new ionone glucosides (officinosides A and B), and two sesquiterpene oligoglycosides (officinosides C and D), were isolated from the flowers of Egyptian Calendula officinalis. The structures of the officinosides were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence.

  19. Antifungal activity of the essential oil from Calendula officinalis L. (asteraceae) growing in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gazim, Zilda Cristiane; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; Fraga, Sandra Regina; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Cortez, Diógenes Aparicio Garcia

    2008-01-01

    This study tested in vitro activity of the essential oil from flowers of Calendula officinalis using disk-diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay results showed for the first time that the essential oil has good potential antifungal activity: it was effective against all 23 clinical fungi strains tested.

  20. Shampoo-clay heals diaper rash faster than calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Mahmoudi, Mansoreh; Mashaiekhi, Mahdi

    2014-06-01

    Diaper rash is one of the most common skin disorders of infancy and childhood. Some studies have shown that Shampoo-clay was effective to treat chronic dermatitis. Then, it is supposed that it may be effective in diaper rash; however, no published studies were found in this regard. This study aimed to compare the effects of Shampoo-clay (S.C) and Calendula officinalis (C.O) to improve infantile diaper rash. A randomized, double blind, parallel controlled, non-inferiority trial was conducted on 60 outpatient infants referred to health care centers or pediatric clinics in Khomein city and diagnosed with diaper rash. Patients were randomly assigned into two treatment groups including S.C group (n = 30) and C.O group (n = 30) by using one to one allocation ratio. The rate of complete recovery in three days was the primary outcome. Data was collected using a checklist and analyzed using t-test, Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests and risk ratio. Totally, 93.3% of lesions in the S.C group healed in the first 6 hours, while this rate was 40% in C.O group (P < 0.001). The healing ratio for improvement in the first 6 hours was 7 times more in the S.C group. In addition, 90% of infants in the SC group and 36.7% in the C.O group were improved completely in the first 3 days (P < 0.001). S.C was effective to heal diaper rash, and also had faster effects compared to C.O.

  1. Shampoo-Clay Heals Diaper Rash Faster Than Calendula Officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Mahmoudi, Mansoreh; Mashaiekhi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diaper rash is one of the most common skin disorders of infancy and childhood. Some studies have shown that Shampoo-clay was effective to treat chronic dermatitis. Then, it is supposed that it may be effective in diaper rash; however, no published studies were found in this regard. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the effects of Shampoo-clay (S.C) and Calendula officinalis (C.O) to improve infantile diaper rash. Patients and Methods: A randomized, double blind, parallel controlled, non-inferiority trial was conducted on 60 outpatient infants referred to health care centers or pediatric clinics in Khomein city and diagnosed with diaper rash. Patients were randomly assigned into two treatment groups including S.C group (n = 30) and C.O group (n = 30) by using one to one allocation ratio. The rate of complete recovery in three days was the primary outcome. Data was collected using a checklist and analyzed using t-test, Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests and risk ratio. Results: Totally, 93.3% of lesions in the S.C group healed in the first 6 hours, while this rate was 40% in C.O group (P < 0.001). The healing ratio for improvement in the first 6 hours was 7 times more in the S.C group. In addition, 90% of infants in the SC group and 36.7% in the C.O group were improved completely in the first 3 days (P < 0.001). Conclusions: S.C was effective to heal diaper rash, and also had faster effects compared to C.O. PMID:25414900

  2. Healing acceleration in hamsters of oral mucositis induced by 5-fluorouracil with topical Calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    Tanideh, Nader; Tavakoli, Parisa; Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Amanat, Dariush; Tadbir, Azadeh Andisheh; Samani, Soleiman Mohammadi; Tamadon, Amin

    2013-03-01

    This study assessed the potential of topical Calendula officinalis extract on the healing of oral mucositis induced by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in hamsters. Oral mucositis was induced in 60 male hamsters by 5-FU (60 mg/kg) on days 0, 5, and 10 of the study. The cheek pouch was scratched with a sterile needle on days 1 and 2. On days 12-17, 5% and 10% C. officinalis gel and gel base groups were treated and then compared with a control group. Macroscopic and microscopic scores and weights were evaluated. Microscopic and macroscopic scores of mucositis were lower in the 5% and 10% C. officinalis gel groups than in the gel base and control groups (P < .05). Weight gain was noted in the treatment groups compared with the gel base and control groups (P < .05). Calendula officinalis extract accelerated the healing of oral mucositis in hamsters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Phenotypic and biochemical profile changes in calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) plants treated with two chemical mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    El-Nashar, Y I; Asrar, A A

    2016-05-06

    Chemical mutagenesis is an efficient tool used in mutation-breeding programs to improve the vital characters of the floricultural crops. This study aimed to estimate the effects of different concentrations of two chemical mutagens; sodium azide (SA) and diethyl sulfate (DES). The vegetative growth and flowering characteristics in two generations (M1 and M2) of calendula plants were investigated. Seeds were treated with five different concentrations of SA and DES (at the same rates) of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 5000 ppm, in addition to a control treatment of 0 ppm. Results showed that lower concentrations of SA mutagen had significant effects on seed germination percentage, plant height, leaf area, plant fresh weight, flowering date, inflorescence diameter, and gas-exchange measurements in plants of both generations. Calendula plants tended to flower earlier under low mutagen concentrations (1000 ppm), whereas higher concentrations delayed flowering significantly. Positive results on seed germination, plant height, number of branches, plant fresh weight, and leaf area were observed in the M2-generation at lower concentrations of SA (1000 ppm), as well as at 4000 ppm DES on number of leaves and inflorescences. The highest total soluble protein was detected at the concentrations of 1000 ppm SA and 2000 ppm DES. DES showed higher average of acid phosphatase activity than SA. Results indicated that lower concentrations of SA and DES mutagens had positive effects on seed germination percentage, plant height, leaf area, plant fresh weight, flowering date, inflorescence diameter, and gas-exchange measurements. Thus, lower mutagen concentrations could be recommended for better floral and physio-chemical performance.

  4. Carotenoid Isomerase Is Key Determinant of Petal Color of Calendula officinalis*

    PubMed Central

    Kishimoto, Sanae; Ohmiya, Akemi

    2012-01-01

    Orange petals of calendula (Calendula officinalis) accumulate red carotenoids with the cis-configuration at the C-5 or C-5′ position (5-cis-carotenoids). We speculated that the orange-flowered calendula is a carotenoid isomerase (crtiso) loss-of-function mutant that impairs the cis-to-trans conversion of 5-cis-carotenoids. We compared the sequences and enzyme activities of CRTISO from orange- and yellow-flowered calendulas. Four types of CRTISO were expressed in calendula petals. The deduced amino acid sequence of one of these genes (CoCRTISO1) was different between orange- and yellow-flowered calendulas, whereas the sequences of the other three CRTISOs were identical between these plants. Analysis of the enzymatic activities of the CoCRTISO homologs showed that CoCRTISO1-Y, which was expressed in yellow petals, converted carotenoids from the cis-to-trans-configuration, whereas both CoCRTISO1-ORa and 1-ORb, which were expressed in orange petals, showed no activity with any of the cis-carotenoids we tested. Moreover, the CoCRTISO1 genotypes of the F2 progeny obtained by crossing orange and yellow lines linked closely to petal color. These data indicate that CoCRTISO1 is a key regulator of the accumulation of 5-cis-carotenoids in calendula petals. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the deletion of Cys-His-His at positions 462–464 in CoCRTISO1-ORa and a Gly-to-Glu amino acid substitution at position 450 in CoCRTISO1-ORb abolished enzyme activity completely, indicating that these amino acid residues are important for the enzymatic activity of CRTISO. PMID:22069331

  5. Carotenoid isomerase is key determinant of petal color of Calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Sanae; Ohmiya, Akemi

    2012-01-02

    Orange petals of calendula (Calendula officinalis) accumulate red carotenoids with the cis-configuration at the C-5 or C-5' position (5-cis-carotenoids). We speculated that the orange-flowered calendula is a carotenoid isomerase (crtiso) loss-of-function mutant that impairs the cis-to-trans conversion of 5-cis-carotenoids. We compared the sequences and enzyme activities of CRTISO from orange- and yellow-flowered calendulas. Four types of CRTISO were expressed in calendula petals. The deduced amino acid sequence of one of these genes (CoCRTISO1) was different between orange- and yellow-flowered calendulas, whereas the sequences of the other three CRTISOs were identical between these plants. Analysis of the enzymatic activities of the CoCRTISO homologs showed that CoCRTISO1-Y, which was expressed in yellow petals, converted carotenoids from the cis-to-trans-configuration, whereas both CoCRTISO1-ORa and 1-ORb, which were expressed in orange petals, showed no activity with any of the cis-carotenoids we tested. Moreover, the CoCRTISO1 genotypes of the F2 progeny obtained by crossing orange and yellow lines linked closely to petal color. These data indicate that CoCRTISO1 is a key regulator of the accumulation of 5-cis-carotenoids in calendula petals. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the deletion of Cys-His-His at positions 462-464 in CoCRTISO1-ORa and a Gly-to-Glu amino acid substitution at position 450 in CoCRTISO1-ORb abolished enzyme activity completely, indicating that these amino acid residues are important for the enzymatic activity of CRTISO.

  6. Comparing the effects of Calendula officinalis and clotrimazole on vaginal Candidiasis: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Saffari, Elnaz; Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Sakineh; Adibpour, Mohammad; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Javadzadeh, Yousef

    2017-01-01

    This triple-blind trial examined the effects of Calendula officinalis vaginal cream on the treatment of vaginal Candidiasis (primary outcome) and sexual function (secondary outcome). Married women aged 18-45 years with vaginal Candidiasis (n = 150) were recruited from April to October 2014 and randomized into Calendula and clotrimazole groups, using 5-g vaginal cream every night for seven nights. Clinical and laboratory assessments were conducted at 10-15 and 30-35 days after intervention and the female sexual function index was assessed at 30-35 days. Six women were lost to follow-up. The frequency of testing negative for Candidiasis in the Calendula group was significantly lower at the first (49% vs. 74%; odds ratio (OR) 0.32; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.16-0.67) but higher at the second (77% vs. 34%; OR 3.1; 95% CI 1.5-6.2) follow-up compared to the clotrimazole group. The frequency of most signs and symptoms were almost equal in the two groups at the first follow-up, but were significantly lower in the Calendula group at the second follow-up. Sexual function had almost equal significant improvement in both groups. Calendula vaginal cream appears to have been effective in the treatment of vaginal Candidiasis and to have a delayed but greater long-term effect compared to clotrimazole.

  7. [Usage of Calendula officinalis in the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis: a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial].

    PubMed

    Schneider, Franciane; Danski, Mitzy Tannia Reichembach; Vayego, Stela Adami

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of Calendula officinalis in relation to Essential Fatty Acids for the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis. This is a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial with 51 patients with head and neck cancer in radiotherapy treatment divided into two groups: control (27) and experimental (24). There is statistically significant evidence (p-value = 0.0120) that the proportion of radiodermatitis grade 2 in Essential Fatty Acids group is higher than Calendula group. Through the Kaplan-Meier survival curve we observed that Essential Fatty Acids group has always remained below the Calendula group survival curve, due to the lower risk of developing radiodermatitis grade 1, which makes the usage of Calendula more effective, with statistical significance (p-value = 0.00402). Calendula showed better therapeutic response than the Essential Fatty Acids in the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis. Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials: RBR-237v4b.

  8. Dietary Supplementation of Calendula officinalis Counteracts the Oxidative Stress and Liver Damage Resulted from Aflatoxin

    PubMed Central

    Hamzawy, Mohamed A.; El-Denshary, Ezzeldein S. M.; Hassan, Nabila S.; Mannaa, Fathia A.; Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad A.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the total phenolic compounds, the antioxidant properties, and the hepatorenoprotective potential of Calendula officinalis extract against aflatoxins (AFs-) induced liver damage. Six groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 6 weeks included the control; the group fed AFs-contaminated diet (2.5 mg/kg diet); the groups treated orally with Calendula extract at low (CA1) and high (CA2) doses (500 and 1000 mg/kg b.w); the groups treated orally with CA1 and CA2 one week before and during AFs treatment for other five weeks. The results showed that the ethanol extract contained higher phenolic compounds and posses higher 1,1-diphenyl 1-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity than the aqueous extract. Animals fed AFs-contaminated diet showed significant disturbances in serum biochemical parameters, inflammatory cytokines, and the histological and histochemical pictures of the liver accompanied by a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in liver. Calendula extract succeeded to improve the biochemical parameters, inflammatory cytokines, decreased the oxidative stress, and improved the histological pictures in the liver of rats fed AFs-contaminated diet in a dose-dependent manner. It could be concluded that Calendula extract has potential hepatoprotective effects against AFs due to its antioxidant properties and radical scavenging activity. PMID:24959547

  9. The evaluation of trifloxystrobin in protection of Calendula officinalis (Pot marigold) against Erysiphe cichoracearum DC.

    PubMed

    Kurzawińska, H; Duda-Surman, J

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the two-years field's examinations was the evaluation of the fungicide Zato 50 WG (biologically active substances BAS--trifloxystrobin 50%) in protection of Calendula officinalis (Pot marigold) against Erysiphe cichoracearum. Mentioned fungicide was applied at three concentrations: 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2%. As the standard fungicide Amistar 250 SC (biologically active substances BAS - azoxystrobin 250 g/dm3) was used. In every year of research work the four protective treatments were carried out. The estimation of infestation degree of Calendula officinalis leafs by the Erysiphe cichoracearum was made 5 times. Before each treatment four analysis were done, whereas the last analysis--the fifth one was executed after 10 days from the last protective spraying. According to the results, it was found that investigated preparations significant reduced the mean infestation degree of Calendula officinalis leafs by the Erysiphe cichoracearum compared to the control. The results pointed, that in protection of the mentioned plant by the powdery mildew the 0.2% dose of Zato 50WG showed the best suitability.

  10. In vitro studies to evaluate the wound healing properties of Calendula officinalis extracts.

    PubMed

    Nicolaus, Christoph; Junghanns, Susanne; Hartmann, Anja; Murillo, Renato; Ganzera, Markus; Merfort, Irmgard

    2017-01-20

    Calendula officinalis (pot marigold) flower extracts have a long-lasting tradition in ethnopharmacology. Currently, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) has approved its lipophilic and aqueous alcoholic extracts as traditional medicinal products for the treatment of minor inflammation of the skin and as an aid in the healing of minor wounds. The purpose of this study was to analyse the molecular mechanism of the wound healing effects of Calendula extracts, which may reflect the phytomedicines currently used in the market. The effect of three different extracts from Calendula flowers (n-hexanic, ethanolic, aqueous) on the inflammatory phase of wound healing was studied in human immortalized keratinocytes and human dermal fibroblasts. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay on NF-κB-DNA binding, qRT-PCR and ELISA experiments were performed. The effect of Calendula extracts on the new tissue formation phase of wound healing was evaluated by studying the migratory properties of these extracts, triterpene mixtures and single compounds in human immortalized keratinocytes using the scratch assay. Finally, the effect of the extracts on the formation of granulation tissue in wound healing was studied using bacterial collagenase isolated from Clostridium histolyticum and the determination of soluble collagen in the supernatant of human dermal fibroblasts. The n-hexanic and the ethanolic extracts from Calendula flowers influence the inflammatory phase by activating the transcription factor NF-κB and by increasing the amount of the chemokine IL-8, both at the transcriptional and protein level, in human immortalized keratinocytes. The migration of the keratinocytes during the new tissue formation phase was only marginally influenced in the scratch assay. However, it can be assumed that the granulation tissue was affected, as the ethanolic extract inhibited the activity of collagenase in vitro and enhanced the amount of collagen in the supernatant of human dermal fibroblasts

  11. Preparative purification of the major anti-inflammatory triterpenoid esters from Marigold (Calendula officinalis).

    PubMed

    Hamburger, M; Adler, S; Baumann, D; Förg, A; Weinreich, B

    2003-06-01

    A method for the efficient preparative purification of faradiol 3-O-laurate, palmitate and myristate, the major anti-inflammatory triterpenoid esters in the flower heads of the medicinal plant Calendula officinalis has been developed. Gram quantities of the individual compounds were obtained with 96 to 98% purity by a combination of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), normal-phase and reversed-phase column chromatography. During the work-up of the faradiol esters, accompanying minor compounds of the triterpene ester fraction were purified and identified by spectroscopic means as maniladiol 3-O-laurate and myristate.

  12. Componential profile and amylase inhibiting activity of phenolic compounds from Calendula officinalis L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Olennikov, Daniil N; Kashchenko, Nina I

    2014-01-01

    An ethanolic extract and its ethyl acetate-soluble fraction from leaves of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) were found to show an inhibitory effect on amylase. From the crude extract fractions, one new phenolic acid glucoside, 6'-O-vanilloyl-β-D-glucopyranose, was isolated, together with twenty-four known compounds including five phenolic acid glucosides, five phenylpropanoids, five coumarins, and nine flavonoids. Their structures were elucidated based on chemical and spectral data. The main components, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and quercetin-3-O-(6''-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside, exhibited potent inhibitory effects on amylase.

  13. Content of total carotenoids in Calendula officinalis L. from different countries cultivated in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Raal, Ain; Kirsipuu, Kadri; Must, Reelika; Tenno, Silvi

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the content of total carotenoids in different collections of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) inflorescences. Commercial seeds (42 samples) of C. officinalis were obtained from nine countries and cultivated in private gardens in three different counties of Estonia. The content of total carotenoids, determined spectrophotometrically (lambda=455 nm) varied in the investigated collections from 0.20 to 3.51%. The amount of pigments may depend on the type of plants, the importing company, the color of the ligulate and tubular florets, and the place and time of cultivation. For medicinal purposes, C. officinalis with brownish-yellow ligulate and tubular florets should be preferred. The best was found to be 'Golden Emperor' from Finland.

  14. Biological Activities of Asteraceae (Achillea millefolium and Calendula officinalis) and Lamiaceae (Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana) Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    García-Risco, Mónica R; Mouhid, Lamia; Salas-Pérez, Lilia; López-Padilla, Alexis; Santoyo, Susana; Jaime, Laura; Ramírez de Molina, Ana; Reglero, Guillermo; Fornari, Tiziana

    2017-03-01

    Asteraceae (Achillea millefolium and Calendula officinalis) and Lamiaceae (Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana) extracts were obtained by applying two sequential extraction processes: supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide, followed by ultrasonic assisted extraction using green solvents (ethanol and ethanol:water 50:50). The extracts were analyzed in terms of the total content of phenolic compounds and the content of flavonoids; the volatile oil composition of supercritical extracts was analyzed by gas chromatography and the antioxidant capacity and cell toxicity was determined. Lamiaceae plant extracts presented higher content of phenolics (and flavonoids) than Asteraceae extracts. Regardless of the species studied, the supercritical extracts presented the lowest antioxidant activity and the ethanol:water extracts offered the largest, following the order Origanum majorana > Melissa officinalis ≈ Achillea millefolium > Calendula officinalis. However, concerning the effect on cell toxicity, Asteraceae (especially Achillea millefolium) supercritical extracts were significantly more efficient despite being the less active as an antioxidant agent. These results indicate that the effect on cell viability is not related to the antioxidant activity of the extracts.

  15. Evaluation of chemical enhancement on phytoremediation effect of Cd-contaminated soils with Calendula officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianv; Zhou, Qixing; Wang, Song

    2010-07-01

    The popular ornamental plant Calendula officinalis L was studied for its potential application in the phytoremediation of cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soils. Enhancements to the Cd accumulation by the application of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (EDTA) and ethylenegluatarotriacetic acid (EGTA) to the soil were investigated. Under these chemically enhanced treatments, EDTA was observed to be toxic to the plants leading to retarded growth. However, the application of SDS and/or EGTA was shown to result in significantly increased plant biomass (p < 0.05). Most of the chemical treatments resulted in increases to the shoot and root Cd concentrations, with the root Cd concentration being consistently higher than that shoot Cd concentration. Almost all of the investigated chemical treatments containing SDS or and EGTA were shown to lead to an increase in the total Cd content in the plants (p < 0.05). The application of EGTA alone led to an observed total Cd increase of up to 217%. This investigation revealed considerable efficiency of chemical enhancement and correspondingly increased potential of Calendula officinalis L. for applications of phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated sites.

  16. Production of Sterilizing Agents from Calendula officinalis Extracts Optimized by Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Goktas, Fatih Mehmet; Sahin, Bilgesu; Yigitarslan, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to produce hand sterilizing liquid and wet wipes with the extracts of Calendula officinalis. Since this plant has well known antimicrobial activity due to its phytochemical constituents, the increase in the extraction yield was chosen as the principle part of the production process. To achieve the maximum yield, parameters of solid-to-liquid ratio, extraction temperature, and time were studied. The optimum conditions were determined by response surface methodology as 41°C, 7 h, and 3.3 g/200 mL for temperature, time, and solid-to-liquid ratio, respectively. The yield achieved at those conditions was found to be 90 percent. The highest amounts of flavonoids were detected at optimum, whereas the highest triterpene and saponin constituents were determined at different design points. The microbial efficiencies of extracts were determined by the inhibition of the growth of selected microorganisms. Different dilution rates and interaction times were used as parameters of inhibition. Not any of the constituent but symbiotic relation in-between reached the highest inhibition of 90 percent. The pH values of the extracts were 5.1 to 5.4. As a result, the extraction of Calendula officinalis at the optimum conditions can be used effectively in the production of wet wipes and hand sterilizing liquid. PMID:26064122

  17. Sequential injection analysis with chemiluminescence detection for rapid monitoring of commercial Calendula officinalis extractions.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Rachel R; Scown, David; Lenehan, Claire E

    2015-01-01

    Plant extracts containing high levels of antioxidants are desirable due to their reported health benefits. Most techniques capable of determining the antioxidant activity of plant extracts are unsuitable for rapid at-line analysis as they require extensive sample preparation and/or long analysis times. Therefore, analytical techniques capable of real-time or pseudo real-time at-line monitoring of plant extractions, and determination of extraction endpoints, would be useful to manufacturers of antioxidant-rich plant extracts. To develop a reliable method for the rapid at-line extraction monitoring of antioxidants in plant extracts. Calendula officinalis extracts were prepared from dried flowers and analysed for antioxidant activity using sequential injection analysis (SIA) with chemiluminescence (CL) detection. The intensity of CL emission from the reaction of acidic potassium permanganate with antioxidants within the extract was used as the analytical signal. The SIA-CL method was applied to monitor the extraction of C. officinalis over the course of a batch extraction to determine the extraction endpoint. Results were compared with those from ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). Pseudo real-time, at-line monitoring showed the level of antioxidants in a batch extract of Calendula officinalis plateaued after 100 min of extraction. These results correlated well with those of an offline UHPLC study. SIA-CL was found to be a suitable method for pseudo real-time monitoring of plant extractions and determination of extraction endpoints with respect to antioxidant concentrations. The method was applied at-line in the manufacturing industry. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Application of the threshold of toxicological concern approach for the safety evaluation of calendula flower (Calendula officinalis) petals and extracts used in cosmetic and personal care products.

    PubMed

    Re, T A; Mooney, D; Antignac, E; Dufour, E; Bark, I; Srinivasan, V; Nohynek, G

    2009-06-01

    Calendula flower (Calendula officinalis) (CF) has been used in herbal medicine because of its anti-inflammatory activity. CF and C. officinalis extracts (CFE) are used as skin conditioning agents in cosmetics. Although data on dermal irritation and sensitization of CF and CFE's are available, the risk of subchronic systemic toxicity following dermal application has not been evaluated. The threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) is a pragmatic, risk assessment based approach that has gained regulatory acceptance for food and has been recently adapted to address cosmetic ingredient safety. The purpose of this paper is to determine if the safe use of CF and CFE can be established based upon the TTC class for each of its known constituents. For each constituent, the concentration in the plant, the molecular weight, and the estimated skin penetration potential were used to calculate a maximal daily systemic exposure which was then compared to its corresponding TTC class value. Since the composition of plant extracts are variable, back calculation was used to determine the maximum acceptable concentration of a given constituent in an extract of CF. This paper demonstrates the utility and practical application of the TTC concept when used as a tool in the safety evaluation of botanical extracts.

  19. Evaluation of Calendula officinalis as an anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis agent

    PubMed Central

    Khairnar, Mayur Sudhakar; Pawar, Babita; Marawar, Pramod Parashram; Mani, Ameet

    2013-01-01

    Background: Calendula officinalis (C. officinalis), commonly known as pot marigold, is a medicinal herb with excellent antimicrobial, wound healing, and anti-inflammatory activity. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of C. officinalis in reducing dental plaque and gingival inflammation. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and forty patients within the age group of 20-40 years were enrolled in this study with their informed consent. Patients having gingivitis (probing depth (PD) ≤3 mm), with a complaint of bleeding gums were included in this study. Patients with periodontitis PD ≥ 4 mm, desquamative gingivitis, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG), smokers under antibiotic coverage, and any other history of systemic diseases or conditions, including pregnancy, were excluded from the study. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups – test group (n = 120) and control group (n = 120). All the test group patients were advised to dilute 2 ml of tincture of calendula with 6 ml of distilled water and rinse their mouths once in the morning and once in the evening for six months. Similarly, the control group patients were advised to use 8 ml distilled water (placebo) as control mouthwash and rinse mouth twice daily for six months. Clinical parameters like the plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), sulcus bleeding index (SBI), and oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) were recorded at baseline (first visit), third month (second visit), and sixth month (third visit) by the same operator, to rule out variable results. During the second visit, after recording the clinical parameters, each patient was subjected to undergo a thorough scaling procedure. Patients were instructed to carry out regular routine oral hygiene maintenance without any reinforcement in it. Results: In the absence of scaling (that is, between the first and second visit), the test group showed a statistically significant reduction in the scores of PI, GI, SBI (except OHI-S) (P < 0

  20. Evaluation of Calendula officinalis as an anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis agent.

    PubMed

    Khairnar, Mayur Sudhakar; Pawar, Babita; Marawar, Pramod Parashram; Mani, Ameet

    2013-11-01

    Calendula officinalis (C. officinalis), commonly known as pot marigold, is a medicinal herb with excellent antimicrobial, wound healing, and anti-inflammatory activity. To evaluate the efficacy of C. officinalis in reducing dental plaque and gingival inflammation. Two hundred and forty patients within the age group of 20-40 years were enrolled in this study with their informed consent. Patients having gingivitis (probing depth (PD) ≤3 mm), with a complaint of bleeding gums were included in this study. Patients with periodontitis PD ≥ 4 mm, desquamative gingivitis, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG), smokers under antibiotic coverage, and any other history of systemic diseases or conditions, including pregnancy, were excluded from the study. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups - test group (n = 120) and control group (n = 120). All the test group patients were advised to dilute 2 ml of tincture of calendula with 6 ml of distilled water and rinse their mouths once in the morning and once in the evening for six months. Similarly, the control group patients were advised to use 8 ml distilled water (placebo) as control mouthwash and rinse mouth twice daily for six months. Clinical parameters like the plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), sulcus bleeding index (SBI), and oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) were recorded at baseline (first visit), third month (second visit), and sixth month (third visit) by the same operator, to rule out variable results. During the second visit, after recording the clinical parameters, each patient was subjected to undergo a thorough scaling procedure. Patients were instructed to carry out regular routine oral hygiene maintenance without any reinforcement in it. In the absence of scaling (that is, between the first and second visit), the test group showed a statistically significant reduction in the scores of PI, GI, SBI (except OHI-S) (P < 0.05), whereas, the control group showed no reduction in

  1. Anti-inflammatory activity of flower extract of Calendula officinalis Linn. and its possible mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Preethi, Korengath Chandran; Kuttan, Girija; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2009-02-01

    Calendula officinalis flower extract possessed significant anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan and dextran-induced acute paw edema. Oral administration of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight Calendula extract produced significant inhibition (50.6 and 65.9% respectively) in paw edema of animals induced by carrageenan and 41.9 and 42.4% respectively with inflammation produced by dextran. In chronic anti-inflammatory model using formalin, administration of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight Calendula extract produced an inhibition of 32.9 and 62.3% respectively compared to controls. TNF-alpha production by macrophage culture treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was found to be significantly inhibited by Calendula extract. Moreover, increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines IL- 1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma and acute phase protein, C- reactive protein (CRP) in mice produced by LPS injection were inhibited significantly by the extract. LPS induced cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) levels in mice spleen were also found to be inhibited by extract treatment. The results showed that potent anti-inflammatory response of C. officinalis extract may be mediated by the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines and Cox-2 and subsequent prostaglandin synthesis.

  2. PI3K-mediated proliferation of fibroblasts by Calendula officinalis tincture: implication in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Dinda, Manikarna; Dasgupta, Uma; Singh, Namrata; Bhattacharyya, Debasish; Karmakar, Parimal

    2015-04-01

    Calendula officinalis, a member of the Asteraceae family, is a flowering plant and has been used for its antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiinflammatory, anticancer and wound healing activity. The mode of action of C. officinalis tincture on wound healing is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of C. officinalis tincture (CDOT) on cell viability and wound closure. C. officinalis tincture stimulated both proliferation and migration of fibroblasts in a statistically significant manner in a PI3K-dependent pathway. The increase in phosphorylation of FAK (Tyr 397) and Akt (Ser 473) was detected after treatment of CDOT. Inhibition of the PI3K pathway by wortmannin and LY294002 decreased both cell proliferation and cell migration. HPLC-ESI MS revealed the presence of flavonol glycosides as the major compounds of CDOT. Altogether, our results showed that CDOT potentiated wound healing by stimulating proliferation and migration of fibroblast in a PI3K-dependent pathway, and the identified compounds are likely to be responsible for wound healing activity. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Componential Profile and Amylase Inhibiting Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Calendula officinalis L. Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Olennikov, Daniil N.; Kashchenko, Nina I.

    2014-01-01

    An ethanolic extract and its ethyl acetate-soluble fraction from leaves of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) were found to show an inhibitory effect on amylase. From the crude extract fractions, one new phenolic acid glucoside, 6′-O-vanilloyl-β-D-glucopyranose, was isolated, together with twenty-four known compounds including five phenolic acid glucosides, five phenylpropanoids, five coumarins, and nine flavonoids. Their structures were elucidated based on chemical and spectral data. The main components, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and quercetin-3-O-(6′′-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside, exhibited potent inhibitory effects on amylase. PMID:24683352

  4. Low-level laser therapy and Calendula officinalis in repairing diabetic foot ulcers.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ana Flávia Machado de; Feitosa, Maura Cristina Porto; Coelho, Nayana Pinheiro Machado de Freitas; Rebêlo, Veruska Cronemberger Nogueira; Castro, Juçara Gonçalves de; Sousa, Patrícia Regina Gomes de; Feitosa, Valrian Campos; Arisawa, Emilia Angela Lo Schiavo

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of low-level laser therapy isolated and associated with Calendula officinalis oil in treating diabetic foot ulcers. An experimental, randomized, controlled, prospective, interventional clinical case study using a quantitative approach. The sample consisted of 32 diabetic patients of both genders. Participants were randomly divided into four groups. Doppler Ultrasound evaluation of the Ankle-Brachial Index, brief pain inventory and analog pain scale were performed at baseline and after 30 days. Reduced pain was observed in the Low-level laser therapy and Low-level laser therapy associated with Essential Fatty Acids groups (p<0.01). Regarding the Ankle-Brachial Index and Doppler Ultrasound, all groups remained stable. By analyzing lesion area reduction, Low-level laser therapy associated with Essential fatty acids group showed a significance of p=0.0032, and the Low-level laser therapy group showed p=0.0428. Low-level laser therapy, performed alone or associated with the Calendula officinalis oil was effective in relieving pain and accelerating the tissue repair process of diabetic foot. Avaliar os efeitos da Terapia a Laser de Baixa Intensidade isolada e associada ao óleo de Calendula officinalis no reparo de úlceras em pé diabético. Estudo de caso clínico, experimental, controlado, randomizado, prospectivo, intervencional, de caráter quantitativo. A amostra foi composta de 32 pacientes diabéticos, de ambos os gêneros. Os participantes foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos. Ultrassom Doppler, avaliação do Índice Tornozelo-Braquial, Inventário breve de dor e escala de dor analógica foram realizados no início e após 30 dias. Houve redução da dor nos grupos Terapia a Laser de Baixa Intensidade e Terapia a Laser de Baixa intensidade associada aos Ácidos Graxos Essenciais, com p<0,01. Quanto ao Índice Tornozelo-Braquial e Ultrassom Doppler, todos os grupos mantiveram-se estáveis. Na análise da redução de

  5. Subacute effect of cigarette smoke exposure in rats: protection by pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) extract.

    PubMed

    Ozkol, Halil; Tülüce, Yasin; Koyuncu, Ismail

    2012-02-01

    This study was carried out to determine the preventive effect of Calendula officinalis L. (pot marigold) on rats exposed to cigarette smoke (CS). Rats were divided into three groups as control, CS and CS + pot marigold (PM). The rats in the CS and CS + PM groups were subjected to CS for 1 h twice a day for 23 days. PM (100 mg/kg body weight) was given to rats in the CS + PM group by gavage, 1 h before each administration period. While malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl contents and reduced glutathione level of the CS group increased, their levels diminished by PM administration. In addition, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase activities and β-carotene, vitamins A and C levels decreased in the CS group compared to control, however activities of these enzymes and concentration of vitamins were elevated by PM supplementation. This investigation showed that administration of PM supplied relative protection against subacute CS-induced cell injury.

  6. Anti-oedematous activities of the main triterpendiol esters of marigold (Calendula officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Zitterl-Eglseer, K; Sosa, S; Jurenitsch, J; Schubert-Zsilavecz, M; Della Loggia, R; Tubaro, A; Bertoldi, M; Franz, C

    1997-07-01

    Separation and isolation of the genuine faradiol esters (1, 2) from flower heads of Marigold (Calendula (officinalis L., Asteraceae) could be achieved by means of repeated column chromatography (CC) and HPLC for the first time. Structure elucidation of faradiol-3-myristic acid ester 1, faradiol-3-palmitic acid ester 2 and psi-taraxasterol 3 has been also performed, without any previous degradation by means of MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and 2D-NMR experiments. The anti-oedematous activities of these three compounds were tested by means of inhibition of Croton oil-induced oedema of the mouse ear. Both faradiol esters showed nearly the same dose dependent anti-oedematous activity and no significant synergism appeared with their mixture. The free monol, psi-taraxasterol, had a slightly lower effect. Furthermore, faradiol was more active than its esters and than psi-taraxasterol and showed the same effect as an equimolar dose of indomethacin.

  7. Fatty acid composition of lipids in pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) seed genotypes.

    PubMed

    Dulf, Francisc V; Pamfil, Doru; Baciu, Adriana D; Pintea, Adela

    2013-01-17

    Calendula officinalis L. (pot marigold) is an annual aromatic herb with yellow or golden-orange flowers, native to the Mediterranean climate areas. Their seeds contain significant amounts of oil (around 20%), of which about 60% is calendic acid. For these reasons, in Europe concentrated research efforts have been directed towards the development of pot marigold as an oilseed crop for industrial purposes. The oil content and fatty acid composition of major lipid fractions in seeds from eleven genotypes of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) were determined. The lipid content of seeds varied between 13.6 and 21.7 g oil/100 g seeds. The calendic and linoleic acids were the two dominant fatty acids in total lipid (51.4 to 57.6% and 28.5 to 31.9%) and triacylglycerol (45.7 to 54.7% and 22.6 to 29.2%) fractions. Polar lipids were also characterised by higher unsaturation ratios (with the PUFAs content between 60.4 and 66.4%), while saturates (consisted mainly of palmitic and very long-chain saturated fatty acids) were found in higher amounts in sterol esters (ranging between 49.3 and 55.7% of total fatty acids). All the pot marigold seed oils investigated contain high levels of calendic acid (more than 50% of total fatty acids), making them favorable for industrial use. The compositional differences between the genotypes should be considered when breeding and exploiting the pot marigold seeds for nutraceutical and pharmacological purposes.

  8. Fatty acid composition of lipids in pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) seed genotypes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Calendula officinalis L. (pot marigold) is an annual aromatic herb with yellow or golden-orange flowers, native to the Mediterranean climate areas. Their seeds contain significant amounts of oil (around 20%), of which about 60% is calendic acid. For these reasons, in Europe concentrated research efforts have been directed towards the development of pot marigold as an oilseed crop for industrial purposes. Results The oil content and fatty acid composition of major lipid fractions in seeds from eleven genotypes of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) were determined. The lipid content of seeds varied between 13.6 and 21.7 g oil/100 g seeds. The calendic and linoleic acids were the two dominant fatty acids in total lipid (51.4 to 57.6% and 28.5 to 31.9%) and triacylglycerol (45.7 to 54.7% and 22.6 to 29.2%) fractions. Polar lipids were also characterised by higher unsaturation ratios (with the PUFAs content between 60.4 and 66.4%), while saturates (consisted mainly of palmitic and very long-chain saturated fatty acids) were found in higher amounts in sterol esters (ranging between 49.3 and 55.7% of total fatty acids). Conclusions All the pot marigold seed oils investigated contain high levels of calendic acid (more than 50% of total fatty acids), making them favorable for industrial use. The compositional differences between the genotypes should be considered when breeding and exploiting the pot marigold seeds for nutraceutical and pharmacological purposes. PMID:23327299

  9. Extracts from Calendula officinalis offer in vitro protection against H2 O2 induced oxidative stress cell killing of human skin cells.

    PubMed

    Alnuqaydan, Abdullah M; Lenehan, Claire E; Hughes, Rachel R; Sanderson, Barbara J

    2015-01-01

    The in vitro safety and antioxidant potential of Calendula officinalis flower head extracts was investigated. The effect of different concentrations (0.125, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 5.0% (v/v)) of Calendula extracts on human skin cells HaCaT in vitro was explored. Doses of 1.0% (v/v) (0.88 mg dry weight/mL) or less showed no toxicity. Cells were also exposed to the Calendula extracts for either 4, 24 or 48 h before being exposed to an oxidative insult (hydrogen peroxide H2 O2 ) for 1 h. Using the MTT cytotoxicity assay, it was observed that two independent extracts of C. officinalis gave time-dependent and concentration-dependent H2 O2 protection against induced oxidative stress in vitro using human skin cells. Pre-incubation with the Calendula extracts for 24 and 48 h increased survival relative to the population without extract by 20% and 40% respectively following oxidative challenge. The antioxidant potential of the Calendula extracts was confirmed using a complimentary chemical technique, the DPPH(●) assay. Calendula extracts exhibited free radical scavenging abilities. This study demonstrates that Calendula flower extracts contain bioactive and free radical scavenging compounds that significantly protect against oxidative stress in a human skin cell culture model. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. A Randomized Comparative Trial on the Therapeutic Efficacy of Topical Aloe vera and Calendula officinalis on Diaper Dermatitis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Panahi, Yunes; Sharif, Mohamad Reza; Sharif, Alireza; Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Zahiri, Zahra; Amirchoopani, Golnoush; Marzony, Eisa Tahmasbpour; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Diaper dermatitis (DD) is a common inflammatory disorder among children and infants. The objective of the present randomized and double-blind trial was to compare the therapeutic efficacies of Aloe vera cream and Calendula officinalis ointment on the frequency and severity of DD in children. Methods. Sixty-six infants with DD (aged < 3 years) were randomized to receive either Aloe cream (n = 32) or Calendula ointment (n = 34). Infants were treated with these drugs 3 times a day for 10 days. The severity of dermatitis was graded at baseline as well as at the end of trial using a 5-point scale. The adverse effects of study medications were assessed during the trial. Results. Although improvement in the severity of DD was observed in both treatment groups (P < 0.001), patients receiving Calendula ointment had significantly fewer rash sites compared to Aloe group (P = 0.001). No adverse effect was reported from either of the medications. Discussion. The evidence from this study suggests that topical Aloe and in particular Calendula could serve as safe and effective treatment for the treatment of diaper dermatitis in infants. PMID:22606064

  11. A randomized comparative trial on the therapeutic efficacy of topical aloe vera and Calendula officinalis on diaper dermatitis in children.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Yunes; Sharif, Mohamad Reza; Sharif, Alireza; Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Zahiri, Zahra; Amirchoopani, Golnoush; Marzony, Eisa Tahmasbpour; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2012-01-01

    Diaper dermatitis (DD) is a common inflammatory disorder among children and infants. The objective of the present randomized and double-blind trial was to compare the therapeutic efficacies of aloe vera cream and Calendula officinalis ointment on the frequency and severity of DD in children. Sixty-six infants with DD (aged < 3 years) were randomized to receive either aloe cream (n = 32) or Calendula ointment (n = 34). Infants were treated with these drugs 3 times a day for 10 days. The severity of dermatitis was graded at baseline as well as at the end of trial using a 5-point scale. The adverse effects of study medications were assessed during the trial. Although improvement in the severity of DD was observed in both treatment groups (P < 0.001), patients receiving Calendula ointment had significantly fewer rash sites compared to aloe group (P = 0.001). No adverse effect was reported from either of the medications. The evidence from this study suggests that topical aloe and in particular Calendula could serve as safe and effective treatment for the treatment of diaper dermatitis in infants.

  12. Final report of the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel amended safety assessment of Calendula officinalis-derived cosmetic ingredients.

    PubMed

    Andersen, F Alan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W

    2010-01-01

    Calendula officinalis extract, C officinalis flower, C officinalis flower extract, C officinalis flower oil, and C officinalis seed oil are cosmetic ingredients derived from C officinalis. These ingredients may contain minerals, carbohydrates, lipids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, sterols and steroids, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, tocopherols, quinones, amino acids, and resins. These ingredients were not significantly toxic in single-dose oral studies using animals. The absence of reproductive/developmental toxicity was inferred from repeat-dose studies of coriander oil, with a similar composition. Overall, these ingredients were not genotoxic. They also were not irritating, sensitizing, or photosensitizing in animal or clinical tests but may be mild ocular irritants. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe for use in cosmetics in the practices of use and concentration given in this amended safety assessment.

  13. Healing Acceleration of Acetic Acid-induced Colitis by Marigold (Calendula officinalis) in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tanideh, Nader; Jamshidzadeh, Akram; Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Hosseinzadeh, Masood; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Omid; Najibi, Asma; Raam, Mozhdeh; Daneshi, Sajad; Asadi-Yousefabad, Seyedeh-Leili

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a type of chronic inflammatory bowel disease with unknown etiology. Several therapeutic strategies such as consumption of medicinal plants have been used for its treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate healing effects of Calendula officinalis hydroalcoholic extract in experimentally induced UC in rat. Materials and Methods: Ninety-six rats, weighing 200 ± 20 g, were randomly divided into eight equal groups. UC induced by 3% acetic acid and oral doses of C. officinalis extract, 1500 and 3000 mg/kg, and enema (gel 10% and 20%) were given. Two groups as positive controls were given asacol (enema) and oral mesalamine. Negative control groups were given normal saline and base gel. On days 3 and 7, intestinal histopathology and weight changes, plus oxidative stress indices including malondialdehyde (MDA) level and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were assayed. Results: A significant increase in the body weight of rats was seen in the group given C. officinalis extract 3000 mg/kg orally, oral mesalamine, and 20% intracolonic gel form of marigold extract compared with negative control and base gel groups during the experimental period. Acute inflammation and granular atrophy after UC induction were resolved completely completely by both 20% intracolonic gel and 3000 mg/kg orally. An increase in MPO activity and a decrease in MDA level in response to oral and intracolonic gel form of C. officinalis were observed 3 and and 7 days after treatment (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Our results indicate that oral and enema forms of hydroalcoholic extract of C. officinalis can be offered as are potential therapeutic agents for UC induced in rats. PMID:26831607

  14. Healing acceleration of acetic acid-induced colitis by marigold (Calendula officinalis) in male rats.

    PubMed

    Tanideh, Nader; Jamshidzadeh, Akram; Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Hosseinzadeh, Masood; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Omid; Najibi, Asma; Raam, Mozhdeh; Daneshi, Sajad; Asadi-Yousefabad, Seyedeh-Leili

    2016-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a type of chronic inflammatory bowel disease with unknown etiology. Several therapeutic strategies such as consumption of medicinal plants have been used for its treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate healing effects of Calendula officinalis hydroalcoholic extract in experimentally induced UC in rat. Ninety-six rats, weighing 200 ± 20 g, were randomly divided into eight equal groups. UC induced by 3% acetic acid and oral doses of C. officinalis extract, 1500 and 3000 mg/kg, and enema (gel 10% and 20%) were given. Two groups as positive controls were given asacol (enema) and oral mesalamine. Negative control groups were given normal saline and base gel. On days 3 and 7, intestinal histopathology and weight changes, plus oxidative stress indices including malondialdehyde (MDA) level and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were assayed. A significant increase in the body weight of rats was seen in the group given C. officinalis extract 3000 mg/kg orally, oral mesalamine, and 20% intracolonic gel form of marigold extract compared with negative control and base gel groups during the experimental period. Acute inflammation and granular atrophy after UC induction were resolved completely completely by both 20% intracolonic gel and 3000 mg/kg orally. An increase in MPO activity and a decrease in MDA level in response to oral and intracolonic gel form of C. officinalis were observed 3 and and 7 days after treatment (P < 0.05). Our results indicate that oral and enema forms of hydroalcoholic extract of C. officinalis can be offered as are potential therapeutic agents for UC induced in rats.

  15. Identification and Analysis of a Gene from Calendula officinalis Encoding a Fatty Acid Conjugase

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xiao; Reed, Darwin W.; Hong, Haiping; MacKenzie, Samuel L.; Covello, Patrick S.

    2001-01-01

    Two homologous cDNAs, CoFad2 and CoFac2, were isolated from a Calendula officinalis developing seed by a polymerase chain reaction-based cloning strategy. Both sequences share similarity to FAD2 desaturases and FAD2-related enzymes. In C. officinalis plants CoFad2 was expressed in all tissues tested, whereas CoFac2 expression was specific to developing seeds. Expression of CoFad2 cDNA in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) indicated it encodes a Δ12 desaturase that introduces a double bond at the 12 position of 16:1(9Z) and 18:1(9Z). Expression of CoFac2 in yeast revealed that the encoded enzyme acts as a fatty acid conjugase converting 18:2(9Z, 12Z) to calendic acid 18:3(8E, 10E, 12Z). The enzyme also has weak activity on the mono-unsaturates 16:1(9Z) and 18:1(9Z) producing compounds with the properties of 8,10 conjugated dienes. PMID:11161042

  16. In vitro anti-leishmanial activity of methanolic extracts of Calendula officinalis flowers, Datura stramonium seeds, and Salvia officinalis leaves.

    PubMed

    Nikmehr, Banafsheh; Ghaznavi, Habib; Rahbar, Amir; Sadr, Samira; Mehrzadi, Saeed

    2014-06-01

    The anti-leishmanial activity of methanolic extracts of Calendula officinalis flowers, Datura stramonium seeds, and Salvia officinalis leaves against extracellular (promastigote) and intracellular (amastigote) forms of Leishmania major were evaluated in this study. In the first stage, promastigote forms of L. major, were treated with different doses of the plant extracts in a 96-well tissue-culture microplate and IC50 values for each extract were measured with colorimetric MTT assay. In the second stage, macrophage cells were infected with L. major promastigotes. Infected macrophages were treated with plant extracts. Then the macrophages were stained with Gimsa and the number of infected macrophages and amastigotes were counted with a light microscope. The results indicated that the plant extracts inhibited the growth of promastigotes and amastigotes of L. major. Inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for promastigote assay were 108.19, 155.15, and 184.32 μgmL(-1) for C. officinalis flowers, D. stramonium seeds and S. officinalis, respectively. The extracts also reduced the number of amastigotes in macrophage cells from 264 for control group to 88, 97, and 102 for test groups. Although the anti-leishmanial activity of the extracts were not comparable with the standard drug, miltefosine; but they showed significant efficiency in reducing the number of amastigotes in macrophages, in comparison with the control group (P < 0.001). These plant extracts had lower toxicity compared with miltefosine. This study demonstrates the potential efficacy of the methanolic extracts of C. officinalis flowers, D. stramonium seeds, and S. officinalis leaves to control of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for the selective extraction of quercetagetin from Calendula officinalis extract.

    PubMed

    Ma, Run-Tian; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2015-03-01

    A new magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) for quercetagetin was prepared by surface molecular imprinting method using super paramagnetic core-shell nanoparticle as the supporter. Acrylamide as the functional monomer, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate as the crosslinker and acetonitrile as the porogen were applied in the preparation process. Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were applied to characterize the MMIPs, and High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was utilized to analyze the target analytes. The selectivity of quercetagetin MMIPs was evaluated according to their recognition to template and its analogues. Excellent binding for quercetagetin was observed in MMIPs adsorption experiment, and the adsorption isotherm models analysis showed that the homogeneous binding sites were distributed on the surface of the MMIPs. The MMIPs were employed as adsorbents in solid phase extraction for the determination of quercetagetin in Calendula officinalis extracts. Furthermore, this method is fast, simple and could fulfill the determination and extraction of quercetagetin from herbal extract. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Antibacterial and antiparasitic activity of oleanolic acid and its glycosides isolated from marigold (Calendula officinalis).

    PubMed

    Szakiel, Anna; Ruszkowski, Dariusz; Grudniak, Anna; Kurek, Anna; Wolska, Krystyna I; Doligalska, Maria; Janiszowska, Wirginia

    2008-11-01

    The antibacterial and antiparasitic activities of free oleanolic acid and its glucosides and glucuronides isolated from marigold (Calendula officinalis) were investigated. The MIC of oleanolic acid and the effect on bacterial growth were estimated by A600 measurements. Oleanolic acid's influence on bacterial survival and the ability to induce autolysis were measured by counting the number of cfu. Cell morphology and the presence of endospores were observed under electron and light microscopy, respectively. Oleanolic acid inhibited bacterial growth and survival, influenced cell morphology and enhanced the autolysis of Gram-positive bacteria suggesting that bacterial envelopes are the target of its activity. On the other hand, glycosides of oleanolic acid inhibited the development of L3 Heligmosomoides polygyrus larvae, the infective stage of this intestinal parasitic nematode. In addition, both oleanolic acid and its glycosides reduced the rate of L3 survival during prolonged storage, but only oleanolic acid glucuronides affected nematode infectivity. The presented results suggest that oleanolic acid and its glycosides can be considered as potential therapeutic agents.

  19. Production of oleanolic acid glycosides by hairy root established cultures of Calendula officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Długosz, Marek; Wiktorowska, Ewa; Wiśniewska, Anita; Pączkowski, Cezary

    2013-01-01

    In order to initiate hairy root culture initiation cotyledons and hypocotyls of Calendula officinalis L. were infected with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC 15834 or the same strain containing pCAMBIA 1381Z vector with β-glucuronidase reporter gene under control of promoter of NIK (Nematode Induced Kinase) gene. The efficiency of induction of hairy roots reached 33.8% for cotyledons and 66.6% for hypocotyls together for both transformation experiments. Finally, eight control and nine modified lines were established as a long-term culture. The hairy root cultures showed the ability to synthesize oleanolic acid mainly (97%) as glycosides; control lines contained it at the average 8.42 mg · g(-1) dry weight in tissue and 0.23 mg · dm(-3) in medium; modified lines: 4.59 mg · g(-1) for the tissue, and 0.48 mg · dm(-3) for the medium. Additionally lines showed high positive correlation between dry/fresh weight and oleanolic acid concentration in tissue. Using the Killiani mixture in acidic hydrolysis of oleanolic acid glycosides released free aglycones that were partially acetylated in such conditions.

  20. Mutagenic influences of colchicine on phenological and molecular diversity of Calendula officinalis L.

    PubMed

    El-Nashar, Y I; Ammar, M H

    2016-04-26

    Six different colchicine concentrations: 0, 400, 800, 1200, 1600, and 2000 ppm, in combination with four soaking time treatments (1, 2, 3, and 4 h), were selected to assess the effects on germination, vegetative growth, and flower yield components in calendula plants. The molecular diversity among the treatments was assessed using ten SRAP marker combinations. Seed soaking in colchicine significantly enhanced both the fresh and the dry shoot and root masses, flowering date, number of flowers per plant, and flower diameter. At 1200-ppm colchicine combined with a 4-h soaking time, a superior effect on seed germination was observed, whereas 800 ppm for 4 h produced the highest number of flowers and the largest flower diameter. The earliest flowering time was found at 800 ppm combined with a short soaking time (1 h), while the 4-h soaking time with 800 ppm, is recommended for growing calendula outdoors, since it enhances flower development. At the molecular level, 752 fragments were successfully amplified using the SRAP primers, with 280 genetic loci found throughout the calendula genome. The polymorphism percentage ranged from 79 to 100% and the polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged between 0.85 and 0.97. The high number of detected loci and PIC values suggests a great power of SRAP markers in detecting mutant molecular diversity. Our results clearly show the existence of genetic variation among colchicine treated calendula plants and the clustering of the studied mutants was concordant with the colchicine concentration used.

  1. Isorhamnetin and Quercetin Derivatives as Anti-Acetylcholinesterase Principles of Marigold (Calendula officinalis) Flowers and Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Kashchenko, Nina I.; Chirikova, Nadezhda K.; Akobirshoeva, Anzurat; Zilfikarov, Ifrat N.; Vennos, Cecile

    2017-01-01

    Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) is one of the most common and widespread plants used medicinally all over the world. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-acetylcholinesterase activity of marigold flowers, detect the compounds responsible and perform chemical analysis of marigold commercial products. Analysis of 23 varieties of C. officinalis flowers introduced into Siberia allowed us to select the Greenheart Orange variety due to the superior content of flavonoids (46.87 mg/g) and the highest inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (IC50 63.52 µg/mL). Flavonoids, isorhamnetin and quercetin derivatives were revealed as potential inhibitors with the application of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) activity-based profiling. Investigation of the inhibitory activity of isorhamnetin glycosides demonstrated the maximal potency for isorhamnetin-3-O-(2′′,6′′-di-acetyl)-glucoside (IC50 51.26 μM) and minimal potency for typhaneoside (isorhamnetin-3-O-(2′′,6′′-di-rhamnosyl)-glucoside; IC50 94.92 µM). Among quercetin derivatives, the most active compound was quercetin-3-O-(2′′,6′′-di-acetyl)-glucoside (IC50 36.47 µM), and the least active component was manghaslin (quercetin-3-O-(2′′,6′′-di-rhamnosyl)-glucoside; IC50 94.92 µM). Some structure-activity relationships were discussed. Analysis of commercial marigold formulations revealed a reduced flavonoid content (from 7.18–19.85 mg/g) compared with introduced varieties. Liquid extract was the most enriched preparation, characterized by 3.10 mg/mL of total flavonoid content, and infusion was the least enriched formulation (0.41 mg/mL). The presented results suggest that isorhamnetin and quercetin and its glycosides can be considered as potential anti-acetylcholinesterase agents. PMID:28767066

  2. Isorhamnetin and Quercetin Derivatives as Anti-Acetylcholinesterase Principles of Marigold (Calendula officinalis) Flowers and Preparations.

    PubMed

    Olennikov, Daniil N; Kashchenko, Nina I; Chirikova, Nadezhda K; Akobirshoeva, Anzurat; Zilfikarov, Ifrat N; Vennos, Cecile

    2017-08-02

    Marigold ( Calendula officinalis L.) is one of the most common and widespread plants used medicinally all over the world. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-acetylcholinesterase activity of marigold flowers, detect the compounds responsible and perform chemical analysis of marigold commercial products. Analysis of 23 varieties of C. officinalis flowers introduced into Siberia allowed us to select the Greenheart Orange variety due to the superior content of flavonoids (46.87 mg/g) and the highest inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (IC 50 63.52 µg/mL). Flavonoids, isorhamnetin and quercetin derivatives were revealed as potential inhibitors with the application of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) activity-based profiling. Investigation of the inhibitory activity of isorhamnetin glycosides demonstrated the maximal potency for isorhamnetin-3- О -(2'',6''-di-acetyl)-glucoside (IC 50 51.26 μM) and minimal potency for typhaneoside (isorhamnetin-3- O -(2'',6''-di-rhamnosyl)-glucoside; IC 50 94.92 µM). Among quercetin derivatives, the most active compound was quercetin-3- О -(2'',6''-di-acetyl)-glucoside (IC 50 36.47 µM), and the least active component was manghaslin (quercetin-3- O -(2'',6''-di-rhamnosyl)-glucoside; IC 50 94.92 µM). Some structure-activity relationships were discussed. Analysis of commercial marigold formulations revealed a reduced flavonoid content (from 7.18-19.85 mg/g) compared with introduced varieties. Liquid extract was the most enriched preparation, characterized by 3.10 mg/mL of total flavonoid content, and infusion was the least enriched formulation (0.41 mg/mL). The presented results suggest that isorhamnetin and quercetin and its glycosides can be considered as potential anti-acetylcholinesterase agents.

  3. Chemical characterization and bioactive properties of two aromatic plants: Calendula officinalis L. (flowers) and Mentha cervina L. (leaves).

    PubMed

    Miguel, María; Barros, Lillian; Pereira, Carla; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Garcia, Pablo A; Castro, MaÁngeles; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-05-18

    The chemical composition and bioactive properties of two plants (Calendula officinalis L. and Mentha cervina L.) were studied. Their nutritional value revealed a high content of carbohydrates and low fat levels, and very similar energy values. However, they presented different profiles in phenolic compounds and fatty acids; C. officinalis presented mainly glycosylated flavonols and saturated fatty acids, while M. cervina presented mainly caffeoyl derivatives and polyunsaturated fatty acids. M. cervina showed the highest concentration of phenolic compounds while C. officinalis presented higher amounts of sugars, organic acids and tocopherols. The highest antioxidant and cytotoxic activities were obtained for the hydromethanolic extract of M. cervina, which presented the lowest values of EC50 and exhibited cytotoxicity against the four tumor cell lines tested. Infusions showed no cytotoxicity for the tumor cell lines, and none of the extracts showed toxicity against non-tumor cells. This study contributes to expand the knowledge on both natural sources and therefore their use.

  4. Wound Healing and Anti-Inflammatory Effect in Animal Models of Calendula officinalis L. Growing in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Parente, Leila Maria Leal; Lino Júnior, Ruy de Souza; Tresvenzol, Leonice Manrique Faustino; Vinaud, Marina Clare; de Paula, José Realino; Paulo, Neusa Margarida

    2012-01-01

    Calendula officinalis is an annual herb from Mediterranean origin which is popularly used in wound healing and as an anti-inflammatory agent. In this study, the ethanolic extract, the dichloromethane, and hexanic fractions of the flowers from plants growing in Brazil were produced. The angiogenic activity of the extract and fractions was evaluated through the chorioallantoic membrane and cutaneous wounds in rat models. The healing activity of the extract was evaluated by the same cutaneous wounds model through macroscopic, morphometric, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical analysis. The antibacterial activity of the extract and fractions was also evaluated. This experimental study revealed that C. officinalis presented anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities as well as angiogenic and fibroplastic properties acting in a positive way on the inflammatory and proliferative phases of the healing process. PMID:22315631

  5. Antiglycation and antioxidation properties of Juglans regia and Calendula officinalis: possible role in reducing diabetic complications and slowing down ageing.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Haroon; Khan, Ibrar; Wahid, Abdul

    2012-09-01

    Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the body due to the non-enzymatic glycation of proteins and oxidation is associated with aging and diabetes mellitus. In this study we wanted to investigate the antiglycation and antioxidation potential of two medicinal plants: Juglans regia and Calendula officinalis. In-vitro investigation was carried out to discover the antiglycation and antioxidation potential of J. regia and C. officinalis. Using an Ultraviolet Double-beam Spectrophotometer, we evaluated the antiglycation property of the crude methanolic extracts of J. regia and C. officinalis by assessing their ability to inhibit the Maillard reaction. Employing the same instrument we also measured the antioxidation potential of these plant extracts using the nitric oxide (NO) free radical-scavenging assay. J. regia had greater antiglycation ability, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) of 28 microg/mL as compared with that of C. officinalis (270 microg/mL). C. officinalis had greater antioxidation potential (26.10, 22.07 and 16.06% at 0.5 mg, 0.25 mg and 0.125 mg, respectively, as compared with 18.15, 16.50 and 16.06% of J. regia, respectively). J. regia and C. officinalis inhibited the Maillard reaction and prevented oxidation in-vitro. Hence, the extracts of these plants could have therapeutic uses in curbing chronic diabetic complications and slowing down aging.

  6. Variation in seed lipids in Calendula germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Calendula officinalis (pot marigold) has considerable promise as an industrial crop, with a long history as an ornamental and medicinal plant. It is also marketed as an ingredient in cosmetics and a colorant. It produces unusual seed lipids, which can provide an additional market for commercial Ca...

  7. Individual and combined effects of fluoranthene, phenanthrene, mannitol and sulfuric acid on marigold (Calendula officinalis).

    PubMed

    Khpalwak, Wahdatullah; Abdel-Dayem, Sherif M; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2018-02-01

    A study was conducted to characterize marigold stress response to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (oxidative stress inducers) with and without sulfuric acid (S.Acid; pH 3) (acid-stress inducer), and to evaluate reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity of mannitol (Mann). Marigold (Calendula officinalis) seedlings were grown in a greenhouse and fumigated with fluoranthene (FLU), phenanthrene (PHE), Mann, and S.Acid individually and in various combinations for 40 days. Various physiological and biochemical parameters among others were analyzed using standard methods. The results revealed that fumigation of FLU induced oxidative stress to the plants via ROS generation leading to negative effects on photosynthesis at near saturating irradiance (A max ), stomatal conductance (G s ), internal carbon dioxide concentration (C i ), leaf water relations and chlorophyll pigments. Significant per cent inhibition of A max (54%), G s (86%) and C i (32%), as well as per cent reductions in chlorophyll a (Chl.a) (33%), Chl.b (34%), and total chlorophyll (Tot. Chl) (48%) contents were recorded in FLU fumigated treatment in comparison to control. Combination of Mann with FLU scavenged the generated ROS and substantially lowered the oxidative stress on the plants hence all the measured parameters were not significantly different from control. PHE fumigation had varied effects on marigold plants and was not as deleterious as FLU. Combined fumigation of S.Acid with both the PAHs had significant negative effect on leaf water relations, and positive effect on fresh and turgid weight of the plants but had no effect on the other measured parameters. The lowest proline contents and highest catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities in FLU fumigated plants further confirmed that oxidative stress was imposed via the generation of ROS. From the results, it is evident that Mann could be an efficient scavenger of ROS-generated by FLU in the marigold plants. We recommend Mann to

  8. Potential of extracts from Saponaria officinalis and Calendula officinalis to modulate in vitro rumen fermentation with respect to their content in saponins.

    PubMed

    Budan, Alexandre; Bellenot, Denis; Freuze, Ingrid; Gillmann, Louisa; Chicoteau, Pierre; Richomme, Pascal; Guilet, David

    2014-01-01

    Saponins have the potential to favorably modulate rumen fermentation, but there is generally a lack of the chemical structures associated with the described effects. The activity of extracts from Calendula officinalis and Saponaria officinalis in the rumen was evaluated in vitro. The S. officinalis root extract, reduced CH₄ production by 8.5% and increased total VFA concentration by 25.2%. C. officinalis and S. officinalis root extracts and the S. officinalis aerial part extract decreased the acetate to propionate ratio from 8.6 to 17.4%, according to the extract. An HPLC-ELSD analysis indicated that the saponin content ranged from 43.6 to 57.6 mg/g of dry matter (DM) in the C. officinalis extracts and from 224.0 to 693.8 mg/g of DM in the S. officinalis extracts, expressed as the hederacoside C equivalent. Identification of the saponin compounds present in the extracts by HPLC-MS(n) suggested that the saponin profile modulated the biological activities, showing the importance of determining the structure of saponins when evaluating extracts.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of Calendula officinalis petal extracts against fungi, as well as Gram-negative and Gram-positive clinical pathogens.

    PubMed

    Efstratiou, Efstratios; Hussain, Abdullah I; Nigam, Poonam S; Moore, John E; Ayub, Muhammad A; Rao, Juluri R

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the antimicrobial activity of methanol and ethanol extracts of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis) petals against clinical pathogens. The antimicrobial potential of C. officinalis extracts was evaluated against a panel of microorganisms isolated from patients at the Belfast City Hospital (BCH), including bacteria and fungi, using disc diffusion assay. Methanol extract of C. officinalis exhibited better antibacterial activity against most of the bacteria tested, than ethanol extract. Both methanol and ethanol extracts showed excellent antifungal activity against tested strains of fungi, while comparing with Fluconazole. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of Calendula officinalis versus metronidazole on bacterial vaginosis in women: A double-blind randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Pazhohideh, Zahra; Mohammadi, Solmaz; Bahrami, Nosrat; Mojab, Faraz; Abedi, Parvin; Maraghi, Elham

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common disorder among women of reproductive age. This study aimed to compare the effect of a Calendula officinalis extract-based cream and metronidazole on BV among women of reproductive age. In this study, 80 women of reproductive age with BV were randomly assigned to the C. officinalis (n = 40) or metronidazole (n = 40). Diagnosis of BV was confirmed when at least 3 of the 4 Amsel criteria were met (pH >4.5, whitish grey or thin homogeneous discharge, release of a fishy odor on adding 10% KOH, and detection of clue cells on microscopic examination). For each group, either a methanol extract of C. officinalis or metronidazole vaginal cream (5 g) was used for 1 week intravaginally, and all signs and symptoms were assessed 1 week after treatment completion. Before the intervention, the two groups did not differ significantly with regard to vaginal burning, odor, dysuria, and dyspareunia, but itching was significantly more common in the C. officinalis group than in the metronidazole group (22.5% vs. 2.5%, P = 0.01). One week after the intervention, all women in both groups were free of symptoms, including vaginal itching and burning sensation, odor, dysuria, and dyspareunia. None of the women in either group suffered any side effects from C. officinalis or metronidazole. C. officinalis was effective for the treatment of BV in women of reproductive age, without any side effects. This herb could be recommended for women of reproductive age who uncomfortable with the potential side effects of synthetic drugs. PMID:29441319

  11. Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor expression in KATO-III cells after Helicobacter pylori stimulation under the influence of strychnos Nux vomica and Calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    Hofbauer, Roland; Pasching, Eva; Moser, Doris; Frass, Michael

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies have shown the stimulating effect of Helicobacter pylori on the gene expression of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) using the gastric epithelial cell line KATO-III. Strychnos Nux vomica (Nux vomica) and Calendula officinalis are used in highly diluted form in homeopathic medicine to treat patients suffering from gastritis and gastric ulcers. To investigate the influence of Nux vomica and Calendula officinalis on HB-EGF-like growth factor gene expression in KATO-III cells under the stimulation of H. pylori strain N6 using real-time PCR with and without addition of Nux vomica and Calendula officinalis as a 10c or 12c potency. Baseline expression and stimulation were similar to previous experiments, addition of Nux vomica 10c and Calendula officinalis 10c in a 43% ethanolic solution led to a significant reduction of H. pylori induced increase in gene expression of HB-EGF (reduced to 53.12+/-0.95% and 75.32+/-1.16% vs. control; p<0.05), respectively. Nux vomica 12c reduced HB-EGF gene expression even in dilutions beyond Avogadro's number (55.77+/-1.09%; p<0.05). Nux vomica 12c in a 21.5% ethanol showed a smaller effect (71.80+/-3.91%, p<0.05). This effect was only be observed when the drugs were primarily prepared in ethanol, not in aqueous solutions. The data suggest that both drugs prepared in ethanolic solution are potent inhibitors of H. pylori induced gene expression. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Separation of flavonol-2-O-glycosides from Calendula officinalis and Sambucus nigra by high-performance liquid and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.

    PubMed

    Pietta, P; Bruno, A; Mauri, P; Rava, A

    1992-02-28

    Calendula officinalis and Sambucus nigra flowers were analysed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC). RP-HPLC was performed on C8 Aquapore RP 300 columns with eluents containing 2-propanol and tetrahydrofuran. MECC was carried out on a 72-cm fused-silica capillary using sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium borate (pH 8.3) as the running buffer. The results obtained by these techniques are compared.

  13. Structure and cytotoxic activity of sesquiterpene glycoside esters from Calendula officinalis L.: Studies on the conformation of viridiflorol.

    PubMed

    D'Ambrosio, Michele; Ciocarlan, Alexandru; Colombo, Elisa; Guerriero, Antonio; Pizza, Cosimo; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Dell'Agli, Mario

    2015-09-01

    Topic applications of Calendula officinalis L. lipophilic extracts are used in phytotherapy to relieve skin inflammatory conditions whereas infusions are used as a remedy for gastric complaints. Such a different usage might be explained by some cytotoxicity of lipophilic extracts at gastric level but little is known about this. Therefore, we screened the CH2Cl2 extract from the flowers of C. officinalis by MTT and LDH assays in human epithelial gastric cells AGS. This bioassay-oriented approach led to the isolation of several sesquiterpene glycosides which were structurally characterized by spectroscopic measurements, chemical reactions and MM calculations. The conformational preferences of viridiflorol fucoside were established and a previously assigned stereochemistry was revised. The compounds 1a, 2a and 3f showed comparably high cytotoxicity in the MTT assays, whereas the effect on LDH release was lower. Our study provides new insights on the composition of C. officinalis extracts of medium polarity and identifies the main compounds that could be responsible for cytotoxic effects at gastric level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. D-Glucose as a modifying agent in gelatin/collagen matrix and reservoir nanoparticles for Calendula officinalis delivery.

    PubMed

    Lam, P-L; Kok, S H-L; Bian, Z-X; Lam, K-H; Tang, J C-O; Lee, K K-H; Gambari, R; Chui, C-H

    2014-05-01

    Gelatin/Collagen-based matrix and reservoir nanoparticles require crosslinkers to stabilize the formed nanosuspensions, considering that physical instability is the main challenge of nanoparticulate systems. The use of crosslinkers improves the physical integrity of nanoformulations under the-host environment. Aldehyde-based fixatives, such as formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde, have been widely applied to the crosslinking process of polymeric nanoparticles. However, their potential toxicity towards human beings has been demonstrated in many previous studies. In order to tackle this problem, D-glucose was used during nanoparticle formation to stabilize the gelatin/collagen-based matrix wall and reservoir wall for the deliveries of Calendula officinalis powder and oil, respectively. In addition, therapeutic selectivity between malignant and normal cells could be observed. The C. officinalis powder loaded nanoparticles significantly strengthened the anti-cancer effect towards human breast adenocarcinoma MCF7 cells and human hepatoma SKHep1 cells when compared with the free powder. On the contrary, the nanoparticles did not show significant cytotoxicity towards normal esophageal epithelial NE3 cells and human skin keratinocyte HaCaT cells. On the basis of these evidences, D-glucose modified gelatin/collagen matrix nanoparticles containing C. officinalis powder might be proposed as a safer alternative vehicle for anti-cancer treatments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Qualitative and quantitative high performance thin layer chromatography analysis of Calendula officinalis using high resolution plate imaging and artificial neural network data modelling.

    PubMed

    Agatonovic-Kustrin, S; Loescher, Christine M

    2013-10-10

    Calendula officinalis, commonly known Marigold, has been traditionally used for its anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of an artificial neural network (ANN) to analyse thin layer chromatography (TLC) chromatograms as fingerprint patterns for quantitative estimation of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and rutin in Calendula plant extracts. By applying samples with different weight ratios of marker compounds to the system, a database of chromatograms was constructed. A hundred and one signal intensities in each of the HPTLC chromatograms were correlated to the amounts of applied chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and rutin using an ANN. The developed ANN correlation was used to quantify the amounts of 3 marker compounds in calendula plant extracts. The minimum quantifiable level (MQL) of 610, 190 and 940 ng and the limit of detection (LD) of 183, 57 and 282 ng were established for chlorogenic, caffeic acid and rutin, respectively. A novel method for quality control of herbal products, based on HPTLC separation, high resolution digital plate imaging and ANN data analysis has been developed. The proposed method can be adopted for routine evaluation of the phytochemical variability in calendula extracts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of in vitro anticancer activity of Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris.

    PubMed

    Behbahani, Mandana

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to study the relationship between presence of cytotoxic compounds in Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compounds was performed by MTT assay against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and normal breast cell line (MCF 10A). The induction of apoptosis was measured by the expression levels of p53, bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 genes using quantitative Real Time PCR. Three active fractions were detected by nuclear magnetic resonance as lutein, lupeol and eugenol, respectively, in C. officinalis, A. maurorum and O. basilicum. These compounds and their epoxidized forms were also detected in their parasite C. campestris. The cytotoxic activity of lutein epoxide, lupeol epoxide and eugenol epoxide was significantly more than lutein, lupeol and eugenol. The mRNA expression level of p53, caspase-3 and bax genes were increased in both cancer cells treated with all pure compounds. However, bcl-2 gene expression decreased in treated breast cancer cells. In conclusion, all the data indicated that the epoxide forms of lupeol, lutein and eugenol are potential drug candidates for inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.

  17. Evaluation of In Vitro Anticancer Activity of Ocimum Basilicum, Alhagi Maurorum, Calendula Officinalis and Their Parasite Cuscuta Campestris

    PubMed Central

    Behbahani, Mandana

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to study the relationship between presence of cytotoxic compounds in Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compounds was performed by MTT assay against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and normal breast cell line (MCF 10A). The induction of apoptosis was measured by the expression levels of p53, bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 genes using quantitative Real Time PCR. Three active fractions were detected by nuclear magnetic resonance as lutein, lupeol and eugenol, respectively, in C. officinalis, A. maurorum and O. basilicum. These compounds and their epoxidized forms were also detected in their parasite C. campestris. The cytotoxic activity of lutein epoxide, lupeol epoxide and eugenol epoxide was significantly more than lutein, lupeol and eugenol. The mRNA expression level of p53, caspase-3 and bax genes were increased in both cancer cells treated with all pure compounds. However, bcl-2 gene expression decreased in treated breast cancer cells. In conclusion, all the data indicated that the epoxide forms of lupeol, lutein and eugenol are potential drug candidates for inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. PMID:25548920

  18. In vitro acaricidal activity of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Ahanger, R R; Bhutyal, A D S; Verma, P K; Katoch, M; Dutta, S; Nisa, F; Singh, N K

    2015-09-01

    Detection of resistance levels against deltamethrin and cypermethrin in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Jammu (India) was carried out using larval packet test (LPT). The results showed the presence of resistance level II and I against deltamethrin and cypermethrin, respectively. Adult immersion test (AIT) and LPT were used to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus. Four concentrations (1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 %) of each extract with four replications for each concentration were used in both the bioassays. A concentration dependent mortality was observed and it was more marked with ethanolic extract. In AIT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were calculated as 9.9 and 12.9 %, respectively. The egg weight of the live ticks treated with different concentrations of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts was significantly lower than that of control ticks; consequently, the reproductive index and the percent inhibition of oviposition values of the treated ticks were reduced. The complete inhibition of hatching was recorded at 10 % of ethanolic extract. The 10 % extracts caused 100 % mortality of larvae after 24 h. In LPT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were determined to be 2.6 and 3.2 %, respectively. It can be concluded that the ethanolic extract of C. officinalis had better acaricidal properties against adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus than the aqueous extract.

  19. Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi On Yield and Phytoremediation Performance of Pot Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) Under Heavy Metals Stress.

    PubMed

    Tabrizi, Leila; Mohammadi, Siavash; Delshad, Mojtaba; Moteshare Zadeh, Babak

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the effect of mycorrhizal fungi (inoculated and non-inoculated) and heavy metals stress [0, Pb (150 and 300 mg/kg) and Cd (40 and 80 mg/kg)] on pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.), a factorial experiment was conducted based on a randomized complete block design with 4 replications in Research Greenhouse of Department of Horticultural Sciences, University of Tehran, Iran, during 2012-2013. Plant height, herbal and flower fresh and dry weight, root fresh and dry weight and root volume, colonization percentage, total petal extract, total petal flavonoids, root and shoot P and K uptakes, and Pb and Cd accumulations in root and shoot were measured. Results indicated that with increasing soil Pb and Cd concentration, growth and yield of pot marigold was reduced significantly; Cd had greater negative impacts than Pb. However, mycorrhizal fungi alleviated these impacts by improving plant growth and yield. Pot marigold concentrated high amounts of Pb and especially Cd in its roots and shoots; mycorrhizal plants had a greater accumulation of these metals, so that those under 80 mg/kg Cd soil(-1) accumulated 833.3 and 1585.8 mg Cd in their shoots and roots, respectively. In conclusion, mycorrhizal fungi can improve not only growth and yield of pot marigold in heavy metal stressed condition, but also phytoremediation performance by increasing heavy metals accumulation in the plant organs.

  20. Anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor-promoting, and cytotoxic activities of constituents of marigold (Calendula officinalis) flowers.

    PubMed

    Ukiya, Motohiko; Akihisa, Toshihiro; Yasukawa, Ken; Tokuda, Harukuni; Suzuki, Takashi; Kimura, Yumiko

    2006-12-01

    Ten oleanane-type triterpene glycosides, 1-10, including four new compounds, calendulaglycoside A 6'-O-methyl ester (2), calendulaglycoside A 6'-O-n-butyl ester (3), calendulaglycoside B 6'-O-n-butyl ester (5), and calendulaglycoside C 6'-O-n-butyl ester (8), along with five known flavonol glycosides, 11-15, were isolated from the flowers of marigold (Calendula officinalis). Upon evaluation of compounds 1-9 for inhibitory activity against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation (1 microg/ear) in mice, all of the compounds, except for 1, exhibited marked anti-inflammatory activity, with ID50 values of 0.05-0.20 mg per ear. In addition, when 1-15 were evaluated against the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by TPA, compounds 1-10 exhibited moderate inhibitory effects (IC50 values of 471-487 mol ratio/32 pmol TPA). Furthermore, upon evaluation of the cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines in vitro in the NCI Developmental Therapeutics Program, two triterpene glycosides, 9 and 10, exhibited their most potent cytotoxic effects against colon cancer, leukemia, and melanoma cells.

  1. Effect of Calendula officinalis Flower Extract on Acute Phase Proteins, Antioxidant Defense Mechanism and Granuloma Formation During Thermal Burns

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Preethi K.; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2008-01-01

    Effect of Calendula officinalis flower extract was investigated against experimentally induced thermal burns in rats. Burn injury was made on the shaven back of the rats under anesthesia and the animals were treated orally with different doses of the flower extract (20 mg, 100 mg and 200 mg/kg body weight). The animals treated with the extract showed significant improvement in healing when compared with the control untreated animals. The indicators of the wound healing such as collagen-hydroxyproline and hexosamine contents were significantly increased in the treated group indicating accelerated wound healing in the treated animals. The acute phase proteins—haptoglobin and orosomucoid which were increased due to burn injury were found to be decreased significantly in 200 mg/kg body weight extract treated animals. The antioxidant defense mechanism, which was decreased in the liver during burn injury, was found to be enhanced in treated animals. The lipid peroxidation was significantly lowered in the treated group when compared to control animals. Tissue damage marker enzymes- alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate transaminases were significantly lowered in the treated groups in a dose dependant manner. The histopathological analyses of skin tissue also give the evidence of the increased healing potential of the extract after burn injury. PMID:18818737

  2. Lead content in pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) inflorescences and leaves: impact of precipitations and vicinity of motorway.

    PubMed

    Meos, Andres; Jüriado, Tiiu; Matto, Vallo; Raal, Ain

    2011-05-01

    Trace metal contamination is a major environmental and health problem virtually in all countries. The present study was aimed to estimate the lead content of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) inflorescences and leaves collected from a nonpolluted test field. The lead content in dry pot marigold inflorescences was 9.34 ± 0.79 µg/g, in dry leaves 11.57 ± 0.47 µg/g, and in soil 0.649 ± 0.012 µg/g. The distance of pot marigold collection beds (30-220 m from the motorway) had no effect on lead content. There was a strong positive correlation between the amount of precipitations and lead content of pot marigold leaves but not inflorescences indicating the soil as primarily the source of increased lead content. In conclusion, no effect of motorway vicinity was found for pot marigold inflorescences or leaves lead content; however, as a precaution, it is not recommended to collect the plants during or just after showers.

  3. A review on phytochemistry and ethnopharmacological aspects of genus Calendula

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Disha; Rani, Anita; Sharma, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    This review includes 84 references on the genus Calendula (Asteraceae) and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies and toxicology of the prominent species of Calendula. Triterpene alcohols, triterpene saponins, flavonoids, carotenoids and polysaccharides constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these Calendula officinalis Linn., has been traditionally used in the treatment of various skin tumors, dermatological lesions, ulcers, swellings and nervous disorders as well as almost 200 cosmetic formulations, i.e., creams, lotions, shampoos. Despite a long tradition of use of some species, the genus has not been explored properly. In the concluding part, the future scope of Calendula species has been emphasized with a view to establish their multifarious biological activities and mode of action. PMID:24347926

  4. Antioxidant capacity of calendula officinalis flowers extract and prevention of radiation induced oropharyngeal mucositis in patients with head and neck cancers: a randomized controlled clinical study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of Calendula officinalis flowers extract mouthwash as oral gel on radiation-induced oropharyngeal mucositis (OM) in patients with head-and-neck cancer. Forty patients with neck and head cancers under radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy protocols were randomly assigned to receive either 2% calendula extract mouthwash or placebo (20 patients in each group). Patients were treated with telecobalt radiotherapy at conventional fractionation (200 cGy/fraction, five fractions weekly, 30–35 fractions within 4–7 weeks). The oropharyngeal mucositis was evaluated by two clinical investigators (a radiation oncologist and a dentist), using the oral mucositis assessment scale (OMAS). Trying to find out the possible mechanism of action of the treatment, total antioxidant, polyphenol and flavonoid contents, and quercetin concentration of the mouth wash were measured. Calendula mouthwash significantly decreased the intensity of OM compared to placebo at week 2 (score: 5.5 vs. 6.8, p = 0.019), week 3 (score: 8.25 vs. 10.95, p < 0.0001) and week 6 (score: 11.4 vs. 13.35, p = 0.031). Total antioxidant, polyphenol and flavonoid contents and quercetin concentration of the 2% extract were 2353.4 ± 56.5 μM, 313.40 ± 6.52 mg/g, 76.66 ± 23.24 mg/g, and 19.41 ± 4.34 mg/l, respectively. Calendula extract gel could be effective on decreasing the intensity of radiotherapy- induced OM during the treatment and antioxidant capacity may be partly responsible for the effect. PMID:23497687

  5. Antioxidant capacity of calendula officinalis flowers extract and prevention of radiation induced oropharyngeal mucositis in patients with head and neck cancers: a randomized controlled clinical study.

    PubMed

    Babaee, Neda; Moslemi, Dariush; Khalilpour, Mohammad; Vejdani, Fatemeh; Moghadamnia, Yasaman; Bijani, Ali; Baradaran, Mahmoud; Kazemi, Mohammad Taghi; Khalilpour, Asieh; Pouramir, Mahdi; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar

    2013-03-07

    This study was designed to determine the effect of Calendula officinalis flowers extract mouthwash as oral gel on radiation-induced oropharyngeal mucositis (OM) in patients with head-and-neck cancer. Forty patients with neck and head cancers under radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy protocols were randomly assigned to receive either 2% calendula extract mouthwash or placebo (20 patients in each group). Patients were treated with telecobalt radiotherapy at conventional fractionation (200 cGy/fraction, five fractions weekly, 30-35 fractions within 4-7 weeks). The oropharyngeal mucositis was evaluated by two clinical investigators (a radiation oncologist and a dentist), using the oral mucositis assessment scale (OMAS). Trying to find out the possible mechanism of action of the treatment, total antioxidant, polyphenol and flavonoid contents, and quercetin concentration of the mouth wash were measured. Calendula mouthwash significantly decreased the intensity of OM compared to placebo at week 2 (score: 5.5 vs. 6.8, p = 0.019), week 3 (score: 8.25 vs. 10.95, p < 0.0001) and week 6 (score: 11.4 vs. 13.35, p = 0.031). Total antioxidant, polyphenol and flavonoid contents and quercetin concentration of the 2% extract were 2353.4 ± 56.5 μM, 313.40 ± 6.52 mg/g, 76.66 ± 23.24 mg/g, and 19.41 ± 4.34 mg/l, respectively. Calendula extract gel could be effective on decreasing the intensity of radiotherapy- induced OM during the treatment and antioxidant capacity may be partly responsible for the effect.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis and chlorhexidine against the adherence of microorganisms to sutures after extraction of unerupted third molars.

    PubMed

    Faria, Raquel Lourdes; Cardoso, Lincoln Marcelo Lourenço; Akisue, Gokithi; Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Santos Júnior, Paulo Villela

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial effect of mouthwashes containing Calendula officinalis L., Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate on the adherence of microorganisms to suture materials after extraction of unerupted third molars. Eighteen patients with unerupted maxillary third molars indicated for extraction were selected (n=6 per mouthwash). First, the patients were subjected to extraction of the left tooth and instructed not to use any type of antiseptic solution at the site of surgery (control group). After 15 days, the right tooth was extracted and the patients were instructed to use the Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis or chlorhexidine mouthwash during 1 week (experimental group). For each surgery, the sutures were removed on postoperative day 7 and placed in sterile phosphate-buffered saline. Next, serial dilutions were prepared and seeded onto different culture media for the growth of the following microorganisms: blood agar for total microorganism growth; Mitis Salivarius bacitracin sucrose agar for mutans group streptococci; mannitol agar for Staphylococcus spp.; MacConkey agar for enterobacteria and Pseudomonas spp., and Sabouraud dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol for Candida spp. The plates were incubated during 24-48 h at 37ºC for microorganism count (CFU/mL). The three mouthwashes tested reduced the number of microorganisms adhered to the sutures compared to the control group. However, significant differences between the control and experimental groups were only observed for the mouthwash containing 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate. Calendula officinalis L. and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze presented antimicrobial activity against the adherence of microorganisms to sutures but were not as efficient as chlorhexidine digluconate.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis and chlorhexidine against the adherence of microorganisms to sutures after extraction of unerupted third molars

    PubMed Central

    FARIA, Raquel Lourdes; CARDOSO, Lincoln Marcelo Lourenço; AKISUE, Gokithi; PEREIRA, Cristiane Aparecida; JUNQUEIRA, Juliana Campos; JORGE, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; SANTOS JÚNIOR, Paulo Villela

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial effect of mouthwashes containing Calendula officinalis L., Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate on the adherence of microorganisms to suture materials after extraction of unerupted third molars. Material and Methods Eighteen patients with unerupted maxillary third molars indicated for extraction were selected (n=6 per mouthwash). First, the patients were subjected to extraction of the left tooth and instructed not to use any type of antiseptic solution at the site of surgery (control group). After 15 days, the right tooth was extracted and the patients were instructed to use the Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis or chlorhexidine mouthwash during 1 week (experimental group). For each surgery, the sutures were removed on postoperative day 7 and placed in sterile phosphate-buffered saline. Next, serial dilutions were prepared and seeded onto different culture media for the growth of the following microorganisms: blood agar for total microorganism growth; Mitis Salivarius bacitracin sucrose agar for mutans group streptococci; mannitol agar for Staphylococcus spp.; MacConkey agar for enterobacteria and Pseudomonas spp., and Sabouraud dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol for Candida spp. The plates were incubated during 24-48 h at 37ºC for microorganism count (CFU/mL). Results The three mouthwashes tested reduced the number of microorganisms adhered to the sutures compared to the control group. However, significant differences between the control and experimental groups were only observed for the mouthwash containing 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate. Conclusions Calendula officinalis L. and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze presented antimicrobial activity against the adherence of microorganisms to sutures but were not as efficient as chlorhexidine digluconate. PMID:21986652

  8. A Bio-Guided Fractionation to Assess the Inhibitory Activity of Calendula officinalis L. on the NF-κB Driven Transcription in Human Gastric Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Elisa; Sangiovanni, Enrico; D'Ambrosio, Michele; Bosisio, Enrica; Ciocarlan, Alexandru; Fumagalli, Marco; Guerriero, Antonio; Harghel, Petru; Dell'Agli, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Calendula officinalis L. has been largely known for its topical anti-inflammatory properties; however, there are no experimental evidences about its antiphlogistic effect at the gastric level. To investigate whether marigold might exert an activity against gastric inflammation, a CH2Cl2 extract obtained from C. officinalis flowers was evaluated in vitro on the NF-κB pathway. The lipophilic extract demonstrated a significant inhibitory effect on the NF-κB driven transcription. The identification of active compounds was conducted by a bio-guided fractionation of the extract that afforded 16 fractions. Fraction J exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibitory activity on the NF-κB driven transcription and significantly contributed to the antiphlogistic effect showed by CH2Cl2 extract. The main components of fraction J were loliolide and the fucoside acetates of β-eudesmol and viridiflorol. HPLC analysis of fractions D and E led to the identification and isolation of triterpene esters that showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of the NF-κB driven transcription, with faradiol-3-myristate and the corresponding aglycone being the most active compounds. The present study provides some experimental evidences that Calendula officinalis L. may exert an anti-inflammatory activity on the gastric district by the inhibition of the NF-κB system, identifying the compounds responsible, at least in part, for the observed effect. PMID:26491463

  9. Results of the clinical examination of an ointment with marigold (Calendula officinalis) extract in the treatment of venous leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Duran, V; Matic, M; Jovanovć, M; Mimica, N; Gajinov, Z; Poljacki, M; Boza, P

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the therapeutic efficacy of marigold (Calendula officinalis) extract on the epithelialization of lower leg venous ulcers. The experiment was carried out in 34 patients with venous leg ulcers. The patients were divided into two groups. In the first (experimental) group, patients were treated with an ointment containing marigold extract, which was prepared in an apparatus devised by Soxleth and was incorporated into a neutral base. Twenty-one patients with 33 venous ulcers were treated. Therapy was applied twice a day for 3 weeks. The second group was a control group that consisted of 13 patients with 22 venous ulcers. In the control group, saline solution dressings were applied to ulcers for 3 weeks. In the experimental group the total surface of all the ulcers at the beginning of the therapy was 67,544 mm2. After the third week the total surface of all the ulcers was 39,373 mm2 (a decrease of 41.71%). In seven patients, complete epithelialization was achieved. In the control group the total surface of all the ulcers at the beginning of the therapy was 69,722 mm2. After the third week the total surface of all the ulcers was 58,743 mm2 (a decrease of 14.52%). In four patients, complete epithelialization was achieved. There was a statistically significant acceleration of wound healing in the experimental group (p < 0.05). The results obtained are preliminary, but they suggest the positive effects of the ointment with marigold extract on venous ulcer epithelialization.

  10. Effect of Calendula officinalis hydroalcoholic extract on passive avoidance learning and memory in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Moradkhani, Shirin; Salehi, Iraj; Abdolmaleki, Somayeh; Komaki, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Medicinal plants, owing to their different mechanisms such as antioxidants effects, may improve learning and memory impairments in diabetic rats. Calendula officinalis (CO), has a significant antioxidant activity. Aims: To examine the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of CO on passive avoidance learning (PAL) and memory in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male rats. Settings and Design: A total of 32 adult male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to four groups: Control, diabetic, control + extract of CO and diabetic control + extract of CO groups with free access to regular rat diet. Subjects and Methods: Diabetes in diabetic rats was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg STZ. After confirmation of diabetes, oral administration of 300 mg/kg CO extract to extract-treated groups have been done. PAL was tested 8 weeks after onset of treatment, and blood glucose and body weight were measured in all groups at the beginning and end of the experiment. Statistical Analysis Used: The statistical analysis of data was performed by ANOVA followed by least significant difference post-hoc analysis. Results: Diabetes decreased learning and memory. Effect of CO extract in retention test (after 24 and 48 h) has been shown a significant decrease in step-through latency and increase in time spent in the dark compartment part. Also the extract partially improved hyperglycemia and reduced body weight. Conclusion: Taken together, CO extract can improve PAL and memory impairments in STZ-diabetic rats. This improvement may be due to its antioxidant, anticholinergic activities or its power to reduce hyperglycemia. PMID:26120230

  11. Development of lamellar gel phase emulsion containing marigold oil (Calendula officinalis) as a potential modern wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Okuma, C H; Andrade, T A M; Caetano, G F; Finci, L I; Maciel, N R; Topan, J F; Cefali, L C; Polizello, A C M; Carlo, T; Rogerio, A P; Spadaro, A C C; Isaac, V L B; Frade, M A C; Rocha-Filho, P A

    2015-04-25

    Appropriate therapeutics for wound treatments can be achieved by studying the pathophysiology of tissue repair. Here we develop formulations of lamellar gel phase (LGP) emulsions containing marigold (Calendula officinalis) oil, evaluating their stability and activity on experimental wound healing in rats. LGP emulsions were developed and evaluated based on a phase ternary diagram to select the best LGP emulsion, having a good amount of anisotropic structure and stability. The selected LGP formulation was analyzed according to the intrinsic and accelerated physical stability at different temperatures. In addition, in vitro and in vivo studies were carried out on wound healing rats as a model. The LGP emulsion (15.0% marigold oil; 10.0% of blend surfactants and 75.0% of purified water [w/w/w]) demonstrated good stability and high viscosity, suggesting longer contact of the formulation with the wound. No cytotoxic activity (50-1000 μg/mL) was observed in marigold oil. In the wound healing rat model, the LGP (15 mg/mL) showed an increase in the leukocyte recruitment to the wound at least on days 2 and 7, but reduced leukocyte recruitment after 14 and 21 days, as compared to the control. Additionally, collagen production was reduced in the LGP emulsion on days 2 and 7 and further accelerated the process of re-epithelialization of the wound itself. The methodology utilized in the present study has produced a potentially useful formulation for a stable LGP emulsion-containing marigold, which was able to improve the wound healing process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Protective effect of Calendula officinalis Linn. flowers against 3-nitropropionic acid induced experimental Huntington's disease in rats.

    PubMed

    Shivasharan, B D; Nagakannan, Pandian; Thippeswamy, Boreddy Shivanandappa; Veerapur, Veeresh Prabakar; Bansal, Punit; Unnikrishnan, Mazhuvancherry K

    2013-10-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) and nitric oxide mechanisms have been recently proposed in 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP)-induced neurotoxicity. The compounds, having antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and estrogenic effects, have been suggested for neuroprotection in different experimental models. Calendula officinalis Linn. flower extract (COE) is known for its potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, estrogenic and neuroprotective activities. Hence, the present study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of COE on 3-NP-induced neurotoxicity in rats by observing behavioral changes, OS and striatal damage in rat brain. Adult female Wistar rats were pretreated with vehicle or COE (100 and 200 mg/kg) for 7 days, followed by cotreatment with 3-NP (15 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) for the next 7 days. At the end of the treatment schedule, rats were evaluated for alterations in sensory motor functions and short-term memory. Animals were sacrificed and brain homogenates were used for the estimation of lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione, total thiols, glutathione S-transferase, catalase and nitrite. A set of brain slices was used for the evaluation of neuronal damage in the striatal region of the brain. 3-NP caused significant alterations in animal behavior, oxidative defense system evidenced by raised levels of LPO and nitrite concentration, and depletion of antioxidant levels. It also produced a loss of neuronal cells in the striatal region. Treatment with COE significantly attenuated behavioral alterations, oxidative damage and striatal neuronal loss in 3-NP-treated animals. The present study shows that COE is protective against 3-NP-induced neurotoxicity in rats. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and estrogenic properties of COE may be responsible for its neuroprotective action.

  13. Optimization of chemometric approaches for the extraction of isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside from Calendula officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Maria Lourdes Leite; da Silva, Heron Dominguez Torres; Blanes, Lucas; Doble, Philip; Tavares, Marina Franco Maggi

    2016-06-05

    The application of Design of Experiments (DoE) to the determination of optimum conditions for an extraction process relies on the correct selection of mathematical models. The linear model is the one typically used; however, in some cases it does not always have superior performance, ignoring the real nature of the data and its appropriate descriptive model. In order to evaluate the extraction efficiency of isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside from flowers of Calendula officinalis L. a multivariate factorial analysis was used. Simulations were conducted using linear, quadratic, full cubic and special cubic models. A Simplex-Centroid design was chosen as it delivered greater precision with only minor errors versus other models tested. Analyses were performed by capillary zone electrophoresis using sodium tetraborate buffer (40mmolL(-1), pH 9.4) containing 10% methanol. The detection was linear over a range of 8.0-50.0mgL(-1) (r(2)=0.996), and the limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) for isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside were 3.44mgL(-1) and 11.47mgL(-1), respectively. The full cubic model showed the best extraction results, with an error of 3.40% compared to analysis of variance, and a determination coefficient of 0.974. The difference between the responses at the reference point, calculated by the model, and the experimental response, varies around 2.72% for full cubic model. Comparison of the four models showed the full cubic model was the most appropriate one, allowing greater efficiency in the extraction of isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside. Selection of the model made it possible to obtain a 60% increase in sensitivity compared to the linear model. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. A Review of the Use of Topical Calendula in the Prevention and Treatment of Radiotherapy-Induced Skin Reactions.

    PubMed

    Kodiyan, Joyson; Amber, Kyle T

    2015-04-23

    Calendula is a topical agent derived from a plant of the marigold family Calendula Officinalis. Containing numerous polyphenolic antioxidants, calendula has been studied in both the laboratory and clinical setting for the use in treating and preventing radiation induced skin toxicity. Despite strong evidence in the laboratory supporting calendula's mechanism of action in preventing radiation induced skin toxicity, clinical studies have demonstrated mixed results. In light of the controversy surrounding the efficacy of calendula in treating and preventing radiodermatitis, the topic warrants further discussion.

  15. A new extract of the plant calendula officinalis produces a dual in vitro effect: cytotoxic anti-tumor activity and lymphocyte activation

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Medina, Eva; Garcia-Lora, Angel; Paco, Laura; Algarra, Ignacio; Collado, Antonia; Garrido, Federico

    2006-01-01

    Background Phytopharmacological studies of different Calendula extracts have shown anti-inflamatory, anti-viral and anti-genotoxic properties of therapeutic interest. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro cytotoxic anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities and in vivo anti-tumor effect of Laser Activated Calendula Extract (LACE), a novel extract of the plant Calendula Officinalis (Asteraceae). Methods An aqueous extract of Calendula Officinalis was obtained by a novel extraction method in order to measure its anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities in vitro. Tumor cell lines derived from leukemias, melanomas, fibrosarcomas and cancers of breast, prostate, cervix, lung, pancreas and colorectal were used and tumor cell proliferation in vitro was measured by BrdU incorporation and viable cell count. Effect of LACE on human peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) proliferation in vitro was also analyzed. Studies of cell cycle and apoptosis were performed in LACE-treated cells. In vivo anti-tumor activity was evaluated in nude mice bearing subcutaneously human Ando-2 melanoma cells. Results The LACE extract showed a potent in vitro inhibition of tumor cell proliferation when tested on a wide variety of human and murine tumor cell lines. The inhibition ranged from 70 to 100%. Mechanisms of inhibition were identified as cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and Caspase-3-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, the same extract showed an opposite effect when tested on PBLs and NKL cell line, in which in vitro induction of proliferation and activation of these cells was observed. The intraperitoneal injection or oral administration of LACE extract in nude mice inhibits in vivo tumor growth of Ando-2 melanoma cells and prolongs the survival day of the mice. Conclusion These results indicate that LACE aqueous extract has two complementary activities in vitro with potential anti-tumor therapeutic effect: cytotoxic tumor cell activity and lymphocyte activation. The LACE extract presented

  16. High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of Calendula officinalis-advantages and limitations.

    PubMed

    Loescher, Christine M; Morton, David W; Razic, Slavica; Agatonovic-Kustrin, Snezana

    2014-09-01

    Chromatography techniques such as HPTLC and HPLC are commonly used to produce a chemical fingerprint of a plant to allow identification and quantify the main constituents within the plant. The aims of this study were to compare HPTLC and HPLC, for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major constituents of Calendula officinalis and to investigate the effect of different extraction techniques on the C. officinalis extract composition from different parts of the plant. The results found HPTLC to be effective for qualitative analysis, however, HPLC was found to be more accurate for quantitative analysis. A combination of the two methods may be useful in a quality control setting as it would allow rapid qualitative analysis of herbal material while maintaining accurate quantification of extract composition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The comparison of in vivo antigenotoxic and antioxidative capacity of two propylene glycol extracts of Calendula officinalis (marigold) and vitamin E in young growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Frankic, T; Salobir, K; Salobir, J

    2009-12-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the protective effect of Calendula officinalis propylene glycol extracts against oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation induced by high polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake in young growing pigs. Forty young growing pigs were assigned to five treatment groups: control; oil (linseed oil supplementation); C. officinalis 1 and 2 groups (linseed oil plus 3 ml/day of C. officinalis propylene glycol extracts); and vitamin E group (linseed oil plus 100 mg/kg of vitamin E). Lymphocyte DNA fragmentation and 24-h urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) excretion were measured to determine DNA damage. Lipid peroxidation was studied by analysing plasma and urine malondialdehyde (MDA), and urine isoprostane concentrations (iPF2α-VI), total antioxidant status of plasma and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) assays. C. officinalis 1 (extract from petals) effectively protected DNA from oxidative damage. It indicated a numerical trend towards the reduction of plasma MDA and urinary iPF2α-VI excretion. Its effect was comparable with that of vitamin E. C. officinalis 2 (extract from flower tops) showed less antioxidant potential than the extract from petals. We can conclude that the amount of C. officinalis extracts proposed for internal use by traditional medicine protects the organism against DNA damage induced by high PUFA intake.

  18. Limited seed and seed yield response of calendula to applied nitrogen does not justify risk of environmental damage from high urea application rates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) is a source of industrial oil, which can serve as a domestic substitute for petroleum or imported specialty crop oils. Traditionally, calendula has been grown for medicinal or ornamental properties. However, little is known about nitrogen (N) requirement of growi...

  19. Increased synthesis of a new oleanane-type saponin in hairy roots of marigold (Calendula officinalis) after treatment with jasmonic acid.

    PubMed

    Markowski, Michał; Długosz, Marek; Szakiel, Anna; Durli, Mathieu; Poinsignon, Sophie; Bouguet-Bonnet, Sabine; Vernex-Loset, Lionel; Krier, Gabriel; Henry, Max

    2018-04-18

    Native plant of marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) synthesizes oleanolic acid saponins classified as glucosides or glucuronides according to the first residue in sugar chain bound to C-3 hydroxyl group. Hairy root culture, obtained by transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain 15834, exhibit a potent ability of synthesis of oleanolic acid glycosides. The HPLC profile of saponin fraction obtained from C. officinalis hairy roots treated with plant stress hormone, jasmonic acid, showed the 10-times increase of the content of one particular compound, determined by NMR and MALDI TOF as a new bisdesmoside saponin, 3-O-β-d-glucuronopyranosyl-28-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-oleanolic acid. Such a diglycoside does not occur in native C. officinalis plant. It is a glucuronide, whereas in the native plant glucuronides are mainly accumulated in flowers, while glucosides are the most abundant saponins in roots. Thus, our results revealed that the pathways of saponin biosynthesis, particularly reactions of glycosylation, are altered in C. officinalis hairy root culture.

  20. The Water Fraction of Calendula officinalis Hydroethanol Extract Stimulates In Vitro and In Vivo Proliferation of Dermal Fibroblasts in Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Dinda, Manikarna; Mazumdar, Swagata; Das, Saurabh; Ganguly, Durba; Dasgupta, Uma B; Dutta, Ananya; Jana, Kuladip; Karmakar, Parimal

    2016-10-01

    The active fraction and/or compounds of Calendula officinalis responsible for wound healing are not known yet. In this work we studied the molecular target of C. officinalis hydroethanol extract (CEE) and its active fraction (water fraction of hydroethanol extract, WCEE) on primary human dermal fibroblasts (HDF). In vivo, CEE or WCEE were topically applied on excisional wounds of BALB/c mice and the rate of wound contraction and immunohistological studies were carried out. We found that CEE and only its WCEE significantly stimulated the proliferation as well as the migration of HDF cells. Also they up-regulate the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in vitro. In vivo, CEE or WCEE treated mice groups showed faster wound healing and increased expression of CTGF and α-SMA compared to placebo control group. The increased expression of both the proteins during granulation phase of wound repair demonstrated the potential role of C. officinalis in wound healing. In addition, HPLC-ESI MS analysis of the active water fraction revealed the presence of two major compounds, rutin and quercetin-3-O-glucoside. Thus, our results showed that C. officinalis potentiated wound healing by stimulating the expression of CTGF and α-SMA and further we identified active compounds. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Using Calendula officinalis as a floral resource to enhance aphid and thrips suppression by the flower bug Orius sauteri (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Guo, Xiaojun; Tan, Xiaoling; Desneux, Nicolas; Zappala, Lucia; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Su

    2017-03-01

    The flower bug Orius sauteri (Poppius) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) is widely used as a biocontrol agent against thrips and aphids infesting greenhouse vegetables in Asia. The survival and oviposition of such predators, as well as the biocontrol services they provide, may be enhanced by adding extra floral resources to the crops. In the present study we investigated the effects of the plant Calendula officinalis L., used as a floral resource, for promoting the control of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) by O. sauteri under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Results showed that the presence of C. officinalis enhanced aphid and thrips suppression via an increased O. sauteri population growth. The predator populations responded positively to the addition of C. officinalis in the system, and they also varied as a function of the temperatures tested under laboratory conditions. In a similar way, predator populations varied among seasons, with the highest densities recorded in May in the greenhouse. C. officinalis can be used to increase available resources for natural enemies used in agricultural crops, notably in greenhouses. This study also provides evidence that increasing floral resources can enhance pest suppression provided by O. sauteri. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Evaluation of Biologically Active Compounds from Calendula officinalis Flowers using Spectrophotometry

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aimed to quantify the active biological compounds in C. officinalis flowers. Based on the active principles and biological properties of marigolds flowers reported in the literature, we sought to obtain and characterize the molecular composition of extracts prepared using different solvents. The antioxidant capacities of extracts were assessed by using spectrophotometry to measure both absorbance of the colorimetric free radical scavenger 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) as well as the total antioxidant potential, using the ferric reducing power (FRAP) assay. Results Spectrophotometric assays in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) region enabled identification and characterization of the full range of phenolic and flavonoids acids, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to identify and quantify phenolic compounds (depending on the method of extraction). Methanol ensured more efficient extraction of flavonoids than the other solvents tested. Antioxidant activity in methanolic extracts was correlated with the polyphenol content. Conclusions The UV-VIS spectra of assimilator pigments (e.g. chlorophylls), polyphenols and flavonoids extracted from the C. officinalis flowers consisted in quantitative evaluation of compounds which absorb to wavelengths broader than 360 nm. PMID:22540963

  3. Comparison of effectiveness of Calendula officinalis extract gel with lycopene gel for treatment of tobacco-induced homogeneous leukoplakia: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Manisha; Bagewadi, Anjana

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the efficacy of Calendula officinalis gel as cost-effective treatment modality in comparison to lycopene gel in the treatment of leukoplakia. Materials and Methods: The study comprised of sixty patients of clinically diagnosed and histopathologically confirmed cases of homogeneous leukoplakia which were divided into Group I and Group II with thirty patients each. Group I patients were dispensed C. officinalis extract gel whereas Group II patients were given lycopene gel. The therapy was instituted for 1 month to assess the change in the size of the lesion at the baseline and posttreatment. Results: The results revealed a statistically significant difference in both Group I and Group II when the pre- and post-treatment results were compared in the same group. The mean difference in the reduction in size before and after treatment for Group I was 2.0% ±1.0 cm while for the Group II, it was 1.57% ±0.87 cm. The intergroup comparison for the evaluation of reduction in the size of the lesion did not reveal statistically significant results. Conclusion: C. officinalis extract gel can be effectively used as an alternative to conventional treatment modality. PMID:28929051

  4. Total antioxidant and oxidant status of plasma and renal tissue of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxic rats: protection by floral extracts of Calendula officinalis Linn.

    PubMed

    Verma, Pawan Kumar; Raina, Rajinder; Sultana, Mudasir; Singh, Maninder; Kumar, Pawan

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to determine the total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) of plasma and renal tissue in cisplatin (cDDP) induced nephrotoxic rats and its protection by treatments with floral extracts of Calendula officinalis Linn. Treatment with cDDP elevated (p < 0.05) the levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine (CR), TOS, OSI and malondialdehyde (MDA) but lowered (p < 0.05) total plasma proteins, TAS, total thiols (TTH), blood glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes compared to the control group. Pre- and post-treatments of ethanolic floral extract of C. officinalis along with cDDP restored (p > 0.05) CR, albumin, TOS, GSH and activities of antioxidant enzymes in blood and renal tissue. Ethanolic extract treatments reduced (p < 0.05) MDA level in renal tissue without restoring the erythrocyte MDA level following cDDP treatment. These observations were further supported by the histopathological findings in renal tissue. Observations of the present study have shown that treatments with ethanolic floral extract of C. officinalis protect cDDP induced nephrotoxicity by restoring antioxidant system of the renal tissue.

  5. A Review of the Use of Topical Calendula in the Prevention and Treatment of Radiotherapy-Induced Skin Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Kodiyan, Joyson; Amber, Kyle T.

    2015-01-01

    Calendula is a topical agent derived from a plant of the marigold family Calendula Officinalis. Containing numerous polyphenolic antioxidants, calendula has been studied in both the laboratory and clinical setting for the use in treating and preventing radiation induced skin toxicity. Despite strong evidence in the laboratory supporting calendula’s mechanism of action in preventing radiation induced skin toxicity, clinical studies have demonstrated mixed results. In light of the controversy surrounding the efficacy of calendula in treating and preventing radiodermatitis, the topic warrants further discussion. PMID:26783706

  6. Protective effect of Calendula officinalis extract against UVB-induced oxidative stress in skin: evaluation of reduced glutathione levels and matrix metalloproteinase secretion.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Yris Maria; Catini, Carolina Dias; Vicentini, Fabiana T M C; Nomizo, Auro; Gerlach, Raquel Fernanda; Fonseca, Maria José Vieira

    2010-02-17

    Calendula officinalis flowers have long been employed time in folk therapy, and more than 35 properties have been attributed to decoctions and tinctures from the flowers. The main uses are as remedies for burns (including sunburns), bruises and cutaneous and internal inflammatory diseases of several origins. The recommended doses are a function both of the type and severity of the condition to be treated and the individual condition of each patient. Therefore, the present study investigated the potential use of Calendula officinalis extract to prevent UV irradiation-induced oxidative stress in skin. Firstly, the physico-chemical composition of marigold extract (ME) (hydroalcoholic extract) was assessed and the in vitro antioxidant efficacy was determined using different methodologies. Secondly, the cytotoxicity was evaluated in L929 and HepG2 cells with the MTT assay. Finally, the in vivo protective effect of ME against UVB-induced oxidative stress in the skin of hairless mice was evaluated by determining reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and monitoring the secretion/activity of metalloproteinases. The polyphenol, flavonoid, rutin and narcissin contents found in ME were 28.6 mg/g, 18.8 mg/g, 1.6 mg/g and 12.2mg/g, respectively and evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant activity demonstrated a dose-dependent effect of ME against different radicals. Cytoxicity experiments demonstrated that ME was not cytotoxic for L929 and HepG2 cells at concentrations less than or equal to of 15 mg/mL. However, concentrations greater than or equal to 30 mg/mL, toxic effects were observed. Finally, oral treatment of hairless mice with 150 and 300 mg/kg of ME maintained GSH levels close to non-irradiated control mice. In addition, this extract affects the activity/secretion of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP-2 and -9) stimulated by exposure to UVB irradiation. However, additional studies are required to have a complete understanding of the protective effects of ME for skin

  7. Protective properties of butanolic extract of the Calendula officinalis L. (marigold) against lipid peroxidation of rat liver microsomes and action as free radical scavenger.

    PubMed

    Cordova, Clarissa A S; Siqueira, Ionara R; Netto, Carlos A; Yunes, Rosendo A; Volpato, Ana M; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; Curi-Pedrosa, Rozangela; Creczynski-Pasa, Tânia B

    2002-01-01

    Calendula officinalis (marigold) has many pharmacological properties. It is used for the treatment of skin disorders, pain and also as a bactericide, antiseptic and anti-inflammatory. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are known to participate in the pathogenesis of various human diseases and may be involved in the conditions which C. officinalis is used to treat. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the beneficial properties of this plant and its antioxidant action. The butanolic fraction (BF) was studied because it is non-cytotoxic and is rich in a variety of bioactive metabolites including flavonoids and terpenoids. Superoxide radicals (O(2)(*-)) and hydroxyl radicals (HO(*)) are observed in decreasing concentrations in the presence of increasing concentrations of BF with IC(50) values of 1.0 +/- 0.09 mg/ml and 0.5 +/- 0.02 mg/ml, respectively, suggesting a possible free radical scavenging effect. Lipid peroxidation in liver microsomes induced by Fe(2+)/ascorbate was 100% inhibited by 0.5 mg/ml of BF (IC(50) = 0.15 mg/ml). Its total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP) (in microM Trolox equivalents) was 368.14 +/- 23.03 and its total antioxidant reactivity (TAR) was calculated to be 249.19 +/- 14.5 microM. The results obtained suggest that the butanolic fraction of C. officinalis possesses a significant free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity and that the proposed therapeutic efficacy of this plant could be due, in part, to these properties.

  8. Repellency Effects of Essential Oils of Myrtle (Myrtus communis), Marigold (Calendula officinalis) Compared with DEET against Anopheles stephensi on Human Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Tavassoli, M; Shayeghi, M; Abai, Mr; Vatandoost, H; Khoobdel, M; Salari, M; Ghaderi, A; Rafi, F

    2011-01-01

    Malaria and leishmaniasis are two most significant parasitic diseases which are endemic in Iran. Over the past decades, interest in botanical repellents has increased as a result of safety to human. The comparative efficacy of essential oils of two native plants, myrtle (Myrtus communis) and marigold (Calendula officinalis) collected from natural habitats at southern Iran was compared with DEET as synthetic repellent against Anopheles stephensi on human subjects under laboratory condition. Essential oils from two species of native plants were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation. The protection time of DEET, marigold and myrtle was assessed on human subject using screened cage method against An. stephensi. The effective dose of 50% essential oils of two latter species and DEET were determined by modified ASTM method. ED(50) and ED(90) values and related statistical parameters were calculated by probit analysis. The protection time of 50% essential oils of marigold and myrtle were respectively 2.15 and 4.36 hours compared to 6.23 hours for DEET 25%. The median effective dose (ED(50)) of 50% essential oils was 0.1105 and 0.6034 mg/cm(2) respectively in myrtle and marigold. The figure for DEET was 0.0023 mg/cm(2). This study exhibited that the repellency of both botanical repellents was generally lower than DEET as a synthetic repellent. However the 50% essential oil of myrtle showed a moderate repellency effects compared to marigold against An. stephensi.

  9. Repellency Effects of Essential Oils of Myrtle (Myrtus communis), Marigold (Calendula officinalis) Compared with DEET against Anopheles stephensi on Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Tavassoli, M; Shayeghi, M; Abai, MR; Vatandoost, H; Khoobdel, M; Salari, M; Ghaderi, A; Rafi, F

    2011-01-01

    Background: Malaria and leishmaniasis are two most significant parasitic diseases which are endemic in Iran. Over the past decades, interest in botanical repellents has increased as a result of safety to human. The comparative efficacy of essential oils of two native plants, myrtle (Myrtus communis) and marigold (Calendula officinalis) collected from natural habitats at southern Iran was compared with DEET as synthetic repellent against Anopheles stephensi on human subjects under laboratory condition. Methods: Essential oils from two species of native plants were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation. The protection time of DEET, marigold and myrtle was assessed on human subject using screened cage method against An. stephensi. The effective dose of 50% essential oils of two latter species and DEET were determined by modified ASTM method. ED50 and ED90 values and related statistical parameters were calculated by probit analysis. Results: The protection time of 50% essential oils of marigold and myrtle were respectively 2.15 and 4.36 hours compared to 6.23 hours for DEET 25%. The median effective dose (ED50) of 50% essential oils was 0.1105 and 0.6034 mg/cm2 respectively in myrtle and marigold. The figure for DEET was 0.0023 mg/cm2. Conclusion: This study exhibited that the repellency of both botanical repellents was generally lower than DEET as a synthetic repellent. However the 50% essential oil of myrtle showed a moderate repellency effects compared to marigold against An. stephensi. PMID:22808414

  10. Evaluation of the efficacy of a polyherbal mouthwash containing Zingiber officinale, Rosmarinus officinalis and Calendula officinalis extracts in patients with gingivitis: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mahyari, Saman; Mahyari, Behnam; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Malaekeh-Nikouei, Bizhan; Jahanbakhsh, Seyedeh Pardis; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Mohammadpour, Amir Hooshang

    2016-02-01

    Gingivitis is a highly prevalent periodontal disease resulting from microbial infection and subsequent inflammation. The efficacy of herbal preparations in subjects with gingivitis has been reported in some previous studies. To investigate the efficacy of a polyherbal mouthwash containing hydroalcoholic extracts of Zingiber officinale, Rosmarinus officinalis and Calendula officinalis (5% v/w) compared with chlorhexidine and placebo mouthwashes in subjects with gingivitis. Sixty patients participated in this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial and were randomly assigned to the polyherbal mouthwash (n = 20), chlorhexidine mouthwash (n = 20) or placebo mouthwash (n = 20). Participants were instructed to use the mouthwash twice a day (after breakfast and dinner) for 30 s for a period of two weeks. Gingival and plaque indices were assessed using MGI, GBI and MQH scales at baseline, day 7 and day 14 of the trial. There were significant improvements in all assessed efficacy measures i.e. MGI, GBI and MQH scores from baseline to the end of trial in both polyherbal and chlorhexidine mouthwash groups; however, the scores remained statistically unchanged in the placebo group. MGI, BGI and MQH scores in the treatment groups were significantly lower compared with those of the control group at both day 7 and day 14 of the trial. However, there was no significant difference between the polyherbal and chlorhexidine groups, neither at day 7 nor day 14 of the trial. Polyherbal mouthwash was safe and there was neither report of adverse reactions, nor any drop-out during the course of study. Polyherbal mouthwash containing hydroalcoholic extracts of Z. officinale, R. officinalis and C. officinalis (5%) was effective in the treatment of gingivitis and its efficacy was comparable to that of chlorhexidine mouthwash. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A Prospective, Descriptive Study to Assess the Clinical Benefits of Using Calendula officinalis Hydroglycolic Extract for the Topical Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Buzzi, Marcelo; de Freitas, Franciele; Winter, Marcos

    2016-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) have a significant impact on patient quality of life. A prospective, descriptive pilot study was conducted between May 2012 and December 2013 through the dermatology outpatient unit in a Brazilian hospital to evaluate the clinical benefits of using Calendula officinalis hydroglycolic extract in the treatment of DFUs. Patients diagnosed with a stable neuropathic ulcer of >3 months' duration; ranging in size from 0.5-40 cm(2); without osteomyelitis, gangrene, bone exposure, cancer, or deep tissue infection; ages 18-90 years; with adequate glycemic control and no history of an allergy to C. officinalis were enrolled. Patients provided demographic and diabetes-related information and were evaluated biweekly for 30 weeks or until healing (ie, full epithelialization with no wound drainage). DFUs were measured and clinically examined for microbiological flora and presence of odor, tissue type (eg, granulation, fibrin sloth, necrosis), exudate, and retraction rate using planimetry images. Patients' blood tests and neuropathic pain assessment (the latter by clinician-directed questionnaire) were performed at baseline and the end of treatment; pain also was assessed during dressing changes using a 10-point rating scale. Patients' ulcers were treated twice daily with C. officinalis hydroglycolic extract spray solution and covered with saline-moistened, sterile, nonadherent gauze and bandages followed by foot offloading with adequate protective footwear. Patients received their first treatment in the clinic then performed care at home. From a potential population of 109 patients, 25 did not meet the inclusion criteria. Of the remaining 84 participants enrolled, 43 withdrew before study completion; cited reasons included lost to follow-up (16), medical judgment (2), failure to attend >3 scheduled visits (17), protocol violation (5), and death (3). Forty-one (41) - 17 women, average age 62 years (range 44-82 years), average glycemic level 153 mg

  12. Medicinal flowers. III. Marigold. (1): hypoglycemic, gastric emptying inhibitory, and gastroprotective principles and new oleanane-type triterpene oligoglycosides, calendasaponins A, B, C, and D, from Egyptian Calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, M; Murakami, T; Kishi, A; Kageura, T; Matsuda, H

    2001-07-01

    The methanolic extract and its 1-butanol-soluble fraction from the flowers of Calendula officinalis were found to show a hypoglycemic effect, inhibitory activity of gastric emptying, and gastroprotective effect. From the 1-butanol-soluble fraction, four new triterpene oligoglycosides, calendasaponins A, B, C, and D, were isolated, together with eight known saponins, seven known flavonol glycosides, and a known sesquiterpene glucoside. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. The principal saponin constituents, glycosides A, B, C, D, and F, exhibited potent inhibitory effects on an increase in serum glucose levels in glucose-loaded rats, gastric emptying in mice, and ethanol- and indomethacin-induced gastric lesions in rats. Some structure-activity relationships are discussed.

  13. Controlled release of an extract of Calendula officinalis flowers from a system based on the incorporation of gelatin-collagen microparticles into collagen I scaffolds: design and in vitro performance.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Ronald A; Millán, Diana; Suesca, Edward; Sosnik, Alejandro; Fontanilla, Marta R

    2015-06-01

    Aiming to develop biological skin dresses with improved performance in the treatment of skin wounds, acellular collagen I scaffolds were modified with polymeric microparticles and the subsequent loading of a hydroglycolic extract of Calendula officinalis flowers. Microparticles made of gelatin-collagen were produced by a water-in-oil emulsion/cross-linking method. Thereafter, these microparticles were mixed with collagen suspensions at three increasing concentrations and the resulting mixtures lyophilized to make microparticle-loaded porous collagen scaffolds. Resistance to enzymatic degradation, ability to associate with the C. officinalis extract, and the extract release profile of the three gelatin-collagen microparticle-scaffold prototypes were assessed in vitro and compared to collagen scaffolds without microparticles used as control. Data indicated that the incorporation of gelatin-collagen microparticles increased the resistance of the scaffolds to in vitro enzymatic degradation, as well as their association with the C. officinalis flower extract. In addition, a sharp decrease in cytotoxicity, as well as more prolonged release of the extract, was attained. Overall results support the potential of these systems to develop innovative dermal substitutes with improved features. Furthermore, the gelatin-collagen mixture represents a low-cost and scalable alternative with high clinical transferability, especially appealing in developing countries.

  14. Preclinical evaluation of collagen type I scaffolds, including gelatin-collagen microparticles and loaded with a hydroglycolic Calendula officinalis extract in a lagomorph model of full-thickness skin wound.

    PubMed

    Millán, D; Jiménez, R A; Nieto, L E; Linero, I; Laverde, M; Fontanilla, M R

    2016-02-01

    Previously, we have developed collagen type I scaffolds including microparticles of gelatin-collagen type I (SGC) that are able to control the release of a hydroglycolic extract of the Calendula officinalis flower. The main goal of the present work was to carry out the preclinical evaluation of SGC alone or loaded with the C. officinalis extract (SGC-E) in a lagomorph model of full-thickness skin wound. A total of 39 rabbits were distributed in three groups, of 13 animals each. The first group was used to compare wound healing by secondary intention (control) with wound healing observed when wounds were grafted with SGC alone. Comparison of control wounds with wounds grafted with SGC-E was performed in the second group, and comparison of wounds grafted with SGC with wounds grafted with SGC-E was performed in the third group. Clinical follow-ups were carried in all animals after surgery, and histological and histomorphometric analyses were performed on tissues taken from the healed area and healthy surrounding tissue. Histological and histomorphometric results indicate that grafting of SGC alone favors wound healing and brings a better clinical outcome than grafting SGC-E. In vitro collagenase digestion data suggested that the association of the C. officinalis extract to SGC increased the SGC-E cross-linking, making it difficult to degrade and affecting its biocompatibility.

  15. Mastering analytical challenges for the characterization of pentacyclic triterpene mono- and diesters of Calendula officinalis flowers by non-aqueous C30 HPLC and hyphenation with APCI-QTOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Nicolaus, Christoph; Sievers-Engler, Adrian; Murillo, Renato; D'Ambrosio, Michele; Lämmerhofer, Michael; Merfort, Irmgard

    2016-01-25

    Pentacyclic triterpene mono- and diesters have been isolated from Calendula officinalis flowers. GC-MS, APCI-Exactive Orbitrap HR-MS and NMR allowed to identify the triterpene skeleton in various samples (different triterpene mixtures from Calendula n-hexane extract). NMR provided evidence that triterpene diesters are present in the samples as well. However, the corresponding quasi-molecular ions could not be detected by APCI-Exactive Orbitrap HR-MS. Instability of triterpene diesters and loss of a fatty acid residue, respectively, in the ion-source made their MS detection challenging. Thus, a set of new APCI-QTOF-MS methods (using the TripleTOF 5600+ mass spectrometer) were developed which made it eventually possible to solve this problem and confirm the diester structures by MS via quasi-molecular ion [M+H](+) detection. Direct infusion APCI-QTOF MS experiments in MS/MS high sensitivity scan mode with low collision energy and multi-channel averaging acquisition (MCA) allowed the detection of quasi-molecular ions of triterpene diesters for the first time and unequivocally confirmed the presence of faradiol 3,16-dimyristate and -dipalmitate, as well as the corresponding mixed diesters faradiol 3-myristate,16-palmitate and faradiol 3-palmitate,16-myristate. Preferential loss of the fatty acid in 16-position made it possible to distinguish the mixed diesters by MS/MS spectra. Their chromatographic separations turned out to be challenging due to their bulkiness and extended molecular dimensions. However, separation could be achieved by an uncommon non-aqueous RPLC mode with an in-house synthesized C30 phase. Finally, two (U)HPLC-APCI-QTOF-MS methods with C18- and C30-based non-aqueous RPLC provided suitable, sensitive assays to monitor the presence of monoesters and diesters of various triterpenes (faradiol, maniladiol, arnidiol, arnitriol A and lupane-3β,16β,20-triol esters) in the n-hexane extract of C. officinalis with high mass resolution and good mass accuracy

  16. Effects of Calendula Essential Oil-Based Cream on Biochemical Parameters of Skin of Albino Rats against Ultraviolet B Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Arun K.; Mishra, Amrita; Verma, Anurag; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from UV-B radiation have the capacity to cause oxidative decomposition which leads to the formation of toxic components as well as lipid peroxidation. Considering this fact, the present study was performed to evaluate the effect of a cream (O/W) containing the essential oil of Calendula officinalis on biochemical parameters of the skin of albino rats against UV-B radiation. The fingerprint analysis of Calendula essential oil was performed by HPLC with special reference to 1,8-cineole and α-pinene. The results indicated that the treatment with creams containing 4% and 5% of Calendula essential oil caused a significant decrease in the malonyldialdehyde level, whereas the levels of catalase, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, ascorbic acid, and the total protein level were significantly increased after 1 month of daily irradiation and treatment when compared to untreated control groups. The results suggest that the cutaneous application of the essential oil of Calendula prevents UV-B-induced alterations in the level of antioxidants in skin tissue. PMID:23008814

  17. Effects of Calendula Essential Oil-Based Cream on Biochemical Parameters of Skin of Albino Rats against Ultraviolet B Radiation.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Arun K; Mishra, Amrita; Verma, Anurag; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from UV-B radiation have the capacity to cause oxidative decomposition which leads to the formation of toxic components as well as lipid peroxidation. Considering this fact, the present study was performed to evaluate the effect of a cream (O/W) containing the essential oil of Calendula officinalis on biochemical parameters of the skin of albino rats against UV-B radiation. The fingerprint analysis of Calendula essential oil was performed by HPLC with special reference to 1,8-cineole and α-pinene. The results indicated that the treatment with creams containing 4% and 5% of Calendula essential oil caused a significant decrease in the malonyldialdehyde level, whereas the levels of catalase, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, ascorbic acid, and the total protein level were significantly increased after 1 month of daily irradiation and treatment when compared to untreated control groups. The results suggest that the cutaneous application of the essential oil of Calendula prevents UV-B-induced alterations in the level of antioxidants in skin tissue.

  18. Rapid evaluation and comparison of natural products and antioxidant activity in calendula, feverfew, and German chamomile extracts.

    PubMed

    Agatonovic-Kustrin, Snezana; Babazadeh Ortakand, Davoud; Morton, David W; Yusof, Ahmad P

    2015-03-13

    The present study describes a simple high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for the simultaneous quantification of apigenin, chamazulene, bisabolol and the use of DPPH free radical as a post-chromatographic derivatization agent to compare the free radical scavenging activities of these components in leaf and flower head extracts from feverfew, German chamomile and marigold from the Asteraceae family. Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) leaves have been traditionally used in the treatment of migraine with parthenolide being the main bioactive compound. However, due to similar flowers, feverfew is sometimes mistaken for the German chamomile (Matricaria recutita). Bisabolol and chamazulene are the main components in chamomile essential oil. Marigold (Calendula officinalis) was included in the study for comparison, as it belongs to the same family. Parthenolide was found to be present in all leaf extracts but was not detected in calendula flower extract. Chamazulene and bisabolol were found to be present in higher concentrations in chamomile and Calendula flowers. Apigenin was detected and quantified only in chamomile extracts (highest concentration in flower head extracts). Antioxidant activity in sample extracts was compared by superimposing the chromatograms obtained after post-chromatographic derivatization with DPPH and post-chromatographic derivatization with anisaldehyde. It was found that extracts from chamomile flower heads and leaves have the most prominent antioxidant activity, with bisabolol and chamazulene being the most effective antioxidants. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Some cycle-supermagic labelings of the calendula graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradipta, T. R.; Salman, A. N. M.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a calendula graph, denoted by Clm,n . It is a graph constructed from a cycle on m vertices Cm and m copies of Cn which are Cn1 , Cn2 , ⋯, Cnm and grafting the i-th edge of Cm to an edge of in Cni for each i ∈ {1,2,⋯,m}. A graph G = (V, E) admits a Cn -covering, if every edge e ∈ E(G) belongs to a subgraph of G isomorphic to Cn . The graph G is called cycle-magic, if there exists a total labeling ϕ: V ∪ E → {1,2,…,|V|+|E|} such that for every subgraph Cn ‧ = (V‧,E‧) of G isomorphic to Cn has the same weight. In this case, the weight of Cn , denoted by ϕ(Cn ’), is defined as ∑ v∈V(C’n ) ϕ(v) + ∑ e∈E(C’n ) ϕ(e). Furthermore, G is called cycle-supermagic, if ϕ:V→{1,2,…,|V|}. In this paper, we provide some cycle-supermagic labelings of calendula graphs. In order to prove it, we develop a technique, to make a partition of a multiset into m sub-multisets with the same cardinality such that the sum of all elements of each sub-multiset is same. The technique is called an m-balanced multiset.

  20. Determination of the wound healing effect of Calendula extracts using the scratch assay with 3T3 fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Fronza, M; Heinzmann, B; Hamburger, M; Laufer, S; Merfort, I

    2009-12-10

    PHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Presentation of the scratch assay as a convenient and inexpensive in vitro tool to gain first insights in the wound healing potential of plant extracts and natural compounds. The present study deals with the optimization of the scratch assay which can be used as an in vitro model for quantification of fibroblast migration to and proliferation into the wounded area. It is suitable for the first evaluation of the wound re-epithelialization potential of crude herbal extracts, isolated compounds and pharmaceutical preparations. As a proof of concept three preparations from traditional medicinal plants were investigated. Swiss 3T3 albino mouse fibroblasts were used in monolayers and platelet derived growth factor as positive control. Hexane and ethanolic extracts from Calendula officinalis and Matricaria recutita, Hypericum oil as well as the triterpenoids faradiol myristate and palmitate were studied. To differentiate between proliferation and migration antimitotic mitomycin C was added. Both extracts of Calendula officinalis stimulated proliferation and migration of fibroblasts at low concentrations, e.g. 10 microg/ml enhanced cell numbers by 64.35% and 70.53%, respectively. Inhibition of proliferation showed that this effect is mainly due to stimulation of migration. Faradiol myristate and palmitate gave comparable stimulation rates at an almost 50 microg/ml concentration, indicating that they contribute partially, but not most significantly to the wound healing effects of Calendula preparations. Extracts from Matricaria recutita were only moderately active. Hypericum oil was cytotoxic at concentrations higher than 0.5 microg/ml. The scratch assay in the present form can be used as a promising scientific approach and platform to differentiate between plant extracts known for their wound healing and their anti-inflammatory properties.

  1. Oleanane-type triterpene saponins from Calendula stellata.

    PubMed

    Lehbili, Meryem; Alabdul Magid, Abdulmagid; Kabouche, Ahmed; Voutquenne-Nazabadioko, Laurence; Abedini, Amin; Morjani, Hamid; Sarazin, Thomas; Gangloff, Sophie C; Kabouche, Zahia

    2017-12-01

    Five previously undescribed bisdesmosidic triterpenoid saponins named calendustellatosides A-E, along with fifteen known compounds were isolated from the 70% ethanol whole plant extract of Calendula stellata Cav. (Asteraceae). Their structures were determined by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy as well as high resolution mass spectrometry and acid hydrolysis. The saponins comprised oleanolic acid, echinocystic acid, morolic acid or mesembryanthemoidigenic acid as the aglycones and saccharide moieties at C-3 and C-28. Like most Calendula saponins, the sugar moiety linked at C-3 was either β-d-glucose or β-d-glucuronic acid which could be substituted at C-3 by a β-d-galactose and/or C-2 by a supplementary β-d-galactose or a β-d-glucose. The sugar moiety linked to C-28 was determined as β-d-glucose. The antibacterial evaluation of compounds 1-20 by bioautography on Staphylococcus aureus followed by the determination of MIC values of active compounds by serial dilution technique against 5 bacteria revealed that; calendustellatoside D was the most active against Enterococcus faecalis with an antibacterial effect comparable to antibiotics. The cytotoxic activities of isolated compounds were evaluated against fibrosarcoma cell line (HT1080) and human lung cancer cell line (A549). Calendustellatosides B and D exhibited a low cytotoxic activity against HT1080 cell line with IC 50 values of 47 ± 0.6 and 39 ± 0.5 μM, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive and controlled release component in buccal tablets.

    PubMed

    Sabale, V; Patel, V; Paranjape, A

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems were developed to sustain drug delivery via various mucus membranes for either local or systemic delivery of poorly absorbed drugs such as peptides and proteins as well as drugs that are subjected to high first-pass metabolism. The present study was undertaken to use isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent and to formulate controlled release buccoadhesive tablets with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism as well as to enhance residence time of drug in the buccal cavity. The mucilage was isolated from the Calendula petals by aqueous extraction method and characterized for various physiochemical parameters as well as for its adhesive properties. By using direct compression technique, tablets were prepared containing dried mucilage and chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as a model drug. Three batches of tablets were prepared and evaluated containing three mucoadhesive components namely Methocel K4M, Carbopol 974P and isolated Calendula mucilage in 16.66%, 33.33 % and 50 % (1:2:3 ratio) resulting in 9 different formulations. FTIR studies between mucilage and CPM suggested the absence of a chemical interaction between CPM and Calendula mucilage. The results of the study showed that the isolated mucilage had good physicochemical and morphological characteristics and tablets conformed to the pharmacopoeial specifications. Also in vitro release studies showed controlled action of drug with increasing the concentration of the isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent in the formulations. Permeability studies indicated that permeability behavior was not statistically different (P>0.05) by changing the mucoadhesive component. The formulated mucoadhesive tablets for buccal administration containing 75 mg Calendula mucilage showed controlled drug release. Thus, mucoadhesive natural Calendula mucilage based buccal tablets for controlled release were successfully formulated.

  3. Evaluation of Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive and controlled release component in buccal tablets

    PubMed Central

    Sabale, V.; Patel, V.; Paranjape, A.

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems were developed to sustain drug delivery via various mucus membranes for either local or systemic delivery of poorly absorbed drugs such as peptides and proteins as well as drugs that are subjected to high first-pass metabolism. The present study was undertaken to use isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent and to formulate controlled release buccoadhesive tablets with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism as well as to enhance residence time of drug in the buccal cavity. The mucilage was isolated from the Calendula petals by aqueous extraction method and characterized for various physiochemical parameters as well as for its adhesive properties. By using direct compression technique, tablets were prepared containing dried mucilage and chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as a model drug. Three batches of tablets were prepared and evaluated containing three mucoadhesive components namely Methocel K4M, Carbopol 974P and isolated Calendula mucilage in 16.66%, 33.33 % and 50 % (1:2:3 ratio) resulting in 9 different formulations. FTIR studies between mucilage and CPM suggested the absence of a chemical interaction between CPM and Calendula mucilage. The results of the study showed that the isolated mucilage had good physicochemical and morphological characteristics and tablets conformed to the pharmacopoeial specifications. Also in vitro release studies showed controlled action of drug with increasing the concentration of the isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent in the formulations. Permeability studies indicated that permeability behavior was not statistically different (P>0.05) by changing the mucoadhesive component. The formulated mucoadhesive tablets for buccal administration containing 75 mg Calendula mucilage showed controlled drug release. Thus, mucoadhesive natural Calendula mucilage based buccal tablets for controlled release were successfully formulated. PMID:25598798

  4. The reproductive strategies of the heterocarpic annual Calendula arvensis (Asteraceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz De Clavijo, E.

    2005-09-01

    Achene polymorphism and various aspects of the reproductive biology of the annual Calendula arvensis L. (Field marigold), were studied to determine the reproductive strategies of the plant. This species normally produces three types of achene: rostrate, cymbiform and annular. Rostrate and cymbiform achenes are larger and heavier than annular achenes, and are adapted to long-range dispersal (by epizoochory and anemochory, respectively). In contrast, annular achenes are smaller in size and weight, and are adapted to short-range dispersal. Achenes germinate over a broad range of temperatures (both in light and in darkness), exhibiting cymbiform achenes the highest germination percentages and annular achenes the lowest under all conditions tested. A fraction of the three types of achenes exhibit dormancy and presumably enter the soil seedbank. Achene types adapted for long-range dispersal (rostrate and cymbiform achenes) produce seedlings that are best able to emerge from deeper burial depths, and that are initially stronger and exhibit earlier flowering than the plants from the annular achenes (which are likely to disperse over shorter distances). These features, together with the fact that fruiting occurs even in the absence of pollinators (automatic geitonogamy), the different mechanisms for achene dispersal (zoochory, anemochory and myrmerochory), and the extended germination, flowering and fruiting periods, facilitate establishment and expansion of this species in unpredictable and disturbed habitats.

  5. The effects of Bentonite and Calendula on the improvement of infantile diaper dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Mahmoudi, Mansoreh; Mashaiekhi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diaper dermatitis is one of the most common skin disorders of infancy and childhood. The present study aimed to compare the effects of Bentonite and Calendula on the improvement of diaper dermatitis in infants. Materials and Methods: A double-blind randomized controlled trial, which was conducted on 60 out-patient infants referred to health care centers or pediatric clinics in Khomein city and diagnosed with diaper dermatitis. Data were collected by checklist and observation, and analyzed using t-test, Chi-square, and Fisher's exact test. Results: Mean (standard error) age of the total sample was 6.55 ± 0.69 months. Totally, 93.3% of lesions in the Bentonite group started its recovery in the first 6 h, while this rate was 40% in Calendula group (P < 0.001). Furthermore, 90% of infants in the Bentonite group and 36.7% in the Calendula group were improved completely in the first 3 days (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Bentonite was effective on the improvement of diaper dermatitis, and also had faster effects compared with Calendula. PMID:25097603

  6. Anticandidal, antibacterial, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of Calendula arvensis flowers.

    PubMed

    Abudunia, A-M; Marmouzi, I; Faouzi, M E A; Ramli, Y; Taoufik, J; El Madani, N; Essassi, E M; Salama, A; Khedid, K; Ansar, M; Ibrahimi, A

    2017-03-01

    Calendula arvensis (CA) is one of the important plants used in traditional medicine in Morocco, due to its interesting chemical composition. The present study aimed to determine the anticandidal, antioxidant and antibacterial activities, and the effects of extracts of CA flowers on the growth of myeloid cancer cells. Also, to characterize the chemical composition of the plant. Flowers of CA were collected based on ethnopharmacological information from the villages around the region Rabat-Khemisset, Moroccco. The hexane and methanol extracts were obtained by soxhlet extraction, while aqueous extracts was obtained by maceration in cold water. CA extracts were assessed for antioxidant activity using four different methods (DPPH, FRAP, TEAC, β-carotene bleaching test). Furthermore, the phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured, also the antimicrobial activity has been evaluated by the well diffusion method using several bacterial and fungal strains. Finally, extracts cytotoxicity was assessed using MTT test. Phytochemical quantification of the methanolic and aqueous extracts revealed that they were rich with flavonoid and phenolic content and were found to possess considerable antioxidant activities. MIC values of methanolic extracts were 12.5-25μg/mL. While MIC values of hexanolic extracts were between 6.25-12.5μg/mL and were bacteriostatic for all bacteria while methanolic and aqueous extracts were bactericidal. In addition, the extracts exhibited no activity on Candida species except the methanolic extract, which showed antifungal activity onCandida tropicalis 1 and Candida famata 1. The methanolic and aqueous extracts also exhibited antimyeloid cancer activity (IC 50 of 31μg/mL). In our study, we conclude that the methanolic and aqueous extracts were a promising source of antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of chlorhexidine, essential oils and herbal medicines (Salvia, Chamomile, Calendula) on human fibroblast in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Urbaniak, Paulina; Szkaradkiewicz, Anna; Jankun, Jerzy; Kotwicka, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Antiseptic rinses have been successfully used in inflammatory states of the gums and oral cavity mucosa. Antibacterial effects of chlorhexidine, essential oils and some herbs are well documented. Reaction of host tissue to these substances has much poorer documentation. The aim of the study was to analyse the influence of chlorhexidine (CHX), essential oil (EO: thymol, 0.064%; eucalyptol, 0.092%; methyl salicylate, 0.060%; menthol, 0.042%) mouth rinses and salvia, chamomile and calendula brews on fibroblast biology in vitro. The human fibroblast CCD16 line cells were cultured in incubation media which contained the examined substances. After 24 and 48 hours, the cell morphology, relative growth and apoptosis were evaluated. Exposure of fibroblasts to CHX, EO or salvia caused various changes in cell morphology. Cells cultured for 48 hours with CHX revealed a noticeably elongated shape of while cells cultured in high EO concentration or with salvia were considerably smaller and contracted with fewer projections. Chlorhexidine, EO and salvia reduced the fibroblast proliferation rate and stimulated cell death. Both reactions to EO were dose dependent. Cells exposure to chamomile or calendula brews did not change morphology or proliferation of fibroblasts. The results of this in vitro study showed that in contrast to chamomile and calendula, the brews of EO, CHX or salvia had a negative influence on fibroblast biology. PMID:27536196

  8. Effects of chlorhexidine, essential oils and herbal medicines (Salvia, Chamomile, Calendula) on human fibroblast in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wyganowska-Swiatkowska, Marzena; Urbaniak, Paulina; Szkaradkiewicz, Anna; Jankun, Jerzy; Kotwicka, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Antiseptic rinses have been successfully used in inflammatory states of the gums and oral cavity mucosa. Antibacterial effects of chlorhexidine, essential oils and some herbs are well documented. Reaction of host tissue to these substances has much poorer documentation. The aim of the study was to analyse the influence of chlorhexidine (CHX), essential oil (EO: thymol, 0.064%; eucalyptol, 0.092%; methyl salicylate, 0.060%; menthol, 0.042%) mouth rinses and salvia, chamomile and calendula brews on fibroblast biology in vitro. The human fibroblast CCD16 line cells were cultured in incubation media which contained the examined substances. After 24 and 48 hours, the cell morphology, relative growth and apoptosis were evaluated. Exposure of fibroblasts to CHX, EO or salvia caused various changes in cell morphology. Cells cultured for 48 hours with CHX revealed a noticeably elongated shape of while cells cultured in high EO concentration or with salvia were considerably smaller and contracted with fewer projections. Chlorhexidine, EO and salvia reduced the fibroblast proliferation rate and stimulated cell death. Both reactions to EO were dose dependent. Cells exposure to chamomile or calendula brews did not change morphology or proliferation of fibroblasts. The results of this in vitro study showed that in contrast to chamomile and calendula, the brews of EO, CHX or salvia had a negative influence on fibroblast biology.

  9. Comparing the effects of Bentonite & Calendula on the improvement of infantile diaper dermatitis: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Mansoreh; Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Mashaiekhi, Mahdi

    2015-12-01

    Infantile diaper dermatitis is a common, acute inflammatory reaction of the skin around diaper among infants. This study was undertaken to compare the effect of topical application of Bentonite and Calendula creams on the improvement of infantile diaper dermatitis. This double blind randomized controlled trial was undertaken on 100 patients of infantile diaper dermatitis. The 100 participants were randomly assigned into two groups of 50 each, and were prescribed the coded medicine. The mothers were trained to apply the cream and level of improvement was judged by observing the affected area on the first visit and then after three days of receiving treatment. The mean age of infants was 6.45±5.53 months in Calendula group and 7.35±6.28 months in Bentonite group. Overall, 88 per cent of lesions in the Bentonite group started improving in the first six hours while this rate was 54 per cent in Calendula group (P<0.001). The risk ratio for the improvement in the first six hours was 2.99 folds in the Bentonite group. Also, lesions in 86 per cent infants in the Bentonite group and 52 per cent in the Calendula group were completely improved in the first three days after treatment (P<0.001). Our results showed that in comparison with Calendula, Bentonite had faster healing effect and was more effective on the improvement of infantile diaper dermatitis (IRCT ID: IRCT 2012112811593N1).

  10. Comparing the effects of Bentonite & Calendula on the improvement of infantile diaper dermatitis: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudi, Mansoreh; Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Mashaiekhi, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Infantile diaper dermatitis is a common, acute inflammatory reaction of the skin around diaper among infants. This study was undertaken to compare the effect of topical application of Bentonite and Calendula creams on the improvement of infantile diaper dermatitis. Methods: This double blind randomized controlled trial was undertaken on 100 patients of infantile diaper dermatitis. The 100 participants were randomly assigned into two groups of 50 each, and were prescribed the coded medicine. The mothers were trained to apply the cream and level of improvement was judged by observing the affected area on the first visit and then after three days of receiving treatment. Results: The mean age of infants was 6.45±5.53 months in Calendula group and 7.35±6.28 months in Bentonite group. Overall, 88 per cent of lesions in the Bentonite group started improving in the first six hours while this rate was 54 per cent in Calendula group (P<0.001). The risk ratio for the improvement in the first six hours was 2.99 folds in the Bentonite group. Also, lesions in 86 per cent infants in the Bentonite group and 52 per cent in the Calendula group were completely improved in the first three days after treatment (P<0.001). Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that in comparison with Calendula, Bentonite had faster healing effect and was more effective on the improvement of infantile diaper dermatitis (IRCT ID: IRCT 2012112811593N1). PMID:26831423

  11. The Impact of Aloe vera and Calendula on Perineal Healing after Episiotomy in Primiparous Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Eghdampour, Farideh; Jahdie, Fereshteh; Kheyrkhah, Masomeh; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Naghizadeh, Somayeh; Hagani, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Episiotomy is used for enlarging the perineum. Aloe vera and Calendula have been used for treating different diseases from ancient times, limited researches have been done regarding the healing of these plants. Since the effect of their ointment on episiotomy healing has not been studied, this study is being done for determining the impact of Aloe vera and Calendula on episiotomy healing in primiparous women. Methods: This clinical trial involves 111 qualified primiparous women admitted in Lolagar hospital. They were randomly categorized into three groups of control (n=1) and experimental (n=2) groups. The women in experimental group used Aloe vera and Calendula Ointment every 8 hours and the control group used hospital routine on episiotomy for 5 days. The data were collected by demographic questionnaire and redness, edema, ecchymosis, discharge and approximation scale (REEDA) which investigated the episiotomy healing before and five days after intervention in two groups. ANOVA, Tukey test, Kruskal-wallis, Chi-square were used for data analysis. Results: The three groups do not have statistically significant different regarding demographic and other intervening variables. Comparing the mean of REEDA in five days after delivery showed statistically significant difference between control and experimental groups. Conclusion: According to the results, using Aloe vera and Calendula ointment considerably increases the speed of episiotomy wound healing so it can be used for quickening the episiotomy healing. PMID:25276736

  12. Phytoremediation of stable Cs from solutions by Calendula alata, Amaranthus chlorostachys and Chenopodium album.

    PubMed

    Moogouei, Roxana; Borghei, Mehdi; Arjmandi, Reza

    2011-10-01

    Uptake rate of (133)Cs, at three different concentrations of CsCl, by Calendula alata, Amaranthus chlorostachys and Chenopodium album plants grown outdoors was studied. These plants grow abundantly in semi-arid regions and their varieties exist in many parts of the world. When exposed to lowest Cs concentration 68 percent Cs was remediated by Chenopodium album.(133)Cs accumulation in shoots of Amaranthus chlorostachys reached its highest value of 2146.2 mg kg(-1) at a (133)Cs supply level of 3.95 mg l(-1) of feed solution. The highest concentration ratio value was 4.89 for Amaranthus chlorostachys, whereas for the other tests it ranged from 0.74 to 3.33. Furthermore uptake of (133)Cs by all three species increased with increasing metal concentrations. The results also indicated that hydroponically grown Calendula alata, Amaranthus chlorostachys and Chenopodium album could be used as potential candidate plants for phytoremediation of solutions contaminated with Cs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Potential of Calendula alata for phytoremediation of stable cesium and lead from solutions.

    PubMed

    Borghei, Mehdi; Arjmandi, Reza; Moogouei, Roxana

    2011-10-01

    Calendula alata plants were tested for their potential to remove stable cesium and lead from solutions in a 15-day period. The plants were grown hydroponically and placed in solutions containing CsCl and Pb(C₂H₃O₂)₂ at different concentrations (0.6, 2 and 5 mg l⁻¹). When plants were incubated in CsCl solutions 46.84 ± 2.12%, 41.35 ± 1.59%, and 52.06 ± 1.02% cesium was found to be remediated after 15 days. Moreover, more than 99% lead was removed from the Pb(C₂H₃O₂)₂ solution in all three concentrations after 15 days during the same period. When both CsCl and Pb(C₂H₃O₂)₂ were supplemented together in the solution, 9.92 ± 1.22%, 45.56 ± 3.52%, and 46.16 ± 1.48% cesium and 95.30 ± 0.72%, 96.64 ± 0.30%, and 99.02 ± 0.04% lead were removed after 15 days. The present study suggests that hydroponically grown C. alata could be used as a potential candidate plant for phytoremediation of cesium and lead from solutions; however, plants were found to be more efficient for the remediation of lead than cesium.

  14. Suppressive effects of Calendula micrantha essential oil and gibberelic acid (PGR) on repro ductive potential of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Hussein, Karam T

    2005-08-01

    The volatile oil of Calendula micrtantha plant was extracted and the components were identified by Gc/Ms. Adulticidal efficiency of the volatile oil and gibberelic acid "plant growth promoting hormone" as well as their mixture was assessed against the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata. The result showed that the two compounds capable have characteristic resembling to insect juvenile hormones and have suppressive effect on reproductive potential. They induced the significant disturbances in the ovarian protein fraction and the amino acids patterns.

  15. Simultaneous determination of bifonazole and tinctures of calendula flower in pharmaceutical creams by reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ferreyra, Carola F; Ortiz, Cristina S

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this research was to develop and validate a sensitive, rapid, easy, and precise reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) method for stability studies of bifonazole (I) formulated with tinctures of calendula flower (II). The method was especially developed for the analysis and quantitative determination of I and II in pure and combined forms in cream pharmaceutical formulations without using gradient elution and at room temperature. The influence on the stability of compound I of temperature, artificial radiation, and drug II used for the new pharmaceutical design was evaluated. The LC separation was carried out using a Supelcosil LC-18 column (25 cm x 4.6 mm id, 5 microm particle size); the mobile phase was composed of methanol-0.1 M ammonium acetate buffer (85 + 15, v/v) pumped isocratically at a flow rate of 1 mL/min; and ultraviolet detection was at 254 nm. The analysis time was less than 10 min. Calibration graphs were found to be linear in the 0.125-0.375 mg/mL (rI = 0.9991) and 0.639-1.916 mg/mL (rII = 0.9995) ranges for I and II, respectively. The linearity, precision, recovery, and limits of detection and quantification were satisfactory for I and II. The results obtained suggested that the developed LC method is selective and specific for the analysis of I and II in pharmaceutical products, and that it can be applied to stability studies.

  16. No differences between Calendula cream and aqueous cream in the prevention of acute radiation skin reactions--results from a randomised blinded trial.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Lena; Finnilä, Kristina; Johansson, Hemming; Abrahamsson, Marie; Hatschek, Thomas; Bergenmar, Mia

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this blinded, randomized clinical trial was to compare two topical agents (Calendula Weleda cream vs. Essex cream) in reducing the risk of severe acute radiation skin reactions (ARSR) in relation to adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for breast cancer. The primary endpoint was the difference in proportion of patients with ARSR, assessed with the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/The Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Acute Radiation Morbidity Scoring Criteria (RTOG/EORTC scale) at follow-up. The secondary endpoints included patient reported outcome measures; Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30), Sleep disturbances (MOS-sleep questionnaire) and symptoms from the irradiated area (visual analogue scale). Patients' experiences and adherence to the topical agents were also evaluated. A total of 420 patients were randomised and 411 were analysed. With the exception of previous chemotherapy, the treatment groups were well balanced, both regarding treatment- and patient-related factors. The incidence of severe ARSR (RTOG/EORTC grade ≤2) at the follow-up visit was 23% (n = 45) in the Calendula group and 19% (n = 38) in the Essex group. We found no difference in severe ARSR between the groups at any point of assessment. The patients reported low levels of skin related symptoms and no statistically significant differences between the groups were found. No differences in ARSR between patients randomised to Calendula or Essex cream was found. ARSR seem to be a relatively limited problem, probably more influenced by treatment related factors than by choice of skin care products in this patient group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemical Variability, Antioxidant and Antifungal Activities of Essential Oils and Hydrosol Extract of Calendula arvensis L. from Western Algeria.

    PubMed

    Belabbes, Rania; Dib, Mohammed El Amine; Djabou, Nassim; Ilias, Faiza; Tabti, Boufeldja; Costa, Jean; Muselli, Alain

    2017-05-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils and hydrosol extract from aerial parts of Calendula arvensis L. was investigated using GC-FID and GC/MS. Intra-species variations of the chemical compositions of essential oils from 18 Algerian sample locations were investigated using statistical analysis. Chemical analysis allowed the identification of 53 compounds amounting to 92.3 - 98.5% with yields varied of 0.09 - 0.36% and the main compounds were zingiberenol 1 (8.7 - 29.8%), eremoligenol (4.2 - 12.5%), β-curcumene (2.1 - 12.5%), zingiberenol 2 (4.6 - 19.8%) and (E,Z)-farnesol (3.5 - 23.4%). The study of the chemical variability of essential oils allowed the discrimination of two main clusters confirming that there is a relation between the essential oil compositions and the harvest locations. Different concentrations of essential oil and hydrosol extract were prepared and their antioxidant activity were assessed using three methods (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power Assay and β-carotene). The results showed that hydrosol extract presented an interesting antioxidant activity. The in vitro antifungal activity of hydrosol extract produced the best antifungal inhibition against Penicillium expansum and Aspergillus niger, while, essential oil was inhibitory at relatively higher concentrations. Results showed that the treatments of pear fruits with essential oil and hydrosol extract presented a very interesting protective activity on disease severity of pears caused by P. expansum. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  18. Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.): an evidence-based systematic review by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Basch, Ethan; Bent, Steve; Foppa, Ivo; Haskmi, Sadaf; Kroll, David; Mele, Michelle; Szapary, Philippe; Ulbricht, Catherine; Vora, Mamta; Yong, Sophanna

    2006-01-01

    An evidence-based systematic review including written and statistical analysis of scientific literature, expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology and dosing.

  19. A phase II, randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial on the efficacy of Curcumina and Calendula suppositories for the treatment of patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome type III.

    PubMed

    Morgia, Giuseppe; Russo, Giorgio Ivan; Urzì, Daniele; Privitera, Salvatore; Castelli, Tommaso; Favilla, Vincenzo; Cimino, Sebastiano

    2017-06-30

    The management of chronic prostatitis/ chronic pelvic pain syndrome type III (CP/CPPS) has been always considered complex due to several biopsychological factors underling the disease. In this clinical study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment with Curcumin and Calendula extract in patients with CP/CPPS III. From June 2015 to January 2016 we enrolled 60 consecutive patients affected by CP/CPPS III in our institution. Patients between 20 and 50 year of age with symptoms of pelvic pain for 3 months or more before study, a total National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) score ≥ 15 point and diagnosed with NIH category III. Patients were then allocated to receive placebo (Group A) or treatment (Group B). Treatment consisted of rectal suppositories of Curcumin extract 350 mg (95%) and Calendula extract 80 mg (1 suppository/die for 1 month). Patients of Group B received 1 suppository/die for 1 month of placebo. The primary endpoint of the study was the reduction of NIH-CPSI. The secondary outcomes were the change of peak flow, IIEF-5, VAS score and of premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT). A total of 48 patients concluded the study protocol. The median age of the all cohort was 32.0 years, the median NIH-CPSI was 20.5, the median IIEF-5 was 18.5, the median PEDT was 11.0, the median VAS score was 7.5 and the median peak flow was 14.0. After 3 months of therapy in group A we observed a significant improvement of NIH-CPSI (-5.5; p < 0.01), IIEF-5 (+ 3.5; p < 0.01), PEDT (-6.5; p < 0.01), peak flow (+2.8; p < 0.01) and VAS (-6.5; p < 0.01) with significant differences over placebo group (all p-value significant). In this phase II clinical trial we showed the clinical efficacy of the treatment with Curcumin and Calendula in patients with CP/CPPS III. The benefits of this treatment could be related to the reduction of inflammatory cytokines and of inflammatory cells. These results should be confirmed in

  20. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium of Calendula officinalis

    SciTech Connect

    Köberl, Martina; White, Richard A.; Erschen, Sabine

    The genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with broad-spectrum antagonistic activity against plant-pathogenic fungi, bacteria, and nematodes, consists of a single 3.9-Mb circular chromosome. The genome reveals genes putatively responsible for its promising biocontrol and PGP properties.

  1. The seamy side of natural medicines: contact sensitization to arnica (Arnica montana L.) and marigold (Calendula officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Reider, N; Komericki, P; Hausen, B M; Fritsch, P; Aberer, W

    2001-11-01

    Medical remedies of plant origin have gained increasing popularity in recent years. Both anaphylactic and eczematous allergic reactions are on the rise, accordingly. Arnica and marigold, both of the Compositae family, are in widespread use, but only limited data are available on their allergenic potential. We tested 443 consecutive patients, in addition to the European standard and other series, with Compositae mix, sesquiterpene lactone mix, arnica, marigold, and propolis. 5 subjects ( approximately 1.13%) reacted to arnica, 9 ( approximately 2.03%) to marigold. The Compositae mix was positive in 18 cases ( approximately 4.06%). Among them were 3 out of 5 individuals with a sensitization to arnica, and 4 out of 9 who reacted to marigold. Sensitization to arnica and marigold was often accompanied by reactions to nickel, Myroxylon Pereirae resin, fragrance mix, propolis, and colophonium. We conclude that Compositae allergy contributes significantly to the epidemiology of contact dermatitis and that sensitization to arnica and marigold cannot be assessed by testing with the Compositae or sesquiterpene mix alone. As extracts of these plants are frequently used in occupational and cosmetic products, patch testing with additional plant extracts or adjustment of the commercial Compositae mix to regional conditions is recommended.

  2. Bioaccessibility and Antioxidant Activity of Calendula officinalis Supercritical Extract as Affected by in Vitro Codigestion with Olive Oil.

    PubMed

    Martin, Diana; Navarro Del Hierro, Joaquín; Villanueva Bermejo, David; Fernández-Ruiz, Ramón; Fornari, Tiziana; Reglero, Guillermo

    2016-11-23

    Supercritical extracts of marigold (ME) were produced and characterized. The bioaccessibility of terpenes, especially that of pentacyclic triterpenes (PT), the particle-size distribution, and antioxidant activity after the in vitro codigestion of ME with olive oil (OO) were determined. ME produced without cosolvent was richer in taraxasterol, lupeol, α-amyrin, and β-amyrin than extracts with cosolvent. All terpenes showed high bioaccessibility without OO (>75%). Significant correlations were found between the molecular properties of compounds (logP and number of rotatable bonds) and their bioaccessibility. Codigestion with OO enhanced the bioaccessibility (around 100% for PT), which could be related to a higher abundance of low-size particles of the digestion medium. The antioxidant activity of the digested ME increased around 50%, regardless of OO. PT-rich extracts from marigold display high bioaccessibility and improved antioxidant activity after in vitro digestion, although complete bioaccessibility of PT can be reached by codigestion with oil, without affecting antioxidant activity.

  3. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium of Calendula officinalis

    DOE PAGES

    Köberl, Martina; White, Richard A.; Erschen, Sabine; ...

    2015-08-13

    The genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with broad-spectrum antagonistic activity against plant-pathogenic fungi, bacteria, and nematodes, consists of a single 3.9-Mb circular chromosome. The genome reveals genes putatively responsible for its promising biocontrol and PGP properties.

  4. Protective effects of ψ taraxasterol 3-O-myristate and arnidiol 3-O-myristate isolated from Calendula officinalis on epithelial intestinal barrier.

    PubMed

    Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Catanzaro, Daniela; Cocetta, Veronica; Igl, Nadine; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Giron, Maria Cecilia; Cecconello, Laura; Montopoli, Monica

    2016-03-01

    The triterpene esters ᴪ taraxasterol-3-O-myristate (1) and arnidiol-3-O-myristate (2) were tested for their ability to protect epithelial intestinal barrier in an in vitro model. Their effects on ROS production and on trans-epithelial resistance were investigated on CaCo-2 cell monolayers both in basal and stress-induced conditions. Both compounds were able to modulate the stress damage induced by H2O2 and INFγ+TNFα, showing a potential use as model compounds for the study of new therapeutic agents for intestinal inflammations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Protective effects of different marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) and rosemary cream preparations against sodium-lauryl-sulfate-induced irritant contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, S M; Schliemann-Willers, S; Fischer, T W; Elsner, P

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the protective action of cream preparations containing seven different types of marigold and rosemary extracts in vivo in healthy volunteers with experimentally induced irritant contact dermatitis (ICD). Marigold and rosemary extracts in base cream DAC (Deutscher Arzneimittel-Codex = German Pharmaceutical Codex) were tested in a 4-day repetitive irritation test using sodium lauryl sulfate. The effect was evaluated visually and quantified by noninvasive bioengineering methods, namely chromametry and tewametry. When the test products were applied parallel to the induction period of ICD, a statistically significant protective effect of all cream preparations was observed by all methods. This effect, although not statistically significant, was superior to control by undyed marigold und faradiol ester-enriched extracts in chromametry and by dyed and undyed rosemary extracts in tewametry. The sequential treatment (postirritation) once a day for 5 days was without any effect. Thus, a protective effect of some marigold and rosemary extracts against ICD could be shown in the elicitation phase. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Improved anti-inflammatory activity of three new terpenoids derived, by systematic chemical modifications, from the abundant triterpenes of the flowery plant Calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    Neukirch, Hannes; D'Ambrosio, Michele; Sosa, Silvio; Altinier, Gianmario; Della Loggia, Roberto; Guerriero, Antonio

    2005-05-01

    Rings A, D and E of faradiol (1), and ring E of both arnidiol (10) and calenduladiol (4) have been subjected to various selective chemical manipulations to modify polarity, water affinity, H-bonding, sterics, and number of aromatic groups of these anti-inflammatory natural compounds. A total of 15 new and four known pentacyclic triterpenoids have been obtained in this way. Some 13 terpenoids were evaluated for their topical anti-inflammatory activities with respect to inhibition of croton oil induced ear oedema in mouse. Three derivatives of 1, the C(16) benzyl ether 15, the C(30) aldehyde 24, and the C(30) primary alcohol 25 showed significantly improved anti-inflammatory potencies, which is relevant for (future) structure-activity-relationship (SAR) studies.

  7. The effect of flowering calendula and cuphea plants on Orius insidiosus survival and predation of Aphis glycines

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Flowering oilseed crops have the potential to diversify agroecosystems currently dominated by corn and soybeans and improve the provision of ecosystem services such as pest control. Nectar and pollen feeding may increase natural enemy fitness and searching behavior, increasing their survival and pre...

  8. Salvia officinalis used in pharmaceutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemle, K. L.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents some pharmaceutical properties of Salvia officinalis, a plant belonging the Lamiaceae family, one of the oldest medicinal plants, which play an important role in improving the state of health.

  9. Characterization of natural polymers from jackfruit pulp, calendula flowers and tara seeds as mucoadhesive and controlled release components in buccal tablets.

    PubMed

    Sabale, Vidya; Paranjape, Archana; Patel, Vandana; Sabale, Prafulla

    2017-02-01

    Identification and physiochemical parameters such as solubility, loss on drying, viscosity, pH, swelling index, starch and gum constituents were determined in natural polymers and showed satisfactory results. Spectral studies established the compatibility of natural polymers. The drug release kinetics in preliminary trial batches showed that tablets containing natural mucilages and gum showed a prolonged drug release comparable to Carbopol 974P and Methocel K4M. Also, all tablets showed a satisfactory drug permeability flux. Acute toxicity studies confirmed the safety of natural polymers. Using response surface method supported by 2 3 factorial design, the optimized buccoadhesive tablets (C1) with drug release at 8h (R8h, %) of 53.48±0.048% showed controlled release over ≥8h and followed the Korsmeyer-Peppas model with anomalous (non-Fickian) diffusion mechanism. Mucoadhesive strength was found to be 42.71±0.49g. Comparative dissolution study between prepared and marketed formulation showed that there was no significant difference in drug release profile having similarity factor 82.97. In vivo study for optimized formulation of the buccoadhesive tablets showed the better absolute bioavailability (71.26%) against the oral solution (51.22%). Histological study confirmed non-irritant nature and stability study indicated stability of the formulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Fumaria officinalis (fumitory)--clinical applications].

    PubMed

    Hentschel, C; Dressler, S; Hahn, E G

    1995-07-10

    Fumaria officinalis-fumitory or earth smoke-is a medicinal plant which has long had a role to play in empirical medicine in numerous countries. A review of the literature, however, reveals very few studies that support its use for dermatological indications (milk crust, eczema, scabies, etc.) or as a diuretic or laxative. This contrasts with its use to treat functional diseases of the biliary system. Although no placebo-controlled studies have been done, a number of empirical reports, clinical case reports and animal experimental studies have been published. Accordingly, in Germany, Fumaria officinalis is approved for the indication "colicky pain affecting the gallbladder and biliary system, together with the gastrointestinal tract".

  11. New acylated clionasterol glycosides from Valeriana officinalis.

    PubMed

    Pullela, Srinivas V; Choi, Young Whan; Khan, Shabana I; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2005-10-01

    The chloroform extract of Valeriana officinalis led to the isolation of clionasterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and a mixture of 6'-O-acyl-beta-D-glucosyl-clionasterols. The acyl moieties were identified as hexadecanoyl, 8 E,11 E-octadecadienoyl and 14-methylpentadecanoyl by alkaline hydrolysis followed by GC-MS analysis. The isolated compounds did not exhibit any anti-inflammatory, anticancer or cytotoxic activity when tested in a variety of in vitro cell-based assays.

  12. [Studies on chemical constituents of Valeriana officinalis].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xia; Zhang, Jian-chao; Liu, Yan-wen; Fang, Yin

    2007-11-01

    From Valeriana officinalis L., 4 compounds were isolated and identified by various spectral analysis and chemical conversion, as valerenic acid, beta-sitosterol, ursolic acid, 4, 4', 8, 8'-tetrahydroxy-3, 3'-dimethoxyl-dibenzyl-ditetrahydrofuran and caryophyllene acide,valerane, naphthalene, linoleic acid, ethyl ester, myrtenyl acetate were identified by GC-MS. Ursolic acid and 4, 4', 8, 8'-tetrahydroxy-3, 3'-dimethoxyl-dibenzyl-ditetrahydrofuran were discovered in this plant for the first time.

  13. Anxiolytic effects of a combination of Melissa officinalis and Valeriana officinalis during laboratory induced stress.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David O; Little, Wendy; Haskell, Crystal F; Scholey, Andrew B

    2006-02-01

    Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) and Valeriana officinalis (valerian) have been used both traditionally and contemporaneously as mild sedatives, anxiolytics and hypnotics. Recent research has suggested that both may attenuate laboratory induced stress. As the two herbs are most often sold in combination with each other the current study assessed the anxiolytic properties of such a combination during laboratory-induced stress. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, balanced cross-over experiment, 24 healthy volunteers received three separate single doses (600 mg, 1200 mg, 1800 mg) of a standardized product containing M. officinalis and V. officinalis extracts, plus a placebo, on separate days separated by a 7 day wash out period. Modulation of mood and anxiety were assessed during pre-dose and 1 h, 3 h and 6 h post-dose completions of a 20 min version of the Defined Intensity Stressor Simulation (DISS) battery. Cognitive performance on the four concurrent tasks of the battery was also assessed. The results showed that the 600 mg dose of the combination ameliorated the negative effects of the DISS on ratings of anxiety. However, the highest dose (1800 mg) showed an increase in anxiety that was less marked but which reached significance during one testing session. In addition, all three doses led to decrements in performance on the Stroop task module within the battery, and the two lower doses led to decrements on the overall score generated on the DISS battery. These results suggest that a combination of Melissa officinalis and Valeriana officinalis possesses anxiolytic properties that deserve further investigation. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Purification effects of five landscape plants on river landscape water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Sun; Lei, Zheng; Mao, Qinqing; Ji, Qingxin

    2017-12-01

    Five species of landscape plants which are scindapsus aureus, water hyacinth, cockscomb, calendula officinalis and salvia splendens were used as experimental materials to study their removal effects on nitrogen, phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand (CODMn) and suspended solids (SS) in urban river water. The results show that the 5 landscape plants have good adaptability and vitality in water body, among them, water hyacinth had the best life signs than the other 4 plants, and its plant height and root length increased significantly. They have certain removal effects on the nitrogen, phosphorus, CODMn (Chemical Oxygen Demand) and SS (Suspended Substance) in the landscape water of Dalong Lake, Xuzhou. Scindapsus aureus, water hyacinth, cockscomb, calendula officinalis and salvia splendens on the removal rate of total nitrogen were 76.69%, 78.57%, 71.42%, 69.64%, 67.86%; the ammonia nitrogen removal rate were 71.06%, 74.28%, 67.85%, 63.02%, 59.81%;the total phosphorus removal rate were 78.70%, 81.48%, 73.15%, 72.22%, 68.52%;the orthophosphate removal rates were 78.37%, 80.77%, 75.96%, 75.96%, 71.15%;the removal rate of CODMn was 52.5%, 55.35%, 46.02%, 45.42%, 44.19%; the removal rate of SS was 81.4%, 86%, 79.1%, 76.7%, 74.42%.The purification effect of 5 kinds of landscape plants of Dalong Lake in Xuzhou City: water hyacinth> scindapsus aureus>cockscomb>calendula officinalis>salvia splendens.

  15. [Entrapment of herbal extracts in biodegradable microcapsules].

    PubMed

    Borodina, T N; Rumsh, L D; Kunizhev, S M; Sukhorukov, G B; Vorozhtsov, G N; Fel'dman, B M; Rusanova, A V; Vasil'eva, T V; Strukova, S M; Markvicheva, E A

    2007-01-01

    The microcapsules with entrapped herbal water-soluble extracts Plantago major and Calendula officinalis L. (HE) were prepared by LbL-adsorption of carrageenan and modificated chitosan onto CaCO3 microparticles with their subsequent dissolving after the treatment of EDTA. Entrapment of HE was performed by adsorption and co-precipitation techniques. The co-precipitation provided better entrapment of HE compared to adsorption. In vitro release kinetics in an artificial gastric juice (AGJ) was studied. The HE release was shown to accelerate gastric ulcer treatment in a rat model.

  16. Neuroprotective properties of Valeriana officinalis extracts.

    PubMed

    Malva, João O; Santos, Sandra; Macedo, Tice

    2004-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis have been used in traditional medicine for its sedative, hypnotic, and anticonvulsant effects. There are several reports in the literature supporting a GABAergic mechanism of action for valerian. The rationale of the present work is based on the concept that by decreasing neuronal network excitability valerian consumption may contribute to neuroprotection. The aim of our investigation was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of V. officinalis against the toxicity induced by amyloid beta peptide 25-35 Abeta(25-35). Cultured rat hippocampal neurons were exposed to Abeta(25-35) (25 microM) for 24-48 h, after which morphological and biochemical properties were evaluated. The neuronal injury evoked by Abeta, which includes a decrease in cell reducing capacity and associated neuronal degeneration, was prevented by valerian extract. Analysis of intracellular free calcium (Ca(2+)i) indicated that the neuroprotective mechanisms may involve the inhibition of excess influx of Ca2+ following neuronal injury. Moreover, membrane peroxidation in rat hippocampal synaptosomes was evaluated, and our data indicate that valerian extract partially inhibited ascorbate/iron-induced peroxidation. In conclusion we show evidence that the signalling pathways involving Ca(2+)i and the redox state of the cells may play a central role in the neuroprotective properties of V. officinalis extract against Abeta toxicity. The novelty of the findings of the present work, indicating neuroprotective properties of valerian against Abeta toxicity may, at the long-term, contribute to introduction of a new relevant use of valerian alcoholic extract to prevent neuronal degeneration in aging or neurodegenerative disorders.

  17. Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq. Bloodwood Legumeminosae, Legume Family, lotoideae, Pea Subfamily

    Treesearch

    Peter L. Weaver

    1997-01-01

    Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq., called palo de pollo in Puerto Rico, bloodwood in Guyana and Panama, and by numerous other names throughout its extensive range, is an evergreen tree that reaches 40m in height

  18. [Chemical Constituents from Melissa officinalis Leaves].

    PubMed

    Ji, Zi-yang; Yang, Yan-xia; Zhuang, Fang-fang; Yan, Fu-lin; Wang, Chang-hong

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents of Melissa officinalis leaves. The chemical constituents were separated by silica gel column chromatography and their structures were determined by spectroscopic experiments. 13 compounds were isolated and identified as protocatechuyl aldehyde(1), serratagenic acid(2), vanillin(3), 2α,3β-dihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid(4), ursolic acid(5), oleanolic acid(6), daucosterol(7),2α,3β,23,29-tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid-29-O-β-D-gluco- pyranoside(8), luteolin(9) rosmarinic acid(10), luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (11), β-stitosterol(12) and palmitic acid(13). Compounds 1 ~ 8 are separated from this plant for the first time and compounds 1-4 and 8 are isolated from this genus for the first time.

  19. Monoterpene synthases from common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce; Wise, Mitchell Lynn; Katahira, Eva Joy; Savage, Thomas Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    cDNAs encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase from common sage (Salvia officinalis) have been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequences has been determined. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences (SEQ ID No:1; SEQ ID No:3 and SEQ ID No:5) are provided which code for the expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2), 1,8-cineole synthase (SEQ ID No:4) and (+)-sabinene synthase SEQ ID No:6), respectively, from sage (Salvia officinalis). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant monoterpene synthases that may be used to facilitate their production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase, or the production of their products.

  20. Antibacterial activity of medicinal plant extracts against periodontopathic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Iauk, L; Lo Bue, A M; Milazzo, I; Rapisarda, A; Blandino, G

    2003-06-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Althaea officinalis L. roots, Arnica montana L. flowers, Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hamamelis virginiana L. leaves, Illicium verum Hook. fruits and Melissa officinalis L. leaves, against anaerobic and facultative aerobic periodontal bacteria: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella spp., Fusobacterium nucleatum, Capnocytophaga gingivalis, Veilonella parvula, Eikenella corrodens, Peptostreptococcus micros and Actinomyces odontolyticus. The methanol extracts of H. virginiana and A. montana and, to a lesser extent, A. officinalis were shown to possess an inhibiting activity (MIC < or = 2048 mg/L) against many of the species tested. In comparison, M. officinalis and C. officinalis extracts had a lower inhibiting activity (MIC > or = 2048 mg/L) against all the tested species with the exception of Prevotella sp. Illicium verum methanol extract was not very active though it had a particular good activity against E. corrodens. The results suggest the use of the alcohol extracts of H. virginiana, A. montana and A. officinalis for topical medications in periodontal prophylactics. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Acetylcholine esterase inhibitors and melanin synthesis inhibitors from Salvia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Sallam, Amal; Mira, Amira; Ashour, Ahmed; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2016-09-15

    Salvia officinalis is a traditionally used herb with a wide range of medicinal applications. Many phytoconstituents have been isolated from S. officinalis, mainly phenolic diterpenes, which possess many biological activities. This study aimed to evaluate the ability of the phenolic diterpenes of S. officinalis to inhibit acetylcholine esterase (AChE) as well as their ability to inhibit melanin biosynthesis in B16 melanoma cells. The phenolic diterpenes isolated from the aerial parts of S. officinalis were tested for their effect on melanin biosynthesis in B16 melanoma cell lines. They were also tested for their ability to inhibit AChE using Ellman's method. Moreover, a molecular docking experiment was used to investigate the binding affinity of the isolated phenolic diterpenes to the amino acid residues at the active sites of AChE. Seven phenolic diterpenes-sageone, 12-methylcarnosol, carnosol, 7b-methoxyrosmanol, 7a-methoxyrosmanol, isorosmanol and epirosmanol-were isolated from the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of S. officinalis. Isorosmanol showed a melanin-inhibiting activity as potent as that of arbutin. Compounds 7a-methoxyrosmanol and isorosmanol inhibited AChE activity by 50% and 65%, respectively, at a concentration of 500 µM. The results suggest that isorosmanol is a promising natural compound for further studies on development of new medications which might be useful in ageing disorders such as the declining of cognitive functions and hyperpigmentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. 7 CFR 318.13-16 - Regulated articles allowed interstate movement subject to specified conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...(s) Additionalrequirements Hawaii Bananas 1 Musa spp Fruit (b)(1)(i), (b)(2)(ii) Pot marigold, johnny-jump-ups, pansies, and violets Calendula spp Flower (b)(2)(iii) Pineapple 2 Ananas comosus Fruit (b)(2... Fruit (b)(3)(i) Pot marigold, johnny-jump-ups, pansies, and violets Calendula spp Flower (b)(2)(iii) U.S...

  3. 7 CFR 318.13-16 - Regulated articles allowed interstate movement subject to specified conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...(s) Additionalrequirements Hawaii Bananas 1 Musa spp Fruit (b)(1)(i), (b)(2)(ii) Litchi Litchi..., johnny-jump-ups, pansies, and violets Calendula spp Flower (b)(2)(iii) Pineapple 2 Ananas comosus Fruit... escuelentus Fruit (b)(3)(i) Pot marigold, johnny-jump-ups, pansies, and violets Calendula spp Flower (b)(2...

  4. 7 CFR 318.13-16 - Regulated articles allowed interstate movement subject to specified conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...(s) Additionalrequirements Hawaii Bananas 1 Musa spp Fruit (b)(1)(i), (b)(2)(ii) Litchi Litchi..., johnny-jump-ups, pansies, and violets Calendula spp Flower (b)(2)(iii) Pineapple 2 Ananas comosus Fruit... escuelentus Fruit (b)(3)(i) Pot marigold, johnny-jump-ups, pansies, and violets Calendula spp Flower (b)(2...

  5. 7 CFR 318.13-16 - Regulated articles allowed interstate movement subject to specified conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...(s) Additionalrequirements Hawaii Bananas 1 Musa spp Fruit (b)(1)(i), (b)(2)(ii) Litchi Litchi..., johnny-jump-ups, pansies, and violets Calendula spp Flower (b)(2)(iii) Pineapple 2 Ananas comosus Fruit... escuelentus Fruit (b)(3)(i) Pot marigold, johnny-jump-ups, pansies, and violets Calendula spp Flower (b)(2...

  6. 7 CFR 318.13-16 - Regulated articles allowed interstate movement subject to specified conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...(s) Additionalrequirements Hawaii Bananas 1 Musa spp Fruit (b)(1)(i), (b)(2)(ii) Litchi Litchi..., johnny-jump-ups, pansies, and violets Calendula spp Flower (b)(2)(iii) Pineapple 2 Ananas comosus Fruit... escuelentus Fruit (b)(3)(i) Pot marigold, johnny-jump-ups, pansies, and violets Calendula spp Flower (b)(2...

  7. In vitro antioxidant activity of Valeriana officinalis against different neurotoxic agents.

    PubMed

    Sudati, Jéssie Haigert; Fachinetto, Roselei; Pereira, Romaiana Picada; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Soares, Felix Antunes; de Vargas Barbosa, Nilda Berenice; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2009-08-01

    Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerian) is widely used as a traditional medicine to improve the quality of sleep. Although V. officinalis have been well documented as promising pharmacological agent; the exact mechanisms by which this plant act is still unknown. Limited literature data have indicated that V. officinalis extracts can exhibit antioxidant properties against iron in hippocampal neurons in vitro. However, there is no data available about the possible antioxidant effect of V. officinalis against other pro-oxidants in brain. In the present study, the protective effect of V. officinalis on lipid peroxidation (LPO) induced by different pro-oxidant agents with neuropathological importance was examined. Ethanolic extract of valerian (0-60 microg/ml) was tested against quinolinic acid (QA); 3-nitropropionic acid; sodium nitroprusside; iron sulfate (FeSO4) and Fe2+/EDTA induced LPO in rat brain homogenates. The effect of V. officinalis in deoxyribose degradation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was also investigated. In brain homogenates, V. officinalis inhibited thiobarbituric acid reactive substances induced by all pro-oxidants tested in a concentration dependent manner. Similarly, V. officinalis caused a significant decrease on the LPO in cerebral cortex and in deoxyribose degradation. QA-induced ROS production in cortical slices was also significantly reduced by V. officinalis. Our results suggest that V. officinalis extract was effective in modulating LPO induced by different pro-oxidant agents. These data may imply that V. officinalis extract, functioning as antioxidant agent, can be beneficial for reducing insomnia complications linked to oxidative stress.

  8. Application of FT-IR Classification Method in Silica-Plant Extracts Composites Quality Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicu, A.; Drumea, V.; Mihaiescu, D. E.; Purcareanu, B.; Florea, M. A.; Trică, B.; Vasilievici, G.; Draga, S.; Buse, E.; Olariu, L.

    2018-06-01

    Our present work is concerned with the validation and quality testing efforts of mesoporous silica - plant extracts composites, in order to sustain the standardization process of plant-based pharmaceutical products. The synthesis of the silica support were performed by using a TEOS based synthetic route and CTAB as a template, at room temperature and normal pressure. The silica support was analyzed by advanced characterization methods (SEM, TEM, BET, DLS and FT-IR), and loaded with Calendula officinalis and Salvia officinalis standardized extracts. Further desorption studies were performed in order to prove the sustained release properties of the final materials. Intermediate and final product identification was performed by a FT-IR classification method, using the MID-range of the IR spectra, and statistical representative samples from repetitive synthetic stages. The obtained results recommend this analytical method as a fast and cost effective alternative to the classic identification methods.

  9. Ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in pigs and pets in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard

    2007-09-30

    This paper documents the medicinal plants used to treat endoparasites and stomach problems in dogs, cats and pigs in British Columbia, Canada. Ethnoveterinary data was collected over a 6-month period in 2003. The majority of the information on pets came from 2 naturopaths, 10 herbalists, 5 dog trainers, breeders and pet shop owners, 9 holistic veterinarians and 6 of 27 organic farmers. Two pig farmers joined the study in the final stages. The following plants were used as anthelmintics: Artemisia cina O. Berg and C.F. Schmidt, Artemisia vulgaris L., Artemisia annua, Calendula officinalis L., Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench (all Asteraceae), Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucurbitaceae), Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb (Myrtaceae), Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae), Hydrastis canadensis L. (Ranunculaceae), Juglans nigra L. (Juglandaceae), Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) and Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae)). Stomach problems were treated with: Achillea millefolium L. (Asteraceae), Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f. (Asphodelaceae), Elytrigia repens (L.) Desv. ex Nevski (Poaceae), Frangula purshiana (DC.) Cooper (Rhamnaceae), Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae), Melissa officinalis L. and M. piperita L. (Lamiaceae), Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae), Plantago major L. and Plantago ovata Forssk. (Plantaginaceae) Rumex crispus L. and Rumex obtusifolius L. (Polygonaceae), Ulmus fulva Michx. (Ulmaceae) and Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (Zingiberaceae). There is insufficient information available to assess the anthelmintic efficacies of C. officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Eugenia caryophyllata and O. europaea; the other plants have mid- to high-level validity for their ethnoveterinary uses.

  10. Pharmacological and biotechnological advances with Rosmarinus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Neves, Josynaria Araújo; Neves, Josyanne Araújo; Oliveira, Rita de Cassia Meneses

    2018-05-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis L. is an aromatic plant with a number of biological properties. Recently, has been studied regarding its therapeutic potential. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review on R. officinalis essential oil for its pharmacological properties and biotechnological applications. Areas covered: The databases were searched for articles (Science Direct, Pub Med and Web of Science) and patents (INPI, WIPO and EPO) with publications on R. officinalis and associations with essential oil (EO-Ro), cardiovascular system, hypertension and cyclodextrin. We selected 305 articles on EO-Ro in the most diverse subjects and six articles with of R. officinalis associated with hypertension. 59 patents were analyzed. The results demonstrate how extensive the studies are on the biological activities with the extract and EO-Ro. These have shown effects antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antitumor and other. The properties exhibited by EO-Ro reinforce the use of this plant as a phytotherapeutic agent. Expert opinion: Although there are several pharmacological properties, studies on the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular diseases with EO-Ro are scarce, especially to evaluate the antihypertensive activity of EO-Ro. It has also become clear that EO-Ro can be exploited in different commercial products as supplement, cosmetics and new formulations.

  11. Behavioral development in embryonic and early juvenile cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis).

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Caitlin E; Mezrai, Nawel; Darmaillacq, Anne-Sophie; Dickel, Ludovic

    2017-03-01

    Though a mollusc, the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis possesses a sophisticated brain, advanced sensory systems, and a large behavioral repertoire. Cuttlefish provide a unique perspective on animal behavior due to their phylogenic distance from more traditional (vertebrate) models. S. officinalis is well-suited to addressing questions of behavioral ontogeny. As embryos, they can perceive and learn from their environment and experience no direct parental care. A marked progression in learning and behavior is observed during late embryonic and early juvenile development. This improvement is concomitant with expansion and maturation of the vertical lobe, the cephalopod analog of the mammalian hippocampus. This review synthesizes existing knowledge regarding embryonic and juvenile development in this species in an effort to better understand cuttlefish behavior and animal behavior in general. It will serve as a guide to future researchers and encourage greater awareness of the utility of this species to behavioral science. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. [HPLC fingerprint of the antiarrhythmic fraction of Valeriana officinalis].

    PubMed

    Duan, Xue-Yun; Gong, Zhan-Feng; Chen, Shu-He; Fang, Ying; Liu, Yan-Wen

    2009-06-01

    To establish HPLC fingerprints of the Antiarrhythmic fraction of Valeriana officinalis. Agilent C18 (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) column was used and the acetonitrile-water was chosen as the mobile phase in a gradient mode. The column temperature was 380 degrees C and the detection wavelength was 218 nm. The detection time was 70 min, and the flow rate was 1.0 mL/ min. Fifteen characteristic peaks were indicated in HPLC fingerprints. The relative retention time and the ranges of relative areas of the common peaks were also determined. This method is simple and accurate with a good reproducibility and provides a reference standard for the quality control of Valeriana officinalis.

  13. Chemotypic Characterization and Biological Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Satyal, Prabodh; Jones, Tyler H; Lopez, Elizabeth M; McFeeters, Robert L; Ali, Nasser A Awadh; Mansi, Iman; Al-Kaf, Ali G; Setzer, William N

    2017-03-05

    Rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a popular herb in cooking, traditional healing, and aromatherapy. The essential oils of R. officinalis were obtained from plants growing in Victoria (Australia), Alabama (USA), Western Cape (South Africa), Kenya, Nepal, and Yemen. Chemical compositions of the rosemary oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as chiral gas chromatography. The oils were dominated by (+)-α-pinene (13.5%-37.7%), 1,8-cineole (16.1%-29.3%), (+)-verbenone (0.8%-16.9%), (-)-borneol (2.1%-6.9%), (-)-camphor (0.7%-7.0%), and racemic limonene (1.6%-4.4%). Hierarchical cluster analysis, based on the compositions of these essential oils in addition to 72 compositions reported in the literature, revealed at least five different chemotypes of rosemary oil. Antifungal, cytotoxicity, xanthine oxidase inhibitory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activity screenings were carried out, but showed only marginal activities.

  14. Small brown planthopper resistance loci in wild rice (Oryza officinalis).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weilin; Dong, Yan; Yang, Ling; Ma, Bojun; Ma, Rongrong; Huang, Fudeng; Wang, Changchun; Hu, Haitao; Li, Chunshou; Yan, Chengqi; Chen, Jianping

    2014-06-01

    Host-plant resistance is the most practical and economical approach to control the rice planthoppers. However, up to date, few rice germplasm accessions that are resistant to the all three kinds of planthoppers (1) brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål), (2) the small brown planthopper (SBPH; Laodelphax striatellus Fallen), and (3) the whitebacked planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera Horvath) have been identified; consequently, the genetic basis for host-plant broad spectrum resistance to rice planthoppers in a single variety has been seldom studied. Here, one wild species, Oryza officinalis (Acc. HY018, 2n = 24, CC), was detected showing resistance to the all three kinds of planthoppers. Because resistance to WBPH and BPH in O. officinalis has previously been reported, the study mainly focused on its SBPH resistance. The SBPH resistance gene(s) was (were) introduced into cultivated rice via asymmetric somatic hybridization. Three QTLs for SBPH resistance detected by the SSST method were mapped and confirmed on chromosomes 3, 7, and 12, respectively. The allelic/non-allelic relationship and relative map positions of the three kinds of planthopper resistance genes in O. officinalis show that the SBPH, WBPH, and BPH resistance genes in O. officinalis were governed by multiple genes, but not by any major gene. The data on the genetics of host-plant broad spectrum resistance to planthoppers in a single accession suggested that the most ideally practical and economical approach for rice breeders is to screen the sources of broad spectrum resistance to planthoppers, but not to employ broad spectrum resistance gene for the management of planthoppers. Pyramiding these genes in a variety can be an effective way for the management of planthoppers.

  15. (-)-3 beta,4 beta-epoxyvalerenic acid from Valeriana officinalis.

    PubMed

    Dharmaratne, H Ranjith; Nanayakkara, N P; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2002-07-01

    Chemical investigation of the root extract of Valeriana officinalis afforded a new bicyclic sesquiterpene acid, (-)-3 beta,4 beta-epoxyvalerenic acid together with valerenic acid and hexadecanoic acid. The structure of the new compound was elucidated by spectroscopic data and confirmed by partial synthesis of its methyl ester from valerenic acid. Methyl (-)-3 alpha,4 alpha-epoxyvalerenate was obtained as a minor product from the above reaction.

  16. Extraction of valerenic acids from valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.) rhizomes.

    PubMed

    Boyadzhiev, L; Kancheva, D; Gourdon, C; Metcheva, D

    2004-09-01

    Extraction of valerenic acids (valerenic, acetoxyvalerenic and hydroxyvalerenic) from dry ground rhizomes of valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.) was studied. The effect of ethanol concentration in the solvent, extraction temperature and drug particle size on extraction kinetics were investigated and the optimum values of these process parameters were determined for the case of intensively stirred two-phase dispersion. It was found that increased processing temperature favors extraction kinetics, but provokes moderate degradation of valerenic acids.

  17. Phytochemical investigation of the seeds of Althea officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Rani, Sunita; Khan, Suroor A; Ali, M

    2010-09-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the seeds of Althea officinalis L. (Malvaceae) led to the isolation of three new phytoconstituents, identified as n-hexacos-2-enyl-1,5-olide (altheahexacosanyl lactone), 2beta-hydroxycalamene (altheacalamene) and 5,6-dihydroxycoumarin-5-dodecanoate-6beta-D-glucopyranoside (altheacoumarin glucoside), along with the known phytoconstituents lauric acid, beta-sitosterol and lanosterol. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectral analysis and chemical reactions.

  18. Valeriana officinalis attenuates the rotenone-induced toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Sudati, Jéssie Haigert; Vieira, Francielli Araújo; Pavin, Sandra Sartoretto; Dias, Glaecir Roseni Mundstock; Seeger, Rodrigo Lopes; Golombieski, Ronaldo; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Soares, Félix Antunes; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Barbosa, Nilda Vargas

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the potential protective effects of Valeriana officinalis (V. officinalis) against the toxicity induced by rotenone in Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster). Adult wild-type flies were concomitantly exposed to rotenone (500 μM) and V. officinalis aqueous extract (10mg/mL) in the food during 7 days. Rotenone-fed flies had a worse performance in the negative geotaxis assay (i.e. climbing capability) and open-field test (i.e. mobility time) as well as a higher incidence of mortality when compared to control group. V. officinalis treatment offered protection against these detrimental effects of rotenone. In contrast, the decreased number of crossings observed in the flies exposed to rotenone was not modified by V. officinalis. Rotenone toxicity was also associated with a marked decrease on the total-thiol content in the homogenates and cell viability of flies, which were reduced by V. officinalis treatment. Indeed, rotenone exposure caused a significant increase in the mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and also in the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene. The expression of SOD and CAT mRNAs was normalized by V. officinalis treatment. Our results suggest that V. officinalis extract was effective in reducing the toxicity induced by rotenone in D. melanogaster as well as confirm the utility of this model to investigate potential therapeutic strategies on movement disorders, including Parkinson disease (PD). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard; Boepple, Willi

    2007-02-26

    The use of medicinal plants is an option for livestock farmers who are not allowed to use allopathic drugs under certified organic programs or cannot afford to use allopathic drugs for minor health problems of livestock. In 2003 we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. Medicinal plants are used to treat a range of conditions. A draft manual prepared from the data was then evaluated by participants at a participatory workshop. There are 128 plants used for ruminant health and diets, representing several plant families. The following plants are used for abscesses: Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium Echinacea purpurea, Symphytum officinale, Bovista pila, Bovista plumbea, Achillea millefolium and Usnea longissima. Curcuma longa L., Salix scouleriana and Salix lucida are used for caprine arthritis and caprine arthritis encephalitis. Euphrasia officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla are used for eye problems. Wounds and injuries are treated with Bovista spp., Usnea longissima, Calendula officinalis, Arnica sp., Malva sp., Prunella vulgaris, Echinacea purpurea, Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium, Achillea millefolium, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hypericum perforatum, Lavandula officinalis, Symphytum officinale and Curcuma longa. Syzygium aromaticum and Pseudotsuga menziesii are used for coccidiosis. The following plants are used for diarrhea and scours: Plantago major, Calendula officinalis, Urtica dioica, Symphytum officinale, Pinus ponderosa, Potentilla pacifica, Althaea officinalis, Anethum graveolens, Salix alba and Ulmus fulva. Mastitis is treated with Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Salix alba, Teucrium scorodonia and Galium aparine. Anethum graveolens and Rubus sp., are given for increased milk production. Taraxacum officinale, Zea mays, and Symphytum officinale are used for udder edema. Ketosis is treated with Gaultheria shallon, Vaccinium sp., and Symphytum officinale. Hedera helix and Alchemilla

  20. Ethnoveterinary medicines used for ruminants in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya; Brauer, Gerhard; Boepple, Willi

    2007-01-01

    Background The use of medicinal plants is an option for livestock farmers who are not allowed to use allopathic drugs under certified organic programs or cannot afford to use allopathic drugs for minor health problems of livestock. Methods In 2003 we conducted semi-structured interviews with 60 participants obtained using a purposive sample. Medicinal plants are used to treat a range of conditions. A draft manual prepared from the data was then evaluated by participants at a participatory workshop. Results There are 128 plants used for ruminant health and diets, representing several plant families. The following plants are used for abscesses: Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium Echinacea purpurea, Symphytum officinale, Bovista pila, Bovista plumbea, Achillea millefolium and Usnea longissima. Curcuma longa L., Salix scouleriana and Salix lucida are used for caprine arthritis and caprine arthritis encephalitis.Euphrasia officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla are used for eye problems. Wounds and injuries are treated with Bovista spp., Usnea longissima, Calendula officinalis, Arnica sp., Malva sp., Prunella vulgaris, Echinacea purpurea, Berberis aquifolium/Mahonia aquifolium, Achillea millefolium, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Hypericum perforatum, Lavandula officinalis, Symphytum officinale and Curcuma longa. Syzygium aromaticum and Pseudotsuga menziesii are used for coccidiosis. The following plants are used for diarrhea and scours: Plantago major, Calendula officinalis, Urtica dioica, Symphytum officinale, Pinus ponderosa, Potentilla pacifica, Althaea officinalis, Anethum graveolens, Salix alba and Ulmus fulva. Mastitis is treated with Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Salix alba, Teucrium scorodonia and Galium aparine. Anethum graveolens and Rubus sp., are given for increased milk production.Taraxacum officinale, Zea mays, and Symphytum officinale are used for udder edema. Ketosis is treated with Gaultheria shallon, Vaccinium sp., and Symphytum officinale. Hedera

  1. Rosmarinus officinalis L. as cause of contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Miroddi, M; Calapai, G; Isola, S; Minciullo, P L; Gangemi, S

    2014-01-01

    Because of the widespread use of botanicals, it has become crucial for health professionals to improve their knowledge about safety problems. Several herbal medicines contain chemicals with allergenic properties responsible for contact dermatitis. Among these, one is Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary), a plant used since ancient times in folk medicine; at the present time it is used worldwide as a spice and flavouring agent, as a preservative and for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. The present article aims to revise and summarise scientific literature reporting cases of contact dermatitis caused by the use of R. officinalis as a raw material or as herbal preparations. Published case reports were researched on the following databases and search engines: PUBMED, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Scopus. The used keywords were: R. officinalis and rosemary each alone or combined with the words allergy, contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, sensitisation and occupational dermatitis. The published case reports show that both rosemary extracts and raw material can be responsible for allergic contact dermatitis. Two cases related to contact dermatitis caused by cross-reactivity between rosemary and thyme were also commented. The diterpene carnosol, a chemical constituent of this plant, has been imputed as a common cause for this reaction. The incidence of contact dermatitis caused by rosemary is not common, but it could be more frequent with respect to the supposed occurrence. It seems plausible that cases of contact dermatitis caused by rosemary are more frequent with respect to the supposed occurrence, because they could be misdiagnosed. For this reason, this possibility should be carefully considered in dermatitis differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2013 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Iridoids and sesquiterpenoids from the roots of Valeriana officinalis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Hu, Jiang-Miao; Ran, Xin-Hui; Chen, Zhong-Quan; Jiang, He-Zhong; Liu, Yu-Qing; Zhou, Jun; Zhao, You-Xing

    2009-09-01

    Two new iridoids, volvaltrates A and B (1 and 2), and three new sesquiterpenoids, E-(-)-3beta,4beta-epoxyvalerenal (3), E-(-)-3beta,4beta-epoxyvalerenyl acetate (4), and mononorvalerenone (5), together with five known iridoids and two known sesquiterpenoids were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis. The structures and relative configurations of 1-5 were elucidated by spectroscopic evidence. Compound 1 was an unusual iridoid with an oxygen bridge connecting C-3 and C-10, forming a cage-like structure, and compound 5 was a mononorsesquiterpenoid.

  3. Comparison of Effect of Lavandula officinalis and Venlafaxine in Treating Depression: A Double Blind Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nikfarjam, Masoud; Rakhshan, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Major depressive disorder is a chronic disease which may be associated with other mental illnesses. Lavandula officinalis and venlafaxine, herbal and chemical drugs respectively, are used to treat depression. Despite pharmacotherapy, major depressive disorder has a complicated pattern of resistance and recurrence. Aim The aim of this study was to determine the effect of L. officinalis and venlafaxine in treating depression. Materials and Methods For this study, 120 patients referred to the psychiatry clinic of the Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran, were randomly selected. The participants were randomly assigned to three groups: venlafaxine (Control Group), venlafaxine + L. officinalis (L. officinalis Group), and venlafaxine + placebo (Placebo Group). All the patients underwent treatment for six weeks. Depression test was administered to the three groups at different time intervals before the treatment, four weeks after the treatment and at completion of the treatment. The data were analysed by SPSS version17.0. Results Depression scores of all the groups decreased over time (p=0.001). The depression scores were significantly different between the control and L. officinalis groups (p=0.004), and the control and placebo groups (p=0.002), but were not significantly different between the L. officinalis and placebo groups (p=0.95). Conclusion Adding L. officinalis or a placebo is equally effective in decreasing mean depression score and venlafaxine obviously decreased this score. PMID:28892932

  4. Use of Systemic Rosmarinus Officinalis to Enhance the Survival of Random-Pattern Skin Flaps

    PubMed Central

    İnce, Bilsev; Bilgen, Fatma; Gündeşlioğlu, Ayşe Özlem; Dadacı, Mehmet; Kozacıoğlu, Sümeyye

    2016-01-01

    Background Skin flaps are commonly used in soft-tissue reconstruction; however, necrosis can be a frequent complication. Several systemic and local agents have been used in attempts to improve skin flap survival, but none that can prevent flap necrosis have been identified. Aims This study aims to determine whether the use of systemic Rosmarinus officinalis (R. officinalis) extract can prevent flap necrosis and improve skin flap recovery. Study Design Animal experimentation. Methods Thirty-five Wistar albino rats were divided in five groups. A rectangular random-pattern flaps measuring 8×2 cm was elevated from the back of each rat. Group I was the control group. In Group II, 0.2 ml of R. officinalis oil was given orally 2h before surgery. R. officinalis oil was then applied orally twice a day for a week. In Group III, R. officinalis oil was given orally twice a day for one week before surgery. At the end of the week, 0.2 mL of R. officinalis oil was given orally 2 h before surgery. In Group IV, 0.2 mL of R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously 2 h before surgery. After the surgery, 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously twice a day for one week. In Group V, 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously twice a day for one week prior to surgery. At the end of the week, one last 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil injection was administered subcutaneously 2 h before surgery. After the surgery, 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously twice a day for one week. Results The mean percentage of viable surface area was significantly greater (p<0.05) in Groups II, III, IV, and V as compared to Group I. Mean vessel diameter was significantly greater (p<0.05) in Groups II, III, IV, and V as compared to Group I. Conclusion We have determined that, in addition to its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects, R. officinalis has vasodilatory effects that contribute to increased skin flap survival. PMID:27994918

  5. The antioxidant and Flavonoids contents of Althaea officinalis L. flowers based on their color.

    PubMed

    Sadighara, Parisa; Gharibi, Soraya; Moghadam Jafari, Amir; Jahed Khaniki, Golamreza; Salari, Samira

    2012-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in finding plants with biological active ingredients for medicinal application. Three colors of petals of Althaea officinalis (A. officinalis) flowers, i.e., pink, reddish pink, and white were examined for total antioxidant activity and flavonoids content. The reddish pink flowers of A. officinalis have more antioxidant activity and the power of antioxidant activity was reddish pink > pink > white. Findings suggest that the dark color can serve as an indicator of antioxidant content of the plant. Flavonoid content was highest in white flower thus this result indicated that flowers with light color can be considered for medicinal uses.

  6. NF-kappaB modulators from Valeriana officinalis.

    PubMed

    Jacobo-Herrera, Nadia J; Vartiainen, Nina; Bremner, Paul; Gibbons, Simon; Koistinaho, Jari; Heinrich, Michael

    2006-10-01

    Valeriana officinalis (Valerianaceae) has been of great interest for its therapeutic uses for treating mild nervous tension and temporary sleeping problems. In traditional European medicine it has been also reported as an antiinflammatory remedy. This study reports that the EtOAc extract of the underground parts of V. officinalis showed inhibitory activity against NF-kappaB at 100 microg/mL in the IL-6/Luc assay on HeLa cells and provided protection against excitotoxicity in primary brain cell cultures at micromolar concentrations. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the EtOAc extract led to the isolation of three known sesquiterpenes: acetylvalerenolic acid (1), valerenal (2) and valerenic acid (3), 1 and 3 were active as inhibitors of NF-kappaB at a concentration of 100 microg/mL. Acetylvalerenolic acid (1) reduced NF-kappaB activity to 4%, whereas valerenic acid (3) reduced NF-kappaB activity to 25%. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Chemotypic Characterization and Biological Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Satyal, Prabodh; Jones, Tyler H.; Lopez, Elizabeth M.; McFeeters, Robert L.; Ali, Nasser A. Awadh; Mansi, Iman; Al-kaf, Ali G.; Setzer, William N.

    2017-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a popular herb in cooking, traditional healing, and aromatherapy. The essential oils of R. officinalis were obtained from plants growing in Victoria (Australia), Alabama (USA), Western Cape (South Africa), Kenya, Nepal, and Yemen. Chemical compositions of the rosemary oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as chiral gas chromatography. The oils were dominated by (+)-α-pinene (13.5%–37.7%), 1,8-cineole (16.1%–29.3%), (+)-verbenone (0.8%–16.9%), (−)-borneol (2.1%–6.9%), (−)-camphor (0.7%–7.0%), and racemic limonene (1.6%–4.4%). Hierarchical cluster analysis, based on the compositions of these essential oils in addition to 72 compositions reported in the literature, revealed at least five different chemotypes of rosemary oil. Antifungal, cytotoxicity, xanthine oxidase inhibitory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activity screenings were carried out, but showed only marginal activities. PMID:28273883

  8. Phytotherapeutics: an evaluation of the potential of 1000 plants.

    PubMed

    Cravotto, G; Boffa, L; Genzini, L; Garella, D

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this review is to evaluate and summarize the available scientific information on the commonest plant extracts marketed in Western countries. In view of the intense, ongoing search for new plant extracts with powerful anti-inflammatory activity, we paid particular attention to this topic. The aim is to provide broad coverage of as many potentially useful plants as possible and then to focus on those with the greatest therapeutic potential. Our bibliographic sources were the SciFinder databases: CAPLUS, MEDLINE, REGISTRY, CASREACT, CHEMLIST, CHEMCATS (update to October 2007). In order to assess the value of clinical trials, we focused a specific search on clinical investigations concerning nine plants with the most trial data, viz., Althaea officinalis, Calendula officinalis, Centella asiatica, Echinacea purpurea, Passiflora incarnata, Punica granatum, Vaccinium macrocarpon, Vaccinium myrtillus, Valeriana officinalis. This was carried out in several databases (update to June 2008): ISI Web of Knowledge(SM) (ISI WoK), SciFinder (CAPLUS, MEDLINE, REGISTRY, CASREACT, CHEMLIST, CHEMCATS) and PubMed (indexed for MEDLINE). Our survey covers roughly a 1000 plants, although clinical trials have been published only for 156 plants supporting specific pharmacological activities and therapeutic applications. However, for about half of the plants, in vitro and in vivo studies provide some support for therapeutic use. For one-fifth of the plants included in our search, only phytochemical studies were found. Their properties and indications were often attributed to the presence of certain compounds, but no evidence concerning the activities of the whole extracts was presented. We found that for about 12% of the plants, currently available on the Western market, no substantial studies on their properties had been published, while there was strong evidence that 1 in 200 were toxic or allergenic, so that their use ought to be discouraged or forbidden. Nine plants had

  9. Synergistic antibacterial activity of Salvia officinalis and Cichorium intybus extracts and antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Stefanović, Olgica D; Stanojević, Dragana D; Comić, Ljiljana R

    2012-01-01

    Synergistic activity of Salvia officinalis and Cichorium intybus extracts and commonly used antibiotics, amoxicillin and chloramphenicol, were evaluated. Interactions between plant extracts and antibiotics were tested by checkerboard method and interpreted as FIC index. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and clinical isolates Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis were used. Salvia officinalis showed better synergistic capacity than Cichorium intybus. Synergistic interactions were observed between amoxicillin and acetone or ethyl acetate extract of Salvia officinalis and between chloramphenicol and ethyl acetate extract of Salvia officinalis. In the presence of sub-inhibitory concentration (1/4 MIC to 1/32 MIC) of sage extracts, the MIC values of antibiotics were decreased by 2- to 10-fold. Synergism was observed against all test bacteria, except Escherichia coli. The combinations of acetone and ethyl acetate extract from Cichorium intybus and antibiotics resulted in additive and indifferent effects against tested bacteria.

  10. [Investigation of metal element content of some European and Far Eastern herbs].

    PubMed

    Süle, Krisztina; Kurucz, Dóra; Kajári, Ágnes; May, Zoltán

    2015-08-02

    Metal elements and their excess intake have significant influence on general health. There is only little information how Far Eastern herbs resemble European's regarding their purity and essential metal element content. The aim of the authors was to determine metal elements in different Chinese and European herbs and extracts. The studied European herbs included Calendula officinalis petals, Achillea millefolium, Epilobium parviflorum herba, Urtica dioica leaves, Crataegus monogyna flowers while Far Eastern herbs were Cordyceps sinensis, Ganoderma lucidum, Ginkgo biloba leaves, Panax ginseng and Curcuma longa roots. The analysis was performed using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. There was no considerable difference in essential metal elements and the Ca:Mg concentration ratio between European and Far Eastern drugs and extracts. The extracts are preferential metal element sources and their magnesium content are also advantageous, because of a shift of the Ca:Mg concentration ratio towards magnesium.

  11. [Study on sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers of Cornus officinalis].

    PubMed

    Chen, Suiqing; Lu, Xiaolei; Wang, Lili

    2011-05-01

    To establish sequence characterized amplified region markers of Cornus officinalis and provide a scientific basis for molecular identification of C. officinalis. The random primer was screened through RAPD to obtain specific RAPD marker bands. The RAPD marker bands were separated, extracted, cloned and sequenced. Both ends of the sequence of RAPD marker bands were determined. A pair of specific primers was designed for conventional PCR reaction, and SCAR marker was acquired. Four pairs of primers were designed based on the sequence of RAPD marker bands. The DNA of the seven varieties of C. officinalis was amplified by using YST38 and YST43 primer. The results showed that seven varieties of C. officinalis were able to produce a single PCR product. It was an effective way to identify C. officinalis. The varieties with cylindrical and long-pear shape fruits amplified by YST38 showed a specific band, which could be used as the evidence of variety identification. Seven varieties of C. oficinalis were amplified by using primer YST39. But the size of band of the variety with spindly shape fruit (35,0400 bp) was about 300 bp, which was shorter than those of the variety with the other shape fruits of C. officinalis (650-700 bp). The variety with the spindly shape fruit could be identified through this difference. The primer YST92 could produce a fragment from 600-700 bp in the varieties with cylindrical and long-pear shape fruits, a fragment from 200-300 bp in the varieties with oval and short-cylindrical shape fruits and had no fragment in the varieties with long cylindrical, elliptic and short-pear shape fruits, which could be used to select the different shapes of C. officinalis. SCAR mark is established and can be used as the basis for breeding and distinguishing the verieties of C. officinalis.

  12. Preliminary phytochemical, acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of roots of Paeonia officinalis Linn.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Feroz; Tabassum, Nahida

    2013-01-01

    To carry out a preliminary phytochemical, acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of the roots of Paeonia officinalis (P. officinalis) L. Preliminary phytochemical investigation was done as per standard procedures. Acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per OECD 425 guidelines. The antihepatotoxic activity of aqueous extract of root of P. officinalis was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in rats. Aqueous extract of P. officinalis at the dose levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight was administered daily for 14 d in experimental animals. Liver injury was induced chemically, by CCl4 administration (1 mL/kg i.p.). The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters like aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP), total bilirubin and total protein (TP) along with histopathological studies. Phytochemical screening revealed that the roots of P. officinalis contain alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids, terpenes, steroids and proteins. The aqueous extract did not cause any mortality up to 2 000 mg/kg. In rats that had received the root extract at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, the substantially elevated AST, ALT, SALP, total bilirubin levels were significantly lowered, respectively, in a dose dependent manner, along with CCl4 while TP levels were elevated in these groups. Histopathology revealed regeneration of the livers in extract treated groups while Silymarin treated rats were almost normal. The aqueous extract of P. officinalis is safe and possesses antihepatotoxic potential.

  13. Synergistic antinociceptive interaction of Syzygium aromaticum or Rosmarinus officinalis coadministered with ketorolac in rats.

    PubMed

    Beltrán-Villalobos, Karla Lyzet; Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Aguilar-Mariscal, Hidemi; González-Trujano, María Eva; Martínez-Salazar, María Fernanda; Ramírez-Cisneros, María de Los Ángeles; Rios, María Yolanda; López-Muñoz, Francisco Javier

    2017-10-01

    Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry (Mirtaceae) and Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) are both medicinal plants used for centuries to alleviate pain. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the therapeutic potential utility of herb-drug association of S. aromaticum essential oil or R. officinalis ethanolic extract coadministered with ketorolac. Antinociceptive pharmacological interaction was investigated by an isbolographic study using the formalin test in rats. Both alone and in combination with ketorolac; S. aromaticum and R. officinalis produced a dose-dependent antinociceptive response. To plot the isobologram, we used the effective dose 50 of each one component in a fixed 1:1 ratio. The isobolographic analysis showed that, in both combinations, ketorolac plus essential oil S. aromaticum and ketorolac plus ethanolic extract R. officinalis, the experimental value (Z exp ) was lower than the theoretical value (Z add ). In addition, this study shows that eugenol, a metabolite present in S. aromaticum, and ursolic acid, a metabolite present in R. officinalis, also synergized the antinociceptive effect of ketorolac. While, the oleanolic acid present in both medicinal species did not show a synergistic antinociceptive effect in combination with ketorolac. No adverse effects were observed with these herb-drug interactions. These findings suggest that essential oil S. aromaticum and ethanolic extract R. officinalis could be useful in combination with ketorolac for the treatment of inflammatory pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of honokiol and magnolol isolated from Magnolia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Ho, K Y; Tsai, C C; Chen, C P; Huang, J S; Lin, C C

    2001-03-01

    The antimicrobial activity of honokiol and magnolol, the main constituents of Magnolia officinalis was investigated. The antimicrobial activity was assayed by the agar dilution method using brain heart infusion medium and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined for each compound using a twofold serial dilution assay. The results showed that honokiol and magnolol have a marked antimicrobial effect (MIC = 25 microg/mL) against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus subtilis, but did not show antimicrobial activity (MIC > or = 100 microg/mL) for Shigella flexneii, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Our results indicate that honokiol and magnolol, although less potent than tetracycline, show a significant antimicrobial activity for periodontal pathogens. Hence we suggest that honokiol and magnolol might have the potential to be an adjunct in the treatment of periodontitis. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. [Salvia officinalis l. I. Botanic characteristics, composition, use and cultivation].

    PubMed

    Daniela, T

    1993-06-01

    Salvia officinalis L. is an essential oil containing plant, which does not wildly grow in the territories of the Czech and Slovak Republics but it can be successfully cultivated. It is a perennial half-shrub, from which non-flowering herbaceous sprouts or leaves are collected for pharmaceutical purposes. After drying at a temperature not exceeding 35 degrees C they are the plant drugs Herba salviae or Folium salviae. In PhBs, Herba salviae is official. The drug contains mainly ethereal oil (1-2%), diterpenes, triterpenes and tannin. The pharmacopoeial criterion of quality is the content of essential oil, which is produced in an increased amount in the plant in warm summer months. Herba salviae and the extracts prepared from it are used as an antiseptic agent, an antiphlogistic agent, in the inflammations of the oral cavity and gingivitis and also as a stomachic and an antihydrotic agent. Its utilization in cosmetics and food industry is also of importance.

  16. Antiscalant properties of Spergularia rubra and Parietaria officinalis aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheap-Charpentier, Hélène; Gelus, Dominique; Pécoul, Nathalie; Perrot, Hubert; Lédion, Jean; Horner, Olivier; Sadoun, Jonathan; Cachet, Xavier; Litaudon, Marc; Roussi, Fanny

    2016-06-01

    The formation of calcium carbonate in water has important implications in industry. Chemical antiscalant is usually used to control scale depositions. Plant extracts have been recently used as new green antiscalant agents, as they can be easily prepared and are environmentally friendly. In this study, stock aqueous solutions of Spergularia rubra and Parietaria officinalis, two plants used in traditional medicine to treat or prevent urolithiasis, were obtained by infusion. The antiscaling properties of these extracts towards CaCO3 formation were tested by using chronoamperometry and Fast Controlled Precipitation methods. The aqueous solution of S. rubra was further fractionated to isolate compounds of lower polarity. Their efficiency towards CaCO3 precipitation was characterized by Fast Controlled Precipitation method. The inhibiting efficiency of this fractionated solution was greater than that of the stock aqueous solution.

  17. Analysis of sesquiterpenes in Valeriana officinalis by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Mikell, J R; Ganzera, M; Khan, I A

    2001-12-01

    A capillary electrophoresis (CE) method permitting the determination of the main sesquiterpenes in Valeriana officinalis has been developed. A separation of valerenic acid and its hydroxy and acetoxy derivatives, three compounds characteristic for the species, was achieved using a 40 mM phosphate-borate buffer at pH 8.5, which contained 10% isopropanol as organic modifier. Applied temperature and voltage were 35 degrees C and 17.5 kV, respectively. This setup allowed a baseline separation of the three compounds within 8 min, with a detection limit of 5.8 micrograms/ml or less. Out of six market products analyzed, only one contained a detectable amount of the marker compounds, with 0.54% of hydroxyvalerenic acid and 0.13% valerenic acid, respectively. The quantitative results were comparable to those obtained by HPLC.

  18. Sesquiterpenoids and lignans from the roots of Valeriana officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Chen, Rui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Ma, Qing-Yun; Liu, Yu-Qing; Hu, Jiang-Miao; Huang, Sheng-Zhuo; Jiang, He-Zhong; Chen, Zhong-Quan; Zhou, Jun; Zhao, You-Xing

    2011-10-01

    Two new guaiane-type sesquiterpenoids, valerol A (1) and kessyl 3-acetate (2), together with nine known compounds, valeracetate (3), anismol A (4), orientalol C (5), spatulenol (6), 4α,10α-epoxyaromadendrane (7), (+)-8-hydroxypinoresinol (8), pinorespiol (9), pinoresinol 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (10), and 8-hydroxypinoresinol 4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (11) were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis. The structures and relative configurations of 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods (1D- and 2D-NMR, MS, UV, and IR). These compounds were evaluated for inhibitory activity on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and enhancing activity on nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  19. Camouflage during movement in the European cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis).

    PubMed

    Josef, Noam; Berenshtein, Igal; Fiorito, Graziano; Sykes, António V; Shashar, Nadav

    2015-11-01

    A moving object is considered conspicuous because of the movement itself. When moving from one background to another, even dynamic camouflage experts such as cephalopods should sacrifice their extraordinary camouflage. Therefore, minimizing detection at this stage is crucial and highly beneficial. In this study, we describe a background-matching mechanism during movement, which aids the cuttlefish to downplay its presence throughout movement. In situ behavioural experiments using video and image analysis, revealed a delayed, sigmoidal, colour-changing mechanism during movement of Sepia officinalis across uniform black and grey backgrounds. This is a first important step in understanding dynamic camouflage during movement, and this new behavioural mechanism may be incorporated and applied to any dynamic camouflaging animal or man-made system on the move. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. A homeopathic remedy from arnica, marigold, St. John's wort and comfrey accelerates in vitro wound scratch closure of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Hostanska, Katarina; Rostock, Matthias; Melzer, Joerg; Baumgartner, Stephan; Saller, Reinhard

    2012-07-18

    Drugs of plant origin such as Arnica montana, Calendula officinalis or Hypericum perforatum have been frequently used to promote wound healing. While their effect on wound healing using preparations at pharmacological concentrations was supported by several in vitro and clinical studies, investigations of herbal homeopathic remedies on wound healing process are rare. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a commercial low potency homeopathic remedy Similasan® Arnica plus Spray on wound closure in a controlled, blind trial in vitro. We investigated the effect of an ethanolic preparation composed of equal parts of Arnica montana 4x, Calendula officinalis 4x, Hypericum perforatum 4x and Symphytum officinale 6x (0712-2), its succussed hydroalcoholic solvent (0712-1) and unsuccussed solvent (0712-3) on NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Cell viability was determined by WST-1 assay, cell growth using BrdU uptake, cell migration by chemotaxis assay and wound closure by CytoSelect ™Wound Healing Assay Kit which generated a defined "wound field". All assays were performed in three independent controlled experiments. None of the three substances affected cell viability and none showed a stimulating effect on cell proliferation. Preparation (0712-2) exerted a stimulating effect on fibroblast migration (31.9%) vs 14.7% with succussed solvent (0712-1) at 1:100 dilutions (p < 0.001). Unsuccussed solvent (0712-3) had no influence on cell migration (6.3%; p > 0.05). Preparation (0712-2) at a dilution of 1:100 promoted in vitro wound closure by 59.5% and differed significantly (p < 0.001) from succussed solvent (0712-1), which caused 22.1% wound closure. Results of this study showed that the low potency homeopathic remedy (0712-2) exerted in vitro wound closure potential in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. This effect resulted from stimulation of fibroblasts motility rather than of their mitosis.

  1. New Insights into Sepsis Therapy Using Sepia Officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Amel M.; Fahmy, Sohair R.; Sayed, Amany A.; Abd El-Latif, Asmaa A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sepsis remains a major problem for both scientists and clinicians. Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) is considered the gold standard for animal models of sepsis. The undesirable side effects of certain antibiotics have forced scientists to discover new, natural, and safe antimicrobial agents, such as cephalopods, which are known to display significant antimicrobial activity. Objectives: The present investigation aims to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antibacterial and antiseptic efficacy of Sepia officinalis body tissue (SOBT) extract and S. officinalis polysaccharide (SOP) from its cuttlebone. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight rats were divided into 4 groups, and starting 2 hours after CLP, treatments were given for 2 days as follows: sham control rats treated orally with distilled water, septic rats treated orally distilled water, septic rats treated orally methanolic extract of SOBT (500 mg/kg b.wt) suspended in distilled water, and septic rats treated orally SOP extract (200 mg /kg b.wt) dissolved in distilled water. On the third day, half of the rats in each group were euthanized for blood collection. The other half were kept alive and used for the survival study. Results: The present study revealed that the SOBT and SOP extracts showed in vitro bactericidal activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Furthermore, administration of SOBT and SOP increased the rats’ survival rates by 66.7% and 83.33%, respectively, as compared to the untreated CLP-septic rats. Treatment of the CLP-septic rats with SOBT and SOP significantly alleviated alterations in procalcitonin levels and in some hematological parameters induced by CLP. Conclusions: SOBT and SOP had profound antiseptic efficacy. PMID:27099690

  2. MedlinePlus: Herbs and Supplements

    MedlinePlus

    ... T U V W XYZ 0-9 Browse dietary supplements and herbal remedies to learn about their effectiveness, ... C Calcium National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary Supplements Calendula Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Cancell/Cantron/Protocel ( ...

  3. Preliminary Report on Floodplain Animals of the Upper Mississippi River and the Illinois Waterway Including Some Probable Impacts of Increased Commercial Traffic,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    case of the canvasback, it is conceivable that a large oil spill in a concentration area during the peak migration period could destroy a substantial...winter crowned Lichtenstein secondary resident kinglet succession 123. Ruby-crowned Regulus calendula Statewide Statewide younger stand, C winter...Regulus calendula . Ruby-crowned Kinglet TV-c Family MOTACLLLIDAS - pipits Anthus spinoletta ’Water Pipit, TV-r Family BOHIYCILLIDAE - waxwings

  4. Anti-epileptogenic and antioxidant effect of Lavandula officinalis aerial part extract against pentylenetetrazol-induced kindling in male mice.

    PubMed

    Rahmati, Batool; Khalili, Mohsen; Roghani, Mehrdad; Ahghari, Parisa

    2013-06-21

    Repeated application of Lavandula officinalis (L. officinalis) has been recommended for a long time in Iranian traditional medicine for some of nervous disorders like epilepsy and dementia. However, there is no available report for the effect of chronic administration of Lavandula extract in development (acquisition) of epilepsy. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the anti-epileptogenic and antioxidant activity of repeated administration of Lavandula officinalis extract on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) kindling seizures in mice model. Lavandula officinalis was tested for its ability (i) to suppress the seizure intensity and lethal effects of PTZ in kindled mice (anti-epileptogenic effect), (ii) to attenuate the PTZ-induced oxidative injury in the brain tissue (antioxidant effect) when given as a pretreatment prior to each PTZ injection during kindling development. Valproate (Val), a major antiepileptic drug, was also tested for comparison. Val and Lavandula officinalis extract showed anti-epileptogenic properties as they reduced seizure score of kindled mice and PTZ-induced mortality. In this regard, Lavandula officinalis was more effective than Val. Both Lavandula officinalis and Val suppressed brain nitric oxide (NO) level of kindled mice in comparison with the control and PTZ group. Meanwhile, Lavandula officinalis suppressed NO level more than Val and Lavandula officinalis also decreased brain MDA level relative to PTZ group. This is the first report to demonstrate NO suppressing and anti-epileptogenic effect of chronic administration of Lavandula officinalis extract on acquisition of epilepsy in PTZ kindling mice model. In this regard, Lavandula officinalis extract was more effective than Val, possibly and in part via brain NO suppression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Root nodulation in the wetland tree Pterocarpus officinalis along coastal and montane systems of Northeast of Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    Rachel Pérez; Tamara Heartsill Scalley

    2008-01-01

    In Puerto Rico, brackish water wetlands were dominated by Pterocarpus officinalis previous to extensive deforestation due to agriculture. Today remnant wetlands are limited to small areas that are threatened by rise in sea level. We examined the root nodules of P. officinalis in montane and coastal sites and at 0, 10, 20 cm from the surface to determine if site...

  6. Nutrient and salt relations of Pterocarpus officinalis L. in coastal wetlands of the Caribbean: assessment through leaf and soil analyses.

    Treesearch

    Ernesto Medina; Elvira Cuevas; Ariel Lugo

    2007-01-01

    Pterocarpus officinalis L. is a dominant tree of freshwater coastal wetlands in the Caribbean and the Guiana regions. It is frequently associated with mangroves in areas with high rainfall and/or surface run-off. We hypothesized that P. officinalis is a freshwater swamp species that when occurring in association with mangroves occupies low-salinity soil microsites, or...

  7. Brachycorynella asparagi (Mordv.) Induced—Oxidative Stress and Antioxidative Defenses of Asparagus officinalis L.

    PubMed Central

    Borowiak-Sobkowiak, Beata; Woźniak, Agnieszka; Bednarski, Waldemar; Formela, Magda; Samardakiewicz, Sławomir; Morkunas, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether and to what extent oxidative stress is induced in leaves of one- and two-month-old plants of Asparagus officinalis L. cv. Argenteuil infested by Brachycorynella asparagi (Mordvilko) at a varied population size. The pest B. asparagi has been described as the most damaging species feeding on asparagus. Analyses using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) demonstrated generally higher concentrations of semiquinone radicals with g-values of 2.0045 ± 0.0005 and 2.0026 ± 0.0005 in Asparagus officinalis (A. officinalis) leaves after Brachycorynella asparagi (B. asparagi) infestation than in the control. Observations of leaves under a confocal microscope showed a post-infestation enhanced generation of the superoxide anion radical (O2•−) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in comparison to the control. Strong fluctuations in Mn2+ ion levels detected by EPR spectroscopy versus time were detected in leaves infested by aphids, which may indicate the involvement of these ions in the control of O2•− production. An enhanced superoxide dismutase activity is an important element in leaf defense against oxidative stress. Visible symptoms were found in aphid-infested A. officinalis. Damage to leaves of one- and two-month-old A. officinalis plants by the aphid B. asparagi was dependent on the intensity, duration of infestation and plant age. PMID:27775613

  8. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis on nicotine-induced convulsion in mice.

    PubMed

    Arzi, A; Ahamehe, M; Sarahroodi, S

    2011-06-01

    Epilepsy an important CNS (central nervous system) problem that about 1% of world's population suffer of it. The aim of study was to evaluate of anticonvulsant effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis. In this study, anticonvulsant activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis (L. officinalis) was studied against chemoconvulsant-induced seizures in male mice. Lavandula officinalis (100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg kg(-1)), diazepam (0.15 mg kg(-1)) and normal saline (10 mL kg(-1)) were injected intraperitoneally, respectively in different groups of mice, 30 min before nicotine (5 mg kg(-) i.p.). The onset time intensity and duration of convulsions and the percentage of death were recorded. Also the time-response (0, 15, 30, 45, 60 min before nicotine injection) for most effective dose of plant extract (600 mg kg(-1)) was investigated. The results showed that hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis had anticonvulsant effect. The most effective dose of plant extract was 600 mg kg(-1). In time-response study for the most effective dose of extract (600 mg kg(-1)), the onset, duration and intensity of convulsion significantly (p < 0.05) increased, decreased and decreased, respectively for all tested times. The best response observed in 30, 45 and 60 min. The results showed significant anticonvulsant effect for hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula.

  9. Valeriana officinalis Dry Plant Extract for Direct Compression: Preparation and Characterization.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Loreana; Ramírez-Rigo, María Veronica; Piña, Juliana; Palma, Santiago; Allemandi, Daniel; Bucalá, Verónica

    2012-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerianaceae) is one of the most widely used plants for the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. Usually dry plant extracts, including V. officinalis, are hygroscopic materials with poor physico-mechanical properties that can be directly compressed.A V. officinalis dry extract with moderate hygroscocity is suitable for direct compression, and was obtained by using a simple and economical technique. The V. officinalis fluid extract was oven-dried with colloidal silicon dioxide as a drying adjuvant. The addition of colloidal silicon dioxide resulted in a dry plant extract with good physico-mechanical properties for direct compression and lower hygroscopicity than the dry extract without the carrier. The dry plant extract glass transition temperature was considerably above room temperature (about 72 °C). The colloidal silicon dioxide also produced an antiplasticizing effect, improving the powder's physical stability.The pharmaceutical performance of the prepared V. officinalis dry extract was studied through the design of tablets. The manufactured tablets showed good compactability, friability, hardness, and disintegration time. Those containing a disintegrant (Avicel PH 101) exhibited the best pharmaceutical performance, having the lowest disintegration time of around 40 seconds.

  10. Valeriana officinalis ameliorates vacuous chewing movements induced by reserpine in rats.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Romaiana Picada; Fachinetto, Roselei; de Souza Prestes, Alessandro; Wagner, Caroline; Sudati, Jéssie Haigert; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Morsch, Vera Maria; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2011-11-01

    Oral movements are associated with important neuropathologies as Parkinson's disease and tardive dyskinesia. However, until this time, there has been no known efficacious treatment, without side effects, for these disorders. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the possible preventive effects of V. officinalis, a phytotherapic that has GABAergic and antioxidant properties, in vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) induced by reserpine in rats. Adult male rats were treated with reserpine (1 mg/kg, s.c.) and/or with V. officinalis (in the drinking water, starting 15 days before the administration of the reserpine). VCMs, locomotor activity and oxidative stress measurements were evaluated. Furthermore, we carried out the identification of valeric acid and gallic acid by HPLC in the V. officinalis tincture. Our findings demonstrated that reserpine caused a marked increase on VCMs and the co-treatment with V. officinalis was able to reduce the intensity of VCM. Reserpine did not induce oxidative stress in cerebral structures (cortex, hippocampus, striatum and substantia nigra). However, a significant positive correlation between DCF-oxidation (an estimation of oxidative stress) in the cortex and VCMs (p < 0.05) was observed. Moreover, a negative correlation between Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity in substantia nigra and the number of VCMs was observed (p < 0.05). In conclusion, V. officinalis had behavioral protective effect against reserpine-induced VCMs in rats; however, the exact mechanisms that contributed to this effect have not been completely understood.

  11. Valeriana officinalis Dry Plant Extract for Direct Compression: Preparation and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Loreana; Ramírez-Rigo, María Veronica; Piña, Juliana; Palma, Santiago; Allemandi, Daniel; Bucalá, Verónica

    2012-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerianaceae) is one of the most widely used plants for the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. Usually dry plant extracts, including V. officinalis, are hygroscopic materials with poor physico-mechanical properties that can be directly compressed. A V. officinalis dry extract with moderate hygroscocity is suitable for direct compression, and was obtained by using a simple and economical technique. The V. officinalis fluid extract was oven-dried with colloidal silicon dioxide as a drying adjuvant. The addition of colloidal silicon dioxide resulted in a dry plant extract with good physico-mechanical properties for direct compression and lower hygroscopicity than the dry extract without the carrier. The dry plant extract glass transition temperature was considerably above room temperature (about 72 °C). The colloidal silicon dioxide also produced an antiplasticizing effect, improving the powder’s physical stability. The pharmaceutical performance of the prepared V. officinalis dry extract was studied through the design of tablets. The manufactured tablets showed good compactability, friability, hardness, and disintegration time. Those containing a disintegrant (Avicel PH 101) exhibited the best pharmaceutical performance, having the lowest disintegration time of around 40 seconds. PMID:23264947

  12. Drought-tolerant rice germplasm developed from an Oryza officinalis transformation-competent artificial chromosome clone.

    PubMed

    Liu, R; Zhang, H H; Chen, Z X; Shahid, M Q; Fu, X L; Liu, X D

    2015-10-29

    Oryza officinalis has proven to be a natural gene reservoir for the improvement of domesticated rice as it carries many desirable traits; however, the transfer of elite genes to cultivated rice by conventional hybridization has been a challenge for rice breeders. In this study, the conserved sequence of plant stress-related NAC transcription factors was selected as a probe to screen the O. officinalis genomic transformation-competent artificial chromosome library by Southern blot; 11 positive transformation-competent artificial chromosome clones were subsequently detected. By Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, an indica rice variety, Huajingxian 74 (HJX74), was transformed with a TAC clone harboring a NAC gene-positive genomic fragment from O. officinalis. Molecular analysis revealed that the O. officinalis genomic fragment was integrated into the genome of HJX74. The transgenic lines exhibited high tolerance to drought stress. Our results demonstrate that the introduction of stress-related transformation-competent artificial chromosome clones, coupled with a transgenic validation approach, is an effective method of transferring agronomically important genes from O. officinalis to cultivated rice.

  13. Reduction of intoxication in the rats with transplanted tumors under the influence of Gratiola officinalis L. extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navolokin, N. A.; Polukonova, A. V.; Plastun, I. L.; Mudrak, D. A.; Bokarev, A. N.; Afanasyeva, G. A.; Bucharskaya, A. B.; Maslyakova, G. N.; Polukonova, N. V.

    2018-04-01

    This study focuses on the effect of the flavonoid-containing Gratiola officinalis L. extract with antitumor activity on the intensity of peroxidation and the content of vitamin E in the blood serum of animals with transplanted liver cancer PC-1. Intramuscular and oral administrations of the Gratiola officinalis extract in a dose of 110 mg/kg reduce MDA concentration (more than 20 times) and lipid hydroperoxide (more than 1.5 times) in rats with transplanted tumors. This effect leads to decrease in intensity of lipid peroxidation processes in animals. The Gratiola officinalis extract administration increases the vitamin E concentration (more than 1.3 times) in the serum of rats. This result enables to suggest that the extract of Gratiola officinalis contains the tocopherols. Thus, the study of mechanisms of the Gratiola officinalis extract influence on the activity of peroxidation processes and on the activation of the antioxidant system is promising.

  14. Rosmarinus Officinalis Leaves as a Natural Source of Bioactive Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Stojanović, Zorica; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Arráez-Román, David; Švarc-Gajić, Jaroslava; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In an extensive search for bioactive compounds from plant sources, the composition of different extracts of rosemary leaves collected from different geographical zones of Serbia was studied. The qualitative and quantitative characterization of 20 rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) samples, obtained by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS). The high mass accuracy and true isotopic pattern in both MS and MS/MS spectra provided by the QTOF-MS analyzer enabled the characterization of a wide range of phenolic compounds in the extracts, including flavonoids, phenolic diterpenes and abietan-type triterpenoids, among others. According to the data compiled, rosemary samples from Sokobanja presented the highest levels in flavonoids and other compounds such as carnosol, rosmaridiphenol, rosmadial, rosmarinic acid, and carnosic acid. On the other hand, higher contents in triterpenes were found in the extracts of rosemary from Gložan (Vojvodina). PMID:25391044

  15. Rosmarinus officinalis Extract Suppresses Propionibacterium acnes–Induced Inflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chuang, Lu-Te; Lien, Tsung-Jung; Liing, Yau-Rong; Chen, Wei-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Propionibacterium acnes is a key pathogen involved in the progression of acne inflammation. The development of a new agent possessing antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity against P. acnes is therefore of interest. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract on P. acnes–induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that ethanolic rosemary extract (ERE) significantly suppressed the secretion and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α in P. acnes–stimulated monocytic THP-1 cells. In an in vivo mouse model, concomitant intradermal injection of ERE attenuated the P. acnes–induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. Since ERE suppressed the P. acnes–induced nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation and mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, the suppressive effect of ERE might be due, at least partially, to diminished NF-κB activation and TLR2-mediated signaling pathways. Furthermore, three major constituents of ERE, carnosol, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid, exerted different immumodulatory activities in vitro. In brief, rosmarinic acid significantly suppressed IL-8 production, while the other two compounds inhibited IL-1β production. Further study is needed to explore the role of bioactive compounds of rosemary in mitigation of P. acnes–induced inflammation. PMID:23514231

  16. Acylated iridoids from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhu-zhen; Yan, Zhao-hui; Liu, Qing-xin; Hu, Xian-qing; Ye, Ji; Li, Hui-liang; Zhang, Wei-dong

    2012-10-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia resulted in the isolation and characterization of six new acylated iridoids, (5S,7S,8S,9S)-7-hydroxy-8-isovaleroyloxy-Δ⁴,¹¹-dihyronepetalactone (1), (5S,7S,8S,9S)-7-hydroxy-10-isovaleroyloxy-Δ⁴,¹¹-dihyronepetalactone (2), (5S,8S,9S)-10-isovaleroyloxy-Δ⁴,¹¹-dihyronepetalactone (3), (5S,6S,8S,9R)-6-isovaleroyloxy-Δ⁴,¹¹-1,3-diol (4), (5S,6S,8S,9R)-1,3-isovaleroxy-Δ4,11-1,3-diol (5), and (5S,6S,8S,9R)-3-isovaleroxy-6-isovaleroyloxy-Δ⁴,¹¹-1,3-diol (6). Their structures were determined mainly by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques. We also report herein for the first time the single crystal X-ray structure of compound 1. In addition, the cytotoxic activities of compounds 1-6 were evaluated against A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma), HCT116 (human colon carcinoma), SK-BR-3 (human breast carcinoma), and HepG2 (human hepatoma) cell lines. Compound 6 showed weak cell growth inhibition of A549, HCT116, SK-BR-3, and HepG2 cells. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Biological and analytical characterization of two extracts from Valeriana officinalis.

    PubMed

    Circosta, Clara; De Pasquale, Rita; Samperi, Stefania; Pino, Annalisa; Occhiuto, Francesco

    2007-06-13

    The anticoronaryspastic and antibronchospastic activities of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Valeriana officinalis L. roots were investigated in anaesthetized guinea-pigs and the results were correlated with the qualitative/quantitative chemical composition of the extracts in order to account for some of the common uses of this plant. The protective effects of orally administered ethanolic and aqueous extracts (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) were evaluated against pitressin-induced coronary spasm and pressor response in guinea-pigs and were compared with those of nifedipine. Furthermore, the protective effects against histamine-induced and Oleaceae antigen challenge-induced bronchospasm were evaluated. Finally, the two valerian extracts were analytically characterized by qualitative and quantitative chromatographic analysis. The results showed that the two valeriana extracts possessed significant anticoronaryspastic, antihypertensive and antibronchospastic properties. These were similar to those exhibited by nifedipine and are due to the structural features of the active principles they contain. This study justifies the traditional use of this plant in the treatment of some respiratory and cardiovascular disorders.

  18. Development of imidazolinone herbicide tolerant borage (Borago officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Song, Dongyan; Wu, Guohai; Vrinten, Patricia; Qiu, Xiao

    2017-09-01

    Borage (Borago officinalis) is an annual herb that produces a high level of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) in its seed oil. Due to the recognized health benefits of GLA, borage is now commercially cultivated worldwide. However, an herbicide-tolerant variety for effective weed management has not yet been developed. Here we report the generation and characterization of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) induced borage mutant lines tolerant to the herbicide imidazolinone. An EMS-mutagenized borage population was generated by using a series of concentrations of EMS to treat mature borage seeds. Screening of the M2 and M3 borage plants using an herbicide treatment resulted in the identification of two imidazolinone-tolerant lines. Sequence analysis of two acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) genes, AHAS1 and AHAS2, from the mutant (tolerant) and wild type (susceptible) borage plants showed that single nucleotide substitutions which resulted in amino acid changes occurred in AHAS1 and AHAS2, respectively in the two tolerant lines. A KASP marker was then developed to differentiate the homozygous susceptible, homozygous tolerant and heterozygous borage plants. An in vitro assay showed that homozygous tolerant borage carrying the AHAS1 mutation retained significantly higher AHAS activity than susceptible borage across different imazamox concentrations. A herbicide dose response test indicated that the line with the AHAS1 mutation could tolerate four times the normally used field concentration of "Solo" herbicide. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. [Diuretic activity of the infusion of flowers from Lavandula officinalis].

    PubMed

    Elhajili, M; Baddouri, K; Elkabbaj, S; Meiouat, F; Settaf, A

    2001-01-01

    The diuretic activity of an infusion of Lavandula officinalis was studied in the Wistar rat. Thus, the kinetics of hydroelectrolytic elimination in response to the oral administration of an infusion of pharmaceutical lavender flowers were measured in the rats. Experiments were completed under similar conditions using a synthetic pharmacological diuretic, Diamox. The aqueous extract of this aromatic plant accelerated the elimination of the water overload. At the peak of the diuretic response, urinary osmolarity was significantly less than that of controls (111+/-14 vs. 195+/-11 mosmol x kg(-1)). Sodium excretion was moderate following administration of the infusion when compared to the synthetic diuretic. The stability of the aldosterone concentrations in the plasma and the absence of correlation with plasma sodium concentrations, coupled with the observed clearance of the free water (0.055+/-0.007 vs. 0.045+/-0.012 mL x min(-1)) show that the increase in diuresis and the moderate increase in sodium excretion are of tubular origin. The result of the phytochemical analysis of hexane extracts in the infusion and in urine indicated that four or five chemical factors may be involved in the diuretic effect of lavender.

  20. On the respiratory flow in the cuttlefish sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Bone, Q; Brown, E; Travers, G

    1994-09-01

    The respiratory flow of water over the gills of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis at rest is produced by the alternate activity of the radial muscles of the mantle and the musculature of the collar flaps; mantle circular muscle fibres are not involved. Inspiration takes place as the radial fibres contract, thinning the mantle and expanding the mantle cavity. The rise in mantle cavity pressure (up to 0.15 kPa), expelling water via the siphon during expiration, is brought about by inward movement of the collar flaps and (probably) mainly by elastic recoil of the mantle connective tissue network 'wound up' by radial fibre contraction during inspiration. Sepia also shows a second respiratory pattern, in which mantle cavity pressures during expiration are greater (up to 0.25 kPa). Here, the mantle circular fibres are involved, as they are during the large pressure transients (up to 10 kPa) seen during escape jetting. Active contraction of the muscles of the collar flaps is seen in all three patterns of expulsion of water from the mantle cavity, electrical activity increasing with increasing mantle cavity pressures. Respiratory expiration in the resting squid Loligo vulgaris is probably driven as in Sepia, whereas in the resting octopus Eledone cirrhosa, the mantle circular musculature is active during expiration. The significance of these observations is discussed.

  1. MYB transcription factor gene involved in sex determination in Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Murase, Kohji; Shigenobu, Shuji; Fujii, Sota; Ueda, Kazuki; Murata, Takanori; Sakamoto, Ai; Wada, Yuko; Yamaguchi, Katsushi; Osakabe, Yuriko; Osakabe, Keishi; Kanno, Akira; Ozaki, Yukio; Takayama, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    Dioecy is a plant mating system in which individuals of a species are either male or female. Although many flowering plants evolved independently from hermaphroditism to dioecy, the molecular mechanism underlying this transition remains largely unknown. Sex determination in the dioecious plant Asparagus officinalis is controlled by X and Y chromosomes; the male and female karyotypes are XY and XX, respectively. Transcriptome analysis of A. officinalis buds showed that a MYB-like gene, Male Specific Expression 1 (MSE1), is specifically expressed in males. MSE1 exhibits tight linkage with the Y chromosome, specific expression in early anther development and loss of function on the X chromosome. Knockout of the MSE1 orthologue in Arabidopsis induces male sterility. Thus, MSE1 acts in sex determination in A. officinalis. © 2016 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Biosynthesis of flat silver nanoflowers: from Flos Magnoliae Officinalis extract to simulation solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Xiaolian; Huang, Jiale; Wu, Lingfeng; Sun, Daohua; Li, Qingbiao

    2014-03-01

    Flat Ag nanoflowers were directly synthesized from the bioreduction of AgNO3 using Flos Magnoliae Officinalis extract without any additional stabilizer or protective agent at room temperature. Effects of concentrations of the Flos Magnoliae Officinalis extract on the Ag nanostructures were investigated. The main components containing flavone, polyphenol, protein, and reducing sugar in the plant extract were thoroughly determined before and after the reaction, and the dialysis experiments were also conducted. The results of components analysis and dialysis showed that gallic acid representing polyphenols played an important role in the biosynthesis of silver nanoplates. Trisodium citrate combined gallic acid solution, instead of Flos Magnoliae Officinalis extract, was employed and successfully simulated the biosynthesis process of the flat Ag nanoflowers.

  3. Ascorbic acid and tannins from Emblica officinalis Gaertn. Fruits--a revisit.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Muhammed; Bhat, Beena; Jadhav, Atul N; Srivastava, Jyotish S; Nagabhushanam, Kalyanam

    2009-01-14

    The fruits of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (Euphorbiaceae), also known as amla in Ayurveda, are considered to be a rich source of ascorbic acid. However, the antioxidant activities exhibited by E. officinalis extract are superior to those of ascorbic acid itself. Low molecular hydrolyzable tannins emblicanins A and B have been suggested in the earlier literature to be the contributory antioxidant molecules in the extract. This work finds no evidence for the presence of emblicanins A and B in the extract. In addition, the high content of ascorbic acid is also questionable due to previous nonidentification of coeluting mucic acid gallates. This paper reports a new HPLC method to detect even trace amounts of ascorbic acid in E. officinalis fruit juice or extract.

  4. Essential oils of aromatic Egyptian plants repel nymphs of the tick Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    El-Seedi, Hesham R; Azeem, Muhammad; Khalil, Nasr S; Sakr, Hanem H; Khalifa, Shaden A M; Awang, Khalijah; Saeed, Aamer; Farag, Mohamed A; AlAjmi, Mohamed F; Pålsson, Katinka; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2017-09-01

    Due to the role of Ixodes ricinus (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) in the transmission of many serious pathogens, personal protection against bites of this tick is essential. In the present study the essential oils from 11 aromatic Egyptian plants were isolated and their repellent activity against I. ricinus nymphs was evaluated Three oils (i.e. Conyza dioscoridis L., Artemisia herba-alba Asso and Calendula officinalis L.) elicited high repellent activity in vitro of 94, 84.2 and 82%, respectively. The most active essential oil (C. dioscoridis) was applied in the field at a concentration of 6.5 µg/cm 2 and elicited a significant repellent activity against I. ricinus nymphs by 61.1%. The most repellent plants C. dioscoridis, C. officinalis and A. herba-alba yielded essential oils by 0.17, 0.11 and 0.14%, respectively. These oils were further investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. α-Cadinol (10.7%) and hexadecanoic acid (10.5%) were the major components of C. dioscoridis whereas in C. officinalis, α-cadinol (21.2%) and carvone (18.2%) were major components. Artemisia herba-alba contained piperitone (26.5%), ethyl cinnamate (9.5%), camphor (7.7%) and hexadecanoic acid (6.9%). Essential oils of these three plants have a potential to be used for personal protection against tick bites.

  5. Preliminary phytochemical, acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of roots of Paeonia officinalis Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Feroz; Tabassum, Nahida

    2013-01-01

    Objective To carry out a preliminary phytochemical, acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of the roots of Paeonia officinalis (P. officinalis) L. Methods Preliminary phytochemical investigation was done as per standard procedures. Acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per OECD 425 guidelines. The antihepatotoxic activity of aqueous extract of root of P. officinalis was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in rats. Aqueous extract of P. officinalis at the dose levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight was administered daily for 14 d in experimental animals. Liver injury was induced chemically, by CCl4 administration (1 mL/kg i.p.). The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters like aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP), total bilirubin and total protein (TP) along with histopathological studies. Result Phytochemical screening revealed that the roots of P. officinalis contain alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids, terpenes, steroids and proteins. The aqueous extract did not cause any mortality up to 2 000 mg/kg. In rats that had received the root extract at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, the substantially elevated AST, ALT, SALP, total bilirubin levels were significantly lowered, respectively, in a dose dependent manner, along with CCl4 while TP levels were elevated in these groups. Histopathology revealed regeneration of the livers in extract treated groups while Silymarin treated rats were almost normal. Conclusions The aqueous extract of P. officinalis is safe and possesses antihepatotoxic potential. PMID:23570019

  6. Antioxidant Activities and Caffeic Acid Content in New Zealand Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) Roots Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongxia; Al-Juhaimi, Fahad Y.; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    Asparagus officinalis are perennial plants that require re-planting every 10–20 years. The roots are traditionally mulched in the soil or treated as waste. The A. officinalis roots (AR) contain valuable bioactive compounds that may have some health benefiting properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the total polyphenol and flavonoid contents (TPC and TFC, respectively) and antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) and Ferric Reducing/Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assays) activities of New Zealand AR extract. The antioxidant activity decreased with a longer extraction time. PMID:29617287

  7. Sedative and sleep-enhancing properties of linarin, a flavonoid-isolated from Valeriana officinalis.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Sebastián; Wasowski, Cristina; Paladini, Alejandro C; Marder, Mariel

    2004-02-01

    We have recently reported the presence of the anxiolytic flavone 6-methylapigenin (MA) and of the sedative and sleep-enhancing flavanone glycoside 2S (-) hesperidin (HN) in Valeriana officinalis and Valeriana wallichii. MA, in turn, was able to potentiate the sleep-inducing properties of HN. The present paper reports the identification in V. officinalis of the flavone glycoside linarin (LN) and the discovery that it has, like HN, sedative and sleep-enhancing properties that are potentiated by simultaneous administration of valerenic acid (VA). These effects should be taken into account when considering the pharmacological actions of valeriana extracts.

  8. Three new germacrane-type sesquiterpenes with NGF-potentiating activity from Valeriana officinalis var. latiofolia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Heng-Wen; Chen, Li; Li, Bin; Yin, Hai-Long; Tian, Ying; Wang, Qiong; Xiao, Yan-Hua; Dong, Jun-Xing

    2013-11-14

    Three new germacrane-type sesquiterpenoids, volvalerenal F (1), volvalerenal G (2) and volvalerenic acid D (3), along with five known compounds 4-8, were isolated from the CHCl₃ soluble partition of the ethanol extract of Valeriana officinalis var. latiofolia. The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence, including their 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra, as well as mass spectrometry. The eight germacrane-type sesquiterpenoids showed nerve growth factor (NGF) potentiating activity, which mediates the neurite outgrowth in PC 12D cells. This study intends to reveal the chemical basis of the use of V. officinalis var. latiofolia as a dietary supplement.

  9. Melissa officinalis L. - A review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Shakeri, Abolfazl; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Javadi, Behjat

    2016-07-21

    Melissa officinalis L. is a medicinal plant that has long been used in different ethno-medical systems especially in the European Traditional Medicine and the Iranian Traditional Medicine for the treatment of several diseases. It is also widely used as a vegetable and to add flavor to dishes This review aimed to provide a summary on the botanical characterization, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, pharmacokinetics and toxicity of M. officinalis, and discusses research gaps and future opportunities for investigations on this plant. We extensively reviewed major unpublished old texts, and published and electronic literature on traditional medicines of different regions of the world to find traditional uses of M. officinalis. Electronic databases including Web of Science, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar and Scopus were searched to find articles (published between 1956 and 2015) on pharmacology and phytochemistry of M. officinalis. Traditional uses of M. officinalis have been recorded mostly in European countries, Mediterranean region and Middle East countries. Phytochemical investigations revealed that this plant contains volatile compounds, triterpenoids, phenolic acids and flavonoids. Crude extracts and pure compounds isolated from M. officinalis exhibited numerous pharmacological effects, from which only anxiolytic, antiviral and antispasmodic activities of this plant as well as its effects on mood, cognition and memory have been shown in clinical trials. AChE inhibitory activity, stimulation of the acetylcholine and GABAA receptors, as well as inhibition of matrix metallo proteinase-2 are the main mechanisms proposed for the widely discussed neurological effects of this plant. Modern pharmacological studies have now validated many traditional uses of M. officinalis. The data reviewed here revealed that M. officinalis is a potential source for the treatment of a wide range of diseases especially anxiety and some other CNS disorders

  10. Snake venom neutralization by Indian medicinal plants (Vitex negundo and Emblica officinalis) root extracts.

    PubMed

    Alam, M I; Gomes, A

    2003-05-01

    The methanolic root extracts of Vitex negundo Linn. and Emblica officinalis Gaertn. were explored for the first time for antisnake venom activity. The plant (V. negundo and E. officinalis) extracts significantly antagonized the Vipera russellii and Naja kaouthia venom induced lethal activity both in in vitro and in vivo studies. V. russellii venom-induced haemorrhage, coagulant, defibrinogenating and inflammatory activity was significantly neutralized by both plant extracts. No precipitating bands were observed between the plant extract and snake venom. The above observations confirmed that the plant extracts possess potent snake venom neutralizing capacity and need further investigation.

  11. Green biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Althaea officinalis radix hydroalcoholic extract.

    PubMed

    Korbekandi, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Chitsazi, Mohammad Reza; Bahri Najafi, Rahim; Badii, Akbar; Iravani, Siavash

    2016-01-01

    The objectives were to study the potential of Althaea officinalis radix in production of silver NPs, and the effect of the extract ethanol concentration on the produced NPs. Seventy and ninety-six percent hydroalcoholic extracts were prepared by percolation of the plant powder. The extract was concentrated by rotary evaporator and then freeze-dried. Silver ions were determined using atomic absorption analysis. The NPs were characterized by Nano-Zeta Sizer and TEM. Both of 70% and 96% of hydroalcoholic extracts of A. officinalis radix successfully synthesized spherical and poly-dispersed silver NPs. The conversion was fast and almost completed in 5 h.

  12. [Study on digitization of difference in drug color and odor of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex before and after perspiration].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Liang; Yan, Ren-Yi; Guo, Jian; Shao, Ai-Juan; Yang, Bin

    2013-01-01

    To digitalize the changes in characters of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex after perspiration with colorimeter and electronic nose. With perspired and non-perspired Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex as objective, colorimeter and electronic nose were used to detect their color characteristic parameter and odor characteristic parameter. Finally, an identification model was established. In terms of drug color, the color characteristic parameter model was established for perspired and non-perspired Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex on the basis of L*, a*, b* color spaces. The range of 90% of reference values of perspired Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex: L* (52.22-59.42), a* (5.36-7.68), b* (22.04-27.05). The range of 90% of reference values of non-perspired Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex: L* (38.42-47.31), a* (9.63-11.85), b* (18.48-25.53). In terms of drug odor, the principal component analysis (PCA) and the partial least squares method (PLS) showed significant difference between perspired and non-perspired Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex. The difference in drug color and odor of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex before and after perspiration can be digitalized according to color and odor characteristic parameters tested with colorimeter and electronic nose.

  13. Valeriana officinalis Root Extract Modulates Cortical Excitatory Circuits in Humans.

    PubMed

    Mineo, Ludovico; Concerto, Carmen; Patel, Dhaval; Mayorga, Tyrone; Paula, Michael; Chusid, Eileen; Aguglia, Eugenio; Battaglia, Fortunato

    2017-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis extract (VE) is a popular herbal medicine used for the treatment of anxiety and sleep disorders. Although the anxiolytic and sedative effects are mainly attributed to the modulation of GABA-ergic transmission, the mechanism of action has not been fully investigated in humans. Noninvasive brain stimulation protocols can be used to elucidate the mechanisms of action of psychoactive substances at the cortical level in humans. In this study, we investigated the effects of a single dose of VE on cortical excitability as assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Fifteen healthy volunteers participated in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled study. Subjects were required to take either 900 mg of VE (valerenic acid 0.8%) or placebo (an equal dose of vitamin E). Motor cortex excitability was studied by single and paired TMS before and at 1 h and 6 h after the oral administration. Cortical excitability was assessed using different TMS parameters: resting motor threshold, motor-evoked potential amplitude, cortical silent period, short-interval intracortical inhibition, and intracortical facilitation. Furthermore, we assessed sensorimotor integration by short-latency and long-latency afferent inhibition. We found a significant reduction in ICF, without any significant changes in other TMS measures of motor cortex excitability. The amount of ICF returned to baseline value 6 h after the intake of the VE. A single oral dose of VE modulates intracortical facilitatory circuits. Our results in healthy subjects could be predictive markers of treatment response in patients and further support the use of pharmaco-TMS to investigate the neuropsychiatric effects of herbal therapies in humans. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Role of invasive Melilotus officinalis in two native plant communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Riper, Laura C.; Larson, Diane L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the impact of the exotic nitrogen-fixing legume Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. on native and exotic species cover in two Great Plains ecosystems in Badlands National Park, South Dakota. Melilotus is still widely planted and its effects on native ecosystems are not well studied. Melilotus could have direct effects on native plants, such as through competition or facilitation. Alternatively, Melilotus may have indirect effects on natives, e.g., by favoring exotic species which in turn have a negative effect on native species. This study examined these interactions across a 4-year period in two contrasting vegetation types: Badlands sparse vegetation and western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii) mixed-grass prairie. Structural equation models were used to analyze the pathways through which Melilotus, native species, and other exotic species interact over a series of 2-year time steps. Melilotus can affect native and exotic species both in the current year and in the years after its death (a lag effect). A lag effect is possible because the death of a Melilotus plant can leave an open, potentially nitrogen-enriched site on the landscape. The results showed that the relationship between Melilotus and native and exotic species varied depending on the habitat and the year. In Badlands sparse vegetation, there was a consistent, strong, and positive relationship between Melilotus cover and native and exotic species cover suggesting that Melilotus is acting as a nurse plant and facilitating the growth of other species. In contrast, in western wheatgrass prairie, Melilotus was acting as a weak competitor and had no consistent effect on other species. In both habitats, there was little evidence for a direct lag effect of Melilotus on other species. Together, these results suggest both facilitative and competitive roles for Melilotus, depending on the vegetation type it invades.

  15. [Studies on HPLC chromatogram of phenolic constituents of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis].

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-hua; Guo, Bao-lin; Si, Jin-ping

    2005-07-01

    To study the chemical characteristic, to identify the different forms and to establish the new standard for the quality control of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis. HPLC method was used with acetonitrile-water (63:37) as the mobile phase at room temperature. The chromatographic column was Lichrospher 100 RP-18e (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm). The flow rate was 1 mL x min(-1), and the detection wavelength was 294 nm. The chromatograms of 45 individuals from 13 seed resources of Cortex Magnolia Officinalis were recorded. The chemical characteristics analysis and comparability' s calculation of seed resources were made. It was proposed that the area ratio of peak 5 to 6 (characteristic I) and the area ratio of peak 5 and 6 to the total peak areas (characteristic II) are the identification characteristics for different seed resources of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis. This method can be used effectively to identify the high quality seed resource of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis.

  16. Antioxidant activity and sensory assessment of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction, followed by a Soxhlet hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The ext...

  17. Antioxidant activity and sensory evaluation of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was developed using supercritical fluid extraction, followed by hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The extract contained RA at a conc...

  18. Flavonoids, Phenolic Acids and Coumarins from the Roots of Althaea officinalis.

    PubMed

    Gudej, J

    1991-06-01

    From the roots of ALTHAEA OFFICINALIS two flavonoid glycosides were separated. Phenolic acids and coumarins were investigated chromatographically. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of acid hydrolysis and spectroscopic methods (UV, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR) as hypolaetin 8-glucoside and the new flavonoid sulphate - isoscutellarein 4'-methyl ether 8-glucoside-2''-SO (3)K.

  19. Hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis extracts in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Safaei, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis hydroalcoholic extracts in mice to select the most effective ones for a combination formula. Three doses of the extracts (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of C. sativum and Z. jujuba and 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis) were orally administered to male Swiss mice (20-25 g) and one hour later pentobarbital (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected to induce sleep. Onset of sleep and its duration were measured and compared. Control animals and reference group received vehicle (10 ml/kg, p.o.) and diazepam (3 mg/kg, i.p.), respectively. C. sativum and Z. jujuba failed to change sleep parameters. L. angustifolia at doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg shortened sleep onset by 7.6%, 50% and 51.5% and prolonged sleep duration by 9.9%, 43.1% and 80.2%, respectively. Compared with control group the same doses of M. officinalis also decreased sleep onset by 24.7%, 27.5% and 51.2% and prolonged sleep duration by 37.9%, 68.7% and 131.7% respectively. Combinations of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis extracts showed additive effect and it is suggested that a preparation containing both extracts may be useful for insomnia. PMID:26779267

  20. Antimycotoxigenic characteristics of Rosmarinus officinalis and Trachyspermum copticum L. essential oils.

    PubMed

    Rasooli, Iraj; Fakoor, Mohammad Hadi; Yadegarinia, Davod; Gachkar, Latif; Allameh, Abdolamir; Rezaei, Mohammad Bagher

    2008-02-29

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Natural products may regulate the cellular effects of aflatoxins and evidence suggests that aromatic organic compounds of spices can control the production of aflatoxins. With a view to controlling aflatoxin production, the essential oils from Rosmarinus officinalis and Trachyspermum copticum L. were obtained by hydrodistillation. Antifungal activities of the oils were studied with special reference to the inhibition of Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production. Minimal inhibitory (MIC) and minimal fungicidal (MFC) concentrations of the oils were determined. T. copticum L. oil showed a stronger inhibitory effect than R. officinalis on the growth of A. parasiticus. Aflatoxin production was inhibited at 450 ppm of both oils with that of R. officinalis being stronger inhibitor. The oils were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The major components of R. officinalis and T. copticum L. oils were Piperitone (23.65%), alpha-pinene (14.94%), Limonene (14.89%), 1,8-Cineole (7.43%) and Thymol (37.2%), P-Cymene (32.3%), gamma-Terpinene (27.3%) respectively. It is concluded that the essential oils could be safely used as preservative materials on some kinds of foods to protect them from toxigenic fungal infections.

  1. Efficiency of Calamintha officinalis essential oil as preservative in two topical product types.

    PubMed

    Nostro, A; Cannatelli, M A; Morelli, I; Musolino, A D; Scuderi, F; Pizzimenti, F; Alonzo, V

    2004-01-01

    To verify the efficiency of Calamintha officinalis essential oil as natural preservative in two current formulations. The 1.0 and 2.0% (v/v) C. officinalis essential oil was assayed for its preservative activity in two product types (cream and shampoo). The microbial challenge test was performed following the standards proposed by the European Pharmacopoeia Commission (E.P.) concerning topical preparations using standard micro-organisms and in addition wild strains, either in single or mixed cultures were used. The results clearly demonstrated that the C. officinalis essential oil at 2.0% concentration reduced the microbial inoculum satisfying the criterion A of the E.P. in the cream formulation and the criterion B in the shampoo formulation. Standard and wild strains showed a behaviour similar, both in cream and in shampoo formulation, with no significant difference (gerarchic variance, P > 0.05). C. officinalis essential oil confirmed its preservative properties but at higher concentration than that shown in previous studies on cetomacrogol cream. The nature of the formulation in which an essential oil is incorporated as preservative could have considerable effect on its efficacy.

  2. In vitro effects of Salvia officinalis L. essential oil on Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Sookto, Tularat; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj; Thaweboon, Sroisiri; Thaweboon, Boonyanit; Shrestha, Binit

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the anticandidal activities of Salvia officinalis L. (S. officinalis) essential oil against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and the inhibitory effects on the adhesion of C. albicans to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin surface. Methods Disc diffusion method was first used to test the anticandidal activities of the S. officinalis L. essential oil against the reference strain (ATCC 90028) and 2 clinical strains of C. albicans. Then the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were determined by modified membrane method. The adhesion of C. albicans to PMMA resin surface was assessed after immersion with S. officinalis L. essential oil at various concentrations of 1×MIC, 0.5×MIC and 0.25×MIC at room temperature for 30 min. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the Candida cell adhesion with the pretreatment agents and Tukey's test was used for multiple comparisons. Results S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activity against all strains of C. albicans with inhibition zone ranging from 40.5 mm to 19.5 mm. The MIC and MLC of the oil were determined as 2.780 g/L against all test strains. According to the effects on C. albicans adhesion to PMMA resin surface, it was found that immersion in the essential oil at concentrations of 1×MIC (2.780 g/L), 0.5×MIC (1.390 g/L) and 0.25×MIC (0.695 g/L) for 30 min significantly reduced the adhesion of all 3 test strains to PMMA resin surface in a dose dependent manner (P<0.05). Conclusions S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activities against C. albicans and had inhibitory effects on the adhesion of the cells to PMMA resin surface. With further testing and development, S. officinalis essential oil may be used as an antifungal denture cleanser to prevent candidal adhesion and thus reduce the risk of candida-associated denture stomatitis. PMID:23646301

  3. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils of Dracocephalum heterophyllum and Hyssopus officinalis from Western Himalaya

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The essential oils of two representatives of the Lamiaceae-family, Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth. and Hyssopus officinalis L., are described for their antifungal, antibacterial and larvicidal as well as biting deterrent activities. Additionally, the essential oils’ chemical compositions, analyze...

  4. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis and some other medicinal plants commonly used in South-East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Lai Wah; Cheah, Emily LC; Saw, Constance LL; Weng, Wanyu; Heng, Paul WS

    2008-01-01

    Background Eight medicinal plants were tested for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different extraction methods were also tested for their effects on the bioactivities of the medicinal plants. Methods Eight plants, namely Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis (Laliaocao), Folium Murraya Koenigii (Jialiye), Rhizoma Arachis Hypogea (Huashenggen), Herba Houttuyniae (Yuxingcao), Epipremnum pinnatum (Pashulong), Rhizoma Typhonium Flagelliforme (Laoshuyu), Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Houpo) and Rhizoma Imperatae (Baimaogen) were investigated for their potential antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Results Extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis had the strongest activities against M. Smegmatis, C. albicans, B. subtilis and S. aureus. Boiled extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis, Folium Murraya Koenigii, Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis and Herba Houttuyniae demonstrated greater antioxidant activities than other tested medicinal plants. Conclusion Among the eight tested medicinal plants, Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis showed the highest antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different methods of extraction yield different spectra of bioactivities. PMID:19038060

  5. Skeletal muscle relaxant effect of a standardized extract of Valeriana officinalis L. after acute administration in mice.

    PubMed

    Caudal, Dorian; Guinobert, Isabelle; Lafoux, Aude; Bardot, Valérie; Cotte, César; Ripoche, Isabelle; Chalard, Pierre; Huchet, Corinne

    2018-04-01

    Valeriana officinalis L. root extracts are traditionally taken for their sedative and anxiolytic properties and are also used for muscle relaxation. Relaxant effects were clearly observed on smooth muscle whereas data on effects on skeletal muscle are scarce and inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess whether a standardized extract (SE) of V. officinalis had myorelaxant effects by decreasing skeletal muscle strength and/or neuromuscular tone in mice. Mice received an acute dose of V. officinalis SE (2 or 5 g/kg per os) or tetrazepam (10 mg/kg ip), a standard myorelaxant drug. Thirty minutes later, the maximal muscle strength was measured using a grip test, while global skeletal muscle function (endurance and neuromuscular tone) was assessed in a wire hanging test. Compared to tetrazepam, both doses of V. officinalis SE induced a pronounced decrease in skeletal muscle strength without any significant effects on endurance and neuromuscular tone. This study provides clear evidence that the extract of V. officinalis tested has a relaxant effect on skeletal muscle. By decreasing skeletal muscle strength without impacting endurance and neuromuscular tone, V. officinalis SE could induce less undesirable side effects than standard myorelaxant agents, and be particularly useful for avoiding falls in the elderly.

  6. Antioxidant effect and study of bioactive components of Valeriana sisymbriifolia and Nardostachys jatamansii in comparison to Valeriana officinalis.

    PubMed

    Dugaheh, Mehdi Ansari; Meisami, Faramarz; Torabian, Zahra; Sharififar, Fariba

    2013-01-01

    The roots of Nardostachys jatamansi have been used as a substitute for valerian in Iranian traditions. Moreover, six species from Valeriana genus such as V. sisymbriifolia grow in Iran which has not been studied yet. We aimed to study of antioxidant effect of Valeriana officinalis, Nardostachys jatamansi and Valeriana sisymbriifolia and comparing their content of valerenic acid and valepotriate. Antioxidant effect was evaluated using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition and beta carotene-bleaching assays. Identification of valepotriates was achieved using chemical and TLC method. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of valerenic acid was performed using TLC and spectrophotometry methods. Among the tested samples, V. Officinalis showed the highest DPPH inhibition effect with IC(50) value of 38mg/mL. All of the tested plants potentially inhibited beta-carotene oxidation. The calibration curve of authentic valerenic acid was linear in the range of 2-51 mg L(-1). The most and least amount of valepotraites was detectable in V. officinalis and V. sisymbriifolia respectively. Total valerenic acid in different plant species ranged from 0.02% in V. sisymbriifolia to 0.07% (w/w) in V. Officinalis. Our results indicated that all three tested plants contain different amount of valepotriates and valerenic acid. The highest percentage of valepotriates and valerenic acid was detectable in V. officinalis. Overall can conclude that N. jatamansii and V. sisymbriifolia would be a good candidate for substitutation of V. officinalis with noticeable antioxidant effect.

  7. The components of Melissa officinalis L. that influence protein biosynthesis in-vitro.

    PubMed

    Chlabicz, J; Gałasiński, W

    1986-11-01

    An investigation of an inhibiting activity of a substance(s) in a tanninless extract from Melissa officinalis leaves on protein biosynthesis in-vitro has been made. At least two components which inhibited protein biosynthesis were present in the extract; these were caffeic acid and an unidentified glycoside. Freshly prepared buffered solutions of caffeic acid inhibited protein biosynthesis less than solutions stored for several days at room temperature (20 degrees C). In this case derivatives of caffeic acid were formed, which may be responsible for the increase in the inhibitory effect of stored caffeic acid solution. An inhibitor, in the homogeneous state, was also isolated from the glycoside fraction of M. officinalis. Studies on the mechanism of the action of this inhibitor revealed its effect is to use the result of a direct interaction with elongation factor EF-2, and the blocking of the binding reaction of EF-2 with ribosomes.

  8. Antifungal activity of extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris against Aspergillus flavus and A. ochraceus.

    PubMed

    Centeno, S; Calvo, M A; Adelantado, C; Figueroa, S

    2010-05-01

    The antifungal activity of ethanolic extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris were tested against strains of Aspergillus flavus and A. ochraceus, since these two species are common contaminants of cereals and grains and are able to produce and accumulate mycotoxins. The methodology used is based on measuring the inhibition halos produced by discs impregnated with the extracts and establishing their Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) as well as the Minimum Fungicide Concentration (MFC). The results obtained suggest that the assayed extracts affect the proper development of A. flavus and A. ochraceus; leading to a lower MIC (1200 ppm) and MFC (2400 ppm) for T. vulgaris extract against A. ochraceus than against A. flavus. The results show, that the extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris used at low concentrations could have significant potential for the biological control of fungi in foodstuffs.

  9. Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/ Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chifiriuc, Carmen; Grumezescu, Valentina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Saviuc, Crina; Lazăr, Veronica; Andronescu, Ecaterina

    2012-04-01

    Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of C andida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the

  10. Volvalerine A, an unprecedented N-containing sesquiterpenoid dimer derivative from Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Ma, Qing-Yun; Zhou, Jun; Hu, Jiang-Miao; Zhao, You-Xing

    2016-03-01

    Volvalerine A (1), a novel N-containing bisesquiterpenoid derivative with a dihydroisoxazole ring, and its possible biosynthetic precursor, 1-hydroxy-1,11,11-trimethyldecahydrocyclopropane azulene-10-one (2), were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and relative configurations were identified using spectroscopic data and X-ray crystallography. A plausible biosynthetic pathway for 1 is also presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Germacrane-type sesquiterpenoids from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Chen, Rui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Liu, Yu-Qing; Zhou, Jun; Zhao, You-Xing

    2010-09-24

    Eight new germacrane-type sesquiterpenoids, volvalerenals A-E (2-6) and volvalerenic acids A-C (7-9), along with four known compounds, were isolated from a chloroform extract of the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. The structures and relative configurations of 2-9 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation. The effects of all compounds isolated on acetylcholinesterase were evaluated.

  12. [Rapidly identify oligosaccharides in Morinda officinalis by UPLC-Q-TOF-MSE].

    PubMed

    Hao, Qing-Xiu; Kang, Li-Ping; Zhu, Shou-Dong; Yu, Yi; Hu, Ming-Hua; Ma, Fang-Li; Zhou, Jie; Guo, Lan-Ping

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, an approach was applied for separation and identification of oligosaccharides in Morinda officinalis How by Ultra performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) with collision energy. The separation was carried out on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH Amide C₁₈(2.1mm×100 mm,1.7 μm) with gradient elution using acetonitrile(A) and water(B) containing 0.1% ammonia as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2 mL·min⁻¹. The column temperature was maintained at 40 °C. The information of accurate mass and characteristic fragment ion were acquired by MSE in ESI negative mode in low and high collision energy. The chemical structures and formula of oligosaccharides were obtained and identified by the software of UNIFI and Masslynx 4.1 based on the accurate mass, fragment ions, neutral losses, mass error, reference substance, isotope information, the intensity of fragments, and retention time. A total of 19 inulin oligosaccharide structures were identified including D(+)-sucrose, 1-kestose, nystose, 1F-fructofuranosyl nystose and other inulin oligosaccharides (DP 5-18). This research provided important information about the inulin oligosaccharides in M. officinalis. The results would provide scientific basis for innovative utilization of M. officinalis. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  13. The Antinociceptive Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Borago Officinalis Flower in Male Rats Using Formalin Test.

    PubMed

    Shahraki, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadimoghadm, Mahdieh; Shahraki, Ahmad Reza

    2015-10-01

    Borago officinalis flower (borage) is a known sedative in herbal medicine; the aim of the present study was to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of borage hydroalcoholic extract in formalin test male rats. Fifty-six adult male albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups: Control groups of A (intact), B (saline), and C (Positive control) plus test groups of D, E, F, and G (n=8). The groups D, E, and F received 6.25, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg, Borago officinalis flower hydroalcholic extract before the test, respectively but group G received 25 mg/kg borage extract and aspirin before the test. A biphasic pain was induced by injection of formalin 1%. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS software ver. 17 employing statistical tests of Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney. The results were expressed as mean±SD. Statistical differences were considered significant at P<0.05. The results revealed that the acute and chronic pain behavior score in test groups of D, E, F, and G significantly decreased compared to groups A and B, but this score did not show any difference compared to group C. Moreover, chronic pain behavior score in group G was significantly lower than all other groups. The results indicated that Borago officinalis hydroalcoholic extract affects the acute and chronic pain behavior response in formaline test male rats.

  14. Effect of Dietary Ethanolic Extract of Lavandula officinalis on Serum Lipids Profile in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rabiei, Zahra; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Mokhtari, Shiva; Shahrani, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidants are effective in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Lavandula officinalis possesses antioxidant activity, therefore, in this study; the effects of Lavandula officinalis extract were investigated on serum lipids levels of rats. Experimental mature male Wistar rats were treated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/Kg/day of lavender ethanolic extract or distilled water for 25 days via gastric gavage (n=8 each group). At the end of 25th day, the serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL and VLDL levels, as well as atherogenic indices were determined in rats’ serum. The ethanolic extract of lavender decreased serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and VLDL levels in 100 mg/Kg group (p=0.03, p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Serum HDL level increased in 100 mg/Kg/day group (p=0.01). Lavender extract decreased LDL/HDL level at doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). The TG/HDL levels decreased in experimental groups with doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Lavandula officinalis extract exerts hypolipidemic effect in rats and might be beneficial in hyperlipidemic patients. PMID:25587318

  15. Sedative and Hypnotic Activities of the Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Lavandula officinalis from Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Alnamer, Rachad; Alaoui, Katim; Bouidida, El Houcine; Benjouad, Abdelaziz; Cherrah, Yahia

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate the sedative and hypnotic activities of the methanolic and aqueous extract of Lavandula officinalis L. on central nervous system (CNS). In this study, the effect of the methanolic and aqueous extracts of this plant was investigated in a battery of behavioural models in mice. Stems and flowers of Lavandula officinalis L. have several therapeutic applications in folk medicine in curing or managing a wide range of diseases, including insomnia. The methanolic extract produced significant sedative effect at the doses of 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg (by oral route), compared to reference substance diazepam (DZP), and an hypnotic effect at the doses of 800 and 1000 mg/kg while the treatment of mice with the aqueous extract at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg via oral pathway significantly reduced in both the reestablishment time and number of head dips during the traction and hole-board tests. In conclusion, these results suggest that the methanolic and aqueous extracts of Lavandula officinalis possess potent sedative and hypnotic activities, which supported its therapeutic use for insomnia. PMID:22162677

  16. Color blindness and contrast perception in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) determined by a visual sensorimotor assay.

    PubMed

    Mäthger, Lydia M; Barbosa, Alexandra; Miner, Simon; Hanlon, Roger T

    2006-05-01

    We tested color perception based upon a robust behavioral response in which cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond to visual stimuli (a black and white checkerboard) with a quantifiable, neurally controlled motor response (a body pattern). In the first experiment, we created 16 checkerboard substrates in which 16 grey shades (from white to black) were paired with one green shade (matched to the maximum absorption wavelength of S. officinalis' sole visual pigment, 492 nm), assuming that one of the grey shades would give a similar achromatic signal to the tested green. In the second experiment, we created a checkerboard using one blue and one yellow shade whose intensities were matched to the cuttlefish's visual system. In both assays it was tested whether cuttlefish would show disruptive coloration on these checkerboards, indicating their ability to distinguish checkers based solely on wavelength (i.e., color). Here, we show clearly that cuttlefish must be color blind, as they showed non-disruptive coloration on the checkerboards whose color intensities were matched to the Sepia visual system, suggesting that the substrates appeared to their eyes as uniform backgrounds. Furthermore, we show that cuttlefish are able to perceive objects in their background that differ in contrast by approximately 15%. This study adds support to previous reports that S. officinalis is color blind, yet the question of how cuttlefish achieve "color-blind camouflage" in chromatically rich environments still remains.

  17. Cytoprotective effect of Valeriana officinalis extract on an in vitro experimental model of Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    de Oliveria, Diêgo Madureira; Barreto, George; De Andrade, Deyse Valverde G; Saraceno, Ezequiel; Aon-Bertolino, Laura; Capani, Francisco; Dos Santos El Bachá, Ramon; Giraldez, Lisandro Diego

    2009-02-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most important neurodegenerative worldwide disorders. The potential cytoprotective effects of aqueous extract of Valeriana officinalis on rotenone-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were demonstrated. The cytotoxicity, cell viability and analysis of cellular morphology were performed by MTT-tetrazole (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and phase contrast microscopy, respectively. Significant changes in the cellular morphology, and condensation of the cell body could be observed when cells were treated with 300 nM rotenone for 48 h. Three different concentrations of Valeriana officinalis extract were used (0.049, 0.098 and 0.195 mg/mL). These extracts brought about an increase of 7.0 +/- 1.3%, 14.5 +/- 1.3% and 14.5 +/- 3.2% in cell viability. Our results indicated that neuroprotector action of the Valeriana officinalis extract provides support for later studies as they help understanding this drug for the development of cytoprotective various therapies in PD.

  18. Valeriana officinalis root extracts have potent anxiolytic effects in laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Murphy, K; Kubin, Z J; Shepherd, J N; Ettinger, R H

    2010-07-01

    Valerian root (Valeriana officinalis) is a popular and widely available herbal supplement, primarily used to treat insomnia and anxiety. Until recently, its mechanism of action has remained unknown. Neurobiological research has begun to show that the herb, with its active valerenic acid, interacts with the GABA(A)-ergic system, a mechanism of action similar to the benzodiazepine drugs. This series of experiments sought to corroborate these findings with behavioral measures, compare them to the benzodiazepine diazepam, and to analyze the chemical composition of Valeriana officinalis. Rats were administered either ethanol (1 ml/kg), diazepam (1mg/kg), valerian root extract (3 ml/kg), valerenic acid (3mg/kg), or a solution of valerenic acid and exogenous GABA (75 microg/kg and 3.6 microg/kg, respectively) and assessed for the number of entries and time spent on the open arms of an elevated plus maze. Results showed that there was a significant reduction in anxious behavior when valerian extract or valerenic acid exposed subjects were compared to the ethanol control group. The evidence supports Valeriana officinalis as a potential alternative to the traditional anxiolytics as measured by the elevated plus maze. (c) 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Pharmacological evaluation of aqueous extract of Althaea officinalis flower grown in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Hage-Sleiman, Rouba; Mroueh, Mohamad; Daher, Costantine F

    2011-03-01

    Althaea officinalis Linn. (Malvaideae) flower is commonly used in folk medicine in Lebanon and neighboring countries. Although most of the studies have been conducted on the mucilage-rich roots, little is known about the flower. This study investigates the potential role of aqueous extract of Althaea officinalis flower in lipemia, gastric ulcer, inflammation, and platelet aggregation using the rat model. Blood lipid profile and liver function were assessed after 1 month of extract intake via drinking water. Anti-inflammatory activity was tested against acute and chronic inflammation induced by carrageenan and formalin, respectively. Antiulcer activity was evaluated using ethanol-induced gastric ulcer. Antiplatelet activity was investigated in vitro using the adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation bioassay. The 50 mg/kg body weight dose resulted in significant increase in serum HDL cholesterol level with no effects on stool cholesterol and triacylglycerol. Increasing the dose to 500 mg/kg body weight caused a significant decrease in stool water content. No adverse effect on liver enzymes was observed. Significant anti-inflammatory (acute and chronic inflammation) and antiulcerogenic activities were observed at all used doses (50, 100, and 250 mg/kg body). Time-dependent inhibition of platelet aggregation was demonstrated at 500 µg/ml concentration. The aqueous extract of Althaea officinalis flower demonstrated potential benefits in lipemia, inflammation, gastric ulcer, and platelet aggregation with no visible adverse effect.

  20. Valeriana officinalis does not alter the orofacial dyskinesia induced by haloperidol in rats: role of dopamine transporter.

    PubMed

    Fachinetto, Roselei; Villarinho, Jardel G; Wagner, Caroline; Pereira, Romaiana P; Avila, Daiana Silva; Burger, Marilise E; Calixto, João Batista; Rocha, João B T; Ferreira, Juliano

    2007-10-01

    Chronic treatment with classical neuroleptics in humans can produce a serious side effect, known as tardive dyskinesia (TD). Here, we examined the effects of V. officinalis, a medicinal herb widely used as calming and sleep-promoting, in an animal model of orofacial dyskinesia (OD) induced by long-term treatment with haloperidol. Adult male rats were treated during 12 weeks with haloperidol decanoate (38 mg/kg, i.m., each 28 days) and with V. officinalis (in the drinking water). Vacuous chewing movements (VCMs), locomotor activity and plus maze performance were evaluated. Haloperidol treatment produced VCM in 40% of the treated rats and the concomitant treatment with V. officinalis did not alter either prevalence or intensity of VCMs. The treatment with V. officinalis increased the percentage of the time spent on open arm and the number of entries into open arm in the plus maze test. Furthermore, the treatment with haloperidol and/or V. officinalis decreased the locomotor activity in the open field test. We did not find any difference among the groups when oxidative stress parameters were evaluated. Haloperidol treatment significantly decreased [(3)H]-dopamine uptake in striatal slices and V. officinalis was not able to prevent this effect. Taken together, our data suggest a mechanism involving the reduction of dopamine transport in the maintenance of chronic VCMs in rats. Furthermore, chronic treatment with V. officinalis seems not produce any oxidative damage to central nervous system (CNS), but it also seems to be devoid of action to prevent VCM, at least in the dose used in this study.

  1. HPLC-DAD phenolic profile, cytotoxic and anti-kinetoplastidae activity of Melissa officinalis.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Francisco; Tintino, Saulo R; Figueredo, Fernando; Barros, Luiz; Duarte, Antonia E; Vega Gomez, Maria Celeste; Coronel, Cathia Cecilia; Rolón, Mírian; Leite, Nadghia; Sobral-Souza, Celestina E; Brito, S V; Waczuc, Emily Pansera; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth; Kamdem, Jean Paul; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Franco, Jéferson

    2016-09-01

    Context Melissa officinalis subsp. inodora Bornm. (Lamiaceae) has been used since ancient times in folk medicine against various diseases, but it has not been investigated against protozoa. Objective To evaluate the activities of M. officinalis against Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi as well as its cytotoxicity in fibroblast cell line. Materials and methods The fresh leaves were chopped into 1 cm(2) pieces, washed and macerated with 99.9% of ethanol for 72 h at room temperature. Antiparasitic activity of M. officinalis was accessed by direct counting of cells after serial dilution, while the cytotoxicity of M. officinalis was evaluated in fibroblast cell line (NCTC929) by measuring the reduction of resazurin. The test duration was 24 h. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to characterise the extract. Results The extract at concentrations of 250 and 125 μg/mL inhibited 80.39 and 54.27% of promastigote (LC50  value = 105.78 μg/mL) form of L. infantum, 80.59 and 68.61% of L. brasiliensis (LC50 value  = 110.69 μg/mL) and against epimastigote (LC50 value  = 245.23 μg/mL) forms of T. cruzi with an inhibition of 54.45 and 22.26%, respectively, was observed. The maximum toxicity was noted at 500 μg/mL with 95.41% (LC50  value = 141.01 μg/mL). The HPLC analysis identified caffeic acid and rutin as the major compounds. Discussion The inhibition of the parasites is considered clinically relevant (< 500 μg/mL). Rutin and caffeic acids may be responsible for the antiprotozoal effect of the extract. Conclusion The ethanol extract of M. officinalis can be considered a potential alternative source of natural products with antileishmania and antitrypanosoma activities.

  2. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity.

    PubMed

    Jadoon, Saima; Karim, Sabiha; Bin Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan; Akram, Muhammad Rouf; Khan, Abida Kalsoom; Malik, Arif; Chen, Chunye; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed.

  3. Comparison of antimicrobial activity of essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions: 2 months study.

    PubMed

    Herman, Anna

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the preservative effectiveness of plant extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinalis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions against skin microflora during 2 months of application by volunteers. Cosmetic emulsions with extracts (2.5 %), essential oils (2.5 %), methylparaben (0.4 %) or placebo were tested by 40 volunteers during 2 months of treatment. In order to determine microbial purity of the emulsions, the samples were taken after 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of application. Throughout the trial period it was revealed that only cinnamon oil completely inhibited the growth of bacteria, yeast and mould, as compared to all other essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in the tested emulsions. This result shows that cinnamon oil could successfully replace the use of methylparaben in cosmetics, at the same time ensuring microbiological purity of a cosmetic product under its in-use and storage conditions.

  4. Barcoding Melting Curve Analysis for Rapid, Sensitive, and Discriminating Authentication of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) from Its Adulterants

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Liang; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Min; Jin, Yan; Huang, Luqi

    2014-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most important and expensive medicinal spice products in the world. Because of its high market value and premium price, saffron is often adulterated through the incorporation of other materials, such as Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hemerocallis L. petals, Daucus carota L. fleshy root, Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, Zea may L., and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. stigmas. To develop a straightforward, nonsequencing method for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating detection of these adulterants in traded saffron, we report here the application of a barcoding melting curve analysis method (Bar-MCA) that uses the universal chloroplast plant DNA barcoding region trnH-psbA to identify adulterants. When amplified at DNA concentrations and annealing temperatures optimized for the curve analysis, peaks were formed at specific locations for saffron (81.92°C) and the adulterants: D. carota (81.60°C), C. tinctorius (80.10°C), C. officinalis (79.92°C), Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Tzvel. (79.62°C), N. nucifera (80.58°C), Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L. (84.78°C), and Z. mays (84.33°C). The constructed melting curves for saffron and its adulterants have significantly different peak locations or shapes. In conclusion, Bar-MCA could be a faster and more cost-effective method to authenticate saffron and detect its adulterants. PMID:25548775

  5. Barcoding melting curve analysis for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating authentication of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) from its adulterants.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chao; Cao, Liang; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Min; Jin, Yan; Huang, Luqi

    2014-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the most important and expensive medicinal spice products in the world. Because of its high market value and premium price, saffron is often adulterated through the incorporation of other materials, such as Carthamus tinctorius L. and Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hemerocallis L. petals, Daucus carota L. fleshy root, Curcuma longa L. rhizomes, Zea may L., and Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. stigmas. To develop a straightforward, nonsequencing method for rapid, sensitive, and discriminating detection of these adulterants in traded saffron, we report here the application of a barcoding melting curve analysis method (Bar-MCA) that uses the universal chloroplast plant DNA barcoding region trnH-psbA to identify adulterants. When amplified at DNA concentrations and annealing temperatures optimized for the curve analysis, peaks were formed at specific locations for saffron (81.92°C) and the adulterants: D. carota (81.60°C), C. tinctorius (80.10°C), C. officinalis (79.92°C), Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Tzvel. (79.62°C), N. nucifera (80.58°C), Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L. (84.78°C), and Z. mays (84.33°C). The constructed melting curves for saffron and its adulterants have significantly different peak locations or shapes. In conclusion, Bar-MCA could be a faster and more cost-effective method to authenticate saffron and detect its adulterants.

  6. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Sabiha; Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan Bin; Kalsoom Khan, Abida; Malik, Arif; Chen, Chunye

    2015-01-01

    The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed. PMID:26448818

  7. Medicinal plants used for ophthalmological problems in Navarra (Spain).

    PubMed

    Calvo, M Isabel; Cavero, Rita Yolanda

    2016-08-22

    Several plants have been found to have effective against number of ophthalmological problems in Navarra. Information was collected using semi-structured ethnobotanical interviews with 686 informants in 267 locations. In order to confirm the pharmacological application of the uses more cited by the informants, a literature review was conducted. A total of 57 pharmaceutical uses were reported, for 19 plants and 13 families, mainly represented by Asteraceae. The most frequently used parts were inflorescences, flowers, aerial parts, leaves and flowered aerial parts. The related affections fell into eleven categories: bloodshot eyes, watery eyes and wounds, improve vision, irrited eyelids, rheums and styes, tired eyes, conjunctivitis, eyewash, ocular problems in general. The most cited plants were: Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All., Santolina chamaecyparissus L. ssp. squarrosa (DC.) Nyman, Sambucus nigra L. ssp. nigra, Rosa agrestis Savi and Calendula officinalis L. None of them have been pharmacologically validated by Official International Organisms. From the therapeutic point of view, Allium sativum L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill., C. officinalis, and S. chamaecyparissus ssp. squarrosa deserve special attention, because ethnobotanical and pharmacological studies suggest that these medicinal plants are effective for ophthalmological problems. The present study constitutes a good basis for further phytochemical and pharmacological research of these four plants, which could be of interest in the design of new inexpensive, effective and safe drugs. The remaining plants are needed to be screened through standard pharmacological and clinical procedures for their activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparative study of the antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging properties in the extracts of the fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in several diseases, and hence natural antioxidants have significant importance in human health. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis fruit extracts. Methods The 70% methanol extracts were studied for in vitro total antioxidant activity along with phenolic and flavonoid contents and reducing power. Scavenging ability of the extracts for radicals like DPPH, hydroxyl, superoxide, nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, singlet oxygen, hypochlorous acid were also performed to determine the potential of the extracts. Results The ability of the extracts of the fruits in exhibiting their antioxative properties follow the order T. chebula >E. officinalis >T. belerica. The same order is followed in their flavonoid content, whereas in case of phenolic content it becomes E. officinalis >T. belerica >T. chebula. In the studies of free radicals' scavenging, where the activities of the plant extracts were inversely proportional to their IC50 values, T. chebula and E. officinalis were found to be taking leading role with the orders of T. chebula >E. officinalis >T. belerica for superoxide and nitric oxide, and E. officinalis >T. belerica >T. chebula for DPPH and peroxynitrite radicals. Miscellaneous results were observed in the scavenging of other radicals by the plant extracts, viz., T. chebula >T. belerica >E. officinalis for hydroxyl, T. belerica >T. chebula >E. officinalis for singlet oxygen and T. belerica >E. officinalis >T. chebula for hypochlorous acid. In a whole, the studied fruit extracts showed quite good efficacy in their antioxidant and radical scavenging abilities, compared to the standards. Conclusions The evidences as can be concluded from the study of the 70% methanol extract of the fruits of Terminalia chebula

  9. Evaluation of the antibacterial potential of Petroselinum crispum and Rosmarinus officinalis against bacteria that cause urinary tract infections

    PubMed Central

    Petrolini, Fernanda Villas Boas; Lucarini, Rodrigo; de Souza, Maria Gorete Mendes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes

    2013-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the antibacterial activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extracts, fractions, and compounds of two plant species, namely Rosmarinus officinalis and Petroselinum crispum, against the bacteria that cause urinary tract infection. The microdilution method was used for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The crude hydroalcoholic extract of R. officinalis displayed in vitro activity against Gram-positive bacteria, with satisfactory MBC for the clinical isolate S. saprophyticus. The fractions and the pure compound rosmarinic acid did not furnish promising results for Gram-negative bacteria, whereas fractions 2, 3, and 4 gave encouraging results for Gram-positive bacteria and acted as bactericide against S. epidermidis as well as E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) and its clinical isolate. R. officinalis led to promising results in the case of Gram-positive bacteria, resulting in a considerable interest in the development of reliable alternatives for the treatment of urinary infections. PMID:24516424

  10. Evaluation of the antibacterial potential of Petroselinum crispum and Rosmarinus officinalis against bacteria that cause urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Petrolini, Fernanda Villas Boas; Lucarini, Rodrigo; de Souza, Maria Gorete Mendes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes

    2013-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the antibacterial activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extracts, fractions, and compounds of two plant species, namely Rosmarinus officinalis and Petroselinum crispum, against the bacteria that cause urinary tract infection. The microdilution method was used for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The crude hydroalcoholic extract of R. officinalis displayed in vitro activity against Gram-positive bacteria, with satisfactory MBC for the clinical isolate S. saprophyticus. The fractions and the pure compound rosmarinic acid did not furnish promising results for Gram-negative bacteria, whereas fractions 2, 3, and 4 gave encouraging results for Gram-positive bacteria and acted as bactericide against S. epidermidis as well as E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) and its clinical isolate. R. officinalis led to promising results in the case of Gram-positive bacteria, resulting in a considerable interest in the development of reliable alternatives for the treatment of urinary infections.

  11. Effect of Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm) on Sexual Dysfunction in Women: A Double- blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Darvish-Mofrad-Kashani, Zahra; Emaratkar, Elham; Hashem-Dabaghian, Fataneh; Emadi, Fatemeh; Raisi, Firoozeh; Aliasl, Jale; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Hasheminejad, Seyed Abbas; Eftekhar, Tahere; Zafarghandi, Nafise

    2018-01-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most prevalent female sexual dysfunction (FSD) and its bio-psychosocial multifactorial etiology justifies its multifaceted treatment. In Persian Medicine (PM), the weakness of the main organs (heart, brain and liver) is one of the important causes of lack of sexual desire; hence, their strengthening is a priority during treatment. Melissa officinalis is one of the medicinal plants with tonic characteristics for the main organs in PM and was used for treatment in this study. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of M. officinalis in the improvement of HSDD in women. Eighty nine (89) eligible women suffering from decreased sexual desire were randomly assigned to groups. The participants received medication (500 mg of aqueous extract of M. officinalis) or placebo 2 times a day for 4 weeks. Changes in scores of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain were evaluated at the end of 4 weeks of treatment using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire in the two groups. Forty three participants completed the study. The increase in desire (P < 0.001), arousal (P < 0.001), lubrication (P < 0.005), orgasm (P < 0.001), satisfaction (P < 0.001), pain (P < 0.002) and FSFI total score (P < 0.001) in the M. officinalis group was significantly more than that of the placebo group. The willingness to continue treatment was significantly higher in the M. officinalis as compared to the placebo group (P < 0.001). M. officinalis may be a safe and effective herbal medicine for the improvement of HSDD in women. PMID:29796033

  12. Phytochemical, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of Melissa officinalis and Dracocephalum moldavica essential oils.

    PubMed

    Ehsani, Ali; Alizadeh, Omar; Hashemi, Mohammad; Afshari, Asma; Aminzare, Majid

    2017-01-01

    Aromatic plants are rich in essential oils with considerable antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to investigate chemical composition, antimicrobial activity and antioxidant properties of Melissa officinalis and Deracocephalum moldavica essential oils (EOs). The identification of chemical constituents of the EOs was carried out using gas chromato-graphy-mass spectrometry analysis and antimicrobial activity of the EOs was evaluated by disc diffusion assay as well as determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration against four important food-borne bacteria: Salmonella typhimorium, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus . Antioxidant activity of the EOs was also determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2-azinobis 3-ethylbenzo thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and β-carotene bleaching tests. The major compounds of D. moldavica were geranial (28.52%), neral (21.21%), geraniol (19.60%), geranyl acetate (16.72%) and the major compounds of M. officinalis EO were citronellal (37.33%), thymol (11.96%), citral (10.10%) and β-caryophyllene (7.27%). The underlying results indicated strong antimicrobial effects of the oils against tested bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus with the lowest MIC value (0.12 mg mL -1 ) for both EOs was the most sensitive bacterium, although, antibacterial effect of M. officinalis EO was stronger than D. moldavica . In addition, the results of the antioxidant activity showed that both EOs had notable antioxidant properties. In conclusion, both EOs are appropriate alternatives as potential sources of natural preservative agents with the aim of being applied in food industries.

  13. Invertebrate predation on egg masses of the European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis: An experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Catarina P. P.; Fernández-Álvarez, Fernando Á.; Villanueva, Roger

    2018-01-01

    The eggs of the European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, develop attached to the seafloor in shallow water habitats and possess a relatively thick black capsule that protects them from the surrounding environment. Since embryological development may take several months, eggs are vulnerable to a variety of threats present in shallow waters, including predation. This study investigates predation of S. officinalis eggs by benthic invertebrates. Twenty-eight invertebrate species from 6 different phyla and with diverse feeding habits were tested as potential predators under laboratory conditions. We also investigated how the feeding traits of these species are related to the mechanical ability to break the egg capsule and prey upon cuttlefish embryos. Species that fed on cuttlefish eggs were the sea snail Bolinus brandaris, the crab Cancer pagurus, the hermit crab Dardanus arrosor, the lobster Homarus gammarus, the invasive blue crab Callinectes sapidus, the shrimp Squilla mantis, the sea urchins Echinus melo, Cidaris sp. and Paracentrotus lividus and the starfish Astropecten aranciacus. It is of note that C. sapidus is a potential predatory crab, which raises the concern that this invasive species may constitute a novel threat for cuttlefish eggs as more populations become established in NE Atlantic waters. Of the biological traits examined, prey capture tools in the tested species best explained the experimental feeding results, suggesting that predation of S. officinalis eggs was determined generally by a mechanical factor and highlighting the importance of the protective egg capsule against predators. However, chemosensory factors are likely to be implicated as well. Thus, this work contributes to the understanding of the ecology of early life stages of cuttlefish and the factors that can affect offspring survival and subsequently impact the recruitment of this species.

  14. Phytochemical, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of Melissa officinalis and Dracocephalum moldavica essential oils

    PubMed Central

    Ehsani, Ali; Alizadeh, Omar; Hashemi, Mohammad; Afshari, Asma; Aminzare, Majid

    2017-01-01

    Aromatic plants are rich in essential oils with considerable antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to investigate chemical composition, antimicrobial activity and antioxidant properties of Melissa officinalis and Deracocephalum moldavica essential oils (EOs). The identification of chemical constituents of the EOs was carried out using gas chromato-graphy-mass spectrometry analysis and antimicrobial activity of the EOs was evaluated by disc diffusion assay as well as determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration against four important food-borne bacteria: Salmonella typhimorium, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Antioxidant activity of the EOs was also determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2-azinobis 3-ethylbenzo thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and β-carotene bleaching tests. The major compounds of D. moldavica were geranial (28.52%), neral (21.21%), geraniol (19.60%), geranyl acetate (16.72%) and the major compounds of M. officinalis EO were citronellal (37.33%), thymol (11.96%), citral (10.10%) and β-caryophyllene (7.27%). The underlying results indicated strong antimicrobial effects of the oils against tested bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus with the lowest MIC value (0.12 mg mL-1) for both EOs was the most sensitive bacterium, although, antibacterial effect of M. officinalis EO was stronger than D. moldavica. In addition, the results of the antioxidant activity showed that both EOs had notable antioxidant properties. In conclusion, both EOs are appropriate alternatives as potential sources of natural preservative agents with the aim of being applied in food industries. PMID:29085610

  15. The regulation of coralline algal physiology, an in situ study of Corallina officinalis (Corallinales, Rhodophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Christopher James; Perkins, Rupert; Voller, Matthew; Yallop, Marian Louise; Brodie, Juliet

    2017-10-01

    Calcified macroalgae are critical components of marine ecosystems worldwide, but face considerable threat both from climate change (increasing water temperatures) and ocean acidification (decreasing ocean pH and carbonate saturation). It is thus fundamental to constrain the relationships between key abiotic stressors and the physiological processes that govern coralline algal growth and survival. Here we characterize the complex relationships between the abiotic environment of rock pool habitats and the physiology of the geniculate red coralline alga, Corallina officinalis (Corallinales, Rhodophyta). Paired assessment of irradiance, water temperature and carbonate chemistry, with C. officinalis net production (NP), respiration (R) and net calcification (NG) was performed in a south-western UK field site, at multiple temporal scales (seasonal, diurnal and tidal). Strong seasonality was observed in NP and night-time R, with a Pmax of 22.35 µmol DIC (g DW)-1 h-1, Ek of 300 µmol photons m-2 s-1 and R of 3.29 µmol DIC (g DW)-1 h-1 determined across the complete annual cycle. NP showed a significant exponential relationship with irradiance (R2 = 0.67), although was temperature dependent given ambient irradiance > Ek for the majority of the annual cycle. Over tidal emersion periods, dynamics in NP highlighted the ability of C. officinalis to acquire inorganic carbon despite significant fluctuations in carbonate chemistry. Across all data, NG was highly predictable (R2 = 0.80) by irradiance, water temperature and carbonate chemistry, providing a NGmax of 3.94 µmol CaCO3 (g DW)-1 h-1 and Ek of 113 µmol photons m-2 s-1. Light NG showed strong seasonality and significant coupling to NP (R2 = 0.65) as opposed to rock pool water carbonate saturation. In

  16. Quality control of herbs: determination of amino acids in Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Muhammad Nasimullah; Stecher, Guenther; Bonn, Guenther Karl

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of raw materials and final products need reliable methods for the standardization of natural product drugs. Legal guideline also emphasizes on the qualitative and quantitative analyses of the plant constituents in an herbal product. In this study, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and amino acid analyzer was used for the determination of amino acids in plant extracts. Samples for this study were standards and aqueous extracts from Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale. Different amino acids in the extracts were detected through TLC. An automatic amino acid analyzer was used for the quantification of amino acids in the plant extracts under study.

  17. The essential oil of Zingiber officinalis Linn (Zingiberaceae) as a mosquito larvicidal and repellent agent against the filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Pushpanathan, Thambusamy; Jebanesan, Arulsamy; Govindarajan, Marimuthu

    2008-05-01

    Essential oils extracted by steam distillation from Zingiber officinalis was evaluated for larvicidal and repellent activity against the filarial mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h treated for late third instar. The LC50 value was 50.78 ppm. Skin repellent test at 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 mg/cm2 concentration of Z. officinalis gave 100% protection up to 15, 30, 60, and 120 min. These results clearly reveal that the essential oil of Z. officinalis served as a potential larvicidal and repellent agent against filarial vector C. quinquefasciatus.

  18. Rosmarinus officinalis L.: an update review of its phytochemistry and biological activity

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Joana M; Faustino, Célia; Garcia, Catarina; Ladeiras, Diogo; Reis, Catarina P; Rijo, Patrícia

    2018-01-01

    The worldwide interest in the use of medicinal plants has been growing, and its beneficial effects being rediscovered for the development of new drugs. Based on their vast ethnopharmacological applications, which inspired current research in drug discovery, natural products can provide new and important leads against various pharmacological targets. This work pioneers an extensive and an updated literature review on the current state of research on Rosmarinus officinalis L., elucidating which compounds and biological activities are the most relevant. Therefore, a search was made in the databases PubMed, ScienceDirect and Web of Science with the terms ‘rosemary’, ‘Rosmarinus officinalis’, ‘rosmarinic acid’ ‘carnosol’ and ‘carnosic acid’, which included 286 articles published since 1990 about rosemary's pharmacological activities and their isolated compounds. According to these references, there has been an increasing interest in the therapeutic properties of this plant, regarding carnosic acid, carnosol, rosmarinic acid and the essential oil. The present manuscript provides an updated review upon the most reported activities on R. officinalis and its active constituents. PMID:29682318

  19. Active monoterpene ketones isolated from Rosmarinus officinalis with fumigant and contact action against Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank).

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Park, Jun-Hwan; Chung, Namhyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2014-08-01

    The acaricidal activities of an active material derived from Rosmarinus officinalis oil and its relative monoterpene ketones were determined using fumigant and contact toxicity bioassays against Tyrophagus putrescentiae and were compared with that of a commercial acaricide (benzyl benzoate). The active component of R. officinalis oil, isolated by silica gel column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, was identified as camphor, based on various spectroscopic analyses. In the fumigant toxicity bioassay, camphor (2.25 μg/cm(3)) was 5.58 times more active than benzyl benzoate (12.56 μg/cm(3)) against T. putrescentiae, followed by (+)-camphor (3.89 μg/cm(3)) and (-)-camphor (5.61 μg/cm(3)). In the contact toxicity bioassay, camphor (1.34 μg/cm(2)) was 6.74 times more toxic than benzyl benzoate (9.03 μg/cm(2)) against T. putrescentiae, followed by (+)-camphor (2.23 μg/cm(2)) and (-)-camphor (2.94 μg/cm(2)). These results indicate that camphor and its derivatives are very useful as potential control agents against stored food mites regardless of the application method.

  20. How do background ozone concentrations affect the biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid in Melissa officinalis?

    PubMed

    Döring, Anne S; Pellegrini, Elisa; Della Batola, Michele; Nali, Cristina; Lorenzini, Giacomo; Petersen, Maike

    2014-03-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis; Lamiaceae) plants were exposed to background ozone (O3) dosages (80ppb for 5h), because high background levels of O3 are considered to be as harmful as episodic O3 peaks. Immediately at the end of fumigation the plants appeared visually symptomless, but necrotic lesions were observed later. The biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid (RA) comprises eight enzymes, among them phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL), tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) and rosmarinic acid synthase (RAS). The transcript levels of these genes have been investigated by quantitative RT-PCR. There was a quick up-regulation of all genes at 3h of O3 exposure, but at 24h from beginning of exposure (FBE) only RAS and PAL were up-regulated. The specific activity of RAS was closely correlated with a decrease of RA concentration in lemon balm leaves. The specific activity of PAL increased at 12h FBE to 163% in comparison to control levels. This work provides insight into the effect of O3 stress on the formation of the main phenolic ingredient of the pharmaceutically important plant M. officinalis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. A new haemocyanin in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) eggs: sequence analysis and relevance during ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Haemocyanin is the respiratory protein of most of the Mollusca. In cephalopods and gastropods at least two distinct isoforms are differentially expressed. However, their physiological purpose is unknown. For the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, three isoforms are known so far, whereas for only two of them the complete mRNA sequences are available. In this study, we sequenced the complete mRNA of the third haemocyanin isoform and measured the relative expression of all three isoforms during embryogenesis to reveal a potential ontogenetic relevance. Results The cDNA of isoform 3 clearly correlates to the known Sepia officinalis haemocyanin subunits consisting of eight functional units and an internal duplicated functional unit d. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses reveal the third isoform representing a potentially ancestral haemocyanin isoform, and the analyses of the expression of haemocyanin type 3 reveal that haemocyanin type 3 only can be observed within eggs and during early development. Isoforms 1 and 2 are absent at these stages. After hatching, isoform 3 is downregulated, and isoform 1 and 2 are upregulated. Conclusions Our study clearly shows an embryonic relevance of the third isoform, which will be further discussed in the light of the changes in the physiological function of haemocyanin during ontogeny. Taken together with the fact that it could also be the isoform closest related to the common ancestor of cuttlefish haemocyanin, the phylogeny of cuttlefish haemocyanin may be recapitulated during its ontogeny. PMID:24499521

  2. Improved neuroprotective effects by combining Bacopa monnieri and Rosmarinus officinalis supercritical CO2 extracts.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Cheppail; Quirin, Karl-Werner; Escalon, Enrique; Melnick, Steven J

    2014-04-01

    Ethnobotanical evidence suggests that herbs such as brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) may possess antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. We compared the antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of supercritical extract of Bacopa monnieri and rosemary antioxidant extract obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis as well as their combination to examine the effects on human glial (U-87 MG) and embryonic mouse hypothalamus cells. Bacopa monnieri extract, rosemary antioxidant extract, and their combination (1:1) are not cytotoxic in both glial and embryonic mouse hypothalamus cell lines up to 200 μg/mL concentration. The combination of extracts of Bacopa monnieri + rosemary antioxidant has better antioxidant potential and antilipid peroxidation activity than either agent alone. Although the extract of Bacopa monnieri + rosemary antioxidant showed almost similar inhibition of phospho tau expression as Bacopa monnieri or rosemary antioxidant extract alone, the combination has better inhibitory effect on amyloid precursor protein synthesis and higher brain-derived neurotrophic factor production in hypothalamus cells than single agents. These results suggest that the extract of Bacopa monnieri + rosemary antioxidant is more neuroprotective than Bacopa monnieri or rosemary antioxidant extract.

  3. Salvia officinalis L. induces alveolar bud growing in adult female rat mammary glands

    PubMed Central

    Monsefi, Malihezaman; Abedian, Mehrnaz; Azarbahram, Zahra; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In traditional medicine Salvia officinalis (sage) has been used as menstrual cycle regulator. In the present study the effects of sage extract on breast tissue were examined. Materials and Methods: Fourteen female rats were divided into two groups: 1) Distilled water-treated rats (Con) that were gavaged with 1ml distilled water and 2) Saliva officinalis hydroalcoholic extract (SHE)-treated rats that were gavaged with 30mg/kg/body weight of sage extract for 30 days. The estrus cycle changes were monitored by daily examination of vaginal smear. Whole mounts of right pelvic breast were spread on the slide and stained by carmine. The number of alveolar buds (ABs) type 1 and 2 and lobules of mammary gland were scored. Tissue sections of left pelvic mammary gland were prepared and its histomorphometrical changes were measured. Blood samples were taken from dorsal aorta and estradiol and progesterone concentrations were measured using radioimmunoassay. Results: Estrous cycles decreased significantly in SHE-treated animals. The number of alveolar buds and lobules in mammary gland whole mount of SHE-treated group were higher than the Con group. The number and diameter of ducts in histological section of mammary gland in SHE-treated group increased as compared to the Con group. Conclusion: Sage promotes alveologenesis of mammary glands and it can be used as a lactiferous herb. PMID:26693413

  4. Evaluation of microbiological accumulation capability of the commercial sponge Spongia officinalis var. adriatica (Schmidt) (Porifera, Demospongiae).

    PubMed

    Stabili, Loredana; Licciano, Margherita; Longo, Caterina; Corriero, Giuseppe; Mercurio, Maria

    2008-05-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the microbiological accumulation capability of the demosponge Spongia officinalis var. adriatica. Six microbiological parameters were researched in two sampling periods in the water and in reared sponge samples coming from sites with different degrees of microbial contamination: an off-shore fish farm displaced off the Apulian coast (Southern Adriatic Sea) and a no-impacted area displaced into the Marine Protected Area of Porto Cesareo (Apulian coast-Ionian Sea). We detected the density of culturable heterotrophic bacteria by spread plate on marine agar, total culturable bacteria at 37 degrees C on Plate Count Agar and vibrios on thiosulphate-citrate-bile-sucrose-salt (TCBS) agar. Total and fecal coliforms as well as fecal streptococci concentrations were detected by the MPN method. Bacterial densities were always higher in the sponge homogenates compared with the corresponding seawater in the sampling points and in both sampling periods. As regard vibrios, total culturable bacteria at 37 degrees C and fecal streptococci concentrations, the highest values were observed in the sponge samples coming from the off-shore fish farm during the summer period. The ability of Spongia officinalis var. adriatica to accumulate the microbial pollution indicators suggests that this species can be employed as a bioindicator for monitoring water quality.

  5. Dietary intake of Curcuma longa and Emblica officinalis increases life span in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Shilpa; Singh, Pavneet; Gupta, Ayush; Mohanty, Sujata

    2014-01-01

    Intake of food and nutrition plays a major role in affecting aging process and longevity. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the ageing process are still unclear. To this respect, diet has been considered to be a determinant of ageing process. In order to better illustrate this, we used Drosophila melanogaster as a model and fed them orally with different concentrations of two commonly used Indian medicinal plant products, Curcuma longa (rhizome) and Emblica officinalis (fruit). The results revealed significant increase in life span of Drosophila flies on exposure to both the plant products, more efficiently by C. Longa than by E. officinalis. In order to understand whether the increase in lifespan was due to high-antioxidant properties of these medicinal plants, we performed enzymatic assays to assess the SOD and catalase activities in case of both treated and control Drosophila flies. Interestingly, the results support the free radical theory of aging as both these plant derivatives show high reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities.

  6. Dietary Intake of Curcuma longa and Emblica officinalis Increases Life Span in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Rawal, Shilpa; Singh, Pavneet; Gupta, Ayush; Mohanty, Sujata

    2014-01-01

    Intake of food and nutrition plays a major role in affecting aging process and longevity. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the ageing process are still unclear. To this respect, diet has been considered to be a determinant of ageing process. In order to better illustrate this, we used Drosophila melanogaster as a model and fed them orally with different concentrations of two commonly used Indian medicinal plant products, Curcuma longa (rhizome) and Emblica officinalis (fruit). The results revealed significant increase in life span of Drosophila flies on exposure to both the plant products, more efficiently by C. Longa than by E. officinalis. In order to understand whether the increase in lifespan was due to high-antioxidant properties of these medicinal plants, we performed enzymatic assays to assess the SOD and catalase activities in case of both treated and control Drosophila flies. Interestingly, the results support the free radical theory of aging as both these plant derivatives show high reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities. PMID:24967413

  7. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using a Melissa officinalis leaf extract with antibacterial properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jesús Ruíz-Baltazar, Álvaro; Reyes-López, Simón Yobbany; Larrañaga, Daniel; Estévez, Miriam; Pérez, Ramiro

    The exceptional properties of the silver nanoparticles offer several applications in the biomedicine field. The development of antibiotics which are clinically useful against bacteria and drug resistant microorganisms, it is one of the main approaches of silver nanoparticles. However, it is necessary to develop environmentally friendly methods for their synthesis. In this sense, the main objective of this work is focused on to propose a simplified and efficient green synthesis of silver nanoparticles with proven antibacterial properties. The green synthesis route is based on the use of the Melissa officinalis as reducing agent of the silver ions in aqueous solution at room temperature. Complementary, the antibacterial activity of the silver nanoparticles against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was confirmed. The silver nanoparticles obtained were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis, Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy. The observed results suggested that using Melissa officinalis, it is possible to performed silver nanoparticles with controlled characteristics and with significant inhibitory activity against the Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

  8. Quantification of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) camouflage: a study of color and luminance using in situ spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Akkaynak, Derya; Allen, Justine J; Mäthger, Lydia M; Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Hanlon, Roger T

    2013-03-01

    Cephalopods are renowned for their ability to adaptively camouflage on diverse backgrounds. Sepia officinalis camouflage body patterns have been characterized spectrally in the laboratory but not in the field due to the challenges of dynamic natural light fields and the difficulty of using spectrophotometric instruments underwater. To assess cuttlefish color match in their natural habitats, we studied the spectral properties of S. officinalis and their backgrounds on the Aegean coast of Turkey using point-by-point in situ spectrometry. Fifteen spectrometry datasets were collected from seven cuttlefish; radiance spectra from animal body components and surrounding substrates were measured at depths shallower than 5 m. We quantified luminance and color contrast of cuttlefish components and background substrates in the eyes of hypothetical di- and trichromatic fish predators. Additionally, we converted radiance spectra to sRGB color space to simulate their in situ appearance to a human observer. Within the range of natural colors at our study site, cuttlefish closely matched the substrate spectra in a variety of body patterns. Theoretical calculations showed that this effect might be more pronounced at greater depths. We also showed that a non-biological method ("Spectral Angle Mapper"), commonly used for spectral shape similarity assessment in the field of remote sensing, shows moderate correlation to biological measures of color contrast. This performance is comparable to that of a traditional measure of spectral shape similarity, hue and chroma. This study is among the first to quantify color matching of camouflaged cuttlefish in the wild.

  9. Regulation of sesquiterpenoid metabolism in recombinant and elicited Valeriana officinalis hairy roots.

    PubMed

    Ricigliano, Vincent; Kumar, Santosh; Kinison, Scott; Brooks, Christopher; Nybo, S Eric; Chappell, Joe; Howarth, Dianella G

    2016-05-01

    The medicinal properties of Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) root preparations are attributed to the anxiolytic sesquiterpenoid valerenic acid and its biosynthetic precursors valerenal and valerenadiene, as well as the anti-inflammatory sesquiterpenoid β-caryophyllene. In order to study and engineer the biosynthesis of these pharmacologically active metabolites, a binary vector co-transformation system was developed for V. officinalis hairy roots. The relative expression levels and jasmonate-inducibility of a number of genes associated with sesquiterpenoid metabolism were profiled in roots: farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (VoFPS), valerendiene synthase (VoVDS), germacrene C synthase (VoGCS), and a cytochrome P450 (CYP71D442) putatively associated with terpene metabolism based on sequence homology. Recombinant hairy root lines overexpressing VoFPS or VoVDS were generated and compared to control cultures. Overexpression of the VoFPS cDNA increased levels of the corresponding transcript 4- to 8-fold and sesquiterpene hydrocarbon accumulation by 1.5- to 4-fold. Overexpression of the VoVDS cDNA increased the corresponding transcript levels 5- to 9-fold and markedly increased yields of the oxygenated sesquiterpenoids valerenic acid and valerenal. Our findings suggest that the availability of cytoplasmic farnesyl diphosphate and valerenadiene are potential bottlenecks in Valeriana-specific sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis, which is also subject to regulation by methyl jasmonate elicitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The extraction process optimization of antioxidant polysaccharides from Marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L.) roots.

    PubMed

    Pakrokh Ghavi, Peyman

    2015-04-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) with a central composite rotatable design (CCRD) based on five levels was employed to model and optimize four experimental operating conditions of extraction temperature (10-90 °C) and time (6-30 h), particle size (6-24 mm) and water to solid (W/S, 10-50) ratio, obtaining polysaccharides from Althaea officinalis roots with high yield and antioxidant activity. For each response, a second-order polynomial model with high R(2) values (> 0.966) was developed using multiple linear regression analysis. Results showed that the most significant (P < 0.05) extraction conditions that affect the yield and antioxidant activity of extracted polysaccharides were the main effect of extraction temperature and the interaction effect of the particle size and W/S ratio. The optimum conditions to maximize yield (10.80%) and antioxidant activity (84.09%) for polysaccharides extraction from A. officinalis roots were extraction temperature 60.90 °C, extraction time 12.01 h, particle size 12.0mm and W/S ratio of 40.0. The experimental values were found to be in agreement with those predicted, indicating the models suitability for optimizing the polysaccharides extraction conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [The Use of Synthetic Polymers (Superdisintegrants) in Technology Tablets Containing Ethanol Dry Extract from Asparagus officinalis].

    PubMed

    Linka, Wojciech Andrzej; Wojtaszek, Ilona; Zgoda, Marian Mikołaj; Kołodziejczyk, Michał Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Dry extracts are now frequently used in medicine as an alternative to synthetic drugs. In the case of tablet technology with dry plant extracts, the proper selection of disintegrants (superdisintegrants) is particularly important. Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the polymers constituting superdisintegrants (Vivasol®, Vivastar®, Polyplasdone XL) in uncoated tablet formulation of alcoholic extracted from Asparagus officinalis. Dry the ethanol extract of Asparagus officinalis, Vivasol®, Vivastar®, Vivapur®, Kollidon VA64, Polyplasdone XL, magnesium stearate. Direct compression. Paddle method was carried out to study pharmacopoeial parameters and pharmaceutical availability. The calculation of equivalency factors: similarity [f2] and the difference [f1]. Approximation results. Tablets brownish-green, with a smooth and uniform surface, without stains, chipping and damage. The determined average weight of the tablets compiled with the standards. The test friability and crushing strength revealed that the most mechanically strong tablets contained Vivasol, Vivastar, Polyplasdone XL. These tablets also have a longer disintegration and dissolution time compared with tablets containing only Vivasol. These differences are also confirmed by the calculated f2 and f1. The addition of a mixture of Polyplasdone XL and Vivastar to Vivasol significantly increases the mechanical strength of the tablets (crushing strength, resistance to crushing). The addition of a mixture of Polyplasdone XL and Vivastar to Vivasol paradoxically increases the disintegration time of tablets (11.1 min). Single superdisintegrant breaks up the tablet more effectively than a mixture of superdisintegrants.

  12. Optimization for ultrasonic-microwave synergistic extraction of polysaccharides from Cornus officinalis and characterization of polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiulian; You, Qinghong; Jiang, Zhonghai; Zhou, Xinghai

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasonic-microwave synergistic extraction (UMSE) of polysaccharides from Cornus officinalis was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The effect of four different factors on the yield of C. officinalis polysaccharides (COP) was studied. RSM results showed that the optimal conditions were extraction time of 31.49823 min, microwave power of 99.39769 W, and water-to-raw material ratio of 28.16273. The COP yield was 11.38±0.31% using the modified optimal conditions, which was consistent with the value predicted by the model. The crude COP was purified by DEAE-Cellulose 52 chromatography and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. Five fractions, namely, crude COP, COP-1, COP-2, COP-3, and COP-4, were obtained. Monosaccharide composition analysis revealed that the COP was composed of glucose, arabinose, fucose, xylose, mannose, and rhamnose. Preliminary structural characterizations of COP were conducted by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of a nanoemulsion with Copaifera officinalis oleoresin against monogenean parasites of Colossoma macropomum: A Neotropical Serrasalmidae.

    PubMed

    Valentim, D S S; Duarte, J L; Oliveira, A E M F M; Cruz, R A S; Carvalho, J C T; Solans, C; Fernandes, C P; Tavares-Dias, M

    2018-05-16

    Monogeneans are ectoparasites that may cause losses in production and productivity in the aquaculture of Colossoma macropomum. Chemotherapeutics used in aquaculture usually have major adverse effects on fish; hence, the use of essential oils has been considered advantageous, but these are not soluble in water. Thus, the use of nanostructures to enhance water solubility of compounds and improve bioactivity may be very promising. This study investigated the antiparasitic activity of nanoemulsion prepared with Copaifera officinalis oleoresin (50, 100, 150, 200 and 300 mg/L), against monogenean parasites from the gills of C. macropomum. The particle size distribution and zeta potential suggested that a potentially kinetic stable system was generated. The nanoemulsion from C. officinalis oleoresin achieved high efficacy (100%) at low concentrations (200 and 300 mg/L) after 15 min of exposure. This was the first time that a nanoemulsion was generated from C. officinalis oleoresin using a solvent-free, non-heating and low-energy method. Moreover, this was the first time that an antiparasitic against monogeneans on fish gills, based on nanoemulsion of C. officinalis oleoresin, was tested. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Antioxidant activity and sensory analysis of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of garden sage (Salvia officinalis)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A novel extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction, followed by a Soxhlet hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. Th...

  15. Permeability of rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis extracts across Caco-2 cell monolayers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid derivative found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be of benefit t...

  16. Quantitative HPLC Analysis of Rosmarinic Acid in Extracts of "Melissa officinalis" and Spectrophotometric Measurement of Their Antioxidant Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canelas, Vera; da Costa, Cristina Teixeira

    2007-01-01

    The students prepare tea samples using different quantities of lemon balm leaves ("Melissa officinalis") and measure the rosmarinic acid contents by an HPLC-DAD method. The antioxidant properties of the tea samples are evaluated by a spectrophotometric method using a radical-scavenging assay with DPPH. (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Finally the…

  17. A homeopathic remedy from arnica, marigold, St. John’s wort and comfrey accelerates in vitro wound scratch closure of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Drugs of plant origin such as Arnica montana, Calendula officinalis or Hypericum perforatum have been frequently used to promote wound healing. While their effect on wound healing using preparations at pharmacological concentrations was supported by several in vitro and clinical studies, investigations of herbal homeopathic remedies on wound healing process are rare. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of a commercial low potency homeopathic remedy Similasan® Arnica plus Spray on wound closure in a controlled, blind trial in vitro. Methods We investigated the effect of an ethanolic preparation composed of equal parts of Arnica montana 4x, Calendula officinalis 4x, Hypericum perforatum 4x and Symphytum officinale 6x (0712–2), its succussed hydroalcoholic solvent (0712–1) and unsuccussed solvent (0712–3) on NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. Cell viability was determined by WST-1 assay, cell growth using BrdU uptake, cell migration by chemotaxis assay and wound closure by CytoSelect ™Wound Healing Assay Kit which generated a defined “wound field”. All assays were performed in three independent controlled experiments. Results None of the three substances affected cell viability and none showed a stimulating effect on cell proliferation. Preparation (0712–2) exerted a stimulating effect on fibroblast migration (31.9%) vs 14.7% with succussed solvent (0712–1) at 1:100 dilutions (p < 0.001). Unsuccussed solvent (0712–3) had no influence on cell migration (6.3%; p > 0.05). Preparation (0712–2) at a dilution of 1:100 promoted in vitro wound closure by 59.5% and differed significantly (p < 0.001) from succussed solvent (0712–1), which caused 22.1% wound closure. Conclusion Results of this study showed that the low potency homeopathic remedy (0712–2) exerted in vitro wound closure potential in NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. This effect resulted from stimulation of fibroblasts motility rather than of their mitosis. PMID:22809174

  18. Identification of pyrogallol as an antiproliferative compound present in extracts from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis: effects on in vitro cell growth of human tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Lampronti, Ilaria; Martello, Dino; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Jabbar, Shaila; Choudhuri, Mohammad Shahabuddin Kabir; Datta, Bidduyt Kanti; Gambari, Roberto

    2002-07-01

    In this study we compared the in vitro antiproliferative activity of extracts from medicinal plants toward human tumor cell lines, including human erythromyeloid K562, B-lymphoid Raji, T-lymphoid Jurkat, erythroleukemic HEL cell lines. Extracts from Emblica officinalis were the most active in inhibiting in vitro cell proliferation, after comparison to those from Terminalia arjuna, Aphanamixis polystachya, Oroxylum indicum, Cuscuta reflexa, Aegle marmelos, Saraca asoka, Rumex maritimus, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Red Sandalwood. Emblica officinalis extracts have been studied previously, due to their hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antifungal, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory medicinal activities. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses allowed to identify pyrogallol as the common compound present both in unfractionated and n-butanol fraction of Emblica officinalis extracts. Antiproliferative effects of pyrogallol were therefore determined on human tumor cell lines thus identifying pyrogallol as an active component of Emblica officinalis extracts.

  19. Transcriptome analysis of WRKY gene family in Oryza officinalis Wall ex Watt and WRKY genes involved in responses to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae stress

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chunmiao; Shen, Qingxi J.; Wang, Bo; He, Bin; Xiao, Suqin; Chen, Ling; Yu, Tengqiong; Ke, Xue; Zhong, Qiaofang; Fu, Jian; Chen, Yue; Wang, Lingxian; Yin, Fuyou; Zhang, Dunyu; Ghidan, Walid; Huang, Xingqi; Cheng, Zaiquan

    2017-01-01

    Oryza officinalis Wall ex Watt, a very important and special wild rice species, shows abundant genetic diversity and disease resistance features, especially high resistance to bacterial blight. The molecular mechanisms of bacterial blight resistance in O. officinalis have not yet been elucidated. The WRKY transcription factor family is one of the largest gene families involved in plant growth, development and stress response. However, little is known about the numbers, structure, molecular phylogenetics, and expression of the WRKY genes under Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) stress in O. officinalis due to lacking of O. officinalis genome. Therefore, based on the RNA-sequencing data of O. officinalis, we performed a comprehensive study of WRKY genes in O. officinalis and identified 89 OoWRKY genes. Then 89 OoWRKY genes were classified into three groups based on the WRKY domains and zinc finger motifs. Phylogenetic analysis strongly supported that the evolution of OoWRKY genes were consistent with previous studies of WRKYs, and subgroup IIc OoWRKY genes were the original ancestors of some group II and group III OoWRKYs. Among the 89 OoWRKY genes, eight OoWRKYs displayed significantly different expression (>2-fold, p<0.01) in the O. officinalis transcriptome under Xoo strains PXO99 and C5 stress 48 h, suggesting these genes might play important role in PXO99 and C5 stress responses in O. officinalis. QRT-PCR analysis and confirmation of eight OoWRKYs expression patterns revealed that they responded strongly to PXO99 and C5 stress 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h, and the trends of these genes displaying marked changes were consistent with the 48 h RNA-sequencing data, demonstrated these genes played important roles in response to biotic stress and might even involved in the bacterial blight resistance. Tissue expression profiles of eight OoWRKY genes revealed that they were highly expressed in root, stem, leaf, and flower, especially in leaf (except OoWRKY71), suggesting

  20. Transcriptome analysis of WRKY gene family in Oryza officinalis Wall ex Watt and WRKY genes involved in responses to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae stress.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chunmiao; Shen, Qingxi J; Wang, Bo; He, Bin; Xiao, Suqin; Chen, Ling; Yu, Tengqiong; Ke, Xue; Zhong, Qiaofang; Fu, Jian; Chen, Yue; Wang, Lingxian; Yin, Fuyou; Zhang, Dunyu; Ghidan, Walid; Huang, Xingqi; Cheng, Zaiquan

    2017-01-01

    Oryza officinalis Wall ex Watt, a very important and special wild rice species, shows abundant genetic diversity and disease resistance features, especially high resistance to bacterial blight. The molecular mechanisms of bacterial blight resistance in O. officinalis have not yet been elucidated. The WRKY transcription factor family is one of the largest gene families involved in plant growth, development and stress response. However, little is known about the numbers, structure, molecular phylogenetics, and expression of the WRKY genes under Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) stress in O. officinalis due to lacking of O. officinalis genome. Therefore, based on the RNA-sequencing data of O. officinalis, we performed a comprehensive study of WRKY genes in O. officinalis and identified 89 OoWRKY genes. Then 89 OoWRKY genes were classified into three groups based on the WRKY domains and zinc finger motifs. Phylogenetic analysis strongly supported that the evolution of OoWRKY genes were consistent with previous studies of WRKYs, and subgroup IIc OoWRKY genes were the original ancestors of some group II and group III OoWRKYs. Among the 89 OoWRKY genes, eight OoWRKYs displayed significantly different expression (>2-fold, p<0.01) in the O. officinalis transcriptome under Xoo strains PXO99 and C5 stress 48 h, suggesting these genes might play important role in PXO99 and C5 stress responses in O. officinalis. QRT-PCR analysis and confirmation of eight OoWRKYs expression patterns revealed that they responded strongly to PXO99 and C5 stress 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h, and the trends of these genes displaying marked changes were consistent with the 48 h RNA-sequencing data, demonstrated these genes played important roles in response to biotic stress and might even involved in the bacterial blight resistance. Tissue expression profiles of eight OoWRKY genes revealed that they were highly expressed in root, stem, leaf, and flower, especially in leaf (except OoWRKY71), suggesting

  1. Hydrological modification, saltwater intrusion, and tree water use of a Pterocarpus officinalis swamp in Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colón-Rivera, Ricardo J.; Feagin, Rusty A.; West, Jason B.; López, Natalia B.; Benítez-Joubert, Rafael J.

    2014-06-01

    Tidal freshwater forested wetlands occupy a narrow ecological space determined by the balance between saltwater and freshwater inputs to the system. However, this balance is not well understood. In the Caribbean, tidal freshwater-forested wetlands dominated by Pterocarpus officinalis are vulnerable to changes in tidal influence and freshwater inputs. In this setting, the seasonal interactions of saltwater and freshwater inputs create less than ideal conditions for these forests to survive. Hence, it is crucial to have a better understanding of the hydrologic context of these and other tidal freshwater forested wetlands. We examined the extent of tidal forcing and saltwater influence in the largest Pterocarpus swamp of Puerto Rico by installing automated water level and conductivity recorders across a tidal creek transect at four different distances from the ocean, and by using water stable isotopes ratios (δD, δ18O) as natural tracers to determine the most important freshwater sources for tree transpiration. Records of water level and salinity revealed that the amount of rainfall was most influential on saltwater wedge migration in the creek for locations at the front and back of the tidal network, but that tidal dynamics were most influential at the middle section of the tidal network. Saltwater intrusion into the deepest parts of the tidal network was most prominent during sustained dry periods. Isotopic ratios of the surface water samples in the forest revealed that most of the water there was derived from freshwater runoff, but there was a seasonal change in its relative contribution to the forest hydrology. During the dry season, high δ values suggested the presence of runoff-derived water that had undergone evaporation, and saline influences were found in locations where past deforestation created preferential pathways for this water. During both seasons, δ 18O values of groundwater revealed the influence of saline water at depths 60 cm and greater near

  2. Molecular Characterization of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in an Agroforestry System Reveals the Predominance of Funneliformis spp. Associated with Colocasia esculenta and Pterocarpus officinalis Adult Trees and Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Geoffroy, Alexandre; Sanguin, Hervé; Galiana, Antoine; Bâ, Amadou

    2017-01-01

    Pterocarpus officinalis (Jacq.) is a leguminous forestry tree species endemic to Caribbean swamp forests. In Guadeloupe, smallholder farmers traditionally cultivate flooded taro ( Colocasia esculenta ) cultures under the canopy of P. officinalis stands. The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the sustainability of this traditional agroforestry system has been suggested but the composition and distribution of AM fungi colonizing the leguminous tree and/or taro are poorly characterized. An in-depth characterization of root-associated AM fungal communities from P. officinalis adult trees and seedlings and taro cultures, sampled in two localities of Guadeloupe, was performed by pyrosequencing (GS FLX+) of partial 18S rRNA gene. The AM fungal community was composed of 215 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), belonging to eight fungal families dominated by Glomeraceae, Acaulosporaceae, and Gigasporaceae. Results revealed a low AM fungal community membership between P. officinalis and C. esculenta . However, certain AM fungal community taxa (10% of total community) overlapped between P. officinalis and C. esculenta , notably predominant Funneliformis OTUs. These findings provide new perspectives in deciphering the significance of Funneliformis in nutrient exchange between P. officinalis and C. esculenta by forming a potential mycorrhizal network.

  3. Molecular Characterization of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in an Agroforestry System Reveals the Predominance of Funneliformis spp. Associated with Colocasia esculenta and Pterocarpus officinalis Adult Trees and Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Geoffroy, Alexandre; Sanguin, Hervé; Galiana, Antoine; Bâ, Amadou

    2017-01-01

    Pterocarpus officinalis (Jacq.) is a leguminous forestry tree species endemic to Caribbean swamp forests. In Guadeloupe, smallholder farmers traditionally cultivate flooded taro (Colocasia esculenta) cultures under the canopy of P. officinalis stands. The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the sustainability of this traditional agroforestry system has been suggested but the composition and distribution of AM fungi colonizing the leguminous tree and/or taro are poorly characterized. An in-depth characterization of root-associated AM fungal communities from P. officinalis adult trees and seedlings and taro cultures, sampled in two localities of Guadeloupe, was performed by pyrosequencing (GS FLX+) of partial 18S rRNA gene. The AM fungal community was composed of 215 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), belonging to eight fungal families dominated by Glomeraceae, Acaulosporaceae, and Gigasporaceae. Results revealed a low AM fungal community membership between P. officinalis and C. esculenta. However, certain AM fungal community taxa (10% of total community) overlapped between P. officinalis and C. esculenta, notably predominant Funneliformis OTUs. These findings provide new perspectives in deciphering the significance of Funneliformis in nutrient exchange between P. officinalis and C. esculenta by forming a potential mycorrhizal network. PMID:28804479

  4. Simultaneous Analysis of Iridoid Glycosides and Anthraquinones in Morinda officinalis Using UPLC-QqQ-MS/MS and UPLC-Q/TOF-MSE.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiangsheng; Wei, Jianhe; Yang, Meihua

    2018-05-03

    Morinda officinalis is an important herbal medicine and functional food, and its main constituents include anthraquinone and iridoid glycosides. Quantification of the main compounds is a necessary step to understand the quality and therapeutic properties of M. officinalis , but this has not yet been performed based on liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Analytes were extracted from M. officinalis by reflux method. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-QqQ-MS) using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was applied for quantification. Fragmentation pathways of deacetyl asperulosidic acid and rubiadin were investigated based on UPLC with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (Q/TOF-MS) in the MS E centroid mode. The method showed a good linearity over a wide concentration range (R² ≥ 0.9930). The limits of quantification of six compounds ranged from 2.6 to 27.57 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions of the investigated components exhibited an RSD within 4.5% with mean recovery rates of 95.32⁻99.86%. Contents of selected compounds in M. officinalis varied significantly depending on region. The fragmentation pathway of deacetyl asperulosidic and rubiadin was proposed. A selective and sensitive method was developed for determining six target compounds in M. officinalis by UPLC-MS/MS. Furthermore, the proposed method will be helpful for quality control and identification main compounds of M. officinalis .

  5. Biological activities of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) extract as analyzed in microorganisms and cells

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus, Daiane; Figueira, Leandro Wagner; de Oliveira, Felipe Eduardo; Pacheco Soares, Cristina; Camargo, Samira Estves Afonso; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; de Oliveira, Luciane Dias

    2017-01-01

    R. officinalis L. is an aromatic plant commonly used as condiment and for medicinal purposes. Biological activities of its extract were evaluated in this study, as antimicrobial effect on mono- and polymicrobial biofilms, cytotoxicity, anti-inflammatory capacity, and genotoxicity. Monomicrobial biofilms of Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and polymicrobial biofilms composed of C. albicans with each bacterium were formed in microplates during 48 h and exposed for 5 min to R. officinalis L. extract (200 mg/mL). Its cytotoxic effect was examined on murine macrophages (RAW 264.7), human gingival fibroblasts (FMM-1), human breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7), and cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa) after exposure to different concentrations of the extract, analyzed by MTT, neutral red (NR), and crystal violet (CV) assays. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated on RAW 264.7 non-stimulated or stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli and treated with different concentrations of the extract for 24 h. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were quantified by ELISA. Genotoxicity was verified by the frequency of micronuclei (MN) at 1000 cells after exposure to concentrations of the extract for 24 h. Data were analyzed by T-Test or ANOVA and Tukey Test (P ≤ 0.05). Thus, significant reductions in colony forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) were observed in all biofilms. Regarding the cells, it was observed that concentrations ≤ 50 mg/mL provided cell viability of above 50%. Production of proinflammatory cytokines in the treated groups was similar or lower compared to the control group. The MN frequency in the groups exposed to extract was similar or less than the untreated group. It was shown that R. officinalis L. extract was effective on mono- and polymicrobial biofilms; it also provided cell viability of above 50% (at

  6. Effect of extraction method on the yield of furanocoumarins from fruits of Archangelica officinalis Hoffm.

    PubMed

    Waksmundzka-Hajnos, M; Petruczynik, A; Dragan, A; Wianowska, D; Dawidowicz, A L

    2004-01-01

    Optimal conditions for the extraction and analysis of furanocoumarins from fruits of Archangelica officinalis Hoffm. have been determined. The following extraction methods were used: exhaustive extraction in a Soxhlet apparatus, ultrasonication at 25 and 60 degrees C, microwave-assisted solvent extraction in open and closed systems, and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). In most cases the yields of furanocoumarins were highest using the ASE method. The effects of extracting solvent, temperature and time of extraction using this method were investigated. The highest yield of furanocoumarins by ASE was obtained with methanol at 100-130 degrees C for 10 min. The extraction yields of furanocoumarins from plant material by ultrasonication at 60 degrees C and microwave-assisted solvent extraction in an open system were comparable to the extraction yields obtained in the time- and solvent-consuming exhaustive process involving the Soxhlet apparatus.

  7. Polyethylene glycol-based ultrasound-assisted extraction of magnolol and honokiol from Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis.

    PubMed

    He, Lei; Fan, Tao; Hu, Jianguo; Zhang, Lijin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a kind of green solvent named polyethylene glycol (PEG) was developed for the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of magnolol and honokiol from Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis. The effects of PEG molecular weight, PEG concentration, sample size, pH, ultrasonic power and extraction time on the extraction of magnolol and honokiol were investigated to optimise the extraction conditions. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the PEG-based UAE supplied higher extraction efficiencies of magnolol and honokiol than the ethanol-based UAE and traditional ethanol-reflux extraction. Furthermore, the correlation coefficient (R(2)), repeatability (relative standard deviation, n = 6) and recovery confirmed the validation of the proposed extraction method, which were 0.9993-0.9996, 3.1-4.6% and 92.3-106.8%, respectively.

  8. Root colonization by symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increases sesquiterpenic acid concentrations in Valeriana officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Nell, Monika; Wawrosch, Christoph; Steinkellner, Siegrid; Vierheilig, Horst; Kopp, Brigitte; Lössl, Andreas; Franz, Chlodwig; Novak, Johannes; Zitterl-Eglseer, Karin

    2010-03-01

    In some medicinal plants a specific plant-fungus association, known as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, increases the levels of secondary plant metabolites and/or plant growth. In this study, the effects of three different AM treatments on biomass and sesquiterpenic acid concentrations in two IN VITRO propagated genotypes of valerian ( VALERIANA OFFICINALIS L., Valerianaceae) were investigated. Valerenic, acetoxyvalerenic and hydroxyvalerenic acid levels were analyzed in the rhizome and in two root fractions. Two of the AM treatments significantly increased the levels of sesquiterpenic acids in the underground parts of valerian. These treatments, however, influenced the biomass of rhizomes and roots negatively. Therefore this observed increase was not accompanied by an increase in yield of sesquiterpenic acids per plant. Furthermore, one of the two genotypes had remarkably high hydroxyvalerenic acid contents and can be regarded as a hydroxyvalerenic acid chemotype. Copyright Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of drimenol synthase from valerian plant (Valeriana officinalis).

    PubMed

    Kwon, Moonhyuk; Cochrane, Stephen A; Vederas, John C; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2014-12-20

    Drimenol, a sesquiterpene alcohol, and its derivatives display diverse bio-activities in nature. However, a drimenol synthase gene has yet to be identified. We identified a new sesquiterpene synthase cDNA (VoTPS3) in valerian plant (Valeriana officinalis). Purification and NMR analyses of the VoTPS3-produced terpene, and characterization of the VoTPS3 enzyme confirmed that VoTPS3 synthesizes (-)-drimenol. In feeding assays, possible reaction intermediates, farnesol and drimenyl diphosphate, could not be converted to drimenol, suggesting that the intermediate remains tightly bound to VoTPS3 during catalysis. A mechanistic consideration of (-)-drimenol synthesis suggests that drimenol synthase is likely to use a protonation-initiated cyclization, which is rare for sesquiterpene synthases. VoTPS3 can be used to produce (-)-drimenol, from which useful drimane-type terpenes can be synthesized. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Components of the cellular defense and detoxification system of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda).

    PubMed

    Beuerlein, Knut; Löhr, Sandra; Westermann, Bettina; Ruth, Peter; Schipp, Rudolf

    2002-12-01

    Endocytotic-active cells in the branchial heart complex of Sepia officinalis were studied by in situ injection of different types of xenobiotics and by in vitro perfusion of the organ complex with a bacterial suspension. The rhogocytes (ovoid cells) ingest particles of all tested sizes by endocytosis and phagocytosis. The hemocytes of the circulating blood and the adhesive hemocytes in the wall of the branchial heart incorporate all tested kinds of foreign materials, including bacterial cells due to phagocytosis achieved by the triangular mesenchymatic cells. The ultrastructural findings also give strong evidence that the triangular mesenchymatic cells are fixed hemocytes that have migrated into the branchial heart tissue. The ingestion and digestion of allogeneic substances and bacteria or their debris by rhogocytes and/or all (forms of) hemocytes suggests the involvement of these either fixed or mobile endocytotic-active cells in the defense and detoxification system of cephalopods.

  11. Rosmarinus eriocalyx: An alternative to Rosmarinus officinalis as a source of antioxidant compounds.

    PubMed

    Bendif, Hamdi; Boudjeniba, Messaoud; Djamel Miara, Mohamed; Biqiku, Loreta; Bramucci, Massimo; Caprioli, Giovanni; Lupidi, Giulio; Quassinti, Luana; Sagratini, Gianni; Vitali, Luca A; Vittori, Sauro; Maggi, Filippo

    2017-03-01

    Rosmarinus eriocalyx is an aromatic evergreen bush endemic to Algeria where it is used as a condiment to flavour soups and meat and as a traditional remedy. In the present work we have analyzed for the first time the phenolic composition of polar extracts obtained from stems, leaves and flowers of R. eriocalyx by HPLC, and determined the antioxidant and antimicrobial effects by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, ORAC and agar disc diffusion methods, respectively. Results showed that ethanolic extracts of leaves and flowers are a rich source of phenolic compounds, mainly rosmarinic acid, carnosic acid and carnosol that are the main responsible for the noteworthy antioxidant activity observed in the assays. This study showed that R. eriocalyx might be a spice to be included in the European food additive list and used as a preservative agent besides R. officinalis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Isolation by different processes and in vitro bioactivities of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) essential oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanh, Tran Truc; Lan, Lao Xuan; Thu, Huynh; Tam, Nguyen Kim Minh

    2017-09-01

    Essential oil of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L) was solvent-free microwave extracted and analysed by GC/MS. 36 compounds were identified, and the main constituents of the oil included 1,8-cineole (16.87%), camphor (24.12%), α-pinene (11.04%), β-pinene (5,51%) etc,… The results demonstrate that rosemary essential oil exhibited free radical scavenging activity against DPPH with IC50 = 472.46 µg/ml. Rosemary oil has also been proven effective against all of examined pathogens except P. aeruginosa. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was 8 µl/ml for Salmonella typhimurium and 4 µl/ml for the other four studied strains (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, Escherichia coli). These results will open new venues for rosemary oil medical use.

  13. The effects of Valeriana officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats

    PubMed Central

    Neamati, Ali; Chaman, Fariba; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Neuroimmune factors have been considered as contributors to the pathogenesis of depression. Beside other therapeutic effects, Valeriana officinalis L., have been suggested to have anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, the effects of V. officinalis L. hydro alcoholic extract was investigated on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 Wistar rats were divided into five groups: Group 1 (control group) received saline instead of Valeriana officinalis L. extract. The animals in group 2 (sensitized) were treated by saline instead of the extract and were sensitized using the ovalbumin. Groups 3-5 (Sent - Ext 50), (Sent - Ext 100) and (Sent - Ext 200) were treated by 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of V. officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract respectively, during the sensitization protocol. Forced swimming test was performed for all groups and immobility time was recorded. Finally, the animals were placed in the open-field apparatus and the crossing number on peripheral and central areas was observed. Results: The immobility time in the sensitized group was higher than that in the control group (P < 0.01). The animals in Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower immobility times in comparison with sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). In the open field test, the crossed number in peripheral by the sensitized group was higher than that of the control one (P < 0.01) while, the animals of Sent-Ext 50, Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower crossing number in peripheral compared with the sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 respectively). Furthermore, in the sensitized group, the central crossing number was lower than that of the control group (P < 0.001). In the animals treated by 200 mg/kg of the extract, the central crossing number was higher than that of the sensitized group (P < 0. 05). Conclusions: The results of the present study showed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of V. officinalis

  14. The effects of Valeriana officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats.

    PubMed

    Neamati, Ali; Chaman, Fariba; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-04-01

    Neuroimmune factors have been considered as contributors to the pathogenesis of depression. Beside other therapeutic effects, Valeriana officinalis L., have been suggested to have anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, the effects of V. officinalis L. hydro alcoholic extract was investigated on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats. A total of 50 Wistar rats were divided into five groups: Group 1 (control group) received saline instead of Valeriana officinalis L. extract. The animals in group 2 (sensitized) were treated by saline instead of the extract and were sensitized using the ovalbumin. Groups 3-5 (Sent - Ext 50), (Sent - Ext 100) and (Sent - Ext 200) were treated by 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of V. officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract respectively, during the sensitization protocol. Forced swimming test was performed for all groups and immobility time was recorded. Finally, the animals were placed in the open-field apparatus and the crossing number on peripheral and central areas was observed. The immobility time in the sensitized group was higher than that in the control group (P < 0.01). The animals in Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower immobility times in comparison with sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). In the open field test, the crossed number in peripheral by the sensitized group was higher than that of the control one (P < 0.01) while, the animals of Sent-Ext 50, Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower crossing number in peripheral compared with the sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 respectively). Furthermore, in the sensitized group, the central crossing number was lower than that of the control group (P < 0.001). In the animals treated by 200 mg/kg of the extract, the central crossing number was higher than that of the sensitized group (P < 0. 05). The results of the present study showed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of V. officinalis prevents depression like behavior in ovalbumin

  15. Green and rapid synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Borago officinalis leaf extract: anticancer and antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Singh, Hina; Du, Juan; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2017-11-01

    This study highlights the facile, reliable, cost effective, and ecofriendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Borago officinalis leaves extract efficiently. The biosynthesis of AgNPs was verified by UV-Vis spectrum which showed the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band at 422 nm. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis revealed that the particles were spherical, hexagonal, and irregular in shape and had size ranging from 30 to 80 nm. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and elemental mapping have displayed the purity and maximum distribution of silver in the AgNPs. The crystalline nature of AgNPs had been identified using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area diffraction pattern (SAED). The particle size analysis revealed that the Z-average diameter of the AgNPs was 50.86 nm with polydispersity index (PDI) 0.136. Zeta potential analysis displayed the colloidal stability of AgNPs. This work also showed the efficacy of AgNPs against lung cancer cell lines (A549) and cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), in vitro. The AgNPs showed cytotoxicity to the A549 and HeLa cancer cell line at the concentrations 5 and 2 μg/ml. The AgNPs were also explored for the antibacterial activity including biofilm inhibition against pathogenic bacteria. The B. officinalis leaves extract can be used efficiently for green synthesis AgNPs. The biosynthesized AgNPs demonstrated potentials as anticancer and antibacterial agents. This work provides helpful insight into the development of new anticancer and antimicrobial agents.

  16. Histological study of some Echium vulgare, Pulmonaria officinalis and Symphytum officinale populations.

    PubMed

    Papp, Nóra; Bencsik, Tímea; Németh, Kitti; Gyergyák, Kinga; Sulc, Alexandra; Farkas, Agnes

    2011-10-01

    Plants living in different ecological habitats can show significant variability in their histological and phytochemical characters. The main histological features of various populations of three medicinal plants from the Boraginaceae family were studied. Stems, petioles and leaves were investigated by light microscopy in vertical and transverse sections. The outline of the epidermal cells, as well as the shape and cell number of trichomes was studied in leaf surface casts. Differences were measured among the populations of Echium vulgare in the width and height of epidermis cells in the stem, petiole and leaf, as well as in the size of palisade cells in the leaves. Among the populations of Pulmonaria officinalis significant differences were found in the length of trichomes and in the slightly or strongly wavy outline of epidermal radial cell walls. Populations of Symphytum officinale showed variance in the height of epidermal cells in leaves and stems, length of palisade cells and number of intercellular spaces in leaves, and the size of the central cavity in the stem. Boraginaceae bristles were found to be longer in plants in windy/shady habitats as opposed to sunny habitats, both in the leaves and stems ofP. officinalis and S. officinale, which might be connected to varying levels of exposure to wind. Longer epidermal cells were detected in the leaves and stems of both E. vulgare and S. officinale plants living in shady habitats, compared with shorter cells in sunny habitats. Leaf mesophyll cells were shorter in shady habitats as opposed to longer cells in sunny habitats, both in E. vulgare and S. officinale. This combination of histological characters may contribute to the plant's adaptation to various amounts of sunshine. The reported data prove the polymorphism of the studied taxa, as well as their ability to adapt to various ecological circumstances.

  17. Composition and metabolism of phospholipids in Octopus vulgaris and Sepia officinalis hatchlings.

    PubMed

    Reis, Diana B; Acosta, Nieves G; Almansa, Eduardo; Tocher, Douglas R; Andrade, José P; Sykes, António V; Rodríguez, Covadonga

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterise the fatty acid (FA) profiles of the major phospholipids, of Octopus vulgaris and Sepia officinalis hatchlings, namely phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE); and to evaluate the capability of both cephalopod species on dietary phospholipid remodelling. Thus, O. vulgaris and S. officinalis hatchlings were in vivo incubated with 0.3μM of L-∝-1-palmitoyl-2-[1-(14)C]arachidonyl-PC or L-∝-1-palmitoyl-2-[1-(14)C]arachidonyl-PE. Octopus and cuttlefish hatchlings phospholipids showed a characteristic FA profiles with PC presenting high contents of 16:0 and 22:6n-3 (DHA); PS having high 18:0, DHA and 20:5n-3 (EPA); PI a high content of saturated FA; and PE showing high contents of DHA and EPA. Interestingly, the highest content of 20:4n-6 (ARA) was found in PE rather than PI. Irrespective of the phospholipid in which [1-(14)C]ARA was initially bound (either PC or PE), the esterification pattern of [1-(14)C]ARA in octopus lipids was similar to that found in their tissues with high esterification of this FA into PE. In contrast, in cuttlefish hatchlings [1-(14)C]ARA was mainly recovered in the same phospholipid that was provided. These results showed a characteristic FA profiles in the major phospholipids of the two species, as well as a contrasting capability to remodel dietary phospholipids, which may suggest a difference in phospholipase activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Biological Activity of the Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) Essential Oil on Varroa destructor Infested Honeybees.

    PubMed

    Bendifallah, Leila; Belguendouz, Rachida; Hamoudi, Latifa; Arab, Karim

    2018-06-06

    The present work is conducted as part of the development and the valorization of bioactive natural substances from Algerian medicinal and aromatic spontaneous plants, a clean alternative method in biological control. For this purpose, the bio-acaricidal activity of Salvia officinalis (sage)essential oil (EO)was evaluated against the Varroa destructor , a major threat to the honey bee Apis mellifera ssp. intermissa . The aerial parts of S. officinalis L., 1753 were collected from the Chrea mountainous area in Northern Algeria. They were subjected to hydro distillation by a Clevenger apparatus type to obtain the EO, and screened for bio-acaricidal activity against Varroa destructor by the method of strips impregnated with the mixture EO and twin according to three doses. Pre-treatment results revealed infestation rates in the experimental site ranging from 3.76% to 21.22%. This showed the heterogeneity of infestations in hives according to the density of bees. This constituted a difficulty in monitoring the population dynamics of this parasite. After treatment, a difference in the acaricidal effect of Sage essential oil is noticed. It gives a mortality rate of 6.09% by the dose D1: 5%, 2.32% by the dose D2: 15%, and a low mortality rate of 0.9% by the dose D3: 20%. The chemical treatment carried out by Bayvarol gives a result close to that of the essential oil of Sage (9.97%).These results point to the fact that Sage essential oil treatments have a significant effect and good biological activity with regard to harmful species.

  19. The role of natural galactagogues during breast feeding: focus on a Galega officinalis based food supplement.

    PubMed

    Salatino, Silvia; Giacomelli, Luca; Carnevali, Ilaria; Giacomelli, Erika

    2017-12-01

    Maternal milk is the optimal food for newborns. To this end, a number of interventions are used to enhance milk production. However, pharmacological interventions may be associated with a perceived risk of adverse effects and therefore many mothers prefer to rely on natural herbal remedies. Several herbal remedies have been traditionally used to this purpose. However, the level of evidence supporting their use is mixed. Among different currently-employed natural remedies, Galega officinalis has emerged to be one of those sustained by the strongest evidence. In this paper, we comment on a galega-based product. It is a standardized food supplement used to support breastfeeding mothers and to promote milk production containing Galega officinalis and other substances, including vitamins and magnesium, with potential effect on mother's well-being. In a recent product evaluation on a large sample of Italian women, the wide majority of mothers have declared to be satisfied with this product, and two third of them reported that the milk production was improved with the use of this product. Noteworthy, this galega-based food supplement was also reported to promote psychological benefit. The evidence of a perceived psychological benefit associated with this product is of particular importance, given the high degree of distress often experienced by mothers during the post-partum period. Last, a high level of safety was perceived by the participants. This galega-based food supplement does have a role in supporting breastfeeding mothers and enhance milk production during lactation. Further clinical trials could provide further evidence on the effectiveness of the product.

  20. Inhibitory mechanism of an extract of Althaea officinalis L. on endothelin-1-induced melanocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Akemi; Hachiya, Akira; Ohuchi, Atsushi; Kitahara, Takashi; Takema, Yoshinori

    2002-02-01

    It is known that expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1) increases in the epidermis after UVB irradiation, and that this plays an important role during the induction of pigmentation both as a mitogen and as a melanogen for normal human melanocytes (NHMC). When ET-1 acts on NHMC via the endothelin B receptor (ET(B)R) on their cell surface, mobilization of intracellular calcium is induced, which is followed by activation of Raf-1 located upstream of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). We have continued the search for new agent which inhibit this calcium mobilization and we have found that an extract of Althaea officinalis L. has such an action. In this study, we investigated the precise inhibitory mechanism of this botanical extract on the ET-1-induced activation of melanocytes. Treatment of NHMC with this extract abrogated the stimulatory effect of ET-1 on proliferation and also on activation of MAPK in the intracellular signal transduction pathway, but did not affect the binding of ET-1 to the ET(B)R or the production of Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate (IP3). Further, when this extract was used to treat normal human keratinocytes (NHKC), secretion of ET-1 by those cells was reduced. Taken together, these findings indicate that an extract of A. officinalis inhibits both the secretion of ET-1 from NHKC and the action of ET-1 on NHMC mainly by suppressing the ET-1-induced calcium mobilization without the modification of IP3 production, which in turn suggests that this extract is a useful ingredient for a whitening agent.

  1. Critical temperatures in the cephalopod Sepia officinalis investigated using in vivo 31P NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Melzner, Frank; Bock, Christian; Pörtner, Hans-O

    2006-03-01

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis of an oxygen limitation defining thermal tolerance in the European cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis). Mantle muscle organ metabolic status and pHi were monitored using in vivo 31P NMR spectroscopy, while mantle muscle performance was determined by recording mantle cavity pressure oscillations during ventilation and spontaneous exercise. Under control conditions (15 degrees C), changes in muscle phospho-L-arginine (PLA) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) levels could be linearly related to frequently occurring, high-pressure mantle contractions with pressure amplitudes (MMPA) of >0.2 kPa. Accordingly, mainly MMPA of >2 kPa affected muscle PLA reserves, indicating that contractions with MMPA of <2 kPa only involve the thin layers of aerobic circular mantle musculature. On average, no more than 20% of muscle PLA was depleted during spontaneous exercise under control conditions. Subjecting animals to acute thermal change at an average rate of 1 deg. h-1 led to significant Pi accumulation (equivalent to PLA breakdown) and decrements in the free energy of ATP hydrolysis (dG/dzeta) at both ends of the temperature window, starting at mean critical temperatures (Tc) of 7.0 and 26.8 degrees C, respectively. Frequent groups of high-pressure mantle contractions could not (in the warm) or only partially (in the cold) be related to net PLA breakdown in mantle muscle, indicating an oxygen limitation of routine metabolism rather than exercise-related phosphagen use. We hypothesize that it is mainly the constantly working radial mantle muscles that become progressively devoid of oxygen. Estimates of very low dG/dzeta values (-44 kJ mol-1) in this compartment, along with correlated stagnating ventilation pressures in the warm, support this hypothesis. In conclusion, we found evidence for an oxygen limitation of thermal tolerance in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, as indicated by a progressive transition of routine mantle metabolism to

  2. Effects of IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3 on rooting and morphological features of Melissa officinalis L. stem cuttings.

    PubMed

    Sevik, Hakan; Guney, Kerim

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the potential of producing Melissa officinalis L. using stem cuttings. Four different hormones (IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3) were applied to the cuttings, with and without buds, in two doses (1000 mg/L and 5000 mg/L), and after 60 days, 10 morphological characteristics of newly generated plants were detected, and a statistical analysis was carried out. The results of the study show that the cuttings with at least one bud must be used in order to produce M. officinalis using stem cuttings. Even though the auxin group hormones (IAA, IBA, and NAA) do not have an apparent effect on rooting percentage, these hormones were detected to affect the morphological characteristics of the newly generated plants, especially root generation. GA3 application has a considerable effect on stem height.

  3. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents of oregano (Origanum vulgare), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) from Romania.

    PubMed

    Spiridon, Iuliana; Colceru, Svetlana; Anghel, Narcis; Teaca, Carmen Alice; Bodirlau, Ruxanda; Armatu, Alice

    2011-10-01

    The study reported here presents a comparative screening of three medicinal plants including oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) having the same geographical origin, the Southeast region of Romania, and growing in the same natural conditions. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids for the extracts of these were determined. Furthermore, the total antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. It was found that Origanum vulgare and Melissa officinalis extracts present the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Lavandula angustifolia is less active. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the components of extracts. Major phenolic acids identified in the analysed species were ferulic, rosmarinic, p-coumaric and caffeic, while predominant flavonoids were quercetin, apigenin kaempherol, which were present as glucosides.

  4. Biotransformation of artemisinin using cell suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G.Don and Lavandula officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Patel, Suman; Gaur, Rashmi; Verma, Priyanka; Bhakuni, Rajendra S; Mathur, Archana

    2010-08-01

    Artemisinin, an antimalarial compound, at 5 mg/40 ml, was transformed by cell suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G.Don and Lavandula officinalis L. into deoxyartemisinin with yields >78% (3.93 mg deoxyartemisinin from 5 mg artemisinin). Maximum conversion (78.6 and 78%) occurred after 6 and 7 days of adding artemisinin to 20 and 9 days old cultures of C. roseus and L. officinalis, respectively. The procedure was scaled up by and 500 mg artemisinin was transformed into 390 mg deoxyartemisinin. Addition of artemisinin at the beginning of the culture cycle resulted in >50% reduction in dry biomass production with no bioconversion. Conversion of artemisinin occurred intracellularly followed by leaching of the product into the medium.

  5. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carnosic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid Using Ionic Liquid Solution from Rosmarinus officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Zu, Ge; Zhang, Rongrui; Yang, Lei; Ma, Chunhui; Zu, Yuangang; Wang, Wenjie; Zhao, Chunjian

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquid based, ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolcarboxylic acids, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, from Rosmarinus officinalis. Eight ionic liquids, with different cations and anions, were investigated in this work and [C8mim]Br was selected as the optimal solvent. Ultrasound extraction parameters, including soaking time, solid–liquid ratio, ultrasound power and time, and the number of extraction cycles, were discussed by single factor experiments and the main influence factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The proposed approach was demonstrated as having higher efficiency, shorter extraction time and as a new alternative for the extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid from R. officinalis compared with traditional reference extraction methods. Ionic liquids are considered to be green solvents, in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of key chemicals from medicinal plants, and show great potential. PMID:23109836

  6. In vitro propagation of the Garden Heliotrope, Valeriana officinalis L.: influence of pre-chilling and light on seed germination.

    PubMed

    Bhat, B; Sharma, V D

    2015-03-01

    Valeriana officinalis is an important medicinal herb commonly found in Kashmir valley. This study forms an important preliminary step for in-vitro micro propagation of V. officinalis from breaking the seed dormancy, inducing rapid seed germination and its subsequent micro propagation. We investigated the influence of pretreatment of V. officinalis seeds with reduced temperature and light on seed germination and in-vitro propagation. Culture of explants from cultivated seeds have demonstrated its potential for in vitro propagation and plantlet regeneration. Individual as well as combinations of treatments such as temperature and light availability influenced the germination of seeds variedly. Unchilled seeds of V. officinalis were given dip in GA3 (200 ppm) for 24, 48 and 120 h. Seeds treated with GA3 for 24 h and kept in darkness showed the best results, i.e. 48%. Seeds pretreated with GA3 for 120 h and incubated in dark showed 40% germination. Pre-chilling up to 72 h and kept in light showed maximum germination of 60% followed by 40% kept in darkness. Pre-chilling for 48 h resulted in 40 and 25% seed germination in light and darkness, respectively. GA3 pre-treatment for 72 h and 24 h pre chilling were most effective in inducing seed germination. Maximum shoot response was obtained on MS enriched with BAP (1 mg/L) + IAA (0.1 mg/L) combinations using shoot tips as explants. Multiple shoot regeneration from shoot apices was recorded on BAP (1 mg/L) and BAP (1 mg/L) + IAA (0.1 mg/L).

  7. Volvalerelactones A and B, two new sesquiterpenoid lactones with an unprecedented skeleton from Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Hu, Jiang-Miao; Chen, Rui; Ma, Qing-Yun; Dai, Hao-Fu; Liu, Yu-Qing; Xie, Ming-Jin; Zhou, Jun; Zhao, You-Xing

    2011-06-17

    Volvalerelactones A and B (1 and 2), two new sesquiterpenoid lactones with an unprecedented 3/7/6 tricyclic ring system, were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and relative configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic data and single-crystal X-ray diffraction crystallography, and the absolute configuration was assigned by computational methods. The possible biosynthetic pathways of 1 and 2 were also proposed. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  8. Multi-elements determination in medical and edible Alpinia oxyphylla and Morinda officinalis and their decoctions by ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiangsheng; Wei, Jianhe; Shu, Xiaoyan; Kong, Weijun; Yang, Meihua

    2016-12-01

    Contents of twenty elements (Mg, K, Ca, Na, Fe, Al, Zn, Ba, Mn, Cu, Mo, Cr, Ni, As, Se, Cd, Hg, Tl, Pb and V) in two medical and edible plant species, Alpinia oxyphylla and Morinda officinalis were simultaneously determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method after microwave digestion with HNO 3 -H 2 O 2 (6:1, v/v) as the digestion solvent. Certified standard reference material Poplar leaf was used to assess the accuracy of the method. The greatest contents of Mg, K, Ca, Al, Fe and Na were found in dried Alpinia oxyphylla and Morinda officinalis samples. The contents of five heavy metals including Pb, Cd, As, Hg and Cu in Alpinia oxyphylla did not exceed the limits. The contents of Pb in 76.67% samples and Cd in two batches of Morinda officinalis samples exceeded the limits set by Chinese Pharmacopeia. The contents of the selected elements in different parts (leaves, stems, roots and fruits) of Alpinia oxyphylla varied considerably. The highest concentrations of Mg, Ca, Mn and Se were found in the leaves of Alpinia oxyphylla, at the same time, while, the contents of 9 elements including Cd, Cr, Cu, As, Pb in the roots were the highest. The transfer ratios of selected elements from both species of herbs into their decoctions were reduced. Especially for the heavy metals, the transfer ratios were below 30% except As (79.73%) in Morinda officinalis. The results showed that decoction of the samples may reduce the intake of heavy metals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Comprehensive Characterisation of Rosemary tea Obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis L. Collected in a sub-Humid Area of Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Achour, Mariem; Mateos, Raquel; Ben Fredj, Maha; Mtiraoui, Ali; Bravo, Laura; Saguem, Saad

    2018-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is an aromatic plant common in Tunisia and it is widely consumed as a tea in traditional cuisine and in folk medicine to treat various illnesses. Currently, most research efforts have been focused on rosemary essential oil, alcoholic and aqueous extracts, however, little is reported on rosemary infusion composition. To investigate compounds present in rosemary tea obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis L. collected in a sub-humid area of Tunisia in order to assess whether the traditional rosemary tea preparation method could be considered as a reference method for rosemary's compounds extraction. Qualitative characterisation of Rosmarinus officinalis tea obtained after rosemary infusion in boiled water was determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionisation quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS). Quantitative analysis relies on high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Forty-nine compounds belonging to six families, namely flavonoids, phenolic acids, phenolic terpenes, jasmonate, phenolic glycosides, and lignans were identified. To the best of the authors' knowledge eucommin A is characterised for the first time in rosemary. Rosmarinic acid (158.13 μg/g dried rosemary) was the main compound followed then by feruloylnepitrin (100.87 μg/g) and luteolin-3'-O-(2″-O-acetyl)-β-d-glucuronide (44.04 μg/g). Among quantified compounds, luteolin-7-O-rutinoside was the compound with the lowest concentration. The infusion method allows several polyphenols present in rosemary tea to be extracted, therefore it could be a reference method for rosemary's compounds extraction. Moreover, traditional Tunisian Rosmarinus officinalis tea consumption is of interest for its rich phenolic content. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Report: Comparison of qualitative, quantitative analysis and antioxidant potential between wild and cultivated Borago officinalis leaves from palestine.

    PubMed

    Abu-Qaoud, Hassan; Shawarb, Nuha; Hussen, Fatima; Jaradat, Nidal; Shtaya, Munqez

    2018-05-01

    Borago officinalis plant is an important plant of high medicinal and nutritional values. This study designed to evaluate antioxidant activity, screen the existence of phytogenic chemical compounds and to determine the total flavonoid and phenol contents of wild and cultivated Borago officinalis. Total flavonoid contents of the wild and cultivated Borago officinalis were determined by using rutin reference standard method and total phenols determined by using Folin Ciocalteu's method while antioxidant activity evaluated by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate assay. Phytochemical analyses indicated the presence of carbohydrate, phenols, flavonoids, phytosteroids tannins and volatile oil. The total flavonoid content of the methanolic extract from the wild borage plant was 22.4mg RU/g this value was reduced to 13.1mg RU/g for the cultivated methanolic extract as well as the total phenols contents was dropped from 5.21mg GA/g to 2.37mg GA/g methanolic extracts. Total tannins content of the wild growing borage plant was 13.7mg GA/g methanolic extract. This value was higher in the cultivated borage with 21.33mg GA/g methanolic extract. The wild leaves extract had IC 50 =6.3μg/mL for wild leaves extract was closer to IC 50 value of Trolox (standard reference with high antioxidant activity), while the cultivated leaves extract had higher IC 50 = 8.7μg/mL which mean lower antioxidant activity than the wild growing one. The data of this study showed that the extracts of Borago officinalis possess antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. Variation was clear between wild and cultivated species, these findings propose that such plant extract could have a wide range of applications in both food and pharmaceutical industries. Therefore, more research is necessary to investigate different cultural practices on the efficiency of borage plant.

  11. Antibacterial effect of chlorhexidine-cetrimide combination, Salvia officinalis plant extract and octenidine in comparison with conventional endodontic irrigants.

    PubMed

    Guneser, Mehmet Burak; Akbulut, Makbule Bilge; Eldeniz, Ayce Unverdi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the antimicrobial effect of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 2% chlorhexidine (CHX), a CHX/cetrimide solution (CHX+CTR), octenidine hydrochloride (OCT) and Salvia officinalis plant extract against Enterococcus faecalis. Seventy decoronated single-rooted human teeth were infected and divided into 6 test (n=10) and 2 control groups (n=5) (negative, sterile samples and positive, infected samples). Following irrigants were then applied to test groups: 2.5% NaOCl, 5.25% NaOCl, CHX, CHX+CTR, S. officinalis extract and OCT. The dentin chips were obtained from inner root canal walls and analyzed by counting the number of colony forming units (CFU). The 2.5% NaOCl, 5.25% NaOCl, CHX and OCT groups presented no bacterial growth (CFU=0). S. officinalis and CHX+CTR groups reduced the number of E. faecalis cells but could not eliminate all. OCT may have potential as an endodontic irrigant in treatment of infected root canals.

  12. Emblica officinalis (Amla): A review for its phytochemistry, ethnomedicinal uses and medicinal potentials with respect to molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Variya, Bhavesh C; Bakrania, Anita K; Patel, Snehal S

    2016-09-01

    Medicinal plants, having great elementary and therapeutic importance, are the gift to mankind to acquire healthy lifestyle. Emblica officinalis Gaertn. or Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (Euphorbeaceae), commonly known as Indian gooseberry or Amla, has superior value in entirely indigenous traditional system of medicine, including folklore Ayurveda, for medicinal and nutritional purposes to build up lost vitality and vigor. In this article, numerous phytochemicals isolated from E. officinalis and its ethnomedical and pharmacological potentials with molecular mechanisms are briefly deliberated and recapitulated. The information documented in the present review was collected from more than 270 articles, published or accepted in the last five to six decades, and more than 20 e-books using various online database. Additional information was obtained from various botanical books and dissertations. The extracts from various parts of E. officinalis, especially fruit, contain numerous phytoconstituents viz. higher amount of polyphenols like gallic acid, ellagic acid, different tannins, minerals, vitamins, amino acids, fixed oils, and flavonoids like rutin and quercetin. The extract or plant is identified to be efficacious against diversified ailments like inflammation, cancer, osteoporosis, neurological disorders, hypertension together with lifestyle diseases, parasitic and other infectious disorders. These actions are attributed to either regulation of various molecular pathway involved in several pathophysiologies or antioxidant property which prevents the damage of cellular compartments from oxidative stress. However, serious efforts are required in systemic research to identify, isolate and evaluate the chemical constituents for nutritional and therapeutic potentials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biocidal Potential and Chemical Composition of Industrial Essential Oils from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula × intermedia var. Super, and Santolina chamaecyparissus.

    PubMed

    Ortiz de Elguea-Culebras, Gonzalo; Sánchez-Vioque, Raúl; Berruga, María Isabel; Herraiz-Peñalver, David; González-Coloma, Azucena; Andrés, María Fé; Santana-Méridas, Omar

    2018-01-01

    This work presents the biocidal (insecticidal, ixodicidal, nematicidal, and phytotoxic) effects and chemical compositions of three essential oils obtained from the industrial steam distillation (IEOs) of hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.), lavandin (Lavandula × intermedia or L. × hybrida var. Super), and cotton lavender (Santolina chamaecyparissus L.). Their chemical composition analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry showed 1,8-cineole (53%) and β-pinene (16%) as the major components of H. officinalis, linalyl acetate (38%) and linalool (29%) of L. × intermedia; and 1,8-cineole (10%) and 8-methylene-3-oxatricyclo[5.2.0.0 2,4 ]nonane (8%) in S. chamaecyparissus. The biocidal tests showed that L. × intermedia IEO was the most active against the insect Spodoptera littoralis and toxic to the tick Hyalomma lusitanicum, IEO of H. officinalis was strongly active against S. littoralis, and finally, S. chamaecyparissus IEO was a strong antifeedant against the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi, toxic to H. lusitanicum and with moderate effects against Leptinotarsa decemlineata, S. littoralis, and Lolium perenne. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  14. SUR1 Receptor Interaction with Hesperidin and Linarin Predicts Possible Mechanisms of Action of Valeriana officinalis in Parkinson.

    PubMed

    Santos, Gesivaldo; Giraldez-Alvarez, Lisandro Diego; Ávila-Rodriguez, Marco; Capani, Francisco; Galembeck, Eduardo; Neto, Aristóteles Gôes; Barreto, George E; Andrade, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders. A theoretical approach of our previous experiments reporting the cytoprotective effects of the Valeriana officinalis compounds extract for PD is suggested. In addiction to considering the PD as a result of mitochondrial metabolic imbalance and oxidative stress, such as in our previous in vitro model of rotenone, in the present manuscript we added a genomic approach to evaluate the possible underlying mechanisms of the effect of the plant extract. Microarray of substantia nigra (SN) genome obtained from Allen Brain Institute was analyzed using gene set enrichment analysis to build a network of hub genes implicated in PD. Proteins transcribed from hub genes and their ligands selected by search ensemble approach algorithm were subjected to molecular docking studies, as well as 20 ns Molecular Dynamics (MD) using a Molecular Mechanic Poison/Boltzman Surface Area (MMPBSA) protocol. Our results bring a new approach to Valeriana officinalis extract, and suggest that hesperidin, and probably linarin are able to relieve effects of oxidative stress during ATP depletion due to its ability to binding SUR1. In addition, the key role of valerenic acid and apigenin is possibly related to prevent cortical hyperexcitation by inducing neuronal cells from SN to release GABA on brain stem. Thus, under hyperexcitability, oxidative stress, asphyxia and/or ATP depletion, Valeriana officinalis may trigger different mechanisms to provide neuronal cell protection.

  15. SUR1 Receptor Interaction with Hesperidin and Linarin Predicts Possible Mechanisms of Action of Valeriana officinalis in Parkinson

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Gesivaldo; Giraldez-Alvarez, Lisandro Diego; Ávila-Rodriguez, Marco; Capani, Francisco; Galembeck, Eduardo; Neto, Aristóteles Gôes; Barreto, George E.; Andrade, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders. A theoretical approach of our previous experiments reporting the cytoprotective effects of the Valeriana officinalis compounds extract for PD is suggested. In addiction to considering the PD as a result of mitochondrial metabolic imbalance and oxidative stress, such as in our previous in vitro model of rotenone, in the present manuscript we added a genomic approach to evaluate the possible underlying mechanisms of the effect of the plant extract. Microarray of substantia nigra (SN) genome obtained from Allen Brain Institute was analyzed using gene set enrichment analysis to build a network of hub genes implicated in PD. Proteins transcribed from hub genes and their ligands selected by search ensemble approach algorithm were subjected to molecular docking studies, as well as 20 ns Molecular Dynamics (MD) using a Molecular Mechanic Poison/Boltzman Surface Area (MMPBSA) protocol. Our results bring a new approach to Valeriana officinalis extract, and suggest that hesperidin, and probably linarin are able to relieve effects of oxidative stress during ATP depletion due to its ability to binding SUR1. In addition, the key role of valerenic acid and apigenin is possibly related to prevent cortical hyperexcitation by inducing neuronal cells from SN to release GABA on brain stem. Thus, under hyperexcitability, oxidative stress, asphyxia and/or ATP depletion, Valeriana officinalis may trigger different mechanisms to provide neuronal cell protection. PMID:27199743

  16. Antitussive activity of Althaea officinalis L. polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan and its changes in guinea pigs with ovalbumine-induced airways inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sutovska, M; Capek, P; Franova, S; Joskova, M; Sutovsky, J; Marcinek, J; Kalman, M

    2011-01-01

    The presented studies were aimed on experimental confirmation of Althaea officinalis polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan antitussive effect and its changes in conditions of allergic inflammation. We have tested whether rhamnogalacturonan inhibits cough reflex and modulates airways reactivity of guinea pigs in vivo. The cough in guinea pigs was induced by 0.3 M citric acid (CA) aerosol for 3 min interval, in which total number of cough efforts (sudden enhancement of expiratory flow accompanied by cough movement and sound) was counted. Specific airway resistance and its changes induced by citric acid aerosol were considered as an indicator of the in vivo reactivity changes. 1) Althaea officinalis polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan dose- dependently inhibits cough reflex in unsensitized guinea pigs. Simultaneously, plant polysaccharide shortened the duration of antitussive effect when it was been tested in inflammatory conditions. 2) Rhamnogalacturonan did not influence airways reactivity in vivo conditions expressed as specific resistance values neither sensitized nor unsensitized groups of animals. 3) The antitussive activity of codeine (dose 10 mg.kg(-1) b.w. orally) tested under the same condition was comparable to higher dose of rhamnogalacturonan in unsensitized animals. 4) The characteristic cellular pattern of allergic airways inflammation was confirmed by histopathological investigations. Rhamnogalacturonan isolated from Althaea officinalis mucilage possesses very high cough suppressive effect in guinea pigs test system, which is shortened in conditions of experimentally induced airways allergic inflammation (Tab. 1, Fig. 4, Ref. 25). Full Text in free PDF www.bmj.sk.

  17. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Thymus algeriensis, Eucalyptus globulus and Rosmarinus officinalis from Morocco.

    PubMed

    Ait-Ouazzou, Abdenour; Lorán, Susana; Bakkali, Mohammed; Laglaoui, Amin; Rota, Carmen; Herrera, Antonio; Pagán, Rafael; Conchello, Pilar

    2011-11-01

    The present study reports on the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the essential oils (EOs) of Thymus algeriensis, Eucalyptus globulus and Rosmarinus officinalis from Morocco. The composition of these species was analysed by GC-MS, and 65 components were identified. Eucalyptus globulus EO showed a great similarity with EOs from other regions, with 1,8-cineole (79.85%) the major component. Also rich in this constituent was Rosmarinus officinalis (43.99%). However, the chemical profile of Thymus algeriensis was rather different, and for the first time such a high content of borneol (23.48%) has been described in this EO. The antimicrobial activity of these species has also been studied against seven pathogenic and spoiling bacteria of significant importance. According to the results, Thymus algeriensis showed the best bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect, followed by Eucalyptus globulus and Rosmarinus officinalis. As far as we know this is the first time that minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentration values have been reported for Eucalyptus globulus EO. Our data support the possible use of this EO as well as Thymus algeriensis EO, as potential natural agents in preservatives for food and pharmaceutical products. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Antibacterial, allelopathic and antioxidant activities of essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. growing wild in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco.

    PubMed

    Bouajaj, S; Benyamna, A; Bouamama, H; Romane, A; Falconieri, D; Piras, A; Marongiu, B

    2013-01-01

    Salvia officinalis (Common sage, Culinary sage) is an aromatic plant that is frequently used as a spice in Mediterranean cookery and in the food industry and as a traditional medicine for the treatment of several infectious diseases. The essential oils were obtained by two different methods [hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave (Mw)] from the aerial part of S. officinalis L. growing wild in Ourika-Marrakech in Morocco. Ourika is a large zone of the Atlas Mountains which is considered as a large reserve of Flora, especially medicinal and aromatic plants. The obtained oils were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared with that of Tunisia. Thirty-six compounds were identified from the Mw-extracted oil which accounted for 97.32% of the total oil composition. However, 33 compounds obtained by HD representing 98.67%. The major components were trans-thujone (14.10% and 29.84%), 1,8-cineole (5.10% and 16.82%), camphor (4.99% and 9.14%), viridiflorol (16.42% and 9.92%), β-caryophyllene (19.83% and 5.20%) and α-humulene (13.54% and 4.02%). Antibacterial, allelopathic (% germination in lettuce seeds and inhibited root growth obtained after treatment with S. officinalis oils) and antioxidant (IC₅₀ values 22 mg/mL) activities were studied.

  19. Water repellency and soil moisture variations under Rosmarinus officinalis in a burned soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimeno-García, E.; Pascual-Aguilar, J. A.; Llovet, J.

    2009-04-01

    Mediterranean semi-arid landscapes are characterised by the patchiness of the vegetation cover, in which variations in the distribution pattern of soil water repellency (SWR) can be of major importance for their hydrological and geomorphological effects in burned areas, and also for their ecological implications concerning to the re-establishment of their plant cover. Within a broader research framework, the present work studies the influence of Rosmarinus officinalis vegetated patches on SWR in burned and unburned soils and its relationship with the field soil moisture content (SMC). The results presented here are the first step analysing the spatial pattern of sink and source runoff areas in a burned hillslope. The study area is located in the municipality of Les Useres, 40 km from Castellón city (E Spain), where a wildfire occurred in August 2007. We selected a burned SSE facing hillslope, located at 570 m a.s.l., with 12 ° slope angle, in which it was possible to identify the presence of two unique shrub species: Quercus coccifera L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L., which were distributed in a patchy mosaic. Twenty microsites with burned R. officinalis and eight at the nearest unburned area were selected. At the burned microsites, it was possible to distinguish three concentric zones (I, II and III) around the stumps showing differences on their soil surface appearance, which indicate a gradient of fire severity. Those differences were considered for soil sampling (1 sample per zone at each microsite, n= 84, form the first 2 cm of the mineral A horizon) and field soil moisture measurements determined by means of the moisture meter HH2 with ThetaProbe sensor type ML2x (5 measurements per zone at each microsite, n= 420), which were taken one day after the first rainfall event after fire, when 11 mm were registered in the study area. Results showed that the largest repellency persistence (measured by means of the Water Drop Penetration Time test, WDPT) was found

  20. BDNF-GSK-3β-β-Catenin Pathway in the mPFC Is Involved in Antidepressant-Like Effects of Morinda officinalis Oligosaccharides in Rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ling-Zhi; Xu, De-Feng; Han, Ying; Liu, Li-Jing; Sun, Cheng-Yu; Deng, Jia-Hui; Zhang, Ruo-Xi; Yuan, Ming; Zhang, Su-Zhen; Li, Zhi-Meng; Xu, Yi; Li, Jin-Sheng; Xie, Su-Hua; Li, Su-Xia; Zhang, Hong-Yan; Lu, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Morinda officinalis oligosaccharides have been reported to exert neuroprotective and antidepressant-like effects in the forced swim test in mice. However, the mechanisms that underlie the antidepressant-like effects of Morinda officinalis oligosaccharides are unclear. Chronic unpredictable stress and forced swim test were used to explore the antidepressant-like effects of Morinda officinalis oligosaccharides and resilience to stress in rats. The phosphoinositide-3 kinase inhibitor LY294002 was microinjected in the medial prefrontal cortex to explore the role of glycogen synthase kinase-3β in the antidepressant-like effects of Morinda officinalis oligosaccharides. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, phosphorylated-Ser9-glycogen synthase kinase 3β, β-catenin, and synaptic proteins was determined in the medial prefrontal cortex and the orbitofrontal cortex by western blot. We found that Morinda officinalis oligosaccharides effectively ameliorated chronic unpredictable stress-induced depression-like behaviors in the sucrose preference test and forced swim test. The Morinda officinalis oligosaccharides also significantly rescued chronic unpredictable stress-induced abnormalities in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor-glycogen synthase kinase-3β-β-catenin pathway and synaptic protein deficits in the medial prefrontal cortex but not orbitofrontal cortex. The activation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β by the phosphoinositide-3 kinase inhibitor LY294002 abolished the antidepressant-like effects of Morinda officinalis oligosaccharides in the forced swim test. Naïve rats that were treated with Morinda officinalis oligosaccharides exhibited resilience to chronic unpredictable stress, accompanied by increases in the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, phosphorylated-Ser9-glycogen synthase kinase-3β, and β-catenin in the medial prefrontal cortex. Our findings indicate that the brain-derived neurotrophic factor-glycogen synthase kinase-3

  1. A Botanical Composition from Morus alba, Ilex paraguariensis, and Rosmarinus officinalis for Body Weight Management.

    PubMed

    Yimam, Mesfin; Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Brownell, Lidia; Lee, Young-Chul; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Jia, Qi

    2017-11-01

    Obesity is the largest and fastest growing public health catastrophe in the world affecting both adults and children with a prevalence impacting more than one-third of United States (US) adult population. Although the long-term solution lies in lifestyle changes in the form of dieting and exercise, intervention is required for those who are already obese. Unfortunately, treatment options remain quite limited due to associated side effects of conventional therapeutics. As a natural alternative, in this study we describe the beneficial effect of a standardized composition (UP603) comprised of extracts from Morus alba, Ilex paraguariensis, and Rosmarinus officinalis in improving metabolic disorders in high fat diet (HFD) and high fat & high fructose diet (HFFD) induced obese C57BL/6J mice. Mice treated with UP603 showed dose-correlated decrease in body weight gains compared to vehicle treated HFFD group. Following 7 weeks of treatment, the changes in body weight gains from baseline were found as 6.4%, 27.3%, 2.0%, 3.1%, 0.4%, and -2.9% for normal control diet, HFFD, Orlistat, 450, 650, and 850 mg/kg UP603 treated animals, respectively. Reductions of 7.9-21.1% in total cholesterol, 25.4-44.6% in triglyceride, and 22.5-38.2% in low-density lipoprotein were observed for mice treated with 450-850 mg/kg of UP603. In a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan, percentage body fat of 18.9%, 47.8%, 46.1%, and 40.4% were found for mice treated with normal control, HFD, Orlistat, and UP603, respectively. Reductions of 65.5% and 16.4% in insulin and leptin, respectively, and 2.1-fold increase in ghrelin level were also observed for the UP603 group. Statistically significant improvements in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis scores were also observed from liver histology for mice treated with UP603. Hence, UP603, a standardized botanical composition from M. alba, I. paraguariensis, and R. officinalis could potentially be considered as a natural alternative to maintain healthy body

  2. Antidepressant and anxiolytic activity of Lavandula officinalis aerial parts hydroalcoholic extract in scopolamine-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Rahmati, Batool; Kiasalari, Zahra; Roghani, Mehrdad; Khalili, Mohsen; Ansari, Fariba

    2017-12-01

    Anxiety and depression are common in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Despite some evidence, it is difficult to confirm Lavandula officinalis Chaix ex Vill (Lamiaceae) as an anxiolytic and antidepressant drug. The effects of L. officinalis extract were studied in scopolamine-induced memory impairment, anxiety and depression-like behaviour. Male NMRI rats were divided into control, scopolamine alone-treated group received scopolamine (0.1 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.), daily and 30 min prior to performing behavioural testing on test day, for 12 continuous days and extract pretreated groups received aerial parts hydro alcoholic extract (i.p.) (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg), 30 min before each scopolamine injection. Memory impairment was assessed by Y-maze task, while, elevated plus maze and forced swimming test were used to measure anxiolytic and antidepressive-like activity. Spontaneous alternation percentage in Y maze is reduced by scopolamine (36.42 ± 2.60) (p ≤ 0.001), whereas lavender (200 and 400 mg/kg) enhanced it (83.12 ± 5.20 and 95 ± 11.08, respectively) (p ≤ 0.05). Also, lavender pretreatment in 200 and 400 mg/kg enhanced time spent on the open arms (15.4 ± 3.37 and 32.1 ± 3.46, respectively) (p ≤ 0.001). On the contrary, while immobility time was enhanced by scopolamine (296 ± 4.70), 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg lavender reduced it (193.88 ± 22.42, 73.3 ± 8.25 and 35.2 ± 4.22, respectively) in a dose-dependent manner (p ≤ 0.001). Lavender extracts improved scopolamine-induced memory impairment and also reduced anxiety and depression-like behaviour in a dose-dependent manner.

  3. Downregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-13 by the root extract of Cyathula officinalis Kuan and its constituents in IL-1β-treated chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Young; Lim, Hyun; Kim, Hyun Pyo; Kwon, Yong Soo

    2011-09-01

    The roots of Cyathula officinalis Kuan are widely used in Chinese medicine for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Here, the ability of C. officinalis Kuan to downregulate matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 was examined since MMP-13 is an important enzyme for the degradation of the cartilage collagen matrix, especially under arthritic conditions. The ethanol extract of C. officinalis Kuan as well as the N-hexane and chloroform soluble fractions were found to potently inhibit MMP-13 induction in IL-1 β-treated SW1353 cells, a human chondrosarcoma cell line, at 50-200 µg/mL. Activity-guided separation led to the isolation of six compounds, palmitic acid (1), β-sitosterol (2), α-spinasterol (3), atractylenolide I (4), 1,3-diacetoxy-tetradeca-6E,12E-dien-8,10-dyn (5), and N-trans-feruloyl-3-methyldopamine (6). Among these, 4 and 5 exhibited MMP-13 downregulating activity in IL-1 β-treated SW1353 cells. And 4 also showed anti-oedematous activity against λ-carageenan-induced paw edema in mice at 20-200 mg/kg, p. o. The results of this study provide information that can help elucidate the action mechanism of C. officinalis Kuan. In addition, the results presented here suggest that C. officinalis Kuan and its constituents may have the potential for chondroprotection against cartilage degrading disorders. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health

    PubMed Central

    Köberl, Martina; Schmidt, Ruth; Ramadan, Elshahat M.; Bauer, Rudolf; Berg, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however, the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is (i) to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, (ii) to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and (iii) to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L., and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.) cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants’ flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome. PMID:24391634

  5. The application of multiplex fluorimetric sensor for the analysis of flavonoids content in the medicinal herbs family Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Rosaceae.

    PubMed

    Sytar, Oksana; Bruckova, Klaudia; Hunkova, Elena; Zivcak, Marek; Konate, Kiessoun; Brestic, Marian

    2015-01-16

    The aim of our research work was to quantify total flavonoid contents in the leaves of 13 plant species family Asteraceae, 8 representatives of family Lamiaceae and 9 plant species belonging to family Rosaceae, using the multiplex fluorimetric sensor. Fluorescence was measured using optical fluorescence apparatus Multiplex(R) 3 (Force-A, France) for non-destructive flavonoids estimation. The content of total flavonoids was estimated by FLAV index (expressed in relative units), that is deduced from flavonoids UV absorbing properties. Among observed plant species, the highest amount of total flavonoids has been found in leaves of Helianthus multiflorus (1.65 RU) and Echinops ritro (1.27 RU), Rudbeckia fulgida (1.13 RU) belonging to the family Asteraceae. Lowest flavonoid content has been observed in the leaves of marigold (Calendula officinalis) (0.14 RU) also belonging to family Asteraceae. The highest content of flavonoids among experimental plants of family Rosaceae has been estimated in the leaves of Rosa canina (1.18 RU) and among plant species of family Lamiaceae in the leaves of Coleus blumei (0.90 RU). This research work was done as pre-screening of flavonoids content in the leaves of plant species belonging to family Asteraceae, Lamiaceae and Rosaceae. Results indicated that statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) in flavonoids content were observed not only between families, but also among individual plant species within one family.

  6. Ecological Risk Assessment with MCDM of Some Invasive Alien Plants in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Guowen; Chen, Weiguang; Lin, Meizhen; Zheng, Yanling; Guo, Peiguo; Zheng, Yisheng

    Alien plant invasion is an urgent global issue that threatens the sustainable development of the ecosystem health. The study of its ecological risk assessment (ERA) could help us to prevent and reduce the invasion risk more effectively. Based on the theory of ERA and methods of the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) of multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM), and through the analyses of the characteristics and processes of alien plant invasion, this paper discusses the methodologies of ERA of alien plant invasion. The assessment procedure consisted of risk source analysis, receptor analysis, exposure and hazard assessment, integral assessment, and countermeasure of risk management. The indicator system of risk source assessment as well as the indices and formulas applied to measure the ecological loss and risk were established, and the method for comprehensively assessing the ecological risk of alien plant invasion was worked out. The result of ecological risk analysis to 9 representative invasive alien plants in China shows that the ecological risk of Erigeron annuus, Ageratum conyzoides, Alternanthera philoxeroides and Mikania midrantha is high (grade1-2), that of Oxalis corymbosa and Wedelia chinensis comes next (grade3), while Mirabilis jalapa, Pilea microphylla and Calendula officinalis of the last (grade 4). Risk strategies are put forward on this basis.

  7. Solid-state fermentation of rice straw residues for its use as growing medium in ornamental nurseries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belal, Elsayed B.; El-Mahrouk, M. E.

    2010-11-01

    This work was conducted at a private nursery in Kafr El-Sheikh governorate to investigate the bioconversion of rice straw into a soil-like substrate (SLS) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trichoderma hazianum and the possibility of using rice straw compost in ornamental nurseries as a partial or total replacement of coconut peat (CP) and vermiculite (V) in the growing medium. The results showed that rice straw could be treated better by aerobic fermentation. The authors used five mixtures as follows: (1) Control (CP+V at 1:1 v/v), (2) SLS (100%), (3) SLS+CP (1:1 v/v), (4) SLS+V (1:1 v/v), and (5) SLS+CP+V (1:1:1 v/v/v). Data were recorded as seedling height, no. of leaves, shoot fresh and dry weights, root length and root fresh and dry weights in order to assess the quality of both transplants of Althea rosea (hollyhock) and Calendula officinalis (scotch marigold). Hollyhock seedlings grown in medium containing a mixture of SLS+CP+V displayed quality traits similar to those recorded from the control treatment, while scotch marigold seedlings in the same medium followed the control medium in quality.

  8. Chamomile and marigold tea: chemical characterization and evaluation of anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Matić, Ivana Z; Juranić, Zorica; Savikin, Katarina; Zdunić, Gordana; Nađvinski, Neva; Gođevac, Dejan

    2013-06-01

    With the aim to evaluate the selectivity in the antitumor action, the cytotoxic activity of chamomile and marigold tea was tested against various malignant cell lines and against healthy immunocompetent peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Chemical profiles of chamomile and marigold infusions and decoctions were analyzed by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry; their total phenolic content and radical scavenging activity were determined, too. Results from present research demonstrate that chamomile and marigold tea exert selective dose-dependent cytotoxic action against target cancer cells. It is noteworthy that cytotoxicity of tea prepared from Calendula officinalis is remarkably higher in comparison to that from Matricaria recutita tea. The cytotoxic effect of chamomile tea is very weak to healthy PBMC, while the effect of marigold tea on PBMC is more pronounced. Marigold tea exerts highly selective antitumor effect especially to melanoma Fem-x cells in comparison to the action to normal healthy PBMC. Chemical analyses show that dominant phenolic compounds in examined infusions and decoctions are flavonoid glycosides and hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives. There are no considerable differences in total phenolic content and antioxidant activity between examined infusions. Antitumor potential of chamomile and marigold tea should be further investigated. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Efficacy of marigold extract-loaded formulations against UV-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Yris Maria; Catini, Carolina Dias; Vicentini, Fabiana T M C; Cardoso, Juliana Cordeiro; Cavalcanti De Albuquerque Junior, Ricardo Luiz; Vieira Fonseca, Maria José

    2011-06-01

    The present study investigated the potential use of topical formulations containing marigold extract (ME) (Calendula officinalis extract) against ultraviolet (UV)B irradiation-induced skin damage. The physical and functional stabilities, as well as the skin penetration capacity, of the different topical formulations developed were evaluated. In addition, the in vivo capacity to prevent/treat the UVB irradiation-induced skin damage, in hairless mice, of the formulation with better skin penetration capacity was investigated. All of the formulations were physically and functionally stable. The gel formulation [Formulation 3 (F3)] was the most effective for the topical delivery of ME, which was detected as 0.21 μg/cm(2) of narcissin and as 0.07 μg/cm(2) of the rutin in the viable epidermis. This formulation was able to maintain glutathione reduced levels close to those of nonirradiated animals, but did not affect the gelatinase-9 and myeloperoxidase activities increased by exposure to UVB irradiation. In addition, F3 reduced the histological skin changes induced by UVB irradiation that appear as modifications of collagen fibrils. Therefore, the photoprotective effect in hairless mice achieved with the topical application of ME in gel formulation is most likely associated with a possible improvement in the collagen synthesis in the subepidermal connective tissue. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Comparisons of diazotrophic communities in native and agricultural desert ecosystems reveal plants as important drivers in diversity

    PubMed Central

    Köberl, Martina; Erlacher, Armin; Ramadan, Elshahat M.; El-Arabi, Tarek F.; Müller, Henry; Bragina, Anastasia; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Diazotrophs provide the only biological source of fixed atmospheric nitrogen in the biosphere. Although they are the key player for plant-available nitrogen, less is known about their diversity and potential importance in arid ecosystems. We investigated the nitrogenase gene diversity in native and agricultural desert soil as well as within root-associated microbiota of medicinal plants grown in Egypt through the combination of nifH-specific qPCR, fingerprints, amplicon pyrosequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization–confocal laser scanning microscopy. Although the diazotrophic microbiota were characterized by generally high abundances and diversity, statistically significant differences were found between both soils, the different microhabitats, and between the investigated plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L. and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.). We observed a considerable community shift from desert to agriculturally used soil that demonstrated a higher abundance and diversity in the agro-ecosystem. The endorhiza was characterized by lower abundances and only a subset of species when compared to the rhizosphere. While the microbiomes of the Asteraceae were similar and dominated by potential root-nodulating rhizobia acquired primarily from soil, the perennial S. distichum generally formed associations with free-living nitrogen fixers. These results underline the importance of diazotrophs in desert ecosystems and additionally identify plants as important drivers in functional gene pool diversity. PMID:26705571

  11. New Experimental Hosts of Tobacco streak virus and Absence of True Seed Transmission in Leguminous Hosts.

    PubMed

    Vemana, K; Jain, R K

    2010-10-01

    Of 70 plant species tested, 50 species were susceptible to Tobacco streak virus (TSV) on sap inoculation. Both localized (necrotic and chlorotic spots) and systemic (necrotic spots, axillary shoot proliferation, stunting, total necrosis and wilt) symptoms are observed by majority of plant species. Eleven new experimental hosts were identified viz., Amaranthus blitum var. oleracea (Chaulai sag), Celosia cristata (Cocks comb), Beta vulgaris var. bengalensis (Palak/Indian spinach), Calendula officinalis (Pot marigold), Chrysanthemum indicum, Cosmos sulphurens (Yellow cosmos), Citrullus lunatus (Watermelon), Lagenaria siceraria (Bottle gourd), Coriandrum sativum (Coriander), Hibiscus subderiffa var. subderiffa (Roselle) and Portulaca oleraceae (Little hogweed). Detected groundnut seed infection with TSV for the first time by Direct antigen coated immunosorbent assay (DAC-ELISA) using whole seed. The seed infection ranged from 18.9 to 28.9% among the seeds collected from naturally infected and sap inoculated groundnut varieties (JL 24, TMV 2, Prasuna, Kadiri 6, Kadiri 9, Anantha and Kadiri 7 Bold) belonging to spanish and virginia types. Further, TSV was detected both in pod shell and seed testa and none of the samples showed the presence of TSV either in cotyledon or embryo. Grow-out and bio-assay tests proved the absence of seed transmission in groundnut and other legume crops. Hence, TSV isolate was not a true seed transmission case under Indian conditions in legumes.

  12. Comparisons of diazotrophic communities in native and agricultural desert ecosystems reveal plants as important drivers in diversity.

    PubMed

    Köberl, Martina; Erlacher, Armin; Ramadan, Elshahat M; El-Arabi, Tarek F; Müller, Henry; Bragina, Anastasia; Berg, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    Diazotrophs provide the only biological source of fixed atmospheric nitrogen in the biosphere. Although they are the key player for plant-available nitrogen, less is known about their diversity and potential importance in arid ecosystems. We investigated the nitrogenase gene diversity in native and agricultural desert soil as well as within root-associated microbiota of medicinal plants grown in Egypt through the combination of nifH-specific qPCR, fingerprints, amplicon pyrosequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization-confocal laser scanning microscopy. Although the diazotrophic microbiota were characterized by generally high abundances and diversity, statistically significant differences were found between both soils, the different microhabitats, and between the investigated plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L. and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.). We observed a considerable community shift from desert to agriculturally used soil that demonstrated a higher abundance and diversity in the agro-ecosystem. The endorhiza was characterized by lower abundances and only a subset of species when compared to the rhizosphere. While the microbiomes of the Asteraceae were similar and dominated by potential root-nodulating rhizobia acquired primarily from soil, the perennial S. distichum generally formed associations with free-living nitrogen fixers. These results underline the importance of diazotrophs in desert ecosystems and additionally identify plants as important drivers in functional gene pool diversity. © FEMS 2015.

  13. Essential oils and herbal extracts as antimicrobial agents in cosmetic emulsion.

    PubMed

    Herman, Anna; Herman, Andrzej Przemysław; Domagalska, Beata Wanda; Młynarczyk, Andrzej

    2013-06-01

    The cosmetic industry adapts to the needs of consumers seeking to limit the use of preservatives and develop of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics, where preservatives are replaced by raw materials of plant origin. The aim of study was a comparison of the antimicrobial activity of extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinallis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben. Extracts (2.5 %), essential oils (2.5 %) and methylparaben (0.4 %) were tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Candida albicans ATCC 14053. Essentials oils showed higher inhibitory activity against tested microorganism strain than extracts and methylparaben. Depending on tested microorganism strain, all tested extracts and essential oils show antimicrobial activity 0.8-1.7 and 1-3.5 times stronger than methylparaben, respectively. This shows that tested extracts and essential oils could replace use of methylparaben, at the same time giving a guarantee of microbiological purity of the cosmetic under its use and storage.

  14. Biofabrication of broad range antibacterial and antibiofilm silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Qayyum, Shariq; Khan, Asad Ullah

    2016-10-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were biosynthesized via a green route using ten different plants extracts (GNP1- Caryota urens , GNP2- Pongamia glabra , GNP3- Hamelia patens , GNP4- Thevetia peruviana , GNP5- Calendula officinalis , GNP6- Tectona grandis , GNP7- Ficus petiolaris , GNP8- Ficus busking , GNP9- Juniper communis, GNP10- Bauhinia purpurea ). AgNPs were tested against drug resistant microbes and their biofilms. These nanoparticles (NPs) were characterised using UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Image J software. Most of the AgNPs were distributed over a range of 1 of 60 nm size. The results indicated that AgNPs were antibacterial in nature without differentiating between resistant or susceptible strains. Moreover, the effect was more prominent on Gram negative bacteria then Gram positive bacteria and fungus. AgNPs inhibited various classes of microbes with different concentration. It was also evident from the results that the origin or nature of extract did not affect the activity of the NPs. Protein and carbohydrate leakage assays confirmed that the cells lysis is one of the main mechanisms for the killing of microbes by green AgNPs. This study suggests that the action of AgNPs on microbial cells resulted into cell lysis and DNA damage. Excellent microbial biofilm inhibition was also seen by these green AgNPs. AgNPs have proved their candidature as a potential antibacterial and antibiofilm agent against MDR microbes.

  15. Identification and chemical enhancement of two ornamental plants for phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia-Nv; Zhou, Qi-Xing; Sun, Ting; Ma, Lena Q; Wang, Song

    2008-03-01

    With an increase in the contamination of urban areas, more and more attention has been paid to the role of ornamental plants in remedying contaminated soils. Thus, cadmium (Cd) tolerance and accumulation characteristics of Calendula officinalis and Althaea rosea as ornamental plants under the concentration gradient experiment with single Cd, as well as the effect of ethylenegluatarotriacetic acid (EGTA) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on their Cd phytoremediation capacity under the chemically enhanced experiment was further investigated. It was showed that they had strong tolerance and accumulation capacity of Cd under single Cd treatments, thus they had great potential to be used for Cd contaminated soil remediation. Furthermore, under chemically enhanced treatments, the great efficiency was found through applying EGTA and SDS, they could not only increase the dry biomass of the plants, but also promote the Cd accumulation in shoots and roots. Particularly, Althaea rosea can be regarded as a potential Cd-hyperaccumulator through applying chemical agents. In conclusion, the two ornamental plants are promising to be used for phytoremediation.

  16. The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health.

    PubMed

    Köberl, Martina; Schmidt, Ruth; Ramadan, Elshahat M; Bauer, Rudolf; Berg, Gabriele

    2013-12-20

    Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however, the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is (i) to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, (ii) to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and (iii) to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L., and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.) cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants' flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome.

  17. Tannins from Potentilla officinalis display antiinflammatory effects in the UV erythema test and on atopic skin.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Julia; Wölfle, Ute; Schempp, Christoph M; Casetti, Federica

    2016-09-01

    Rich in tannins, the rhizome of Potentilla officinalis (PO) has traditionally been used in the topical treatment of inflammatory disorders of the skin and mucous membranes. The objective of the present study was to examine the antiinflammatory effects of PO in the UV erythema test as well as in patients with atopic skin. Using the UV erythema test, the antiinflammatory effects of a PO extract (2 %) - compared to 1 % hydrocortisone acetate - were assessed in a randomized, prospective, placebo-controlled double-blind study of 40 healthy volunteers. In the context of a prospective non-controlled trial, the efficacy and tolerability of 2 % PO cream (applied to defined test areas twice daily for two weeks) was evaluated in twelve adults and twelve children with atopic skin using a partial SCORAD. In addition, the effects on the degree of erythema in the test areas was measured photometrically. In the UV erythema test, PO cream significantly reduced the erythema index compared to the vehicle. The antiinflammatory effects of PO cream were comparable to those of 1 % hydrocortisone acetate cream. The clinical study with atopic patients revealed a significant reduction in the partial SCORAD as well as erythema in the test areas. No adverse events were recorded. PO cream displays antiinflammatory effects in vivo. It is effective in and well tolerated by patients with atopic skin. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Evaluation of nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of Borage (Echium amoenum) and Valerian (Valerian officinalis).

    PubMed

    Adel Pilerood, Shirin; Prakash, Jamuna

    2014-05-01

    The nutritional composition and antioxidant activity (in aqueose and solvent extracts) of two medicinal plants of Iranian origin Borage (Echium amoenum) and Valerian (Valerian officinalis) used as tea were determined. Samples were analyzed for antioxidant components viz. polyphenols, vitamin C, β carotene, flavonoids, anthocyanins and tannins. Antioxidant assays such as free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and total antioxidant activity were carried out for ethanol, methanol, acetone, 80% methanol and 80% ethanolic extracts. In borage highest and least activity was observed in water and acetone extract respectively in all assays. In Valerian, 80% methanolic extract showed highest activity in reducing power and free radical scavenging activity assay. Total polyphenols in borage and valerian were 1,220 and 500 mg in ethanolic extracts and 25 and 130 mg in acetonic extracts respectively. Total carotenoids and vitamin C contents were 31.6 and 133.69 mg and 51.2 and 44.87 mg for borage and valerian respectively. Highest amount of tannins were extracted in 80% methanolic extract. It can be concluded that borage and valerian exhibited antioxidant activity in all extracts. The antioxidant activity could be attributed to their polyphenol and tannin and flavonoids contents. In all assays borage showed higher activity than valerian.

  19. Perception of edges and visual texture in the camouflage of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Zylinski, S.; Osorio, D.; Shohet, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, provides a fascinating opportunity to investigate the mechanisms of camouflage as it rapidly changes its body patterns in response to the visual environment. We investigated how edge information determines camouflage responses through the use of spatially high-pass filtered ‘objects’ and of isolated edges. We then investigated how the body pattern responds to objects defined by texture (second-order information) compared with those defined by luminance. We found that (i) edge information alone is sufficient to elicit the body pattern known as Disruptive, which is the camouflage response given when a whole object is present, and furthermore, isolated edges cause the same response; and (ii) cuttlefish can distinguish and respond to objects of the same mean luminance as the background. These observations emphasize the importance of discrete objects (bounded by edges) in the cuttlefish's choice of camouflage, and more generally imply that figure–ground segregation by cuttlefish is similar to that in vertebrates, as might be predicted by their need to produce effective camouflage against vertebrate predators. PMID:18990667

  20. [Study on intestinal absorption features of oligosaccharides in Morinda officinalis How. with sigle-pass perfusion].

    PubMed

    Deng, Shao-Dong; Zhang, Peng; Lin, Li; Xiao, Feng-Xia; Lin, Jing-Ran

    2015-01-01

    To study the in situ intestinal absorption of five oligosaccharides contained in Morinda officinalis How. (sucrose, kestose, nystose, 1F-Fructofuranosyinystose and Bajijiasu). The absorption of the five oligosaccharides in small intestine (duodenum, jejunum and ileum) and colon of rats and their contents were investigated by using in situ single-pass perfusion model and HPLC-ELSD. The effects of drug concentration, pH in perfusate and P-glycoprotein inhibitor on the intestinal absorption were investigated to define the intestinal absorption mechanism of the five oligosaccharides in rats. According to the results, all of the five oligosaccharides were absorbed in the whole intestine, and their absorption rates were affected by the pH of the perfusion solution, drug concentration and intestinal segments. Verapamil Hydrochloride could significantly increase the absorptive amount of sucrose and Bajijiasu, suggesting sucrose and Bajijiasu are P-gp's substrate. The five oligosaccharides are absorbed mainly through passive diffusion in the intestinal segments, without saturated absorption. They are absorbed well in all intestines and mainly in duodenum and jejunum.

  1. Optimization of microwave assisted extraction of essential oils from Iranian Rosmarinus officinalis L. using RSM.

    PubMed

    Akhbari, Maryam; Masoum, Saeed; Aghababaei, Fahimeh; Hamedi, Sepideh

    2018-06-01

    In this study, the efficiencies of conventional hydro-distillation and novel microwave hydro-distillation methods in extraction of essential oil from Rosemary officinalis leaves have been compared. In order to attain the best yield and also highest quality of the essential oil in the microwave assisted method, the optimal values of operating parameters such as extraction time, microwave irradiation power and water volume to plant mass ratio were investigated using central composite design under response surface methodology. Optimal conditions for obtaining the maximum extraction yield in the microwave assisted method were predicted as follows: extraction time of 85 min, microwave power of 888 W, and water volume to plant mass ratio of 0.5 ml/g. The extraction yield at these predicted conditions was computed as 0.7756%. The qualities of the obtained essential oils under designed experiments were optimized based on total contents of four major compounds (α-pinene, 1,8-cineole, camphor and verbenone) which determined by gas chromatography equipped with mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The highest essential oil quality (55.87%) was obtained at extraction time of 68 min; microwave irradiation power of 700 W; and water volume to plant mass ratio of zero.

  2. The drinking of a Salvia officinalis infusion improves liver antioxidant status in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Lima, Cristovao F; Andrade, Paula B; Seabra, Rosa M; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina

    2005-02-28

    In this study, we evaluate the biosafety and bioactivity (antioxidant potential) of a traditional water infusion (tea) of common sage (Salvia officinalis L.) in vivo in mice and rats by quantification of plasma transaminase activities and liver glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) enzyme activities. The replacement of water by sage tea for 14 days in the diet of rodents did not affect the body weight and food consumption and did not induce liver toxicity. On the other hand, a significant increase of liver GST activity was observed in rats (24%) and mice (10%) of sage drinking groups. The antioxidant potential of sage tea drinking was also studied in vitro in a model using rat hepatocytes in primary culture. The replacement of drinking water with sage tea in the rats used as hepatocyte donors resulted in an improvement of the antioxidant status of rat hepatocytes in primary culture, namely a significant increase in GSH content and GST activity after 4 h of culture. When these hepatocyte cultures were exposed to 0.75 or 1 mM of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) for 1 h, some protection against lipid peroxidation and GSH depletion was conferred by sage tea drinking. However, the cell death induced by t-BHP as shown by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage was not different from that observed in cultures from control animals. This study indicates that the compounds present in this sage preparation contain interesting bioactivities, which improve the liver antioxidant potential.

  3. Metabolic rate and rates of protein turnover in food-deprived cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus 1758)

    PubMed Central

    MacCormack, Tyson J.; Sykes, Antonio V.; Hall, Jennifer R.; Speers-Roesch, Ben; Callaghan, Neal I.; Driedzic, William R.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the metabolic response to food deprivation, cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) juveniles were either fed, fasted (3 to 5 days food deprivation), or starved (12 days food deprivation). Fasting resulted in a decrease in triglyceride levels in the digestive gland, and after 12 days, these lipid reserves were essentially depleted. Oxygen consumption was decreased to 53% and NH4 excretion to 36% of the fed group following 3–5 days of food deprivation. Oxygen consumption remained low in the starved group, but NH4 excretion returned to the level recorded for fed animals during starvation. The fractional rate of protein synthesis of fasting animals decreased to 25% in both mantle and gill compared with fed animals and remained low in the mantle with the onset of starvation. In gill, however, protein synthesis rate increased to a level that was 45% of the fed group during starvation. In mantle, starvation led to an increase in cathepsin A-, B-, H-, and L-like enzyme activity and a 2.3-fold increase in polyubiquitin mRNA that suggested an increase in ubiquitin-proteasome activity. In gill, there was a transient increase in the polyubiquitin transcript levels in the transition from fed through fasted to the starved state and cathepsin A-, B-, H-, and L-like activity was lower in starved compared with fed animals. The response in gill appears more complex, as they better maintain rates of protein synthesis and show no evidence of enhanced protein breakdown through recognized catabolic processes. PMID:27053650

  4. Wildly Growing Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) Hosts Pathogenic Fusarium Species and Accumulates Their Mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Stępień, Łukasz; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Urbaniak, Monika

    2016-05-01

    Asparagus officinalis L. is an important crop in many European countries, likely infected by a number of Fusarium species. Most of them produce mycotoxins in plant tissues, thus affecting the physiology of the host plant. However, there is lack of information on Fusarium communities in wild asparagus, where they would definitely have considerable environmental significance. Therefore, the main scientific aim of this study was to identify the Fusarium species and quantify their typical mycotoxins present in wild asparagus plants collected at four time points of the season. Forty-four Fusarium strains of eight species--Fusarium acuminatum, Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium sporotrichioides, and Fusarium tricinctum--were isolated from nine wild asparagus plants in 2013 season. It is the first report of F. sporotrichioides isolated from this particular host. Fumonisin B1 was the most abundant mycotoxin, and the highest concentrations of fumonisins B1-B3 and beauvericin were found in the spears collected in May. Moniliformin and enniatins were quantified at lower concentrations. Mycotoxins synthesized by individual strains obtained from infected asparagus tissues were assessed using in vitro cultures on sterile rice grain. Most of the F. sporotrichioides strains synthesized HT-2 toxin and F. equiseti strains were found to be effective zearalenone producers.

  5. Interactions of Valeriana officinalis L. and Passiflora incarnata L. in a patient treated with lorazepam.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, María Consuelo; Vallejo, José Ramón; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel; Peral, Diego; Martín, Miguel Angel; Altimiras, Jacinto

    2009-12-01

    There is an increasing interest in the health risks related to the use of herbal remedies. Although most consumers think that phytomedicines are safe and without side effects, interactions between complementary alternative and conventional medicines are being described. The aim of this clinical case report is to highlight the importance of the safe use of herbal remedies by providing a clinical interaction study between pharmaceutical medicines and herbal medicinal products. The case of a patient self-medicated with Valeriana officinalis L. and Passiflora incarnata L. while he was on lorazepam treatment is described. Handshaking, dizziness, throbbing and muscular fatigue were reported within the 32 h before clinical diagnosis. The analysis of family medical history ruled out essential tremor, Parkinson's disease, Wilson's disease and other symptom-related pathologies. His medical history revealed a generalized anxiety disorder and medicinal plant consumption but no neurological disorder. Appropriate physical examination was carried out. An additive or synergistic effect is suspected to have produced these symptoms. The active principles of Valerian and passionflower might increase the inhibitory activity of benzodiazepines binding to the GABA receptors, causing severe secondary effects. Due to the increase in herbal product self-medication, the use of herbal remedies should be registered while taking the personal clinical history. Multidisciplinary teams should be created to raise studies on medicinal plants with impact on medical praxis. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Relaxing effects of Valeriana officinalis extracts on isolated human non-pregnant uterine muscle.

    PubMed

    Occhiuto, Francesco; Pino, Annalisa; Palumbo, Dora Rita; Samperi, Stefania; De Pasquale, Rita; Sturlese, Emanuele; Circosta, Clara

    2009-02-01

    This study investigated the relaxing effects of Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerianaceae) on human uterine muscle. The major uses of this species in Europe are as a sedative and an anxiolytic; it is also used as a spasmolytic to treat gastrointestinal spasm. We evaluated two valerian extracts (ethanolic and aqueous) in comparison with a natural mixture of valepotriates and nifedipine on spontaneous and agonist-induced contractions in non-pregnant human myometrium in vitro. Qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis was used to correlate the chemical composition of extracts with their spasmolytic effects. Myometrial strips were obtained from hysterectomy specimens of premenopausal women. Longitudinal muscle strips were mounted vertically in tissue baths under physiological conditions to record their isometric contraction. The responses of cumulative concentrations of valerian extracts on spontaneous contractions in the presence and absence of the beta-adrenoceptor blocker atenolol or the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indometacin, and on agonist-induced contractions, were investigated. Valerian extracts and valepotriates inhibited uterine contractility in a concentration-dependent manner. Pretreatment with either atenolol or indometacin did not affect the uterine responses to valerian extracts. Valerian extract reduced the maximal contractile response induced by acetylcholine, phenylephrine and histamine independent of the stimulus. Valerian extracts may have direct inhibitory effects on the contractility of the human uterus and this justifies the traditional use of this plant in the treatment of uterine cramping associated with dysmenorrhoea.

  7. Phyto-mediated metallic nano-architectures via Melissa officinalis L.: synthesis, characterization and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Fierascu, Irina; Georgiev, Milen I; Ortan, Alina; Fierascu, Radu Claudiu; Avramescu, Sorin Marius; Ionescu, Daniela; Sutan, Anca; Brinzan, Alexandru; Ditu, Lia Mara

    2017-09-29

    The development of methods for obtaining new materials with antimicrobial properties, based on green chemistry principles has been a target of research over the past few years. The present paper describes the phyto-mediated synthesis of metallic nano-architectures (gold and silver) via an ethanolic extract of Melissa officinalis L. (obtained by accelerated solvent extraction). Different analytic methods were applied for the evaluation of the extract composition, as well as for the characterization of the phyto-synthesized materials. The cytogenotoxicity of the synthesized materials was evaluated by Allium cepa assay, while the antimicrobial activity was examined by applying both qualitative and quantitative methods. The results demonstrate the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (average diameter 13 nm) and gold nanoparticles (diameter of ca. 10 nm); the bi-metallic nanoparticles proved to have a core-shell flower-like structure, composed of smaller particles (ca. 8 nm). The Ag nanoparticles were found not active on nuclear DNA damage. The Au nanoparticles appeared nucleoprotective, but were aggressive in generating clastogenic aberrations in A. cepa root meristematic cells. Results of the antimicrobial assays show that silver nanoparticles were active against most of the tested strains, as the lowest MIC value being obtained against B. cereus (approx. 0.0015 mM).

  8. Occurrence and characterization of a Phytophthora sp. pathogenic to asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Saude, C; Hurtado-Gonzales, O P; Lamour, K H; Hausbeck, M K

    2008-10-01

    A homothallic Phytophthora sp. was recovered from asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) spears, storage roots, crowns, and stems in northwest and central Michigan in 2004 and 2005. Isolates (n = 131) produced ovoid, nonpapillate, noncaducous sporangia 45 microm long x 26 microm wide and amphigynous oospores of 25 to 30 microm diameter. Mycelial growth was optimum at 25 degrees C with no growth at 5 and 30 degrees C. All isolates were sensitive to 100 ppm mefenoxam. Pathogenicity studies confirmed the ability of the isolates to infect asparagus as well as cucurbits. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis of 99 isolates revealed identical fingerprints, with 12 clearly resolved fragments present and no clearly resolved polymorphic fragments, suggesting a single clonal lineage. The internal transcribed spacer regions of representative isolates were homologous with a Phytophthora sp. isolated from diseased asparagus in France and a Phytophthora sp. from agave in Australia. Phylogenetic analysis supports the conclusion that the Phytophthora sp. isolated from asparagus in Michigan is a distinct species, and has been named Phytophthora asparagi.

  9. Dried Ginger (Zingiber officinalis) Inhibits Inflammation in a Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Choi, You Yeon; Kim, Mi Hye; Hong, Jongki; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Ginger rhizomes have a long history of human use, especially with regards to their anti-inflammatory properties. However, the mechanisms by which ginger acts on lipopolysaccharide-(LPS-)induced inflammation have not yet been identified. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of dried Zingiber officinalis (DZO) on LPS-induced hepatic injury. Methods. ICR mice were given a DZO water extract (100, 1000 mg/kg) orally for three consecutive days. On the third day, they were administered by LPS intraperitoneally. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of DZO, histological, cytokine expression, and protein factor analyses were performed. Results. Oral administration of DZO significantly reduced pathological changes in the liver and proinflammatory cytokines including interferon-(IFN-)γ and interleukin-(IL-)6 in the serum. In addition, DZO inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB activation by preventing degradation of the IκB-α, as well as the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, SAPK/JNK, and p38 MAPKs. These were associated with a decrease in the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxyenase-2 (COX-2). Conclusions. Our data provide evidence for the hepatoprotective mechanisms of DZO as an anti-inflammatory effect. Furthermore, use of DZO to treat could provide therapeutic benefits in clinical settings. PMID:23935687

  10. Anti-stress and neuronal cell differentiation induction effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil.

    PubMed

    Villareal, Myra O; Ikeya, Ayumi; Sasaki, Kazunori; Arfa, Abdelkarim Ben; Neffati, Mohamed; Isoda, Hiroko

    2017-12-22

    Mood disorder accounts for 13 % of global disease burden. And while therapeutic agents are available, usually orally administered, most have unwanted side effects, and thus making the inhalation of essential oils (EOs) an attractive alternative therapy. Rosmarinus officinalis EO (ROEO), Mediterranean ROEO reported to improve cognition, mood, and memory, the effect on stress of which has not yet been determined. Here, the anti-stress effect of ROEO on stress was evaluated in vivo and in vitro. Six-week-old male ICR mice were made to inhale ROEO and subjected to tail suspension test (TST). To determine the neuronal differentiation effect of ROEO in vitro, induction of ROEO-treated PC12 cells differentiation was observed. Intracellular acetylcholine and choline, as well as the Gap43 gene expression levels were also determined. Inhalation of ROEO significantly decreased the immobility time of ICR mice and serum corticosterone level, accompanied by increased brain dopamine level. Determination of the underlying mechanism in vitro revealed a PC12 differentiation-induction effect through the modulation of intracellular acetylcholine, choline, and Gap43 gene expression levels. ROEO activates the stress response system through the NGF pathway and the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, promoting dopamine production and secretion. The effect of ROEO may be attributed to its bioactive components, specifically to α-pinene, one of its major compounds that has anxiolytic property. The results of this study suggest that ROEO inhalation has therapeutic potential against stress-related psychiatric disorders.

  11. Lack of nephroprotective efficacy of althaea officinalis flower extract against gentamicin renal toxicity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Talebi, Ardeshir; Karimi, Amirhossein; Ouguerram, Khadija; Vahidi-Ataabadi, Nasrin; Eshraghi-Jazi, Fatemeh; Mansouri, Azam; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

    2014-11-01

    Gentamicin (GM) is used as antibiotic for Gram-negative infections, but its administration is limited due to a side-effect of nephrotoxicity. It was attempted to investigate the effect of Althaea officinalis flower extract (AOFE) against nephrotoxicity induced by GM in male rats. 30-year-old male Wistar rats were divided into five groups. Group 1 as a negative control group received AOFE 250 mg/kg/day. Groups 2-5 received saline, AOFE 50 mg/kg/day, AOFE 250 mg/kg/day, and AOFE 500 mg/kg/day for 9 days, respectively, and GM (100 mg/kg/day) was added from the 3(rd) day on. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were obtained, animals were sacrificed, and the kidneys were removed immediately. Gentamicin (in group 2) significantly increased serum levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine as well as the pathological damage score (P < 0.05) when compared with group 1. Low dose of AOFE did not decrease the nephrotoxicity induced by GM while the high dose of AOFE aggravated renal toxicity (P < 0.05). Although AOFE acts as an antioxidant, at the doses used in the current study did not ameliorate nephrotoxicity induced by GM.

  12. Neuroprotective and antinociceptive effects of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract in rats with painful diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Rasoulian, Bahram; Hajializadeh, Zahra; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Rashidipour, Marzieh; Fatemi, Iman; Kaeidi, Ayat

    2018-05-12

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with the development of neuronal tissue damage in different central and peripheral nervous system regions. A common complication of diabetes is painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy. We have explored the antihyperalgesic and neuroprotective properties of Rosmarinus officinalis L. extract (RE) in a rat model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. The nociceptive threshold and motor coordination of these diabetic rats was assessed using the tail-flick and rotarod treadmill tests, respectively. Activated caspase-3 and the Bax:Bcl-2 ratio, both biochemical indicators of apoptosis, were assessed in the dorsal half of the lumbar spinal cord tissue by western blotting. Treatment of the diabetic rats with RE improved hyperglycemia, hyperalgesia and motor deficit, suppressed caspase-3 activation and reduced the Bax:Bcl-2 ratio, suggesting that the RE has antihyperalgesic and neuroprotective effects in this rat model of STZ-induced diabetes. Cellular mechanisms underlying the observed effects may, at least partially, be related to the inhibition of neuronal apoptosis.

  13. Polish Yellow Sweet Clover (Melilotus officinalis L.) Honey, Chromatographic Fingerprints, and Chemical Markers.

    PubMed

    Jasicka-Misiak, Izabela; Makowicz, Ewa; Stanek, Natalia

    2017-01-15

    A case study of Polish Melilotus officinalis honey was presented for the first time. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) (after steam distillation, Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic solvent extraction, and solid phase extraction (SPE)) and targeted high performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector (HPLC-PAD) were applied to determine the characteristic components of honey. While ubiquitous in most honeys, carbohydrates, terpene derivatives, and phenylacetic acid dominated in the Soxhlet extracts (25.54%) and in the application of SPE (13.04%). In addition, lumichrome (1.85%) was found, and may be considered as a marker of this honey. Due to the presence of these compounds, Polish yellow sweet clover honey is similar to French lavender honeys. The major compounds determined in the methanolic extract were (+)-catechine (39.7%) and gallic acid (up to 30%), which can be regarded as specific chemical markers of the botanical origin of melilot honey. With respect to total phenolic and flavonoid contents, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays were determined spectrophotometrically. The honey exhibited a moderate antioxidant activity, typical for light honeys, which correlates well with its phenolic and flavonoid composition.

  14. [Morinda Officinalis How improves cellphone radiation-induced abnormality of LH and LHR in male rats].

    PubMed

    Li, Rong; Yang, Wei-qun; Chen, Hui-qin; Zhang, Yong-hong

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the effects of Morina Officinalis How (MOH) on the abnormal levels of serum luteotrophic hormone (LH) and LH receptor (LHR) in the testis tissue induced by cellphone radiation (CPR) in rats. Fifty adult male SD rats were randomly divided into five groups of equal number: sham CPR, untreated CPR, negative double distilled water (DDW) control, aqueous MOH extract, and alcohol MOH extract. All the animals were exposed to mobile phone radiation except those of the sham CPR group. Then, the rats of the latter two groups were treated intragastrically with MOH at 20 g per kg of the body weight per day in water and alcohol, respectively. After 2. weeks of treatment, all the rats were sacrificed for measurement of the levels of serum LH and LHR in the testis tissue. The levels of serum LH and LHR were 30.15 ± 8.71 and 33.28 ± 6.61 in the aqueous MOH group and 0.96 ± 0.06 and 0.94 ± 0.08 in the alcohol MOH group, both significantly decreased as compared with the negative DDW controls (P < 0.05), but with no remarkable difference between the two MOH groups (P > 0.05). MOH can improve CPR-induced abnormality of LH and LHR in adult male rats.

  15. Study of quantitative and qualitative variations in essential oils of Sicilian Rosmarinus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Tuttolomondo, Teresa; Dugo, Giacomo; Ruberto, Giuseppe; Leto, Claudio; Napoli, Edoardo M; Cicero, Nicola; Gervasi, Teresa; Virga, Giuseppe; Leone, Raffaele; Licata, Mario; La Bella, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    In this study the chemical characterisation of 10 Sicilian Rosmarinus officinalis L. biotypes essential oils is reported. The main goal of this work was to analyse the relationship between the essential oils yield and the geographical distribution of the species plants. The essential oils were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis statistical methods were used to cluster biotypes according to the essential oils chemical composition. The essential oil yield ranged from 0.8 to 2.3 (v/w). In total 82 compounds have been identified, these represent 96.7-99.9% of the essential oil. The most represented compounds in the essential oils were 1.8-cineole, linalool, α-terpineol, verbenone, α-pinene, limonene, bornyl acetate and terpinolene. The results show that the essential oil yield of the 10 biotypes is affected by the environmental characteristics of the sampling sites while the chemical composition is linked to the genetic characteristics of different biotypes.

  16. Anti-neuropathic effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L. terpenoid fraction: relevance of nicotinic receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mannelli, Lorenzo Di Cesare; Micheli, Laura; Maresca, Mario; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Bellumori, Maria; Innocenti, Marzia; Mulinacci, Nadia; Ghelardini, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Traditional uses and current results highlight the neuroprotective properties of Rosmarinus officinalis L. The compelling need for novel strategies able to relieve neuropathic pain encouraged us to analyze different rosemary leaf extracts in rats following chronic constriction injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve. Ethanol, acetone, and the innovative ultrasound-hexane extractive methods were used to obtain: EE, AE, and for hexane extracts UREprel and URE. Extracts were characterized in terms of typical constituents and repeatedly administered to CCI-rats (13-days treatment, from the day of surgery). URE showed the best efficacy and potency in reducing hypersensitivity to noxious- and non-noxious stimuli and spontaneous pain. URE contained the higher quantity of the terpenoid carnosic acid (CA) and its efficacy was compared to pure CA. Histological analysis of the sciatic nerve revealed that URE prevented axon and myelin derangement, edema and inflammatory infiltrate. In the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, URE did not reduce astrocyte activation. Both the pain reliever and the neuroconservative effects of URE were significantly prevented by the nicotinic receptor (nAChR) antagonist mecamylamine. In conclusion, the hexane-ultrasound rosemary extract is able to reduce neuropathic hypersensitivity and protect nervous tissues. Effectiveness is mainly related to the terpenoid fraction by mechanisms involving nAChRs. PMID:27713514

  17. Chemical composition and biological activities of Salvia officinalis essential oil from Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Khedher, Med Raâfet Ben; Khedher, Saoussen Ben; Chaieb, Ikbal; Tounsi, Slim; Hammami, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the chemical composition, antioxidant, antimicrobial, insecticidal and allelopathic activities of Tunisia Salvia officinalis essential oil (SoEO). The SoEO was characterized by the presence of 49 components with camphor (25.14 %), α-thujone (18.83 %), 1,8-cineole (14.14 %), viridiflorol (7.98 %), β-thujone (4.46 %) and β-caryophyllene (3.30 %) as the major components, determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The level of antioxidant activity, determined by complementary tests, namely 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging (IC50= 6.7 mg/mL), linoleic acid peroxidation (IC50= 9.6 mg/mL) and ferric reducing assays (IC50= 28.4 mg/mL), was relatively moderate. The SoEO was also screened for its antimicrobial activity. Good to moderate inhibitions were recorded for most of tested microorganisms. It also exhibited important insecticidal activity against Spodoptera littoralis larvae and Tribolium castaneum adults with LC50 values of 55.99 and 97.43 µl/L air, respectively. The effect of the SoEO on seeds germination and growth showed different activities against radical and hypocotyl elongation of the tested species. These results suggest the potential use of the SoEO as natural antimicrobial preservative in cosmetic, pharmaceutical industry and in pest management. PMID:28507464

  18. Environmental Impact Statement, Auxiliary Airfield for Williams Air Force Base, Arizona

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    Amphispiza bilineata Black - throated sparrow Archilochus alexandri Black -chinned hummingbird Auriparus flavipes Verdin Bubo virginianus Great horned owl...breweri Brewer’s sparrow Spizella passerina Chipping sparrow Steilgidopteryx ruficollis Rough-winged swallow Sturnella sp. Meadowlark Sturnus vulgaris...gray gnatcatcher Polioptila melanura Black -tailed gnatcatcher Pooecetus gramineus Vesper sparrow Pyrrhuloxia sinuata Pyrrhuloxia Regulus calendula Ruby

  19. Southwest Mississippi Tributaries Study Area Environmental Inventory; Wildlife Resources.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    X Ruby-crowned kinglet (R. calendula ) X Blue-gray gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea) X X *’ Bluebirds and thrushes Eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis) X...struction, timber sales, and oil well operations, are restricted within that zone. Understory and midstory growth must be periodically removed to maintain

  20. Effects of aqueous, methanolic and chloroform extracts of rhizome and aerial parts of Valeriana officinalis L. on naloxone-induced jumping in morphine-dependent mice.

    PubMed

    Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Susanabadi, Maryam

    2006-06-01

    In the present study, the effects of rhizomes and aerial parts extracts of Valeriana officinalis L. on morphine dependence in mice have been investigated. Animals were treated subcutaneously with morphine (50, 50 and 75 mg/kg) three times daily (10 am, 1 pm and 4 pm) for 3 days, and a last dose of morphine (50 mg/kg) was administered on the fourth day. Withdrawal syndrome (jumping) was precipitated by naloxone (5 mg/kg) which was administered intraperitoneally 2 hours after the last dose of morphine. To study the effects of the aqueous, methanolic and chloroform extracts of both aerial parts and rhizome of the V. officinalis L. on naloxone-induced jumping in morphine-dependent animals, 10 injections of morphine (three administrations each day) for dependence and a dose of 5 mg/kg of naloxone for withdrawal induction were employed. Intraperitoneal injection of different doses (1, 5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) of aqueous, methanolic and chloroform extracts of the rhizome of V. officinalis L. 60 minutes before naloxone injection decreased the jumping response dose-dependently. Pre-treatment of animals with different doses (1, 5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) of aqueous and methanolic extracts of aerial parts of V. officinalis L. 60 minutes before naloxone injection caused a significant decrease on naloxone-induced jumping. The chloroform extract of the aerial parts of V. officinalis L. did not show any significant changes on jumping response in morphine-dependent animals. It is concluded that the extracts of V. officinalis L. could affect morphine withdrawal syndrome via possible interactions with inhibitory neurotransmitters in nervous system.

  1. Anti-cytokine therapy for prevention of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Kirichenko, Tatiana V; Sobenin, Igor A; Nikolic, Dragana; Rizzo, Manfredi; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2016-10-15

    Currently a chronic inflammation is considered to be the one of the most important reasons of the atherosclerosis progression. A huge amount of researches over the past few decades are devoted to study the various mechanisms of inflammation in the development of atherosclerotic lesions. To review current capabilities of anti-inflammatory therapy for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations. Appropriate articles on inflammatory cytokines in atherosclerosis and anti-inflammatory prevention of atherosclerosis were searched in PubMed Database from their respective inceptions until October 2015. "The role of inflammatory cytokines in the development of atherosclerotic lesions" describes available data on the possible inflammatory mechanisms of the atherogenesis with a special attention to the role of cytokines. "Modern experience of anti-inflammatory therapy for the treatment of atherosclerosis" describes modern anti-inflammatory preparations with anti-atherosclerotic effect including natural preparations. In "the development of anti-inflammatory herbal preparation for atherosclerosis prevention" an algorithm is demonstrated that includes screening of anti-cytokine activity of different natural products, the development of the most effective combination and estimation of its effect in cell culture model, in animal model of the acute aseptic inflammation and in a pilot clinical trial. A natural preparation "Inflaminat" based on black elder berries (Sambucus nigra L.), violet tricolor herb (Viola tricolor L.) and calendula flowers (Calendula officinalis L.) possessing anti-cytokine activity was developed using the designed algorithm. The results of the following 2-year double blind placebo-controlled clinical study show that "Inflaminat" reduces carotid IMT progression, i.e. has anti-atherosclerotic effect. Anti-cytokine therapy may be a promising direction in moderation of atherogenesis, especially when it begins on the early stages

  2. Veronica officinalis Product Authentication Using DNA Metabarcoding and HPLC-MS Reveals Widespread Adulteration with Veronica chamaedrys

    PubMed Central

    Raclariu, Ancuta C.; Mocan, Andrei; Popa, Madalina O.; Vlase, Laurian; Ichim, Mihael C.; Crisan, Gianina; Brysting, Anne K.; de Boer, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    Studying herbal products derived from local and traditional knowledge and their value chains is one of the main challenges in ethnopharmacology. The majority of these products have a long history of use, but non-harmonized trade and differences in regulatory policies between countries impact their value chains and lead to concerns over product efficacy, safety and quality. Veronica officinalis L. (common speedwell), a member of Plantaginaceae family, has a long history of use in European traditional medicine, mainly in central eastern Europe and the Balkans. However, no specified control tests are available either to establish the quality of derived herbal products or for the discrimination of its most common substitute, V. chamaedrys L. (germander speedwell). In this study, we use DNA metabarcoding and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) to authenticate sixteen V. officinalis herbal products and compare the potential of the two approaches to detect substitution, adulteration and the use of unreported constituents. HPLC-MS showed high resolution in detecting phytochemical target compounds, but did not enable detection of specific plant species in the products. DNA metabarcoding detected V. officinalis in only 15% of the products, whereas it detected V. chamaedrys in 62% of the products. The results confirm that DNA metabarcoding can be used to test for the presence of Veronica species, and detect substitution and/or admixture of other Veronica species, as well as simultaneously detect all other species present. Our results confirm that none of the herbal products contained exactly the species listed on the label, and all included substitutes, contaminants or fillers. This study highlights the need for authentication of raw herbals along the value chain of these products. An integrative methodology can assess both the quality of herbal products in terms of target compound concentrations and species composition, as well as

  3. Permeability of rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis extracts across Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Zhiyi; Ye, Zhong; Hauck, Cathy; Murphy, Patricia A; McCoy, Joe-Ann; Widrlechner, Mark P; Reddy, Manju B; Hendrich, Suzanne

    2011-10-11

    Rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid-related compound found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be beneficial for gastrointestinal health in general. To investigate the permeabilities of RA and UA as pure compounds and in Prunella vulgaris and Salvia officinalis ethanol extracts across human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers. The permeabilities and phase II biotransformation of RA and UA as pure compounds and in herbal extracts were compared using Caco-2 cells with HPLC detection. The apparent permeability coefficient (P(app)) for RA and RA in Prunella vulgaris extracts was 0.2 ± 0.05 × 10(-6)cm/s, significantly increased to 0.9 ± 0.2 × 10(-6)cm/s after β-glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment. P(app) for UA and UA in Salvia officinalis extract was 2.7 ± 0.3 × 10(-6)cm/s and 2.3 ± 0.5 × 10(-6)cm/s before and after β-glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment, respectively. Neither compound was affected in permeability by the herbal extract matrix. RA and UA in herbal extracts had similar uptake as that found using the pure compounds, which may simplify the prediction of compound efficacy, but the apparent lack of intestinal glucuronidation/sulfation of UA is likely to further enhance the bioavailability of that compound compared with RA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Permeability of Rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and Ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis Extracts across Caco-2 Cell Monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Qiang, Zhiyi; Ye, Zhong; Hauck, Cathy; Murphy, Patricia A.; McCoy, Joe-Ann; Widrlechner, Mark P.; Reddy, Manju B.; Hendrich, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid-related compound found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be beneficial for gastrointestinal health in general. Aim of the study To investigate the permeabilities of RA and UA as pure compounds and in P. vulgaris and S. officinalis ethanol extracts across human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers. Materials and methods The permeabilities and Phase II biotransformation of RA and UA as pure compounds and in herbal extracts were compared using Caco-2 cells with HPLC detection. Results The apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) for RA and RA in P. vulgaris extracts was 0.2 ± 0.05 × 10−6 cm/s, significantly increased to 0.9 ± 0.2 × 10−6 cm/s after β-glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment. Papp for UA and UA in S. officinalis extract was 2.7 ± 0.3 × 10−6 cm/s and 2.3 ± 0.5 × 10−6 cm/s before and after β-glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment, respectively. Neither compound was affected in permeability by the herbal extract matrix. Conclusion RA and UA in herbal extracts had similar uptake as that found using the pure compounds, which may simplify the prediction of compound efficacy, but the apparent lack of intestinal glucuronidation/sulfation of UA is likely to further enhance the bioavailability of that compound compared with RA. PMID:21798330

  5. Optimization of Extraction Conditions for Phenolic Acids from the Leaves of Melissa officinalis L. Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Guijae; Lee, Il Kyun; Park, Seonju; Kim, Nanyoung; Park, Jun Hyung; Kim, Seung Hyun

    2018-01-01

    Background: Melissa officinalis L. is a well-known medicinal plant from the family Lamiaceae, which is distributed throughout Eastern Mediterranean region and Western Asia. Objective: In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to optimize the extraction conditions for bioactive compounds from the leaves of M. officinalis L. Materials and Methods: A Box–Behnken design (BBD) was utilized to evaluate the effects of three independent variables, namely extraction temperature (°C), methanol concentration (%), and solvent-to-material ratio (mL/g) on the responses of the contents of caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid. Results: Regression analysis showed a good fit of the experimental data. The optimal condition was obtained at extraction temperature 80.53°C, methanol concentration 29.89%, and solvent-to-material ratio 30 mL/g. Conclusion: These results indicate the suitability of the model employed and the successful application of RSM in optimizing the extraction conditions. This study may be useful for standardizing production quality, including improving the efficiency of large-scale extraction systems. SUMMARY The optimum conditions for the extraction of major phenolic acids from the leaves of Melissa officinalis L. were determined using response surface methodologyBox–Behnken design was utilized to evaluate the effects of three independent variablesQuadratic polynomial model provided a satisfactory description of the experimental dataThe optimized condition for simultaneous maximum contents of caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid was determined. Abbreviations used: RSM: Response surface methodology, BBD: Box–Behnken design, CA: Caffeic acid, RA: Rosmarinic acid, HPLC: High-performance liquid chromatography. PMID:29720824

  6. Bio-active nanoemulsions enriched with gold nanoparticle, marigold extracts and lipoic acid: In vitro investigations.

    PubMed

    Guler, Emine; Barlas, F Baris; Yavuz, Murat; Demir, Bilal; Gumus, Z Pinar; Baspinar, Yucel; Coskunol, Hakan; Timur, Suna

    2014-09-01

    A novel and efficient approach for the preparation of enriched herbal formulations was described and their potential applications including wound healing and antioxidant activity (cell based and cell free) were investigated via in vitro cell culture studies. Nigella sativa oil was enriched with Calendula officinalis extract and lipoic acid capped gold nanoparticles (AuNP-LA) using nanoemulsion systems. The combination of these bio-active compounds was used to design oil in water (O/W) and water in oil (W/O) emulsions. The resulted emulsions were characterized by particle size measurements. The phenolic content of each nanoemulsion was examined by using both colorimetric assay and chromatographic analyses. Two different methods containing cell free chemical assay (1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method) and cell based antioxidant activity test were used to evaluate the antioxidant capacities. In order to investigate the bio-activities of the herbal formulations, in vitro cell culture experiments, including cytotoxicity, scratch assay, antioxidant activity and cell proliferation were carried out using Vero cell line as a model cell line. Furthermore, to monitor localization of the nanoemulsions after application of the cell culture, the cell images were monitored via fluorescence microscope after FITC labeling. All data confirmed that the enriched N. sativa formulations exhibited better antioxidant and wound healing activity than N. sativa emulsion without any enrichment. In conclusion, the incorporation of AuNP-LA and C. officinalis extract into the N. sativa emulsions significantly increased the bio-activities. The present work may support further studies about using the other bio-active agents for the enrichment of herbal preparations to strengthen their activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Formation of conjugated delta8,delta10-double bonds by delta12-oleic-acid desaturase-related enzymes: biosynthetic origin of calendic acid.

    PubMed

    Cahoon, E B; Ripp, K G; Hall, S E; Kinney, A J

    2001-01-26

    Divergent forms of the plant Delta(12)-oleic-acid desaturase (FAD2) have previously been shown to catalyze the formation of acetylenic bonds, epoxy groups, and conjugated Delta(11),Delta(13)-double bonds by modification of an existing Delta(12)-double bond in C(18) fatty acids. Here, we report a class of FAD2-related enzymes that modifies a Delta(9)-double bond to produce the conjugated trans-Delta(8),trans-Delta(10)-double bonds found in calendic acid (18:3Delta(8trans,10trans,12cis)), the major component of the seed oil of Calendula officinalis. Using an expressed sequence tag approach, cDNAs for two closely related FAD2-like enzymes, designated CoFADX-1 and CoFADX-2, were identified from a C. officinalis developing seed cDNA library. The deduced amino acid sequences of these polypeptides share 40-50% identity with those of other FAD2 and FAD2-related enzymes. Expression of either CoFADX-1 or CoFADX-2 in somatic soybean embryos resulted in the production of calendic acid. In embryos expressing CoFADX-2, calendic acid accumulated to as high as 22% (w/w) of the total fatty acids. In addition, expression of CoFADX-1 and CoFADX-2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was accompanied by calendic acid accumulation when induced cells were supplied exogenous linoleic acid (18:2Delta(9cis,12cis)). These results are thus consistent with a route of calendic acid synthesis involving modification of the Delta(9)-double bond of linoleic acid. Regiospecificity for Delta(9)-double bonds is unprecedented among FAD2-related enzymes and further expands the functional diversity found in this family of enzymes.

  8. Antibacterial activity against Clostridium genus and antiradical activity of the essential oils from different origin.

    PubMed

    Kačániová, Miroslava; Vukovič, Nenad; Horská, Elena; Salamon, Ivan; Bobková, Alica; Hleba, Lukáš; Fiskelová, Martina; Vatľák, Alexander; Petrová, Jana; Bobko, Marek

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the antimicrobial and antiradical activities of 15 essential oils were investigated. The antimicrobial activities were determined by using agar disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods against Clostridium genus and antioxidant properties of essential oils by testing their scavenging effect on DPPH radicals activities. We determined the antibacterial activity of Clostridium butyricum, Clostridium hystoliticum, Clostridium intestinale, Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium ramosum. We obtained the original commercial essential oils samples of Lavandula angustifolia, Carum carvi, Pinus montana, Mentha piperita, Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Pinus sylvestris, Satureia montana, Origanum vulgare L. (2 samples), Pimpinella anisum, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Abies alba Mill., Chamomilla recutita L. Rausch and Thymus vulgaris L. produced in Slovakia (Calendula a.s., Nova Lubovna, Slovakia). The results of the disk diffusion method showed very high essential oils activity against all tested strains of microorganisms. The best antimicrobial activity against C. butyricum was found at Pimpinella anisum, against C. hystoliticum was found at Pinus sylvestris, against C. intestinale was found at Satureia hortensis L., against C. perfringens was found at Origanum vulgare L. and against C. ramosum was found at Pinus sylvestris. The results of broth microdilution assay showed that none of the essential oils was active against C. hystoliticum. The best antimicrobial activity against C. butyricum was found at Abies alba Mill., against C. intestinale was found at Abies alba Mill., against C. perfringens was found at Satureia montana and against C. ramosum was found at Abius alba and Carum carvi. Antioxidant DPPH radical scavenging activity was determined at several solutions of oil samples (50 μL.mL(-1)-0.39 μL.mL(-1)) and the best scavenging effect for the highest concentration (50 μL.mL(-1)) was observed. The antioxidant properties

  9. Growth responses of three ornamental plants to Cd and Cd-Pb stress and their metal accumulation characteristics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia-nv; Zhou, Qi-xing; Sun, Ting; Ma, Lena Q; Wang, Song

    2008-02-28

    Up to now, there was no document on ornamental plants that had been applied to phytoremediation, which can remedy contaminated environment and beautify it at the same time. Thus, the growth responses and possible phytoremediation ability of three ornamental plants selected from the previous preliminary experiments were further examined under single Cd or combined Cd-Pb stress. The results showed that these tested plants had higher tolerance to Cd and Pb contamination and could effectively accumulate the metals, especially for Calendula officinalis and Althaea rosea. For C. officinalis, it grew normally in soils containing 100 mg kg(-1) Cd without suffering phytotoxicity, and the Cd concentration in the roots was up to 1084 mg kg(-1) while the Cd concentration in the shoots was 284 mg kg(-1). For A. rosea, the Cd accumulation in the shoots was higher than that in the roots when the Cd concentration in soils was <100 mg kg(-1), and reached 100 mg kg(-1) as the criteria of a Cd hyperaccumulator when the Cd concentration in soils was 100 mg kg(-1). Their accumulation and tolerance to Cd and Pb were further demonstrated through the hydroponic-culture method. And A. rosea had a great potential as a possible Cd hyperaccumulator under favorable or induced conditions. Furthermore, the interactive effects of Cd and Pb in the three ornamentals were complicated, not only additive, antagonistic or synergistic, but also related to many factors including concentration combinations of heavy metals, plant species and various parts of plants. Thus, it can be forecasted that this work will provide a new way for phytoremediation of contaminated soils.

  10. Seasonal influence on gene expression of monoterpene synthases in Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Grausgruber-Gröger, Sabine; Schmiderer, Corinna; Steinborn, Ralf; Novak, Johannes

    2012-03-01

    Garden sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is one of the most important medicinal and aromatic plants and possesses antioxidant, antimicrobial, spasmolytic, astringent, antihidrotic and specific sensorial properties. The essential oil of the plant, formed mainly in very young leaves, is in part responsible for these activities. It is mainly composed of the monoterpenes 1,8-cineole, α- and β-thujone and camphor synthesized by the 1,8-cineole synthase, the (+)-sabinene synthase and the (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, respectively, and is produced and stored in epidermal glands. In this study, the seasonal influence on the formation of the main monoterpenes in young, still expanding leaves of field-grown sage plants was studied in two cultivars at the level of mRNA expression, analyzed by qRT-PCR, and at the level of end-products, analyzed by gas chromatography. All monoterpene synthases and monoterpenes were significantly influenced by cultivar and season. 1,8-Cineole synthase and its end product 1,8-cineole remained constant until August and then decreased slightly. The thujones increased steadily during the vegetative period. The transcript level of their corresponding terpene synthase, however, showed its maximum in the middle of the vegetative period and declined afterwards. Camphor remained constant until August and then declined, exactly correlated with the mRNA level of the corresponding terpene synthase. In summary, terpene synthase mRNA expression and respective end product levels were concordant in the case of 1,8-cineole (r=0.51 and 0.67 for the two cultivars, respectively; p<0.05) and camphor (r=0.75 and 0.82; p<0.05) indicating basically transcriptional control, but discordant for α-/β-thujone (r=-0.05 and 0.42; p=0.87 and 0.13, respectively). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals differentially expressed genes associated with sex expression in garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis).

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-Fen; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Zhang, Xue-Jin; Yuan, Jin-Hong; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Gao, Wu-Jun

    2017-08-22

    Garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is a highly valuable vegetable crop of commercial and nutritional interest. It is also commonly used to investigate the mechanisms of sex determination and differentiation in plants. However, the sex expression mechanisms in asparagus remain poorly understood. De novo transcriptome sequencing via Illumina paired-end sequencing revealed more than 26 billion bases of high-quality sequence data from male and female asparagus flower buds. A total of 72,626 unigenes with an average length of 979 bp were assembled. In comparative transcriptome analysis, 4876 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the possible sex-determining stage of female and male/supermale flower buds. Of these DEGs, 433, including 285 male/supermale-biased and 149 female-biased genes, were annotated as flower related. Of the male/supermale-biased flower-related genes, 102 were probably involved in anther development. In addition, 43 DEGs implicated in hormone response and biosynthesis putatively associated with sex expression and reproduction were discovered. Moreover, 128 transcription factor (TF)-related genes belonging to various families were found to be differentially expressed, and this finding implied the essential roles of TF in sex determination or differentiation in asparagus. Correlation analysis indicated that miRNA-DEG pairs were also implicated in asparagus sexual development. Our study identified a large number of DEGs involved in the sex expression and reproduction of asparagus, including known genes participating in plant reproduction, plant hormone signaling, TF encoding, and genes with unclear functions. We also found that miRNAs might be involved in the sex differentiation process. Our study could provide a valuable basis for further investigations on the regulatory networks of sex determination and differentiation in asparagus and facilitate further genetic and genomic studies on this dioecious species.

  12. Magnolia officinalis L. Fortified Gum Improves Resistance of Oral Epithelial Cells Against Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jessica; Imboeck, Julia Maria; Walker, Joel Michael; Maitra, Amarnath; Haririan, Hady; Rausch-Fan, Xiaohui; Dodds, Michael; Inui, Taichi; Somoza, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory diseases of the periodontal tissues are known health problems worldwide. Therefore, anti-inflammatory active compounds are used in oral care products to reduce long-term inflammation. In addition to inducing inflammation, pathogen attack leads to an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may lead to oxidative damage of macromolecules. Magnolia officinalis L. bark extract (MBE) has been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential in vitro. In the present study, the influence of MBE-fortified chewing gum on the resistance against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation and oxidative stress of oral epithelial cells was investigated in a four-armed parallel designed human intervention trial with 40 healthy volunteers. Ex vivo stimulation of oral epithelial cells with LPS from Porphyromonas gingivalis for 6[Formula: see text]h increased the mRNA expression and release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1[Formula: see text], IL-[Formula: see text], IL-8, MIP-1[Formula: see text], and TNF[Formula: see text]. Chewing MBE-fortified gum for 10[Formula: see text]min reduced the ex vivo LPS-induced increase of IL-8 release by 43.8 [Formula: see text] 17.1% at the beginning of the intervention. In addition, after the two-week intervention with MBE-fortified chewing gum, LPS-stimulated TNF[Formula: see text] release was attenuated by 73.4 [Formula: see text] 12.0% compared to chewing regular control gum. This increased resistance against LPS-induced inflammation suggests that MBE possesses anti-inflammatory activity in vivo when added to chewing gum. In contrast, the conditions used to stimulate an immune response of oral epithelial cells failed to induce oxidative stress, measured by catalase activity, or oxidative DNA damage.

  13. The Chemotaxonomy of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis) Based on the Volatile Constituents.

    PubMed

    Craft, Jonathan D; Satyal, Prabodh; Setzer, William N

    2017-06-29

    Background: Common sage ( Salvia officinalis ) is a popular culinary and medicinal herb. A literature survey has revealed that sage oils can vary widely in their chemical compositions. The purpose of this study was to examine sage essential oil from different sources/origins and to define the possible chemotypes of sage oil. Methods: Three different samples of sage leaf essential oil have been obtained and analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. A hierarchical cluster analysis was carried out on 185 sage oil compositions reported in the literature as well as the three samples in this study. Results: The major components of the three sage oils were the oxygenated monoterpenoids α-thujone (17.2-27.4%), 1,8-cineole (11.9-26.9%), and camphor (12.8-21.4%). The cluster analysis revealed five major chemotypes of sage oil, with the most common being a α-thujone > camphor > 1,8-cineole chemotype, of which the three samples in this study belong. The other chemotypes are an α-humulene-rich chemotype, a β-thujone-rich chemotype, a 1,8-cineole/camphor chemotype, and a sclareol/α-thujone chemotype. Conclusions: Most sage oils belonged to the "typical", α-thujone > camphor > 1,8-cineole, chemotype, but the essential oil compositions do vary widely and may have a profound effect on flavor and fragrance profiles as well as biological activities. There are currently no studies correlating sage oil composition with fragrance descriptions or with biological activities.

  14. Quantitation and bitter taste contribution of saponins in fresh and cooked white asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

    2014-02-15

    A sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method was developed enabling the simultaneous quantification of bitter-tasting mono- and bidesmosidic saponins in fresh and processed asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.). Based on quantitative data and bitter taste recognition thresholds, dose-over-threshold factors were determined for the first time to determine the bitter impact of the individual saponins. Although 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25R/S)-spirost-5-ene-3β-ol was found based on dose-over-threshold factors to be the predominant bitter saponin in raw asparagus spears, 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25R)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3β,26-diol, 3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-{α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)}-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25S)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3β,26-diol, and (25R)- and (25S)-furost-5-en-3β,22,26-triol-3-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-β-D-glucopyranoside were found as key bitter contributors after cooking. Interestingly, the monodesmosidic saponins 5a/b were demonstrated for the first time to be the major contributor to the bitter taste of fresh asparagus spears, while the bidesmosides 1a/b and 2a/b may be considered the primary determinants for the bitter taste of cooked asparagus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Immunomodulatory role of Emblica officinalis in arsenic induced oxidative damage and apoptosis in thymocytes of mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Arsenic is widely distributed in the environment and has been found to be associated with the various health related problems including skin lesions, cancer, cardiovascular and immunological disorders. The fruit extract of Emblica officinalis (amla) has been shown to have anti-oxidative and immunomodulatory properties. In view of increasing health risk of arsenic, the present study has been carried out to investigate the protective effect of amla against arsenic induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in thymocytes of mice. Methods Mice were exposed to arsenic (sodium arsenite 3 mg/kg body weight p.o.) or amla (500 mg/kg body weight p.o.) or simultaneously with arsenic and amla for 28 days. The antioxidant enzyme assays were carried out using spectrophotometer and generation of ROS, apoptotic parameters, change in cell cycle were carried out using flow cytometer following the standard protocols. Results Arsenic exposure to mice caused a significant increase in the lipid peroxidation, ROS production and decreased cell viability, levels of reduced glutathione, the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, cytochrome c oxidase and mitochondrial membrane potential in the thymus as compared to controls. Increased activity of caspase-3 linked with apoptosis assessed by the cell cycle analysis and annexin V/PI binding was also observed in mice exposed to arsenic as compared to controls. Co-treatment with arsenic and amla decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation, ROS production, activity of caspase-3, apoptosis and increased cell viability, levels of antioxidant enzymes, cytochrome c oxidase and mitochondrial membrane potential as compared to mice treated with arsenic alone. Conclusions The results of the present study exhibits that arsenic induced oxidative stress and apoptosis significantly protected by co-treatment with amla that could be due to its strong antioxidant potential. PMID:23889914

  16. Graded behavioral responses and habituation to sound in the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Samson, Julia E; Mooney, T Aran; Gussekloo, Sander W S; Hanlon, Roger T

    2014-12-15

    Sound is a widely available and vital cue in aquatic environments, yet most bioacoustic research has focused on marine vertebrates, leaving sound detection in invertebrates poorly understood. Cephalopods are an ecologically key taxon that likely use sound and may be impacted by increasing anthropogenic ocean noise, but little is known regarding their behavioral responses or adaptations to sound stimuli. These experiments identify the acoustic range and levels that elicit a wide range of secondary defense behaviors such as inking, jetting and rapid coloration change. Secondarily, it was found that cuttlefish habituate to certain sound stimuli. The present study examined the behavioral responses of 22 cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) to pure-tone pips ranging from 80 to 1000 Hz with sound pressure levels of 85-188 dB re. 1 μPa rms and particle accelerations of 0-17.1 m s(-2). Cuttlefish escape responses (inking, jetting) were observed between frequencies of 80 and 300 Hz and at sound levels above 140 dB re. 1 μPa rms and 0.01 m s(-2) (0.74 m s(-2) for inking responses). Body patterning changes and fin movements were observed at all frequencies and sound levels. Response intensity was dependent upon stimulus amplitude and frequency, suggesting that cuttlefish also possess loudness perception with a maximum sensitivity around 150 Hz. Cuttlefish habituated to repeated 200 Hz tone pips, at two sound intensities. Total response inhibition was not reached, however, and a basal response remained present in most animals. The graded responses provide a loudness sensitivity curve and suggest an ecological function for sound use in cephalopods. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Essential oils and chemical diversity of southeast European populations of Salvia officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Cvetkovikj, Ivana; Stefkov, Gjoshe; Karapandzova, Marija; Kulevanova, Svetlana; Satović, Zlatko

    2015-07-01

    The essential oils of 25 populations of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) from nine Balkan countries, including 17 indigenous populations (representing almost the entire native distribution area) and eight non-indigenous (cultivated or naturalized) populations were analyzed. Their essential-oil yield ranged from 0.25 to 3.48%. Within the total of 80 detected compounds, ten (β-pinene, 1,8-cineole, cis-thujone, trans-thujone, camphor, borneol, trans-caryophyllene, α-humulene, viridiflorol, and manool) represented 42.60 to 85.70% of the components in the analyzed essential oils. Strong positive correlations were observed between the contents of trans-caryophyllene and α-humulene, α-humulene and viridiflorol, and viridiflorol and manool. Principal component analysis (PCA) on the basis of the contents of the ten main compounds showed that four principal components had an eigenvalue greater than 1 and explained 79.87% of the total variation. Performing cluster analysis (CA), the sage populations could be grouped into four distinct chemotypes (A-D). The essential oils of 14 out of the 25 populations of Dalmatian sage belonged to Chemotype A and were rich in cis-thujone and camphor, with low contents of trans-thujone. The correlation between the essential-oil composition and geographic variables of the indigenous populations was not significant; hence, the similarities in the essential-oil profile among populations could not be explained by the physical proximity of the populations. Additionally, the southeastern populations tended to have higher EO yields than the northwestern ones. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  18. Chemotype diversity of indigenous Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) populations in Montenegro.

    PubMed

    Stešević, Danijela; Ristić, Mihailo; Nikolić, Vuko; Nedović, Marijana; Caković, Danka; Šatović, Zlatko

    2014-01-01

    To identify how many chemotypes of Salvia officinalis exist in Montenegro, the chemical composition of the essential oils of 12 wild-growing populations was determined by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. Among the 40 identified constituents, the most abundant were cis-thujone (16.98-40.35%), camphor (12.75-35.37%), 1,8-cineol (6.40-12.06%), trans-thujone (1.5-10.35%), camphene (2.26-9.97%), borneol (0.97-8.81%), viridiflorol (3.46-7.8%), limonene (1.8-6.47%), α-pinene (1.59-5.46%), and α-humulene (1.77-5.02%). The composition of the essential oils under study did not meet the ISO 9909 requirements, while the oils of populations P02-P04, P09, and P10 complied with the German Drug Codex. A few of the main essential-oil constituents appeared to be highly intercorrelated. Strong positive correlations were observed between α-pinene and camphene, camphene and camphor, as well as between cis-thujone and trans-thujone. Strong negative correlations were evidenced between cis-thujone and α-pinene, cis-thujone and champhene, cis-thujone and camphor, as well as between trans-thujone and camphene. Multivariate analyses allowed the grouping of the populations into three distinct chemotypes, i.e., Chemotype A, rich in total thujones, Chemotype B, with intermediate contents of thujones, α-pinene, camphene, and camphor and high borneol contents, and Chemotype C, rich in camphor, camphene, and α-pinene. The chemotypes did not significantly differ in the total essential-oil content and the cis/trans-thujone ratio. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  19. Drying of restructured chips made from the old stalks of Asparagus officinalis: impact of different drying methods.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenbin; Zhang, Min; Wang, Yuchuan

    2016-06-01

    Old stalks of Asparagus officinalis, which account for one third of the total length of each spear, are always discarded as waste. To make full use of the resource, a kind of restructured Asparagus officinalis chip was made. The effects of pulse-spouted microwave-assisted vacuum drying (PSMVD), microwave-assisted vacuum drying (MVD) and vacuum drying (VD) on texture, color and other quality parameters of restructured chips were then studied to obtain high-quality dried chips. Results indicated that the drying time was significantly affected by drying methods, and PSMVD had much better drying uniformity than MVD. The expansion ratio and crispness of chips increased with increasing microwave power and vacuum degree. The browning reaction of samples in VD was more serious, which was confirmed by the results of color test and electronic nose. The PSMVD drying method showed much better drying uniformity than MVD. The dried chips obtained by PSMVD showed optimal quality and were more readily accepted by consumers. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Chemical composition and anticancer activity of essential oils of Mediterranean sage (Salvia officinalis L.) grown in different environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Russo, Alessandra; Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Senatore, Felice; Delfine, Sebastiano; Cardile, Venera; Rosselli, Sergio; Bruno, Maurizio

    2013-05-01

    Salvia officinalis L. can be found worldwide and its leaves are commonly used as ingredient in food industry. Sage essential oil is applied in the treatment of a range of diseases and has been shown to possess different biological activities. The objectives of our research were to study the effects of environment on crop, chemical composition and anticancer activity on S. officinalis essential oil. Sage was cultivated at eighteen experimental sites in south-central Italy (Molise) in different growing environments. The essential oils (S1-S18), extracted by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC and CG/MS. Results show that the main components were α-thujone, camphor, borneol, γ-muurolene and sclareol for all the samples, but the percentages of these compounds varied depending on environmental factors such as altitude, water availability and pedo-climatic conditions. The growth-inhibitory and proapoptotic effects of the eighteen sage essential oils were evaluated in three human melanoma cell lines, A375, M14, and A2058. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Effect of moisture content on vigor of Cyathula officinalis seeds and its anti-aging mechanism analysis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Yang, Mei; Pei, Jin; Wang, Li; Wu, Yi-Yun; Lv, Hui

    2016-04-01

    Effects of nine different moisture contents on vigor of Cyathula officinalis seeds and its anti-aging mechanism were studied by artificial accelerated aging through high temperature and wet. The research results showedthat seed vigor were generally decreased after artificial aging; in general, seed vigor and its anti-aging ability are relatively stronger within the scope of 6.55%-4.78% moisture content, the increase range of seed conductivity, peroxidase activity, malondialdehyde content,and reduce amplitude of activityof dehydrogenase , superoxide dismutaseare alllower as well. And when the moisture content reduced to 5.77%, all of the germination tests index of the non-aged seeds are the highest, and the activity of peroxidase the lowest,conductivity of leaching solution relatively low, activity of dehydrogenase and superoxide dismutase the highest,and catalase activityrelatively high.Therefore, in the low temperature germplasm preservation of C. officinalis seeds, the seed moisture content should be controlled close to the range of (5.70±1)% to keep higher vigor and anti-aging ability. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  2. Glycyrrhiza glabra (Linn.) and Lavandula officinalis (L.) cell suspension cultures-based biotransformation of β-artemether.

    PubMed

    Patel, Suman; Gaur, Rashmi; Upadhyaya, Mohita; Mathur, Archana; Mathur, Ajay K; Bhakuni, Rajendra S

    2011-07-01

    The biotransformation of β-artemether (1) by cell suspension cultures of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Lavandula officinalis is reported here for the first time. The major biotransformed product appeared as a grayish-blue color spot on thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with transparent crystal-like texture. Based on its infrared (IR) and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, the product was characterized as a tetrahydrofuran (THF)-acetate derivative (2). The highest conversion efficiencies of 57 and 60% were obtained when 8-9-day-old cell suspensions of G. glabra and L. officinalis were respectively fed with 4-7 mg of compound 1 in 40 ml of medium per culture and the cells were harvested after 2-5 days of incubation. The addition of compound 1 at the beginning of the culture cycle caused severe growth depression in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in poor bioconversion efficiency of ~25% at 2-5 mg/culture dose only.

  3. Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Preferentially Respond to Bottom Rather than Side Stimuli When Not Allowed Adjacent to Tank Walls

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Darcy A. A.; Gagnon, Yakir; Wheeler, Benjamin R.; Johnsen, Sönke; Jaffe, Jules S.

    2015-01-01

    Cuttlefish are cephalopods capable of rapid camouflage responses to visual stimuli. However, it is not always clear to what these animals are responding. Previous studies have found cuttlefish to be more responsive to lateral stimuli rather than substrate. However, in previous works, the cuttlefish were allowed to settle next to the lateral stimuli. In this study, we examine whether juvenile cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond more strongly to visual stimuli seen on the sides versus the bottom of an experimental aquarium, specifically when the animals are not allowed to be adjacent to the tank walls. We used the Sub Sea Holodeck, a novel aquarium that employs plasma display screens to create a variety of artificial visual environments without disturbing the animals. Once the cuttlefish were acclimated, we compared the variability of camouflage patterns that were elicited from displaying various stimuli on the bottom versus the sides of the Holodeck. To characterize the camouflage patterns, we classified them in terms of uniform, disruptive, and mottled patterning. The elicited camouflage patterns from different bottom stimuli were more variable than those elicited by different side stimuli, suggesting that S. officinalis responds more strongly to the patterns displayed on the bottom than the sides of the tank. We argue that the cuttlefish pay more attention to the bottom of the Holodeck because it is closer and thus more relevant for camouflage. PMID:26465786

  4. Molecular docking and antiamnesic effects of nepitrin isolated from Rosmarinus officinalis on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice.

    PubMed

    Karim, Nasiara; Khan, Imran; Abdelhalim, Abeer; Abdel-Halim, Heba; Hanrahan, Jane R

    2017-12-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis has long been known as the herb of remembrance. The present study was undertaken to investigate the anti-amnesic effects of nepitrin isolated from Rosmarinus officinalis using in-vivo models of Y-maze and novel object recognition test (NORT) along with in vitro antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and buterylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibition potential. Nepitrin showed a concentration dependent inhibition of AChE and BuChE enzymes with IC 50 values of 65 and 72μg/mL, respectively and antioxidant activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2, 2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) with IC 50 values 270 and 210μg/mL, respectively. In mice, nepitrin reversed the amnesia induced by scopolamine as indicated by a dose-dependent increase in spontaneous alternation performance in the Y-maze task (p <0.05 versus scopolamine) and increase in the discrimination index in the novel object recognition test (NORT) comparable to the standard drug donepezil 2mg/kg. Molecular docking studies were performed and the GlideScore of nepitrin was consistent with its experimental AChE inhibitory activities. Nepitrin occupied the same binding site forming similar interactions to those formed by donepezil in the crystal structure. Thus, nepitrin could provide a lead for the development of therapeutic agent useful in cognition and memory disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Combined treatment of Thymus vulgaris L., Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Myrtus communis L. essential oils against Salmonella typhimurium: Optimization of antibacterial activity by mixture design methodology.

    PubMed

    Fadil, Mouhcine; Fikri-Benbrahim, Kawtar; Rachiq, Saad; Ihssane, Bouchaib; Lebrazi, Sara; Chraibi, Marwa; Haloui, Taoufik; Farah, Abdellah

    2018-05-01

    To increase the sensibility of Salmonella typhimurium strain, a mixture of Thymus vulgaris L. (T. vulgaris L.), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (R. officinalis L.) and Myrtus communis L. (M. communis L.) essential oils (EOs) was used in combined treatment by experimental design methodology (mixture design). The chemical composition of EOs was firstly identified by GC and GC/MS and their antibacterial activity was evaluated. The results of this first step have shown that thymol and borneol were the major compounds in T. vulgaris and M. communis L. EOs, respectively, while 1,8-cineole and α-pinene were found as major compounds in R. officinalis L. The same results have shown a strong antibacterial activity of T. vulgaris L. EO followed by an important power of M. communis L. EO against a moderate activity of R. officinalis L. EO. Besides, 1/20 (v/v) was the concentration giving a strain response classified as sensitive. From this concentration, the mixture design was performed and analyzed. The optimization of mixtures antibacterial activities has highlighted the synergistic effect between T. vulgaris L. and M. communis L. essential oils. A formulation comprising 55% of T. vulgaris L. and 45% of M. communis L. essential oils, respectively, can be considered for the increase of Salmonella typhimurium sensibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Protective effect of ursolic acid from Cornus officinalis on the hydrogen peroxide-induced damage of HEI-OC1 auditory cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hyeon-Hee; Hur, Jong-Moon; Seo, Se-Jeong; Moon, Hae-Dalma; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Park, Rae-Kil; You, Yong-Ouk

    2009-01-01

    The fruits of Cornus officinalis have been used in traditional oriental medicine for treatment of inner ear diseases, such as tinnitus and hearing loss. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of C. officinalis on hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity in HEI-OC1 auditory cells. The results from bioassay-guided fractionation of methanol extract of C. officinalis fruits showed that ursolic acid is a major active component. Ursolic acid (0.05-2 microg/ml) had protective effect against the HEI-OC1 cell damage and reduced lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, pre-treatment with ursolic acid significantly attenuated the decrease of activities of catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX), but superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was not significantly affected by ursolic acid. These results indicate that ursolic acid protects hydrogen peroxide-induced HEI-OC1 cell damage through inhibition of lipid peroxidation and induction of antioxidant enzymes, CAT and GPX, and may be one of the active components responsible for these effects of C. officinalis fruits.

  7. Chemical composition of Mentha pulegium and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils and their antileishmanial, antibacterial and antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Bouyahya, Abdelhakim; Et-Touys, Abdeslam; Bakri, Youssef; Talbaui, Ahmed; Fellah, Hajiba; Abrini, Jamal; Dakka, Nadia

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was the determination of the chemical composition of Mentha pulegium L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oils and the evaluation of their antileishmanial, antibacterial and antioxidant activities. Essential oils (EOs) were isolated using steam distillation and the chemical composition was determined using GC-MS analysis. The antibacterial activity was tested against ten pathogenic strains using the diffusion method, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) by microtitration assay. The antioxidant activity was estimated by DPPH free radical scavenging ability and ferric-reducing power. The antileishmanial activity was tested against Leishmania major, Leishmania tropica and Leishmania infantum using MTT (3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The yield of essential oils (v/w %) M. puleguim and R. officinalis based on dry weight were 5.4 and 2.7% respectively. GC/MS analysis of R. officinalis essential oil (ROEO) revealed the presence of 29 components, mainly represented by oxygenated monoterpenes (63.743%) and hydrocarbons monoterpenes (21.231%). Mentha pulegium essential oil (MPEO) revealed 21 components, mainly represented by oxygenated monoterpenes (83.865%). The major components of ROEO were α-pinene (14.076), 1,8-Cineole (23.673) and camphor (18.743), while menthone (21.164) and pulegone (40.98) were the main major components of MPEO. M. pulegium and R. officinalis EOs showed a significant antioxidant activity compared with ascorbic acid and Trolox to the IC 50 values of 58.27 ± 2.72 and 85.74 ± 7.57 μg/mL respectively revealed by reducing power assay. As for the antibacterial effect, the highest zone diameters were shown by the MPEO against Bacillus subtilis (30 ± 1.43 mm) and Proteus mirabilis (28 ± 1.32 mm). These values are significantly important compared with those of the commercialized antibiotic (Erythromycin and

  8. In vivo and in vitro animal investigation of the effect of a mixture of herbal extracts from Tribulus terrestris and Cornus officinalis on penile erection.

    PubMed

    Kam, Sung Chul; Do, Jung Mo; Choi, Jae Hwi; Jeon, Byeong Tak; Roh, Gu Seob; Hyun, Jae Seog

    2012-10-01

    Herbal preparations have long been used as folk remedies for erectile dysfunction (ED). This study examined the effects of Tribulus terrestris and Cornus officinalis extracts on relaxation of the smooth muscle of the corpus cavernosum (CC), their mechanisms of action, and the effects of oral administration of a mixture of the herbal extracts on penile erection. The relaxation effects and the mechanisms of action of T. terrestris extract, C. officinalis extract, and the mixture of both extracts on the rabbit CC were investigated in an organ bath. To evaluate whether the relaxation response of the CC shown in an organ bath occurs in vivo, intracavernous pressure (ICP) was calculated in rats after oral administration for a month. Additionally, adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and guanosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) in the CC were measured using immunoassay. Smooth muscle relaxation was expressed as the percent decrease in precontraction induced by phenylephrine. ICP was assessed in rats after the oral administration of a mixture of both extracts for 1 month and changes in cGMP and cAMP concentrations were measured based on the concentration of the mixture of both extracts. T. terrestris extract, C. officinalis extract, and the mixture of both extracts showed concentration-dependent relaxation effects of the CC. In both the endothelium-removed group and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester pretreatment group, T. terrestris extract inhibited relaxation. ICP measured after oral administration of the extract mixture for a month was higher than that measured in the control group, and a significant increase in cAMP was observed in the mixture group. T. terrestris extract and C. officinalis extract exhibited concentration-dependent relaxation in an organ bath. In the in vivo study of the extract mixture, ICP and cAMP was significantly potentiated. Accordingly, the mixture of T. terrestris extract and C. officinalis extract may improve erectile function.

  9. Morinda officinalis How. - A comprehensive review of traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Hua; Xin, Hai-Liang; Xu, Yue-Ming; Shen, Yi; He, Yu-Qiong; Hsien-Yeh; Lin, Bing; Song, Hong-Tao; Juan-Liu; Yang, Hai-Yue; Qin, Lu-Ping; Zhang, Qiao-Yan; Du, Juan

    2018-03-01

    The medicinal plant Morinda officinalisHow. (MO) and its root have long been used in traditional medicines in China and northeast Asia as tonics for nourishing the kidney, strengthening the bone and enhancing immunofunction in the treatment of impotence, osteoporosis, depression and inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and dermatitis. This review aims to sum up updated and comprehensive information about traditional usage, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of MO and provide insights into potential opportunities for future research and development of this plant. A bibliographic investigation was performed by analyzing the information available on MO in the internationally accepted scientific databases including Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science, SciFinder, Google Scholar, Yahoo, Ph.D. and M.Sc. dissertations in Chinese. Information was also obtained from some local and foreign books on ethnobotany and ethnomedicines. The literature supported the ethnomedicinal uses of MO as recorded in China for various purposes. The ethnomedical uses of MO have been recorded in many regions of China. More than 100 chemical compounds have been isolated from this plant, and the major constituents have been found to be polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, anthraquinones and iridoid glycosides. Crude extracts and pure compounds of this plant are used as effective agents in the treatment of depression, osteoporosis, fatigue, rheumatoid arthritis, and infertility due to their anti-depressant, anti-osteoporosis, pro-fertility, anti-radiation, anti-Alzheimer disease, anti-rheumatoid, anti-fatigue, anti-aging, cardiovascularprotective, anti-oxidation, immune-regulatory, and anti-inflammatory activities. Pharmacokinetic studies have demonstrated that the main components of MO including monotropein and deacetyl asperulosidic acid are distributed in various organs and tissues. The investigation on acute toxicity and genotoxicity indicated that MO is nontoxic. There have

  10. Essential oils of Citrus aurantifolia, Anthemis nobile and Lavandula officinalis: in vitro anthelmintic activities against Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Luis Eduardo; Benincasa, Bruno Iglesias; Fachin, Ana Lúcia; Contini, Silvia Helena Taleb; França, Suzelei Castro; Chagas, Ana Carolina Souza; Beleboni, Rene Oliveira

    2018-04-25

    Infections of sheep with gastrointestinal parasites, especially Haemonchus contortus, have caused serious losses in livestock production, particularly after the emergence of resistance to conventional anthelmintics. The search for new anthelmintic agents, especially those of botanical origin, has grown substantially due to the perspective of less contamination of meat and milk, as well as other advantages related to their cost and accessibility in less developed countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro anthelmintic activity of essential oils of the plant species Citrus aurantifolia, Anthemis nobile and Lavandula officinalis against the main developmental stages of the parasite H. contortus. Plant species were selected based on substantial ethnopharmacological information. Analysis of the composition of each oil by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) demonstrated the presence of limonene (56.37%), isobutyl angelate (29.26%) and linalool acetate (35.97%) as the major constituents in C. aurantifolia, A. nobile and L. officinalis, respectively. Different concentrations of each oil were tested in vitro for their capacity to inhibit egg hatching (EHT), larval development (LDT) and adult worm motility (AWMT) using a multidrug-resistant strain of H. contortus (Embrapa 2010). The IC 50 values obtained for the oils of C. aurantifolia, A. nobile and L. officinalis were 0.694, 0.842 and 0.316 mg/ml in the EHT and 0.044, 0.117 and 0.280 mg/ml in the LDT, respectively. The three oils were able to inhibit adult worm motility completely within the first 8-12 h of observation in the AWMT. The present results demonstrate significant anthelmintic activity of the three oils against the different developmental stages of H. contortus. Furthermore, this study is of ethnopharmacological importance by validating the anthelmintic activity of the oils studied. Although new experiments are necessary, these data contribute to the development of

  11. Investigation of the Effect of Rice Wine on the Metabolites of the Main Components of Herbal Medicine in Rat Urine by Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry: A Case Study on Cornus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Gang; Cai, Hao; Yue, Xianke; Tu, Sicong; Cai, Baochang; Xu, Zhiwei

    2013-01-01

    Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) was developed for rapid and sensitive analysis of the effect of rice wine on the metabolites of the main components of herbal medicine in rat urine. Using Cornus officinalis as a model of herbal medicine, the metabolite profiles of crude and processed (steaming the crude drug presteeped in rice wine) Cornus officinalis extracts in rat urine were investigated. The metabolites of Cornus officinalis were identified by using dynamic adjustment of the fragmentor voltage to produce structure-relevant fragment ions. In this work, we identified the parent compounds and metabolites of crude and processed Cornus officinalis in rats. In total, three parent compounds and seventeen new metabolites of Cornus officinalis were found in rats. The contents of the parent compounds and metabolites in vivo varied significantly after intragastric (i.g.) administration of aqueous extracts of crude and processed Cornus officinalis. Data from this study suggests that UPLC-QTOF/MS could be used as a potential tool for uncovering the effects of excipients found in the metabolites of the main components of herbal medicine, in vivo, to predict and discover the processing mechanisms of herbal medicine.

  12. Influence of essential oil of Hyssopus officinalis on the chemical composition of the walls of Aspergillus fumigatus (Fresenius).

    PubMed

    Ghfir, B; Fonvieille, J L; Dargent, R

    1997-07-01

    The cell walls of the growing hyphae of Aspergillus fumigatus (Fresenius) cultured in the presence or absence of the essential oil of Hyssopus officinalis were isolated and their chemical composition analysed. The presence of the essential oil led to a reduction in levels of neutral sugars, uronic acid and proteins, whereas amino sugars, lipids and phosphorus levels were increased. HPLC analysis of the neutral sugars showed that they consisted mainly of glucose, mannose and galactose, while the amino sugars consisted of glucosamine and galactosamine. The presence of the essential oil in the culture medium induced marked changes in the content of galactose and galactosamine. Cell walls were fractionated by treatment with alkali and acid. The essential oil induced similar alterations in the various fractions with a more marked effect on the major constituents. The alterations were related to changes in the structure of the cells.

  13. Healthy reduced-fat Bologna sausages enriched in ALA and DHA and stabilized with Melissa officinalis extract.

    PubMed

    Berasategi, Izaskun; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo; Calvo, Maria Isabel; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; Astiasarán, Iciar; Ansorena, Diana

    2014-03-01

    Reduced-energy and reduced-fat Bologna products enriched with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were formulated by replacing the pork back-fat by an oil-in-water emulsion containing a mixture of linseed-algae oil stabilized with a lyophilized Melissa officinalis extract. Healthier composition and lipid profile was obtained: 85 kcal/100 g, 3.6% fat, 0.6 g ALA and 0.44 g DHA per 100 g of product and ω-6/ω-3 ratio of 0.4. Technological and sensory problems were not detected in the new formulations. Reformulation did not cause oxidation problems during 32 days of storage under refrigeration. The results suggest that it is possible to obtain reduced-fat Bologna-type sausages rich in ALA and DHA and stabilized with natural antioxidants, applying the appropriate technology without significant effects on the sensory quality, yielding interesting products from a nutritional point of view. © 2013.

  14. Essential oil composition of Valeriana officinalis L. roots cultivated in Iran. Comparative analysis between supercritical CO2 extraction and hydrodistillation.

    PubMed

    Safaralie, Asghar; Fatemi, Shohreh; Sefidkon, Fatemeh

    2008-02-08

    The composition of essential oil extracted from Valeriana officinalis L. roots growing wild in Iran was studied by hydrodistillation and supercritical CO2 extraction. Forty-seven components representing 89.3% and 35 constituents varying from 86.1% to 95.1% of the oil obtained by hydrodistillation and supercritical CO2 were identified, respectively. The major components in the extracted oil from supercritical CO2 were isovaleric acid (18.7-41.8%), valerenic acid (8.2-11.8%), acetoxyvaleranone (5.6-9.6%), (Z)-valernyl acetate (4.5-6.5%), bornyl acetate (2.3-7.7%) and valerenol (3.7-5.2%), whereas by hydrodistillation were bornyl acetate (11.6%), valerenic acid (8.0%), (Z)-valernyl acetate (7.9%) and acetoxyvaleranone (7.6%). The analysis of the extracts was performed by capillary GC and GC/MS.

  15. [Effects of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia on expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 in hypercholesterolemic rats].

    PubMed

    Si, Xiao-yun; Jia, Ru-han; Huang, Cong-xin; Ding, Guo-hua; Liu, Hong-yan

    2003-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of Valeriana officinalis var latifolia(VOL) on expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) in hypercholesterolemic rats and study its possible mechanisms. Dietary-induced hypercholesterolemia was induced in male Wistar rats by given 4% cholesterol and 1% cholic acid diet for 16 weeks. Changes of serum lipid, urinary albumin, renal function and Mesangial matrix index were assessed. Moreover, immunohistochemical stain for TGF-beta 1 and type IV collagen were performed. VOL could reduce the serum levels of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein, urinary albumin and serum creatinine. Light microscopy and immunohistochemical stain revealed that in the same time of lowing serum lipid, Mesangial matrix index was significantly reduced, accompanied by decreased expression of TGF-beta 1 and type IV collagen. VOL has the protective effect on lipid-induced nephropathy, and the inhibition of TGF-beta 1 expression might be the mechanism of VOL on renal protection.

  16. Preliminary study on mercury uptake by Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Rosemary) in a mining area (Mt. Amiata, Italy)

    SciTech Connect

    Barghigiani, C.; Ristori, T.

    1995-04-01

    Among the different plants analyzed to assess environmental mercury contamination of mining areas, lichens are those most studied, followed by brooms together with pine, which was also used in other areas, and spruce. Other species, both naturally occurring and cultivated, have also been studied. This work reports on the results of mercury uptake and accumulation in rosemary in relation to metal concentrations in both air and soil. R. officinalis is a widespread endemic Mediterranean evergreen shrub, which in Italy grows naturally and is also cultivated as a culinary herb. This research was carried out in Tuscany (Italy), in the Mt.more » Amiata area, which is characterized by the presence of cinnabar (HgS) deposits and has been used for mercury extraction and smelting from Etruscan times until 1980, and in the country near the town of Pisa, 140 km away from Mt. Amiata. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.« less

  17. Sexual Dimorphism of Staminate- and Pistillate-Phase Flowers of Saponaria officinalis (Bouncing Bet) Affects Pollinator Behavior and Seed Set

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Sandra L.; Dudle, Dana A.; Nawrocki, Jenna R.; Freestone, Leah M.; Konieczny, Peter; Tobin, Michael B.; Britton, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    The sequential separation of male and female function in flowers of dichogamous species allows for the evolution of differing morphologies that maximize fitness through seed siring and seed set. We examined staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of protandrous Saponaria officinalis for dimorphism in floral traits and their effects on pollinator attraction and seed set. Pistillate-phase flowers have larger petals, greater mass, and are pinker in color, but due to a shape change, pistillate-phase flowers have smaller corolla diameters than staminate-phase flowers. There was no difference in nectar volume or sugar content one day after anthesis, and minimal evidence for UV nectar guide patterns in staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers. When presented with choice arrays, pollinators discriminated against pistillate-phase flowers based on their pink color. Finally, in an experimental garden, in 2012 there was a negative correlation between seed set of an open-pollinated, emasculated flower and pinkness (as measured by reflectance spectrometry) of a pistillate-phase flower on the same plant in plots covered with shade cloth. In 2013, clones of genotypes chosen from the 2012 plants that produced pinker flowers had lower seed set than those from genotypes with paler flowers. Lower seed set of pink genotypes was found in open-pollinated and hand-pollinated flowers, indicating the lower seed set might be due to other differences between pink and pale genotypes in addition to pollinator discrimination against pink flowers. In conclusion, staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of S. officinalis are dimorphic in shape and color. Pollinators discriminate among flowers based on these differences, and individuals whose pistillate-phase flowers are most different in color from their staminate-phase flowers make fewer seeds. We suggest morphological studies of the two sex phases in dichogamous, hermaphroditic species can contribute to understanding the evolution of sexual

  18. Sexual dimorphism of staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of Saponaria officinalis (bouncing bet) affects pollinator behavior and seed set.

    PubMed

    Davis, Sandra L; Dudle, Dana A; Nawrocki, Jenna R; Freestone, Leah M; Konieczny, Peter; Tobin, Michael B; Britton, Michael M

    2014-01-01

    The sequential separation of male and female function in flowers of dichogamous species allows for the evolution of differing morphologies that maximize fitness through seed siring and seed set. We examined staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of protandrous Saponaria officinalis for dimorphism in floral traits and their effects on pollinator attraction and seed set. Pistillate-phase flowers have larger petals, greater mass, and are pinker in color, but due to a shape change, pistillate-phase flowers have smaller corolla diameters than staminate-phase flowers. There was no difference in nectar volume or sugar content one day after anthesis, and minimal evidence for UV nectar guide patterns in staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers. When presented with choice arrays, pollinators discriminated against pistillate-phase flowers based on their pink color. Finally, in an experimental garden, in 2012 there was a negative correlation between seed set of an open-pollinated, emasculated flower and pinkness (as measured by reflectance spectrometry) of a pistillate-phase flower on the same plant in plots covered with shade cloth. In 2013, clones of genotypes chosen from the 2012 plants that produced pinker flowers had lower seed set than those from genotypes with paler flowers. Lower seed set of pink genotypes was found in open-pollinated and hand-pollinated flowers, indicating the lower seed set might be due to other differences between pink and pale genotypes in addition to pollinator discrimination against pink flowers. In conclusion, staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of S. officinalis are dimorphic in shape and color. Pollinators discriminate among flowers based on these differences, and individuals whose pistillate-phase flowers are most different in color from their staminate-phase flowers make fewer seeds. We suggest morphological studies of the two sex phases in dichogamous, hermaphroditic species can contribute to understanding the evolution of sexual

  19. Chemical analysis and biological activity of the essential oils of two valerianaceous species from China: Nardostachys chinensis and Valeriana officinalis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jihua; Zhao, Jianglin; Liu, Hao; Zhou, Ligang; Liu, Zhilong; Wang, Jingguo; Han, Jianguo; Yu, Zhu; Yang, Fuyu

    2010-09-14

    In order to investigate essential oils with biological activity from local wild plants, two valerianaceous species, Nardostachys chinensis and Valeriana officinalis, were screened for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. The essential oils were obtained from the roots and rhizomes of the two plants by hydro-distillation, and were analyzed for their chemical composition by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Calarene (25.31%), aristolone (13.35%), α-selinene (7.32%) and β-maaliene (6.70%) were the major compounds of the 23 identified components which accounted for 92.76% of the total oil of N. chinensis. Patchoulol (16.75%), α-pinene (14.81%), and β-humulene (8.19%) were the major compounds among the 20 identified components, which accounted for 88.11% of the total oil of V. officinalis. Both oils were rich in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons as well as their oxygenated derivatives. Essential oils were shown to have broad spectrum antibacterial activity with MIC values that ranged from 62.5 μg/mL to 400 μg/mL, and IC(50) values from 36.93 μg/mL to 374.72 μg/mL. The oils were also shown to have moderate antifungal activity to Candida albicans growth as well as inhibition of spore germination of Magnaporthe oryzae. Two essential oils were assessed by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching and ferrozine-ferrous ions assays, respectively, to show moderate antioxidant activity. Results suggest that the isolated essential oils could be used for future development of antimicrobial and antioxidant agents.

  20. Selective Interactions of Valeriana officinalis Extracts and Valerenic Acid with [H]Glutamate Binding to Rat Synaptic Membranes.

    PubMed

    Del Valle-Mojica, Lisa M; Ayala-Marín, Yoshira M; Ortiz-Sanchez, Carmen M; Torres-Hernández, Bianca A; Abdalla-Mukhaimer, Safa; Ortiz, José G

    2011-01-01

    Although GABA neurotransmission has been suggested as a mechanism for Valeriana officinalis effects, CNS depression can also be evoked by inhibition of ionotropic (iGluR) and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR). In this study, we examined if aqueous valerian extract interacted with glutamatergic receptors. Freshly prepared aqueous valerian extract was incubated with rat cortical synaptic membranes in presence of 20 nM [(3)H]Glutamate. Aqueous valerian extract increased [(3)H]Glutamate binding from 1 × 10(-7) to 1 × 10(-3) mg/mL. In the presence of (2S,1'S,2'S)-2-(Carboxycyclopropyl)glycine (LCCG-I) and (2S,2'R,3'R)-2-(2',3'-Dicarboxycyclopropyl)glycine (DCG-IV), Group II mGluR agents, valerian extract markedly decreased [(3)H]Glutamate binding, while (2S)-2-amino-3-(3,5-dioxo-1,2,4-oxadiazolidin-2-yl) propanoic acid) (quisqualic acid, QA), Group I mGluR agonist, increased [(3)H]Glutamate binding. At 0.05 mg/mL aqueous valerian extract specifically interacted with kainic acid NMDA and AMPA receptors. Valerenic acid, a marker compound for Valeriana officinalis, increased the [(3)H]Glutamate binding after 1.6 × 10(-2) mg/mL, and at 0.008 mg/mL it interacted only with QA (Group I mGluR). The selective interactions of valerian extract and valerenic acid with Group I and Group II mGluR may represent an alternative explanation for the anxiolytic properties of this plant.

  1. Selective Interactions of Valeriana officinalis Extracts and Valerenic Acid with [3H]Glutamate Binding to Rat Synaptic Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Del Valle-Mojica, Lisa M.; Ayala-Marín, Yoshira M.; Ortiz-Sanchez, Carmen M.; Torres-Hernández, Bianca A.; Abdalla-Mukhaimer, Safa; Ortiz, José G.

    2011-01-01

    Although GABA neurotransmission has been suggested as a mechanism for Valeriana officinalis effects, CNS depression can also be evoked by inhibition of ionotropic (iGluR) and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR). In this study, we examined if aqueous valerian extract interacted with glutamatergic receptors. Freshly prepared aqueous valerian extract was incubated with rat cortical synaptic membranes in presence of 20 nM [3H]Glutamate. Aqueous valerian extract increased [3H]Glutamate binding from 1 × 10−7 to 1 × 10−3 mg/mL. In the presence of (2S,1′S,2′S)-2-(Carboxycyclopropyl)glycine (LCCG-I) and (2S,2′R,3′R)-2-(2′,3′-Dicarboxycyclopropyl)glycine (DCG-IV), Group II mGluR agents, valerian extract markedly decreased [3H]Glutamate binding, while (2S)-2-amino-3-(3,5-dioxo-1,2,4-oxadiazolidin-2-yl) propanoic acid) (quisqualic acid, QA), Group I mGluR agonist, increased [3H]Glutamate binding. At 0.05 mg/mL aqueous valerian extract specifically interacted with kainic acid NMDA and AMPA receptors. Valerenic acid, a marker compound for Valeriana officinalis, increased the [3H]Glutamate binding after 1.6 × 10−2 mg/mL, and at 0.008 mg/mL it interacted only with QA (Group I mGluR). The selective interactions of valerian extract and valerenic acid with Group I and Group II mGluR may represent an alternative explanation for the anxiolytic properties of this plant. PMID:21584239

  2. Skin photoprotective and antiageing effects of a combination of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) polyphenols

    PubMed Central

    Nobile, Vincenzo; Michelotti, Angela; Cestone, Enza; Caturla, Nuria; Castillo, Julián; Benavente-García, Obdulio; Pérez-Sánchez, Almudena; Micol, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Background Plant polyphenols have been found to be effective in preventing ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced skin alterations. A dietary approach based of these compounds could be a safe and effective method to provide a continuous adjunctive photoprotection measure. In a previous study, a combination of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) extracts has exhibited potential photoprotective effects both in skin cell model and in a human pilot trial. Objective We investigated the efficacy of a combination of rosemary (R. officinalis) and grapefruit (C. paradisi) in decreasing the individual susceptibility to UVR exposure (redness and lipoperoxides) and in improving skin wrinkledness and elasticity. Design A randomised, parallel group study was carried out on 90 subjects. Furthermore, a pilot, randomised, crossover study was carried out on five subjects. Female subjects having skin phototype from I to III and showing mild to moderate chrono- or photoageing clinical signs were enrolled in both studies. Skin redness (a* value of CIELab colour space) after UVB exposure to 1 minimal erythemal dose (MED) was assessed in the pilot study, while MED, lipoperoxides (malondialdehyde) skin content, wrinkle depth (image analysis), and skin elasticity (suction and elongation method) were measured in the main study. Results Treated subjects showed a decrease of the UVB- and UVA-induced skin alterations (decreased skin redness and lipoperoxides) and an improvement of skin wrinkledness and elasticity. No differences were found between the 100 and 250 mg extracts doses, indicating a plateau effect starting from 100 mg extracts dose. Some of the positive effects were noted as short as 2 weeks of product consumption. Conclusions The long-term oral intake of Nutroxsun™ can be considered to be a complementary nutrition strategy to avoid the negative effects of sun exposure. The putative mechanism for these effects is most likely to take place through the

  3. Enriching the drinking water of rats with extracts of Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris increases their resistance to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Horváthová, Eva; Srančíková, Annamária; Regendová-Sedláčková, Eva; Melušová, Martina; Meluš, Vladimír; Netriová, Jana; Krajčovičová, Zdenka; Slameňová, Darina; Pastorek, Michal; Kozics, Katarína

    2016-01-01

    Nature is an attractive source of therapeutic compounds. In comparison to the artificial drugs, natural compounds cause less adverse side effects and are suitable for current molecularly oriented approaches to drug development and their mutual combining. Medicinal plants represent one of the most available remedy against various diseases. Proper examples are Salvia officinalis L. and Thymus vulgaris L. which are known aromatic medicinal plants. They are very popular and frequently used in many countries. The molecular mechanism of their biological activity has not yet been fully understood. The aim of this study was to ascertain if liver cells of experimental animals drinking extracts of sage or thyme will manifest increased resistance against oxidative stress. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into seven groups. They drank sage or thyme extracts for 2 weeks. At the end of the drinking period, blood samples were collected for determination of liver biochemical parameters and hepatocytes were isolated to analyze (i) oxidatively generated DNA damage (conventional and modified comet assay), (ii) activities of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] and (iii) content of glutathione. Intake of sage and thyme had no effect either on the basal level of DNA damage or on the activity of SOD in rat hepatocytes and did not change the biochemical parameters of blood plasma. Simultaneously, the activity of GPx was significantly increased and the level of DNA damage induced by oxidants was decreased. Moreover, sage extract was able to start up the antioxidant protection expressed by increased content of glutathione. Our results indicate that the consumption of S.officinalis and T.vulgaris extracts positively affects resistency of rat liver cells against oxidative stress and may have hepatoprotective potential. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved

  4. Variations in water status, gas exchange, and growth in Rosmarinus officinalis plants infected with Glomus deserticola under drought conditions.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Blanco, Ma Jesús; Ferrández, Trinitario; Morales, Ma Angeles; Morte, Asunción; Alarcón, Juan José

    2004-06-01

    The influence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus deserticola on the water relations, gas exchange parameters, and vegetative growth of Rosmarinus officinalis plants under water stress was studied. Plants were grown with and without the mycorrhizal fungus under glasshouse conditions and subjected to water stress by withholding irrigation water for 14 days. Along the experimental period, a significant effect of the fungus on the plant growth was observed, and under water stress, mycorrhizal plants showed an increase in aerial and root biomass compared to non-mycorrhizal plants. The decrease in the soil water potential generated a decrease in leaf water potential (psi(l)) and stem water potential (psi(x)) of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants, with this decrease being lower in mycorrhizal water-stressed plants. Mycorrhization also had positive effects on the root hydraulic conductivity (Lp) of water stressed plants. Furthermore, mycorrhizal-stressed plants showed a more important decrease in osmotic potential at full turgor (psi(os)) than did non-mycorrhizal-stressed plants, indicating the capacity of osmotic adjustment. Mycorrhizal infection also improved photosynthetic activity (Pn) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) in plants under water stress compared to the non-mycorrhizal-stressed plants. A similar behaviour was observed in the photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) with this parameter being lower in non-mycorrhizal plants than in mycorrhizal plants under water stress conditions. In the same way, under water restriction, mycorrhizal plants showed higher values of chlorophyll content than did non-mycorrhizal plants. Thus, the results obtained indicated that the mycorrhizal symbiosis had a beneficial effect on the water status and growth of Rosmarinus officinalis plants under water-stress conditions.

  5. Therapeutic Potential and Molecular Mechanisms of Emblica officinalis Gaertn in Countering Nephrotoxicity in Rats Induced by the Chemotherapeutic Agent Cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Salma; Suchal, Kapil; Bhatia, Jagriti; Khan, Sana I.; Vasisth, Swati; Tomar, Ameesha; Goyal, Sameer; Kumar, Rajeev; Arya, Dharamvir S.; Ojha, Shreesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Emblica officinalis Gaertn. belonging to family Euphorbiaceae is commonly known as Indian gooseberry or “Amla” in India. It is used as a ‘rejuvenating herb’ in traditional system of Indian medicine. It has been shown to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects. Thus, on the basis of its biological effects, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of the dried fruit extract of the E. Officinalis (EO) in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats and also to evaluate the mechanism of its nephroprotection. The study was done on male albino Wistar rats. They were divided into six groups (n = 6) viz. control, cisplatin-control, cisplatin and EO (150, 300, and 600 mg/kg; p.o. respectively in different groups) and EO only (600 mg/kg; p.o. only). EO was administered orally to the rats for a period of 10 days and on the 7th day, a single injection of cisplatin (8 mg/kg; i.p.) was administered to the cisplatin-control and EO treatment groups. The rats were sacrificed on the 10th day. Cisplatin-control rats had deranged renal function parameters and the kidney histology confirmed the presence of acute tubular necrosis. Furthermore, there were increased oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation along with higher expression of MAPK pathway proteins in the rat kidney from the cisplatin-control group. Contrary to this, EO (600 mg/kg) significantly normalized renal function, bolstered antioxidant status and ameliorated histological alterations. The inflammation and apoptosis were markedly lower in comparison to cisplatin-control rats. Furthermore, EO (600 mg/kg) inhibited MAPK phosphorylation which was instrumental in preserving renal function and morphology. In conclusion, the results of our study demonstrated that EO attenuated cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats through suppression of MAPK induced inflammation and apoptosis. PMID:27752245

  6. Extract of valerian root (Valeriana officinalis L.) vs. placebo in treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Pakseresht, Siroos; Boostani, Hatam; Sayyah, Mehdi

    2011-10-11

    Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a common neuropsychiatric condition. Many herbs with psychotropic effects exist which can have fewer side effects compared to more conventional medications. Valeriana Officinalis L. is a well-known medicinal plant with a long history of usage in the world with an effect on GABA. This plant is reported to be safe on humans. Our objective in this study was to compare the efficacy of the extract of Valeriana Officinalis L. with placebo in the treatment of OCD. The study was an 8-week pilot double-blind randomized trial. Thirty-one adult outpatients who met the DSM-IV-TR criteria for OCD based on the structured clinical interview participated in the trial. In this double-blind and randomized trial, patients were randomly assigned to receive either capsule of the extract (765 mg/day) or placebo (30 mg/day) for 8 weeks. The results showed significant difference between the extract and placebo in the end of treatment (P=0.000). Somnolence was the only significant difference between the two groups in terms of observed side effects (P=0.02). The results suggest that Valeriana Officinalis L. has some antiobsessive and compulsive effects. However, further studies are needed to confirm these findings. Psychiatrists often find that many patients cannot tolerate the side effects of psychiatry medicine Valeriana Officinalis L. is a well-known medicinal plant with a long history of usage in world with effect on GABA.The results showed significant difference between the extract and placebo in the treatment of OCD. There was also no significant difference between the two groups in terms of observed side effects.

  7. Antibacterial Effects of Different Concentrations of Althaea officinalis Root Extract versus 0.2% Chlorhexidine and Penicillin on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus (In vitro).

    PubMed

    Haghgoo, Roza; Mehran, Majid; Afshari, Elahe; Zadeh, Hamide Farajian; Ahmadvand, Motahare

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to determine and compare the effects of different concentrations of Althaea officinalis extract, 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX), and penicillin on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus in vitro . The laboratory study was done, for a period of 8 weeks. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the test tube, minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) in a plate culture medium, and growth inhibition zone diameter methods were used to compare the antibacterial effects of 0.2% CHX, penicillin, and different concentrations of A. officinalis root extract. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 24 using ANOVA and t -test analysis. The results showed A. officinalis root extract had antibacterial effect, but significant differences were in MIC and MBC against L. acidophilus and S. mutans with penicillin and 0.2% CHX mouthwash. In addition, the mean growth inhibition zones of all the concentrations of the plant extract were less than that of the positive control group ( P = 0.001). However, the difference in the maximum growth inhibition zone from that with the negative control group was significant. In addition, the antibacterial effect of the extract increased with an increase in its concentration. The extract exerted a greater antibacterial effect on S. mutans than on L. acidophilus . The plant polyphenols content is 3.7% which is equivalent to 29.93 g/ml. The root extract of A. officinalis exhibited antibacterial effects on S. mutans and L. acidophilus , but this effect was less than those of CHX mouthwash and penicillin. The antibacterial effect increased with an increase in the concentration of the extract.

  8. Functional identification of valerena-1,10-diene synthase, a terpene synthase catalyzing a unique chemical cascade in the biosynthesis of biologically active sesquiterpenes in Valeriana officinalis.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Yun-Soo; Nybo, S Eric; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Weerasooriya, Aruna D; Wang, Yan-Hong; Góngora-Castillo, Elsa; Vaillancourt, Brieanne; Buell, C Robin; DellaPenna, Dean; Celiz, Mary Dawn; Jones, A Daniel; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Ransom, Nick; Dudareva, Natalia; Shaaban, Khaled A; Tibrewal, Nidhi; Chandra, Suman; Smillie, Troy; Khan, Ikhlas A; Coates, Robert M; Watt, David S; Chappell, Joe

    2013-02-01

    Valerian is an herbal preparation from the roots of Valeriana officinalis used as an anxiolytic and sedative and in the treatment of insomnia. The biological activities of valerian are attributed to valerenic acid and its putative biosynthetic precursor valerenadiene, sesquiterpenes, found in V. officinalis roots. These sesquiterpenes retain an isobutenyl side chain whose origin has been long recognized as enigmatic because a chemical rationalization for their biosynthesis has not been obvious. Using recently developed metabolomic and transcriptomic resources, we identified seven V. officinalis terpene synthase genes (VoTPSs), two that were functionally characterized as monoterpene synthases and three that preferred farnesyl diphosphate, the substrate for sesquiterpene synthases. The reaction products for two of the sesquiterpene synthases exhibiting root-specific expression were characterized by a combination of GC-MS and NMR in comparison to the terpenes accumulating in planta. VoTPS7 encodes for a synthase that biosynthesizes predominately germacrene C, whereas VoTPS1 catalyzes the conversion of farnesyl diphosphate to valerena-1,10-diene. Using a yeast expression system, specific labeled [(13)C]acetate, and NMR, we investigated the catalytic mechanism for VoTPS1 and provide evidence for the involvement of a caryophyllenyl carbocation, a cyclobutyl intermediate, in the biosynthesis of valerena-1,10-diene. We suggest a similar mechanism for the biosynthesis of several other biologically related isobutenyl-containing sesquiterpenes.

  9. Functional Identification of Valerena-1,10-diene Synthase, a Terpene Synthase Catalyzing a Unique Chemical Cascade in the Biosynthesis of Biologically Active Sesquiterpenes in Valeriana officinalis*

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Yun-Soo; Nybo, S. Eric; Chittiboyina, Amar G.; Weerasooriya, Aruna D.; Wang, Yan-Hong; Góngora-Castillo, Elsa; Vaillancourt, Brieanne; Buell, C. Robin; DellaPenna, Dean; Celiz, Mary Dawn; Jones, A. Daniel; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Ransom, Nick; Dudareva, Natalia; Shaaban, Khaled A.; Tibrewal, Nidhi; Chandra, Suman; Smillie, Troy; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Coates, Robert M.; Watt, David S.; Chappell, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Valerian is an herbal preparation from the roots of Valeriana officinalis used as an anxiolytic and sedative and in the treatment of insomnia. The biological activities of valerian are attributed to valerenic acid and its putative biosynthetic precursor valerenadiene, sesquiterpenes, found in V. officinalis roots. These sesquiterpenes retain an isobutenyl side chain whose origin has been long recognized as enigmatic because a chemical rationalization for their biosynthesis has not been obvious. Using recently developed metabolomic and transcriptomic resources, we identified seven V. officinalis terpene synthase genes (VoTPSs), two that were functionally characterized as monoterpene synthases and three that preferred farnesyl diphosphate, the substrate for sesquiterpene synthases. The reaction products for two of the sesquiterpene synthases exhibiting root-specific expression were characterized by a combination of GC-MS and NMR in comparison to the terpenes accumulating in planta. VoTPS7 encodes for a synthase that biosynthesizes predominately germacrene C, whereas VoTPS1 catalyzes the conversion of farnesyl diphosphate to valerena-1,10-diene. Using a yeast expression system, specific labeled [13C]acetate, and NMR, we investigated the catalytic mechanism for VoTPS1 and provide evidence for the involvement of a caryophyllenyl carbocation, a cyclobutyl intermediate, in the biosynthesis of valerena-1,10-diene. We suggest a similar mechanism for the biosynthesis of several other biologically related isobutenyl-containing sesquiterpenes. PMID:23243312

  10. Transformation of Althaea officinalis L. by Agrobacterium rhizogenes for the production of transgenic roots expressing the anti-HIV microbicide cyanovirin-N.

    PubMed

    Drake, Pascal M W; de Moraes Madeira, Luisa; Szeto, Tim H; Ma, Julian K-C

    2013-12-01

    The marshmallow plant (Althaea officinalis L.) has been used for centuries in medicine and other applications. Valuable secondary metabolites have previously been identified in Agrobacterium rhizogenes-generated transgenic 'hairy' roots in this species. In the present study, transgenic roots were produced in A. officinalis using A. rhizogenes. In addition to wild-type lines, roots expressing the anti-human immunodeficiency virus microbicide candidate, cyanovirin-N (CV-N), were generated. Wild-type and CV-N root lines were transferred to liquid culture and increased in mass by 49 and 19 % respectively over a 7 day culture period. In the latter, the concentration of CV-N present in the root tissue was 2.4 μg/g fresh weight, with an average secretion rate into the growth medium of 0.02 μg/ml/24 h. A. officinalis transgenic roots may therefore in the future be used not only as a source of therapeutic secondary metabolites, but also as an expression system for the production of recombinant pharmaceuticals.

  11. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of the Althaea officinalis L. leaf extract and its wound healing potency in the rat model of excision wound creation.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Maryam; Dadgar, Zeynab; Noori-Zadeh, Ali; Mesbah-Namin, Seyed Alireza; Pakzad, Iraj; Davodian, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Wound is defined simply as the disruption of the biochemical, cellular, and anatomic continuity of a tissue. Plants and their extracts known as phytomedicine have immense potential for the management and treatment of wounds. Due to the undesirable side effects, in the control and treatment of the wound infections, it is recommended to use natural materials such as phytochemicals instead of chemically synthesized drugs. Thus, the aim of this research was to study the anti-microbial and wound healing potential of Althaea officinalis L. hydroalchoholic extract in comparison with ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and penicillin antibiotics on clinical strains as well as pathogenic bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes under in vitro conditions using micro broth dilution and disc diffusion methods. Moreover, MIC and MBC of its hydroalchoholic extract was also evaluated. The results showed that although Althaea officinalis L. extract was not effective on gram-negative bacteria but it was efficacious on gram-positive bacteria. The extract was also tested in the form of topical administration on excision wound model in rats. In the extract-treated wounds, the wound healing percent was significantly increased in comparison with controls. Based on this research, herbal extract of officinalis L. can be a great candidate for the treatment of gram-positive infections and merits further studies.

  12. A Standardized Composition Comprised of Extracts from Rosmarinus officinalis, Annona squamosa and Zanthoxylum clava-herculis for Cellulite

    PubMed Central

    Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young-Chul; Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Brownell, Lidia; Jia, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cellulite, characterized by changes in the skin morphology presented as dimpled or puckered skin appearance, is highly prevalent among postadolescent women. Cellulite management ranges from topical cream applications to invasive procedures. While some interventions showed improvements in physical appearances of affected areas, so far, none have reversed the condition to a full recovery. These unsuccessful measures signify the intricate nature of cellulite etiology highlighting its complexity leading to the possibility for a combination treatment approach to target multiple mechanisms. Materials and Methods: We screened our plant library for extracts that reduce cellular lipid accumulation, improve microcirculation, possess high total antioxidant capacity, significant anti-platelet aggregation, and anti-inflammatory activities using lipid accumulation assay in 3T3-L1 cells, Croton oil-induced hemorrhoid test in rats as a model for microcirculation, anti-platelet aggregation assay, nitric oxide (NO) inhibition assay, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay. Results: Three known botanicals such as Rosemary officinalis, Annona squamosa and Zanthoxylum clava-herculis were identified as lead extracts in these tests. Treatment of 3T3 cell with A. squamosa at 1 μg/ml resulted in 68.8% reduction in lipid accumulation. In croton oil-induced hemorrhoid study, Z. clava-herculis reduced the recto-anus coefficient by 79.6% at 6 mg/kg indicating improvement in microcirculations. Similarly, R. officinalis caused inhibition of 82%, 71.8%, and 91.8% in platelet aggregation, NO production and free radical generation at 31.25 μg/ml, 6.2 μg/ml, and 40 μg/ml concentrations suggesting its anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. Conclusions: Data depicted here suggest that formulation of these well-known botanicals at a specific ratio perhaps may yield a composition with a much wider spectrum of mechanisms of actions to impact the multiple pathways involved in

  13. Eye Development in Sepia officinalis Embryo: What the Uncommon Gene Expression Profiles Tell Us about Eye Evolution.

    PubMed

    Imarazene, Boudjema; Andouche, Aude; Bassaglia, Yann; Lopez, Pascal-Jean; Bonnaud-Ponticelli, Laure

    2017-01-01

    In metazoans, there is a remarkable diversity of photosensitive structures; their shapes, physiology, optical properties, and development are different. To approach the evolution of photosensitive structures and visual function, cephalopods are particularly interesting organisms due to their most highly centralized nervous system and their camerular eyes which constitute a convergence with those of vertebrates. The eye morphogenesis in numerous metazoans is controlled mainly by a conserved Retinal Determination Gene Network (RDGN) including pax, six, eya , and dac playing also key developmental roles in non-retinal structures and tissues of vertebrates and Drosophila . Here we have identified and explored the role of Sof-dac, Sof-six1/2, Sof-eya in eye morphogenesis, and nervous structures controlling the visual function in Sepia officinalis . We compare that with the already shown expressions in eye development of Sof-otx and Sof-pax genes. Rhodopsin is the pigment responsible for light sensitivity in metazoan, which correlate to correlate visual function and eye development. We studied Sof-rhodopsin expression during retina differentiation. By in situ hybridization, we show that (1) all of the RDGN genes, including Sof-pax6 , are expressed in the eye area during the early developmental stages but they are not expressed in the retina, unlike Sof-otx , which could have a role in retina differentiation; (2) Sof-rhodopsin is expressed in the retina just before vision gets functional, from stage 23 to hatching. Our results evidence a role of Sof-six1/2, Sof-eya , and Sof-dac in eye development. However, the gene network involved in the retinal photoreceptor differentiation remains to be determined. Moreover, for the first time, Sof-rhodopsin expression is shown in the embryonic retina of cuttlefish suggesting the evolutionary conservation of the role of rhodopsin in visual phototransduction within metazoans. These findings are correlated with the physiological and

  14. Appetite Suppression and Antiobesity Effect of a Botanical Composition Composed of Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Yimam, Mesfin; Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Brownell, Lidia; Lee, Young-Chul; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Tae-Woo; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Jia, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Background . Obesity and its comorbidities continue to challenge the world at an alarming rate. Although the long term solution lies on lifestyle changes in the form of dieting and exercising, drug, medical food, or dietary supplement interventions are required for those who are already obese. Here we describe a standardized blend composed of extracts from three medicinal plants: Morus alba , Yerba mate , and Magnolia officinalis for appetite suppression and metabolic disorders management. Method . Extracts were standardized to yield a composition designated as UP601. Appetite suppression activity was tested in acute feed intake rat model. Efficacy was evaluated in C57BL/6J mouse models treated with oral doses of 1.3 g/kg/day for 7 weeks. Orlistat at 40 mg/kg/day was used as a positive control. Body compositions of mice were assessed using a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). ELISA was done for insulin, leptin, and ghrelin level quantitation. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) scoring was conducted. Results . Marked acute hypophagia with 81.8, 75.3, 43.9, and 30.9% reductions in food intake at 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours were observed for UP601. Decreases in body weight gain (21.5% compared to the HFD at weeks 7 and 8.2% compared to baseline) and calorie intake (40.5% for the first week) were observed. 75.9% and 46.8% reductions in insulin and leptin, respectively, 4.2-fold increase in ghrelin level, and reductions of 18.6% in cholesterol and 59% in low-density lipoprotein were documented. A percentage body fat of 18.9%, 47.8%, 46.1%, and 30.4% was found for mice treated with normal control, HFD, Orlistat, and UP601, respectively. 59.3% less mesenteric fat pad and improved NASH scores were observed for UP601. Conclusion . UP601, a standardized botanical composition from Morus alba , Yerba mate , and Magnolia officinalis could be used as a natural alternative for appetite suppression, maintaining healthy body weight and metabolism management.

  15. UP601, a standardized botanical composition composed of Morus alba, Yerba mate and Magnolia officinalis for weight loss.

    PubMed

    Yimam, Mesfin; Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Brownell, Lidia; Lee, Young-Chul; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Jia, Qi

    2017-02-16

    The prevalence of obesity is surging in an alarming rate all over the world. Pharmaceutical drugs are considered potential adjunctive therapy to lifestyle modification. However, for most, besides being too expensive, their long term usages are hindered by their severe adverse effects. Here we describe the effect of UP601, a standardized blend of extracts from Morus alba, Yerba mate and Magnolia officinalis, in modulating a number of obesity-related phenotypic and biochemical markers in a high-fat high-fructose (HFF)-induced C57BL/6J mouse model of obesity. Adipogenesis activity of the composition was assessed in 3T3-L1 cells in vitro. Effects of UP601 on body weight and metabolic markers were evaluated. It was administered at oral doses of 300 mg/kg, 450 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg for 7 weeks. Orlistat (40 mg/kg/day) was used as a positive control. Body compositions of mice were assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Serum biomarkers were measured for liver function and lipid profiling. Relative organ weights were determined. Histopathological analysis was performed for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) scoring. UP601 at 250 μg/ml resulted in 1.8-fold increase in lipolysis. Statistically significant changes in body weight (decreased by 9.1, 19.6 and 25.6% compared to the HFF group at week-7) were observed for mice treated with UP601 at 300, 450 and 600 mg/kg, respectively. Reductions of 9.1, 16.9, and 18.6% in total cholesterol; 45.0, 55.0, 63.6% in triglyceride; 34.8, 37.1 and 41.6% in LDL; 3.2, 21.6 (P = 0.03) and 33.7% (P = 0.005) in serum glucose were observed for UP601 at 300, 450 and 600 mg/kg, respectively. Body fat distribution was found reduced by 31.6 and 17.2% for the 450 mg/kg UP601 and orlistat, respectively, from the DEXA scan analysis. Up to an 89.1% reduction in mesenteric fat deposit was observed for UP601 in relative organ weight. Statistically significant improvements in NASH scores were observed for mice treated

  16. Anti-inflammatory activity of nanoemulsions of essential oil from Rosmarinus officinalis L.: in vitro and in zebrafish studies.

    PubMed

    Borges, Raphaelle Sousa; Keita, Hady; Ortiz, Brenda Lorena Sánchez; Dos Santos Sampaio, Tafnis Ingret; Ferreira, Irlon Maciel; Lima, Emerson Silva; de Jesus Amazonas da Silva, Márcia; Fernandes, Caio Pinho; de Faria Mota Oliveira, Anna Eliza Maciel; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Rodrigues, Alex Bruno Lobato; Filho, Arlindo César Matias Pereira; Castro, Andrés Navarrete; Carvalho, José Carlos Tavares

    2018-02-05

    The essential oil from Rosmarinus officinalis L. (OERO) has bioactive compounds with anti-inflammatory activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potency of nanoemulsions containing essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (NOERO, NECHA, NECULT, and NECOM) in vitro and in vivo. This study was accomplished in a quantitative format through tests with diphenyl picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), cellular antioxidant activity (CCA), determination of nitric oxide production, cellular viability and anti-inflammatory activity in zebrafish. OERO's were submitted to the analysis-coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), which highlighted 1,8-cineol and camphor as major compounds. NOEROs were obtained by a low-energy method and presenting the medium size smaller than 200 nm. The efficiency of encapsulation by spectrometry and gas chromatographic analysis was 67.61 and 75.38%, respectively. In the CCA assay, all of the samples presented percentage values of inhibition similar to the quercetin pattern, indicating antioxidant activity. In the test for determination of NO·, all of the samples inhibited the production of NO· when compared to LPS, and NOEROS were more effective than OEROS to 5 µg/mL. In the cell viability assay, the cells remained viable after contact with the samples, demonstrating an absence of cytotoxicity. This study showed that all nanoemulsions (NECHA, NECULT, and NECOM) showed no toxicity to macrophages, besides demonstrating antioxidant activity and potentiation of the essential oil effect in the proliferation of viable fibroblasts. Nanoemulsions has also shown the ability to potentiate the anti-inflammatory action of essential oils by exerting immunomodulatory activity by inhibiting the production of the pro-inflammatory mediator nitric oxide. The results obtained with NECHA in zebrafish confirm the hypothesis that prominent terpenic compounds, alpha

  17. Appetite Suppression and Antiobesity Effect of a Botanical Composition Composed of Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Brownell, Lidia; Lee, Young-Chul; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Tae-Woo; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Jia, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity and its comorbidities continue to challenge the world at an alarming rate. Although the long term solution lies on lifestyle changes in the form of dieting and exercising, drug, medical food, or dietary supplement interventions are required for those who are already obese. Here we describe a standardized blend composed of extracts from three medicinal plants: Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis for appetite suppression and metabolic disorders management. Method. Extracts were standardized to yield a composition designated as UP601. Appetite suppression activity was tested in acute feed intake rat model. Efficacy was evaluated in C57BL/6J mouse models treated with oral doses of 1.3 g/kg/day for 7 weeks. Orlistat at 40 mg/kg/day was used as a positive control. Body compositions of mice were assessed using a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). ELISA was done for insulin, leptin, and ghrelin level quantitation. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) scoring was conducted. Results. Marked acute hypophagia with 81.8, 75.3, 43.9, and 30.9% reductions in food intake at 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours were observed for UP601. Decreases in body weight gain (21.5% compared to the HFD at weeks 7 and 8.2% compared to baseline) and calorie intake (40.5% for the first week) were observed. 75.9% and 46.8% reductions in insulin and leptin, respectively, 4.2-fold increase in ghrelin level, and reductions of 18.6% in cholesterol and 59% in low-density lipoprotein were documented. A percentage body fat of 18.9%, 47.8%, 46.1%, and 30.4% was found for mice treated with normal control, HFD, Orlistat, and UP601, respectively. 59.3% less mesenteric fat pad and improved NASH scores were observed for UP601. Conclusion. UP601, a standardized botanical composition from Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis could be used as a natural alternative for appetite suppression, maintaining healthy body weight and metabolism management. PMID:27699065

  18. Eye Development in Sepia officinalis Embryo: What the Uncommon Gene Expression Profiles Tell Us about Eye Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Imarazene, Boudjema; Andouche, Aude; Bassaglia, Yann; Lopez, Pascal-Jean; Bonnaud-Ponticelli, Laure

    2017-01-01

    In metazoans, there is a remarkable diversity of photosensitive structures; their shapes, physiology, optical properties, and development are different. To approach the evolution of photosensitive structures and visual function, cephalopods are particularly interesting organisms due to their most highly centralized nervous system and their camerular eyes which constitute a convergence with those of vertebrates. The eye morphogenesis in numerous metazoans is controlled mainly by a conserved Retinal Determination Gene Network (RDGN) including pax, six, eya, and dac playing also key developmental roles in non-retinal structures and tissues of vertebrates and Drosophila. Here we have identified and explored the role of Sof-dac, Sof-six1/2, Sof-eya in eye morphogenesis, and nervous structures controlling the visual function in Sepia officinalis. We compare that with the already shown expressions in eye development of Sof-otx and Sof-pax genes. Rhodopsin is the pigment responsible for light sensitivity in metazoan, which correlate to correlate visual function and eye development. We studied Sof-rhodopsin expression during retina differentiation. By in situ hybridization, we show that (1) all of the RDGN genes, including Sof-pax6, are expressed in the eye area during the early developmental stages but they are not expressed in the retina, unlike Sof-otx, which could have a role in retina differentiation; (2) Sof-rhodopsin is expressed in the retina just before vision gets functional, from stage 23 to hatching. Our results evidence a role of Sof-six1/2, Sof-eya, and Sof-dac in eye development. However, the gene network involved in the retinal photoreceptor differentiation remains to be determined. Moreover, for the first time, Sof-rhodopsin expression is shown in the embryonic retina of cuttlefish suggesting the evolutionary conservation of the role of rhodopsin in visual phototransduction within metazoans. These findings are correlated with the physiological and

  19. The in vitro effect of selected essential oils on the growth and mycotoxin production of Aspergillus species.

    PubMed

    Císarová, Miroslava; Tančinová, Dana; Medo, Juraj; Kačániová, Miroslava

    2016-10-02

    The aim of the present study was to assess the antifungal and anti-toxinogenic activity of 15 essential oils (EOs) against three fungi of the genus Aspergillus (A. parasiticus KMi-227-LR, A. parasiticus KMi-220-LR and A. flavus KMi-202-LR). The minimum inhibitory doses (MIDs) of the tested essential oils and their antifungal activity were determined using the micro-atmosphere method. The original commercial essential oil samples of Jasminum officinale L., Thymus vulgaris L., Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merrill & Perry, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ocimum basilicum L., Eucalyptus globulus Labill., Salvia officinalis L., Citrus limon (L.) Burm, Origanum vulgare L., Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Carum carvi L., Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck., Zingiber officinalis Rosc., Mentha piperita L. and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees. (C. verum J.S.Presl.) were produced in Slovakia (Calendula a.s., Nová Ľubovňa, Slovakia). All essential oils exhibited activity against all tested strains of fungi. After 14 days of incubation, A. flavus (KMi-202-LR) showed the highest susceptibility with a growth inhibition percentage (GIP) of 18.70% to C. limon and 5.92% to C. sinensis, while A. parasiticus (KMi-220-LR) exhibited a GIP of 20.56% to J. officinale. The minimum inhibitory doses (MIDs) of EOs with the most significant activity were recorded. The best antifungal activity, using the micro-atmosphere method was found in S. aromaticum with an MID of 62.5 μL L -1 air, T. vulgaris (MID of 62.5 μL L -1 air) and O. vulgare (MID of 31.5 μL L -1 air) against all tested strains. Mycotoxin production of the tested strains was evaluated by the thin layer chromatography (TLC) method. Mycotoxin production of AFB 1 and AFG 1 was inhibited following all treatments with C. carvi, R. officinale and S. officinale, Eucalyptus globulus L. and O. basilicum L. Essential oils exhibited a potential inhibition activity against toxic fungi, although, these affected only the production of AFB 1 .

  20. Evaluation of the intestinal permeability of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract polyphenols and terpenoids in Caco-2 cell monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Arráez-Román, David; González-Álvarez, Isabel; Ibáñez, Elena; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Bermejo, Marival; Micol, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is grown throughout the world and is widely used as a medicinal herb and to season and preserve food. Rosemary polyphenols and terpenoids have attracted great interest due to their potential health benefits. However, complete information regarding their absorption and bioavailability in Caco-2 cell model is scarce. The permeation properties of the bioactive compounds (flavonoids, diterpenes, triterpenes and phenylpropanoids) of a rosemary extract (RE), obtained by supercritical fluid extraction, was studied in Caco-2 cell monolayer model, both in a free form or liposomed. Compounds were identified and quantitated by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS), and the apparent permeability values (Papp) were determined, for the first time in the extract, for 24 compounds in both directions across cell monolayer. For some compounds, such as triterpenoids and some flavonoids, Papp values found were reported for the first time in Caco-2 cells.Our results indicate that most compounds are scarcely absorbed, and passive diffusion is suggested to be the primary mechanism of absorption. The use of liposomes to vehiculize the extract resulted in reduced permeability for most compounds. Finally, the biopharmaceutical classification (BCS) of all the compounds was achieved according to their permeability and solubility data for bioequivalence purposes. BCS study reveal that most of the RE compounds could be classified as classes III and IV (low permeability); therefore, RE itself should also be classified into this category. PMID:28234919

  1. Impact of drought stress on specialised metabolism: Biosynthesis and the expression of monoterpene synthases in sage (Salvia officinalis).

    PubMed

    Radwan, Alzahraa; Kleinwächter, Maik; Selmar, Dirk

    2017-09-01

    In previous experiments, we demonstrated that the amount of monoterpenes in sage is increased massively by drought stress. Our current study is aimed to elucidate whether this increase is due, at least in part, to elevated activity of the monoterpene synthases responsible for the biosynthesis of essential oils in sage. Accordingly, the transcription rates of the monoterpene synthases were analyzed. Salvia officinalis plants were cultivated under moderate drought stress. The concentrations of monoterpenes as well as the expression of the monoterpene synthases were analyzed. The amount of monoterpenes massively increased in response to drought stress; it doubled after just two days of drought stress. The observed changes in monoterpene content mostly match with the patterns of monoterpene synthase expressions. The expression of bornyl diphosphate synthase was strongly up-regulated; its maximum level was reached after two days. Sabinene synthase increased gradually and reached a maximum after two weeks. In contrast, the transcript level of cineole synthase continuously declined. This study revealed that the stress related increase of biosynthesis is not only due to a "passive" shift caused by the stress related over-reduced status, but also is due - at least in part-to an "active" up-regulation of the enzymes involved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Studies on Emblica officinalis derived tannins for their immunostimulatory and protective activities against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kaleem, Qari Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Zafar, Muddassar; Iqbal, Zafar; Muhammad, Faqir; Anwar, Muhammad Irfan

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the effect of Emblica officinalis (EO) derived tannins on humoral immune responses and their protective efficacy against Eimeria infection in chickens. Tannins were extracted from EO and characterized by HPLC. EO derived tannins (EOT) and commercial tannins (CT) were orally administered in broiler chicks in graded doses for three consecutive days, that is, 5th-7th days of age. On day 14 after administration of tannins, humoral immune response was detected against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) by haemagglutination assay. Protective efficacy of tannins was measured against coccidial infection, induced by Eimeria species. Results revealed higher geomean titers against SRBCs in chickens administered with EOT as compared to those administered with CT and control group. Mean oocysts per gram of droppings were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in EOT administered chickens as compared to control group. Lesion scoring also showed the lowest caecal and intestinal lesion score of mild to moderate intensity in chickens administered with EOT. Further, significantly higher (P < 0.05) daily body weight gains and antibody titers were detected in EOT administered chickens as compared to those of CT administered and control groups. EOT showed the immunostimulatory properties in broilers and their administration in chickens boost the protective immunity against coccidiosis.

  3. Magnolia officinalis (Hou Po) bark extract stimulates the Nrf2-pathway in hepatocytes and protects against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Rajgopal, Arun; Missler, Stephen R; Scholten, Jeffery D

    2016-12-04

    The highly aromatic bark of Magnolia officinalis Rehder and EH Wilson, (magnolia bark) has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine where it is known as Hou Po. Historically the bark of the tree has been used for treating variety of disorders the most common use of magnolia bark in traditional prescription has been to treat stress and anxiety disorders. Till date it is not clear regarding the fundamental cellular pathway it modulates. NRF2 signaling has emerged as the central pathway that protects cells from variety of stressors this led us to hypothesize that basis for magnolia bark's effects could be via activating NRF2 pathway. We utilized variety of biochemical procedures like luciferase reporter assay, enzyme induction, gene expression to determine NRF2 inducing activity by magnolia bark extract and its significance. Further we identified the phytochemicals inducing this activity using bio-directed fractionation procedure. In this study, we demonstrate that magnolia bark extract activates Nrf2-dependent gene expression and protects against hydrogen peroxide mediated oxidative stress in hepatocytes. We further identified through HPLC fractionation and mass spectroscopy that magnolol, 4-methoxy honokiol and honokiol are the active phytochemicals inducing the Nrf2-mediated activity. This could be the molecular basis for its numerous beneficial activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Studies on Emblica officinalis Derived Tannins for Their Immunostimulatory and Protective Activities against Coccidiosis in Industrial Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kaleem, Qari Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Zafar, Muddassar; Iqbal, Zafar; Muhammad, Faqir

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the effect of Emblica officinalis (EO) derived tannins on humoral immune responses and their protective efficacy against Eimeria infection in chickens. Tannins were extracted from EO and characterized by HPLC. EO derived tannins (EOT) and commercial tannins (CT) were orally administered in broiler chicks in graded doses for three consecutive days, that is, 5th-7th days of age. On day 14 after administration of tannins, humoral immune response was detected against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) by haemagglutination assay. Protective efficacy of tannins was measured against coccidial infection, induced by Eimeria species. Results revealed higher geomean titers against SRBCs in chickens administered with EOT as compared to those administered with CT and control group. Mean oocysts per gram of droppings were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in EOT administered chickens as compared to control group. Lesion scoring also showed the lowest caecal and intestinal lesion score of mild to moderate intensity in chickens administered with EOT. Further, significantly higher (P < 0.05) daily body weight gains and antibody titers were detected in EOT administered chickens as compared to those of CT administered and control groups. EOT showed the immunostimulatory properties in broilers and their administration in chickens boost the protective immunity against coccidiosis. PMID:24578631

  5. Effect of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and melissa (Melissa Officinalis) waste on quality and shelf life of bread.

    PubMed

    Vasileva, Ivelina; Denkova, Rositsa; Chochkov, Rosen; Teneva, Desislava; Denkova, Zapryana; Dessev, Tzvetelin; Denev, Petko; Slavov, Anton

    2018-07-01

    The effect of lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and melissa (Melissa Officinalis) waste on preparation, characteristics and shelf life of bread was investigated. It was found that lavender and melissa waste, generated yearly in large amounts, were rich on polyphenols (especially rosmarinic acid) and aroma compounds, and exhibited high antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. The bread with 2.5% lavender waste was characterized with the highest loaf volume and loaf specific volume. The total dietary fiber increased three times and the polyphenols and flavonoids increased more than four times for breads with added 5% lavender and melissa waste, compared to control sample. The breads with 2.5% and 5% added lavender waste had increased shelf life (up to 96 h) compared to control, and no fungal or bacterial spoilage was observed during storage at 22 °C, 30 °C and 37 °C for four days. The sensory evaluation demonstrated that the consumers preferred mainly bread with 2.5% lavender waste. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Valeriana officinalis Extracts Ameliorate Neuronal Damage by Suppressing Lipid Peroxidation in the Gerbil Hippocampus Following Transient Cerebral Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Dae Young; Jung, Hyo Young; Nam, Sung Min; Kim, Jong Whi; Choi, Jung Hoon; Kwak, Youn-Gil; Yoo, Miyoung; Lee, Sanghee; Yoon, Yeo Sung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract As a medicinal plant, the roots of Valeriana officinalis have been used as a sedative and tranquilizer. In the present study, we evaluated the neuroprotective effects of valerian root extracts (VE) on the hippocampal CA1 region of gerbils after 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia. Gerbils were administered VE orally once a day for 3 weeks, subjected to ischemia/reperfusion injury, and continued on VE for 3 weeks. The administration of 100 mg/kg VE (VE100 group) significantly reduced the ischemia-induced spontaneous motor hyperactivity 1 day after ischemia/reperfusion. Four days after ischemia/reperfusion, animals treated with VE showed abundant cresyl violet-positive neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region when compared to the vehicle or 25 mg/kg VE-treated groups. In addition, the VE treatment markedly decreased microglial activation in the hippocampal CA1 region 4 days after ischemia. Compared to the other groups, the VE100 group showed the lowest level of lipid peroxidation during the first 24 h after ischemia/reperfusion. In summary, the findings in this study suggest that pretreatment with VE has protective effects against ischemic injury in the hippocampal pyramidal neurons by decreasing microglial activation and lipid peroxidation. PMID:25785762

  7. Valeriana officinalis Extracts Ameliorate Neuronal Damage by Suppressing Lipid Peroxidation in the Gerbil Hippocampus Following Transient Cerebral Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Dae Young; Jung, Hyo Young; Nam, Sung Min; Kim, Jong Whi; Choi, Jung Hoon; Kwak, Youn-Gil; Yoo, Miyoung; Lee, Sanghee; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Hwang, In Koo

    2015-06-01

    As a medicinal plant, the roots of Valeriana officinalis have been used as a sedative and tranquilizer. In the present study, we evaluated the neuroprotective effects of valerian root extracts (VE) on the hippocampal CA1 region of gerbils after 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia. Gerbils were administered VE orally once a day for 3 weeks, subjected to ischemia/reperfusion injury, and continued on VE for 3 weeks. The administration of 100 mg/kg VE (VE100 group) significantly reduced the ischemia-induced spontaneous motor hyperactivity 1 day after ischemia/reperfusion. Four days after ischemia/reperfusion, animals treated with VE showed abundant cresyl violet-positive neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region when compared to the vehicle or 25 mg/kg VE-treated groups. In addition, the VE treatment markedly decreased microglial activation in the hippocampal CA1 region 4 days after ischemia. Compared to the other groups, the VE100 group showed the lowest level of lipid peroxidation during the first 24 h after ischemia/reperfusion. In summary, the findings in this study suggest that pretreatment with VE has protective effects against ischemic injury in the hippocampal pyramidal neurons by decreasing microglial activation and lipid peroxidation.

  8. Essential oil of Valeriana officinalis L. cultivars and their antimicrobial activity as influenced by harvesting time under commercial organic cultivation.

    PubMed

    Letchamo, Wudeneh; Ward, William; Heard, Brooks; Heard, Denise

    2004-06-16

    The essential oil content and the composition of subterranean parts of two valerian (Valeriana officinalis, L.) cultivars Select and Anthose, from certified commercial organic fields, were determined by hydrodistillation, followed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry analysis. Eight and fourteen month old cv. Select had 0.67 and 0.87% essential oil, while similar aged cv. Anthose contained 0.97 and 1.1% essential oil. Forty-three and fifty-three components from cv. Select and cv. Anthose oils were detected, respectively. The oil composition significantly varied due to the cultivar type, plant age, and/or harvesting time. The major components for cv. Select were valerenal, bornyl acetate, 15-acetoxy valeranone, valerenic acid, and camphene, while cv. Anthose had valerenal, (-)-bornyl acetate, alpha-humulene, camphene, 15-acetoxy valeranone, and valerenic acid. With further aging of the plants, the valerenal, valerenic acid, and alpha-humulene contents increased. The oil of cv. Select had a strong antimicrobial effect against Aspergillus niger, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, while cv. Anthose showed low or no activity against all test microbes, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, suggesting that the inhibitory activity of valerian oil depends on the cultivar and its developmental stage. The oil profile of our cultivars did not match the literature proposed chemotype profiles.

  9. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of water-soluble polysaccharides from the roots of valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Hromádková, Z; Ebringerová, A; Valachovic, P

    2002-01-01

    The insoluble plant residues, obtained after preparation of medicinal tinctures from the roots of valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.) by classical and ultrasound-assisted extraction with aqueous ethanol in a pilot plant, were subsequently treated with hot water to isolate the accessible polysaccharide cell wall components. At almost equal amounts of the hot-water extractable material, the yields of the recovered polysaccharides were lower in the ultrasonical experiment. This is due to the fact that a part of accessible polysaccharides were already solubilised by the aqueous ethanol and recoverable from the medicinal tincture. Therefore, the net yield of extracted polysaccharides was enhanced in the ultrasonical procedure. This fact as well as the sugar composition and structural features of the isolated polysaccharides suggest that ultrasonication have attacked the integrity of cell walls, released and degraded its most accessible polysaccharides (pectic polysaccharides and starch) and increased also the extractibility of its less accessible components--xylan, mannan and glucan. The water-soluble polysaccharide fractions from both the conventional and ultrasonical experiments exhibit significant immunostimulatory activities in mitogenic and comitogenic thymocyte tests.

  10. Antioxidant Capacity and Polyphenolic Composition as Quality Indicators for Aqueous Infusions of Salvia officinalis L. (sage tea).

    PubMed

    Walch, Stephan G; Tinzoh, Laura Ngaba; Zimmermann, Benno F; Stühlinger, Wolf; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2011-01-01

    Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) is used as an herbal medicinal product, with the most typical form of application as infusion with boiling water (sage tea). The well-established traditional uses include symptomatic treatment of mild dyspeptic complaints, the treatment of inflammations in the mouth and the throat, and relief of excessive sweating and relief of minor skin inflammations. In this study, sage teas prepared from commercially available products were chemically analyzed for polyphenolic content using liquid chromatography, for antioxidant potential using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity method, and for the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) index. The sage teas showed a high variation for all parameters studied (up to 20-fold differences for rosmarinic acid). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the antioxidant potential, which varied between 0.4 and 1.8 mmol trolox equivalents/100 mL, was highly dependent on rosmarinic acid and its derivatives. The FC index also showed a high correlation to these polyphenols, and could therefore be used as a screening parameter for sage tea quality. The considerable differences in polyphenolic composition and antioxidant capacity between the brands lead to a demand for quality standardization, especially if these sage teas are to be used for therapeutic purposes. Further research also appears to be necessary to characterize the dose-benefit relationship, as sage may also contain a constituent (thujone) with potentially adverse effects.

  11. The antibacterial effect of sage extract (Salvia officinalis) mouthwash against Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Beheshti-Rouy, Maryam; Azarsina, Mohadese; Rezaie-Soufi, Loghman; Alikhani, Mohammad Yousef; Roshanaie, Ghodratollah; Komaki, Samira

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical effects of a mouthwash containing Sage (Salvia officinalis) extracts on Streptococcus mutans (SM) causing dental plaque in school-aged children. A double blind clinical trial study was conducted in a dormitory on 70 girls aged 11-14 years having the same socioeconomic and oral hygiene conditions. These students were randomly divided into 2 groups; the first group (N=35) using Sage mouthwash, and the second group (N=35) using placebo mouthwash without active any ingredients. At the baseline, plaque samples obtained from the buccal surfaces of teeth were sent to laboratory to achieve SM colony count. These tests were reevaluated after 21 days of using the mouthwashes. Statistical data analysis was performed using t-student tests with p<0.05 as the level of significance. Sage mouthwash significantly reduced the colony count (P=0.001). Average number of colonies in test group was 3900 per plaque sample at the baseline, and 300 after mouthwash application. In the control group, pre-test colony count was 4400 that was reduced to 4000; although this reduction wasn't significant. The Sage mouthwash effectively reduced the number of Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque.

  12. Evaluation of the intestinal permeability of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract polyphenols and terpenoids in Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sánchez, Almudena; Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Arráez-Román, David; González-Álvarez, Isabel; Ibáñez, Elena; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Bermejo, Marival; Micol, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is grown throughout the world and is widely used as a medicinal herb and to season and preserve food. Rosemary polyphenols and terpenoids have attracted great interest due to their potential health benefits. However, complete information regarding their absorption and bioavailability in Caco-2 cell model is scarce. The permeation properties of the bioactive compounds (flavonoids, diterpenes, triterpenes and phenylpropanoids) of a rosemary extract (RE), obtained by supercritical fluid extraction, was studied in Caco-2 cell monolayer model, both in a free form or liposomed. Compounds were identified and quantitated by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS), and the apparent permeability values (Papp) were determined, for the first time in the extract, for 24 compounds in both directions across cell monolayer. For some compounds, such as triterpenoids and some flavonoids, Papp values found were reported for the first time in Caco-2 cells.Our results indicate that most compounds are scarcely absorbed, and passive diffusion is suggested to be the primary mechanism of absorption. The use of liposomes to vehiculize the extract resulted in reduced permeability for most compounds. Finally, the biopharmaceutical classification (BCS) of all the compounds was achieved according to their permeability and solubility data for bioequivalence purposes. BCS study reveal that most of the RE compounds could be classified as classes III and IV (low permeability); therefore, RE itself should also be classified into this category.

  13. Preparation of cellulose nanocrystals from asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) and their applications to palm oil/water Pickering emulsion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenhang; Du, Guanhua; Li, Cong; Zhang, Hongjie; Long, Yunduo; Ni, Yonghao

    2016-10-20

    Nano cellulosic materials as promising emulsion stabilizers have attracted great interest in food industry. In this paper, five different sized cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) samples were prepared from stem of Asparagus officinalis L. using the same sulfuric acid hydrolysis conditions but different times (1.5, 2, 2.5, 3.0, and 3.5h). The sizes of these CNC ranged from 178.2 to 261.8nm, with their crystallinity of 72.4-77.2%. The CNC aqueous dispersions showed a typical shear thinning behavior. In a palm oil/water (30/70, v/v) model solution, stable Pickering emulsions were formed with the addition of CNC, and their sizes are in the range of 1-10μm based on the optical and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) observation. The CNC sample prepared at 3h hydrolysis time, showed a relative efficient emulsion capacity for palm oil droplets, among these CNCs. Other parameters including the CNC, salt, and casein concentrations on the emulsion stability were studied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Antimicrobial Activity of Copaiba (Copaifera officinalis) and Pracaxi (Pentaclethra macroloba) Oils against Staphylococcus Aureus: Importance in Compounding for Wound Care.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Anna Luísa Aguijar; Cunha, Elisa Alves; Matias, Fernanda Oliveira; Garcia, Patrícia Guedes; Danopoulos, Panagiota; Swikidisa, Rosita; Pinheiro, Vanessa Alves; Nogueira, Rodrigo José Lupatini

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon rainforest is the largest reserve of natural products in the world. Its rich biodiversity of medicinal plants has been utilized by local populations for hundreds of years for the prevention and treatment of various diseases and ailments. Oil extracts from plant species such as Copaifera officinalis and Pentaclethra macroloba are used in compounded formulations for their antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, emollient, moisturizing, and wound-healing activities. The objective of this study was to investigate the in vitro bacteriostatic effect of two Amazonian oils, Copaiba and Pracaxi, against Staphylococcus aureus, a clinically important microorganism responsible for wound infection, to support the use of these oils as novel natural products for compounded wound-treatment modalities. The antibacterial activity of Copaiba and Pracaxi oils against a standard strain of Staphylococcus aureus was assessed using broth microdilution to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration of the oil extracts. Copaiba oil demonstrated antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, with a Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of 0.3125 mg/mL and a Minimum Bactericidal Concentration of 0.3125 mg/mL. Conversely, Pracaxi oil failed to inhibit Staphylococcus aureus growth. While additional studies are required to further evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Pracaxi oil, even low concentrations of Copaiba oil effectively inhibited Staphylococcus aureus growth, supporting its potential use as a promising adjuvant in compounded topical formulations for wound and scar healing.

  15. Experimental study on effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Emblica officinalis fruits on glucose homeostasis and metabolic parameters

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Snehal S.; Goyal, Ramesh K.; Shah, Rajendra S.; Tirgar, Pravin R.; Jadav, Pinakin D.

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenols from natural source are potential therapeutics that act alone or supplement anti-diabetic drugs in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. The present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of hydroalcoholic extract (HE) of fruits of Emblica officinalis on type 1 diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) (45 mg/kg i.v.). HE (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered for 4 weeks and at the end of treatment, blood samples were collected and analyzed for various biochemical parameters. STZ produced a diabetic state exhibiting all the cardinal symptoms such as loss of body weight, polydipsia, polyuria, glucosuria, polyphagia, hypoinsulinemia, and hyperglycemia associated with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Treatment with HE prevented cardinal symptoms and caused significant decrease in fasting serum glucose, AUCglucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very LDL in diabetic rats. However, insulin, AUCinsulin, and serum high-density lipoprotein level were not significantly altered by treatment. Treatment also reduced lipid peroxidation and increased anti-oxidant parameters in the liver homogenates of diabetic rats. Polyphenol enriched fraction of HE significantly improved disarranged carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of chemically induced diabetes in rats. The mechanism of its anti-diabetic activity appears to be either improvement in peripheral glucose utilization, increased insulin sensitivity, or anti-oxidant property. PMID:24696584

  16. Size Matters: Observed and Modeled Camouflage Response of European Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) to Different Substrate Patch Sizes during Movement

    PubMed Central

    Josef, Noam; Berenshtein, Igal; Rousseau, Meghan; Scata, Gabriella; Fiorito, Graziano; Shashar, Nadav

    2017-01-01

    Camouflage is common throughout the phylogenetic tree and is largely used to minimize detection by predator or prey. Cephalopods, and in particular Sepia officinalis cuttlefish, are common models for camouflage studies. Predator avoidance behavior is particularly important in this group of soft-bodied animals that lack significant physical defenses. While previous studies have suggested that immobile cephalopods selectively camouflage to objects in their immediate surroundings, the camouflage characteristics of cuttlefish during movement are largely unknown. In a heterogenic environment, the visual background and substrate feature changes quickly as the animal swim across it, wherein substrate patch is a distinctive and high contrast patch of substrate in the animal's trajectory. In the current study, we examine the effect of substrate patch size on cuttlefish camouflage, and specifically the minimal size of an object for eliciting intensity matching response while moving. Our results indicated that substrate patch size has a positive effect on animal's reflectance change, and that the threshold patch size resulting in camouflage response falls between 10 and 19 cm (width). These observations suggest that the animal's length (7.2–12.3 cm mantle length in our case) serves as a possible threshold filter below which objects are considered irrelevant for camouflage, reducing the frequency of reflectance changes—which may lead to detection. Accordingly, we have constructed a computational model capturing the main features of the observed camouflaging behavior, provided for cephalopod camouflage during movement. PMID:28144221

  17. Size Matters: Observed and Modeled Camouflage Response of European Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) to Different Substrate Patch Sizes during Movement.

    PubMed

    Josef, Noam; Berenshtein, Igal; Rousseau, Meghan; Scata, Gabriella; Fiorito, Graziano; Shashar, Nadav

    2016-01-01

    Camouflage is common throughout the phylogenetic tree and is largely used to minimize detection by predator or prey. Cephalopods, and in particular Sepia officinalis cuttlefish, are common models for camouflage studies. Predator avoidance behavior is particularly important in this group of soft-bodied animals that lack significant physical defenses. While previous studies have suggested that immobile cephalopods selectively camouflage to objects in their immediate surroundings, the camouflage characteristics of cuttlefish during movement are largely unknown. In a heterogenic environment, the visual background and substrate feature changes quickly as the animal swim across it, wherein substrate patch is a distinctive and high contrast patch of substrate in the animal's trajectory. In the current study, we examine the effect of substrate patch size on cuttlefish camouflage, and specifically the minimal size of an object for eliciting intensity matching response while moving. Our results indicated that substrate patch size has a positive effect on animal's reflectance change, and that the threshold patch size resulting in camouflage response falls between 10 and 19 cm (width). These observations suggest that the animal's length (7.2-12.3 cm mantle length in our case) serves as a possible threshold filter below which objects are considered irrelevant for camouflage, reducing the frequency of reflectance changes-which may lead to detection. Accordingly, we have constructed a computational model capturing the main features of the observed camouflaging behavior, provided for cephalopod camouflage during movement.

  18. Possible mechanisms of dose-dependent cough suppressive effect of Althaea officinalis rhamnogalacturonan in guinea pigs test system.

    PubMed

    Sutovská, M; Nosálová, G; Sutovský, J; Franová, S; Prisenznáková, L; Capek, P

    2009-07-01

    The rhamnogalacturonan, isolated from the roots of medicinal plant Althaea officinalis L., showed various biological effects on the citric acid-induced cough reflex and reactivity of airways smooth muscle in vitro and in vivo conditions. It possessed dose-dependent cough suppression effect comparable with opioid agonist codeine. However, reactivity of the airways smooth muscle, measured in vitro as well as in vivo conditions was not significantly affected by rhamnogalacturonan and thus bronchodilatory activity did not participate in the cough suppression effect of polysaccharide tested. Moreover, the cough suppression effect of the polymer was not significantly modified by pretreatment of K(+)(ATP) ion channels with selective antagonist and therefore activation of this type of ion channels is not involved in the mechanism of rhamnogalacturonan cough suppressive ability. On the contrary, pretreatment of animals with selective 5-HT(2) receptors antagonist significantly decreased rhamnogalacturonan antitussive efficacy. From this point of view it seems that the cough suppression effect of the polymer is associated with the serotonergic 5-HT(2) receptor's function.

  19. Potential of Ocimum basilicum L. and Salvia officinalis L. essential oils against biofilms of P. aeruginosa clinical isolates.

    PubMed

    Stojanović-Radić, Z; Pejcić, M; Stojanović, N; Sharifi-Rad, J; Stanković, N

    2016-08-29

    Biofilms are complex communities of microorganisms, responsible for more than 60% of the chronic human infections and they represent one of the leading concerns in medicine. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is human pathogenic bacteria which causes numerous diseases and is known for its ability to produce biofilm. Ocimum basilicum L. (basil) and Salvia officinalis L. (sage) are widely used plants in traditional medicine for the treatment of different conditions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential of basil and sage essential oils against P. aeruginosa biofilm producing strains. The efficacy of two essential oils on P. aeruginosa biofilm forming ability was determined using crystal violet method. Out of 15 strains isolated from different clinical biological samples, two were strong, 11 moderate and one weak biofilm producer. Good efficacy of sage essential oil towards strong and weak biofilm producers, but not of basil essential oil, was observed. In the case of moderate biofilm producers, 81.8% showed lower biofilm production after incubation with the sage oil, while 63.6% showed the reduction of biofilm production after basil essential oil treatment. The obtained results showed high potential of both oils for the treatment of persistent infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms.

  20. Spatial and temporal variations of soil moisture under Rosmarinus officinalis and Quercus coccifera in a burned soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimeno-García, E.; Pascual-Aguilar, J. A.; Llovet, J.

    2009-04-01

    When studying surface runoff processes, measurement of the soil moisture content (SMC) at the surface could be used to identify sinks and sources areas of runoff. Surface soil moisture patterns variability have been studied in a burned Mediterranean semi-arid area. Since surface SMC and soil water repellency (SWR) are influenced by fire and vegetation (see previous abstract), and soil water dynamics and vegetation dynamics are functionally related, it could be expected to find some changes during the following months after fire when vegetation starts to recover. The identification of these changes is the main goal of this research. The study area is located at the municipality of Les Useres, 40 km from Castellón city (E Spain), where a wildfire occured in August 2007. We selected a burned SSE facing hillslope, located at 570 m a.s.l., with 12° slope angle, in which it was possible to identify the presence of two unique shrub species: Quercus coccifera L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L., which were distributed in a patchy mosaic. Twenty microsites with burned R. officinalis and eight microsites with burned Q. coccifera were selected in an area of 7 m wide by 14 m long. At the burned microsites, it was possible to distinguish three concentric zones (I, II and III) around the stumps showing differences on their soil surface appearance, which indicate a gradient of fire severity. Those differences were considered for field soil moisture measurements. Five measurements of SMC separated approximately 10 cm per zone at each microsite (n= 420) were carried out after different rainfall events. Volumetric soil moisture was measured by means of the moisture meter HH2 with ThetaProbe sensor type ML2x, 6 cm long. SMC was monitored on three occasions, always one day after the following rainfall events: (1) the first rainfall event after fire, when 11 mm were registered (Oct-07); (2) four months later than fire (Dec-07), after six consecutive raining days with a total rain volume

  1. Validation of Armadillo officinalis Dumèril, 1816 (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) as a bioindicator: in vivo study of air benzene exposure.

    PubMed

    Agodi, A; Oliveri Conti, G; Barchitta, M; Quattrocchi, A; Lombardo, B M; Montesanto, G; Messina, G; Fiore, M; Ferrante, M

    2015-04-01

    This study tests the potential for using Armadillo officinalis as a bioindicator of exposure to and activation of benzene metabolic pathways using an in vivo model. A. officinalis specimens collected in a natural reserve were divided into a control and three test groups exposed to 2.00, 5.32 or 9.09 µg/m(3) benzene for 24h. Three independent tests were performed to assess model reproducibility. Animals were dissected to obtain three pooled tissue samples per group: hepatopancreas (HEP), other organs and tissues (OOT), and exoskeleton (EXO). Muconic acid (MA), S-phenylmercapturic acid (S-PMA), two human metabolites of benzene, and changes in mtDNA copy number, a human biomarker of benzene exposure, were determined in each sample; benzene was determined only in EXO. MA was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detection, S-PMA by triple quadrupole mass spectrometer liquid chromatography with electro spray ionization (LC-MS-ESI-TQD), mtDNA by real-time quantitative PCR and end-point PCR, and benzene by quadrupole mass spectrometer head-space gas chromatography (HSGC-MS). MA and S-PMA levels rose both in HEP and OOT; EXO exhibited increasing benzene concentrations; and mtDNA copy number rose in HEP but not in OOT samples. Overall, our findings demonstrate that A. officinalis is a sensitive bioindicator of air benzene exposure and show for the first time its ability to reproduce human metabolic dynamics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of Nigella sativa seeds, Rosmarinus officinalis leaves and their combination on growth performance, immune response and rumen metabolism in Dorper lambs.

    PubMed

    Odhaib, Kifah Jumaah; Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda; Ahmed, Muideen Adewale; Jahromi, Muhammad Faseleh; Jusoh, Shokri; Samsudin, Anjas Asmara; Alimon, Abdul Razak; Yaakub, Halimatun; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary supplementation of Nigella sativa L. seeds, Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaves and their combination on rumen metabolism, nutrient intake and digestibility, growth performance, immune response and blood metabolites in Dorper lambs. Twenty-four entire male Dorper lambs (18.68 ± 0.6 kg, 4-5 months old) were randomly assigned to a concentrate mixture containing on a dry matter basis either, no supplement (control, T1), 1% R. officinalis leaves (T2), 1% N. sativa seeds (T3) or 1% R. officinalis leaves +1% N. sativa seeds (T4). The lambs had ad libitum access to urea-treated rice straw (UTRS) and were raised for 90 days. Supplemented lambs had greater (P < 0.05) intake of DM and UTRS than the control lambs. The T4 lambs had lower (P < 0.05) nutrient digestibility than those fed other treatments. Total and daily weight gain was greater (P < 0.05) in T2 lambs than those fed other diets. The T3 and T4 lambs had greater (P < 0.05) ruminal pH than the T1 and T2 lambs. Supplemented lambs had lower (P < 0.05) ruminal total volatile fatty acids, acetate, propionate, NH 3 -N and C18:0 than the control lambs. The T4 lambs had lower (P < 0.05) population of Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus albus, methanogens and total protozoa compared with those fed other diets. Supplemented lambs had lower (P < 0.05) neutrophils, basophils and serum urea and greater (P < 0.05) serum IgA and IgG compared with the control lambs. The current results emphasised the variation in the efficacy of medicinal plants in ruminant nutrition.

  3. Aqueous extracts and polysaccharides from Marshmallow roots (Althea officinalis L.): cellular internalisation and stimulation of cell physiology of human epithelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Deters, Alexandra; Zippel, Janina; Hellenbrand, Nils; Pappai, Dirk; Possemeyer, Cathleen; Hensel, Andreas

    2010-01-08

    Aqueous extracts from the roots of Althea officinalis L. (Malvaceae) are widely used for treatment of irritated mucosa. The clinical proven effects are related to the presence of bioadhesive and mucilaginous polysaccharides from the rhamnogalacturonan type, leading to the physical formation of mucin-like on top of the irritated tissues. No data are available if the extracts or the polysaccharides from these extract exert an active influence on mucosal or connective tissue cells, in order to initiated changes in cell physiology, useful for better tissue regeneration. In vitro investigations of aqueous A. officinalis extract AE and raw polysaccharides (RPS) on epithelial KB cells and primary dermal human fibroblasts (pNHF) using WST1 vitality test and BrdU proliferation ELISA. Gene expression analysis by microarray from KB cells. Internalisation studies of polysaccharides were performed by laser scanning microscopy. AE (1, 10 microg/mL) had stimulating effect on cell viability and proliferation of epithelial KB cells. RPS (1, 10 microg/mL) stimulated cell vitality of epithelial cells significantly without triggering the cells into higher proliferation status. Neither AE nor RPS had any effect on fibroblasts. FITC-labeled RPS was shown to be internalised into epithelial cells, but not into fibroblasts. FITC-RPS was shown to form bioadhesive layers on the cell surface of dermal fibroblasts. Microarray analysis indicated an up-regulation of genes related to cell adhesion proteins, growth regulators, extracellular matrix, cytokine release and apoptosis. Aqueous extracts and polysaccharides from the roots of A. officinalis are effective stimulators of cell physiology of epithelial cells which can prove the traditional use of Marshmallow preparations for treatment of irritated mucous membranes within tissue regeneration. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Lipids as renewable resources: current state of chemical and biotechnological conversion and diversification.

    PubMed

    Metzger, J O; Bornscheuer, U

    2006-06-01

    Oils and fats are the most important renewable raw materials of the chemical industry. They make available fatty acids in such purity that they may be used for chemical conversions and for the synthesis of chemically pure compounds. Oleic acid (1) from "new sunflower," linoleic acid (2) from soybean, linolenic acid (3) from linseed, erucic acid (4) from rape seed, and ricinoleic acid (5) from castor oil are most important for chemical transformations offering in addition to the carboxy group one or more C-C-double bonds. New plant oils containing fatty acids with new and interesting functionalities such as petroselinic acid (6) from Coriandrum sativum, calendic acid (7) from Calendula officinalis, alpha-eleostearic acid (8) from tung oil, santalbic acid (9) from Santalum album (Linn.), and vernolic acid (10) from Vernonia galamensis are becoming industrially available. The basic oleochemicals are free fatty acids, methyl esters, fatty alcohols, and fatty amines as well as glycerol as a by-product. Their interesting new industrial applications are the usage as environmentally friendly industrial fluids and lubricants, insulating fluid for electric utilities such as transformers and additive to asphalt. Modern methods of synthetic organic chemistry including enzymatic and microbial transformations were applied extensively to fatty compounds for the selective functionalization of the alkyl chain. Syntheses of long-chain diacids, omega-hydroxy fatty acids, and omega-unsaturated fatty acids as base chemicals derived from vegetable oils were developed. Interesting applications were opened by the epoxidation of C-C-double bonds giving the possibility of photochemically initiated cationic curing and access to polyetherpolyols. Enantiomerically pure fatty acids as part of the chiral pool of nature can be used for the synthesis of nonracemic building blocks.

  5. Comparative analysis of bioactive phenolic compounds composition from 26 medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Sytar, Oksana; Hemmerich, Irene; Zivcak, Marek; Rauh, Cornelia; Brestic, Marian

    2018-05-01

    Bioactive phenolic compounds are powerful antioxidants in traditionally used medicinal and industrial crop plants and have attracted increased interest in the last years in their application and role in non-destructive methodology for pre-screening analysis of some stress factors. In this study the qualitative target was linked with future possible applications of received data for improving non-destructive methodology as well as for improving existing knowledge regarding antioxidant content in some plant species. Comparative analysis of total phenolics, flavonoid contents, phenolic acid composition, and antioxidant activity in known east central Europe medicinal and industrial crop plants of 26 species of families Asteraceae , Rosaceae and Lamiaceae was done. Among the investigated leaf extracts the highest total phenolic, total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity have been seen for Stachys byzantine L. ( Lamiaceae ), Calendula officinalis L. ( Asteraceae ) and for Potentilla recta L. ( Rosaceae ). The highest syringic acid content has been found in the leaf extracts of plant family Asteraceae - in the range from 0.782 to 5.078 mg g -1  DW. The representative's family Rosaceae has a higher content of p-anisic acid in the range 0.334-3.442 mg g -1 DW compared to the leaf extracts of families Lamiaceae and Asteraceae . The comparative study showed significant differences of content of phenolic acids in the leaf extracts of different representative's families Rosaceae , Asteraceae and Lamiaceae . We suggest that the presence of some phenolic acids can be used as a possible marker for family botanical specifications of representative families Asteraceae and Rosaceae . It was supposed that some pharmacological effects can be connected with the analyzed data.

  6. Greek PDO saffron authentication studies using species specific molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Bosmali, I; Ordoudi, S A; Tsimidou, M Z; Madesis, P

    2017-10-01

    Saffron, the spice produced from the red stigmas of the flower of Crocus sativus L. is a frequent target of fraud and mislabeling practices that cannot be fully traced using the ISO 3632 trade standard specifications and test methods. A molecular approach is proposed herein as a promising branding strategy for the authentication of highly esteemed saffron brands such as the Greek Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) "Krokos Kozanis". Specific ISSR (inter-simple sequence repeat) markers were used to assess for the first time, the within species variability of several populations of C. sativus L. from the cultivation area of "Krokos Kozanis" as well as the potential differences with the band pattern produced by other Crocus species. Then, species-specific markers were developed taking advantage of an advanced molecular technique such as the HRM analysis coupled with universal DNA barcoding regions (trnL) (Bar-HRM) and applied to saffron admixtures with some of the most common plant adulterants (Calendula officinalis, Carthamus tinctorius, Gardenia jasminoides, Zea mays and Curcuma longa). The sensitivity of the procedure was tested for turmeric as a case study whereas HPLC-fluorescence determination of secondary metabolites was also employed for comparison. The overall results indicated that the Bar-HRM approach is quite effective in terms of specificity and sensitivity. Its effectiveness regarding the detection of turmeric was comparable to that of a conventional HPLC method (0.5% vs 1.0%, w/w). Yet, the proposed DNA-based method is much faster, cost-effective and can be used even by non-geneticists, in any laboratory having access to an HRM-capable real-time PCR instrumentation. It can be, thus, regarded as a strong analytical tool in saffron authentication studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of Augmented Immune Surveillance and Tumor Cell Death by Cytoplasmic Stabilization of p53 as a Chemopreventive Strategy of 3 Promising Medicinal Herbs in Murine 2-Stage Skin Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ali, Farrah; Khan, Rehan; Khan, Abdul Quaiyoom; Lateef, Md Abdul; Maqbool, Tahir; Sultana, Sarwat

    2014-07-01

    Cancer is the final outcome of a plethora of events. Targeting the proliferation or inducing programmed cell death in a proliferating population is a major standpoint in the cancer therapy. However, proliferation is regulated by several cellular and immunologic processes. This study reports the inhibition of proliferation by augmenting immune surveillance, silencing acute inflammation, and inducing p53-mediated apoptosis of skin cancer by 3 promising medicinal extracts. We used the well-characterized model for experimental skin carcinogenesis in mice for 32 weeks to study the chemopreventive effect of the methanolic extracts of Trigonella foenumgraecum, Eclipta alba, and Calendula officinalis. All 3 extracts reduced the number, incidence, and multiplicity of tumors, which was confirmed by the pathologic studies that showed regressed tumors. There was a significant reduction in the PCNA+ nuclei in all treatment groups 32 weeks after the initiation. Mechanistic studies revealed that proliferative population in tumors is diminished by the restoration of the endogenous antioxidant defense, inhibition of the stress-related signal-transducing element NFκB, reduction of inflammation, enhancement of immunosurveillance of the genetically mutated cells, along with silencing of the cell cycle progression signals. Finally, all 3 medicinal extracts induced stable expression of p53 within the tumors, confirmed by the CFDA-Cy3 apoptosis assay. Results of our study confirm that these extracts not only limit the rate of proliferation by inhibition of the processes integral to cancer development but also induce stable cytoplasmic expression of p53-mediated apoptosis, leading to fewer and regressed tumors in mice. © The Author(s) 2013.

  8. Determination of trace and heavy metals in some commonly used medicinal herbs in Ayurveda.

    PubMed

    Nema, Neelesh K; Maity, Niladri; Sarkar, Birendra K; Mukherjee, Pulok K

    2014-11-01

    Traditionally, the herbal drugs are well established for their therapeutic benefits. Depending upon their geographical sources sometimes the trace and heavy metals' content may differ, which may lead to severe toxicity. So, the toxicological and safety assessment of these herbal drugs are one of the major issues in recent days. Eight different plant species including Aloe vera, Centella asiatica, Calendula officinalis, Cucumis sativus, Camellia sinensis, Clitoria ternatea, Piper betel and Tagetes erecta were selected to determine their heavy and trace metals content and thereby to assure their safer therapeutic application. The trace and heavy metals were detected through atomic absorption spectrometry analysis. The selected medicinal plant materials were collected from the local cultivated regions of West Bengal, India, and were digested with nitric acid and hydrochloric acid as specified. Absorbance was measured through atomic absorption spectrometer (AA 303) and the concentration of different trace and heavy metals in the plant samples were calculated. The quantitative determinations were carried out using standard calibration curve obtained by the standard solutions of different metals. The contents of heavy metals were found to be within the prescribed limit. Other trace metals were found to be present in significant amount. Thus, on the basis of experimental outcome, it can be concluded that the plant materials collected from the specific region are safe and may not produce any harmful effect of metal toxicity during their therapeutic application. The investigated medicinal plants contain trace metals such as copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe) and nickel (Ni) as well as heavy metals such as arsenic (As), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg), which were present within the permissible limit. © The Author(s) 2012.

  9. Cytotoxicity and gene induction by some essential oils in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Bakkali, F; Averbeck, S; Averbeck, D; Zhiri, A; Idaomar, M

    2005-08-01

    In order to get an insight into the possible genotoxicity of essential oils (EOs) used in traditional pharmacological applications we tested five different oils extracted from the medicinal plants Origanum compactum, Coriandrum sativum, Artemisia herba alba, Cinnamomum camphora (Ravintsara aromatica) and Helichrysum italicum (Calendula officinalis) for genotoxic effects using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Clear cytotoxic effects were observed in the diploid yeast strain D7, with the cells being more sensitive to EOs in exponential than in stationary growth phase. The cytotoxicity decreased in the following order: Origanum compactum>Coriandrum sativum>Artemisia herba alba>Cinnamomum camphora>Helichrysum italicum. In the same order, all EOs, except that derived from Helichrysum italicum, clearly induced cytoplasmic petite mutations indicating damage to mitochondrial DNA. However, no nuclear genetic events such as point mutations or mitotic intragenic or intergenic recombination were induced. The capacity of EOs to induce nuclear DNA damage-responsive genes was tested using suitable Lac-Z fusion strains for RNR3 and RAD51, which are genes involved in DNA metabolism and DNA repair, respectively. At equitoxic doses, all EOs demonstrated significant gene induction, approximately the same as that caused by hydrogen peroxide, but much lower than that caused by methyl methanesulfonate (MMS). EOs affect mitochondrial structure and function and can stimulate the transcriptional expression of DNA damage-responsive genes. The induction of mitochondrial damage by EOs appears to be closely linked to overall cellular cytotoxicity and appears to mask the occurrence of nuclear genetic events. EO-induced cytotoxicity involves oxidative stress, as is evident from the protection observed in the presence of ROS inhibitors such as glutathione, catalase or the iron-chelating agent deferoxamine.

  10. Monomer functionalized silica coated with Ag nanoparticles for enhanced SERS hotspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newmai, M. Boazbou; Verma, Manoj; Kumar, P. Senthil

    2018-05-01

    Mesoporous silica (SiO2) spheres are well-known for their excellent chromatographic properties such as the relatively high specific surface, large pore volume, uniform particle size, narrow pore size distribution with favorable pore connectivity; whereas the noble