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Sample records for calendula officinalis extract

  1. Final report on the safety assessment of Calendula officinalis extract and Calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    2001-01-01

    Calendula Officinalis Extract is an extract of the flowers of Calendula officinalis, the common marigold, whereas Calendula Officinalis is described as plant material derived from the flowers of C. officinalis. Techniques for preparing Calendula Officinalis Extract include gentle disintegration in soybean oil. Propylene glycol and butylene glycol extractions were also reported. Components of these ingredients are variously reported to include sugars, carotenoids, phenolic acids, sterols, saponins, flavonoids, resins, sterins, quinones, mucilages, vitamins, polyprenylquinones, and essential oils. Calendula Officinalis Extract is reported to be used in almost 200 cosmetic formulations, over a wide range of product categories. There are no reported uses of Calendula Officinalis. Acute toxicity studies in rats and mice indicate that the extract is relatively nontoxic. Animal tests showed at most minimal skin irritation, and no sensitization or phototoxicity. Minimal ocular irritation was seen with one formulation and no irritation with others. Six saponins isolated from C. officinalis flowers were not mutagenic in an Ames test, and a tea derived from C. officinalis was not genotoxic in Drosophila melanogaster. No carcinogenicity or reproductive and developmental toxicity data were available. Clinical testing of cosmetic formulations containing the extract elicited little irritation or sensitization. Absent any basis for concluding that data on one member of a botanical ingredient group can be extrapolated to another in a group, or to the same ingredient extracted differently, these data were not considered sufficient to assess the safety of these ingredients. Additional data needs include current concentration of use data; function in cosmetics; ultraviolet (UV) absorption data; if absorption occurs in the UVA or UVB range, photosensitization data are needed; gross pathology and histopathology in skin and other major organ systems associated with repeated dermal

  2. Solid lipid nanoparticles for delivery of Calendula officinalis extract.

    PubMed

    Arana, Lide; Salado, Clarisa; Vega, Sandra; Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; de la Arada, Igor; Suarez, Tatiana; Usobiaga, Aresatz; Arrondo, José Luis R; Alonso, Alicia; Goñi, Félix M; Alkorta, Itziar

    2015-11-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) composed of long-chain fatty acids (palmitic acid, stearic acid or arachidic acid), Epikuron 200 (purified phosphatidylcholine), and bile salts (cholate, taurocholate or taurodeoxycholate) have been prepared by dilution of a microemulsion. A total of five different systems were prepared, and characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and infrared spectroscopy. The SLN formulation showing optimal properties (lowest size and polydispersity index and highest zeta potential) was obtained with stearic acid and taurodeoxycholate as cosurfactant. This formulation was loaded with Calendula officinalis extract, a natural compound used on ophthalmic formulations given its anti-inflammatory, emollient, and wound repairing activity. Calendula-loaded SLN preparations were characterized in order to determine loading capacity and entrapment efficiency. In vitro cytotoxicity and wound healing efficacy of Calendula-loaded SLN compared to that of a free plant extract were evaluated on a conjunctival epithelium cell line WKD. Our results suggest that this SLN formulation is a safe and solvent-free Calendula extract delivery system which could provide a controlled therapeutic alternative for reducing disease-related symptoms and improving epithelium repair in ocular surface. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Therapeutic effectiveness of a Calendula officinalis extract in venous leg ulcer healing.

    PubMed

    Buzzi, M; de Freitas, F; de Barros Winter, M

    2016-12-02

    Non-healing venous leg ulcers (VLUs) have a significant effect on patients' quality of life and substantially increase expenditures in health-care systems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the Calendula officinalis extract, Plenusdermax, in the treatment of VLUs. Patients treated with Calendula officinalis extract (n=38) and control patients (n=19) were evaluated every two weeks for 30 weeks or until their ulcers healed. Assessments included determination of the wound area by planimetry, infection control, and evaluation of the clinical aspects of the wounds. The percentage of healing velocity per week (%HVw), taking the initial area at baseline into account, was also determined. The proportion of the treatment patients achieving complete epithelialisation was 72 % and 32 % in the treatment and control groups, respectively. The average healing time was approximately 12 weeks in the treatment group and 25 % in control patients. Patients with ulcers treated with Calendula officinalis extract had a significant 4-fold increase in percentage healing velocity per week, 7.4 %, compared with 1.7 % in the control group. No adverse events were observed during the Calendula officinalis extract treatment. Our findings indicate that Calendula officinalis extract is an effective treatment for VLUs. The authors have no conflict of interest.

  4. [Action of Calendula officinalis essence on bone preservation after the extraction].

    PubMed

    Uribe-Fentanes, Laura K; Soriano-Padilla, Fernando; Pérez-Frutos, Jorge Raúl; Veras-Hernández, Miriam Alejandra

    2018-01-01

    Calendula officinalis is a phytodrug used as analgesic, antiseptic and wound-healing agent due to its collagenogenic effect, which is why it is a convenient and affordable treatment that promotes alveolar bone preservation after tooth extraction in vivo. The aim of this study was to use Calendula officinalis during and after tooth extraction to determine its ability to preserve bone after this procedure. We established two groups matched by age, gender and position of the third molar. We used with patients on the experimental group Calendula officinalis diluted 10% as an irrigant during surgical extraction of third molars. We performed the conventional way with the control group irrigating with saline solution. Subsequently, both groups continued to make mouthwash for a week with the irrigating agent. Every week for a month, each patient underwent periapical radiography, out of which we took measurements of alveolar ridges and depth of alveolar bone, which were compared. There is statistically significant evidence to state that Calendula officinalis favorably affects bone preservation after extraction.

  5. Biological Activities of Asteraceae (Achillea millefolium and Calendula officinalis) and Lamiaceae (Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana) Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    García-Risco, Mónica R; Mouhid, Lamia; Salas-Pérez, Lilia; López-Padilla, Alexis; Santoyo, Susana; Jaime, Laura; Ramírez de Molina, Ana; Reglero, Guillermo; Fornari, Tiziana

    2017-03-01

    Asteraceae (Achillea millefolium and Calendula officinalis) and Lamiaceae (Melissa officinalis and Origanum majorana) extracts were obtained by applying two sequential extraction processes: supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide, followed by ultrasonic assisted extraction using green solvents (ethanol and ethanol:water 50:50). The extracts were analyzed in terms of the total content of phenolic compounds and the content of flavonoids; the volatile oil composition of supercritical extracts was analyzed by gas chromatography and the antioxidant capacity and cell toxicity was determined. Lamiaceae plant extracts presented higher content of phenolics (and flavonoids) than Asteraceae extracts. Regardless of the species studied, the supercritical extracts presented the lowest antioxidant activity and the ethanol:water extracts offered the largest, following the order Origanum majorana > Melissa officinalis ≈ Achillea millefolium > Calendula officinalis. However, concerning the effect on cell toxicity, Asteraceae (especially Achillea millefolium) supercritical extracts were significantly more efficient despite being the less active as an antioxidant agent. These results indicate that the effect on cell viability is not related to the antioxidant activity of the extracts.

  6. In vitro studies to evaluate the wound healing properties of Calendula officinalis extracts.

    PubMed

    Nicolaus, Christoph; Junghanns, Susanne; Hartmann, Anja; Murillo, Renato; Ganzera, Markus; Merfort, Irmgard

    2017-01-20

    Calendula officinalis (pot marigold) flower extracts have a long-lasting tradition in ethnopharmacology. Currently, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) has approved its lipophilic and aqueous alcoholic extracts as traditional medicinal products for the treatment of minor inflammation of the skin and as an aid in the healing of minor wounds. The purpose of this study was to analyse the molecular mechanism of the wound healing effects of Calendula extracts, which may reflect the phytomedicines currently used in the market. The effect of three different extracts from Calendula flowers (n-hexanic, ethanolic, aqueous) on the inflammatory phase of wound healing was studied in human immortalized keratinocytes and human dermal fibroblasts. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay on NF-κB-DNA binding, qRT-PCR and ELISA experiments were performed. The effect of Calendula extracts on the new tissue formation phase of wound healing was evaluated by studying the migratory properties of these extracts, triterpene mixtures and single compounds in human immortalized keratinocytes using the scratch assay. Finally, the effect of the extracts on the formation of granulation tissue in wound healing was studied using bacterial collagenase isolated from Clostridium histolyticum and the determination of soluble collagen in the supernatant of human dermal fibroblasts. The n-hexanic and the ethanolic extracts from Calendula flowers influence the inflammatory phase by activating the transcription factor NF-κB and by increasing the amount of the chemokine IL-8, both at the transcriptional and protein level, in human immortalized keratinocytes. The migration of the keratinocytes during the new tissue formation phase was only marginally influenced in the scratch assay. However, it can be assumed that the granulation tissue was affected, as the ethanolic extract inhibited the activity of collagenase in vitro and enhanced the amount of collagen in the supernatant of human dermal fibroblasts

  7. In vitro anti-leishmanial activity of methanolic extracts of Calendula officinalis flowers, Datura stramonium seeds, and Salvia officinalis leaves.

    PubMed

    Nikmehr, Banafsheh; Ghaznavi, Habib; Rahbar, Amir; Sadr, Samira; Mehrzadi, Saeed

    2014-06-01

    The anti-leishmanial activity of methanolic extracts of Calendula officinalis flowers, Datura stramonium seeds, and Salvia officinalis leaves against extracellular (promastigote) and intracellular (amastigote) forms of Leishmania major were evaluated in this study. In the first stage, promastigote forms of L. major, were treated with different doses of the plant extracts in a 96-well tissue-culture microplate and IC50 values for each extract were measured with colorimetric MTT assay. In the second stage, macrophage cells were infected with L. major promastigotes. Infected macrophages were treated with plant extracts. Then the macrophages were stained with Gimsa and the number of infected macrophages and amastigotes were counted with a light microscope. The results indicated that the plant extracts inhibited the growth of promastigotes and amastigotes of L. major. Inhibitory concentrations (IC50) for promastigote assay were 108.19, 155.15, and 184.32 μgmL(-1) for C. officinalis flowers, D. stramonium seeds and S. officinalis, respectively. The extracts also reduced the number of amastigotes in macrophage cells from 264 for control group to 88, 97, and 102 for test groups. Although the anti-leishmanial activity of the extracts were not comparable with the standard drug, miltefosine; but they showed significant efficiency in reducing the number of amastigotes in macrophages, in comparison with the control group (P < 0.001). These plant extracts had lower toxicity compared with miltefosine. This study demonstrates the potential efficacy of the methanolic extracts of C. officinalis flowers, D. stramonium seeds, and S. officinalis leaves to control of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2014 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sequential injection analysis with chemiluminescence detection for rapid monitoring of commercial Calendula officinalis extractions.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Rachel R; Scown, David; Lenehan, Claire E

    2015-01-01

    Plant extracts containing high levels of antioxidants are desirable due to their reported health benefits. Most techniques capable of determining the antioxidant activity of plant extracts are unsuitable for rapid at-line analysis as they require extensive sample preparation and/or long analysis times. Therefore, analytical techniques capable of real-time or pseudo real-time at-line monitoring of plant extractions, and determination of extraction endpoints, would be useful to manufacturers of antioxidant-rich plant extracts. To develop a reliable method for the rapid at-line extraction monitoring of antioxidants in plant extracts. Calendula officinalis extracts were prepared from dried flowers and analysed for antioxidant activity using sequential injection analysis (SIA) with chemiluminescence (CL) detection. The intensity of CL emission from the reaction of acidic potassium permanganate with antioxidants within the extract was used as the analytical signal. The SIA-CL method was applied to monitor the extraction of C. officinalis over the course of a batch extraction to determine the extraction endpoint. Results were compared with those from ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC). Pseudo real-time, at-line monitoring showed the level of antioxidants in a batch extract of Calendula officinalis plateaued after 100 min of extraction. These results correlated well with those of an offline UHPLC study. SIA-CL was found to be a suitable method for pseudo real-time monitoring of plant extractions and determination of extraction endpoints with respect to antioxidant concentrations. The method was applied at-line in the manufacturing industry. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Production of Sterilizing Agents from Calendula officinalis Extracts Optimized by Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Goktas, Fatih Mehmet; Sahin, Bilgesu; Yigitarslan, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to produce hand sterilizing liquid and wet wipes with the extracts of Calendula officinalis. Since this plant has well known antimicrobial activity due to its phytochemical constituents, the increase in the extraction yield was chosen as the principle part of the production process. To achieve the maximum yield, parameters of solid-to-liquid ratio, extraction temperature, and time were studied. The optimum conditions were determined by response surface methodology as 41°C, 7 h, and 3.3 g/200 mL for temperature, time, and solid-to-liquid ratio, respectively. The yield achieved at those conditions was found to be 90 percent. The highest amounts of flavonoids were detected at optimum, whereas the highest triterpene and saponin constituents were determined at different design points. The microbial efficiencies of extracts were determined by the inhibition of the growth of selected microorganisms. Different dilution rates and interaction times were used as parameters of inhibition. Not any of the constituent but symbiotic relation in-between reached the highest inhibition of 90 percent. The pH values of the extracts were 5.1 to 5.4. As a result, the extraction of Calendula officinalis at the optimum conditions can be used effectively in the production of wet wipes and hand sterilizing liquid. PMID:26064122

  10. Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for the selective extraction of quercetagetin from Calendula officinalis extract.

    PubMed

    Ma, Run-Tian; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2015-03-01

    A new magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) for quercetagetin was prepared by surface molecular imprinting method using super paramagnetic core-shell nanoparticle as the supporter. Acrylamide as the functional monomer, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate as the crosslinker and acetonitrile as the porogen were applied in the preparation process. Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were applied to characterize the MMIPs, and High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was utilized to analyze the target analytes. The selectivity of quercetagetin MMIPs was evaluated according to their recognition to template and its analogues. Excellent binding for quercetagetin was observed in MMIPs adsorption experiment, and the adsorption isotherm models analysis showed that the homogeneous binding sites were distributed on the surface of the MMIPs. The MMIPs were employed as adsorbents in solid phase extraction for the determination of quercetagetin in Calendula officinalis extracts. Furthermore, this method is fast, simple and could fulfill the determination and extraction of quercetagetin from herbal extract. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Anti-inflammatory activity of flower extract of Calendula officinalis Linn. and its possible mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Preethi, Korengath Chandran; Kuttan, Girija; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2009-02-01

    Calendula officinalis flower extract possessed significant anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan and dextran-induced acute paw edema. Oral administration of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight Calendula extract produced significant inhibition (50.6 and 65.9% respectively) in paw edema of animals induced by carrageenan and 41.9 and 42.4% respectively with inflammation produced by dextran. In chronic anti-inflammatory model using formalin, administration of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight Calendula extract produced an inhibition of 32.9 and 62.3% respectively compared to controls. TNF-alpha production by macrophage culture treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was found to be significantly inhibited by Calendula extract. Moreover, increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines IL- 1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma and acute phase protein, C- reactive protein (CRP) in mice produced by LPS injection were inhibited significantly by the extract. LPS induced cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) levels in mice spleen were also found to be inhibited by extract treatment. The results showed that potent anti-inflammatory response of C. officinalis extract may be mediated by the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines and Cox-2 and subsequent prostaglandin synthesis.

  12. Potential of extracts from Saponaria officinalis and Calendula officinalis to modulate in vitro rumen fermentation with respect to their content in saponins.

    PubMed

    Budan, Alexandre; Bellenot, Denis; Freuze, Ingrid; Gillmann, Louisa; Chicoteau, Pierre; Richomme, Pascal; Guilet, David

    2014-01-01

    Saponins have the potential to favorably modulate rumen fermentation, but there is generally a lack of the chemical structures associated with the described effects. The activity of extracts from Calendula officinalis and Saponaria officinalis in the rumen was evaluated in vitro. The S. officinalis root extract, reduced CH₄ production by 8.5% and increased total VFA concentration by 25.2%. C. officinalis and S. officinalis root extracts and the S. officinalis aerial part extract decreased the acetate to propionate ratio from 8.6 to 17.4%, according to the extract. An HPLC-ELSD analysis indicated that the saponin content ranged from 43.6 to 57.6 mg/g of dry matter (DM) in the C. officinalis extracts and from 224.0 to 693.8 mg/g of DM in the S. officinalis extracts, expressed as the hederacoside C equivalent. Identification of the saponin compounds present in the extracts by HPLC-MS(n) suggested that the saponin profile modulated the biological activities, showing the importance of determining the structure of saponins when evaluating extracts.

  13. Extracts from Calendula officinalis offer in vitro protection against H2 O2 induced oxidative stress cell killing of human skin cells.

    PubMed

    Alnuqaydan, Abdullah M; Lenehan, Claire E; Hughes, Rachel R; Sanderson, Barbara J

    2015-01-01

    The in vitro safety and antioxidant potential of Calendula officinalis flower head extracts was investigated. The effect of different concentrations (0.125, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 5.0% (v/v)) of Calendula extracts on human skin cells HaCaT in vitro was explored. Doses of 1.0% (v/v) (0.88 mg dry weight/mL) or less showed no toxicity. Cells were also exposed to the Calendula extracts for either 4, 24 or 48 h before being exposed to an oxidative insult (hydrogen peroxide H2 O2 ) for 1 h. Using the MTT cytotoxicity assay, it was observed that two independent extracts of C. officinalis gave time-dependent and concentration-dependent H2 O2 protection against induced oxidative stress in vitro using human skin cells. Pre-incubation with the Calendula extracts for 24 and 48 h increased survival relative to the population without extract by 20% and 40% respectively following oxidative challenge. The antioxidant potential of the Calendula extracts was confirmed using a complimentary chemical technique, the DPPH(●) assay. Calendula extracts exhibited free radical scavenging abilities. This study demonstrates that Calendula flower extracts contain bioactive and free radical scavenging compounds that significantly protect against oxidative stress in a human skin cell culture model. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Application of the threshold of toxicological concern approach for the safety evaluation of calendula flower (Calendula officinalis) petals and extracts used in cosmetic and personal care products.

    PubMed

    Re, T A; Mooney, D; Antignac, E; Dufour, E; Bark, I; Srinivasan, V; Nohynek, G

    2009-06-01

    Calendula flower (Calendula officinalis) (CF) has been used in herbal medicine because of its anti-inflammatory activity. CF and C. officinalis extracts (CFE) are used as skin conditioning agents in cosmetics. Although data on dermal irritation and sensitization of CF and CFE's are available, the risk of subchronic systemic toxicity following dermal application has not been evaluated. The threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) is a pragmatic, risk assessment based approach that has gained regulatory acceptance for food and has been recently adapted to address cosmetic ingredient safety. The purpose of this paper is to determine if the safe use of CF and CFE can be established based upon the TTC class for each of its known constituents. For each constituent, the concentration in the plant, the molecular weight, and the estimated skin penetration potential were used to calculate a maximal daily systemic exposure which was then compared to its corresponding TTC class value. Since the composition of plant extracts are variable, back calculation was used to determine the maximum acceptable concentration of a given constituent in an extract of CF. This paper demonstrates the utility and practical application of the TTC concept when used as a tool in the safety evaluation of botanical extracts.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of Calendula officinalis petal extracts against fungi, as well as Gram-negative and Gram-positive clinical pathogens.

    PubMed

    Efstratiou, Efstratios; Hussain, Abdullah I; Nigam, Poonam S; Moore, John E; Ayub, Muhammad A; Rao, Juluri R

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the antimicrobial activity of methanol and ethanol extracts of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis) petals against clinical pathogens. The antimicrobial potential of C. officinalis extracts was evaluated against a panel of microorganisms isolated from patients at the Belfast City Hospital (BCH), including bacteria and fungi, using disc diffusion assay. Methanol extract of C. officinalis exhibited better antibacterial activity against most of the bacteria tested, than ethanol extract. Both methanol and ethanol extracts showed excellent antifungal activity against tested strains of fungi, while comparing with Fluconazole. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [HPLC fingerprint of Calendula officinalis flower].

    PubMed

    Xing, Zhan-Fen; Cheng, Hong-Da; Zhang, Ping-Ping; Gong, Lei; Ma, Li-Ya

    2014-07-01

    To establish an HPLC fingerprint of Calendula officinalis flower for its quality control. Hypersil ODS C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 μm) was used with acetonitrile and water as mobile phase in a gradient mode at the flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The detection wavelength was 220 nm and the temperature of column was set at 35 degrees C. The similarity was analyzed with the Estimating System of Similarity on the Chinese Medicine Fingerprint Chromatogram. The HPLC fingerprint of Calendula officinalis flower containing eleven peaks was set up. The similarity of Calendula officinalis flower from different habitats was greater than 0.90. This method is easy and reliable, which can be used to judge the habitat and control the quality of Calendula officinalis flower.

  17. Subacute effect of cigarette smoke exposure in rats: protection by pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) extract.

    PubMed

    Ozkol, Halil; Tülüce, Yasin; Koyuncu, Ismail

    2012-02-01

    This study was carried out to determine the preventive effect of Calendula officinalis L. (pot marigold) on rats exposed to cigarette smoke (CS). Rats were divided into three groups as control, CS and CS + pot marigold (PM). The rats in the CS and CS + PM groups were subjected to CS for 1 h twice a day for 23 days. PM (100 mg/kg body weight) was given to rats in the CS + PM group by gavage, 1 h before each administration period. While malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl contents and reduced glutathione level of the CS group increased, their levels diminished by PM administration. In addition, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase activities and β-carotene, vitamins A and C levels decreased in the CS group compared to control, however activities of these enzymes and concentration of vitamins were elevated by PM supplementation. This investigation showed that administration of PM supplied relative protection against subacute CS-induced cell injury.

  18. In vitro acaricidal activity of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Godara, R; Katoch, R; Yadav, A; Ahanger, R R; Bhutyal, A D S; Verma, P K; Katoch, M; Dutta, S; Nisa, F; Singh, N K

    2015-09-01

    Detection of resistance levels against deltamethrin and cypermethrin in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus collected from Jammu (India) was carried out using larval packet test (LPT). The results showed the presence of resistance level II and I against deltamethrin and cypermethrin, respectively. Adult immersion test (AIT) and LPT were used to evaluate the in vitro efficacy of ethanolic and aqueous floral extracts of Calendula officinalis against synthetic pyrethroid resistant adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus. Four concentrations (1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 %) of each extract with four replications for each concentration were used in both the bioassays. A concentration dependent mortality was observed and it was more marked with ethanolic extract. In AIT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were calculated as 9.9 and 12.9 %, respectively. The egg weight of the live ticks treated with different concentrations of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts was significantly lower than that of control ticks; consequently, the reproductive index and the percent inhibition of oviposition values of the treated ticks were reduced. The complete inhibition of hatching was recorded at 10 % of ethanolic extract. The 10 % extracts caused 100 % mortality of larvae after 24 h. In LPT, the LC50 values for ethanolic and aqueous extracts were determined to be 2.6 and 3.2 %, respectively. It can be concluded that the ethanolic extract of C. officinalis had better acaricidal properties against adults and larvae of R. (B.) microplus than the aqueous extract.

  19. Seed germination of Calendula officinalis 'Carola' in response to temperature

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Calendula (Calendula officinalis 'Carola') is a potential agronomic oilseed crop with application in the paint, coating, and cosmetic industry. Calendula has historically been used for herbal medicinal purposes and an ornamental plant. With the discovery that calendula seeds contain high concentrati...

  20. Effect of Calendula officinalis Flower Extract on Acute Phase Proteins, Antioxidant Defense Mechanism and Granuloma Formation During Thermal Burns

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Preethi K.; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2008-01-01

    Effect of Calendula officinalis flower extract was investigated against experimentally induced thermal burns in rats. Burn injury was made on the shaven back of the rats under anesthesia and the animals were treated orally with different doses of the flower extract (20 mg, 100 mg and 200 mg/kg body weight). The animals treated with the extract showed significant improvement in healing when compared with the control untreated animals. The indicators of the wound healing such as collagen-hydroxyproline and hexosamine contents were significantly increased in the treated group indicating accelerated wound healing in the treated animals. The acute phase proteins—haptoglobin and orosomucoid which were increased due to burn injury were found to be decreased significantly in 200 mg/kg body weight extract treated animals. The antioxidant defense mechanism, which was decreased in the liver during burn injury, was found to be enhanced in treated animals. The lipid peroxidation was significantly lowered in the treated group when compared to control animals. Tissue damage marker enzymes- alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate transaminases were significantly lowered in the treated groups in a dose dependant manner. The histopathological analyses of skin tissue also give the evidence of the increased healing potential of the extract after burn injury. PMID:18818737

  1. The comparison of in vivo antigenotoxic and antioxidative capacity of two propylene glycol extracts of Calendula officinalis (marigold) and vitamin E in young growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Frankic, T; Salobir, K; Salobir, J

    2009-12-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the protective effect of Calendula officinalis propylene glycol extracts against oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation induced by high polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake in young growing pigs. Forty young growing pigs were assigned to five treatment groups: control; oil (linseed oil supplementation); C. officinalis 1 and 2 groups (linseed oil plus 3 ml/day of C. officinalis propylene glycol extracts); and vitamin E group (linseed oil plus 100 mg/kg of vitamin E). Lymphocyte DNA fragmentation and 24-h urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) excretion were measured to determine DNA damage. Lipid peroxidation was studied by analysing plasma and urine malondialdehyde (MDA), and urine isoprostane concentrations (iPF2α-VI), total antioxidant status of plasma and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) assays. C. officinalis 1 (extract from petals) effectively protected DNA from oxidative damage. It indicated a numerical trend towards the reduction of plasma MDA and urinary iPF2α-VI excretion. Its effect was comparable with that of vitamin E. C. officinalis 2 (extract from flower tops) showed less antioxidant potential than the extract from petals. We can conclude that the amount of C. officinalis extracts proposed for internal use by traditional medicine protects the organism against DNA damage induced by high PUFA intake.

  2. Effect of Calendula officinalis hydroalcoholic extract on passive avoidance learning and memory in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Moradkhani, Shirin; Salehi, Iraj; Abdolmaleki, Somayeh; Komaki, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Medicinal plants, owing to their different mechanisms such as antioxidants effects, may improve learning and memory impairments in diabetic rats. Calendula officinalis (CO), has a significant antioxidant activity. Aims: To examine the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of CO on passive avoidance learning (PAL) and memory in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male rats. Settings and Design: A total of 32 adult male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to four groups: Control, diabetic, control + extract of CO and diabetic control + extract of CO groups with free access to regular rat diet. Subjects and Methods: Diabetes in diabetic rats was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg STZ. After confirmation of diabetes, oral administration of 300 mg/kg CO extract to extract-treated groups have been done. PAL was tested 8 weeks after onset of treatment, and blood glucose and body weight were measured in all groups at the beginning and end of the experiment. Statistical Analysis Used: The statistical analysis of data was performed by ANOVA followed by least significant difference post-hoc analysis. Results: Diabetes decreased learning and memory. Effect of CO extract in retention test (after 24 and 48 h) has been shown a significant decrease in step-through latency and increase in time spent in the dark compartment part. Also the extract partially improved hyperglycemia and reduced body weight. Conclusion: Taken together, CO extract can improve PAL and memory impairments in STZ-diabetic rats. This improvement may be due to its antioxidant, anticholinergic activities or its power to reduce hyperglycemia. PMID:26120230

  3. Optimization of chemometric approaches for the extraction of isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside from Calendula officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Maria Lourdes Leite; da Silva, Heron Dominguez Torres; Blanes, Lucas; Doble, Philip; Tavares, Marina Franco Maggi

    2016-06-05

    The application of Design of Experiments (DoE) to the determination of optimum conditions for an extraction process relies on the correct selection of mathematical models. The linear model is the one typically used; however, in some cases it does not always have superior performance, ignoring the real nature of the data and its appropriate descriptive model. In order to evaluate the extraction efficiency of isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside from flowers of Calendula officinalis L. a multivariate factorial analysis was used. Simulations were conducted using linear, quadratic, full cubic and special cubic models. A Simplex-Centroid design was chosen as it delivered greater precision with only minor errors versus other models tested. Analyses were performed by capillary zone electrophoresis using sodium tetraborate buffer (40mmolL(-1), pH 9.4) containing 10% methanol. The detection was linear over a range of 8.0-50.0mgL(-1) (r(2)=0.996), and the limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) for isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside were 3.44mgL(-1) and 11.47mgL(-1), respectively. The full cubic model showed the best extraction results, with an error of 3.40% compared to analysis of variance, and a determination coefficient of 0.974. The difference between the responses at the reference point, calculated by the model, and the experimental response, varies around 2.72% for full cubic model. Comparison of the four models showed the full cubic model was the most appropriate one, allowing greater efficiency in the extraction of isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside. Selection of the model made it possible to obtain a 60% increase in sensitivity compared to the linear model. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis and chlorhexidine against the adherence of microorganisms to sutures after extraction of unerupted third molars.

    PubMed

    Faria, Raquel Lourdes; Cardoso, Lincoln Marcelo Lourenço; Akisue, Gokithi; Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; Santos Júnior, Paulo Villela

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial effect of mouthwashes containing Calendula officinalis L., Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate on the adherence of microorganisms to suture materials after extraction of unerupted third molars. Eighteen patients with unerupted maxillary third molars indicated for extraction were selected (n=6 per mouthwash). First, the patients were subjected to extraction of the left tooth and instructed not to use any type of antiseptic solution at the site of surgery (control group). After 15 days, the right tooth was extracted and the patients were instructed to use the Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis or chlorhexidine mouthwash during 1 week (experimental group). For each surgery, the sutures were removed on postoperative day 7 and placed in sterile phosphate-buffered saline. Next, serial dilutions were prepared and seeded onto different culture media for the growth of the following microorganisms: blood agar for total microorganism growth; Mitis Salivarius bacitracin sucrose agar for mutans group streptococci; mannitol agar for Staphylococcus spp.; MacConkey agar for enterobacteria and Pseudomonas spp., and Sabouraud dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol for Candida spp. The plates were incubated during 24-48 h at 37ºC for microorganism count (CFU/mL). The three mouthwashes tested reduced the number of microorganisms adhered to the sutures compared to the control group. However, significant differences between the control and experimental groups were only observed for the mouthwash containing 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate. Calendula officinalis L. and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze presented antimicrobial activity against the adherence of microorganisms to sutures but were not as efficient as chlorhexidine digluconate.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis and chlorhexidine against the adherence of microorganisms to sutures after extraction of unerupted third molars

    PubMed Central

    FARIA, Raquel Lourdes; CARDOSO, Lincoln Marcelo Lourenço; AKISUE, Gokithi; PEREIRA, Cristiane Aparecida; JUNQUEIRA, Juliana Campos; JORGE, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; SANTOS JÚNIOR, Paulo Villela

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to compare the antimicrobial effect of mouthwashes containing Calendula officinalis L., Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze and 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate on the adherence of microorganisms to suture materials after extraction of unerupted third molars. Material and Methods Eighteen patients with unerupted maxillary third molars indicated for extraction were selected (n=6 per mouthwash). First, the patients were subjected to extraction of the left tooth and instructed not to use any type of antiseptic solution at the site of surgery (control group). After 15 days, the right tooth was extracted and the patients were instructed to use the Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis or chlorhexidine mouthwash during 1 week (experimental group). For each surgery, the sutures were removed on postoperative day 7 and placed in sterile phosphate-buffered saline. Next, serial dilutions were prepared and seeded onto different culture media for the growth of the following microorganisms: blood agar for total microorganism growth; Mitis Salivarius bacitracin sucrose agar for mutans group streptococci; mannitol agar for Staphylococcus spp.; MacConkey agar for enterobacteria and Pseudomonas spp., and Sabouraud dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol for Candida spp. The plates were incubated during 24-48 h at 37ºC for microorganism count (CFU/mL). Results The three mouthwashes tested reduced the number of microorganisms adhered to the sutures compared to the control group. However, significant differences between the control and experimental groups were only observed for the mouthwash containing 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate. Conclusions Calendula officinalis L. and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze presented antimicrobial activity against the adherence of microorganisms to sutures but were not as efficient as chlorhexidine digluconate. PMID:21986652

  6. Results of the clinical examination of an ointment with marigold (Calendula officinalis) extract in the treatment of venous leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Duran, V; Matic, M; Jovanovć, M; Mimica, N; Gajinov, Z; Poljacki, M; Boza, P

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the therapeutic efficacy of marigold (Calendula officinalis) extract on the epithelialization of lower leg venous ulcers. The experiment was carried out in 34 patients with venous leg ulcers. The patients were divided into two groups. In the first (experimental) group, patients were treated with an ointment containing marigold extract, which was prepared in an apparatus devised by Soxleth and was incorporated into a neutral base. Twenty-one patients with 33 venous ulcers were treated. Therapy was applied twice a day for 3 weeks. The second group was a control group that consisted of 13 patients with 22 venous ulcers. In the control group, saline solution dressings were applied to ulcers for 3 weeks. In the experimental group the total surface of all the ulcers at the beginning of the therapy was 67,544 mm2. After the third week the total surface of all the ulcers was 39,373 mm2 (a decrease of 41.71%). In seven patients, complete epithelialization was achieved. In the control group the total surface of all the ulcers at the beginning of the therapy was 69,722 mm2. After the third week the total surface of all the ulcers was 58,743 mm2 (a decrease of 14.52%). In four patients, complete epithelialization was achieved. There was a statistically significant acceleration of wound healing in the experimental group (p < 0.05). The results obtained are preliminary, but they suggest the positive effects of the ointment with marigold extract on venous ulcer epithelialization.

  7. Antioxidant capacity of calendula officinalis flowers extract and prevention of radiation induced oropharyngeal mucositis in patients with head and neck cancers: a randomized controlled clinical study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of Calendula officinalis flowers extract mouthwash as oral gel on radiation-induced oropharyngeal mucositis (OM) in patients with head-and-neck cancer. Forty patients with neck and head cancers under radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy protocols were randomly assigned to receive either 2% calendula extract mouthwash or placebo (20 patients in each group). Patients were treated with telecobalt radiotherapy at conventional fractionation (200 cGy/fraction, five fractions weekly, 30–35 fractions within 4–7 weeks). The oropharyngeal mucositis was evaluated by two clinical investigators (a radiation oncologist and a dentist), using the oral mucositis assessment scale (OMAS). Trying to find out the possible mechanism of action of the treatment, total antioxidant, polyphenol and flavonoid contents, and quercetin concentration of the mouth wash were measured. Calendula mouthwash significantly decreased the intensity of OM compared to placebo at week 2 (score: 5.5 vs. 6.8, p = 0.019), week 3 (score: 8.25 vs. 10.95, p < 0.0001) and week 6 (score: 11.4 vs. 13.35, p = 0.031). Total antioxidant, polyphenol and flavonoid contents and quercetin concentration of the 2% extract were 2353.4 ± 56.5 μM, 313.40 ± 6.52 mg/g, 76.66 ± 23.24 mg/g, and 19.41 ± 4.34 mg/l, respectively. Calendula extract gel could be effective on decreasing the intensity of radiotherapy- induced OM during the treatment and antioxidant capacity may be partly responsible for the effect. PMID:23497687

  8. Antioxidant capacity of calendula officinalis flowers extract and prevention of radiation induced oropharyngeal mucositis in patients with head and neck cancers: a randomized controlled clinical study.

    PubMed

    Babaee, Neda; Moslemi, Dariush; Khalilpour, Mohammad; Vejdani, Fatemeh; Moghadamnia, Yasaman; Bijani, Ali; Baradaran, Mahmoud; Kazemi, Mohammad Taghi; Khalilpour, Asieh; Pouramir, Mahdi; Moghadamnia, Ali Akbar

    2013-03-07

    This study was designed to determine the effect of Calendula officinalis flowers extract mouthwash as oral gel on radiation-induced oropharyngeal mucositis (OM) in patients with head-and-neck cancer. Forty patients with neck and head cancers under radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy protocols were randomly assigned to receive either 2% calendula extract mouthwash or placebo (20 patients in each group). Patients were treated with telecobalt radiotherapy at conventional fractionation (200 cGy/fraction, five fractions weekly, 30-35 fractions within 4-7 weeks). The oropharyngeal mucositis was evaluated by two clinical investigators (a radiation oncologist and a dentist), using the oral mucositis assessment scale (OMAS). Trying to find out the possible mechanism of action of the treatment, total antioxidant, polyphenol and flavonoid contents, and quercetin concentration of the mouth wash were measured. Calendula mouthwash significantly decreased the intensity of OM compared to placebo at week 2 (score: 5.5 vs. 6.8, p = 0.019), week 3 (score: 8.25 vs. 10.95, p < 0.0001) and week 6 (score: 11.4 vs. 13.35, p = 0.031). Total antioxidant, polyphenol and flavonoid contents and quercetin concentration of the 2% extract were 2353.4 ± 56.5 μM, 313.40 ± 6.52 mg/g, 76.66 ± 23.24 mg/g, and 19.41 ± 4.34 mg/l, respectively. Calendula extract gel could be effective on decreasing the intensity of radiotherapy- induced OM during the treatment and antioxidant capacity may be partly responsible for the effect.

  9. The Water Fraction of Calendula officinalis Hydroethanol Extract Stimulates In Vitro and In Vivo Proliferation of Dermal Fibroblasts in Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Dinda, Manikarna; Mazumdar, Swagata; Das, Saurabh; Ganguly, Durba; Dasgupta, Uma B; Dutta, Ananya; Jana, Kuladip; Karmakar, Parimal

    2016-10-01

    The active fraction and/or compounds of Calendula officinalis responsible for wound healing are not known yet. In this work we studied the molecular target of C. officinalis hydroethanol extract (CEE) and its active fraction (water fraction of hydroethanol extract, WCEE) on primary human dermal fibroblasts (HDF). In vivo, CEE or WCEE were topically applied on excisional wounds of BALB/c mice and the rate of wound contraction and immunohistological studies were carried out. We found that CEE and only its WCEE significantly stimulated the proliferation as well as the migration of HDF cells. Also they up-regulate the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in vitro. In vivo, CEE or WCEE treated mice groups showed faster wound healing and increased expression of CTGF and α-SMA compared to placebo control group. The increased expression of both the proteins during granulation phase of wound repair demonstrated the potential role of C. officinalis in wound healing. In addition, HPLC-ESI MS analysis of the active water fraction revealed the presence of two major compounds, rutin and quercetin-3-O-glucoside. Thus, our results showed that C. officinalis potentiated wound healing by stimulating the expression of CTGF and α-SMA and further we identified active compounds. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. A new extract of the plant calendula officinalis produces a dual in vitro effect: cytotoxic anti-tumor activity and lymphocyte activation

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Medina, Eva; Garcia-Lora, Angel; Paco, Laura; Algarra, Ignacio; Collado, Antonia; Garrido, Federico

    2006-01-01

    Background Phytopharmacological studies of different Calendula extracts have shown anti-inflamatory, anti-viral and anti-genotoxic properties of therapeutic interest. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro cytotoxic anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities and in vivo anti-tumor effect of Laser Activated Calendula Extract (LACE), a novel extract of the plant Calendula Officinalis (Asteraceae). Methods An aqueous extract of Calendula Officinalis was obtained by a novel extraction method in order to measure its anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities in vitro. Tumor cell lines derived from leukemias, melanomas, fibrosarcomas and cancers of breast, prostate, cervix, lung, pancreas and colorectal were used and tumor cell proliferation in vitro was measured by BrdU incorporation and viable cell count. Effect of LACE on human peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) proliferation in vitro was also analyzed. Studies of cell cycle and apoptosis were performed in LACE-treated cells. In vivo anti-tumor activity was evaluated in nude mice bearing subcutaneously human Ando-2 melanoma cells. Results The LACE extract showed a potent in vitro inhibition of tumor cell proliferation when tested on a wide variety of human and murine tumor cell lines. The inhibition ranged from 70 to 100%. Mechanisms of inhibition were identified as cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and Caspase-3-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, the same extract showed an opposite effect when tested on PBLs and NKL cell line, in which in vitro induction of proliferation and activation of these cells was observed. The intraperitoneal injection or oral administration of LACE extract in nude mice inhibits in vivo tumor growth of Ando-2 melanoma cells and prolongs the survival day of the mice. Conclusion These results indicate that LACE aqueous extract has two complementary activities in vitro with potential anti-tumor therapeutic effect: cytotoxic tumor cell activity and lymphocyte activation. The LACE extract presented

  11. Total antioxidant and oxidant status of plasma and renal tissue of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxic rats: protection by floral extracts of Calendula officinalis Linn.

    PubMed

    Verma, Pawan Kumar; Raina, Rajinder; Sultana, Mudasir; Singh, Maninder; Kumar, Pawan

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to determine the total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) of plasma and renal tissue in cisplatin (cDDP) induced nephrotoxic rats and its protection by treatments with floral extracts of Calendula officinalis Linn. Treatment with cDDP elevated (p < 0.05) the levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine (CR), TOS, OSI and malondialdehyde (MDA) but lowered (p < 0.05) total plasma proteins, TAS, total thiols (TTH), blood glutathione (GSH) and antioxidant enzymes compared to the control group. Pre- and post-treatments of ethanolic floral extract of C. officinalis along with cDDP restored (p > 0.05) CR, albumin, TOS, GSH and activities of antioxidant enzymes in blood and renal tissue. Ethanolic extract treatments reduced (p < 0.05) MDA level in renal tissue without restoring the erythrocyte MDA level following cDDP treatment. These observations were further supported by the histopathological findings in renal tissue. Observations of the present study have shown that treatments with ethanolic floral extract of C. officinalis protect cDDP induced nephrotoxicity by restoring antioxidant system of the renal tissue.

  12. Comparison of effectiveness of Calendula officinalis extract gel with lycopene gel for treatment of tobacco-induced homogeneous leukoplakia: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Manisha; Bagewadi, Anjana

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study is to assess the efficacy of Calendula officinalis gel as cost-effective treatment modality in comparison to lycopene gel in the treatment of leukoplakia. Materials and Methods: The study comprised of sixty patients of clinically diagnosed and histopathologically confirmed cases of homogeneous leukoplakia which were divided into Group I and Group II with thirty patients each. Group I patients were dispensed C. officinalis extract gel whereas Group II patients were given lycopene gel. The therapy was instituted for 1 month to assess the change in the size of the lesion at the baseline and posttreatment. Results: The results revealed a statistically significant difference in both Group I and Group II when the pre- and post-treatment results were compared in the same group. The mean difference in the reduction in size before and after treatment for Group I was 2.0% ±1.0 cm while for the Group II, it was 1.57% ±0.87 cm. The intergroup comparison for the evaluation of reduction in the size of the lesion did not reveal statistically significant results. Conclusion: C. officinalis extract gel can be effectively used as an alternative to conventional treatment modality. PMID:28929051

  13. Effect of Calendula officinalis cream on achilles tendon healing.

    PubMed

    Aro, A A; Perez, M O; Vieira, C P; Esquisatto, M A M; Rodrigues, R A F; Gomes, L; Pimentel, E R

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, the scientific community has undertaken research on plant extracts, searching for compounds with pharmacological activities that can be used in diverse fields of medicine. Calendula officinalis L. is known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and wound healing properties when used to treat skin burns. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of C. officinalis on the initial phase of Achilles tendon healing. Wistar rats were separated in three groups: Calendula (Cal)-rats with a transected tendon were treated with topical applications of C. officinalis cream and then euthanized 7 days after injury; Control (C)-rats were treated with only vehicle after transection; and Normal (N)-rats without tenotomy. Higher concentrations of hydroxyproline (an indicator of total collagen) and non-collagenous proteins were observed in the Cal group in relation to the C group. Zymography showed no difference in the amount of the isoforms of metalloproteinase-2 and of metalloproteinase-9, between C and Cal groups. Polarization microscopy images analysis showed that the Cal group presented a slightly higher birefringence compared with the C group. In sections of tendons stained with toluidine blue, the transected groups presented higher metachromasy as compared with the N group. Immunocytochemistry analysis for chondroitin-6-sulfate showed no difference between the C and Cal groups. In conclusion, the topical application of C. officinalis after tendon transection increases the concentrations of collagen and non-collagenous proteins, as well as the collagen organization in the initial phase of healing. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Healing acceleration in hamsters of oral mucositis induced by 5-fluorouracil with topical Calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    Tanideh, Nader; Tavakoli, Parisa; Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Amanat, Dariush; Tadbir, Azadeh Andisheh; Samani, Soleiman Mohammadi; Tamadon, Amin

    2013-03-01

    This study assessed the potential of topical Calendula officinalis extract on the healing of oral mucositis induced by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in hamsters. Oral mucositis was induced in 60 male hamsters by 5-FU (60 mg/kg) on days 0, 5, and 10 of the study. The cheek pouch was scratched with a sterile needle on days 1 and 2. On days 12-17, 5% and 10% C. officinalis gel and gel base groups were treated and then compared with a control group. Macroscopic and microscopic scores and weights were evaluated. Microscopic and macroscopic scores of mucositis were lower in the 5% and 10% C. officinalis gel groups than in the gel base and control groups (P < .05). Weight gain was noted in the treatment groups compared with the gel base and control groups (P < .05). Calendula officinalis extract accelerated the healing of oral mucositis in hamsters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Protective effect of Calendula officinalis extract against UVB-induced oxidative stress in skin: evaluation of reduced glutathione levels and matrix metalloproteinase secretion.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Yris Maria; Catini, Carolina Dias; Vicentini, Fabiana T M C; Nomizo, Auro; Gerlach, Raquel Fernanda; Fonseca, Maria José Vieira

    2010-02-17

    Calendula officinalis flowers have long been employed time in folk therapy, and more than 35 properties have been attributed to decoctions and tinctures from the flowers. The main uses are as remedies for burns (including sunburns), bruises and cutaneous and internal inflammatory diseases of several origins. The recommended doses are a function both of the type and severity of the condition to be treated and the individual condition of each patient. Therefore, the present study investigated the potential use of Calendula officinalis extract to prevent UV irradiation-induced oxidative stress in skin. Firstly, the physico-chemical composition of marigold extract (ME) (hydroalcoholic extract) was assessed and the in vitro antioxidant efficacy was determined using different methodologies. Secondly, the cytotoxicity was evaluated in L929 and HepG2 cells with the MTT assay. Finally, the in vivo protective effect of ME against UVB-induced oxidative stress in the skin of hairless mice was evaluated by determining reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and monitoring the secretion/activity of metalloproteinases. The polyphenol, flavonoid, rutin and narcissin contents found in ME were 28.6 mg/g, 18.8 mg/g, 1.6 mg/g and 12.2mg/g, respectively and evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant activity demonstrated a dose-dependent effect of ME against different radicals. Cytoxicity experiments demonstrated that ME was not cytotoxic for L929 and HepG2 cells at concentrations less than or equal to of 15 mg/mL. However, concentrations greater than or equal to 30 mg/mL, toxic effects were observed. Finally, oral treatment of hairless mice with 150 and 300 mg/kg of ME maintained GSH levels close to non-irradiated control mice. In addition, this extract affects the activity/secretion of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 (MMP-2 and -9) stimulated by exposure to UVB irradiation. However, additional studies are required to have a complete understanding of the protective effects of ME for skin

  16. Evaluation of the efficacy of a polyherbal mouthwash containing Zingiber officinale, Rosmarinus officinalis and Calendula officinalis extracts in patients with gingivitis: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mahyari, Saman; Mahyari, Behnam; Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Malaekeh-Nikouei, Bizhan; Jahanbakhsh, Seyedeh Pardis; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Mohammadpour, Amir Hooshang

    2016-02-01

    Gingivitis is a highly prevalent periodontal disease resulting from microbial infection and subsequent inflammation. The efficacy of herbal preparations in subjects with gingivitis has been reported in some previous studies. To investigate the efficacy of a polyherbal mouthwash containing hydroalcoholic extracts of Zingiber officinale, Rosmarinus officinalis and Calendula officinalis (5% v/w) compared with chlorhexidine and placebo mouthwashes in subjects with gingivitis. Sixty patients participated in this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial and were randomly assigned to the polyherbal mouthwash (n = 20), chlorhexidine mouthwash (n = 20) or placebo mouthwash (n = 20). Participants were instructed to use the mouthwash twice a day (after breakfast and dinner) for 30 s for a period of two weeks. Gingival and plaque indices were assessed using MGI, GBI and MQH scales at baseline, day 7 and day 14 of the trial. There were significant improvements in all assessed efficacy measures i.e. MGI, GBI and MQH scores from baseline to the end of trial in both polyherbal and chlorhexidine mouthwash groups; however, the scores remained statistically unchanged in the placebo group. MGI, BGI and MQH scores in the treatment groups were significantly lower compared with those of the control group at both day 7 and day 14 of the trial. However, there was no significant difference between the polyherbal and chlorhexidine groups, neither at day 7 nor day 14 of the trial. Polyherbal mouthwash was safe and there was neither report of adverse reactions, nor any drop-out during the course of study. Polyherbal mouthwash containing hydroalcoholic extracts of Z. officinale, R. officinalis and C. officinalis (5%) was effective in the treatment of gingivitis and its efficacy was comparable to that of chlorhexidine mouthwash. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Prospective, Descriptive Study to Assess the Clinical Benefits of Using Calendula officinalis Hydroglycolic Extract for the Topical Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Buzzi, Marcelo; de Freitas, Franciele; Winter, Marcos

    2016-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) have a significant impact on patient quality of life. A prospective, descriptive pilot study was conducted between May 2012 and December 2013 through the dermatology outpatient unit in a Brazilian hospital to evaluate the clinical benefits of using Calendula officinalis hydroglycolic extract in the treatment of DFUs. Patients diagnosed with a stable neuropathic ulcer of >3 months' duration; ranging in size from 0.5-40 cm(2); without osteomyelitis, gangrene, bone exposure, cancer, or deep tissue infection; ages 18-90 years; with adequate glycemic control and no history of an allergy to C. officinalis were enrolled. Patients provided demographic and diabetes-related information and were evaluated biweekly for 30 weeks or until healing (ie, full epithelialization with no wound drainage). DFUs were measured and clinically examined for microbiological flora and presence of odor, tissue type (eg, granulation, fibrin sloth, necrosis), exudate, and retraction rate using planimetry images. Patients' blood tests and neuropathic pain assessment (the latter by clinician-directed questionnaire) were performed at baseline and the end of treatment; pain also was assessed during dressing changes using a 10-point rating scale. Patients' ulcers were treated twice daily with C. officinalis hydroglycolic extract spray solution and covered with saline-moistened, sterile, nonadherent gauze and bandages followed by foot offloading with adequate protective footwear. Patients received their first treatment in the clinic then performed care at home. From a potential population of 109 patients, 25 did not meet the inclusion criteria. Of the remaining 84 participants enrolled, 43 withdrew before study completion; cited reasons included lost to follow-up (16), medical judgment (2), failure to attend >3 scheduled visits (17), protocol violation (5), and death (3). Forty-one (41) - 17 women, average age 62 years (range 44-82 years), average glycemic level 153 mg

  18. DNA-based identification of Calendula officinalis (Asteraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Schmiderer, Corinna; Lukas, Brigitte; Ruzicka, Joana; Novak, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: For the economically important species Calendula officinalis, a fast identification assay based on high-resolution melting curve analysis was designed. This assay was developed to distinguish C. officinalis from other species of the genus and other Asteraceae genera, and to detect C. officinalis as an adulterant of saffron samples. Methods and Results: For this study, five markers (ITS, rbcL, 5′ trnK-matK, psbA-trnH, trnL-trnF) of 10 Calendula species were sequenced and analyzed for species-specific mutations. With the application of two developed primer pairs located in the trnK 5′ intron and trnL-trnF, C. officinalis could be distinguished from other species of the genus and all outgroup samples tested. Adulterations of Calendula DNA in saffron could be detected down to 0.01%. Conclusions: With the developed assay, C. officinalis can be reliably identified and admixtures of this species as adulterant of saffron can be revealed at low levels. PMID:26649268

  19. Morphogenetic variability of faradiol monoesters in marigold Calendula officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Zitterl-Eglseer, K; Reznicek, G; Jurenitsch, J; Novak, J; Zitterl, W; Franz, C

    2001-01-01

    The main compounds of lipophilic extracts of flower heads of marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) are triterpendiol esters, mainly faradiol laurate, faradiol myristate and faradiol palmitate. These faradiol-3-O-monoesters have been quantified for the first time by means of reversed phase HPLC with internal standardisation in different parts of C. officinalis plants, namely ray florets, disk florests, involucral bracts, receptacles, levaes and seeds. The amounts of the esters were highest in ray florets, approximately 10 times lower in disk florets than in the ray florets, and approximately 10 times lower in involucral bracts than in the disk florets. In the leaves only traces of the esters could be detected, and in the receptacles no esters could be detected at all. Quantification in the seed was not possible using this method because of interfering fatty compounds. Concerning the faradiol esters, the dried ray and disk florets only should be preferred as primary products for remedies as demanded in the recently published supplement of the Pharmacopoiea Europaea (1999). Breeding work should focus on varieties with a greater number of ray florets in order to improve the quality of herbal medicinal products derived from marigoid.

  20. Effects of Calendula officinalis on human gingival fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Saini, Pragtipal; Al-Shibani, Nouf; Sun, Jun; Zhang, Weiping; Song, Fengyu; Gregson, Karen S; Windsor, L Jack

    2012-04-01

    Calendula officinalis is commonly called the marigold. It is a staple topical remedy in homeopathic medicine. It is rich in quercetin, carotenoids, lutein, lycopene, rutin, ubiquinone, xanthophylls, and other anti-oxidants. It has anti-inflammatory properties. Quercetin, one of the active components in Calendula, has been shown to inhibit recombinant human matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and decrease the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL), IL-6 and IL-8 in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore-stimulated human mast cells. To examine the effects of Calendula on human gingival fibroblast (HGF) mediated collagen degradation and MMP activity. Lactate dehydrogenate assays were performed to determine the non-toxic concentrations of Calendula, doxycycline and quercetin. Cell-mediated collagen degradation assays were performed to examine the inhibitory effect on cell-mediated collagen degradation. Gelatin zymography was performed to examine their effects on MMP-2 activity. The experiments were repeated three times and ANOVA used for statistical analyses. Calendula at 2-3% completely inhibited the MMP-2 activity in the zymograms. Doxycycline inhibited HGF-mediated collagen degradation at 0.005, 0.01, 0.02 and 0.05%, and MMP-2 activity completely at 0.05%. Quercetin inhibited HGF-mediated collagen degradation at 0.005, 0.01 and 0.02%, and MMP-2 activity in a dose-dependent manner. Calendula inhibited HGF-mediated collagen degradation and MMP-2 activity more than the same correlated concentration of pure quercetin. Calendula inhibits HGF-mediated collagen degradation and MMP-2 activity more than the corresponding concentration of quercetin. This may be attributed to additional components in Calendula other than quercetin. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Amelioration of myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury with Calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    Ray, Diptarka; Mukherjee, Subhendu; Falchi, Mario; Bertelli, Aldo; Das, Dipak K

    2010-12-01

    Calendula officinalis of family Asteraceae, also known as marigold, has been widely used from time immemorial in Indian and Arabic cultures as an anti-inflammatory agent to treat minor skin wound and infections, burns, bee stings, sunburn and cancer. At a relatively high dose, calendula can lower blood pressure and cholesterol. Since inflammatory responses are behind many cardiac diseases, we sought to evaluate if calendula could be cardioprotective against ischemic heart disease Two groups of hearts were used: the treated rat hearts were perfused with calendula solution at 50 mM in KHB buffer (in mM: sodium chloride 118, potassium chloride 4.7, calcium chloride 1.7, sodium bicarbonate 25, potassium biphosphate 0.36, magnesium sulfate 1.2, and glucose 10) for 15 min prior to subjecting the heart to ischemia, while the control group was perfused with the buffer only. Calendula achieved cardioprotection by stimulating left ventricular developed pressure and aortic flow as well as by reducing myocardial infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Cardioprotection appears to be achieved by changing ischemia reperfusion-mediated death signal into a survival signal by modulating antioxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways as evidenced by the activation of Akt and Bcl2 and depression of TNFα. The results further strengthen the concept of using natural products in degeneration diseases like ischemic heart disease.

  2. Dietary Supplementation of Calendula officinalis Counteracts the Oxidative Stress and Liver Damage Resulted from Aflatoxin

    PubMed Central

    Hamzawy, Mohamed A.; El-Denshary, Ezzeldein S. M.; Hassan, Nabila S.; Mannaa, Fathia A.; Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad A.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the total phenolic compounds, the antioxidant properties, and the hepatorenoprotective potential of Calendula officinalis extract against aflatoxins (AFs-) induced liver damage. Six groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 6 weeks included the control; the group fed AFs-contaminated diet (2.5 mg/kg diet); the groups treated orally with Calendula extract at low (CA1) and high (CA2) doses (500 and 1000 mg/kg b.w); the groups treated orally with CA1 and CA2 one week before and during AFs treatment for other five weeks. The results showed that the ethanol extract contained higher phenolic compounds and posses higher 1,1-diphenyl 1-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity than the aqueous extract. Animals fed AFs-contaminated diet showed significant disturbances in serum biochemical parameters, inflammatory cytokines, and the histological and histochemical pictures of the liver accompanied by a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in liver. Calendula extract succeeded to improve the biochemical parameters, inflammatory cytokines, decreased the oxidative stress, and improved the histological pictures in the liver of rats fed AFs-contaminated diet in a dose-dependent manner. It could be concluded that Calendula extract has potential hepatoprotective effects against AFs due to its antioxidant properties and radical scavenging activity. PMID:24959547

  3. Controlled release of an extract of Calendula officinalis flowers from a system based on the incorporation of gelatin-collagen microparticles into collagen I scaffolds: design and in vitro performance.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Ronald A; Millán, Diana; Suesca, Edward; Sosnik, Alejandro; Fontanilla, Marta R

    2015-06-01

    Aiming to develop biological skin dresses with improved performance in the treatment of skin wounds, acellular collagen I scaffolds were modified with polymeric microparticles and the subsequent loading of a hydroglycolic extract of Calendula officinalis flowers. Microparticles made of gelatin-collagen were produced by a water-in-oil emulsion/cross-linking method. Thereafter, these microparticles were mixed with collagen suspensions at three increasing concentrations and the resulting mixtures lyophilized to make microparticle-loaded porous collagen scaffolds. Resistance to enzymatic degradation, ability to associate with the C. officinalis extract, and the extract release profile of the three gelatin-collagen microparticle-scaffold prototypes were assessed in vitro and compared to collagen scaffolds without microparticles used as control. Data indicated that the incorporation of gelatin-collagen microparticles increased the resistance of the scaffolds to in vitro enzymatic degradation, as well as their association with the C. officinalis flower extract. In addition, a sharp decrease in cytotoxicity, as well as more prolonged release of the extract, was attained. Overall results support the potential of these systems to develop innovative dermal substitutes with improved features. Furthermore, the gelatin-collagen mixture represents a low-cost and scalable alternative with high clinical transferability, especially appealing in developing countries.

  4. Final report of the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel amended safety assessment of Calendula officinalis-derived cosmetic ingredients.

    PubMed

    Andersen, F Alan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W

    2010-01-01

    Calendula officinalis extract, C officinalis flower, C officinalis flower extract, C officinalis flower oil, and C officinalis seed oil are cosmetic ingredients derived from C officinalis. These ingredients may contain minerals, carbohydrates, lipids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, sterols and steroids, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, tocopherols, quinones, amino acids, and resins. These ingredients were not significantly toxic in single-dose oral studies using animals. The absence of reproductive/developmental toxicity was inferred from repeat-dose studies of coriander oil, with a similar composition. Overall, these ingredients were not genotoxic. They also were not irritating, sensitizing, or photosensitizing in animal or clinical tests but may be mild ocular irritants. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe for use in cosmetics in the practices of use and concentration given in this amended safety assessment.

  5. Preclinical evaluation of collagen type I scaffolds, including gelatin-collagen microparticles and loaded with a hydroglycolic Calendula officinalis extract in a lagomorph model of full-thickness skin wound.

    PubMed

    Millán, D; Jiménez, R A; Nieto, L E; Linero, I; Laverde, M; Fontanilla, M R

    2016-02-01

    Previously, we have developed collagen type I scaffolds including microparticles of gelatin-collagen type I (SGC) that are able to control the release of a hydroglycolic extract of the Calendula officinalis flower. The main goal of the present work was to carry out the preclinical evaluation of SGC alone or loaded with the C. officinalis extract (SGC-E) in a lagomorph model of full-thickness skin wound. A total of 39 rabbits were distributed in three groups, of 13 animals each. The first group was used to compare wound healing by secondary intention (control) with wound healing observed when wounds were grafted with SGC alone. Comparison of control wounds with wounds grafted with SGC-E was performed in the second group, and comparison of wounds grafted with SGC with wounds grafted with SGC-E was performed in the third group. Clinical follow-ups were carried in all animals after surgery, and histological and histomorphometric analyses were performed on tissues taken from the healed area and healthy surrounding tissue. Histological and histomorphometric results indicate that grafting of SGC alone favors wound healing and brings a better clinical outcome than grafting SGC-E. In vitro collagenase digestion data suggested that the association of the C. officinalis extract to SGC increased the SGC-E cross-linking, making it difficult to degrade and affecting its biocompatibility.

  6. Topical Calendula officinalis L. successfully treated exfoliative cheilitis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Authors describe a case of recurrent exfoliative cheilitis that responded to treatment with a standardized topical preparation of Calendula officinalis L. An eighteen-year-old man was referred to UNESP - São Paulo State University, Department of Biosciences and Oral Diagnosis, São José dos Campos Dental School to investigate a chronic dry scaling lesion on his lips. The patient's main chief was aesthetic compromising. Corticoid therapy was suspended and Calendula officinalis ointment 10% for ad libitum use has been prescribed. The results presented allow the authors to consider Calendula officinalis L. as a potential therapy in cases of cheilitis exfoliative. PMID:20062714

  7. Componential profile and amylase inhibiting activity of phenolic compounds from Calendula officinalis L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Olennikov, Daniil N; Kashchenko, Nina I

    2014-01-01

    An ethanolic extract and its ethyl acetate-soluble fraction from leaves of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) were found to show an inhibitory effect on amylase. From the crude extract fractions, one new phenolic acid glucoside, 6'-O-vanilloyl-β-D-glucopyranose, was isolated, together with twenty-four known compounds including five phenolic acid glucosides, five phenylpropanoids, five coumarins, and nine flavonoids. Their structures were elucidated based on chemical and spectral data. The main components, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and quercetin-3-O-(6''-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside, exhibited potent inhibitory effects on amylase.

  8. Protective properties of butanolic extract of the Calendula officinalis L. (marigold) against lipid peroxidation of rat liver microsomes and action as free radical scavenger.

    PubMed

    Cordova, Clarissa A S; Siqueira, Ionara R; Netto, Carlos A; Yunes, Rosendo A; Volpato, Ana M; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; Curi-Pedrosa, Rozangela; Creczynski-Pasa, Tânia B

    2002-01-01

    Calendula officinalis (marigold) has many pharmacological properties. It is used for the treatment of skin disorders, pain and also as a bactericide, antiseptic and anti-inflammatory. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are known to participate in the pathogenesis of various human diseases and may be involved in the conditions which C. officinalis is used to treat. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the beneficial properties of this plant and its antioxidant action. The butanolic fraction (BF) was studied because it is non-cytotoxic and is rich in a variety of bioactive metabolites including flavonoids and terpenoids. Superoxide radicals (O(2)(*-)) and hydroxyl radicals (HO(*)) are observed in decreasing concentrations in the presence of increasing concentrations of BF with IC(50) values of 1.0 +/- 0.09 mg/ml and 0.5 +/- 0.02 mg/ml, respectively, suggesting a possible free radical scavenging effect. Lipid peroxidation in liver microsomes induced by Fe(2+)/ascorbate was 100% inhibited by 0.5 mg/ml of BF (IC(50) = 0.15 mg/ml). Its total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP) (in microM Trolox equivalents) was 368.14 +/- 23.03 and its total antioxidant reactivity (TAR) was calculated to be 249.19 +/- 14.5 microM. The results obtained suggest that the butanolic fraction of C. officinalis possesses a significant free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity and that the proposed therapeutic efficacy of this plant could be due, in part, to these properties.

  9. Bioaccessibility and Antioxidant Activity of Calendula officinalis Supercritical Extract as Affected by in Vitro Codigestion with Olive Oil.

    PubMed

    Martin, Diana; Navarro Del Hierro, Joaquín; Villanueva Bermejo, David; Fernández-Ruiz, Ramón; Fornari, Tiziana; Reglero, Guillermo

    2016-11-23

    Supercritical extracts of marigold (ME) were produced and characterized. The bioaccessibility of terpenes, especially that of pentacyclic triterpenes (PT), the particle-size distribution, and antioxidant activity after the in vitro codigestion of ME with olive oil (OO) were determined. ME produced without cosolvent was richer in taraxasterol, lupeol, α-amyrin, and β-amyrin than extracts with cosolvent. All terpenes showed high bioaccessibility without OO (>75%). Significant correlations were found between the molecular properties of compounds (logP and number of rotatable bonds) and their bioaccessibility. Codigestion with OO enhanced the bioaccessibility (around 100% for PT), which could be related to a higher abundance of low-size particles of the digestion medium. The antioxidant activity of the digested ME increased around 50%, regardless of OO. PT-rich extracts from marigold display high bioaccessibility and improved antioxidant activity after in vitro digestion, although complete bioaccessibility of PT can be reached by codigestion with oil, without affecting antioxidant activity.

  10. Preparative purification of the major anti-inflammatory triterpenoid esters from Marigold (Calendula officinalis).

    PubMed

    Hamburger, M; Adler, S; Baumann, D; Förg, A; Weinreich, B

    2003-06-01

    A method for the efficient preparative purification of faradiol 3-O-laurate, palmitate and myristate, the major anti-inflammatory triterpenoid esters in the flower heads of the medicinal plant Calendula officinalis has been developed. Gram quantities of the individual compounds were obtained with 96 to 98% purity by a combination of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), normal-phase and reversed-phase column chromatography. During the work-up of the faradiol esters, accompanying minor compounds of the triterpene ester fraction were purified and identified by spectroscopic means as maniladiol 3-O-laurate and myristate.

  11. Assessment of In vitro Sun Protection Factor of Calendula Officinalis L. (Asteraceae) Essential Oil Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, AK; Mishra, A; Chattopadhyay, P

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the sunscreen activity of herbal formulation. There is no evidence of the sun protection factor (SPF) studies on essential oil of Calendula flowers (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae). The study investigates the in vitro SPF by ultraviolet specrtophotometry method of Calendula flower oil in a cream formulation. Calendula oil was isolated by Clavenger's apparatus, compositions were identified by GC–MS and the cream of calendula flower oil was prepared by homogenization method followed by evaluation for physical parameters. The sun protection factor of cream was evaluated by in vitro method employing UV–visible spectrophotometer (Shimazdu-1600). The SPF of Calendula oil in cream formulation exhibited good activity (SPF = 14.84 ± 0.16). Finding of this study suggested that calendula oil cream can be used to protect the skin from UV radiations in form of sunscreen cream and to maintain the natural pigmentation of the skin. PMID:22523455

  12. Assessment of In vitro Sun Protection Factor of Calendula Officinalis L. (Asteraceae) Essential Oil Formulation.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Ak; Mishra, A; Chattopadhyay, P

    2012-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to study the sunscreen activity of herbal formulation. There is no evidence of the sun protection factor (SPF) studies on essential oil of Calendula flowers (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae). The study investigates the in vitro SPF by ultraviolet specrtophotometry method of Calendula flower oil in a cream formulation. Calendula oil was isolated by Clavenger's apparatus, compositions were identified by GC-MS and the cream of calendula flower oil was prepared by homogenization method followed by evaluation for physical parameters. The sun protection factor of cream was evaluated by in vitro method employing UV-visible spectrophotometer (Shimazdu-1600). The SPF of Calendula oil in cream formulation exhibited good activity (SPF = 14.84 ± 0.16). Finding of this study suggested that calendula oil cream can be used to protect the skin from UV radiations in form of sunscreen cream and to maintain the natural pigmentation of the skin.

  13. Healing Acceleration of Acetic Acid-induced Colitis by Marigold (Calendula officinalis) in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tanideh, Nader; Jamshidzadeh, Akram; Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Hosseinzadeh, Masood; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Omid; Najibi, Asma; Raam, Mozhdeh; Daneshi, Sajad; Asadi-Yousefabad, Seyedeh-Leili

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a type of chronic inflammatory bowel disease with unknown etiology. Several therapeutic strategies such as consumption of medicinal plants have been used for its treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate healing effects of Calendula officinalis hydroalcoholic extract in experimentally induced UC in rat. Materials and Methods: Ninety-six rats, weighing 200 ± 20 g, were randomly divided into eight equal groups. UC induced by 3% acetic acid and oral doses of C. officinalis extract, 1500 and 3000 mg/kg, and enema (gel 10% and 20%) were given. Two groups as positive controls were given asacol (enema) and oral mesalamine. Negative control groups were given normal saline and base gel. On days 3 and 7, intestinal histopathology and weight changes, plus oxidative stress indices including malondialdehyde (MDA) level and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were assayed. Results: A significant increase in the body weight of rats was seen in the group given C. officinalis extract 3000 mg/kg orally, oral mesalamine, and 20% intracolonic gel form of marigold extract compared with negative control and base gel groups during the experimental period. Acute inflammation and granular atrophy after UC induction were resolved completely completely by both 20% intracolonic gel and 3000 mg/kg orally. An increase in MPO activity and a decrease in MDA level in response to oral and intracolonic gel form of C. officinalis were observed 3 and and 7 days after treatment (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Our results indicate that oral and enema forms of hydroalcoholic extract of C. officinalis can be offered as are potential therapeutic agents for UC induced in rats. PMID:26831607

  14. Healing acceleration of acetic acid-induced colitis by marigold (Calendula officinalis) in male rats.

    PubMed

    Tanideh, Nader; Jamshidzadeh, Akram; Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Hosseinzadeh, Masood; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Omid; Najibi, Asma; Raam, Mozhdeh; Daneshi, Sajad; Asadi-Yousefabad, Seyedeh-Leili

    2016-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a type of chronic inflammatory bowel disease with unknown etiology. Several therapeutic strategies such as consumption of medicinal plants have been used for its treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate healing effects of Calendula officinalis hydroalcoholic extract in experimentally induced UC in rat. Ninety-six rats, weighing 200 ± 20 g, were randomly divided into eight equal groups. UC induced by 3% acetic acid and oral doses of C. officinalis extract, 1500 and 3000 mg/kg, and enema (gel 10% and 20%) were given. Two groups as positive controls were given asacol (enema) and oral mesalamine. Negative control groups were given normal saline and base gel. On days 3 and 7, intestinal histopathology and weight changes, plus oxidative stress indices including malondialdehyde (MDA) level and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were assayed. A significant increase in the body weight of rats was seen in the group given C. officinalis extract 3000 mg/kg orally, oral mesalamine, and 20% intracolonic gel form of marigold extract compared with negative control and base gel groups during the experimental period. Acute inflammation and granular atrophy after UC induction were resolved completely completely by both 20% intracolonic gel and 3000 mg/kg orally. An increase in MPO activity and a decrease in MDA level in response to oral and intracolonic gel form of C. officinalis were observed 3 and and 7 days after treatment (P < 0.05). Our results indicate that oral and enema forms of hydroalcoholic extract of C. officinalis can be offered as are potential therapeutic agents for UC induced in rats.

  15. Chemical characterization and bioactive properties of two aromatic plants: Calendula officinalis L. (flowers) and Mentha cervina L. (leaves).

    PubMed

    Miguel, María; Barros, Lillian; Pereira, Carla; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Garcia, Pablo A; Castro, MaÁngeles; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-05-18

    The chemical composition and bioactive properties of two plants (Calendula officinalis L. and Mentha cervina L.) were studied. Their nutritional value revealed a high content of carbohydrates and low fat levels, and very similar energy values. However, they presented different profiles in phenolic compounds and fatty acids; C. officinalis presented mainly glycosylated flavonols and saturated fatty acids, while M. cervina presented mainly caffeoyl derivatives and polyunsaturated fatty acids. M. cervina showed the highest concentration of phenolic compounds while C. officinalis presented higher amounts of sugars, organic acids and tocopherols. The highest antioxidant and cytotoxic activities were obtained for the hydromethanolic extract of M. cervina, which presented the lowest values of EC50 and exhibited cytotoxicity against the four tumor cell lines tested. Infusions showed no cytotoxicity for the tumor cell lines, and none of the extracts showed toxicity against non-tumor cells. This study contributes to expand the knowledge on both natural sources and therefore their use.

  16. Componential Profile and Amylase Inhibiting Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Calendula officinalis L. Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Olennikov, Daniil N.; Kashchenko, Nina I.

    2014-01-01

    An ethanolic extract and its ethyl acetate-soluble fraction from leaves of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) were found to show an inhibitory effect on amylase. From the crude extract fractions, one new phenolic acid glucoside, 6′-O-vanilloyl-β-D-glucopyranose, was isolated, together with twenty-four known compounds including five phenolic acid glucosides, five phenylpropanoids, five coumarins, and nine flavonoids. Their structures were elucidated based on chemical and spectral data. The main components, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and quercetin-3-O-(6′′-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside, exhibited potent inhibitory effects on amylase. PMID:24683352

  17. Biological Activities of Oleanolic Acid Derivatives from Calendula officinalis Seeds.

    PubMed

    Zaki, Ahmed; Ashour, Ahmed; Mira, Amira; Kishikawa, Asuka; Nakagawa, Toshinori; Zhu, Qinchang; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2016-05-01

    Phytochemical examination of butanol fraction of Calendula officinalis seeds led to the isolation of two compounds identified as 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS1) and oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS2). Biological evaluation was carried out for these two compounds such as melanin biosynthesis inhibitory, hyaluronic acid production activities, anti obesity using lipase inhibition and adipocyte differentiation as well as evaluation of the protective effect against hydrogen peroxide induced neurotoxicity in neuro-2A cells. The results showed that, compound CS2 has a melanin biosynthesis stimulatory activity; however, compound CS1 has a potent stimulatory effect for the production of hyaluronic acid on normal human dermal fibroblast from adult (NHDF-Ad). Both compounds did not show any inhibitory effect on both lipase and adipocyte differentiation. Compound CS2 could protect neuro-2A cells and increased cell viability against H2 O2 . These activities (melanin biosynthesis stimulatory and protective effect against H2 O2 of CS2 and hyaluronic acid productive activities of these triterpene derivatives) have been reported for the first time. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Antiglycation and antioxidation properties of Juglans regia and Calendula officinalis: possible role in reducing diabetic complications and slowing down ageing.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Haroon; Khan, Ibrar; Wahid, Abdul

    2012-09-01

    Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the body due to the non-enzymatic glycation of proteins and oxidation is associated with aging and diabetes mellitus. In this study we wanted to investigate the antiglycation and antioxidation potential of two medicinal plants: Juglans regia and Calendula officinalis. In-vitro investigation was carried out to discover the antiglycation and antioxidation potential of J. regia and C. officinalis. Using an Ultraviolet Double-beam Spectrophotometer, we evaluated the antiglycation property of the crude methanolic extracts of J. regia and C. officinalis by assessing their ability to inhibit the Maillard reaction. Employing the same instrument we also measured the antioxidation potential of these plant extracts using the nitric oxide (NO) free radical-scavenging assay. J. regia had greater antiglycation ability, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) of 28 microg/mL as compared with that of C. officinalis (270 microg/mL). C. officinalis had greater antioxidation potential (26.10, 22.07 and 16.06% at 0.5 mg, 0.25 mg and 0.125 mg, respectively, as compared with 18.15, 16.50 and 16.06% of J. regia, respectively). J. regia and C. officinalis inhibited the Maillard reaction and prevented oxidation in-vitro. Hence, the extracts of these plants could have therapeutic uses in curbing chronic diabetic complications and slowing down aging.

  19. Shampoo-clay heals diaper rash faster than calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Mahmoudi, Mansoreh; Mashaiekhi, Mahdi

    2014-06-01

    Diaper rash is one of the most common skin disorders of infancy and childhood. Some studies have shown that Shampoo-clay was effective to treat chronic dermatitis. Then, it is supposed that it may be effective in diaper rash; however, no published studies were found in this regard. This study aimed to compare the effects of Shampoo-clay (S.C) and Calendula officinalis (C.O) to improve infantile diaper rash. A randomized, double blind, parallel controlled, non-inferiority trial was conducted on 60 outpatient infants referred to health care centers or pediatric clinics in Khomein city and diagnosed with diaper rash. Patients were randomly assigned into two treatment groups including S.C group (n = 30) and C.O group (n = 30) by using one to one allocation ratio. The rate of complete recovery in three days was the primary outcome. Data was collected using a checklist and analyzed using t-test, Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests and risk ratio. Totally, 93.3% of lesions in the S.C group healed in the first 6 hours, while this rate was 40% in C.O group (P < 0.001). The healing ratio for improvement in the first 6 hours was 7 times more in the S.C group. In addition, 90% of infants in the SC group and 36.7% in the C.O group were improved completely in the first 3 days (P < 0.001). S.C was effective to heal diaper rash, and also had faster effects compared to C.O.

  20. Shampoo-Clay Heals Diaper Rash Faster Than Calendula Officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Mahmoudi, Mansoreh; Mashaiekhi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diaper rash is one of the most common skin disorders of infancy and childhood. Some studies have shown that Shampoo-clay was effective to treat chronic dermatitis. Then, it is supposed that it may be effective in diaper rash; however, no published studies were found in this regard. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the effects of Shampoo-clay (S.C) and Calendula officinalis (C.O) to improve infantile diaper rash. Patients and Methods: A randomized, double blind, parallel controlled, non-inferiority trial was conducted on 60 outpatient infants referred to health care centers or pediatric clinics in Khomein city and diagnosed with diaper rash. Patients were randomly assigned into two treatment groups including S.C group (n = 30) and C.O group (n = 30) by using one to one allocation ratio. The rate of complete recovery in three days was the primary outcome. Data was collected using a checklist and analyzed using t-test, Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests and risk ratio. Results: Totally, 93.3% of lesions in the S.C group healed in the first 6 hours, while this rate was 40% in C.O group (P < 0.001). The healing ratio for improvement in the first 6 hours was 7 times more in the S.C group. In addition, 90% of infants in the SC group and 36.7% in the C.O group were improved completely in the first 3 days (P < 0.001). Conclusions: S.C was effective to heal diaper rash, and also had faster effects compared to C.O. PMID:25414900

  1. Wound Healing and Anti-Inflammatory Effect in Animal Models of Calendula officinalis L. Growing in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Parente, Leila Maria Leal; Lino Júnior, Ruy de Souza; Tresvenzol, Leonice Manrique Faustino; Vinaud, Marina Clare; de Paula, José Realino; Paulo, Neusa Margarida

    2012-01-01

    Calendula officinalis is an annual herb from Mediterranean origin which is popularly used in wound healing and as an anti-inflammatory agent. In this study, the ethanolic extract, the dichloromethane, and hexanic fractions of the flowers from plants growing in Brazil were produced. The angiogenic activity of the extract and fractions was evaluated through the chorioallantoic membrane and cutaneous wounds in rat models. The healing activity of the extract was evaluated by the same cutaneous wounds model through macroscopic, morphometric, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical analysis. The antibacterial activity of the extract and fractions was also evaluated. This experimental study revealed that C. officinalis presented anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities as well as angiogenic and fibroplastic properties acting in a positive way on the inflammatory and proliferative phases of the healing process. PMID:22315631

  2. Antifungal activity of the essential oil from Calendula officinalis L. (asteraceae) growing in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gazim, Zilda Cristiane; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; Fraga, Sandra Regina; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Cortez, Diógenes Aparicio Garcia

    2008-01-01

    This study tested in vitro activity of the essential oil from flowers of Calendula officinalis using disk-diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay results showed for the first time that the essential oil has good potential antifungal activity: it was effective against all 23 clinical fungi strains tested. PMID:24031180

  3. Medicinal flowers. IV. Marigold. (2): Structures of new ionone and sesquiterpene glycosides from Egyptian Calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    Marukami, T; Kishi, A; Yoshikawa, M

    2001-08-01

    Following the characterization of hypoglycemic, gastric emptying inhibitory, and gastroprotective principles and the structure elucidation of calendasaponins A, B, C, and D, two new ionone glucosides (officinosides A and B), and two sesquiterpene oligoglycosides (officinosides C and D), were isolated from the flowers of Egyptian Calendula officinalis. The structures of the officinosides were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence.

  4. Antifungal activity of the essential oil from Calendula officinalis L. (asteraceae) growing in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gazim, Zilda Cristiane; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; Fraga, Sandra Regina; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Cortez, Diógenes Aparicio Garcia

    2008-01-01

    This study tested in vitro activity of the essential oil from flowers of Calendula officinalis using disk-diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay results showed for the first time that the essential oil has good potential antifungal activity: it was effective against all 23 clinical fungi strains tested.

  5. Calendula

    MedlinePlus

    Calendula is a plant. The flower is used to make medicine. Calendula flower is used to prevent muscle spasms, start ... menstrual cramps, cancer, and stomach and duodenal ulcers. Calendula is applied to the skin to reduce pain ...

  6. The evaluation of trifloxystrobin in protection of Calendula officinalis (Pot marigold) against Erysiphe cichoracearum DC.

    PubMed

    Kurzawińska, H; Duda-Surman, J

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the two-years field's examinations was the evaluation of the fungicide Zato 50 WG (biologically active substances BAS--trifloxystrobin 50%) in protection of Calendula officinalis (Pot marigold) against Erysiphe cichoracearum. Mentioned fungicide was applied at three concentrations: 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2%. As the standard fungicide Amistar 250 SC (biologically active substances BAS - azoxystrobin 250 g/dm3) was used. In every year of research work the four protective treatments were carried out. The estimation of infestation degree of Calendula officinalis leafs by the Erysiphe cichoracearum was made 5 times. Before each treatment four analysis were done, whereas the last analysis--the fifth one was executed after 10 days from the last protective spraying. According to the results, it was found that investigated preparations significant reduced the mean infestation degree of Calendula officinalis leafs by the Erysiphe cichoracearum compared to the control. The results pointed, that in protection of the mentioned plant by the powdery mildew the 0.2% dose of Zato 50WG showed the best suitability.

  7. Comparing the effects of Calendula officinalis and clotrimazole on vaginal Candidiasis: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Saffari, Elnaz; Mohammad-Alizadeh-Charandabi, Sakineh; Adibpour, Mohammad; Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Javadzadeh, Yousef

    2017-01-01

    This triple-blind trial examined the effects of Calendula officinalis vaginal cream on the treatment of vaginal Candidiasis (primary outcome) and sexual function (secondary outcome). Married women aged 18-45 years with vaginal Candidiasis (n = 150) were recruited from April to October 2014 and randomized into Calendula and clotrimazole groups, using 5-g vaginal cream every night for seven nights. Clinical and laboratory assessments were conducted at 10-15 and 30-35 days after intervention and the female sexual function index was assessed at 30-35 days. Six women were lost to follow-up. The frequency of testing negative for Candidiasis in the Calendula group was significantly lower at the first (49% vs. 74%; odds ratio (OR) 0.32; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.16-0.67) but higher at the second (77% vs. 34%; OR 3.1; 95% CI 1.5-6.2) follow-up compared to the clotrimazole group. The frequency of most signs and symptoms were almost equal in the two groups at the first follow-up, but were significantly lower in the Calendula group at the second follow-up. Sexual function had almost equal significant improvement in both groups. Calendula vaginal cream appears to have been effective in the treatment of vaginal Candidiasis and to have a delayed but greater long-term effect compared to clotrimazole.

  8. Carotenoid Isomerase Is Key Determinant of Petal Color of Calendula officinalis*

    PubMed Central

    Kishimoto, Sanae; Ohmiya, Akemi

    2012-01-01

    Orange petals of calendula (Calendula officinalis) accumulate red carotenoids with the cis-configuration at the C-5 or C-5′ position (5-cis-carotenoids). We speculated that the orange-flowered calendula is a carotenoid isomerase (crtiso) loss-of-function mutant that impairs the cis-to-trans conversion of 5-cis-carotenoids. We compared the sequences and enzyme activities of CRTISO from orange- and yellow-flowered calendulas. Four types of CRTISO were expressed in calendula petals. The deduced amino acid sequence of one of these genes (CoCRTISO1) was different between orange- and yellow-flowered calendulas, whereas the sequences of the other three CRTISOs were identical between these plants. Analysis of the enzymatic activities of the CoCRTISO homologs showed that CoCRTISO1-Y, which was expressed in yellow petals, converted carotenoids from the cis-to-trans-configuration, whereas both CoCRTISO1-ORa and 1-ORb, which were expressed in orange petals, showed no activity with any of the cis-carotenoids we tested. Moreover, the CoCRTISO1 genotypes of the F2 progeny obtained by crossing orange and yellow lines linked closely to petal color. These data indicate that CoCRTISO1 is a key regulator of the accumulation of 5-cis-carotenoids in calendula petals. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the deletion of Cys-His-His at positions 462–464 in CoCRTISO1-ORa and a Gly-to-Glu amino acid substitution at position 450 in CoCRTISO1-ORb abolished enzyme activity completely, indicating that these amino acid residues are important for the enzymatic activity of CRTISO. PMID:22069331

  9. Carotenoid isomerase is key determinant of petal color of Calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Sanae; Ohmiya, Akemi

    2012-01-02

    Orange petals of calendula (Calendula officinalis) accumulate red carotenoids with the cis-configuration at the C-5 or C-5' position (5-cis-carotenoids). We speculated that the orange-flowered calendula is a carotenoid isomerase (crtiso) loss-of-function mutant that impairs the cis-to-trans conversion of 5-cis-carotenoids. We compared the sequences and enzyme activities of CRTISO from orange- and yellow-flowered calendulas. Four types of CRTISO were expressed in calendula petals. The deduced amino acid sequence of one of these genes (CoCRTISO1) was different between orange- and yellow-flowered calendulas, whereas the sequences of the other three CRTISOs were identical between these plants. Analysis of the enzymatic activities of the CoCRTISO homologs showed that CoCRTISO1-Y, which was expressed in yellow petals, converted carotenoids from the cis-to-trans-configuration, whereas both CoCRTISO1-ORa and 1-ORb, which were expressed in orange petals, showed no activity with any of the cis-carotenoids we tested. Moreover, the CoCRTISO1 genotypes of the F2 progeny obtained by crossing orange and yellow lines linked closely to petal color. These data indicate that CoCRTISO1 is a key regulator of the accumulation of 5-cis-carotenoids in calendula petals. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the deletion of Cys-His-His at positions 462-464 in CoCRTISO1-ORa and a Gly-to-Glu amino acid substitution at position 450 in CoCRTISO1-ORb abolished enzyme activity completely, indicating that these amino acid residues are important for the enzymatic activity of CRTISO.

  10. The effect of Calendula officinalis versus metronidazole on bacterial vaginosis in women: A double-blind randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Pazhohideh, Zahra; Mohammadi, Solmaz; Bahrami, Nosrat; Mojab, Faraz; Abedi, Parvin; Maraghi, Elham

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common disorder among women of reproductive age. This study aimed to compare the effect of a Calendula officinalis extract-based cream and metronidazole on BV among women of reproductive age. In this study, 80 women of reproductive age with BV were randomly assigned to the C. officinalis (n = 40) or metronidazole (n = 40). Diagnosis of BV was confirmed when at least 3 of the 4 Amsel criteria were met (pH >4.5, whitish grey or thin homogeneous discharge, release of a fishy odor on adding 10% KOH, and detection of clue cells on microscopic examination). For each group, either a methanol extract of C. officinalis or metronidazole vaginal cream (5 g) was used for 1 week intravaginally, and all signs and symptoms were assessed 1 week after treatment completion. Before the intervention, the two groups did not differ significantly with regard to vaginal burning, odor, dysuria, and dyspareunia, but itching was significantly more common in the C. officinalis group than in the metronidazole group (22.5% vs. 2.5%, P = 0.01). One week after the intervention, all women in both groups were free of symptoms, including vaginal itching and burning sensation, odor, dysuria, and dyspareunia. None of the women in either group suffered any side effects from C. officinalis or metronidazole. C. officinalis was effective for the treatment of BV in women of reproductive age, without any side effects. This herb could be recommended for women of reproductive age who uncomfortable with the potential side effects of synthetic drugs. PMID:29441319

  11. Structure and cytotoxic activity of sesquiterpene glycoside esters from Calendula officinalis L.: Studies on the conformation of viridiflorol.

    PubMed

    D'Ambrosio, Michele; Ciocarlan, Alexandru; Colombo, Elisa; Guerriero, Antonio; Pizza, Cosimo; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Dell'Agli, Mario

    2015-09-01

    Topic applications of Calendula officinalis L. lipophilic extracts are used in phytotherapy to relieve skin inflammatory conditions whereas infusions are used as a remedy for gastric complaints. Such a different usage might be explained by some cytotoxicity of lipophilic extracts at gastric level but little is known about this. Therefore, we screened the CH2Cl2 extract from the flowers of C. officinalis by MTT and LDH assays in human epithelial gastric cells AGS. This bioassay-oriented approach led to the isolation of several sesquiterpene glycosides which were structurally characterized by spectroscopic measurements, chemical reactions and MM calculations. The conformational preferences of viridiflorol fucoside were established and a previously assigned stereochemistry was revised. The compounds 1a, 2a and 3f showed comparably high cytotoxicity in the MTT assays, whereas the effect on LDH release was lower. Our study provides new insights on the composition of C. officinalis extracts of medium polarity and identifies the main compounds that could be responsible for cytotoxic effects at gastric level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Isorhamnetin and Quercetin Derivatives as Anti-Acetylcholinesterase Principles of Marigold (Calendula officinalis) Flowers and Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Kashchenko, Nina I.; Chirikova, Nadezhda K.; Akobirshoeva, Anzurat; Zilfikarov, Ifrat N.; Vennos, Cecile

    2017-01-01

    Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) is one of the most common and widespread plants used medicinally all over the world. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-acetylcholinesterase activity of marigold flowers, detect the compounds responsible and perform chemical analysis of marigold commercial products. Analysis of 23 varieties of C. officinalis flowers introduced into Siberia allowed us to select the Greenheart Orange variety due to the superior content of flavonoids (46.87 mg/g) and the highest inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (IC50 63.52 µg/mL). Flavonoids, isorhamnetin and quercetin derivatives were revealed as potential inhibitors with the application of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) activity-based profiling. Investigation of the inhibitory activity of isorhamnetin glycosides demonstrated the maximal potency for isorhamnetin-3-O-(2′′,6′′-di-acetyl)-glucoside (IC50 51.26 μM) and minimal potency for typhaneoside (isorhamnetin-3-O-(2′′,6′′-di-rhamnosyl)-glucoside; IC50 94.92 µM). Among quercetin derivatives, the most active compound was quercetin-3-O-(2′′,6′′-di-acetyl)-glucoside (IC50 36.47 µM), and the least active component was manghaslin (quercetin-3-O-(2′′,6′′-di-rhamnosyl)-glucoside; IC50 94.92 µM). Some structure-activity relationships were discussed. Analysis of commercial marigold formulations revealed a reduced flavonoid content (from 7.18–19.85 mg/g) compared with introduced varieties. Liquid extract was the most enriched preparation, characterized by 3.10 mg/mL of total flavonoid content, and infusion was the least enriched formulation (0.41 mg/mL). The presented results suggest that isorhamnetin and quercetin and its glycosides can be considered as potential anti-acetylcholinesterase agents. PMID:28767066

  13. Isorhamnetin and Quercetin Derivatives as Anti-Acetylcholinesterase Principles of Marigold (Calendula officinalis) Flowers and Preparations.

    PubMed

    Olennikov, Daniil N; Kashchenko, Nina I; Chirikova, Nadezhda K; Akobirshoeva, Anzurat; Zilfikarov, Ifrat N; Vennos, Cecile

    2017-08-02

    Marigold ( Calendula officinalis L.) is one of the most common and widespread plants used medicinally all over the world. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-acetylcholinesterase activity of marigold flowers, detect the compounds responsible and perform chemical analysis of marigold commercial products. Analysis of 23 varieties of C. officinalis flowers introduced into Siberia allowed us to select the Greenheart Orange variety due to the superior content of flavonoids (46.87 mg/g) and the highest inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase (IC 50 63.52 µg/mL). Flavonoids, isorhamnetin and quercetin derivatives were revealed as potential inhibitors with the application of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) activity-based profiling. Investigation of the inhibitory activity of isorhamnetin glycosides demonstrated the maximal potency for isorhamnetin-3- О -(2'',6''-di-acetyl)-glucoside (IC 50 51.26 μM) and minimal potency for typhaneoside (isorhamnetin-3- O -(2'',6''-di-rhamnosyl)-glucoside; IC 50 94.92 µM). Among quercetin derivatives, the most active compound was quercetin-3- О -(2'',6''-di-acetyl)-glucoside (IC 50 36.47 µM), and the least active component was manghaslin (quercetin-3- O -(2'',6''-di-rhamnosyl)-glucoside; IC 50 94.92 µM). Some structure-activity relationships were discussed. Analysis of commercial marigold formulations revealed a reduced flavonoid content (from 7.18-19.85 mg/g) compared with introduced varieties. Liquid extract was the most enriched preparation, characterized by 3.10 mg/mL of total flavonoid content, and infusion was the least enriched formulation (0.41 mg/mL). The presented results suggest that isorhamnetin and quercetin and its glycosides can be considered as potential anti-acetylcholinesterase agents.

  14. Content of total carotenoids in Calendula officinalis L. from different countries cultivated in Estonia.

    PubMed

    Raal, Ain; Kirsipuu, Kadri; Must, Reelika; Tenno, Silvi

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the content of total carotenoids in different collections of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) inflorescences. Commercial seeds (42 samples) of C. officinalis were obtained from nine countries and cultivated in private gardens in three different counties of Estonia. The content of total carotenoids, determined spectrophotometrically (lambda=455 nm) varied in the investigated collections from 0.20 to 3.51%. The amount of pigments may depend on the type of plants, the importing company, the color of the ligulate and tubular florets, and the place and time of cultivation. For medicinal purposes, C. officinalis with brownish-yellow ligulate and tubular florets should be preferred. The best was found to be 'Golden Emperor' from Finland.

  15. [Usage of Calendula officinalis in the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis: a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial].

    PubMed

    Schneider, Franciane; Danski, Mitzy Tannia Reichembach; Vayego, Stela Adami

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of Calendula officinalis in relation to Essential Fatty Acids for the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis. This is a randomized double-blind controlled clinical trial with 51 patients with head and neck cancer in radiotherapy treatment divided into two groups: control (27) and experimental (24). There is statistically significant evidence (p-value = 0.0120) that the proportion of radiodermatitis grade 2 in Essential Fatty Acids group is higher than Calendula group. Through the Kaplan-Meier survival curve we observed that Essential Fatty Acids group has always remained below the Calendula group survival curve, due to the lower risk of developing radiodermatitis grade 1, which makes the usage of Calendula more effective, with statistical significance (p-value = 0.00402). Calendula showed better therapeutic response than the Essential Fatty Acids in the prevention and treatment of radiodermatitis. Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials: RBR-237v4b.

  16. Qualitative and quantitative high performance thin layer chromatography analysis of Calendula officinalis using high resolution plate imaging and artificial neural network data modelling.

    PubMed

    Agatonovic-Kustrin, S; Loescher, Christine M

    2013-10-10

    Calendula officinalis, commonly known Marigold, has been traditionally used for its anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of an artificial neural network (ANN) to analyse thin layer chromatography (TLC) chromatograms as fingerprint patterns for quantitative estimation of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and rutin in Calendula plant extracts. By applying samples with different weight ratios of marker compounds to the system, a database of chromatograms was constructed. A hundred and one signal intensities in each of the HPTLC chromatograms were correlated to the amounts of applied chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and rutin using an ANN. The developed ANN correlation was used to quantify the amounts of 3 marker compounds in calendula plant extracts. The minimum quantifiable level (MQL) of 610, 190 and 940 ng and the limit of detection (LD) of 183, 57 and 282 ng were established for chlorogenic, caffeic acid and rutin, respectively. A novel method for quality control of herbal products, based on HPTLC separation, high resolution digital plate imaging and ANN data analysis has been developed. The proposed method can be adopted for routine evaluation of the phytochemical variability in calendula extracts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Bio-Guided Fractionation to Assess the Inhibitory Activity of Calendula officinalis L. on the NF-κB Driven Transcription in Human Gastric Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Elisa; Sangiovanni, Enrico; D'Ambrosio, Michele; Bosisio, Enrica; Ciocarlan, Alexandru; Fumagalli, Marco; Guerriero, Antonio; Harghel, Petru; Dell'Agli, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Calendula officinalis L. has been largely known for its topical anti-inflammatory properties; however, there are no experimental evidences about its antiphlogistic effect at the gastric level. To investigate whether marigold might exert an activity against gastric inflammation, a CH2Cl2 extract obtained from C. officinalis flowers was evaluated in vitro on the NF-κB pathway. The lipophilic extract demonstrated a significant inhibitory effect on the NF-κB driven transcription. The identification of active compounds was conducted by a bio-guided fractionation of the extract that afforded 16 fractions. Fraction J exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibitory activity on the NF-κB driven transcription and significantly contributed to the antiphlogistic effect showed by CH2Cl2 extract. The main components of fraction J were loliolide and the fucoside acetates of β-eudesmol and viridiflorol. HPLC analysis of fractions D and E led to the identification and isolation of triterpene esters that showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of the NF-κB driven transcription, with faradiol-3-myristate and the corresponding aglycone being the most active compounds. The present study provides some experimental evidences that Calendula officinalis L. may exert an anti-inflammatory activity on the gastric district by the inhibition of the NF-κB system, identifying the compounds responsible, at least in part, for the observed effect. PMID:26491463

  18. Phenotypic and biochemical profile changes in calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) plants treated with two chemical mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    El-Nashar, Y I; Asrar, A A

    2016-05-06

    Chemical mutagenesis is an efficient tool used in mutation-breeding programs to improve the vital characters of the floricultural crops. This study aimed to estimate the effects of different concentrations of two chemical mutagens; sodium azide (SA) and diethyl sulfate (DES). The vegetative growth and flowering characteristics in two generations (M1 and M2) of calendula plants were investigated. Seeds were treated with five different concentrations of SA and DES (at the same rates) of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 5000 ppm, in addition to a control treatment of 0 ppm. Results showed that lower concentrations of SA mutagen had significant effects on seed germination percentage, plant height, leaf area, plant fresh weight, flowering date, inflorescence diameter, and gas-exchange measurements in plants of both generations. Calendula plants tended to flower earlier under low mutagen concentrations (1000 ppm), whereas higher concentrations delayed flowering significantly. Positive results on seed germination, plant height, number of branches, plant fresh weight, and leaf area were observed in the M2-generation at lower concentrations of SA (1000 ppm), as well as at 4000 ppm DES on number of leaves and inflorescences. The highest total soluble protein was detected at the concentrations of 1000 ppm SA and 2000 ppm DES. DES showed higher average of acid phosphatase activity than SA. Results indicated that lower concentrations of SA and DES mutagens had positive effects on seed germination percentage, plant height, leaf area, plant fresh weight, flowering date, inflorescence diameter, and gas-exchange measurements. Thus, lower mutagen concentrations could be recommended for better floral and physio-chemical performance.

  19. Evaluation of chemical enhancement on phytoremediation effect of Cd-contaminated soils with Calendula officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianv; Zhou, Qixing; Wang, Song

    2010-07-01

    The popular ornamental plant Calendula officinalis L was studied for its potential application in the phytoremediation of cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soils. Enhancements to the Cd accumulation by the application of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (EDTA) and ethylenegluatarotriacetic acid (EGTA) to the soil were investigated. Under these chemically enhanced treatments, EDTA was observed to be toxic to the plants leading to retarded growth. However, the application of SDS and/or EGTA was shown to result in significantly increased plant biomass (p < 0.05). Most of the chemical treatments resulted in increases to the shoot and root Cd concentrations, with the root Cd concentration being consistently higher than that shoot Cd concentration. Almost all of the investigated chemical treatments containing SDS or and EGTA were shown to lead to an increase in the total Cd content in the plants (p < 0.05). The application of EGTA alone led to an observed total Cd increase of up to 217%. This investigation revealed considerable efficiency of chemical enhancement and correspondingly increased potential of Calendula officinalis L. for applications of phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated sites.

  20. PI3K-mediated proliferation of fibroblasts by Calendula officinalis tincture: implication in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Dinda, Manikarna; Dasgupta, Uma; Singh, Namrata; Bhattacharyya, Debasish; Karmakar, Parimal

    2015-04-01

    Calendula officinalis, a member of the Asteraceae family, is a flowering plant and has been used for its antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiinflammatory, anticancer and wound healing activity. The mode of action of C. officinalis tincture on wound healing is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of C. officinalis tincture (CDOT) on cell viability and wound closure. C. officinalis tincture stimulated both proliferation and migration of fibroblasts in a statistically significant manner in a PI3K-dependent pathway. The increase in phosphorylation of FAK (Tyr 397) and Akt (Ser 473) was detected after treatment of CDOT. Inhibition of the PI3K pathway by wortmannin and LY294002 decreased both cell proliferation and cell migration. HPLC-ESI MS revealed the presence of flavonol glycosides as the major compounds of CDOT. Altogether, our results showed that CDOT potentiated wound healing by stimulating proliferation and migration of fibroblast in a PI3K-dependent pathway, and the identified compounds are likely to be responsible for wound healing activity. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of Calendula officinalis-advantages and limitations.

    PubMed

    Loescher, Christine M; Morton, David W; Razic, Slavica; Agatonovic-Kustrin, Snezana

    2014-09-01

    Chromatography techniques such as HPTLC and HPLC are commonly used to produce a chemical fingerprint of a plant to allow identification and quantify the main constituents within the plant. The aims of this study were to compare HPTLC and HPLC, for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major constituents of Calendula officinalis and to investigate the effect of different extraction techniques on the C. officinalis extract composition from different parts of the plant. The results found HPTLC to be effective for qualitative analysis, however, HPLC was found to be more accurate for quantitative analysis. A combination of the two methods may be useful in a quality control setting as it would allow rapid qualitative analysis of herbal material while maintaining accurate quantification of extract composition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of Calendula officinalis as an anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis agent

    PubMed Central

    Khairnar, Mayur Sudhakar; Pawar, Babita; Marawar, Pramod Parashram; Mani, Ameet

    2013-01-01

    Background: Calendula officinalis (C. officinalis), commonly known as pot marigold, is a medicinal herb with excellent antimicrobial, wound healing, and anti-inflammatory activity. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of C. officinalis in reducing dental plaque and gingival inflammation. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and forty patients within the age group of 20-40 years were enrolled in this study with their informed consent. Patients having gingivitis (probing depth (PD) ≤3 mm), with a complaint of bleeding gums were included in this study. Patients with periodontitis PD ≥ 4 mm, desquamative gingivitis, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG), smokers under antibiotic coverage, and any other history of systemic diseases or conditions, including pregnancy, were excluded from the study. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups – test group (n = 120) and control group (n = 120). All the test group patients were advised to dilute 2 ml of tincture of calendula with 6 ml of distilled water and rinse their mouths once in the morning and once in the evening for six months. Similarly, the control group patients were advised to use 8 ml distilled water (placebo) as control mouthwash and rinse mouth twice daily for six months. Clinical parameters like the plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), sulcus bleeding index (SBI), and oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) were recorded at baseline (first visit), third month (second visit), and sixth month (third visit) by the same operator, to rule out variable results. During the second visit, after recording the clinical parameters, each patient was subjected to undergo a thorough scaling procedure. Patients were instructed to carry out regular routine oral hygiene maintenance without any reinforcement in it. Results: In the absence of scaling (that is, between the first and second visit), the test group showed a statistically significant reduction in the scores of PI, GI, SBI (except OHI-S) (P < 0

  3. Evaluation of Calendula officinalis as an anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis agent.

    PubMed

    Khairnar, Mayur Sudhakar; Pawar, Babita; Marawar, Pramod Parashram; Mani, Ameet

    2013-11-01

    Calendula officinalis (C. officinalis), commonly known as pot marigold, is a medicinal herb with excellent antimicrobial, wound healing, and anti-inflammatory activity. To evaluate the efficacy of C. officinalis in reducing dental plaque and gingival inflammation. Two hundred and forty patients within the age group of 20-40 years were enrolled in this study with their informed consent. Patients having gingivitis (probing depth (PD) ≤3 mm), with a complaint of bleeding gums were included in this study. Patients with periodontitis PD ≥ 4 mm, desquamative gingivitis, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG), smokers under antibiotic coverage, and any other history of systemic diseases or conditions, including pregnancy, were excluded from the study. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups - test group (n = 120) and control group (n = 120). All the test group patients were advised to dilute 2 ml of tincture of calendula with 6 ml of distilled water and rinse their mouths once in the morning and once in the evening for six months. Similarly, the control group patients were advised to use 8 ml distilled water (placebo) as control mouthwash and rinse mouth twice daily for six months. Clinical parameters like the plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), sulcus bleeding index (SBI), and oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) were recorded at baseline (first visit), third month (second visit), and sixth month (third visit) by the same operator, to rule out variable results. During the second visit, after recording the clinical parameters, each patient was subjected to undergo a thorough scaling procedure. Patients were instructed to carry out regular routine oral hygiene maintenance without any reinforcement in it. In the absence of scaling (that is, between the first and second visit), the test group showed a statistically significant reduction in the scores of PI, GI, SBI (except OHI-S) (P < 0.05), whereas, the control group showed no reduction in

  4. Low-level laser therapy and Calendula officinalis in repairing diabetic foot ulcers.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ana Flávia Machado de; Feitosa, Maura Cristina Porto; Coelho, Nayana Pinheiro Machado de Freitas; Rebêlo, Veruska Cronemberger Nogueira; Castro, Juçara Gonçalves de; Sousa, Patrícia Regina Gomes de; Feitosa, Valrian Campos; Arisawa, Emilia Angela Lo Schiavo

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of low-level laser therapy isolated and associated with Calendula officinalis oil in treating diabetic foot ulcers. An experimental, randomized, controlled, prospective, interventional clinical case study using a quantitative approach. The sample consisted of 32 diabetic patients of both genders. Participants were randomly divided into four groups. Doppler Ultrasound evaluation of the Ankle-Brachial Index, brief pain inventory and analog pain scale were performed at baseline and after 30 days. Reduced pain was observed in the Low-level laser therapy and Low-level laser therapy associated with Essential Fatty Acids groups (p<0.01). Regarding the Ankle-Brachial Index and Doppler Ultrasound, all groups remained stable. By analyzing lesion area reduction, Low-level laser therapy associated with Essential fatty acids group showed a significance of p=0.0032, and the Low-level laser therapy group showed p=0.0428. Low-level laser therapy, performed alone or associated with the Calendula officinalis oil was effective in relieving pain and accelerating the tissue repair process of diabetic foot. Avaliar os efeitos da Terapia a Laser de Baixa Intensidade isolada e associada ao óleo de Calendula officinalis no reparo de úlceras em pé diabético. Estudo de caso clínico, experimental, controlado, randomizado, prospectivo, intervencional, de caráter quantitativo. A amostra foi composta de 32 pacientes diabéticos, de ambos os gêneros. Os participantes foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos. Ultrassom Doppler, avaliação do Índice Tornozelo-Braquial, Inventário breve de dor e escala de dor analógica foram realizados no início e após 30 dias. Houve redução da dor nos grupos Terapia a Laser de Baixa Intensidade e Terapia a Laser de Baixa intensidade associada aos Ácidos Graxos Essenciais, com p<0,01. Quanto ao Índice Tornozelo-Braquial e Ultrassom Doppler, todos os grupos mantiveram-se estáveis. Na análise da redução de

  5. Anti-oedematous activities of the main triterpendiol esters of marigold (Calendula officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Zitterl-Eglseer, K; Sosa, S; Jurenitsch, J; Schubert-Zsilavecz, M; Della Loggia, R; Tubaro, A; Bertoldi, M; Franz, C

    1997-07-01

    Separation and isolation of the genuine faradiol esters (1, 2) from flower heads of Marigold (Calendula (officinalis L., Asteraceae) could be achieved by means of repeated column chromatography (CC) and HPLC for the first time. Structure elucidation of faradiol-3-myristic acid ester 1, faradiol-3-palmitic acid ester 2 and psi-taraxasterol 3 has been also performed, without any previous degradation by means of MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and 2D-NMR experiments. The anti-oedematous activities of these three compounds were tested by means of inhibition of Croton oil-induced oedema of the mouse ear. Both faradiol esters showed nearly the same dose dependent anti-oedematous activity and no significant synergism appeared with their mixture. The free monol, psi-taraxasterol, had a slightly lower effect. Furthermore, faradiol was more active than its esters and than psi-taraxasterol and showed the same effect as an equimolar dose of indomethacin.

  6. Fatty acid composition of lipids in pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) seed genotypes.

    PubMed

    Dulf, Francisc V; Pamfil, Doru; Baciu, Adriana D; Pintea, Adela

    2013-01-17

    Calendula officinalis L. (pot marigold) is an annual aromatic herb with yellow or golden-orange flowers, native to the Mediterranean climate areas. Their seeds contain significant amounts of oil (around 20%), of which about 60% is calendic acid. For these reasons, in Europe concentrated research efforts have been directed towards the development of pot marigold as an oilseed crop for industrial purposes. The oil content and fatty acid composition of major lipid fractions in seeds from eleven genotypes of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) were determined. The lipid content of seeds varied between 13.6 and 21.7 g oil/100 g seeds. The calendic and linoleic acids were the two dominant fatty acids in total lipid (51.4 to 57.6% and 28.5 to 31.9%) and triacylglycerol (45.7 to 54.7% and 22.6 to 29.2%) fractions. Polar lipids were also characterised by higher unsaturation ratios (with the PUFAs content between 60.4 and 66.4%), while saturates (consisted mainly of palmitic and very long-chain saturated fatty acids) were found in higher amounts in sterol esters (ranging between 49.3 and 55.7% of total fatty acids). All the pot marigold seed oils investigated contain high levels of calendic acid (more than 50% of total fatty acids), making them favorable for industrial use. The compositional differences between the genotypes should be considered when breeding and exploiting the pot marigold seeds for nutraceutical and pharmacological purposes.

  7. Fatty acid composition of lipids in pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) seed genotypes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Calendula officinalis L. (pot marigold) is an annual aromatic herb with yellow or golden-orange flowers, native to the Mediterranean climate areas. Their seeds contain significant amounts of oil (around 20%), of which about 60% is calendic acid. For these reasons, in Europe concentrated research efforts have been directed towards the development of pot marigold as an oilseed crop for industrial purposes. Results The oil content and fatty acid composition of major lipid fractions in seeds from eleven genotypes of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) were determined. The lipid content of seeds varied between 13.6 and 21.7 g oil/100 g seeds. The calendic and linoleic acids were the two dominant fatty acids in total lipid (51.4 to 57.6% and 28.5 to 31.9%) and triacylglycerol (45.7 to 54.7% and 22.6 to 29.2%) fractions. Polar lipids were also characterised by higher unsaturation ratios (with the PUFAs content between 60.4 and 66.4%), while saturates (consisted mainly of palmitic and very long-chain saturated fatty acids) were found in higher amounts in sterol esters (ranging between 49.3 and 55.7% of total fatty acids). Conclusions All the pot marigold seed oils investigated contain high levels of calendic acid (more than 50% of total fatty acids), making them favorable for industrial use. The compositional differences between the genotypes should be considered when breeding and exploiting the pot marigold seeds for nutraceutical and pharmacological purposes. PMID:23327299

  8. Identification and Analysis of a Gene from Calendula officinalis Encoding a Fatty Acid Conjugase

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xiao; Reed, Darwin W.; Hong, Haiping; MacKenzie, Samuel L.; Covello, Patrick S.

    2001-01-01

    Two homologous cDNAs, CoFad2 and CoFac2, were isolated from a Calendula officinalis developing seed by a polymerase chain reaction-based cloning strategy. Both sequences share similarity to FAD2 desaturases and FAD2-related enzymes. In C. officinalis plants CoFad2 was expressed in all tissues tested, whereas CoFac2 expression was specific to developing seeds. Expression of CoFad2 cDNA in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) indicated it encodes a Δ12 desaturase that introduces a double bond at the 12 position of 16:1(9Z) and 18:1(9Z). Expression of CoFac2 in yeast revealed that the encoded enzyme acts as a fatty acid conjugase converting 18:2(9Z, 12Z) to calendic acid 18:3(8E, 10E, 12Z). The enzyme also has weak activity on the mono-unsaturates 16:1(9Z) and 18:1(9Z) producing compounds with the properties of 8,10 conjugated dienes. PMID:11161042

  9. Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi On Yield and Phytoremediation Performance of Pot Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) Under Heavy Metals Stress.

    PubMed

    Tabrizi, Leila; Mohammadi, Siavash; Delshad, Mojtaba; Moteshare Zadeh, Babak

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the effect of mycorrhizal fungi (inoculated and non-inoculated) and heavy metals stress [0, Pb (150 and 300 mg/kg) and Cd (40 and 80 mg/kg)] on pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.), a factorial experiment was conducted based on a randomized complete block design with 4 replications in Research Greenhouse of Department of Horticultural Sciences, University of Tehran, Iran, during 2012-2013. Plant height, herbal and flower fresh and dry weight, root fresh and dry weight and root volume, colonization percentage, total petal extract, total petal flavonoids, root and shoot P and K uptakes, and Pb and Cd accumulations in root and shoot were measured. Results indicated that with increasing soil Pb and Cd concentration, growth and yield of pot marigold was reduced significantly; Cd had greater negative impacts than Pb. However, mycorrhizal fungi alleviated these impacts by improving plant growth and yield. Pot marigold concentrated high amounts of Pb and especially Cd in its roots and shoots; mycorrhizal plants had a greater accumulation of these metals, so that those under 80 mg/kg Cd soil(-1) accumulated 833.3 and 1585.8 mg Cd in their shoots and roots, respectively. In conclusion, mycorrhizal fungi can improve not only growth and yield of pot marigold in heavy metal stressed condition, but also phytoremediation performance by increasing heavy metals accumulation in the plant organs.

  10. A Randomized Comparative Trial on the Therapeutic Efficacy of Topical Aloe vera and Calendula officinalis on Diaper Dermatitis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Panahi, Yunes; Sharif, Mohamad Reza; Sharif, Alireza; Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Zahiri, Zahra; Amirchoopani, Golnoush; Marzony, Eisa Tahmasbpour; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Diaper dermatitis (DD) is a common inflammatory disorder among children and infants. The objective of the present randomized and double-blind trial was to compare the therapeutic efficacies of Aloe vera cream and Calendula officinalis ointment on the frequency and severity of DD in children. Methods. Sixty-six infants with DD (aged < 3 years) were randomized to receive either Aloe cream (n = 32) or Calendula ointment (n = 34). Infants were treated with these drugs 3 times a day for 10 days. The severity of dermatitis was graded at baseline as well as at the end of trial using a 5-point scale. The adverse effects of study medications were assessed during the trial. Results. Although improvement in the severity of DD was observed in both treatment groups (P < 0.001), patients receiving Calendula ointment had significantly fewer rash sites compared to Aloe group (P = 0.001). No adverse effect was reported from either of the medications. Discussion. The evidence from this study suggests that topical Aloe and in particular Calendula could serve as safe and effective treatment for the treatment of diaper dermatitis in infants. PMID:22606064

  11. A randomized comparative trial on the therapeutic efficacy of topical aloe vera and Calendula officinalis on diaper dermatitis in children.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Yunes; Sharif, Mohamad Reza; Sharif, Alireza; Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Zahiri, Zahra; Amirchoopani, Golnoush; Marzony, Eisa Tahmasbpour; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2012-01-01

    Diaper dermatitis (DD) is a common inflammatory disorder among children and infants. The objective of the present randomized and double-blind trial was to compare the therapeutic efficacies of aloe vera cream and Calendula officinalis ointment on the frequency and severity of DD in children. Sixty-six infants with DD (aged < 3 years) were randomized to receive either aloe cream (n = 32) or Calendula ointment (n = 34). Infants were treated with these drugs 3 times a day for 10 days. The severity of dermatitis was graded at baseline as well as at the end of trial using a 5-point scale. The adverse effects of study medications were assessed during the trial. Although improvement in the severity of DD was observed in both treatment groups (P < 0.001), patients receiving Calendula ointment had significantly fewer rash sites compared to aloe group (P = 0.001). No adverse effect was reported from either of the medications. The evidence from this study suggests that topical aloe and in particular Calendula could serve as safe and effective treatment for the treatment of diaper dermatitis in infants.

  12. Antibacterial and antiparasitic activity of oleanolic acid and its glycosides isolated from marigold (Calendula officinalis).

    PubMed

    Szakiel, Anna; Ruszkowski, Dariusz; Grudniak, Anna; Kurek, Anna; Wolska, Krystyna I; Doligalska, Maria; Janiszowska, Wirginia

    2008-11-01

    The antibacterial and antiparasitic activities of free oleanolic acid and its glucosides and glucuronides isolated from marigold (Calendula officinalis) were investigated. The MIC of oleanolic acid and the effect on bacterial growth were estimated by A600 measurements. Oleanolic acid's influence on bacterial survival and the ability to induce autolysis were measured by counting the number of cfu. Cell morphology and the presence of endospores were observed under electron and light microscopy, respectively. Oleanolic acid inhibited bacterial growth and survival, influenced cell morphology and enhanced the autolysis of Gram-positive bacteria suggesting that bacterial envelopes are the target of its activity. On the other hand, glycosides of oleanolic acid inhibited the development of L3 Heligmosomoides polygyrus larvae, the infective stage of this intestinal parasitic nematode. In addition, both oleanolic acid and its glycosides reduced the rate of L3 survival during prolonged storage, but only oleanolic acid glucuronides affected nematode infectivity. The presented results suggest that oleanolic acid and its glycosides can be considered as potential therapeutic agents.

  13. Production of oleanolic acid glycosides by hairy root established cultures of Calendula officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Długosz, Marek; Wiktorowska, Ewa; Wiśniewska, Anita; Pączkowski, Cezary

    2013-01-01

    In order to initiate hairy root culture initiation cotyledons and hypocotyls of Calendula officinalis L. were infected with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC 15834 or the same strain containing pCAMBIA 1381Z vector with β-glucuronidase reporter gene under control of promoter of NIK (Nematode Induced Kinase) gene. The efficiency of induction of hairy roots reached 33.8% for cotyledons and 66.6% for hypocotyls together for both transformation experiments. Finally, eight control and nine modified lines were established as a long-term culture. The hairy root cultures showed the ability to synthesize oleanolic acid mainly (97%) as glycosides; control lines contained it at the average 8.42 mg · g(-1) dry weight in tissue and 0.23 mg · dm(-3) in medium; modified lines: 4.59 mg · g(-1) for the tissue, and 0.48 mg · dm(-3) for the medium. Additionally lines showed high positive correlation between dry/fresh weight and oleanolic acid concentration in tissue. Using the Killiani mixture in acidic hydrolysis of oleanolic acid glycosides released free aglycones that were partially acetylated in such conditions.

  14. Rapid evaluation and comparison of natural products and antioxidant activity in calendula, feverfew, and German chamomile extracts.

    PubMed

    Agatonovic-Kustrin, Snezana; Babazadeh Ortakand, Davoud; Morton, David W; Yusof, Ahmad P

    2015-03-13

    The present study describes a simple high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method for the simultaneous quantification of apigenin, chamazulene, bisabolol and the use of DPPH free radical as a post-chromatographic derivatization agent to compare the free radical scavenging activities of these components in leaf and flower head extracts from feverfew, German chamomile and marigold from the Asteraceae family. Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) leaves have been traditionally used in the treatment of migraine with parthenolide being the main bioactive compound. However, due to similar flowers, feverfew is sometimes mistaken for the German chamomile (Matricaria recutita). Bisabolol and chamazulene are the main components in chamomile essential oil. Marigold (Calendula officinalis) was included in the study for comparison, as it belongs to the same family. Parthenolide was found to be present in all leaf extracts but was not detected in calendula flower extract. Chamazulene and bisabolol were found to be present in higher concentrations in chamomile and Calendula flowers. Apigenin was detected and quantified only in chamomile extracts (highest concentration in flower head extracts). Antioxidant activity in sample extracts was compared by superimposing the chromatograms obtained after post-chromatographic derivatization with DPPH and post-chromatographic derivatization with anisaldehyde. It was found that extracts from chamomile flower heads and leaves have the most prominent antioxidant activity, with bisabolol and chamazulene being the most effective antioxidants. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Protective effect of Calendula officinalis Linn. flowers against 3-nitropropionic acid induced experimental Huntington's disease in rats.

    PubMed

    Shivasharan, B D; Nagakannan, Pandian; Thippeswamy, Boreddy Shivanandappa; Veerapur, Veeresh Prabakar; Bansal, Punit; Unnikrishnan, Mazhuvancherry K

    2013-10-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) and nitric oxide mechanisms have been recently proposed in 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP)-induced neurotoxicity. The compounds, having antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and estrogenic effects, have been suggested for neuroprotection in different experimental models. Calendula officinalis Linn. flower extract (COE) is known for its potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, estrogenic and neuroprotective activities. Hence, the present study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of COE on 3-NP-induced neurotoxicity in rats by observing behavioral changes, OS and striatal damage in rat brain. Adult female Wistar rats were pretreated with vehicle or COE (100 and 200 mg/kg) for 7 days, followed by cotreatment with 3-NP (15 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) for the next 7 days. At the end of the treatment schedule, rats were evaluated for alterations in sensory motor functions and short-term memory. Animals were sacrificed and brain homogenates were used for the estimation of lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione, total thiols, glutathione S-transferase, catalase and nitrite. A set of brain slices was used for the evaluation of neuronal damage in the striatal region of the brain. 3-NP caused significant alterations in animal behavior, oxidative defense system evidenced by raised levels of LPO and nitrite concentration, and depletion of antioxidant levels. It also produced a loss of neuronal cells in the striatal region. Treatment with COE significantly attenuated behavioral alterations, oxidative damage and striatal neuronal loss in 3-NP-treated animals. The present study shows that COE is protective against 3-NP-induced neurotoxicity in rats. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and estrogenic properties of COE may be responsible for its neuroprotective action.

  16. Evaluation of Biologically Active Compounds from Calendula officinalis Flowers using Spectrophotometry

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aimed to quantify the active biological compounds in C. officinalis flowers. Based on the active principles and biological properties of marigolds flowers reported in the literature, we sought to obtain and characterize the molecular composition of extracts prepared using different solvents. The antioxidant capacities of extracts were assessed by using spectrophotometry to measure both absorbance of the colorimetric free radical scavenger 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) as well as the total antioxidant potential, using the ferric reducing power (FRAP) assay. Results Spectrophotometric assays in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) region enabled identification and characterization of the full range of phenolic and flavonoids acids, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to identify and quantify phenolic compounds (depending on the method of extraction). Methanol ensured more efficient extraction of flavonoids than the other solvents tested. Antioxidant activity in methanolic extracts was correlated with the polyphenol content. Conclusions The UV-VIS spectra of assimilator pigments (e.g. chlorophylls), polyphenols and flavonoids extracted from the C. officinalis flowers consisted in quantitative evaluation of compounds which absorb to wavelengths broader than 360 nm. PMID:22540963

  17. Determination of the wound healing effect of Calendula extracts using the scratch assay with 3T3 fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Fronza, M; Heinzmann, B; Hamburger, M; Laufer, S; Merfort, I

    2009-12-10

    PHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Presentation of the scratch assay as a convenient and inexpensive in vitro tool to gain first insights in the wound healing potential of plant extracts and natural compounds. The present study deals with the optimization of the scratch assay which can be used as an in vitro model for quantification of fibroblast migration to and proliferation into the wounded area. It is suitable for the first evaluation of the wound re-epithelialization potential of crude herbal extracts, isolated compounds and pharmaceutical preparations. As a proof of concept three preparations from traditional medicinal plants were investigated. Swiss 3T3 albino mouse fibroblasts were used in monolayers and platelet derived growth factor as positive control. Hexane and ethanolic extracts from Calendula officinalis and Matricaria recutita, Hypericum oil as well as the triterpenoids faradiol myristate and palmitate were studied. To differentiate between proliferation and migration antimitotic mitomycin C was added. Both extracts of Calendula officinalis stimulated proliferation and migration of fibroblasts at low concentrations, e.g. 10 microg/ml enhanced cell numbers by 64.35% and 70.53%, respectively. Inhibition of proliferation showed that this effect is mainly due to stimulation of migration. Faradiol myristate and palmitate gave comparable stimulation rates at an almost 50 microg/ml concentration, indicating that they contribute partially, but not most significantly to the wound healing effects of Calendula preparations. Extracts from Matricaria recutita were only moderately active. Hypericum oil was cytotoxic at concentrations higher than 0.5 microg/ml. The scratch assay in the present form can be used as a promising scientific approach and platform to differentiate between plant extracts known for their wound healing and their anti-inflammatory properties.

  18. Individual and combined effects of fluoranthene, phenanthrene, mannitol and sulfuric acid on marigold (Calendula officinalis).

    PubMed

    Khpalwak, Wahdatullah; Abdel-Dayem, Sherif M; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2018-02-01

    A study was conducted to characterize marigold stress response to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (oxidative stress inducers) with and without sulfuric acid (S.Acid; pH 3) (acid-stress inducer), and to evaluate reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity of mannitol (Mann). Marigold (Calendula officinalis) seedlings were grown in a greenhouse and fumigated with fluoranthene (FLU), phenanthrene (PHE), Mann, and S.Acid individually and in various combinations for 40 days. Various physiological and biochemical parameters among others were analyzed using standard methods. The results revealed that fumigation of FLU induced oxidative stress to the plants via ROS generation leading to negative effects on photosynthesis at near saturating irradiance (A max ), stomatal conductance (G s ), internal carbon dioxide concentration (C i ), leaf water relations and chlorophyll pigments. Significant per cent inhibition of A max (54%), G s (86%) and C i (32%), as well as per cent reductions in chlorophyll a (Chl.a) (33%), Chl.b (34%), and total chlorophyll (Tot. Chl) (48%) contents were recorded in FLU fumigated treatment in comparison to control. Combination of Mann with FLU scavenged the generated ROS and substantially lowered the oxidative stress on the plants hence all the measured parameters were not significantly different from control. PHE fumigation had varied effects on marigold plants and was not as deleterious as FLU. Combined fumigation of S.Acid with both the PAHs had significant negative effect on leaf water relations, and positive effect on fresh and turgid weight of the plants but had no effect on the other measured parameters. The lowest proline contents and highest catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities in FLU fumigated plants further confirmed that oxidative stress was imposed via the generation of ROS. From the results, it is evident that Mann could be an efficient scavenger of ROS-generated by FLU in the marigold plants. We recommend Mann to

  19. D-Glucose as a modifying agent in gelatin/collagen matrix and reservoir nanoparticles for Calendula officinalis delivery.

    PubMed

    Lam, P-L; Kok, S H-L; Bian, Z-X; Lam, K-H; Tang, J C-O; Lee, K K-H; Gambari, R; Chui, C-H

    2014-05-01

    Gelatin/Collagen-based matrix and reservoir nanoparticles require crosslinkers to stabilize the formed nanosuspensions, considering that physical instability is the main challenge of nanoparticulate systems. The use of crosslinkers improves the physical integrity of nanoformulations under the-host environment. Aldehyde-based fixatives, such as formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde, have been widely applied to the crosslinking process of polymeric nanoparticles. However, their potential toxicity towards human beings has been demonstrated in many previous studies. In order to tackle this problem, D-glucose was used during nanoparticle formation to stabilize the gelatin/collagen-based matrix wall and reservoir wall for the deliveries of Calendula officinalis powder and oil, respectively. In addition, therapeutic selectivity between malignant and normal cells could be observed. The C. officinalis powder loaded nanoparticles significantly strengthened the anti-cancer effect towards human breast adenocarcinoma MCF7 cells and human hepatoma SKHep1 cells when compared with the free powder. On the contrary, the nanoparticles did not show significant cytotoxicity towards normal esophageal epithelial NE3 cells and human skin keratinocyte HaCaT cells. On the basis of these evidences, D-glucose modified gelatin/collagen matrix nanoparticles containing C. officinalis powder might be proposed as a safer alternative vehicle for anti-cancer treatments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor expression in KATO-III cells after Helicobacter pylori stimulation under the influence of strychnos Nux vomica and Calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    Hofbauer, Roland; Pasching, Eva; Moser, Doris; Frass, Michael

    2010-07-01

    Previous studies have shown the stimulating effect of Helicobacter pylori on the gene expression of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF) using the gastric epithelial cell line KATO-III. Strychnos Nux vomica (Nux vomica) and Calendula officinalis are used in highly diluted form in homeopathic medicine to treat patients suffering from gastritis and gastric ulcers. To investigate the influence of Nux vomica and Calendula officinalis on HB-EGF-like growth factor gene expression in KATO-III cells under the stimulation of H. pylori strain N6 using real-time PCR with and without addition of Nux vomica and Calendula officinalis as a 10c or 12c potency. Baseline expression and stimulation were similar to previous experiments, addition of Nux vomica 10c and Calendula officinalis 10c in a 43% ethanolic solution led to a significant reduction of H. pylori induced increase in gene expression of HB-EGF (reduced to 53.12+/-0.95% and 75.32+/-1.16% vs. control; p<0.05), respectively. Nux vomica 12c reduced HB-EGF gene expression even in dilutions beyond Avogadro's number (55.77+/-1.09%; p<0.05). Nux vomica 12c in a 21.5% ethanol showed a smaller effect (71.80+/-3.91%, p<0.05). This effect was only be observed when the drugs were primarily prepared in ethanol, not in aqueous solutions. The data suggest that both drugs prepared in ethanolic solution are potent inhibitors of H. pylori induced gene expression. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Separation of flavonol-2-O-glycosides from Calendula officinalis and Sambucus nigra by high-performance liquid and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.

    PubMed

    Pietta, P; Bruno, A; Mauri, P; Rava, A

    1992-02-28

    Calendula officinalis and Sambucus nigra flowers were analysed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC). RP-HPLC was performed on C8 Aquapore RP 300 columns with eluents containing 2-propanol and tetrahydrofuran. MECC was carried out on a 72-cm fused-silica capillary using sodium dodecyl sulphate and sodium borate (pH 8.3) as the running buffer. The results obtained by these techniques are compared.

  2. Evaluation of in vitro anticancer activity of Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris.

    PubMed

    Behbahani, Mandana

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to study the relationship between presence of cytotoxic compounds in Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compounds was performed by MTT assay against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and normal breast cell line (MCF 10A). The induction of apoptosis was measured by the expression levels of p53, bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 genes using quantitative Real Time PCR. Three active fractions were detected by nuclear magnetic resonance as lutein, lupeol and eugenol, respectively, in C. officinalis, A. maurorum and O. basilicum. These compounds and their epoxidized forms were also detected in their parasite C. campestris. The cytotoxic activity of lutein epoxide, lupeol epoxide and eugenol epoxide was significantly more than lutein, lupeol and eugenol. The mRNA expression level of p53, caspase-3 and bax genes were increased in both cancer cells treated with all pure compounds. However, bcl-2 gene expression decreased in treated breast cancer cells. In conclusion, all the data indicated that the epoxide forms of lupeol, lutein and eugenol are potential drug candidates for inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer cells.

  3. Evaluation of In Vitro Anticancer Activity of Ocimum Basilicum, Alhagi Maurorum, Calendula Officinalis and Their Parasite Cuscuta Campestris

    PubMed Central

    Behbahani, Mandana

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out to study the relationship between presence of cytotoxic compounds in Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compounds was performed by MTT assay against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and normal breast cell line (MCF 10A). The induction of apoptosis was measured by the expression levels of p53, bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 genes using quantitative Real Time PCR. Three active fractions were detected by nuclear magnetic resonance as lutein, lupeol and eugenol, respectively, in C. officinalis, A. maurorum and O. basilicum. These compounds and their epoxidized forms were also detected in their parasite C. campestris. The cytotoxic activity of lutein epoxide, lupeol epoxide and eugenol epoxide was significantly more than lutein, lupeol and eugenol. The mRNA expression level of p53, caspase-3 and bax genes were increased in both cancer cells treated with all pure compounds. However, bcl-2 gene expression decreased in treated breast cancer cells. In conclusion, all the data indicated that the epoxide forms of lupeol, lutein and eugenol are potential drug candidates for inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. PMID:25548920

  4. Mutagenic influences of colchicine on phenological and molecular diversity of Calendula officinalis L.

    PubMed

    El-Nashar, Y I; Ammar, M H

    2016-04-26

    Six different colchicine concentrations: 0, 400, 800, 1200, 1600, and 2000 ppm, in combination with four soaking time treatments (1, 2, 3, and 4 h), were selected to assess the effects on germination, vegetative growth, and flower yield components in calendula plants. The molecular diversity among the treatments was assessed using ten SRAP marker combinations. Seed soaking in colchicine significantly enhanced both the fresh and the dry shoot and root masses, flowering date, number of flowers per plant, and flower diameter. At 1200-ppm colchicine combined with a 4-h soaking time, a superior effect on seed germination was observed, whereas 800 ppm for 4 h produced the highest number of flowers and the largest flower diameter. The earliest flowering time was found at 800 ppm combined with a short soaking time (1 h), while the 4-h soaking time with 800 ppm, is recommended for growing calendula outdoors, since it enhances flower development. At the molecular level, 752 fragments were successfully amplified using the SRAP primers, with 280 genetic loci found throughout the calendula genome. The polymorphism percentage ranged from 79 to 100% and the polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged between 0.85 and 0.97. The high number of detected loci and PIC values suggests a great power of SRAP markers in detecting mutant molecular diversity. Our results clearly show the existence of genetic variation among colchicine treated calendula plants and the clustering of the studied mutants was concordant with the colchicine concentration used.

  5. Anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor-promoting, and cytotoxic activities of constituents of marigold (Calendula officinalis) flowers.

    PubMed

    Ukiya, Motohiko; Akihisa, Toshihiro; Yasukawa, Ken; Tokuda, Harukuni; Suzuki, Takashi; Kimura, Yumiko

    2006-12-01

    Ten oleanane-type triterpene glycosides, 1-10, including four new compounds, calendulaglycoside A 6'-O-methyl ester (2), calendulaglycoside A 6'-O-n-butyl ester (3), calendulaglycoside B 6'-O-n-butyl ester (5), and calendulaglycoside C 6'-O-n-butyl ester (8), along with five known flavonol glycosides, 11-15, were isolated from the flowers of marigold (Calendula officinalis). Upon evaluation of compounds 1-9 for inhibitory activity against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation (1 microg/ear) in mice, all of the compounds, except for 1, exhibited marked anti-inflammatory activity, with ID50 values of 0.05-0.20 mg per ear. In addition, when 1-15 were evaluated against the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by TPA, compounds 1-10 exhibited moderate inhibitory effects (IC50 values of 471-487 mol ratio/32 pmol TPA). Furthermore, upon evaluation of the cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines in vitro in the NCI Developmental Therapeutics Program, two triterpene glycosides, 9 and 10, exhibited their most potent cytotoxic effects against colon cancer, leukemia, and melanoma cells.

  6. Lead content in pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) inflorescences and leaves: impact of precipitations and vicinity of motorway.

    PubMed

    Meos, Andres; Jüriado, Tiiu; Matto, Vallo; Raal, Ain

    2011-05-01

    Trace metal contamination is a major environmental and health problem virtually in all countries. The present study was aimed to estimate the lead content of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) inflorescences and leaves collected from a nonpolluted test field. The lead content in dry pot marigold inflorescences was 9.34 ± 0.79 µg/g, in dry leaves 11.57 ± 0.47 µg/g, and in soil 0.649 ± 0.012 µg/g. The distance of pot marigold collection beds (30-220 m from the motorway) had no effect on lead content. There was a strong positive correlation between the amount of precipitations and lead content of pot marigold leaves but not inflorescences indicating the soil as primarily the source of increased lead content. In conclusion, no effect of motorway vicinity was found for pot marigold inflorescences or leaves lead content; however, as a precaution, it is not recommended to collect the plants during or just after showers.

  7. Medicinal flowers. III. Marigold. (1): hypoglycemic, gastric emptying inhibitory, and gastroprotective principles and new oleanane-type triterpene oligoglycosides, calendasaponins A, B, C, and D, from Egyptian Calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, M; Murakami, T; Kishi, A; Kageura, T; Matsuda, H

    2001-07-01

    The methanolic extract and its 1-butanol-soluble fraction from the flowers of Calendula officinalis were found to show a hypoglycemic effect, inhibitory activity of gastric emptying, and gastroprotective effect. From the 1-butanol-soluble fraction, four new triterpene oligoglycosides, calendasaponins A, B, C, and D, were isolated, together with eight known saponins, seven known flavonol glycosides, and a known sesquiterpene glucoside. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. The principal saponin constituents, glycosides A, B, C, D, and F, exhibited potent inhibitory effects on an increase in serum glucose levels in glucose-loaded rats, gastric emptying in mice, and ethanol- and indomethacin-induced gastric lesions in rats. Some structure-activity relationships are discussed.

  8. Neuroprotective properties of Valeriana officinalis extracts.

    PubMed

    Malva, João O; Santos, Sandra; Macedo, Tice

    2004-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis have been used in traditional medicine for its sedative, hypnotic, and anticonvulsant effects. There are several reports in the literature supporting a GABAergic mechanism of action for valerian. The rationale of the present work is based on the concept that by decreasing neuronal network excitability valerian consumption may contribute to neuroprotection. The aim of our investigation was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of V. officinalis against the toxicity induced by amyloid beta peptide 25-35 Abeta(25-35). Cultured rat hippocampal neurons were exposed to Abeta(25-35) (25 microM) for 24-48 h, after which morphological and biochemical properties were evaluated. The neuronal injury evoked by Abeta, which includes a decrease in cell reducing capacity and associated neuronal degeneration, was prevented by valerian extract. Analysis of intracellular free calcium (Ca(2+)i) indicated that the neuroprotective mechanisms may involve the inhibition of excess influx of Ca2+ following neuronal injury. Moreover, membrane peroxidation in rat hippocampal synaptosomes was evaluated, and our data indicate that valerian extract partially inhibited ascorbate/iron-induced peroxidation. In conclusion we show evidence that the signalling pathways involving Ca(2+)i and the redox state of the cells may play a central role in the neuroprotective properties of V. officinalis extract against Abeta toxicity. The novelty of the findings of the present work, indicating neuroprotective properties of valerian against Abeta toxicity may, at the long-term, contribute to introduction of a new relevant use of valerian alcoholic extract to prevent neuronal degeneration in aging or neurodegenerative disorders.

  9. Development of lamellar gel phase emulsion containing marigold oil (Calendula officinalis) as a potential modern wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Okuma, C H; Andrade, T A M; Caetano, G F; Finci, L I; Maciel, N R; Topan, J F; Cefali, L C; Polizello, A C M; Carlo, T; Rogerio, A P; Spadaro, A C C; Isaac, V L B; Frade, M A C; Rocha-Filho, P A

    2015-04-25

    Appropriate therapeutics for wound treatments can be achieved by studying the pathophysiology of tissue repair. Here we develop formulations of lamellar gel phase (LGP) emulsions containing marigold (Calendula officinalis) oil, evaluating their stability and activity on experimental wound healing in rats. LGP emulsions were developed and evaluated based on a phase ternary diagram to select the best LGP emulsion, having a good amount of anisotropic structure and stability. The selected LGP formulation was analyzed according to the intrinsic and accelerated physical stability at different temperatures. In addition, in vitro and in vivo studies were carried out on wound healing rats as a model. The LGP emulsion (15.0% marigold oil; 10.0% of blend surfactants and 75.0% of purified water [w/w/w]) demonstrated good stability and high viscosity, suggesting longer contact of the formulation with the wound. No cytotoxic activity (50-1000 μg/mL) was observed in marigold oil. In the wound healing rat model, the LGP (15 mg/mL) showed an increase in the leukocyte recruitment to the wound at least on days 2 and 7, but reduced leukocyte recruitment after 14 and 21 days, as compared to the control. Additionally, collagen production was reduced in the LGP emulsion on days 2 and 7 and further accelerated the process of re-epithelialization of the wound itself. The methodology utilized in the present study has produced a potentially useful formulation for a stable LGP emulsion-containing marigold, which was able to improve the wound healing process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Increased synthesis of a new oleanane-type saponin in hairy roots of marigold (Calendula officinalis) after treatment with jasmonic acid.

    PubMed

    Markowski, Michał; Długosz, Marek; Szakiel, Anna; Durli, Mathieu; Poinsignon, Sophie; Bouguet-Bonnet, Sabine; Vernex-Loset, Lionel; Krier, Gabriel; Henry, Max

    2018-04-18

    Native plant of marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) synthesizes oleanolic acid saponins classified as glucosides or glucuronides according to the first residue in sugar chain bound to C-3 hydroxyl group. Hairy root culture, obtained by transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain 15834, exhibit a potent ability of synthesis of oleanolic acid glycosides. The HPLC profile of saponin fraction obtained from C. officinalis hairy roots treated with plant stress hormone, jasmonic acid, showed the 10-times increase of the content of one particular compound, determined by NMR and MALDI TOF as a new bisdesmoside saponin, 3-O-β-d-glucuronopyranosyl-28-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl-oleanolic acid. Such a diglycoside does not occur in native C. officinalis plant. It is a glucuronide, whereas in the native plant glucuronides are mainly accumulated in flowers, while glucosides are the most abundant saponins in roots. Thus, our results revealed that the pathways of saponin biosynthesis, particularly reactions of glycosylation, are altered in C. officinalis hairy root culture.

  11. Using Calendula officinalis as a floral resource to enhance aphid and thrips suppression by the flower bug Orius sauteri (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Guo, Xiaojun; Tan, Xiaoling; Desneux, Nicolas; Zappala, Lucia; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Su

    2017-03-01

    The flower bug Orius sauteri (Poppius) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) is widely used as a biocontrol agent against thrips and aphids infesting greenhouse vegetables in Asia. The survival and oviposition of such predators, as well as the biocontrol services they provide, may be enhanced by adding extra floral resources to the crops. In the present study we investigated the effects of the plant Calendula officinalis L., used as a floral resource, for promoting the control of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) by O. sauteri under laboratory and greenhouse conditions. Results showed that the presence of C. officinalis enhanced aphid and thrips suppression via an increased O. sauteri population growth. The predator populations responded positively to the addition of C. officinalis in the system, and they also varied as a function of the temperatures tested under laboratory conditions. In a similar way, predator populations varied among seasons, with the highest densities recorded in May in the greenhouse. C. officinalis can be used to increase available resources for natural enemies used in agricultural crops, notably in greenhouses. This study also provides evidence that increasing floral resources can enhance pest suppression provided by O. sauteri. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Mastering analytical challenges for the characterization of pentacyclic triterpene mono- and diesters of Calendula officinalis flowers by non-aqueous C30 HPLC and hyphenation with APCI-QTOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Nicolaus, Christoph; Sievers-Engler, Adrian; Murillo, Renato; D'Ambrosio, Michele; Lämmerhofer, Michael; Merfort, Irmgard

    2016-01-25

    Pentacyclic triterpene mono- and diesters have been isolated from Calendula officinalis flowers. GC-MS, APCI-Exactive Orbitrap HR-MS and NMR allowed to identify the triterpene skeleton in various samples (different triterpene mixtures from Calendula n-hexane extract). NMR provided evidence that triterpene diesters are present in the samples as well. However, the corresponding quasi-molecular ions could not be detected by APCI-Exactive Orbitrap HR-MS. Instability of triterpene diesters and loss of a fatty acid residue, respectively, in the ion-source made their MS detection challenging. Thus, a set of new APCI-QTOF-MS methods (using the TripleTOF 5600+ mass spectrometer) were developed which made it eventually possible to solve this problem and confirm the diester structures by MS via quasi-molecular ion [M+H](+) detection. Direct infusion APCI-QTOF MS experiments in MS/MS high sensitivity scan mode with low collision energy and multi-channel averaging acquisition (MCA) allowed the detection of quasi-molecular ions of triterpene diesters for the first time and unequivocally confirmed the presence of faradiol 3,16-dimyristate and -dipalmitate, as well as the corresponding mixed diesters faradiol 3-myristate,16-palmitate and faradiol 3-palmitate,16-myristate. Preferential loss of the fatty acid in 16-position made it possible to distinguish the mixed diesters by MS/MS spectra. Their chromatographic separations turned out to be challenging due to their bulkiness and extended molecular dimensions. However, separation could be achieved by an uncommon non-aqueous RPLC mode with an in-house synthesized C30 phase. Finally, two (U)HPLC-APCI-QTOF-MS methods with C18- and C30-based non-aqueous RPLC provided suitable, sensitive assays to monitor the presence of monoesters and diesters of various triterpenes (faradiol, maniladiol, arnidiol, arnitriol A and lupane-3β,16β,20-triol esters) in the n-hexane extract of C. officinalis with high mass resolution and good mass accuracy

  13. Extraction of valerenic acids from valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.) rhizomes.

    PubMed

    Boyadzhiev, L; Kancheva, D; Gourdon, C; Metcheva, D

    2004-09-01

    Extraction of valerenic acids (valerenic, acetoxyvalerenic and hydroxyvalerenic) from dry ground rhizomes of valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.) was studied. The effect of ethanol concentration in the solvent, extraction temperature and drug particle size on extraction kinetics were investigated and the optimum values of these process parameters were determined for the case of intensively stirred two-phase dispersion. It was found that increased processing temperature favors extraction kinetics, but provokes moderate degradation of valerenic acids.

  14. Repellency Effects of Essential Oils of Myrtle (Myrtus communis), Marigold (Calendula officinalis) Compared with DEET against Anopheles stephensi on Human Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Tavassoli, M; Shayeghi, M; Abai, Mr; Vatandoost, H; Khoobdel, M; Salari, M; Ghaderi, A; Rafi, F

    2011-01-01

    Malaria and leishmaniasis are two most significant parasitic diseases which are endemic in Iran. Over the past decades, interest in botanical repellents has increased as a result of safety to human. The comparative efficacy of essential oils of two native plants, myrtle (Myrtus communis) and marigold (Calendula officinalis) collected from natural habitats at southern Iran was compared with DEET as synthetic repellent against Anopheles stephensi on human subjects under laboratory condition. Essential oils from two species of native plants were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation. The protection time of DEET, marigold and myrtle was assessed on human subject using screened cage method against An. stephensi. The effective dose of 50% essential oils of two latter species and DEET were determined by modified ASTM method. ED(50) and ED(90) values and related statistical parameters were calculated by probit analysis. The protection time of 50% essential oils of marigold and myrtle were respectively 2.15 and 4.36 hours compared to 6.23 hours for DEET 25%. The median effective dose (ED(50)) of 50% essential oils was 0.1105 and 0.6034 mg/cm(2) respectively in myrtle and marigold. The figure for DEET was 0.0023 mg/cm(2). This study exhibited that the repellency of both botanical repellents was generally lower than DEET as a synthetic repellent. However the 50% essential oil of myrtle showed a moderate repellency effects compared to marigold against An. stephensi.

  15. Repellency Effects of Essential Oils of Myrtle (Myrtus communis), Marigold (Calendula officinalis) Compared with DEET against Anopheles stephensi on Human Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Tavassoli, M; Shayeghi, M; Abai, MR; Vatandoost, H; Khoobdel, M; Salari, M; Ghaderi, A; Rafi, F

    2011-01-01

    Background: Malaria and leishmaniasis are two most significant parasitic diseases which are endemic in Iran. Over the past decades, interest in botanical repellents has increased as a result of safety to human. The comparative efficacy of essential oils of two native plants, myrtle (Myrtus communis) and marigold (Calendula officinalis) collected from natural habitats at southern Iran was compared with DEET as synthetic repellent against Anopheles stephensi on human subjects under laboratory condition. Methods: Essential oils from two species of native plants were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation. The protection time of DEET, marigold and myrtle was assessed on human subject using screened cage method against An. stephensi. The effective dose of 50% essential oils of two latter species and DEET were determined by modified ASTM method. ED50 and ED90 values and related statistical parameters were calculated by probit analysis. Results: The protection time of 50% essential oils of marigold and myrtle were respectively 2.15 and 4.36 hours compared to 6.23 hours for DEET 25%. The median effective dose (ED50) of 50% essential oils was 0.1105 and 0.6034 mg/cm2 respectively in myrtle and marigold. The figure for DEET was 0.0023 mg/cm2. Conclusion: This study exhibited that the repellency of both botanical repellents was generally lower than DEET as a synthetic repellent. However the 50% essential oil of myrtle showed a moderate repellency effects compared to marigold against An. stephensi. PMID:22808414

  16. Synergistic antibacterial activity of Salvia officinalis and Cichorium intybus extracts and antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Stefanović, Olgica D; Stanojević, Dragana D; Comić, Ljiljana R

    2012-01-01

    Synergistic activity of Salvia officinalis and Cichorium intybus extracts and commonly used antibiotics, amoxicillin and chloramphenicol, were evaluated. Interactions between plant extracts and antibiotics were tested by checkerboard method and interpreted as FIC index. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and clinical isolates Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis were used. Salvia officinalis showed better synergistic capacity than Cichorium intybus. Synergistic interactions were observed between amoxicillin and acetone or ethyl acetate extract of Salvia officinalis and between chloramphenicol and ethyl acetate extract of Salvia officinalis. In the presence of sub-inhibitory concentration (1/4 MIC to 1/32 MIC) of sage extracts, the MIC values of antibiotics were decreased by 2- to 10-fold. Synergism was observed against all test bacteria, except Escherichia coli. The combinations of acetone and ethyl acetate extract from Cichorium intybus and antibiotics resulted in additive and indifferent effects against tested bacteria.

  17. The seamy side of natural medicines: contact sensitization to arnica (Arnica montana L.) and marigold (Calendula officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Reider, N; Komericki, P; Hausen, B M; Fritsch, P; Aberer, W

    2001-11-01

    Medical remedies of plant origin have gained increasing popularity in recent years. Both anaphylactic and eczematous allergic reactions are on the rise, accordingly. Arnica and marigold, both of the Compositae family, are in widespread use, but only limited data are available on their allergenic potential. We tested 443 consecutive patients, in addition to the European standard and other series, with Compositae mix, sesquiterpene lactone mix, arnica, marigold, and propolis. 5 subjects ( approximately 1.13%) reacted to arnica, 9 ( approximately 2.03%) to marigold. The Compositae mix was positive in 18 cases ( approximately 4.06%). Among them were 3 out of 5 individuals with a sensitization to arnica, and 4 out of 9 who reacted to marigold. Sensitization to arnica and marigold was often accompanied by reactions to nickel, Myroxylon Pereirae resin, fragrance mix, propolis, and colophonium. We conclude that Compositae allergy contributes significantly to the epidemiology of contact dermatitis and that sensitization to arnica and marigold cannot be assessed by testing with the Compositae or sesquiterpene mix alone. As extracts of these plants are frequently used in occupational and cosmetic products, patch testing with additional plant extracts or adjustment of the commercial Compositae mix to regional conditions is recommended.

  18. Biological and analytical characterization of two extracts from Valeriana officinalis.

    PubMed

    Circosta, Clara; De Pasquale, Rita; Samperi, Stefania; Pino, Annalisa; Occhiuto, Francesco

    2007-06-13

    The anticoronaryspastic and antibronchospastic activities of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Valeriana officinalis L. roots were investigated in anaesthetized guinea-pigs and the results were correlated with the qualitative/quantitative chemical composition of the extracts in order to account for some of the common uses of this plant. The protective effects of orally administered ethanolic and aqueous extracts (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) were evaluated against pitressin-induced coronary spasm and pressor response in guinea-pigs and were compared with those of nifedipine. Furthermore, the protective effects against histamine-induced and Oleaceae antigen challenge-induced bronchospasm were evaluated. Finally, the two valerian extracts were analytically characterized by qualitative and quantitative chromatographic analysis. The results showed that the two valeriana extracts possessed significant anticoronaryspastic, antihypertensive and antibronchospastic properties. These were similar to those exhibited by nifedipine and are due to the structural features of the active principles they contain. This study justifies the traditional use of this plant in the treatment of some respiratory and cardiovascular disorders.

  19. Antioxidant activity and sensory evaluation of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was developed using supercritical fluid extraction, followed by hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The extract contained RA at a conc...

  20. Rosmarinus officinalis Extract Suppresses Propionibacterium acnes–Induced Inflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chuang, Lu-Te; Lien, Tsung-Jung; Liing, Yau-Rong; Chen, Wei-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Propionibacterium acnes is a key pathogen involved in the progression of acne inflammation. The development of a new agent possessing antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity against P. acnes is therefore of interest. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract on P. acnes–induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that ethanolic rosemary extract (ERE) significantly suppressed the secretion and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α in P. acnes–stimulated monocytic THP-1 cells. In an in vivo mouse model, concomitant intradermal injection of ERE attenuated the P. acnes–induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. Since ERE suppressed the P. acnes–induced nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation and mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, the suppressive effect of ERE might be due, at least partially, to diminished NF-κB activation and TLR2-mediated signaling pathways. Furthermore, three major constituents of ERE, carnosol, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid, exerted different immumodulatory activities in vitro. In brief, rosmarinic acid significantly suppressed IL-8 production, while the other two compounds inhibited IL-1β production. Further study is needed to explore the role of bioactive compounds of rosemary in mitigation of P. acnes–induced inflammation. PMID:23514231

  1. Variation in seed lipids in Calendula germplasm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Calendula officinalis (pot marigold) has considerable promise as an industrial crop, with a long history as an ornamental and medicinal plant. It is also marketed as an ingredient in cosmetics and a colorant. It produces unusual seed lipids, which can provide an additional market for commercial Ca...

  2. Antioxidant activity and sensory assessment of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction, followed by a Soxhlet hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The ext...

  3. Snake venom neutralization by Indian medicinal plants (Vitex negundo and Emblica officinalis) root extracts.

    PubMed

    Alam, M I; Gomes, A

    2003-05-01

    The methanolic root extracts of Vitex negundo Linn. and Emblica officinalis Gaertn. were explored for the first time for antisnake venom activity. The plant (V. negundo and E. officinalis) extracts significantly antagonized the Vipera russellii and Naja kaouthia venom induced lethal activity both in in vitro and in vivo studies. V. russellii venom-induced haemorrhage, coagulant, defibrinogenating and inflammatory activity was significantly neutralized by both plant extracts. No precipitating bands were observed between the plant extract and snake venom. The above observations confirmed that the plant extracts possess potent snake venom neutralizing capacity and need further investigation.

  4. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis on nicotine-induced convulsion in mice.

    PubMed

    Arzi, A; Ahamehe, M; Sarahroodi, S

    2011-06-01

    Epilepsy an important CNS (central nervous system) problem that about 1% of world's population suffer of it. The aim of study was to evaluate of anticonvulsant effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis. In this study, anticonvulsant activity of the hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis (L. officinalis) was studied against chemoconvulsant-induced seizures in male mice. Lavandula officinalis (100, 200, 400, 600 and 800 mg kg(-1)), diazepam (0.15 mg kg(-1)) and normal saline (10 mL kg(-1)) were injected intraperitoneally, respectively in different groups of mice, 30 min before nicotine (5 mg kg(-) i.p.). The onset time intensity and duration of convulsions and the percentage of death were recorded. Also the time-response (0, 15, 30, 45, 60 min before nicotine injection) for most effective dose of plant extract (600 mg kg(-1)) was investigated. The results showed that hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis had anticonvulsant effect. The most effective dose of plant extract was 600 mg kg(-1). In time-response study for the most effective dose of extract (600 mg kg(-1)), the onset, duration and intensity of convulsion significantly (p < 0.05) increased, decreased and decreased, respectively for all tested times. The best response observed in 30, 45 and 60 min. The results showed significant anticonvulsant effect for hydroalcoholic extract of Lavandula.

  5. Valeriana officinalis Dry Plant Extract for Direct Compression: Preparation and Characterization.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Loreana; Ramírez-Rigo, María Veronica; Piña, Juliana; Palma, Santiago; Allemandi, Daniel; Bucalá, Verónica

    2012-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerianaceae) is one of the most widely used plants for the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. Usually dry plant extracts, including V. officinalis, are hygroscopic materials with poor physico-mechanical properties that can be directly compressed.A V. officinalis dry extract with moderate hygroscocity is suitable for direct compression, and was obtained by using a simple and economical technique. The V. officinalis fluid extract was oven-dried with colloidal silicon dioxide as a drying adjuvant. The addition of colloidal silicon dioxide resulted in a dry plant extract with good physico-mechanical properties for direct compression and lower hygroscopicity than the dry extract without the carrier. The dry plant extract glass transition temperature was considerably above room temperature (about 72 °C). The colloidal silicon dioxide also produced an antiplasticizing effect, improving the powder's physical stability.The pharmaceutical performance of the prepared V. officinalis dry extract was studied through the design of tablets. The manufactured tablets showed good compactability, friability, hardness, and disintegration time. Those containing a disintegrant (Avicel PH 101) exhibited the best pharmaceutical performance, having the lowest disintegration time of around 40 seconds.

  6. Valeriana officinalis Dry Plant Extract for Direct Compression: Preparation and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Loreana; Ramírez-Rigo, María Veronica; Piña, Juliana; Palma, Santiago; Allemandi, Daniel; Bucalá, Verónica

    2012-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerianaceae) is one of the most widely used plants for the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. Usually dry plant extracts, including V. officinalis, are hygroscopic materials with poor physico-mechanical properties that can be directly compressed. A V. officinalis dry extract with moderate hygroscocity is suitable for direct compression, and was obtained by using a simple and economical technique. The V. officinalis fluid extract was oven-dried with colloidal silicon dioxide as a drying adjuvant. The addition of colloidal silicon dioxide resulted in a dry plant extract with good physico-mechanical properties for direct compression and lower hygroscopicity than the dry extract without the carrier. The dry plant extract glass transition temperature was considerably above room temperature (about 72 °C). The colloidal silicon dioxide also produced an antiplasticizing effect, improving the powder’s physical stability. The pharmaceutical performance of the prepared V. officinalis dry extract was studied through the design of tablets. The manufactured tablets showed good compactability, friability, hardness, and disintegration time. Those containing a disintegrant (Avicel PH 101) exhibited the best pharmaceutical performance, having the lowest disintegration time of around 40 seconds. PMID:23264947

  7. Green biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Althaea officinalis radix hydroalcoholic extract.

    PubMed

    Korbekandi, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Chitsazi, Mohammad Reza; Bahri Najafi, Rahim; Badii, Akbar; Iravani, Siavash

    2016-01-01

    The objectives were to study the potential of Althaea officinalis radix in production of silver NPs, and the effect of the extract ethanol concentration on the produced NPs. Seventy and ninety-six percent hydroalcoholic extracts were prepared by percolation of the plant powder. The extract was concentrated by rotary evaporator and then freeze-dried. Silver ions were determined using atomic absorption analysis. The NPs were characterized by Nano-Zeta Sizer and TEM. Both of 70% and 96% of hydroalcoholic extracts of A. officinalis radix successfully synthesized spherical and poly-dispersed silver NPs. The conversion was fast and almost completed in 5 h.

  8. Biosynthesis of flat silver nanoflowers: from Flos Magnoliae Officinalis extract to simulation solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Xiaolian; Huang, Jiale; Wu, Lingfeng; Sun, Daohua; Li, Qingbiao

    2014-03-01

    Flat Ag nanoflowers were directly synthesized from the bioreduction of AgNO3 using Flos Magnoliae Officinalis extract without any additional stabilizer or protective agent at room temperature. Effects of concentrations of the Flos Magnoliae Officinalis extract on the Ag nanostructures were investigated. The main components containing flavone, polyphenol, protein, and reducing sugar in the plant extract were thoroughly determined before and after the reaction, and the dialysis experiments were also conducted. The results of components analysis and dialysis showed that gallic acid representing polyphenols played an important role in the biosynthesis of silver nanoplates. Trisodium citrate combined gallic acid solution, instead of Flos Magnoliae Officinalis extract, was employed and successfully simulated the biosynthesis process of the flat Ag nanoflowers.

  9. Valeriana officinalis Root Extract Modulates Cortical Excitatory Circuits in Humans.

    PubMed

    Mineo, Ludovico; Concerto, Carmen; Patel, Dhaval; Mayorga, Tyrone; Paula, Michael; Chusid, Eileen; Aguglia, Eugenio; Battaglia, Fortunato

    2017-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis extract (VE) is a popular herbal medicine used for the treatment of anxiety and sleep disorders. Although the anxiolytic and sedative effects are mainly attributed to the modulation of GABA-ergic transmission, the mechanism of action has not been fully investigated in humans. Noninvasive brain stimulation protocols can be used to elucidate the mechanisms of action of psychoactive substances at the cortical level in humans. In this study, we investigated the effects of a single dose of VE on cortical excitability as assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Fifteen healthy volunteers participated in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled study. Subjects were required to take either 900 mg of VE (valerenic acid 0.8%) or placebo (an equal dose of vitamin E). Motor cortex excitability was studied by single and paired TMS before and at 1 h and 6 h after the oral administration. Cortical excitability was assessed using different TMS parameters: resting motor threshold, motor-evoked potential amplitude, cortical silent period, short-interval intracortical inhibition, and intracortical facilitation. Furthermore, we assessed sensorimotor integration by short-latency and long-latency afferent inhibition. We found a significant reduction in ICF, without any significant changes in other TMS measures of motor cortex excitability. The amount of ICF returned to baseline value 6 h after the intake of the VE. A single oral dose of VE modulates intracortical facilitatory circuits. Our results in healthy subjects could be predictive markers of treatment response in patients and further support the use of pharmaco-TMS to investigate the neuropsychiatric effects of herbal therapies in humans. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Limited seed and seed yield response of calendula to applied nitrogen does not justify risk of environmental damage from high urea application rates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) is a source of industrial oil, which can serve as a domestic substitute for petroleum or imported specialty crop oils. Traditionally, calendula has been grown for medicinal or ornamental properties. However, little is known about nitrogen (N) requirement of growi...

  11. Reduction of intoxication in the rats with transplanted tumors under the influence of Gratiola officinalis L. extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navolokin, N. A.; Polukonova, A. V.; Plastun, I. L.; Mudrak, D. A.; Bokarev, A. N.; Afanasyeva, G. A.; Bucharskaya, A. B.; Maslyakova, G. N.; Polukonova, N. V.

    2018-04-01

    This study focuses on the effect of the flavonoid-containing Gratiola officinalis L. extract with antitumor activity on the intensity of peroxidation and the content of vitamin E in the blood serum of animals with transplanted liver cancer PC-1. Intramuscular and oral administrations of the Gratiola officinalis extract in a dose of 110 mg/kg reduce MDA concentration (more than 20 times) and lipid hydroperoxide (more than 1.5 times) in rats with transplanted tumors. This effect leads to decrease in intensity of lipid peroxidation processes in animals. The Gratiola officinalis extract administration increases the vitamin E concentration (more than 1.3 times) in the serum of rats. This result enables to suggest that the extract of Gratiola officinalis contains the tocopherols. Thus, the study of mechanisms of the Gratiola officinalis extract influence on the activity of peroxidation processes and on the activation of the antioxidant system is promising.

  12. Antioxidant Activities and Caffeic Acid Content in New Zealand Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) Roots Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongxia; Al-Juhaimi, Fahad Y.; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    Asparagus officinalis are perennial plants that require re-planting every 10–20 years. The roots are traditionally mulched in the soil or treated as waste. The A. officinalis roots (AR) contain valuable bioactive compounds that may have some health benefiting properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the total polyphenol and flavonoid contents (TPC and TFC, respectively) and antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) and Ferric Reducing/Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assays) activities of New Zealand AR extract. The antioxidant activity decreased with a longer extraction time. PMID:29617287

  13. Anti-epileptogenic and antioxidant effect of Lavandula officinalis aerial part extract against pentylenetetrazol-induced kindling in male mice.

    PubMed

    Rahmati, Batool; Khalili, Mohsen; Roghani, Mehrdad; Ahghari, Parisa

    2013-06-21

    Repeated application of Lavandula officinalis (L. officinalis) has been recommended for a long time in Iranian traditional medicine for some of nervous disorders like epilepsy and dementia. However, there is no available report for the effect of chronic administration of Lavandula extract in development (acquisition) of epilepsy. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the anti-epileptogenic and antioxidant activity of repeated administration of Lavandula officinalis extract on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) kindling seizures in mice model. Lavandula officinalis was tested for its ability (i) to suppress the seizure intensity and lethal effects of PTZ in kindled mice (anti-epileptogenic effect), (ii) to attenuate the PTZ-induced oxidative injury in the brain tissue (antioxidant effect) when given as a pretreatment prior to each PTZ injection during kindling development. Valproate (Val), a major antiepileptic drug, was also tested for comparison. Val and Lavandula officinalis extract showed anti-epileptogenic properties as they reduced seizure score of kindled mice and PTZ-induced mortality. In this regard, Lavandula officinalis was more effective than Val. Both Lavandula officinalis and Val suppressed brain nitric oxide (NO) level of kindled mice in comparison with the control and PTZ group. Meanwhile, Lavandula officinalis suppressed NO level more than Val and Lavandula officinalis also decreased brain MDA level relative to PTZ group. This is the first report to demonstrate NO suppressing and anti-epileptogenic effect of chronic administration of Lavandula officinalis extract on acquisition of epilepsy in PTZ kindling mice model. In this regard, Lavandula officinalis extract was more effective than Val, possibly and in part via brain NO suppression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis extracts in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Safaei, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate hypnotic effect of Coriandrum sativum, Ziziphus jujuba, Lavandula angustifolia and Melissa officinalis hydroalcoholic extracts in mice to select the most effective ones for a combination formula. Three doses of the extracts (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of C. sativum and Z. jujuba and 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis) were orally administered to male Swiss mice (20-25 g) and one hour later pentobarbital (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected to induce sleep. Onset of sleep and its duration were measured and compared. Control animals and reference group received vehicle (10 ml/kg, p.o.) and diazepam (3 mg/kg, i.p.), respectively. C. sativum and Z. jujuba failed to change sleep parameters. L. angustifolia at doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg shortened sleep onset by 7.6%, 50% and 51.5% and prolonged sleep duration by 9.9%, 43.1% and 80.2%, respectively. Compared with control group the same doses of M. officinalis also decreased sleep onset by 24.7%, 27.5% and 51.2% and prolonged sleep duration by 37.9%, 68.7% and 131.7% respectively. Combinations of L. angustifolia and M. officinalis extracts showed additive effect and it is suggested that a preparation containing both extracts may be useful for insomnia. PMID:26779267

  15. A Review of the Use of Topical Calendula in the Prevention and Treatment of Radiotherapy-Induced Skin Reactions.

    PubMed

    Kodiyan, Joyson; Amber, Kyle T

    2015-04-23

    Calendula is a topical agent derived from a plant of the marigold family Calendula Officinalis. Containing numerous polyphenolic antioxidants, calendula has been studied in both the laboratory and clinical setting for the use in treating and preventing radiation induced skin toxicity. Despite strong evidence in the laboratory supporting calendula's mechanism of action in preventing radiation induced skin toxicity, clinical studies have demonstrated mixed results. In light of the controversy surrounding the efficacy of calendula in treating and preventing radiodermatitis, the topic warrants further discussion.

  16. Antifungal activity of extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris against Aspergillus flavus and A. ochraceus.

    PubMed

    Centeno, S; Calvo, M A; Adelantado, C; Figueroa, S

    2010-05-01

    The antifungal activity of ethanolic extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris were tested against strains of Aspergillus flavus and A. ochraceus, since these two species are common contaminants of cereals and grains and are able to produce and accumulate mycotoxins. The methodology used is based on measuring the inhibition halos produced by discs impregnated with the extracts and establishing their Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) as well as the Minimum Fungicide Concentration (MFC). The results obtained suggest that the assayed extracts affect the proper development of A. flavus and A. ochraceus; leading to a lower MIC (1200 ppm) and MFC (2400 ppm) for T. vulgaris extract against A. ochraceus than against A. flavus. The results show, that the extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris used at low concentrations could have significant potential for the biological control of fungi in foodstuffs.

  17. Effect of Dietary Ethanolic Extract of Lavandula officinalis on Serum Lipids Profile in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rabiei, Zahra; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Mokhtari, Shiva; Shahrani, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Antioxidants are effective in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Lavandula officinalis possesses antioxidant activity, therefore, in this study; the effects of Lavandula officinalis extract were investigated on serum lipids levels of rats. Experimental mature male Wistar rats were treated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/Kg/day of lavender ethanolic extract or distilled water for 25 days via gastric gavage (n=8 each group). At the end of 25th day, the serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL and VLDL levels, as well as atherogenic indices were determined in rats’ serum. The ethanolic extract of lavender decreased serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and VLDL levels in 100 mg/Kg group (p=0.03, p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Serum HDL level increased in 100 mg/Kg/day group (p=0.01). Lavender extract decreased LDL/HDL level at doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). The TG/HDL levels decreased in experimental groups with doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Lavandula officinalis extract exerts hypolipidemic effect in rats and might be beneficial in hyperlipidemic patients. PMID:25587318

  18. Sedative and Hypnotic Activities of the Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Lavandula officinalis from Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Alnamer, Rachad; Alaoui, Katim; Bouidida, El Houcine; Benjouad, Abdelaziz; Cherrah, Yahia

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate the sedative and hypnotic activities of the methanolic and aqueous extract of Lavandula officinalis L. on central nervous system (CNS). In this study, the effect of the methanolic and aqueous extracts of this plant was investigated in a battery of behavioural models in mice. Stems and flowers of Lavandula officinalis L. have several therapeutic applications in folk medicine in curing or managing a wide range of diseases, including insomnia. The methanolic extract produced significant sedative effect at the doses of 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg (by oral route), compared to reference substance diazepam (DZP), and an hypnotic effect at the doses of 800 and 1000 mg/kg while the treatment of mice with the aqueous extract at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg via oral pathway significantly reduced in both the reestablishment time and number of head dips during the traction and hole-board tests. In conclusion, these results suggest that the methanolic and aqueous extracts of Lavandula officinalis possess potent sedative and hypnotic activities, which supported its therapeutic use for insomnia. PMID:22162677

  19. Chemical Variability, Antioxidant and Antifungal Activities of Essential Oils and Hydrosol Extract of Calendula arvensis L. from Western Algeria.

    PubMed

    Belabbes, Rania; Dib, Mohammed El Amine; Djabou, Nassim; Ilias, Faiza; Tabti, Boufeldja; Costa, Jean; Muselli, Alain

    2017-05-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils and hydrosol extract from aerial parts of Calendula arvensis L. was investigated using GC-FID and GC/MS. Intra-species variations of the chemical compositions of essential oils from 18 Algerian sample locations were investigated using statistical analysis. Chemical analysis allowed the identification of 53 compounds amounting to 92.3 - 98.5% with yields varied of 0.09 - 0.36% and the main compounds were zingiberenol 1 (8.7 - 29.8%), eremoligenol (4.2 - 12.5%), β-curcumene (2.1 - 12.5%), zingiberenol 2 (4.6 - 19.8%) and (E,Z)-farnesol (3.5 - 23.4%). The study of the chemical variability of essential oils allowed the discrimination of two main clusters confirming that there is a relation between the essential oil compositions and the harvest locations. Different concentrations of essential oil and hydrosol extract were prepared and their antioxidant activity were assessed using three methods (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power Assay and β-carotene). The results showed that hydrosol extract presented an interesting antioxidant activity. The in vitro antifungal activity of hydrosol extract produced the best antifungal inhibition against Penicillium expansum and Aspergillus niger, while, essential oil was inhibitory at relatively higher concentrations. Results showed that the treatments of pear fruits with essential oil and hydrosol extract presented a very interesting protective activity on disease severity of pears caused by P. expansum. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  20. The Antinociceptive Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Borago Officinalis Flower in Male Rats Using Formalin Test.

    PubMed

    Shahraki, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadimoghadm, Mahdieh; Shahraki, Ahmad Reza

    2015-10-01

    Borago officinalis flower (borage) is a known sedative in herbal medicine; the aim of the present study was to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of borage hydroalcoholic extract in formalin test male rats. Fifty-six adult male albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups: Control groups of A (intact), B (saline), and C (Positive control) plus test groups of D, E, F, and G (n=8). The groups D, E, and F received 6.25, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg, Borago officinalis flower hydroalcholic extract before the test, respectively but group G received 25 mg/kg borage extract and aspirin before the test. A biphasic pain was induced by injection of formalin 1%. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS software ver. 17 employing statistical tests of Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney. The results were expressed as mean±SD. Statistical differences were considered significant at P<0.05. The results revealed that the acute and chronic pain behavior score in test groups of D, E, F, and G significantly decreased compared to groups A and B, but this score did not show any difference compared to group C. Moreover, chronic pain behavior score in group G was significantly lower than all other groups. The results indicated that Borago officinalis hydroalcoholic extract affects the acute and chronic pain behavior response in formaline test male rats.

  1. Cytoprotective effect of Valeriana officinalis extract on an in vitro experimental model of Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    de Oliveria, Diêgo Madureira; Barreto, George; De Andrade, Deyse Valverde G; Saraceno, Ezequiel; Aon-Bertolino, Laura; Capani, Francisco; Dos Santos El Bachá, Ramon; Giraldez, Lisandro Diego

    2009-02-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most important neurodegenerative worldwide disorders. The potential cytoprotective effects of aqueous extract of Valeriana officinalis on rotenone-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were demonstrated. The cytotoxicity, cell viability and analysis of cellular morphology were performed by MTT-tetrazole (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay and phase contrast microscopy, respectively. Significant changes in the cellular morphology, and condensation of the cell body could be observed when cells were treated with 300 nM rotenone for 48 h. Three different concentrations of Valeriana officinalis extract were used (0.049, 0.098 and 0.195 mg/mL). These extracts brought about an increase of 7.0 +/- 1.3%, 14.5 +/- 1.3% and 14.5 +/- 3.2% in cell viability. Our results indicated that neuroprotector action of the Valeriana officinalis extract provides support for later studies as they help understanding this drug for the development of cytoprotective various therapies in PD.

  2. Effect of extraction method on the yield of furanocoumarins from fruits of Archangelica officinalis Hoffm.

    PubMed

    Waksmundzka-Hajnos, M; Petruczynik, A; Dragan, A; Wianowska, D; Dawidowicz, A L

    2004-01-01

    Optimal conditions for the extraction and analysis of furanocoumarins from fruits of Archangelica officinalis Hoffm. have been determined. The following extraction methods were used: exhaustive extraction in a Soxhlet apparatus, ultrasonication at 25 and 60 degrees C, microwave-assisted solvent extraction in open and closed systems, and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). In most cases the yields of furanocoumarins were highest using the ASE method. The effects of extracting solvent, temperature and time of extraction using this method were investigated. The highest yield of furanocoumarins by ASE was obtained with methanol at 100-130 degrees C for 10 min. The extraction yields of furanocoumarins from plant material by ultrasonication at 60 degrees C and microwave-assisted solvent extraction in an open system were comparable to the extraction yields obtained in the time- and solvent-consuming exhaustive process involving the Soxhlet apparatus.

  3. Pharmacological evaluation of aqueous extract of Althaea officinalis flower grown in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Hage-Sleiman, Rouba; Mroueh, Mohamad; Daher, Costantine F

    2011-03-01

    Althaea officinalis Linn. (Malvaideae) flower is commonly used in folk medicine in Lebanon and neighboring countries. Although most of the studies have been conducted on the mucilage-rich roots, little is known about the flower. This study investigates the potential role of aqueous extract of Althaea officinalis flower in lipemia, gastric ulcer, inflammation, and platelet aggregation using the rat model. Blood lipid profile and liver function were assessed after 1 month of extract intake via drinking water. Anti-inflammatory activity was tested against acute and chronic inflammation induced by carrageenan and formalin, respectively. Antiulcer activity was evaluated using ethanol-induced gastric ulcer. Antiplatelet activity was investigated in vitro using the adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation bioassay. The 50 mg/kg body weight dose resulted in significant increase in serum HDL cholesterol level with no effects on stool cholesterol and triacylglycerol. Increasing the dose to 500 mg/kg body weight caused a significant decrease in stool water content. No adverse effect on liver enzymes was observed. Significant anti-inflammatory (acute and chronic inflammation) and antiulcerogenic activities were observed at all used doses (50, 100, and 250 mg/kg body). Time-dependent inhibition of platelet aggregation was demonstrated at 500 µg/ml concentration. The aqueous extract of Althaea officinalis flower demonstrated potential benefits in lipemia, inflammation, gastric ulcer, and platelet aggregation with no visible adverse effect.

  4. A review on phytochemistry and ethnopharmacological aspects of genus Calendula

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Disha; Rani, Anita; Sharma, Anupam

    2013-01-01

    This review includes 84 references on the genus Calendula (Asteraceae) and comprises ethnopharmacology, morphology and microscopy, phytoconstituents, pharmacological reports, clinical studies and toxicology of the prominent species of Calendula. Triterpene alcohols, triterpene saponins, flavonoids, carotenoids and polysaccharides constitute major classes of phytoconstituents of the genus. A few species of this genus have medicinal value, among these Calendula officinalis Linn., has been traditionally used in the treatment of various skin tumors, dermatological lesions, ulcers, swellings and nervous disorders as well as almost 200 cosmetic formulations, i.e., creams, lotions, shampoos. Despite a long tradition of use of some species, the genus has not been explored properly. In the concluding part, the future scope of Calendula species has been emphasized with a view to establish their multifarious biological activities and mode of action. PMID:24347926

  5. Antioxidant activity and sensory analysis of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of garden sage (Salvia officinalis)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A novel extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was prepared using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction, followed by a Soxhlet hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. Th...

  6. Improved neuroprotective effects by combining Bacopa monnieri and Rosmarinus officinalis supercritical CO2 extracts.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Cheppail; Quirin, Karl-Werner; Escalon, Enrique; Melnick, Steven J

    2014-04-01

    Ethnobotanical evidence suggests that herbs such as brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) may possess antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. We compared the antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of supercritical extract of Bacopa monnieri and rosemary antioxidant extract obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis as well as their combination to examine the effects on human glial (U-87 MG) and embryonic mouse hypothalamus cells. Bacopa monnieri extract, rosemary antioxidant extract, and their combination (1:1) are not cytotoxic in both glial and embryonic mouse hypothalamus cell lines up to 200 μg/mL concentration. The combination of extracts of Bacopa monnieri + rosemary antioxidant has better antioxidant potential and antilipid peroxidation activity than either agent alone. Although the extract of Bacopa monnieri + rosemary antioxidant showed almost similar inhibition of phospho tau expression as Bacopa monnieri or rosemary antioxidant extract alone, the combination has better inhibitory effect on amyloid precursor protein synthesis and higher brain-derived neurotrophic factor production in hypothalamus cells than single agents. These results suggest that the extract of Bacopa monnieri + rosemary antioxidant is more neuroprotective than Bacopa monnieri or rosemary antioxidant extract.

  7. Polyethylene glycol-based ultrasound-assisted extraction of magnolol and honokiol from Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis.

    PubMed

    He, Lei; Fan, Tao; Hu, Jianguo; Zhang, Lijin

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a kind of green solvent named polyethylene glycol (PEG) was developed for the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of magnolol and honokiol from Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis. The effects of PEG molecular weight, PEG concentration, sample size, pH, ultrasonic power and extraction time on the extraction of magnolol and honokiol were investigated to optimise the extraction conditions. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the PEG-based UAE supplied higher extraction efficiencies of magnolol and honokiol than the ethanol-based UAE and traditional ethanol-reflux extraction. Furthermore, the correlation coefficient (R(2)), repeatability (relative standard deviation, n = 6) and recovery confirmed the validation of the proposed extraction method, which were 0.9993-0.9996, 3.1-4.6% and 92.3-106.8%, respectively.

  8. The extraction process optimization of antioxidant polysaccharides from Marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L.) roots.

    PubMed

    Pakrokh Ghavi, Peyman

    2015-04-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) with a central composite rotatable design (CCRD) based on five levels was employed to model and optimize four experimental operating conditions of extraction temperature (10-90 °C) and time (6-30 h), particle size (6-24 mm) and water to solid (W/S, 10-50) ratio, obtaining polysaccharides from Althaea officinalis roots with high yield and antioxidant activity. For each response, a second-order polynomial model with high R(2) values (> 0.966) was developed using multiple linear regression analysis. Results showed that the most significant (P < 0.05) extraction conditions that affect the yield and antioxidant activity of extracted polysaccharides were the main effect of extraction temperature and the interaction effect of the particle size and W/S ratio. The optimum conditions to maximize yield (10.80%) and antioxidant activity (84.09%) for polysaccharides extraction from A. officinalis roots were extraction temperature 60.90 °C, extraction time 12.01 h, particle size 12.0mm and W/S ratio of 40.0. The experimental values were found to be in agreement with those predicted, indicating the models suitability for optimizing the polysaccharides extraction conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Valeriana officinalis root extracts have potent anxiolytic effects in laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Murphy, K; Kubin, Z J; Shepherd, J N; Ettinger, R H

    2010-07-01

    Valerian root (Valeriana officinalis) is a popular and widely available herbal supplement, primarily used to treat insomnia and anxiety. Until recently, its mechanism of action has remained unknown. Neurobiological research has begun to show that the herb, with its active valerenic acid, interacts with the GABA(A)-ergic system, a mechanism of action similar to the benzodiazepine drugs. This series of experiments sought to corroborate these findings with behavioral measures, compare them to the benzodiazepine diazepam, and to analyze the chemical composition of Valeriana officinalis. Rats were administered either ethanol (1 ml/kg), diazepam (1mg/kg), valerian root extract (3 ml/kg), valerenic acid (3mg/kg), or a solution of valerenic acid and exogenous GABA (75 microg/kg and 3.6 microg/kg, respectively) and assessed for the number of entries and time spent on the open arms of an elevated plus maze. Results showed that there was a significant reduction in anxious behavior when valerian extract or valerenic acid exposed subjects were compared to the ethanol control group. The evidence supports Valeriana officinalis as a potential alternative to the traditional anxiolytics as measured by the elevated plus maze. (c) 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Skeletal muscle relaxant effect of a standardized extract of Valeriana officinalis L. after acute administration in mice.

    PubMed

    Caudal, Dorian; Guinobert, Isabelle; Lafoux, Aude; Bardot, Valérie; Cotte, César; Ripoche, Isabelle; Chalard, Pierre; Huchet, Corinne

    2018-04-01

    Valeriana officinalis L. root extracts are traditionally taken for their sedative and anxiolytic properties and are also used for muscle relaxation. Relaxant effects were clearly observed on smooth muscle whereas data on effects on skeletal muscle are scarce and inconsistent. The aim of this study was to assess whether a standardized extract (SE) of V. officinalis had myorelaxant effects by decreasing skeletal muscle strength and/or neuromuscular tone in mice. Mice received an acute dose of V. officinalis SE (2 or 5 g/kg per os) or tetrazepam (10 mg/kg ip), a standard myorelaxant drug. Thirty minutes later, the maximal muscle strength was measured using a grip test, while global skeletal muscle function (endurance and neuromuscular tone) was assessed in a wire hanging test. Compared to tetrazepam, both doses of V. officinalis SE induced a pronounced decrease in skeletal muscle strength without any significant effects on endurance and neuromuscular tone. This study provides clear evidence that the extract of V. officinalis tested has a relaxant effect on skeletal muscle. By decreasing skeletal muscle strength without impacting endurance and neuromuscular tone, V. officinalis SE could induce less undesirable side effects than standard myorelaxant agents, and be particularly useful for avoiding falls in the elderly.

  11. A Review of the Use of Topical Calendula in the Prevention and Treatment of Radiotherapy-Induced Skin Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Kodiyan, Joyson; Amber, Kyle T.

    2015-01-01

    Calendula is a topical agent derived from a plant of the marigold family Calendula Officinalis. Containing numerous polyphenolic antioxidants, calendula has been studied in both the laboratory and clinical setting for the use in treating and preventing radiation induced skin toxicity. Despite strong evidence in the laboratory supporting calendula’s mechanism of action in preventing radiation induced skin toxicity, clinical studies have demonstrated mixed results. In light of the controversy surrounding the efficacy of calendula in treating and preventing radiodermatitis, the topic warrants further discussion. PMID:26783706

  12. Protective effects of different marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) and rosemary cream preparations against sodium-lauryl-sulfate-induced irritant contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, S M; Schliemann-Willers, S; Fischer, T W; Elsner, P

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the protective action of cream preparations containing seven different types of marigold and rosemary extracts in vivo in healthy volunteers with experimentally induced irritant contact dermatitis (ICD). Marigold and rosemary extracts in base cream DAC (Deutscher Arzneimittel-Codex = German Pharmaceutical Codex) were tested in a 4-day repetitive irritation test using sodium lauryl sulfate. The effect was evaluated visually and quantified by noninvasive bioengineering methods, namely chromametry and tewametry. When the test products were applied parallel to the induction period of ICD, a statistically significant protective effect of all cream preparations was observed by all methods. This effect, although not statistically significant, was superior to control by undyed marigold und faradiol ester-enriched extracts in chromametry and by dyed and undyed rosemary extracts in tewametry. The sequential treatment (postirritation) once a day for 5 days was without any effect. Thus, a protective effect of some marigold and rosemary extracts against ICD could be shown in the elicitation phase. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. [The Use of Synthetic Polymers (Superdisintegrants) in Technology Tablets Containing Ethanol Dry Extract from Asparagus officinalis].

    PubMed

    Linka, Wojciech Andrzej; Wojtaszek, Ilona; Zgoda, Marian Mikołaj; Kołodziejczyk, Michał Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    Dry extracts are now frequently used in medicine as an alternative to synthetic drugs. In the case of tablet technology with dry plant extracts, the proper selection of disintegrants (superdisintegrants) is particularly important. Objectives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the polymers constituting superdisintegrants (Vivasol®, Vivastar®, Polyplasdone XL) in uncoated tablet formulation of alcoholic extracted from Asparagus officinalis. Dry the ethanol extract of Asparagus officinalis, Vivasol®, Vivastar®, Vivapur®, Kollidon VA64, Polyplasdone XL, magnesium stearate. Direct compression. Paddle method was carried out to study pharmacopoeial parameters and pharmaceutical availability. The calculation of equivalency factors: similarity [f2] and the difference [f1]. Approximation results. Tablets brownish-green, with a smooth and uniform surface, without stains, chipping and damage. The determined average weight of the tablets compiled with the standards. The test friability and crushing strength revealed that the most mechanically strong tablets contained Vivasol, Vivastar, Polyplasdone XL. These tablets also have a longer disintegration and dissolution time compared with tablets containing only Vivasol. These differences are also confirmed by the calculated f2 and f1. The addition of a mixture of Polyplasdone XL and Vivastar to Vivasol significantly increases the mechanical strength of the tablets (crushing strength, resistance to crushing). The addition of a mixture of Polyplasdone XL and Vivastar to Vivasol paradoxically increases the disintegration time of tablets (11.1 min). Single superdisintegrant breaks up the tablet more effectively than a mixture of superdisintegrants.

  14. Dentifrice Containing Extract of Rosmarinus officinalis Linn.: An Antimicrobial Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Valones, Marcela Agne Alves; Higino, Jane Sheila; Souza, Paulo Roberto Eleutério; Crovella, Sérgio; Caldas, Arnaldo de França; Carvalho, Alessandra de Albuquerque Tavares

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of a dentifrice containing an alcoholic extract of rosemary on oral bacteria, compared to a commercially available herbal dentifrice. Standard strains of Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 25175), Streptococcus oralis (ATCC 9811) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (ATCC 7469) were used, as well as different toothpastes based on rosemary (TR), on propolis (TH), triclosan (positive control) (TPC) and non-fluoridated dentifrice (negative control) (TNC). Bacteria were seeded in Petri dishes and paper discs soaked with dilutions of dentifrice placed on the plates. The inhibition halos were analyzed. It was observed that TR did not show statistical difference in relation to the TH to inhibit S. mutans and S. oralis, while TH was more active against L. rhamnosus. The toothpaste containing rosemary extract had the ability to inhibit the growth of S. mutans, S. oralis and L. rhamnosus, revealing an antimicrobial activity similar to commercially available toothpastes for inhibition of S. mutans and S. oralis.

  15. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carnosic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid Using Ionic Liquid Solution from Rosmarinus officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Zu, Ge; Zhang, Rongrui; Yang, Lei; Ma, Chunhui; Zu, Yuangang; Wang, Wenjie; Zhao, Chunjian

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquid based, ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolcarboxylic acids, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, from Rosmarinus officinalis. Eight ionic liquids, with different cations and anions, were investigated in this work and [C8mim]Br was selected as the optimal solvent. Ultrasound extraction parameters, including soaking time, solid–liquid ratio, ultrasound power and time, and the number of extraction cycles, were discussed by single factor experiments and the main influence factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The proposed approach was demonstrated as having higher efficiency, shorter extraction time and as a new alternative for the extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid from R. officinalis compared with traditional reference extraction methods. Ionic liquids are considered to be green solvents, in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of key chemicals from medicinal plants, and show great potential. PMID:23109836

  16. Comparative study of the antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging properties in the extracts of the fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in several diseases, and hence natural antioxidants have significant importance in human health. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis fruit extracts. Methods The 70% methanol extracts were studied for in vitro total antioxidant activity along with phenolic and flavonoid contents and reducing power. Scavenging ability of the extracts for radicals like DPPH, hydroxyl, superoxide, nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, singlet oxygen, hypochlorous acid were also performed to determine the potential of the extracts. Results The ability of the extracts of the fruits in exhibiting their antioxative properties follow the order T. chebula >E. officinalis >T. belerica. The same order is followed in their flavonoid content, whereas in case of phenolic content it becomes E. officinalis >T. belerica >T. chebula. In the studies of free radicals' scavenging, where the activities of the plant extracts were inversely proportional to their IC50 values, T. chebula and E. officinalis were found to be taking leading role with the orders of T. chebula >E. officinalis >T. belerica for superoxide and nitric oxide, and E. officinalis >T. belerica >T. chebula for DPPH and peroxynitrite radicals. Miscellaneous results were observed in the scavenging of other radicals by the plant extracts, viz., T. chebula >T. belerica >E. officinalis for hydroxyl, T. belerica >T. chebula >E. officinalis for singlet oxygen and T. belerica >E. officinalis >T. chebula for hypochlorous acid. In a whole, the studied fruit extracts showed quite good efficacy in their antioxidant and radical scavenging abilities, compared to the standards. Conclusions The evidences as can be concluded from the study of the 70% methanol extract of the fruits of Terminalia chebula

  17. Optimization for ultrasonic-microwave synergistic extraction of polysaccharides from Cornus officinalis and characterization of polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiulian; You, Qinghong; Jiang, Zhonghai; Zhou, Xinghai

    2016-02-01

    Ultrasonic-microwave synergistic extraction (UMSE) of polysaccharides from Cornus officinalis was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The effect of four different factors on the yield of C. officinalis polysaccharides (COP) was studied. RSM results showed that the optimal conditions were extraction time of 31.49823 min, microwave power of 99.39769 W, and water-to-raw material ratio of 28.16273. The COP yield was 11.38±0.31% using the modified optimal conditions, which was consistent with the value predicted by the model. The crude COP was purified by DEAE-Cellulose 52 chromatography and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. Five fractions, namely, crude COP, COP-1, COP-2, COP-3, and COP-4, were obtained. Monosaccharide composition analysis revealed that the COP was composed of glucose, arabinose, fucose, xylose, mannose, and rhamnose. Preliminary structural characterizations of COP were conducted by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Inhibitory mechanism of an extract of Althaea officinalis L. on endothelin-1-induced melanocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Akemi; Hachiya, Akira; Ohuchi, Atsushi; Kitahara, Takashi; Takema, Yoshinori

    2002-02-01

    It is known that expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1) increases in the epidermis after UVB irradiation, and that this plays an important role during the induction of pigmentation both as a mitogen and as a melanogen for normal human melanocytes (NHMC). When ET-1 acts on NHMC via the endothelin B receptor (ET(B)R) on their cell surface, mobilization of intracellular calcium is induced, which is followed by activation of Raf-1 located upstream of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). We have continued the search for new agent which inhibit this calcium mobilization and we have found that an extract of Althaea officinalis L. has such an action. In this study, we investigated the precise inhibitory mechanism of this botanical extract on the ET-1-induced activation of melanocytes. Treatment of NHMC with this extract abrogated the stimulatory effect of ET-1 on proliferation and also on activation of MAPK in the intracellular signal transduction pathway, but did not affect the binding of ET-1 to the ET(B)R or the production of Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate (IP3). Further, when this extract was used to treat normal human keratinocytes (NHKC), secretion of ET-1 by those cells was reduced. Taken together, these findings indicate that an extract of A. officinalis inhibits both the secretion of ET-1 from NHKC and the action of ET-1 on NHMC mainly by suppressing the ET-1-induced calcium mobilization without the modification of IP3 production, which in turn suggests that this extract is a useful ingredient for a whitening agent.

  19. Biological activities of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) extract as analyzed in microorganisms and cells

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus, Daiane; Figueira, Leandro Wagner; de Oliveira, Felipe Eduardo; Pacheco Soares, Cristina; Camargo, Samira Estves Afonso; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; de Oliveira, Luciane Dias

    2017-01-01

    R. officinalis L. is an aromatic plant commonly used as condiment and for medicinal purposes. Biological activities of its extract were evaluated in this study, as antimicrobial effect on mono- and polymicrobial biofilms, cytotoxicity, anti-inflammatory capacity, and genotoxicity. Monomicrobial biofilms of Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and polymicrobial biofilms composed of C. albicans with each bacterium were formed in microplates during 48 h and exposed for 5 min to R. officinalis L. extract (200 mg/mL). Its cytotoxic effect was examined on murine macrophages (RAW 264.7), human gingival fibroblasts (FMM-1), human breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7), and cervical carcinoma cells (HeLa) after exposure to different concentrations of the extract, analyzed by MTT, neutral red (NR), and crystal violet (CV) assays. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated on RAW 264.7 non-stimulated or stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Escherichia coli and treated with different concentrations of the extract for 24 h. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were quantified by ELISA. Genotoxicity was verified by the frequency of micronuclei (MN) at 1000 cells after exposure to concentrations of the extract for 24 h. Data were analyzed by T-Test or ANOVA and Tukey Test (P ≤ 0.05). Thus, significant reductions in colony forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) were observed in all biofilms. Regarding the cells, it was observed that concentrations ≤ 50 mg/mL provided cell viability of above 50%. Production of proinflammatory cytokines in the treated groups was similar or lower compared to the control group. The MN frequency in the groups exposed to extract was similar or less than the untreated group. It was shown that R. officinalis L. extract was effective on mono- and polymicrobial biofilms; it also provided cell viability of above 50% (at

  20. Relaxing effects of Valeriana officinalis extracts on isolated human non-pregnant uterine muscle.

    PubMed

    Occhiuto, Francesco; Pino, Annalisa; Palumbo, Dora Rita; Samperi, Stefania; De Pasquale, Rita; Sturlese, Emanuele; Circosta, Clara

    2009-02-01

    This study investigated the relaxing effects of Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerianaceae) on human uterine muscle. The major uses of this species in Europe are as a sedative and an anxiolytic; it is also used as a spasmolytic to treat gastrointestinal spasm. We evaluated two valerian extracts (ethanolic and aqueous) in comparison with a natural mixture of valepotriates and nifedipine on spontaneous and agonist-induced contractions in non-pregnant human myometrium in vitro. Qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis was used to correlate the chemical composition of extracts with their spasmolytic effects. Myometrial strips were obtained from hysterectomy specimens of premenopausal women. Longitudinal muscle strips were mounted vertically in tissue baths under physiological conditions to record their isometric contraction. The responses of cumulative concentrations of valerian extracts on spontaneous contractions in the presence and absence of the beta-adrenoceptor blocker atenolol or the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indometacin, and on agonist-induced contractions, were investigated. Valerian extracts and valepotriates inhibited uterine contractility in a concentration-dependent manner. Pretreatment with either atenolol or indometacin did not affect the uterine responses to valerian extracts. Valerian extract reduced the maximal contractile response induced by acetylcholine, phenylephrine and histamine independent of the stimulus. Valerian extracts may have direct inhibitory effects on the contractility of the human uterus and this justifies the traditional use of this plant in the treatment of uterine cramping associated with dysmenorrhoea.

  1. Optimization of microwave assisted extraction of essential oils from Iranian Rosmarinus officinalis L. using RSM.

    PubMed

    Akhbari, Maryam; Masoum, Saeed; Aghababaei, Fahimeh; Hamedi, Sepideh

    2018-06-01

    In this study, the efficiencies of conventional hydro-distillation and novel microwave hydro-distillation methods in extraction of essential oil from Rosemary officinalis leaves have been compared. In order to attain the best yield and also highest quality of the essential oil in the microwave assisted method, the optimal values of operating parameters such as extraction time, microwave irradiation power and water volume to plant mass ratio were investigated using central composite design under response surface methodology. Optimal conditions for obtaining the maximum extraction yield in the microwave assisted method were predicted as follows: extraction time of 85 min, microwave power of 888 W, and water volume to plant mass ratio of 0.5 ml/g. The extraction yield at these predicted conditions was computed as 0.7756%. The qualities of the obtained essential oils under designed experiments were optimized based on total contents of four major compounds (α-pinene, 1,8-cineole, camphor and verbenone) which determined by gas chromatography equipped with mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). The highest essential oil quality (55.87%) was obtained at extraction time of 68 min; microwave irradiation power of 700 W; and water volume to plant mass ratio of zero.

  2. Green and rapid synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Borago officinalis leaf extract: anticancer and antibacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Singh, Hina; Du, Juan; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2017-11-01

    This study highlights the facile, reliable, cost effective, and ecofriendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Borago officinalis leaves extract efficiently. The biosynthesis of AgNPs was verified by UV-Vis spectrum which showed the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band at 422 nm. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis revealed that the particles were spherical, hexagonal, and irregular in shape and had size ranging from 30 to 80 nm. The energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and elemental mapping have displayed the purity and maximum distribution of silver in the AgNPs. The crystalline nature of AgNPs had been identified using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area diffraction pattern (SAED). The particle size analysis revealed that the Z-average diameter of the AgNPs was 50.86 nm with polydispersity index (PDI) 0.136. Zeta potential analysis displayed the colloidal stability of AgNPs. This work also showed the efficacy of AgNPs against lung cancer cell lines (A549) and cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), in vitro. The AgNPs showed cytotoxicity to the A549 and HeLa cancer cell line at the concentrations 5 and 2 μg/ml. The AgNPs were also explored for the antibacterial activity including biofilm inhibition against pathogenic bacteria. The B. officinalis leaves extract can be used efficiently for green synthesis AgNPs. The biosynthesized AgNPs demonstrated potentials as anticancer and antibacterial agents. This work provides helpful insight into the development of new anticancer and antimicrobial agents.

  3. Identification of pyrogallol as an antiproliferative compound present in extracts from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis: effects on in vitro cell growth of human tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Lampronti, Ilaria; Martello, Dino; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Jabbar, Shaila; Choudhuri, Mohammad Shahabuddin Kabir; Datta, Bidduyt Kanti; Gambari, Roberto

    2002-07-01

    In this study we compared the in vitro antiproliferative activity of extracts from medicinal plants toward human tumor cell lines, including human erythromyeloid K562, B-lymphoid Raji, T-lymphoid Jurkat, erythroleukemic HEL cell lines. Extracts from Emblica officinalis were the most active in inhibiting in vitro cell proliferation, after comparison to those from Terminalia arjuna, Aphanamixis polystachya, Oroxylum indicum, Cuscuta reflexa, Aegle marmelos, Saraca asoka, Rumex maritimus, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Red Sandalwood. Emblica officinalis extracts have been studied previously, due to their hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antifungal, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory medicinal activities. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses allowed to identify pyrogallol as the common compound present both in unfractionated and n-butanol fraction of Emblica officinalis extracts. Antiproliferative effects of pyrogallol were therefore determined on human tumor cell lines thus identifying pyrogallol as an active component of Emblica officinalis extracts.

  4. The effects of Valeriana officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats

    PubMed Central

    Neamati, Ali; Chaman, Fariba; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Background: Neuroimmune factors have been considered as contributors to the pathogenesis of depression. Beside other therapeutic effects, Valeriana officinalis L., have been suggested to have anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, the effects of V. officinalis L. hydro alcoholic extract was investigated on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 Wistar rats were divided into five groups: Group 1 (control group) received saline instead of Valeriana officinalis L. extract. The animals in group 2 (sensitized) were treated by saline instead of the extract and were sensitized using the ovalbumin. Groups 3-5 (Sent - Ext 50), (Sent - Ext 100) and (Sent - Ext 200) were treated by 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of V. officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract respectively, during the sensitization protocol. Forced swimming test was performed for all groups and immobility time was recorded. Finally, the animals were placed in the open-field apparatus and the crossing number on peripheral and central areas was observed. Results: The immobility time in the sensitized group was higher than that in the control group (P < 0.01). The animals in Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower immobility times in comparison with sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). In the open field test, the crossed number in peripheral by the sensitized group was higher than that of the control one (P < 0.01) while, the animals of Sent-Ext 50, Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower crossing number in peripheral compared with the sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 respectively). Furthermore, in the sensitized group, the central crossing number was lower than that of the control group (P < 0.001). In the animals treated by 200 mg/kg of the extract, the central crossing number was higher than that of the sensitized group (P < 0. 05). Conclusions: The results of the present study showed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of V. officinalis

  5. The effects of Valeriana officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats.

    PubMed

    Neamati, Ali; Chaman, Fariba; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-04-01

    Neuroimmune factors have been considered as contributors to the pathogenesis of depression. Beside other therapeutic effects, Valeriana officinalis L., have been suggested to have anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, the effects of V. officinalis L. hydro alcoholic extract was investigated on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats. A total of 50 Wistar rats were divided into five groups: Group 1 (control group) received saline instead of Valeriana officinalis L. extract. The animals in group 2 (sensitized) were treated by saline instead of the extract and were sensitized using the ovalbumin. Groups 3-5 (Sent - Ext 50), (Sent - Ext 100) and (Sent - Ext 200) were treated by 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of V. officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract respectively, during the sensitization protocol. Forced swimming test was performed for all groups and immobility time was recorded. Finally, the animals were placed in the open-field apparatus and the crossing number on peripheral and central areas was observed. The immobility time in the sensitized group was higher than that in the control group (P < 0.01). The animals in Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower immobility times in comparison with sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). In the open field test, the crossed number in peripheral by the sensitized group was higher than that of the control one (P < 0.01) while, the animals of Sent-Ext 50, Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower crossing number in peripheral compared with the sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 respectively). Furthermore, in the sensitized group, the central crossing number was lower than that of the control group (P < 0.001). In the animals treated by 200 mg/kg of the extract, the central crossing number was higher than that of the sensitized group (P < 0. 05). The results of the present study showed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of V. officinalis prevents depression like behavior in ovalbumin

  6. Antidepressant and anxiolytic activity of Lavandula officinalis aerial parts hydroalcoholic extract in scopolamine-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Rahmati, Batool; Kiasalari, Zahra; Roghani, Mehrdad; Khalili, Mohsen; Ansari, Fariba

    2017-12-01

    Anxiety and depression are common in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Despite some evidence, it is difficult to confirm Lavandula officinalis Chaix ex Vill (Lamiaceae) as an anxiolytic and antidepressant drug. The effects of L. officinalis extract were studied in scopolamine-induced memory impairment, anxiety and depression-like behaviour. Male NMRI rats were divided into control, scopolamine alone-treated group received scopolamine (0.1 mg/kg) intraperitoneally (i.p.), daily and 30 min prior to performing behavioural testing on test day, for 12 continuous days and extract pretreated groups received aerial parts hydro alcoholic extract (i.p.) (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg), 30 min before each scopolamine injection. Memory impairment was assessed by Y-maze task, while, elevated plus maze and forced swimming test were used to measure anxiolytic and antidepressive-like activity. Spontaneous alternation percentage in Y maze is reduced by scopolamine (36.42 ± 2.60) (p ≤ 0.001), whereas lavender (200 and 400 mg/kg) enhanced it (83.12 ± 5.20 and 95 ± 11.08, respectively) (p ≤ 0.05). Also, lavender pretreatment in 200 and 400 mg/kg enhanced time spent on the open arms (15.4 ± 3.37 and 32.1 ± 3.46, respectively) (p ≤ 0.001). On the contrary, while immobility time was enhanced by scopolamine (296 ± 4.70), 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg lavender reduced it (193.88 ± 22.42, 73.3 ± 8.25 and 35.2 ± 4.22, respectively) in a dose-dependent manner (p ≤ 0.001). Lavender extracts improved scopolamine-induced memory impairment and also reduced anxiety and depression-like behaviour in a dose-dependent manner.

  7. Antibacterial activity of medicinal plant extracts against periodontopathic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Iauk, L; Lo Bue, A M; Milazzo, I; Rapisarda, A; Blandino, G

    2003-06-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Althaea officinalis L. roots, Arnica montana L. flowers, Calendula officinalis L. flowers, Hamamelis virginiana L. leaves, Illicium verum Hook. fruits and Melissa officinalis L. leaves, against anaerobic and facultative aerobic periodontal bacteria: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella spp., Fusobacterium nucleatum, Capnocytophaga gingivalis, Veilonella parvula, Eikenella corrodens, Peptostreptococcus micros and Actinomyces odontolyticus. The methanol extracts of H. virginiana and A. montana and, to a lesser extent, A. officinalis were shown to possess an inhibiting activity (MIC < or = 2048 mg/L) against many of the species tested. In comparison, M. officinalis and C. officinalis extracts had a lower inhibiting activity (MIC > or = 2048 mg/L) against all the tested species with the exception of Prevotella sp. Illicium verum methanol extract was not very active though it had a particular good activity against E. corrodens. The results suggest the use of the alcohol extracts of H. virginiana, A. montana and A. officinalis for topical medications in periodontal prophylactics. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Antibacterial effect of chlorhexidine-cetrimide combination, Salvia officinalis plant extract and octenidine in comparison with conventional endodontic irrigants.

    PubMed

    Guneser, Mehmet Burak; Akbulut, Makbule Bilge; Eldeniz, Ayce Unverdi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the antimicrobial effect of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 2% chlorhexidine (CHX), a CHX/cetrimide solution (CHX+CTR), octenidine hydrochloride (OCT) and Salvia officinalis plant extract against Enterococcus faecalis. Seventy decoronated single-rooted human teeth were infected and divided into 6 test (n=10) and 2 control groups (n=5) (negative, sterile samples and positive, infected samples). Following irrigants were then applied to test groups: 2.5% NaOCl, 5.25% NaOCl, CHX, CHX+CTR, S. officinalis extract and OCT. The dentin chips were obtained from inner root canal walls and analyzed by counting the number of colony forming units (CFU). The 2.5% NaOCl, 5.25% NaOCl, CHX and OCT groups presented no bacterial growth (CFU=0). S. officinalis and CHX+CTR groups reduced the number of E. faecalis cells but could not eliminate all. OCT may have potential as an endodontic irrigant in treatment of infected root canals.

  9. Lack of nephroprotective efficacy of althaea officinalis flower extract against gentamicin renal toxicity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Talebi, Ardeshir; Karimi, Amirhossein; Ouguerram, Khadija; Vahidi-Ataabadi, Nasrin; Eshraghi-Jazi, Fatemeh; Mansouri, Azam; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

    2014-11-01

    Gentamicin (GM) is used as antibiotic for Gram-negative infections, but its administration is limited due to a side-effect of nephrotoxicity. It was attempted to investigate the effect of Althaea officinalis flower extract (AOFE) against nephrotoxicity induced by GM in male rats. 30-year-old male Wistar rats were divided into five groups. Group 1 as a negative control group received AOFE 250 mg/kg/day. Groups 2-5 received saline, AOFE 50 mg/kg/day, AOFE 250 mg/kg/day, and AOFE 500 mg/kg/day for 9 days, respectively, and GM (100 mg/kg/day) was added from the 3(rd) day on. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were obtained, animals were sacrificed, and the kidneys were removed immediately. Gentamicin (in group 2) significantly increased serum levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine as well as the pathological damage score (P < 0.05) when compared with group 1. Low dose of AOFE did not decrease the nephrotoxicity induced by GM while the high dose of AOFE aggravated renal toxicity (P < 0.05). Although AOFE acts as an antioxidant, at the doses used in the current study did not ameliorate nephrotoxicity induced by GM.

  10. Neuroprotective and antinociceptive effects of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract in rats with painful diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Rasoulian, Bahram; Hajializadeh, Zahra; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Rashidipour, Marzieh; Fatemi, Iman; Kaeidi, Ayat

    2018-05-12

    Diabetes mellitus is associated with the development of neuronal tissue damage in different central and peripheral nervous system regions. A common complication of diabetes is painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy. We have explored the antihyperalgesic and neuroprotective properties of Rosmarinus officinalis L. extract (RE) in a rat model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. The nociceptive threshold and motor coordination of these diabetic rats was assessed using the tail-flick and rotarod treadmill tests, respectively. Activated caspase-3 and the Bax:Bcl-2 ratio, both biochemical indicators of apoptosis, were assessed in the dorsal half of the lumbar spinal cord tissue by western blotting. Treatment of the diabetic rats with RE improved hyperglycemia, hyperalgesia and motor deficit, suppressed caspase-3 activation and reduced the Bax:Bcl-2 ratio, suggesting that the RE has antihyperalgesic and neuroprotective effects in this rat model of STZ-induced diabetes. Cellular mechanisms underlying the observed effects may, at least partially, be related to the inhibition of neuronal apoptosis.

  11. Permeability of rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis extracts across Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Zhiyi; Ye, Zhong; Hauck, Cathy; Murphy, Patricia A; McCoy, Joe-Ann; Widrlechner, Mark P; Reddy, Manju B; Hendrich, Suzanne

    2011-10-11

    Rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid-related compound found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be beneficial for gastrointestinal health in general. To investigate the permeabilities of RA and UA as pure compounds and in Prunella vulgaris and Salvia officinalis ethanol extracts across human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers. The permeabilities and phase II biotransformation of RA and UA as pure compounds and in herbal extracts were compared using Caco-2 cells with HPLC detection. The apparent permeability coefficient (P(app)) for RA and RA in Prunella vulgaris extracts was 0.2 ± 0.05 × 10(-6)cm/s, significantly increased to 0.9 ± 0.2 × 10(-6)cm/s after β-glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment. P(app) for UA and UA in Salvia officinalis extract was 2.7 ± 0.3 × 10(-6)cm/s and 2.3 ± 0.5 × 10(-6)cm/s before and after β-glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment, respectively. Neither compound was affected in permeability by the herbal extract matrix. RA and UA in herbal extracts had similar uptake as that found using the pure compounds, which may simplify the prediction of compound efficacy, but the apparent lack of intestinal glucuronidation/sulfation of UA is likely to further enhance the bioavailability of that compound compared with RA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Permeability of Rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and Ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis Extracts across Caco-2 Cell Monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Qiang, Zhiyi; Ye, Zhong; Hauck, Cathy; Murphy, Patricia A.; McCoy, Joe-Ann; Widrlechner, Mark P.; Reddy, Manju B.; Hendrich, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid-related compound found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be beneficial for gastrointestinal health in general. Aim of the study To investigate the permeabilities of RA and UA as pure compounds and in P. vulgaris and S. officinalis ethanol extracts across human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers. Materials and methods The permeabilities and Phase II biotransformation of RA and UA as pure compounds and in herbal extracts were compared using Caco-2 cells with HPLC detection. Results The apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) for RA and RA in P. vulgaris extracts was 0.2 ± 0.05 × 10−6 cm/s, significantly increased to 0.9 ± 0.2 × 10−6 cm/s after β-glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment. Papp for UA and UA in S. officinalis extract was 2.7 ± 0.3 × 10−6 cm/s and 2.3 ± 0.5 × 10−6 cm/s before and after β-glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment, respectively. Neither compound was affected in permeability by the herbal extract matrix. Conclusion RA and UA in herbal extracts had similar uptake as that found using the pure compounds, which may simplify the prediction of compound efficacy, but the apparent lack of intestinal glucuronidation/sulfation of UA is likely to further enhance the bioavailability of that compound compared with RA. PMID:21798330

  13. Optimization of Extraction Conditions for Phenolic Acids from the Leaves of Melissa officinalis L. Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Guijae; Lee, Il Kyun; Park, Seonju; Kim, Nanyoung; Park, Jun Hyung; Kim, Seung Hyun

    2018-01-01

    Background: Melissa officinalis L. is a well-known medicinal plant from the family Lamiaceae, which is distributed throughout Eastern Mediterranean region and Western Asia. Objective: In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to optimize the extraction conditions for bioactive compounds from the leaves of M. officinalis L. Materials and Methods: A Box–Behnken design (BBD) was utilized to evaluate the effects of three independent variables, namely extraction temperature (°C), methanol concentration (%), and solvent-to-material ratio (mL/g) on the responses of the contents of caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid. Results: Regression analysis showed a good fit of the experimental data. The optimal condition was obtained at extraction temperature 80.53°C, methanol concentration 29.89%, and solvent-to-material ratio 30 mL/g. Conclusion: These results indicate the suitability of the model employed and the successful application of RSM in optimizing the extraction conditions. This study may be useful for standardizing production quality, including improving the efficiency of large-scale extraction systems. SUMMARY The optimum conditions for the extraction of major phenolic acids from the leaves of Melissa officinalis L. were determined using response surface methodologyBox–Behnken design was utilized to evaluate the effects of three independent variablesQuadratic polynomial model provided a satisfactory description of the experimental dataThe optimized condition for simultaneous maximum contents of caffeic acid and rosmarinic acid was determined. Abbreviations used: RSM: Response surface methodology, BBD: Box–Behnken design, CA: Caffeic acid, RA: Rosmarinic acid, HPLC: High-performance liquid chromatography. PMID:29720824

  14. In vivo and in vitro animal investigation of the effect of a mixture of herbal extracts from Tribulus terrestris and Cornus officinalis on penile erection.

    PubMed

    Kam, Sung Chul; Do, Jung Mo; Choi, Jae Hwi; Jeon, Byeong Tak; Roh, Gu Seob; Hyun, Jae Seog

    2012-10-01

    Herbal preparations have long been used as folk remedies for erectile dysfunction (ED). This study examined the effects of Tribulus terrestris and Cornus officinalis extracts on relaxation of the smooth muscle of the corpus cavernosum (CC), their mechanisms of action, and the effects of oral administration of a mixture of the herbal extracts on penile erection. The relaxation effects and the mechanisms of action of T. terrestris extract, C. officinalis extract, and the mixture of both extracts on the rabbit CC were investigated in an organ bath. To evaluate whether the relaxation response of the CC shown in an organ bath occurs in vivo, intracavernous pressure (ICP) was calculated in rats after oral administration for a month. Additionally, adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and guanosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) in the CC were measured using immunoassay. Smooth muscle relaxation was expressed as the percent decrease in precontraction induced by phenylephrine. ICP was assessed in rats after the oral administration of a mixture of both extracts for 1 month and changes in cGMP and cAMP concentrations were measured based on the concentration of the mixture of both extracts. T. terrestris extract, C. officinalis extract, and the mixture of both extracts showed concentration-dependent relaxation effects of the CC. In both the endothelium-removed group and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester pretreatment group, T. terrestris extract inhibited relaxation. ICP measured after oral administration of the extract mixture for a month was higher than that measured in the control group, and a significant increase in cAMP was observed in the mixture group. T. terrestris extract and C. officinalis extract exhibited concentration-dependent relaxation in an organ bath. In the in vivo study of the extract mixture, ICP and cAMP was significantly potentiated. Accordingly, the mixture of T. terrestris extract and C. officinalis extract may improve erectile function.

  15. Microwave-assisted extraction of coumarin and related compounds from Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pallas as an alternative to Soxhlet and ultrasound-assisted extraction.

    PubMed

    Martino, Emanuela; Ramaiola, Ilaria; Urbano, Mariangela; Bracco, Francesco; Collina, Simona

    2006-09-01

    Soxhlet extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction (USAE) and microwaves-assisted extraction (MAE) in closed system have been investigated to determine the content of coumarin, o-coumaric and melilotic acids in flowering tops of Melilotus officinalis. The extracts were analyzed with an appropriate HPLC procedure. The reproducibility of extraction and of chromatographic analysis was proved. Taking into account the extraction yield, the cost and the time, we studied the effects of extraction variables on the yield of the above-mentioned compounds. Better results were obtained with MAE (50% v/v aqueous ethanol, two heating cycles of 5 min, 50 degrees C). On the basis of the ratio extraction yield/extraction time, we therefore propose MAE as the most efficient method.

  16. Essential oil composition of Valeriana officinalis L. roots cultivated in Iran. Comparative analysis between supercritical CO2 extraction and hydrodistillation.

    PubMed

    Safaralie, Asghar; Fatemi, Shohreh; Sefidkon, Fatemeh

    2008-02-08

    The composition of essential oil extracted from Valeriana officinalis L. roots growing wild in Iran was studied by hydrodistillation and supercritical CO2 extraction. Forty-seven components representing 89.3% and 35 constituents varying from 86.1% to 95.1% of the oil obtained by hydrodistillation and supercritical CO2 were identified, respectively. The major components in the extracted oil from supercritical CO2 were isovaleric acid (18.7-41.8%), valerenic acid (8.2-11.8%), acetoxyvaleranone (5.6-9.6%), (Z)-valernyl acetate (4.5-6.5%), bornyl acetate (2.3-7.7%) and valerenol (3.7-5.2%), whereas by hydrodistillation were bornyl acetate (11.6%), valerenic acid (8.0%), (Z)-valernyl acetate (7.9%) and acetoxyvaleranone (7.6%). The analysis of the extracts was performed by capillary GC and GC/MS.

  17. Effects of aqueous, methanolic and chloroform extracts of rhizome and aerial parts of Valeriana officinalis L. on naloxone-induced jumping in morphine-dependent mice.

    PubMed

    Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Susanabadi, Maryam

    2006-06-01

    In the present study, the effects of rhizomes and aerial parts extracts of Valeriana officinalis L. on morphine dependence in mice have been investigated. Animals were treated subcutaneously with morphine (50, 50 and 75 mg/kg) three times daily (10 am, 1 pm and 4 pm) for 3 days, and a last dose of morphine (50 mg/kg) was administered on the fourth day. Withdrawal syndrome (jumping) was precipitated by naloxone (5 mg/kg) which was administered intraperitoneally 2 hours after the last dose of morphine. To study the effects of the aqueous, methanolic and chloroform extracts of both aerial parts and rhizome of the V. officinalis L. on naloxone-induced jumping in morphine-dependent animals, 10 injections of morphine (three administrations each day) for dependence and a dose of 5 mg/kg of naloxone for withdrawal induction were employed. Intraperitoneal injection of different doses (1, 5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) of aqueous, methanolic and chloroform extracts of the rhizome of V. officinalis L. 60 minutes before naloxone injection decreased the jumping response dose-dependently. Pre-treatment of animals with different doses (1, 5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) of aqueous and methanolic extracts of aerial parts of V. officinalis L. 60 minutes before naloxone injection caused a significant decrease on naloxone-induced jumping. The chloroform extract of the aerial parts of V. officinalis L. did not show any significant changes on jumping response in morphine-dependent animals. It is concluded that the extracts of V. officinalis L. could affect morphine withdrawal syndrome via possible interactions with inhibitory neurotransmitters in nervous system.

  18. Selective Interactions of Valeriana officinalis Extracts and Valerenic Acid with [H]Glutamate Binding to Rat Synaptic Membranes.

    PubMed

    Del Valle-Mojica, Lisa M; Ayala-Marín, Yoshira M; Ortiz-Sanchez, Carmen M; Torres-Hernández, Bianca A; Abdalla-Mukhaimer, Safa; Ortiz, José G

    2011-01-01

    Although GABA neurotransmission has been suggested as a mechanism for Valeriana officinalis effects, CNS depression can also be evoked by inhibition of ionotropic (iGluR) and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR). In this study, we examined if aqueous valerian extract interacted with glutamatergic receptors. Freshly prepared aqueous valerian extract was incubated with rat cortical synaptic membranes in presence of 20 nM [(3)H]Glutamate. Aqueous valerian extract increased [(3)H]Glutamate binding from 1 × 10(-7) to 1 × 10(-3) mg/mL. In the presence of (2S,1'S,2'S)-2-(Carboxycyclopropyl)glycine (LCCG-I) and (2S,2'R,3'R)-2-(2',3'-Dicarboxycyclopropyl)glycine (DCG-IV), Group II mGluR agents, valerian extract markedly decreased [(3)H]Glutamate binding, while (2S)-2-amino-3-(3,5-dioxo-1,2,4-oxadiazolidin-2-yl) propanoic acid) (quisqualic acid, QA), Group I mGluR agonist, increased [(3)H]Glutamate binding. At 0.05 mg/mL aqueous valerian extract specifically interacted with kainic acid NMDA and AMPA receptors. Valerenic acid, a marker compound for Valeriana officinalis, increased the [(3)H]Glutamate binding after 1.6 × 10(-2) mg/mL, and at 0.008 mg/mL it interacted only with QA (Group I mGluR). The selective interactions of valerian extract and valerenic acid with Group I and Group II mGluR may represent an alternative explanation for the anxiolytic properties of this plant.

  19. Selective Interactions of Valeriana officinalis Extracts and Valerenic Acid with [3H]Glutamate Binding to Rat Synaptic Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Del Valle-Mojica, Lisa M.; Ayala-Marín, Yoshira M.; Ortiz-Sanchez, Carmen M.; Torres-Hernández, Bianca A.; Abdalla-Mukhaimer, Safa; Ortiz, José G.

    2011-01-01

    Although GABA neurotransmission has been suggested as a mechanism for Valeriana officinalis effects, CNS depression can also be evoked by inhibition of ionotropic (iGluR) and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR). In this study, we examined if aqueous valerian extract interacted with glutamatergic receptors. Freshly prepared aqueous valerian extract was incubated with rat cortical synaptic membranes in presence of 20 nM [3H]Glutamate. Aqueous valerian extract increased [3H]Glutamate binding from 1 × 10−7 to 1 × 10−3 mg/mL. In the presence of (2S,1′S,2′S)-2-(Carboxycyclopropyl)glycine (LCCG-I) and (2S,2′R,3′R)-2-(2′,3′-Dicarboxycyclopropyl)glycine (DCG-IV), Group II mGluR agents, valerian extract markedly decreased [3H]Glutamate binding, while (2S)-2-amino-3-(3,5-dioxo-1,2,4-oxadiazolidin-2-yl) propanoic acid) (quisqualic acid, QA), Group I mGluR agonist, increased [3H]Glutamate binding. At 0.05 mg/mL aqueous valerian extract specifically interacted with kainic acid NMDA and AMPA receptors. Valerenic acid, a marker compound for Valeriana officinalis, increased the [3H]Glutamate binding after 1.6 × 10−2 mg/mL, and at 0.008 mg/mL it interacted only with QA (Group I mGluR). The selective interactions of valerian extract and valerenic acid with Group I and Group II mGluR may represent an alternative explanation for the anxiolytic properties of this plant. PMID:21584239

  20. Downregulation of matrix metalloproteinase-13 by the root extract of Cyathula officinalis Kuan and its constituents in IL-1β-treated chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Young; Lim, Hyun; Kim, Hyun Pyo; Kwon, Yong Soo

    2011-09-01

    The roots of Cyathula officinalis Kuan are widely used in Chinese medicine for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Here, the ability of C. officinalis Kuan to downregulate matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 was examined since MMP-13 is an important enzyme for the degradation of the cartilage collagen matrix, especially under arthritic conditions. The ethanol extract of C. officinalis Kuan as well as the N-hexane and chloroform soluble fractions were found to potently inhibit MMP-13 induction in IL-1 β-treated SW1353 cells, a human chondrosarcoma cell line, at 50-200 µg/mL. Activity-guided separation led to the isolation of six compounds, palmitic acid (1), β-sitosterol (2), α-spinasterol (3), atractylenolide I (4), 1,3-diacetoxy-tetradeca-6E,12E-dien-8,10-dyn (5), and N-trans-feruloyl-3-methyldopamine (6). Among these, 4 and 5 exhibited MMP-13 downregulating activity in IL-1 β-treated SW1353 cells. And 4 also showed anti-oedematous activity against λ-carageenan-induced paw edema in mice at 20-200 mg/kg, p. o. The results of this study provide information that can help elucidate the action mechanism of C. officinalis Kuan. In addition, the results presented here suggest that C. officinalis Kuan and its constituents may have the potential for chondroprotection against cartilage degrading disorders. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Enriching the drinking water of rats with extracts of Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris increases their resistance to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Horváthová, Eva; Srančíková, Annamária; Regendová-Sedláčková, Eva; Melušová, Martina; Meluš, Vladimír; Netriová, Jana; Krajčovičová, Zdenka; Slameňová, Darina; Pastorek, Michal; Kozics, Katarína

    2016-01-01

    Nature is an attractive source of therapeutic compounds. In comparison to the artificial drugs, natural compounds cause less adverse side effects and are suitable for current molecularly oriented approaches to drug development and their mutual combining. Medicinal plants represent one of the most available remedy against various diseases. Proper examples are Salvia officinalis L. and Thymus vulgaris L. which are known aromatic medicinal plants. They are very popular and frequently used in many countries. The molecular mechanism of their biological activity has not yet been fully understood. The aim of this study was to ascertain if liver cells of experimental animals drinking extracts of sage or thyme will manifest increased resistance against oxidative stress. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into seven groups. They drank sage or thyme extracts for 2 weeks. At the end of the drinking period, blood samples were collected for determination of liver biochemical parameters and hepatocytes were isolated to analyze (i) oxidatively generated DNA damage (conventional and modified comet assay), (ii) activities of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] and (iii) content of glutathione. Intake of sage and thyme had no effect either on the basal level of DNA damage or on the activity of SOD in rat hepatocytes and did not change the biochemical parameters of blood plasma. Simultaneously, the activity of GPx was significantly increased and the level of DNA damage induced by oxidants was decreased. Moreover, sage extract was able to start up the antioxidant protection expressed by increased content of glutathione. Our results indicate that the consumption of S.officinalis and T.vulgaris extracts positively affects resistency of rat liver cells against oxidative stress and may have hepatoprotective potential. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the UK Environmental Mutagen Society. All rights reserved

  2. [Entrapment of herbal extracts in biodegradable microcapsules].

    PubMed

    Borodina, T N; Rumsh, L D; Kunizhev, S M; Sukhorukov, G B; Vorozhtsov, G N; Fel'dman, B M; Rusanova, A V; Vasil'eva, T V; Strukova, S M; Markvicheva, E A

    2007-01-01

    The microcapsules with entrapped herbal water-soluble extracts Plantago major and Calendula officinalis L. (HE) were prepared by LbL-adsorption of carrageenan and modificated chitosan onto CaCO3 microparticles with their subsequent dissolving after the treatment of EDTA. Entrapment of HE was performed by adsorption and co-precipitation techniques. The co-precipitation provided better entrapment of HE compared to adsorption. In vitro release kinetics in an artificial gastric juice (AGJ) was studied. The HE release was shown to accelerate gastric ulcer treatment in a rat model.

  3. Extracts of Valeriana officinalis L. s.l. show anxiolytic and antidepressant effects but neither sedative nor myorelaxant properties.

    PubMed

    Hattesohl, Miguel; Feistel, Björn; Sievers, Hartwig; Lehnfeld, Romanus; Hegger, Mirjam; Winterhoff, Hilke

    2008-01-01

    Extracts of Valeriana officinalis L. s.l. are used for treating mild sleep disorders and nervous tension. Despite intensive research efforts, the pharmacological actions accounting for the clinical efficacy of valerian remain unclear. Thus, it was the aim of this study to evaluate CNS-related effects of different valerian extracts using behavioral paradigms (mice and rats). Following oral administration two commercially available preparations (extraction solvents: 45% methanol m/m and 70% ethanol v/v), a 35% ethanolic v/v extract and a refined extract derived from it (patented special extract phytofin Valerian 368) were tested for sedative (locomotor activity, ether-induced anaesthesia) and anxiolytic (elevated plus maze) activity. Using the forced swimming and the horizontal wire test the latter two extracts were additionally tested for antidepressant and myorelaxant properties. Up to maximum dosages of 500 or 1000 mg/kg bw none of the valerian extracts displayed sedative effects. Neither spontaneous activity was reduced nor the duration of ether-induced narcosis was prolonged. In contrast, results obtained in the elevated plus maze test revealed a pronounced anxiolytic effect of the 45% methanolic and 35% ethanolic extract as well as of phyotofin Valerian 368 in a dose range of 100-500 mg/kg bw. Additionally and different from its primary extract (35% ethanolic extract) phytofin Valerian 368 showed antidepressant activity in the forced swimming test after subacute treatment. Myorelaxant effects were not observed in dosages up to 1000 mg/kg bw. Due to these findings it is proposed that not sedative but anxiolytic and antidepressant activity, which was elaborated particularly in the special extract phytofin Valerian 368, considerably contribute to the sleep-enhancing properties of valerian.

  4. Healthy reduced-fat Bologna sausages enriched in ALA and DHA and stabilized with Melissa officinalis extract.

    PubMed

    Berasategi, Izaskun; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo; Calvo, Maria Isabel; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; Astiasarán, Iciar; Ansorena, Diana

    2014-03-01

    Reduced-energy and reduced-fat Bologna products enriched with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were formulated by replacing the pork back-fat by an oil-in-water emulsion containing a mixture of linseed-algae oil stabilized with a lyophilized Melissa officinalis extract. Healthier composition and lipid profile was obtained: 85 kcal/100 g, 3.6% fat, 0.6 g ALA and 0.44 g DHA per 100 g of product and ω-6/ω-3 ratio of 0.4. Technological and sensory problems were not detected in the new formulations. Reformulation did not cause oxidation problems during 32 days of storage under refrigeration. The results suggest that it is possible to obtain reduced-fat Bologna-type sausages rich in ALA and DHA and stabilized with natural antioxidants, applying the appropriate technology without significant effects on the sensory quality, yielding interesting products from a nutritional point of view. © 2013.

  5. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of the Althaea officinalis L. leaf extract and its wound healing potency in the rat model of excision wound creation.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Maryam; Dadgar, Zeynab; Noori-Zadeh, Ali; Mesbah-Namin, Seyed Alireza; Pakzad, Iraj; Davodian, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Wound is defined simply as the disruption of the biochemical, cellular, and anatomic continuity of a tissue. Plants and their extracts known as phytomedicine have immense potential for the management and treatment of wounds. Due to the undesirable side effects, in the control and treatment of the wound infections, it is recommended to use natural materials such as phytochemicals instead of chemically synthesized drugs. Thus, the aim of this research was to study the anti-microbial and wound healing potential of Althaea officinalis L. hydroalchoholic extract in comparison with ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and penicillin antibiotics on clinical strains as well as pathogenic bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes under in vitro conditions using micro broth dilution and disc diffusion methods. Moreover, MIC and MBC of its hydroalchoholic extract was also evaluated. The results showed that although Althaea officinalis L. extract was not effective on gram-negative bacteria but it was efficacious on gram-positive bacteria. The extract was also tested in the form of topical administration on excision wound model in rats. In the extract-treated wounds, the wound healing percent was significantly increased in comparison with controls. Based on this research, herbal extract of officinalis L. can be a great candidate for the treatment of gram-positive infections and merits further studies.

  6. Anticonvulsant effect of aqueous extract of Valeriana officinalis in amygdala-kindled rats: possible involvement of adenosine.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, Mohammad Ebrahim; Roohbakhsh, Ali; Allahtavakoli, Mohammad; Shamsizadeh, Ali

    2010-02-03

    Valeriana officinalis L. (valerian) root extract has been used as an antiepileptic herbal medicine in Iran. In the present study the effect of valerian extracts on an experimental model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) was evaluated. Moreover, the involvement of adenosine system in the actions of aqueous extract of valerian was evaluated. Bipolar stimulating and monopolar recording electrodes were implanted stereotaxically in the right basolateral amygdala of male Sprague-Dawley rats. After kindling, the effect of aqueous (200, 500 and 800 mg/kg; intraperitoneal) and petroleum ether (PE; 50 and 100mg/kg; intraperitoneal) extracts of valerian and CPT (selective A(1) receptor antagonist; 10 and 20 microM; intracerebroventricular) on afterdischarge duration (ADD), duration of stage 5 seizure (S5D) and latency to the onset of bilateral forelimb clonuses (S4L) were measured. The effect of CPT (10 microM) on the response of aqueous extract of valerian (500 mg/kg) was also determined. The results showed that aqueous extract of valerian had anticonvulsant effect. However, PE extract and CPT (20 microM) had proconvulsant effect. Administration of CPT (10 microM) before the administration of aqueous extract decreased the anticonvulsant effect of valerian. The results showed significant anticonvulsant effect for aqueous but not PE extract of valerian. Moreover, CPT as a selective adenosine A(1) receptor antagonist decreased the anticonvulsant effect of valerian aqueous extract. Therefore, we concluded that part of anticonvulsant effect of valerian probably is mediated through activation of adenosine system. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using a Melissa officinalis leaf extract with antibacterial properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jesús Ruíz-Baltazar, Álvaro; Reyes-López, Simón Yobbany; Larrañaga, Daniel; Estévez, Miriam; Pérez, Ramiro

    The exceptional properties of the silver nanoparticles offer several applications in the biomedicine field. The development of antibiotics which are clinically useful against bacteria and drug resistant microorganisms, it is one of the main approaches of silver nanoparticles. However, it is necessary to develop environmentally friendly methods for their synthesis. In this sense, the main objective of this work is focused on to propose a simplified and efficient green synthesis of silver nanoparticles with proven antibacterial properties. The green synthesis route is based on the use of the Melissa officinalis as reducing agent of the silver ions in aqueous solution at room temperature. Complementary, the antibacterial activity of the silver nanoparticles against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was confirmed. The silver nanoparticles obtained were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, UV-vis, Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy. The observed results suggested that using Melissa officinalis, it is possible to performed silver nanoparticles with controlled characteristics and with significant inhibitory activity against the Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

  8. Antibacterial Effects of Different Concentrations of Althaea officinalis Root Extract versus 0.2% Chlorhexidine and Penicillin on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus (In vitro).

    PubMed

    Haghgoo, Roza; Mehran, Majid; Afshari, Elahe; Zadeh, Hamide Farajian; Ahmadvand, Motahare

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to determine and compare the effects of different concentrations of Althaea officinalis extract, 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX), and penicillin on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus in vitro . The laboratory study was done, for a period of 8 weeks. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) in the test tube, minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) in a plate culture medium, and growth inhibition zone diameter methods were used to compare the antibacterial effects of 0.2% CHX, penicillin, and different concentrations of A. officinalis root extract. The data were analyzed by SPSS version 24 using ANOVA and t -test analysis. The results showed A. officinalis root extract had antibacterial effect, but significant differences were in MIC and MBC against L. acidophilus and S. mutans with penicillin and 0.2% CHX mouthwash. In addition, the mean growth inhibition zones of all the concentrations of the plant extract were less than that of the positive control group ( P = 0.001). However, the difference in the maximum growth inhibition zone from that with the negative control group was significant. In addition, the antibacterial effect of the extract increased with an increase in its concentration. The extract exerted a greater antibacterial effect on S. mutans than on L. acidophilus . The plant polyphenols content is 3.7% which is equivalent to 29.93 g/ml. The root extract of A. officinalis exhibited antibacterial effects on S. mutans and L. acidophilus , but this effect was less than those of CHX mouthwash and penicillin. The antibacterial effect increased with an increase in the concentration of the extract.

  9. Evaluation of the intestinal permeability of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract polyphenols and terpenoids in Caco-2 cell monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Arráez-Román, David; González-Álvarez, Isabel; Ibáñez, Elena; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Bermejo, Marival; Micol, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is grown throughout the world and is widely used as a medicinal herb and to season and preserve food. Rosemary polyphenols and terpenoids have attracted great interest due to their potential health benefits. However, complete information regarding their absorption and bioavailability in Caco-2 cell model is scarce. The permeation properties of the bioactive compounds (flavonoids, diterpenes, triterpenes and phenylpropanoids) of a rosemary extract (RE), obtained by supercritical fluid extraction, was studied in Caco-2 cell monolayer model, both in a free form or liposomed. Compounds were identified and quantitated by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS), and the apparent permeability values (Papp) were determined, for the first time in the extract, for 24 compounds in both directions across cell monolayer. For some compounds, such as triterpenoids and some flavonoids, Papp values found were reported for the first time in Caco-2 cells.Our results indicate that most compounds are scarcely absorbed, and passive diffusion is suggested to be the primary mechanism of absorption. The use of liposomes to vehiculize the extract resulted in reduced permeability for most compounds. Finally, the biopharmaceutical classification (BCS) of all the compounds was achieved according to their permeability and solubility data for bioequivalence purposes. BCS study reveal that most of the RE compounds could be classified as classes III and IV (low permeability); therefore, RE itself should also be classified into this category. PMID:28234919

  10. Ultrasound-assisted extraction of water-soluble polysaccharides from the roots of valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Hromádková, Z; Ebringerová, A; Valachovic, P

    2002-01-01

    The insoluble plant residues, obtained after preparation of medicinal tinctures from the roots of valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.) by classical and ultrasound-assisted extraction with aqueous ethanol in a pilot plant, were subsequently treated with hot water to isolate the accessible polysaccharide cell wall components. At almost equal amounts of the hot-water extractable material, the yields of the recovered polysaccharides were lower in the ultrasonical experiment. This is due to the fact that a part of accessible polysaccharides were already solubilised by the aqueous ethanol and recoverable from the medicinal tincture. Therefore, the net yield of extracted polysaccharides was enhanced in the ultrasonical procedure. This fact as well as the sugar composition and structural features of the isolated polysaccharides suggest that ultrasonication have attacked the integrity of cell walls, released and degraded its most accessible polysaccharides (pectic polysaccharides and starch) and increased also the extractibility of its less accessible components--xylan, mannan and glucan. The water-soluble polysaccharide fractions from both the conventional and ultrasonical experiments exhibit significant immunostimulatory activities in mitogenic and comitogenic thymocyte tests.

  11. Evaluation of the intestinal permeability of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract polyphenols and terpenoids in Caco-2 cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sánchez, Almudena; Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Arráez-Román, David; González-Álvarez, Isabel; Ibáñez, Elena; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Bermejo, Marival; Micol, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is grown throughout the world and is widely used as a medicinal herb and to season and preserve food. Rosemary polyphenols and terpenoids have attracted great interest due to their potential health benefits. However, complete information regarding their absorption and bioavailability in Caco-2 cell model is scarce. The permeation properties of the bioactive compounds (flavonoids, diterpenes, triterpenes and phenylpropanoids) of a rosemary extract (RE), obtained by supercritical fluid extraction, was studied in Caco-2 cell monolayer model, both in a free form or liposomed. Compounds were identified and quantitated by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS), and the apparent permeability values (Papp) were determined, for the first time in the extract, for 24 compounds in both directions across cell monolayer. For some compounds, such as triterpenoids and some flavonoids, Papp values found were reported for the first time in Caco-2 cells.Our results indicate that most compounds are scarcely absorbed, and passive diffusion is suggested to be the primary mechanism of absorption. The use of liposomes to vehiculize the extract resulted in reduced permeability for most compounds. Finally, the biopharmaceutical classification (BCS) of all the compounds was achieved according to their permeability and solubility data for bioequivalence purposes. BCS study reveal that most of the RE compounds could be classified as classes III and IV (low permeability); therefore, RE itself should also be classified into this category.

  12. Therapeutic effects of marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L.) extract on plasma biochemical parameters of common carp infected with Aeromonas hydrophila

    PubMed Central

    Banaee, Mahdi; Soleimany, Vahid; Nematdoost Haghi, Behzad

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated preclinical and clinical safety of marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L.) extract as a naturopathic medicine in common carp deliberately infected with Aeromonas hydrophila. The fish were fed 0 (control), 2.50, 5.00 and 10.00 g of marshmallow extract for 60 days in a preclinical experiment and then, challenged with A. hydrophila for a 10-day experiment. Significant increases were observed in aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatine phosphokinase (CPK) activities and plasma creatinine levels in fish fed 10 g marshmallow extract per kg feed. However, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) significantly decreased on day 60. The fish fed 2.50 g marshmallow extract per kg feed indicated increased levels of total protein and globulin. There were no significant changes in albumin levels (p > 0.05). 2.50 and 5.00 g marshmallow significantly decreased triglyceride and cholesterol levels and increased glucose levels (p < 0.05). A. hydrophila significantly increased AST, ALT, LDH, ALP and CPK activities and plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and creatinine levels after 10 days (p < 0.05). Total plasma protein, albumin and globulin levels in fish challenged with A. hydrophila were significantly lower than the control group (p < 0.05). Marshmallow extract at 5.00 and 10.00 g can adjust plasma biochemical parameters in fish challenged with A. hydrophila. The results of preclinical studies and pharmaceutical toxicity of marshmallow extract revealed that dietary levels lower than 5.00 g were safe and effective. The results of this clinical study demonstrated that marshmallow extract (5.00 g kg-1 feed) can protect fish against A. hydrophila. PMID:28785391

  13. Therapeutic effects of marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L.) extract on plasma biochemical parameters of common carp infected with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Banaee, Mahdi; Soleimany, Vahid; Nematdoost Haghi, Behzad

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated preclinical and clinical safety of marshmallow ( Althaea officinalis L.) extract as a naturopathic medicine in common carp deliberately infected with Aeromonas hydrophila . The fish were fed 0 (control), 2.50, 5.00 and 10.00 g of marshmallow extract for 60 days in a preclinical experiment and then, challenged with A. hydrophila for a 10-day experiment. Significant increases were observed in aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatine phosphokinase (CPK) activities and plasma creatinine levels in fish fed 10 g marshmallow extract per kg feed. However, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) significantly decreased on day 60. The fish fed 2.50 g marshmallow extract per kg feed indicated increased levels of total protein and globulin. There were no significant changes in albumin levels ( p > 0.05). 2.50 and 5.00 g marshmallow significantly decreased triglyceride and cholesterol levels and increased glucose levels ( p < 0.05). A. hydrophila significantly increased AST, ALT, LDH, ALP and CPK activities and plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and creatinine levels after 10 days ( p < 0.05). Total plasma protein, albumin and globulin levels in fish challenged with A. hydrophila were significantly lower than the control group ( p < 0.05). Marshmallow extract at 5.00 and 10.00 g can adjust plasma biochemical parameters in fish challenged with A. hydrophila . The results of preclinical studies and pharmaceutical toxicity of marshmallow extract revealed that dietary levels lower than 5.00 g were safe and effective. The results of this clinical study demonstrated that marshmallow extract (5.00 g kg -1 feed) can protect fish against A. hydrophila .

  14. A Standardized Composition Comprised of Extracts from Rosmarinus officinalis, Annona squamosa and Zanthoxylum clava-herculis for Cellulite

    PubMed Central

    Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young-Chul; Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Brownell, Lidia; Jia, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cellulite, characterized by changes in the skin morphology presented as dimpled or puckered skin appearance, is highly prevalent among postadolescent women. Cellulite management ranges from topical cream applications to invasive procedures. While some interventions showed improvements in physical appearances of affected areas, so far, none have reversed the condition to a full recovery. These unsuccessful measures signify the intricate nature of cellulite etiology highlighting its complexity leading to the possibility for a combination treatment approach to target multiple mechanisms. Materials and Methods: We screened our plant library for extracts that reduce cellular lipid accumulation, improve microcirculation, possess high total antioxidant capacity, significant anti-platelet aggregation, and anti-inflammatory activities using lipid accumulation assay in 3T3-L1 cells, Croton oil-induced hemorrhoid test in rats as a model for microcirculation, anti-platelet aggregation assay, nitric oxide (NO) inhibition assay, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay. Results: Three known botanicals such as Rosemary officinalis, Annona squamosa and Zanthoxylum clava-herculis were identified as lead extracts in these tests. Treatment of 3T3 cell with A. squamosa at 1 μg/ml resulted in 68.8% reduction in lipid accumulation. In croton oil-induced hemorrhoid study, Z. clava-herculis reduced the recto-anus coefficient by 79.6% at 6 mg/kg indicating improvement in microcirculations. Similarly, R. officinalis caused inhibition of 82%, 71.8%, and 91.8% in platelet aggregation, NO production and free radical generation at 31.25 μg/ml, 6.2 μg/ml, and 40 μg/ml concentrations suggesting its anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities. Conclusions: Data depicted here suggest that formulation of these well-known botanicals at a specific ratio perhaps may yield a composition with a much wider spectrum of mechanisms of actions to impact the multiple pathways involved in

  15. Valerenic acid and Valeriana officinalis extracts delay onset of Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-Induced seizures in adult Danio rerio (Zebrafish).

    PubMed

    Torres-Hernández, Bianca A; Del Valle-Mojica, Lisa M; Ortíz, José G

    2015-07-14

    Anticonvulsant properties have been attributed to extracts of the herbal medicine Valeriana officinalis. Our aims were to examine the anticonvulsant properties of valerenic acid and valerian extracts and to determine whether valerian preparations interact with the activity of other anti-epileptic drugs (phenytoin or clonazepam). To achieve these goals, we validated the adult zebrafish, Danio rerio, as an animal model for studying anticonvulsant drugs. All drug treatments were administered by immersion in water containing the drug. For assays of anticonvulsant activity, zebrafish were pretreated with: anti-epileptic drugs, valerenic acid, aqueous or ethanolic valerian extracts, or mixtures (phenytoin or clonazepam with valerenic acid or valerian extracts). Seizures were then induced with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). A behavioral scale was developed for scoring PTZ-induced seizures in adult zebrafish. The seizure latency was evaluated for all pretreatments and control, untreated fish. Valerenic acid and both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of valerian root were also evaluated for their ability to improve survival after pentylenetetrazole-challenge. The assay was validated by comparison with well-studied anticonvulsant drugs (phenytoin, clonazepam, gabapentin and valproate). One-way ANOVA followed by Tukey post-hoc test was performed, using a p < 0.05 level of significance. All treatments were compared with the untreated animals and with the other pretreatments. After exposure to pentylenetetrazole, zebrafish exhibited a series of stereotypical behaviors prior to the appearance of clonic-like movements--convulsions. Both valerenic acid and valerian extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) significantly extended the latency period to the onset of seizure (convulsion) in adult zebrafish. The ethanolic valerian extract was a more potent anticonvulsant than the aqueous extract. Valerenic acid and both valerian extracts interacted synergistically with clonazepam to extended the

  16. Extract of valerian root (Valeriana officinalis L.) vs. placebo in treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder: a randomized double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Pakseresht, Siroos; Boostani, Hatam; Sayyah, Mehdi

    2011-10-11

    Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a common neuropsychiatric condition. Many herbs with psychotropic effects exist which can have fewer side effects compared to more conventional medications. Valeriana Officinalis L. is a well-known medicinal plant with a long history of usage in the world with an effect on GABA. This plant is reported to be safe on humans. Our objective in this study was to compare the efficacy of the extract of Valeriana Officinalis L. with placebo in the treatment of OCD. The study was an 8-week pilot double-blind randomized trial. Thirty-one adult outpatients who met the DSM-IV-TR criteria for OCD based on the structured clinical interview participated in the trial. In this double-blind and randomized trial, patients were randomly assigned to receive either capsule of the extract (765 mg/day) or placebo (30 mg/day) for 8 weeks. The results showed significant difference between the extract and placebo in the end of treatment (P=0.000). Somnolence was the only significant difference between the two groups in terms of observed side effects (P=0.02). The results suggest that Valeriana Officinalis L. has some antiobsessive and compulsive effects. However, further studies are needed to confirm these findings. Psychiatrists often find that many patients cannot tolerate the side effects of psychiatry medicine Valeriana Officinalis L. is a well-known medicinal plant with a long history of usage in world with effect on GABA.The results showed significant difference between the extract and placebo in the treatment of OCD. There was also no significant difference between the two groups in terms of observed side effects.

  17. Magnolia officinalis (Hou Po) bark extract stimulates the Nrf2-pathway in hepatocytes and protects against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Rajgopal, Arun; Missler, Stephen R; Scholten, Jeffery D

    2016-12-04

    The highly aromatic bark of Magnolia officinalis Rehder and EH Wilson, (magnolia bark) has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine where it is known as Hou Po. Historically the bark of the tree has been used for treating variety of disorders the most common use of magnolia bark in traditional prescription has been to treat stress and anxiety disorders. Till date it is not clear regarding the fundamental cellular pathway it modulates. NRF2 signaling has emerged as the central pathway that protects cells from variety of stressors this led us to hypothesize that basis for magnolia bark's effects could be via activating NRF2 pathway. We utilized variety of biochemical procedures like luciferase reporter assay, enzyme induction, gene expression to determine NRF2 inducing activity by magnolia bark extract and its significance. Further we identified the phytochemicals inducing this activity using bio-directed fractionation procedure. In this study, we demonstrate that magnolia bark extract activates Nrf2-dependent gene expression and protects against hydrogen peroxide mediated oxidative stress in hepatocytes. We further identified through HPLC fractionation and mass spectroscopy that magnolol, 4-methoxy honokiol and honokiol are the active phytochemicals inducing the Nrf2-mediated activity. This could be the molecular basis for its numerous beneficial activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Valeriana officinalis Extracts Ameliorate Neuronal Damage by Suppressing Lipid Peroxidation in the Gerbil Hippocampus Following Transient Cerebral Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Dae Young; Jung, Hyo Young; Nam, Sung Min; Kim, Jong Whi; Choi, Jung Hoon; Kwak, Youn-Gil; Yoo, Miyoung; Lee, Sanghee; Yoon, Yeo Sung

    2015-01-01

    Abstract As a medicinal plant, the roots of Valeriana officinalis have been used as a sedative and tranquilizer. In the present study, we evaluated the neuroprotective effects of valerian root extracts (VE) on the hippocampal CA1 region of gerbils after 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia. Gerbils were administered VE orally once a day for 3 weeks, subjected to ischemia/reperfusion injury, and continued on VE for 3 weeks. The administration of 100 mg/kg VE (VE100 group) significantly reduced the ischemia-induced spontaneous motor hyperactivity 1 day after ischemia/reperfusion. Four days after ischemia/reperfusion, animals treated with VE showed abundant cresyl violet-positive neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region when compared to the vehicle or 25 mg/kg VE-treated groups. In addition, the VE treatment markedly decreased microglial activation in the hippocampal CA1 region 4 days after ischemia. Compared to the other groups, the VE100 group showed the lowest level of lipid peroxidation during the first 24 h after ischemia/reperfusion. In summary, the findings in this study suggest that pretreatment with VE has protective effects against ischemic injury in the hippocampal pyramidal neurons by decreasing microglial activation and lipid peroxidation. PMID:25785762

  19. Valeriana officinalis Extracts Ameliorate Neuronal Damage by Suppressing Lipid Peroxidation in the Gerbil Hippocampus Following Transient Cerebral Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Dae Young; Jung, Hyo Young; Nam, Sung Min; Kim, Jong Whi; Choi, Jung Hoon; Kwak, Youn-Gil; Yoo, Miyoung; Lee, Sanghee; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Hwang, In Koo

    2015-06-01

    As a medicinal plant, the roots of Valeriana officinalis have been used as a sedative and tranquilizer. In the present study, we evaluated the neuroprotective effects of valerian root extracts (VE) on the hippocampal CA1 region of gerbils after 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia. Gerbils were administered VE orally once a day for 3 weeks, subjected to ischemia/reperfusion injury, and continued on VE for 3 weeks. The administration of 100 mg/kg VE (VE100 group) significantly reduced the ischemia-induced spontaneous motor hyperactivity 1 day after ischemia/reperfusion. Four days after ischemia/reperfusion, animals treated with VE showed abundant cresyl violet-positive neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region when compared to the vehicle or 25 mg/kg VE-treated groups. In addition, the VE treatment markedly decreased microglial activation in the hippocampal CA1 region 4 days after ischemia. Compared to the other groups, the VE100 group showed the lowest level of lipid peroxidation during the first 24 h after ischemia/reperfusion. In summary, the findings in this study suggest that pretreatment with VE has protective effects against ischemic injury in the hippocampal pyramidal neurons by decreasing microglial activation and lipid peroxidation.

  20. The antibacterial effect of sage extract (Salvia officinalis) mouthwash against Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Beheshti-Rouy, Maryam; Azarsina, Mohadese; Rezaie-Soufi, Loghman; Alikhani, Mohammad Yousef; Roshanaie, Ghodratollah; Komaki, Samira

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical effects of a mouthwash containing Sage (Salvia officinalis) extracts on Streptococcus mutans (SM) causing dental plaque in school-aged children. A double blind clinical trial study was conducted in a dormitory on 70 girls aged 11-14 years having the same socioeconomic and oral hygiene conditions. These students were randomly divided into 2 groups; the first group (N=35) using Sage mouthwash, and the second group (N=35) using placebo mouthwash without active any ingredients. At the baseline, plaque samples obtained from the buccal surfaces of teeth were sent to laboratory to achieve SM colony count. These tests were reevaluated after 21 days of using the mouthwashes. Statistical data analysis was performed using t-student tests with p<0.05 as the level of significance. Sage mouthwash significantly reduced the colony count (P=0.001). Average number of colonies in test group was 3900 per plaque sample at the baseline, and 300 after mouthwash application. In the control group, pre-test colony count was 4400 that was reduced to 4000; although this reduction wasn't significant. The Sage mouthwash effectively reduced the number of Streptococcus mutans in dental plaque.

  1. Experimental study on effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Emblica officinalis fruits on glucose homeostasis and metabolic parameters

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Snehal S.; Goyal, Ramesh K.; Shah, Rajendra S.; Tirgar, Pravin R.; Jadav, Pinakin D.

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenols from natural source are potential therapeutics that act alone or supplement anti-diabetic drugs in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. The present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of hydroalcoholic extract (HE) of fruits of Emblica officinalis on type 1 diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) (45 mg/kg i.v.). HE (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered for 4 weeks and at the end of treatment, blood samples were collected and analyzed for various biochemical parameters. STZ produced a diabetic state exhibiting all the cardinal symptoms such as loss of body weight, polydipsia, polyuria, glucosuria, polyphagia, hypoinsulinemia, and hyperglycemia associated with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Treatment with HE prevented cardinal symptoms and caused significant decrease in fasting serum glucose, AUCglucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very LDL in diabetic rats. However, insulin, AUCinsulin, and serum high-density lipoprotein level were not significantly altered by treatment. Treatment also reduced lipid peroxidation and increased anti-oxidant parameters in the liver homogenates of diabetic rats. Polyphenol enriched fraction of HE significantly improved disarranged carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of chemically induced diabetes in rats. The mechanism of its anti-diabetic activity appears to be either improvement in peripheral glucose utilization, increased insulin sensitivity, or anti-oxidant property. PMID:24696584

  2. Aqueous and Ethanolic Valeriana officinalis Extracts Change the Binding of Ligands to Glutamate Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Del Valle-Mojica, Lisa M.; Cordero-Hernández, José M.; González-Medina, Giselle; Ramos-Vélez, Igmeris; Berríos-Cartagena, Nairimer; Torres-Hernández, Bianca A.; Ortíz, José G.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of two valerian extracts (aqueous and hydroalcoholic) were investigated through [3H]Glutamate ([3H]Glu) and [3H]Fluorowillardine ([3H]FW) receptor binding assays using rat synaptic membranes in presence of different receptor ligands. In addition, the extract stability was monitored spectrophotometrically. Both extracts demonstrated interaction with ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs). However, the extracts displayed considerable differences in receptor selectivity. The hydroalcoholic extract selectively interacted with quisqualic acid (QA), group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) ligand, while the aqueous extract did not alter the binding of QA. The stability of the extracts was examined during several weeks. Freshly prepared extract inhibited 38–60% of [3H]FW binding (AMPA). After 10 days, the aqueous extract inhibited 85% of [3H]FW binding while the hydroalcoholic extract markedly potentiated (200%) [3H]FW binding to AMPA receptors. Thus, our results showed that factors such as extraction solvent and extract stability determine the selectivity for glutamate receptor (GluR) interactions. PMID:21151614

  3. Aqueous and Ethanolic Valeriana officinalis Extracts Change the Binding of Ligands to Glutamate Receptors.

    PubMed

    Del Valle-Mojica, Lisa M; Cordero-Hernández, José M; González-Medina, Giselle; Ramos-Vélez, Igmeris; Berríos-Cartagena, Nairimer; Torres-Hernández, Bianca A; Ortíz, José G

    2011-01-01

    The effects of two valerian extracts (aqueous and hydroalcoholic) were investigated through [(3)H]Glutamate ([(3)H]Glu) and [(3)H]Fluorowillardine ([(3)H]FW) receptor binding assays using rat synaptic membranes in presence of different receptor ligands. In addition, the extract stability was monitored spectrophotometrically. Both extracts demonstrated interaction with ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs). However, the extracts displayed considerable differences in receptor selectivity. The hydroalcoholic extract selectively interacted with quisqualic acid (QA), group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) ligand, while the aqueous extract did not alter the binding of QA. The stability of the extracts was examined during several weeks. Freshly prepared extract inhibited 38-60% of [(3)H]FW binding (AMPA). After 10 days, the aqueous extract inhibited 85% of [(3)H]FW binding while the hydroalcoholic extract markedly potentiated (200%) [(3)H]FW binding to AMPA receptors. Thus, our results showed that factors such as extraction solvent and extract stability determine the selectivity for glutamate receptor (GluR) interactions.

  4. Anti-neoplastic activities of sepia officinalis ink and coelatura aegyptiaca extracts against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Amel M; Fahmy, Sohair R; El-Abied, Salma A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: With the development of sophisticated instruments for the isolation and elucidation of natural products structures from marine and freshwater organisms, major advances have been made in the discovery of aquatic derived therapeutics. Present investigations were carried out to evaluate cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) ink extract (IE) and freshwater clam (Coelatura aegyptiaca) extract (CE) for their anticancer and antioxidant activities as compared to 5-flurouracil (5-Fu), in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC). Methods: Sixty female Swiss albino mice were divided into five groups (n = 12). All groups except group I received EAC cells (5 × 106 cells/mouse i.p.) and this was taken as the 0th day. Group I served as saline control (5 ml/kg 0.9% NaCl w/v p.o). Group II served as EAC control. Rats of groups III, IV and V received IE, CE (200 mg/kg body weight i.p.), and reference drug (5-Fu, 20 mg/kg body weight i.p.), respectively. Results: The reduction in tumor volume, packed cell volume, tumor cell counts and increase in median survival time and percentage increase in life span in treated animals were observed. There was a significant increase in RBC count; Hb content in treated animals and reduction in total WBC count. There was a significant decrease in AST, ALT, ALP and liver MDA levels and increase in GSH, SOD and NO levels were observed in all treated animals. Conclusion: Both IE and CE were effective in inhibiting the tumor growth in ascitic tumor models. The biochemical, antioxidants and histopathological studies were also supported their antitumor properties. PMID:26097537

  5. Aqueous extracts and polysaccharides from Marshmallow roots (Althea officinalis L.): cellular internalisation and stimulation of cell physiology of human epithelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Deters, Alexandra; Zippel, Janina; Hellenbrand, Nils; Pappai, Dirk; Possemeyer, Cathleen; Hensel, Andreas

    2010-01-08

    Aqueous extracts from the roots of Althea officinalis L. (Malvaceae) are widely used for treatment of irritated mucosa. The clinical proven effects are related to the presence of bioadhesive and mucilaginous polysaccharides from the rhamnogalacturonan type, leading to the physical formation of mucin-like on top of the irritated tissues. No data are available if the extracts or the polysaccharides from these extract exert an active influence on mucosal or connective tissue cells, in order to initiated changes in cell physiology, useful for better tissue regeneration. In vitro investigations of aqueous A. officinalis extract AE and raw polysaccharides (RPS) on epithelial KB cells and primary dermal human fibroblasts (pNHF) using WST1 vitality test and BrdU proliferation ELISA. Gene expression analysis by microarray from KB cells. Internalisation studies of polysaccharides were performed by laser scanning microscopy. AE (1, 10 microg/mL) had stimulating effect on cell viability and proliferation of epithelial KB cells. RPS (1, 10 microg/mL) stimulated cell vitality of epithelial cells significantly without triggering the cells into higher proliferation status. Neither AE nor RPS had any effect on fibroblasts. FITC-labeled RPS was shown to be internalised into epithelial cells, but not into fibroblasts. FITC-RPS was shown to form bioadhesive layers on the cell surface of dermal fibroblasts. Microarray analysis indicated an up-regulation of genes related to cell adhesion proteins, growth regulators, extracellular matrix, cytokine release and apoptosis. Aqueous extracts and polysaccharides from the roots of A. officinalis are effective stimulators of cell physiology of epithelial cells which can prove the traditional use of Marshmallow preparations for treatment of irritated mucous membranes within tissue regeneration. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Application of FT-IR Classification Method in Silica-Plant Extracts Composites Quality Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicu, A.; Drumea, V.; Mihaiescu, D. E.; Purcareanu, B.; Florea, M. A.; Trică, B.; Vasilievici, G.; Draga, S.; Buse, E.; Olariu, L.

    2018-06-01

    Our present work is concerned with the validation and quality testing efforts of mesoporous silica - plant extracts composites, in order to sustain the standardization process of plant-based pharmaceutical products. The synthesis of the silica support were performed by using a TEOS based synthetic route and CTAB as a template, at room temperature and normal pressure. The silica support was analyzed by advanced characterization methods (SEM, TEM, BET, DLS and FT-IR), and loaded with Calendula officinalis and Salvia officinalis standardized extracts. Further desorption studies were performed in order to prove the sustained release properties of the final materials. Intermediate and final product identification was performed by a FT-IR classification method, using the MID-range of the IR spectra, and statistical representative samples from repetitive synthetic stages. The obtained results recommend this analytical method as a fast and cost effective alternative to the classic identification methods.

  7. [CONTENT OF OXIDATIVE STRESS MARKERS IN BLOOD PLASMA UNDER THE ACTION OF EXTRACTS OF GRATIOLA OFFICINALIS L., HELICHRYSUM ARENARIUM (L.) MOENCH, AND ANTHOCYANIN FORMS OF ZEA MAYS L].

    PubMed

    Durnova, N A; Afanas'eva, G A; Kurchatova, M N; Zaraeva, N V; Golikov, A G; Bucharskaya, A B; Golikov, A G; Bucharskaya, A B; Plastun, V O; Andreeva, N V

    2015-01-01

    The effect of aqueous solutions of dry ethanol extracts of Gratiola officinalis L., Helichrysum arenarium (L.) Moench, and anthocyanin forms of Zea mays L. on the dioxidin-induced lipid peroxidation in blood has been studied on rats. It is established that all these extracts are capable of reducing the amount of avera- ge-mass (AM) molecules and malonic dialdehyde (MDA) in rat blood plasma. The extract of Gratiola officinalis L. reduces the concentration of AM and MDA moleules by 43%. The extract of Helichrysum arenarium (L.) Moench reduces the concentration of AM molecules on the average by 18.66% (within 9.22 -34.81%) and MDA by 49.36% (within 34.12-79.75%). The Extract of anthocyanin forms of Zea mays L. does not reduce the concentration of AM mo- lecules, but reduces the amount of MDA in the blood of rats on average by 27.88% (within 21.58-37.82%) (p < 0.01).

  8. Magnolia officinalis Extract Contains Potent Inhibitors against PTP1B and Attenuates Hyperglycemia in db/db Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jing; Wang, Yongsen; Fu, Xueqi; Chen, Yingli; Wang, Deli; Li, Wannan; Xing, Shu; Li, Guodong

    2015-01-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is an established therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory activity of Magnolia officinalis extract (ME) on PTP1B and its anti-T2DM effects. Inhibition assays and inhibition kinetics of ME were performed in vitro. 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes were stimulated with ME to explore its bioavailability in cell level. The in vivo studies were performed on db/db mice to probe its anti-T2DM effects. In the present study, ME inhibited PTP1B in a reversible competitive manner and displayed good selectivity against PTPs in vitro. Furthermore, ME enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation levels of cellular proteins, especially the insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylations of insulin receptor β-subunit (IRβ) and ERK1/2 in a dose-dependent manner in stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and C2C12 myotubes. Meanwhile, ME enhanced insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation. More importantly, there was a significant decrease in fasting plasma glucose level of db/db diabetic mice treated orally with 0.5 g/kg ME for 4 weeks. These findings indicated that improvement of insulin sensitivity and hypoglycemic effects of ME may be attributed to the inhibition of PTP1B. Thereby, we pioneered the inhibitory potential of ME targeted on PTP1B as anti-T2DM drug discovery. PMID:26064877

  9. [A new strategy for enhancing acanthamoebicidal activity with synthesis of nanoflower of Laurocerausus officinalis Roemer (cherry laurel) fruit extracts].

    PubMed

    Baldemir, Ayşe; Karaman, Ülkü; Yusufbeyoğlu, Sadi; Eken, Ayşe; Ildız, Nilay; İlgün, Selen; Çolak, Cemil; Kaçmaz, Gamze; Öçsoy, İsmail; Çankaya, Soner

    2018-01-01

    Pathogenic Acanthamoeba species often cause infection known as Acanthamoeba keratitis among people who use contact lenses. It is a type of infection that can result in corneal ulceration, visual loss or even blindness, if not treated. There are various therapeutic options available in the treatment of Acanthamoeba infections but they are usually tough treatments with limited efficacy. For instance, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) is a commonly used contact lens disinfectant which is effective against Acanthamoeba but it is toxic to the cornea. For these reasons, new and more efficacious treatment options are required for Acanthamoeba infections. In this context, plants are considered natural resources for the discovery of new drugs. Laurocerasus officinalis Roem. (cherry laurel) (Rosaceae) grows in Black Sea region; and it is known as "Taflan", "Laz kirazı" or "Karayemis". Local people are using the seeds against diabetes, while the fruits are consuming as food, and used fordiuretic and passing kidney stones. It has also been reported that the seeds of the cherry laurel are used as an antiparasitic agent in this area. The aim of the study was to confirm the traditionally use of antiparasitic activity of this fruit and to increase the potential effect by means of organic-inorganic hybrid synthesis. Total phenol contents of methanol extracts prepared from endocarp, mesocarp and seeds of the fruit were calculated. The effects of methanol extracts and nano flower (NFs) plants synthesized from these extracts on the proliferation of Acanthamoeba castellanii were investigated. Thus, for the first time, novel organic-inorganic nanobio-antiparasitic agents called NFs were produced from cherry laurel and the increase in the amoebicidal activity of the NFs was elucidated. The characterization of NFs were determined with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FT-IR) and Energy-Dispersive X-ray (EDX) techniques. In addition, the catalytic

  10. Permeability of rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis extracts across Caco-2 cell monolayers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid derivative found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be of benefit t...

  11. Quantitative HPLC Analysis of Rosmarinic Acid in Extracts of "Melissa officinalis" and Spectrophotometric Measurement of Their Antioxidant Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canelas, Vera; da Costa, Cristina Teixeira

    2007-01-01

    The students prepare tea samples using different quantities of lemon balm leaves ("Melissa officinalis") and measure the rosmarinic acid contents by an HPLC-DAD method. The antioxidant properties of the tea samples are evaluated by a spectrophotometric method using a radical-scavenging assay with DPPH. (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Finally the…

  12. The influence of standardized Valeriana officinalis extract on the CYP3A1 gene expression by nuclear receptors in in vivo model.

    PubMed

    Bogacz, Anna; Mrozikiewicz, Przemyslaw M; Karasiewicz, Monika; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Majchrzycki, Marian; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Ozarowski, Marcin; Grzeskowiak, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis is one of the most popular medicinal plants commonly used as a sedative and sleep aid. It is suggested that its pharmacologically active compounds derived from the root may modulate the CYP3A4 gene expression by activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and lead to pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of valerian on the expression level of CYP3A1 (homologue to human CYP3A4) as well as nuclear receptors PXR, CAR, RXR, GR, and HNF-4α. Male Wistar rats were given standardized valerian extract (300 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 3 and 10 days. The expression in liver tissue was analyzed by using real-time PCR. Our result showed a decrease of CYP3A1 expression level by 35% (P = 0.248) and 37% (P < 0.001), respectively. Moreover, Valeriana exhibited statistically significant reduction in RXR (approximately 28%) only after 3-day treatment. We also demonstrated a decrease in the amount HNF-4α by 22% (P = 0.005) and 32% (P = 0.012), respectively. In case of CAR, the increase of expression level by 46% (P = 0.023) was noted. These findings suggest that Valeriana officinalis extract can decrease the CYP3A4 expression and therefore may lead to interactions with synthetic drugs metabolized by this enzyme.

  13. The Influence of Standardized Valeriana officinalis Extract on the CYP3A1 Gene Expression by Nuclear Receptors in In Vivo Model

    PubMed Central

    Mrozikiewicz, Przemyslaw M.; Karasiewicz, Monika; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L.; Ozarowski, Marcin; Grzeskowiak, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis is one of the most popular medicinal plants commonly used as a sedative and sleep aid. It is suggested that its pharmacologically active compounds derived from the root may modulate the CYP3A4 gene expression by activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and lead to pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of valerian on the expression level of CYP3A1 (homologue to human CYP3A4) as well as nuclear receptors PXR, CAR, RXR, GR, and HNF-4α. Male Wistar rats were given standardized valerian extract (300 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 3 and 10 days. The expression in liver tissue was analyzed by using real-time PCR. Our result showed a decrease of CYP3A1 expression level by 35% (P = 0.248) and 37% (P < 0.001), respectively. Moreover, Valeriana exhibited statistically significant reduction in RXR (approximately 28%) only after 3-day treatment. We also demonstrated a decrease in the amount HNF-4α by 22% (P = 0.005) and 32% (P = 0.012), respectively. In case of CAR, the increase of expression level by 46% (P = 0.023) was noted. These findings suggest that Valeriana officinalis extract can decrease the CYP3A4 expression and therefore may lead to interactions with synthetic drugs metabolized by this enzyme. PMID:25302309

  14. Application of ionic liquids based microwave-assisted simultaneous extraction of carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid and essential oil from Rosmarinus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingting; Sui, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Rongrui; Yang, Lei; Zu, Yuangang; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2011-11-25

    An ionic liquid based microwave-assisted simultaneous extraction and distillation (ILMSED) method has been developed for the effective extraction of carnosic acid (CA), rosmarinic acid (RA) and essential oil (EO) from Rosmarinus officinalis. A series of 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids differing in composition of anion and cation were evaluated for extraction yield in this work. The results obtained indicated that the anions and cations of ionic liquids had influences on the extraction of CA and RA, 1.0M 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide ([C8mim]Br) solution was selected as solvent. In addition, the ILMSED procedures for the three target ingredients were optimized and compared with other conventional extraction techniques. ILMSED gave the best result due to the highest extraction yield within the shortest extraction time for CA and RA. The novel process developed offered advantages in term of yield and selectivity of EO and shorter isolation time (20 min in comparison of 4h of hydrodistillation), and provides a more valuable EO (with high amount of oxygenated compounds). The microstructures and chemical structures of rosemary samples before and after extraction were also investigated. Moreover, the proposed method was validated by the stability, repeatability and recovery experiments. The results indicated that the developed ILMSED method provided a good alternative for the both extraction of non-volatile compounds (CA and RA) and EO from rosemary as well as other herbs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive and controlled release component in buccal tablets.

    PubMed

    Sabale, V; Patel, V; Paranjape, A

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems were developed to sustain drug delivery via various mucus membranes for either local or systemic delivery of poorly absorbed drugs such as peptides and proteins as well as drugs that are subjected to high first-pass metabolism. The present study was undertaken to use isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent and to formulate controlled release buccoadhesive tablets with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism as well as to enhance residence time of drug in the buccal cavity. The mucilage was isolated from the Calendula petals by aqueous extraction method and characterized for various physiochemical parameters as well as for its adhesive properties. By using direct compression technique, tablets were prepared containing dried mucilage and chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as a model drug. Three batches of tablets were prepared and evaluated containing three mucoadhesive components namely Methocel K4M, Carbopol 974P and isolated Calendula mucilage in 16.66%, 33.33 % and 50 % (1:2:3 ratio) resulting in 9 different formulations. FTIR studies between mucilage and CPM suggested the absence of a chemical interaction between CPM and Calendula mucilage. The results of the study showed that the isolated mucilage had good physicochemical and morphological characteristics and tablets conformed to the pharmacopoeial specifications. Also in vitro release studies showed controlled action of drug with increasing the concentration of the isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent in the formulations. Permeability studies indicated that permeability behavior was not statistically different (P>0.05) by changing the mucoadhesive component. The formulated mucoadhesive tablets for buccal administration containing 75 mg Calendula mucilage showed controlled drug release. Thus, mucoadhesive natural Calendula mucilage based buccal tablets for controlled release were successfully formulated.

  16. Evaluation of Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive and controlled release component in buccal tablets

    PubMed Central

    Sabale, V.; Patel, V.; Paranjape, A.

    2014-01-01

    Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems were developed to sustain drug delivery via various mucus membranes for either local or systemic delivery of poorly absorbed drugs such as peptides and proteins as well as drugs that are subjected to high first-pass metabolism. The present study was undertaken to use isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent and to formulate controlled release buccoadhesive tablets with an intention to avoid hepatic first-pass metabolism as well as to enhance residence time of drug in the buccal cavity. The mucilage was isolated from the Calendula petals by aqueous extraction method and characterized for various physiochemical parameters as well as for its adhesive properties. By using direct compression technique, tablets were prepared containing dried mucilage and chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM) as a model drug. Three batches of tablets were prepared and evaluated containing three mucoadhesive components namely Methocel K4M, Carbopol 974P and isolated Calendula mucilage in 16.66%, 33.33 % and 50 % (1:2:3 ratio) resulting in 9 different formulations. FTIR studies between mucilage and CPM suggested the absence of a chemical interaction between CPM and Calendula mucilage. The results of the study showed that the isolated mucilage had good physicochemical and morphological characteristics and tablets conformed to the pharmacopoeial specifications. Also in vitro release studies showed controlled action of drug with increasing the concentration of the isolated Calendula mucilage as a mucoadhesive agent in the formulations. Permeability studies indicated that permeability behavior was not statistically different (P>0.05) by changing the mucoadhesive component. The formulated mucoadhesive tablets for buccal administration containing 75 mg Calendula mucilage showed controlled drug release. Thus, mucoadhesive natural Calendula mucilage based buccal tablets for controlled release were successfully formulated. PMID:25598798

  17. Effects of Calendula Essential Oil-Based Cream on Biochemical Parameters of Skin of Albino Rats against Ultraviolet B Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Arun K.; Mishra, Amrita; Verma, Anurag; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from UV-B radiation have the capacity to cause oxidative decomposition which leads to the formation of toxic components as well as lipid peroxidation. Considering this fact, the present study was performed to evaluate the effect of a cream (O/W) containing the essential oil of Calendula officinalis on biochemical parameters of the skin of albino rats against UV-B radiation. The fingerprint analysis of Calendula essential oil was performed by HPLC with special reference to 1,8-cineole and α-pinene. The results indicated that the treatment with creams containing 4% and 5% of Calendula essential oil caused a significant decrease in the malonyldialdehyde level, whereas the levels of catalase, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, ascorbic acid, and the total protein level were significantly increased after 1 month of daily irradiation and treatment when compared to untreated control groups. The results suggest that the cutaneous application of the essential oil of Calendula prevents UV-B-induced alterations in the level of antioxidants in skin tissue. PMID:23008814

  18. Effects of Calendula Essential Oil-Based Cream on Biochemical Parameters of Skin of Albino Rats against Ultraviolet B Radiation.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Arun K; Mishra, Amrita; Verma, Anurag; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from UV-B radiation have the capacity to cause oxidative decomposition which leads to the formation of toxic components as well as lipid peroxidation. Considering this fact, the present study was performed to evaluate the effect of a cream (O/W) containing the essential oil of Calendula officinalis on biochemical parameters of the skin of albino rats against UV-B radiation. The fingerprint analysis of Calendula essential oil was performed by HPLC with special reference to 1,8-cineole and α-pinene. The results indicated that the treatment with creams containing 4% and 5% of Calendula essential oil caused a significant decrease in the malonyldialdehyde level, whereas the levels of catalase, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, ascorbic acid, and the total protein level were significantly increased after 1 month of daily irradiation and treatment when compared to untreated control groups. The results suggest that the cutaneous application of the essential oil of Calendula prevents UV-B-induced alterations in the level of antioxidants in skin tissue.

  19. Extracts of Crataegus oxyacantha and Rosmarinus officinalis Attenuate Ischemic Myocardial Damage by Decreasing Oxidative Stress and Regulating the Production of Cardiac Vasoactive Agents.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Durán, Raúl Enrique; Medrano-Rodríguez, Juan Carlos; Sánchez-Aguilar, María; Soria-Castro, Elizabeth; Rubio-Ruíz, María Esther; Del Valle-Mondragón, Leonardo; Sánchez-Mendoza, Alicia; Torres-Narvaéz, Juan Carlos; Pastelín-Hernández, Gustavo; Ibarra-Lara, Luz

    2017-11-14

    Numerous studies have supported a role for oxidative stress in the development of ischemic damage and endothelial dysfunction. Crataegus oxyacantha ( Co ) and Rosmarinus officinalis ( Ro ) extracts are polyphenolic-rich compounds that have proven to be efficient in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. We studied the effect of extracts from Co and Ro on the myocardial damage associated with the oxidative status and to the production of different vasoactive agents. Rats were assigned to the following groups: (a) sham; (b) vehicle-treated myocardial infarction (MI) (MI-V); (c) Ro extract-treated myocardial infarction (MI- Ro ); (d) Co extract-treated myocardial infarction (MI- Co ); or (e) Ro+Co -treated myocardial infarction (MI- Ro+Co ). Ro and Co treatments increased total antioxidant capacity, the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD)-Cu 2+ /Zn 2+ , SOD-Mn 2+ , and catalase, with the subsequent decline of malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels. The extracts diminished vasoconstrictor peptide levels (angiotensin II and endothelin-1), increased vasodilators agents (angiotensin 1-7 and bradikinin) and improved nitric oxide metabolism. Polyphenol treatment restored the left intraventricular pressure and cardiac mechanical work. We conclude that Ro and Co treatment attenuate morphological and functional ischemic-related changes by both an oxidant load reduction and improvement of the balance between vasoconstrictors and vasodilators.

  20. Extracts of Crataegus oxyacantha and Rosmarinus officinalis Attenuate Ischemic Myocardial Damage by Decreasing Oxidative Stress and Regulating the Production of Cardiac Vasoactive Agents

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas-Durán, Raúl Enrique; Medrano-Rodríguez, Juan Carlos; Sánchez-Aguilar, María; Soria-Castro, Elizabeth; Del Valle-Mondragón, Leonardo; Sánchez-Mendoza, Alicia; Torres-Narvaéz, Juan Carlos; Pastelín-Hernández, Gustavo; Ibarra-Lara, Luz

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies have supported a role for oxidative stress in the development of ischemic damage and endothelial dysfunction. Crataegus oxyacantha (Co) and Rosmarinus officinalis (Ro) extracts are polyphenolic-rich compounds that have proven to be efficient in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. We studied the effect of extracts from Co and Ro on the myocardial damage associated with the oxidative status and to the production of different vasoactive agents. Rats were assigned to the following groups: (a) sham; (b) vehicle-treated myocardial infarction (MI) (MI-V); (c) Ro extract-treated myocardial infarction (MI-Ro); (d) Co extract-treated myocardial infarction (MI-Co); or (e) Ro+Co-treated myocardial infarction (MI-Ro+Co). Ro and Co treatments increased total antioxidant capacity, the expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD)-Cu2+/Zn2+, SOD-Mn2+, and catalase, with the subsequent decline of malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine levels. The extracts diminished vasoconstrictor peptide levels (angiotensin II and endothelin-1), increased vasodilators agents (angiotensin 1–7 and bradikinin) and improved nitric oxide metabolism. Polyphenol treatment restored the left intraventricular pressure and cardiac mechanical work. We conclude that Ro and Co treatment attenuate morphological and functional ischemic-related changes by both an oxidant load reduction and improvement of the balance between vasoconstrictors and vasodilators. PMID:29135932

  1. Pharmacological activities of an eye drop containing Matricaria chamomilla and Euphrasia officinalis extracts in UVB-induced oxidative stress and inflammation of human corneal cells.

    PubMed

    Bigagli, Elisabetta; Cinci, Lorenzo; D'Ambrosio, Mario; Luceri, Cristina

    2017-08-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure is a risk factor for corneal damage resulting in oxidative stress, inflammation and cell death. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential protective effects of a commercial eye drop (Dacriovis™) containing Matricaria chamomilla and Euphrasia officinalis extracts on human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC-12) against UVB radiation-induced oxidative stress and inflammation as well as the underlying mechanisms. The antioxidant potential of the eye drops was evaluated by measuring the ferric reducing antioxidant power and the total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. HCEC-12 cells were exposed to UVB radiation and treated with the eye drops at various concentrations. Cell viability, wound healing assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, protein and lipid oxidative damage and COX-2, IL-1β, iNOS, SOD-2, HO-1 and GSS gene expression, were assessed. Eye drops were able to protect corneal epithelial cells from UVB-induced cell death and ameliorated the wound healing; the eye drops exhibited a strong antioxidant activity, decreasing ROS levels and protein and lipid oxidative damage. Eye drops also exerted anti-inflammatory activities by decreasing COX-2, IL-1β, iNOS expression, counteracted UVB-induced GSS and SOD-2 expression and restored HO-1 expression to control levels. These findings suggest that an eye drop containing Matricaria chamomilla and Euphrasia officinalis extracts exerts positive effects against UVB induced oxidative stress and inflammation and may be useful in protecting corneal epithelial cells from UVB exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Phytochemical Characterization of Low Molecular Weight Constituents from Marshmallow Roots (Althaea officinalis) and Inhibiting Effects of the Aqueous Extract on Human Hyaluronidase-1.

    PubMed

    Sendker, Jandirk; Böker, Ines; Lengers, Isabelle; Brandt, Simone; Jose, Joachim; Stark, Timo; Hofmann, Thomas; Fink, Careen; Abdel-Aziz, Heba; Hensel, Andreas

    2017-02-24

    Extract RE was obtained from the roots of Althaea officinalis in a yield of 8.1%, related to the dried plant material, by extraction with MeOH-H 2 O (1:1), followed by precipitation with EtOH to remove high molecular weight constituents. Phytochemical investigation of RE revealed the presence of N-phenylpropenoyl-l-amino acid amides 1-5, 8% glycine betaine 6, about 9% total amino acids with proline as the main compound, and about 61% mono- and oligomeric carbohydrates with sucrose as the main compound. Further fractionation revealed the presence of a hypolaetin diglycoside (12) and four hypolaetin glycosides (7-9 and 11) with O-sulfocarbohydrate moieties; additionally, 4'-O-methylisoscutellarein-8-O-β-d-(3″-O-sulfo)glucuronopyranoside (10) and the diglycosylated coumarin haploperoside D (13) were identified. The hypolaetin-O-sulfoglycosides 7-10 are new natural products. RE inhibited the enzymatic activity of surface-displayed human hyaluronidase-1 on Escherichia coli F470 cells with an IC 50 of 7.7 mg/mL. RE downregulated mRNA expression of hyal-1 in HaCaT keratinocytes at 125 and 250 μg/mL, respectively. These data contribute to a deeper phytochemical understanding of marshmallow root extracts and to the positive influence of extracts used for therapy of irritated and inflamed buccal tissue and cough.

  3. Protective effects of Althaea officinalis L. extract in 6-hydroxydopamine-induced hemi-Parkinsonism model: behavioral, biochemical and histochemical evidence.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Maryam; Alirezaei, Masoud

    2014-05-01

    It is well known that Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder in humans. In this regard, the neuroprotective effect of Althaea officinalis (AO) has already been reported. Therefore, this study examined whether administration of AO extract would improve behavioral, biochemical and structural abnormalities in an experimental animal model of PD in rats. For this purpose, we induced hemi-Parkinsonism by unilateral intranigral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 8 μg/5 μl saline-ascorbate). The rats were pretreated i.p. with AO extract (10 mg/kg) started 6 days before surgery and continued until the 3rd day post-surgery. Regarding oxidative stress, brain MDA concentration (as a lipid peroxidation marker) increased significantly in the 6-OHDA-administered group in comparison with rats pretreated with AO extract. It was found that AO treatment attenuated rotational behavior in the 6-OHDA-administered group and protected the neurons of substantia nigra pars compacta against 6-OHDA toxicity. Overall, AO extract administration indicated neuroprotective effects against 6-OHDA-induced hemi-Parkinsonism in rats.

  4. Extraction of Antioxidants from Borage (Borago officinalis L.) Leaves-Optimization by Response Surface Method and Application in Oil-in-Water Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Segovia, Francisco; Lupo, Bryshila; Peiró, Sara; Gordon, Michael H; Almajano, María Pilar

    2014-05-06

    Borage (Borago officinalis L.) is a typical Spanish plant. During processing, 60% are leaves. The aim of this work is to model and optimize the extraction of polyphenol from borage leaves using the response surface method (RSM) and to use this extract for application in emulsions. The responses were: total polyphenol content (TPC), antioxidant capacity by ORAC, and rosmarinic acid by HPLC. The ranges of the variables temperature, ethanol content and time were 50-90 °C, 0%-30%-60% ethanol (v/v), and 10-15 min. For ethanolic extraction, optimal conditions were at 75.9 °C, 52% ethanol and 14.8 min, yielding activity of 27.05 mg GAE/g DW TPC; 115.96 mg TE/g DW in ORAC and 11.02 mg/L rosmarinic acid. For water extraction, optimal activity was achieved with extraction at 98.3 °C and 22 min, with responses of 22.3 mg GAE/g DW TPC; 81.6 mg TE/g DW in ORAC and 3.9 mg/L rosmarinic acid. The significant variables were ethanol concentration and temperature. For emulsions, the peroxide value was inhibited by 60% for 3% extract concentration; and 80% with 3% extract concentration and 0.2% of BSA. The p-anisidine value between the control and the emulsion with 3% extract was reduced to 73.6% and with BSA 86.3%, and others concentrations had similar behavior.

  5. Can Valeriana officinalis root extract prevent early postoperative cognitive dysfunction after CABG surgery? A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Soghra; Alipour, Abbas; Darvishi Khezri, Hadi; Firouzian, Abolfazl; Emami Zeydi, Amir; Gholipour Baradari, Afshin; Ghafari, Rahman; Habibi, Wali-Allah; Tahmasebi, Homeyra; Alipour, Fatemeh; Ebrahim Zadeh, Pooneh

    2015-03-01

    We hypothesized that valerian root might prevent cognitive dysfunction in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients through stimulating serotonin receptors and anti-inflammatory activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Valeriana officinalis root extract on prevention of early postoperative cognitive dysfunction after on-pump CABG surgery. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 61 patients, aged between 30 and 70 years, scheduled for elective CABG surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), were recruited into the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups who received either one valerian capsule containing 530 mg of valerian root extract (1,060 mg/daily) or placebo capsule each 12 h for 8 weeks, respectively. For all patients, cognitive brain function was evaluated before the surgery and at 10-day and 2-month follow-up by Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) test. Mean MMSE score decreased from 27.03 ± 2.02 in the preoperative period to 26.52 ± 1.82 at the 10th day and then increased to 27.45 ± 1.36 at the 60th day in the valerian group. Conversely, its variation was reduced significantly after 60 days in the placebo group, 27.37 ± 1.87 at the baseline to 24 ± 1.91 at the 10th day, and consequently slightly increased to 24.83 ± 1.66 at the 60th day. Valerian prophylaxis reduced odds of cognitive dysfunction compared to placebo group (OR = 0.108, 95 % CI 0.022-0.545). We concluded that, based on this study, the cognitive state of patients in the valerian group was better than that in the placebo group after CABG; therefore, it seems that the use of V. officinalis root extract may prevent early postoperative cognitive dysfunction after on-pump CABG surgery.

  6. Preclinical toxicological assessment of a phytotherapeutic product--CPV (based on dry extracts of Crataegus oxyacantha L., Passiflora incarnata L., and Valeriana officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Tabach, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Eliana; Carlini, E A

    2009-01-01

    Associations of plants have been widely used, for centuries, in Ayurveda and in Chinese medicine and have been increasingly acknowledged in Western medicine. The objective of this study is to assess the level of toxicity of an association of three plants: Crataegus oxyacantha, Passiflora incarnata, and Valeriana officinalis (CPV extract). This association was administered to rats, mice, and dogs, both acute and chronically for 180 days. The tests used in the acute experiments were: observational pharmacological screening, LD(50), motor coordination and motor activity. Chronic tests carried out were: weight gain/loss and behavioral parameters in rats and in mice; estrus cycle, effects on fertility, and teratogenic studies in rats and of mutagenic features in mice, in addition to the Ames test. The following parameters were assessed in dogs: weight gain/loss, general physical conditions, water/food consumption and anatomopathological examination of the organs subsequent to the 180 days of treatment. All of the results were negative, showing that CPV administered in high doses and over a long period of time presents no toxicity, suggestive of the fact that this is an association devoid of risk for human beings. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Control of Passion Fruit Fungal Diseases Using Essential Oils Extracted from Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus agglomerata) in Egerton University Main Campus Njoro, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Gathuru, Eliud Mugu; Githaiga, Benson Muriuki; Kimani, Salome Nduta

    2017-01-01

    Growth of fruits which form an important part of human diet has been jeopardized by the many fungal diseases that are present today. This study was conceived to isolate the most common fungal pathogens in passion fruits. Fungi were isolated using potato dextrose agar in addition to characterization using morphological, cultural, and biochemical means. Extraction of essential oils from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus agglomerata) was done. Before carrying the sensitivity test of essential oils to the fungal isolates, constituents of the essential oils were determined. The most common fungal pathogens isolated from passion fruits were Alternaria spp. (45%), Fusarium spp. (22%), Colletotrichum spp. (17%), and Penicillium spp. (16%). There was a relationship between heating time and yield of essential oils in rosemary (r = 0.99) and eucalyptus (r = 0.99). Conversely, there was no significant difference in the amount of essential oils produced by rosemary and eucalyptus (P = 0.08). Furthermore, there was a significant difference in growth inhibition of the fungal pathogens between essential oils from rosemary and eucalyptus (P = 0.000438). Fungal pathogens isolated from passion fruits can be controlled using essential oils from rosemary and eucalyptus. The oils need to be produced in large scale. PMID:28458692

  8. Control of Passion Fruit Fungal Diseases Using Essential Oils Extracted from Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus agglomerata) in Egerton University Main Campus Njoro, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Waithaka, Paul Njenga; Gathuru, Eliud Mugu; Githaiga, Benson Muriuki; Kimani, Salome Nduta

    2017-01-01

    Growth of fruits which form an important part of human diet has been jeopardized by the many fungal diseases that are present today. This study was conceived to isolate the most common fungal pathogens in passion fruits. Fungi were isolated using potato dextrose agar in addition to characterization using morphological, cultural, and biochemical means. Extraction of essential oils from rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis ) and eucalyptus ( Eucalyptus agglomerata ) was done. Before carrying the sensitivity test of essential oils to the fungal isolates, constituents of the essential oils were determined. The most common fungal pathogens isolated from passion fruits were Alternaria spp. (45%), Fusarium spp. (22%), Colletotrichum spp. (17%), and Penicillium spp. (16%). There was a relationship between heating time and yield of essential oils in rosemary ( r = 0.99) and eucalyptus ( r = 0.99). Conversely, there was no significant difference in the amount of essential oils produced by rosemary and eucalyptus ( P = 0.08). Furthermore, there was a significant difference in growth inhibition of the fungal pathogens between essential oils from rosemary and eucalyptus ( P = 0.000438). Fungal pathogens isolated from passion fruits can be controlled using essential oils from rosemary and eucalyptus. The oils need to be produced in large scale.

  9. In vitro antioxidant activity of Valeriana officinalis against different neurotoxic agents.

    PubMed

    Sudati, Jéssie Haigert; Fachinetto, Roselei; Pereira, Romaiana Picada; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Soares, Felix Antunes; de Vargas Barbosa, Nilda Berenice; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2009-08-01

    Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerian) is widely used as a traditional medicine to improve the quality of sleep. Although V. officinalis have been well documented as promising pharmacological agent; the exact mechanisms by which this plant act is still unknown. Limited literature data have indicated that V. officinalis extracts can exhibit antioxidant properties against iron in hippocampal neurons in vitro. However, there is no data available about the possible antioxidant effect of V. officinalis against other pro-oxidants in brain. In the present study, the protective effect of V. officinalis on lipid peroxidation (LPO) induced by different pro-oxidant agents with neuropathological importance was examined. Ethanolic extract of valerian (0-60 microg/ml) was tested against quinolinic acid (QA); 3-nitropropionic acid; sodium nitroprusside; iron sulfate (FeSO4) and Fe2+/EDTA induced LPO in rat brain homogenates. The effect of V. officinalis in deoxyribose degradation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was also investigated. In brain homogenates, V. officinalis inhibited thiobarbituric acid reactive substances induced by all pro-oxidants tested in a concentration dependent manner. Similarly, V. officinalis caused a significant decrease on the LPO in cerebral cortex and in deoxyribose degradation. QA-induced ROS production in cortical slices was also significantly reduced by V. officinalis. Our results suggest that V. officinalis extract was effective in modulating LPO induced by different pro-oxidant agents. These data may imply that V. officinalis extract, functioning as antioxidant agent, can be beneficial for reducing insomnia complications linked to oxidative stress.

  10. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract modulates CHOP/GADD153 to promote androgen receptor degradation and decreases xenograft tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Petiwala, Sakina M; Berhe, Saba; Li, Gongbo; Puthenveetil, Angela G; Rahman, Ozair; Nonn, Larisa; Johnson, Jeremy J

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet has long been attributed to preventing or delaying the onset of cardiovascular disease, diabetes and various solid organ cancers. In this particular study, a rosemary extract standardized to carnosic acid was evaluated for its potential in disrupting the endoplasmic reticulum machinery to decrease the viability of prostate cancer cells and promote degradation of the androgen receptor. Two human prostate cancer cell lines, 22Rv1 and LNCaP, and prostate epithelial cells procured from two different patients undergoing radical prostatectomy were treated with standardized rosemary extract and evaluated by flow cytometry, MTT, BrdU, Western blot and fluorescent microscopy. A significant modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins was observed in cancer cells while normal prostate epithelial cells did not undergo endoplasmic reticulum stress. This biphasic response suggests that standardized rosemary extract may preferentially target cancer cells as opposed to "normal" cells. Furthermore, we observed standardized rosemary extract to decrease androgen receptor expression that appears to be regulated by the expression of CHOP/GADD153. Using a xenograft tumor model we observed standardized rosemary extract when given orally to significantly suppress tumor growth by 46% compared to mice not receiving standardized rosemary extract. In the last several years regulatory governing bodies (e.g. European Union) have approved standardized rosemary extracts as food preservatives. These results are especially significant as it is becoming more likely that individuals will be receiving standardized rosemary extracts that are a part of a natural preservative system in various food preparations. Taken a step further, it is possible that the potential benefits that are often associated with a "Mediterranean Diet" in the future may begin to extend beyond the Mediterranean diet as more of the population is consuming standardized rosemary extracts.

  11. Comparison of different extraction procedures for the comprehensive characterization of bioactive phenolic compounds in Rosmarinus officinalis by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection coupled to electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Borrás Linares, I; Arráez-Román, D; Herrero, M; Ibáñez, E; Segura-Carretero, A; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A

    2011-10-21

    In the present work, a comparative study between two environmentally friendly and selective extraction techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) have been carried out focusing in the bioactive phenolic compounds present in Rosmarinus officinalis. For the analysis of the SFE and PLE extracts, a new methodology for qualitative characterization has been developed, based on the use of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), equipped with two different detection systems coupled in series: diode array detector (DAD) and time of flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) detector connected via an electrospray ionization interface (ESI). The use of a small particle size C(18) column (1.8 μm) provided a great resolution and made possible the separation of several isomers. Moreover, UV-visible spectrophotometry is a valuable tool for identifying the class of phenolic compounds, whereas MS data enabled to structurally characterize the compounds present in the extracts. The applied methodology was useful for the determination of many well-known phenolic compounds present in R. officinalis, such as carnosol, carnosic acid, rosmadial, rosmanol, genkwanin, homoplantaginin, scutellarein, cirsimaritin and rosmarinic acid, as well as other phenolic compounds present in other species belonging to Lamiaceae family. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Emblica officinalis extract downregulates pro-angiogenic molecules via upregulation of cellular and exosomal miR-375 in human ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    De, Alok; Powers, Benjamin; De, Archana; Zhou, Jianping; Sharma, Siddarth; Van Veldhuizen, Peter; Bansal, Ajay; Sharma, Ramratan; Sharma, Mukut

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian cancer (OC) is highly resistant to current treatment strategies based on a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. We have recently demonstrated the anti-neoplastic effect of Amla extract (Emblica officinalis, AE) on OC cells in vitro and in vivo. We hypothesized that AE attenuates growth of OC through microRNA (miR)-regulated mechanism(s). The inhibitory effect of AE on proliferation, migration and invasiveness (P≤0.001) of SKOV3 cells and >90% attenuation of tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model suggested multiple targets. RT-qPCR analysis of microRNAs associated with OC showed a >2,000-fold increase in the expression of miR-375 in AE-treated SKOV3 cells that was blocked by an exogenous miR-375 inhibitor (P≤0.001). AE also decreased the gene and protein expression of IGF1R, a target of miR-375 (P≤0.001), and SNAIL1 (P≤0.002), an EMT-associated transcription factor that represses E-cadherin expression (P≤0.003). AE increased E-cadherin expression (P≤0.001). Treatment of SKOV3 cells with AE resulted in increased miR-375 in exosomes in the medium (P≤0.01). Finally, AE significantly decreased the expression of IGF1R and SNAIL1 proteins during attenuation of SKOV3-derived xenograft tumor. Together, these results show that AE modulates cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment via activation of miR-375 and by targeting IGF1R and SNAIL1 in OC cells. PMID:27129171

  13. Lemon balm extract (Melissa officinalis, L.) promotes melanogenesis and prevents UVB-induced oxidative stress and DNA damage in a skin cell model.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sánchez, Almudena; Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Herranz-López, María; Castillo, Julián; Micol, Vicente

    2016-11-01

    Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is one of the main causes of a variety of cutaneous disorders, including photoaging and skin cancer. Its UVB component (280-315nm) leads to oxidative stress and causes inflammation, DNA damage, p53 induction and lipid and protein oxidation. Recently, an increase in the use of plant polyphenols with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties has emerged to protect human skin against the deleterious effects of sunlight. This study evaluates the protective effects of lemon balm extract (LBE) (Melissa Officinalis, L) and its main phenolic compound rosmarinic acid (RA) against UVB-induced damage in human keratinocytes. The LBE composition was determined by HPLC analysis coupled to photodiode array detector and ion trap mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (HPLC-DAD-ESI-IT-MS/MS). Cell survival, ROS generation and DNA damage were determined upon UVB irradiation in the presence of LBE. The melanogenic capacity of LBE was also determined. RA and salvianolic acid derivatives were the major compounds, but caffeic acid and luteolin glucuronide were also found in LBE. LBE and RA significantly increased the survival of human keratinocytes upon UVB radiation, but LBE showed a stronger effect. LBE significantly decreased UVB-induced intracellular ROS production. Moreover, LBE reduced UV-induced DNA damage and the DNA damage response (DDR), which were measured as DNA strand breaks in the comet assay and histone H2AX activation, respectively. Finally, LBE promoted melanogenesis in the cell model. These results suggest that LBE may be considered as a candidate for the development of oral/topical photoprotective ingredients against UVB-induced skin damage. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of lyophilized water extracts of Melissa officinalis on the stability of algae and linseed oil-in-water emulsion to be used as a functional ingredient in meat products.

    PubMed

    de Ciriano, Mikel García-Iñiguez; Rehecho, Sheyla; Calvo, Maria Isabel; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; Navarro, Iñigo; Astiasarán, Iciar; Ansorena, Diana

    2010-06-01

    Previous work pointed out the possibility to enhance the nutritional value of meat products using long chain omega-3 PUFA enriched emulsions. Oil-in-water emulsions elaborated with a mixture of algae and linseed oils (15:10) in order to be used as functional ingredient were stabilized with BHA (butylhydroxyanisol) or with a lyophilized water extract of Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon balm). The lipid profile of the oil mixture showed a high amount of DHA (31.7%), oleic (25.4%) and alpha-linolenic acid (12.7%) resulting in a very low omega-6/omega-3 ratio (0.12). The lyophilized extract of M. officinalis showed a high antioxidant activity (being 62ppm of the lyophilized water extract of Melissa equivalent to 200ppm of BHA, using the DPPH assay as reference), and high total phenolic content. Studying the oxidation process in the emulsions during 15days at room temperature, it could be concluded that this extract was as efficient as BHA in order to control the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Anticandidal, antibacterial, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of Calendula arvensis flowers.

    PubMed

    Abudunia, A-M; Marmouzi, I; Faouzi, M E A; Ramli, Y; Taoufik, J; El Madani, N; Essassi, E M; Salama, A; Khedid, K; Ansar, M; Ibrahimi, A

    2017-03-01

    Calendula arvensis (CA) is one of the important plants used in traditional medicine in Morocco, due to its interesting chemical composition. The present study aimed to determine the anticandidal, antioxidant and antibacterial activities, and the effects of extracts of CA flowers on the growth of myeloid cancer cells. Also, to characterize the chemical composition of the plant. Flowers of CA were collected based on ethnopharmacological information from the villages around the region Rabat-Khemisset, Moroccco. The hexane and methanol extracts were obtained by soxhlet extraction, while aqueous extracts was obtained by maceration in cold water. CA extracts were assessed for antioxidant activity using four different methods (DPPH, FRAP, TEAC, β-carotene bleaching test). Furthermore, the phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured, also the antimicrobial activity has been evaluated by the well diffusion method using several bacterial and fungal strains. Finally, extracts cytotoxicity was assessed using MTT test. Phytochemical quantification of the methanolic and aqueous extracts revealed that they were rich with flavonoid and phenolic content and were found to possess considerable antioxidant activities. MIC values of methanolic extracts were 12.5-25μg/mL. While MIC values of hexanolic extracts were between 6.25-12.5μg/mL and were bacteriostatic for all bacteria while methanolic and aqueous extracts were bactericidal. In addition, the extracts exhibited no activity on Candida species except the methanolic extract, which showed antifungal activity onCandida tropicalis 1 and Candida famata 1. The methanolic and aqueous extracts also exhibited antimyeloid cancer activity (IC 50 of 31μg/mL). In our study, we conclude that the methanolic and aqueous extracts were a promising source of antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of aqueous extract of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) on meristematic cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Felicidade, I; Lima, J D; Pesarini, J R; Monreal, A C D; Mantovani, M S; Ribeiro, L R; Oliveira, R J

    2014-11-28

    Polyphenolic compounds present in rosemary were found to have antioxidant properties, anticarcinogenic activity, and to increase the detoxification of pro-carcinogens. The aim of the study was to determine the effect the aqueous extract of rosemary (AER) on mutagenicity induced by methylmethane sulfonate in meristematic cells of Allium cepa, as well as to describe its mode of action. Anti-mutagenicity experiments were carried out with 3 different concentrations of AER, which alone showed no mutagenic effects. In antimutagenicity experiments, AER showed chemopreventive activity in cultured meristematic cells of A. cepa against exposure to methylmethane sulfonate. Additionally, post-treatment and simultaneous treatment using pre-incubation protocols were the most effective. Evaluation of different protocols and the percent reduction in DNA indicated bioantimutagenic as well desmutagenic modes of action for AER. AER may be chemopreventive and antimutagenic.

  17. Oleanane-type triterpene saponins from Calendula stellata.

    PubMed

    Lehbili, Meryem; Alabdul Magid, Abdulmagid; Kabouche, Ahmed; Voutquenne-Nazabadioko, Laurence; Abedini, Amin; Morjani, Hamid; Sarazin, Thomas; Gangloff, Sophie C; Kabouche, Zahia

    2017-12-01

    Five previously undescribed bisdesmosidic triterpenoid saponins named calendustellatosides A-E, along with fifteen known compounds were isolated from the 70% ethanol whole plant extract of Calendula stellata Cav. (Asteraceae). Their structures were determined by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy as well as high resolution mass spectrometry and acid hydrolysis. The saponins comprised oleanolic acid, echinocystic acid, morolic acid or mesembryanthemoidigenic acid as the aglycones and saccharide moieties at C-3 and C-28. Like most Calendula saponins, the sugar moiety linked at C-3 was either β-d-glucose or β-d-glucuronic acid which could be substituted at C-3 by a β-d-galactose and/or C-2 by a supplementary β-d-galactose or a β-d-glucose. The sugar moiety linked to C-28 was determined as β-d-glucose. The antibacterial evaluation of compounds 1-20 by bioautography on Staphylococcus aureus followed by the determination of MIC values of active compounds by serial dilution technique against 5 bacteria revealed that; calendustellatoside D was the most active against Enterococcus faecalis with an antibacterial effect comparable to antibiotics. The cytotoxic activities of isolated compounds were evaluated against fibrosarcoma cell line (HT1080) and human lung cancer cell line (A549). Calendustellatosides B and D exhibited a low cytotoxic activity against HT1080 cell line with IC 50 values of 47 ± 0.6 and 39 ± 0.5 μM, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Degradation study of carnosic acid, carnosol, rosmarinic acid, and rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) assessed using HPLC.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Smuts, Jonathan P; Dodbiba, Edra; Rangarajan, Rekha; Lang, John C; Armstrong, Daniel W

    2012-09-12

    Rosemary, whose major caffeoyl-derived and diterpenoid ingredients are rosmarinic acid, carnosol, and carnosic acid, is an important source of natural antioxidants and is being recognized increasingly as a useful preservative, protectant, and even as a potential medicinal agent. Understanding the stability of these components and their mode of interaction in mixtures is important if they are to be utilized to greatest effect. A study of the degradation of rosmarinic acid, carnosol, carnosic acid, and a mixture of the three was conducted in ethanolic solutions at different temperatures and light exposure. As expected, degradation increased with temperature. Some unique degradation products were formed with exposure to light. Several degradation products were reported for the first time. The degradation products were identified by HPLC/MS/MS, UV, and NMR. The degradation of rosemary extract in fish oil also was investigated, and much slower rates of degradation were observed for carnosic acid. In the mixture of the three antioxidants, carnosic acid serves to maintain levels of carnosol, though it does so at least in part at the cost of its own degradation.

  19. New acylated clionasterol glycosides from Valeriana officinalis.

    PubMed

    Pullela, Srinivas V; Choi, Young Whan; Khan, Shabana I; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2005-10-01

    The chloroform extract of Valeriana officinalis led to the isolation of clionasterol-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and a mixture of 6'-O-acyl-beta-D-glucosyl-clionasterols. The acyl moieties were identified as hexadecanoyl, 8 E,11 E-octadecadienoyl and 14-methylpentadecanoyl by alkaline hydrolysis followed by GC-MS analysis. The isolated compounds did not exhibit any anti-inflammatory, anticancer or cytotoxic activity when tested in a variety of in vitro cell-based assays.

  20. Anxiolytic effects of a combination of Melissa officinalis and Valeriana officinalis during laboratory induced stress.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, David O; Little, Wendy; Haskell, Crystal F; Scholey, Andrew B

    2006-02-01

    Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) and Valeriana officinalis (valerian) have been used both traditionally and contemporaneously as mild sedatives, anxiolytics and hypnotics. Recent research has suggested that both may attenuate laboratory induced stress. As the two herbs are most often sold in combination with each other the current study assessed the anxiolytic properties of such a combination during laboratory-induced stress. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, balanced cross-over experiment, 24 healthy volunteers received three separate single doses (600 mg, 1200 mg, 1800 mg) of a standardized product containing M. officinalis and V. officinalis extracts, plus a placebo, on separate days separated by a 7 day wash out period. Modulation of mood and anxiety were assessed during pre-dose and 1 h, 3 h and 6 h post-dose completions of a 20 min version of the Defined Intensity Stressor Simulation (DISS) battery. Cognitive performance on the four concurrent tasks of the battery was also assessed. The results showed that the 600 mg dose of the combination ameliorated the negative effects of the DISS on ratings of anxiety. However, the highest dose (1800 mg) showed an increase in anxiety that was less marked but which reached significance during one testing session. In addition, all three doses led to decrements in performance on the Stroop task module within the battery, and the two lower doses led to decrements on the overall score generated on the DISS battery. These results suggest that a combination of Melissa officinalis and Valeriana officinalis possesses anxiolytic properties that deserve further investigation. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Comparison of antimicrobial activity of essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions: 2 months study.

    PubMed

    Herman, Anna

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the preservative effectiveness of plant extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinalis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben in cosmetic emulsions against skin microflora during 2 months of application by volunteers. Cosmetic emulsions with extracts (2.5 %), essential oils (2.5 %), methylparaben (0.4 %) or placebo were tested by 40 volunteers during 2 months of treatment. In order to determine microbial purity of the emulsions, the samples were taken after 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks of application. Throughout the trial period it was revealed that only cinnamon oil completely inhibited the growth of bacteria, yeast and mould, as compared to all other essential oils, plant extracts and methylparaben in the tested emulsions. This result shows that cinnamon oil could successfully replace the use of methylparaben in cosmetics, at the same time ensuring microbiological purity of a cosmetic product under its in-use and storage conditions.

  2. PP-12 EFFICACY OF A STANDARDIZED EXTRACT OF MATRICARIAE CHAMOMILLA L., MELISSA OFFICINALIS L. AND TYNDALLIZED LACTOBACILLUS ACIDOPHILUS (H122) COMPARED WITH LACTOBACILLUS REUTERI (DSM 17938) AND WITH SIMETHICONE FOR THE TREATMENT OF INFANTILE COLIC.

    PubMed

    Ummarino, Dario; Martinelli, Massimo; Giugliano, Francesca Paola; Tortora, Clelia; Valenti, Simona; Pidone, Caterina; De Giovanni, Donatella; Rutigliano, Irene; Campanozzi, Angelo; Romano, Claudio; Miele, Erasmo; Staiano, Annamaria

    2015-10-01

    Infant colic is a prevalent physiological event of healthy children under 3 months of age, which can disrupt the child's home environment. Despite its benign natural history, sometimes it requires a therapeutic approach. There is limited evidence supporting the use of complementary and alternative treatments. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a mixture of standardized extract of matricariae Chamomilla L., Melissa Officinalis L. and tyndallized Lactobacillus Acidophilus (H122) compared with Lactobacillus Reuteri (DSM 17938) and with simethicone for the treatment of infantile colic. A multicenter prospective, randomized comparative study was conducted involving 133 infants with colic, according to Rome III criteria, who were assigned at random to receive Chamomilla L., Melissa Officinalis L. and tyndallized L. Acidophilus (H122) (Group A; n = 45), L reuteri DSM 17938 (10 CFU) (Group B; n = 45) or simethicone (Group C; n = 43). Treatment was given to subjects for 21 days and they were followed for 4 weeks. Treatment success was assessed at the end of study period. Daily crying and fussing times were recorded in a structured diary, and maternal questionnaires were completed to monitor changes in infant colic symptoms and adverse events. Treatment success was observed in 30 out of 45 patients (66.7%) of infants in Group A, while it was seen in 31 out of 45 patients (68.9%) of Group B and in 19 out of 43 (44.2%) of subjects of Group C (χ: 6.8; p = 0.03). Mean daily crying time was more significantly reduced (from 211.3 ± 40 min/day to 69.6 ± 59 min/day) in the Group A and in Group B (from 201.6 ± 32.5 min/day to 58.1 ± 48.9 min/day) when compared with Group C (from 199.5 ± 32 min/day to 106 ± 56.5 min/day) (p < 0.01, p = 0.006 respectively). No significant difference was observed comparing Group A and B (p = 0.4). No adverse events were reported in any group. This study suggests

  3. Valeriana officinalis extract and its main component, valerenic acid, ameliorate D-galactose-induced reductions in memory, cell proliferation, and neuroblast differentiation by reducing corticosterone levels and lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Nam, Sung Min; Choi, Jung Hoon; Yoo, Dae Young; Kim, Woosuk; Jung, Hyo Young; Kim, Jong Whi; Kang, Soo-Yong; Park, Jaeil; Kim, Dong-Woo; Kim, Wan Jae; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Hwang, In Koo

    2013-11-01

    Valeriana officinalis is used in herbal medicine of many cultures as mild sedatives and tranquilizers. In this study, we investigated the effects of extract from valerian root extracts and its major component, valerenic acid on memory function, cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation, serum corticosterone, and lipid peroxidation in adult and aged mice. For the aging model, D-galactose (100 mg/kg) was administered subcutaneously to 6-week-old male mice for 10 weeks. At 13 weeks of age, valerian root extracts (100 mg/kg) or valerenic acid (340 μg/kg) was administered orally to control and D-galactose-treated mice for 3 weeks. The dosage of valerenic acid (340 μg/kg), which is the active ingredient of valerian root extract, was determined by the content of valerenic acid in valerian root extract (3.401±0.066 mg/g) measured by HPLC. The administration of valerian root extract and valerenic acid significantly improved the preferential exploration of new objects in novel object recognition test and the escape latency, swimming speeds, platform crossings, and spatial preference for the target quadrant in Morris water maze test compared to the D-galactose-treated mice. Cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation were significantly decreased, while serum corticosterone level and lipid peroxidation in hippocampus were significantly increased in the D-galactose-treated group compared to that in the control group. The administration of valerian root extract significantly ameliorated these changes in the dentate gyrus of both control and D-galactose-treated groups. In addition, valerenic acid also mitigated the D-galactose-induced reduction of these changes. These results indicate that valerian root extract and valerenic acid enhance cognitive function, promote cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation, and reduce serum corticosterone and lipid peroxidation in aged mice. © 2013.

  4. Valeriana officinalis attenuates the rotenone-induced toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Sudati, Jéssie Haigert; Vieira, Francielli Araújo; Pavin, Sandra Sartoretto; Dias, Glaecir Roseni Mundstock; Seeger, Rodrigo Lopes; Golombieski, Ronaldo; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Soares, Félix Antunes; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Barbosa, Nilda Vargas

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the potential protective effects of Valeriana officinalis (V. officinalis) against the toxicity induced by rotenone in Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster). Adult wild-type flies were concomitantly exposed to rotenone (500 μM) and V. officinalis aqueous extract (10mg/mL) in the food during 7 days. Rotenone-fed flies had a worse performance in the negative geotaxis assay (i.e. climbing capability) and open-field test (i.e. mobility time) as well as a higher incidence of mortality when compared to control group. V. officinalis treatment offered protection against these detrimental effects of rotenone. In contrast, the decreased number of crossings observed in the flies exposed to rotenone was not modified by V. officinalis. Rotenone toxicity was also associated with a marked decrease on the total-thiol content in the homogenates and cell viability of flies, which were reduced by V. officinalis treatment. Indeed, rotenone exposure caused a significant increase in the mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and also in the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene. The expression of SOD and CAT mRNAs was normalized by V. officinalis treatment. Our results suggest that V. officinalis extract was effective in reducing the toxicity induced by rotenone in D. melanogaster as well as confirm the utility of this model to investigate potential therapeutic strategies on movement disorders, including Parkinson disease (PD). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.): an evidence-based systematic review by the Natural Standard Research Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Basch, Ethan; Bent, Steve; Foppa, Ivo; Haskmi, Sadaf; Kroll, David; Mele, Michelle; Szapary, Philippe; Ulbricht, Catherine; Vora, Mamta; Yong, Sophanna

    2006-01-01

    An evidence-based systematic review including written and statistical analysis of scientific literature, expert opinion, folkloric precedent, history, pharmacology, kinetics/dynamics, interactions, adverse effects, toxicology and dosing.

  6. Acetylcholine esterase inhibitors and melanin synthesis inhibitors from Salvia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Sallam, Amal; Mira, Amira; Ashour, Ahmed; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2016-09-15

    Salvia officinalis is a traditionally used herb with a wide range of medicinal applications. Many phytoconstituents have been isolated from S. officinalis, mainly phenolic diterpenes, which possess many biological activities. This study aimed to evaluate the ability of the phenolic diterpenes of S. officinalis to inhibit acetylcholine esterase (AChE) as well as their ability to inhibit melanin biosynthesis in B16 melanoma cells. The phenolic diterpenes isolated from the aerial parts of S. officinalis were tested for their effect on melanin biosynthesis in B16 melanoma cell lines. They were also tested for their ability to inhibit AChE using Ellman's method. Moreover, a molecular docking experiment was used to investigate the binding affinity of the isolated phenolic diterpenes to the amino acid residues at the active sites of AChE. Seven phenolic diterpenes-sageone, 12-methylcarnosol, carnosol, 7b-methoxyrosmanol, 7a-methoxyrosmanol, isorosmanol and epirosmanol-were isolated from the methanolic extract of the aerial parts of S. officinalis. Isorosmanol showed a melanin-inhibiting activity as potent as that of arbutin. Compounds 7a-methoxyrosmanol and isorosmanol inhibited AChE activity by 50% and 65%, respectively, at a concentration of 500 µM. The results suggest that isorosmanol is a promising natural compound for further studies on development of new medications which might be useful in ageing disorders such as the declining of cognitive functions and hyperpigmentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. The inulin-type oligosaccharides extract from morinda officinalis, a traditional Chinese herb, ameliorated behavioral deficits in an animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhi-Kun; Liu, Chun-Hui; Gao, Zhuo-Wei; He, Jia-Li; Liu, Xu; Wei, Qing-Lan; Chen, Ji-Sheng

    2016-10-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a severe psychiatric condition. The allopregnanolone biosynthesis has been implicated as one of the possible contributors to PTSD. Inulin-type oligosaccharides of morinda officinalis (IOMO) had been shown to be effective in the therapy of depression. However, few studies concern the anti-PTSD-like effects of IOMO. To evaluate this, the single prolonged stress (SPS) model was used in the present study. It had been shown that the behavioral deficits of SPS-treated rats were reversed by IOMO (25.0 and 50.0 mg/kg, i.p.), which reversed the increased freezing time in contextual fear paradigm (CFP) and the decreased time and entries in open arms in the elevated plus maze (EPM) test without affecting the locomotor activity in the open field (OF) test. In addition, the decreased allopregnanolone in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and amygdala was reversed by IOMO (25.0 and 50.0 mg/kg, i.p.), respectively. In summary, the present study indicated that the IOMO exert anti-PTSD-like behaviors, which maybe associated with the brain allopregnanolone biosynthesis.

  8. Saponins extracted from by-product of Asparagus officinalis L. suppress tumour cell migration and invasion through targeting Rho GTPase signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jieqiong; Liu, Yali; Zhao, Jingjing; Zhang, Wen; Pang, Xiufeng

    2013-04-01

    The inedible bottom part (~30-40%) of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) spears is usually discarded as waste. However, since this by-product has been reported to be rich in many bioactive phytochemicals, it might be utilisable as a supplement in foods or natural drugs for its therapeutic effects. In this study it was identifed that saponins from old stems of asparagus (SSA) exerted potential inhibitory activity on tumour growth and metastasis. SSA suppressed cell viability of breast, colon and pancreatic cancers in a concentration-dependent manner, with half-maximum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 809.42 to 1829.96 µg mL(-1). However, SSA was more functional in blocking cell migration and invasion as compared with its cytotoxic effect, with an effective inhibitory concentration of 400 µg mL(-1). A mechanistic study showed that SSA markedly increased the activities of Cdc42 and Rac1 and decreased the activity of RhoA in cancer cells. SSA inhibits tumour cell motility through modulating the Rho GTPase signalling pathway, suggesting a promising use of SSA as a supplement in healthcare foods and natural drugs for cancer prevention and treatment. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Preliminary phytochemical, acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of roots of Paeonia officinalis Linn.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Feroz; Tabassum, Nahida

    2013-01-01

    To carry out a preliminary phytochemical, acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of the roots of Paeonia officinalis (P. officinalis) L. Preliminary phytochemical investigation was done as per standard procedures. Acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per OECD 425 guidelines. The antihepatotoxic activity of aqueous extract of root of P. officinalis was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in rats. Aqueous extract of P. officinalis at the dose levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight was administered daily for 14 d in experimental animals. Liver injury was induced chemically, by CCl4 administration (1 mL/kg i.p.). The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters like aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP), total bilirubin and total protein (TP) along with histopathological studies. Phytochemical screening revealed that the roots of P. officinalis contain alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids, terpenes, steroids and proteins. The aqueous extract did not cause any mortality up to 2 000 mg/kg. In rats that had received the root extract at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, the substantially elevated AST, ALT, SALP, total bilirubin levels were significantly lowered, respectively, in a dose dependent manner, along with CCl4 while TP levels were elevated in these groups. Histopathology revealed regeneration of the livers in extract treated groups while Silymarin treated rats were almost normal. The aqueous extract of P. officinalis is safe and possesses antihepatotoxic potential.

  10. Salvia officinalis used in pharmaceutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemle, K. L.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents some pharmaceutical properties of Salvia officinalis, a plant belonging the Lamiaceae family, one of the oldest medicinal plants, which play an important role in improving the state of health.

  11. Essential oils and herbal extracts as antimicrobial agents in cosmetic emulsion.

    PubMed

    Herman, Anna; Herman, Andrzej Przemysław; Domagalska, Beata Wanda; Młynarczyk, Andrzej

    2013-06-01

    The cosmetic industry adapts to the needs of consumers seeking to limit the use of preservatives and develop of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics, where preservatives are replaced by raw materials of plant origin. The aim of study was a comparison of the antimicrobial activity of extracts (Matricaria chamomilla, Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis) and essential oils (Lavandulla officinallis, Melaleuca alternifolia, Cinnamomum zeylanicum) with methylparaben. Extracts (2.5 %), essential oils (2.5 %) and methylparaben (0.4 %) were tested against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Candida albicans ATCC 14053. Essentials oils showed higher inhibitory activity against tested microorganism strain than extracts and methylparaben. Depending on tested microorganism strain, all tested extracts and essential oils show antimicrobial activity 0.8-1.7 and 1-3.5 times stronger than methylparaben, respectively. This shows that tested extracts and essential oils could replace use of methylparaben, at the same time giving a guarantee of microbiological purity of the cosmetic under its use and storage.

  12. Antifungal activity of essential oils extract from Origanum floribundum Munby, Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Thymus ciliatus Desf. against Candida albicans isolated from bovine clinical mastitis.

    PubMed

    Ksouri, S; Djebir, S; Bentorki, A A; Gouri, A; Hadef, Y; Benakhla, A

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to limit the antibiotic use in mastitis treatment and to find other alternatives. The antifungal activity of the essential oils from Origanum floribundum Munby., Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Thymus ciliatus Desf. is studied in the present work against a Candida albicans reference strain and ten C. albicans isolated strains from bovine clinical mastitis. Essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation technique using Clevenger apparatus. Their chromatographic analysis was performed with a Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer (GC/MS). Antifungal activities of essential oils were investigated by macrobroth method of dilution in tubes to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC 80%). Analysis of the essential oil showed chemical profile dominated by thymol (50.47 and 62.41%) and P-cymene (24.22 and 15.51%) in the oregano and the thyme respectively, 1, 8-cineol (31.50%) and α-pinene (18.33%) in Rosemary. The three essential oils revealed highly effective anticandidal activity, with an MIC of 80% values ranged from 15.02 to 31.08μg/mL. These results suggest that essential oils studied can be real alternatives in the control of mastitis fungi but deserving studies more in-depth and detailed on their application in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Suppressive effects of Calendula micrantha essential oil and gibberelic acid (PGR) on repro ductive potential of the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wied. (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Hussein, Karam T

    2005-08-01

    The volatile oil of Calendula micrtantha plant was extracted and the components were identified by Gc/Ms. Adulticidal efficiency of the volatile oil and gibberelic acid "plant growth promoting hormone" as well as their mixture was assessed against the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata. The result showed that the two compounds capable have characteristic resembling to insect juvenile hormones and have suppressive effect on reproductive potential. They induced the significant disturbances in the ovarian protein fraction and the amino acids patterns.

  14. Three phases hollow fiber LPME combined with HPLC-UV for extraction, preconcentration and determination of valerenic acid in Valeriana officinalis.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Mohamad; Dinpanah, Hossein

    2011-07-01

    In the present work, the applicability of hollow fiber-based liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME) was evaluated for the extraction and preconcentration of valerenic acid prior to its determination by reversed-phase HPLC/UV. The target drug was extracted from 5.0 mL of aqueous solution with pH 3.5 into an organic extracting solvent (dihexyl ether) impregnated in the pores of a hollow fiber and finally back extracted into 10 μ L of aqueous solution with pH 9.5 located inside the lumen of the hollow fiber. In order to obtain high extraction efficiency, the parameters affecting the HF-LPME, including pH of the donor and acceptor phases, type of organic phase, ionic strength, the volume ratio of donor to acceptor phase, stirring rate and extraction time were studied and optimized. Under the optimized conditions, enrichment factor up to 446 was achieved and the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the method was 4.36% (n = 9). The linear range was 7.5-850 μg L⁻¹ with correlation coefficient (r²=0.999), detection limits was 2.5 μg L⁻¹ and the LOQ was 7.5 μg L⁻¹. The proposed method was evaluated by extraction and determination of valerenic acid in some Iranian wild species of Valerianaceae. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Synergistic antinociceptive interaction of Syzygium aromaticum or Rosmarinus officinalis coadministered with ketorolac in rats.

    PubMed

    Beltrán-Villalobos, Karla Lyzet; Déciga-Campos, Myrna; Aguilar-Mariscal, Hidemi; González-Trujano, María Eva; Martínez-Salazar, María Fernanda; Ramírez-Cisneros, María de Los Ángeles; Rios, María Yolanda; López-Muñoz, Francisco Javier

    2017-10-01

    Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry (Mirtaceae) and Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) are both medicinal plants used for centuries to alleviate pain. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the therapeutic potential utility of herb-drug association of S. aromaticum essential oil or R. officinalis ethanolic extract coadministered with ketorolac. Antinociceptive pharmacological interaction was investigated by an isbolographic study using the formalin test in rats. Both alone and in combination with ketorolac; S. aromaticum and R. officinalis produced a dose-dependent antinociceptive response. To plot the isobologram, we used the effective dose 50 of each one component in a fixed 1:1 ratio. The isobolographic analysis showed that, in both combinations, ketorolac plus essential oil S. aromaticum and ketorolac plus ethanolic extract R. officinalis, the experimental value (Z exp ) was lower than the theoretical value (Z add ). In addition, this study shows that eugenol, a metabolite present in S. aromaticum, and ursolic acid, a metabolite present in R. officinalis, also synergized the antinociceptive effect of ketorolac. While, the oleanolic acid present in both medicinal species did not show a synergistic antinociceptive effect in combination with ketorolac. No adverse effects were observed with these herb-drug interactions. These findings suggest that essential oil S. aromaticum and ethanolic extract R. officinalis could be useful in combination with ketorolac for the treatment of inflammatory pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Application of response surface methodology to optimize pressurized liquid extraction of antioxidant compounds from sage (Salvia officinalis L.), basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Hossain, M B; Brunton, N P; Martin-Diana, A B; Barry-Ryan, C

    2010-12-01

    The present study optimized pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) conditions using Dionex ASE® 200, USA to maximize the antioxidant activity [Ferric ion Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP)] and total polyphenol content (TP) of the extracts from three spices of Lamiaceae family (sage, basil and thyme). Optimal conditions with regard to extraction temperature (66-129 °C) and solvent concentration (32-88% methanol) were identified using response surface methodology (RSM). For all three spices, results showed that 129 °C was the optimum temperature with regard to antioxidant activity. Optimal methanol concentrations with respect to the antioxidant activity of sage and basil extracts were 58% and 60% respectively. Thyme showed a different trend with regard to methanol concentration and was optimally extracted at 33%. Antioxidant activity yields of the optimal PLE were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than solid/liquid extracts. Predicted models were highly significant (p < 0.05) for both total phenol (TP) and FRAP values in all the spices with high regression coefficients (R(2)) ranging from 0.651 to 0.999.

  17. Pharmacological and biotechnological advances with Rosmarinus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Neves, Josynaria Araújo; Neves, Josyanne Araújo; Oliveira, Rita de Cassia Meneses

    2018-05-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis L. is an aromatic plant with a number of biological properties. Recently, has been studied regarding its therapeutic potential. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review on R. officinalis essential oil for its pharmacological properties and biotechnological applications. Areas covered: The databases were searched for articles (Science Direct, Pub Med and Web of Science) and patents (INPI, WIPO and EPO) with publications on R. officinalis and associations with essential oil (EO-Ro), cardiovascular system, hypertension and cyclodextrin. We selected 305 articles on EO-Ro in the most diverse subjects and six articles with of R. officinalis associated with hypertension. 59 patents were analyzed. The results demonstrate how extensive the studies are on the biological activities with the extract and EO-Ro. These have shown effects antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antitumor and other. The properties exhibited by EO-Ro reinforce the use of this plant as a phytotherapeutic agent. Expert opinion: Although there are several pharmacological properties, studies on the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular diseases with EO-Ro are scarce, especially to evaluate the antihypertensive activity of EO-Ro. It has also become clear that EO-Ro can be exploited in different commercial products as supplement, cosmetics and new formulations.

  18. Antidepressant-like effect of the water extract of the fixed combination of Gardenia jasminoides, Citrus aurantium and Magnolia officinalis in a rat model of chronic unpredictable mild stress.

    PubMed

    Xing, Hang; Zhang, Kuo; Zhang, Ruowen; Shi, Huiyan; Bi, Kaishun; Chen, Xiaohui

    2015-12-01

    Water extract of the fixed combination of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis fruit, Citrus aurantium L. fruit and Magnolia officinalis Rehd. et Wils. bark, traditional name - Zhi-Zi-Hou-Po (ZZHPD) is used for treatment of depressive-like symptoms in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. The present study aimed to explore antidepressant-like effects and potential mechanisms of ZZHPD in a rat model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). Antidepressant-like effects of ZZHPD were investigated through behavioral tests, and potential mechanism was assessed by neuroendocrine system, neurotrophin and hippocampal neurogenesis. Antidepressant-like effects of ZZHPD (3.66, 7.32 and 14.64 g/kg/day) were estimated through coat state test, sucrose preference test, forced swimming test and open-field test. Effects of ZZHPD on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis were evaluated by hormones measurement and dexamethasone suppression test. In addition, the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in hippocampus was measured, as well as hippocampal neurogenesis was investigated by doublecortin (DCX) and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine/neuronal nuclei (BrdU/NeuN). The results demonstrated that ZZHPD significantly reversed the depressive-like behaviors, normalized the levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone (CORT), restored the negative feedback loop of HPA axis and improved the levels of BDNF, DCX and BrdU/NeuN compared with those in CUMS-induced rats. The above results revealed that ZZHPD exerted antidepressant-like effects possibly by normalizing HPA axis function, increasing expression of BDNF in hippocampus and promoting hippocampal neurogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis and some other medicinal plants commonly used in South-East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Lai Wah; Cheah, Emily LC; Saw, Constance LL; Weng, Wanyu; Heng, Paul WS

    2008-01-01

    Background Eight medicinal plants were tested for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different extraction methods were also tested for their effects on the bioactivities of the medicinal plants. Methods Eight plants, namely Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis (Laliaocao), Folium Murraya Koenigii (Jialiye), Rhizoma Arachis Hypogea (Huashenggen), Herba Houttuyniae (Yuxingcao), Epipremnum pinnatum (Pashulong), Rhizoma Typhonium Flagelliforme (Laoshuyu), Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Houpo) and Rhizoma Imperatae (Baimaogen) were investigated for their potential antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Results Extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis had the strongest activities against M. Smegmatis, C. albicans, B. subtilis and S. aureus. Boiled extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis, Folium Murraya Koenigii, Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis and Herba Houttuyniae demonstrated greater antioxidant activities than other tested medicinal plants. Conclusion Among the eight tested medicinal plants, Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis showed the highest antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different methods of extraction yield different spectra of bioactivities. PMID:19038060

  20. Antioxidant effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract in soybean lecithin-based semen extender following freeze-thawing process of ram sperm.

    PubMed

    Motlagh, Mahdi Khodaei; Sharafi, Mohsen; Zhandi, Mahdi; Mohammadi-Sangcheshmeh, Abdollah; Shakeri, Malak; Soleimani, Masoud; Zeinoaldini, Saeed

    2014-10-01

    The aim of current study was to evaluate effect of rosemary aqueous extract on post-thawed ram sperm quality in a soybean lecithin-based (SL) extender. Ram semen samples were obtained, extended with SL extender and supplemented with 0% (SL-R0), 2% (SL-R2), 4% (SL-R4), 6% (SL-R6), and 8% (SL-R8) rosemary aqueous extract. Following equilibration, the straws were frozen, and then plunged into the liquid nitrogen. After thawing, sperm motility and velocity parameters, plasma membrane functionality, viability, acrosomal and capacitation status were evaluated. Membrane lipid peroxidation was also analyzed through the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. Our results showed that SL-R4 and SL-R6 groups resulted in higher (p < 0.05) percentages of total motility, progressive motility, and plasma membrane functionality, as compared with other groups. Highest (p < 0.05) viable and lowest (p < 0.05) dead spermatozoa were observed in SL-R6 group compared to the other groups. The acrosomal and capacitation status were not affected (p > 0.05) by different levels of rosemary aqueous extract. Lower (p < 0.05) MDA concentration has been observed in SL-R4 and SL-R6 groups. The results of this study demonstrate that supplementation of SL extender with rosemary aqueous extract influences post-thawed ram sperm quality in a dose dependent manner. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Use of Systemic Rosmarinus Officinalis to Enhance the Survival of Random-Pattern Skin Flaps

    PubMed Central

    İnce, Bilsev; Bilgen, Fatma; Gündeşlioğlu, Ayşe Özlem; Dadacı, Mehmet; Kozacıoğlu, Sümeyye

    2016-01-01

    Background Skin flaps are commonly used in soft-tissue reconstruction; however, necrosis can be a frequent complication. Several systemic and local agents have been used in attempts to improve skin flap survival, but none that can prevent flap necrosis have been identified. Aims This study aims to determine whether the use of systemic Rosmarinus officinalis (R. officinalis) extract can prevent flap necrosis and improve skin flap recovery. Study Design Animal experimentation. Methods Thirty-five Wistar albino rats were divided in five groups. A rectangular random-pattern flaps measuring 8×2 cm was elevated from the back of each rat. Group I was the control group. In Group II, 0.2 ml of R. officinalis oil was given orally 2h before surgery. R. officinalis oil was then applied orally twice a day for a week. In Group III, R. officinalis oil was given orally twice a day for one week before surgery. At the end of the week, 0.2 mL of R. officinalis oil was given orally 2 h before surgery. In Group IV, 0.2 mL of R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously 2 h before surgery. After the surgery, 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously twice a day for one week. In Group V, 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously twice a day for one week prior to surgery. At the end of the week, one last 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil injection was administered subcutaneously 2 h before surgery. After the surgery, 0.2 mL R. officinalis oil was injected subcutaneously twice a day for one week. Results The mean percentage of viable surface area was significantly greater (p<0.05) in Groups II, III, IV, and V as compared to Group I. Mean vessel diameter was significantly greater (p<0.05) in Groups II, III, IV, and V as compared to Group I. Conclusion We have determined that, in addition to its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects, R. officinalis has vasodilatory effects that contribute to increased skin flap survival. PMID:27994918

  2. The effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract on the oxidative stability of lipids in cow and soy milk enriched with fish oil.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xujian; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke

    2018-10-15

    Lipid oxidation of fish oil enriched cow milk and soy milk supplemented with rosemary extract stored at 2 °C was studied. Both peroxide value and volatile secondary lipid oxidation products were determined to monitor the progress of lipid oxidation. Rosemary extract inhibited lipid oxidation in fish oil enriched cow milk. In contrast, soy milk samples having much higher unsaturated fatty acid content showed higher lipid oxidation stability compared to cow milk. Reduction in the content of chlorogenic acid during storage suggested that this compound may contribute to the lipid oxidation stability of fish oil enriched soy milk product. Total carnosic acid and carnosol concentration declined much faster in soy milk than in cow milk. It is suggested from the results that food components could have significant impact on the fate of bioactive antioxidant compounds in a specific food product during storage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ascorbic acid and tannins from Emblica officinalis Gaertn. Fruits--a revisit.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Muhammed; Bhat, Beena; Jadhav, Atul N; Srivastava, Jyotish S; Nagabhushanam, Kalyanam

    2009-01-14

    The fruits of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (Euphorbiaceae), also known as amla in Ayurveda, are considered to be a rich source of ascorbic acid. However, the antioxidant activities exhibited by E. officinalis extract are superior to those of ascorbic acid itself. Low molecular hydrolyzable tannins emblicanins A and B have been suggested in the earlier literature to be the contributory antioxidant molecules in the extract. This work finds no evidence for the presence of emblicanins A and B in the extract. In addition, the high content of ascorbic acid is also questionable due to previous nonidentification of coeluting mucic acid gallates. This paper reports a new HPLC method to detect even trace amounts of ascorbic acid in E. officinalis fruit juice or extract.

  4. (-)-3 beta,4 beta-epoxyvalerenic acid from Valeriana officinalis.

    PubMed

    Dharmaratne, H Ranjith; Nanayakkara, N P; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2002-07-01

    Chemical investigation of the root extract of Valeriana officinalis afforded a new bicyclic sesquiterpene acid, (-)-3 beta,4 beta-epoxyvalerenic acid together with valerenic acid and hexadecanoic acid. The structure of the new compound was elucidated by spectroscopic data and confirmed by partial synthesis of its methyl ester from valerenic acid. Methyl (-)-3 alpha,4 alpha-epoxyvalerenate was obtained as a minor product from the above reaction.

  5. Bio-active nanoemulsions enriched with gold nanoparticle, marigold extracts and lipoic acid: In vitro investigations.

    PubMed

    Guler, Emine; Barlas, F Baris; Yavuz, Murat; Demir, Bilal; Gumus, Z Pinar; Baspinar, Yucel; Coskunol, Hakan; Timur, Suna

    2014-09-01

    A novel and efficient approach for the preparation of enriched herbal formulations was described and their potential applications including wound healing and antioxidant activity (cell based and cell free) were investigated via in vitro cell culture studies. Nigella sativa oil was enriched with Calendula officinalis extract and lipoic acid capped gold nanoparticles (AuNP-LA) using nanoemulsion systems. The combination of these bio-active compounds was used to design oil in water (O/W) and water in oil (W/O) emulsions. The resulted emulsions were characterized by particle size measurements. The phenolic content of each nanoemulsion was examined by using both colorimetric assay and chromatographic analyses. Two different methods containing cell free chemical assay (1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method) and cell based antioxidant activity test were used to evaluate the antioxidant capacities. In order to investigate the bio-activities of the herbal formulations, in vitro cell culture experiments, including cytotoxicity, scratch assay, antioxidant activity and cell proliferation were carried out using Vero cell line as a model cell line. Furthermore, to monitor localization of the nanoemulsions after application of the cell culture, the cell images were monitored via fluorescence microscope after FITC labeling. All data confirmed that the enriched N. sativa formulations exhibited better antioxidant and wound healing activity than N. sativa emulsion without any enrichment. In conclusion, the incorporation of AuNP-LA and C. officinalis extract into the N. sativa emulsions significantly increased the bio-activities. The present work may support further studies about using the other bio-active agents for the enrichment of herbal preparations to strengthen their activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Confocal mirco-Raman spectroscopic analysis of the antioxidant protection mechanism of the oligosaccharides extracted from Morinda officinalis on human sperm DNA.

    PubMed

    Chen, Di-Ling; Li, Ning; Lin, Li; Long, He-ming; Lin, Hui; Chen, Jun; Zhang, He-Ming; Zeng, Chang-chun; Liu, Song-Hao

    2014-04-11

    Male infertility is a stressful and frustrating problem for the society, but a number of male infertility treatments are available as traditional Chinese medicine strategies which have been tried with variable success, while evidence is still limited on whether-or how much-herbs or supplements might help increase fertility, so the aim of this study was to investigate if the oligosaccharides extracted from Morinda officialis, a Chinese herb, is the active constituents to the fertility. In this study, we prepared the H2O2-demaged human sperm, cocultured with the oligosaccharides in vitro, then observed the changes of the DNA using confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy, and comparative analysis the differences of the spectra of different treated groups. The results showed that the oligosaccharides extracted from Morinda officialis can keep the "Raman fingerprints" of the human sperm DNA almost the same as those of the control groups, but very different from the H2O2-induced groups, especially the intensity of bands at 787, 993, 1094, 1254, 1340, 1376, 1421, 1443, 1487, 1577 and 1662cm(-1) which could be as potential targets for the drugs finding, and further principal component analysis was successfully used to classify the Raman spectra of normal control and model groups. This results suggested that the oligosaccharides can protect the DNA of human sperm from being damaged by H2O2, and which was one of the active constituents of Morinda officialis on treating infertility. It was also demonstrated that Morinda officialis as a tonifying and replenishing natural herb medicine can be used to enhance reproductive functions, and the Raman spectroscopy could be an applicable technology for screening active components in vitro from herbs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Efficacy of marigold extract-loaded formulations against UV-induced oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Yris Maria; Catini, Carolina Dias; Vicentini, Fabiana T M C; Cardoso, Juliana Cordeiro; Cavalcanti De Albuquerque Junior, Ricardo Luiz; Vieira Fonseca, Maria José

    2011-06-01

    The present study investigated the potential use of topical formulations containing marigold extract (ME) (Calendula officinalis extract) against ultraviolet (UV)B irradiation-induced skin damage. The physical and functional stabilities, as well as the skin penetration capacity, of the different topical formulations developed were evaluated. In addition, the in vivo capacity to prevent/treat the UVB irradiation-induced skin damage, in hairless mice, of the formulation with better skin penetration capacity was investigated. All of the formulations were physically and functionally stable. The gel formulation [Formulation 3 (F3)] was the most effective for the topical delivery of ME, which was detected as 0.21 μg/cm(2) of narcissin and as 0.07 μg/cm(2) of the rutin in the viable epidermis. This formulation was able to maintain glutathione reduced levels close to those of nonirradiated animals, but did not affect the gelatinase-9 and myeloperoxidase activities increased by exposure to UVB irradiation. In addition, F3 reduced the histological skin changes induced by UVB irradiation that appear as modifications of collagen fibrils. Therefore, the photoprotective effect in hairless mice achieved with the topical application of ME in gel formulation is most likely associated with a possible improvement in the collagen synthesis in the subepidermal connective tissue. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. [Study on sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers of Cornus officinalis].

    PubMed

    Chen, Suiqing; Lu, Xiaolei; Wang, Lili

    2011-05-01

    To establish sequence characterized amplified region markers of Cornus officinalis and provide a scientific basis for molecular identification of C. officinalis. The random primer was screened through RAPD to obtain specific RAPD marker bands. The RAPD marker bands were separated, extracted, cloned and sequenced. Both ends of the sequence of RAPD marker bands were determined. A pair of specific primers was designed for conventional PCR reaction, and SCAR marker was acquired. Four pairs of primers were designed based on the sequence of RAPD marker bands. The DNA of the seven varieties of C. officinalis was amplified by using YST38 and YST43 primer. The results showed that seven varieties of C. officinalis were able to produce a single PCR product. It was an effective way to identify C. officinalis. The varieties with cylindrical and long-pear shape fruits amplified by YST38 showed a specific band, which could be used as the evidence of variety identification. Seven varieties of C. oficinalis were amplified by using primer YST39. But the size of band of the variety with spindly shape fruit (35,0400 bp) was about 300 bp, which was shorter than those of the variety with the other shape fruits of C. officinalis (650-700 bp). The variety with the spindly shape fruit could be identified through this difference. The primer YST92 could produce a fragment from 600-700 bp in the varieties with cylindrical and long-pear shape fruits, a fragment from 200-300 bp in the varieties with oval and short-cylindrical shape fruits and had no fragment in the varieties with long cylindrical, elliptic and short-pear shape fruits, which could be used to select the different shapes of C. officinalis. SCAR mark is established and can be used as the basis for breeding and distinguishing the verieties of C. officinalis.

  9. Preliminary phytochemical, acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of roots of Paeonia officinalis Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Feroz; Tabassum, Nahida

    2013-01-01

    Objective To carry out a preliminary phytochemical, acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of the roots of Paeonia officinalis (P. officinalis) L. Methods Preliminary phytochemical investigation was done as per standard procedures. Acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per OECD 425 guidelines. The antihepatotoxic activity of aqueous extract of root of P. officinalis was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in rats. Aqueous extract of P. officinalis at the dose levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight was administered daily for 14 d in experimental animals. Liver injury was induced chemically, by CCl4 administration (1 mL/kg i.p.). The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters like aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP), total bilirubin and total protein (TP) along with histopathological studies. Result Phytochemical screening revealed that the roots of P. officinalis contain alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids, terpenes, steroids and proteins. The aqueous extract did not cause any mortality up to 2 000 mg/kg. In rats that had received the root extract at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, the substantially elevated AST, ALT, SALP, total bilirubin levels were significantly lowered, respectively, in a dose dependent manner, along with CCl4 while TP levels were elevated in these groups. Histopathology revealed regeneration of the livers in extract treated groups while Silymarin treated rats were almost normal. Conclusions The aqueous extract of P. officinalis is safe and possesses antihepatotoxic potential. PMID:23570019

  10. Some cycle-supermagic labelings of the calendula graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradipta, T. R.; Salman, A. N. M.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a calendula graph, denoted by Clm,n . It is a graph constructed from a cycle on m vertices Cm and m copies of Cn which are Cn1 , Cn2 , ⋯, Cnm and grafting the i-th edge of Cm to an edge of in Cni for each i ∈ {1,2,⋯,m}. A graph G = (V, E) admits a Cn -covering, if every edge e ∈ E(G) belongs to a subgraph of G isomorphic to Cn . The graph G is called cycle-magic, if there exists a total labeling ϕ: V ∪ E → {1,2,…,|V|+|E|} such that for every subgraph Cn ‧ = (V‧,E‧) of G isomorphic to Cn has the same weight. In this case, the weight of Cn , denoted by ϕ(Cn ’), is defined as ∑ v∈V(C’n ) ϕ(v) + ∑ e∈E(C’n ) ϕ(e). Furthermore, G is called cycle-supermagic, if ϕ:V→{1,2,…,|V|}. In this paper, we provide some cycle-supermagic labelings of calendula graphs. In order to prove it, we develop a technique, to make a partition of a multiset into m sub-multisets with the same cardinality such that the sum of all elements of each sub-multiset is same. The technique is called an m-balanced multiset.

  11. Sedative and sleep-enhancing properties of linarin, a flavonoid-isolated from Valeriana officinalis.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Sebastián; Wasowski, Cristina; Paladini, Alejandro C; Marder, Mariel

    2004-02-01

    We have recently reported the presence of the anxiolytic flavone 6-methylapigenin (MA) and of the sedative and sleep-enhancing flavanone glycoside 2S (-) hesperidin (HN) in Valeriana officinalis and Valeriana wallichii. MA, in turn, was able to potentiate the sleep-inducing properties of HN. The present paper reports the identification in V. officinalis of the flavone glycoside linarin (LN) and the discovery that it has, like HN, sedative and sleep-enhancing properties that are potentiated by simultaneous administration of valerenic acid (VA). These effects should be taken into account when considering the pharmacological actions of valeriana extracts.

  12. Three new germacrane-type sesquiterpenes with NGF-potentiating activity from Valeriana officinalis var. latiofolia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Heng-Wen; Chen, Li; Li, Bin; Yin, Hai-Long; Tian, Ying; Wang, Qiong; Xiao, Yan-Hua; Dong, Jun-Xing

    2013-11-14

    Three new germacrane-type sesquiterpenoids, volvalerenal F (1), volvalerenal G (2) and volvalerenic acid D (3), along with five known compounds 4-8, were isolated from the CHCl₃ soluble partition of the ethanol extract of Valeriana officinalis var. latiofolia. The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence, including their 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra, as well as mass spectrometry. The eight germacrane-type sesquiterpenoids showed nerve growth factor (NGF) potentiating activity, which mediates the neurite outgrowth in PC 12D cells. This study intends to reveal the chemical basis of the use of V. officinalis var. latiofolia as a dietary supplement.

  13. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium of Calendula officinalis

    SciTech Connect

    Köberl, Martina; White, Richard A.; Erschen, Sabine

    The genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with broad-spectrum antagonistic activity against plant-pathogenic fungi, bacteria, and nematodes, consists of a single 3.9-Mb circular chromosome. The genome reveals genes putatively responsible for its promising biocontrol and PGP properties.

  14. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium of Calendula officinalis

    DOE PAGES

    Köberl, Martina; White, Richard A.; Erschen, Sabine; ...

    2015-08-13

    The genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with broad-spectrum antagonistic activity against plant-pathogenic fungi, bacteria, and nematodes, consists of a single 3.9-Mb circular chromosome. The genome reveals genes putatively responsible for its promising biocontrol and PGP properties.

  15. Melissa officinalis L. - A review of its traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Shakeri, Abolfazl; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Javadi, Behjat

    2016-07-21

    Melissa officinalis L. is a medicinal plant that has long been used in different ethno-medical systems especially in the European Traditional Medicine and the Iranian Traditional Medicine for the treatment of several diseases. It is also widely used as a vegetable and to add flavor to dishes This review aimed to provide a summary on the botanical characterization, traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, pharmacokinetics and toxicity of M. officinalis, and discusses research gaps and future opportunities for investigations on this plant. We extensively reviewed major unpublished old texts, and published and electronic literature on traditional medicines of different regions of the world to find traditional uses of M. officinalis. Electronic databases including Web of Science, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar and Scopus were searched to find articles (published between 1956 and 2015) on pharmacology and phytochemistry of M. officinalis. Traditional uses of M. officinalis have been recorded mostly in European countries, Mediterranean region and Middle East countries. Phytochemical investigations revealed that this plant contains volatile compounds, triterpenoids, phenolic acids and flavonoids. Crude extracts and pure compounds isolated from M. officinalis exhibited numerous pharmacological effects, from which only anxiolytic, antiviral and antispasmodic activities of this plant as well as its effects on mood, cognition and memory have been shown in clinical trials. AChE inhibitory activity, stimulation of the acetylcholine and GABAA receptors, as well as inhibition of matrix metallo proteinase-2 are the main mechanisms proposed for the widely discussed neurological effects of this plant. Modern pharmacological studies have now validated many traditional uses of M. officinalis. The data reviewed here revealed that M. officinalis is a potential source for the treatment of a wide range of diseases especially anxiety and some other CNS disorders

  16. The essential oil of Zingiber officinalis Linn (Zingiberaceae) as a mosquito larvicidal and repellent agent against the filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Pushpanathan, Thambusamy; Jebanesan, Arulsamy; Govindarajan, Marimuthu

    2008-05-01

    Essential oils extracted by steam distillation from Zingiber officinalis was evaluated for larvicidal and repellent activity against the filarial mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h treated for late third instar. The LC50 value was 50.78 ppm. Skin repellent test at 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 mg/cm2 concentration of Z. officinalis gave 100% protection up to 15, 30, 60, and 120 min. These results clearly reveal that the essential oil of Z. officinalis served as a potential larvicidal and repellent agent against filarial vector C. quinquefasciatus.

  17. NF-kappaB modulators from Valeriana officinalis.

    PubMed

    Jacobo-Herrera, Nadia J; Vartiainen, Nina; Bremner, Paul; Gibbons, Simon; Koistinaho, Jari; Heinrich, Michael

    2006-10-01

    Valeriana officinalis (Valerianaceae) has been of great interest for its therapeutic uses for treating mild nervous tension and temporary sleeping problems. In traditional European medicine it has been also reported as an antiinflammatory remedy. This study reports that the EtOAc extract of the underground parts of V. officinalis showed inhibitory activity against NF-kappaB at 100 microg/mL in the IL-6/Luc assay on HeLa cells and provided protection against excitotoxicity in primary brain cell cultures at micromolar concentrations. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the EtOAc extract led to the isolation of three known sesquiterpenes: acetylvalerenolic acid (1), valerenal (2) and valerenic acid (3), 1 and 3 were active as inhibitors of NF-kappaB at a concentration of 100 microg/mL. Acetylvalerenolic acid (1) reduced NF-kappaB activity to 4%, whereas valerenic acid (3) reduced NF-kappaB activity to 25%. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Rosmarinus officinalis L. as cause of contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Miroddi, M; Calapai, G; Isola, S; Minciullo, P L; Gangemi, S

    2014-01-01

    Because of the widespread use of botanicals, it has become crucial for health professionals to improve their knowledge about safety problems. Several herbal medicines contain chemicals with allergenic properties responsible for contact dermatitis. Among these, one is Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary), a plant used since ancient times in folk medicine; at the present time it is used worldwide as a spice and flavouring agent, as a preservative and for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. The present article aims to revise and summarise scientific literature reporting cases of contact dermatitis caused by the use of R. officinalis as a raw material or as herbal preparations. Published case reports were researched on the following databases and search engines: PUBMED, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Scopus. The used keywords were: R. officinalis and rosemary each alone or combined with the words allergy, contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, sensitisation and occupational dermatitis. The published case reports show that both rosemary extracts and raw material can be responsible for allergic contact dermatitis. Two cases related to contact dermatitis caused by cross-reactivity between rosemary and thyme were also commented. The diterpene carnosol, a chemical constituent of this plant, has been imputed as a common cause for this reaction. The incidence of contact dermatitis caused by rosemary is not common, but it could be more frequent with respect to the supposed occurrence. It seems plausible that cases of contact dermatitis caused by rosemary are more frequent with respect to the supposed occurrence, because they could be misdiagnosed. For this reason, this possibility should be carefully considered in dermatitis differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2013 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of the antibacterial potential of Petroselinum crispum and Rosmarinus officinalis against bacteria that cause urinary tract infections

    PubMed Central

    Petrolini, Fernanda Villas Boas; Lucarini, Rodrigo; de Souza, Maria Gorete Mendes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes

    2013-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the antibacterial activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extracts, fractions, and compounds of two plant species, namely Rosmarinus officinalis and Petroselinum crispum, against the bacteria that cause urinary tract infection. The microdilution method was used for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The crude hydroalcoholic extract of R. officinalis displayed in vitro activity against Gram-positive bacteria, with satisfactory MBC for the clinical isolate S. saprophyticus. The fractions and the pure compound rosmarinic acid did not furnish promising results for Gram-negative bacteria, whereas fractions 2, 3, and 4 gave encouraging results for Gram-positive bacteria and acted as bactericide against S. epidermidis as well as E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) and its clinical isolate. R. officinalis led to promising results in the case of Gram-positive bacteria, resulting in a considerable interest in the development of reliable alternatives for the treatment of urinary infections. PMID:24516424

  20. Evaluation of the antibacterial potential of Petroselinum crispum and Rosmarinus officinalis against bacteria that cause urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Petrolini, Fernanda Villas Boas; Lucarini, Rodrigo; de Souza, Maria Gorete Mendes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes

    2013-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the antibacterial activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extracts, fractions, and compounds of two plant species, namely Rosmarinus officinalis and Petroselinum crispum, against the bacteria that cause urinary tract infection. The microdilution method was used for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The crude hydroalcoholic extract of R. officinalis displayed in vitro activity against Gram-positive bacteria, with satisfactory MBC for the clinical isolate S. saprophyticus. The fractions and the pure compound rosmarinic acid did not furnish promising results for Gram-negative bacteria, whereas fractions 2, 3, and 4 gave encouraging results for Gram-positive bacteria and acted as bactericide against S. epidermidis as well as E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) and its clinical isolate. R. officinalis led to promising results in the case of Gram-positive bacteria, resulting in a considerable interest in the development of reliable alternatives for the treatment of urinary infections.

  1. Antiscalant properties of Spergularia rubra and Parietaria officinalis aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheap-Charpentier, Hélène; Gelus, Dominique; Pécoul, Nathalie; Perrot, Hubert; Lédion, Jean; Horner, Olivier; Sadoun, Jonathan; Cachet, Xavier; Litaudon, Marc; Roussi, Fanny

    2016-06-01

    The formation of calcium carbonate in water has important implications in industry. Chemical antiscalant is usually used to control scale depositions. Plant extracts have been recently used as new green antiscalant agents, as they can be easily prepared and are environmentally friendly. In this study, stock aqueous solutions of Spergularia rubra and Parietaria officinalis, two plants used in traditional medicine to treat or prevent urolithiasis, were obtained by infusion. The antiscaling properties of these extracts towards CaCO3 formation were tested by using chronoamperometry and Fast Controlled Precipitation methods. The aqueous solution of S. rubra was further fractionated to isolate compounds of lower polarity. Their efficiency towards CaCO3 precipitation was characterized by Fast Controlled Precipitation method. The inhibiting efficiency of this fractionated solution was greater than that of the stock aqueous solution.

  2. The reproductive strategies of the heterocarpic annual Calendula arvensis (Asteraceae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz De Clavijo, E.

    2005-09-01

    Achene polymorphism and various aspects of the reproductive biology of the annual Calendula arvensis L. (Field marigold), were studied to determine the reproductive strategies of the plant. This species normally produces three types of achene: rostrate, cymbiform and annular. Rostrate and cymbiform achenes are larger and heavier than annular achenes, and are adapted to long-range dispersal (by epizoochory and anemochory, respectively). In contrast, annular achenes are smaller in size and weight, and are adapted to short-range dispersal. Achenes germinate over a broad range of temperatures (both in light and in darkness), exhibiting cymbiform achenes the highest germination percentages and annular achenes the lowest under all conditions tested. A fraction of the three types of achenes exhibit dormancy and presumably enter the soil seedbank. Achene types adapted for long-range dispersal (rostrate and cymbiform achenes) produce seedlings that are best able to emerge from deeper burial depths, and that are initially stronger and exhibit earlier flowering than the plants from the annular achenes (which are likely to disperse over shorter distances). These features, together with the fact that fruiting occurs even in the absence of pollinators (automatic geitonogamy), the different mechanisms for achene dispersal (zoochory, anemochory and myrmerochory), and the extended germination, flowering and fruiting periods, facilitate establishment and expansion of this species in unpredictable and disturbed habitats.

  3. New Insights into Sepsis Therapy Using Sepia Officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Amel M.; Fahmy, Sohair R.; Sayed, Amany A.; Abd El-Latif, Asmaa A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sepsis remains a major problem for both scientists and clinicians. Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) is considered the gold standard for animal models of sepsis. The undesirable side effects of certain antibiotics have forced scientists to discover new, natural, and safe antimicrobial agents, such as cephalopods, which are known to display significant antimicrobial activity. Objectives: The present investigation aims to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antibacterial and antiseptic efficacy of Sepia officinalis body tissue (SOBT) extract and S. officinalis polysaccharide (SOP) from its cuttlebone. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight rats were divided into 4 groups, and starting 2 hours after CLP, treatments were given for 2 days as follows: sham control rats treated orally with distilled water, septic rats treated orally distilled water, septic rats treated orally methanolic extract of SOBT (500 mg/kg b.wt) suspended in distilled water, and septic rats treated orally SOP extract (200 mg /kg b.wt) dissolved in distilled water. On the third day, half of the rats in each group were euthanized for blood collection. The other half were kept alive and used for the survival study. Results: The present study revealed that the SOBT and SOP extracts showed in vitro bactericidal activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Furthermore, administration of SOBT and SOP increased the rats’ survival rates by 66.7% and 83.33%, respectively, as compared to the untreated CLP-septic rats. Treatment of the CLP-septic rats with SOBT and SOP significantly alleviated alterations in procalcitonin levels and in some hematological parameters induced by CLP. Conclusions: SOBT and SOP had profound antiseptic efficacy. PMID:27099690

  4. Quality control of herbs: determination of amino acids in Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Muhammad Nasimullah; Stecher, Guenther; Bonn, Guenther Karl

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of raw materials and final products need reliable methods for the standardization of natural product drugs. Legal guideline also emphasizes on the qualitative and quantitative analyses of the plant constituents in an herbal product. In this study, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and amino acid analyzer was used for the determination of amino acids in plant extracts. Samples for this study were standards and aqueous extracts from Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale. Different amino acids in the extracts were detected through TLC. An automatic amino acid analyzer was used for the quantification of amino acids in the plant extracts under study.

  5. The components of Melissa officinalis L. that influence protein biosynthesis in-vitro.

    PubMed

    Chlabicz, J; Gałasiński, W

    1986-11-01

    An investigation of an inhibiting activity of a substance(s) in a tanninless extract from Melissa officinalis leaves on protein biosynthesis in-vitro has been made. At least two components which inhibited protein biosynthesis were present in the extract; these were caffeic acid and an unidentified glycoside. Freshly prepared buffered solutions of caffeic acid inhibited protein biosynthesis less than solutions stored for several days at room temperature (20 degrees C). In this case derivatives of caffeic acid were formed, which may be responsible for the increase in the inhibitory effect of stored caffeic acid solution. An inhibitor, in the homogeneous state, was also isolated from the glycoside fraction of M. officinalis. Studies on the mechanism of the action of this inhibitor revealed its effect is to use the result of a direct interaction with elongation factor EF-2, and the blocking of the binding reaction of EF-2 with ribosomes.

  6. The effects of Bentonite and Calendula on the improvement of infantile diaper dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Mahmoudi, Mansoreh; Mashaiekhi, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diaper dermatitis is one of the most common skin disorders of infancy and childhood. The present study aimed to compare the effects of Bentonite and Calendula on the improvement of diaper dermatitis in infants. Materials and Methods: A double-blind randomized controlled trial, which was conducted on 60 out-patient infants referred to health care centers or pediatric clinics in Khomein city and diagnosed with diaper dermatitis. Data were collected by checklist and observation, and analyzed using t-test, Chi-square, and Fisher's exact test. Results: Mean (standard error) age of the total sample was 6.55 ± 0.69 months. Totally, 93.3% of lesions in the Bentonite group started its recovery in the first 6 h, while this rate was 40% in Calendula group (P < 0.001). Furthermore, 90% of infants in the Bentonite group and 36.7% in the Calendula group were improved completely in the first 3 days (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Bentonite was effective on the improvement of diaper dermatitis, and also had faster effects compared with Calendula. PMID:25097603

  7. Germacrane-type sesquiterpenoids from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Chen, Rui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Liu, Yu-Qing; Zhou, Jun; Zhao, You-Xing

    2010-09-24

    Eight new germacrane-type sesquiterpenoids, volvalerenals A-E (2-6) and volvalerenic acids A-C (7-9), along with four known compounds, were isolated from a chloroform extract of the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. The structures and relative configurations of 2-9 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation. The effects of all compounds isolated on acetylcholinesterase were evaluated.

  8. [Salvia officinalis l. I. Botanic characteristics, composition, use and cultivation].

    PubMed

    Daniela, T

    1993-06-01

    Salvia officinalis L. is an essential oil containing plant, which does not wildly grow in the territories of the Czech and Slovak Republics but it can be successfully cultivated. It is a perennial half-shrub, from which non-flowering herbaceous sprouts or leaves are collected for pharmaceutical purposes. After drying at a temperature not exceeding 35 degrees C they are the plant drugs Herba salviae or Folium salviae. In PhBs, Herba salviae is official. The drug contains mainly ethereal oil (1-2%), diterpenes, triterpenes and tannin. The pharmacopoeial criterion of quality is the content of essential oil, which is produced in an increased amount in the plant in warm summer months. Herba salviae and the extracts prepared from it are used as an antiseptic agent, an antiphlogistic agent, in the inflammations of the oral cavity and gingivitis and also as a stomachic and an antihydrotic agent. Its utilization in cosmetics and food industry is also of importance.

  9. Report: Comparison of qualitative, quantitative analysis and antioxidant potential between wild and cultivated Borago officinalis leaves from palestine.

    PubMed

    Abu-Qaoud, Hassan; Shawarb, Nuha; Hussen, Fatima; Jaradat, Nidal; Shtaya, Munqez

    2018-05-01

    Borago officinalis plant is an important plant of high medicinal and nutritional values. This study designed to evaluate antioxidant activity, screen the existence of phytogenic chemical compounds and to determine the total flavonoid and phenol contents of wild and cultivated Borago officinalis. Total flavonoid contents of the wild and cultivated Borago officinalis were determined by using rutin reference standard method and total phenols determined by using Folin Ciocalteu's method while antioxidant activity evaluated by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate assay. Phytochemical analyses indicated the presence of carbohydrate, phenols, flavonoids, phytosteroids tannins and volatile oil. The total flavonoid content of the methanolic extract from the wild borage plant was 22.4mg RU/g this value was reduced to 13.1mg RU/g for the cultivated methanolic extract as well as the total phenols contents was dropped from 5.21mg GA/g to 2.37mg GA/g methanolic extracts. Total tannins content of the wild growing borage plant was 13.7mg GA/g methanolic extract. This value was higher in the cultivated borage with 21.33mg GA/g methanolic extract. The wild leaves extract had IC 50 =6.3μg/mL for wild leaves extract was closer to IC 50 value of Trolox (standard reference with high antioxidant activity), while the cultivated leaves extract had higher IC 50 = 8.7μg/mL which mean lower antioxidant activity than the wild growing one. The data of this study showed that the extracts of Borago officinalis possess antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. Variation was clear between wild and cultivated species, these findings propose that such plant extract could have a wide range of applications in both food and pharmaceutical industries. Therefore, more research is necessary to investigate different cultural practices on the efficiency of borage plant.

  10. Simultaneous Analysis of Iridoid Glycosides and Anthraquinones in Morinda officinalis Using UPLC-QqQ-MS/MS and UPLC-Q/TOF-MSE.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiangsheng; Wei, Jianhe; Yang, Meihua

    2018-05-03

    Morinda officinalis is an important herbal medicine and functional food, and its main constituents include anthraquinone and iridoid glycosides. Quantification of the main compounds is a necessary step to understand the quality and therapeutic properties of M. officinalis , but this has not yet been performed based on liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Analytes were extracted from M. officinalis by reflux method. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-QqQ-MS) using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was applied for quantification. Fragmentation pathways of deacetyl asperulosidic acid and rubiadin were investigated based on UPLC with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (Q/TOF-MS) in the MS E centroid mode. The method showed a good linearity over a wide concentration range (R² ≥ 0.9930). The limits of quantification of six compounds ranged from 2.6 to 27.57 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions of the investigated components exhibited an RSD within 4.5% with mean recovery rates of 95.32⁻99.86%. Contents of selected compounds in M. officinalis varied significantly depending on region. The fragmentation pathway of deacetyl asperulosidic and rubiadin was proposed. A selective and sensitive method was developed for determining six target compounds in M. officinalis by UPLC-MS/MS. Furthermore, the proposed method will be helpful for quality control and identification main compounds of M. officinalis .

  11. Effect of a herbal extract powder (YY-312) from Imperata cylindrica Beauvois, Citrus unshiu Markovich, and Evodia officinalis Dode on body fat mass in overweight adults: a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young-Gyu; Jung, Ji-Hye; Kang, Jae-Heon; Kwon, Jin Soo; Yu, Seung Pil; Baik, Tae Gon

    2017-07-28

    YY-312 is a herbal extract powder from Imperata cylindrica Beauvois, Citrus unshiu Markovich, and Evodia officinalis Dode, which have health promoting effects, including body fat reduction. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of YY-312 for body fat reduction in overweight adults. This was a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group clinical trial performed in overweight Korean adults aged 19-60 years with a body mass index of 25.0-29.9 kg/m 2 . The daily dose of YY-312 was 2400 mg (containing 1800 mg of active herbal extract and 600 mg of cyclodextrin). Primary outcomes were reductions in body fat mass (BFM) and body fat percentage (BF%) after 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes included reductions in body weight and waist circumference (WC) after 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, BFM (1.6 kg vs. 0.1 kg; P = 0.023) and BF% (1.5% vs. -0.2%; P = 0.018) decreased significantly more in the YY-312 group than in the placebo group, as did body weight (2.7 kg vs. 1.0 kg; P = 0.014) and WC (2.2 cm vs. 0.8 cm; P = 0.049). All safety parameters were within normal limits; no serious adverse events occurred in either group. In a 12-week clinical trial in overweight adults, YY-312 resulted in significantly greater reduction in body fat vs. placebo, while being safe and well tolerated. cris.nih.go.kr: ( KCT0001225 ).

  12. Rosmarinus Officinalis Leaves as a Natural Source of Bioactive Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Stojanović, Zorica; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Arráez-Román, David; Švarc-Gajić, Jaroslava; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In an extensive search for bioactive compounds from plant sources, the composition of different extracts of rosemary leaves collected from different geographical zones of Serbia was studied. The qualitative and quantitative characterization of 20 rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) samples, obtained by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS). The high mass accuracy and true isotopic pattern in both MS and MS/MS spectra provided by the QTOF-MS analyzer enabled the characterization of a wide range of phenolic compounds in the extracts, including flavonoids, phenolic diterpenes and abietan-type triterpenoids, among others. According to the data compiled, rosemary samples from Sokobanja presented the highest levels in flavonoids and other compounds such as carnosol, rosmaridiphenol, rosmadial, rosmarinic acid, and carnosic acid. On the other hand, higher contents in triterpenes were found in the extracts of rosemary from Gložan (Vojvodina). PMID:25391044

  13. [Fumaria officinalis (fumitory)--clinical applications].

    PubMed

    Hentschel, C; Dressler, S; Hahn, E G

    1995-07-10

    Fumaria officinalis-fumitory or earth smoke-is a medicinal plant which has long had a role to play in empirical medicine in numerous countries. A review of the literature, however, reveals very few studies that support its use for dermatological indications (milk crust, eczema, scabies, etc.) or as a diuretic or laxative. This contrasts with its use to treat functional diseases of the biliary system. Although no placebo-controlled studies have been done, a number of empirical reports, clinical case reports and animal experimental studies have been published. Accordingly, in Germany, Fumaria officinalis is approved for the indication "colicky pain affecting the gallbladder and biliary system, together with the gastrointestinal tract".

  14. Effect of Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm) on Sexual Dysfunction in Women: A Double- blind, Randomized, Placebo-controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Darvish-Mofrad-Kashani, Zahra; Emaratkar, Elham; Hashem-Dabaghian, Fataneh; Emadi, Fatemeh; Raisi, Firoozeh; Aliasl, Jale; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Hasheminejad, Seyed Abbas; Eftekhar, Tahere; Zafarghandi, Nafise

    2018-01-01

    Hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) is the most prevalent female sexual dysfunction (FSD) and its bio-psychosocial multifactorial etiology justifies its multifaceted treatment. In Persian Medicine (PM), the weakness of the main organs (heart, brain and liver) is one of the important causes of lack of sexual desire; hence, their strengthening is a priority during treatment. Melissa officinalis is one of the medicinal plants with tonic characteristics for the main organs in PM and was used for treatment in this study. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of M. officinalis in the improvement of HSDD in women. Eighty nine (89) eligible women suffering from decreased sexual desire were randomly assigned to groups. The participants received medication (500 mg of aqueous extract of M. officinalis) or placebo 2 times a day for 4 weeks. Changes in scores of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain were evaluated at the end of 4 weeks of treatment using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire in the two groups. Forty three participants completed the study. The increase in desire (P < 0.001), arousal (P < 0.001), lubrication (P < 0.005), orgasm (P < 0.001), satisfaction (P < 0.001), pain (P < 0.002) and FSFI total score (P < 0.001) in the M. officinalis group was significantly more than that of the placebo group. The willingness to continue treatment was significantly higher in the M. officinalis as compared to the placebo group (P < 0.001). M. officinalis may be a safe and effective herbal medicine for the improvement of HSDD in women. PMID:29796033

  15. [Studies on chemical constituents of Valeriana officinalis].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xia; Zhang, Jian-chao; Liu, Yan-wen; Fang, Yin

    2007-11-01

    From Valeriana officinalis L., 4 compounds were isolated and identified by various spectral analysis and chemical conversion, as valerenic acid, beta-sitosterol, ursolic acid, 4, 4', 8, 8'-tetrahydroxy-3, 3'-dimethoxyl-dibenzyl-ditetrahydrofuran and caryophyllene acide,valerane, naphthalene, linoleic acid, ethyl ester, myrtenyl acetate were identified by GC-MS. Ursolic acid and 4, 4', 8, 8'-tetrahydroxy-3, 3'-dimethoxyl-dibenzyl-ditetrahydrofuran were discovered in this plant for the first time.

  16. HPLC-DAD phenolic profile, cytotoxic and anti-kinetoplastidae activity of Melissa officinalis.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Francisco; Tintino, Saulo R; Figueredo, Fernando; Barros, Luiz; Duarte, Antonia E; Vega Gomez, Maria Celeste; Coronel, Cathia Cecilia; Rolón, Mírian; Leite, Nadghia; Sobral-Souza, Celestina E; Brito, S V; Waczuc, Emily Pansera; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth; Kamdem, Jean Paul; Coutinho, Henrique Douglas Melo; Franco, Jéferson

    2016-09-01

    Context Melissa officinalis subsp. inodora Bornm. (Lamiaceae) has been used since ancient times in folk medicine against various diseases, but it has not been investigated against protozoa. Objective To evaluate the activities of M. officinalis against Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi as well as its cytotoxicity in fibroblast cell line. Materials and methods The fresh leaves were chopped into 1 cm(2) pieces, washed and macerated with 99.9% of ethanol for 72 h at room temperature. Antiparasitic activity of M. officinalis was accessed by direct counting of cells after serial dilution, while the cytotoxicity of M. officinalis was evaluated in fibroblast cell line (NCTC929) by measuring the reduction of resazurin. The test duration was 24 h. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to characterise the extract. Results The extract at concentrations of 250 and 125 μg/mL inhibited 80.39 and 54.27% of promastigote (LC50  value = 105.78 μg/mL) form of L. infantum, 80.59 and 68.61% of L. brasiliensis (LC50 value  = 110.69 μg/mL) and against epimastigote (LC50 value  = 245.23 μg/mL) forms of T. cruzi with an inhibition of 54.45 and 22.26%, respectively, was observed. The maximum toxicity was noted at 500 μg/mL with 95.41% (LC50  value = 141.01 μg/mL). The HPLC analysis identified caffeic acid and rutin as the major compounds. Discussion The inhibition of the parasites is considered clinically relevant (< 500 μg/mL). Rutin and caffeic acids may be responsible for the antiprotozoal effect of the extract. Conclusion The ethanol extract of M. officinalis can be considered a potential alternative source of natural products with antileishmania and antitrypanosoma activities.

  17. Effects of chlorhexidine, essential oils and herbal medicines (Salvia, Chamomile, Calendula) on human fibroblast in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Urbaniak, Paulina; Szkaradkiewicz, Anna; Jankun, Jerzy; Kotwicka, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Antiseptic rinses have been successfully used in inflammatory states of the gums and oral cavity mucosa. Antibacterial effects of chlorhexidine, essential oils and some herbs are well documented. Reaction of host tissue to these substances has much poorer documentation. The aim of the study was to analyse the influence of chlorhexidine (CHX), essential oil (EO: thymol, 0.064%; eucalyptol, 0.092%; methyl salicylate, 0.060%; menthol, 0.042%) mouth rinses and salvia, chamomile and calendula brews on fibroblast biology in vitro. The human fibroblast CCD16 line cells were cultured in incubation media which contained the examined substances. After 24 and 48 hours, the cell morphology, relative growth and apoptosis were evaluated. Exposure of fibroblasts to CHX, EO or salvia caused various changes in cell morphology. Cells cultured for 48 hours with CHX revealed a noticeably elongated shape of while cells cultured in high EO concentration or with salvia were considerably smaller and contracted with fewer projections. Chlorhexidine, EO and salvia reduced the fibroblast proliferation rate and stimulated cell death. Both reactions to EO were dose dependent. Cells exposure to chamomile or calendula brews did not change morphology or proliferation of fibroblasts. The results of this in vitro study showed that in contrast to chamomile and calendula, the brews of EO, CHX or salvia had a negative influence on fibroblast biology. PMID:27536196

  18. Effects of chlorhexidine, essential oils and herbal medicines (Salvia, Chamomile, Calendula) on human fibroblast in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wyganowska-Swiatkowska, Marzena; Urbaniak, Paulina; Szkaradkiewicz, Anna; Jankun, Jerzy; Kotwicka, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Antiseptic rinses have been successfully used in inflammatory states of the gums and oral cavity mucosa. Antibacterial effects of chlorhexidine, essential oils and some herbs are well documented. Reaction of host tissue to these substances has much poorer documentation. The aim of the study was to analyse the influence of chlorhexidine (CHX), essential oil (EO: thymol, 0.064%; eucalyptol, 0.092%; methyl salicylate, 0.060%; menthol, 0.042%) mouth rinses and salvia, chamomile and calendula brews on fibroblast biology in vitro. The human fibroblast CCD16 line cells were cultured in incubation media which contained the examined substances. After 24 and 48 hours, the cell morphology, relative growth and apoptosis were evaluated. Exposure of fibroblasts to CHX, EO or salvia caused various changes in cell morphology. Cells cultured for 48 hours with CHX revealed a noticeably elongated shape of while cells cultured in high EO concentration or with salvia were considerably smaller and contracted with fewer projections. Chlorhexidine, EO and salvia reduced the fibroblast proliferation rate and stimulated cell death. Both reactions to EO were dose dependent. Cells exposure to chamomile or calendula brews did not change morphology or proliferation of fibroblasts. The results of this in vitro study showed that in contrast to chamomile and calendula, the brews of EO, CHX or salvia had a negative influence on fibroblast biology.

  19. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents of oregano (Origanum vulgare), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) from Romania.

    PubMed

    Spiridon, Iuliana; Colceru, Svetlana; Anghel, Narcis; Teaca, Carmen Alice; Bodirlau, Ruxanda; Armatu, Alice

    2011-10-01

    The study reported here presents a comparative screening of three medicinal plants including oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) having the same geographical origin, the Southeast region of Romania, and growing in the same natural conditions. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids for the extracts of these were determined. Furthermore, the total antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. It was found that Origanum vulgare and Melissa officinalis extracts present the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Lavandula angustifolia is less active. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the components of extracts. Major phenolic acids identified in the analysed species were ferulic, rosmarinic, p-coumaric and caffeic, while predominant flavonoids were quercetin, apigenin kaempherol, which were present as glucosides.

  20. Comparing the effects of Bentonite & Calendula on the improvement of infantile diaper dermatitis: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Mansoreh; Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Mashaiekhi, Mahdi

    2015-12-01

    Infantile diaper dermatitis is a common, acute inflammatory reaction of the skin around diaper among infants. This study was undertaken to compare the effect of topical application of Bentonite and Calendula creams on the improvement of infantile diaper dermatitis. This double blind randomized controlled trial was undertaken on 100 patients of infantile diaper dermatitis. The 100 participants were randomly assigned into two groups of 50 each, and were prescribed the coded medicine. The mothers were trained to apply the cream and level of improvement was judged by observing the affected area on the first visit and then after three days of receiving treatment. The mean age of infants was 6.45±5.53 months in Calendula group and 7.35±6.28 months in Bentonite group. Overall, 88 per cent of lesions in the Bentonite group started improving in the first six hours while this rate was 54 per cent in Calendula group (P<0.001). The risk ratio for the improvement in the first six hours was 2.99 folds in the Bentonite group. Also, lesions in 86 per cent infants in the Bentonite group and 52 per cent in the Calendula group were completely improved in the first three days after treatment (P<0.001). Our results showed that in comparison with Calendula, Bentonite had faster healing effect and was more effective on the improvement of infantile diaper dermatitis (IRCT ID: IRCT 2012112811593N1).

  1. Comparing the effects of Bentonite & Calendula on the improvement of infantile diaper dermatitis: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudi, Mansoreh; Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Mashaiekhi, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Infantile diaper dermatitis is a common, acute inflammatory reaction of the skin around diaper among infants. This study was undertaken to compare the effect of topical application of Bentonite and Calendula creams on the improvement of infantile diaper dermatitis. Methods: This double blind randomized controlled trial was undertaken on 100 patients of infantile diaper dermatitis. The 100 participants were randomly assigned into two groups of 50 each, and were prescribed the coded medicine. The mothers were trained to apply the cream and level of improvement was judged by observing the affected area on the first visit and then after three days of receiving treatment. Results: The mean age of infants was 6.45±5.53 months in Calendula group and 7.35±6.28 months in Bentonite group. Overall, 88 per cent of lesions in the Bentonite group started improving in the first six hours while this rate was 54 per cent in Calendula group (P<0.001). The risk ratio for the improvement in the first six hours was 2.99 folds in the Bentonite group. Also, lesions in 86 per cent infants in the Bentonite group and 52 per cent in the Calendula group were completely improved in the first three days after treatment (P<0.001). Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that in comparison with Calendula, Bentonite had faster healing effect and was more effective on the improvement of infantile diaper dermatitis (IRCT ID: IRCT 2012112811593N1). PMID:26831423

  2. Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/ Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chifiriuc, Carmen; Grumezescu, Valentina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Saviuc, Crina; Lazăr, Veronica; Andronescu, Ecaterina

    2012-04-01

    Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of C andida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the

  3. Identification of New Compounds from Sage Flowers (Salvia officinalis L.) as Markers for Quality Control and the Influence of the Manufacturing Technology on the Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Sage Flower Extracts.

    PubMed

    Gericke, Sebastian; Lübken, Tilo; Wolf, Diana; Kaiser, Martin; Hannig, Christian; Speer, Karl

    2018-02-28

    Parts of Salvia species such as its flowers and leaves are currently used as a culinary herb and for some medicinal applications. To distinguish the different sage extracts it is necessary to analyze their individual chemical compositions. Their characteristic compounds might be established as markers to differentiate between sage flowers and leaf extracts or to determine the manufacturing technology and storage conditions. Tri-p-coumaroylspermidine can be detected only in flowers and has been described here for Salvia and Lavandula species for the first time. Markers for oxidation processes are the novel compounds salviquinone A and B, which were generated from carnosol by exposure to oxygen. Caffeic acid ethyl ester was established as an indirect marker for the usage of ethanol as extraction solvent. The compounds were identified by LC-QTOF-HRESIMS, LC-MS, NMR, IR, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction after isolation by semipreparative HPLC. Furthermore, sage flower resin showed interesting antibacterial in vitro activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

  4. [Diuretic activity of the infusion of flowers from Lavandula officinalis].

    PubMed

    Elhajili, M; Baddouri, K; Elkabbaj, S; Meiouat, F; Settaf, A

    2001-01-01

    The diuretic activity of an infusion of Lavandula officinalis was studied in the Wistar rat. Thus, the kinetics of hydroelectrolytic elimination in response to the oral administration of an infusion of pharmaceutical lavender flowers were measured in the rats. Experiments were completed under similar conditions using a synthetic pharmacological diuretic, Diamox. The aqueous extract of this aromatic plant accelerated the elimination of the water overload. At the peak of the diuretic response, urinary osmolarity was significantly less than that of controls (111+/-14 vs. 195+/-11 mosmol x kg(-1)). Sodium excretion was moderate following administration of the infusion when compared to the synthetic diuretic. The stability of the aldosterone concentrations in the plasma and the absence of correlation with plasma sodium concentrations, coupled with the observed clearance of the free water (0.055+/-0.007 vs. 0.045+/-0.012 mL x min(-1)) show that the increase in diuresis and the moderate increase in sodium excretion are of tubular origin. The result of the phytochemical analysis of hexane extracts in the infusion and in urine indicated that four or five chemical factors may be involved in the diuretic effect of lavender.

  5. Assessment of Mexican Arnica (Heterotheca inuloides Cass) and Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) Extracts on Dopamine and Selected Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Stomach and Brain of Salmonella typhimurium Infected rats.

    PubMed

    Guzmàn, David Calderón; Herrera, Maribel Ortiz; Brizuela, Norma Osnaya; Mejía, Gerardo Barragàn; García, Ernestina Hernàndez; Olguín, Hugo Juàrez; Peraza, Armando Valenzuela; Ruíz, Norma Labra; Del Angel, Daniel Santamaría

    2017-01-01

    The effects of some natural products on dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) in brain of infected models are still unclear. The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of Mexican arnica/rosemary (MAR) water extract and oseltamivir on both biogenic amines and some oxidative biomarkers in the brain and stomach of young rats under infection condition. Female Wistar rats (weight 80 g) in the presence of MAR or absence (no-MAR) were treated as follows: group 1, buffer solution (controls); oseltamivir (100 mg/kg), group 2; culture of Salmonella typhimurium ( S.Typh ) (1 × 10 6 colony-forming units/rat) group 3; oseltamivir (100 mg/kg) + S.Typh (same dose) group 4. Drug and extracts were administered intraperitoneally every 24 h for 5 days, and S.Typh was given orally on days 1 and 3. On the fifth day, blood was collected to measure glucose and hemoglobin. The brains and stomachs were obtained to measure levels of DA, 5-HIAA, glutathione (GSH), TBARS, H 2 O 2 , and total ATPase activity using validated methods. DA levels increased in MAR group treated with oseltamivir alone but decreased in no-MAR group treated with oseltamivir plus S.Typh . 5-HIAA, GSH, and H 2 O 2 decreased in this last group, and ATPase activity increased in MAR group treated with oseltamivir plus S.Typh . TBARS (lipid peroxidation) increased in MAR group that received oseltamivir alone. Most of the biomarkers were not altered significantly in the stomach. MAR extract alters DA and metabolism of 5-HIAA in the brain of young animals infected. Antioxidant capacity may be involved in these effects. The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of Mexican arnica/rosemary water extract and oseltamivir on both biogenic amines and some oxidative biomarkers in the brain and stomach of young rats under infection condition. Results: Mexican arnica and rosemary extract alter dopamine and metabolism of 5-HIAA in the brain of young animals infected. Antioxidant capacity may be

  6. Assessment of Mexican Arnica (Heterotheca inuloides Cass) and Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) Extracts on Dopamine and Selected Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Stomach and Brain of Salmonella typhimurium Infected rats

    PubMed Central

    Guzmàn, David Calderón; Herrera, Maribel Ortiz; Brizuela, Norma Osnaya; Mejía, Gerardo Barragàn; García, Ernestina Hernàndez; Olguín, Hugo Juàrez; Peraza, Armando Valenzuela; Ruíz, Norma Labra; Del Angel, Daniel Santamaría

    2017-01-01

    Background: The effects of some natural products on dopamine (DA) and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA) in brain of infected models are still unclear. Objective: The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of Mexican arnica/rosemary (MAR) water extract and oseltamivir on both biogenic amines and some oxidative biomarkers in the brain and stomach of young rats under infection condition. Methods: Female Wistar rats (weight 80 g) in the presence of MAR or absence (no-MAR) were treated as follows: group 1, buffer solution (controls); oseltamivir (100 mg/kg), group 2; culture of Salmonella typhimurium (S.Typh) (1 × 106 colony-forming units/rat) group 3; oseltamivir (100 mg/kg) + S.Typh (same dose) group 4. Drug and extracts were administered intraperitoneally every 24 h for 5 days, and S.Typh was given orally on days 1 and 3. On the fifth day, blood was collected to measure glucose and hemoglobin. The brains and stomachs were obtained to measure levels of DA, 5-HIAA, glutathione (GSH), TBARS, H2O2, and total ATPase activity using validated methods. Results: DA levels increased in MAR group treated with oseltamivir alone but decreased in no-MAR group treated with oseltamivir plus S.Typh. 5-HIAA, GSH, and H2O2 decreased in this last group, and ATPase activity increased in MAR group treated with oseltamivir plus S.Typh. TBARS (lipid peroxidation) increased in MAR group that received oseltamivir alone. Most of the biomarkers were not altered significantly in the stomach. Conclusion: MAR extract alters DA and metabolism of 5-HIAA in the brain of young animals infected. Antioxidant capacity may be involved in these effects. SUMMARY The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of Mexican arnica/rosemary water extract and oseltamivir on both biogenic amines and some oxidative biomarkers in the brain and stomach of young rats under infection condition. Results: Mexican arnica and rosemary extract alter dopamine and metabolism of 5-HIAA in the brain of young

  7. Investigation of the Effect of Rice Wine on the Metabolites of the Main Components of Herbal Medicine in Rat Urine by Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry: A Case Study on Cornus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Gang; Cai, Hao; Yue, Xianke; Tu, Sicong; Cai, Baochang; Xu, Zhiwei

    2013-01-01

    Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) was developed for rapid and sensitive analysis of the effect of rice wine on the metabolites of the main components of herbal medicine in rat urine. Using Cornus officinalis as a model of herbal medicine, the metabolite profiles of crude and processed (steaming the crude drug presteeped in rice wine) Cornus officinalis extracts in rat urine were investigated. The metabolites of Cornus officinalis were identified by using dynamic adjustment of the fragmentor voltage to produce structure-relevant fragment ions. In this work, we identified the parent compounds and metabolites of crude and processed Cornus officinalis in rats. In total, three parent compounds and seventeen new metabolites of Cornus officinalis were found in rats. The contents of the parent compounds and metabolites in vivo varied significantly after intragastric (i.g.) administration of aqueous extracts of crude and processed Cornus officinalis. Data from this study suggests that UPLC-QTOF/MS could be used as a potential tool for uncovering the effects of excipients found in the metabolites of the main components of herbal medicine, in vivo, to predict and discover the processing mechanisms of herbal medicine.

  8. A Comprehensive Characterisation of Rosemary tea Obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis L. Collected in a sub-Humid Area of Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Achour, Mariem; Mateos, Raquel; Ben Fredj, Maha; Mtiraoui, Ali; Bravo, Laura; Saguem, Saad

    2018-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is an aromatic plant common in Tunisia and it is widely consumed as a tea in traditional cuisine and in folk medicine to treat various illnesses. Currently, most research efforts have been focused on rosemary essential oil, alcoholic and aqueous extracts, however, little is reported on rosemary infusion composition. To investigate compounds present in rosemary tea obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis L. collected in a sub-humid area of Tunisia in order to assess whether the traditional rosemary tea preparation method could be considered as a reference method for rosemary's compounds extraction. Qualitative characterisation of Rosmarinus officinalis tea obtained after rosemary infusion in boiled water was determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionisation quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS). Quantitative analysis relies on high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Forty-nine compounds belonging to six families, namely flavonoids, phenolic acids, phenolic terpenes, jasmonate, phenolic glycosides, and lignans were identified. To the best of the authors' knowledge eucommin A is characterised for the first time in rosemary. Rosmarinic acid (158.13 μg/g dried rosemary) was the main compound followed then by feruloylnepitrin (100.87 μg/g) and luteolin-3'-O-(2″-O-acetyl)-β-d-glucuronide (44.04 μg/g). Among quantified compounds, luteolin-7-O-rutinoside was the compound with the lowest concentration. The infusion method allows several polyphenols present in rosemary tea to be extracted, therefore it could be a reference method for rosemary's compounds extraction. Moreover, traditional Tunisian Rosmarinus officinalis tea consumption is of interest for its rich phenolic content. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Valeriana officinalis root extract suppresses physical stress by electric shock and psychological stress by nociceptive stimulation-evoked responses by decreasing the ratio of monoamine neurotransmitters to their metabolites.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyo Young; Yoo, Dae Young; Kim, Woosuk; Nam, Sung Min; Kim, Jong Whi; Choi, Jung Hoon; Kwak, Youn-Gil; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Hwang, In Koo

    2014-12-11

    In this study, we investigate the effects of valerian root extracts (VE) on physical and psychological stress responses by utilizing a communication box. Eight-week-old ICR mice received oral administration of VE (100 mg/kg/0.5 ml) or equal volume of distilled water in every day for 3 weeks prior to being subjected to physical or psychological stress for 3 days, which are induced by communication box developed for physical electric shock and psychological stress by nociceptive stimulation-evoked responses. The stress condition was assessed by forced swimming test and serum corticosterone levels. In addition, norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-HT), and their metabolites such as 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol sulfate (MHPG-SO4) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were measured in the hippocampus and amygdala at 1 h after final stress condition, respectively. Immobility time and corticosterone levels were significantly increased in both the physical and psychological stress groups compared to the control group. The administration of VE significantly reduced these parameters in both the physical and psychological stress groups. In addition, compared to the control group, physical and psychological stress groups showed significantly increased levels of MHPG-SO4 and 5-HIAA in the hippocampus and amygdala, respectively. The administration of VE significantly suppressed the increase of MHPG-SO4 and 5-HIAA in the two stress groups. These results suggest that VE can suppress physical and psychological stress responses by modulating the changes in 5-HT and NE turnover in the hippocampus and amygdala.

  10. SUR1 Receptor Interaction with Hesperidin and Linarin Predicts Possible Mechanisms of Action of Valeriana officinalis in Parkinson.

    PubMed

    Santos, Gesivaldo; Giraldez-Alvarez, Lisandro Diego; Ávila-Rodriguez, Marco; Capani, Francisco; Galembeck, Eduardo; Neto, Aristóteles Gôes; Barreto, George E; Andrade, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders. A theoretical approach of our previous experiments reporting the cytoprotective effects of the Valeriana officinalis compounds extract for PD is suggested. In addiction to considering the PD as a result of mitochondrial metabolic imbalance and oxidative stress, such as in our previous in vitro model of rotenone, in the present manuscript we added a genomic approach to evaluate the possible underlying mechanisms of the effect of the plant extract. Microarray of substantia nigra (SN) genome obtained from Allen Brain Institute was analyzed using gene set enrichment analysis to build a network of hub genes implicated in PD. Proteins transcribed from hub genes and their ligands selected by search ensemble approach algorithm were subjected to molecular docking studies, as well as 20 ns Molecular Dynamics (MD) using a Molecular Mechanic Poison/Boltzman Surface Area (MMPBSA) protocol. Our results bring a new approach to Valeriana officinalis extract, and suggest that hesperidin, and probably linarin are able to relieve effects of oxidative stress during ATP depletion due to its ability to binding SUR1. In addition, the key role of valerenic acid and apigenin is possibly related to prevent cortical hyperexcitation by inducing neuronal cells from SN to release GABA on brain stem. Thus, under hyperexcitability, oxidative stress, asphyxia and/or ATP depletion, Valeriana officinalis may trigger different mechanisms to provide neuronal cell protection.

  11. SUR1 Receptor Interaction with Hesperidin and Linarin Predicts Possible Mechanisms of Action of Valeriana officinalis in Parkinson

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Gesivaldo; Giraldez-Alvarez, Lisandro Diego; Ávila-Rodriguez, Marco; Capani, Francisco; Galembeck, Eduardo; Neto, Aristóteles Gôes; Barreto, George E.; Andrade, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders. A theoretical approach of our previous experiments reporting the cytoprotective effects of the Valeriana officinalis compounds extract for PD is suggested. In addiction to considering the PD as a result of mitochondrial metabolic imbalance and oxidative stress, such as in our previous in vitro model of rotenone, in the present manuscript we added a genomic approach to evaluate the possible underlying mechanisms of the effect of the plant extract. Microarray of substantia nigra (SN) genome obtained from Allen Brain Institute was analyzed using gene set enrichment analysis to build a network of hub genes implicated in PD. Proteins transcribed from hub genes and their ligands selected by search ensemble approach algorithm were subjected to molecular docking studies, as well as 20 ns Molecular Dynamics (MD) using a Molecular Mechanic Poison/Boltzman Surface Area (MMPBSA) protocol. Our results bring a new approach to Valeriana officinalis extract, and suggest that hesperidin, and probably linarin are able to relieve effects of oxidative stress during ATP depletion due to its ability to binding SUR1. In addition, the key role of valerenic acid and apigenin is possibly related to prevent cortical hyperexcitation by inducing neuronal cells from SN to release GABA on brain stem. Thus, under hyperexcitability, oxidative stress, asphyxia and/or ATP depletion, Valeriana officinalis may trigger different mechanisms to provide neuronal cell protection. PMID:27199743

  12. Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq. Bloodwood Legumeminosae, Legume Family, lotoideae, Pea Subfamily

    Treesearch

    Peter L. Weaver

    1997-01-01

    Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq., called palo de pollo in Puerto Rico, bloodwood in Guyana and Panama, and by numerous other names throughout its extensive range, is an evergreen tree that reaches 40m in height

  13. Salvia officinalis L. induces alveolar bud growing in adult female rat mammary glands

    PubMed Central

    Monsefi, Malihezaman; Abedian, Mehrnaz; Azarbahram, Zahra; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: In traditional medicine Salvia officinalis (sage) has been used as menstrual cycle regulator. In the present study the effects of sage extract on breast tissue were examined. Materials and Methods: Fourteen female rats were divided into two groups: 1) Distilled water-treated rats (Con) that were gavaged with 1ml distilled water and 2) Saliva officinalis hydroalcoholic extract (SHE)-treated rats that were gavaged with 30mg/kg/body weight of sage extract for 30 days. The estrus cycle changes were monitored by daily examination of vaginal smear. Whole mounts of right pelvic breast were spread on the slide and stained by carmine. The number of alveolar buds (ABs) type 1 and 2 and lobules of mammary gland were scored. Tissue sections of left pelvic mammary gland were prepared and its histomorphometrical changes were measured. Blood samples were taken from dorsal aorta and estradiol and progesterone concentrations were measured using radioimmunoassay. Results: Estrous cycles decreased significantly in SHE-treated animals. The number of alveolar buds and lobules in mammary gland whole mount of SHE-treated group were higher than the Con group. The number and diameter of ducts in histological section of mammary gland in SHE-treated group increased as compared to the Con group. Conclusion: Sage promotes alveologenesis of mammary glands and it can be used as a lactiferous herb. PMID:26693413

  14. [Chemical Constituents from Melissa officinalis Leaves].

    PubMed

    Ji, Zi-yang; Yang, Yan-xia; Zhuang, Fang-fang; Yan, Fu-lin; Wang, Chang-hong

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents of Melissa officinalis leaves. The chemical constituents were separated by silica gel column chromatography and their structures were determined by spectroscopic experiments. 13 compounds were isolated and identified as protocatechuyl aldehyde(1), serratagenic acid(2), vanillin(3), 2α,3β-dihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid(4), ursolic acid(5), oleanolic acid(6), daucosterol(7),2α,3β,23,29-tetrahydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid-29-O-β-D-gluco- pyranoside(8), luteolin(9) rosmarinic acid(10), luteolin-7-O-β-D-glucoside (11), β-stitosterol(12) and palmitic acid(13). Compounds 1 ~ 8 are separated from this plant for the first time and compounds 1-4 and 8 are isolated from this genus for the first time.

  15. Monoterpene synthases from common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce; Wise, Mitchell Lynn; Katahira, Eva Joy; Savage, Thomas Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    cDNAs encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase from common sage (Salvia officinalis) have been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequences has been determined. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences (SEQ ID No:1; SEQ ID No:3 and SEQ ID No:5) are provided which code for the expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2), 1,8-cineole synthase (SEQ ID No:4) and (+)-sabinene synthase SEQ ID No:6), respectively, from sage (Salvia officinalis). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant monoterpene synthases that may be used to facilitate their production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase, or the production of their products.

  16. The Impact of Aloe vera and Calendula on Perineal Healing after Episiotomy in Primiparous Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Eghdampour, Farideh; Jahdie, Fereshteh; Kheyrkhah, Masomeh; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Naghizadeh, Somayeh; Hagani, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Episiotomy is used for enlarging the perineum. Aloe vera and Calendula have been used for treating different diseases from ancient times, limited researches have been done regarding the healing of these plants. Since the effect of their ointment on episiotomy healing has not been studied, this study is being done for determining the impact of Aloe vera and Calendula on episiotomy healing in primiparous women. Methods: This clinical trial involves 111 qualified primiparous women admitted in Lolagar hospital. They were randomly categorized into three groups of control (n=1) and experimental (n=2) groups. The women in experimental group used Aloe vera and Calendula Ointment every 8 hours and the control group used hospital routine on episiotomy for 5 days. The data were collected by demographic questionnaire and redness, edema, ecchymosis, discharge and approximation scale (REEDA) which investigated the episiotomy healing before and five days after intervention in two groups. ANOVA, Tukey test, Kruskal-wallis, Chi-square were used for data analysis. Results: The three groups do not have statistically significant different regarding demographic and other intervening variables. Comparing the mean of REEDA in five days after delivery showed statistically significant difference between control and experimental groups. Conclusion: According to the results, using Aloe vera and Calendula ointment considerably increases the speed of episiotomy wound healing so it can be used for quickening the episiotomy healing. PMID:25276736

  17. Emblica officinalis (Amla): A review for its phytochemistry, ethnomedicinal uses and medicinal potentials with respect to molecular mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Variya, Bhavesh C; Bakrania, Anita K; Patel, Snehal S

    2016-09-01

    Medicinal plants, having great elementary and therapeutic importance, are the gift to mankind to acquire healthy lifestyle. Emblica officinalis Gaertn. or Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (Euphorbeaceae), commonly known as Indian gooseberry or Amla, has superior value in entirely indigenous traditional system of medicine, including folklore Ayurveda, for medicinal and nutritional purposes to build up lost vitality and vigor. In this article, numerous phytochemicals isolated from E. officinalis and its ethnomedical and pharmacological potentials with molecular mechanisms are briefly deliberated and recapitulated. The information documented in the present review was collected from more than 270 articles, published or accepted in the last five to six decades, and more than 20 e-books using various online database. Additional information was obtained from various botanical books and dissertations. The extracts from various parts of E. officinalis, especially fruit, contain numerous phytoconstituents viz. higher amount of polyphenols like gallic acid, ellagic acid, different tannins, minerals, vitamins, amino acids, fixed oils, and flavonoids like rutin and quercetin. The extract or plant is identified to be efficacious against diversified ailments like inflammation, cancer, osteoporosis, neurological disorders, hypertension together with lifestyle diseases, parasitic and other infectious disorders. These actions are attributed to either regulation of various molecular pathway involved in several pathophysiologies or antioxidant property which prevents the damage of cellular compartments from oxidative stress. However, serious efforts are required in systemic research to identify, isolate and evaluate the chemical constituents for nutritional and therapeutic potentials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Phytoremediation of stable Cs from solutions by Calendula alata, Amaranthus chlorostachys and Chenopodium album.

    PubMed

    Moogouei, Roxana; Borghei, Mehdi; Arjmandi, Reza

    2011-10-01

    Uptake rate of (133)Cs, at three different concentrations of CsCl, by Calendula alata, Amaranthus chlorostachys and Chenopodium album plants grown outdoors was studied. These plants grow abundantly in semi-arid regions and their varieties exist in many parts of the world. When exposed to lowest Cs concentration 68 percent Cs was remediated by Chenopodium album.(133)Cs accumulation in shoots of Amaranthus chlorostachys reached its highest value of 2146.2 mg kg(-1) at a (133)Cs supply level of 3.95 mg l(-1) of feed solution. The highest concentration ratio value was 4.89 for Amaranthus chlorostachys, whereas for the other tests it ranged from 0.74 to 3.33. Furthermore uptake of (133)Cs by all three species increased with increasing metal concentrations. The results also indicated that hydroponically grown Calendula alata, Amaranthus chlorostachys and Chenopodium album could be used as potential candidate plants for phytoremediation of solutions contaminated with Cs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A phase II, randomized, single-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial on the efficacy of Curcumina and Calendula suppositories for the treatment of patients with chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome type III.

    PubMed

    Morgia, Giuseppe; Russo, Giorgio Ivan; Urzì, Daniele; Privitera, Salvatore; Castelli, Tommaso; Favilla, Vincenzo; Cimino, Sebastiano

    2017-06-30

    The management of chronic prostatitis/ chronic pelvic pain syndrome type III (CP/CPPS) has been always considered complex due to several biopsychological factors underling the disease. In this clinical study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the treatment with Curcumin and Calendula extract in patients with CP/CPPS III. From June 2015 to January 2016 we enrolled 60 consecutive patients affected by CP/CPPS III in our institution. Patients between 20 and 50 year of age with symptoms of pelvic pain for 3 months or more before study, a total National Institutes of Health Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index (NIH-CPSI) score ≥ 15 point and diagnosed with NIH category III. Patients were then allocated to receive placebo (Group A) or treatment (Group B). Treatment consisted of rectal suppositories of Curcumin extract 350 mg (95%) and Calendula extract 80 mg (1 suppository/die for 1 month). Patients of Group B received 1 suppository/die for 1 month of placebo. The primary endpoint of the study was the reduction of NIH-CPSI. The secondary outcomes were the change of peak flow, IIEF-5, VAS score and of premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT). A total of 48 patients concluded the study protocol. The median age of the all cohort was 32.0 years, the median NIH-CPSI was 20.5, the median IIEF-5 was 18.5, the median PEDT was 11.0, the median VAS score was 7.5 and the median peak flow was 14.0. After 3 months of therapy in group A we observed a significant improvement of NIH-CPSI (-5.5; p < 0.01), IIEF-5 (+ 3.5; p < 0.01), PEDT (-6.5; p < 0.01), peak flow (+2.8; p < 0.01) and VAS (-6.5; p < 0.01) with significant differences over placebo group (all p-value significant). In this phase II clinical trial we showed the clinical efficacy of the treatment with Curcumin and Calendula in patients with CP/CPPS III. The benefits of this treatment could be related to the reduction of inflammatory cytokines and of inflammatory cells. These results should be confirmed in

  20. Protective effects of ψ taraxasterol 3-O-myristate and arnidiol 3-O-myristate isolated from Calendula officinalis on epithelial intestinal barrier.

    PubMed

    Dall'Acqua, Stefano; Catanzaro, Daniela; Cocetta, Veronica; Igl, Nadine; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Giron, Maria Cecilia; Cecconello, Laura; Montopoli, Monica

    2016-03-01

    The triterpene esters ᴪ taraxasterol-3-O-myristate (1) and arnidiol-3-O-myristate (2) were tested for their ability to protect epithelial intestinal barrier in an in vitro model. Their effects on ROS production and on trans-epithelial resistance were investigated on CaCo-2 cell monolayers both in basal and stress-induced conditions. Both compounds were able to modulate the stress damage induced by H2O2 and INFγ+TNFα, showing a potential use as model compounds for the study of new therapeutic agents for intestinal inflammations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Improved anti-inflammatory activity of three new terpenoids derived, by systematic chemical modifications, from the abundant triterpenes of the flowery plant Calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    Neukirch, Hannes; D'Ambrosio, Michele; Sosa, Silvio; Altinier, Gianmario; Della Loggia, Roberto; Guerriero, Antonio

    2005-05-01

    Rings A, D and E of faradiol (1), and ring E of both arnidiol (10) and calenduladiol (4) have been subjected to various selective chemical manipulations to modify polarity, water affinity, H-bonding, sterics, and number of aromatic groups of these anti-inflammatory natural compounds. A total of 15 new and four known pentacyclic triterpenoids have been obtained in this way. Some 13 terpenoids were evaluated for their topical anti-inflammatory activities with respect to inhibition of croton oil induced ear oedema in mouse. Three derivatives of 1, the C(16) benzyl ether 15, the C(30) aldehyde 24, and the C(30) primary alcohol 25 showed significantly improved anti-inflammatory potencies, which is relevant for (future) structure-activity-relationship (SAR) studies.

  2. Evaluation of nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of Borage (Echium amoenum) and Valerian (Valerian officinalis).

    PubMed

    Adel Pilerood, Shirin; Prakash, Jamuna

    2014-05-01

    The nutritional composition and antioxidant activity (in aqueose and solvent extracts) of two medicinal plants of Iranian origin Borage (Echium amoenum) and Valerian (Valerian officinalis) used as tea were determined. Samples were analyzed for antioxidant components viz. polyphenols, vitamin C, β carotene, flavonoids, anthocyanins and tannins. Antioxidant assays such as free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and total antioxidant activity were carried out for ethanol, methanol, acetone, 80% methanol and 80% ethanolic extracts. In borage highest and least activity was observed in water and acetone extract respectively in all assays. In Valerian, 80% methanolic extract showed highest activity in reducing power and free radical scavenging activity assay. Total polyphenols in borage and valerian were 1,220 and 500 mg in ethanolic extracts and 25 and 130 mg in acetonic extracts respectively. Total carotenoids and vitamin C contents were 31.6 and 133.69 mg and 51.2 and 44.87 mg for borage and valerian respectively. Highest amount of tannins were extracted in 80% methanolic extract. It can be concluded that borage and valerian exhibited antioxidant activity in all extracts. The antioxidant activity could be attributed to their polyphenol and tannin and flavonoids contents. In all assays borage showed higher activity than valerian.

  3. Antibacterial, allelopathic and antioxidant activities of essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. growing wild in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco.

    PubMed

    Bouajaj, S; Benyamna, A; Bouamama, H; Romane, A; Falconieri, D; Piras, A; Marongiu, B

    2013-01-01

    Salvia officinalis (Common sage, Culinary sage) is an aromatic plant that is frequently used as a spice in Mediterranean cookery and in the food industry and as a traditional medicine for the treatment of several infectious diseases. The essential oils were obtained by two different methods [hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave (Mw)] from the aerial part of S. officinalis L. growing wild in Ourika-Marrakech in Morocco. Ourika is a large zone of the Atlas Mountains which is considered as a large reserve of Flora, especially medicinal and aromatic plants. The obtained oils were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared with that of Tunisia. Thirty-six compounds were identified from the Mw-extracted oil which accounted for 97.32% of the total oil composition. However, 33 compounds obtained by HD representing 98.67%. The major components were trans-thujone (14.10% and 29.84%), 1,8-cineole (5.10% and 16.82%), camphor (4.99% and 9.14%), viridiflorol (16.42% and 9.92%), β-caryophyllene (19.83% and 5.20%) and α-humulene (13.54% and 4.02%). Antibacterial, allelopathic (% germination in lettuce seeds and inhibited root growth obtained after treatment with S. officinalis oils) and antioxidant (IC₅₀ values 22 mg/mL) activities were studied.

  4. Rosmarinus eriocalyx: An alternative to Rosmarinus officinalis as a source of antioxidant compounds.

    PubMed

    Bendif, Hamdi; Boudjeniba, Messaoud; Djamel Miara, Mohamed; Biqiku, Loreta; Bramucci, Massimo; Caprioli, Giovanni; Lupidi, Giulio; Quassinti, Luana; Sagratini, Gianni; Vitali, Luca A; Vittori, Sauro; Maggi, Filippo

    2017-03-01

    Rosmarinus eriocalyx is an aromatic evergreen bush endemic to Algeria where it is used as a condiment to flavour soups and meat and as a traditional remedy. In the present work we have analyzed for the first time the phenolic composition of polar extracts obtained from stems, leaves and flowers of R. eriocalyx by HPLC, and determined the antioxidant and antimicrobial effects by DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, ORAC and agar disc diffusion methods, respectively. Results showed that ethanolic extracts of leaves and flowers are a rich source of phenolic compounds, mainly rosmarinic acid, carnosic acid and carnosol that are the main responsible for the noteworthy antioxidant activity observed in the assays. This study showed that R. eriocalyx might be a spice to be included in the European food additive list and used as a preservative agent besides R. officinalis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Protective effect of ursolic acid from Cornus officinalis on the hydrogen peroxide-induced damage of HEI-OC1 auditory cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hyeon-Hee; Hur, Jong-Moon; Seo, Se-Jeong; Moon, Hae-Dalma; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Park, Rae-Kil; You, Yong-Ouk

    2009-01-01

    The fruits of Cornus officinalis have been used in traditional oriental medicine for treatment of inner ear diseases, such as tinnitus and hearing loss. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of C. officinalis on hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity in HEI-OC1 auditory cells. The results from bioassay-guided fractionation of methanol extract of C. officinalis fruits showed that ursolic acid is a major active component. Ursolic acid (0.05-2 microg/ml) had protective effect against the HEI-OC1 cell damage and reduced lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, pre-treatment with ursolic acid significantly attenuated the decrease of activities of catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX), but superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was not significantly affected by ursolic acid. These results indicate that ursolic acid protects hydrogen peroxide-induced HEI-OC1 cell damage through inhibition of lipid peroxidation and induction of antioxidant enzymes, CAT and GPX, and may be one of the active components responsible for these effects of C. officinalis fruits.

  6. [Effectiveness of aqueous extracts of aromatic and medicinal plants against tomato grey mould in Morocco].

    PubMed

    Kasmi, Manal; Aourach, Mohammed; El Boukari, Mohammed; Barrijal, Said; Essalmani, Haiat

    2017-08-01

    Grey mould is a major disease threatening the Moroccan tomato; this disease is often controlled by fungicides. However, the latter are a real danger to human health and environment. Thus, this study is part of the research of harmless alternatives such extracts of aromatic and medicinal plants (Lavandula officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Cymbopogon citratus, and Melissa officinalis). In this study, the extracts of four medicinal and aromatic plants were tested for their antifungal potency in vitro and in vivo in order to select the most effective. The results show that, in vitro, the Lavandula officinalis, Thymus vulgaris and Cymbopogon citratus aqueous extracts all possess significant antifungal activity, whereas Melissa officinalis shows the least effective. Also in vivo only the aqueous extract of Cymbopogon citratus proves most effective against B. cinerea on tomato fruit. The test of the plants confirms that aqueous extracts of Cymbopogon citratus and Thymus vulgaris are most effective, while the aqueous extracts of Melissa officinalis and Lavandula officinalis always seem to be the least effective. Therefore, the aqueous extracts of Cymbopogon citratus and Thymus vulgaris are the most envisaged for the biological control of grey mould. Copyright © 2017 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Screening of Six Medicinal Plant Extracts Obtained by Two Conventional Methods and Supercritical CO₂ Extraction Targeted on Coumarin Content, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl Radical Scavenging Capacity and Total Phenols Content.

    PubMed

    Molnar, Maja; Jerković, Igor; Suknović, Dragica; Bilić Rajs, Blanka; Aladić, Krunoslav; Šubarić, Drago; Jokić, Stela

    2017-02-24

    Six medicinal plants Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don, Angelica archangelica L., Lavandula officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Melilotus officinalis L., and Ruta graveolens L. were used. The aim of the study was to compare their extracts obtained by Soxhlet (hexane) extraction, maceration with ethanol (EtOH), and supercritical CO₂ extraction (SC-CO₂) targeted on coumarin content (by high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection, HPLC-UV), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging capacity, and total phenols (TPs) content (by Folin-Ciocalteu assay). The highest extraction yields were obtained by EtOH, followed by hexane and SC-CO₂. The highest coumarin content (316.37 mg/100 g) was found in M. officinalis EtOH extracts, but its SC-CO₂ extraction yield was very low for further investigation. Coumarin was also found in SC-CO₂ extracts of S. officinalis , R. graveolens , A. archangelica , and L. officinalis . EtOH extracts of all plants exhibited the highest DPPH scavenging capacity. SC-CO₂ extracts exhibited antiradical capacity similar to hexane extracts, while S. officinalis SC-CO₂ extracts were the most potent (95.7%). EtOH extracts contained the most TPs (up to 132.1 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g from H. italicum ) in comparison to hexane or SC-CO₂ extracts. TPs content was highly correlated to the DPPH scavenging capacity of the extracts. The results indicate that for comprehensive screening of different medicinal plants, various extraction techniques should be used in order to get a better insight into their components content or antiradical capacity.

  8. Isolation by different processes and in vitro bioactivities of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) essential oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thanh, Tran Truc; Lan, Lao Xuan; Thu, Huynh; Tam, Nguyen Kim Minh

    2017-09-01

    Essential oil of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L) was solvent-free microwave extracted and analysed by GC/MS. 36 compounds were identified, and the main constituents of the oil included 1,8-cineole (16.87%), camphor (24.12%), α-pinene (11.04%), β-pinene (5,51%) etc,… The results demonstrate that rosemary essential oil exhibited free radical scavenging activity against DPPH with IC50 = 472.46 µg/ml. Rosemary oil has also been proven effective against all of examined pathogens except P. aeruginosa. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was 8 µl/ml for Salmonella typhimurium and 4 µl/ml for the other four studied strains (Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, Escherichia coli). These results will open new venues for rosemary oil medical use.

  9. Polish Yellow Sweet Clover (Melilotus officinalis L.) Honey, Chromatographic Fingerprints, and Chemical Markers.

    PubMed

    Jasicka-Misiak, Izabela; Makowicz, Ewa; Stanek, Natalia

    2017-01-15

    A case study of Polish Melilotus officinalis honey was presented for the first time. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) (after steam distillation, Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic solvent extraction, and solid phase extraction (SPE)) and targeted high performance liquid chromatography with a photodiode array detector (HPLC-PAD) were applied to determine the characteristic components of honey. While ubiquitous in most honeys, carbohydrates, terpene derivatives, and phenylacetic acid dominated in the Soxhlet extracts (25.54%) and in the application of SPE (13.04%). In addition, lumichrome (1.85%) was found, and may be considered as a marker of this honey. Due to the presence of these compounds, Polish yellow sweet clover honey is similar to French lavender honeys. The major compounds determined in the methanolic extract were (+)-catechine (39.7%) and gallic acid (up to 30%), which can be regarded as specific chemical markers of the botanical origin of melilot honey. With respect to total phenolic and flavonoid contents, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays were determined spectrophotometrically. The honey exhibited a moderate antioxidant activity, typical for light honeys, which correlates well with its phenolic and flavonoid composition.

  10. Anti-neuropathic effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L. terpenoid fraction: relevance of nicotinic receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mannelli, Lorenzo Di Cesare; Micheli, Laura; Maresca, Mario; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Bellumori, Maria; Innocenti, Marzia; Mulinacci, Nadia; Ghelardini, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Traditional uses and current results highlight the neuroprotective properties of Rosmarinus officinalis L. The compelling need for novel strategies able to relieve neuropathic pain encouraged us to analyze different rosemary leaf extracts in rats following chronic constriction injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve. Ethanol, acetone, and the innovative ultrasound-hexane extractive methods were used to obtain: EE, AE, and for hexane extracts UREprel and URE. Extracts were characterized in terms of typical constituents and repeatedly administered to CCI-rats (13-days treatment, from the day of surgery). URE showed the best efficacy and potency in reducing hypersensitivity to noxious- and non-noxious stimuli and spontaneous pain. URE contained the higher quantity of the terpenoid carnosic acid (CA) and its efficacy was compared to pure CA. Histological analysis of the sciatic nerve revealed that URE prevented axon and myelin derangement, edema and inflammatory infiltrate. In the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, URE did not reduce astrocyte activation. Both the pain reliever and the neuroconservative effects of URE were significantly prevented by the nicotinic receptor (nAChR) antagonist mecamylamine. In conclusion, the hexane-ultrasound rosemary extract is able to reduce neuropathic hypersensitivity and protect nervous tissues. Effectiveness is mainly related to the terpenoid fraction by mechanisms involving nAChRs. PMID:27713514

  11. Behavioral development in embryonic and early juvenile cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis).

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Caitlin E; Mezrai, Nawel; Darmaillacq, Anne-Sophie; Dickel, Ludovic

    2017-03-01

    Though a mollusc, the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis possesses a sophisticated brain, advanced sensory systems, and a large behavioral repertoire. Cuttlefish provide a unique perspective on animal behavior due to their phylogenic distance from more traditional (vertebrate) models. S. officinalis is well-suited to addressing questions of behavioral ontogeny. As embryos, they can perceive and learn from their environment and experience no direct parental care. A marked progression in learning and behavior is observed during late embryonic and early juvenile development. This improvement is concomitant with expansion and maturation of the vertical lobe, the cephalopod analog of the mammalian hippocampus. This review synthesizes existing knowledge regarding embryonic and juvenile development in this species in an effort to better understand cuttlefish behavior and animal behavior in general. It will serve as a guide to future researchers and encourage greater awareness of the utility of this species to behavioral science. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. [HPLC fingerprint of the antiarrhythmic fraction of Valeriana officinalis].

    PubMed

    Duan, Xue-Yun; Gong, Zhan-Feng; Chen, Shu-He; Fang, Ying; Liu, Yan-Wen

    2009-06-01

    To establish HPLC fingerprints of the Antiarrhythmic fraction of Valeriana officinalis. Agilent C18 (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) column was used and the acetonitrile-water was chosen as the mobile phase in a gradient mode. The column temperature was 380 degrees C and the detection wavelength was 218 nm. The detection time was 70 min, and the flow rate was 1.0 mL/ min. Fifteen characteristic peaks were indicated in HPLC fingerprints. The relative retention time and the ranges of relative areas of the common peaks were also determined. This method is simple and accurate with a good reproducibility and provides a reference standard for the quality control of Valeriana officinalis.

  13. Chemotypic Characterization and Biological Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Satyal, Prabodh; Jones, Tyler H; Lopez, Elizabeth M; McFeeters, Robert L; Ali, Nasser A Awadh; Mansi, Iman; Al-Kaf, Ali G; Setzer, William N

    2017-03-05

    Rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a popular herb in cooking, traditional healing, and aromatherapy. The essential oils of R. officinalis were obtained from plants growing in Victoria (Australia), Alabama (USA), Western Cape (South Africa), Kenya, Nepal, and Yemen. Chemical compositions of the rosemary oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as chiral gas chromatography. The oils were dominated by (+)-α-pinene (13.5%-37.7%), 1,8-cineole (16.1%-29.3%), (+)-verbenone (0.8%-16.9%), (-)-borneol (2.1%-6.9%), (-)-camphor (0.7%-7.0%), and racemic limonene (1.6%-4.4%). Hierarchical cluster analysis, based on the compositions of these essential oils in addition to 72 compositions reported in the literature, revealed at least five different chemotypes of rosemary oil. Antifungal, cytotoxicity, xanthine oxidase inhibitory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activity screenings were carried out, but showed only marginal activities.

  14. Potential of Calendula alata for phytoremediation of stable cesium and lead from solutions.

    PubMed

    Borghei, Mehdi; Arjmandi, Reza; Moogouei, Roxana

    2011-10-01

    Calendula alata plants were tested for their potential to remove stable cesium and lead from solutions in a 15-day period. The plants were grown hydroponically and placed in solutions containing CsCl and Pb(C₂H₃O₂)₂ at different concentrations (0.6, 2 and 5 mg l⁻¹). When plants were incubated in CsCl solutions 46.84 ± 2.12%, 41.35 ± 1.59%, and 52.06 ± 1.02% cesium was found to be remediated after 15 days. Moreover, more than 99% lead was removed from the Pb(C₂H₃O₂)₂ solution in all three concentrations after 15 days during the same period. When both CsCl and Pb(C₂H₃O₂)₂ were supplemented together in the solution, 9.92 ± 1.22%, 45.56 ± 3.52%, and 46.16 ± 1.48% cesium and 95.30 ± 0.72%, 96.64 ± 0.30%, and 99.02 ± 0.04% lead were removed after 15 days. The present study suggests that hydroponically grown C. alata could be used as a potential candidate plant for phytoremediation of cesium and lead from solutions; however, plants were found to be more efficient for the remediation of lead than cesium.

  15. Small brown planthopper resistance loci in wild rice (Oryza officinalis).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weilin; Dong, Yan; Yang, Ling; Ma, Bojun; Ma, Rongrong; Huang, Fudeng; Wang, Changchun; Hu, Haitao; Li, Chunshou; Yan, Chengqi; Chen, Jianping

    2014-06-01

    Host-plant resistance is the most practical and economical approach to control the rice planthoppers. However, up to date, few rice germplasm accessions that are resistant to the all three kinds of planthoppers (1) brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål), (2) the small brown planthopper (SBPH; Laodelphax striatellus Fallen), and (3) the whitebacked planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera Horvath) have been identified; consequently, the genetic basis for host-plant broad spectrum resistance to rice planthoppers in a single variety has been seldom studied. Here, one wild species, Oryza officinalis (Acc. HY018, 2n = 24, CC), was detected showing resistance to the all three kinds of planthoppers. Because resistance to WBPH and BPH in O. officinalis has previously been reported, the study mainly focused on its SBPH resistance. The SBPH resistance gene(s) was (were) introduced into cultivated rice via asymmetric somatic hybridization. Three QTLs for SBPH resistance detected by the SSST method were mapped and confirmed on chromosomes 3, 7, and 12, respectively. The allelic/non-allelic relationship and relative map positions of the three kinds of planthopper resistance genes in O. officinalis show that the SBPH, WBPH, and BPH resistance genes in O. officinalis were governed by multiple genes, but not by any major gene. The data on the genetics of host-plant broad spectrum resistance to planthoppers in a single accession suggested that the most ideally practical and economical approach for rice breeders is to screen the sources of broad spectrum resistance to planthoppers, but not to employ broad spectrum resistance gene for the management of planthoppers. Pyramiding these genes in a variety can be an effective way for the management of planthoppers.

  16. Phytochemical investigation of the seeds of Althea officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Rani, Sunita; Khan, Suroor A; Ali, M

    2010-09-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the seeds of Althea officinalis L. (Malvaceae) led to the isolation of three new phytoconstituents, identified as n-hexacos-2-enyl-1,5-olide (altheahexacosanyl lactone), 2beta-hydroxycalamene (altheacalamene) and 5,6-dihydroxycoumarin-5-dodecanoate-6beta-D-glucopyranoside (altheacoumarin glucoside), along with the known phytoconstituents lauric acid, beta-sitosterol and lanosterol. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectral analysis and chemical reactions.

  17. Phyto-mediated metallic nano-architectures via Melissa officinalis L.: synthesis, characterization and biological properties.

    PubMed

    Fierascu, Irina; Georgiev, Milen I; Ortan, Alina; Fierascu, Radu Claudiu; Avramescu, Sorin Marius; Ionescu, Daniela; Sutan, Anca; Brinzan, Alexandru; Ditu, Lia Mara

    2017-09-29

    The development of methods for obtaining new materials with antimicrobial properties, based on green chemistry principles has been a target of research over the past few years. The present paper describes the phyto-mediated synthesis of metallic nano-architectures (gold and silver) via an ethanolic extract of Melissa officinalis L. (obtained by accelerated solvent extraction). Different analytic methods were applied for the evaluation of the extract composition, as well as for the characterization of the phyto-synthesized materials. The cytogenotoxicity of the synthesized materials was evaluated by Allium cepa assay, while the antimicrobial activity was examined by applying both qualitative and quantitative methods. The results demonstrate the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (average diameter 13 nm) and gold nanoparticles (diameter of ca. 10 nm); the bi-metallic nanoparticles proved to have a core-shell flower-like structure, composed of smaller particles (ca. 8 nm). The Ag nanoparticles were found not active on nuclear DNA damage. The Au nanoparticles appeared nucleoprotective, but were aggressive in generating clastogenic aberrations in A. cepa root meristematic cells. Results of the antimicrobial assays show that silver nanoparticles were active against most of the tested strains, as the lowest MIC value being obtained against B. cereus (approx. 0.0015 mM).

  18. Chemical composition and anticancer activity of essential oils of Mediterranean sage (Salvia officinalis L.) grown in different environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Russo, Alessandra; Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Senatore, Felice; Delfine, Sebastiano; Cardile, Venera; Rosselli, Sergio; Bruno, Maurizio

    2013-05-01

    Salvia officinalis L. can be found worldwide and its leaves are commonly used as ingredient in food industry. Sage essential oil is applied in the treatment of a range of diseases and has been shown to possess different biological activities. The objectives of our research were to study the effects of environment on crop, chemical composition and anticancer activity on S. officinalis essential oil. Sage was cultivated at eighteen experimental sites in south-central Italy (Molise) in different growing environments. The essential oils (S1-S18), extracted by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC and CG/MS. Results show that the main components were α-thujone, camphor, borneol, γ-muurolene and sclareol for all the samples, but the percentages of these compounds varied depending on environmental factors such as altitude, water availability and pedo-climatic conditions. The growth-inhibitory and proapoptotic effects of the eighteen sage essential oils were evaluated in three human melanoma cell lines, A375, M14, and A2058. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Iridoids and sesquiterpenoids from the roots of Valeriana officinalis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Hu, Jiang-Miao; Ran, Xin-Hui; Chen, Zhong-Quan; Jiang, He-Zhong; Liu, Yu-Qing; Zhou, Jun; Zhao, You-Xing

    2009-09-01

    Two new iridoids, volvaltrates A and B (1 and 2), and three new sesquiterpenoids, E-(-)-3beta,4beta-epoxyvalerenal (3), E-(-)-3beta,4beta-epoxyvalerenyl acetate (4), and mononorvalerenone (5), together with five known iridoids and two known sesquiterpenoids were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis. The structures and relative configurations of 1-5 were elucidated by spectroscopic evidence. Compound 1 was an unusual iridoid with an oxygen bridge connecting C-3 and C-10, forming a cage-like structure, and compound 5 was a mononorsesquiterpenoid.

  20. [Morinda Officinalis How improves cellphone radiation-induced abnormality of LH and LHR in male rats].

    PubMed

    Li, Rong; Yang, Wei-qun; Chen, Hui-qin; Zhang, Yong-hong

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the effects of Morina Officinalis How (MOH) on the abnormal levels of serum luteotrophic hormone (LH) and LH receptor (LHR) in the testis tissue induced by cellphone radiation (CPR) in rats. Fifty adult male SD rats were randomly divided into five groups of equal number: sham CPR, untreated CPR, negative double distilled water (DDW) control, aqueous MOH extract, and alcohol MOH extract. All the animals were exposed to mobile phone radiation except those of the sham CPR group. Then, the rats of the latter two groups were treated intragastrically with MOH at 20 g per kg of the body weight per day in water and alcohol, respectively. After 2. weeks of treatment, all the rats were sacrificed for measurement of the levels of serum LH and LHR in the testis tissue. The levels of serum LH and LHR were 30.15 ± 8.71 and 33.28 ± 6.61 in the aqueous MOH group and 0.96 ± 0.06 and 0.94 ± 0.08 in the alcohol MOH group, both significantly decreased as compared with the negative DDW controls (P < 0.05), but with no remarkable difference between the two MOH groups (P > 0.05). MOH can improve CPR-induced abnormality of LH and LHR in adult male rats.

  1. Comparison of Effect of Lavandula officinalis and Venlafaxine in Treating Depression: A Double Blind Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nikfarjam, Masoud; Rakhshan, Reza

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Major depressive disorder is a chronic disease which may be associated with other mental illnesses. Lavandula officinalis and venlafaxine, herbal and chemical drugs respectively, are used to treat depression. Despite pharmacotherapy, major depressive disorder has a complicated pattern of resistance and recurrence. Aim The aim of this study was to determine the effect of L. officinalis and venlafaxine in treating depression. Materials and Methods For this study, 120 patients referred to the psychiatry clinic of the Shahrekord University of Medical Sciences, Shahrekord, Iran, were randomly selected. The participants were randomly assigned to three groups: venlafaxine (Control Group), venlafaxine + L. officinalis (L. officinalis Group), and venlafaxine + placebo (Placebo Group). All the patients underwent treatment for six weeks. Depression test was administered to the three groups at different time intervals before the treatment, four weeks after the treatment and at completion of the treatment. The data were analysed by SPSS version17.0. Results Depression scores of all the groups decreased over time (p=0.001). The depression scores were significantly different between the control and L. officinalis groups (p=0.004), and the control and placebo groups (p=0.002), but were not significantly different between the L. officinalis and placebo groups (p=0.95). Conclusion Adding L. officinalis or a placebo is equally effective in decreasing mean depression score and venlafaxine obviously decreased this score. PMID:28892932

  2. Skin photoprotective and antiageing effects of a combination of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) polyphenols

    PubMed Central

    Nobile, Vincenzo; Michelotti, Angela; Cestone, Enza; Caturla, Nuria; Castillo, Julián; Benavente-García, Obdulio; Pérez-Sánchez, Almudena; Micol, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Background Plant polyphenols have been found to be effective in preventing ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced skin alterations. A dietary approach based of these compounds could be a safe and effective method to provide a continuous adjunctive photoprotection measure. In a previous study, a combination of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) extracts has exhibited potential photoprotective effects both in skin cell model and in a human pilot trial. Objective We investigated the efficacy of a combination of rosemary (R. officinalis) and grapefruit (C. paradisi) in decreasing the individual susceptibility to UVR exposure (redness and lipoperoxides) and in improving skin wrinkledness and elasticity. Design A randomised, parallel group study was carried out on 90 subjects. Furthermore, a pilot, randomised, crossover study was carried out on five subjects. Female subjects having skin phototype from I to III and showing mild to moderate chrono- or photoageing clinical signs were enrolled in both studies. Skin redness (a* value of CIELab colour space) after UVB exposure to 1 minimal erythemal dose (MED) was assessed in the pilot study, while MED, lipoperoxides (malondialdehyde) skin content, wrinkle depth (image analysis), and skin elasticity (suction and elongation method) were measured in the main study. Results Treated subjects showed a decrease of the UVB- and UVA-induced skin alterations (decreased skin redness and lipoperoxides) and an improvement of skin wrinkledness and elasticity. No differences were found between the 100 and 250 mg extracts doses, indicating a plateau effect starting from 100 mg extracts dose. Some of the positive effects were noted as short as 2 weeks of product consumption. Conclusions The long-term oral intake of Nutroxsun™ can be considered to be a complementary nutrition strategy to avoid the negative effects of sun exposure. The putative mechanism for these effects is most likely to take place through the

  3. Protective effect of Calamintha officinalis Moench leaves against alcohol-induced gastric mucosa injury in rats. Macroscopic, histologic and phytochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Monforte, M T; Lanuzza, F; Pergolizzi, S; Mondello, F; Tzakou, O; Galati, E M

    2012-06-01

    Calamintha officinalis Moench (Lamiaceae) is an aromatic plant used since ancient times for its preservative and medicinal properties. The plant, known as 'Mentuccia' in Central Italy, is used in cooking as an aromatizant and to impart aroma and flavour to food. The methanol extract of the leaves was subjected to phytochemical and biological investigations. The extract contains polyphenols, catechic tannins and terpenes and shows radical scavenger activity. By means of HPLC analysis, eriocitrin, eriodyctiol, acacetin, linarin, benzoic acid and some phenolic acids, such as caffeic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, were determined. The gastroprotective activity of the extract was investigated using ethanol-induced ulcer in rats, with sucralfate as a reference drug. Samples of gastric mucosa, stained by PAS and haematoxylin/eosin, were observed by light microscopy. The efficacy of the extract was comparable to that of the reference drug. Probably the gastroprotective effect depends on a synergistic action of all the compounds occurring in C. officinalis leaves, even if the antioxidant potential of the leaves plays an important role by removing damaging agents from the gastric mucosa. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. The antioxidant and Flavonoids contents of Althaea officinalis L. flowers based on their color.

    PubMed

    Sadighara, Parisa; Gharibi, Soraya; Moghadam Jafari, Amir; Jahed Khaniki, Golamreza; Salari, Samira

    2012-01-01

    There has been a growing interest in finding plants with biological active ingredients for medicinal application. Three colors of petals of Althaea officinalis (A. officinalis) flowers, i.e., pink, reddish pink, and white were examined for total antioxidant activity and flavonoids content. The reddish pink flowers of A. officinalis have more antioxidant activity and the power of antioxidant activity was reddish pink > pink > white. Findings suggest that the dark color can serve as an indicator of antioxidant content of the plant. Flavonoid content was highest in white flower thus this result indicated that flowers with light color can be considered for medicinal uses.

  5. Chemotypic Characterization and Biological Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Satyal, Prabodh; Jones, Tyler H.; Lopez, Elizabeth M.; McFeeters, Robert L.; Ali, Nasser A. Awadh; Mansi, Iman; Al-kaf, Ali G.; Setzer, William N.

    2017-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a popular herb in cooking, traditional healing, and aromatherapy. The essential oils of R. officinalis were obtained from plants growing in Victoria (Australia), Alabama (USA), Western Cape (South Africa), Kenya, Nepal, and Yemen. Chemical compositions of the rosemary oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as chiral gas chromatography. The oils were dominated by (+)-α-pinene (13.5%–37.7%), 1,8-cineole (16.1%–29.3%), (+)-verbenone (0.8%–16.9%), (−)-borneol (2.1%–6.9%), (−)-camphor (0.7%–7.0%), and racemic limonene (1.6%–4.4%). Hierarchical cluster analysis, based on the compositions of these essential oils in addition to 72 compositions reported in the literature, revealed at least five different chemotypes of rosemary oil. Antifungal, cytotoxicity, xanthine oxidase inhibitory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activity screenings were carried out, but showed only marginal activities. PMID:28273883

  6. Preliminary study on mercury uptake by Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Rosemary) in a mining area (Mt. Amiata, Italy)

    SciTech Connect

    Barghigiani, C.; Ristori, T.

    1995-04-01

    Among the different plants analyzed to assess environmental mercury contamination of mining areas, lichens are those most studied, followed by brooms together with pine, which was also used in other areas, and spruce. Other species, both naturally occurring and cultivated, have also been studied. This work reports on the results of mercury uptake and accumulation in rosemary in relation to metal concentrations in both air and soil. R. officinalis is a widespread endemic Mediterranean evergreen shrub, which in Italy grows naturally and is also cultivated as a culinary herb. This research was carried out in Tuscany (Italy), in the Mt.more » Amiata area, which is characterized by the presence of cinnabar (HgS) deposits and has been used for mercury extraction and smelting from Etruscan times until 1980, and in the country near the town of Pisa, 140 km away from Mt. Amiata. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.« less

  7. A Botanical Composition from Morus alba, Ilex paraguariensis, and Rosmarinus officinalis for Body Weight Management.

    PubMed

    Yimam, Mesfin; Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Brownell, Lidia; Lee, Young-Chul; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Jia, Qi

    2017-11-01

    Obesity is the largest and fastest growing public health catastrophe in the world affecting both adults and children with a prevalence impacting more than one-third of United States (US) adult population. Although the long-term solution lies in lifestyle changes in the form of dieting and exercise, intervention is required for those who are already obese. Unfortunately, treatment options remain quite limited due to associated side effects of conventional therapeutics. As a natural alternative, in this study we describe the beneficial effect of a standardized composition (UP603) comprised of extracts from Morus alba, Ilex paraguariensis, and Rosmarinus officinalis in improving metabolic disorders in high fat diet (HFD) and high fat & high fructose diet (HFFD) induced obese C57BL/6J mice. Mice treated with UP603 showed dose-correlated decrease in body weight gains compared to vehicle treated HFFD group. Following 7 weeks of treatment, the changes in body weight gains from baseline were found as 6.4%, 27.3%, 2.0%, 3.1%, 0.4%, and -2.9% for normal control diet, HFFD, Orlistat, 450, 650, and 850 mg/kg UP603 treated animals, respectively. Reductions of 7.9-21.1% in total cholesterol, 25.4-44.6% in triglyceride, and 22.5-38.2% in low-density lipoprotein were observed for mice treated with 450-850 mg/kg of UP603. In a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan, percentage body fat of 18.9%, 47.8%, 46.1%, and 40.4% were found for mice treated with normal control, HFD, Orlistat, and UP603, respectively. Reductions of 65.5% and 16.4% in insulin and leptin, respectively, and 2.1-fold increase in ghrelin level were also observed for the UP603 group. Statistically significant improvements in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis scores were also observed from liver histology for mice treated with UP603. Hence, UP603, a standardized botanical composition from M. alba, I. paraguariensis, and R. officinalis could potentially be considered as a natural alternative to maintain healthy body

  8. Tannins from Potentilla officinalis display antiinflammatory effects in the UV erythema test and on atopic skin.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Julia; Wölfle, Ute; Schempp, Christoph M; Casetti, Federica

    2016-09-01

    Rich in tannins, the rhizome of Potentilla officinalis (PO) has traditionally been used in the topical treatment of inflammatory disorders of the skin and mucous membranes. The objective of the present study was to examine the antiinflammatory effects of PO in the UV erythema test as well as in patients with atopic skin. Using the UV erythema test, the antiinflammatory effects of a PO extract (2 %) - compared to 1 % hydrocortisone acetate - were assessed in a randomized, prospective, placebo-controlled double-blind study of 40 healthy volunteers. In the context of a prospective non-controlled trial, the efficacy and tolerability of 2 % PO cream (applied to defined test areas twice daily for two weeks) was evaluated in twelve adults and twelve children with atopic skin using a partial SCORAD. In addition, the effects on the degree of erythema in the test areas was measured photometrically. In the UV erythema test, PO cream significantly reduced the erythema index compared to the vehicle. The antiinflammatory effects of PO cream were comparable to those of 1 % hydrocortisone acetate cream. The clinical study with atopic patients revealed a significant reduction in the partial SCORAD as well as erythema in the test areas. No adverse events were recorded. PO cream displays antiinflammatory effects in vivo. It is effective in and well tolerated by patients with atopic skin. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Dried Ginger (Zingiber officinalis) Inhibits Inflammation in a Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Choi, You Yeon; Kim, Mi Hye; Hong, Jongki; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Ginger rhizomes have a long history of human use, especially with regards to their anti-inflammatory properties. However, the mechanisms by which ginger acts on lipopolysaccharide-(LPS-)induced inflammation have not yet been identified. We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of dried Zingiber officinalis (DZO) on LPS-induced hepatic injury. Methods. ICR mice were given a DZO water extract (100, 1000 mg/kg) orally for three consecutive days. On the third day, they were administered by LPS intraperitoneally. To investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of DZO, histological, cytokine expression, and protein factor analyses were performed. Results. Oral administration of DZO significantly reduced pathological changes in the liver and proinflammatory cytokines including interferon-(IFN-)γ and interleukin-(IL-)6 in the serum. In addition, DZO inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB activation by preventing degradation of the IκB-α, as well as the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, SAPK/JNK, and p38 MAPKs. These were associated with a decrease in the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxyenase-2 (COX-2). Conclusions. Our data provide evidence for the hepatoprotective mechanisms of DZO as an anti-inflammatory effect. Furthermore, use of DZO to treat could provide therapeutic benefits in clinical settings. PMID:23935687

  10. Toxicity of some plant extracts against vector of lymphatic filariasis, Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Hasaballah, Ahmed I

    2015-04-01

    Many insecticides are generally used as larvicides to control Culex pipiens, vector of lymphatic filariasis. This study was undertaken to evaluate the larvicidal activity of some potential larvicidal plants extracts against C. pipiens larvae. The toxic effects of both ethanolic and petroleum ether plant extracts were evaluated under laboratory conditions against 3rd instar larvae of C. pipiens. Forty ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of 10 plants namely Echinochloa stagninum, Phragmites australis, Eichhornia crassipes, Rhizophora mucronata, Cichorium intybus, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum majorana, Azadirachta indica, Rosmarinus officinalis and Nigella sativa. On the basis of LC50, the toxic effect of the plant extracts tested varied depending on the plant species, part, solvent used in extraction and the extract concentrations. The petroleum ether extraction was more effective against mosquito as compared with ethanolic extraction. The most effective plant extract was A. indica followed by Ph. australis, N. sativa, C. intybus, R. officinalis, O. basilicum, O. majorana, E. stagninum, Rh. Mucronata and E. crassipes.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of honokiol and magnolol isolated from Magnolia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Ho, K Y; Tsai, C C; Chen, C P; Huang, J S; Lin, C C

    2001-03-01

    The antimicrobial activity of honokiol and magnolol, the main constituents of Magnolia officinalis was investigated. The antimicrobial activity was assayed by the agar dilution method using brain heart infusion medium and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined for each compound using a twofold serial dilution assay. The results showed that honokiol and magnolol have a marked antimicrobial effect (MIC = 25 microg/mL) against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus subtilis, but did not show antimicrobial activity (MIC > or = 100 microg/mL) for Shigella flexneii, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Our results indicate that honokiol and magnolol, although less potent than tetracycline, show a significant antimicrobial activity for periodontal pathogens. Hence we suggest that honokiol and magnolol might have the potential to be an adjunct in the treatment of periodontitis. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Analysis of sesquiterpenes in Valeriana officinalis by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Mikell, J R; Ganzera, M; Khan, I A

    2001-12-01

    A capillary electrophoresis (CE) method permitting the determination of the main sesquiterpenes in Valeriana officinalis has been developed. A separation of valerenic acid and its hydroxy and acetoxy derivatives, three compounds characteristic for the species, was achieved using a 40 mM phosphate-borate buffer at pH 8.5, which contained 10% isopropanol as organic modifier. Applied temperature and voltage were 35 degrees C and 17.5 kV, respectively. This setup allowed a baseline separation of the three compounds within 8 min, with a detection limit of 5.8 micrograms/ml or less. Out of six market products analyzed, only one contained a detectable amount of the marker compounds, with 0.54% of hydroxyvalerenic acid and 0.13% valerenic acid, respectively. The quantitative results were comparable to those obtained by HPLC.

  13. Sesquiterpenoids and lignans from the roots of Valeriana officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Chen, Rui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Ma, Qing-Yun; Liu, Yu-Qing; Hu, Jiang-Miao; Huang, Sheng-Zhuo; Jiang, He-Zhong; Chen, Zhong-Quan; Zhou, Jun; Zhao, You-Xing

    2011-10-01

    Two new guaiane-type sesquiterpenoids, valerol A (1) and kessyl 3-acetate (2), together with nine known compounds, valeracetate (3), anismol A (4), orientalol C (5), spatulenol (6), 4α,10α-epoxyaromadendrane (7), (+)-8-hydroxypinoresinol (8), pinorespiol (9), pinoresinol 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (10), and 8-hydroxypinoresinol 4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (11) were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis. The structures and relative configurations of 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods (1D- and 2D-NMR, MS, UV, and IR). These compounds were evaluated for inhibitory activity on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and enhancing activity on nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  14. Camouflage during movement in the European cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis).

    PubMed

    Josef, Noam; Berenshtein, Igal; Fiorito, Graziano; Sykes, António V; Shashar, Nadav

    2015-11-01

    A moving object is considered conspicuous because of the movement itself. When moving from one background to another, even dynamic camouflage experts such as cephalopods should sacrifice their extraordinary camouflage. Therefore, minimizing detection at this stage is crucial and highly beneficial. In this study, we describe a background-matching mechanism during movement, which aids the cuttlefish to downplay its presence throughout movement. In situ behavioural experiments using video and image analysis, revealed a delayed, sigmoidal, colour-changing mechanism during movement of Sepia officinalis across uniform black and grey backgrounds. This is a first important step in understanding dynamic camouflage during movement, and this new behavioural mechanism may be incorporated and applied to any dynamic camouflaging animal or man-made system on the move. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. An inhibitor of collagen-stimulated platelet activation from the salivary glands of the Haementeria officinalis leech. I. Identification, isolation, and characterization.

    PubMed

    Connolly, T M; Jacobs, J W; Condra, C

    1992-04-05

    A protein that blocks collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation has been identified and isolated from the soluble fraction of salivary glands from Haementeria officinalis leeches. We have named this protein leech antiplatelet protein (LAPP). LAPP was isolated from soluble crude salivary gland extract by heparin-agarose, size exclusion, and C18 reverse phase high-performance chromatography. Its molecular weight is approximately 16,000 on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under both reduced and nonreduced conditions. The sequences of peptides generated by V8 digestion of LAPP as well as its amino acid composition suggested no homology to other known proteins. The IC50 for LAPP to inhibit platelet aggregation was approximately 60 nM. This inhibitory activity is specific for collagen-induced aggregation. Platelet aggregation in response to ADP, arachidonic acid, U46619, thrombin, and ionophore A23187 was not inhibited by LAPP at a concentration that blocked platelet aggregation to collagen by 100%. In contrast, crude salivary gland-soluble extract contained activity(ies) which inhibited aggregation to all these agonists except thrombin at 1 unit/ml and 2 microM A23187. Thus, the H. officinalis leech has evolved multiple mechanisms to prevent hemostasis, including an inhibitor of collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation. The identification and isolation of LAPP demonstrates the existence of a new type of platelet inhibitor that should be useful to better understand the mechanism of collagen stimulation of platelets.

  16. Phytochemical Characterization of Veronica officinalis L., V. teucrium L. and V. orchidea Crantz from Romania and Their Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties

    PubMed Central

    Mocan, Andrei; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Vlase, Laurian; Crișan, Ovidiu; Gheldiu, Ana-Maria; Crișan, Gianina

    2015-01-01

    Aerial parts of Veronica species are used in Romanian traditional medicine for the treatment of various conditions like kidney diseases, cough, and catarrh, and are known for their wound-healing properties. In the present study, the phenolic and sterolic content and the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of three Veronica species (Plantaginaceae), V. officinalis L., V. teucrium L. and V. orchidea Crantz, were studied. The identification and quantification of several phenolic compounds and phytosterols were performed using LC/MS techniques and the main components were p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, luteoline, hispidulin and β-sitosterol. More than that, hispidulin, eupatorin and eupatilin were detected for the first time in the Veronica genus. Nevertheless, representatives of the Veronica genus were never investigated in terms of their phytosterol content. The antioxidant potential investigated by Trolox equivelents antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and EPR spectroscopy revealed that V. officinalis and V. orchidea extracts presented similar antioxidant capacities, whilst the values registered for V. teucrium extract are lower. Regarding the antimicrobial activity of the investigated species, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria ivanovii were the most sensitive strains with MIC values between 3.9 and 15.62 mg/mL. The results obtained by this study may serve to promote better use of representatives from the genus Veronica as antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. PMID:26404257

  17. Development and evaluation of novel lozenges containing marshmallow root extract.

    PubMed

    Benbassat, Niko; Kostova, Bistra; Nikolova, Irina; Rachev, Dimitar

    2013-11-01

    Lozenges (tablets intended to be dissolved slowly in the mouth) were evaluated as delivery system for polysaccharides extract from Althaea officinalis L. (marshmallow) root. The aim of investigation was to improve of the efficacy of convenient preparations for the treatment of irritated oropharyngeal mucosa and associated dry irritable cough. The formulations studied were prepared with water extract of roots of Althaea officinalis L. The polysaccharides extract was obtained by ultrasonification. Acute oral toxicity (LD 50 p.o.) of the obtained extract was estimated in mice. Four models of lozenges based on different excipients were formulated. The characteristics of the preparations: resistance to crushing, friability testing, disintegration time and drug release properties were evaluated.

  18. Therapeutic Potential and Molecular Mechanisms of Emblica officinalis Gaertn in Countering Nephrotoxicity in Rats Induced by the Chemotherapeutic Agent Cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Salma; Suchal, Kapil; Bhatia, Jagriti; Khan, Sana I.; Vasisth, Swati; Tomar, Ameesha; Goyal, Sameer; Kumar, Rajeev; Arya, Dharamvir S.; Ojha, Shreesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Emblica officinalis Gaertn. belonging to family Euphorbiaceae is commonly known as Indian gooseberry or “Amla” in India. It is used as a ‘rejuvenating herb’ in traditional system of Indian medicine. It has been shown to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects. Thus, on the basis of its biological effects, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of the dried fruit extract of the E. Officinalis (EO) in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats and also to evaluate the mechanism of its nephroprotection. The study was done on male albino Wistar rats. They were divided into six groups (n = 6) viz. control, cisplatin-control, cisplatin and EO (150, 300, and 600 mg/kg; p.o. respectively in different groups) and EO only (600 mg/kg; p.o. only). EO was administered orally to the rats for a period of 10 days and on the 7th day, a single injection of cisplatin (8 mg/kg; i.p.) was administered to the cisplatin-control and EO treatment groups. The rats were sacrificed on the 10th day. Cisplatin-control rats had deranged renal function parameters and the kidney histology confirmed the presence of acute tubular necrosis. Furthermore, there were increased oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation along with higher expression of MAPK pathway proteins in the rat kidney from the cisplatin-control group. Contrary to this, EO (600 mg/kg) significantly normalized renal function, bolstered antioxidant status and ameliorated histological alterations. The inflammation and apoptosis were markedly lower in comparison to cisplatin-control rats. Furthermore, EO (600 mg/kg) inhibited MAPK phosphorylation which was instrumental in preserving renal function and morphology. In conclusion, the results of our study demonstrated that EO attenuated cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats through suppression of MAPK induced inflammation and apoptosis. PMID:27752245

  19. Root nodulation in the wetland tree Pterocarpus officinalis along coastal and montane systems of Northeast of Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    Rachel Pérez; Tamara Heartsill Scalley

    2008-01-01

    In Puerto Rico, brackish water wetlands were dominated by Pterocarpus officinalis previous to extensive deforestation due to agriculture. Today remnant wetlands are limited to small areas that are threatened by rise in sea level. We examined the root nodules of P. officinalis in montane and coastal sites and at 0, 10, 20 cm from the surface to determine if site...

  20. Nutrient and salt relations of Pterocarpus officinalis L. in coastal wetlands of the Caribbean: assessment through leaf and soil analyses.

    Treesearch

    Ernesto Medina; Elvira Cuevas; Ariel Lugo

    2007-01-01

    Pterocarpus officinalis L. is a dominant tree of freshwater coastal wetlands in the Caribbean and the Guiana regions. It is frequently associated with mangroves in areas with high rainfall and/or surface run-off. We hypothesized that P. officinalis is a freshwater swamp species that when occurring in association with mangroves occupies low-salinity soil microsites, or...

  1. Brachycorynella asparagi (Mordv.) Induced—Oxidative Stress and Antioxidative Defenses of Asparagus officinalis L.

    PubMed Central

    Borowiak-Sobkowiak, Beata; Woźniak, Agnieszka; Bednarski, Waldemar; Formela, Magda; Samardakiewicz, Sławomir; Morkunas, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether and to what extent oxidative stress is induced in leaves of one- and two-month-old plants of Asparagus officinalis L. cv. Argenteuil infested by Brachycorynella asparagi (Mordvilko) at a varied population size. The pest B. asparagi has been described as the most damaging species feeding on asparagus. Analyses using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) demonstrated generally higher concentrations of semiquinone radicals with g-values of 2.0045 ± 0.0005 and 2.0026 ± 0.0005 in Asparagus officinalis (A. officinalis) leaves after Brachycorynella asparagi (B. asparagi) infestation than in the control. Observations of leaves under a confocal microscope showed a post-infestation enhanced generation of the superoxide anion radical (O2•−) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in comparison to the control. Strong fluctuations in Mn2+ ion levels detected by EPR spectroscopy versus time were detected in leaves infested by aphids, which may indicate the involvement of these ions in the control of O2•− production. An enhanced superoxide dismutase activity is an important element in leaf defense against oxidative stress. Visible symptoms were found in aphid-infested A. officinalis. Damage to leaves of one- and two-month-old A. officinalis plants by the aphid B. asparagi was dependent on the intensity, duration of infestation and plant age. PMID:27775613

  2. Valeriana officinalis ameliorates vacuous chewing movements induced by reserpine in rats.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Romaiana Picada; Fachinetto, Roselei; de Souza Prestes, Alessandro; Wagner, Caroline; Sudati, Jéssie Haigert; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Morsch, Vera Maria; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2011-11-01

    Oral movements are associated with important neuropathologies as Parkinson's disease and tardive dyskinesia. However, until this time, there has been no known efficacious treatment, without side effects, for these disorders. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the possible preventive effects of V. officinalis, a phytotherapic that has GABAergic and antioxidant properties, in vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) induced by reserpine in rats. Adult male rats were treated with reserpine (1 mg/kg, s.c.) and/or with V. officinalis (in the drinking water, starting 15 days before the administration of the reserpine). VCMs, locomotor activity and oxidative stress measurements were evaluated. Furthermore, we carried out the identification of valeric acid and gallic acid by HPLC in the V. officinalis tincture. Our findings demonstrated that reserpine caused a marked increase on VCMs and the co-treatment with V. officinalis was able to reduce the intensity of VCM. Reserpine did not induce oxidative stress in cerebral structures (cortex, hippocampus, striatum and substantia nigra). However, a significant positive correlation between DCF-oxidation (an estimation of oxidative stress) in the cortex and VCMs (p < 0.05) was observed. Moreover, a negative correlation between Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity in substantia nigra and the number of VCMs was observed (p < 0.05). In conclusion, V. officinalis had behavioral protective effect against reserpine-induced VCMs in rats; however, the exact mechanisms that contributed to this effect have not been completely understood.

  3. Drought-tolerant rice germplasm developed from an Oryza officinalis transformation-competent artificial chromosome clone.

    PubMed

    Liu, R; Zhang, H H; Chen, Z X; Shahid, M Q; Fu, X L; Liu, X D

    2015-10-29

    Oryza officinalis has proven to be a natural gene reservoir for the improvement of domesticated rice as it carries many desirable traits; however, the transfer of elite genes to cultivated rice by conventional hybridization has been a challenge for rice breeders. In this study, the conserved sequence of plant stress-related NAC transcription factors was selected as a probe to screen the O. officinalis genomic transformation-competent artificial chromosome library by Southern blot; 11 positive transformation-competent artificial chromosome clones were subsequently detected. By Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, an indica rice variety, Huajingxian 74 (HJX74), was transformed with a TAC clone harboring a NAC gene-positive genomic fragment from O. officinalis. Molecular analysis revealed that the O. officinalis genomic fragment was integrated into the genome of HJX74. The transgenic lines exhibited high tolerance to drought stress. Our results demonstrate that the introduction of stress-related transformation-competent artificial chromosome clones, coupled with a transgenic validation approach, is an effective method of transferring agronomically important genes from O. officinalis to cultivated rice.

  4. Acylated iridoids from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhu-zhen; Yan, Zhao-hui; Liu, Qing-xin; Hu, Xian-qing; Ye, Ji; Li, Hui-liang; Zhang, Wei-dong

    2012-10-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia resulted in the isolation and characterization of six new acylated iridoids, (5S,7S,8S,9S)-7-hydroxy-8-isovaleroyloxy-Δ⁴,¹¹-dihyronepetalactone (1), (5S,7S,8S,9S)-7-hydroxy-10-isovaleroyloxy-Δ⁴,¹¹-dihyronepetalactone (2), (5S,8S,9S)-10-isovaleroyloxy-Δ⁴,¹¹-dihyronepetalactone (3), (5S,6S,8S,9R)-6-isovaleroyloxy-Δ⁴,¹¹-1,3-diol (4), (5S,6S,8S,9R)-1,3-isovaleroxy-Δ4,11-1,3-diol (5), and (5S,6S,8S,9R)-3-isovaleroxy-6-isovaleroyloxy-Δ⁴,¹¹-1,3-diol (6). Their structures were determined mainly by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques. We also report herein for the first time the single crystal X-ray structure of compound 1. In addition, the cytotoxic activities of compounds 1-6 were evaluated against A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma), HCT116 (human colon carcinoma), SK-BR-3 (human breast carcinoma), and HepG2 (human hepatoma) cell lines. Compound 6 showed weak cell growth inhibition of A549, HCT116, SK-BR-3, and HepG2 cells. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Development of imidazolinone herbicide tolerant borage (Borago officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Song, Dongyan; Wu, Guohai; Vrinten, Patricia; Qiu, Xiao

    2017-09-01

    Borage (Borago officinalis) is an annual herb that produces a high level of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) in its seed oil. Due to the recognized health benefits of GLA, borage is now commercially cultivated worldwide. However, an herbicide-tolerant variety for effective weed management has not yet been developed. Here we report the generation and characterization of ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) induced borage mutant lines tolerant to the herbicide imidazolinone. An EMS-mutagenized borage population was generated by using a series of concentrations of EMS to treat mature borage seeds. Screening of the M2 and M3 borage plants using an herbicide treatment resulted in the identification of two imidazolinone-tolerant lines. Sequence analysis of two acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) genes, AHAS1 and AHAS2, from the mutant (tolerant) and wild type (susceptible) borage plants showed that single nucleotide substitutions which resulted in amino acid changes occurred in AHAS1 and AHAS2, respectively in the two tolerant lines. A KASP marker was then developed to differentiate the homozygous susceptible, homozygous tolerant and heterozygous borage plants. An in vitro assay showed that homozygous tolerant borage carrying the AHAS1 mutation retained significantly higher AHAS activity than susceptible borage across different imazamox concentrations. A herbicide dose response test indicated that the line with the AHAS1 mutation could tolerate four times the normally used field concentration of "Solo" herbicide. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. On the respiratory flow in the cuttlefish sepia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Bone, Q; Brown, E; Travers, G

    1994-09-01

    The respiratory flow of water over the gills of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis at rest is produced by the alternate activity of the radial muscles of the mantle and the musculature of the collar flaps; mantle circular muscle fibres are not involved. Inspiration takes place as the radial fibres contract, thinning the mantle and expanding the mantle cavity. The rise in mantle cavity pressure (up to 0.15 kPa), expelling water via the siphon during expiration, is brought about by inward movement of the collar flaps and (probably) mainly by elastic recoil of the mantle connective tissue network 'wound up' by radial fibre contraction during inspiration. Sepia also shows a second respiratory pattern, in which mantle cavity pressures during expiration are greater (up to 0.25 kPa). Here, the mantle circular fibres are involved, as they are during the large pressure transients (up to 10 kPa) seen during escape jetting. Active contraction of the muscles of the collar flaps is seen in all three patterns of expulsion of water from the mantle cavity, electrical activity increasing with increasing mantle cavity pressures. Respiratory expiration in the resting squid Loligo vulgaris is probably driven as in Sepia, whereas in the resting octopus Eledone cirrhosa, the mantle circular musculature is active during expiration. The significance of these observations is discussed.

  7. Magnolia officinalis L. Fortified Gum Improves Resistance of Oral Epithelial Cells Against Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jessica; Imboeck, Julia Maria; Walker, Joel Michael; Maitra, Amarnath; Haririan, Hady; Rausch-Fan, Xiaohui; Dodds, Michael; Inui, Taichi; Somoza, Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory diseases of the periodontal tissues are known health problems worldwide. Therefore, anti-inflammatory active compounds are used in oral care products to reduce long-term inflammation. In addition to inducing inflammation, pathogen attack leads to an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may lead to oxidative damage of macromolecules. Magnolia officinalis L. bark extract (MBE) has been shown to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential in vitro. In the present study, the influence of MBE-fortified chewing gum on the resistance against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation and oxidative stress of oral epithelial cells was investigated in a four-armed parallel designed human intervention trial with 40 healthy volunteers. Ex vivo stimulation of oral epithelial cells with LPS from Porphyromonas gingivalis for 6[Formula: see text]h increased the mRNA expression and release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1[Formula: see text], IL-[Formula: see text], IL-8, MIP-1[Formula: see text], and TNF[Formula: see text]. Chewing MBE-fortified gum for 10[Formula: see text]min reduced the ex vivo LPS-induced increase of IL-8 release by 43.8 [Formula: see text] 17.1% at the beginning of the intervention. In addition, after the two-week intervention with MBE-fortified chewing gum, LPS-stimulated TNF[Formula: see text] release was attenuated by 73.4 [Formula: see text] 12.0% compared to chewing regular control gum. This increased resistance against LPS-induced inflammation suggests that MBE possesses anti-inflammatory activity in vivo when added to chewing gum. In contrast, the conditions used to stimulate an immune response of oral epithelial cells failed to induce oxidative stress, measured by catalase activity, or oxidative DNA damage.

  8. Immunomodulatory role of Emblica officinalis in arsenic induced oxidative damage and apoptosis in thymocytes of mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Arsenic is widely distributed in the environment and has been found to be associated with the various health related problems including skin lesions, cancer, cardiovascular and immunological disorders. The fruit extract of Emblica officinalis (amla) has been shown to have anti-oxidative and immunomodulatory properties. In view of increasing health risk of arsenic, the present study has been carried out to investigate the protective effect of amla against arsenic induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in thymocytes of mice. Methods Mice were exposed to arsenic (sodium arsenite 3 mg/kg body weight p.o.) or amla (500 mg/kg body weight p.o.) or simultaneously with arsenic and amla for 28 days. The antioxidant enzyme assays were carried out using spectrophotometer and generation of ROS, apoptotic parameters, change in cell cycle were carried out using flow cytometer following the standard protocols. Results Arsenic exposure to mice caused a significant increase in the lipid peroxidation, ROS production and decreased cell viability, levels of reduced glutathione, the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, cytochrome c oxidase and mitochondrial membrane potential in the thymus as compared to controls. Increased activity of caspase-3 linked with apoptosis assessed by the cell cycle analysis and annexin V/PI binding was also observed in mice exposed to arsenic as compared to controls. Co-treatment with arsenic and amla decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation, ROS production, activity of caspase-3, apoptosis and increased cell viability, levels of antioxidant enzymes, cytochrome c oxidase and mitochondrial membrane potential as compared to mice treated with arsenic alone. Conclusions The results of the present study exhibits that arsenic induced oxidative stress and apoptosis significantly protected by co-treatment with amla that could be due to its strong antioxidant potential. PMID:23889914

  9. MYB transcription factor gene involved in sex determination in Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Murase, Kohji; Shigenobu, Shuji; Fujii, Sota; Ueda, Kazuki; Murata, Takanori; Sakamoto, Ai; Wada, Yuko; Yamaguchi, Katsushi; Osakabe, Yuriko; Osakabe, Keishi; Kanno, Akira; Ozaki, Yukio; Takayama, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    Dioecy is a plant mating system in which individuals of a species are either male or female. Although many flowering plants evolved independently from hermaphroditism to dioecy, the molecular mechanism underlying this transition remains largely unknown. Sex determination in the dioecious plant Asparagus officinalis is controlled by X and Y chromosomes; the male and female karyotypes are XY and XX, respectively. Transcriptome analysis of A. officinalis buds showed that a MYB-like gene, Male Specific Expression 1 (MSE1), is specifically expressed in males. MSE1 exhibits tight linkage with the Y chromosome, specific expression in early anther development and loss of function on the X chromosome. Knockout of the MSE1 orthologue in Arabidopsis induces male sterility. Thus, MSE1 acts in sex determination in A. officinalis. © 2016 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Simultaneous determination of bifonazole and tinctures of calendula flower in pharmaceutical creams by reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ferreyra, Carola F; Ortiz, Cristina S

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this research was to develop and validate a sensitive, rapid, easy, and precise reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) method for stability studies of bifonazole (I) formulated with tinctures of calendula flower (II). The method was especially developed for the analysis and quantitative determination of I and II in pure and combined forms in cream pharmaceutical formulations without using gradient elution and at room temperature. The influence on the stability of compound I of temperature, artificial radiation, and drug II used for the new pharmaceutical design was evaluated. The LC separation was carried out using a Supelcosil LC-18 column (25 cm x 4.6 mm id, 5 microm particle size); the mobile phase was composed of methanol-0.1 M ammonium acetate buffer (85 + 15, v/v) pumped isocratically at a flow rate of 1 mL/min; and ultraviolet detection was at 254 nm. The analysis time was less than 10 min. Calibration graphs were found to be linear in the 0.125-0.375 mg/mL (rI = 0.9991) and 0.639-1.916 mg/mL (rII = 0.9995) ranges for I and II, respectively. The linearity, precision, recovery, and limits of detection and quantification were satisfactory for I and II. The results obtained suggested that the developed LC method is selective and specific for the analysis of I and II in pharmaceutical products, and that it can be applied to stability studies.

  11. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and chemical characterization of essential oils of Thymusvulgaris, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Origanum majorana from northeastern México.

    PubMed

    Guerra-Boone, Laura; Alvarez-Román, Rocío; Alvarez-Román, Rocío; Salazar-Aranda, Ricardo; Torres-Cirio, Anabel; Rivas-Galindo, Verónica Mayela; de-Torres, Noemí Waksman; González, Gloria; Pérez-López, Luis Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    There have been no reports of antifungal activity and composition of extracts from Thymus vulgaris, Rosmarinus officinalis or Origanum majorana from northeastern México. Antifungal activity of these oils against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum, Microsporum canis and Epidermophyton floccosum was measured by diffusion assay. Additionally, antibacterial and antioxidant activities were evaluated. Antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes was examined by microdilution. Antioxidant activity was assessed by 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidracil reduction test. The plant oils were characterized by both GC/MS and GC/FID. Oils of T. vulgaris and O. majorana showed growth inhibition activity against dermatophytes, especially T. vulgaris oil, which completely inhibited growth of all tested dermatophytes. The oils also showed bioactivity against bacteria, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values between 62.5 and 500 μg/mL. The antioxidant activity of the oils was low, with effective concentration (EC50) values <250μg/mL. The major components in the oils were as follows: T. vulgaris, o-cymene, μ-terpinene, thymol and carvacrol; R. officinalis, terpinen-4-ol and 1,8-cineole; O. majorana, terpinen-4-ol and thymol.

  12. Chemical Composition of Essential Oils from Thymus vulgaris, Cymbopogon citratus, and Rosmarinus officinalis, and Their Effects on the HIV-1 Tat Protein Function.

    PubMed

    Feriotto, Giordana; Marchetti, Nicola; Costa, Valentina; Beninati, Simone; Tagliati, Federico; Mischiati, Carlo

    2018-02-01

    New drugs would be beneficial to fight resistant HIV strains, in particular those capable of interfering with essential viral functions other than those targeted by highly active antiretroviral therapy drugs. Despite the central role played by Tat protein in HIV transcription, a search for vegetable extracts able to hamper this important viral function was never carried out. In this work, we evaluated the chemical composition and possible interference of essential oil from Thymus vulgaris, Cananga odorata, Cymbopogon citratus, and Rosmarinus officinalis with the Tat/TAR-RNA interaction and with Tat-induced HIV-1 LTR transcription. GC/MS Analysis demonstrated the biodiversity of herbal species translated into essential oils composed of different blends of terpenes. In all of them, 4 - 6 constituents represent from 81.63% to 95.19% of the total terpenes. Essential oils of Thymus vulgaris, Cymbopogon citratus, and Rosmarinus officinalis were active in interfering with Tat functions, encouraging further studies to identify single terpenes responsible for the antiviral activity. In view of the quite different composition of these essential oils, we concluded that their interference on Tat function depends on specific terpene or a characteristic blend. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  13. Active-oxygen scavenging activity of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Masaki, H; Sakaki, S; Atsumi, T; Sakurai, H

    1995-01-01

    To find antioxidative compounds present in plants, 65 types of plant extract were tested using the neotetrazolium method for evidence of superoxide anion-scavenging effects and 7 plant extracts were selected for further investigation. The activity of active-oxygen scavengers such as superoxide anion radicals, hydroxyl radicals, singlet oxygens and lipid peroxides in the 7 plant extracts (Aeseclus hippocastanum L., Hamamelis virginiana L. Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb., Quercus robur L., Rosemarinous officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L. and Sanguisorba officinalis L.) was examined in detail by both ESR spin-trapping and malondialdehyde generation. Furthermore, the active-oxygen scavenging activity of these plant extracts was evaluated using a murine dermal fibroblast culture system. Both Aeseclus hippocastanum L. and Hamamelis virginia L. were found to have strong active-oxygen scavenging activity of and protective activity against cell damage induced by active oxygen. Both Aeseclus hippocastanum L. and Hamamelis virginiana L. are proposed as potent plant extracts with potential application as anti-aging or anti-wrinkle material for the skin.

  14. No differences between Calendula cream and aqueous cream in the prevention of acute radiation skin reactions--results from a randomised blinded trial.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Lena; Finnilä, Kristina; Johansson, Hemming; Abrahamsson, Marie; Hatschek, Thomas; Bergenmar, Mia

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this blinded, randomized clinical trial was to compare two topical agents (Calendula Weleda cream vs. Essex cream) in reducing the risk of severe acute radiation skin reactions (ARSR) in relation to adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) for breast cancer. The primary endpoint was the difference in proportion of patients with ARSR, assessed with the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/The Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Acute Radiation Morbidity Scoring Criteria (RTOG/EORTC scale) at follow-up. The secondary endpoints included patient reported outcome measures; Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30), Sleep disturbances (MOS-sleep questionnaire) and symptoms from the irradiated area (visual analogue scale). Patients' experiences and adherence to the topical agents were also evaluated. A total of 420 patients were randomised and 411 were analysed. With the exception of previous chemotherapy, the treatment groups were well balanced, both regarding treatment- and patient-related factors. The incidence of severe ARSR (RTOG/EORTC grade ≤2) at the follow-up visit was 23% (n = 45) in the Calendula group and 19% (n = 38) in the Essex group. We found no difference in severe ARSR between the groups at any point of assessment. The patients reported low levels of skin related symptoms and no statistically significant differences between the groups were found. No differences in ARSR between patients randomised to Calendula or Essex cream was found. ARSR seem to be a relatively limited problem, probably more influenced by treatment related factors than by choice of skin care products in this patient group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Antimicrobial Activity of Copaiba (Copaifera officinalis) and Pracaxi (Pentaclethra macroloba) Oils against Staphylococcus Aureus: Importance in Compounding for Wound Care.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Anna Luísa Aguijar; Cunha, Elisa Alves; Matias, Fernanda Oliveira; Garcia, Patrícia Guedes; Danopoulos, Panagiota; Swikidisa, Rosita; Pinheiro, Vanessa Alves; Nogueira, Rodrigo José Lupatini

    2016-01-01

    The Amazon rainforest is the largest reserve of natural products in the world. Its rich biodiversity of medicinal plants has been utilized by local populations for hundreds of years for the prevention and treatment of various diseases and ailments. Oil extracts from plant species such as Copaifera officinalis and Pentaclethra macroloba are used in compounded formulations for their antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, emollient, moisturizing, and wound-healing activities. The objective of this study was to investigate the in vitro bacteriostatic effect of two Amazonian oils, Copaiba and Pracaxi, against Staphylococcus aureus, a clinically important microorganism responsible for wound infection, to support the use of these oils as novel natural products for compounded wound-treatment modalities. The antibacterial activity of Copaiba and Pracaxi oils against a standard strain of Staphylococcus aureus was assessed using broth microdilution to determine the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration of the oil extracts. Copaiba oil demonstrated antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, with a Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of 0.3125 mg/mL and a Minimum Bactericidal Concentration of 0.3125 mg/mL. Conversely, Pracaxi oil failed to inhibit Staphylococcus aureus growth. While additional studies are required to further evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Pracaxi oil, even low concentrations of Copaiba oil effectively inhibited Staphylococcus aureus growth, supporting its potential use as a promising adjuvant in compounded topical formulations for wound and scar healing.

  16. [Study on digitization of difference in drug color and odor of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex before and after perspiration].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Liang; Yan, Ren-Yi; Guo, Jian; Shao, Ai-Juan; Yang, Bin

    2013-01-01

    To digitalize the changes in characters of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex after perspiration with colorimeter and electronic nose. With perspired and non-perspired Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex as objective, colorimeter and electronic nose were used to detect their color characteristic parameter and odor characteristic parameter. Finally, an identification model was established. In terms of drug color, the color characteristic parameter model was established for perspired and non-perspired Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex on the basis of L*, a*, b* color spaces. The range of 90% of reference values of perspired Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex: L* (52.22-59.42), a* (5.36-7.68), b* (22.04-27.05). The range of 90% of reference values of non-perspired Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex: L* (38.42-47.31), a* (9.63-11.85), b* (18.48-25.53). In terms of drug odor, the principal component analysis (PCA) and the partial least squares method (PLS) showed significant difference between perspired and non-perspired Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex. The difference in drug color and odor of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex before and after perspiration can be digitalized according to color and odor characteristic parameters tested with colorimeter and electronic nose.

  17. Role of invasive Melilotus officinalis in two native plant communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Riper, Laura C.; Larson, Diane L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the impact of the exotic nitrogen-fixing legume Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. on native and exotic species cover in two Great Plains ecosystems in Badlands National Park, South Dakota. Melilotus is still widely planted and its effects on native ecosystems are not well studied. Melilotus could have direct effects on native plants, such as through competition or facilitation. Alternatively, Melilotus may have indirect effects on natives, e.g., by favoring exotic species which in turn have a negative effect on native species. This study examined these interactions across a 4-year period in two contrasting vegetation types: Badlands sparse vegetation and western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii) mixed-grass prairie. Structural equation models were used to analyze the pathways through which Melilotus, native species, and other exotic species interact over a series of 2-year time steps. Melilotus can affect native and exotic species both in the current year and in the years after its death (a lag effect). A lag effect is possible because the death of a Melilotus plant can leave an open, potentially nitrogen-enriched site on the landscape. The results showed that the relationship between Melilotus and native and exotic species varied depending on the habitat and the year. In Badlands sparse vegetation, there was a consistent, strong, and positive relationship between Melilotus cover and native and exotic species cover suggesting that Melilotus is acting as a nurse plant and facilitating the growth of other species. In contrast, in western wheatgrass prairie, Melilotus was acting as a weak competitor and had no consistent effect on other species. In both habitats, there was little evidence for a direct lag effect of Melilotus on other species. Together, these results suggest both facilitative and competitive roles for Melilotus, depending on the vegetation type it invades.

  18. Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of single doses of Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm) with human CNS nicotinic and muscarinic receptor-binding properties.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, D O; Wake, G; Savelev, S; Tildesley, N T J; Perry, E K; Wesnes, K A; Scholey, A B

    2003-10-01

    Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm) is a herbal medicine that has traditionally been attributed with memory-enhancing properties, but which is currently more widely used as a mild sedative and sleep aid. In a previous study it was demonstrated that a commercial Melissa extract led to dose-specific increases in calmness, and dose-dependent decrements in timed memory task performance. However, the extract utilized in that study did not exhibit in vitro cholinergic receptor-binding properties. The current study involved an initial screening of samples of M. officinalis for human acetylcholinesterase inhibition and cholinergic receptor-binding properties. The cognitive and mood effects of single doses of the most cholinergically active dried leaf were then assessed in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced crossover study. Following the in vitro analysis, 20 healthy, young participants received single doses of 600, 1000, and 1600 mg of encapsulated dried leaf, or a matching placebo, at 7-day intervals. Cognitive performance and mood were assessed predose and at 1, 3, and 6 h postdose using the Cognitive Drug Research computerized assessment battery and Bond-Lader visual analog scales, respectively. In vitro analysis of the chosen extract established IC(50) concentrations of 0.18 and 3.47 mg ml(-1), respectively, for the displacement of [(3)H]-(N)-nicotine and [(3)H]-(N)-scopolamine from nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in the human cerebral cortex tissue. However, no cholinesterase inhibitory properties were detected. The most notable cognitive and mood effects were improved memory performance and increased 'calmness' at all postdose time points for the highest (1600 mg) dose. However, while the profile of results was overwhelmingly favorable for the highest dose, decrements in the speed of timed memory task performance and on a rapid visual information-processing task increased with decreasing dose. These results suggest that doses of Melissa

  19. Appetite Suppression and Antiobesity Effect of a Botanical Composition Composed of Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Yimam, Mesfin; Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Brownell, Lidia; Lee, Young-Chul; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Tae-Woo; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Jia, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Background . Obesity and its comorbidities continue to challenge the world at an alarming rate. Although the long term solution lies on lifestyle changes in the form of dieting and exercising, drug, medical food, or dietary supplement interventions are required for those who are already obese. Here we describe a standardized blend composed of extracts from three medicinal plants: Morus alba , Yerba mate , and Magnolia officinalis for appetite suppression and metabolic disorders management. Method . Extracts were standardized to yield a composition designated as UP601. Appetite suppression activity was tested in acute feed intake rat model. Efficacy was evaluated in C57BL/6J mouse models treated with oral doses of 1.3 g/kg/day for 7 weeks. Orlistat at 40 mg/kg/day was used as a positive control. Body compositions of mice were assessed using a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). ELISA was done for insulin, leptin, and ghrelin level quantitation. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) scoring was conducted. Results . Marked acute hypophagia with 81.8, 75.3, 43.9, and 30.9% reductions in food intake at 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours were observed for UP601. Decreases in body weight gain (21.5% compared to the HFD at weeks 7 and 8.2% compared to baseline) and calorie intake (40.5% for the first week) were observed. 75.9% and 46.8% reductions in insulin and leptin, respectively, 4.2-fold increase in ghrelin level, and reductions of 18.6% in cholesterol and 59% in low-density lipoprotein were documented. A percentage body fat of 18.9%, 47.8%, 46.1%, and 30.4% was found for mice treated with normal control, HFD, Orlistat, and UP601, respectively. 59.3% less mesenteric fat pad and improved NASH scores were observed for UP601. Conclusion . UP601, a standardized botanical composition from Morus alba , Yerba mate , and Magnolia officinalis could be used as a natural alternative for appetite suppression, maintaining healthy body weight and metabolism management.

  20. Appetite Suppression and Antiobesity Effect of a Botanical Composition Composed of Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Brownell, Lidia; Lee, Young-Chul; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Tae-Woo; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Jia, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Obesity and its comorbidities continue to challenge the world at an alarming rate. Although the long term solution lies on lifestyle changes in the form of dieting and exercising, drug, medical food, or dietary supplement interventions are required for those who are already obese. Here we describe a standardized blend composed of extracts from three medicinal plants: Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis for appetite suppression and metabolic disorders management. Method. Extracts were standardized to yield a composition designated as UP601. Appetite suppression activity was tested in acute feed intake rat model. Efficacy was evaluated in C57BL/6J mouse models treated with oral doses of 1.3 g/kg/day for 7 weeks. Orlistat at 40 mg/kg/day was used as a positive control. Body compositions of mice were assessed using a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). ELISA was done for insulin, leptin, and ghrelin level quantitation. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) scoring was conducted. Results. Marked acute hypophagia with 81.8, 75.3, 43.9, and 30.9% reductions in food intake at 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours were observed for UP601. Decreases in body weight gain (21.5% compared to the HFD at weeks 7 and 8.2% compared to baseline) and calorie intake (40.5% for the first week) were observed. 75.9% and 46.8% reductions in insulin and leptin, respectively, 4.2-fold increase in ghrelin level, and reductions of 18.6% in cholesterol and 59% in low-density lipoprotein were documented. A percentage body fat of 18.9%, 47.8%, 46.1%, and 30.4% was found for mice treated with normal control, HFD, Orlistat, and UP601, respectively. 59.3% less mesenteric fat pad and improved NASH scores were observed for UP601. Conclusion. UP601, a standardized botanical composition from Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis could be used as a natural alternative for appetite suppression, maintaining healthy body weight and metabolism management. PMID:27699065

  1. [Studies on HPLC chromatogram of phenolic constituents of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis].

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-hua; Guo, Bao-lin; Si, Jin-ping

    2005-07-01

    To study the chemical characteristic, to identify the different forms and to establish the new standard for the quality control of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis. HPLC method was used with acetonitrile-water (63:37) as the mobile phase at room temperature. The chromatographic column was Lichrospher 100 RP-18e (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm). The flow rate was 1 mL x min(-1), and the detection wavelength was 294 nm. The chromatograms of 45 individuals from 13 seed resources of Cortex Magnolia Officinalis were recorded. The chemical characteristics analysis and comparability' s calculation of seed resources were made. It was proposed that the area ratio of peak 5 to 6 (characteristic I) and the area ratio of peak 5 and 6 to the total peak areas (characteristic II) are the identification characteristics for different seed resources of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis. This method can be used effectively to identify the high quality seed resource of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis.

  2. Flavonoids, Phenolic Acids and Coumarins from the Roots of Althaea officinalis.

    PubMed

    Gudej, J

    1991-06-01

    From the roots of ALTHAEA OFFICINALIS two flavonoid glycosides were separated. Phenolic acids and coumarins were investigated chromatographically. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of acid hydrolysis and spectroscopic methods (UV, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR) as hypolaetin 8-glucoside and the new flavonoid sulphate - isoscutellarein 4'-methyl ether 8-glucoside-2''-SO (3)K.

  3. Antimycotoxigenic characteristics of Rosmarinus officinalis and Trachyspermum copticum L. essential oils.

    PubMed

    Rasooli, Iraj; Fakoor, Mohammad Hadi; Yadegarinia, Davod; Gachkar, Latif; Allameh, Abdolamir; Rezaei, Mohammad Bagher

    2008-02-29

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Natural products may regulate the cellular effects of aflatoxins and evidence suggests that aromatic organic compounds of spices can control the production of aflatoxins. With a view to controlling aflatoxin production, the essential oils from Rosmarinus officinalis and Trachyspermum copticum L. were obtained by hydrodistillation. Antifungal activities of the oils were studied with special reference to the inhibition of Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production. Minimal inhibitory (MIC) and minimal fungicidal (MFC) concentrations of the oils were determined. T. copticum L. oil showed a stronger inhibitory effect than R. officinalis on the growth of A. parasiticus. Aflatoxin production was inhibited at 450 ppm of both oils with that of R. officinalis being stronger inhibitor. The oils were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The major components of R. officinalis and T. copticum L. oils were Piperitone (23.65%), alpha-pinene (14.94%), Limonene (14.89%), 1,8-Cineole (7.43%) and Thymol (37.2%), P-Cymene (32.3%), gamma-Terpinene (27.3%) respectively. It is concluded that the essential oils could be safely used as preservative materials on some kinds of foods to protect them from toxigenic fungal infections.

  4. Efficiency of Calamintha officinalis essential oil as preservative in two topical product types.

    PubMed

    Nostro, A; Cannatelli, M A; Morelli, I; Musolino, A D; Scuderi, F; Pizzimenti, F; Alonzo, V

    2004-01-01

    To verify the efficiency of Calamintha officinalis essential oil as natural preservative in two current formulations. The 1.0 and 2.0% (v/v) C. officinalis essential oil was assayed for its preservative activity in two product types (cream and shampoo). The microbial challenge test was performed following the standards proposed by the European Pharmacopoeia Commission (E.P.) concerning topical preparations using standard micro-organisms and in addition wild strains, either in single or mixed cultures were used. The results clearly demonstrated that the C. officinalis essential oil at 2.0% concentration reduced the microbial inoculum satisfying the criterion A of the E.P. in the cream formulation and the criterion B in the shampoo formulation. Standard and wild strains showed a behaviour similar, both in cream and in shampoo formulation, with no significant difference (gerarchic variance, P > 0.05). C. officinalis essential oil confirmed its preservative properties but at higher concentration than that shown in previous studies on cetomacrogol cream. The nature of the formulation in which an essential oil is incorporated as preservative could have considerable effect on its efficacy.

  5. An Evaluation of Root Phytochemicals Derived from Althea officinalis (Marshmallow) and Astragalus membranaceus as Potential Natural Components of UV Protecting Dermatological Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Curnow, Alison; Owen, Sara J.

    2016-01-01

    As lifetime exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has risen, the deleterious effects have also become more apparent. Numerous sunscreen and skincare products have therefore been developed to help reduce the occurrence of sunburn, photoageing, and skin carcinogenesis. This has stimulated research into identifying new natural sources of effective skin protecting compounds. Alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) was employed to assess aqueous extracts derived from soil or hydroponically glasshouse-grown roots of Althea officinalis (Marshmallow) and Astragalus membranaceus, compared with commercial, field-grown roots. Hydroponically grown root extracts from both plant species were found to significantly reduce UVA-induced DNA damage in cultured human lung and skin fibroblasts, although initial Astragalus experimentation detected some genotoxic effects, indicating that Althea root extracts may be better suited as potential constituents of dermatological formulations. Glasshouse-grown soil and hydroponic Althea root extracts afforded lung fibroblasts with statistically significant protection against UVA irradiation for a greater period of time than the commercial field-grown roots. No significant reduction in DNA damage was observed when total ultraviolet irradiation (including UVB) was employed (data not shown), indicating that the extracted phytochemicals predominantly protected against indirect UVA-induced oxidative stress. Althea phytochemical root extracts may therefore be useful components in dermatological formulations. PMID:26953144

  6. An Evaluation of Root Phytochemicals Derived from Althea officinalis (Marshmallow) and Astragalus membranaceus as Potential Natural Components of UV Protecting Dermatological Formulations.

    PubMed

    Curnow, Alison; Owen, Sara J

    2016-01-01

    As lifetime exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation has risen, the deleterious effects have also become more apparent. Numerous sunscreen and skincare products have therefore been developed to help reduce the occurrence of sunburn, photoageing, and skin carcinogenesis. This has stimulated research into identifying new natural sources of effective skin protecting compounds. Alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) was employed to assess aqueous extracts derived from soil or hydroponically glasshouse-grown roots of Althea officinalis (Marshmallow) and Astragalus membranaceus, compared with commercial, field-grown roots. Hydroponically grown root extracts from both plant species were found to significantly reduce UVA-induced DNA damage in cultured human lung and skin fibroblasts, although initial Astragalus experimentation detected some genotoxic effects, indicating that Althea root extracts may be better suited as potential constituents of dermatological formulations. Glasshouse-grown soil and hydroponic Althea root extracts afforded lung fibroblasts with statistically significant protection against UVA irradiation for a greater period of time than the commercial field-grown roots. No significant reduction in DNA damage was observed when total ultraviolet irradiation (including UVB) was employed (data not shown), indicating that the extracted phytochemicals predominantly protected against indirect UVA-induced oxidative stress. Althea phytochemical root extracts may therefore be useful components in dermatological formulations.

  7. In vitro effects of Salvia officinalis L. essential oil on Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Sookto, Tularat; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj; Thaweboon, Sroisiri; Thaweboon, Boonyanit; Shrestha, Binit

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the anticandidal activities of Salvia officinalis L. (S. officinalis) essential oil against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and the inhibitory effects on the adhesion of C. albicans to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin surface. Methods Disc diffusion method was first used to test the anticandidal activities of the S. officinalis L. essential oil against the reference strain (ATCC 90028) and 2 clinical strains of C. albicans. Then the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were determined by modified membrane method. The adhesion of C. albicans to PMMA resin surface was assessed after immersion with S. officinalis L. essential oil at various concentrations of 1×MIC, 0.5×MIC and 0.25×MIC at room temperature for 30 min. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the Candida cell adhesion with the pretreatment agents and Tukey's test was used for multiple comparisons. Results S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activity against all strains of C. albicans with inhibition zone ranging from 40.5 mm to 19.5 mm. The MIC and MLC of the oil were determined as 2.780 g/L against all test strains. According to the effects on C. albicans adhesion to PMMA resin surface, it was found that immersion in the essential oil at concentrations of 1×MIC (2.780 g/L), 0.5×MIC (1.390 g/L) and 0.25×MIC (0.695 g/L) for 30 min significantly reduced the adhesion of all 3 test strains to PMMA resin surface in a dose dependent manner (P<0.05). Conclusions S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activities against C. albicans and had inhibitory effects on the adhesion of the cells to PMMA resin surface. With further testing and development, S. officinalis essential oil may be used as an antifungal denture cleanser to prevent candidal adhesion and thus reduce the risk of candida-associated denture stomatitis. PMID:23646301

  8. Honokiol Dimers and Magnolol Derivatives with New Carbon Skeletons from the Roots of Magnolia officinalis and Their Inhibitory Effects on Superoxide Anion Generation and Elastase Release

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hung-Chung; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Lee, E-Jian; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Wu, Tian-Shung

    2013-01-01

    Two honokiol dimers, houpulins A and B (1 and 2), and two magnolol derivatives, houpulins C and D (3 and 4), were isolated and characterized from an ethanol extract obtained from the roots of Magnolia officinalis. The chemical structures were determined based on spectroscopic and physicochemical analyses, which included 1D and 2D NMR, as well as mass spectrometry data. These four oligomers possess new carbon skeletons postulated to be biosynthesized from the coupling of three or four C6-C3 subunits. In addition, the new oligomers were evaluated for inhibition of superoxide anion generation and elastase release, and houpulin B (2) was identified as a new anti-inflammatory lead compound. PMID:23667420

  9. Tunisian Salvia officinalis L. and Schinus molle L. essential oils: their chemical compositions and their preservative effects against Salmonella inoculated in minced beef meat.

    PubMed

    Hayouni, El Akrem; Chraief, Imed; Abedrabba, Manaf; Bouix, Marielle; Leveau, Jean-Yves; Mohammed, Hammami; Hamdi, Moktar

    2008-07-31

    The essential oils (EOs) extracted from the aerial parts of cultivated Salvia officinalis L. and the berries of Schinus molle L. were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and 68 and 67 constituents were identified, respectively. The major constituents were 1,8-cineole (33.27%), beta-thujone (18.40%), alpha-thujone (13.45%), borneol (7.39%) in S. officinalis oil and alpha-phellandrene (35.86%), beta-phellandrene (29.3%), beta-pinene (15.68%), p-cymene (5.43%) and alpha-pinene (5.22%) in S. molle oil. In its second part, the present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of both studied EOs. For this purpose, paper disc-diffusion method and broth microdilution test were used. The disc-diffusion method showed significant zone of lysis against all the pathogens studied (gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, yeast). These activities remained stable after six months, and decreased approximately by 20% after one year of storage of the EOs at 4 to 7 degrees C. On comparing the efficiency of both EOs, S. officinalis EO exhibited higher antibacterial activity against the majority of strains and especially against Candida albicans (two fold more active according to the inhibition zones values). The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were reported between 4.5 mg/ml and 72 mg/ml on nutrient broth. The particular chemotype of each EO may be involved in its specific antimicrobial behaviour. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of these EOs were evaluated against two foodborne pathogens belonging to Salmonella genus, experimentally inoculated (10(3) CFU/g) in minced beef meat, which was mixed with different concentrations of the EO and stored at 4 to 7 degrees C for 15 days. Although the antibacterial activities of both EOs in minced beef meat were clearly evident, their addition had notable effects on the flavour and taste of the meat at concentrations more than 2% for S. molle and 1.5% for S. officinalis. One solution to

  10. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils of Dracocephalum heterophyllum and Hyssopus officinalis from Western Himalaya

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The essential oils of two representatives of the Lamiaceae-family, Dracocephalum heterophyllum Benth. and Hyssopus officinalis L., are described for their antifungal, antibacterial and larvicidal as well as biting deterrent activities. Additionally, the essential oils’ chemical compositions, analyze...

  11. UP601, a standardized botanical composition composed of Morus alba, Yerba mate and Magnolia officinalis for weight loss.

    PubMed

    Yimam, Mesfin; Jiao, Ping; Hong, Mei; Brownell, Lidia; Lee, Young-Chul; Hyun, Eu-Jin; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Nam, Jeong-Bum; Kim, Mi-Ran; Jia, Qi

    2017-02-16

    The prevalence of obesity is surging in an alarming rate all over the world. Pharmaceutical drugs are considered potential adjunctive therapy to lifestyle modification. However, for most, besides being too expensive, their long term usages are hindered by their severe adverse effects. Here we describe the effect of UP601, a standardized blend of extracts from Morus alba, Yerba mate and Magnolia officinalis, in modulating a number of obesity-related phenotypic and biochemical markers in a high-fat high-fructose (HFF)-induced C57BL/6J mouse model of obesity. Adipogenesis activity of the composition was assessed in 3T3-L1 cells in vitro. Effects of UP601 on body weight and metabolic markers were evaluated. It was administered at oral doses of 300 mg/kg, 450 mg/kg and 600 mg/kg for 7 weeks. Orlistat (40 mg/kg/day) was used as a positive control. Body compositions of mice were assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Serum biomarkers were measured for liver function and lipid profiling. Relative organ weights were determined. Histopathological analysis was performed for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) scoring. UP601 at 250 μg/ml resulted in 1.8-fold increase in lipolysis. Statistically significant changes in body weight (decreased by 9.1, 19.6 and 25.6% compared to the HFF group at week-7) were observed for mice treated with UP601 at 300, 450 and 600 mg/kg, respectively. Reductions of 9.1, 16.9, and 18.6% in total cholesterol; 45.0, 55.0, 63.6% in triglyceride; 34.8, 37.1 and 41.6% in LDL; 3.2, 21.6 (P = 0.03) and 33.7% (P = 0.005) in serum glucose were observed for UP601 at 300, 450 and 600 mg/kg, respectively. Body fat distribution was found reduced by 31.6 and 17.2% for the 450 mg/kg UP601 and orlistat, respectively, from the DEXA scan analysis. Up to an 89.1% reduction in mesenteric fat deposit was observed for UP601 in relative organ weight. Statistically significant improvements in NASH scores were observed for mice treated

  12. Studies on Emblica officinalis derived tannins for their immunostimulatory and protective activities against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Kaleem, Qari Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Zafar, Muddassar; Iqbal, Zafar; Muhammad, Faqir; Anwar, Muhammad Irfan

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the effect of Emblica officinalis (EO) derived tannins on humoral immune responses and their protective efficacy against Eimeria infection in chickens. Tannins were extracted from EO and characterized by HPLC. EO derived tannins (EOT) and commercial tannins (CT) were orally administered in broiler chicks in graded doses for three consecutive days, that is, 5th-7th days of age. On day 14 after administration of tannins, humoral immune response was detected against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) by haemagglutination assay. Protective efficacy of tannins was measured against coccidial infection, induced by Eimeria species. Results revealed higher geomean titers against SRBCs in chickens administered with EOT as compared to those administered with CT and control group. Mean oocysts per gram of droppings were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in EOT administered chickens as compared to control group. Lesion scoring also showed the lowest caecal and intestinal lesion score of mild to moderate intensity in chickens administered with EOT. Further, significantly higher (P < 0.05) daily body weight gains and antibody titers were detected in EOT administered chickens as compared to those of CT administered and control groups. EOT showed the immunostimulatory properties in broilers and their administration in chickens boost the protective immunity against coccidiosis.

  13. Studies on Emblica officinalis Derived Tannins for Their Immunostimulatory and Protective Activities against Coccidiosis in Industrial Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kaleem, Qari Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Zafar, Muddassar; Iqbal, Zafar; Muhammad, Faqir

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the effect of Emblica officinalis (EO) derived tannins on humoral immune responses and their protective efficacy against Eimeria infection in chickens. Tannins were extracted from EO and characterized by HPLC. EO derived tannins (EOT) and commercial tannins (CT) were orally administered in broiler chicks in graded doses for three consecutive days, that is, 5th-7th days of age. On day 14 after administration of tannins, humoral immune response was detected against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) by haemagglutination assay. Protective efficacy of tannins was measured against coccidial infection, induced by Eimeria species. Results revealed higher geomean titers against SRBCs in chickens administered with EOT as compared to those administered with CT and control group. Mean oocysts per gram of droppings were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in EOT administered chickens as compared to control group. Lesion scoring also showed the lowest caecal and intestinal lesion score of mild to moderate intensity in chickens administered with EOT. Further, significantly higher (P < 0.05) daily body weight gains and antibody titers were detected in EOT administered chickens as compared to those of CT administered and control groups. EOT showed the immunostimulatory properties in broilers and their administration in chickens boost the protective immunity against coccidiosis. PMID:24578631

  14. Antioxidant effect and study of bioactive components of Valeriana sisymbriifolia and Nardostachys jatamansii in comparison to Valeriana officinalis.

    PubMed

    Dugaheh, Mehdi Ansari; Meisami, Faramarz; Torabian, Zahra; Sharififar, Fariba

    2013-01-01

    The roots of Nardostachys jatamansi have been used as a substitute for valerian in Iranian traditions. Moreover, six species from Valeriana genus such as V. sisymbriifolia grow in Iran which has not been studied yet. We aimed to study of antioxidant effect of Valeriana officinalis, Nardostachys jatamansi and Valeriana sisymbriifolia and comparing their content of valerenic acid and valepotriate. Antioxidant effect was evaluated using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition and beta carotene-bleaching assays. Identification of valepotriates was achieved using chemical and TLC method. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of valerenic acid was performed using TLC and spectrophotometry methods. Among the tested samples, V. Officinalis showed the highest DPPH inhibition effect with IC(50) value of 38mg/mL. All of the tested plants potentially inhibited beta-carotene oxidation. The calibration curve of authentic valerenic acid was linear in the range of 2-51 mg L(-1). The most and least amount of valepotraites was detectable in V. officinalis and V. sisymbriifolia respectively. Total valerenic acid in different plant species ranged from 0.02% in V. sisymbriifolia to 0.07% (w/w) in V. Officinalis. Our results indicated that all three tested plants contain different amount of valepotriates and valerenic acid. The highest percentage of valepotriates and valerenic acid was detectable in V. officinalis. Overall can conclude that N. jatamansii and V. sisymbriifolia would be a good candidate for substitutation of V. officinalis with noticeable antioxidant effect.

  15. Morinda officinalis How. - A comprehensive review of traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Hua; Xin, Hai-Liang; Xu, Yue-Ming; Shen, Yi; He, Yu-Qiong; Hsien-Yeh; Lin, Bing; Song, Hong-Tao; Juan-Liu; Yang, Hai-Yue; Qin, Lu-Ping; Zhang, Qiao-Yan; Du, Juan

    2018-03-01

    The medicinal plant Morinda officinalisHow. (MO) and its root have long been used in traditional medicines in China and northeast Asia as tonics for nourishing the kidney, strengthening the bone and enhancing immunofunction in the treatment of impotence, osteoporosis, depression and inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and dermatitis. This review aims to sum up updated and comprehensive information about traditional usage, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of MO and provide insights into potential opportunities for future research and development of this plant. A bibliographic investigation was performed by analyzing the information available on MO in the internationally accepted scientific databases including Pubmed, Scopus and Web of Science, SciFinder, Google Scholar, Yahoo, Ph.D. and M.Sc. dissertations in Chinese. Information was also obtained from some local and foreign books on ethnobotany and ethnomedicines. The literature supported the ethnomedicinal uses of MO as recorded in China for various purposes. The ethnomedical uses of MO have been recorded in many regions of China. More than 100 chemical compounds have been isolated from this plant, and the major constituents have been found to be polysaccharides, oligosaccharides, anthraquinones and iridoid glycosides. Crude extracts and pure compounds of this plant are used as effective agents in the treatment of depression, osteoporosis, fatigue, rheumatoid arthritis, and infertility due to their anti-depressant, anti-osteoporosis, pro-fertility, anti-radiation, anti-Alzheimer disease, anti-rheumatoid, anti-fatigue, anti-aging, cardiovascularprotective, anti-oxidation, immune-regulatory, and anti-inflammatory activities. Pharmacokinetic studies have demonstrated that the main components of MO including monotropein and deacetyl asperulosidic acid are distributed in various organs and tissues. The investigation on acute toxicity and genotoxicity indicated that MO is nontoxic. There have

  16. Polysomnographic evaluation of the hypnotic effect of Valeriana edulis standardized extract in patients suffering from insomnia.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Arellano, A; Luna-Villegas, G; Cuevas-Uriostegui, M L; Alvarez, L; Vargas-Pineda, G; Zamilpa-Alvarez, A; Tortoriello, J

    2001-11-01

    Valeriana edulis ssp. procera, commonly known as "valeriana mexicana", is widely used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of insomnia and anxiety. To evaluate the hypnotic effect and safety of 450 mg of Valeriana edulis standardized hydroalcoholic extract in patients with insomnia, a double-blind, cross-over, controlled study was carried out. Valeriana officinalis extract, at the same doses, was used as a positive control. In a sleep laboratory, polysomnographic (PSG) recordings were performed for analyzing the quantity and architecture of sleep as well as evaluating morning sleepiness, memory quotient, and side effects. The experimental procedures were conducted on four consecutive nights of 8 h each. Twenty patients were admitted. Based on the PSG results, V. edulis reduced the number of awaking episodes while both treatments increased the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep; this last parameter was better improved by V. officinalis extract. Other PSG data did not achieve outstanding statistical differences, but the clinical tendency with both treatments was to increase the sleep efficiency index. These Valeriana extracts produced beneficial effects on sleep architecture because they diminished the time of stages 1 and 2 in non-REM sleep while they increased delta sleep. Validated clinical tests showed that both species reduced notoriously the morning sleepiness, that was further improved by V. officinalis extract, and did not affect anterograde memory. In only three cases were slight side effects observed, one due to the experimental extract. Chemical analysis of the hydroalcoholic extract of V. edulis indicated that this extract contains 0.26 % of dihydroisovaltrate as the main valepotriate, and that it does not contain valerenic acid. In general, the results support the hypnotic effect and safety of acute treatment of Valeriana edulis and Valeriana officinalis on patients suffering insomnia.

  17. Volvalerine A, an unprecedented N-containing sesquiterpenoid dimer derivative from Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Ma, Qing-Yun; Zhou, Jun; Hu, Jiang-Miao; Zhao, You-Xing

    2016-03-01

    Volvalerine A (1), a novel N-containing bisesquiterpenoid derivative with a dihydroisoxazole ring, and its possible biosynthetic precursor, 1-hydroxy-1,11,11-trimethyldecahydrocyclopropane azulene-10-one (2), were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and relative configurations were identified using spectroscopic data and X-ray crystallography. A plausible biosynthetic pathway for 1 is also presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Rapidly identify oligosaccharides in Morinda officinalis by UPLC-Q-TOF-MSE].

    PubMed

    Hao, Qing-Xiu; Kang, Li-Ping; Zhu, Shou-Dong; Yu, Yi; Hu, Ming-Hua; Ma, Fang-Li; Zhou, Jie; Guo, Lan-Ping

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, an approach was applied for separation and identification of oligosaccharides in Morinda officinalis How by Ultra performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) with collision energy. The separation was carried out on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH Amide C₁₈(2.1mm×100 mm,1.7 μm) with gradient elution using acetonitrile(A) and water(B) containing 0.1% ammonia as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2 mL·min⁻¹. The column temperature was maintained at 40 °C. The information of accurate mass and characteristic fragment ion were acquired by MSE in ESI negative mode in low and high collision energy. The chemical structures and formula of oligosaccharides were obtained and identified by the software of UNIFI and Masslynx 4.1 based on the accurate mass, fragment ions, neutral losses, mass error, reference substance, isotope information, the intensity of fragments, and retention time. A total of 19 inulin oligosaccharide structures were identified including D(+)-sucrose, 1-kestose, nystose, 1F-fructofuranosyl nystose and other inulin oligosaccharides (DP 5-18). This research provided important information about the inulin oligosaccharides in M. officinalis. The results would provide scientific basis for innovative utilization of M. officinalis. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  19. Color blindness and contrast perception in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) determined by a visual sensorimotor assay.

    PubMed

    Mäthger, Lydia M; Barbosa, Alexandra; Miner, Simon; Hanlon, Roger T

    2006-05-01

    We tested color perception based upon a robust behavioral response in which cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond to visual stimuli (a black and white checkerboard) with a quantifiable, neurally controlled motor response (a body pattern). In the first experiment, we created 16 checkerboard substrates in which 16 grey shades (from white to black) were paired with one green shade (matched to the maximum absorption wavelength of S. officinalis' sole visual pigment, 492 nm), assuming that one of the grey shades would give a similar achromatic signal to the tested green. In the second experiment, we created a checkerboard using one blue and one yellow shade whose intensities were matched to the cuttlefish's visual system. In both assays it was tested whether cuttlefish would show disruptive coloration on these checkerboards, indicating their ability to distinguish checkers based solely on wavelength (i.e., color). Here, we show clearly that cuttlefish must be color blind, as they showed non-disruptive coloration on the checkerboards whose color intensities were matched to the Sepia visual system, suggesting that the substrates appeared to their eyes as uniform backgrounds. Furthermore, we show that cuttlefish are able to perceive objects in their background that differ in contrast by approximately 15%. This study adds support to previous reports that S. officinalis is color blind, yet the question of how cuttlefish achieve "color-blind camouflage" in chromatically rich environments still remains.

  20. Valeriana officinalis does not alter the orofacial dyskinesia induced by haloperidol in rats: role of dopamine transporter.

    PubMed

    Fachinetto, Roselei; Villarinho, Jardel G; Wagner, Caroline; Pereira, Romaiana P; Avila, Daiana Silva; Burger, Marilise E; Calixto, João Batista; Rocha, João B T; Ferreira, Juliano

    2007-10-01

    Chronic treatment with classical neuroleptics in humans can produce a serious side effect, known as tardive dyskinesia (TD). Here, we examined the effects of V. officinalis, a medicinal herb widely used as calming and sleep-promoting, in an animal model of orofacial dyskinesia (OD) induced by long-term treatment with haloperidol. Adult male rats were treated during 12 weeks with haloperidol decanoate (38 mg/kg, i.m., each 28 days) and with V. officinalis (in the drinking water). Vacuous chewing movements (VCMs), locomotor activity and plus maze performance were evaluated. Haloperidol treatment produced VCM in 40% of the treated rats and the concomitant treatment with V. officinalis did not alter either prevalence or intensity of VCMs. The treatment with V. officinalis increased the percentage of the time spent on open arm and the number of entries into open arm in the plus maze test. Furthermore, the treatment with haloperidol and/or V. officinalis decreased the locomotor activity in the open field test. We did not find any difference among the groups when oxidative stress parameters were evaluated. Haloperidol treatment significantly decreased [(3)H]-dopamine uptake in striatal slices and V. officinalis was not able to prevent this effect. Taken together, our data suggest a mechanism involving the reduction of dopamine transport in the maintenance of chronic VCMs in rats. Furthermore, chronic treatment with V. officinalis seems not produce any oxidative damage to central nervous system (CNS), but it also seems to be devoid of action to prevent VCM, at least in the dose used in this study.

  1. Cholinesterase inhibitory effects of Rhizophora lamarckii, Avicennia officinalis, Sesuvium portulacastrum and Suaeda monica: Mangroves inhabiting an Indian coastal area (Vellar Estuary).

    PubMed

    Suganthy, Natarajan; Pandian, Shanmugiahthevar Karutha; Devi, Kasi Pandima

    2009-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative illness accounting for approximately 50% of all types of dementia in elderly people. The only symptomatic treatment proven effective to date is the use of cholinesterase inhibitors to augment surviving cholinergic activity. The purpose of this study is to investigate cholinesterase inhibitory activity of mangroves as an alternative medicine for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. About nine mangrove plants, which were used as folk medicine in tropical countries, were collected from Parangipettai, Vellar estuary, Tamilnadu, India. Nile Tilapia muscle homogenate was used as source of enzyme. Inhibitory effect of methanolic leaf extract was assessed under in vitro condition by incubating various concentration of the extract with total cholinesterase and butyryl cholinesterase and assessing their residual activities by Ellman's colorimetric method. The results showed that of the nine plants screened Rhizophora lamarckii, Suaeda monica, Avicennia officinalis and Sesuvium portulacastrum showed 50% inhibitory activity to both TChE and BChE at concentrations less than 2 mg/mL when compared to other plant extracts, which was comparable to the standard drug Donepezil. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of alkaloids in high concentration which might be correlated to its cholinesterase inhibitory activity.

  2. In Vitro Antibacterial and Antibiotic Resistance Modifying Effect of Bioactive Plant Extracts on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis

    PubMed Central

    Chovanová, Romana; Vaverková, Štefánia

    2013-01-01

    The crude extracts of plants from Asteraceae and Lamiaceae family and essential oils from Salvia officinalis and Salvia sclarea were studied for their antibacterial as well as antibiotic resistance modifying activity. Using disc diffusion and broth microdilution assays we determined higher antibacterial effect of three Salvia spp. and by evaluating the leakage of 260 nm absorbing material we detected effect of extracts and, namely, of essential oils on the disruption of cytoplasmic membrane. The evaluation of in vitro interactions between plant extracts and oxacillin described in terms of fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices revealed synergistic or additive effects of plant extracts and clearly synergistic effects of essential oil from Salvia officinalis with oxacillin in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. PMID:24222768

  3. Enzymatic synthesis of valerena-4,7(11)-diene by a unique sesquiterpene synthase from the valerian plant (Valeriana officinalis).

    PubMed

    Pyle, Bryan W; Tran, Hue T; Pickel, Benjamin; Haslam, Tegan M; Gao, Zhizeng; MacNevin, Gillian; Vederas, John C; Kim, Soo-Un; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2012-09-01

    Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) is a popular medicinal plant in North America and Europe. Its root extract is commonly used as a mild sedative and anxiolytic. Among dozens of chemical constituents (e.g. alkaloids, iridoids, flavonoids, and terpenoids) found in valerian root, valerena-4,7(11)-diene and valerenic acid (C15 sesquiterpenoid) have been suggested as the active ingredients responsible for the sedative effect. However, the biosynthesis of the valerena-4,7(11)-diene hydrocarbon skeleton in valerian remains unknown to date. To identify the responsible terpene synthase, next-generation sequencing (Roche 454 pyrosequencing) was used to generate ∼ 1 million transcript reads from valerian root. From the assembled transcripts, two sesquiterpene synthases were identified (VoTPS1 and VoTPS2), both of which showed predominant expression patterns in root. Transgenic yeast expressing VoTPS1 and VoTPS2 produced germacrene C/germacrene D and valerena-4,7(11)-diene, respectively, as major terpene products. Purified VoTPS1 and VoTPS2 recombinant enzymes confirmed these activities in vitro, with competent kinetic properties (K(m) of ∼ 10 μm and k(cat) of 0.01 s(-1) for both enzymes). The structure of the valerena-4,7(11)-diene produced from the yeast expressing VoTPS2 was further substantiated by (13) C-NMR and GC-MS in comparison with the synthetic standard. This study demonstrates an integrative approach involving next-generation sequencing and metabolically engineered microbes to expand our knowledge of terpenoid diversity in medicinal plants. © 2012 The Authors Journal compilation © 2012 FEBS.

  4. Determination of the biologically active flavour substances thujone and camphor in foods and medicines containing sage (Salvia officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Walch, Stephan G; Kuballa, Thomas; Stühlinger, Wolf; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2011-07-21

    The sage plant Salvia officinalis L. is used as ingredient in foods and beverages as well as in herbal medicinal products. A major use is in the form of aqueous infusions as sage tea, which is legal to be sold as either food or medicine. Sage may contain two health relevant substances, thujone and camphor. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an analytical methodology to determine these active principles of sage and give a first overview of their concentrations in a wide variety of sage foods and medicines. A GC/MS procedure was applied for the analysis of α- and β-thujone and camphor with cyclodecanone as internal standard. The precision was between 0.8 and 12.6%, linearity was obtained from 0.1 - 80 mg/L. The recoveries of spiked samples were between 93.7 and 104.0% (average 99.1%). The time of infusion had a considerable influence on the content of analytes found in the teas. During the brewing time, thujone and camphor show an increase up to about 5 min, after which saturation is reached. No effect was found for preparation with or without a lid on the pot used for brewing the infusion. Compared to extracts with ethanol (60% vol), which provide a maximum yield, an average of 30% thujone are recovered in the aqueous tea preparations. The average thujone and camphor contents were 4.4 mg/L and 16.7 mg/L in food tea infusions and 11.3 mg/L and 25.4 mg/L in medicinal tea infusions. The developed methodology allows the efficient determination of thujone and camphor in a wide variety of sage food and medicine matrices and can be applied to conduct surveys for exposure assessment. The current results suggest that on average between 3 and 6 cups of sage tea could be daily consumed without reaching toxicological thresholds.

  5. High-performance liquid chromatographic characterization of some medical plant extracts used in cosmetic formulas.

    PubMed

    Schulz, H; Albroscheit, G

    1988-06-17

    Rapid and reliable methods are presented for the characterization of biologically active and/or characteristic constituents in aqueous extracts of Hamamelis virginiana, Matricaria chamomilla, Achillea millefolium, Thymus vulgaris, Althaea officinalis and Cinchonia spp. Prior to high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) separation a clean-up step was performed using a solid-phase extraction system. The purified extracts were analysed by HPLC coupled with a diode-array detector and a fluorescence detector. In some instances, previously unreported components of the aqueous plant extracts were found.

  6. Screening of plant extracts for antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts with dermatological relevance.

    PubMed

    Weckesser, S; Engel, K; Simon-Haarhaus, B; Wittmer, A; Pelz, K; Schempp, C M

    2007-08-01

    There is cumulative resistance against antibiotics of many bacteria. Therefore, the development of new antiseptics and antimicrobial agents for the treatment of skin infections is of increasing interest. We have screened six plant extracts and isolated compounds for antimicrobial effects on bacteria and yeasts with dermatological relevance. The following plant extracts have been tested: Gentiana lutea, Harpagophytum procumbens, Boswellia serrata (dry extracts), Usnea barbata, Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis (supercritical carbon dioxide [CO2] extracts). Additionally, the following characteristic plant substances were tested: usnic acid, carnosol, carnosic acid, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, harpagoside, boswellic acid and gentiopicroside. The extracts and compounds were tested against 29 aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and yeasts in the agar dilution test. U. barbata-extract and usnic acid were the most active compounds, especially in anaerobic bacteria. Usnea CO2-extract effectively inhibited the growth of several Gram-positive bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant strains - MRSA), Propionibacterium acnes and Corynebacterium species. Growth of the dimorphic yeast Malassezia furfur was also inhibited by Usnea-extract. Besides the Usnea-extract, Rosmarinus-, Salvia-, Boswellia- and Harpagophytum-extracts proved to be effective against a panel of bacteria. It is concluded that due to their antimicrobial effects some of the plant extracts may be used for the topical treatment of skin disorders like acne vulgaris and seborrhoic eczema.

  7. Phytochemical, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of Melissa officinalis and Dracocephalum moldavica essential oils.

    PubMed

    Ehsani, Ali; Alizadeh, Omar; Hashemi, Mohammad; Afshari, Asma; Aminzare, Majid

    2017-01-01

    Aromatic plants are rich in essential oils with considerable antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to investigate chemical composition, antimicrobial activity and antioxidant properties of Melissa officinalis and Deracocephalum moldavica essential oils (EOs). The identification of chemical constituents of the EOs was carried out using gas chromato-graphy-mass spectrometry analysis and antimicrobial activity of the EOs was evaluated by disc diffusion assay as well as determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration against four important food-borne bacteria: Salmonella typhimorium, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus . Antioxidant activity of the EOs was also determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2-azinobis 3-ethylbenzo thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and β-carotene bleaching tests. The major compounds of D. moldavica were geranial (28.52%), neral (21.21%), geraniol (19.60%), geranyl acetate (16.72%) and the major compounds of M. officinalis EO were citronellal (37.33%), thymol (11.96%), citral (10.10%) and β-caryophyllene (7.27%). The underlying results indicated strong antimicrobial effects of the oils against tested bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus with the lowest MIC value (0.12 mg mL -1 ) for both EOs was the most sensitive bacterium, although, antibacterial effect of M. officinalis EO was stronger than D. moldavica . In addition, the results of the antioxidant activity showed that both EOs had notable antioxidant properties. In conclusion, both EOs are appropriate alternatives as potential sources of natural preservative agents with the aim of being applied in food industries.

  8. Invertebrate predation on egg masses of the European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis: An experimental approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Catarina P. P.; Fernández-Álvarez, Fernando Á.; Villanueva, Roger

    2018-01-01

    The eggs of the European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, develop attached to the seafloor in shallow water habitats and possess a relatively thick black capsule that protects them from the surrounding environment. Since embryological development may take several months, eggs are vulnerable to a variety of threats present in shallow waters, including predation. This study investigates predation of S. officinalis eggs by benthic invertebrates. Twenty-eight invertebrate species from 6 different phyla and with diverse feeding habits were tested as potential predators under laboratory conditions. We also investigated how the feeding traits of these species are related to the mechanical ability to break the egg capsule and prey upon cuttlefish embryos. Species that fed on cuttlefish eggs were the sea snail Bolinus brandaris, the crab Cancer pagurus, the hermit crab Dardanus arrosor, the lobster Homarus gammarus, the invasive blue crab Callinectes sapidus, the shrimp Squilla mantis, the sea urchins Echinus melo, Cidaris sp. and Paracentrotus lividus and the starfish Astropecten aranciacus. It is of note that C. sapidus is a potential predatory crab, which raises the concern that this invasive species may constitute a novel threat for cuttlefish eggs as more populations become established in NE Atlantic waters. Of the biological traits examined, prey capture tools in the tested species best explained the experimental feeding results, suggesting that predation of S. officinalis eggs was determined generally by a mechanical factor and highlighting the importance of the protective egg capsule against predators. However, chemosensory factors are likely to be implicated as well. Thus, this work contributes to the understanding of the ecology of early life stages of cuttlefish and the factors that can affect offspring survival and subsequently impact the recruitment of this species.

  9. Phytochemical, antioxidant and antibacterial properties of Melissa officinalis and Dracocephalum moldavica essential oils

    PubMed Central

    Ehsani, Ali; Alizadeh, Omar; Hashemi, Mohammad; Afshari, Asma; Aminzare, Majid

    2017-01-01

    Aromatic plants are rich in essential oils with considerable antimicrobial properties. The aim of this study was to investigate chemical composition, antimicrobial activity and antioxidant properties of Melissa officinalis and Deracocephalum moldavica essential oils (EOs). The identification of chemical constituents of the EOs was carried out using gas chromato-graphy-mass spectrometry analysis and antimicrobial activity of the EOs was evaluated by disc diffusion assay as well as determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration against four important food-borne bacteria: Salmonella typhimorium, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Antioxidant activity of the EOs was also determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2-azinobis 3-ethylbenzo thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and β-carotene bleaching tests. The major compounds of D. moldavica were geranial (28.52%), neral (21.21%), geraniol (19.60%), geranyl acetate (16.72%) and the major compounds of M. officinalis EO were citronellal (37.33%), thymol (11.96%), citral (10.10%) and β-caryophyllene (7.27%). The underlying results indicated strong antimicrobial effects of the oils against tested bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus with the lowest MIC value (0.12 mg mL-1) for both EOs was the most sensitive bacterium, although, antibacterial effect of M. officinalis EO was stronger than D. moldavica. In addition, the results of the antioxidant activity showed that both EOs had notable antioxidant properties. In conclusion, both EOs are appropriate alternatives as potential sources of natural preservative agents with the aim of being applied in food industries. PMID:29085610

  10. Antidepressant Effect and Recognition Memory Improvement of Two Novel Plant Extract Combinations - Antistress I and Anti-stress II on Rats Subjected to a Model of Mild Chronic Stress.

    PubMed

    Kandilarov, Ilin K; Zlatanova, Hristina I; Georgieva-Kotetarova, Maria T; Kostadinova, Ivanka I; Katsarova, Mariana N; Dimitrova, Stela Z; Lukanov, Ludmil K; Sadakov, Ferit

    2018-03-01

    Chronic stress is one of the main factors which lead to depression - a psychiatric disorder affecting millions of people and predicted to be the second ranked cause of premature death in 2020. Depression is often associated with cognitive disturbances and memory deficit. Plant based therapy could be effective in the treatment of mild to moderate depression due to its low level of adverse reaction, its good tolerability and compliance. 72 male Wistar rats, divided in 9 groups were given orally for 8 weeks two combinations of dry plant extracts - Antistress I and Antistress II and five individual dry extracts obtained from Serratula coronata, Hypericum perforatum, Valeriana officinalis, Crataegus monogyna and Melissa officinalis. The animals were exposed to a chronic unpredictable mild stress for 8 weeks. The depression-like symptoms were evaluated with Forced swim test while the assessment of the memory deficit was performed with Novel object recognition test. Antistress II demonstrates antidepressant effect while Antistress I doesn't improve the depressive-like symptoms. The individual extracts of Hypericum perforatum and Valeriana officinalis also possess antidepressant properties. Antistress II improves the cognition as well as the individual extracts of Hypericum perforatum, Valeriana officinalis and especially Serratula coronata. Dry extract from Serratula tend to have the best effect regarding the recognition memory. The effect of Antistress I on memory deficit is negligible. Antistress II possesses antidepressant effect and improves the recognition memory while Antistress I doesn't demonstrate any of the above-described effects.

  11. The regulation of coralline algal physiology, an in situ study of Corallina officinalis (Corallinales, Rhodophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Christopher James; Perkins, Rupert; Voller, Matthew; Yallop, Marian Louise; Brodie, Juliet

    2017-10-01

    Calcified macroalgae are critical components of marine ecosystems worldwide, but face considerable threat both from climate change (increasing water temperatures) and ocean acidification (decreasing ocean pH and carbonate saturation). It is thus fundamental to constrain the relationships between key abiotic stressors and the physiological processes that govern coralline algal growth and survival. Here we characterize the complex relationships between the abiotic environment of rock pool habitats and the physiology of the geniculate red coralline alga, Corallina officinalis (Corallinales, Rhodophyta). Paired assessment of irradiance, water temperature and carbonate chemistry, with C. officinalis net production (NP), respiration (R) and net calcification (NG) was performed in a south-western UK field site, at multiple temporal scales (seasonal, diurnal and tidal). Strong seasonality was observed in NP and night-time R, with a Pmax of 22.35 µmol DIC (g DW)-1 h-1, Ek of 300 µmol photons m-2 s-1 and R of 3.29 µmol DIC (g DW)-1 h-1 determined across the complete annual cycle. NP showed a significant exponential relationship with irradiance (R2 = 0.67), although was temperature dependent given ambient irradiance > Ek for the majority of the annual cycle. Over tidal emersion periods, dynamics in NP highlighted the ability of C. officinalis to acquire inorganic carbon despite significant fluctuations in carbonate chemistry. Across all data, NG was highly predictable (R2 = 0.80) by irradiance, water temperature and carbonate chemistry, providing a NGmax of 3.94 µmol CaCO3 (g DW)-1 h-1 and Ek of 113 µmol photons m-2 s-1. Light NG showed strong seasonality and significant coupling to NP (R2 = 0.65) as opposed to rock pool water carbonate saturation. In

  12. [Investigation of the in vitro effects of Melissa officinalis L., Mentha x piperita L. and Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) essential oils on the cysts and trophozoites of Acanthamoeba castellani].

    PubMed

    Ergüden, Ceren; Özkoç, Soykan; Öztürk, Bintuğ; Bayram Delibaş, Songül

    2016-10-01

    Acanthamoeba species are free living amoeba found widely all over the world. They are responsible for Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK), an infection which is especially seen in contact lens users and after minor corneal traumas, that may lead blindness. At present, antifungals and antiseptics are used for the treatment of AK cases, however, some problems such as long treatment periods and the occurrence of side effects, resistance of cyst forms against drugs, emphasize the need for new drugs. There are some published studies that pointed out the effectiveness of plant extracts and essential oils on Acanthamoeba spp. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro effects of essential oils of Mentha x piperita L. (peppermint), Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) and Ocimum basilicum L. (basil) belonging to Lamiaceae family, on the cysts and trophozoites of Acanthamoeba castellanii. The strain used in our study, namely A. castellanii T4 genotype, is the most frequently isolated amoeba from environment and also the causative agent of AK and granulomatous amebic encephalitis. For the determination of amebicidal activity, essential oils obtained from Mentha x priperita L., Melissa officinalis L. and Ocimum basilicum L. by Neo-Clevenger type of distillation apparatus have been used. In vitro experiments were performed by using 96-well microplates. Cyst and trophozoite solutions were added on the essential oil dilutions to obtain the last concentrations of 40, 20, 10, 5, 2.5 and 1.25 µg/ml for the cysts, and 10, 5, 2.5, 1.25, 0.625 and 0.313 µg/ml for the trophozoites. After the incubation of microplates at 30oC for 1, 6, 24, 48 and 72 hours, the viability of parasitic forms were evaluated under the light microscope followed by staining trypan blue. It was found that, each essential oil showed amebicidal effect on A.castellani cysts and trophozoites dependent on dosage and time, when compared with the control group, The maximum lethal effect occured with Melissa

  13. Sageone, a diterpene from Rosmarinus officinalis, synergizes with cisplatin cytotoxicity in SNU-1 human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Sabina; Song, Yeon Woo; Kim, Hyeonji; Lee, Dong Sun; Cho, Somi Kim

    2016-12-01

    Chemotherapy resistance is a major obstacle for the effective treatment of cancers. Although several studies have described the anticancer properties of rosemary extract and its components, the detailed mechanisms of action are poorly understood. Activity-guided fractionation and repeated chromatographic separation of the n-hexane fraction of the aqueous methanol extract over silica gel, RP C18, and Sephadex LH-20 led to the isolation of three compounds. The structures of the compounds were determined using 1 H, 13 C, and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay was used to evaluate the cytotoxicity of these compounds. Cell cycle, apoptotic cell populations, and mitochondrial membrane potential were analyzed by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis was conducted to detect apoptosis-related proteins. An abietane diterpenoid, sageone (1), an icetexane diterpenoid, (-)-barbatusol (2), and a monoterpene, (+)-verbenone (3), were identified. Of these compounds, sageone (1) showed cytotoxicity against SNU-1 cells with an IC 50 of 9.45 ± 1.33 µM. Sageone reduced the expression of Akt dramatically, as opposed to cisplatin, which increased phosphorylated Akt. Sageone combined with a subtoxic dose of cisplatin had synergistic effects on apoptosis induction in SNU-1 cells, as confirmed by calculating the combination index. Co-treatment was significantly more effective than monotherapy at reducing cell viability and inducing apoptosis, as determined by analyzing DNA fragmentation. The combined treatment of sageone and cisplatin markedly reduced Akt expression and phosphorylation, accompanied by increases in cleaved caspase-3, -9 and PARP. This is the first time compounds 1 and 2 have been isolated from R. officinalis. Sageone induced apoptosis in SNU-1 human gastric cancer cells and notably enhanced the cytotoxicity of cisplatin in SNU-1

  14. Rosmarinus officinalis L.: an update review of its phytochemistry and biological activity

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Joana M; Faustino, Célia; Garcia, Catarina; Ladeiras, Diogo; Reis, Catarina P; Rijo, Patrícia

    2018-01-01

    The worldwide interest in the use of medicinal plants has been growing, and its beneficial effects being rediscovered for the development of new drugs. Based on their vast ethnopharmacological applications, which inspired current research in drug discovery, natural products can provide new and important leads against various pharmacological targets. This work pioneers an extensive and an updated literature review on the current state of research on Rosmarinus officinalis L., elucidating which compounds and biological activities are the most relevant. Therefore, a search was made in the databases PubMed, ScienceDirect and Web of Science with the terms ‘rosemary’, ‘Rosmarinus officinalis’, ‘rosmarinic acid’ ‘carnosol’ and ‘carnosic acid’, which included 286 articles published since 1990 about rosemary's pharmacological activities and their isolated compounds. According to these references, there has been an increasing interest in the therapeutic properties of this plant, regarding carnosic acid, carnosol, rosmarinic acid and the essential oil. The present manuscript provides an updated review upon the most reported activities on R. officinalis and its active constituents. PMID:29682318

  15. Active monoterpene ketones isolated from Rosmarinus officinalis with fumigant and contact action against Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank).

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Park, Jun-Hwan; Chung, Namhyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2014-08-01

    The acaricidal activities of an active material derived from Rosmarinus officinalis oil and its relative monoterpene ketones were determined using fumigant and contact toxicity bioassays against Tyrophagus putrescentiae and were compared with that of a commercial acaricide (benzyl benzoate). The active component of R. officinalis oil, isolated by silica gel column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, was identified as camphor, based on various spectroscopic analyses. In the fumigant toxicity bioassay, camphor (2.25 μg/cm(3)) was 5.58 times more active than benzyl benzoate (12.56 μg/cm(3)) against T. putrescentiae, followed by (+)-camphor (3.89 μg/cm(3)) and (-)-camphor (5.61 μg/cm(3)). In the contact toxicity bioassay, camphor (1.34 μg/cm(2)) was 6.74 times more toxic than benzyl benzoate (9.03 μg/cm(2)) against T. putrescentiae, followed by (+)-camphor (2.23 μg/cm(2)) and (-)-camphor (2.94 μg/cm(2)). These results indicate that camphor and its derivatives are very useful as potential control agents against stored food mites regardless of the application method.

  16. How do background ozone concentrations affect the biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid in Melissa officinalis?

    PubMed

    Döring, Anne S; Pellegrini, Elisa; Della Batola, Michele; Nali, Cristina; Lorenzini, Giacomo; Petersen, Maike

    2014-03-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis; Lamiaceae) plants were exposed to background ozone (O3) dosages (80ppb for 5h), because high background levels of O3 are considered to be as harmful as episodic O3 peaks. Immediately at the end of fumigation the plants appeared visually symptomless, but necrotic lesions were observed later. The biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid (RA) comprises eight enzymes, among them phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL), tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) and rosmarinic acid synthase (RAS). The transcript levels of these genes have been investigated by quantitative RT-PCR. There was a quick up-regulation of all genes at 3h of O3 exposure, but at 24h from beginning of exposure (FBE) only RAS and PAL were up-regulated. The specific activity of RAS was closely correlated with a decrease of RA concentration in lemon balm leaves. The specific activity of PAL increased at 12h FBE to 163% in comparison to control levels. This work provides insight into the effect of O3 stress on the formation of the main phenolic ingredient of the pharmaceutically important plant M. officinalis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. A new haemocyanin in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) eggs: sequence analysis and relevance during ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Haemocyanin is the respiratory protein of most of the Mollusca. In cephalopods and gastropods at least two distinct isoforms are differentially expressed. However, their physiological purpose is unknown. For the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, three isoforms are known so far, whereas for only two of them the complete mRNA sequences are available. In this study, we sequenced the complete mRNA of the third haemocyanin isoform and measured the relative expression of all three isoforms during embryogenesis to reveal a potential ontogenetic relevance. Results The cDNA of isoform 3 clearly correlates to the known Sepia officinalis haemocyanin subunits consisting of eight functional units and an internal duplicated functional unit d. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses reveal the third isoform representing a potentially ancestral haemocyanin isoform, and the analyses of the expression of haemocyanin type 3 reveal that haemocyanin type 3 only can be observed within eggs and during early development. Isoforms 1 and 2 are absent at these stages. After hatching, isoform 3 is downregulated, and isoform 1 and 2 are upregulated. Conclusions Our study clearly shows an embryonic relevance of the third isoform, which will be further discussed in the light of the changes in the physiological function of haemocyanin during ontogeny. Taken together with the fact that it could also be the isoform closest related to the common ancestor of cuttlefish haemocyanin, the phylogeny of cuttlefish haemocyanin may be recapitulated during its ontogeny. PMID:24499521

  18. Evaluation of microbiological accumulation capability of the commercial sponge Spongia officinalis var. adriatica (Schmidt) (Porifera, Demospongiae).

    PubMed

    Stabili, Loredana; Licciano, Margherita; Longo, Caterina; Corriero, Giuseppe; Mercurio, Maria

    2008-05-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the microbiological accumulation capability of the demosponge Spongia officinalis var. adriatica. Six microbiological parameters were researched in two sampling periods in the water and in reared sponge samples coming from sites with different degrees of microbial contamination: an off-shore fish farm displaced off the Apulian coast (Southern Adriatic Sea) and a no-impacted area displaced into the Marine Protected Area of Porto Cesareo (Apulian coast-Ionian Sea). We detected the density of culturable heterotrophic bacteria by spread plate on marine agar, total culturable bacteria at 37 degrees C on Plate Count Agar and vibrios on thiosulphate-citrate-bile-sucrose-salt (TCBS) agar. Total and fecal coliforms as well as fecal streptococci concentrations were detected by the MPN method. Bacterial densities were always higher in the sponge homogenates compared with the corresponding seawater in the sampling points and in both sampling periods. As regard vibrios, total culturable bacteria at 37 degrees C and fecal streptococci concentrations, the highest values were observed in the sponge samples coming from the off-shore fish farm during the summer period. The ability of Spongia officinalis var. adriatica to accumulate the microbial pollution indicators suggests that this species can be employed as a bioindicator for monitoring water quality.

  19. Dietary intake of Curcuma longa and Emblica officinalis increases life span in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rawal, Shilpa; Singh, Pavneet; Gupta, Ayush; Mohanty, Sujata

    2014-01-01

    Intake of food and nutrition plays a major role in affecting aging process and longevity. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the ageing process are still unclear. To this respect, diet has been considered to be a determinant of ageing process. In order to better illustrate this, we used Drosophila melanogaster as a model and fed them orally with different concentrations of two commonly used Indian medicinal plant products, Curcuma longa (rhizome) and Emblica officinalis (fruit). The results revealed significant increase in life span of Drosophila flies on exposure to both the plant products, more efficiently by C. Longa than by E. officinalis. In order to understand whether the increase in lifespan was due to high-antioxidant properties of these medicinal plants, we performed enzymatic assays to assess the SOD and catalase activities in case of both treated and control Drosophila flies. Interestingly, the results support the free radical theory of aging as both these plant derivatives show high reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities.

  20. Dietary Intake of Curcuma longa and Emblica officinalis Increases Life Span in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Rawal, Shilpa; Singh, Pavneet; Gupta, Ayush; Mohanty, Sujata

    2014-01-01

    Intake of food and nutrition plays a major role in affecting aging process and longevity. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the ageing process are still unclear. To this respect, diet has been considered to be a determinant of ageing process. In order to better illustrate this, we used Drosophila melanogaster as a model and fed them orally with different concentrations of two commonly used Indian medicinal plant products, Curcuma longa (rhizome) and Emblica officinalis (fruit). The results revealed significant increase in life span of Drosophila flies on exposure to both the plant products, more efficiently by C. Longa than by E. officinalis. In order to understand whether the increase in lifespan was due to high-antioxidant properties of these medicinal plants, we performed enzymatic assays to assess the SOD and catalase activities in case of both treated and control Drosophila flies. Interestingly, the results support the free radical theory of aging as both these plant derivatives show high reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities. PMID:24967413

  1. Quantification of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) camouflage: a study of color and luminance using in situ spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Akkaynak, Derya; Allen, Justine J; Mäthger, Lydia M; Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Hanlon, Roger T

    2013-03-01

    Cephalopods are renowned for their ability to adaptively camouflage on diverse backgrounds. Sepia officinalis camouflage body patterns have been characterized spectrally in the laboratory but not in the field due to the challenges of dynamic natural light fields and the difficulty of using spectrophotometric instruments underwater. To assess cuttlefish color match in their natural habitats, we studied the spectral properties of S. officinalis and their backgrounds on the Aegean coast of Turkey using point-by-point in situ spectrometry. Fifteen spectrometry datasets were collected from seven cuttlefish; radiance spectra from animal body components and surrounding substrates were measured at depths shallower than 5 m. We quantified luminance and color contrast of cuttlefish components and background substrates in the eyes of hypothetical di- and trichromatic fish predators. Additionally, we converted radiance spectra to sRGB color space to simulate their in situ appearance to a human observer. Within the range of natural colors at our study site, cuttlefish closely matched the substrate spectra in a variety of body patterns. Theoretical calculations showed that this effect might be more pronounced at greater depths. We also showed that a non-biological method ("Spectral Angle Mapper"), commonly used for spectral shape similarity assessment in the field of remote sensing, shows moderate correlation to biological measures of color contrast. This performance is comparable to that of a traditional measure of spectral shape similarity, hue and chroma. This study is among the first to quantify color matching of camouflaged cuttlefish in the wild.

  2. Regulation of sesquiterpenoid metabolism in recombinant and elicited Valeriana officinalis hairy roots.

    PubMed

    Ricigliano, Vincent; Kumar, Santosh; Kinison, Scott; Brooks, Christopher; Nybo, S Eric; Chappell, Joe; Howarth, Dianella G

    2016-05-01

    The medicinal properties of Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) root preparations are attributed to the anxiolytic sesquiterpenoid valerenic acid and its biosynthetic precursors valerenal and valerenadiene, as well as the anti-inflammatory sesquiterpenoid β-caryophyllene. In order to study and engineer the biosynthesis of these pharmacologically active metabolites, a binary vector co-transformation system was developed for V. officinalis hairy roots. The relative expression levels and jasmonate-inducibility of a number of genes associated with sesquiterpenoid metabolism were profiled in roots: farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (VoFPS), valerendiene synthase (VoVDS), germacrene C synthase (VoGCS), and a cytochrome P450 (CYP71D442) putatively associated with terpene metabolism based on sequence homology. Recombinant hairy root lines overexpressing VoFPS or VoVDS were generated and compared to control cultures. Overexpression of the VoFPS cDNA increased levels of the corresponding transcript 4- to 8-fold and sesquiterpene hydrocarbon accumulation by 1.5- to 4-fold. Overexpression of the VoVDS cDNA increased the corresponding transcript levels 5- to 9-fold and markedly increased yields of the oxygenated sesquiterpenoids valerenic acid and valerenal. Our findings suggest that the availability of cytoplasmic farnesyl diphosphate and valerenadiene are potential bottlenecks in Valeriana-specific sesquiterpenoid biosynthesis, which is also subject to regulation by methyl jasmonate elicitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of a nanoemulsion with Copaifera officinalis oleoresin against monogenean parasites of Colossoma macropomum: A Neotropical Serrasalmidae.

    PubMed

    Valentim, D S S; Duarte, J L; Oliveira, A E M F M; Cruz, R A S; Carvalho, J C T; Solans, C; Fernandes, C P; Tavares-Dias, M

    2018-05-16

    Monogeneans are ectoparasites that may cause losses in production and productivity in the aquaculture of Colossoma macropomum. Chemotherapeutics used in aquaculture usually have major adverse effects on fish; hence, the use of essential oils has been considered advantageous, but these are not soluble in water. Thus, the use of nanostructures to enhance water solubility of compounds and improve bioactivity may be very promising. This study investigated the antiparasitic activity of nanoemulsion prepared with Copaifera officinalis oleoresin (50, 100, 150, 200 and 300 mg/L), against monogenean parasites from the gills of C. macropomum. The particle size distribution and zeta potential suggested that a potentially kinetic stable system was generated. The nanoemulsion from C. officinalis oleoresin achieved high efficacy (100%) at low concentrations (200 and 300 mg/L) after 15 min of exposure. This was the first time that a nanoemulsion was generated from C. officinalis oleoresin using a solvent-free, non-heating and low-energy method. Moreover, this was the first time that an antiparasitic against monogeneans on fish gills, based on nanoemulsion of C. officinalis oleoresin, was tested. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. In Vitro Screening for Anti-Cholinesterase and Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants Used for Cognitive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Maya; Subramanian, Sarada

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is still considered as the main therapeutic strategy against Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Many plant derived phytochemicals have shown AChE inhibitory activity in addition to the currently approved drugs for AD. In the present study, methanolic extracts of 20 plants used in Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine for improving cognitive function were screened for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity by Ellman’s microplate colorimetric method. Out of 20 extracts, Emblica officinalis, Nardostachys jatamansi, Nelumbo nucifera, Punica granatum and Raulfia Serpentina showed IC50 values <100 µg/ml for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Antioxidant activities of these plants were assessed by DPPH scavenging assay. Among the extracts used, antioxidant activity was highest for Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis with IC50 values <10 µg/ml. Considering the complex multifactorial etiology of AD, these plant extracts will be safer and better candidates for the future disease modifying therapies against this devastating disease. PMID:24466247

  5. In vitro screening for anti-cholinesterase and antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of ayurvedic medicinal plants used for cognitive disorders.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Maya; Subramanian, Sarada

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is still considered as the main therapeutic strategy against Alzheimer's disease (AD). Many plant derived phytochemicals have shown AChE inhibitory activity in addition to the currently approved drugs for AD. In the present study, methanolic extracts of 20 plants used in Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine for improving cognitive function were screened for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity by Ellman's microplate colorimetric method. Out of 20 extracts, Emblica officinalis, Nardostachys jatamansi, Nelumbo nucifera, Punica granatum and Raulfia Serpentina showed IC50 values <100 µg/ml for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Antioxidant activities of these plants were assessed by DPPH scavenging assay. Among the extracts used, antioxidant activity was highest for Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis with IC50 values <10 µg/ml. Considering the complex multifactorial etiology of AD, these plant extracts will be safer and better candidates for the future disease modifying therapies against this devastating disease.

  6. Transcriptome analysis of WRKY gene family in Oryza officinalis Wall ex Watt and WRKY genes involved in responses to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae stress

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Chunmiao; Shen, Qingxi J.; Wang, Bo; He, Bin; Xiao, Suqin; Chen, Ling; Yu, Tengqiong; Ke, Xue; Zhong, Qiaofang; Fu, Jian; Chen, Yue; Wang, Lingxian; Yin, Fuyou; Zhang, Dunyu; Ghidan, Walid; Huang, Xingqi; Cheng, Zaiquan

    2017-01-01

    Oryza officinalis Wall ex Watt, a very important and special wild rice species, shows abundant genetic diversity and disease resistance features, especially high resistance to bacterial blight. The molecular mechanisms of bacterial blight resistance in O. officinalis have not yet been elucidated. The WRKY transcription factor family is one of the largest gene families involved in plant growth, development and stress response. However, little is known about the numbers, structure, molecular phylogenetics, and expression of the WRKY genes under Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) stress in O. officinalis due to lacking of O. officinalis genome. Therefore, based on the RNA-sequencing data of O. officinalis, we performed a comprehensive study of WRKY genes in O. officinalis and identified 89 OoWRKY genes. Then 89 OoWRKY genes were classified into three groups based on the WRKY domains and zinc finger motifs. Phylogenetic analysis strongly supported that the evolution of OoWRKY genes were consistent with previous studies of WRKYs, and subgroup IIc OoWRKY genes were the original ancestors of some group II and group III OoWRKYs. Among the 89 OoWRKY genes, eight OoWRKYs displayed significantly different expression (>2-fold, p<0.01) in the O. officinalis transcriptome under Xoo strains PXO99 and C5 stress 48 h, suggesting these genes might play important role in PXO99 and C5 stress responses in O. officinalis. QRT-PCR analysis and confirmation of eight OoWRKYs expression patterns revealed that they responded strongly to PXO99 and C5 stress 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h, and the trends of these genes displaying marked changes were consistent with the 48 h RNA-sequencing data, demonstrated these genes played important roles in response to biotic stress and might even involved in the bacterial blight resistance. Tissue expression profiles of eight OoWRKY genes revealed that they were highly expressed in root, stem, leaf, and flower, especially in leaf (except OoWRKY71), suggesting

  7. Transcriptome analysis of WRKY gene family in Oryza officinalis Wall ex Watt and WRKY genes involved in responses to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae stress.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chunmiao; Shen, Qingxi J; Wang, Bo; He, Bin; Xiao, Suqin; Chen, Ling; Yu, Tengqiong; Ke, Xue; Zhong, Qiaofang; Fu, Jian; Chen, Yue; Wang, Lingxian; Yin, Fuyou; Zhang, Dunyu; Ghidan, Walid; Huang, Xingqi; Cheng, Zaiquan

    2017-01-01

    Oryza officinalis Wall ex Watt, a very important and special wild rice species, shows abundant genetic diversity and disease resistance features, especially high resistance to bacterial blight. The molecular mechanisms of bacterial blight resistance in O. officinalis have not yet been elucidated. The WRKY transcription factor family is one of the largest gene families involved in plant growth, development and stress response. However, little is known about the numbers, structure, molecular phylogenetics, and expression of the WRKY genes under Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) stress in O. officinalis due to lacking of O. officinalis genome. Therefore, based on the RNA-sequencing data of O. officinalis, we performed a comprehensive study of WRKY genes in O. officinalis and identified 89 OoWRKY genes. Then 89 OoWRKY genes were classified into three groups based on the WRKY domains and zinc finger motifs. Phylogenetic analysis strongly supported that the evolution of OoWRKY genes were consistent with previous studies of WRKYs, and subgroup IIc OoWRKY genes were the original ancestors of some group II and group III OoWRKYs. Among the 89 OoWRKY genes, eight OoWRKYs displayed significantly different expression (>2-fold, p<0.01) in the O. officinalis transcriptome under Xoo strains PXO99 and C5 stress 48 h, suggesting these genes might play important role in PXO99 and C5 stress responses in O. officinalis. QRT-PCR analysis and confirmation of eight OoWRKYs expression patterns revealed that they responded strongly to PXO99 and C5 stress 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h, and the trends of these genes displaying marked changes were consistent with the 48 h RNA-sequencing data, demonstrated these genes played important roles in response to biotic stress and might even involved in the bacterial blight resistance. Tissue expression profiles of eight OoWRKY genes revealed that they were highly expressed in root, stem, leaf, and flower, especially in leaf (except OoWRKY71), suggesting

  8. Transport of a GABAA receptor modulator and its derivatives from Valeriana officinalis L. s. l. across an in vitro cell culture model of the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Winfried; Trauner, Gabriele; Gruber, Daniela; Oelzant, Silvester; Klepal, Waltraud; Kopp, Brigitte; Noe, Christian R

    2008-09-01

    The roots and rhizome of Valeriana officinalis L . s. l. are therapeutically used for their sedative and sleep-enhancing effects. Some of the active compounds found in commonly used extracts are the sesquiterpenic acids, especially valerenic acid, which was recently identified as a GABA (A) receptor modulator. To interact with this receptor in the brain, substances such as valerenic acid and its derivatives acetoxyvalerenic acid and hydroxyvalerenic acid have to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The aim of our study was to obtain BBB permeability data of these compounds for the first time and to elucidate possible transport pathways across our BBB in vitro model. Transport of valerenic acid, acetoxyvalerenic acid and hydroxyvalerenic acid was compared with the permeability of the GABA (A) modulator diazepam, which is known to penetrate into the central nervous system transcellularly by passive diffusion. Experiments were carried out with an established Transwell in vitro model based on the human cell line ECV304. Results indicated clearly that all three acids permeated significantly slower than diazepam. The ranking was confirmed in group studies as well as in single-substance studies after normalization to diazepam. Valerenic acid (1.06 +/- 0.29 microm/min, factor 0.03 related to diazepam) was the slowest to permeate in the group study, followed by hydroxyvalerenic acid (2.72 +/- 0.63 microm/min, factor 0.07 related to diazepam) and acetoxyvalerenic acid (3.54 +/- 0.58 microm/min, factor 0.09 related to diazepam). To elucidate the contribution of the paracellular transport, studies were performed at different tightness status of the cell layers reflected by different transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) values. Results showed an exponential correlation between transport and TEER for all three acids, whereas diazepam permeated TEER independently. In summary, it is hypothesized that the investigated compounds from Valeriana officinalis L. S. L. can

  9. Anxiolytic-like effect of inhalation of essential oil from Lavandula officinalis: investigation of changes in 5-HT turnover and involvement of olfactory stimulation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Mizuho; Yamanaka, Ayako; Asanuma, Chihiro; Asano, Hiroko; Satou, Tadaaki; Koike, Kazuo

    2014-07-01

    Essential oil extracted from Lavandula officinalis (LvEO) has a long history of usage in anxiety alleviation with good evidence to support its use. However, findings and information regarding the exact pathway involved and mechanism of action remain inconclusive. Therefore, we aimed to (1) reveal the influence of olfactory stimulation, and (2) determine whether the serotonergic system is involved in the anxiolytic effect of LvEO when it is inhaled. To this end, we first compared the anxiety-related behaviors of normosmic and anosmic mice. LvEO inhalation caused notable elevation in anxiety-related parameters with or without olfactory perception, indicating that olfactory stimulation is not necessarily required for LvEO to be effective. Neurochemical analysis of the serotonin (5-HT) turnover rate, accompanied by EPM testing, was then performed. LvEO significantly increased the striatal and hippocampal levels of 5-HT and decreased turnover rates in accordance with the anxiolytic behavioral changes. These results, together with previous findings, support the hypothesis that serotonergic neurotransmission plays a certain role in the anxiolytic properties of LvEO.

  10. Sesquiterpenes and a monoterpenoid with acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitory activity from Valeriana officinalis var. latiofolia in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Heng-Wen; He, Xuan-Hui; Yuan, Rong; Wei, Ben-Jun; Chen, Zhong; Dong, Jun-Xing; Wang, Jie

    2016-04-01

    Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor (AchEI) is the most extensive in all anti-dementia drugs. The extracts and isolated compounds from the Valeriana genus have shown anti-dementia bioactivity. Four new sesquiterpenoids (1-4) and a new monoterpenoid (5) were isolated from the root of Valeriana officinalis var. latiofolia. The acetylcholinesterase (AchE) inhibitory activity of isolates was evaluated by modified Ellman method in vitro. Learning and memory ability of compound 4 on mice was evaluated by the Morris water maze. The contents of acetylcholine (Ach), acetylcholine transferase (ChAT) and AchE in mice brains were determined by colorimetry. The results showed IC50 of compound 4 was 0.161 μM in vitro. Compared with the normal group, the learning and memory ability of mice and the contents of Ach and ChAT decreased in model group mice (P<0.01), while the AchE increased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, Ach and ChAT in the positive control group, the high-dose group and the medium-dose group increased (P<0.01), while the AchE decreased (P<0.01). Compound 4 can improve the learning and memory abilities of APPswe/PSΔE9 double-transgenic mice, and the mechanism may be related to the regulation of the relative enzyme in the cholinergic system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydrological modification, saltwater intrusion, and tree water use of a Pterocarpus officinalis swamp in Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colón-Rivera, Ricardo J.; Feagin, Rusty A.; West, Jason B.; López, Natalia B.; Benítez-Joubert, Rafael J.

    2014-06-01

    Tidal freshwater forested wetlands occupy a narrow ecological space determined by the balance between saltwater and freshwater inputs to the system. However, this balance is not well understood. In the Caribbean, tidal freshwater-forested wetlands dominated by Pterocarpus officinalis are vulnerable to changes in tidal influence and freshwater inputs. In this setting, the seasonal interactions of saltwater and freshwater inputs create less than ideal conditions for these forests to survive. Hence, it is crucial to have a better understanding of the hydrologic context of these and other tidal freshwater forested wetlands. We examined the extent of tidal forcing and saltwater influence in the largest Pterocarpus swamp of Puerto Rico by installing automated water level and conductivity recorders across a tidal creek transect at four different distances from the ocean, and by using water stable isotopes ratios (δD, δ18O) as natural tracers to determine the most important freshwater sources for tree transpiration. Records of water level and salinity revealed that the amount of rainfall was most influential on saltwater wedge migration in the creek for locations at the front and back of the tidal network, but that tidal dynamics were most influential at the middle section of the tidal network. Saltwater intrusion into the deepest parts of the tidal network was most prominent during sustained dry periods. Isotopic ratios of the surface water samples in the forest revealed that most of the water there was derived from freshwater runoff, but there was a seasonal change in its relative contribution to the forest hydrology. During the dry season, high δ values suggested the presence of runoff-derived water that had undergone evaporation, and saline influences were found in locations where past deforestation created preferential pathways for this water. During both seasons, δ 18O values of groundwater revealed the influence of saline water at depths 60 cm and greater near

  12. Molecular Characterization of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in an Agroforestry System Reveals the Predominance of Funneliformis spp. Associated with Colocasia esculenta and Pterocarpus officinalis Adult Trees and Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Geoffroy, Alexandre; Sanguin, Hervé; Galiana, Antoine; Bâ, Amadou

    2017-01-01

    Pterocarpus officinalis (Jacq.) is a leguminous forestry tree species endemic to Caribbean swamp forests. In Guadeloupe, smallholder farmers traditionally cultivate flooded taro ( Colocasia esculenta ) cultures under the canopy of P. officinalis stands. The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the sustainability of this traditional agroforestry system has been suggested but the composition and distribution of AM fungi colonizing the leguminous tree and/or taro are poorly characterized. An in-depth characterization of root-associated AM fungal communities from P. officinalis adult trees and seedlings and taro cultures, sampled in two localities of Guadeloupe, was performed by pyrosequencing (GS FLX+) of partial 18S rRNA gene. The AM fungal community was composed of 215 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), belonging to eight fungal families dominated by Glomeraceae, Acaulosporaceae, and Gigasporaceae. Results revealed a low AM fungal community membership between P. officinalis and C. esculenta . However, certain AM fungal community taxa (10% of total community) overlapped between P. officinalis and C. esculenta , notably predominant Funneliformis OTUs. These findings provide new perspectives in deciphering the significance of Funneliformis in nutrient exchange between P. officinalis and C. esculenta by forming a potential mycorrhizal network.

  13. Molecular Characterization of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in an Agroforestry System Reveals the Predominance of Funneliformis spp. Associated with Colocasia esculenta and Pterocarpus officinalis Adult Trees and Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Geoffroy, Alexandre; Sanguin, Hervé; Galiana, Antoine; Bâ, Amadou

    2017-01-01

    Pterocarpus officinalis (Jacq.) is a leguminous forestry tree species endemic to Caribbean swamp forests. In Guadeloupe, smallholder farmers traditionally cultivate flooded taro (Colocasia esculenta) cultures under the canopy of P. officinalis stands. The role of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the sustainability of this traditional agroforestry system has been suggested but the composition and distribution of AM fungi colonizing the leguminous tree and/or taro are poorly characterized. An in-depth characterization of root-associated AM fungal communities from P. officinalis adult trees and seedlings and taro cultures, sampled in two localities of Guadeloupe, was performed by pyrosequencing (GS FLX+) of partial 18S rRNA gene. The AM fungal community was composed of 215 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), belonging to eight fungal families dominated by Glomeraceae, Acaulosporaceae, and Gigasporaceae. Results revealed a low AM fungal community membership between P. officinalis and C. esculenta. However, certain AM fungal community taxa (10% of total community) overlapped between P. officinalis and C. esculenta, notably predominant Funneliformis OTUs. These findings provide new perspectives in deciphering the significance of Funneliformis in nutrient exchange between P. officinalis and C. esculenta by forming a potential mycorrhizal network. PMID:28804479

  14. Magnolol and honokiol from Magnolia officinalis enhanced antiviral immune responses against grass carp reovirus in Ctenopharyngodon idella kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaohui; Hu, Yang; Shan, Lipeng; Yu, Xiaobo; Hao, Kai; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2017-04-01

    Medicinal plants have been widely used for a long history. Exploration of pharmacologically active compounds from medicinal plants present a broad prevalent of application. By examining viral mRNA expression in GCRV-infected Ctenopharyngodon idella kidney (CIK) cells treated with thirty kinds of plant extracts, we identified Magnolia officinalis Rehd et Wils. was able to preferably suppress viral replication. Further studies demonstrated that the main ingredients of magnolia bark, namely, magnolol and honokiol presented protective pharmacological function when treated GCRV-infected CIK cells with a concentration of 2.00 μg/ml and 1.25 μg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, reverse transcript quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot showed that both magnolol and honokiol were efficient to restrain the replication of GCRV in CIK cells at non-toxic concentration (2.51 ± 0.51 μg/ml for magnolol, and 3.18 ± 0.61 μg/ml for honokiol). Moreover, it was found that magnolol and honokiol promoted the expression of immune-related genes. Magnolol obviously significantly increased the expression of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor (IRF)7 rather than that of IRF3 in the GCRV-infected cells, leading to the activation of type I IFN (IFN-I). Simultaneously, magnolol drastically facilitated the expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, but failed to induce the molecules in nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathways. Differently, honokiol strikingly motivated not only the expression of IL-1β, but also those of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and NF-κB. Interestingly, though honokiol motivated the expression of IFN-β promoter stimulator 1 (IPS-1), IRF3 and IRF7, it failed to up-regulate the expression of IFN-I, indicating that honokiol enhanced the host innate antiviral response to GCRV infection via NF-κB pathways. Collectively, the present study revealed that magnolol and honokiol facilitated the expression of innate immune-related genes to strengthen the

  15. Root colonization by symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increases sesquiterpenic acid concentrations in Valeriana officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Nell, Monika; Wawrosch, Christoph; Steinkellner, Siegrid; Vierheilig, Horst; Kopp, Brigitte; Lössl, Andreas; Franz, Chlodwig; Novak, Johannes; Zitterl-Eglseer, Karin

    2010-03-01

    In some medicinal plants a specific plant-fungus association, known as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, increases the levels of secondary plant metabolites and/or plant growth. In this study, the effects of three different AM treatments on biomass and sesquiterpenic acid concentrations in two IN VITRO propagated genotypes of valerian ( VALERIANA OFFICINALIS L., Valerianaceae) were investigated. Valerenic, acetoxyvalerenic and hydroxyvalerenic acid levels were analyzed in the rhizome and in two root fractions. Two of the AM treatments significantly increased the levels of sesquiterpenic acids in the underground parts of valerian. These treatments, however, influenced the biomass of rhizomes and roots negatively. Therefore this observed increase was not accompanied by an increase in yield of sesquiterpenic acids per plant. Furthermore, one of the two genotypes had remarkably high hydroxyvalerenic acid contents and can be regarded as a hydroxyvalerenic acid chemotype. Copyright Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.

  16. Molecular cloning and characterization of drimenol synthase from valerian plant (Valeriana officinalis).

    PubMed

    Kwon, Moonhyuk; Cochrane, Stephen A; Vederas, John C; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2014-12-20

    Drimenol, a sesquiterpene alcohol, and its derivatives display diverse bio-activities in nature. However, a drimenol synthase gene has yet to be identified. We identified a new sesquiterpene synthase cDNA (VoTPS3) in valerian plant (Valeriana officinalis). Purification and NMR analyses of the VoTPS3-produced terpene, and characterization of the VoTPS3 enzyme confirmed that VoTPS3 synthesizes (-)-drimenol. In feeding assays, possible reaction intermediates, farnesol and drimenyl diphosphate, could not be converted to drimenol, suggesting that the intermediate remains tightly bound to VoTPS3 during catalysis. A mechanistic consideration of (-)-drimenol synthesis suggests that drimenol synthase is likely to use a protonation-initiated cyclization, which is rare for sesquiterpene synthases. VoTPS3 can be used to produce (-)-drimenol, from which useful drimane-type terpenes can be synthesized. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Components of the cellular defense and detoxification system of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda).

    PubMed

    Beuerlein, Knut; Löhr, Sandra; Westermann, Bettina; Ruth, Peter; Schipp, Rudolf

    2002-12-01

    Endocytotic-active cells in the branchial heart complex of Sepia officinalis were studied by in situ injection of different types of xenobiotics and by in vitro perfusion of the organ complex with a bacterial suspension. The rhogocytes (ovoid cells) ingest particles of all tested sizes by endocytosis and phagocytosis. The hemocytes of the circulating blood and the adhesive hemocytes in the wall of the branchial heart incorporate all tested kinds of foreign materials, including bacterial cells due to phagocytosis achieved by the triangular mesenchymatic cells. The ultrastructural findings also give strong evidence that the triangular mesenchymatic cells are fixed hemocytes that have migrated into the branchial heart tissue. The ingestion and digestion of allogeneic substances and bacteria or their debris by rhogocytes and/or all (forms of) hemocytes suggests the involvement of these either fixed or mobile endocytotic-active cells in the defense and detoxification system of cephalopods.

  18. Histological study of some Echium vulgare, Pulmonaria officinalis and Symphytum officinale populations.

    PubMed

    Papp, Nóra; Bencsik, Tímea; Németh, Kitti; Gyergyák, Kinga; Sulc, Alexandra; Farkas, Agnes

    2011-10-01

    Plants living in different ecological habitats can show significant variability in their histological and phytochemical characters. The main histological features of various populations of three medicinal plants from the Boraginaceae family were studied. Stems, petioles and leaves were investigated by light microscopy in vertical and transverse sections. The outline of the epidermal cells, as well as the shape and cell number of trichomes was studied in leaf surface casts. Differences were measured among the populations of Echium vulgare in the width and height of epidermis cells in the stem, petiole and leaf, as well as in the size of palisade cells in the leaves. Among the populations of Pulmonaria officinalis significant differences were found in the length of trichomes and in the slightly or strongly wavy outline of epidermal radial cell walls. Populations of Symphytum officinale showed variance in the height of epidermal cells in leaves and stems, length of palisade cells and number of intercellular spaces in leaves, and the size of the central cavity in the stem. Boraginaceae bristles were found to be longer in plants in windy/shady habitats as opposed to sunny habitats, both in the leaves and stems ofP. officinalis and S. officinale, which might be connected to varying levels of exposure to wind. Longer epidermal cells were detected in the leaves and stems of both E. vulgare and S. officinale plants living in shady habitats, compared with shorter cells in sunny habitats. Leaf mesophyll cells were shorter in shady habitats as opposed to longer cells in sunny habitats, both in E. vulgare and S. officinale. This combination of histological characters may contribute to the plant's adaptation to various amounts of sunshine. The reported data prove the polymorphism of the studied taxa, as well as their ability to adapt to various ecological circumstances.

  19. Composition and metabolism of phospholipids in Octopus vulgaris and Sepia officinalis hatchlings.

    PubMed

    Reis, Diana B; Acosta, Nieves G; Almansa, Eduardo; Tocher, Douglas R; Andrade, José P; Sykes, António V; Rodríguez, Covadonga

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to characterise the fatty acid (FA) profiles of the major phospholipids, of Octopus vulgaris and Sepia officinalis hatchlings, namely phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE); and to evaluate the capability of both cephalopod species on dietary phospholipid remodelling. Thus, O. vulgaris and S. officinalis hatchlings were in vivo incubated with 0.3μM of L-∝-1-palmitoyl-2-[1-(14)C]arachidonyl-PC or L-∝-1-palmitoyl-2-[1-(14)C]arachidonyl-PE. Octopus and cuttlefish hatchlings phospholipids showed a characteristic FA profiles with PC presenting high contents of 16:0 and 22:6n-3 (DHA); PS having high 18:0, DHA and 20:5n-3 (EPA); PI a high content of saturated FA; and PE showing high contents of DHA and EPA. Interestingly, the highest content of 20:4n-6 (ARA) was found in PE rather than PI. Irrespective of the phospholipid in which [1-(14)C]ARA was initially bound (either PC or PE), the esterification pattern of [1-(14)C]ARA in octopus lipids was similar to that found in their tissues with high esterification of this FA into PE. In contrast, in cuttlefish hatchlings [1-(14)C]ARA was mainly recovered in the same phospholipid that was provided. These results showed a characteristic FA profiles in the major phospholipids of the two species, as well as a contrasting capability to remodel dietary phospholipids, which may suggest a difference in phospholipase activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Biological Activity of the Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) Essential Oil on Varroa destructor Infested Honeybees.

    PubMed

    Bendifallah, Leila; Belguendouz, Rachida; Hamoudi, Latifa; Arab, Karim

    2018-06-06

    The present work is conducted as part of the development and the valorization of bioactive natural substances from Algerian medicinal and aromatic spontaneous plants, a clean alternative method in biological control. For this purpose, the bio-acaricidal activity of Salvia officinalis (sage)essential oil (EO)was evaluated against the Varroa destructor , a major threat to the honey bee Apis mellifera ssp. intermissa . The aerial parts of S. officinalis L., 1753 were collected from the Chrea mountainous area in Northern Algeria. They were subjected to hydro distillation by a Clevenger apparatus type to obtain the EO, and screened for bio-acaricidal activity against Varroa destructor by the method of strips impregnated with the mixture EO and twin according to three doses. Pre-treatment results revealed infestation rates in the experimental site ranging from 3.76% to 21.22%. This showed the heterogeneity of infestations in hives according to the density of bees. This constituted a difficulty in monitoring the population dynamics of this parasite. After treatment, a difference in the acaricidal effect of Sage essential oil is noticed. It gives a mortality rate of 6.09% by the dose D1: 5%, 2.32% by the dose D2: 15%, and a low mortality rate of 0.9% by the dose D3: 20%. The chemical treatment carried out by Bayvarol gives a result close to that of the essential oil of Sage (9.97%).These results point to the fact that Sage essential oil treatments have a significant effect and good biological activity with regard to harmful species.

  1. The role of natural galactagogues during breast feeding: focus on a Galega officinalis based food supplement.

    PubMed

    Salatino, Silvia; Giacomelli, Luca; Carnevali, Ilaria; Giacomelli, Erika

    2017-12-01

    Maternal milk is the optimal food for newborns. To this end, a number of interventions are used to enhance milk production. However, pharmacological interventions may be associated with a perceived risk of adverse effects and therefore many mothers prefer to rely on natural herbal remedies. Several herbal remedies have been traditionally used to this purpose. However, the level of evidence supporting their use is mixed. Among different currently-employed natural remedies, Galega officinalis has emerged to be one of those sustained by the strongest evidence. In this paper, we comment on a galega-based product. It is a standardized food supplement used to support breastfeeding mothers and to promote milk production containing Galega officinalis and other substances, including vitamins and magnesium, with potential effect on mother's well-being. In a recent product evaluation on a large sample of Italian women, the wide majority of mothers have declared to be satisfied with this product, and two third of them reported that the milk production was improved with the use of this product. Noteworthy, this galega-based food supplement was also reported to promote psychological benefit. The evidence of a perceived psychological benefit associated with this product is of particular importance, given the high degree of distress often experienced by mothers during the post-partum period. Last, a high level of safety was perceived by the participants. This galega-based food supplement does have a role in supporting breastfeeding mothers and enhance milk production during lactation. Further clinical trials could provide further evidence on the effectiveness of the product.

  2. Critical temperatures in the cephalopod Sepia officinalis investigated using in vivo 31P NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Melzner, Frank; Bock, Christian; Pörtner, Hans-O

    2006-03-01

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis of an oxygen limitation defining thermal tolerance in the European cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis). Mantle muscle organ metabolic status and pHi were monitored using in vivo 31P NMR spectroscopy, while mantle muscle performance was determined by recording mantle cavity pressure oscillations during ventilation and spontaneous exercise. Under control conditions (15 degrees C), changes in muscle phospho-L-arginine (PLA) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) levels could be linearly related to frequently occurring, high-pressure mantle contractions with pressure amplitudes (MMPA) of >0.2 kPa. Accordingly, mainly MMPA of >2 kPa affected muscle PLA reserves, indicating that contractions with MMPA of <2 kPa only involve the thin layers of aerobic circular mantle musculature. On average, no more than 20% of muscle PLA was depleted during spontaneous exercise under control conditions. Subjecting animals to acute thermal change at an average rate of 1 deg. h-1 led to significant Pi accumulation (equivalent to PLA breakdown) and decrements in the free energy of ATP hydrolysis (dG/dzeta) at both ends of the temperature window, starting at mean critical temperatures (Tc) of 7.0 and 26.8 degrees C, respectively. Frequent groups of high-pressure mantle contractions could not (in the warm) or only partially (in the cold) be related to net PLA breakdown in mantle muscle, indicating an oxygen limitation of routine metabolism rather than exercise-related phosphagen use. We hypothesize that it is mainly the constantly working radial mantle muscles that become progressively devoid of oxygen. Estimates of very low dG/dzeta values (-44 kJ mol-1) in this compartment, along with correlated stagnating ventilation pressures in the warm, support this hypothesis. In conclusion, we found evidence for an oxygen limitation of thermal tolerance in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, as indicated by a progressive transition of routine mantle metabolism to

  3. Effects of IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3 on rooting and morphological features of Melissa officinalis L. stem cuttings.

    PubMed

    Sevik, Hakan; Guney, Kerim

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the potential of producing Melissa officinalis L. using stem cuttings. Four different hormones (IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3) were applied to the cuttings, with and without buds, in two doses (1000 mg/L and 5000 mg/L), and after 60 days, 10 morphological characteristics of newly generated plants were detected, and a statistical analysis was carried out. The results of the study show that the cuttings with at least one bud must be used in order to produce M. officinalis using stem cuttings. Even though the auxin group hormones (IAA, IBA, and NAA) do not have an apparent effect on rooting percentage, these hormones were detected to affect the morphological characteristics of the newly generated plants, especially root generation. GA3 application has a considerable effect on stem height.

  4. Biotransformation of artemisinin using cell suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G.Don and Lavandula officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Patel, Suman; Gaur, Rashmi; Verma, Priyanka; Bhakuni, Rajendra S; Mathur, Archana

    2010-08-01

    Artemisinin, an antimalarial compound, at 5 mg/40 ml, was transformed by cell suspension cultures of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G.Don and Lavandula officinalis L. into deoxyartemisinin with yields >78% (3.93 mg deoxyartemisinin from 5 mg artemisinin). Maximum conversion (78.6 and 78%) occurred after 6 and 7 days of adding artemisinin to 20 and 9 days old cultures of C. roseus and L. officinalis, respectively. The procedure was scaled up by and 500 mg artemisinin was transformed into 390 mg deoxyartemisinin. Addition of artemisinin at the beginning of the culture cycle resulted in >50% reduction in dry biomass production with no bioconversion. Conversion of artemisinin occurred intracellularly followed by leaching of the product into the medium.

  5. In vitro propagation of the Garden Heliotrope, Valeriana officinalis L.: influence of pre-chilling and light on seed germination.

    PubMed

    Bhat, B; Sharma, V D

    2015-03-01

    Valeriana officinalis is an important medicinal herb commonly found in Kashmir valley. This study forms an important preliminary step for in-vitro micro propagation of V. officinalis from breaking the seed dormancy, inducing rapid seed germination and its subsequent micro propagation. We investigated the influence of pretreatment of V. officinalis seeds with reduced temperature and light on seed germination and in-vitro propagation. Culture of explants from cultivated seeds have demonstrated its potential for in vitro propagation and plantlet regeneration. Individual as well as combinations of treatments such as temperature and light availability influenced the germination of seeds variedly. Unchilled seeds of V. officinalis were given dip in GA3 (200 ppm) for 24, 48 and 120 h. Seeds treated with GA3 for 24 h and kept in darkness showed the best results, i.e. 48%. Seeds pretreated with GA3 for 120 h and incubated in dark showed 40% germination. Pre-chilling up to 72 h and kept in light showed maximum germination of 60% followed by 40% kept in darkness. Pre-chilling for 48 h resulted in 40 and 25% seed germination in light and darkness, respectively. GA3 pre-treatment for 72 h and 24 h pre chilling were most effective in inducing seed germination. Maximum shoot response was obtained on MS enriched with BAP (1 mg/L) + IAA (0.1 mg/L) combinations using shoot tips as explants. Multiple shoot regeneration from shoot apices was recorded on BAP (1 mg/L) and BAP (1 mg/L) + IAA (0.1 mg/L).

  6. Volvalerelactones A and B, two new sesquiterpenoid lactones with an unprecedented skeleton from Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Hu, Jiang-Miao; Chen, Rui; Ma, Qing-Yun; Dai, Hao-Fu; Liu, Yu-Qing; Xie, Ming-Jin; Zhou, Jun; Zhao, You-Xing

    2011-06-17

    Volvalerelactones A and B (1 and 2), two new sesquiterpenoid lactones with an unprecedented 3/7/6 tricyclic ring system, were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and relative configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic data and single-crystal X-ray diffraction crystallography, and the absolute configuration was assigned by computational methods. The possible biosynthetic pathways of 1 and 2 were also proposed. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  7. Multi-elements determination in medical and edible Alpinia oxyphylla and Morinda officinalis and their decoctions by ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiangsheng; Wei, Jianhe; Shu, Xiaoyan; Kong, Weijun; Yang, Meihua

    2016-12-01

    Contents of twenty elements (Mg, K, Ca, Na, Fe, Al, Zn, Ba, Mn, Cu, Mo, Cr, Ni, As, Se, Cd, Hg, Tl, Pb and V) in two medical and edible plant species, Alpinia oxyphylla and Morinda officinalis were simultaneously determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method after microwave digestion with HNO 3 -H 2 O 2 (6:1, v/v) as the digestion solvent. Certified standard reference material Poplar leaf was used to assess the accuracy of the method. The greatest contents of Mg, K, Ca, Al, Fe and Na were found in dried Alpinia oxyphylla and Morinda officinalis samples. The contents of five heavy metals including Pb, Cd, As, Hg and Cu in Alpinia oxyphylla did not exceed the limits. The contents of Pb in 76.67% samples and Cd in two batches of Morinda officinalis samples exceeded the limits set by Chinese Pharmacopeia. The contents of the selected elements in different parts (leaves, stems, roots and fruits) of Alpinia oxyphylla varied considerably. The highest concentrations of Mg, Ca, Mn and Se were found in the leaves of Alpinia oxyphylla, at the same time, while, the contents of 9 elements including Cd, Cr, Cu, As, Pb in the roots were the highest. The transfer ratios of selected elements from both species of herbs into their decoctions were reduced. Especially for the heavy metals, the transfer ratios were below 30% except As (79.73%) in Morinda officinalis. The results showed that decoction of the samples may reduce the intake of heavy metals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biocidal Potential and Chemical Composition of Industrial Essential Oils from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula × intermedia var. Super, and Santolina chamaecyparissus.

    PubMed

    Ortiz de Elguea-Culebras, Gonzalo; Sánchez-Vioque, Raúl; Berruga, María Isabel; Herraiz-Peñalver, David; González-Coloma, Azucena; Andrés, María Fé; Santana-Méridas, Omar

    2018-01-01

    This work presents the biocidal (insecticidal, ixodicidal, nematicidal, and phytotoxic) effects and chemical compositions of three essential oils obtained from the industrial steam distillation (IEOs) of hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.), lavandin (Lavandula × intermedia or L. × hybrida var. Super), and cotton lavender (Santolina chamaecyparissus L.). Their chemical composition analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry showed 1,8-cineole (53%) and β-pinene (16%) as the major components of H. officinalis, linalyl acetate (38%) and linalool (29%) of L. × intermedia; and 1,8-cineole (10%) and 8-methylene-3-oxatricyclo[5.2.0.0 2,4 ]nonane (8%) in S. chamaecyparissus. The biocidal tests showed that L. × intermedia IEO was the most active against the insect Spodoptera littoralis and toxic to the tick Hyalomma lusitanicum, IEO of H. officinalis was strongly active against S. littoralis, and finally, S. chamaecyparissus IEO was a strong antifeedant against the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi, toxic to H. lusitanicum and with moderate effects against Leptinotarsa decemlineata, S. littoralis, and Lolium perenne. © 2018 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  9. Antitussive activity of Althaea officinalis L. polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan and its changes in guinea pigs with ovalbumine-induced airways inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sutovska, M; Capek, P; Franova, S; Joskova, M; Sutovsky, J; Marcinek, J; Kalman, M

    2011-01-01

    The presented studies were aimed on experimental confirmation of Althaea officinalis polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan antitussive effect and its changes in conditions of allergic inflammation. We have tested whether rhamnogalacturonan inhibits cough reflex and modulates airways reactivity of guinea pigs in vivo. The cough in guinea pigs was induced by 0.3 M citric acid (CA) aerosol for 3 min interval, in which total number of cough efforts (sudden enhancement of expiratory flow accompanied by cough movement and sound) was counted. Specific airway resistance and its changes induced by citric acid aerosol were considered as an indicator of the in vivo reactivity changes. 1) Althaea officinalis polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan dose- dependently inhibits cough reflex in unsensitized guinea pigs. Simultaneously, plant polysaccharide shortened the duration of antitussive effect when it was been tested in inflammatory conditions. 2) Rhamnogalacturonan did not influence airways reactivity in vivo conditions expressed as specific resistance values neither sensitized nor unsensitized groups of animals. 3) The antitussive activity of codeine (dose 10 mg.kg(-1) b.w. orally) tested under the same condition was comparable to higher dose of rhamnogalacturonan in unsensitized animals. 4) The characteristic cellular pattern of allergic airways inflammation was confirmed by histopathological investigations. Rhamnogalacturonan isolated from Althaea officinalis mucilage possesses very high cough suppressive effect in guinea pigs test system, which is shortened in conditions of experimentally induced airways allergic inflammation (Tab. 1, Fig. 4, Ref. 25). Full Text in free PDF www.bmj.sk.

  10. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Thymus algeriensis, Eucalyptus globulus and Rosmarinus officinalis from Morocco.

    PubMed

    Ait-Ouazzou, Abdenour; Lorán, Susana; Bakkali, Mohammed; Laglaoui, Amin; Rota, Carmen; Herrera, Antonio; Pagán, Rafael; Conchello, Pilar

    2011-11-01

    The present study reports on the antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the essential oils (EOs) of Thymus algeriensis, Eucalyptus globulus and Rosmarinus officinalis from Morocco. The composition of these species was analysed by GC-MS, and 65 components were identified. Eucalyptus globulus EO showed a great similarity with EOs from other regions, with 1,8-cineole (79.85%) the major component. Also rich in this constituent was Rosmarinus officinalis (43.99%). However, the chemical profile of Thymus algeriensis was rather different, and for the first time such a high content of borneol (23.48%) has been described in this EO. The antimicrobial activity of these species has also been studied against seven pathogenic and spoiling bacteria of significant importance. According to the results, Thymus algeriensis showed the best bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect, followed by Eucalyptus globulus and Rosmarinus officinalis. As far as we know this is the first time that minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentration values have been reported for Eucalyptus globulus EO. Our data support the possible use of this EO as well as Thymus algeriensis EO, as potential natural agents in preservatives for food and pharmaceutical products. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. In Vitro efficacy of antimicrobial extracts against the atypical ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri.

    PubMed

    Arjoon, Amanda V; Saylor, Charlotte V; May, Meghan

    2012-10-02

    Mycoplasmosis is a common infection in human and veterinary medicine, and is associated with chronic inflammation and high morbidity. Mycoplasma species are often intrinsically resistant to many conventional antimicrobial therapies, and the resistance patterns of pathogenic mycoplasmas to commonly used medicinal (antimicrobial) plant extracts are currently unknown. Aqueous extracts, ethanol extracts, or oils of the targeted plant species and colloidal silver were prepared or purchased. Activity against the wall-less bacterial pathogen Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri was determined and compared to activities measured against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution assays. The lethal or inhibitory nature of each extract was determined by subculture into neat growth medium. Growth of M. mycoides capri, E. coli, and B. subtilis was inhibited by elderberry extract, oregano oil, ethanol extract of oregano leaves, and ethanol extract of goldenseal root. No inhibition was seen with aqueous extract of astragalus or calendula oil. Growth of M. mycoides capri and B. subtilis was inhibited by ethanol extract of astragalus, whereas growth of E. coli was not. Similarly, M. mycoides capri and E. coli were inhibited by aqueous extract of thyme, but B. subtilis was unaffected. Only B. subtilis was inhibited by colloidal silver. Measured MICs ranged from 0.0003 mg/mL to 3.8 mg/mL. Bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects differed by species and extract. The atypical pathogen M. mycoides capri was sensitive to extracts from many medicinal plants commonly used as antimicrobials in states of preparation and concentrations currently available for purchase in the United States and Europe. Variation in bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities between species and extracts indicates that multiple effecter compounds are present in these plant species.

  12. In Vitro efficacy of antimicrobial extracts against the atypical ruminant pathogen Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mycoplasmosis is a common infection in human and veterinary medicine, and is associated with chronic inflammation and high morbidity. Mycoplasma species are often intrinsically resistant to many conventional antimicrobial therapies, and the resistance patterns of pathogenic mycoplasmas to commonly used medicinal (antimicrobial) plant extracts are currently unknown. Methods Aqueous extracts, ethanol extracts, or oils of the targeted plant species and colloidal silver were prepared or purchased. Activity against the wall-less bacterial pathogen Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri was determined and compared to activities measured against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution assays. The lethal or inhibitory nature of each extract was determined by subculture into neat growth medium. Results Growth of M. mycoides capri, E. coli, and B. subtilis was inhibited by elderberry extract, oregano oil, ethanol extract of oregano leaves, and ethanol extract of goldenseal root. No inhibition was seen with aqueous extract of astragalus or calendula oil. Growth of M. mycoides capri and B. subtilis was inhibited by ethanol extract of astragalus, whereas growth of E. coli was not. Similarly, M. mycoides capri and E. coli were inhibited by aqueous extract of thyme, but B. subtilis was unaffected. Only B. subtilis was inhibited by colloidal silver. Measured MICs ranged from 0.0003 mg/mL to 3.8 mg/mL. Bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects differed by species and extract. Conclusions The atypical pathogen M. mycoides capri was sensitive to extracts from many medicinal plants commonly used as antimicrobials in states of preparation and concentrations currently available for purchase in the United States and Europe. Variation in bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities between species and extracts indicates that multiple effecter compounds are present in these plant species. PMID:23031072

  13. Water repellency and soil moisture variations under Rosmarinus officinalis in a burned soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gimeno-García, E.; Pascual-Aguilar, J. A.; Llovet, J.

    2009-04-01

    Mediterranean semi-arid landscapes are characterised by the patchiness of the vegetation cover, in which variations in the distribution pattern of soil water repellency (SWR) can be of major importance for their hydrological and geomorphological effects in burned areas, and also for their ecological implications concerning to the re-establishment of their plant cover. Within a broader research framework, the presen