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Sample records for calf muscle area

  1. Electrically induced muscle cramps induce hypertrophy of calf muscles in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Behringer, M; Moser, M; Montag, J; McCourt, M; Tenner, D; Mester, J

    2015-06-01

    Skeletal muscles usually cramp at short lengths, where the tension that can be exerted by muscle fibers is low. Since high tension is an important anabolic stimulus, it is questionable if cramps can induce hypertrophy and strength gains. In the present study we investigated if electrically induced cramps (EIMCs) can elicit these adaptations. 15 healthy male adults were randomly assigned to an intervention (IG; n=10) and a control group (CG; n=5). The cramp protocol (CP) applied twice a week to one leg of the IG, consisted of 3x6 EIMCs, of 5 s each. Calf muscles of the opposite leg were stimulated equally, but were hindered from cramping by fixating the ankle at 0° plantar flexion (nCP). After six weeks, the cross sectional area of the triceps surae was similarly increased in both the CP (+9.0±3.4%) and the nCP (+6.8±3.7%). By contrast, force of maximal voluntary contractions, measured at 0° and 30° plantar flexion, increased significantly only in nCP (0°: +8.5±8.8%; 30°: 11.7±13.7%). The present data indicate that muscle cramps can induce hypertrophy in calf muscles, though lacking high tension as an important anabolic stimulus.

  2. Electrically induced muscle cramps induce hypertrophy of calf muscles in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Behringer, M.; Moser, M.; Montag, J.; McCourt, M.; Tenner, D.; Mester, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Skeletal muscles usually cramp at short lengths, where the tension that can be exerted by muscle fibers is low. Since high tension is an important anabolic stimulus, it is questionable if cramps can induce hypertrophy and strength gains. In the present study we investigated if electrically induced cramps (EIMCs) can elicit these adaptations. Methods: 15 healthy male adults were randomly assigned to an intervention (IG; n=10) and a control group (CG; n=5). The cramp protocol (CP) applied twice a week to one leg of the IG, consisted of 3x6 EIMCs, of 5 s each. Calf muscles of the opposite leg were stimulated equally, but were hindered from cramping by fixating the ankle at 0° plantar flexion (nCP). Results: After six weeks, the cross sectional area of the triceps surae was similarly increased in both the CP (+9.0±3.4%) and the nCP (+6.8±3.7%). By contrast, force of maximal voluntary contractions, measured at 0° and 30° plantar flexion, increased significantly only in nCP (0°: +8.5±8.8%; 30°: 11.7±13.7%). Conclusion: The present data indicate that muscle cramps can induce hypertrophy in calf muscles, though lacking high tension as an important anabolic stimulus. PMID:26032216

  3. Metabolic heterogeneity in human calf muscle during maximal exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenborne, K.; McCully, K.; Kakihira, H.

    1991-07-01

    Human skeletal muscle is composed of various muscle fiber types. The authors hypothesized that differences in metabolism between fiber types could be detected noninvasively with {sup 31}P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy during maximal exercise. This assumes that during maximal exercise all fiber types are recruited and all vary in the amount of acidosis. The calf muscles of seven subjects were studied. Two different coils were applied: an 11-cm-diameter surface coil and a five-segment meander coil. The meander coil was used to localize the {sup 31}P signal to either the medial or the lateral gastrocnemius. Maximal exercise, consisting of rapid plantarmore » flexions, resulted in an 83.7% {plus minus} 7.8% decrease of the phosphocreatine pool and an 8-fold increase of the inorganic phosphate (P{sub i}) pool. At rest the P{sub i} pool was observed as a single resonance (pH 7.0). Toward the end of the first minute of exercise, three subjects showed three distinct P{sub i} peaks. During the second minute of exercise the pH values stabilized. The same pattern was seen when the signal was collected from the medial or lateral gastrocnemius. In four subjects only two distinct P{sub i} peaks were observed. The P{sub i} peaks had differing relative areas in different subjects, but they were reproducible in each individual. This method allowed is to study the appearance and disappearance of the different P{sub i} peaks, together with the changes in pH. Because multiple P{sub i} peaks were seen in single muscles they most likely identify different muscle fiber types.« less

  4. Calf muscle involvement in Becker muscular dystrophy: when size does not matter.

    PubMed

    Monforte, Mauro; Mercuri, Eugenio; Laschena, Francesco; Ricci, Enzo; Tasca, Giorgio

    2014-12-15

    Calf hypertrophy is a common feature in Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), and it is still debated to which extent fatty degeneration or true muscle hypertrophy account for it. We wanted to investigate the relative contribution of these two components using a simple image analysis approach and their possible correlation with disease severity. Twenty-nine BMD patients' MRI scans were analyzed. A semiquantitative visual score assessing fatty replacement of calf muscles (calf MRI score, CMS) was calculated and correlated with the cross sectional area (CSA) of lower leg posterior compartment muscles, digitally measured on acquired images. The correlation between CSA and CMS was not significant. CMS in contrast correlated with disease severity (p<0.001) while CSA did not (p=0.969). In BMD, a major contribution to calf hypertrophy is provided by real muscle hypertrophy rather than by fatty degeneration. CMS appears to be a potential surrogate marker of disease severity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Calf muscle density is independently associated with physical function in overweight and obese older adults.

    PubMed

    Scott, David; Shore-Lorenti, Catherine; McMillan, Lachlan B; Mesinovic, Jakub; Clark, Ross A; Hayes, Alan; Sanders, Kerrie M; Duque, Gustavo; Ebeling, Peter R

    2018-03-01

    To determine whether associations of calf muscle density with physical function are independent of other determinants of functional decline in overweight and obese older adults. This was a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study of 85 community-dwelling overweight and obese adults (mean±SD age 62.8±7.9 years; BMI 32.3±6.1 kg/m2; 58% women). Peripheral quantitative computed tomography assessed mid-calf muscle density (66% tibial length) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry determined visceral fat area. Fasting glucose, Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were analysed. Physical function assessments included hand grip and knee extension strength, balance path length (computerised posturography), stair climb test, Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and self-reported falls efficacy (Modified Falls Efficacy Scale; M-FES). Visceral fat area, not muscle density, was independently associated with CRP and fasting glucose (B=0.025; 95% CI 0.009-0.042 and B=0.009; 0.001-0.017, respectively). Nevertheless, higher muscle density was independently associated with lower path length and stair climb time, and higher SPPB and M-FES scores (all P⟨0.05). Visceral fat area, fasting glucose and CRP did not mediate these associations. Higher calf muscle density predicts better physical function in overweight and obese older adults independent of insulin resistance, visceral adiposity or inflammation.

  6. Functional roles of the calf and vastus muscles in locomotion.

    PubMed

    Brandell, B R

    1977-04-01

    Simultaneous and synchronized electromyography and cinematography were used to record the co-ordination of calf and vastus muscle activity with the angular motions of the segments and joints of the lower limb in two female and three male subjects, while each performed one complete series of tests in which they walked at 2.5, 3.2 and 4.2 mph on a treadmill, which was level, or held at upward tilts of 5 and 10 degrees. The raw EMG recordings were also integrated into uniform pulses, which were electronically counted in 5 second time blocks for each of the walking conditions tested. The objectives of this study were to: 1) quantitatively measure the relative increases of EMG activity in thses two groups of muscles under the various degrees of stress, which resulted from walking at increased speeds and degrees of upward tilt, and 2) correlate these gross quantitative relationships of activity with the patterns of co-ordination found between these two groups of muscles under the corresponding stressed conditions of walking. The results of this study indicate that although with increases of speed and upward tilt the absolute values of integrated EMG increased more for the calf than for the vastus muscles, the relative increases of EMG were consistently greater for the vasti, which reached their peak intensity of activity at moments during the walking stride, when their knee extending action stretched the gastrocnemius heads across the back of the knee joint, and thereby assisted the calf muscles lift the heel, and plantar flex the ankle joint--the most essential actions for producing the push-off and thrust in the normal walking stride.

  7. Diffusive sensitivity to muscle architecture: a magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging study of the human calf.

    PubMed

    Galbán, Craig J; Maderwald, Stefan; Uffmann, Kai; de Greiff, Armin; Ladd, Mark E

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the diffusive properties of adjacent muscles at rest, and to determine the relationship between diffusive and architectural properties, which are task-specific to muscles. The principle, second, and third eigenvalues, trace of the diffusion tensor, and two anisotropic parameters, ellipsoid eccentricity (e) and fractional anisotropy (FA), of various muscles in the human calf were calculated by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Linear correlations of the calculated parameters to the muscle physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), which is proportional to maximum muscle force, were performed to ascertain any linear relation between muscle architecture and diffusivity. Images of the left calf were acquired from six healthy male volunteers. Seven muscles were investigated in this study. These comprised the soleus, lateral gastrocnemius, medial gastrocnemius, posterior tibialis, anterior tibialis, extensor digitorum longus, and peroneus longus. All data were presented as the mean and standard error of the mean (SEM). In general, differences in diffusive parameter values occurred primarily between functionally different muscles. A strong correlation was also found between PCSA and the third eigenvalue, e, and FA. A mathematical derivation revealed a linear relationship between PCSA and the third eigenvalue as a result of their dependence on the average radius of all fibers within a single muscle. These findings demonstrated the ability of DTI to differentiate between functionally different muscles in the same region of the body on the basis of their diffusive properties.

  8. [Prevalence of calf muscle cramps and influencing factors for pregnant women in China during 2010-2012].

    PubMed

    Duan, Y F; Wang, J; Jiang, S; Bi, Y; Pang, X H; Yin, S A; Yang, Z Y

    2018-01-06

    muscle cramps in the high vegetables and fruits pattern and high dairy pattern was 1.13 (0.91-1.41), and 1.18 (0.76-1.81), respectively, comparing with the relatively balanced pattern. Conclusion: The prevalence of calf muscle cramps was relatively high in Chinese pregnant women, which was significantly different among three trimesters. The residential areas, occupation, and pregnancy-induced hypertension might be related to the prevalence of calf muscle cramps. However, there was no significant difference among different dietary patterns.

  9. Calf Muscle Performance Deficits Remain 7 Years After an Achilles Tendon Rupture.

    PubMed

    Brorsson, Annelie; Grävare Silbernagel, Karin; Olsson, Nicklas; Nilsson Helander, Katarina

    2018-02-01

    Optimizing calf muscle performance seems to play an important role in minimizing impairments and symptoms after an Achilles tendon rupture (ATR). The literature lacks long-term follow-up studies after ATR that describe calf muscle performance over time. The primary aim was to evaluate calf muscle performance and patient-reported outcomes at a mean of 7 years after ATR in patients included in a prospective, randomized controlled trial. A secondary aim was to evaluate whether improvement in calf muscle performance continued after the 2-year follow-up. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Sixty-six subjects (13 women, 53 men) with a mean age of 50 years (SD, 8.5 years) were evaluated at a mean of 7 years (SD, 1 year) years after their ATR. Thirty-four subjects had surgical treatment and 32 had nonsurgical treatment. Patient-reported outcomes were evaluated with Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) and Physical Activity Scale (PAS). Calf muscle performance was evaluated with single-leg standing heel-rise test, concentric strength power heel-rise test, and single-legged hop for distance. Limb Symmetry Index (LSI = injured side/healthy side × 100) was calculated for side-to-side differences. Seven years after ATR, the injured side showed decreased values in all calf muscle performance tests ( P < .001-.012). Significant improvement in calf muscle performance did not continue after the 2-year follow-up. Heel-rise height increased significantly ( P = .002) between the 1-year (10.8 cm) and the 7-year (11.5 cm) follow-up assessments. The median ATRS was 96 (of a possible score of 100) and the median PAS was 4 (of a possible score of 6), indicating minor patient-reported symptoms and fairly high physical activity. No significant differences were found in calf muscle performance or patient-reported outcomes between the treatment groups except for the LSI for heel-rise repetitions. Continued deficits in calf muscle endurance and strength remained 7 years after ATR. No

  10. Heavy-load eccentric calf muscle training for the treatment of chronic Achilles tendinosis.

    PubMed

    Alfredson, H; Pietilä, T; Jonsson, P; Lorentzon, R

    1998-01-01

    We prospectively studied the effect of heavy-load eccentric calf muscle training in 15 recreational athletes (12 men and 3 women; mean age, 44.3 +/- 7.0 years) who had the diagnosis of chronic Achilles tendinosis (degenerative changes) with a long duration of symptoms despite conventional nonsurgical treatment. Calf muscle strength and the amount of pain during activity (recorded on a visual analog scale) were measured before onset of training and after 12 weeks of eccentric training. At week 0, all patients had Achilles tendon pain not allowing running activity, and there was significantly lower eccentric and concentric calf muscle strength on the injured compared with the noninjured side. After the 12-week training period, all 15 patients were back at their preinjury levels with full running activity. There was a significant decrease in pain during activity, and the calf muscle strength on the injured side had increased significantly and did not differ significantly from that of the noninjured side. A comparison group of 15 recreational athletes with the same diagnosis and a long duration of symptoms had been treated conventionally, i.e., rest, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, changes of shoes or orthoses, physical therapy, and in all cases also with ordinary training programs. In no case was the conventional treatment successful, and all patients were ultimately treated surgically. Our treatment model with heavy-load eccentric calf muscle training has a very good short-term effect on athletes in their early forties.

  11. Muscle cramps in the calf as presenting symptom of sarcoidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, M; Dijkmans, B A; Eulderink, F

    1991-01-01

    A patient is described, who presented with pain in the calf due to a palpable nodule as the presenting symptom of sarcoidosis. The patient was treated with rest and diclofenac, followed by intralesional injections with triamcinolone hexacetonide and became free from pain. Images PMID:1994868

  12. CONGENITAL NUTRITIONAL MYODEGENERATION (WHITE MUSCLE DISEASE) IN A GIRAFFE ( GIRAFFA CAMELOPARDALIS) CALF.

    PubMed

    Bos, Jan H; Klip, Fokko C; Kik, Marja J L

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that vitamin E and selenium deficiencies in domestic ruminants can lead to white muscle disease. After a clinically normal gestation period at Ouwehand Zoo in the Netherlands, a newborn giraffe ( Giraffa camelopardalis) calf showed clinical signs of white muscle disease almost immediately after birth. The calf was rejected by the mother and was euthanized 3 days later because of deterioration of clinical signs. At necropsy, pulmonary edema and pallor of skeletal and heart muscles was noted. Histologically, there was hyaline degeneration of skeletal muscle myocytes and pulmonary edema. Blood concentrations of vitamin E were ≤ 0.7 mg/L. Based on clinical, biochemical, and gross and microscopic pathological findings, congenital nutritional myodegeneration was diagnosed. This case of neonatal white muscle disease is particularly remarkable given that the diet of the dam contained more than the recommended amount of vitamin E.

  13. Improving the spectral resolution and spectral fitting of (1) H MRSI data from human calf muscle by the SPREAD technique.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhengchao; Zhang, Yudong; Liu, Feng; Duan, Yunsuo; Kangarlu, Alayar; Peterson, Bradley S

    2014-11-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ((1) H MRSI) has been used for the in vivo measurement of intramyocellular lipids (IMCLs) in human calf muscle for almost two decades, but the low spectral resolution between extramyocellular lipids (EMCLs) and IMCLs, partially caused by the magnetic field inhomogeneity, has hindered the accuracy of spectral fitting. The purpose of this paper was to enhance the spectral resolution of (1) H MRSI data from human calf muscle using the SPREAD (spectral resolution amelioration by deconvolution) technique and to assess the influence of improved spectral resolution on the accuracy of spectral fitting and on in vivo measurement of IMCLs. We acquired MRI and (1) H MRSI data from calf muscles of three healthy volunteers. We reconstructed spectral lineshapes of the (1) H MRSI data based on field maps and used the lineshapes to deconvolve the measured MRS spectra, thereby eliminating the line broadening caused by field inhomogeneities and improving the spectral resolution of the (1) H MRSI data. We employed Monte Carlo (MC) simulations with 200 noise realizations to measure the variations of spectral fitting parameters and used an F-test to evaluate the significance of the differences of the variations between the spectra before SPREAD and after SPREAD. We also used Cramer-Rao lower bounds (CRLBs) to assess the improvements of spectral fitting after SPREAD. The use of SPREAD enhanced the separation between EMCL and IMCL peaks in (1) H MRSI spectra from human calf muscle. MC simulations and F-tests showed that the use of SPREAD significantly reduced the standard deviations of the estimated IMCL peak areas (p < 10(-8) ), and the CRLBs were strongly reduced (by ~37%). Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Sweating response to passive stretch of the calf muscle during activation of forearm muscle metaboreceptors in heated humans.

    PubMed

    Amano, Tatsuro; Ichinose, Masashi; Nishiyasu, Takeshi; Inoue, Yoshimitsu; Koga, Shunsaku; Miwa, Mikio; Kondo, Narihiko

    2014-05-15

    Activation of muscle metaboreceptors and mechanoreceptors has been shown to independently influence the sweating response, while their integrative control effects remain unclear. We examined the sweating response when the two muscle receptors are concurrently activated in different limbs, as well as the blood pressure response. In total, 27 young males performed passive calf muscle stretches (muscle mechanoreceptor activation) for 30 s in a semisupine position with and without postisometric handgrip exercise muscle ischemia (PEMI, muscle metaboreceptor activation) at exercise intensities of 35 and 50% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) under hot conditions (ambient temperature, 35°C, relative humidity, 50%). Passive calf muscle stretching alone increased the mean sweating rate significantly on the forehead, chest, and thigh (SRmean) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), but not the heart rate (HR), from prestretching levels by 0.04 ± 0.01 mg·cm(2)·min(-1), 4.0 ± 1.3 mmHg (P < 0.05), and -1.0 ± 0.5 beats/min (P > 0.05), respectively. The SRmean and MAP during PEMI were significantly higher than those at rest. The passive calf muscle stretch during PEMI increased MAP significantly by 3.4 ± 1.0 and 2.0 ± 0.7 mmHg for 35 and 50% of MVC, respectively (P < 0.05), but not that of SRmean or HR at either exercise intensity. These results suggest that sweating and blood pressure responses to concurrent activation of the two muscle receptors in different limbs differ and that the influence of calf muscle mechanoreceptor activation alone on the sweating response disappears during forearm muscle metaboreceptor activation. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the calf muscle mass and architecture in elderly patients with and without sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Kuyumcu, Mehmet Emin; Halil, Meltem; Kara, Özgür; Çuni, Bledjan; Çağlayan, Gökhan; Güven, Serdar; Yeşil, Yusuf; Arık, Güneş; Yavuz, Burcu Balam; Cankurtaran, Mustafa; Özçakar, Levent

    2016-01-01

    To sonographically assess the muscle mass and architecture of sarcopenic elderly subjects, and to explore the utility of ultrasound (US) measurements in predicting sarcopenia. One hundred elderly subjects were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Mean age value of our study population was 73.08±6.18years. The diagnosis of sarcopenia was confirmed by measuring fat-free mass index (using bioelectrical impedance analysis) and handgrip strength. Calf circumference was measured and US evaluations comprised bilateral gastrocnemius muscle (MG) thickness, fascicle length and pennate angles; subcutaneous fat and dermis thicknesses in the calf. Bilateral muscle thickness and fascicle length values were significantly lower in patients with sarcopenia (both p<0.05). Sarcopenic and nonsarcopenic subjects had similar pennate angles, subcutaneous fat and dermis thicknesses. Median thickness ratio (100×t (MG)/[t (subcutaneous tissue)+t (dermis)+t (MG)]) values were 64% (40-88%) in the right and 64% (38-86%) in the left calf. Bilateral MG thickness and fascicle length values showed high sensitivity in predicting sarcopenia (all values>76.92%). Gastrocnemius muscle thickness and fascicle length values are lower in sarcopenic elderly and these two parameters can serve as alternative measurements for predicting/quantifying sarcopenia. Calf circumference measurements alone may not be appropriate for assessing sarcopenia. Instead, US imaging can conveniently be used to evaluate different compartments of the musculoskelal system in (sarcopenic) elderly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Relative strengths of the calf muscles based on MRI volume measurements.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Clifford L; Thawait, Gaurav K; Kwon, John Y; Machado, Antonio; Boyle, James W; Campbell, John; Carrino, John A

    2012-05-01

    In 1985, Silver et al. published a cadaver study which determined the relative order of strength of the muscles in the calf. Muscle strength, which is proportional to volume, was obtained by dissecting out the individual muscles, weighing them, and then multiplying by the specific gravity. No similar studies have been performed using {\\it in vivo} measurements of muscle volume. Ten normal subjects underwent 3-Tesla MRI's of both lower extremities using non-fat-saturated T2 SPACE sequences. The volume for each muscle was determined by tracing the muscle contour on sequential axial images and then interpolating the volume using imaging software. The results from this study differ from Silver's original article. The lateral head of the gastrocnemius was found to be stronger than the tibialis anterior muscle. The FHL and EDL muscles were both stronger than the peroneus longus. There was no significant difference in strength between the peroneus longus and brevis muscles. This revised order of muscle strengths in the calf based on in vivo MRI findings may assist surgeons in determining the optimal tendons to transfer in order to address muscle weakness and deformity.

  17. Comparison of calf muscle architecture between Asian children with spastic cerebral palsy and typically developing peers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinling; Guan, Buyun; Tang, Hongmei

    2018-01-01

    Objective To compare the muscle thickness, fascicle length, and pennation angle of the gastrocnemius, soleus, and tibialis anterior between Asian children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and typically developing (TD) peers. Methods This cross-sectional study involved a total of 72 children with hemiplegic CP (n = 24), and diplegic CP (n = 24) and their TD peers (n = 24). Muscle architecture was measured at rest using ultrasound. Clinical measures included gross motor function and a modified Ashworth scale. Results The thicknesses of the tibialis anterior and medial gastrocnemius muscles were smaller in the affected calf of children with CP (p<0.05) than in those of their TD peers. Additionally, the lengths of the lateral gastrocnemius and soleus fascicle were shorter (p<0.05) in children with diplegic CP than in their TD peers. The fascicle length was shorter in the affected calf of children with CP (p<0.05) than in the calves of their TD peers or the unaffected calf of children with hemiplegic CP. However, the length of the lateral gastrocnemius fascicle was similar between the two legs of children with hemiplegic CP. The pennation angles of the medial gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were larger (p<0.05) in the affected calf in children with hemiplegic CP than in the calves of their TD peers. The fascicle length of the lateral gastrocnemius and the thickness of the soleus muscle were positively correlated with gross motor function scores in children with CP (p<0.05). Conclusions Muscle thickness and fascicle length were lower in the affected tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, and soleus in children with spastic CP. These changes may limit the ability to stand and walk, and indicate a need to strengthen the affected muscle. PMID:29304114

  18. Comparison of calf muscle architecture between Asian children with spastic cerebral palsy and typically developing peers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; He, Lu; Xu, Kaishou; Li, Jinling; Guan, Buyun; Tang, Hongmei

    2018-01-01

    To compare the muscle thickness, fascicle length, and pennation angle of the gastrocnemius, soleus, and tibialis anterior between Asian children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and typically developing (TD) peers. This cross-sectional study involved a total of 72 children with hemiplegic CP (n = 24), and diplegic CP (n = 24) and their TD peers (n = 24). Muscle architecture was measured at rest using ultrasound. Clinical measures included gross motor function and a modified Ashworth scale. The thicknesses of the tibialis anterior and medial gastrocnemius muscles were smaller in the affected calf of children with CP (p<0.05) than in those of their TD peers. Additionally, the lengths of the lateral gastrocnemius and soleus fascicle were shorter (p<0.05) in children with diplegic CP than in their TD peers. The fascicle length was shorter in the affected calf of children with CP (p<0.05) than in the calves of their TD peers or the unaffected calf of children with hemiplegic CP. However, the length of the lateral gastrocnemius fascicle was similar between the two legs of children with hemiplegic CP. The pennation angles of the medial gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were larger (p<0.05) in the affected calf in children with hemiplegic CP than in the calves of their TD peers. The fascicle length of the lateral gastrocnemius and the thickness of the soleus muscle were positively correlated with gross motor function scores in children with CP (p<0.05). Muscle thickness and fascicle length were lower in the affected tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, and soleus in children with spastic CP. These changes may limit the ability to stand and walk, and indicate a need to strengthen the affected muscle.

  19. Sport socks do not enhance calf muscle pump function but inelastic wraps do.

    PubMed

    Partsch, H; Mosti, G

    2014-12-01

    Aim of the study was to measure the effect of elastic and inelastic compression on calf muscle pump function in healthy male athletes. This was an experimental study which included 21 healthy male athletes. The ejection fraction (EF) of the venous calf pump was measured comparing the effects of a variety of compression materials: 1) sport compression stockings; 2) light zinc paste bandages; 3) sport compression stockings with additional Velcro® wraps over the calf. The influence of sport stocking and wraps on the venous calibre at the largest calf circumference in the lying and standing position was investigated using MRI. Inelastic compression exerting a median pressure in the standing position of 37.5 mmHg (zinc paste) and 48 mmHg (loosely applied straps over a sport stocking) achieved a significant increase of EF up to 100%. Sport stockings alone with a standing pressure of 19-24 mmHg did not show a significant change of EF. MRI demonstrated some venous narrowing in the lying but not in the standing position. By wrapping inelastic straps over the stocking an emptying of the veins in the lying and a considerable narrowing in the standing position could be observed. Venous calf pump function in athletes is not influenced by elastic sport stockings, but inelastic wraps either alone or applied over sport stockings lead to a significant enhancement.

  20. Effects of post-fracture non-weight-bearing immobilization on muscle atrophy, intramuscular and intermuscular adipose tissues in the thigh and calf.

    PubMed

    Yoshiko, Akito; Yamauchi, Koun; Kato, Takayuki; Ishida, Koji; Koike, Teruhiko; Oshida, Yoshiharu; Akima, Hiroshi

    2018-06-09

    Disuse and/or a non-weight-bearing condition changes muscle composition, with decreased skeletal muscle tissue and increased fat within (intramuscular adipose tissue, IntraMAT) and between (intermuscular adipose tissue, InterMAT) given muscles. Excessive adipose tissue contributes to dysfunctional and metabolically impaired muscle. How these adipose tissues change during orthopedic treatment (e.g., cast immobilization, daily use of crutches) is not well documented. This study aimed to quantify changes in IntraMAT, InterMAT, and thigh and calf muscle tissue during orthopedic treatment. We studied 8 patients with fifth metatarsal bone or fibular fractures. The ankle joint involved underwent plaster casting for approximately 4 weeks, with crutches used during that time. Axial T1-weighted MRI at the mid-thigh and a 30% proximal site at the calf were obtained to measure IntraMAT and InterMAT cross-sectional areas (CSAs) and skeletal muscle tissue CSA before treatment and 4 weeks afterward. Thigh and calf muscle tissue CSAs were significantly decreased from before to after treatment: thigh, 85.8 ± 7.6 to 77.1 ± 7.3 cm 2 ; calf, 53.3 ± 5.5 to 48.9 ± 5.0 cm 2 (p < 0.05). None of the IntraMAT or InterMAT changes was statistically significant. There was a relation between the percentage change of thigh IntraMAT CSA and muscle tissue CSA (r s  = -0.86, p < 0.01). The 4 weeks of treatment primarily induced skeletal muscle atrophy with less of an effect on IntraMAT or InterMAT. There is a risk of increasing IntraMAT relatively by decreasing skeletal muscle tissue size during orthopedic treatment.

  1. Transcutaneous calf-muscle electro-stimulation: A prospective treatment for diabetic claudicants?

    PubMed

    Ellul, Christian; Gatt, Alfred

    2016-11-01

    First-line therapy for claudicants with diabetes include supervised exercise programmes to improve walking distance. However, exercise comes with a number of barriers and may be contraindicated in certain conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether calf-muscle electro-stimulation improves claudication distance. A prospective, one-group, pretest-posttest study design was employed on 40 participants living with type 2 diabetes mellitus, peripheral artery disease (ankle-brachial pressure index < 0.90) and calf-muscle claudication. Calf-muscle electro-stimulation of varying frequencies (1-250 Hz) was applied on both ischaemic limbs (N = 80) for 1 h per day for 12 consecutive weeks. The absolute claudication distance was measured at baseline and following the intervention. The cohort (n = 40; 30 males; mean age = 71 years; mean ankle-brachial pressure index = 0.70) registered a mean baseline absolute claudication distance of 333.71 m (standard deviation = 208). Following 91.68 days (standard deviation = 6.23) of electrical stimulation, a significant mean increase of 137 m (standard deviation = 136) in the absolute claudication distance was registered (p = 0.000, Wilcoxon signed rank test). Electrical stimulation of varying low to high frequencies on ischaemic calf muscles significantly increased the maximal walking capacity in claudicants with type 2 diabetes. This therapeutic approach may be considered in patients with impaired exercise tolerance or as an adjunct treatment modality. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Absolute quantification of carnosine in human calf muscle by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdemir, Mahir S.; Reyngoudt, Harmen; DeDeene, Yves; Sazak, Hakan S.; Fieremans, Els; Delputte, Steven; D'Asseler, Yves; Derave, Wim; Lemahieu, Ignace; Achten, Eric

    2007-12-01

    Carnosine has been shown to be present in the skeletal muscle and in the brain of a variety of animals and humans. Despite the various physiological functions assigned to this metabolite, its exact role remains unclear. It has been suggested that carnosine plays a role in buffering in the intracellular physiological pHi range in skeletal muscle as a result of accepting hydrogen ions released in the development of fatigue during intensive exercise. It is thus postulated that the concentration of carnosine is an indicator for the extent of the buffering capacity. However, the determination of the concentration of this metabolite has only been performed by means of muscle biopsy, which is an invasive procedure. In this paper, we utilized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) in order to perform absolute quantification of carnosine in vivo non-invasively. The method was verified by phantom experiments and in vivo measurements in the calf muscles of athletes and untrained volunteers. The measured mean concentrations in the soleus and the gastrocnemius muscles were found to be 2.81 ± 0.57/4.8 ± 1.59 mM (mean ± SD) for athletes and 2.58 ± 0.65/3.3 ± 0.32 mM for untrained volunteers, respectively. These values are in agreement with previously reported biopsy-based results. Our results suggest that 1H MRS can provide an alternative method for non-invasively determining carnosine concentration in human calf muscle in vivo.

  3. Bilateral idiopathic calf muscle hypertrophy: an exceptional cause of unsightly leg curvature.

    PubMed

    Herlin, C; Chaput, B; Rivier, F; Doucet, J C; Bigorre, M; Captier, G

    2015-04-01

    The authors present the management of a young female patient who presented with longstanding bilateral calf muscle hypertrophy, with no known cause. Taking into account the patient's wishes and the fact that the hypertrophy was mainly located in the posteromedial compartment, we chose to carry out a subtotal bilateral resection of medial gastrocnemius muscles. This procedure was performed with an harmonic scalpel, permitting a excellent cosmetic result while avoiding complications or functional impairment. After a reviewing of the commonly used techniques, the authors discuss the chosen surgical approach taking into account its clinical particularity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. A 1D pulse wave propagation model of the hemodynamics of calf muscle pump function.

    PubMed

    Keijsers, J M T; Leguy, C A D; Huberts, W; Narracott, A J; Rittweger, J; van de Vosse, F N

    2015-07-01

    The calf muscle pump is a mechanism which increases venous return and thereby compensates for the fluid shift towards the lower body during standing. During a muscle contraction, the embedded deep veins collapse and venous return increases. In the subsequent relaxation phase, muscle perfusion increases due to increased perfusion pressure, as the proximal venous valves temporarily reduce the distal venous pressure (shielding). The superficial and deep veins are connected via perforators, which contain valves allowing flow in the superficial-to-deep direction. The aim of this study is to investigate and quantify the physiological mechanisms of the calf muscle pump, including the effect of venous valves, hydrostatic pressure, and the superficial venous system. Using a one-dimensional pulse wave propagation model, a muscle contraction is simulated by increasing the extravascular pressure in the deep venous segments. The hemodynamics are studied in three different configurations: a single artery-vein configuration with and without valves and a more detailed configuration including a superficial vein. Proximal venous valves increase effective venous return by 53% by preventing reflux. Furthermore, the proximal valves shielding function increases perfusion following contraction. Finally, the superficial system aids in maintaining the perfusion during the contraction phase and reduces the refilling time by 37%. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Electromyographic analysis of an eccentric calf muscle exercise in persons with and without Achilles tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Reid, Duncan; McNair, Peter J; Johnson, Shelley; Potts, Geoff; Witvrouw, Erik; Mahieu, Nele

    2012-08-01

    To compare surface electromyographic (EMG) activity of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles between persons with and without Achilles tendinopathy (AT) during an eccentric muscle exercise in different knee joint positions. Repeated measures design. Research laboratory. Participants (n = 18) diagnosed with AT and 18 control subjects were recruited. Gastrocnemius and soleus muscle activity was examined by surface (EMG) during extended and flexed knee joint conditions while performing the eccentric training technique. The EMG data were expressed as a percentage of a maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). EMG activity was notably higher (mean difference: 10%, effect size: 0.59) in those subjects with AT. Irrespective of the presence of AT, there was a significant interaction effect between muscle and joint position. The gastrocnemius muscle was significantly more active in the extended knee condition and soleus muscle activity was unchanged across joint positions. The results indicated that the presence of AT influenced calf muscle activity levels during performance of the eccentric exercise. There were differences in muscle activity during the extended and flexed knee conditions. This result does support performing Alfredson, Pietila, Jonsson, and Lorentzon (1998) eccentric exercise in an extended knee position but the specific effects of the knee flexed position on the Achilles tendon during eccentric exercise have yet to be determined, particularly in those with AT. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Achilles tendinosis and calf muscle strength. The effect of short-term immobilization after surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Alfredson, H; Pietilä, T; Ohberg, L; Lorentzon, R

    1998-01-01

    We prospectively studied calf muscle strength in 7 men and 4 women (mean age, 40.9 +/- 10.1 years) who had surgical treatment for chronic Achilles tendinosis. Surgery was followed by immobilization in a weightbearing below-the-knee plaster cast for 2 weeks followed by a stepwise increasing strength training program. Strength measurements (peak torque and total work) were done preoperatively (Week 0) and at 16, 26, and 52 weeks postoperatively. We measured isokinetic concentric plantar flexion strength at 90 and 225 deg/sec and eccentric flexion strength at 90 deg/sec on both the injured and noninjured sides. Preoperatively, concentric and eccentric strength were significantly lower on the injured side at 90 and 225 deg/sec. Postoperatively, concentric peak torque on the injured side decreased significantly between Weeks 0 and 16 and increased significantly between Weeks 26 and 52 at 90 deg/sec but was significantly lower than that on the noninjured side at all periods and at both velocities. The eccentric strength was significantly lower on the injured side at Week 26 but increased significantly until at Week 52 no significant differences between the sides could be demonstrated. It seems, therefore, that the recovery in concentric and eccentric calf muscle strength after surgery for Achilles tendinosis is slow. We saw no obvious advantages in recovery of muscle strength with a short immobilization time (2 weeks) versus a longer (6 weeks) period used in a previous study.

  7. Triggered intravoxel incoherent motion MRI for the assessment of calf muscle perfusion during isometric intermittent exercise.

    PubMed

    Mastropietro, Alfonso; Porcelli, Simone; Cadioli, Marcello; Rasica, Letizia; Scalco, Elisa; Gerevini, Simonetta; Marzorati, Mauro; Rizzo, Giovanna

    2018-06-01

    The main aim of this paper was to propose triggered intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) imaging sequences for the evaluation of perfusion changes in calf muscles before, during and after isometric intermittent exercise. Twelve healthy volunteers were involved in the study. The subjects were asked to perform intermittent isometric plantar flexions inside the MRI bore. MRI of the calf muscles was performed on a 3.0 T scanner and diffusion-weighted (DW) images were obtained using eight different b values (0 to 500 s/mm 2 ). Acquisitions were performed at rest, during exercise and in the subsequent recovery phase. A motion-triggered echo-planar imaging DW sequence was implemented to avoid movement artifacts. Image quality was evaluated using the average edge strength (AES) as a quantitative metric to assess the motion artifact effect. IVIM parameters (diffusion D, perfusion fraction f and pseudo-diffusion D*) were estimated using a segmented fitting approach and evaluated in gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. No differences were observed in quality of IVIM images between resting state and triggered exercise, whereas the non-triggered images acquired during exercise had a significantly lower value of AES (reduction of more than 20%). The isometric intermittent plantar-flexion exercise induced an increase of all IVIM parameters (D by 10%; f by 90%; D* by 124%; fD* by 260%), in agreement with the increased muscle perfusion occurring during exercise. Finally, IVIM parameters reverted to the resting values within 3 min during the recovery phase. In conclusion, the IVIM approach, if properly adapted using motion-triggered sequences, seems to be a promising method to investigate muscle perfusion during isometric exercise. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. An epiphyseal stress fracture of the foot and shin splints in an anomalous calf muscle in a runner.

    PubMed

    Percy, E C; Gamble, F O

    1980-07-01

    The following case is presented as one of unusual foot and leg lesions encountered in an adolescent long-distance runner. The associated problems of a first metatarsal Salter Harris type II epiphyseal stress fracture, and an accessory calf muscle with "shin splints" in the contralateral leg are discussed. Treatment of these conditions is outlined with eventual return to full function by the athlete.

  9. The effect of calf muscle stretching exercises on ankle joint dorsiflexion and dynamic foot pressures, force and related temporal parameters.

    PubMed

    Macklin, K; Healy, A; Chockalingam, N

    2012-03-01

    Previous research has found that ankle joint equinus can lead to foot pathologies. Calf stretching exercises are a common treatment prescription; however, no dynamic quantitative data on its effectiveness is available. To investigate the effect of calf muscle stretching on ankle joint dorsiflexion and subsequent changes within dynamic forefoot peak plantar pressures (PPP), force and temporal parameters. Thirteen runners with ankle joint equinus were required to perform calf muscle stretching twice a day (morning and evening) on a Flexeramp. Measurements were collected on day 1, week 4 and week 8. A repeated measures ANOVA with Bonferroni-adjusted post hoc comparisons was used to assess differences across the three data collection sessions. Findings indicated that the calf stretching program increased ankle joint dorsiflexion significantly (from 5° to 16°, p≤0.05). The adaptive kinetics brought about by the increased ankle joint range of motion included significantly increased forefoot PPP and maximum force during stance phase but decreased time between heel contact and heel lift and total stance phase time. The calf stretching programme used in this study was found to increase ankle joint dorsiflexion and hence can be used for first line conservative management of ankle equinus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of repeated ankle stretching on calf muscle-tendon and ankle biomechanical properties in stroke survivors

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fan; Ren, Yupeng; Roth, Elliot J.; Harvey, Richard; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate changes in active and passive biomechanical properties of the calf muscle-tendon unit induced by controlled ankle stretching in stroke survivors. Methods Ten stroke survivors with ankle spasticity/contracture and ten healthy control subjects received intervention of 60-min ankle stretching. Joint biomechanical properties including resistance torque, stiffness and index of hysteresis were evaluated pre- and post-intervention. Achilles tendon length was measured using ultrasonography. The force output of the triceps surae muscles was characterized via the torque-angle relationship, by stimulating the calf muscles at a controlled intensity across different ankle positions. Findings Compared to healthy controls, the ankle position corresponding to the peak torque of the stroke survivors was shifted towards plantar flexion (P<0.001). Stroke survivors showed significantly higher resistance torques and joint stiffness (P<0.05), and these higher resistances were reduced significantly after the stretching intervention, especially in dorsiflexion (P = 0.013). Stretching significantly improved the force output of the impaired calf muscles in stroke survivors under matched stimulations (P<0.05). Ankle range of motion was also increased by stretching (P<0.001). Interpretation At the joint level, repeated stretching loosened the ankle joint with increased passive joint range of motion and decreased joint stiffness. At the muscle-tendon level, repeated stretching improved calf muscle force output, which might be associated with decreased muscle fascicle stiffness, increased fascicle length and shortening of the Achilles tendon. The study provided evidence of improvement in muscle tendon properties through stretching intervention. PMID:21211873

  11. Effects of integrated treatment with LED and microcurrent on muscle tone and stiffness in the calf muscle during moderate aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang-Wan; Lee, Jeong-Woo

    2018-06-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effects of the therapeutic device combined with LED and microcurrent (MC) on muscle tone and stiffness in the calf muscle after its application during moderate aerobic exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy adult subjects were randomized to either the test group of the therapeutic device combined with LED and MC or the control group, and they walked on a 10%-sloped treadmill with a 5 km/hr speed for 30 minutes. Each of the subjects in the test group performed treadmill exercise with the therapeutic device attached to the edge of his or her calf muscle. After the exercise, the muscle tone and stiffness at the edge of the calf muscle were measured. [Results] With respect to the muscle tone, a statistically significant difference was found between the two groups only 5 minutes after the exercise. Concerning muscle stiffness, significant differences were shown between the two groups right after the exercise and 5 minutes after the exercise. [Conclusion] Integrated treatment with LED and MC on is considered helpful for lowering the muscle tone 5 minutes after the exercise, and for lowering the muscle stiffness right after the exercise and 5 minutes after the exercise.

  12. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Measurements of Calf Muscle during Walking at Simulated Reduced Gravity - Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellerby, Gwenn E. C.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stroud, Leah; Norcross, Jason; Gernhardt, Michael; Soller, Babs R.

    2008-01-01

    Consideration for lunar and planetary exploration space suit design can be enhanced by investigating the physiologic responses of individual muscles during locomotion in reduced gravity. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides a non-invasive method to study the physiology of individual muscles in ambulatory subjects during reduced gravity simulations. PURPOSE: To investigate calf muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) and pH during reduced gravity walking at varying treadmill inclines and added mass conditions using NIRS. METHODS: Four male subjects aged 42.3 +/- 1.7 years (mean +/- SE) and weighing 77.9 +/- 2.4 kg walked at a moderate speed (3.2 +/- 0.2 km/h) on a treadmill at inclines of 0, 10, 20, and 30%. Unsuited subjects were attached to a partial gravity simulator which unloaded the subject to simulate body weight plus the additional weight of a space suit (121 kg) in lunar gravity (0.17G). Masses of 0, 11, 23, and 34 kg were added to the subject and then unloaded to maintain constant weight. Spectra were collected from the lateral gastrocnemius (LG), and SmO2 and pH were calculated using previously published methods (Yang et al. 2007 Optics Express ; Soller et al. 2008 J Appl Physiol). The effects of incline and added mass on SmO2 and pH were analyzed through repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS: SmO2 and pH were both unchanged by added mass (p>0.05), so data from trials at the same incline were averaged. LG SmO2 decreased significantly with increasing incline (p=0.003) from 61.1 +/- 2.0% at 0% incline to 48.7 +/- 2.6% at 30% incline, while pH was unchanged by incline (p=0.12). CONCLUSION: Increasing the incline (and thus work performed) during walking causes the LG to extract more oxygen from the blood supply, presumably to support the increased metabolic cost of uphill walking. The lack of an effect of incline on pH may indicate that, while the intensity of exercise has increased, the LG has not reached a level of work above the anaerobic threshold. In these

  13. Effects of isokinetic calf muscle exercise program on muscle strength and venous function in patients with chronic venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Ercan, Sabriye; Çetin, Cem; Yavuz, Turhan; Demir, Hilmi M; Atalay, Yurdagül B

    2018-05-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to observe the change of the ankle joint range of motion, the muscle strength values measured with an isokinetic dynamometer, pain scores, quality of life scale, and venous return time in chronic venous insufficiency diagnosed patients by prospective follow-up after 12-week exercise program including isokinetic exercises. Methods The patient group of this study comprised 27 patients (23 female, 4 male) who were diagnosed with chronic venous insufficiency. An exercise program including isokinetic exercise for the calf muscle was given to patients three days per week for 12 weeks. At the end of 12 weeks, five of the patients left the study due to inadequate compliance with the exercise program. As a result, control data of 22 patients were included. Ankle joint range of active motion, isokinetic muscle strength, pain, quality of life, and photoplethysmography measurements were assessed before starting and after the exercise program. Results Evaluating changes of the starting and control data depending on time showed that all isokinetic muscle strength measurement parameters, range of motion, and overall quality of life values of patients improved. Venous return time values have also increased significantly ( p < 0.05). Conclusion In conclusion, increase in muscle strength has been provided with exercise therapy in patients with chronic venous insufficiency. It has been determined that the increase in muscle strength affected the venous pump and this ensured improvement in venous function and range of motion of the ankle. In addition, it has been detected that pain reduced and quality of life improved after the exercise program.

  14. Bone mass in the calcaneus after heavy loaded eccentric calf-muscle training in recreational athletes with chronic achilles tendinosis.

    PubMed

    Alfredson, H; Nordström, P; Pietilä, T; Lorentzon, R

    1999-05-01

    In an ongoing prospective study of 14 recreational athletes (12 males and 2 females, mean age 44.2 +/- 7.1 years) with unilateral chronic Achilles tendinosis, we investigated the effect of treatment with heavy-loaded eccentric calf-muscle training. Pain during activity (recorded on a VAS scale) and isokinetic concentric and eccentric calf-muscle strength (peak torque at 90 degrees /second and 225 degrees /second) on the injured and noninjured side were evaluated. In this group of patients, we examined areal bone mineral density (BMD) of the calcaneus after 9 months (range 6-14 months) of training. BMD of the injured side (subjected to heavy-loaded eccentric training) was compared with BMD of the noninjured side. Before onset of heavy-loaded eccentric training, all patients had Achilles tendon pain which prohibited running activity, and significantly lower concentric and eccentric plantar flexion peak torque on the injured compared with the noninjured side. The training program consisted of 12 weeks of daily, heavy-loaded, eccentric calf-muscle training; thereafter the training was continued for 2-3 days/week. The clinical results were excellent-all 14 patients were back at their preinjury level with full running activity at the 3 month follow-up. The concentric and eccentric plantar flexion peak torque had increased significantly and did not significantly differ from the noninjured side at the 3 and 9 month follow-up. There were no significant side-to-side differences in BMD of the calcaneus. There was no significant relationship between BMD of the calcaneus and calf-muscle strength. As a comparison group, we used 10 recreational athletes (5 males and 5 females) mean age 40.9 years (range 26-55 years), who were selected for surgical treatment of chronic Achilles tendinosis localized at the 2-6 cm level. Their duration of symptoms and severity of disease were the same as in the experimental group. There were no significant side-to-side differences in BMD of the

  15. An epiphyseal stress fracture of the foot and shin splints in an anomalous calf muscle in a runner.

    PubMed Central

    Percy, E. C.; Gamble, F. O.

    1980-01-01

    The following case is presented as one of unusual foot and leg lesions encountered in an adolescent long-distance runner. The associated problems of a first metatarsal Salter Harris type II epiphyseal stress fracture, and an accessory calf muscle with "shin splints" in the contralateral leg are discussed. Treatment of these conditions is outlined with eventual return to full function by the athlete. Images p110-a Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7407448

  16. A physiological model for interpretation of arterial spin labeling reactive hyperemia of calf muscles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hou-Jen; Wright, Graham A

    2017-01-01

    To characterize and interpret arterial spin labeling (ASL) reactive hyperemia of calf muscles for a better understanding of the microcirculation in peripheral arterial disease (PAD), we present a physiological model incorporating oxygen transport, tissue metabolism, and vascular regulation mechanisms. The model demonstrated distinct effects between arterial stenoses and microvascular dysfunction on reactive hyperemia, and indicated a higher sensitivity of 2-minute thigh cuffing to microvascular dysfunction than 5-minute cuffing. The recorded perfusion responses in PAD patients (n = 9) were better differentiated from the normal subjects (n = 7) using the model-based analysis rather than characterization using the apparent peak and time-to-peak of the responses. The analysis results suggested different amounts of microvascular disease within the patient group. Overall, this work demonstrates a novel analysis method and facilitates understanding of the physiology involved in ASL reactive hyperemia. ASL reactive hyperemia with model-based analysis may be used as a noninvasive microvascular assessment in the presence of arterial stenoses, allowing us to look beyond the macrovascular disease in PAD. A subgroup who will have a poor prognosis after revascularization in the patients with critical limb ischemia may be associated with more severe microvascular diseases, which may potentially be identified using ASL reactive hyperemia.

  17. Association of Calf Muscle Pump Stimulation With Sleep Quality in Adults.

    PubMed

    Baniak, Lynn M; Pierce, Carolyn S; McLeod, Kenneth J; Chasens, Eileen R

    2016-12-01

    Prevention of lower extremity fluid pooling (LEFP) is associated with improved sleep quality. Physical activity and compression stockings are non-invasive methods used to manage LEFP, but both are associated with low adherence. Calf muscle pump (CMP) stimulation is an alternative and more convenient approach. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 11 participants between ages 45 and 65 with poor sleep quality. A within-person single-group pre-test-post-test design was used to evaluate changes in sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and functional outcomes sensitive to impaired sleep as measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale after 4 weeks of CMP stimulation. Statistical analysis included effect size (ES) calculations. After daily use of CMP stimulation, participants demonstrated improvement in overall sleep quality (ES = -.97) and a large reduction in daily disturbance from poor sleep (ES = -1.25). Moderate improvements were observed in daytime sleepiness (ES = -.53) and functional outcomes sensitive to sleepiness (ES = .49). Although causality could not be determined with this study design, these results support further research to determine whether CMP stimulation can improve sleep quality. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Simultaneous dynamic blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging of foot and calf muscles: aging effects at ischemia and postocclusive hyperemia in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kos, Sebastian; Klarhöfer, Markus; Aschwanden, Markus; Scheffler, Klaus; Jacob, Augustinus Ludwig; Bilecen, Deniz

    2009-11-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of simultaneous blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging of calf and foot muscles and investigate age-related changes of BOLD signal changes during ischemia and postocclusive hyperemia in healthy volunteers. In this study, 15 healthy elderly volunteers (mean age: 69.0 +/- 7.4 years) and 15 healthy young volunteers (mean age: 26.1 +/- 3.9 years) were enrolled. In both legs, simultaneous BOLD imaging of calf and foot muscles was performed at 1.5 Tesla. Short-term ischemia and consecutive reactive hyperemia were provoked by a cuff-compression paradigm. T2*-weighted signal time courses were obtained from foot and calf muscles simultaneously. Ischemia was assessed by T2* minimum ischemic value (MIV) and the time to half ischemic minimum (THIM). Reperfusion was assessed by the time to reach T2* half hyperemia peak (THHP). Reactive hyperemia was characterized by hyperemia peak value (HPV), time to peak (TTP), and relative T2* change from end of ischemia to HPV (deltaS). Parameter differences were assessed using a 2-sided Student t test. Dynamic BOLD measurement of foot and calf muscles was techniqually feasible and successful in all volunteers.In comparison, THIM was significantly longer in elderly than in young volunteers for calf (P < 0.01) muscles (young: 28.9 +/- 3.7 seconds; elderly: 57.8 +/- 31.4 seconds) and foot (P = 0.01) muscles (young: 36.8 +/- 25.5 seconds; elderly: 56.6 +/- 31.7 seconds). MIV relative to baseline T2*-signal was significantly (P < 0.01) lower in the elderly for calf (young: 96.0% +/- 2.6%; elderly: 91.3% +/- 4.4%) and foot (young: 95.8% +/- 2.5%; elderly: 91.1% +/- 8.2%) muscles. TTP was significantly (calf: P = 0.01; foot: P = 0.02) delayed in the elderly (elderly calf: 103.0 +/- 92.7 seconds and foot: 157.1 +/- 109.9 seconds vs. young calf: 54.8 +/- 42.1 seconds and foot: 95.1 +/- 77.6 seconds). HPV was significantly (calf: P < 0.01 and foot: P = 0.03) higher in (young calf: 114.1% +/- 7

  19. Assessment of diffusion tensor imaging indices in calf muscles following postural change from standing to supine position.

    PubMed

    Elzibak, Alyaa H; Noseworthy, Michael D

    2014-10-01

    To investigate whether postural change from erect to recumbent position affects calf muscle water diffusivity. Ten healthy adults (27.2 ± 4.9 years, 3 females) were imaged at baseline (following assumption of recumbent position), and after 34 min (session 2) and 64 min (session 3) of laying supine within a 3T MRI scanner. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) eigenvalues, fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were evaluated in five calf muscles (anterior and posterior tibialis and triceps surae) during each of the three imaging sessions. Significant decreases were observed in all of the eigenvalues and ADC in each of the muscles with postural change. These reductions ranged from 3.2 to 6.7% and 3.4 to 7.5% for the various DTI metrics, following 34 and 64 min of supine rest, respectively (P < 0.05). No significant differences were noted in ADC or eigenvalues between the second and third imaging sessions for any muscle. FA did not change significantly with postural manipulation in any muscle compartment. Diffusion tensor imaging indices were altered with postural change. As differences were not apparent between the latter two imaging sessions, we suggest that a short supine resting period (~34 min) is sufficient for muscle diffusivity to stabilize prior to quantitative MR imaging in healthy young adults.

  20. Research on the performance of the spastic calf muscle of young adults with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Lampe, Renee; Mitternacht, Jurgen

    2011-02-12

    The aim of this study was to find an objective graduation of pes equinus in infantile cerebral palsy, especially with regard to functional aspects, to allow a differentiated choice of the therapeutic options. Very often raises the question of whether a surgical lengthening of the Achilles tendon may let expect a functional improvement. For this documentation 17 patients with pes equinus and a diagnosis of spastic cerebral palsy, primarily of the lower limbs, and hemiplegia were examined first clinically and then by a procedure for calculating the functional kinetic parameters from an in-shoe plantar pressure distribution measurement (novel pedar-X system), which is used in many orthopedic practices and clinics as a standard measuring device. Using additional video motion analysis, the flexion in the ankle joint and the ankle joint torque were determined. From this the physical performance of the spastically shortened calf muscle was calculated. The course of the curves of torque and joint performance allows a functional classification of the pes equinus. Approximately three quarters of all pes equinus demonstrated functional activity of the most part of the normal push-off propulsion power. Even the rigid pes equinus was capable of performing push-off propulsion work, provided it converted energy that was absorbed during the heel-strike phase and released it again during the push-off phase. This suggests that the function of paretic ankle joint is better than its kinematics of motion. A heel strike with a pes equinus triggers via stretching stimuli in the muscle-ligament structure reflex motor functions, thereby causing the typical spastic gait pattern. This remarkable gait pattern is often evaluated as dysfunctional and as absolutely requiring correction. However, an aspect possibly neglected in this instance is the fact that this gait pattern may be efficient for the patient and may in fact be a suitable means allowing for economic locomotion despite the cerebral

  1. The effect of eccentric and concentric calf muscle training on Achilles tendon stiffness.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Dylan; Roskilly, Anna; Twycross-Lewis, Richard; Isinkaye, Tomide; Screen, Hazel; Woledge, Roger; Bader, Dan

    2011-03-01

    To compare in vivo effects of eccentric and concentric calf muscle training on Achilles tendon stiffness, in subjects without tendinopathy. Thirty-eight recreational athletes completed 6 weeks eccentric (6 males, 13 females, 21.6  ±  2.2 years) or concentric training (8 males, 11 females, 21.1  ±  2.0 years). Achilles tendon stiffness, tendon modulus and single-leg jump height were measured before and after intervention. Exercise adherence was recorded using a diary. All data are reported as mean  ±  SD. Groups were matched for height and weight but the eccentric training group were more active at baseline (P < 0.05). Tendon stiffness was higher in the eccentrically trained group at baseline compared to the concentrically trained group (20.9  ±  7.3 N/mm v 13.38  ±  4.66 N/mm; P = 0.001) and decreased significantly after eccentric training (to 17.2 ( ±  5.9) N/mm (P = 0.035)). There was no stiffness change in the concentric group (P = 0.405). Stiffness modulus showed similar changes to stiffness. An inverse correlation was found between initial, and subsequent, reduction in stiffness (r = -0.66). Jump height did not change and no correlation between stiffness change and adherence was observed in either group (r = 0.01). Six weeks of eccentric training can alter Achilles tendon stiffness while a matched concentric programme shows no similar effects. Studies in patients with Achilles tendinopathy are warranted.

  2. Deep massage to posterior calf muscles in combination with neural mobilization exercises as a treatment for heel pain: a pilot randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Saban, Bernice; Deutscher, Daniel; Ziv, Tomer

    2014-04-01

    Plantar heel pain syndrome (PHPS) is a common foot disorder; however, there is limited clinical evidence on which to base treatment. Repeated clinical observations indicating heel pain during heel rise and minisquat on the affected leg, involving activation of posterior calf muscles, formed the basis of this study. To compare deep massage therapy to posterior calf muscles and neural mobilization with a self-stretch exercise program (DMS) to a common treatment protocol of ultrasound therapy to the painful heel area with the same self-stretch exercises (USS). Patients with PHPS were assigned to a program of 8 treatments over a period of 4-6 weeks in a single-blind randomized clinical trial. Functional status (FS) at admission and discharge from therapy as measured by the Foot & Ankle Computerized Adaptive Test was the main outcome measure. Sixty-nine patients were included in the trial (mean age 53, standard deviation (SD) 13, range 25-86, 57% women), 36 received DMS treatment and 33 with USS. The overall group-by-time interaction for the mixed-model analysis of variance (ANOVA) was found statistically significant (p=0.034), with a change of (mean (confidence interval, CI)) 15 (9-21) and 6 (1-11) FS points for the DMS and USS groups, respectively. Data indicated that both treatment protocols resulted in an overall short-term improvement, however, DMS treatment was significantly more effective in treating PHPS than USS treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Stiff muscle fibers in calf muscles of patients with cerebral palsy lead to high passive muscle stiffness.

    PubMed

    Mathewson, Margie A; Chambers, Henry G; Girard, Paul J; Tenenhaus, Mayer; Schwartz, Alexandra K; Lieber, Richard L

    2014-12-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP), caused by an injury to the developing brain, can lead to alterations in muscle function. Subsequently, increased muscle stiffness and decreased joint range of motion are often seen in patients with CP. We examined mechanical and biochemical properties of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, which are involved in equinus muscle contracture. Passive mechanical testing of single muscle fibers from gastrocnemius and soleus muscle of patients with CP undergoing surgery for equinus deformity showed a significant increase in fiber stiffness (p<0.01). Bundles of fibers that included their surrounding connective tissues showed no stiffness difference (p=0.28).). When in vivo sarcomere lengths were measured and fiber and bundle stiffness compared at these lengths, both fibers and bundles of patients with CP were predicted to be much stiffer in vivo compared to typically developing (TD) individuals. Interestingly, differences in fiber and bundle stiffness were not explained by typical biochemical measures such as titin molecular weight (a giant protein thought to impact fiber stiffness) or collagen content (a proxy for extracellular matrix amount). We suggest that the passive mechanical properties of fibers and bundles are thus poorly understood. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Dynamic pushing on three frictional surfaces: maximum acceptable forces, cardiopulmonary and calf muscle metabolic responses in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Maikala, Rammohan V; Dempsey, Patrick G; Ciriello, Vincent M; O'Brien, Niall V

    2009-06-01

    Pushing is an important materials handling activity in many occupations; however, pushing-related physiological investigations are still in infancy. The purpose was to evaluate maximum acceptable forces and physiological responses while pushing on: treadmill (TREAD); plywood floor (PLY); and Teflon floor (TEF). Acceptable forces, cardiopulmonary and calf muscle oxygenation and blood volume responses were collected simultaneously while 12 men (age 39 +/- 13 years; height 178 +/- 6 cm; and body mass 91.5 +/- 16 kg) pushed for 2 h on each surface at their psychophysical workload. Participants selected higher forces on the PLY, resulting in higher pulmonary oxygen uptake compared to that of TEF (by approximately 9%) and TREAD (by approximately 18%). Pushing on the TEF demonstrated 50-56% lower blood volume changes and 1.5-1.8 times more oxygenation-force ratio than that for other surfaces. It is concluded that, to avoid a potential slip, participants were conservative in selecting acceptable forces to push on the slippery TEF. Part of this compensatory strategy on the TEF resulted in less muscle activity and, therefore, less demand for oxygen delivery to the calf muscle than for other surfaces. The present findings of significant force- and physiological-related differences in treadmill vs. high inertia pushcart clearly demonstrate that pushing experiments are essential to evaluate functional abilities of the workers.

  5. Recovery of calf muscle strength following acute achilles tendon rupture treatment: a comparison between minimally invasive surgery and conservative treatment.

    PubMed

    Metz, Roderik; van der Heijden, Geert J M G; Verleisdonk, Egbert-Jan M M; Tamminga, Rob; van der Werken, Christiaan

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the effect of treatment of acute Achilles tendon ruptures on calf muscle strength recovery. Eighty-three patients with acute Achilles tendon rupture were randomly allocated to either minimally invasive surgery with functional after-treatment or conservative treatment by functional bracing. Calf muscle strength using isokinetic testing was evaluated at 3 months and after 6 or more months posttreatment. To exclusively investigate the effect of treatment on outcome, the authors excluded patients with major complications from the analysis. In 31 of 39 patients in the surgical treatment group and 25 of 34 patients in the conservative treatment group, isokinetic strength tests were performed. In the analysis of differences in mean peak torque, no statistically significant differences were found between surgery and conservative treatment, except for plantar flexion strength at 90 degrees per second at the second measurement, favoring conservative treatment. After 8 to 10 months follow- up, loss of plantar flexion strength was still present in the injured leg in both treatment groups. In conclusion, isokinetic muscle strength testing did not detect a statistically significant difference between minimally invasive surgical treatment with functional after-treatment and conservative treatment by functional bracing of acute Achilles tendon ruptures.

  6. Peripheral artery disease, calf skeletal muscle mitochondrial DNA copy number, and functional performance.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Mary M; Peterson, Charlotte A; Sufit, Robert; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack M; Kibbe, Melina R; Polonsky, Tamar S; Tian, Lu; Criqui, Michael H; Zhao, Lihui; Stein, James H; Li, Lingyu; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2018-05-01

    In people without lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD), mitochondrial DNA copy number declines with aging, and this decline is associated with declines in mitochondrial activity and functional performance. However, whether lower extremity ischemia is associated with lower mitochondrial DNA copy number and whether mitochondrial DNA copy number is associated with the degree of functional impairment in people with PAD is unknown. In people with and without PAD, age 65 years and older, we studied associations of the ankle-brachial index (ABI) with mitochondrial DNA copy number and associations of mitochondrial DNA copy number with functional impairment. Calf muscle biopsies were obtained from 34 participants with PAD (mean age: 73.5 years (SD 6.4), mean ABI: 0.67 (SD 0.15), mean 6-minute walk distance: 1191 feet (SD 223)) and 10 controls without PAD (mean age: 73.1 years (SD 4.7), mean ABI: 1.14 (SD 0.07), mean 6-minute walk distance: 1387 feet (SD 488)). Adjusting for age and sex, lower ABI values were associated with higher mitochondrial DNA copy number, measured in relative copy number (ABI<0.60: 914, ABI 0.60-0.90: 731, ABI 0.90-1.50: 593; p trend=0.016). The association of mitochondrial DNA copy number with the 6-minute walk distance and 4-meter walking velocity differed significantly between participants with versus without PAD ( p-value for interaction=0.001 and p=0.015, respectively). The correlation coefficient between mitochondrial DNA copy number and the 6-minute walk distance was 0.653 ( p=0.056) among people without PAD and -0.254 ( p=0.154) among people with PAD and ABI < 0.90. In conclusion, lower ABI values are associated with increased mitochondrial DNA copy number. Associations of mitochondrial DNA copy number with the 6-minute walk distance and 4-meter walking velocity significantly differed between people with versus without PAD, with stronger positive associations observed in people without PAD than in people with PAD. The cross

  7. The estimation of recovery time of calf muscle oxygen saturation during exercise by using functional near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, M. A.; Shojaeifar, M.; Mohajerani, E.

    2014-08-01

    Several methods of near infrared spectroscopy such as functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and pulse oximetry have been applied for monitoring of tissue oxygenation or arterial oxygen saturation. Some vascular diseases can be diagnosed through measurements of tissue oxygenation. In this study, the temporal variation of oxygenation of calf muscle after exercise is studied by fNIRS. First, the accuracy of a low-cost fNIRS system is studied by measuring the oxygenation of a lipid phantom. Moreover, in-vivo study is performed to evaluate the precision of this system. Then, the variation of muscle oxygenation of four persons during exercise is measured and also the recovery time after walking/running is measured by this fNIRS system.

  8. Local and Systemic Changes in Pain Sensitivity After 4 Weeks of Calf Muscle Stretching in a Nonpainful Population: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Bartholdy, Cecilie; Zangger, Graziella; Hansen, Lisbeth; Ginnerup-Nielsen, Elisabeth; Bliddal, Henning; Henriksen, Marius

    2016-07-01

    Stretching is often used in clinical practice for a variety of purposes, including pain therapy. The possible mechanism behind the effect of stretching remains to be clarified. To investigate whether 4 weeks of unilateral stretching of the calf muscles would affect local and central pain sensitivity. This study was a randomized assessor-blinded clinical study. Healthy participants (age 18 to 40) were included and randomized. Participants in the intervention group were instructed to perform 2 stretching exercises targeting the calf muscles; 3 times 30 seconds, 7 days a week for 4 weeks on the dominant leg. Participants in the control group were instructed not to do any stretching for 4 weeks. Pressure pain threshold (PPT) and temporal summation (TS) of pressure pain were measured on the stretched calf, the contra-lateral calf, and contra-lateral lower arm using a computerized cuff algometer. Analyses of variance on the per-protocol population (defined as participants that adhered to the protocol) were used to assess group differences in the changes from baseline. Forty healthy volunteers were included, of which 34 participants adhered to the protocol (15 intervention group/19 control group). No statistically significant group differences in the changes from baseline were found regarding PPT and TS measurements for the stretched calf, the contra-lateral calf, and the arm. Four weeks of regular stretching of the calf muscles does not affect pressure pain sensitivity, suggesting that pressure pain sensitivity is unaffected by stretching in a healthy population. The mechanisms underlying any benefits of regular stretching remain to be explained. © 2015 World Institute of Pain.

  9. Young, Healthy Subjects Can Reduce the Activity of Calf Muscles When Provided with EMG Biofeedback in Upright Stance

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Taian M.; Baudry, Stéphane; Botter, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests the minimization of muscular effort rather than of the size of bodily sway may be the primary, nervous system goal when regulating the human, standing posture. Different programs have been proposed for balance training; none however has been focused on the activation of postural muscles during standing. In this study we investigated the possibility of minimizing the activation of the calf muscles during standing through biofeedback. By providing subjects with an audio signal that varied in amplitude and frequency with the amplitude of surface electromyograms (EMG) recorded from different regions of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, we expected them to be able to minimize the level of muscle activation during standing without increasing the excursion of the center of pressure (CoP). CoP data and surface EMG from gastrocnemii, soleus and tibialis anterior muscles were obtained from 10 healthy participants while standing at ease and while standing with EMG biofeedback. Four sensitivities were used to test subjects' responsiveness to the EMG biofeedback. Compared with standing at ease, the two most sensitive feedback conditions induced a decrease in plantar flexor activity (~15%; P < 0.05) and an increase in tibialis anterior EMG (~10%; P < 0.05). Furthermore, CoP mean position significantly shifted backward (~30 mm). In contrast, the use of less sensitive EMG biofeedback resulted in a significant decrease in EMG activity of ankle plantar flexors with a marginal increase in TA activity compared with standing at ease. These changes were not accompanied by greater CoP displacements or significant changes in mean CoP position. Key results revealed subjects were able to keep standing stability while reducing the activity of gastrocnemius and soleus without loading their tibialis anterior muscle when standing with EMG biofeedback. These results may therefore posit the basis for the development of training protocols aimed at assisting subjects in

  10. Evaluation of skeletal muscle during calf exercise by 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy in patients on statin medications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jim S; Buettner, Catherine; Smithline, Howard; Ngo, Long H; Greenman, Robert L

    2011-01-01

    Muscle pain is a common side effect of statin medications, but the cause is poorly understood. We characterized phosphocreatine (PCr) exercise recovery kinetics in 10 patients with hypercholesterolemia before and after a 4-week regimen of statin therapy using 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31) P-MRS). (31) P spectra were obtained before, during, and after exercise on a calf flexion pedal ergometer. Creatine kinase (CK) serum levels were drawn before and after statin therapy. The mean metabolic recovery time constant in subjects increased from 28.1 s (SE = 6.5 s) to 55.4 s (SE = 7.4 s) after statin therapy. The unweighted mean of the pre/post-recovery time difference was -27.3 s (SE = 12.4 s; P = 0.02). Pre- and post-therapy CK levels were not significantly different (P = 0.50). Metabolic recovery time in the calf is prolonged in patients after statin use. This suggests that statins impair mitochondrial oxidative function, and (31) P MRS is a potential study model for statin-associated myopathy. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Evaluation of skeletal muscle during calf exercise by 31P MR spectroscopy in patients on statin medications

    PubMed Central

    Buettner, Catherine; Smithline, Howard; Ngo, Long H; Greenman, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Muscle pain is a common side effect of statin medications, however, the cause is poorly understood. Methods We characterized phosphocreatine (PCr) exercise recovery kinetics in 10 patients with hypercholesterolemia before and after a 4 week regimen of statin therapy using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS). 31P spectra were obtained before, during, and following exercise on a calf flexion pedal ergometer. Creatine kinase (CK) serum levels were drawn before and after statin therapy. Results The mean metabolic recovery time constant in subjects increased from 28.1s (SE=6.5s) to 55.4s (SE=7.4s) following statin therapy. The unweighted mean of the pre-post recovery time difference was -27.3s (SE=12.4s); (p-value = 0.02). Pre- and post-therapy CK levels were not significantly different (p-value = 0.50). Discussion Metabolic recovery time in the calf is prolonged in patients following statin use. This suggests that statins impair mitochondrial oxidative function, and 31P –MRS is a potential study model for statin-associated myopathy. PMID:21171098

  12. Effects of sequential implanting and ractopamine hydrochloride supplementation on carcass characteristics and longissimus muscle tenderness of calf-fed steers and heifers.

    PubMed

    Woerner, D R; Tatum, J D; Engle, T E; Belk, K E; Couch, D W

    2011-01-01

    A 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments (4 growth-enhancement treatments × 2 sex classes) was used to quantify effects of initial implanting (I-implant, d 0), terminal implanting (T-implant, d 63), and feeding ractopamine hydrochloride [RAC, 200 mg/(animal/d)] for the last 28 d on feed on carcass characteristics and LM shear force (WBSF) of calf-fed steers (n = 159) and heifers (n = 132). Growth-enhancement treatments included the following: TRT1, T-implant only; TRT2, I-implant and RAC; TRT3, I-implant and T-implant; TRT4, I-implant, T-implant, and RAC. Growth responses (BW and ADG) were measured in 3 segments of the finishing period: 1) d 0 to 63, 2) d 63 to 28 d before slaughter, and 3) final 28 d. Cattle were slaughtered after 152, 166, or 180 d of finishing; carcass data were collected after a 48-h chill; and LM WBSF was measured at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d postmortem. A priori contrasts were constructed to test effects associated with use vs. exclusion of growth enhancement in each segment of the finishing period. The interaction between sex class and treatment was not significant (P > 0.05) for any trait tested, indicating that the 4 treatments elicited similar effects in both sexes. Initial implanting improved (P < 0.001) ADG from d 0 to 63 by 11.5%, terminal implanting improved (P < 0.001) ADG from d 63 to 28 d before slaughter by 15%, and supplementing twice-implanted cattle with RAC enhanced ADG during the final 28 d of finishing by 12%. Effects of I-implant, T-implant, and RAC resulted in LM area increases of 3 cm(2) (P = 0.015), 6 cm(2) (P < 0.001), and 3 cm(2) (P = 0.011), respectively, and HCW responses of 11 kg (P = 0.011), 16 kg (P = 0.001), and 6 kg (P = 0.195), respectively. Initial implanting resulted in a 20-point reduction (P = 0.097) in marbling, and T-implant reduced marbling by 25 points (P = 0.04), whereas marbling score was unaffected (P = 0.236) by RAC supplementation. Cattle that received only 1 implant (TRT1 and TRT2) produced

  13. Muscle function-dependent sarcopenia and cut-off values of possible predictors in community-dwelling Turkish elderly: calf circumference, midarm muscle circumference and walking speed.

    PubMed

    Akın, S; Mucuk, S; Öztürk, A; Mazıcıoğlu, M; Göçer, Ş; Arguvanlı, S; Şafak, E D

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of muscle strength-based sarcopenia and to determine possible predictors. This is a cross-sectional population-based study in the community-dwelling Turkish elderly. Anthropometric measurements, namely body height, weight, triceps skin fold (TSF), mid upper arm circumference (MUAC), waist circumference (WC) and calf circumference (CC), were noted. The midarm muscle circumference (MAMC) was calculated by using MUAC and TSF measurement. Sarcopenia was assessed, adjusted for body mass index (BMI) and gender, according to muscle strength. Physical performance was determined by 4 m walking speed (WS; m/s). The receiver operating curve analysis was performed to determine cut-offs of CC, MAMC and 4 m WS. A total of 879 elderly subjects, 50.1% of whom were female, were recruited. The mean handgrip strength (HGS) and s.d. was 24.2 (8.8) kg [17.9 (4.8) female, 30.6 (7.1) male]. The muscle function-dependent sarcopenia was 63.4% (female 73.5%, male 53.2%). The muscle mass-dependent sarcopenia for CC (<31 cm) and MAMC(<21.1 cm in males, <19.9 cm in females) was 6.7% and 7.3%, respectively. The prevalence of low 4 m WS (≤ 0.8 m/s) was 81.8% (91.3% in females and 72.3% in males, respectively). We compared MAMC, CC and 4 m WS and found that AUC for 4 m WS was the best predictor of sarcopenia. An adequate muscle mass may not mean a reliable muscle function. Muscle function may describe sarcopenia better compared with muscle mass. The CC, MAMC and 4 m WS cut-offs may be used to assess sarcopenia in certain age groups.

  14. Calf Muscle Oxygen Saturation During Six-Minute Walk Test And Its Relationship With Walking Impairment In Symptomatic Peripheral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Lima, Aluísio; Cucato, Gabriel G; Domingues, Wagner J R; Germano-Soares, Antônio H; Cavalcante, Bruno R; Correia, Marilia A; Saes, Glauco F; Wolosker, Nelson; Gardner, Andrew W; Zerati, Antônio E; Ritti-Dias, Raphael M

    2018-05-21

    Impaired microcirculation is associated with poor walking capacity in symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients during treadmill test, however, this test does not simulate the efforts of daily walking of these patients. Thus, the aim of the study was to describe the microcirculation responses during six-minute walk test (6MWT) and to analyze the relationship between microcirculation indicators and walking impairment in symptomatic PAD patients. Thirty-four patients were included (mean age = 67.6 ± 11.2). The clinical characteristics were collected and they performed a 6MWT in which initial claudication distance (ICD) and total walking distance (TWD) were recorded. During and after the 6MWT, calf muscle oxygen saturation (StO 2 ) parameters were monitored continuously to measure microcirculation behavior. The association between calf muscle StO 2 parameters and walking impairment was analyzed by Pearson or Spearman correlations. Walking impairment was not associated with any StO 2 parameters during exercise. In contrast, after 6MWT, recovery time of StO 2 (r = -0.472, P = .008) and recovery time to maximal StO 2 (r= -0.402, P = .019) were negatively correlated with ICD. Furthermore, the distance walked under claudication symptoms (ΔTWD - ICD) was positively correlated with recovery time to maximal StO 2 (r = 0.347, P = .048). In symptomatic PAD patients, shorter ICD values during a 6MWT are associated with a delayed recovery in calf muscle StO 2 after exercise. Calf muscle StO 2 parameters decrease subtly during 6MWT, suggesting that the degree of ischemia in the calf muscle during ground walking, simulating efforts of the daily walking, is relatively low. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Gene Expression Profiling in Slow-Type Calf Soleus Muscle of 30 Days Space-Flown Mice.

    PubMed

    Gambara, Guido; Salanova, Michele; Ciciliot, Stefano; Furlan, Sandra; Gutsmann, Martina; Schiffl, Gudrun; Ungethuem, Ute; Volpe, Pompeo; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Blottner, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Microgravity exposure as well as chronic disuse are two main causes of skeletal muscle atrophy in animals and humans. The antigravity calf soleus is a reference postural muscle to investigate the mechanism of disuse-induced maladaptation and plasticity of human and rodent (rats or mice) skeletal musculature. Here, we report microgravity-induced global gene expression changes in space-flown mouse skeletal muscle and the identification of yet unknown disuse susceptible transcripts found in soleus (a mainly slow phenotype) but not in extensor digitorum longus (a mainly fast phenotype dorsiflexor as functional counterpart to soleus). Adult C57Bl/N6 male mice (n = 5) flew aboard a biosatellite for 30 days on orbit (BION-M1 mission, 2013), a sex and age-matched cohort were housed in standard vivarium cages (n = 5), or in a replicate flight habitat as ground control (n = 5). Next to disuse atrophy signs (reduced size and myofiber phenotype I to II type shift) as much as 680 differentially expressed genes were found in the space-flown soleus, and only 72 in extensor digitorum longus (only 24 genes in common) compared to ground controls. Altered expression of gene transcripts matched key biological processes (contractile machinery, calcium homeostasis, muscle development, cell metabolism, inflammatory and oxidative stress response). Some transcripts (Fzd9, Casq2, Kcnma1, Ppara, Myf6) were further validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Besides previous reports on other leg muscle types we put forth for the first time a complete set of microgravity susceptible gene transcripts in soleus of mice as promising new biomarkers or targets for optimization of physical countermeasures and rehabilitation protocols to overcome disuse atrophy conditions in different clinical settings, rehabilitation and spaceflight.

  16. Gene Expression Profiling in Slow-Type Calf Soleus Muscle of 30 Days Space-Flown Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gambara, Guido; Salanova, Michele; Ciciliot, Stefano; Furlan, Sandra; Gutsmann, Martina; Schiffl, Gudrun; Ungethuem, Ute; Volpe, Pompeo; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Blottner, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Microgravity exposure as well as chronic disuse are two main causes of skeletal muscle atrophy in animals and humans. The antigravity calf soleus is a reference postural muscle to investigate the mechanism of disuse-induced maladaptation and plasticity of human and rodent (rats or mice) skeletal musculature. Here, we report microgravity-induced global gene expression changes in space-flown mouse skeletal muscle and the identification of yet unknown disuse susceptible transcripts found in soleus (a mainly slow phenotype) but not in extensor digitorum longus (a mainly fast phenotype dorsiflexor as functional counterpart to soleus). Adult C57Bl/N6 male mice (n = 5) flew aboard a biosatellite for 30 days on orbit (BION-M1 mission, 2013), a sex and age-matched cohort were housed in standard vivarium cages (n = 5), or in a replicate flight habitat as ground control (n = 5). Next to disuse atrophy signs (reduced size and myofiber phenotype I to II type shift) as much as 680 differentially expressed genes were found in the space-flown soleus, and only 72 in extensor digitorum longus (only 24 genes in common) compared to ground controls. Altered expression of gene transcripts matched key biological processes (contractile machinery, calcium homeostasis, muscle development, cell metabolism, inflammatory and oxidative stress response). Some transcripts (Fzd9, Casq2, Kcnma1, Ppara, Myf6) were further validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Besides previous reports on other leg muscle types we put forth for the first time a complete set of microgravity susceptible gene transcripts in soleus of mice as promising new biomarkers or targets for optimization of physical countermeasures and rehabilitation protocols to overcome disuse atrophy conditions in different clinical settings, rehabilitation and spaceflight. PMID:28076365

  17. Relative changes with contraction in the central excitability state of the tibialis anterior and calf muscles.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, M A

    1980-01-01

    F responses were recorded from the surface of the tibialis muscle and medial aspect of the soleus muscle in 14 normal subjects. The persistence (that is the fraction of measurable F responses found with a series of supramaximal stimuli) and average F amplitudes (measured peak-to-peak and based on at least five F responses) were determined both at rest and with isometric contraction with the ankle maintained at 90 degrees. Although the persistence at rest was significantly less in the tibialis anterior soleus than the (p less than 0.001), no significant difference was found with the muscles contracted. This was associated with a significant increase in both average F amplitudes and average F amplitude/direct motor response ratios in the tibialis anterior in comparison to the soleus. In four of the subjects, studies were also performed when the H reflex in the soleus muscle was eliminated by thigh compression. Comparable changes in both F response persistence and average F amplitude were found with and without an H reflex. These data indicate that, in contrast to the situation at rest, with isometric contraction the "central excitatory state" of the tibialis anterior is at least as great as in its antagonist antigravity muscles and that this is not due simply to increased large fiber reflex input associated with agonist contraction. PMID:7373321

  18. Video game-based neuromuscular electrical stimulation system for calf muscle training: a case study.

    PubMed

    Sayenko, D G; Masani, K; Milosevic, M; Robinson, M F; Vette, A H; McConville, K M V; Popovic, M R

    2011-03-01

    A video game-based training system was designed to integrate neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and visual feedback as a means to improve strength and endurance of the lower leg muscles, and to increase the range of motion (ROM) of the ankle joints. The system allowed the participants to perform isotonic concentric and isometric contractions in both the plantarflexors and dorsiflexors using NMES. In the proposed system, the contractions were performed against exterior resistance, and the angle of the ankle joints was used as the control input to the video game. To test the practicality of the proposed system, an individual with chronic complete spinal cord injury (SCI) participated in the study. The system provided a progressive overload for the trained muscles, which is a prerequisite for successful muscle training. The participant indicated that he enjoyed the video game-based training and that he would like to continue the treatment. The results show that the training resulted in a significant improvement of the strength and endurance of the paralyzed lower leg muscles, and in an increased ROM of the ankle joints. Video game-based training programs might be effective in motivating participants to train more frequently and adhere to otherwise tedious training protocols. It is expected that such training will not only improve the properties of their muscles but also decrease the severity and frequency of secondary complications that result from SCI. Copyright © 2010 IPEM. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of ageing on adaptation during vibratory stimulation of the calf and neck muscles.

    PubMed

    Patel, M; Fransson, P A; Magnusson, M

    2009-01-01

    The ability to adapt and habituate based on prior experiences is important for human movement control, fall prevention and for the ability to enhance performance during various human activities. However, little is known about the ability for the elderly to adapt to balance perturbations in the lateral direction. To determine whether adaptation, i.e., the ability to adjust postural control to handle balance perturbations better over time, differed in the elderly subjects compared with young subjects in the anteroposterior and lateral directions, and whether the site of the balance perturbation or the presence or absence of vision affected the response. Postural stability was measured as anteroposterior and lateral torque variance in a young group (n = 18 (9 female and 9 male), average age = 29.1 years) and an elderly group (n = 16 (5 female and 11 male), average age = 71.5 years) with eyes open and closed during balance perturbations from calf and neck vibrations. After a 30-s period of quiet stance, these vibrations were repeated over a period of 200 s, so the adaptive responses could be analyzed by splitting the data into 50-s periods. The adaptive responses in the anteroposterior and lateral directions were different. Adaptation in the anteroposterior direction occurred to an almost equal extent in the elderly and young, whereas adaptation in the lateral direction was markedly larger in the elderly in all tests except for neck vibration with eyes closed. Age, vision and vibration site were all influential factors for recorded body movements, but no significant combined effects were found. Balance perturbation instigates an adaptive response in the elderly in both the anteroposterior and lateral directions. However, during perturbation, age and vision are both very influential factors for the stability, thus associating the previously documented age-related decline in visual functioning with a higher risk of falls in this age range. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. EMG changes in thigh and calf muscles in fin swimming exercise.

    PubMed

    Jammes, Y; Delliaux, S; Coulange, M; Jammes, C; Kipson, N; Brerro-Saby, C; Bregeon, F

    2010-08-01

    Because previous researchers have reported a reduced lactic acid production that accompanies a delayed or an absent ventilatory threshold (VTh) in water-based exercise, we hypothesized that the metaboreflex, activated by muscle acidosis, might be absent in fin swimming. This motor response, delaying the occurrence of fatigue, is characterized by a decreased median frequency (MF) of electromyographic (EMG) power spectrum. Seven healthy subjects performed a maximal fin swimming exercise protocol with simultaneous recordings of surface EMGs in VASTUS MEDIALIS (VM), TIBIALIS ANTERIOR (TA) and GASTROCNEMIUS MEDIALIS (GM). We computed the root mean square (RMS) and MF and recorded the compound evoked muscle potential (M-wave) in VM. We also measured the propulsive force and oxygen uptake (VO (2)), and determined VTh. VTh was absent in 4/7 subjects and measured at 70-90% of VO (2max) in the other three. In the three studied muscles, the global EMG activity (RMS) increased while the MF decreased in proportion of VO (2), the MF changes being significantly higher in VM (-29%) and GM (-39%) than in TA (-19%). Because no M-wave changes were noted, the MF decline was attributed to the recruitment of low-frequency, fatigue-resistant motor units. Our most important finding is the persistence of the metaboreflex even in a situation of reduced muscle acidosis. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  1. The Effectiveness of Calf Muscle Electrostimulation on Vascular Perfusion and Walking Capacity in Patients Living With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Peripheral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Ellul, Christian; Formosa, Cynthia; Gatt, Alfred; Hamadani, Auon Abbas; Armstrong, David G

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to explore calf muscle electrostimulation on arterial inflow and walking capacity in claudicants with peripheral artery disease and diabetes mellitus. A prospective, 1-group, pretest-posttest study design was used on 40 high-risk participants (n = 40) who exhibited bilateral limb ischemia (ankle brachial pressure index [ABPI] <0.90), diabetes mellitus, and calf muscle claudication. A program of calf muscle electrical stimulation with varying frequency (1-250 Hz) was prescribed for 1 hour per day for 12 weeks. Spectral waveforms analysis, ABPI, absolute claudication distance (ACD), and thermographic temperature patterns across 4 specified regions of interest (hallux, medial forefoot, lateral forefoot, heel) at rest and after exercise, were recorded at baseline and following intervention to evaluate for therapeutic outcomes. A significant improvement in ACD and ABPI was registered following the intervention ( P = .000 and P = .001, respectively). Resting foot temperatures increased significantly ( P = .000) while the postexercise temperature drops were halved across all regions at follow-up, with hallux ( P = .005) and lateral forefoot ( P = .038) reaching statistical significance. Spectral Doppler waveforms were comparable ( P = .304) between both serial assessments. Electrical stimulation of varying frequency for 1 hour per day for 12 consecutive weeks registered statistically significant improvement in outcome measures that assess arterial inflow and walking capacity in claudicants with diabetes mellitus. These results favor the use of electrostimulation as a therapeutic measure in this high-risk population.

  2. Differences in end-point force trajectories elicited by electrical stimulation of individual human calf muscles

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, S B; Segal, R L; Abelew, T A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the end-point force trajectories of the fibularis longus (FIB), lateral gastrocnemius (LG) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles. Most information about individual muscle function has come from studies which use models based on electromyographic (EMG) recordings. In this study (N=20 subjects) we used electrical stimulation (20Hz) to elicit activity in individual muscles, recorded the end-point forces at the foot and verified the selectivity of stimulation by using magnetic resonance imaging. Unexpectedly, no significant differences were found between LG and MG force directions. Stimulation of LG and MG resulted in downward and medial or lateral forces depending on the subject. We found FIB end-point forces to be significantly different than those of LG and MG. In all subjects, stimulation of FIB resulted in downward and lateral forces. Based on our results, we suggest that there are multiple factors determining when and whether LG or MG will produce a medial or lateral force and FIB consistently plays a significant role in eversion/abduction and plantarflexion. We suggest that the inter-subject variability we found is not simply an artifact of experimental or technical error but is functionally relevant and should be addressed in future studies and models. PMID:20095454

  3. Predictive Accuracy of Calf Circumference Measurements to Detect Decreased Skeletal Muscle Mass and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism-Defined Malnutrition in Hospitalized Older Patients.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Keisuke; Koga, Takayuki; Nasu, Tomomi; Takaki, Miki; Akagi, Junji

    2017-01-01

    The ability to readily diagnose sarcopenia and malnutrition in a clinical setting is essential. This study is aimed at clarifying the calf circumference (CC) cut-off values for decreased skeletal muscle mass (SMM), according to the Asian Work Group for Sarcopenia's criteria definition of sarcopenia, and those for European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism-defined malnutrition, in hospitalized Japanese patients. The study involved 1,164 patients aged ≥65 years. Predictive CC cut-off values were determined using receiver operating curve (ROC) analyses. The predictive validity of the cut-off values was confirmed against in-hospital mortality. There were 654 females and 510 males (mean age, 83.5 ± 8.2 years). Decreased SMM and malnutrition were observed in 80.4 and 32.8% of all patients, respectively. ROC analyses identified CCs of ≤29 cm (female, area under the curve [AUC] 0.791) and ≤30 cm (male, AUC 0.832) as cut-off values for decreased SMM, and CCs of ≤26 cm (female, AUC 0.798) and ≤28 cm (male, AUC 0.837) for malnutrition. CC cut-off values for SMM and malnutrition were independently correlated with in-hospital mortality. The study determined appropriate cut-off values for CC to identify decreased SMM and malnutrition according to the relevant guidelines. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Blood pressure and calf muscle oxygen extraction during plantar flexion exercise in peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Luck, J Carter; Miller, Amanda J; Aziz, Faisal; Radtka, John F; Proctor, David N; Leuenberger, Urs A; Sinoway, Lawrence I; Muller, Matthew D

    2017-07-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is an atherosclerotic vascular disease that affects 200 million people worldwide. Although PAD primarily affects large arteries, it is also associated with microvascular dysfunction, an exaggerated blood pressure (BP) response to exercise, and high cardiovascular mortality. We hypothesized that fatiguing plantar flexion exercise that evokes claudication elicits a greater reduction in skeletal muscle oxygenation (SmO 2 ) and a higher rise in BP in PAD compared with age-matched healthy subjects, but low-intensity steady-state plantar flexion elicits similar responses between groups. In the first experiment, eight patients with PAD and eight healthy controls performed fatiguing plantar flexion exercise (from 0.5 to 7 kg for up to 14 min). In the second experiment, seven patients with PAD and seven healthy controls performed low-intensity plantar flexion exercise (2.0 kg for 14 min). BP, heart rate (HR), and SmO 2 were measured continuously using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). SmO 2 is the ratio of oxygenated hemoglobin to total hemoglobin, expressed as a percent. At fatigue, patients with PAD had a greater increase in mean arterial BP (18 ± 2 vs. vs. 10 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.029) and HR (14 ± 2 vs. 6 ± 2 beats/min, P = 0.033) and a greater reduction in SmO 2 (-54 ± 10 vs. -12 ± 4%, P = 0.001). However, both groups had similar physiological responses to low-intensity, nonpainful plantar flexion exercise. These data suggest that patients with PAD have altered oxygen uptake and/or utilization during fatiguing exercise coincident with an augmented BP response. NEW & NOTEWORTHY In this laboratory study, patients with peripheral artery disease performed plantar flexion exercise in the supine posture until symptoms of claudication occurred. Relative to age- and sex-matched healthy subjects we found that patients had a higher blood pressure response, a higher heart rate response, and a greater reduction in skeletal muscle oxygenation as

  5. An exploration of diffusion tensor eigenvector variability within human calf muscles.

    PubMed

    Rockel, Conrad; Noseworthy, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    To explore the effect of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) acquisition parameters on principal and minor eigenvector stability within human lower leg skeletal muscles. Lower leg muscles were evaluated in seven healthy subjects at 3T using an 8-channel transmit/receive coil. Diffusion-encoding was performed with nine signal averages (NSA) using 6, 15, and 25 directions (NDD). Individual DTI volumes were combined into aggregate volumes of 3, 2, and 1 NSA according to number of directions. Tensor eigenvalues (λ1 , λ2 , λ3 ), eigenvectors (ε1 , ε2 , ε3 ), and DTI metrics (fractional anisotropy [FA] and mean diffusivity [MD]) were calculated for each combination of NSA and NDD. Spatial maps of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), λ3 :λ2 ratio, and zenith angle were also calculated for region of interest (ROI) analysis of vector orientation consistency. ε1 variability was only moderately related to ε2 variability (r = 0.4045). Variation of ε1 was affected by NDD, not NSA (P < 0.0002), while variation of ε2 was affected by NSA, not NDD (P < 0.0003). In terms of tensor shape, vector variability was weakly related to FA (ε1 :r = -0.1854, ε2 : ns), but had a stronger relation to the λ3 :λ2 ratio (ε1 :r = -0.5221, ε2 :r = -0.1771). Vector variability was also weakly related to SNR (ε1 :r = -0.2873, ε2 :r = -0.3483). Zenith angle was found to be strongly associated with variability of ε1 (r = 0.8048) but only weakly with that of ε2 (r = 0.2135). The second eigenvector (ε2 ) displayed higher directional variability relative to ε1 , and was only marginally affected by experimental conditions that impacted ε1 variability. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The pH heterogeneity in human calf muscle during neuromuscular electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Stutzig, Norman; Rzanny, Reinhard; Moll, Kevin; Gussew, Alexander; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Siebert, Tobias

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to examine pH heterogeneity during fatigue induced by neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) using phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 31 P-MRS). It is hypothesized that three pH components would occur in the 31 P-MRS during fatigue, representing three fiber types. The medial gastrocnemius of eight subjects was stimulated within a 3-Tesla whole body MRI scanner. The maximal force during stimulation (F stim ) was examined by a pressure sensor. Phosphocreatine (PCr), adenosintriphosphate, inorganic phosphate (Pi), and the corresponding pH were estimated by a nonvolume-selective 31 P-MRS using a small loop coil at rest and during fatigue. During fatigue, F stim and PCr decreased to 27% and 33% of their initial levels, respectively. In all cases, the Pi peak increased when NMES was started and split into three different peaks. Based on the single Pi peaks during fatigue, an alkaline (6.76 ± 0.08), a medium (6.40 ± 0.06), and an acidic (6.09 ± 0.05) pH component were observed compared to the pH (7.02 ± 0.02) at rest. It is suggested that NMES is able to induce pH heterogeneity in the medial gastrocnemius, and that the single Pi peaks represent the different muscle fiber types of the skeletal muscle. Magn Reson Med 77:2097-2106, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  7. New regimen for eccentric calf-muscle training in patients with chronic insertional Achilles tendinopathy: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, P; Alfredson, H; Sunding, K; Fahlström, M; Cook, J

    2008-09-01

    Chronic painful insertional Achilles tendinopathy is seen in both physically active and non-active individuals. Painful eccentric training, where the patients load the Achilles tendon into full dorsiflexion, has shown good results in patients with mid-portion Achilles tendinosis. However, only 32% of patients with insertional Achilles tendinopathy had good clinical results with that type of eccentric training regimen. To investigate whether a new model of painful eccentric training had an effect on chronic painful insertional Achilles tendinopathy. 27 patients (12 men, 15 women, mean age 53 years) with a total of 34 painful Achilles tendons with a long duration of pain (mean 26 months), diagnosed as insertional Achilles tendinopathy, were included. The patients performed a new model of painful eccentric training regimen without loading into dorsiflexion. This was done as 3x15 reps, twice a day, 7 days/week, for 12 weeks. Pain during Achilles-tendon-loading activity (VAS) and patient's satisfaction (back to previous activity) were evaluated. At follow-up (mean 4 months) 18 patients (67%, 23/34 tendons) were satisfied and back to their previous tendon-loading activity. Their mean VAS had decreased from 69.9 (SD 18.9) to 21 (SD 20.6) (p<0.001). Nine patients (11 tendons) were not satisfied with the treatment, although their VAS was significantly reduced from 77.5 (8.6) to 58.1 (14.8) (p<0.01). In this short-term pilot study this new model of painful eccentric calf-muscle training showed promising clinical results in 67% of the patients.

  8. Reproducibility Analysis of Diffusion Tensor Indices and Fiber Architecture of Human Calf Muscles in vivo at 1.5 Tesla in Neutral and Plantarflexed Ankle Positions at Rest

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Shantanu; Sinha, Usha

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the reproducibility of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) derived indices and fiber architecture of calf muscles at 1.5 Tesla, to establish an imaging based method to confirm ankle position, and to compare fiber architecture at different ankle positions. Materials and Methods Six subjects were imaged at 1.5T with the foot in neutral and plantarflexed positions. DTI indices were calculated in four muscle compartments (medial and lateral gastrocnemius (MG, LG), superficial and deep anterior tibialis (AT-S, AT-D). Two subjects were scanned on three days to calculate the coefficient of variability (CV) and the repeatability coefficient (RC). Results DTI indices were close to the values obtained in earlier 3T and 1.5 T studies. FA decreased significantly in the MG and increased significantly in the AT-S and AT-D compartments while fiber orientation with respect to the magnet Z-axis increased significantly in the MG and decreased significantly in the AT-S compartment with plantarflexion. The CV and RC for the DTI indices and fiber orientations were comparable to 3T studies. Fiber lengths and orientation angles in the MG matched corresponding measures from ultrasound studies. Conclusion DTI at 1.5 Tesla provides reproducible measures of diffusion indices and fiber architecture of calf muscle at different muscle lengths. PMID:21608064

  9. Clinical utility of calf front hoof circumference and maternal intrapelvic area in predicting dystocia in 103 late gestation Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows.

    PubMed

    Hiew, Mark W H; Megahed, Ameer A; Townsend, Jonathan R; Singleton, Wayne L; Constable, Peter D

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the clinical utility of measuring calf front hoof circumference, maternal intrapelvic area, and selected morphometric values in predicting dystocia in dairy cattle. An observational study using a convenience sample of 103 late-gestation Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows was performed. Intrapelvic height and width of the dam were measured using a pelvimeter, and the intrapelvic area was calculated. Calf front hoof circumference and birth weight were also measured. Data were analyzed using Spearman's correlation coefficient (rs), Mann-Whitney U test, and binary or ordered logistic regression; P < 0.05 was significant. The calving difficulty score (1-5) was greater in heifers (median, 3.0) than in cows (median, 1.0). Median intrapelvic area immediately before parturition was smaller in heifers (268 cm(2)) than in cows (332 cm(2)), whereas front hoof circumference and birth weight of the calf were similar in both groups. The calving difficulty score was positively associated with calf birth weight in heifers (rs = 0.39) and cows (rs = 0.24). Binary logistic regression using both dam and calf data indicated that the ratio of front hoof circumference of the calf to the maternal intrapelvic area provided the best predictor of dystocia (calving difficulty score = 4 or 5), with sensitivity = 0.50 and specificity = 0.93 at the optimal cutpoint for the ratio (>0.068 cm/cm(2)). Determining the ratio of calf front hoof circumference to maternal intrapelvic area has clinical utility in predicting the calving difficulty score in Holstein-Friesian cattle. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Thigh-calf contact parameters for six high knee flexion postures: Onset, maximum angle, total force, contact area, and center of force.

    PubMed

    Kingston, David C; Acker, Stacey M

    2018-01-23

    In high knee flexion, contact between the posterior thigh and calf is expected to decrease forces on tibiofemoral contact surfaces, therefore, thigh-calf contact needs to be thoroughly characterized to model its effect. This study measured knee angles and intersegmental contact parameters in fifty-eight young healthy participants for six common high flexion postures using motion tracking and a pressure sensor attached to the right thigh. Additionally, we introduced and assessed the reliability of a method for reducing noise in pressure sensor output. Five repetitions of two squatting, two kneeling, and two unilateral kneeling movements were completed. Interactions of posture by sex occurred for thigh-calf and heel-gluteal center of force, and thigh-calf contact area. Center of force in thigh-calf regions was farther from the knee joint center in females, compared to males, during unilateral kneeling (82 and 67 mm respectively) with an inverted relationship in the heel-gluteal region (331 and 345 mm respectively), although caution is advised when generalizing these findings from a young, relatively fit sample to a population level. Contact area was larger in females when compared to males (mean of 155.61 and 137.33 cm 2 across postures). A posture main effect was observed in contact force and sex main effects were present in onset and max angle. Males had earlier onset (121.0°) and lower max angle (147.4°) with onset and max angles having a range between movements of 8° and 3° respectively. There was a substantial total force difference of 139 N between the largest and smallest activity means. Force parameters measured in this study suggest that knee joint contact models need to incorporate activity-specific parameters when estimating loading. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of duration of vitamin C supplementation during the finishing period on postmortem protein degradation, tenderness, and meat color of the longissimus muscle of calf-fed steers consuming a 0.31 or 0.59% sulfur diet.

    PubMed

    Pogge, D J; Lonergan, S M; Hansen, S L

    2015-05-01

    High-S (HS) diets have been identified as a causative agent in the development of oxidative stress in cattle, which in postmortem muscle can negatively alter meat quality. Vitamin C (VC) is a potent antioxidant produced endogenously by cattle; however, exogenous supplementation of VC may be useful when HS diets are fed to cattle. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of duration of VC supplementation, for the first 56, 90, or 127 d, during the finishing period on meat color and tenderness of the longissimus thoracis (LT) collected from calf-fed steers consuming a 0.31 or 0.59% S diet. Angus steers ( n= 42) were stratified to pens by initial BW (304 ± 13 kg) and GeneMax marbling score (4.3 ± 0.12), and each pen was randomly assigned to 1 of 7 treatments (6 steers/pen, 1 pen/treatment), including HS (0.59% S, a combination of dried distillers grains plus solubles and sodium sulfate) control (HS CON), HS CON + 10 g VC·steer·(-1)d(-1) for the first 56 d (HS VC56), 90 d (HS VC90), or 127 d (HS VC127), low S (LS; 0.31% S) + 10 g VC·steer·(-1)d(-1) for the first 56 d (LS VC56), 90 d (LS VC90), or 127 d (LS VC127). Steers were harvested (n = 40) and, after a 24-h chill, rib sections (LT) were collected. pH was determined on each rib section before division into 3 sections for determination of 1) 7-d retail display and color and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), 2) 14-d WBSF determination, and 3) protein degradation and collagen content (2 d postmortem). Data were analyzed by ANOVA as a completely randomized design, with the fixed effect of treatment. Individual feed intake was recorded, and steer was the experimental unit. The HS steers had a greater and lesser percent of the 80- and 76-kDa subunits of calpain-1 (P ≤ 0.05), respectively, and tended to have less (P = 0.08) troponin T degradation (d2), and more (P = 0.02) collagen than LS steers. Increasing days of VC supplementation decreased (P = 0.05) the percentage of the 80 kDa subunit of

  12. Predictors of calf cramping in rugby league.

    PubMed

    Summers, Katherine M; Snodgrass, Suzanne J; Callister, Robin

    2014-03-01

    Exercise-associated muscle cramps (EAMC) in the calf are common in rugby league. To date, the etiology and predictors of calf cramping are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to undertake a prospective investigation to identify predictors of calf cramping in rugby league players. Demographic and anthropometric data and calf cramp and injury history were collected in the preseason. Hydration status, number of games played, and calf cramps were recorded on game days. Male rugby league players (n = 103, mean age 18.8 ± 4.1 years) were classified as either EAMC (experienced at least 1 incident of calf cramps in the season) or no EAMC (no calf cramps). The following were investigated as possible predictors of EAMC using logistic regression modeling: competition level, age, ethnicity, playing position, history of cramping, precramping, low back pain, foot orthotic usage, foot posture, foot strike, muscle flexibility, calf girth, hydration status, and number of games played. Half the players, n = 52, experienced at least 1 incidence of calf cramping. Playing in a senior competition level (odds ratio: 0.21; 95% confidence interval: 0.06-0.75; p = 0.016), a history of calf cramping (10.85; 2.16-54.44; p = 0.004), and a history of low back pain resulting in missed field minutes (4.50, 1.37-14.79; p = 0.013) were found to predict EAMC. This study suggests that there is a high incidence of calf cramping in rugby league, especially at senior competition levels, and supports preseason screening in senior players to idetify those at risk of calf cramping and the development of possible preventative strategies.

  13. Muscle Torque Relative to Cross-Sectional Area and the Functional Muscle-Bone Unit in Children and Adolescents with Chronic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dale Y.; Wetzsteon, Rachel J.; Zemel, Babette S.; Shults, Justine; Organ, Jason M.; Foster, Bethany J.; Herskovitz, Rita M.; Foerster, Debbie L.; Leonard, Mary B.

    2015-01-01

    Measures of muscle mass or size are often used as surrogates of forces acting on bone. However, chronic diseases may be associated with abnormal muscle force relative to muscle size. The muscle-bone unit was examined in 64 children and adolescents with new-onset Crohn’s disease (CD), 54 with chronic kidney disease (CKD), 51 treated with glucocorticoids for nephrotic syndrome (NS), and 264 healthy controls. Muscle torque was assessed by isometric ankle dynamometry. Calf muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and tibia cortical section modulus (Zp) were assessed by quantitative CT. Log-linear regression was used to determine the relations among muscle CSA, muscle torque, and Zp, adjusted for tibia length, age, Tanner stage, sex, and race. Muscle CSA and muscle torque-relative-to-muscle CSA were significantly lower than controls in advanced CKD (CSA −8.7%, p = 0.01; torque −22.9%, p < 0.001) and moderate-to-severe CD (CSA −14.1%, p < 0.001; torque −7.6%, p = 0.05), but not in NS. Zp was 11.5% lower in advanced CKD (p = 0.005) compared to controls, and this deficit was attenuated to 6.7% (p = 0.05) with adjustment for muscle CSA. With additional adjustment for muscle torque and body weight, Zp was 5.9% lower and the difference with controls was no longer significant (p = 0.09). In participants with moderate-to-severe CD, Zp was 6.8% greater than predicted (p = 0.01) given muscle CSA and torque deficits (R2=0.92), likely due to acute muscle loss in newly diagnosed patients. Zp did not differ in NS, compared with controls. In conclusion, muscle torque relative to muscle CSA was significantly lower in CKD and CD, compared with controls, and was independently associated with Zp. Future studies are needed to determine if abnormal muscle strength contributes to progressive bone deficits in chronic disease, independent of muscle area. PMID:25264231

  14. Rapid desensitization and resensitization of 5-HT sub 2 receptor mediated phosphatidyl inositol hydrolysis by serotonin agonists in quiescent calf aortic smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pauwels, P.J.; Van Gompel, P.; Leysen, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    Agonist regulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine{sub 2} (5-HT{sub 2}) receptors was studied in calf aortic smooth muscle cultures incubated in a quiescent, defined synthetic medium that does not stimulate cell proliferation, but that provides cells with supplements that maintain cell viability. In these cells, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced ({sup 3}H)inositol phosphates accumulation showed the characteristics of a 5-HT{sub 2} receptor coupled transducing system according to the inhibition of the response by 5-HT{sub 2} antagonists at nanomolar concentrations. The 5-HT{sub 2} receptor coupled response became rapidly desensitized during continued incubation with 5-HT and 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOM); nearly full desensitization was obtained in two hours with 10more » {mu}M 5-HT and DOM pretreatment. The recovery of the response had a half-live of 5 hours after 2 hours pretreatment and of 9.5 to 12.5 hours after 24 to 96 hours agonist pretreatment. The DOM-induced desensitization of the 5-HT{sub 2} receptor coupled response was fully blocked by 0.1 {mu}M cinanserin. Cinanserin alone did not induce desensitization or up-regulation of the 5-HT{sub 2} receptor coupled response at 0.1 {mu}M.« less

  15. Changes in size and compliance of the calf after 30 days of simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Doerr, Donald F.; Stein, Stewart L.

    1989-01-01

    The hypothesis that reducing muscle compartment by a long-term exposure to microgravity would cause increased leg venous compliance was tested in eight men who were assessed for vascular compliance and for serial circumferences of the calf before and after 30 days of continuous 6-deg head-down bed rest. It was found that head-down bed rest caused decreases in the calculated calf volume and the calf-muscle compartment, as well as increases in calf compliance. The percent increases in calf compliance correlated significantly with decreases in calf muscle compartment.

  16. The efficiency of O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides in reducing the incidence of superficial venous insufficiency in patients with calf muscle pump dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Cenk Eray; Conkbayir, Cenk; Huseynov, Eldeniz; Sayin, Omer Ali; Tok, Okan; Kaynak, Gokhan; Cebi, Deniz; Ugurlucan, Murat; Kantarci, Fatih; Inan, Muharrem

    2017-04-01

    Objective We aimed to evaluate the efficiency of O-(beta-Hydroxyethyl)-rutosides (Oxerutin) in reducing the incidence of venous system disease among patients with calf muscle pump dysfunction secondary to immobilization due to lower-limb fractures. Methods A total of 60 patients with lower-limb fractures and immobilized in plaster casts were included in this study randomized into control (n = 30; mean: 30.37 ± 6.03 years; 73.3% males; no treatment) and experiment (n = 30; mean: 31.67 ± 4.76 years; 66.6% males; Oxerutin, 500 mg po q12hr) treatment groups. Doppler ultrasound was performed to evaluate the effect of oxerutin on the alterations in the venous circulation. Results Patients in the control group were determined to be more commonly affected from the below-knee immobilization in terms of venous dysfunction in the great saphenous vein in the below-knee region when compared with the patients in the oxerutin treatment group (46.7 vs. 13.3%, respectively; p = 0.011). Incidence of reflux in the small saphenous vein was more common in the control group during the healing period when compared with the experiment group (40.0 vs. 10.0%, respectively; p = 0.017). None of the patients developed venous thrombosis. Conclusions In conclusion, the impairment of the lower extremity muscle pump should be considered as an important risk factor for venous disease, and should be evaluated. O-(beta-Hydroxyethyl)-rutosides during 6-8 week cast immobilization for a lower limb fracture may be an effective prophylactic regimen in reducing the incidence of reflux in the below-knee superficial veins.

  17. Comparison of the prevalence of sarcopenia using skeletal muscle mass index and calf circumference applying the European consensus definition in elderly Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Velazquez-Alva, Maria Consuelo; Irigoyen Camacho, Maria Esther; Lazarevich, Irina; Delgadillo Velazquez, Jaime; Acosta Dominguez, Patricia; Zepeda Zepeda, Marco A

    2017-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of sarcopenia using two indicators: skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) and calf circumference (CC) used in the algorithm proposed by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Mexican elderly women. This was a cross-sectional study. Lean body mass was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. To define sarcopenia, the SMI was obtained using a cut-off value of 5.5 kg/m 2 , and the CC cut-off was 31 cm. For gait speed and handgrip strength, the cut-off values were 0.8 m/s and 20 kg, respectively. A total of 137 women (mean age 73.8 ± 6.7 years) participated in the study. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 14.6% using SMI and 11.0% using CC (P = 0.009). Body mass index was associated with a lower probability of sarcopenia applying SMI or CC (OR 0.75, P = 0.002 for SMI and OR 0.71, P = 0.004 for CC). Sarcopenia evaluated either with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry or CC was not associated with physical performance, such as five times chair stand test, timed up and go test and short physical performance battery. Additionally, SMI was not associated with physical performance, five times chair stand test (P = 0.775) and timed up-and-go test (P = 0.341). The prevalence of sarcopenia in active elderly women was low. A higher prevalence of sarcopenia was detected using SMI compared with CC. It is important to identify the best methods to assess skeletal muscle mass to obtain a reliable diagnosis of sarcopenia. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 161-170. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  18. Exercising calf muscle T₂∗ changes correlate with pH, PCr recovery and maximum oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Albrecht Ingo; Schewzow, Kiril; Fiedler, Georg Bernd; Goluch, Sigrun; Laistler, Elmar; Wolzt, Michael; Moser, Ewald; Meyerspeer, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Skeletal muscle metabolism is impaired in disorders like diabetes mellitus or peripheral vascular disease. The skeletal muscle echo planar imaging (EPI) signal (S(EPI) ) and its relation to energy metabolism are still debated. Localised ³¹P MRS and S(EPI) data from gastrocnemius medialis of 19 healthy subjects were combined in one scanning session to study direct relationships between phosphocreatine (PCr), pH kinetics and parameters of T₂∗ time courses. Dynamic spectroscopy (semi-LASER) and EPI were performed immediately before, during and after 5 min of plantar flexions. Data were acquired in a 7 T MR scanner equipped with a custom-built ergometer and a dedicated ³¹P/¹H radio frequency (RF) coil array. Using a form-fitted multi-channel ³¹P/¹H coil array resulted in high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). PCr and pH in the gastrocnemius medialis muscle were quantified from each ³¹P spectrum, acquired every 6 s. During exercise, SEPI (t) was found to be a linear function of tissue pH(t) (cross-correlation r = -0.85 ± 0.07). Strong Pearson's correlations were observed between post exercise time-to-peak (TTP) of SEPI and (a) the time constant of PCr recovery τPCr recovery (r = 0.89, p < 10⁻⁶), (b) maximum oxidative phosphorylation using the linear model, Q(max, lin) (r = 0.65, p = 0.002), the adenosine-diphosphate-driven model, Q(max,ADP) (r = 0.73, p = 0.0002) and (c) end exercise pH (r = 0.60, p = 0.005). Based on combined accurately localised ³¹P MRS and T₂∗ weighted MRI, both with high temporal resolution, strong correlations of the skeletal muscle SEPI during exercise and tissue pH time courses and of post exercise SEPI and parameters of energy metabolism were observed. In conclusion, a tight coupling between skeletal muscle metabolic activity and tissue T₂∗ signal weighting, probably induced by osmotically driven water shift, exists and can be measured non-invasively, using NMR at 7

  19. Dynamic characteristics of T2*-weighted signal in calf muscles of peripheral artery disease during low-intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhijun; Muller, Matthew D; Wang, Jianli; Sica, Christopher T; Karunanayaka, Prasanna; Sinoway, Lawrence I; Yang, Qing X

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the dynamic characteristics of T2* -weighted signal change in exercising skeletal muscle of healthy subjects and peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients under a low-intensity exercise paradigm. Nine PAD patients and nine age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers underwent a low-intensity exercise paradigm while magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (3.0T) was obtained. T2*-weighted signal time-courses in lateral gastrocnemius, medial gastrocnemius, soleus, and tibialis anterior were acquired and analyzed. Correlations were performed between dynamic T2*-weighted signal and changes in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, leg pain, and perceived exertion. A significant signal decrease was observed during exercise in soleus and tibialis anterior of healthy participants (P = 0.0007-0.04 and 0.001-0.009, respectively). In PAD, negative signals were observed (P = 0.008-0.02 and 0.003-0.01, respectively) in soleus and lateral gastrocnemius during the early exercise stage. Then the signal gradually increased above the baseline in the lateral gastrocnemius during and after exercise in six of the eight patients who completed the study. This signal increase in patients' lateral gastrocnemius was significantly greater than in healthy subjects' during the later exercise stage (two-sample t-tests, P = 0.001-0.03). Heart rate and mean arterial pressure responses to exercise were significantly higher in PAD than healthy subjects (P = 0.036 and 0.008, respectively) and the patients experienced greater leg pain and exertion (P = 0.006 and P = 0.0014, respectively). During low-intensity exercise, there were different dynamic T2*-weighted signal behavior in the healthy and PAD exercising muscles. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:40-48. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  20. Leg size and muscle functions associated with leg compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Doerr, Donald F.; Flores, Jose F.; Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe; Buchanan, Paul

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between the leg compliance and factors related to the size of leg muscle and to physical fitness was investigated in ten healthy subjects. Vascular compliance of the leg, as determined by a mercury strain gauge, was found to be not significantly correlated with any variables associated with physical fitness per se (e.g., peak O2 uptake, calf strength, age, body weight, or body composition. On the other hand, leg compliance correlated with the calf cross-sectional area (CSA) and the calculated calf volume, with the CSA of calf muscle being the most dominant contributing factor (while fat and bone were poor predicators). It is suggested that leg compliance can be lowered by increasing calf muscle mass, thus providing structural support to limit the expansion of leg veins.

  1. Psoas muscle area is not representative of total skeletal muscle area in the assessment of sarcopenia in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Rutten, Iris J G; Ubachs, Jorne; Kruitwagen, Roy F P M; Beets-Tan, Regina G H; Olde Damink, Steven W M; Van Gorp, Toon

    2017-08-01

    Computed tomography measurements of total skeletal muscle area can detect changes and predict overall survival (OS) in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. This study investigates whether assessment of psoas muscle area reflects total muscle area and can be used to assess sarcopenia in ovarian cancer patients. Ovarian cancer patients (n = 150) treated with induction chemotherapy and interval debulking were enrolled retrospectively in this longitudinal study. Muscle was measured cross sectionally with computed tomography in three ways: (i) software quantification of total skeletal muscle area (SMA); (ii) software quantification of psoas muscle area (PA); and (iii) manual measurement of length and width of the psoas muscle to derive the psoas surface area (PLW). Pearson correlation between the different methods was studied. Patients were divided into two groups based on the extent of change in muscle area, and agreement was measured with kappa coefficients. Cox-regression was used to test predictors for OS. Correlation between SMA and both psoas muscle area measurements was poor (r = 0.52 and 0.39 for PA and PLW, respectively). After categorizing patients into muscle loss or gain, kappa agreement was also poor for all comparisons (all κ < 0.40). In regression analysis, SMA loss was predictive of poor OS (hazard ratio 1.698 (95%CI 1.038-2.778), P = 0.035). No relationship with OS was seen for PA or PLW loss. Change in psoas muscle area is not representative of total muscle area change and should not be used to substitute total skeletal muscle to predict survival in patients with ovarian cancer. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.

  2. Evidence for a dipolar-coupled AM system in carnosine in human calf muscle from in vivo 1H NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Leif; Bachert, Peter

    2003-10-01

    Spin systems with residual dipolar couplings such as creatine, taurine, and lactate in skeletal muscle tissue exhibit first-order spectra in in vivo 1H NMR spectroscopy at 1.5 T because the coupled protons are represented by (nearly) symmetrized eigenfunctions. The imidazole ring protons (H2, H4) of carnosine are suspected to form also a coupled system. The ring's stiffness could enable a connectivity between these anisochronous protons with the consequence of second-order spectra at low field strength. Our purpose was to study whether this deviation from the Paschen-Back condition can be used to detect the H2-H4 coupling in localized 1D 1H NMR spectra obtained at 1.5 T (64 MHz) from the human calf in a conventional whole-body scanner. As for the hydrogen hyperfine interaction, a Breit-Rabi equation was derived to describe the transition from Zeeman to Paschen-Back regime for two dipolar-coupled protons. The ratio of the measurable coupling strength ( Sk) and the difference in resonance frequencies of the coupled spins (Δ ω) induces quantum-state mixing of various degree upon definition of an appropriate eigenbase of the coupled spin system. The corresponding Clebsch-Gordan coefficients manifest in characteristic energy corrections in the Breit-Rabi formula. These additional terms were used to define an asymmetry parameter of the line positions as a function of Sk and Δ ω. The observed frequency shifts of the resonances were found to be consistent with this parameter within the accuracy achievable in in vivo NMR spectroscopy. Thus it was possible to identify the origin of satellite peaks of H2, H4 and to describe this so far not investigated type of residual dipolar coupling in vivo.

  3. Asymmetry of magnetic motor evoked potentials recorded in calf muscles of the dominant and non-dominant lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Olex-Zarychta, Dorota; Koprowski, Robert; Sobota, Grzegorz; Wróbel, Zygmunt

    2009-08-07

    The aim of the study was to determine the applicability of magnetic stimulation and magnetic motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in motor asymmetry studies by obtaining quantitative and qualitative measures of efferent activity during low intensity magnetic stimulation of the dominant and non-dominant lower extremities. Magnetic stimulation of the tibial nerve in the popliteal fossa was performed in 10 healthy male right-handed and right-footed young adults. Responses were recorded from the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscles of the right and left lower extremities. Response characteristics (duration, onset latency, amplitude) were analyzed in relation to the functional dominance of the limbs and in relation to the direction of the current in the magnetic coil by use of the Wilcoxon pair sequence test. The CCW direction of coil current was related to reduced amplitudes of recorded MEPs. Greater amplitudes of evoked potentials were recorded in the non-dominant extremity, both in the CW and CCW coil current directions, with the statistical significance of this effect (p=0.005). No differences in duration of response were found in the CW current direction, while in CCW the time of the left-side response was prolonged (p=0.01). In the non-dominant extremity longer onset latencies were recorded in both current directions, but only for the CW direction the side asymmetries showed a statistical significance of p=0.005. In the dominant extremity the stimulation correlated with stronger paresthesias, especially using the CCW direction of coil current. The results indicate that low intensity magnetic stimulation may be useful in quantitative and qualitative research into the motor asymmetry.

  4. Changes in muscle cross-sectional area, muscle force, and jump performance during 6 weeks of progressive whole-body vibration combined with progressive, high intensity resistance training

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberger, A.; Beijer, Å.; Johannes, B.; Schoenau, E.; Mester, J.; Rittweger, J.; Zange, J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: We hypothesized that progressive whole-body vibration (WBV) superimposed to progressive high intensity resistance training has greater effects on muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), muscle force of leg muscles, and jump performance than progressive high intensity resistance training alone. Methods: Two groups of healthy male subjects performed either 6 weeks of Resistive Vibration Exercise (RVE, squats and heel raises with WBV, n=13) or Resistive Exercise (RE, squats and heel raises without WBV, n=13). Squats under RVE required indispensable weight loading on the forefoot to damp harmful vibrations to the head. Time, intervention, and interaction effects were analyzed. Results: After 6 weeks of training, knee extensor CSA, isometric knee extension force, and counter movement jump height increased equally in both groups (time effect, P<0.001, P≤0.02, and P≤0.03, respectively), whereas only in RVE ankle plantar flexor CSA and isometric ankle plantar flexion force reached significance or a tendency, respectively, (time effect, P=0.015 and P=0.069, respectively; intervention effect also for the latter, P=0.006). Drop jump contact time did significantly more improve in RVE (interaction effect, P=0.042). Conclusions: RVE showed better training effects than RE only in plantar flexor muscles. RVE seems to be suitable in professional sports with a special focus on calf muscles. PMID:28574410

  5. Effects of 12-wk eccentric calf muscle training on muscle-tendon glucose uptake and SEMG in patients with chronic Achilles tendon pain.

    PubMed

    Masood, Tahir; Kalliokoski, Kari; Magnusson, S Peter; Bojsen-Møller, Jens; Finni, Taija

    2014-07-15

    High-load eccentric exercises have been a key component in the conservative management of chronic Achilles tendinopathy. This study investigated the effects of a 12-wk progressive, home-based eccentric rehabilitation program on ankle plantar flexors' glucose uptake (GU) and myoelectric activity and Achilles tendon GU. A longitudinal study design with control (n = 10) and patient (n = 10) groups was used. Surface electromyography (SEMG) from four ankle plantar flexors and GU from the same muscles and the Achilles tendon were measured during submaximal intermittent isometric plantar flexion task. The results indicated that the symptomatic leg was weaker (P < 0.05) than the asymptomatic leg at baseline, but improved (P < 0.001) with eccentric rehabilitation. Additionally, the rehabilitation resulted in greater GU in both soleus (P < 0.01) and lateral gastrocnemius (P < 0.001) in the symptomatic leg, while the asymptomatic leg displayed higher uptake for medial gastrocnemius and flexor hallucis longus (P < 0.05). While both patient legs had higher tendon GU than the controls (P < 0.05), there was no rehabilitation effect on the tendon GU. Concerning SEMG, at baseline, soleus showed more relative activity in the symptomatic leg compared with both the asymptomatic and control legs (P < 0.05), probably reflecting an effort to compensate for the decreased force potential. The rehabilitation resulted in greater SEMG activity in the lateral gastrocnemius (P < 0.01) of the symptomatic leg with no other within- or between-group differences. Eccentric rehabilitation was effective in decreasing subjective severity of Achilles tendinopathy. It also resulted in redistribution of relative electrical activity, but not metabolic activity, within the triceps surae muscle. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Beef cow-calf production.

    PubMed

    Feuz, Dillon M; Umberger, Wendy J

    2003-07-01

    Cow-calf production occurs in all 50 states over varied resource bases and under vastly different environmental conditions. Multiple breeds exist and management styles and objectives are as numerous as the number of cow-calf producers. There is not one area of the country, one breed of cattle, or one management style that is most profitable for producing cows and calves. There are, however, some common strategies that can be employed by cow-calf producers to enhance profitability. Costs need to be controlled without jeopardizing cow herd productivity or net returns. It appears that the cost associated with purchased and harvested feeds varies considerably across operations. Understanding cyclic and seasonal price patterns, weight-price slides, cattle shrink, and other marketing costs can help producers enhance their profit by marketing (and not by just selling) their cattle. Producers with superior cattle genetics can become part of a specific alliance or, at a minimum, document the performance of their cattle so that they can get paid for the superior genetics. The beef industry is changing and will likely continue to change. Cow-calf producers will need to examine their own management practices to determine whether they are optimal for the current industry. Those producers who are most adept at matching their management abilities to their cattle type, their resource base, and the appropriate market outlet will be the most successful in the future.

  7. [Melanosis maculosa in a calf].

    PubMed

    Camenzind, D; Winzap, B; Hässig, M

    2003-07-01

    This work describes findings in a fattened calf, which were seen in a routine slaughter. The most important findings by the meat inspector were diffuse, black spots between 2 and 70 mm in diameter. This hyperpigmentation was observed on the entire carcass as well as on the outside and inside of all internal organs. Removal of the spinal cord produced black colored liquor. Subsequent microbiological examination of the meat resulted in sterile findings. The muscle pH was 5.8. On histological examination many macrophages containing melanin were found in the lung and liver. Based on these findings the diagnosis of Melanosis maculosa was made.

  8. Optical Cross-Sectional Muscle Area Determination of Drosophila Melanogaster Adult Indirect Flight Muscles.

    PubMed

    Selma-Soriano, Estela; Artero, Rubén; Llamusi, Beatriz

    2018-03-31

    Muscle mass wasting, known as muscle atrophy, is a common phenotype in Drosophila models of neuromuscular diseases. We have used the indirect flight muscles (IFMs) of flies, specifically the dorso-longitudinal muscles (DLM), as the experimental subject to measure the atrophic phenotype brought about by different genetic causes. In this protocol, we describe how to embed fly thorax muscles for semi thin sectioning, how to obtain a good contrast between muscle and the surrounding tissue, and how to process optical microscope images for semiautomatic acquisition of quantifiable data and analysis. We describe three specific applications of the methodological pipeline. First, we show how the method can be applied to quantify muscle degeneration in a myotonic dystrophy fly model; second, measurement of muscle cross-sectional area can help to identify genes that either promote or prevent muscle atrophy and/or muscle degeneration; third, this protocol can be applied to determine whether a candidate compound is able to significantly modify a given atrophic phenotype induced by a disease-causing mutation or by an environmental trigger.

  9. Weight-adjusted lean body mass and calf circumference are protective against obesity-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Takamura, Toshinari; Kita, Yuki; Nakagen, Masatoshi; Sakurai, Masaru; Isobe, Yuki; Takeshita, Yumie; Kawai, Kohzo; Urabe, Takeshi; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2017-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that preserved muscle mass is protective against obesity-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities, we analyzed the relationship of lean body mass and computed tomography-assessed sectional areas of specific skeletal muscles with insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities in a healthy cohort. A total of 195 subjects without diabetes who had completed a medical examination were included in this study. Various anthropometric indices such as circumferences of the arm, waist, hip, thigh, and calf were measured. Body composition (fat and lean body mass) was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Sectional areas of specific skeletal muscles (iliopsoas, erector spinae, gluteus, femoris, and rectus abdominis muscles) were measured using computed tomography. Fat and lean body mass were significantly correlated with metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance indices. When adjusted by weight, relationships of fat and lean body mass with metabolic parameters were mirror images of each other. The weight-adjusted lean body mass negatively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressures; fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, alanine aminotransferase, and triglyceride, and insulin levels; and hepatic insulin resistance indices, and positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol levels and muscle insulin sensitivity indices. Compared with weight-adjusted lean body mass, weight-adjusted sectional areas of specific skeletal muscles showed similar, but not as strong, correlations with metabolic parameters. Among anthropometric measures, the calf circumference best reflected lean body mass, and weight-adjusted calf circumference negatively correlated with metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance indices. Weight-adjusted lean body mass and skeletal muscle area are protective against weight-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities. The calf circumference reflects lean body mass and may be useful as a protective

  10. Difficulties in estimating muscle forces from muscle cross-sectional area. An example using the psoas major muscle.

    PubMed

    Gatton, M L; Pearcy, M J; Pettet, G J

    1999-07-15

    Most biomechanical models use muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) as an indicator of maximum isometric muscle force. In general, there are multiple estimates of CSA for the same muscle. For example, numerous studies have estimated the CSA of the psoas major muscle using different subject populations and positions. However, few studies have combined the available information to obtain an overall estimate of CSA or investigated the effect different subject characteristics may have on CSA. In the present update, nine studies that reported psoas major CSA or physiologic CSA were compared with respect to subject characteristics, methodology, and results. Corrections to cadaveric data were made to adjust physiologic CSA to CSA. Comparison of reported values for living subjects indicated that females have smaller mean CSA than males for the psoas major muscle and that body size does not significantly influence muscle CSA in males. Areas derived from cadaveric data were smaller than similar studies on living subjects, possibly because of subject age, removal of tendinous and fatty components of fascicles, and lack of detailed data for fascicle angles in the supine position. Results indicate that researchers who use muscle CSA in biomechanical models should carefully assess the appropriateness of the data used, particularly in relation to potential sex differences and the influence of postural changes on CSA.

  11. Comparison of clinical semi-quantitative assessment of muscle fat infiltration with quantitative assessment using chemical shift-based water/fat separation in MR studies of the calf of post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Alizai, Hamza; Nardo, Lorenzo; Karampinos, Dimitrios C; Joseph, Gabby B; Yap, Samuel P; Baum, Thomas; Krug, Roland; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M

    2012-07-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the semi-quantitative Goutallier classification for fat infiltration with quantitative fat-fraction derived from a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) chemical shift-based water/fat separation technique. Sixty-two women (age 61 ± 6 years), 27 of whom had diabetes, underwent MRI of the calf using a T1-weighted fast spin-echo sequence and a six-echo spoiled gradient-echo sequence at 3 T. Water/fat images and fat fraction maps were reconstructed using the IDEAL algorithm with T2* correction and a multi-peak model for the fat spectrum. Two radiologists scored fat infiltration on the T1-weighted images using the Goutallier classification in six muscle compartments. Spearman correlations between the Goutallier grades and the fat fraction were calculated; in addition, intra-observer and inter-observer agreement were calculated. A significant correlation between the clinical grading and the fat fraction values was found for all muscle compartments (P < 0.0001, R values ranging from 0.79 to 0.88). Goutallier grades 0-4 had a fat fraction ranging from 3.5 to 19%. Intra-observer and inter-observer agreement values of 0.83 and 0.81 were calculated for the semi-quantitative grading. Semi-quantitative grading of intramuscular fat and quantitative fat fraction were significantly correlated and both techniques had excellent reproducibility. However, the clinical grading was found to overestimate muscle fat. Fat infiltration of muscle commonly occurs in many metabolic and neuromuscular diseases. • Image-based semi-quantitative classifications for assessing fat infiltration are not well validated. • Quantitative MRI techniques provide an accurate assessment of muscle fat.

  12. Cervical muscle area measurements in acute whiplash patients and controls.

    PubMed

    Ulbrich, Erika J; Anderson, Suzanne E; Busato, Andre; Abderhalden, Susanne; Boesch, Chris; Zimmermann, Heinz; Heini, Paul; Hodler, Juerg; Sturzenegger, Matthias

    2011-03-01

    To quantitatively compare the muscle cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of the cervical muscles in symptomatic acute whiplash patients versus healthy controls. We hypothesized, that symptomatic whiplash patients have smaller cervical muscle CSAs than matched controls and that smaller cervical muscle CSAs in women might explain that women more frequently are symptomatic after whiplash injury than men. Prospective controlled study. Thirty-eight consecutive acute whiplash patients were examined within 48 h after a motor vehicle accident and 38 healthy age- and sex-matched controls, each half female, half male, were examined with the same protocol. MRI CSA measurements were performed of the deep and total cervical extensor muscles as well as the sternocleidomastoid muscles using transversal STIR (Short T1 Inversion Recovery) sequences on level C2, C4, and C5 by two blinded raters. Clinical symptoms were assessed with patient questionnaires (EuroQuol 5D, Specific Whiplash Questionnaire, head- and neck pain intensity [VAS]). Agreement of measurements between the two raters was high (intraclass correlation 0.52 to 0.85 for the different levels). No significant difference in age and body mass index were seen between patients and controls and the distribution of genders across groups was identical. There were no significant differences between patients and controls for all CSAs. Women had consistently smaller CSAs than men. The CSAs showed no significant correlation with the pain intensity of neck pain and headache but a consistent tendency of less neck pain and more headache with greater CSAs. This small study provides no evidence that subjects with smaller CSAs of cervical extensor muscles have a higher risk in developing symptoms after a whiplash injury and confirms smaller CSA in women. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Calf Strength Loss During Mechanical Unloading: Does It Matter?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, K. L.; Mulavara, A.; Bloomberg, J.; Ploutz-Snyder, LL

    2016-01-01

    During the mechanical unloading of spaceflight and its ground-based analogs, muscle mass and muscle strength of the calf are difficult to preserve despite exercise countermeasures that effectively protect these parameters in the thigh. It is unclear what effects these local losses have on balance and whole body function which will be essential for successful performance of demanding tasks during future exploration missions.

  14. Psoas muscle cross-sectional area as a measure of whole body lean muscle mass in maintenance hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Morrell, Glen R.; Ikizler, Talat A.; Chen, Xiaorui; Heilbrun, Marta E.; Wei, Guo; Boucher, Robert; Beddhu, Srinivasan

    2016-01-01

    Objective We investigate whether psoas or paraspinous muscle area measured on a single L4–5 image is a useful measure of whole lean body mass compared to dedicated mid-thigh magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Design Observational study. Setting Outpatient dialysis units and a research clinic. Subjects 105 adult participants on maintenance hemodialysis. No control group was used. Exposure variables Psoas muscle area, paraspinous muscle area, and mid-thigh muscle area (MTMA) were measured by MRI. Main outcome measure Lean body mass was measured by dual-energy absorptiometry (DEXA) scan. Results In separate multivariable linear regression models, psoas, paraspinous, and mid-thigh muscle area were associated with increase in lean body mass. In separate multivariate logistic regression models, c-statistics for diagnosis of sarcopenia (defined as < 25th percentile of lean body mass) were 0.69 for paraspinous muscle area, 0.81 for psoas muscle area, and 0.89 for mid-thigh muscle area. With sarcopenia defined as < 10th percentile of lean body mass, the corresponding c-statistics were 0.71, 0.92, and 0.94. Conclusions We conclude that psoas muscle area provides a good measure of whole body muscle mass, better than paraspinous muscle area but slightly inferior to mid thigh measurement. Hence, in body composition studies a single axial MR image at the L4–L5 level can be used to provide information on both fat and muscle and may eliminate the need for time-consuming measurement of muscle area in the thigh. PMID:26994780

  15. An evaluation of the reliability of muscle fiber cross-sectional area and fiber number measurements in rat skeletal muscle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: The reliability of estimating muscle fiber cross-sectional area (measure of muscle fiber size) and fiber number from only a subset of fibers in rat hindlimb muscle cross-sections has not been systematically evaluated. This study examined the variability in mean estimates of fiber cross-s...

  16. Comparison of clinical semi-quantitative assessment of muscle fat infiltration with quantitative assessment using chemical shift-based water/fat separation in MR studies of the calf of post-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Nardo, Lorenzo; Karampinos, Dimitrios C.; Joseph, Gabby B.; Yap, Samuel P.; Baum, Thomas; Krug, Roland; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to compare the semi-quantitative Goutallier classification for fat infiltration with quantitative fat-fraction derived from a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) chemical shift-based water/fat separation technique. Methods Sixty-two women (age 61±6 years), 27 of whom had diabetes, underwent MRI of the calf using a T1-weighted fast spin-echo sequence and a six-echo spoiled gradient-echo sequence at 3 T. Water/fat images and fat fraction maps were reconstructed using the IDEAL algorithm with T2* correction and a multi-peak model for the fat spectrum. Two radiologists scored fat infiltration on the T1-weighted images using the Goutallier classification in six muscle compartments. Spearman correlations between the Goutallier grades and the fat fraction were calculated; in addition, intra-observer and inter-observer agreement were calculated. Results A significant correlation between the clinical grading and the fat fraction values was found for all muscle compartments (P<0.0001, R values ranging from 0.79 to 0.88). Goutallier grades 0–4 had a fat fraction ranging from 3.5 to 19%. Intra-observer and inter-observer agreement values of 0.83 and 0.81 were calculated for the semi-quantitative grading. Conclusion Semi-quantitative grading of intramuscular fat and quantitative fat fraction were significantly correlated and both techniques had excellent reproducibility. However, the clinical grading was found to overestimate muscle fat. PMID:22411305

  17. Calf pump activity influencing venous hemodynamics in the lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Recek, Cestmir

    2013-03-01

    Calf muscle pump is the motive force enhancing return of venous blood from the lower extremity to the heart. It causes displacement of venous blood in both vertical and horizontal directions, generates ambulatory pressure gradient between thigh and lower leg veins, and bidirectional streaming within calf perforators. Ambulatory pressure gradient triggers venous reflux in incompetent veins, which induces ambulatory venous hypertension in the lower leg and foot. Bidirectional flow in calf perforators enables quick pressure equalization between deep and superficial veins of the lower leg; the outward (into the superficial veins) oriented component of the bidirectional flow taking place during calf muscle contraction is no pathological reflux but a physiological centripetal flow streaming via great saphenous vein into the femoral vein. Calf perforators are communicating channels between both systems making them conjoined vessels; they are not involved in the generation of pathological hemodynamic situations, nor do they cause ambulatory venous hypertension. The real cause why recurrences develop has not as yet been cleared. Pressure gradient arising during calf pump activity between the femoral vein and the saphenous remnant after abolition of saphenous reflux triggers biophysical and biochemical events, which might induce recurrence. Thus, abolition of saphenous reflux removes the hemodynamic disturbance, but at the same time it generates precondition for reflux recurrence and for the comeback of the previous pathological situation; this chain of events has been called hemodynamic paradox.

  18. Calf enlargement associated with neurologic disease: two uncommon cases.

    PubMed

    Harwood, S C; Honet, J C

    1988-01-01

    Muscle enlargement and hypertrophy are rare findings in neurogenic lesions. The two in combination have been reported in cases of peripheral nerve lesions, polyneuropathy, and poliomyelitis. True and pseudo muscle hypertrophy are the two possible etiologies, whereas infiltration, stretch, or exercise of the muscle are the causative factors. We report two cases of unilateral calf enlargement, one occurring after surgery for S1 radiculopathy with associated cramping, and the other after poliomyelitis.

  19. Dynamic PCr and pH imaging of human calf muscles during exercise and recovery using (31) P gradient-Echo MRI at 7 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Albrecht Ingo; Meyerspeer, Martin; Robinson, Simon Daniel; Goluch, Sigrun; Wolzt, Michael; Fiedler, Georg Bernd; Bogner, Wolfgang; Laistler, Elmar; Krššák, Martin; Moser, Ewald; Trattnig, Siegfried; Valkovič, Ladislav

    2016-06-01

    Simultaneous acquisition of spatially resolved (31) P-MRI data for evaluation of muscle specific energy metabolism, i.e., PCr and pH kinetics. A three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo sequence for multiple frequency-selective excitations of the PCr and Pi signals in an interleaved sampling scheme was developed and tested at 7 Tesla (T). The pH values were derived from the chemical shift-induced phase difference between the resonances. The achieved spatial resolution was ∼2 mL with image acquisition time below 6 s. Ten healthy volunteers were studied performing plantar flexions during the delay between (31) P-MRI acquisitions, yielding a temporal resolution of 9-10 s. Signal from anatomically matched regions of interest had sufficient signal-to-noise ratio to allow single-acquisition PCr and pH quantification. The Pi signal was clearly detected in voxels of actively exercising muscles. The PCr depletions were in gastrocnemius 42 ± 14% (medialis), 48 ± 17% (lateralis) and in soleus 20 ± 11%. The end exercise pH values were 6.74 ± 0.18 and 6.65 ± 0.27 for gastrocnemius medialis and lateralis, respectively, and 6.96 ± 0.12 for soleus muscle. Simultaneous acquisition of PCr and Pi images with high temporal resolution, suitable for measuring PCr and pH kinetics in exercise-recovery experiments, was demonstrated at 7T. This study presents a fast alternative to MRS for quantifying energy metabolism of posterior muscle groups of the lower leg. Magn Reson Med 75:2324-2331, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Welcome to CALFED Bay-Delta Program

    Science.gov Websites

    Skip to: Content | Footer | Accessibility Search: Search CALFED Search CA.GOV | CALFED Bay-Delta California Delta Delta Home About the Delta CALFED Science About the Program Independent Science Board , CALFED Director photo of blue heron Bay-Delta Public Advisory Committee CALFED Agencies Calendar

  1. Calf heads on a trophy sign: Miyoshi myopathy.

    PubMed

    Shyma, M Mundayadan; Roopchand, P Sreedharan; Ram, K Mohan; Shaji, C Velayudhan

    2015-01-01

    Miyoshi myopathy is an autosomal recessive distal myopathy with predominant involvement of the posterior calf muscles attributed to mutations in the dysferlin gene. We report a 26-year-old male, born of nonconsanginous parentage. He noticed weakness and atrophy of leg muscles with inability to walk on his heels. The creatine kinase concentration was high. The electromyography showed myopathic pattern and the muscle biopsy disclosed dystrophic changes with absence of dysferlin. Miyoshi myopathy may be distinct among the hereditary distal myopathies. There are only few reported cases of Miyoshi myopathy in the world literature. In India only 12 cases were reported who had classical features of Miyoshi myopathy. Our's is a typical case of Miyoshi myopathy, with an affected twin sister as well. He also had "calf heads on a trophy sign" on physical examination, which is considered to be pathognomonic of this disease.

  2. Calf heads on a trophy sign: Miyoshi myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Shyma, M. Mundayadan; Roopchand, P. Sreedharan; Ram, K. Mohan; Shaji, C. Velayudhan

    2015-01-01

    Miyoshi myopathy is an autosomal recessive distal myopathy with predominant involvement of the posterior calf muscles attributed to mutations in the dysferlin gene. We report a 26-year-old male, born of nonconsanginous parentage. He noticed weakness and atrophy of leg muscles with inability to walk on his heels. The creatine kinase concentration was high. The electromyography showed myopathic pattern and the muscle biopsy disclosed dystrophic changes with absence of dysferlin. Miyoshi myopathy may be distinct among the hereditary distal myopathies. There are only few reported cases of Miyoshi myopathy in the world literature. In India only 12 cases were reported who had classical features of Miyoshi myopathy. Our's is a typical case of Miyoshi myopathy, with an affected twin sister as well. He also had “calf heads on a trophy sign” on physical examination, which is considered to be pathognomonic of this disease. PMID:26167036

  3. Lumbar paraspinal muscle transverse area and symmetry in dogs with and without degenerative lumbosacral stenosis.

    PubMed

    Henderson, A L; Hecht, S; Millis, D L

    2015-10-01

    To investigate whether dogs with degenerative lumbosacral stenosis have decreased lumbar paraspinal muscle transverse area and symmetry compared with control dogs. Retrospective cross-sectional study comparing muscles in transverse T2-weighted magnetic resonance images for nine dogs with and nine dogs without degenerative -lumbosacral stenosis. Mean transverse area was measured for the lumbar multifidus and sacrocaudalis dorsalis lateralis muscles bilaterally and the L7 vertebral body at the level of the caudal endplate. Transverse areas of both muscle groups relative to L7 and asymmetry indices were compared between study populations using independent t tests. Mean muscle-to-L7 transverse area ratios were significantly smaller in the degenerative lumbosacral stenosis group compared with those in the control group in both lumbar multifidus (0·84 ±0·26 versus 1·09 ±0·25; P=0·027) and sacrocaudalis dorsalis lateralis (0·5 ±0·15 versus 0·68 ±0·12; P=0·005) muscles. Mean asymmetry indices were higher for both muscles in the group with degenerative lumbosacral stenosis than in the control group, but highly variable and the difference was not statistically significant. These findings suggest that dogs with degenerative lumbosacral stenosis have decreased lumbar paraspinal muscle mass that may be a cause or consequence of the -syndrome. Understanding altered paraspinal muscle characteristics may improve understanding of the -pathophysiology and management options for degenerative lumbosacral stenosis. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  4. Psoas Muscle Cross-sectional Area as a Measure of Whole-body Lean Muscle Mass in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Morrell, Glen R; Ikizler, Talat A; Chen, Xiaorui; Heilbrun, Marta E; Wei, Guo; Boucher, Robert; Beddhu, Srinivasan

    2016-07-01

    We investigate whether psoas or paraspinous muscle area measured on a single L4-L5 image is a useful measure of whole lean body mass (LBM) compared to dedicated midthigh magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Observational study. Outpatient dialysis units and a research clinic. One hundred five adult participants on maintenance hemodialysis. No control group was used. Psoas muscle area, paraspinous muscle area, and midthigh muscle area (MTMA) were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. LBM was measured by dual-energy absorptiometry scan. In separate multivariable linear regression models, psoas, paraspinous, and MTMA were associated with increase in LBM. In separate multivariate logistic regression models, C statistics for diagnosis of sarcopenia (defined as <25th percentile of LBM) were 0.69 for paraspinous muscle area, 0.81 for psoas muscle area, and 0.89 for MTMA. With sarcopenia defined as <10th percentile of LBM, the corresponding C statistics were 0.71, 0.92, and 0.94. We conclude that psoas muscle area provides a good measure of whole-body muscle mass, better than paraspinous muscle area but slightly inferior to midthigh measurement. Hence, in body composition studies a single axial MR image at the L4-L5 level can be used to provide information on both fat and muscle and may eliminate the need for time-consuming measurement of muscle area in the thigh. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Physiological cross-sectional area of human leg muscles based on magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fukunaga, T.; Roy, R. R.; Shellock, F. G.; Hodgson, J. A.; Day, M. K.; Lee, P. L.; Kwong-Fu, H.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging techniques were used to determine the physiological cross-sectional areas (PCSAs) of the major muscles or muscle groups of the lower leg. For 12 healthy subjects, the boundaries of each muscle or muscle group were digitized from images taken at 1-cm intervals along the length of the leg. Muscle volumes were calculated from the summation of each anatomical CSA (ACSA) and the distance between each section. Muscle length was determined as the distance between the most proximal and distal images in which the muscle was visible. The PCSA of each muscle was calculated as muscle volume times the cosine of the angle of fiber pinnation divided by fiber length, where published fiber length:muscle length ratios were used to estimate fiber lengths. The mean volumes of the major plantarflexors were 489, 245, and 140 cm3 for the soleus and medial (MG) and lateral (LG) heads of the gastrocnemius. The mean PCSA of the soleus was 230 cm2, about three and eight times larger than the MG (68 cm2) and LG (28 cm2), respectively. These PCSA values were eight (soleus), four (MG), and three (LG) times larger than their respective maximum ACSA. The major dorsiflexor, the tibialis anterior (TA), had a muscle volume of 143 cm2, a PCSA of 19 cm2, and an ACSA of 9 cm2. With the exception of the soleus, the mean fiber length of all subjects was closely related to muscle volume across muscles. The soleus fibers were unusually short relative to the muscle volume, thus potentiating its force potential.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  6. Diffusion tensor imaging of the human calf: Variation of inter- and intramuscle-specific diffusion parameters.

    PubMed

    Schlaffke, Lara; Rehmann, Robert; Froeling, Martijn; Kley, Rudolf; Tegenthoff, Martin; Vorgerd, Matthias; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias

    2017-10-01

    To investigate to what extent inter- and intramuscular variations of diffusion parameters of human calf muscles can be explained by age, gender, muscle location, and body mass index (BMI) in a specific age group (20-35 years). Whole calf muscles of 18 healthy volunteers were evaluated. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed using a 3T scanner and a 16-channel Torso XL coil. Diffusion-weighted images were acquired to perform fiber tractography and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis for each muscle of both legs. Fiber tractography was used to separate seven lower leg muscles. Associations between DTI parameters and confounds were evaluated. All muscles were additionally separated in seven identical segments along the z-axis to evaluate intramuscular differences in diffusion parameters. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were obtained for each muscle with low standard deviations (SDs) (SD FA : 0.01-0.02; SD MD : 0.07-0.14(10 -3 )). We found significant differences in FA values of the tibialis anterior muscle (AT) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles between men and women for whole muscle FA (two-sample t-tests; AT: P = 0.0014; EDL: P = 0.0004). We showed significant intramuscular differences in diffusion parameters between adjacent segments in most calf muscles (P < 0.001). Whereas muscle insertions showed higher (SD 0.03-0.06) than muscle bellies (SD 0.01-0.03), no relationships between FA or MD with age or BMI were found. Inter- and intramuscular variations in diffusion parameters of the calf were shown, which are not related to age or BMI in this age group. Differences between muscle belly and insertion should be considered when interpreting datasets not including whole muscles. 3 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;46:1137-1148. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  7. Effects of different flooring options in outside pens of hutches on dairy calf growth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Growth rates of dairy calves may vary due to many different factors, including housing. The objective of this study was to determine if calf growth was affected by different flooring options in the outside penned area of a calf hutch. For this study, 33 hutches were blocked in groups of 3 by locatio...

  8. Associations of muscle force, power, cross-sectional muscle area and bone geometry in older UK men.

    PubMed

    Zengin, Ayse; Pye, Stephen R; Cook, Michael J; Adams, Judith E; Rawer, Rainer; Wu, Frederick C W; O'Neill, Terence W; Ward, Kate A

    2017-08-01

    Ageing is associated with sarcopenia, osteoporosis, and increased fall risk, all of which contribute to increased fracture risk. Mechanically, bone strength adapts in response to forces created by muscle contractions. Adaptations can be through changes in bone size, geometry, and bending strength. Muscle mass is often used as a surrogate for muscle force; however, force can be increased without changes in muscle mass. Increased fall risk with ageing has been associated with a decline in muscle power-which is a measure of mobility. The aims of this study were as follows: (i) to investigate the relationship between muscle parameters in the upper and lower limbs with age in UK men and the influence of ethnicity on these relationships; (ii) to examine the relationships between jump force/grip strength/cross-sectional muscle area (CSMA) with bone outcomes at the radius and tibia. White European, Black Afro-Caribbean, and South Asian men aged 40-79 years were recruited from Manchester, UK. Cortical bone mineral content, cross-sectional area, cortical area, cross-sectional moment of inertia, and CSMA were measured at the diaphysis of the radius and tibia using peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Lower limb jump force and power were measured from a single two-legged jump performed on a ground-reaction force platform. Grip strength was measured using a dynamometer. Associations between muscle and bone outcomes was determined using linear regression with adjustments for age, height, weight, and ethnicity. Three hundred and one men were recruited. Jump force was negatively associated with age; for every 10 year increase in age, there was a 4% reduction in jump force (P < 0.0001). There was a significant age-ethnicity interaction for jump power (P = 0.039); after adjustments, this was attenuated (P = 0.088). For every 10 year increase in age, grip strength decreased by 11%. Jump force was positively associated with tibial bone outcomes: a 1 standard deviation

  9. A 100-Year Review: Calf nutrition and management.

    PubMed

    Kertz, A F; Hill, T M; Quigley, J D; Heinrichs, A J; Linn, J G; Drackley, J K

    2017-12-01

    standardized procedures for conducting and reporting data from calf experiments was first published. A very active area of calf nutrition research from the late 1970s to the mid 1980s was colostrum quality, feeding, and preservation; more than 60 such research articles were published in the journal during this time. Various nonmilk protein sources were evaluated. Extensive studies were done evaluating trace and major mineral requirements in calves along with some vitamin studies. Throughout the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s, the primary objective of most calf research was how to wean healthy, adequately grown calves at an early age-generally less than 30 d of age. This program was reviewed in a 1979 publication. Research on calf starter ingredients, nutrient composition, and additives was minimal in the 1980s and 1990s given the importance of starter intake to the success of early weaning, but the role of water intake in starter intake and growth was established. Research on issues with calves continued to increase during the last 20-yr period as evidenced by publication of more than 580 articles in JDS as well as many more in other refereed journals. In addition to papers contributed by several universities in the United States and Canada, the number of papers authored by scientists at universities and institutes in other countries increased dramatically during this period. Factors influencing colostral antibody absorption, heat treatment of colostrum, and efficacy of colostrum supplements and replacers were reported. Most studies in this period related to nutrition. Studies were published supporting greater neonatal growth rates from feeding more milk replacer but with a higher crude protein content than traditional. Protein energy effects on growth and body composition were evaluated in concert with greater growth rates. Milk and nonmilk protein sources in milk replacers along with AA supplementation were evaluated. Limited studies were done with fat sources and fatty acid

  10. Skeletal muscle metaboreflex in patients with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Paulo J C; Silva, Leonardo R; Maldamer, Vinicius Z; Cipriano, Gerson; Chiappa, Adriana M G; Schuster, Rodrigo; Boni, Victor H F; Grandi, Tatiani; Wolpat, Andiara; Roseguini, Bruno T; Chiappa, Gaspar R

    2017-03-01

    The sympathetic nervous system is affected in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). This study tested the hypothesis that patients with CRF have an altered skeletal muscle metaboreflex. Twenty patients with CRF and 18 healthy subjects of similar age participated in the study. The muscle metaboreflex was determined based on heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure, calf blood flow and calf vascular resistance (CVR) in response to handgrip exercise. The control of vascular resistance in the calf muscle mediated by the metaboreflex was estimated by subtracting the area under the curve with circulatory occlusion from that without occlusion. Arterial pressure and HR responses during exercise and recovery were similar in two groups of subjects. In the control group, CVR increased during exercise and remained elevated during circulatory occlusion, whereas no significant change was seen in the patients. Thus, the index of the metaboreflex was 7·82 ± 9·57 in the patients versus16·52 ± 14 units in the controls. The findings demonstrate that patients with CRF have a decreased vascular resistance response in the calf during the handgrip exercise, which suggests that CRF condition attenuates this reflex. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Association of visceral fat area with abdominal skeletal muscle distribution in overweight Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Noriko I; Murakami, Haruka; Ohmori, Yumi; Aiba, Naomi; Morita, Akemi; Watanabe, Shaw; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2016-07-20

    Quantitative evaluation of visceral fat mass and skeletal muscle mass is important for health promotion. Recently, some studies suggested the existence of adipocyte-myocyte negative crosstalk. If so, abdominal skeletal muscles may easily and negatively affected not only by the age but also the visceral fat because age-related reduction in abdominal region is greater compared with limbs. We cross-sectionally examined the existence of quantitative associations between visceral fat area and abdominal skeletal muscle distribution in overweight people. A total of 230 Japanese males and females who aged 40-64 years and whose body mass index (BMI) was 28.0-44.8kg/m 2 participated in this study. The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the visceral fat, subcutaneous fat, and abdominal skeletal muscles, namely, the rectus abdominis, abdominal oblique, erector spinae, and iliopsoas muscles were measured by the computed tomography images. Stepwise regression analyses revealed the existence of sex difference in the relation between visceral fat CSA and other morphological variables. In males, BMI was a positive, and the iliopsoas muscle group CSA was a negative contributor of the visceral fat CSA. In females, both age and BMI were selected as positive contributors. These data suggested that the visceral fat CSA may negatively associated with iliopsoas muscle group CSA in males. In females, the visceral fat CSA was not significantly related to the distribution of the abdominal skeletal muscle groups. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Single cross-sectional area of pectoralis muscle by computed tomography - correlation with bioelectrical impedance based skeletal muscle mass in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Saing; Kim, Eun Young; Kang, Shin Myung; Ahn, Hee Kyung; Kim, Hyung Sik

    2017-09-01

    Skeletal muscle depletion is an important prognostic factor in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); a recent study demonstrated significant correlations between pectoralis muscle area on an axial CT image and COPD-related traits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relation between pectoralis muscle areas on CT scans and total body skeletal muscle mass (SMM) in healthy subjects. For 434 subjects that underwent a low-dose chest CT and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) during health screening from January to June of 2014, cross-sectional area of pectoralis muscles were measured in CT scans. Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression analysis were used to assess the relationship between cross-sectional CT areas of pectoralis muscles and BIA-assessed SMMs. Mean age was 50 ± 10 years (78·8% were male). The mean cross-sectional area of pectoralis muscles was 24·1 cm 2  ± 6·8. A moderate correlation was observed between pectoralis muscle area and BIA-based SMM (r = 0·665, P<0.001). Multivariable analysis showed CT determined pectoralis muscle area was significantly associated with BIA-assessed SMM after adjusting for gender, weight, height and age (β = 0·14 ± 0·02, P<0·001). Cross-sectional area of the pectoralis muscles on single axial CT images shows moderate correlation with total body SMM determined by BIA in healthy subjects. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Muscle thickness correlates to muscle cross-sectional area in the assessment of strength training-induced hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Franchi, M V; Longo, S; Mallinson, J; Quinlan, J I; Taylor, T; Greenhaff, P L; Narici, M V

    2018-03-01

    Muscle thickness (MT) measured by ultrasound has been used to estimate cross-sectional area (measured by CT and MRI) at a single time point. We tested whether MT could be used as a valid marker of MRI determined muscle anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA) and volume changes following resistance training (RT). Nine healthy, young, male volunteers (24 ± 2 y.o., BMI 24.1 ± 2.8 kg/m 2 ) had vastus lateralis (VL) muscle volume (VOL) and ACSA mid (at 50% of femur length, FL) assessed by MRI, and VL MT measured by ultrasound at 50% FL. Measurements were taken at baseline and after 12 weeks of isokinetic RT. Differences between baseline and post-training were assessed by Student's paired t test. The relationships between MRI and ultrasound measurements were tested by Pearson's correlation. After RT, MT increased by 7.5 ± 6.1% (P < .001), ACSA mid by 5.2 ± 5% (P < .001), and VOL by 5.0 ± 6.9% (P < .05) (values: means ± SD). Positive correlations were found, at baseline and 12 weeks, between MT and ACSA mid (r = .82, P < .001 and r = .73, P < .001, respectively), and between MT and VOL (r = .76, P < .001 and r = .73, P < .001, respectively). The % change in MT with training was correlated with % change in ACSA mid (r = .69, P < .01), but not % change in VOL (r = .33, P > .05). These data support evidence that MT is a reliable index of muscle ACSA mid and VOL at a single time point. MT changes following RT are associated with parallel changes in muscle ACSA mid but not with the changes in VOL, highlighting the impact of RT on regional hypertrophy. © 2017 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science In Sports Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effects of spaceflight on human calf hemodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watenpaugh, D. E.; Buckey, J. C.; Lane, L. D.; Gaffney, F. A.; Levine, B. D.; Moore, W. E.; Wright, S. J.; Blomqvist, C. G.

    2001-01-01

    Chronic microgravity may modify adaptations of the leg circulation to gravitational pressures. We measured resting calf compliance and blood flow with venous occlusion plethysmography, and arterial blood pressure with sphygmomanometry, in seven subjects before, during, and after spaceflight. Calf vascular resistance equaled mean arterial pressure divided by calf flow. Compliance equaled the slope of the calf volume change and venous occlusion pressure relationship for thigh cuff pressures of 20, 40, 60, and 80 mmHg held for 1, 2, 3, and 4 min, respectively, with 1-min breaks between occlusions. Calf blood flow decreased 41% in microgravity (to 1.15 +/- 0.16 ml x 100 ml(-1) x min(-1)) relative to 1-G supine conditions (1.94 +/- 0.19 ml x 100 ml(-1) x min(-1), P = 0.01), and arterial pressure tended to increase (P = 0.05), such that calf vascular resistance doubled in microgravity (preflight: 43 +/- 4 units; in-flight: 83 +/- 13 units; P < 0.001) yet returned to preflight levels after flight. Calf compliance remained unchanged in microgravity but tended to increase during the first week postflight (P > 0.2). Calf vasoconstriction in microgravity qualitatively agrees with the "upright set-point" hypothesis: the circulation seeks conditions approximating upright posture on Earth. No calf hemodynamic result exhibited obvious mechanistic implications for postflight orthostatic intolerance.

  15. Effect of DHEAS on skeletal muscle over the life span: the InCHIANTI study.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Giorgio; Denti, Licia; Maggio, Marcello; Ceda, GianPaolo; Volpato, Stefano; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ceresini, Graziano; Cappola, Anne; Guralnik, Jack M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2004-05-01

    It has been suggested that the reduced production of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) may be partially responsible for the decline of muscle strength and mass that often occurs with aging. However, this hypothesis has been only tested in small series of normal volunteers, with little consideration for potential confounders. Using data from a representative sample of 558 men (20-95 years) we tested the hypothesis that circulating DHEAS is independently associated with muscle strength and mass. Data are from InCHIANTI, an epidemiological study conducted in the Chianti geographic area (Tuscany, Italy). DHEAS serum levels were related to lower extremity muscle strength assessed by hand-held dynamometry and calf muscle area estimated from quantitative computerized tomography. Confounders included age, anthropometrics, physical activity, smoking, energy and alcohol intake, albumin, lipids, interleukin-6, comorbidity, depressive symptoms, and disability in activities of daily living. In fully adjusted models predicting lower extremity muscle strength and calf muscle area, we found significant age*log DHEAS interactions, suggesting that the relationship between DHEAS levels and muscle parameters differs across the life span. In age-stratified models adjusted for confounders, serum DHEAS was an independent predictor of muscle strength (p <.02) and mass (p <.01), but only for men between 60 and 79 years of age. After adjusting these models for serum-free or bioavailable testosterone, results were unchanged. In men aged 60-79 years, circulating DHEAS is an independent correlate of muscle strength and calf muscle area. The possible causal role of declining DHEAS in age-related sarcopenia should be further explored in longitudinal studies.

  16. [Bursitis with severe tendon and muscle necrosis on the lateral stifle area in cattle].

    PubMed

    Nuss, K; Räber, M; Sydler, T; Muggli, E; Hässig, M; Guscetti, F

    2011-11-01

    In 21 animals, chronic swelling on the lateral aspect of the stifle also known as «perigonitis», «stable-syndrome» or «bursitis bicipitalis femoris» were evaluated. Ultrasonography showed increased fluid in the distal subtendinous bursa of the biceps femoris muscle and structural changes in the tendons, muscles, subcutis and fasciae. Soft tissue swelling and an irregular contour of the lateral tibial condyle were typical signs on radiographs. Macroscopic changes were found at the insertion of the biceps femoris muscle, the distal subtendinous bursa of the biceps femoris muscle, the lateral collateral ligament of the stifle, the origin of muscles on the lateral femoral condyle and the lateral tibial condyle. They mainly consisted of tendon and muscle tissue necrosis with granulation tissue. Histology revealed areas of coagulation necrosis in tendons and ligaments, in which occasionally Onchocerca spp. were seen. The severity of lesions correlated well with the clinical signs, which were associated with a poor prognosis in advanced cases.

  17. Effect of Tongue Exercise on Protrusive Force and Muscle Fiber Area in Aging Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Nadine P.; Russell, John A.; Wang, Hao; Jackson, Michelle A.; Mann, Laura; Kluender, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Age-related changes in tongue function may contribute to dysphagia in elderly people. The authors' purpose was to investigate whether aged rats that have undergone tongue exercise would manifest increased protrusive tongue forces and increased genioglossus (GG) muscle fiber cross-sectional areas. Method: Forty-eight young adult,…

  18. Hypomyelination Associated with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type 2 Infection in a Longhorn Calf

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A newborn Longhorn heifer calf presented to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital at Texas A&M University with generalized tremors, muscle fasciculations, ataxia, and nystagmus. At necropsy, gross central nervous system lesions were not observed. Histopathologic evaluation of the brain and spin...

  19. Effect of Compression Garments on the Development of Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness: A Multimodal Approach Using Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound and Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Elastography.

    PubMed

    Heiss, Rafael; Kellermann, Marion; Swoboda, Bernd; Grim, Casper; Lutter, Christoph; May, Matthias S; Wuest, Wolfgang; Uder, Michael; Nagel, Armin M; Hotfiel, Thilo

    2018-06-12

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study with repeated measures. Background Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is one of the most common reasons for impaired muscle performance in sports. However, little consensus exists regarding which treatments may be most effective and the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Objectives To investigate the influence of compression garments on the development of DOMS, focusing on changes in muscle perfusion and muscle stiffness. Methods Muscle perfusion and stiffness, calf circumference, muscle soreness, passive ankle dorsiflexion, and creatine kinase levels were assessed on participants before (baseline) a DOMS-inducing eccentric calf exercise intervention and 60 h later (follow-up). After DOMS induction, a sports compression garment (18-21 mmHg) was worn on one randomized calf until follow-up. The contralateral calf served as an internal control. Muscle perfusion was assessed using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (peak enhancement [PE] and wash-in area under the curve [WiAUC]), while muscle stiffness was assessed using acoustic radiation force impulse (shear wave velocities [SWV]). An MRI scan of both lower legs was also performed during the follow-up testing session to characterize the extent of exercise-induced muscle damage. Comparisons were made between limbs and over time. Results SWV values of the medial gastrocnemius showed a significant interaction between time and limb (p=0.006) with the non-compressed muscle demonstrating lower muscle stiffness values at follow-up compared to baseline or the compressed muscle. No significant differences in soleus muscle stiffness were noted between limb or over time, as was the case for muscle perfusion metrics (PE and WiAUC) for the medial gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. Further, compression had no significant effect on passive ankle dorsiflexion, muscle soreness, calf circumference, or injury severity per MRI. Conclusion Continuous wearing of compression garments during the

  20. Automated unsupervised multi-parametric classification of adipose tissue depots in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Valentinitsch, Alexander; Karampinos, Dimitrios C.; Alizai, Hamza; Subburaj, Karupppasamy; Kumar, Deepak; Link, Thomas M.; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To introduce and validate an automated unsupervised multi-parametric method for segmentation of the subcutaneous fat and muscle regions in order to determine subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) areas based on data from a quantitative chemical shift-based water-fat separation approach. Materials and Methods Unsupervised standard k-means clustering was employed to define sets of similar features (k = 2) within the whole multi-modal image after the water-fat separation. The automated image processing chain was composed of three primary stages including tissue, muscle and bone region segmentation. The algorithm was applied on calf and thigh datasets to compute SAT and IMAT areas and was compared to a manual segmentation. Results The IMAT area using the automatic segmentation had excellent agreement with the IMAT area using the manual segmentation for all the cases in the thigh (R2: 0.96) and for cases with up to moderate IMAT area in the calf (R2: 0.92). The group with the highest grade of muscle fat infiltration in the calf had the highest error in the inner SAT contour calculation. Conclusion The proposed multi-parametric segmentation approach combined with quantitative water-fat imaging provides an accurate and reliable method for an automated calculation of the SAT and IMAT areas reducing considerably the total post-processing time. PMID:23097409

  1. Raising the standards of the calf-raise test: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hébert-Losier, Kim; Newsham-West, Richard J; Schneiders, Anthony G; Sullivan, S John

    2009-11-01

    The calf-raise test is used by clinicians and researchers in sports medicine to assess properties of the calf muscle-tendon unit. The test generally involves repetitive concentric-eccentric muscle action of the plantar-flexors in unipedal stance and is quantified by the number of raises performed. Although the calf-raise test appears to have acceptable reliability and face validity, and is commonly used for medical assessment and rehabilitation of injuries, no universally acceptable test parameters have been published to date. A systematic review of the existing literature was conducted to investigate the consistency as well as universal acceptance of the evaluation purposes, test parameters, outcome measurements and psychometric properties of the calf-raise test. Nine electronic databases were searched during the period May 30th to September 21st 2008. Forty-nine articles met the inclusion criteria and were quality assessed. Information on study characteristics and calf-raise test parameters, as well as quantitative data, were extracted; tabulated; and statistically analysed. The average quality score of the reviewed articles was 70.4+/-12.2% (range 44-90%). Articles provided various test parameters; however, a consensus was not ascertained. Key testing parameters varied, were often unstated, and few studies reported reliability or validity values, including sensitivity and specificity. No definitive normative values could be established and the utility of the test in subjects with pathologies remained unclear. Although adapted for use in several disciplines and traditionally recommended for clinical assessment, there is no uniform description of the calf-raise test in the literature. Further investigation is recommended to ensure consistent use and interpretation of the test by researchers and clinicians.

  2. Lower limb muscle volume estimation from maximum cross-sectional area and muscle length in cerebral palsy and typically developing individuals.

    PubMed

    Vanmechelen, Inti M; Shortland, Adam P; Noble, Jonathan J

    2018-01-01

    Deficits in muscle volume may be a significant contributor to physical disability in young people with cerebral palsy. However, 3D measurements of muscle volume using MRI or 3D ultrasound may be difficult to make routinely in the clinic. We wished to establish whether accurate estimates of muscle volume could be made from a combination of anatomical cross-sectional area and length measurements in samples of typically developing young people and young people with bilateral cerebral palsy. Lower limb MRI scans were obtained from the lower limbs of 21 individuals with cerebral palsy (14.7±3years, 17 male) and 23 typically developing individuals (16.8±3.3years, 16 male). The volume, length and anatomical cross-sectional area were estimated from six muscles of the left lower limb. Analysis of Covariance demonstrated that the relationship between the length*cross-sectional area and volume was not significantly different depending on the subject group. Linear regression analysis demonstrated that the product of anatomical cross-sectional area and length bore a strong and significant relationship to the measured muscle volume (R 2 values between 0.955 and 0.988) with low standard error of the estimates of 4.8 to 8.9%. This study demonstrates that muscle volume may be estimated accurately in typically developing individuals and individuals with cerebral palsy by a combination of anatomical cross-sectional area and muscle length. 2D ultrasound may be a convenient method of making these measurements routinely in the clinic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of muscle cross-sectional areas between weight lifters and wrestlers.

    PubMed

    Kanehisa, H; Ikegawa, S; Fukunaga, T

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference in the magnitude of muscular development between Olympic weight lifters and wrestlers through the measurements of fat-free mass (FFM) and limb muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). Subjects were college Olympic weight lifters (N = 34, age = 20.0 +/- 1.3 years, stature = 1.67 +/- 0.07 m, body mass = 70.1 +/- 10.2 kg, X +/- SD) and wrestlers (N = 33,20.3 +/- 1.2 years, 1.69 +/- 0.06 m, 71.0 +/- 1.8 kg) who had identical range of body mass. Body density and the CSAs of reciprocal muscle groups in the forearm, upper arm, lower leg and thigh were measured by underwater weighing and B-mode ultrasound methods, respectively. No significant difference was found in body density between the weight lifters (1.077 +/- 0.007 g x ml(-3)) and wrestlers (1.076 +/- 0.008 g x ml(-3)). Moreover, FFM and the CSA values of all muscle groups tested were similar in the two groups of weight-classified athletes, with an exception that the wrist flexor CSA was significantly larger in wrestlers than in weight lifters, and the knee extensor and thigh (extensors + flexors) CSAs were larger in weight lifters than in wrestlers. The total muscle CSA of every site was significantly correlated to FFM2/3 in the separate groups; r = 0.714 to 0.815 (p < 0.05) in weight lifters and r = 0.769 to 0.919 (p < 0.05) in wrestlers. While the CSA-to-FFM2/3 ratios of the upper arm and wrist flexor muscles were significantly higher in wrestlers than in weight lifters, those of the thigh and knee extensor muscles were higher in weight lifters than in wrestlers. Thus, the present results suggest that an event-related difference exists in the magnitude of limb muscle CSA between competitive weight lifters and wrestlers of similar FFM.

  4. Creatine Supplementation Induces Alteration in Cross-Sectional Area in Skeletal Muscle Fibers of Wistar Rats Under Swimming Training

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Fernando Farias Dos; Moura, José A. A.; Curi, Rui; Fernandes, Luiz C.

    2002-01-01

    Creatine has been shown to increase the total muscle mass. In this study, we investigated the effect of oral creatine monohydrate supplementation on cross-sectional area of type I, IIA and IIB fibers of gastrocnemius, extensor digitorum longus - EDL and soleus muscles from male Wistar rats subjected to swimming training for 33 days. Four groups were set up: sedentary with no supplementation (CON), sedentary with creatine supplementation (3.3 mg creatine per g chow) (CR), exercised with no supplementation (EX) and exercised with supplementation (CREX). The rats performed in a special swimming pool and swam five times a week for 1 hour each day, with a extra lead weight corresponding to 15% of their body weight. At the end of 33 days, skeletal muscles of the animals were dissected and the samples got immediately frozen using liquid nitrogen. Muscle samples were allocated to slices of 10 μm by a cryostat at -20°C, which was followed by histochemical analysis in order to identify fiber types of the muscles, and morphometrical analysis to calculate the muscle fiber areas. All groups gained body weight at the end of 33 days but there was no statistical difference among them. The EX and CREX rats had a larger food intake than the sedentary groups (CON and CR), and the CREX group had a larger food intake than CR rats. The cross-sectional area of type I and IIA fibers of the soleus muscle, type IIA and IIB fibers of EDL muscle and type IIA and IIB fibers of the white portion of gastrocnemius muscle were greater in the EX and CREX groups in comparison to sedentary rats. In addition, these fibers were greater in the CREX rats than in the EX group. There was no change in the cross sectional area of type I fibers in EDL muscle among all groups studied. Our results suggest that creatine supplementation enhances the exercise related muscle fiber hypertrophy in rodents. PMID:24701129

  5. Metabolic responses to the seated calf press exercise performed against inertial resistance.

    PubMed

    Caruso, John F; Herron, Jacquelyn C; Hernandez, Daniel A; Porter, Aaron; Schweickert, Torrey; Manning, Tommy F

    2005-11-01

    Future in-flight strength training devices may use inertial resistance to abate mass and strength losses to muscle groups such as the triceps surae, which incurs pronounced deficits from space travel. Yet little data exist regarding physiological outcomes to triceps surae exercise performed against inertial resistance. Two sets of subjects were employed to note either blood lactate (La-) or net caloric cost responses to seated calf presses done on an inertial resistance ergometer. Both sets of subjects performed 3 identical 3-set 10-repetition workouts. Blood La- measurements were made pre- and 5 min post-exercise. During workouts, breath-by-breath O2 uptake values were also recorded to help determine the net caloric cost of exercise. Compared to pre-exercise (mean +/- SEM) blood La- (2.01 +/- 0.08 mmol x L(-1)) values, post-exercise (4.73 +/- 0.24 mmol x L(-1)) measurements showed a significant increase. Delta (post/pre differences) La- correlated significantly (r = 0.31-0.34) to several workout performance measures. Net caloric cost averaged 52.82 +/- 3.26 kcals for workouts; multivariate regression showed a subject's height, body mass, and body surface area described the variance associated with energy expenditure. Workouts evoked minimal energy expenditure, though anaerobic glycolysis likely played a major role in ATP resynthesis. Metabolic and exercise performance measures were likely influenced by series elastic element involvement of the triceps surae-Achilles tendon complex. Ergometer calf presses provided a high-intensity workout stimulus with a minimal metabolic cost.

  6. The influence of muscle pennation angle and cross-sectional area on contact forces in the ankle joint.

    PubMed

    Sopher, Ran S; Amis, Andrew A; Davies, D Ceri; Jeffers, Jonathan Rt

    2017-01-01

    Data about a muscle's fibre pennation angle and physiological cross-sectional area are used in musculoskeletal modelling to estimate muscle forces, which are used to calculate joint contact forces. For the leg, muscle architecture data are derived from studies that measured pennation angle at the muscle surface, but not deep within it. Musculoskeletal models developed to estimate joint contact loads have usually been based on the mean values of pennation angle and physiological cross-sectional area. Therefore, the first aim of this study was to investigate differences between superficial and deep pennation angles within each muscle acting over the ankle and predict how differences may influence muscle forces calculated in musculoskeletal modelling. The second aim was to investigate how inter-subject variability in physiological cross-sectional area and pennation angle affects calculated ankle contact forces. Eight cadaveric legs were dissected to excise the muscles acting over the ankle. The mean surface and deep pennation angles, fibre length and physiological cross-sectional area were measured. Cluster analysis was applied to group the muscles according to their architectural characteristics. A previously validated OpenSim model was used to estimate ankle muscle forces and contact loads using architecture data from all eight limbs. The mean surface pennation angle for soleus was significantly greater (54%) than the mean deep pennation angle. Cluster analysis revealed three groups of muscles with similar architecture and function: deep plantarflexors and peroneals, superficial plantarflexors and dorsiflexors. Peak ankle contact force was predicted to occur before toe-off, with magnitude greater than five times bodyweight. Inter-specimen variability in contact force was smallest at peak force. These findings will help improve the development of experimental and computational musculoskeletal models by providing data to estimate force based on both surface and deep

  7. The relationship between jaw-opening force and the cross-sectional area of the suprahyoid muscles in healthy elderly.

    PubMed

    Kajisa, E; Tohara, H; Nakane, A; Wakasugi, Y; Hara, K; Yamaguchi, K; Yoshimi, K; Minakuchi, S

    2018-03-01

    We conducted a clinical cross-sectional study to examine the relationship between jaw-opening force and the cross-sectional area of the suprahyoid muscles and whole skeletal muscle mass. Subjects were healthy 39 males and 51 females without dysphagia and sarcopenia, aged 65 years and older. Jaw-opening force was measured three times using a jaw-opening sthenometer; the maximum of these three was taken as the measurement value. The cross-sectional area of the geniohyoid and anterior belly of the digastric muscles were evaluated using ultrasonography. The skeletal muscle mass index, gait speed and grip strength were evaluated according to the diagnostic criteria of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. For each sex, a multiple regression analysis determined the factors that affect jaw-opening force. Jaw-opening force was associated with the cross-sectional area of the geniohyoid muscle in males (regression coefficient [β] = 0.441, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 14.28-56.09) and females (β = 0.28, 95% CI = 3.10-54.57). Furthermore, in females only, jaw-opening force was associated with the skeletal muscle mass index (β = 0.40, 95% CI = 3.67-17.81). In contrast, jaw-opening force was not associated with the cross-sectional area of the anterior belly of the digastric muscle in either sex. In healthy elderly males and females, jaw-opening force was positively associated with the cross-sectional area of the geniohyoid muscle. However, the jaw-opening force was positively associated with the skeletal muscle mass index only in females. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The influence of muscle pennation angle and cross-sectional area on contact forces in the ankle joint

    PubMed Central

    Sopher, Ran S; Amis, Andrew A; Davies, D Ceri; Jeffers, Jonathan RT

    2016-01-01

    Data about a muscle’s fibre pennation angle and physiological cross-sectional area are used in musculoskeletal modelling to estimate muscle forces, which are used to calculate joint contact forces. For the leg, muscle architecture data are derived from studies that measured pennation angle at the muscle surface, but not deep within it. Musculoskeletal models developed to estimate joint contact loads have usually been based on the mean values of pennation angle and physiological cross-sectional area. Therefore, the first aim of this study was to investigate differences between superficial and deep pennation angles within each muscle acting over the ankle and predict how differences may influence muscle forces calculated in musculoskeletal modelling. The second aim was to investigate how inter-subject variability in physiological cross-sectional area and pennation angle affects calculated ankle contact forces. Eight cadaveric legs were dissected to excise the muscles acting over the ankle. The mean surface and deep pennation angles, fibre length and physiological cross-sectional area were measured. Cluster analysis was applied to group the muscles according to their architectural characteristics. A previously validated OpenSim model was used to estimate ankle muscle forces and contact loads using architecture data from all eight limbs. The mean surface pennation angle for soleus was significantly greater (54%) than the mean deep pennation angle. Cluster analysis revealed three groups of muscles with similar architecture and function: deep plantarflexors and peroneals, superficial plantarflexors and dorsiflexors. Peak ankle contact force was predicted to occur before toe-off, with magnitude greater than five times bodyweight. Inter-specimen variability in contact force was smallest at peak force. These findings will help improve the development of experimental and computational musculoskeletal models by providing data to estimate force based on both surface and deep

  9. A different role of angiotensin II type 1a receptor in the development and hypertrophy of plantaris muscle in mice.

    PubMed

    Zempo, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Jun-Ichi; Ogawa, Masahito; Watanabe, Ryo; Isobe, Mitsuaki

    2016-02-01

    The role of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptors in muscle development and hypertrophy remains unclear. This study was designed to reveal the effects that a loss of AT1 receptors has on skeletal muscle development and hypertrophy in mice. Eight-week-old male AT1a receptor knockout (AT1a(-/-)) mice were used for this experiment. The plantaris muscle to body weight ratio, muscle fiber cross-sectional area, and number of muscle fibers of AT1a(-/-) mice was significantly greater than wild type (WT) mice in the non-intervention condition. Next, the functional overload (OL) model was used to induce plantaris muscle hypertrophy by surgically removing the two triceps muscles consisting of the calf, soleus, and gastrocnemius muscles in mice. After 14 days of OL intervention, the plantaris muscle weight, the amount of fiber, and the fiber area increased. However, the magnitude of the increment of plantaris weight was not different between the two strains. Agtr1a mRNA expression did not change after OL in WT muscle. Actually, the Agt mRNA expression level of WT-OL was lower than WT-Control (C) muscle. An atrophy-related gene, atrogin-1 mRNA expression levels of AT1a(-/-)-C, WT-OL, and AT1a(-/-)-OL muscle were lower than that of WT-C muscle. Our findings suggest that AT1 receptor contributes to plantaris muscle development via atrogin-1 in mice.

  10. Relationship between paraspinal muscle cross-sectional area and relative proprioceptive weighting ratio of older persons with lumbar spondylosis.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tadashi; Sakai, Yoshihito; Nakamura, Eishi; Yamazaki, Kazunori; Yamada, Ayaka; Sato, Noritaka; Morita, Yoshifumi

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the paraspinal muscle cross-sectional area and the relative proprioceptive weighting ratio during local vibratory stimulation of older persons with lumbar spondylosis in an upright position. [Subjects] In all, 74 older persons hospitalized for lumbar spondylosis were included. [Methods] We measured the relative proprioceptive weighting ratio of postural sway using a Wii board while vibratory stimulations of 30, 60, or 240 Hz were applied to the subjects' paraspinal or gastrocnemius muscles. Back strength, abdominal muscle strength, and erector spinae muscle (L1/L2, L4/L5) and lumbar multifidus (L1/L2, L4/L5) cross-sectional areas were evaluated. [Results] The erector spinae muscle (L1/L2) cross-sectional area was associated with the relative proprioceptive weighting ratio during 60Hz stimulation. [Conclusion] These findings show that the relative proprioceptive weighting ratio compared to the erector spinae muscle (L1/L2) cross-sectional area under 60Hz proprioceptive stimulation might be a good indicator of trunk proprioceptive sensitivity.

  11. Morphological changes in hind limb muscles elicited by adjuvant-induced arthritis of the rat knee.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, J; Kurose, T; Kawamata, S; Yamaoka, K

    2010-02-01

    We investigated qualitative and quantitative changes in rat hind limb muscles caused by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced knee joint pain. One week after CFA injection, muscle atrophy was induced only on the CFA-injected side. Wet weight of the rectus femoris (RF) and soleus (SOL) muscles were significantly decreased by 20% and 19%, respectively. The reduction in cross-sectional areas by CFA was similar for fast and slow muscle fibers in the RF (10% vs 15%, respectively) and SOL muscles (16% vs 16%, respectively). At the light microscopic level, pathological changes were not found in the RF muscles on both sides, although the infiltration of mononuclear cells and muscle regeneration were found in the SOL muscles on CFA-injected and contralateral control sides. On the other hand, electron microscopy revealed degenerative changes in the RF and SOL muscles on the CFA-injected side. Interestingly, sarcomere hypercontraction, indicating overexercise, was observed to a limited extent in the SOL muscles on the control side. In conclusions, knee joint pain can trigger the rapid development of muscle atrophy with degenerative changes not only in thigh but also calf muscles. This indicates that early interventions to inhibit joint pain or inflammation may prevent muscle atrophy.

  12. The use of muscle dynamometer for correction of muscle imbalances in the area of deep stabilising spine system.

    PubMed

    Malátová, Renata; Rokytová, Jitka; Stumbauer, Jan

    2013-08-01

    Dorsal pain caused by spine dysfunctions belongs to most frequent chronic illnesses. The muscles of the deep stabilising spine system work as a single functional unit where a dysfunction of only one muscle causes dysfunction of the whole system. Non-invasive, objective and statistically measurable evaluation of the condition of deep stabilising spine system has been made possible by the construction of muscular dynamometer. The aim of our work has been the assessment of deep stabilising spine system by diaphragm test and muscular dynamometer measurements. Based on an initial examination, a 6-week intervention programme was established including instructions on physiological body posture and correct basic body stabilisation for the given exercises and muscle strengthening. Consecutive measurements are then compared with the initial ones. It was presumed that a smaller number of the tested subjects would be able to correctly activate the deep stabilising spine system muscles before the intervention programme when compared to those after the intervention programme. A positive change of 87% has been found. It is clear that if a person actively approaches the programme, then positive adaptation changes on the deep stabilising spine system are seen only after 6 weeks. With the muscular dynamometer, activation of deep stabilising spine system can be objectively measured. Changes between the initial condition of a subject and the difference after some exercise or rehabilitation are especially noticeable. Also, the effect of given therapy or correct performance of the exercise can be followed and observed.

  13. Creep grazing and early weaning effects on cow and calf productivity.

    PubMed

    Harvey, R W; Burns, J C

    1988-05-01

    One hundred fifty Simmental-Hereford cows and calves were used in a 3-yr study to evaluate three creep grazing treatments and an early weaning treatment on cow and calf performance during midsummer (July to September). Calves were approximately 150 d of age and averaged 178.6 kg when treatments were initiated. Tifleaf pearl millet (Pennisetum Americanum L. Leeke) was used as the forage for two of the creep treatments, representing two cow stocking intensities of .466 (TLM1) and .239 (TLM2) ha of base hill land pasture/cow, and as pasture for early weaned calves. A red clover (Trifolium pratense L.)-Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) mixture was used as the other creep forage. Hill land pastures were similar for the mature cow units in all creep treatments. Calf average daily gains ranged from .93 to 1.10 kg and were not influenced (P greater than .05) by treatment. Calf gains per hectare were similar for the control, red clover and TLM1 treatments. The TLM2 and early weaning treatments resulted in increases of 105.4 and 39.1 kg of calf gain/ha (P less than .05) compared with the control. When calves were allowed to creep graze millet, decreasing the forage area from .466 to .239 ha per cow-calf unit resulted in an increase of 97.7 kg of calf gain/ha with no reduction in calf gain. Cows on the more intensively grazed millet creep treatment (TLM2) lost more weight (P less than .05) during midsummer than those on the TLM1 treatment, but they gained 18.5 kg more (P less than .10) weight than TLM1 cows between weaning and the start of winter feeding.

  14. 9 CFR 113.41 - Calf safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calf safety test. 113.41 Section 113.41 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Procedures § 113.41 Calf safety test. The calf safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when...

  15. 9 CFR 113.41 - Calf safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calf safety test. 113.41 Section 113.41 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Procedures § 113.41 Calf safety test. The calf safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when...

  16. Age-dependent accumulation of heavy metals in a pod of killer whales (Orcinus orca) stranded in the northern area of Japan.

    PubMed

    Endo, Tetsuya; Kimura, Osamu; Hisamichi, Yohsuke; Minoshima, Yasuhiko; Haraguchi, Koichi

    2007-02-01

    Mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), iron (Fe) manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) concentrations in the liver, kidney and muscle of nine killer whales (including three calves) that stranded together in the northern area of Japan were determined. The Hg and Cd concentrations were found at trace levels in the calf organs, and increased with age. The Fe concentration in the muscle was significantly lower in the calves than in the mature whales and also increased with age. In contrast, Mn and Cu concentrations in the muscle were significantly higher in the calves than in the mature whales, and changes in the Zn concentration relative to age were unclear. These results suggest minimal mother-to-calf transfer of the toxic metals Hg and Cd and accumulation of these metals in the organs with age, while the essential metals Mn and Cu were found at higher concentrations in the muscle of calves than in mature whales.

  17. Mitochondrial Respiration after One Session of Calf Raise Exercise in Patients with Peripheral Vascular Disease and Healthy Older Adults.

    PubMed

    van Schaardenburgh, Michel; Wohlwend, Martin; Rognmo, Øivind; Mattsson, Erney J R

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are essential for energy production in the muscle cell and for this they are dependent upon a sufficient supply of oxygen by the circulation. Exercise training has shown to be a potent stimulus for physiological adaptations and mitochondria play a central role. Whether changes in mitochondrial respiration are seen after exercise in patients with a reduced circulation is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the time course and whether one session of calf raise exercise stimulates mitochondrial respiration in the calf muscle of patients with peripheral vascular disease. One group of patients with peripheral vascular disease (n = 11) and one group of healthy older adults (n = 11) were included. Patients performed one session of continuous calf raises followed by 5 extra repetitions after initiation of pain. Healthy older adults performed 100 continuous calf raises. Gastrocnemius muscle biopsies were collected at baseline and 15 minutes, one hour, three hours and 24 hours after one session of calf raise exercise. A multi substrate (octanoylcarnitine, malate, adp, glutamate, succinate, FCCP, rotenone) approach was used to analyze mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized fibers. Mixed-linear model for repeated measures was used for statistical analyses. Patients with peripheral vascular disease have a lower baseline respiration supported by complex I and they increase respiration supported by complex II at one hour post-exercise. Healthy older adults increase respiration supported by electron transfer flavoprotein and complex I at one hour and 24 hours post-exercise. Our results indicate a shift towards mitochondrial respiration supported by complex II as being a pathophysiological component of peripheral vascular disease. Furthermore exercise stimulates mitochondrial respiration already after one session of calf raise exercise in patients with peripheral vascular disease and healthy older adults. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01842412.

  18. Mitochondrial Respiration after One Session of Calf Raise Exercise in Patients with Peripheral Vascular Disease and Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wohlwend, Martin; Rognmo, Øivind; Mattsson, Erney J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Mitochondria are essential for energy production in the muscle cell and for this they are dependent upon a sufficient supply of oxygen by the circulation. Exercise training has shown to be a potent stimulus for physiological adaptations and mitochondria play a central role. Whether changes in mitochondrial respiration are seen after exercise in patients with a reduced circulation is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the time course and whether one session of calf raise exercise stimulates mitochondrial respiration in the calf muscle of patients with peripheral vascular disease. Methods One group of patients with peripheral vascular disease (n = 11) and one group of healthy older adults (n = 11) were included. Patients performed one session of continuous calf raises followed by 5 extra repetitions after initiation of pain. Healthy older adults performed 100 continuous calf raises. Gastrocnemius muscle biopsies were collected at baseline and 15 minutes, one hour, three hours and 24 hours after one session of calf raise exercise. A multi substrate (octanoylcarnitine, malate, adp, glutamate, succinate, FCCP, rotenone) approach was used to analyze mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized fibers. Mixed-linear model for repeated measures was used for statistical analyses. Results Patients with peripheral vascular disease have a lower baseline respiration supported by complex I and they increase respiration supported by complex II at one hour post-exercise. Healthy older adults increase respiration supported by electron transfer flavoprotein and complex I at one hour and 24 hours post-exercise. Conclusion Our results indicate a shift towards mitochondrial respiration supported by complex II as being a pathophysiological component of peripheral vascular disease. Furthermore exercise stimulates mitochondrial respiration already after one session of calf raise exercise in patients with peripheral vascular disease and healthy older adults. Trial

  19. Group-level variations in motor representation areas of thenar and anterior tibial muscles: Navigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study.

    PubMed

    Niskanen, Eini; Julkunen, Petro; Säisänen, Laura; Vanninen, Ritva; Karjalainen, Pasi; Könönen, Mervi

    2010-08-01

    Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used to stimulate functional cortical areas at precise anatomical location to induce measurable responses. The stimulation has commonly been focused on anatomically predefined motor areas: TMS of that area elicits a measurable muscle response, the motor evoked potential. In clinical pathologies, however, the well-known homunculus somatotopy theory may not be straightforward, and the representation area of the muscle is not fixed. Traditionally, the anatomical locations of TMS stimulations have not been reported at the group level in standard space. This study describes a methodology for group-level analysis by investigating the normal representation areas of thenar and anterior tibial muscle in the primary motor cortex. The optimal representation area for these muscles was mapped in 59 healthy right-handed subjects using navigated TMS. The coordinates of the optimal stimulation sites were then normalized into standard space to determine the representation areas of these muscles at the group-level in healthy subjects. Furthermore, 95% confidence interval ellipsoids were fitted into the optimal stimulation site clusters to define the variation between subjects in optimal stimulation sites. The variation was found to be highest in the anteroposterior direction along the superior margin of the precentral gyrus. These results provide important normative information for clinical studies assessing changes in the functional cortical areas because of plasticity of the brain. Furthermore, it is proposed that the presented methodology to study TMS locations at the group level on standard space will be a suitable tool for research purposes in population studies. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Lumbar Muscle Cross-Sectional Areas Do Not Predict Clinical Outcomes in Adults With Spinal Stenosis: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Gellhorn, Alfred C; Suri, Pradeep; Rundell, Sean D; Olafsen, Nathan; Carlson, M Jake; Johnson, Steve; Fry, Adrielle; Annaswamy, Thiru M; Gilligan, Christopher; Comstock, Bryan; Heagerty, Patrick; Friedly, Janna; Jarvik, Jeffrey G

    2017-06-01

    Minimal longitudinal data exist regarding the role of lumbar musculature in predicting back pain and function. In cross-sectional study designs, there is often atrophy of the segmental multifidus muscle in subjects with low back pain compared with matched controls. However, the cross-sectional design of these studies prevents drawing conclusions regarding whether lumbar muscle characteristics predict or modify future back pain or function. The primary objective of this study is to determine whether the cross-sectional area (CSA) of lumbar muscles predict functional status or back pain at 6- or 12-month follow-up in older adults with spinal degeneration. The secondary objective is to evaluate whether these muscle characteristics improve outcome prediction above and beyond the prognostic information conferred by demographic and psychosocial variables. Secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. A total of 209 adults aged 50 years and older with clinical and radiographic spinal stenosis from the Lumbar Epidural steroid injection for Spinal Stenosis (LESS) trial. Using baseline magnetic resonance images, we calculated CSAs of the lumbar multifidus, psoas, and quadratus lumborum muscles using a standardized protocol by manually tracing the borders of each of the muscles. The relationship between lumbar muscle CSAs and baseline measures was assessed with Pearson or Spearman correlation coefficients. The relationship between lumbar muscle characteristics and 6- and 12-month Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RDQ) and back pain Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) responses was further evaluated with multivariate linear regression. A hierarchical approach to the regression was performed: a basic model with factors of conceptual importance including age, gender, BMI, and baseline RDQ score formed the first step. The second and third steps evaluated whether psychosocial variables or muscle measures conferred additional prognostic information to the basic model. Function

  1. Muscle anatomy and dynamic muscle function in osteogenesis imperfecta type I.

    PubMed

    Veilleux, Louis-Nicolas; Lemay, Martin; Pouliot-Laforte, Annie; Cheung, Moira S; Glorieux, Francis H; Rauch, Frank

    2014-02-01

    Results of previous studies suggested that children and adolescents with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type I have a muscle force deficit. However, muscle function has only been assessed by static isometric force tests and not in more natural conditions such as dynamic force and power tests. The purpose of this study was to assess lower extremity dynamic muscle function and muscle anatomy in OI type I. The study was performed in the outpatient department of a pediatric orthopedic hospital. A total of 54 individuals with OI type I (6-21 years; 20 male) and 54 age- and sex-matched controls took part in this study. Calf muscle cross-sectional area and density were measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Lower extremity muscle function (peak force per body weight and peak power per body mass) was measured by jumping mechanography through 5 tests: multiple two-legged hopping, multiple one-legged hopping, single two-legged jump, chair-rise test, and heel-rise test. Compared with age- and sex-matched controls, patients with OI type I had smaller muscle size (P = .04) but normal muscle density (P = .21). They also had lower average peak force and lower specific force (peak force/muscle cross-sectional area; all P < .008). Average peak power was lower in patients with OI type I but not significantly so (all P > .054). Children and adolescents with OI type I have, on average, a significant force deficit in the lower limb as measured by dynamic force tests. Nonetheless, these data also show that OI type I is compatible with normal muscle performance in some individuals.

  2. Calf mortality in Norwegian dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Gulliksen, S M; Lie, K I; Løken, T; Osterås, O

    2009-06-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate mortality rates in Norwegian dairy calves and young stock up to 1 yr of age, identify risk factors for calf mortality, and evaluate the etiology of calf mortality based on postmortem analyses. The material comprised 3 data sets. The first data set included information on 289,038 offspring in 14,474 dairy herds registered in the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System (NDHRS) in 2005. The second included recordings on 5,382 offspring in 125 Norwegian dairy herds participating in a survey on calf health, and the third included results from postmortem analyses of 65 calves from 37 of the survey herds. The calf mortality rate during the first year of life in all herds registered in the NDHRS was 7.8%, including abortion (0.7%) and stillbirth (3.4%). The overall calf mortality rate in liveborn calves in the survey herds was 4.6%. Cows with severe calving difficulties had an odds ratio (OR) of 38.7 of stillbirth compared with cows with no calving difficulties. Twins and triplets showed an increased risk of stillbirth compared with singletons (OR = 4.2 and 46.3, respectively), as did calves born in free stalls compared with tie stalls (OR = 1.9). Respiratory disease increased the risk of death in all age groups with hazard ratios (HR) of 6.4, 6.5, 7.4, and 5.6 during the first week of life, 8 to 30 d of age, 31 to 180 d of age, and 181 to 365 d of age, respectively. Diarrhea increased the risk of death among calves younger than 180 d of age, but the influence was only significant during the first week of life and between 8 to 31 d of age (HR = 2.4 and 2.9, respectively). Calves born during the winter were more likely to die during the first week of life than calves born during the summer (OR = 1.2), and were more likely to die during the first month of life than calves born during the autumn (OR = 1.2). Calf mortality rates in all age groups increased with increasing herd size. Calves housed in a group pen from 2 wk of age were more

  3. Effects of Push-ups Plus Sling Exercise on Muscle Activation and Cross-sectional Area of the Multifidus Muscle in Patients with Low Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gye-Yeop; Kin, Se-Hun

    2013-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of lumbar stability exercises on chronic low back pain by using sling exercise and push-ups. [Subjects] Thirty adult subjects with chronic back pain participated, with 10 adults being assigned to each of 3 exercise groups: general physical therapy (PT), lumbar stability using sling exercises (Sling Ex), and sling exercise plus push-ups (Sling Ex+PU). Each group trained for 30 minutes 3 times a week for 6 weeks. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity of the lumbar muscles, and cross-sectional area of the multifidus muscle on computed tomography (CT) were evaluated before and at 2, 4, and 6 weeks of therapy. [Results] A significant decrease in ODI was seen in all therapy groups, and this change was greater in the Sling Ex and Sling Ex+PU groups than in the PT group. No changes in sEMG activity were noted in the PT group, whereas significant increases in the sEMG activities of all lumbar muscles were found in the other 2 groups. The increases in the sEMG activities of the rectus abdominis and internal and external oblique muscles of the abdomen were greater in the Sling Ex+PU group than in the other 2 groups. [Conclusion] These findings demonstrate that Sling Ex+PU, similar to normal lumbar stabilization exercise, is effective in activating and improving the function of the lumbar muscles. These results suggest that Sling Ex+PU has a positive impact on stabilization of the lumbar region.

  4. Cross-sectional area of human trunk paraspinal muscles before and after posterior lumbar surgery using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ghiasi, Mohammad S; Arjmand, Navid; Shirazi-Adl, Aboulfazl; Farahmand, Farzam; Hashemi, Hassan; Bagheri, Sahar; Valizadeh, Mahsa

    2016-03-01

    Iatrogenic injuries to paraspinal muscles during the posterior lumbar surgery (PLS) cause a reduction in their cross-sectional areas (CSAs) and contractile densities over time post-surgery. This study aims to quantify such alterations. Pre- and postoperative CSAs (~6 months interval) of all paraspinal muscles were measured in six patients undergoing PLS using a 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) scanner to quantify the alterations in geometrical and tissue effective contractile (non-fatty) CSAs of these muscles at all lumbar levels. To examine the presence of any confounding effects on recorded changes within ~7-month period, measurements were also carried out on ten healthy volunteers. In the healthy population, an important (~22%) portion of CSA of the erector spinae (ES) was noncontractile at the lower lumbar levels. Negligible variations over time in both the total geometrical (<1.7% in average) and contractile (<1.2%) CSAs of muscles were observed in the healthy group (i.e., no confounding effect). Following PLS, significant reductions were observed in the geometrical CSA of only multifidus (MF) muscle by ~14 and 11% as well as in its contractile CSA by ~26 and 14% at the L5-S1 and L4-L5 levels, respectively. The total CSA of ES at lower lumbar levels shows substantial noncontractile contents in both healthy and patient populations. Biomechanical models of the spine should hence account for the noncontractile contents using only the effective contractile muscle CSAs. Postoperative variations in CSAs of paraspinal muscles may have profound effects on patterns of muscle activities, spinal loading, and stability.

  5. Exercise training during chemotherapy preserves skeletal muscle fiber area, capillarization, and mitochondrial content in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mijwel, Sara; Cardinale, Daniele A; Norrbom, Jessica; Chapman, Mark; Ivarsson, Niklas; Wengström, Yvonne; Sundberg, Carl Johan; Rundqvist, Helene

    2018-05-11

    Exercise has been suggested to ameliorate the detrimental effects of chemotherapy on skeletal muscle. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different exercise regimens with usual care on skeletal muscle morphology and mitochondrial markers in patients being treated with chemotherapy for breast cancer. Specifically, we compared moderate-intensity aerobic training combined with high-intensity interval training (AT-HIIT) and resistance training combined with high-intensity interval training (RT-HIIT) with usual care (UC). Resting skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained pre- and postintervention from 23 randomly selected women from the OptiTrain breast cancer trial who underwent RT-HIIT, AT-HIIT, or UC for 16 wk. Over the intervention, citrate synthase activity, muscle fiber cross-sectional area, capillaries per fiber, and myosin heavy chain isoform type I were reduced in UC, whereas RT-HIIT and AT-HIIT were able to counteract these declines. AT-HIIT promoted up-regulation of the electron transport chain protein levels vs. UC. RT-HIIT favored satellite cell count vs. UC and AT-HIIT. There was a significant association between change in citrate synthase activity and self-reported fatigue. AT-HIIT and RT-HIIT maintained or improved markers of skeletal muscle function compared with the declines found in the UC group, indicating a sustained trainability in addition to the preservation of skeletal muscle structural and metabolic characteristics during chemotherapy. These findings highlight the importance of supervised exercise programs for patients with breast cancer during chemotherapy.-Mijwel, S., Cardinale, D. A., Norrbom, J., Chapman, M., Ivarsson, N., Wengström, Y., Sundberg, C. J., Rundqvist, H. Exercise training during chemotherapy preserves skeletal muscle fiber area, capillarization, and mitochondrial content in patients with breast cancer.

  6. Influence of Kaolinite Clay Supplementation on Growth Performance and Digestive Function in Finishing Calf-fed Holstein Steers

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, José; Montaño, Martín; Plascencia, Alejandro; Salinas, Jaime; Torrentera, Noemí; Zinn, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the influence of kaolinite clay supplementation (0%, 1%, or 2% diet dry matter [DM] basis) on characteristics of digestion (Trial 1) and growth performance (Trial 2) in calf-fed Holstein steers fed a finishing diet. In Trial 1, 6 Holstein steers (539±15 kg) with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used to evaluate treatment effects on characteristics of digestion. Kaolinite clay supplementation decreased total tract DM digestion (linear effect, p<0.01) without effects (p≥0.10) on site and extent of digestion of organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, starch and N, or ruminal microbial efficiency. There were no treatment effects on ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids molar proportions or estimated methane production. In Trial 2, 108 Holstein steers (132.4±5.6 kg) were used in a 308-d study to evaluate growth performance and carcass characteristics. There were no treatment effects (p>0.10) on average daily gain (ADG) and gain efficiency (ADG/dry matter intake). Kaolinite supplementation tended (linear effect, p = 0.08) to increase dietary net energy (NE) during the initial 112-d period. However, the overall (308-d) effect of supplementation dietary NE was not appreciable (p>0.20). However, due to the inertness of kaolinite, itself, the ratio of observed-to-expected dietary NE increased with kaolinite supplementation. This effect was more pronounced (linear effect, p 0.03) during the initial 224 d of the study. Overall (308 d), kaolinite supplementation tended to increase (linear effect, p = 0.07) dietary NE by 3% over expected. Kaolinite supplementation did not affect carcass weight, yield grade, longissimus area, kidney, pelvic and heart fat, and quality grade, but decreased (linear effect, p = 0.01) dressing percentage. It is concluded that kaolinite supplementation up to 2% of diet DM may enhance energetic efficiency of calf-fed Holstein steers in a manner independent of changes in characteristics of ruminal and total

  7. Hypomyelination associated with bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 infection in a longhorn calf.

    PubMed

    Porter, B F; Ridpath, J F; Calise, D V; Payne, H R; Janke, J J; Baxter, D G; Edwards, J F

    2010-07-01

    A newborn Longhorn heifer calf presented with generalized tremors, muscle fasciculations, ataxia, and nystagmus. At necropsy, no gross central nervous system lesions were observed. Histologically, the brain and spinal cord had mild to moderate diffuse microgliosis and astrocytosis, minimal nonsuppurative encephalitis, and decreased myelin staining. Ultrastructural examination revealed thinning and absence of myelin sheaths. Various cell types were immunohistochemically positive for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Noncytopathogenic BVDV was isolated from the brain and identified as BVDV type 2 by phylogenetic analysis. BVDV-induced hypomyelination is rare and analogous to lesions in neonates infected with border disease and classical swine fever viruses. This is the first documented case of hypomyelination in a calf specifically attributed to BVDV type 2 and the first description of the ultrastructural appearance of BVDV-induced hypomyelination.

  8. Assessment of passive muscle elongation using Diffusion Tensor MRI: Correlation between fiber length and diffusion coefficients.

    PubMed

    Mazzoli, Valentina; Oudeman, Jos; Nicolay, Klaas; Maas, Mario; Verdonschot, Nico; Sprengers, Andre M; Nederveen, Aart J; Froeling, Martijn; Strijkers, Gustav J

    2016-12-01

    In this study we investigated the changes in fiber length and diffusion parameters as a consequence of passive lengthening and stretching of the calf muscles. We hypothesized that changes in radial diffusivity (RD) are caused by changes in the muscle fiber cross sectional area (CSA) as a consequence of lengthening and shortening of the muscle. Diffusion Tensor MRI (DT-MRI) measurements were made twice in five healthy volunteers, with the foot in three different positions (30° plantarflexion, neutral position and 15° dorsiflexion). The muscles of the calf were manually segmented on co-registered high resolution anatomical scans, and maps of RD and axial diffusivity (AD) were reconstructed from the DT-MRI data. Fiber tractography was performed and mean fiber length was calculated for each muscle group. Significant negative correlations were found between the changes in RD and changes in fiber length in the dorsiflexed and plantarflexed positions, compared with the neutral foot position. Changes in AD did not correlate with changes in fiber length. Assuming a simple cylindrical model with constant volume for the muscle fiber, the changes in the muscle fiber CSA were calculated from the changes in fiber length. In line with our hypothesis, we observed a significant positive correlation of the CSA with the measured changes in RD. In conclusion, we showed that changes in diffusion coefficients induced by passive muscle stretching and lengthening can be explained by changes in muscle CSA, advancing the physiological interpretation of parameters derived from skeletal muscle DT-MRI. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Muscle mercury and selenium in fishes and semiaquatic mammals from a selenium-deficient area.

    PubMed

    Kalisinska, Elzbieta; Lanocha-Arendarczyk, Natalia; Kosik-Bogacka, Danuta; Budis, Halina; Pilarczyk, Bogumila; Tomza-Marciniak, Agnieszka; Podlasinska, Joanna; Cieslik, Lukasz; Popiolek, Marcin; Pirog, Agnieszka; Jedrzejewska, Ewa

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare total mercury (Hg), selenium (Se), and Se:Hg molar ratios in fish muscles (phytophages n=3; benthophages n=32; predators n=5) and semiaquatic carnivores, including piscivores (the European otter n=8, the feral American mink n=7) and the omnivorous raccoon (n=37) from a riverine European ecosystem in a Se-deficient area. The Hg concentration in fish reached 0.337μg/g dry weight, dw (0.084μg/g wet weight, ww). We found significant differences among Hg levels in tested vertebrate groups (predators vs benthophages: 0.893 vs 0.281μg/g; piscivores vs omnivores: 6.085 vs 0.566μg/g dw). Fish groups did not differ in Se concentrations, with a mean value of 0.653μg/g dw. Significant differences were revealed between Se levels in piscivorous and omnivorous carnivores (0.360 vs 0.786μg/g dw, respectively). Fish Se:Hg molar ratio values were >2.2. Benthophages had higher the ratio than predators but similar to phytophages. Among carnivores, piscivores had much lower the ratio than raccoon (0.14 vs 3.75) but raccoon and fish medians did not significantly differ. We found almost two times higher Se levels in fish and raccoons compared to piscivores, possibly resulting from lower fish Se digestibility by piscivores in contrast to higher absorption of plant Se by many fish and omnivorous raccoons. Considering that a tissue Se:Hg molar ratio <1 may be connected with a Hg toxicity potential increase, we assume that piscivores in Se-deficient area are in worse situation and more exposed to Hg than fish and omnivores. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Intramuscular changes of soft and hard areas after low-level static contraction of the masseter muscle and the correlations with muscle hardness and increase in water content: evaluations with sonographic elastography and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Ariji, Yoshiko; Nakayama, Miwa; Taguchi, Akira; Gotoh, Akihiko; Kise, Yoshitaka; Katsumata, Aakitoshi; Kurita, Kenichi; Ariji, Eiichiro

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the intramuscular changes on sonographic elastography (SE) after low-level static contraction of the masseter muscle, and to clarify the relationship with the total hardness and edematous change. Ten healthy volunteers performed sustained bilateral biting at 20% of maximal voluntary contraction for 10 min. The SE and magnetic resonance (MR) scans of the masseter muscles were performed before, immediately after, and 10 min after exercise. The masseter muscle elasticity index (MEI) ratio, muscle thickness, and intramuscular soft and hard areas distribution were evaluated on SE images. The signal to noise ratio (SNR), indicating the water content, was measured on MR images. The soft area ratio showed significant correlations with the water content expressed as SNR. The hard area ratio showed significant correlations with the total muscle hardness expressed as the MEI ratio. Intramuscular soft and hard areas could be used both clinically and experimentally. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of stabilization training on multifidus muscle cross-sectional area among young elite cricketers with low back pain.

    PubMed

    Hides, Julie A; Stanton, Warren R; McMahon, Shaun; Sims, Kevin; Richardson, Carolyn A

    2008-03-01

    A single-blinded, pretreatment-posttreatment assessment. To investigate, using ultrasound imaging, the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the lumbar multifidus muscle at 4 vertebral levels (L2, L3, L4, L5) in elite cricketers with and without low back pain (LBP) and (2) to document the effect of a staged stabilization training program on multifidus muscle CSA. Despite high fitness levels and often intensive strength training programs, athletes still suffer LBP. The incidence of LBP among Australian cricketers is 8% and as high as 14% among fast bowlers. Previous researchers have found that the multifidus muscle contributes to segmental stability of the lumbopelvic region; however, the CSA of this muscle has not been previously assessed in elite cricketers. CSAs of the multifidus muscles were assessed at rest on the left and right sides for 4 vertebral levels at the start and completion of a 13-week cricket training camp. Participants who reported current or previous LBP were placed in a rehabilitation group. The stabilization program involved voluntary contraction of the multifidus, transversus abdominis, and pelvic floor muscles, with real-time feedback from rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI), progressed from non-weight-bearing to weight-bearing positions and movement training. Pain scores (using a visual analogue scale) were also collected from those with LBP. The CSAs of the multifidus muscles at the L5 vertebral level increased for the 7 cricketers with LBP who received the stabilization training, compared with the 14 cricketers without LBP who did not receive rehabilitation (P = .004). In addition, the amount of muscle asymmetry among those with LBP significantly decreased (P = .029) and became comparable to cricketers without LBP. These effects were not evident for the L2, L3, and L4 vertebral levels. There was also a 50% decrease in the mean reported pain level among the cricketers with LBP. Multifidus muscle atrophy can exist in highly active, elite

  12. An overview of calf diarrhea - infectious etiology, diagnosis, and intervention

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yong-il

    2014-01-01

    Calf diarrhea is a commonly reported disease in young animals, and still a major cause of productivity and economic loss to cattle producers worldwide. In the report of the 2007 National Animal Health Monitoring System for U.S. dairy, half of the deaths among unweaned calves was attributed to diarrhea. Multiple pathogens are known or postulated to cause or contribute to calf diarrhea development. Other factors including both the environment and management practices influence disease severity or outcomes. The multifactorial nature of calf diarrhea makes this disease hard to control effectively in modern cow-calf operations. The purpose of this review is to provide a better understanding of a) the ecology and pathogenesis of well-known and potential bovine enteric pathogens implicated in calf diarrhea, b) describe diagnostic tests used to detect various enteric pathogens along with their pros and cons, and c) propose improved intervention strategies for treating calf diarrhea. PMID:24378583

  13. Associations of Abdominal Muscle Area with 4-Year Change in Coronary Artery Calcium Differ by Ethnicity Among Post-Menopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Wassel, Christina L; Laughlin, Gail A; Saad, Sarah D; Araneta, Maria Rosario G; Wooten, Wilma; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Allison, Matthew A

    2015-11-05

    To examine the association of abdominal muscle area with coronary artery calcium (CAC) presence, extent, and progression in a multi-ethnic cohort of older, community-dwelling post-menopausal women. Cross-sectional and longitudinal population-based cohort. The sample comprised 179 non-Hispanic White women, 116 Filipina women and 144 African American women, all without known CVD, who underwent chest and abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans twice about four years apart for abdominal muscle and fat, as well as CAC. CAC presence, extent and progression. There was a significant interaction of ethnicity with baseline oblique muscle area (p-for-interaction .01), and marginally significant interactions with baseline total and paraspinal muscle for change in CAC (p-for-interactions both .09). Among Filipina women, each standard deviation (SD) greater total muscle area was associated with a 26% (95% CI (-43%, -4%), P=.02) reduced rate of change in CAC; higher paraspinal and oblique muscle area were associated with a 24% (-38%, -6%, P=.01) and a 37% (-53%, -16%, P=.0002) reduced rate of change in CAC, respectively. These associations were not significant in African American or non-Hispanic White women. There were no significant associations of abdominal muscle with CAC presence or extent, nor were there significant ethnicity by muscle interactions in these models. Among Filipina women, greater abdominal muscle mass is associated with a decreased rate of CAC progression. Higher muscle mass may be important for this group in reducing CVD outcomes.

  14. Phosphocreatine resynthesis during recovery in different muscles of the exercising leg by 31P-MRS.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, T; Abe, D; Fukuoka, Y

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the high-energy phosphate metabolism by (31) P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy during off-transition of exercise in different muscle groups, such as calf muscles and biceps femoris muscles, seven male long-distance runners (LDR) and nine untrained males (UT) performed both submaximal constant and incremental exercises. The relative exercise intensity was set at 60% of the maximal work rate (60%W max) during both knee flexion and plantar flexion submaximal constant load exercises. The relative areas under the inorganic phosphate (Pi ) and phosphocreatine (PCr) peaks were determined. During the 5-min recovery following the 60%W max, the time constant for the PCr off-kinetics was significantly faster in the plantar flexion (LDR: 17.3 ± 3.6 s, UT: 26.7 ± 6.7 s) than in the knee flexion (LDR: 29.7 ± 4.7 s, UT: 42.7 ± 2.8 s, P < 0.05). In addition, a significantly faster PCr off-kinetics was observed in LDR than in UT for both exercises. The ratio of Pi to PCr (Pi /PCr) during exercise was significantly lower during the plantar flexion than during the knee flexion (P < 0.01). These findings indicated that the calf muscles had relatively higher potential for oxidative capacity than that of biceps femoris muscles with an association of training status. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Risk factors for worsened muscle strength after the surgical treatment of arteriovenous malformations of the eloquent motor area.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fuxin; Zhao, Bing; Wu, Jun; Wang, Lijun; Jin, Zhen; Cao, Yong; Wang, Shuo

    2016-08-01

    OBJECT Case selection for the surgical treatment of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) of the eloquent motor area remains challenging. The aim of this study was to determine the risk factors for worsened muscle strength after surgery in patients with this disorder. METHODS At their hospital the authors retrospectively studied 48 consecutive patients with AVMs involving motor cortex and/or the descending pathway. All patients had undergone preoperative functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), followed by resection. Both functional and angioarchitectural factors were analyzed with respect to the change in muscle strength. Functional factors included lesion-to-corticospinal tract distance (LCD) on DTI and lesion-to-activation area distance (LAD) and cortical reorganization on fMRI. Based on preoperative muscle strength, the changes in muscle strength at 1 week and 6 months after surgery were defined as short-term and long-term surgical outcomes, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical package SPSS (version 20.0.0, IBM Corp.). RESULTS Twenty-one patients (43.8%) had worsened muscle strength 1 week after surgery. However, only 10 patients (20.8%) suffered from muscle strength worsening 6 months after surgery. The LCD was significantly correlated with short-term (p < 0.001) and long-term (p < 0.001) surgical outcomes. For long-term outcomes, patients in the 5 mm ≥ LCD > 0 mm (p = 0.009) and LCD > 5 mm (p < 0.001) categories were significantly associated with a lower risk of permanent motor worsening in comparison with patients in the LCD = 0 mm group. No significant difference was found between patients in the 5 mm ≥ LCD > 0 mm group and LCD > 5 mm group (p = 0.116). Nidus size was the other significant predictor of short-term (p = 0.021) and long-term (p = 0.016) outcomes. For long-term outcomes, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.728, and the cutoff point was 3.6 cm. Spetzler-Martin grade was not associated with

  16. Ultrasonographic findings of the various diseases presenting as calf pain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Joo; Kim, Ok Hwa; Choo, Hye Jung; Park, Jun Ho; Park, Yeong-Mi; Jeong, Hae Woong; Lee, Sung Moon; Cho, Kil Ho; Choi, Jung-Ah; Jacobson, Jon A

    2016-01-01

    There are various causes of calf pain. The differential diagnoses affecting the lower leg include cystic lesions, trauma-related lesions, infection or inflammation, vascular lesions, neoplasms, and miscellaneous entities. Ultrasound (US) provide detailed anatomical information of the calf structures, and it offers the ability to confirm, other calf abnormalities, particularly when deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is ruled out. The purpose of this article is to review the causes of a painful calf presenting as DVT and incidental findings found as part of the work-up of DVT, and to provide a broad overview of US findings and clinical features of these pathologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of anisosmotic stress on cardiac muscle cell length, diameter, area, and sarcomere length

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, R.; Barnes, M. A.; Cooper, G. 4th; Zile, M. R.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of anisosmotic stress on adult mammalian cardiac muscle cell (cardiocyte) size. Cardiocyte size and sarcomere length were measured in cardiocytes isolated from 10 normal rats and 10 normal cats. Superfusate osmolarity was decreased from 300 +/- 6 to 130 +/- 5 mosM and increased to 630 +/- 8 mosM. Cardiocyte size and sarcomere length increased progressively when osmolarity was decreased, and there were no significant differences between cat and rat cardiocytes with respect to percent change in cardiocyte area or diameter; however, there were significant differences in cardiocyte length (2.8 +/- 0.3% in cat vs. 6.1 +/- 0.3% in rat, P < 0.05) and sarcomere length (3.3 +/- 0.3% in cat vs. 6.1 +/- 0.3% in rat, P < 0.05). To determine whether these species-dependent differences in length were related to diastolic interaction of the contractile elements or differences in relative passive stiffness, cardiocytes were subjected to the osmolarity gradient 1) during treatment with 7 mM 2,3-butanedione monoxime (BDM), which inhibits cross-bridge interaction, or 2) after pretreatment with 1 mM ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N, N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA), a bivalent Ca2+ chelator. Treatment with EGTA or BDM abolished the differences between cat and rat cardiocytes. Species-dependent differences therefore appeared to be related to the degree of diastolic cross-bridge association and not differences in relative passive stiffness. In conclusion, the osmolarity vs. cell size relation is useful in assessing the cardiocyte response to anisosmotic stress and may in future studies be useful in assessing changes in relative passive cardiocyte stiffness produced by pathological processes.

  18. Obtaining growth hormone from calf blood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalchev, L. A.; Ralchev, K. K.; Nikolov, I. T.

    1979-01-01

    The preparation of a growth hormone from human serum was used for the isolation of the hormone from calf serum. The preparation was biologically active - it increased the quantity of the free fatty acids released in rat plasma by 36.4 percent. Electrophoresis in Veronal buffer, ph 8.6, showed the presence of a single fraction having mobility intermediate between that of alpha and beta globulins. Gel filtration through Sephadex G 100 showed an elutriation curve identical to that obtained by the growth hormone prepared from pituitary glands.

  19. Efficacy of calf:cow ratios for estimating calf production of arctic caribou

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cameron, R.D.; Griffith, B.; Parrett, L.S.; White, R.G.

    2013-01-01

    Caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) calf:cow ratios (CCR) computed from composition counts obtained on arctic calving grounds are biased estimators of net calf production (NCP, the product of parturition rate and early calf survival) for sexually-mature females. Sexually-immature 2-year-old females, which are indistinguishable from sexually-mature females without calves, are included in the denominator, thereby biasing the calculated ratio low. This underestimate increases with the proportion of 2-year-old females in the population. We estimated the magnitude of this error with deterministic simulations under three scenarios of calf and yearling annual survival (respectively: low, 60 and 70%; medium, 70 and 80%; high, 80 and 90%) for five levels of unbiased NCP: 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100%. We assumed a survival rate of 90% for both 2-year-old and mature females. For each NCP, we computed numbers of 2-year-old females surviving annually and increased the denominator of CCR accordingly. We then calculated a series of hypothetical “observed” CCRs, which stabilized during the last 6 years of the simulations, and documented the degree to which each 6-year mean CCR differed from the corresponding NCP. For the three calf and yearling survival scenarios, proportional underestimates of NCP by CCR ranged 0.046–0.156, 0.058–0.187, and 0.071–0.216, respectively. Unfortunately, because parturition and survival rates are typically variable (i.e., age distribution is unstable), the magnitude of the error is not predictable without substantial supporting information. We recommend maintaining a sufficient sample of known-age radiocollared females in each herd and implementing a regular relocation schedule during the calving period to obtain unbiased estimates of both parturition rate and NCP.

  20. Annual elk calf survival in a multiple carnivore system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eacker, Daniel R.; Hebblewhite, Mark; Proffitt, Kelly M.; Jimenez, Benjamin S.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Robinson, Hugh S.

    2016-01-01

    The realized effect of multiple carnivores on juvenile ungulate recruitment may depend on the carnivore assemblage as well as compensation from forage and winter weather severity, which may mediate juvenile vulnerability to predation in ungulates. We used a time-to-event approach to test for the effects of risk factors on annual elk (Cervus canadensis) calf survival and to estimate cause-specific mortality rates for 2 elk populations in adjacent study areas in the southern Bitterroot Valley, Montana, USA, during 2011–2014. We captured and radio-tagged 286 elk calves: 226 neonates, and 60 6-month-old calves. Summer survival probability was less variable than winter (P = 0.12) and averaged 0.55 (95% CI = 0.47–0.63), whereas winter survival varied more than summer and significantly across study years (P = 0.003) and averaged 0.73 (95% CI = 0.64–0.81). During summer, elk calf survival increased with biomass of preferred forage biomass, and was slightly lower following winters with high precipitation; exposure to mountain lion (Puma concolor) predation risk was unimportant. In contrast, during winter, we found that exposure to mountain lion predation risk influenced survival, with a weak negative effect of winter precipitation. We found no evidence that forage availability or winter weather severity mediated vulnerability to mountain lion predation risk in summer or winter (e.g., an interaction), indicating that the effect of mountain lion predation was constant regardless of spatial variation in forage or weather. Mountain lions dominated known causes of elk calf mortality in summer and winter, with estimated cause-specific mortality rates of 0.14 (95% CI = 0.09–0.20) and 0.12 (95% CI = 0.07–0.18), respectively. The effect of carnivores on juvenile ungulate recruitment varies across ecological systems depending on relative carnivore densities. Mountain lions may be the most important carnivore for ungulates, especially where grizzly

  1. Rehabilitative ultrasound imaging of the supraspinatus muscle: Intra- and interrater reliability of thickness and cross-sectional area.

    PubMed

    Schneebeli, Alessandro; Egloff, Michele; Giampietro, Amelia; Clijsen, Ron; Barbero, Marco

    2014-04-01

    To examine intra- and interrater reliability of thickness and cross-sectional area (CSA) measurements of the supraspinatus muscle using rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI). Two physical therapists acquired b-mode images of the supraspinatus muscles in twenty-five healthy subjects. Thickness and CSA were measured. Intra- and interrater reliability were examined. Intrarater reliability for thickness was high, (ICC1.1 0.91) for rater 1 and (ICC1.1 0.92) for rater 2. Intrarater reliability for CSA was also high, (ICC1.1 0.90) for rater 1 and (ICC1.1 0.85) for rater 2. Interrater reliability for the thickness was high, (ICC3.1 0.86). For CSA, interrater reliability was moderate, (ICC3.1 0.70). Supraspinatus muscle thickness and CSA can be reliably measured by physical therapists in healthy subjects. These findings confirm that RUSI has an interesting potential for physiotherapy clinical practice, especially to assess morphometric changes in skeletal muscles. Further research is needed in subjects with shoulder disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Preventative programs for respiratory disease in cow/calf operations.

    PubMed

    Engelken, T J

    1997-11-01

    Control of respiratory disease in cow/calf operations presents many challenges. The incidence of disease in the suckling calf is not well documented and the logistics of handling range animals make control programs difficult to implement. Health programs have to be built around normal working patterns, and these patterns may not provide the best "fit" for immune management of the calf. Weaned calves undergo significant disease challenge when they enter typical marketing channels. This provides the potential for high levels of calf morbidity, mortality, medicine costs, and losses from decreased performance as they arrive at a stocker operation or feedyard. If preweaning calf health and preconditioning programs are used, they must be planned so that the producer has an opportunity to obtain a return on their investment. Options for increasing calf weight marketed, certified calf health sales, or retained ownership through the next phase of production should be evaluated carefully. Any potential increase in calf value must be weighed against program costs. This affords the veterinarian an opportunity to build on traditional disease management and prevention skills and expand their influence in overall ranch management.

  3. CalfScience: Extension Education at Many Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Dale A.; Tellessen, Kathlyn; Sischo, William M.

    2010-01-01

    The issue of antimicrobial resistance in food animal agriculture was addressed by conducting clinical trials to assess alternatives to antimicrobials in dairy calf-raising and developing outreach to three different audiences. Current research was integrated into Extension programs for calf-raisers, animal science and veterinary students, and food…

  4. The mean fibre area of the semitendinosus, diaphragm and pectoralis transversus muscles in differing types of horse and dog.

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, H M

    1978-01-01

    The mean fibre areas of samples from m. semitendinosus, m. diaphragma and m. pectoralis transversus of thoroughbred horses and greyhounds have been compared with those in similar samples from other members of their species. Athletes (greyhounds and thoroughbreds) have larger fibres in the semitendinosus and diaphragm than their fellows. However, the mean area of pectoralis transversus is similar in the two types of animal within each species. During growth the mean fibre areas increase to a greater extent in athletes than in non-athletes. Detraining adult greyhounds for a period of one year did not signficantly alter the fibre area; nor were any sex differences detected. Although the mean fibre area of corresponding muscles is significantly larger in horses than in dogs, the difference is proportionately less than that of their live weights. PMID:721700

  5. Newborn calf welfare: a review focusing on mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Uetake, Katsuji

    2013-02-01

    Calf mortality control is vitally important for farmers, not only to improve animal welfare, but also to increase productivity. High calf mortality rates can be related to larger numbers of calves in a herd, employee performance, severe weather, and the neonatal period covering the first 4 weeks of life. Although the basic premise of preventing newborn calf mortality is early detection and treatment of calves at risk for failure of passive transfer of immunoglobulins, calf mortality due to infectious diseases such as acute diarrhea increases in the presence of these physical and psychological stressors. This suggests that farmers should not ignore the effects of secondary environmental factors. For prevention rather than cure, the quality of the environment should be improved, which will improve not only animal welfare but also productivity. This paper presents a review of the literature on newborn calf mortality and discusses its productivity implications. © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. Differences in muscle cross-sectional area and strength between elite senior and college Olympic weight lifters.

    PubMed

    Funato, K; Kanehisa, H; Fukunaga, T

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the profiles of muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and strength capability in relation to lifting ability in Olympic weight lifters. The subjects were 8 elite senior lifters (ESL, age=25.2+/-1.3 years, height=1.64+/-0.03 m, mass=68.6+/-4.2 kg, mean+/-SEM) and 9 college lifters (CL, 20.8+/-0.3 years, 1.67+/-0.03 m, 70.53.4 kg) whose predetermined weight classes were within the same range. The CSAs of elbow or knee extensor and elbow or knee flexor muscles were measured using a B-mode ultrasound apparatus. Concentric and eccentric maximal voluntary forces were determined with an isokinetic dynamometer at a constant velocity of 1.05 rad/sec. The best score of the total mass lifted in the snatch and the clean and jerk lifts was significantly higher in ESL than in CL even in terms of per unit of fat-free mass. There were no significant differences between the two groups in fat-free mass, muscle CSA and force values with the exception that ESL compared to CL showed significantly greater force in concentric knee flexion. However, the ratios of force to muscle CSA (F/CSAs) in concentric and eccentric elbow extensions, eccentric knee extension and concentric knee flexion were significantly higher in ESL than in CL. The present results indicated that the magnitude of muscular development in limbs was similar in elite senior and college lifters whose predetermined weight classes were within the same range. As compared to college lifters, however, elite senior lifters had a higher F/CSA in specific muscle action modes, which might relate to the optimal execution of the Olympic lifts.

  7. Zinc Methionine Supplementation Impacts Gene and Protein Expression in Calf-fed Holstein Steers with Miniaml Impact on Feedlot Performance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Calf-fed Holstein steers were supplemented with a zinc (Zn) methionine supplement (ZnMet; ZINPRO®; Zinpro Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN) for 115±5 days prior to harvest along with zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; Zilmax®; Merck Animal Health, Summit, NJ) for the last 20 days with a 3 day withdrawal to ...

  8. Development of Human Muscle Protein Measurement with MRI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chen; Evans, Harlan; Leblanc, Adrian D.

    1997-01-01

    It is known that micro-gravity has a strong influence on the human musculoskeletal system. A number of studies have shown that significant changes in skeletal muscles occur in both space flight and bedrest simulation. In our 5 week bedrest study, the cross-sectional area of soleus-gastrocnemius decreased about 12% while the cross-sectional area of anterior calf muscles decreased about 4%. Using volume measurements, these losses increased after 17 weeks to approximately 30% and 21% respectively. Significant muscle atrophy was also found on the SL-J crew members after only 8 days in space. It is important that these effects are fully understood so that countermeasures can be developed. The same knowledge might also be useful in preventing muscle atrophy related to other medical problems. A major problem with anatomical measurements of muscle during bed rest and microgravity is the influence of fluid shifts and water balance on the measurement of muscle volume, especially when the exposure duration is short and the atrophy is relatively small. Fluid shifts were documented in Skylab by visual observations of blood vessel distention, rapid changes in limb volume, center of mass measurements and subjective descriptions such as puffy faces and head fullness. It has been reported that the muscle water content of biopsied soleus muscles decreased following 8 hours of head down tilt bed rest. Three aspects of fluid shifts that can affect volume measurements are: first, the shift of fluid that occurs whenever there is a change from upright to a recumbent position and vice versa; second, the potential for fluid accumulation in the lower limbs resulting from muscle damage caused by overextending atrophied muscle or swelling caused by deconditioned precapillary sphincter muscles during reambulation; third, the net change of hydration level during and after bed rest or spaceflight. Because of these transitory fluid shifts, muscle protein is expected to represent muscle capacity

  9. Force per cross-sectional area from molecules to muscles: a general property of biological motors

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Vernet, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    We propose to formally extend the notion of specific tension, i.e. force per cross-sectional area—classically used for muscles, to quantify forces in molecular motors exerting various biological functions. In doing so, we review and compare the maximum tensions exerted by about 265 biological motors operated by about 150 species of different taxonomic groups. The motors considered range from single molecules and motile appendages of microorganisms to whole muscles of large animals. We show that specific tensions exerted by molecular and non-molecular motors follow similar statistical distributions, with in particular, similar medians and (logarithmic) means. Over the 1019 mass (M) range of the cell or body from which the motors are extracted, their specific tensions vary as Mα with α not significantly different from zero. The typical specific tension found in most motors is about 200 kPa, which generalizes to individual molecular motors and microorganisms a classical property of macroscopic muscles. We propose a basic order-of-magnitude interpretation of this result. PMID:27493785

  10. Calf antibiotic and sulfonamide test (CAST) for screening antibiotic and sulfonamide residues in calf carcasses.

    PubMed

    Dey, Bhabani P; Reamer, Richard P; Thaker, Nitin H; Thaler, Alice M

    2005-01-01

    The Calf Antibiotic and Sulfonamide Test (CAST), a microbial inhibition screening test, was developed for detecting antibiotics and sulfonamides in bob veal calf carcasses. The test uses Bacillus megaterium ATCC 9885 as the indicator organism and Mueller Hinton agar as the growth medium. Compared to Swab Test on Premises (STOP), developed in 1970, this screening test has higher sensitivity and the ability to detect a wider range of veterinary antimicrobial residual drugs, particularly sulfonamides, at lower concentrations. Carcasses that are tested with CAST and suspected of containing chemical residue above tolerance level are retained for confirmation. Disposition of these carcasses are determined upon laboratory result. Routine testing of bob veal calves with CAST allowed the Food Safety and Inspection Service to release most calf carcasses within 24 h post-slaughter, thus conserving shipping and handling resources. However, changes in the regulation in 1990 dictate that disposition of carcasses found to contain violative levels of sulfonamide residues should be based on laboratory findings. The analysis of the data for the years 1990-1994 and 1998 indicate that the use of CAST over the years was significant, and had a direct impact on reduction of residue violations in veal carcasses. With the use of CAST, potentially harmful antimicrobial chemicals entering the human food chain through veal meat have been minimized.

  11. Calf Augmentation and Restoration: Long-Term Results and the Review of the Reported Complications.

    PubMed

    Niechajev, Igor; Krag, Christen

    2017-10-01

    Augmentation or reconstruction of the calves is indicated in patients with thin legs, for bodybuilders, or when there is a defect after an injury or illness. The principle of placing implants under the investing crural fascia was worked out in the 1980s. The senior author (I.N.) introduced many technical modifications and improvements for this operation, among them the new instrument, an inserter for the calf implants. Presented patient material is unique in that the more challenging reconstructive cases almost equal the numbers of the aesthetic cases. During the years 1991 through 2016, 50 patients underwent 60 calf contour corrections. Indications were aesthetic in 23 patients, six were bodybuilders, and 21 underwent lower leg reconstruction because of deformity caused by illness. According to evaluation by the surgeon, excellent-to-good results were obtained in 30 out of 37 followed patients. Patients rated their results as very good (18), good (10), acceptable (7) and bad (2). One 28-year-old professional bodybuilder sustained acute anterior compartment syndrome in one leg. Implants were removed 16 h after surgery, but he developed ischaemia in the anterior compartment leading to the necrosis of muscles. After several surgical operations, including microsurgical transfer of the innervated central caput of the quadriceps femoris muscle, he could resume his bodybuilding activities. Other complications were minor and manageable. Calf augmentation, performed properly, has evolved to be a safe, efficient and aesthetically pleasing operation. The possibility of acute compartment syndrome should be kept in mind. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  12. Large calf circumference indicates non-sarcopenia despite body mass

    PubMed Central

    Kusaka, Satomi; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Hiyama, Yoshinori; Kusumoto, Yasuaki; Tsuchiya, Junko; Umeda, Masaru

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to evaluate the applicability of the calf circumference as a tool for screening sarcopenia. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred sixteen community-dwelling elderly females were enrolled. Calf circumference of the dominant leg was measured using a plastic measuring tape. Subjects were divided into 3 groups based on body mass index (BMI); subjects with the values for BMI <18.5 kg/m2; those with BMI 18.5 to 25.0; those with BMI ≥25.0 kg/m2. Positive predictive value and negative predictive value of sarcopenia were calculated based on the obtained cut off values of calf circumference and the diagnosis of sarcopenia in each group. [Results] Prevalence rate of sarcopenia was 9.4% (n=10). Cut off value of the calf circumference was 32.8 cm (sensitivity: 73.0%, specificity: 80.0%, AUC: 0.792). Each BMI group showed high negative predictive value of sarcopenia based on the calf circumference cut off value of 32.8 cm. [Conclusion] These results suggested that to identify non-sarcopenia by larger calf circumference is more reasonable and useful than to identify sarcopenia due to the smaller calf circumference regardless of BMI. PMID:29200625

  13. Septicemia in a neonatal calf associated with Chromobacterium violaceum.

    PubMed

    Ajithdoss, D K; Porter, B F; Calise, D V; Libal, M C; Edwards, J F

    2009-01-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum infections are highly fatal and rarely reported in domestic animals. This report describes a fatal case of C. violaceum septicemia in a 7-day-old female beef calf. The calf had necrosuppurative omphalophlebitis, necrotizing interstitial pneumonia, necrosuppurative hepatitis and splenitis, anterior uveitis with hypopyon, suppurative polyarthritis, and disseminated hemorrhagic meningitis with multifocal necrotizing encephalitis. Histologically, clusters of gram-negative bacilli were found in many of the lesions. C. violaceum was isolated in high numbers from the lungs, liver, spleen, carpus, and in pure culture from the cerebrospinal fluid. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of chromobacteriosis in a calf.

  14. Molecular determinants of force production in human skeletal muscle fibers: effects of myosin isoform expression and cross-sectional area.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mark S; Bedrin, Nicholas G; Ades, Philip A; Palmer, Bradley M; Toth, Michael J

    2015-03-15

    Skeletal muscle contractile performance is governed by the properties of its constituent fibers, which are, in turn, determined by the molecular interactions of the myofilament proteins. To define the molecular determinants of contractile function in humans, we measured myofilament mechanics during maximal Ca(2+)-activated and passive isometric conditions in single muscle fibers with homogenous (I and IIA) and mixed (I/IIA and IIA/X) myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms from healthy, young adult male (n = 5) and female (n = 7) volunteers. Fibers containing only MHC II isoforms (IIA and IIA/X) produced higher maximal Ca(2+)-activated forces over the range of cross-sectional areas (CSAs) examined than MHC I fibers, resulting in higher (24-42%) specific forces. The number and/or stiffness of the strongly bound myosin-actin cross bridges increased in the higher force-producing MHC II isoforms and, in all isoforms, better predicted force than CSA. In men and women, cross-bridge kinetics, in terms of myosin attachment time and rate of myosin force production, were independent of CSA, although women had faster (7-15%) kinetics. The relative proportion of cross bridges and/or their stiffness was reduced as fiber size increased, causing a decline in specific force. Results from our examination of molecular mechanisms across the range of physiological CSAs explain the variation in specific force among the different fiber types in human skeletal muscle, which may have relevance to understanding how various physiological and pathophysiological conditions modulate single-fiber and whole muscle contractility. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Molecular determinants of force production in human skeletal muscle fibers: effects of myosin isoform expression and cross-sectional area

    PubMed Central

    Bedrin, Nicholas G.; Ades, Philip A.; Palmer, Bradley M.; Toth, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle contractile performance is governed by the properties of its constituent fibers, which are, in turn, determined by the molecular interactions of the myofilament proteins. To define the molecular determinants of contractile function in humans, we measured myofilament mechanics during maximal Ca2+-activated and passive isometric conditions in single muscle fibers with homogenous (I and IIA) and mixed (I/IIA and IIA/X) myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms from healthy, young adult male (n = 5) and female (n = 7) volunteers. Fibers containing only MHC II isoforms (IIA and IIA/X) produced higher maximal Ca2+-activated forces over the range of cross-sectional areas (CSAs) examined than MHC I fibers, resulting in higher (24–42%) specific forces. The number and/or stiffness of the strongly bound myosin-actin cross bridges increased in the higher force-producing MHC II isoforms and, in all isoforms, better predicted force than CSA. In men and women, cross-bridge kinetics, in terms of myosin attachment time and rate of myosin force production, were independent of CSA, although women had faster (7–15%) kinetics. The relative proportion of cross bridges and/or their stiffness was reduced as fiber size increased, causing a decline in specific force. Results from our examination of molecular mechanisms across the range of physiological CSAs explain the variation in specific force among the different fiber types in human skeletal muscle, which may have relevance to understanding how various physiological and pathophysiological conditions modulate single-fiber and whole muscle contractility. PMID:25567808

  16. Rare congenital absence of tail (anury) and anus (atresia ani) in male camel (Camelus dromedarius) calf

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, S.; Purohit, G.N.

    2012-01-01

    A one-day old male camel calf was presented to the Al-Qattara Veterinary Hospital with complaints of abdominal straining and lack of defecation. On examination it was found that the calf had no tail, the posterior sacral margin was blunt and the anal opening was absent. The case was diagnosed as congenital anury with atresia ani. The animal was sedated with 0.1 mg/kg of xylazine administered intramuscularly and under local infiltration with 2% lidocaine a circular incision was made at the anal area to create an anal opening. The animal passed plenty of meconium. The cut edges were sutured with horizontal mattress sutures. The animal was administered penicillin and streptomycin for 5 days and had an uneventful recovery. It is reported that congenital anury rarely occurs in one humped camel and accompanied atresia ani can be surgically treated. PMID:26623295

  17. Can the calf-raise senior test predict functional fitness in elderly people? A validation study using electromyography, kinematics and strength tests.

    PubMed

    André, Helô-Isa; Carnide, Filomena; Moço, Andreia; Valamatos, Maria-João; Ramalho, Fátima; Santos-Rocha, Rita; Veloso, António

    2018-06-05

    The assessment of the plantar-flexors muscle strength in older adults (OA) is of the utmost importance since they are strongly associated with the performance of fundamental tasks of daily life. The objective was to strengthen the validity of the Calf-Raise-Senior (CRS) test by assessing the biomechanical movement pattern of calf muscles in OA with different levels of functional fitness (FF) and physical activity (PA). Twenty-six OA were assessed with CRS, a FF battery, accelerometry, strength tests, kinematics and electromyography (EMG). OA with the best and worst CRS scores were compared. The association between the scores and EMG pattern of ankle muscles was determined. OA with the best CRS scores presented higher levels of FF, PA, strength, power, speed and range of movement, and a more efficient movement pattern during the test. Subjects who scored more at the CRS test demonstrated the possibility to use a stretch-shortening cycle type of action in the PF muscles to increase power during the movements. OA with different levels of FF can be stratified by the muscular activation pattern of the calf muscles and the scores in CRS test. This study reinforced the validity of CRS for evaluating ankle strength and power in OA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of black bear relocation on elk calf recruitment at Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yarkovich, J.; Clark, J.D.; Murrow, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research from 2001 to 2006 on an experimentally released elk (Cervus elaphus) population at Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP or Park) indicated that calf recruitment (i.e., calves reaching 1 yr of age per adult female elk) was low (0.306, total SE = 0.090) resulting in low or negative population growth (λ = 0.996, 95% CI = 0.945–1.047). Black bear (Ursus americanus) predation was the primary calf mortality factor. From 2006 to 2008, we trapped and relocated 49 bears (30 of which were radiocollared) from the primary calving areas in the Park and radiomonitored 67 (28 M:39 F) adult elk and 42 calves to compare vital rates and population growth with the earlier study. A model with annual calf recruitment rate correlating with the number of bears relocated each year was supported (ΔAICc = 0.000; β = 0.070, 95% CI = 0.028–0.112) and a model with annual calf recruitment differing from before to during bear relocation revealed an increase to 0.544 (total SE = 0.098; β = −1.092, 95% CI = −1.180 to −0.375). Using vital rates and estimates of process standard errors observed during our study, 25-yr simulations maintained a mean positive growth rate in 100% of the stochastic trials with λ averaging 1.118 (95% CI = 1.096–1.140), an increase compared with rates before bear relocation. A life table response experiment revealed that increases in population growth were mostly (67.1%) due to changes in calf recruitment. We speculate that behavioral adaptation of the elk since release also contributed to the observed increases in recruitment and population growth. Our results suggest that managers interested in elk reintroduction within bear range should consider bear relocation as a temporary means of increasing calf recruitment.

  19. Calf health from birth to weaning. III. housing and management of calf pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Calfhood diseases have a major impact on the economic viability of cattle operations. A three part review series has been developed focusing on calf health from birth to weaning. In this paper, the last of the three part series, we review disease prevention and management with particular reference to pneumonia, focusing primarily on the pre-weaned calf. Pneumonia in recently weaned suckler calves is also considered, where the key risk factors are related to the time of weaning. Weaning of the suckler calf is often combined with additional stressors including a change in nutrition, environmental change, transport and painful husbandry procedures (castration, dehorning). The reduction of the cumulative effects of these multiple stressors around the time of weaning together with vaccination programmes (preconditioning) can reduce subsequent morbidity and mortality in the feedlot. In most studies, calves housed individually and calves housed outdoors with shelter, are associated with decreased risk of disease. Even though it poses greater management challenges, successful group housing of calves is possible. Special emphasis should be given to equal age groups and to keeping groups stable once they are formed. The management of pneumonia in calves is reliant on a sound understanding of aetiology, relevant risk factors, and of effective approaches to diagnosis and treatment. Early signs of pneumonia include increased respiratory rate and fever, followed by depression. The single most important factor determining the success of therapy in calves with pneumonia is early onset of treatment, and subsequent adequate duration of treatment. The efficacy and economical viability of vaccination against respiratory disease in calves remains unclear. PMID:22018053

  20. Estimation of carcass composition using rib dissection of calf-fed Holstein steers supplemented zilpaterol hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    McEvers, T J; May, N D; Reed, J A; Walter, L J; Hutcheson, J P; Lawrence, T E

    2018-04-14

    A serial harvest was conducted every 28 d from 254 to 534 d on feed (DOF) to quantify changes in growth and composition of calf-fed Holstein steers (n = 115, initial body weight (BW) = 449.2 ± 19.9 kg). One-half were supplemented with the β-2 adrenergic agonist zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; 8.33 mg/kg 100% dry matter (DM) basis) during the final 20 d followed by a 3-d withdrawal prior to harvest; the remainder was fed a non-ZH control (CON) ration. Five steers were randomly selected and harvested after 226 DOF which served as a reference point for modeling purposes. Fabricated carcass soft tissue was ground, mixed, and subsampled for proximate analysis. Moreover, following the traditional method of rib dissection which includes the 9th, 10th, and 11th rib contained within the IMPS 103 primal, the relationship of carcass chemical composition to 9-10-11 rib composition was evaluated. Carcasses in this investigation had more (P < 0.01) separable lean, fat, ash, and moisture concomitant with less bone and ether extract than rib dissections. However, protein levels were similar (P = 0.27) between carcasses and rib dissections. Using regression procedures, models were constructed to describe the relationship of rib dissection (RD) composition including separable lean (RDSL), separable fat (RDSF), separable bone (RDSB), ether extract (RDEE), protein (RDP), moisture (RDM), and ash (RDA) with carcass composition. Carcass lean (CL), carcass fat (CF), and carcass bone (CB) were correlated (P < 0.01) with RDSL, RDSF, and RDSB with simple r values of 0.41, 0.71, and 0.50, respectively. Chemical composition of the rib and carcass, carcass ether extract (CEE), carcass protein (CP), carcass moisture (CM), and carcass ash (CA) were correlated (P ≤ 0.01) with simple r values of 0.75, 0.31, 0.66, and 0.37, respectively. Equations to predict carcass fatness from rib dissection variables and ZH supplementation status were only able to account for 50 and 56%, of the variability of

  1. Fiber sources for complete calf starter rations.

    PubMed

    Murdock, F R; Wallenius, R W

    1980-11-01

    Complete calf starter rations containing either 1) alfalfa hay, 2) cottonseed hulls, or 3) alfalfa-beet pulp as sources of fiber were fed to Holstein heifer calves at two locations on a limited milk program from 3 days to 12 wk of age. Rations were isonitrogenous and similar in content of crude fiber and acid detergent fiber. Although growth and development were normal on all rations, calves fed the cottonseed hull ration consumed more starter and gained more body weight than calves fed the other sources of fiber. The similarity of feed efficiencies, rumen pH, and molar ratios of volatile fatty acids between rations indicated no appreciable differences in rumen development or function. The growth response of calves fed the cottonseed hull ration appeared to be a result of better ration acceptability for which no reason was evident. Calves raised at Puyallup gained more body weight than calves at Pullman, and these gains were made more efficiently. These location effects may be related to seasonal differences and greater demands for production of body heat. Although the incidence of scours was less for calves fed alfalfa hay starter, the incidence and severity of bloat were higher for that ration.

  2. Association between leg strength and muscle cross-sectional area of the quadriceps femoris with the physical activity level in octogenarians.

    PubMed

    Latorre-Román, Pedro Á; Arévalo-Arévalo, Juan Manuel; García-Pinillos, Felipe

    2016-06-03

    Aging is a complex physiological process whose main feature is the progressive loss of functionality, which may be delayed or attenuated by improving physical fitness.  To determine the association between leg strength and the muscle cross-sectional area of the quadriceps femoris in relation to physical activity level in the elderly.  Thirty-two functionally autonomous people over 80 years (men: 82.80±2.09 years; women: 83.77±4.09 years) participated in this study. The Barthel Index, the Yale Physical Activity Survey and the Chair Stand Test were the instruments used.  There were significant differences between sexes in muscle area (p<0.001) in the Chair Stand Test (p=0.028) and the walk index (p=0.029), with higher values in men. The muscle area and the Chair Stand Test correlated significantly with the walk index (r=0.445, p<0.005, and r=0.522, p<0.001, respectively) and the total weekly activity index (r=0.430, p<0.005, and r=0.519, p<0.001, respectively). In the multiple linear regression models for the total weekly activity index, muscle area and the Chair Stand Test, only the latter behaved as a predictor variable.  Muscle strength and muscle mass of quadriceps showed a significant association with the physical activity level in older people. Leg muscle strength was useful to reveal muscle mass and physical activity level in older people, which is relevant as a clinical practice indicator.

  3. Cutaneous Sensory Block Area, Muscle-Relaxing Effect, and Block Duration of the Transversus Abdominis Plane Block: A Randomized, Blinded, and Placebo-Controlled Study in Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Støving, Kion; Rothe, Christian; Rosenstock, Charlotte V; Aasvang, Eske K; Lundstrøm, Lars H; Lange, Kai H W

    2015-01-01

    The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a widely used nerve block. However, basic block characteristics are poorly described. The purpose of this study was to assess the cutaneous sensory block area, muscle-relaxing effect, and block duration. Sixteen healthy volunteers were randomized to receive an ultrasound-guided unilateral TAP block with 20 mL 7.5 mg/mL ropivacaine and placebo on the contralateral side. Measurements were performed at baseline and 90 minutes after performing the block. Cutaneous sensory block area was mapped and separated into a medial and lateral part by a vertical line through the anterior superior iliac spine. We measured muscle thickness of the 3 lateral abdominal muscle layers with ultrasound in the relaxed state and during maximal voluntary muscle contraction. The volunteers reported the duration of the sensory block and the abdominal muscle-relaxing effect. The lateral part of the cutaneous sensory block area was a median of 266 cm2 (interquartile range, 191-310 cm2) and the medial part 76 cm 2(interquartile range, 54-127 cm2). In all the volunteers, lateral wall muscle thickness decreased significantly by 9.2 mm (6.9-15.7 mm) during a maximal contraction. Sensory block and muscle-relaxing effect duration were 570 minutes (512-716 minutes) and 609 minutes (490-724 minutes), respectively. Cutaneous sensory block area of the TAP block is predominantly located lateral to a vertical line through the anterior superior iliac spine. The distribution is nondermatomal and does not cross the midline. The muscle-relaxing effect is significant and consistent. The block duration is approximately 10 hours with large variation.

  4. Phylogenetic patterns and correlation of key structures for jumping: bone crests and cross-sectional areas of muscles in Leptodactylus (Anura, Leptodactylidae).

    PubMed

    Ponssa, María Laura; Fratani, Jéssica; Abdala, Virginia

    2018-05-01

    Anurans are characterized by their saltatory mode of locomotion, which is associated with a specific morphology. The coordinated action of the muscles and bones of the pelvic girdle is key to the transmission of the force of the hindlimbs to the axial skeleton during jumping. Two features are critical for optimal locomotory performance: the cross-sectional area of muscle and the bone crest attachment sites. The first character is a proxy of the force exerted by the muscle, whereas the crests are muscle attachments sites related to muscle force. The provisory relationship between these features has previously been identified and bone crest size can be used to infer the magnitude and, therefore, muscle force in fossils records. In this work, we explore the correlation between the cross-sectional area of essential muscles to the jumping mechanism (longissimus dorsi, extensor iliotibialis B, tenuissimus, puboischiofemoralis internus B, coccygeo-sacralis and coccygeo-iliacus) and the bone crests where these muscles are inserted (dorsal tubercle, dorsal crest and urostylar crest) in species of the genus Leptodactylus. This genus, along with other leptodactylids, exhibits a diversity of locomotor modes, including jumping, hopping, swimming and burrowing. We therefore analyzed the morphometric variation in the two features, cross-sectional area and bone crest area, expecting a correlation with different locomotor types. Our results showed: (i) a correlation between the urostylar crest and the cross-sectional area of the related muscles; (ii) that the bone crest surface area of urostyle and ilium and the cross-sectional area of the corresponding muscles can be utilized to infer locomotor faculties in leptodactylid frogs; and (iii) that the evolution of both characters demonstrates a general tendency from lower values in leptodactylid ancestors to higher values in the Leptodactylus genus. The results attest to the importance of the comparison of current ecological and

  5. Quantifying Antimicrobial Resistance at Veal Calf Farms

    PubMed Central

    Bosman, Angela B.; Wagenaar, Jaap; Stegeman, Arjan; Vernooij, Hans; Mevius, Dik

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to determine a sampling strategy to quantify the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance on veal calf farms, based on the variation in antimicrobial resistance within and between calves on five farms. Faecal samples from 50 healthy calves (10 calves/farm) were collected. From each individual sample and one pooled faecal sample per farm, 90 selected Escherichia coli isolates were tested for their resistance against 25 mg/L amoxicillin, 25 mg/L tetracycline, 0.5 mg/L cefotaxime, 0.125 mg/L ciprofloxacin and 8/152 mg/L trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (tmp/s) by replica plating. From each faecal sample another 10 selected E. coli isolates were tested for their resistance by broth microdilution as a reference. Logistic regression analysis was performed to compare the odds of testing an isolate resistant between both test methods (replica plating vs. broth microdilution) and to evaluate the effect of pooling faecal samples. Bootstrap analysis was used to investigate the precision of the estimated prevalence of resistance to each antimicrobial obtained by several simulated sampling strategies. Replica plating showed similar odds of E. coli isolates tested resistant compared to broth microdilution, except for ciprofloxacin (OR 0.29, p≤0.05). Pooled samples showed in general lower odds of an isolate being resistant compared to individual samples, although these differences were not significant. Bootstrap analysis showed that within each antimicrobial the various compositions of a pooled sample provided consistent estimates for the mean proportion of resistant isolates. Sampling strategies should be based on the variation in resistance among isolates within faecal samples and between faecal samples, which may vary by antimicrobial. In our study, the optimal sampling strategy from the perspective of precision of the estimated levels of resistance and practicality consists of a pooled faecal sample from 20 individual animals, of which 90 isolates are

  6. Comparison of a space shuttle flight (STS-78) and bed rest on human muscle function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trappe, S. W.; Trappe, T. A.; Lee, G. A.; Widrick, J. J.; Costill, D. L.; Fitts, R. H.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess muscle fiber size, composition, and in vivo contractile characteristics of the calf muscle of four male crew members during a 17-day spaceflight (SF; Life and Microgravity Sciences Spacelab Shuttle Transport System-78 mission) and eight men during a 17-day bed rest (BR). The protocols and timelines of these two investigations were identical, therefore allowing for direct comparisons between SF and the BR. The subjects' age, height, and weight were 43 +/- 2 yr, 183 +/- 4 cm, and 86 +/- 3 kg for SF and 43 +/- 2 yr, 182 +/- 3 cm, and 82 +/- 4 kg for BR, respectively. Calf muscle strength was examined before SF and BR; on days 2, 8, and 12 during SF and BR; and on days 2 and 8 of recovery. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and within 3 h after SF (gastrocnemius and soleus) and BR (soleus) before reloading. Maximal isometric calf strength and the force-velocity characteristics were unchanged with SF or BR. Additionally, neither SF nor BR had any effect on fiber composition or fiber size of the calf muscles studied. In summary, no changes in calf muscle strength and morphology were observed after the 17-day SF and BR. Because muscle strength is lost during unloading, both during spaceflight and on the ground, these data suggest that the testing sequence employed during the SF and BR may have served as a resistance training countermeasure to attenuate whole muscle strength loss.

  7. A comparison of research into cachexia, wasting and related skeletal muscle syndromes in three chronic disease areas.

    PubMed

    Stewart Coats, Andrew J; Shewan, Louise G

    2017-05-15

    We compared the frequency of cancer, heart and lung related cachexia and cachexia-related research articles in the specialist journal, Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle (JCSM) to those seen in a leading European journal in each specialist area during 2015 and 2016 to assess whether work on cachexia and related fields is relatively over or under represented in each specialist area. In the dedicated journal, Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle, there were 44 references related to cancer, 5 related to respiratory disease, 5 related to heart failure, and 21 related to more than one of these chronic diseases. Despite this cancer preponderance, in the European Journal of Cancer in the two publication years, there were only 5 relevant publications (0.67% of the journal output), compared to 16 (1.41%) in the European Respiratory Journal and 10 (2.19%) in the European Journal of Heart Failure. There is considerable under-representation of cancer cachexia-related papers in the major European Cancer journal despite a high proportion in the dedicated cachexia journal. The under-representation is even more marked when expressed as a percentage, 0.67%, compared to 1.41% and 2.19% of the lung and heart journals respectively. These results are consistent with a worrying lack of interest in, or publication of, cachexia and related syndromes research in the cancer literature in Europe compared to its importance as a clinical syndrome. Greater interest is shown in lung and cardiology journals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Tendon retraction with rotator cuff tear causes a decrease in cross-sectional area of the supraspinatus muscle on magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Fukuta, Shoji; Tsutsui, Takahiko; Amari, Rui; Wada, Keizo; Sairyo, Koichi

    2016-07-01

    Muscle atrophy and fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles have been reported as negative prognostic indicators after rotator cuff repair. Although the Y-shaped view is widely used for measuring the cross-sectional area of the supraspinatus muscle, the contribution of retraction of the torn tendon as well as muscle atrophy must be considered. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship between cross-sectional area and tendon retraction or size of the tear. This study included 76 shoulders that were evaluated arthroscopically for the presence and size of tears. Cross-sectional areas of rotator cuff muscles were measured from the Y-shaped view to 3 more medial slices. The occupation ratio and tangent sign were evaluated on the Y-shaped view. The retraction of torn tendon was also measured on the oblique coronal images. On the Y-shaped view, the cross-sectional area of the supraspinatus and the occupation ratio decreased in conjunction with the increase in tear size. A significant decrease in cross-sectional area was noted only in large and massive tears on more medial slices from the Y-shaped view. Significant decreases in the cross-sectional area of the infraspinatus were observed in large and massive tears on all images. A negative correlation was found between tendon retraction and cross-sectional area, which was strongest on the Y-shaped view. To avoid the influence of retraction of the supraspinatus tendon, sufficient medial slices from the musculotendinous junction should be used for evaluation of muscle atrophy. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Muscle and bone follow similar temporal patterns of recovery from muscle-induced disuse due to botulinum toxin injection.

    PubMed

    Manske, Sarah L; Boyd, Steven K; Zernicke, Ronald F

    2010-01-01

    If muscle force is a primary source for triggering bone adaptation, with disuse and reloading, bone changes should follow muscle changes. We examined the timing and magnitude of changes in muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA) and bone architecture in response to muscle inactivity following botulinum toxin (BTX) injection. We hypothesized that MCSA would return to baseline levels sooner than bone properties following BTX injection. Female BALB mice (15 weeks old) were injected with 20 muL of BTX (1 U/100 g body mass, n=18) or saline (SAL, n=18) into the posterior calf musculature of one limb. The contralateral limb (CON) served as an internal control. MCSA and bone properties were assessed at baseline, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks post-injection using in vivo micro-CT at the tibia proximal metaphysis (bone only) and diaphysis. Muscles were dissected and weighed after sacrifice. Significant GroupxLegxTime interactions indicated that the maximal decrease in MCSA (56%), proximal metaphyseal BV/TV (38%) and proximal diaphyseal Ct.Ar (7%) occurred 4 weeks after injection. There was no delay prior to bone recovery as both muscle and bone properties began to recover after this time, but MCSA and BV/TV remained 15% and 20% lower, respectively, in the BTX-injected leg than the BTX-CON leg 16 weeks post-injection. Gastrocnemius mass (primarily fast-twitch) was 14% lower in the BTX-injected leg than the SAL-injected leg, while soleus mass (primarily slow-twitch) was 15% greater in the BTX group than the SAL group. Our finding that muscle size and bone began to recover at similar times after BTX injection was unexpected. This suggested that partial weight-bearing and/or return of slow-twitch muscle activity in the BTX leg may have been sufficient to stimulate bone recovery. Alternatively, muscle function may have recovered sooner than MCSA. Our results indicated that muscle cross-sectional area, while important, may not be the primary factor associated with bone loss and recovery

  10. Influence of the marine feeding area on the muscle and egg fatty-acid composition of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar spawners estimated from the scale stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Torniainen, J; Kainz, M J; Jones, R I; Keinänen, M; Vuorinen, P J; Kiljunen, M

    2017-05-01

    Fatty acids in muscle tissue and eggs of female Atlantic salmon Salmo salar spawners were analysed to evaluate the dietary quality of their final feeding areas in the Baltic Sea. The final likely feeding area was identified by comparing stable carbon and nitrogen isotope composition of the outermost growth region (final annulus) of scales of returned S. salar with that of reference S. salar caught from different feeding areas. Some overlap of stable-isotope reference values among the three areas, in addition to prespawning fasting, decreased the ability of muscle tri-acylglycerols to discriminate the final likely feeding area and the area's dietary quality. Among three long-chained polyunsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and arachidonic acid (ARA; 20:4n-6), the proportions of ARA in total lipids of spawning S. salar muscle and eggs showed a significant negative correlation with increasing probability of S. salar having returned from the Baltic Sea main basin (i.e. the Baltic Sea proper). The results suggest that ARA in muscle and eggs is the best dietary indicator for dietary characteristics of final marine feeding area dietary characteristics among S. salar in the Baltic Sea. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  11. Treatment of hypernatremia in an acidotic neonatal calf.

    PubMed

    Angelos, S M; Smith, B P; George, L W; House, J K; Van Metre, D C; Fecteau, G; Thacker, V C; Angelos, J A

    1999-05-01

    A 7-day-old Jersey calf was evaluated because of diarrhea and pneumonia. The calf was hypernatremic, hypoproteinemic, and acidemic, and was treated initially with i.v. administration of fluids with sodium concentration (175 mEq/L) similar to the calf's serum sodium concentration. Sodium concentration of the administered fluids was gradually decreased over the following days, but the calf's serum sodium concentration decreased too rapidly, and the calf developed neurologic signs attributed to cerebral edema. Treatment with mannitol and i.v. administration of fluids with a higher concentration of sodium resulted in abatement of clinical signs. In calves, hypernatremia may develop over several days. Prescribing traditional isotonic or hypotonic fluids in such cases will be harmful, because during chronic hypernatremia, the brain's adaptive mechanisms involve accumulation of organic osmoles that may take several days to equilibrate across cell membranes, and cerebral edema may result. Administration of fluids containing sodium concentration approximately equal to the patient's measured serum sodium concentration is required to decrease serum sodium concentration more slowly than is possible with traditional isotonic fluids.

  12. Effect of Real and Simulated Microgravity on Muscle Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session JA3, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Changes in Calf Muscle Performance, Energy Metabolism, and Muscle Volume Caused by Long Term Stay on Space Station MIR; Vibrografic Signs of Autonomous Muscle Tone Studied in Long Term Space Missions; Reduction of Muscle Strength After Long Duration Space Flights is Associated Primarily with Changes in Neuromuscular Function; The Effects of a 115-Day Spaceflight on Neuromuscular Function in Crewman; Effects of 17-Day Spaceflight on Human Triceps Surae Electrically-Evoked Contractions; Effects of Muscle Unloading on EMG Spectral Parameters; and Myofiber Wound-Mediated FGF Release and Muscle Atrophy During Bedrest.

  13. EMG and force production of the flexor hallucis longus muscle in isometric plantarflexion and the push-off phase of walking.

    PubMed

    Péter, Annamária; Hegyi, András; Stenroth, Lauri; Finni, Taija; Cronin, Neil J

    2015-09-18

    Large forces are generated under the big toe in the push-off phase of walking. The largest flexor muscle of the big toe is the flexor hallucis longus (FHL), which likely contributes substantially to these forces. This study examined FHL function at different levels of isometric plantarflexion torque and in the push-off phase at different speeds of walking. FHL and calf muscle activity were measured with surface EMG and plantar pressure was recorded with pressure insoles. FHL activity was compared to the activity of the calf muscles. Force and impulse values were calculated under the big toe, and were compared to the entire pressed area of the insole to determine the relative contribution of big toe flexion forces to the ground reaction force. FHL activity increased with increasing plantarflexion torque level (F=2.8, P=0.024) and with increasing walking speed (F=11.608, P<0.001). No differences were observed in the relative contribution of the force under the big toe to the entire sole between different plantarflexion torque levels (F=0.836, P=0.529). On the contrary, in the push-off phase of walking, peak force under the big toe increased at a higher rate than force under the other areas of the plantar surface (F=3.801, P=0.018), implying a greater relative contribution to total force at faster speeds. Moreover, substantial differences were found between isometric plantarflexion and walking concerning FHL activity relative to that of the calf muscles, highlighting the task-dependant behaviour of FHL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Views on contentious practices in dairy farming: the case of early cow-calf separation.

    PubMed

    Ventura, B A; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Schuppli, C A; Weary, D M

    2013-09-01

    The public has become increasingly interested in the welfare of food animals, but the food animal industries possess few mechanisms for public engagement. Here we present results from a web-based forum designed to allow stakeholders to share views on controversial issues in dairying. In response to the question "Should dairy calves be separated from the cow within the first few hours after birth?" participants were able to indicate "yes," "no," or "neutral" and either write a reason in support of their view or select reasons provided by other participants. Four independent groups of participants were recruited (a total of 163 people); 31% said they had no involvement in the dairy industry; the remaining 69% (with some involvement in the industry) were students or teachers (33%), animal advocates (13%), producers (11%), veterinarians (9%) and other dairy industry professionals (3%). Overall, little consensus existed among participants across groups; 44% chose "yes," 48% "no," and 9% "neutral." Responses varied with demographics, with opposition to early separation higher among females, animal advocates, and those with no involvement with the dairy industry. A fifth group was recruited at a dairy industry conference (an additional 28 participants); 46% chose "yes," 32% "no," and 21% "neutral." Across all 5 groups, opponents and supporters often referenced similar issues in the reasons they provided. Opponents of early separation contended that it is emotionally stressful for the calf and cow, it compromises calf and cow health, it is unnatural, and the industry can and should accommodate cow-calf pairs. In contrast, supporters of early separation reasoned that emotional distress is minimized by separating before bonds develop, that it promotes calf and cow health, and that the industry is limited in its ability to accommodate cow-calf pairs. These results illustrate the potential of web-based forums to identify areas of agreement and conflict among stakeholders

  15. Occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Neospora caninum in Alberta cow-calf operations.

    PubMed

    Pruvot, M; Kutz, S; Barkema, H W; De Buck, J; Orsel, K

    2014-11-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and Neospora caninum (NC) are two pathogens causing important production limiting diseases in the cattle industry. Significant impacts of MAP and NC have been reported on dairy cattle herds, but little is known about the importance, risk factors and transmission patterns in western Canadian cow-calf herds. In this cross-sectional study, the prevalence of MAP and NC infection in southwest Alberta cow-calf herds was estimated, risk factors for NC were identified, and the reproductive impacts of the two pathogens were assessed. Blood and fecal samples were collected from 840 cows on 28 cow-calf operations. Individual cow and herd management information was collected by self-administered questionnaires and one-on-one interviews. Bayesian estimates of the true prevalence of MAP and NC were computed, and bivariable and multivariable statistical analysis were done to assess the association between the NC serological status and ranch management risk factors, and the clinical effects of the two pathogens. Bayesian estimates of true prevalence indicated that 20% (95% probability interval: 8-38%) of herds had at least one MAP-positive cow, with a within-herd prevalence in positive herds of 22% (8-45%). From the Bayesian posterior distributions of NC prevalence, the median herd-level prevalence was 66% (33-95%) with 10% (4-21%) cow-level prevalence in positive herds. Multivariable analysis indicated that introducing purchased animals in the herd might increase the risk of NC. The negative association of NC with proper carcass disposal and presence of horses on ranch (possibly in relation to herd monitoring and guarding activities), may suggest the importance of wild carnivores in the dynamics of this pathogen in the study area. We also observed an association between MAP and NC serological status and the number of abortions. Additional studies should be done to further examine specific risk factors for MAP and NC, assess the

  16. The effects of running in place in a limited area with abdominal drawing-in maneuvers on abdominal muscle thickness in chronic low back pain patients.

    PubMed

    Gong, Wontae

    2016-11-21

    Based on previous studies indicating that core stabilization exercises accompanied by abdominal drawing-in maneuvers increase the thickness of the transversus abdominis muscle. The purpose of this study was to compare the measurements of abdominal muscle thicknesses during running in place in a limited area with the abdominal drawing-in maneuver. The study classified the subjects into two experimental groups: the training group (M = 2, F = 13), and the control group (M = 2, F = 13). The training group performed three sets of running in place in a limited area with abdominal drawing-in maneuvers each time, three times a week for six weeks. The abdominal muscle thicknesses of the subjects were measured using ultrasonography. Comparing the training group's abdominal muscle thickness before and after this study, there was a statistical significance in all of the external obliquus abdominis, the internal obliquus abdominis, and the transversus abdominis. In particular, thicknesses of external obliquus abdominis and internal obliquus increased remarkably. Running in place in a limited area accompanied by abdominal drawing-in maneuvers increased the thickness of the deep abdominal muscles that are the basis of trunk stabilization.

  17. Calf Perforator Flaps: A Freestyle Solution for Oral Cavity Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Molina, Alexandra R; Citron, Isabelle; Chinaka, Fungayi; Cascarini, Luke; Townley, William A

    2017-02-01

    Reconstruction of oral cavity defects requires a thin, pliable flap for optimal functional results. Traditional flap choices are imperfect: the anterolateral thigh flap is excessively thick, whereas the radial forearm flap has a poor donor site. The authors therefore favor calf perforator flaps such as the medial sural artery perforator flap to provide thin tissue with an acceptable donor site. This two-part study aims to demonstrate their suitability for intraoral reconstruction. In the radiologic part of the study, the authors compared thigh and calf tissue thickness by examining lower limb computed tomographic scans of 100 legs. For their clinical study, they collected data prospectively on 20 cases of oral cavity reconstruction using calf perforator flaps. The mean thickness of the calf tissue envelope was significantly less than that of the thigh (8.4 mm compared with 17 mm) based on computed tomographic analysis. In the clinical study, a medial sural artery perforator was used in the majority of cases (17 of 20). The mean pedicle length was 10.2 cm and the mean time to raise a flap was 85 minutes. There were no flap losses. One patient was returned to the operating room for management of late hematoma and wound dehiscence. Calf perforator flaps provide ideal tissue for intraoral reconstruction and are significantly thinner than anterolateral thigh flaps. In addition to medial sural artery perforator flaps, the authors raised both sural and soleal artery perforator flaps in this series. Opportunistic use of the calf donor site allows the harvest of thin tissue with minimal donor-site morbidity. Therapeutic, IV.

  18. A calf model for left ventricular centrifugal mechanical assist.

    PubMed

    Mann, F A; Wagner-Mann, C C; Curtis, J J; Demmy, T L; Turk, J R

    1996-06-01

    The increased use of centrifugal mechanical assist (CMA) for treatment of refractory postcardiotomy cardiogenic shock highlights the need for experimental testing to improve clinical results. This report describes the preoperative conditioning, anesthetic and surgical technique, and postoperative management of a reliable calf model refined in this laboratory for in vivo subchronic (96 h) testing of CMA. Holstein bull calves (2 to 3 months old; mean body weight, 78 kg; n = 35) were instrumented for left ventricular CMA; 4 of these calves were sham-operated controls. Anesthetic recovery and postoperative restraint were accomplished in a specially designed crate to which each calf was preconditioned extensively. Younger calves were more readily conditioned and more tolerant of postoperative restraint than older calves. One calf died of ventricular fibrillation intraoperatively. One calf that had been heparinized developed uncontrollable hemothorax and died 12 h postoperatively. One calf prematurely dislodged his aortic cannula 15 h postoperatively and exsanguinated. Six calves developed pelvic limb paresis or paralysis because of lumbar spinal cord thromboembolism by 36 h postoperatively, and 3 of these calves were sacrificed by 42 h postoperatively. Fifteen calves required sedation in the first 12 h after the operation. Tachycardia associated with bottle feeding occurred in 15 calves. Second-degree atrioventricular block was noted frequently during deep relaxation. Postmortem examination demonstrated the absence of surgical wound and distant infection, security of cannulae in all but the calf that prematurely dislodged the aortic cannula, absence of thrombus formation at cannulation sites, and presence of thromboembolism in 51% of the calves. The incidence of thromboembolic lesions was not influenced by the need for chemical restraint, by the occurrence of feeding-associated tachycardia, or by the presence of atrioventricular block. There were no thromboembolic

  19. CALFED--An experiment in science and decisionmaking

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Kimberly A.; Jacobs, Katharine L.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2003-01-01

    The CALFED Bay-Delta Program faces a challenging assignment: to develop a collaborative state-federal management plan for the complex river system and involve multiple stakeholders (primarily municipal, agricultural, and environmental entities) whose interests frequently are in direct conflict. Although many resource-management issues involve multiple stakeholders and conflict is integral to their discussion, the CALFED experience is unique because of its shared state and federal roles, the magnitude and significance of stakeholder participation, and the complexity of the scientific issues involved.

  20. Regional muscle loss after short duration spaceflight.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, A; Rowe, R; Schneider, V; Evans, H; Hedrick, T

    1995-12-01

    Muscle strength and limb girth measurements during Skylab and Apollo missions suggested that loss of muscle mass may occur as a result of spaceflight. Extended duration spaceflight is important for the economical and practical use of space. The loss of muscle mass during spaceflight is a medical concern for long duration flights to the planets or extended stays aboard space stations. Understanding the extent and temporal relationships of muscle loss is important for the development of effective spaceflight countermeasures. We hypothesized that significant and measurable changes in muscle volume would occur in Shuttle crewmembers following 8 d of weightlessness. MRI was used to obtain the muscle volumes of the calf, thigh and lower back before and after the STS-47 Shuttle mission. Statistical analyses demonstrated that the soleus-gastrocnemius (-6.3%), anterior calf (-3.9%), hamstrings (-8.3%), quadriceps (-6.0%) and intrinsic back (-10.3%) muscles were decreased, p < 0.05, compared to baseline, 24 h after landing. At 2 weeks post recovery, the hamstrings and intrinsic lower back muscles were still below baseline, p < 0.05. These results demonstrate that even short duration spaceflight can result in significant muscle atrophy.

  1. Association of cross-sectional area of the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle with active trigger points in chronic tension-type headache: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Cuadrado, María Luz; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Ge, Hong-You; Pareja, Juan A

    2008-03-01

    To investigate whether cross-sectional area (CSA) of the suboccipital muscles was associated with active trigger points (TrPs) in chronic tension-type headache (CTTH). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine was performed in 11 females with CTTH aged from 26 to 50 yrs old. CSA for both rectus capitis posterior minor (RCPmin) and rectus capitis posterior major (RCPmaj) muscles were measured from axial T1-weighted images, using axial MRI slices aligned parallel to the C2/3 intervertebral disc. A headache diary was kept for 4 wks to record the pain history. TrPs in the suboccipital muscle were identified by eliciting referred pain to palpation, and increased referred pain with muscle contraction. TrPs were considered active if the elicited referred pain reproduced the head pain pattern and features of the pattern seen during spontaneous headache attacks. Active TrPs were found in six patients (55%), whereas the remaining five patients showed latent TrPs. CSA of the RCPmin was significantly smaller (F = 13.843; P = 0.002) in the patients with active TrPs (right side: 55.9 +/- 4.4 mm; left side: 61.1 +/-: 3.8 mm) than in patients with latent TrPs (right side: 96.9 +/- 14.4 mm; left side: 88.7 +/- 9.7 mm). No significant differences were found for CSA of the RCPmaj between the patients with either active or latent TrP (P > 0.5). It seems that muscle atrophy in the RCPmin, but not in the RCPmaj, was associated with suboccipital active TrPs in CTTH, although studies with larger sample sizes are now required. It may be that nociceptive inputs in active TrPs could lead to muscle atrophy of the involved muscles. Muscle disuse or avoidance behavior can also be involved in atrophy.

  2. Reference ranges for midupper arm circumference, upper arm muscle area, and upper arm fat area in US children and adolescents aged 1-20 y.

    PubMed

    Addo, O Yaw; Himes, John H; Zemel, Babette S

    2017-01-01

    Midupper arm circumference (MUAC) has long been used in anthropometric assessments of nutritional status in field settings, especially in emergency situations, but percentile ranges for healthy, well-nourished children are currently unavailable. We developed reference curves for MUAC and derived measures of arm muscle area (AMA) and arm fat area (AFA) on the basis of the population used in the current CDC body mass index growth charts. We analyzed cross-sectional MUAC and triceps (triceps skinfold thickness) data from 32,952 US children aged 1-20 y. Generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape were used to calculate semiparametric smoothed percentiles and L, M, and S coefficients needed for z-score estimation by age and sex. Equations were developed with the use of the height-for-age z score (HAZ) to adjust for the associations of stature with upper arm measures. MUAC increased with age steadily throughout the growing period. For children <5 y old, lower percentile ranges varied markedly across age and sex such that the single cutoff (<11.5 or 12.5 cm) for field screening of acute malnutrition did not track along the same percentile. AFA and AMA growth patterns exhibited sex-specific trends including multiple distinct age-related inflections that were more pronounced in males for AFA-for-age than in females. HAZ and age were substantially and independently related with all arm measures. The new reference percentile ranges for midupper arm measures for healthy children provide a useful nutritional assessment tool in a wide variety of settings. Height status (HAZ) has complex independent associations with arm measures irrespective of the distributional ranking by age and sex. Prediction equations that account for these effects further extend the practical use of the new curves. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Muscle MRI of classic infantile pompe patients: Fatty substitution and edema-like changes.

    PubMed

    Pichiecchio, Anna; Rossi, Marta; Cinnante, Claudia; Colafati, Giovanna Stefania; De Icco, Roberto; Parini, Rossella; Menni, Francesca; Furlan, Francesca; Burlina, Alberto; Sacchini, Michele; Donati, Maria Alice; Fecarotta, Simona; Casa, Roberto Della; Deodato, Federica; Taurisano, Roberta; Di Rocco, Maja

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the muscle MRI pattern of 9 patients (median age: 6.5 ± 2.74 years) affected by classic infantile-onset Pompe disease who were treated with enzyme replacement therapy. We performed and qualitatively scored T1-weighted (T1-w) sequences of the facial, shoulder girdle, paravertebral, and lower limb muscles and short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) sequences of the lower limbs using the Mercuri and Morrow scales, respectively. On T1-w images, mild (grade 1) or moderate (grade 2) involvement was found in the tongue in 6 of 6 patients and in the adductor magnus muscle in 6 of 9. STIR hyperintensity was detected in all areas examined and was categorized as limited to mild in 5 of 8 patients. On T1-w sequences, mild/moderate adipose substitution in the adductor magnus and tongue muscles was documented. STIR edema-like alterations of thigh and calf muscles are novel findings. Correlations with biopsy findings and clinical parameters are needed to fully understand these findings. Muscle Nerve 55: 841-848, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A Limousin specific myostatin allele affects longissimus muscle area and fatty acid profiles in a Wagyu-Limousin F*2* population

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A microsatellite-based genome scan of a Wagyu x Limousin F2 cross population previously demonstrated QTL affecting longissimus muscle area (LMA) and fatty acid composition were present in regions near the centromere of BTA 2. In this study we used 70 SNP markers to examine the centromeric 20 megabas...

  5. Effect of processing sorghum grain on dairy calf performance.

    PubMed

    Abdelgadir, I E; Morrill, J L

    1995-09-01

    Two trials evaluated the effect of sorghum grain processing on dairy calf performance. In trial 1, Holstein calves (n = 76; .5 to 8 wk of age) were fed one of three calf starters that contained either raw, roasted (exit temperature of 135 degrees C), or conglomerated sorghum grain. The conglomeration process consisted of grinding the grain, adding water, pelleting the mixture, and then roasting it. Raw and roasted sorghum grains were ground through a 3.2-mm screen and then included in complete pelleted starters; conglomerated sorghum grain pellets were mixed with the other pelleted ingredients of the starter. Processing did not enhance calf performance or affect selected ruminal and blood metabolites. In trial 2, roasted and conglomerated sorghum grains were ground through a 3.2-mm screen, and each was included in a pelleted starter fed for ad libitum intake to Holstein calves (n = 48) from .5 to 8 wk of age. Calf performance was not affected by method of grain processing, and ruminal and blood metabolites were similar; however, 22% of calves on the conglomerated sorghum grain starter bloated during the postweaning period, which probably resulted in reduced feed intake from wk 6 to 8. Measures to prevent bloat may be necessary to realize a potential benefit of conglomerating sorghum grain for calves.

  6. Diagnosis and treatment of lumbosacral discospondylitis in a calf

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this case report was to describe the clinical findings, treatment and outcome of lumbosacral discospondylitis in a calf. Case Presentation A 5.5-month-old calf was presented with difficulty in rising, a stiff and slightly ataxic gait in the hind limbs and a shortened stride. The lumbosacral region was severely painful on palpation. Radiographic examination confirmed lumbosacral discospondylitis. Medical treatment with stall rest was instituted over six weeks. Radiographic and ultrasonographic follow-up examinations showed lysis of the endplates initially, then collapse of the intervertebral space at the lumbosacral junction and progressive sclerosis in the periphery of the lytic zones. Four weeks after institution of treatment, the calf could rise normally and the general condition gradually had returned to normal. The calf was discharged after 6 weeks and was sound at 3.5 months clinical and radiographic follow up examination. Thereafter, it was kept on alpine pastures without problems and was pregnant 1 year after the last examination. Conclusions This report shows that recovery from lumbosacral discospondylitis is possible in heifers, provided that treatment is started before major neurologic deficits have developed and is continued for an extended period of time. PMID:21910913

  7. Acidification of calf bedding reduces fly development and bacterial abundance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Environmental stressors, such as high fly density, can impact calf well-being. Sodium bisulfate (SBS) is an acidifier that reduces the pH of flooring and bedding, creating a medium that neither bacteria nor immature flies (also known as larvae or maggots) can thrive in. Two experiments were conducte...

  8. Cow and calf weight trends on mountain summer range.

    Treesearch

    Jon M. Skovlin

    1962-01-01

    Mountain range furnishes the bulk of summer forage for commercial cow-calf operations in northeastern Oregon. Herds maintained on valley range and pasture during winter and spring months are annually trailed to mountain ranges and remain there until calves are ready for fall markets (fig. 1).

  9. THIGH MUSCLE CROSS-SECTIONAL AREAS AND STRENGTH IN KNEES WITH EARLY VS KNEES WITHOUT RADIOGRAPHIC KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS: A BETWEEN-KNEE, WITHIN-PERSON COMPARISON

    PubMed Central

    Ruhdorfer, AS; Dannhauer, T; Wirth, W; Cotofana, S; Roemer, F; Nevitt, M; Eckstein, F

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare cross-sectional and longitudinal side-differences in thigh muscle anatomical cross-sectional areas (ACSAs), muscle strength, and specific strength (strength/ACSA), between knees with early radiographic change vs. knees without radiographic knee osteoarthritis (RKOA), in the same person. Design 55 (of 4796) Osteoarthritis Initiative participants fulfilled the inclusion criteria of early RKOA in one limb (definite tibiofemoral osteophytes; no radiographic joint space narrowing [JSN]) vs. no RKOA (no osteophyte; no JSN) in the contralateral limb. ACSAs of the thigh muscles and quadriceps heads were determined using axial MRIs at 33%/30% femoral length (distal to proximal). Isometric extensor and flexor muscle strength were measured (Good Strength Chair). Baseline quadriceps ACSA and extensor (specific) strength represented the primary analytic focus, and two-year changes of quadriceps ACSAs the secondary focus. Results No statistically significant side-differences in quadriceps (or other thigh muscle) ACSAs, muscle strength, or specific strength were observed between early RKOA vs. contralateral limbs without RKOA (p≥0.44), neither in men nor in women. The two-year reduction in quadriceps ACSA in limbs with early RKOA was −0.9±6% (mean ± standard deviation) vs. −0.5±6% in limbs without RKOA (statistical difference p=0.85). Conclusion Our results do not provide evidence that early unilateral radiographic changes, i.e. presence of osteophytes, are associated with cross-sectional or longitudinal differences in quadriceps muscle status compared with contralateral knees without RKOA. At the stage of early unilateral RKOA there thus appears to be no clinical need for countervailing a potential dys-balance in quadriceps ACSAs and strength between both knees. PMID:25278072

  10. Center of Pressure Motion After Calf Vibration Is More Random in Fallers Than Non-fallers: Prospective Study of Older Individuals

    PubMed Central

    van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Kerr, Graham K.; van Dieën, Jaap H.; Hodges, Paul W.

    2018-01-01

    Aging is associated with changes in balance control and elderly take longer to adapt to changing sensory conditions, which may increase falls risk. Low amplitude calf muscle vibration stimulates local sensory afferents/receptors and affects sense of upright when applied in stance. It has been used to assess the extent the nervous system relies on calf muscle somatosensory information and to rapidly change/perturb part of the somatosensory information causing balance unsteadiness by addition and removal of the vibratory stimulus. This study assessed the effect of addition and removal of calf vibration on balance control (in the absence of vision) in elderly individuals (>65 years, n = 99) who did (n = 41) or did not prospectively report falls (n = 58), and in a group of young individuals (18–25 years, n = 23). Participants stood barefoot and blindfolded on a force plate for 135 s. Vibrators (60 Hz, 1 mm) attached bilaterally over the triceps surae muscles were activated twice for 15 s; after 15 and 75 s (45 s for recovery). Balance measures were applied in a windowed (15 s epoch) manner to compare center-of-pressure (CoP) motion before, during and after removal of calf vibration between groups. In each epoch, CoP motion was quantified using linear measures, and non-linear measures to assess temporal structure of CoP motion [using recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) and detrended fluctuation analysis]. Mean CoP displacement during and after vibration did not differ between groups, which suggests that calf proprioception and/or weighting assigned by the nervous system to calf proprioception was similar for the young and both groups of older individuals. Overall, compared to the elderly, CoP motion of young was more predictable and persistent. Balance measures were not different between fallers and non-fallers before and during vibration. However, non-linear aspects of CoP motion of fallers and non-fallers differed after removal of vibration, when dynamic re

  11. Age-related differences in the response of leg muscle cross-sectional area and water diffusivity measures to a period of supine rest.

    PubMed

    Lorbergs, Amanda L; Noseworthy, Michael D; MacIntyre, Norma J

    2015-06-01

    The object was to assess whether cross-sectional area (CSA) and water diffusion properties of leg muscles in young and older women change with increased time spent in supine rest. Healthy young (n = 9, aged 20-30 years) and older (n = 9, aged 65-75 years) women underwent MRI scanning of the right leg at baseline, 30 and 60 min of supine rest. Muscle CSA was derived from proton density images. Water diffusion properties [apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA)] of the tibialis anterior and posterior, soleus, and medial and lateral heads of the gastrocnemius were derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Repeated measures ANOVAs and Bonferroni post hoc tests determined the effects of time and group on each muscle outcome. In both groups, muscle CSA and FA did not significantly change over time, whereas ADC significantly decreased. A greater decline at 30 min for young women was only observed for ADC in the medial gastrocnemius. Regardless of age, ADC values decreased with fluid shift associated with time spent supine, whereas CSA and FA were not affected. For leg muscle assessment in young and older women, DTI scanning protocols should consider the amount of time spent in a recumbent position.

  12. Should we be looking for and treating isolated calf vein thrombosis?

    PubMed

    Horner, Daniel; Hogg, Kerstin; Body, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Management of isolated calf deep vein thrombosis is an area of significant international debate and variable clinical practice. Both therapeutic anticoagulation and conservative management carry risk. As clinical care of suspected and confirmed venous thromboembolic disease increasingly becomes the remit of emergency medicine, complex decisions are left to practising clinicians at the front door. We aim to provide a contemporary overview of recent evidence on this topic and associated challenges facing clinicians. Given the lack of high-level evidence, we present this work as a narrative review, based on structured literature review and expert opinion. A decision to manage calf thrombosis is principally dependent on the risk of complications without treatment balanced against the risks of therapeutic anticoagulation. Estimates of the former risks taken from systematic review, meta-analysis, observational cohort and recent pilot trial evidence include proximal propagation 7%-10%, pulmonary embolism 2%-3% and death <1%. Fatal bleeding with therapeutic anticoagulation stands at <0.5%, and major bleeding at approximately 2%. Estimates of haemorrhagic risk are based on robust data from large prospective management studies of venous thromboembolic disease; the risks of untreated calf deep vein thrombosis are based on small cohorts and therefore less exact. Pending further trial evidence, these risks should be discussed with patients openly, in the context of personal preference and shared decision-making. Anticoagulation may maximally benefit those patients with extensive and/or symptomatic disease or those with higher risk for complication (unprovoked, cancer-associated or pregnancy). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. Corneal wound healing after superficial foreign body injury: vitamin A and dexpanthenol versus a calf blood extract. A randomized double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Egger, S F; Huber-Spitzy, V; Alzner, E; Scholda, C; Vecsei, V P

    1999-01-01

    A prospective randomized double-blind clinical study was performed to investigate corneal wound healing after treatment either with an eye gel containing calf blood extract or an eye ointment containing vitamin A and dexpanthenol. A total of 54 outpatients were included in this study, all treated for corneal foreign body injury. The size of the corneal lesions was measured by planimetry on days 0, 1, and on the following days until complete epithelial healing occurred. Results showed the calf blood extract eye gel to be statistically more effective in promoting corneal wound healing, especially in patients with wound areas larger than 6 mm(2).

  14. Genetic and environmental influences on skeletal muscle phenotypes as a function of age and sex in large, multigenerational families of African heritage.

    PubMed

    Prior, Steven J; Roth, Stephen M; Wang, Xiaojing; Kammerer, Candace; Miljkovic-Gacic, Iva; Bunker, Clareann H; Wheeler, Victor W; Patrick, Alan L; Zmuda, Joseph M

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability of and environmental contributions to skeletal muscle phenotypes (appendicular lean mass and calf muscle cross-sectional area) in subjects of African descent and to determine whether heritability estimates are impacted by sex or age. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computed tomography in 444 men and women aged 18 yr and older (mean: 43 yr) from eight large, multigenerational Afro-Caribbean families (family size range: 21-112). Using quantitative genetic methods, we estimated heritability and the association of anthropometric, lifestyle, and medical variables with skeletal muscle phenotypes. In the overall group, we estimated the heritability of lean mass and calf muscle cross-sectional area (h(2) = 0.18-0.23, P < 0.01) and contribution of environmental factors to these phenotypes (r(2) = 0.27-0.55, P < 0.05). In our age-specific analysis, the heritability of leg lean mass was lower in older vs. younger individuals (h(2) = 0.05 vs. 0.23, respectively, P = 0.1). Sex was a significant covariate in our models (P < 0.001), although sex-specific differences in heritability varied depending on the lean mass phenotype analyzed. High genetic correlations (rho(G) = 0.69-0.81; P < 0.01) between different lean mass measures suggest these traits share a large proportion of genetic components. Our results demonstrate the heritability of skeletal muscle traits in individuals of African heritage and that heritability may differ as a function of sex and age. As the loss of skeletal muscle mass is related to metabolic abnormalities, disability, and mortality in older individuals, further research is warranted to identify specific genetic loci that contribute to these traits in general and in a sex- and age-specific manner.

  15. Low-load resistance exercise during inactivity is associated with greater fibre area and satellite cell expression in older skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Moore, Daniel R; Kelly, Ryan P; Devries, Michaela C; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Phillips, Stuart M; Parise, Gianni; Johnston, Adam P

    2018-05-14

    Age-related sarcopenia is accelerated by physical inactivity. Low-load resistance exercise (LLRE) counters inactivity-induced muscle atrophy in older adults, but changes in muscle fibre morphology are unstudied. We aimed to determine the impact of LLRE during short-term inactivity (step-reduction) on muscle fibre size and capillarity as well as satellite cell (SC) content in older skeletal muscle. Fourteen older (~71 years) male adults underwent 14 days of step reduction (<1500 steps/day) while performing six sessions of LLRE (~30% maximal strength) with one leg (SR + EX) while the contralateral leg served as an untrained control (SR). Seven healthy ambulatory age-matched male adults (~69 years) served as a comparator group (COM). Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis after 14 days, and immunohistochemical analysis was performed to determine muscle fibre cross-sectional area (CSA), myonuclear content, SC content (PAX7 + cells), and total (C:F) and fibre type-specific (C:Fi) capillary-to-fibre ratios. Type I and II fibre CSA was greater in SR + EX compared with SR. Whereas there were no differences across fibre types between SR + EX and CON, type II fibre CSA was significantly lower in SR compared with COM. Type II myonuclear domain was greater in SR + EX compared with COM and SR. Pax7 + cells associated with type I and II fibres were lower in SR compared with SR + EX. Type II PAX7+ cells were also lower in SR compared with COM with a similar trend for type I fibres. There were trends for a lower C:Fi in SR compared with SR + EX for both fibre types with no differences for each compared with COM. Minimal LLRE during a period of decreased physical activity is associated with greater muscle fibre CSA, SC content, and capillarization. These results support the use of LLRE as an effective countermeasure to inactivity-induced alterations in muscle morphology with age. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published

  16. Muscle biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... muscle ( myopathic changes ) Tissue death of the muscle (necrosis) Disorders that involve inflammation of the blood vessels and affect muscles ( necrotizing vasculitis ) Traumatic muscle damage ...

  17. Comparison of Lateral Abdominal Muscle Thickness and Cross Sectional Area of Multifidus in Adolescent Soccer Players with and without Low Back Pain: A Case Control Study.

    PubMed

    Noormohammadpour, Pardis; Hosseini Khezri, Alireza; Linek, Paweł; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Hassannejad, Alireza; Younesian, Ali; Farahbakhsh, Farzin; Kordi, Ramin

    2016-12-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a common complaint amongst adolescent athletes. While different studies have shown association between LBP and trunk muscle thickness in the general population, few articles have studied it in adolescent athletes. The aim of this study is to compare lateral abdominal muscle thickness and function, and cross sectional area (CSA) of lumbar multifidus (LM) in adolescent soccer players with and without LBP. In total, 28 adolescent soccer players with and without LBP, from the premier league participated in this study. The thickness of external oblique, internal oblique and transversus abdominis and the CSA of the LM muscles at L4 level on both sides were measured at rest and contraction via ultrasound imaging (USI). In addition, leg length discrepancy, hamstring flexibility, active lumbar forward flexion, and isometric muscle endurance of trunk extensors were measured in both groups. (study design/setting: case control study). The mean (SD) age in LBP group and non-LBP group were 14.0 (1.1) and 14.1 (0.9) years, respectively. There was no significant difference in baseline characteristics of participants between groups. Findings showed no significant difference between LBP and non-LBP groups comparing all measured variables. The data obtained support that there is not a correlation between abdominal muscle thickness and CSA of the lumbar multifidi and LBP in adolescent soccer players. These findings suggest that other factors rather than the thickness of deep trunk muscles may play a more significant role in the etiology of LBP in adolescent soccer players.

  18. Frailty syndrome and skeletal muscle: results from the Invecchiare in Chianti study.

    PubMed

    Cesari, Matteo; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Lauretani, Fulvio; Onder, Graziano; Bandinelli, Stefania; Maraldi, Cinzia; Guralnik, Jack M; Pahor, Marco; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2006-05-01

    Frailty is a common condition in elders and identifies a state of vulnerability for adverse health outcomes. Our objective was to provide a biological face validity to the well-established definition of frailty proposed by Fried et al. Data are from the baseline evaluation of 923 participants aged > or =65 y enrolled in the Invecchiare in Chianti study. Frailty was defined by the presence of > or =3 of the following criteria: weight loss, exhaustion, low walking speed, low hand grip strength, and physical inactivity. Muscle density and the ratios of muscle area and fat area to total calf area were measured by using a peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (pQCT) scan. Analyses of covariance and logistic regressions were performed to evaluate the relations between frailty and pQCT measures. The mean age (+/-SD) of the study sample was 74.8 +/- 6.8 y, and 81 participants (8.8%) had > or =3 frailty criteria. Participants with no frailty criteria had significantly higher muscle density (71.1 mg/cm(3), SE = 0.2) and muscle area (71.2%, SE = 0.4) than did frail participants (69.8 mg/cm(3), SE = 0.4; and 68.7%, SE = 1.1, respectively). Fat area was significantly higher in frail participants (22.0%, SE = 0.9) than in participants with no frailty criteria (20.3%, SE = 0.4). Physical inactivity and low walking speed were the frailty criteria that showed the strongest associations with pQCT measures. Frail subjects, identified by an easy and inexpensive frailty score, have lower muscle density and muscle mass and higher fat mass than do nonfrail persons.

  19. Increased shedding of microvesicles from intimal smooth muscle cells in athero-prone areas of the human aorta: implications for understanding of the predisease stage.

    PubMed

    Bobryshev, Yuri V; Killingsworth, Murray C; Orekhov, Alexander N

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated whether a change in the content of matrix microvesicles might occur at the preatherosclerotic stage. Applying quantitative electron microscopic and immunohistochemical analyses, two areas of grossly normal segments of the thoracic aorta were compared: atherosclerosis-prone (AP) areas, situated at the dorsal aspect of the aorta along the rows of intercostal branch origins, and atherosclerosis-resistant (AR) areas, situated at the corresponding sites of the ventral aspect of the aorta. The electron microscopic analysis showed that there were 1.4 times more microvesicles in AP areas than AR areas (p = 0.019). It was found that matrix microvesicles originated as a result of blebbing and shedding of surface membranes of smooth muscle cells. A quantitative analysis of the expression of ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (ARF6), which is known to be involved in membrane trafficking and microvesicle formation, showed that ARF6 expression was 1.3 times higher in AP areas than that in AR areas (p = 0.006). There was a positive correlation between the content of matrix microparticles and the expression of ARF6 by intimal smooth muscle cells (r = 0.61; p < 0.0001). The present study supports the concept that alterations of the arterial intima occur at the predisease stage. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Chronic Plantarflexor Stretching During Ankle Immobilization Helps Preserve Calf Girth, Plantarflexion Peak Torque, and Ankle Dorsiflexion Motion.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Samantha; Christensen, Bryan; Gange, Kara; Todden, Christopher; Hatterman-Valenti, Harlene; Albrecht, Jay M

    2017-09-27

    Chronic plantarflexor (PF) stretching during ankle immobilization helps preserve calf girth, plantarflexion peak torque, and ankle dorsiflexion (DF) motion. Immobilization can lead to decreases in muscle peak torque, muscle size, and joint ROM. Recurrent static stretching during a period of immobilization may reduce the extent of these losses. To investigate the effects of chronic static stretching on PF peak torque, calf girth, and DF range of motion (ROM) after two weeks of ankle immobilization. Randomized controlled clinical trial. Athletic training facility. Thirty-six healthy college-aged (19.81±2.48) females. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: control group, immobilized group (IM), and immobilized plus stretching group (IM+S). Each group participated in a familiarization period, a pre-test, and, two weeks later, a post-test. The IM group and IM+S group wore the Aircast FP Walker for two weeks on the left leg. During this time, the IM+S group participated in a stretching program, which consisted of two 10-minute stretching procedures each day for the 14 days. One-way ANOVA was used to determine differences in the change of ankle girth, PF peak torque, and DF ROM between groups with an α level of < 0.05. A significant difference was noted between groups in girth (F 2,31 =5.64, P=0.009), DF ROM (F 2,31 =26.13, P<0.0001), and PF peak torque (F 2,31 =7.74, P=0.002). Post-hoc testing also showed a significance difference between change in calf girth of the control group compared to the IM group (P=0.007) and a significant difference in change of peak torque in the IM+S group and the IM group (P=0.001). Also, a significant difference was shown in DF ROM between the control group and IM+S group (P=0.006), the control group and the IM group (P<0.0001), and the IM+S group and the IM group (P<0.0001). Chronic static stretching during two weeks of immobilization may decrease the loss of calf girth, ankle PF peak torque, and ankle DF ROM.

  1. Predicting red meat yields in carcasses from beef-type and calf-fed Holstein steers using the United States Department of Agriculture calculated yield grade.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, T E; Elam, N A; Miller, M F; Brooks, J C; Hilton, G G; VanOverbeke, D L; McKeith, F K; Killefer, J; Montgomery, T H; Allen, D M; Griffin, D B; Delmore, R J; Nichols, W T; Streeter, M N; Yates, D A; Hutcheson, J P

    2010-06-01

    Analyses were conducted to evaluate the ability of the USDA yield grade equation to detect differences in subprimal yield of beef-type steers and calf-fed Holstein steers that had been fed zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; Intervet Inc., Millsboro, DE) as well as those that had not been fed ZH. Beef-type steer (n = 801) and calf-fed Holstein steer (n = 235) carcasses were fabricated into subprimal cuts and trim. Simple correlations between calculated yield grades and total red meat yields ranged from -0.56 to -0.62 for beef-type steers. Reliable correlations from calf-fed Holstein steers were unobtainable; the probability of a type I error met or exceeded 0.39. Linear models were developed for the beef-type steers to predict total red meat yield based on calculated USDA yield grade within each ZH duration. At an average calculated USDA yield grade of 2.9, beef-type steer carcasses that had not been fed ZH had an estimated 69.4% red meat yield, whereas those fed ZH had an estimated 70.7% red meat yield. These results indicate that feeding ZH increased red meat yield by 1.3% at a constant calculated yield grade. However, these data also suggest that the calculated USDA yield grade score is a poor and variable estimator (adjusted R(2) of 0.31 to 0.38) of total red meat yield of beef-type steer carcasses, regardless of ZH feeding. Moreover, no relationship existed (adjusted R(2) of 0.00 to 0.01) for calf-fed Holstein steer carcasses, suggesting the USDA yield grade is not a valid estimate of calf-fed Holstein red meat yield.

  2. Two-Year Whey Protein Supplementation Did Not Enhance Muscle Mass and Physical Function in Well-Nourished Healthy Older Postmenopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kun; Kerr, Deborah A; Meng, Xingqiong; Devine, Amanda; Solah, Vicky; Binns, Colin W; Prince, Richard L

    2015-11-01

    Protein may play a role in preventing muscle loss with aging. To our knowledge, there have been no long-term randomized controlled trials to examine the effects of increased dietary protein intake on muscle health in community-dwelling older women. In this study, we evaluated the effects of whey protein supplementation on muscle mass and physical function in community-dwelling older Australian women. In this 2 y randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, women aged 70-80 y (mean 74.3 ± 2.7 y) were randomly assigned to either a high protein drink containing 30 g of whey protein (n = 109) or a placebo drink containing 2.1 g protein (n = 110) daily. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry appendicular skeletal muscle mass, upper arm and calf (38% tibia) muscle cross-sectional area, physical function including hand grip strength, lower limb muscle strength and Timed Up and Go test, and 24 h urinary nitrogen were measured at baseline, 1 y, and 2 y. A total of 196 women with at least one follow-up measurement were included in this analysis. Baseline mean BMI was 26.7 ± 3.9 kg/m(2) and protein intake was 76 ± 17 g/d (1.1 ± 0.3 g · kg body weight(-1) · d(-1)). A mean increase in protein intake of ∼ 20 g/d in the protein group was confirmed by the estimates from 24 h urinary nitrogen. Over the 2 y in both groups there was a significant decrease in the upper arm (mean ± SE: -5.59 ± 0.75 cm(2)) and calf (-0.77 ± 0.11 cm(2)) muscle area, as well as hand grip strength (-1.30 ± 0.3 kg) (all P < 0.05), but appendicular skeletal muscle mass did not change significantly. There were no significant effects of the protein intervention on any of the muscle mass or physical function measures (all P > 0.05) at 1 and 2 y. This study showed that in protein-replete, healthy, ambulant, postmenopausal older women, 30 g/d of extra protein did not improve the maintenance of muscle mass or physical function despite evidence of deterioration in muscle measurements in the upper limb

  3. The Effect of Commonly Performed Exercises on the Levator Hiatus Area and the Length and Strength of Pelvic Floor Muscles in Postpartum Women.

    PubMed

    Siff, Lauren N; Hill, Audra J; Walters, Samantha J; Walters, Ginny; Walters, Mark D

    2018-05-02

    The aim oft his study was to compare the effects of 10 common exercises to traditional pelvic floor muscle (PFM) contractions (Kegel) on levator hiatus (LH) area and PFM length and strength. This is a cross-sectional study of 15 healthy postpartum women. Ten exercises were studied. These were common variations of leg, core, and back exercises used in yoga, Pilates, strength training, and physical therapy. Each participant performed all 10 exercises at a single visit in 2 examination settings: transperineal ultrasound and perineometry. Ultrasound measured the LH area and PFM length, and perineometry measured the muscle strength (peak squeeze pressure). Kegel generates an increase in squeeze pressure (24.3 cm H2O), shortens the muscles (-0.46 cm) and narrows the LH (-0.13 cm). The bird-dog and plank exercises were not different from Kegel in any measurement. While the leg-lift ultrasound dimensions are similar to Kegel, leg lifts generated peak squeeze pressures stronger than any other exercise (including Kegel). Whereas ultrasound dimensions were similar to Kegel, tucked and untucked squats and thigh adductions generated weaker contractions than Kegel. While crunch generated a squeeze pressure similar to Kegel, the ultrasound dimensions showed a significantly wider LH and longer muscle than Kegel. Bridge, clam, and plié exercises affected the PFMs differently than Kegel in all measures. Bird-dog, plank, and leg-lift exercises should be evaluated as alternative exercises to Kegel as they affect PFM strength and length and LH area similarly to Kegel, and leg lifts generate a stronger contraction than Kegel.

  4. Results of an online questionnaire to survey calf management practices on dairy cattle breeding farms in Austria and to estimate differences in disease incidences depending on farm structure and management practices.

    PubMed

    Klein-Jöbstl, Daniela; Arnholdt, Tim; Sturmlechner, Franz; Iwersen, Michael; Drillich, Marc

    2015-08-19

    disease >10 % compared with farms where all calves were housed individually (OR 2.28, 95 % CI 1.16-4.48). The results obtained in this study provide an overview on calf management on dairy breeding farms in Austria and may help to further point out areas to be improved on farm.

  5. High-Resolution Echo-Planar Spectroscopic Imaging of the Human Calf

    PubMed Central

    Weis, Jan; Bruvold, Morten; Ortiz-Nieto, Francisco; Ahlström, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    Background This study exploits the speed benefits of echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI) to acquire lipid spectra of skeletal muscle. The main purpose was to develop a high-resolution EPSI technique for clinical MR scanner, to visualise the bulk magnetic susceptibility (BMS) shifts of extra-myocellular lipid (EMCL) spectral lines, and to investigate the feasibility of this method for the assessment of intra-myocellular (IMCL) lipids. Methods The study group consisted of six healthy volunteers. A two dimensional EPSI sequence with point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) spatial localization was implemented on a 3T clinical MR scanner. Measurements were performed by means of 64×64 spatial matrix and nominal voxel size 3×3×15 mm3. The total net measurement time was 3 min 12 sec for non-water-suppressed (1 acquisition) and 12 min 48 sec for water-suppressed scans (4 acquisitions). Results Spectra of the human calf had a very good signal-to-noise ratio and linewidths sufficient to differentiate IMCL resonances from EMCL. The use of a large spatial matrix reduces inter-voxel signal contamination of the strong EMCL signals. Small voxels enabled visualisation of the methylene EMCL spectral line splitting and their BMS shifts up to 0.5 ppm relative to the correspondent IMCL line. The mean soleus muscle IMCL content of our six volunteers was 0.30±0.10 vol% (range 0.18–0.46) or 3.6±1.2 mmol/kg wet weight (range: 2.1–5.4). Conclusion This study demonstrates that high-spatial resolution PRESS EPSI of the muscle lipids is feasible on standard clinical scanners. PMID:24498129

  6. Calf management practices and associations with herd-level morbidity and mortality on beef cow-calf operations.

    PubMed

    Murray, C F; Fick, L J; Pajor, E A; Barkema, H W; Jelinski, M D; Windeyer, M C

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate calf management practices on beef cow-calf operations and determine associations with herd-level morbidity and mortality of pre-weaned calves. A 40-question survey about management practices, morbidity and mortality was administered to cow-calf producers by distributing paper surveys and by circulating an online link through various media. A total of 267 producers completed the survey. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and multivariable linear regression models. Average herd-level treatment risk for pre-weaning calf diarrhea (PCD) and bovine respiratory disease (BRD) were 4.9% and 3.0%, respectively. Average herd-level mortality within the first 24 h of life (stillbirth), from 1 to 7 days and 7 days to weaning were 2.3%, 1.1%, and 1.4%, respectively. Operations that never intervened at parturition had 4.7% higher PCD than those that occasionally did. On operations using small elastrator bands for castration, PCD was 1.9% higher than those using other methods. For every increase of 100 cows in herd size, BRD decreased by 1.1%. The association between BRD and PCD varied by when calving season began. Operations that used off-farm, frozen colostrum had a 1.1% increase in stillbirths. Operations that verified a calf had suckled had 0.7% lower mortality from 1 to 7 days of age. Those that intervened when colostrum was abnormal or that used small elastrator bands for castration had 1.9% and 1.4% higher mortality during the 1st week of life, respectively, compared with other operations. Mortality from 7 days to weaning was lower by 0.7% when calving season started in April compared with January or February and was higher by 1.0% for each additional week of calving season. Operations that intervened with colostrum consumption for assisted calvings had lower mortality from 7 days to weaning by 0.8% compared with those that did not. For every 1.0% increase in BRD, mortality from 7 days to weaning increased by 1

  7. Body condition score at parturition and postpartum supplemental fat effects on cow and calf performance.

    PubMed

    Lake, S L; Scholljegerdes, E J; Atkinson, R L; Nayigihugu, V; Paisley, S I; Rule, D C; Moss, G E; Robinson, T J; Hess, B W

    2005-12-01

    Three-year-old Angus x Gelbvieh beef cows nutritionally managed to achieve a BCS of 4 +/- 0.07 (479.3 +/- 36.3 kg of BW) or 6 +/- 0.07 (579.6 +/- 53.1 kg of BW) at parturition were used in a 2-yr experiment (n = 36/yr) to determine the effects of prepartum energy balance and postpartum lipid supplementation on cow and calf performance. Beginning 3 d postpartum, cows within each BCS were assigned randomly to be fed hay and a low-fat control supplement or supplements with either high-linoleate cracked safflower seeds or high-oleate cracked safflower seeds until d 60 of lactation. Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric, and safflower seed supplements were provided to achieve 5% of DMI as fat. Ultrasonic 12th rib fat and LM area were lower (P < 0.001) for cows in BCS 4 compared with BCS 6 cows throughout the study. Cows in BCS 4 at parturition maintained (P = 0.02) condition over the course of the study, whereas cows in BCS 6 lost condition. No differences (P = 0.44 to 0.71) were detected for milk yield, milk energy, milk fat percentage, or milk lactose percentage because of BCS; however, milk protein percentage was less (P = 0.03) for BCS 4 cows. First-service conception rates did not differ (P = 0.22) because of BCS at parturition, but overall pregnancy rate was greater (P = 0.02) in BCS 6 cows. No differences (P = 0.48 to 0.83) were detected in calf birth weight or ADG because of BCS at parturition. Dietary lipid supplementation did not influence (P = 0.23 to 0.96) cow BW change, BCS change, 12th rib fat, LM area, milk yield, milk energy, milk fat percentage, milk lactose percentage, first service conception, overall pregnancy rates, or calf performance. Although cows in BCS of 4 at parturition seemed capable of maintaining BCS during lactation, the overall decrease in pregnancy rate indicates cows should be managed to achieve a BCS >4 before parturition to improve reproductive success.

  8. Groundwater phosphorus in forage-based landscape with cow-calf operation.

    PubMed

    Sigua, Gilbert C; Chase, Chad C

    2014-02-01

    Forage-based cow-calf operations may have detrimental impacts on the chemical status of groundwater and streams and consequently on the ecological and environmental status of surrounding ecosystems. Assessing and controlling phosphorus (P) inputs are, thus, considered the key to reducing eutrophication and managing ecological integrity. In this paper, we monitored and evaluated P concentrations of groundwater (GW) compared to the concentration of surface water (SW) P in forage-based landscape with managed cow-calf operations for 3 years (2007-2009). Groundwater samples were collected from three landscape locations along the slope gradient (GW1 10-30% slope, GW2 5-10% slope, and GW3 0-5% slope). Surface water samples were collected from the seepage area (SW 0% slope) located at the bottom of the landscape. Of the total P collected (averaged across year) in the landscape, 62.64% was observed from the seepage area or SW compared with 37.36% from GW (GW1 = 8.01%; GW2 = 10.92%; GW3 = 18.43%). Phosphorus in GW ranged from 0.02 to 0.20 mg L(-1) while P concentration in SW ranged from 0.25 to 0.71 mg L(-1). The 3-year average of P in GW of 0.09 mg L(-1) was lower than the recommended goal or the Florida's numeric nutrients standards (NNS) of 0.12 mg P L(-1). The 3-year average of P concentration in SW of 0.45 mg L(-1) was about fourfold higher than the Florida's NNS value. Results suggest that cow-calf operation in pasture-based landscape would contribute more P to SW than in the GW. The risk of GW contamination by P from animal agriculture production system is limited, while the solid forms of P subject to loss via soil erosion could be the major water quality risk from P.

  9. beta-Galactoside-binding muscle lectins of man and monkey show antigenic cross-reactions with those of bovine origin.

    PubMed Central

    Childs, R A; Feizi, T

    1979-01-01

    Endogenous beta-galactoside-binding lectins were isolated from human heart and from human and rhesus-monkey skeletal muscles. Gel precipitation and radioimmunoassays with rabbit antisera to calf heart lectin revealed antigenic cross-reactions between the primate and bovine muscle lectins. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:120198

  10. Linguine sign in musculoskeletal imaging: calf silicone implant rupture.

    PubMed

    Duryea, Dennis; Petscavage-Thomas, Jonelle; Frauenhoffer, Elizabeth E; Walker, Eric A

    2015-08-01

    Imaging findings of breast silicone implant rupture are well described in the literature. On MRI, the linguine sign indicates intracapsular rupture, while the presence of silicone particles outside the fibrous capsule indicates extracapsular rupture. The linguine sign is described as the thin, wavy hypodense wall of the implant within the hyperintense silicone on T2-weighted images indicative of rupture of the implant within the naturally formed fibrous capsule. Hyperintense T2 signal outside of the fibrous capsule is indicative of an extracapsular rupture with silicone granuloma formation. We present a rare case of a patient with a silicone calf implant rupture and discuss the MRI findings associated with this condition.

  11. Acidification of calf bedding reduces fly development and bacterial abundance.

    PubMed

    Calvo, M S; Gerry, A C; McGarvey, J A; Armitage, T L; Mitloehner, F M

    2010-03-01

    Environmental stressors, such as high fly density, can affect calf well-being. Sodium bisulfate (SBS) is an acidifier that reduces the pH of flooring and bedding, creating a medium that neither bacteria nor immature flies (also known as larvae or maggots) can thrive in. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the application of SBS to a mixture of rice hull calf bedding and calf slurry (BED) to reduce house fly (Musca domestica L.) larval density and the abundance of bacteria. In experiment 1, dish pans containing 1L of BED and 3,000 house fly eggs were treated with SBS at concentrations of 0, 8.9, 17.7, and 26.5g of SBS/0.05m(2) of BED (CON, LOW, MED, and HIGH, respectively), with each SBS concentration applied to 4 individual pans (16 pans total). Reapplication of the same SBS concentrations in each pan occurred 3 times/wk throughout the 23-d trial. Larval house fly survival was significantly reduced in all pans with SBS relative to CON pans, with lowest survival rates in the MED and HIGH pans (99% and 100% reduction, respectively). The mean pH for each treatment was inversely related to the SBS concentration. In experiment 2, pans containing 1L of BED and 3,000 house fly eggs were treated with either 0g of SBS (CON), 8.9g of SBS/0.05m(2) of BED with reapplication of the acidifier 3 times/wk (SB3x), or 8.9g of SBS/0.05m(2) of BED applied only once at 48h before the end of the 8 d-trial (SB48). Larval house fly survival and bacterial concentrations were reduced (90% larval reduction and 68% bacterial reduction) in the SB3x treatment relative to the CON. Mean pH was also reduced in SB3x pans relative to CON or SB48 pans. Overall, acidification of calf BED using the acidifier SBS resulted in a reduction of bacteria and house fly larval survival. This form of fly control might be expected to reduce adult fly production and, therefore, fly-related stress in calves.

  12. Interaction of vasicine with calf thymus DNA: Molecular docking, spectroscopic and differential scanning calorimetric insights.

    PubMed

    R S, Sai Murali; R S, Sai Siddhardha; D, Rajesh Babu; S, Venketesh; R, Basavaraju; G, Nageswara Rao

    2017-06-05

    The present study brings out the interaction between vasicine, an alkaloid and Adhatoda vasica Nees with double stranded DNA. The physico-chemical interaction between small molecules and nucleic acids is a major area of focus in screening drugs against various cancers. Molecular probing in our study using Molecular Operating Environment (MOE) has revealed interaction of vasicine with DNA double helix. Here we report the interaction of vasicine with Calf thymus DNA. We present for the first time the results obtained from UV-visible, fluorescence spectroscopic and differential scanning calorimetric techniques that suggest a moderate to strong electrostatic, hydrophobic and van der Waals interactions mediating the DNA binding properties of vasicine, leading to disruption of DNA secondary structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Interaction of vasicine with calf thymus DNA: Molecular docking, spectroscopic and differential scanning calorimetric insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    R. S., Sai Murali; R. S., Sai Siddhardha; Rajesh Babu, D.; Venketesh, S.; Basavaraju, R.; Nageswara Rao, G.

    2017-06-01

    The present study brings out the interaction between vasicine, an alkaloid and Adhatoda vasica Nees with double stranded DNA. The physico-chemical interaction between small molecules and nucleic acids is a major area of focus in screening drugs against various cancers. Molecular probing in our study using Molecular Operating Environment (MOE) has revealed interaction of vasicine with DNA double helix. Here we report the interaction of vasicine with Calf thymus DNA. We present for the first time the results obtained from UV-visible, fluorescence spectroscopic and differential scanning calorimetric techniques that suggest a moderate to strong electrostatic, hydrophobic and van der Waals interactions mediating the DNA binding properties of vasicine, leading to disruption of DNA secondary structure.

  14. Ultrasonic prediction of carcass merit in beef cattle: evaluation of technician effects on ultrasonic estimates of carcass fat thickness and longissimus muscle area.

    PubMed

    Perkins, T L; Green, R D; Hamlin, K E; Shepard, H H; Miller, M F

    1992-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine technician effects of live animal ultrasonic estimates of fat thickness (FTU) and longissimus muscle area (LMAU). Steers (n = 36) representing four breed-types (Brown Swiss, Average Zebu-cross Mexican, Corriente Mexican, and typical British crossbred) of commercial slaughter cattle were isonified to estimate accuracy and repeatability of fat thickness (FT) and longissimus muscle area (LMA) measurements by two experienced technicians. Repeated measures of FTU and LMAU were taken by technicians on two consecutive days with an Aloka 500V ultrasound unit equipped with a 3.5-MHz, 172-mm scanning width, linear-array transducer. Ultrasonic estimates of fat thickness and LMAU were taken at the 12th and 13th rib interface 48 h before slaughter; carcass fat thickness (FTC) and longissimus muscle area (LMAC) were measured 48 h postmortem. Means for FTU, FTC, LMAU, and LMAC were .91 +/- .36 cm, .82 +/- .40 cm, 70.7 +/- 9.43 cm2, and 72.4 +/- 8.9 cm2, respectively. Ultrasound and carcass measures of FT and LMA were different (P less than .01) among breed-types but were not different (P greater than .10) between technicians or for technician x breed-type interactions. Pooled simple correlation coefficients (P less than .01) were .87 and .86 between FTU and FTC and .76 and .82 between LMAU and LMAC for Technicians 1 and 2, respectively. Repeatabilities estimated by intraclass correlation methods were .91 +/- .03 and .81 +/- .06 for images repeated over 2 d and .95 +/- .02 and .83 +/- .05 for images repeated by two technicians for FT and LMA, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Skeletal muscle mass to visceral fat area ratio is an important determinant affecting hepatic conditions of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Shida, Takashi; Akiyama, Kentaro; Oh, Sechang; Sawai, Akemi; Isobe, Tomonori; Okamoto, Yoshikazu; Ishige, Kazunori; Mizokami, Yuji; Yamagata, Kenji; Onizawa, Kojiro; Tanaka, Hironori; Iijima, Hiroko; Shoda, Junichi

    2018-04-01

    Not only obesity but also sarcopenia is associated with NAFLD. The influence of altered body composition on the pathophysiology of NAFLD has not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study is to determine whether skeletal muscle mass to visceral fat area ratio (SV ratio) affects NAFLD pathophysiology. A total of 472 subjects were enrolled. The association between SV ratio and NAFLD pathophysiological factors was assessed in a cross-sectional nature by stratification analysis. When the SV ratio was stratified by quartiles (Q 1 -Q 4 ), the SV ratio showed a negative relationship with the degree of body mass index, HOMA-IR, and liver stiffness (Q 1 , 8.9 ± 7.5 kPa, mean ± standard deviation; Q 2 , 7.5 ± 6.2; Q 3 , 5.8 ± 3.7; Q 4 , 5.0 ± 1.9) and steatosis (Q 1 , 282 ± 57 dB/m; Q 2 , 278 ± 58; Q 3 , 253 ± 57; Q 4 , 200 ± 42) measured by transient elastography. Levels of leptin and biochemical markers of liver cell damage, liver fibrosis, inflammation and oxidative stress, and hepatocyte apoptosis were significantly higher in subjects in Q 1 than in those in Q 2 , Q 3 , or Q 4 . Moreover, fat contents in femoral muscles were significantly higher in subjects in Q 1 and the change was associated with weakened muscle strength. In logistic regression analysis, NAFLD subjects with the decreased SV ratio were likely to have an increased risk of moderate-to-severe steatosis and that of advanced fibrosis. Decreased muscle mass coupled with increased visceral fat mass is closely associated with an increased risk for exacerbating NAFLD pathophysiology.

  16. Side Differences of Thigh Muscle Cross-Sectional Areas and Maximal Isometric Muscle Force in Bilateral Knees with the Same Radiographic Disease Stage, but Unilateral Frequent Pain – Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Sattler, Martina; Dannhauer, Torben; Hudelmaier, Martin; Wirth, Wolfgang; Sänger, Alexandra M.; Kwoh, C. Kent; Hunter, David J.; Eckstein, Felix

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether anatomical thigh muscle cross-sectional areas (MCSAs) and strength differ between osteoarthritis (OA) knees with frequent pain compared with contralateral knees without pain, and to examine the correlation between MCSAs and strength in painful versus painless knees. Methods 48 subjects (31 women; 17 men; age 45–78 years) were drawn from 4796 Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) participants, in whom both knees displayed the same radiographic stage (KLG2 or 3), one with frequent pain (most days of the month within the past 12 months) and the contralateral one without pain. Axial MR images were used to determine MCSAs of extensors, flexors and adductors at 35% femoral length (distal to proximal) and in two adjacent 5 mm images. Maximal isometric extensor and flexor forces were used as provided from the OAI data base. Results Painful knees showed 5.2% lower extensor MCSAs (p=0.00003; paired t-test), and 7.8% lower maximal extensor muscle forces (p=0.003) than contra-lateral painless knees. There were no significant differences in flexor forces, or flexor and adductor MCSAs (p>0.39). Correlations between force and MCSAs were similar in painful and painless OA knees (0.44muscles) compared with contra-lateral knees without knee pain with the same radiographic stage. Frequent pain does not appear to affect the correlations between MCSAs and strength in OA knees. The findings suggest that quadriceps strengthening exercise may be useful in treating symptomatic knee OA. PMID:22395037

  17. Reasons and risk factors for beef calf and youngstock on-farm mortality in extensive cow-calf herds.

    PubMed

    Mõtus, K; Viltrop, A; Emanuelson, U

    2017-12-26

    Raising calves and youngstock is an essential part of beef production. High on-farm mortality (unassisted death and euthanasia) is a consequence of poor animal health and welfare, and is economically unfavourable. The present study aimed to identify the reasons and risk factors for beef calf and youngstock on-farm mortality, using registry data for the years 2013 to 2015. Cox regression models were applied for the data of four age groups: calves up to 30 days (n=21 075), calves 1 to 5 months (n=21 116), youngstock 6 to 19 months (n=22 637) and youngstock ⩾20 months of age (n=9582). We found that dystocia, small birth weight and older parity of the mother increased the mortality hazard in calves up to 30 days of age. A summer birth was a common protective factor against mortality for calves up to 30 days and calves 1 to 5 months of age, compared with birth in other seasons. Among calves 1 to 5 months old, being the offspring of a first-parity cow was associated with significantly higher risk of death compared with calves who were the offspring of third- or higher-parity cows. A high herd-level stillbirth rate was associated with higher mortality hazard. The most commonly reported reasons for calf mortality were digestive disorders and respiratory disease. According to the models of youngstock from 6 months of age, male sex was a risk factor for mortality. Cattle having more than 10% dairy breed experienced a higher mortality risk in the ⩾20 months age group. No significant differences were found across regions, herd size or different breeds in any of the calf or youngstock groups. Metabolic and digestive disorders, as well as traumas and accidents, were the most common causes of mortality in beef youngstock older than 6 months. We can conclude that in young calves, animal-level factors associated with calving had a high impact on mortality. Further, timing calving for the warmer spring months would benefit calf survivability. Further studies including

  18. Liquid egg as an alternative protein source in calf milk replacers.

    PubMed

    Touchette, K J; O'Brien, M L; Coalson, J A

    2003-08-01

    The use of alternative proteins in milk replacer has been evaluated for their ability to decrease the cost of milk replacers without negatively impacting performance of the calf. Three studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of calves fed milk replacer utilizing liquid egg as an alternative protein and to determine the optimal concentration of liquid egg to include in milk replacers. Calves in trials 1 and 2 were assigned to a control diet of all milk protein replacer (MILK) or a diet formulated to contain 5% of the diet (13.5% of the protein) from liquid egg (5% EGG). Calves in trial 3 were assigned to one of four diets: the control (MILK) and 5% EGG diets fed in trials 1 and 2, or diets formulated to contain either 10 or 15% of the diet (27 or 40.5% of the protein) from liquid egg (10% EGG, 15% EGG). For all experiments, milk replacers were formulated to contain 20% protein, 20% fat and were fed at 454 g/d reconstituted to 12% DM. Production of the diets containing egg protein utilized breaker eggs that were pasteurized during manufacturing. Holstein bull calves (n = 44 for experiment 1, n = 38 for experiment 2, and n = 120 for experiment 3), were purchased from an area sale barn. Calves were housed in individual hutches with water available free choice starting on d 0. A commercially available calf starter was offered free choice beginning on d 7 for experiments 1 and 2 and on d 1 for experiment 3. Feed intake, scour scores, and antibiotic treatments were recorded daily. For experiment 1, calves fed 5% EGG had greater weight gains than calves fed MILK. No differences in average daily feed intake were observed. For experiment 2, weight gains tended to be lower with 5% EGG, whereas feed intakes and gain to feed ratios were similar between calves fed MILK or 5% EGG. For experiment 3, as the amount of egg in the diet increased, weight gain decreased in a linear fashion during the milk replacer feeding period, but the decrease in gain was significant only

  19. Diagnosis of viral agents associated with neonatal calf diarrhea.

    PubMed Central

    Marsolais, G; Assaf, R; Montpetit, C; Marois, P

    1978-01-01

    During this study, 134 samples have been examined for the detection of the viruses associated with neonatal calf diarrhea. The presence of Nebraska viruses (rotavirus and coronavirus) has been demonstrated by using the electron microscope and the fluorescent antibody techniques while the presence of other viruses has been detected by the observation of a cytopathic effect on monolayer cells of calf testis. The Nebraska viruses have been demonstrated in 107 (80%) out of 134 field case specimens. An association of rotaviruses and coronaviruses was found in 58 cases (54%) whilst the coronaviruses and the rotavirus were found singly in 34 cases (53%) and in 15 cases (14%) respectively. Four bovine virus diarrhea viruses, two infectious bovine rhinotracheitis viruses and two enteroviruses have also been isolated in the preceding 107 Nebraska positive specimens. For the detection of the Nebraska viruses, the fluorescent antibody techniques were more sensitive than the electron microscopy. However, those two techniques must be used simultaneously for a better detection of a greatest possible number of cases. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:208735

  20. Genetic analysis of calf health in Charolais beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Vinet, A; Leclerc, H; Marquis, F; Phocas, F

    2018-04-14

    The objective of this study was to investigate the factors that influence calf health and survival in Charolais cattle. Data from 2,740 calves, originating from 16 French farms and observed from birth until 30 d of age, were analyzed using models that took account of direct genetic, maternal genetic, and common environmental effects. Both direct and maternal genetic parameters were estimated for birth weight (BW), calving ease (CE), neonatal vitality (NV), survival at 30 d (Surv), and umbilical infection and diarrhea at different ages (0 to 5 d: Umb1 and Diar1; 6 to 20 d: Umb2 and Diar2; and 21 to 30 d: Umb3 and Diar3). The heritability values for direct and maternal genetic effects were, 0.026 (SE = 0.027) and 0.096 (SE = 0.042) for Surv, 0.280 (SE = 0.063) and 0.063 (SE = 0.038) for BW, 0.129 (SE = 0.041) and 0 for CE, 0.073 (SE = 0.035) and 0 for NV, 0.071 (SE = 0.038) and 0.017 (SE = 0.026) for Umb1, 0 and 0.082 (SE = 0.029) for Umb2, 0 and 0.044 (SE = 0.030) for Diar1, 0.016 (SE = 0.022) and 0.012 (SE = 0.026) for Diar2, and 0.016 (SE = 0.028) and 0 for Diar3, respectively. Significant genetic variability in beef cattle was thus revealed for five calf health traits: NV, Surv, Diar1, Umb1, and Umb2. In addition, for three traits (Surv, Diar1, and Umb2), maternal genetic effects clearly contributed more to health performance than direct genetic effects. Estimates of genetic correlation between traits varied markedly (from 0 to 1 in absolute values) depending on the traits in question, the age for a given trait, and the type (direct or maternal) of the genetic effects considered. These results suggest that not all health traits in Charolais cattle can be improved simultaneously, and breeders will therefore have to prioritize certain traits of interest in their breeding objectives. Overall, our results demonstrate the potential utility of collecting and integrating data on calf diseases, NV and survival in future beef cattle breeding programs. To ensure

  1. Effect of Calf Gender on Milk Yield and Fatty Acid Content in Holstein Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Amy V; Ehrlich, James L; Grove-White, Dai H

    2017-01-01

    The scale of sexed semen use to avoid the birth of unwanted bull calves in the UK dairy industry depends on several economic factors. It has been suggested in other studies that calf gender may affect milk yield in Holsteins- something that would affect the economics of sexed semen use. The present study used a large milk recording data set to evaluate the effect of calf gender (both calf born and calf in utero) on both milk yield and saturated fat content. Linear regression was used to model data for first lactation and second lactation separately. Results showed that giving birth to a heifer calf conferred a 1% milk yield advantage in first lactation heifers, whilst giving birth to a bull calf conferred a 0.5% advantage in second lactation. Heifer calves were also associated with a 0.66kg reduction in saturated fatty acid content of milk in first lactation, but there was no significant difference between the genders in second lactation. No relationship was found between calf gender and milk mono- or polyunsaturated fatty acid content. The observed effects of calf gender on both yield and saturated fatty acid content was considered minor when compared to nutritional and genetic influences.

  2. From the Lab Bench: The fescue belt is cow-calf country

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A column was written to discuss the importance of cow-calf production to the fescue belt, which overlays what is commonly called the transition zone between the subtropical southeast and the temperate northeast (see figure). Undeniably, the “Fescue Belt” is cow-calf country. The Fescue Belt is goo...

  3. Effect of Calf Gender on Milk Yield and Fatty Acid Content in Holstein Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, James L.; Grove-White, Dai H.

    2017-01-01

    The scale of sexed semen use to avoid the birth of unwanted bull calves in the UK dairy industry depends on several economic factors. It has been suggested in other studies that calf gender may affect milk yield in Holsteins- something that would affect the economics of sexed semen use. The present study used a large milk recording data set to evaluate the effect of calf gender (both calf born and calf in utero) on both milk yield and saturated fat content. Linear regression was used to model data for first lactation and second lactation separately. Results showed that giving birth to a heifer calf conferred a 1% milk yield advantage in first lactation heifers, whilst giving birth to a bull calf conferred a 0.5% advantage in second lactation. Heifer calves were also associated with a 0.66kg reduction in saturated fatty acid content of milk in first lactation, but there was no significant difference between the genders in second lactation. No relationship was found between calf gender and milk mono- or polyunsaturated fatty acid content. The observed effects of calf gender on both yield and saturated fatty acid content was considered minor when compared to nutritional and genetic influences. PMID:28068399

  4. Examining dolphin hydrodynamics provides clues to calf-loss during tuna fishing

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Pete

    2004-01-01

    A combination of mathematical modeling and direct observation of the swimming behavior of dolphin mother-calf pairs has shown how the calf can gain much of the energy required for swimming if it is positioned correctly relative to the mother, a situation that may be disrupted during the chases that result from tuna-fishing practices. PMID:15132739

  5. Calf health from birth to weaning. I. General aspects of disease prevention

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Calfhood diseases have a major impact on the economic viability of cattle operations. This is the first in a three part review series on calf health from birth to weaning, focusing on preventive measures. The review considers both pre- and periparturient management factors influencing calf health, colostrum management in beef and dairy calves and further nutrition and weaning in dairy calves. PMID:21923898

  6. Implementing a novel movement-based approach to inferring parturition and neonate caribou calf survival.

    PubMed

    Bonar, Maegwin; Ellington, E Hance; Lewis, Keith P; Vander Wal, Eric

    2018-01-01

    In ungulates, parturition is correlated with a reduction in movement rate. With advances in movement-based technologies comes an opportunity to develop new techniques to assess reproduction in wild ungulates that are less invasive and reduce biases. DeMars et al. (2013, Ecology and Evolution 3:4149-4160) proposed two promising new methods (individual- and population-based; the DeMars model) that use GPS inter-fix step length of adult female caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) to infer parturition and neonate survival. Our objective was to apply the DeMars model to caribou populations that may violate model assumptions for retrospective analysis of parturition and calf survival. We extended the use of the DeMars model after assigning parturition and calf mortality status by examining herd-wide distributions of parturition date, calf mortality date, and survival. We used the DeMars model to estimate parturition and calf mortality events and compared them with the known parturition and calf mortality events from collared adult females (n = 19). We also used the DeMars model to estimate parturition and calf mortality events for collared female caribou with unknown parturition and calf mortality events (n = 43) and instead derived herd-wide estimates of calf survival as well as distributions of parturition and calf mortality dates and compared them to herd-wide estimates generated from calves fitted with VHF collars (n = 134). For our data, the individual-based method was effective at predicting calf mortality, but was not effective at predicting parturition. The population-based method was more effective at predicting parturition but was not effective at predicting calf mortality. At the herd-level, the predicted distributions of parturition date from both methods differed from each other and from the distribution derived from the parturition dates of VHF-collared calves (log-ranked test: χ2 = 40.5, df = 2, p < 0.01). The predicted distributions of calf mortality

  7. Implementing a novel movement-based approach to inferring parturition and neonate caribou calf survival

    PubMed Central

    Ellington, E. Hance; Lewis, Keith P.; Vander Wal, Eric

    2018-01-01

    In ungulates, parturition is correlated with a reduction in movement rate. With advances in movement-based technologies comes an opportunity to develop new techniques to assess reproduction in wild ungulates that are less invasive and reduce biases. DeMars et al. (2013, Ecology and Evolution 3:4149–4160) proposed two promising new methods (individual- and population-based; the DeMars model) that use GPS inter-fix step length of adult female caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) to infer parturition and neonate survival. Our objective was to apply the DeMars model to caribou populations that may violate model assumptions for retrospective analysis of parturition and calf survival. We extended the use of the DeMars model after assigning parturition and calf mortality status by examining herd-wide distributions of parturition date, calf mortality date, and survival. We used the DeMars model to estimate parturition and calf mortality events and compared them with the known parturition and calf mortality events from collared adult females (n = 19). We also used the DeMars model to estimate parturition and calf mortality events for collared female caribou with unknown parturition and calf mortality events (n = 43) and instead derived herd-wide estimates of calf survival as well as distributions of parturition and calf mortality dates and compared them to herd-wide estimates generated from calves fitted with VHF collars (n = 134). For our data, the individual-based method was effective at predicting calf mortality, but was not effective at predicting parturition. The population-based method was more effective at predicting parturition but was not effective at predicting calf mortality. At the herd-level, the predicted distributions of parturition date from both methods differed from each other and from the distribution derived from the parturition dates of VHF-collared calves (log-ranked test: χ2 = 40.5, df = 2, p < 0.01). The predicted distributions of calf mortality

  8. No difference in long-term trunk muscle strength, cross-sectional area, and density in patients with chronic low back pain 7 to 11 years after lumbar fusion versus cognitive intervention and exercises.

    PubMed

    Froholdt, Anne; Holm, Inger; Keller, Anne; Gunderson, Ragnhild B; Reikeraas, Olav; Brox, Jens I

    2011-08-01

    Reduced muscle strength and density observed at 1 year after lumbar fusion may deteriorate more in the long term. To compare the long-term effect of lumbar fusion and cognitive intervention and exercises on muscle strength, cross-sectional area, density, and self-rated function in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) and disc degeneration. Randomized controlled study with a follow-up examination at 8.5 years (range, 7-11 years). Patients with CLBP and disc degeneration randomized to either instrumented posterolateral fusion of one or both of the two lower lumbar levels or a 3-week cognitive intervention and exercise program were included. Isokinetic muscle strength was measured by a Cybex 6000 (Cybex-Lumex, Inc., Ronkonkoma, NY, USA). All patients had previous experience with the test procedure. The back extension (E) flexion (F) muscles were tested, and the E/F ratios were calculated. Cross-sectional area and density of the back muscles were measured at the L3-L4 segment by computed tomography. Patients rated their function by the General Function Score. Trunk muscle strength, cross-sectional area, density, and self-rated function. Fifty-five patients (90%) were included at long-term follow-up. There were no significant differences in cross-sectional area, density, muscle strength, or self-rated function between the two groups. The cognitive intervention and exercise group increased trunk muscle extension significantly (p<.05), and both groups performed significantly better on trunk muscle flexion tests (p<.01) at long-term follow-up. On average, self-rated function improved by 56%, cross-sectional area was reduced by 8.5%, and muscle density was reduced by 27%. Although this study did not assess the morphology of muscles likely damaged by surgery, trunk muscle strength and cross-sectional area above the surgical levels are not different between those who had lumbar fusion or cognitive intervention and exercises at 7- to 11-year follow-up. Copyright © 2011

  9. On-line prediction of yield grade, longissimus muscle area, preliminary yield grade, adjusted preliminary yield grade, and marbling score using the MARC beef carcass image analysis system.

    PubMed

    Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Koohmaraie, M

    2003-01-01

    The present experiment was conducted to evaluate the ability of the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center's beef carcass image analysis system to predict calculated yield grade, longissimus muscle area, preliminary yield grade, adjusted preliminary yield grade, and marbling score under commercial beef processing conditions. In two commercial beef-processing facilities, image analysis was conducted on 800 carcasses on the beef-grading chain immediately after the conventional USDA beef quality and yield grades were applied. Carcasses were blocked by plant and observed calculated yield grade. The carcasses were then separated, with 400 carcasses assigned to a calibration data set that was used to develop regression equations, and the remaining 400 carcasses assigned to a prediction data set used to validate the regression equations. Prediction equations, which included image analysis variables and hot carcass weight, accounted for 90, 88, 90, 88, and 76% of the variation in calculated yield grade, longissimus muscle area, preliminary yield grade, adjusted preliminary yield grade, and marbling score, respectively, in the prediction data set. In comparison, the official USDA yield grade as applied by online graders accounted for 73% of the variation in calculated yield grade. The technology described herein could be used by the beef industry to more accurately determine beef yield grades; however, this system does not provide an accurate enough prediction of marbling score to be used without USDA grader interaction for USDA quality grading.

  10. Calf and colostrum management practices on New Zealand dairy farms and their associations with concentrations of total protein in calf serum.

    PubMed

    Cuttance, E L; Mason, W A; Laven, R A; Denholm, K S; Yang, D

    2018-05-01

    To gather information on management practices and farmer attitudes to management of cows and calves during the immediate post-partum period on dairy farms in New Zealand, and to assess these practices for associations with concentrations of total protein (TP) in serum of calves 1-8 days-old. Between July and September 2015 blood samples were collected from calves aged between 24 hours and 7 days, from dairy farms (n=105) in nine areas in New Zealand, on three occasions throughout the calving period. Concentrations of TP were determined in all serum samples. At each visit technicians collected 1 L of the pooled colostrum that was intended for feeding to newborn calves that day. These samples were assessed for Brix, coliform and total bacterial counts. After the last sampling visit, the calf rearer or farm manager were asked to complete a questionnaire describing calf and colostrum management practices on the farm. Potential farm-level variables associated with concentrations of TP in serum of sampled calves were identified using univariable and multivariable linear mixed models. Mean concentration of TP in serum of calves across all farms was 59.8 (95% CI=59.4-60.2) g/L, and was associated with region and herd size in the final multivariable model. Concentrations of TP were lower in calves from farms in Otago (56.2 (95% CI=53.4-58.9) g/L) and Southland (56.9 (95% CI=54.1-59.7) g/L) compared to calves on farms in the Far North (62.6 (95% CI=59.8-65.3) g/L), and were lower in calves from farms with a herd size >600 (58.3 (95% CI=56.7-59.8) g/L) than ≤600 (61.3 (95% CI=60.1-62.5) g/L) cows. After accounting for fixed effects, farm accounted for only 8.4% of the unexplained variation. There was no association between any of the measures of colostrum quality and concentrations of TP in serum (p>0.2). Very few herd-level variables were associated with concentrations of TP in serum. Risk factors that have been shown to be of importance in previous studies outside New

  11. An ultrasonic methodology for muscle cross section measurement of support space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatfield, Thomas R.; Klaus, David M.; Simske, Steven J.

    2004-09-01

    The number one priority for any manned space mission is the health and safety of its crew. The study of the short and long term physiological effects on humans is paramount to ensuring crew health and mission success. One of the challenges associated in studying the physiological effects of space flight on humans, such as loss of bone and muscle mass, has been that of readily attaining the data needed to characterize the changes. The small sampling size of astronauts, together with the fact that most physiological data collection tends to be rather tedious, continues to hinder elucidation of the underlying mechanisms responsible for the observed changes that occur in space. Better characterization of the muscle loss experienced by astronauts requires that new technologies be implemented. To this end, we have begun to validate a 360° ultrasonic scanning methodology for muscle measurements and have performed empirical sampling of a limb surrogate for comparison. Ultrasonic wave propagation was simulated using 144 stations of rotated arm and calf MRI images. These simulations were intended to provide a preliminary check of the scanning methodology and data analysis before its implementation with hardware. Pulse-echo waveforms were processed for each rotation station to characterize fat, muscle, bone, and limb boundary interfaces. The percentage error between MRI reference values and calculated muscle areas, as determined from reflection points for calf and arm cross sections, was -2.179% and +2.129%, respectively. These successful simulations suggest that ultrasound pulse scanning can be used to effectively determine limb cross-sectional areas. Cross-sectional images of a limb surrogate were then used to simulate signal measurements at several rotation angles, with ultrasonic pulse-echo sampling performed experimentally at the same stations on the actual limb surrogate to corroborate the results. The objective of the surrogate sampling was to compare the signal

  12. Long-term effect of botulinum toxin (A) in the management of calf spasticity in children with diplegic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Hawamdeh, Z M; Ibrahim, A I; Al-Qudah, A A

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible long-term effects of multi-injections of botulinum toxin A (BT-A) on muscle tone and functional abilities in children with cerebral palsy. A randomized, single blind study was carried out. Sixty patients with spastic diplegia were enrolled; 40 received 3 successive doses of BT-A to the calf muscle bilaterally at intervals of 3 to 4 months; 20 received no injections and were considered the control group. Evaluation included measurement of muscle tone, passive ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, and gross motor function. The children in the study group were assessed at entry into the study, at 3 months, and at 18 months after the last injection. An identical assessment protocol was applied to the control group, with measurements taken at entry into the study, at 12 to 15 months, and then at 27 to 30 months, roughly corresponding to the time periods set for the study group. Muscle tone and passive ankle dorsiflexion range showed clinically and statistically significant improvement following BT-A injection at 3 months (P=0.000, P=0.04, respectively) and at 18 months (P=0.005, P=0.007, respectively) compared to the control group, but gross motor function showed significant improvement only at 18 months (P=0.02). Comparison between the first and second evaluations after the last injection in the study group showed a significant improvement in gross motor function and ankle dorsiflexion range (P=0.000 for both parameters); however, muscle tone was significantly increased (P=0.002). This study gives support to a possible prolonged effect of intramuscular BT-A as an adjunct to conventional physiotherapy to reduce spasticity and improve functional mobility in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

  13. NAD+ glycohydrolase, an ecto-enzyme of calf spleen cells.

    PubMed Central

    Muller, H M; Muller, C D; Schuber, F

    1983-01-01

    By using a sensitive fluorimetric assay of NAD+ glycohydrolase (EC 3.2.2.6), we showed that calf spleen cells are able to hydrolyse 1,N6-etheno-NAD+ given in the medium. The observed rates of substrate hydrolysis and product accumulation in the medium are equivalent. Moreover, the splenocytes are able to cleave the nicotinamide-ribose bond of a water-soluble polymer of NAD+, and their NAD+ glycohydrolase activity is fully inhibited by a high-molecular-weight Blue Dextran. Selective permeation of the cellular membrane digitonin revealed an intracellular pool of NAD+ glycohydrolase, which accounts for 25% of the total activity. We conclude that NAD+ glycohydrolase associated with the splenocytes has the characteristics of an ecto-enzyme. PMID:6192807

  14. Hepatic encephalomyelopathy in a calf with congenital portosystemic shunt (CPSS)

    PubMed Central

    Oevermann, Anna; Bley, Tim; Pfister, Patrizia; Miclard, Julien

    2008-01-01

    A 4-month-old female Holstein Friesian calf was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Berne, Switzerland for evaluation of ataxia, weakness, apathy and stunted growth. Clinical examination revealed generalized ataxia, propioceptive deficits, decreased menace response and sensibility. Postmortem examination did not reveal macroscopic changes of major organs. Histologically, the brain and the spinal cord lesions were characterized by polymicrocavitation, preferentially affecting the white matter fibers at the junction of grey and white matter and by the presence of Alzheimer type II cells. The liver revealed lesions consistent with a congenital portosystemic shunt, characterized by increased numbers of arteriolar profiles and hypoplasia to absence of portal veins. The pathological investigations along with the animal history and clinical signs indicated a hepatic encephalomyelopathy due to a congenital portosystemic shunt. PMID:18296896

  15. Partial Reductions in Mechanical Loading Yield Proportional Changes in Bone Density, Bone Architecture, and Muscle Mass

    PubMed Central

    Ellman, Rachel; Spatz, Jordan; Cloutier, Alison; Palme, Rupert; Christiansen, Blaine A; Bouxsein, Mary L

    2014-01-01

    Although the musculoskeletal system is known to be sensitive to changes in its mechanical environment, the relationship between functional adaptation and below-normal mechanical stimuli is not well defined. We investigated bone and muscle adaptation to a range of reduced loading using the partial weight suspension (PWS) system, in which a two-point harness is used to offload a tunable amount of body weight while maintaining quadrupedal locomotion. Skeletally mature female C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to partial weight bearing at 20%, 40%, 70%, or 100% of body weight for 21 days. A hindlimb unloaded (HLU) group was included for comparison in addition to age-matched controls in normal housing. Gait kinematics was measured across the full range of weight bearing, and some minor alterations in gait from PWS were identified. With PWS, bone and muscle changes were generally proportional to the degree of unloading. Specifically, total body and hindlimb bone mineral density, calf muscle mass, trabecular bone volume of the distal femur, and cortical area of the femur midshaft were all linearly related to the degree of unloading. Even a load reduction to 70% of normal weight bearing was associated with significant bone deterioration and muscle atrophy. Weight bearing at 20% did not lead to better bone outcomes than HLU despite less muscle atrophy and presumably greater mechanical stimulus, requiring further investigation. These data confirm that the PWS model is highly effective in applying controllable, reduced, long-term loading that produces predictable, discrete adaptive changes in muscle and bone of the hindlimb. PMID:23165526

  16. Skeletal muscle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are approximately 650-850 muscles in the human body these include skeletal (striated), smooth and cardiac muscle. The approximation is based on what some anatomists consider separate muscle or muscle systems. Muscles are classified based on their anatomy (striated vs. smooth) and if they are v...

  17. Effects of 12 hour calf withdrawal on conception rate and calf performance of Bos indicus cattle under extensive conditions.

    PubMed

    Escrivão, R J A; Webb, E C; Garcês, A P J T

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-two multiparous Brahman type cows with reproductive tract scoring (RTS) >/=4 at 45 days post-partum were randomly assigned to two groups of 26 cows each separated into an ad libitum suckling group (C) and treatment group (T). Calves in the T group were separated for 12 h during the night from 45 days post-partum to the onset of the breeding season. Body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) were recorded 45 days post-partum, at the start of the breeding season, and at pregnancy diagnosis. Calves were weighed at calving and weaning. Weaning weights were corrected to 205 days. BW and BCS at the onset of the breeding season were similar (p > 0.05) between the experimental groups. Calving to breeding intervals were 93 +/- 18 d and 99 +/- 22 d for T and C groups, respectively. Calving to conception intervals differed significantly between the groups (111 +/- 10 d for T and 133 +/- 19 d for C) and a similar result was obtained for the breeding to conception intervals (18 +/- 15 d for T and 31 +/- 19 d for C). Conception rates were 80% for the T group and 59% for the C group, which correlated better with BW than BCS at the onset of the breeding season. Weaning weights differed (p < 0.05) between C and T groups. From 45 days post-partum to the onset of the breeding season, cows in the T group experienced a positive energy balance (3%) while those in the C group had a negative energy balance (-0.1%). It was concluded that 12 h calf separation at night increases the conception rates and improves the calf weaning weights of Bos indicus beef cattle under extensive production systems in sub-tropical conditions.

  18. Measurements of humpback whale song sound levels received by a calf in association with a singer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jessica; Pack, Adam A; Au, Whitlow W L; Stimpert, Alison K

    2016-11-01

    Male humpback whales produce loud "songs" on the wintering grounds and some sing while escorting mother-calf pairs, exposing them to near-continuous sounds at close proximity. An Acousonde acoustic and movement recording tag deployed on a calf off Maui, Hawaii captured sounds produced by a singing male escort. Root-mean-square received levels ranged from 126 to 158 dB re 1 μPa. These levels represent rare direct measurements of sound to which a newly born humpback calf may be naturally exposed by a conspecific, and may provide a basis for informed decisions regarding anthropogenic sound levels projected near calves.

  19. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  20. Effects of partial replacement of corn grain with lactose in calf starters on ruminal fermentation and growth performance.

    PubMed

    Saegusa, A; Inouchi, K; Ueno, M; Inabu, Y; Koike, S; Sugino, T; Oba, M

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of partial replacement of dry ground corn with lactose in calf starters on dry matter intake, growth rate, ruminal pH, and volatile fatty acid profile. Sixty Holstein bull calves were raised on a high plane of nutrition program until 55 d of age. Calves were fed texturized calf starters containing 30.1% steam-flaked grains and lactose at 0 (control), 5, or 10% (n = 20 for each treatment) on a dry matter basis. All calves were fed treatment calf starters ad libitum from d 7 and kleingrass hay from d 35. Ruminal pH was measured continuously immediately after weaning (d 55-62) for 15 calves (n = 5 per treatment), and 3 wk after weaning (d 77 to 80) for the other 45 calves (n = 15 per treatment). Dry matter intake, growth performance, and ruminal pH variables were not affected by treatment. However, according to Spearman's correlation coefficient (r s ) analyses, lactose intake was positively correlated with dairy minimum ruminal pH (r s = 0.306) for the data collected from d 77 to 80. Similarly, hay intake was not affected by treatment, but positively correlated with daily mean (r s = 0.338) and maximum ruminal pH (r s = 0.408) and negatively correlated with duration pH <5.8 (r s = -0.329) and area pH <5.8 (r s = -0.325), indicating that the variation in hay intake among animals might have masked treatment effects on ruminal pH. Ruminal molar ratio of acetate was higher (45.2 vs. 40.6%), and that of propionate was lower in 10% lactose than control (35.3 vs. 40.2%) for ruminal fluid collected on d 80; however, molar ratio of butyrate was not affected by treatment. These results indicate that lactose inclusion in calf starters up to 10% of dry matter might not affect dry matter intake and growth performance of calves, but that greater lactose and hay intake might be associated with higher ruminal pH. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy

  1. Management practices associated with stress in cattle on western Canadian cow-calf operations: A mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Moggy, M A; Pajor, E A; Thurston, W E; Parker, S; Greter, A M; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S; Campbell, J R; Windeyer, M C

    2017-04-01

    Handling, weaning, and euthanasia are some of the most stressful practices performed on cow-calf operations. Although strategies to minimize stress exist, their use on western Canadian cow-calf operations is unknown. The objectives were to describe current stress-associated practices on western Canadian cow-calf operations, describe producer and operation demographics associated with the use of nonabrupt weaning methods, and explore producer perceptions toward these practices. A questionnaire focusing on stressful management practices was delivered to 109 cow-calf producers in western Canada. Fifteen respondents were purposively selected for individual interviews. The majority of producers reported calves less than 1 wk of age were handled by manual restraint (87%) and those older than 1 wk of age were handled using a cattle squeeze or table. Most producers performed abrupt weaning (70%). Interviewees often mentioned that cost and logistics were major factors in deciding on a weaning strategy. Pasture availability and facilities were viewed as constraints toward the adoption of a nonabrupt weaning method. Animal stress was considered, as producers expressed concern that nonabrupt weaning methods may cause increased stress because of the additional handling required. Producers conveyed that animal age was a major factor that impacted weaning stress and that improved animal performance might motivate them to adopt a nonabrupt weaning strategy. Producers also expressed reluctance to change previously successful traditional approaches. Of respondents, 13% did not euthanize cattle on farm and 8% did not confirm death. Producers interviewed reported that the decision to euthanize cattle on farm was difficult and that veterinary advice was often considered. Factors that influenced their decision to euthanize included the animal's likelihood of recovery and degree of pain and distress. Finally, producers explained that they considered whether the animal was salvageable and

  2. Muscle atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... muscle atrophy may include: Burns Long-term corticosteroid therapy Malnutrition Muscular dystrophy and other diseases of the muscle Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid arthritis Home Care An exercise program ...

  3. Rocker-soled shoes and walking distance in patients with calf claudication.

    PubMed

    Richardson, J K

    1991-07-01

    Calf claudication is the major clinical manifestation of peripheral vascular occlusive disease in a significant number of patients. Although claudication causes substantial patient disability, most patients are treated conservatively because of the risks of surgical therapy and the uncertain efficacy of drug therapy. It was hypothesized that rocker-soled shoes would decrease the work of the plantar flexors and therefore increase walking distance in patients with calf claudication. To test this hypothesis, walking distances in patients with calf claudication using rocker-soled shoes and a placebo shoe insert were compared. Rocker-soled shoes significantly increased both the total distance walked and the distance at which patients were initially bothered by symptoms by 77m (37%, p less than .0005) and 89m (91%, p = .003), respectively. It was concluded that rocker-soled shoes may reduce disability in patients with calf claudication by increasing walking distance.

  4. Association of deep venous thrombosis with calf vein diameter in acute hemorrhagic stroke.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Toshiyasu; Yasaka, Masahiro; Wakugawa, Yoshiyuki; Kitazono, Takanari; Okada, Yasushi

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the association between the development of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and calf vein diameter in patients with acute hemorrhagic stroke. We measured the maximum diameter of paralytic side posttibial veins (PTVs) and peroneal veins (PVs) in 49 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage on admission and at 2 weeks after stroke onset by ultrasonography. We also examined for the presence or absence of DVT, and then analyzed the association of DVT with the maximum vein diameter. At 2 weeks after stroke, DVTs were detected in PTVs in 7 patients and in PVs in 6 patients. The maximum calf vein diameters at 2 weeks were significantly greater in patients with DVT compared with those without DVT (PTV, P = .033; PV, P = .015). Although calf vein diameter at admission did not influence the future incidence of DVT in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage, the presence of DVT was associated with calf vein dilatation. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Quest for the binding mode of tetrabromobisphenol A with Calf thymus DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan-Qing; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Cao, Jian

    2014-10-01

    The binding interaction of tetrabromobisphenol A with Calf thymus DNA was studied by multi-spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods. The UV-vis study revealed that an obvious interaction between tetrabromobisphenol A and Calf thymus DNA happened. The π-π∗ transitions and the electron cloud of tetrabromobisphenol A might be changed by entering the groove of Calf thymus DNA. From the fluorescence spectral and thermodynamics studies, it was concluded that the hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic force played a major role in the binding of tetrabromobisphenol A to Calf thymus DNA. The molecular modeling study showed that the possible sites of tetrabromobisphenol A in the groove of DNA. Circular dichroism study also depicted that tetrabromobisphenol A bond to DNA. These above results would further advance our knowledge on the molecular mechanism of the binding interactions of brominated flame-retardants with nucleic acid.

  6. Acoustic Behavior of North Atlantic Right Whale (Eubalaena glacialis) Mother-Calf Pairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Acoustic Behavior of North Atlantic Right Whale ...LONG-TERM GOALS The long-term goal of this project is to quantify the behavior of mother-calf pairs from the North Atlantic right whale ...The primary objectives of this project are to: 1) determine the visual detectability of right whale mother-calf pairs from surface observations

  7. Acoustic Behavior of North Atlantic Right Whale (Eubalaena glacialis) Mother-Calf Pairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Acoustic Behavior of North Atlantic Right Whale ...LONG-TERM GOALS The long-term goal of this project is to quantify the behavior of mother-calf pairs from the North Atlantic right whale ...The primary objectives of this project are to: 1) determine the visual detectability of right whale mother-calf pairs from surface observations

  8. Technical note: the United States Department of Agriculture beef yield grade equation requires modification to reflect the current longissimus muscle area to hot carcass weight relationship.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, T E; Farrow, R L; Zollinger, B L; Spivey, K S

    2008-06-01

    With the adoption of visual instrument grading, the calculated yield grade can be used for payment to cattle producers selling on grid pricing systems. The USDA beef carcass grading standards include a relationship between required LM area (LMA) and HCW that is an important component of the final yield grade. As noted on a USDA yield grade LMA grid, a 272-kg (600-lb) carcass requires a 71-cm(2) (11.0-in.(2)) LMA and a 454-kg (1,000-lb) carcass requires a 102-cm(2) (15.8-in.(2)) LMA. This is a linear relationship, where required LMA = 0.171(HCW) + 24.526. If a beef carcass has a larger LMA than required, the calculated yield grade is lowered, whereas a smaller LMA than required increases the calculated yield grade. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the LMA to HCW relationship against data on 434,381 beef carcasses in the West Texas A&M University (WTAMU) Beef Carcass Research Center database. In contrast to the USDA relationship, our data indicate a quadratic relationship [WTAMU LMA = 33.585 + 0.17729(HCW) -0.0000863(HCW(2))] between LMA and HCW whereby, on average, a 272-kg carcass has a 75-cm(2) (11.6-in.(2)) LMA and a 454-kg carcass has a 96-cm(2) (14.9-in.(2)) LMA, indicating a different slope and different intercept than those in the USDA grading standards. These data indicate that the USDA calculated yield grade equation favors carcasses lighter than 363 kg (800 lb) for having above average muscling and penalizes carcasses heavier than 363 kg (800 lb) for having below average muscling. If carcass weights continue to increase, we are likely to observe greater proportions of yield grade 4 and 5 carcasses because of the measurement bias that currently exists in the USDA yield grade equation.

  9. Calf Endurance and Achilles Tendon Structure in Classical Ballet Dancers.

    PubMed

    Zellers, Jennifer A; van Ostrand, Katrina; Silbernagel, Karin Grävare

    2017-06-15

    Optimal lower leg function is critical for ballet dancers to meet their occupational requirements. Achilles tendon injury is particularly detrimental to ballet dancers. While standardized measures have been validated and incorporated into clinical practice for use in people with Achilles tendon injury, normative ranges specific to the dancer population have not been described. The purpose of this pilot study was to observe the performance of pre-professional ballet students and professional ballet dancers on a well-established test battery for lower leg functional performance as well as ultra-sonographic evaluation of the structure of their Achilles tendons. The dancers in this study had significantly shorter Achilles tendons than non-dancers (p = 0.016). Dancers demonstrated significantly higher maximum heel-rise height on the heel-rise test for calf endurance (p < 0.001) but performed significantly less work than non-dancers (p = 0.014). The results of this study support the use of the heel-rise test as a tool for screening and to guide rehabilitation.

  10. Changes in extracellular muscle volume affect heart rate and blood pressure responses to static exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, K.; Essfeld, D.; Stegemann, J.

    To investigate the effect of μg-induced peripheral extracellular fluid reductions on heart rate and blood pressure during isometric exercise, six healthy male subjects performed three calf ergometer test with different extracellular volumes of working muscles. In all tests, body positions during exercise were identical (supine with the knee joint flexed to 900). After a pre-exercise period of 25 min, during which calf volumes were manipulated, subjects had to counteract an external force of 180 N for 5 min. During the pre-exercise period three different protocols were applied. Test A: Subjects rested in the exercise position; test B: Body position was the same as in A but calf volume was increased by venous congestion (cuffs inflated to 80 mm Hg); test C: Calf volumes were decreased by a negative hydrostatic pressure (calves about 40 cm above heart level with the subjects supine). To clamp the changed calf volumes in tests B and C, cuffs were inflated to 300 mm Hg 5 min before the onset of exercise. This occlusion was maintained until termination of exercise. Compared to tests A and B, the reduced volume of test C led to significant increases in heart rate and blood pressure during exercise. Oxygen uptake did not exceed resting levels in B and C until cuffs were deflated, indicating that exclusively calf muscles contributed to the neurogenic peripheral drive. It is concluded that changes in extracellular muscle volume have to be taken into account when comparing heart rate and blood pressure during lg- and μg- exercise.

  11. The relationship between exercise-induced muscle fatigue, arterial blood flow and muscle perfusion after 56 days local muscle unloading.

    PubMed

    Weber, Tobias; Ducos, Michel; Mulder, Edwin; Beijer, Åsa; Herrera, Frankyn; Zange, Jochen; Degens, Hans; Bloch, Wilhelm; Rittweger, Jörn

    2014-05-01

    In the light of the dynamic nature of habitual plantar flexor activity, we utilized an incremental isokinetic exercise test (IIET) to assess the work-related power deficit (WoRPD) as a measure for exercise-induced muscle fatigue before and after prolonged calf muscle unloading and in relation to arterial blood flow and muscle perfusion. Eleven male subjects (31 ± 6 years) wore the HEPHAISTOS unloading orthosis unilaterally for 56 days. It allows habitual ambulation while greatly reducing plantar flexor activity and torque production. Endpoint measurements encompassed arterial blood flow, measured in the femoral artery using Doppler ultrasound, oxygenation of the soleus muscle assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy, lactate concentrations determined in capillary blood and muscle activity using soleus muscle surface electromyography. Furthermore, soleus muscle biopsies were taken to investigate morphological muscle changes. After the intervention, maximal isokinetic torque was reduced by 23·4 ± 8·2% (P<0·001) and soleus fibre size was reduced by 8·5 ± 13% (P = 0·016). However, WoRPD remained unaffected as indicated by an unchanged loss of relative plantar flexor power between pre- and postexperiments (P = 0·88). Blood flow, tissue oxygenation, lactate concentrations and EMG median frequency kinematics during the exercise test were comparable before and after the intervention, whereas the increase of RMS in response to IIET was less following the intervention (P = 0·03). In conclusion, following submaximal isokinetic muscle work exercise-induced muscle fatigue is unaffected after prolonged local muscle unloading. The observation that arterial blood flow was maintained may underlie the unchanged fatigability. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Muscle strain treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... decreases, you can use heat on the muscle. Stretching and light exercises to bring blood to the injured area can also be useful. In general, stretching and warm compresses are helpful before exercises. Cooling ...

  13. Electrical Stimulation During Gait Promotes Increase of Muscle Cross-sectional Area in Quadriplegics: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Cliquet, Alberto; Rondina, Jane Maryan; Cendes, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Increases in muscular cross-sectional area (CSA) occur in quadriplegics after training, but the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) along with training are unknown. Thus, we addressed two questions: (1) Does NMES during treadmill gait training increase the quadriceps CSA in complete quadriplegics?; and (2) Is treadmill gait training alone enough to observe an increase in CSA? Fifteen quadriplegics were divided into gait (n = 8) and control (n = 7) groups. The gait group performed training with NMES for 6 months twice a week for 20 minutes each time. After 6 months of traditional therapy, the control group received the same gait training protocol but without NMES for an additional 6 months. Axial images of the thigh were acquired at the beginning of the study, at 6 months (for both groups), and at 12 months for the control group to determine the average quadriceps CSA. After 6 months, there was an increase of CSA in the gait group (from 49.8 ± 9.4 cm2 to 57.3 ± 10.3 cm2), but not in the control group (from 43.6 ± 7.6 cm2 to 41.8 ± 8.4 cm2). After another 6 months of gait without NMES in the control group, the CSA did not change (from 41.8 ± 8.4 cm2 to 41.7 ± 7.9 cm2). The increase in quadriceps CSA after gait training in patients with chronic complete quadriplegia appears associated with NMES. PMID:18791775

  14. Calf tissue liquid stowage and muscular and deep vein distension in orthostatic tests after a 90-day head down bed rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbeille, P.A.; Kerbeci, P.; Audebert, P.; Capri, A.; Pascaud, L.

    2005-08-01

    The objectives were to assess the contribution of (1) the calf veins distension and(2) the tissue liquid stowage during standtest, to orthostatic intolerance "OI" after a head down bed rest (HDBR) of 90days. Method: The population consisted of a control group (Co-gr, n=9) and an exercise Fly wheel counter-measure group (CM-gr, n=9). Calf vein cross sectional area (CSA) and surrounding tissue liquid content (tissue image darkness) were assessed by echography during pre and post HDBR stand-tests. Results: From supine to standing (post HDBR), the Tibial and muscular vein CSA increased significantly in non tolerant subjects whereas in tolerant subjects the vein CSA did not change. Post HDBR the tissue image darkness (proportional to tissue liquid content) increased more from supine to standing in non tolerant than in tolerant subjects. No significant difference were found between Co and exercise CM groups. Conclusion: High calf vein CSA and tissue liquid content increase at post-HDBR stand-test were significantly correlated with occurrence of OI but not with CM.

  15. Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Habitat Selection in Female-Calf Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) Pairs on the Hawaiian Breeding Grounds

    PubMed Central

    Cartwright, Rachel; Gillespie, Blake; LaBonte, Kristen; Mangold, Terence; Venema, Amy; Eden, Kevin; Sullivan, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    The Au'au Channel between the islands of Maui and Lanai, Hawaii comprises critical breeding habitat for humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) of the Central North Pacific stock. However, like many regions where marine mega-fauna gather, these waters are also the focus of a flourishing local eco-tourism and whale watching industry. Our aim was to establish current trends in habitat preference in female-calf humpback whale pairs within this region, focusing specifically on the busy, eastern portions of the channel. We used an equally-spaced zigzag transect survey design, compiled our results in a GIS model to identify spatial trends and calculated Neu's Indices to quantify levels of habitat use. Our study revealed that while mysticete female-calf pairs on breeding grounds typically favor shallow, inshore waters, female-calf pairs in the Au'au Channel avoided shallow waters (<20 m) and regions within 2 km of the shoreline. Preferred regions for female-calf pairs comprised water depths between 40–60 m, regions of rugged bottom topography and regions that lay between 4 and 6 km from a small boat harbor (Lahaina Harbor) that fell within the study area. In contrast to other humpback whale breeding grounds, there was only minimal evidence of typical patterns of stratification or segregation according to group composition. A review of habitat use by maternal females across Hawaiian waters indicates that maternal habitat choice varies between localities within the Hawaiian Islands, suggesting that maternal females alter their use of habitat according to locally varying pressures. This ability to respond to varying environments may be the key that allows wildlife species to persist in regions where human activity and critical habitat overlap. PMID:22666432

  16. A frozen-thawed in vitro-matured bovine oocyte derived calf with normal growth and fertility.

    PubMed

    Otoi, T; Yamamoto, K; Koyama, N; Tachikawa, S; Suzuki, T

    1996-08-01

    The growth and fertility of a female calf obtained from a frozen-thawed bovine oocyte was assessed. The birth weight of the calf was lower than the mean birth weight of calves from in vitro fertilized embryos (IVF-controls) and calves obtained by artificial insemination (AI-controls). The growth rate of the calf up to 6 months was slower than that of the IVF-controls, but similar to that of the AI-controls. When the calf developed into a heifer (200 kg), she was inseminated with frozen semen and 280 days later delivered a male calf. The chromosoms of this cow were normal. These findings suggest that the growth and fertility of the calf derived from the frozen oocyte are normal.

  17. Diffusion tensor imaging in evaluation of human skeletal muscle injury.

    PubMed

    Zaraiskaya, Tatiana; Kumbhare, Dinesh; Noseworthy, Michael D

    2006-08-01

    To explore the capability and reliability of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) in the evaluation of human skeletal muscle injury. DTI of four patients with gastrocnemius and soleus muscles injuries was compared to eight healthy controls. Imaging was performed using a GE 3.0T short-bore scanner. A diffusion-weighted 2D spin echo echo-planar imaging (EPI) pulse sequence optimized for skeletal muscle was used. From a series of axially acquired diffusion tensor images the diffusion tensor eigenparameters (eigenvalues and eigenvectors), fractional anisotropy (FA), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were calculated and compared for injured and healthy calf muscles. Two dimensional (2D) projection maps of the principal eigenvectors were plotted to visualize the healthy and pathologic muscle fiber architectures. Clear differences in FA and ADC were observed in injured skeletal muscle, compared to healthy controls. Mean control FA was 0.23 +/- 0.02 for medial and lateral gastrocnemius (mg and lg) muscles, and 0.20 +/- 0.02 for soleus (sol) muscles. In all patients FA values were reduced compared to controls, to as low as 0.08 +/- 0.02. The ADC in controls ranged from 1.41 to 1.31 x 10(-9) m(2)/second, while in patients this was consistently higher. The 2D projection maps revealed muscle fiber disorder in injured calves, while in healthy controls the 2D projection maps show a well organized (ordered) fiber structure. DTI is a suitable method to assess human calf muscle injury.

  18. Dairy calf management-A comparison of practices and producer attitudes among conventional and organic herds.

    PubMed

    Pempek, J A; Schuenemann, G M; Holder, E; Habing, G G

    2017-10-01

    Dairy calves are at high risk for morbidity and mortality early in life. Understanding producer attitudes is important for implementation of best management practices to improve calf health. The objectives of this study were to evaluate usage frequency and producer attitudes on key calf management practices between conventional and organic dairy operations. A cross-sectional survey was mailed to conventional and organic dairy producers in Ohio and Michigan that included questions on cow-calf separation, colostrum management, and vaccination use. The overall survey response rate was 49% (727/1,488); 449 and 172 conventional and organic producer respondents, respectively, were included in the final analysis. Binary, cumulative, and multinomial logistic regression models were used to test differences within and between herd types for management practices and producer attitudes. The majority of conventional (64%, 279/439) producers reported separating the calf from the dam 30 min to 6 h after birth. More organic (34%, 56/166) than conventional (18%, 80/439) producers reported separation 6 to 12 h after birth, and organic producers were more likely to agree time before separation is beneficial. Few conventional (10%, 44/448) and organic (3%, 5/171) producers reported measuring colostrum quality. Most conventional producers (68%, 304/448) hand-fed the first feeding of colostrum, whereas the majority of organic producers (38%, 69/171) allowed calves to nurse colostrum. Last, 44% (188/430) of conventional producers reported vaccinating their calves for respiratory disease, compared with 14% (22/162) of organic producers; organic producers were more likely to perceive vaccines as ineffective and harmful to calf health. Thus, the usage frequency and perceived risks and benefits of calf management practices vary considerably between conventional and organic dairy producers. These findings provide helpful information to understand decision making at the herd level regarding

  19. Use It or Lose It: Skeletal Muscle Function and Performance Results from Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program provided a wealth of valuable information regarding the adaptations of skeletal muscle to weightlessness. Studies conducted during the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) represented ground breaking work on the effects of spaceflight on muscle form and function from applied human research to cellular adaptations. Results from detailed supplementary objective (DSO) 477 demonstrated that muscle strength losses could occur rapidly in response to short-duration spaceflight. The effects of spaceflight-induced unloading were primarily restricted to postural muscles such as those of the back as well as the knee extensors. DSO 606 provided evidence from MRI that the observed strength losses were partially accounted for by a reduction in the size of the individual muscles. Muscle biopsy studies conducted during DSO 475 were able to show muscle atrophy in individual muscle fibers from the quadriceps muscles. Reduced quadriceps muscle size and strength was also observed during the 17-d Life and Microgravity Spacelab mission aboard STS-78. Multiple maximal strength tests were conducted in flight on the calf muscles and it has been hypothesized that these high force contractions may have acted as a countermeasure. Muscle fiber mechanics were studied on calf muscle samples pre- and postflight. While some responses were crewmember specific, the general trend was that muscle fiber force production dropped and shortening velocity increased. The increased shortening velocity helped to maintain muscle fiber power. Numerous rodent studies performed during Shuttle missions suggest that many of the effects reported in Shuttle crewmembers could be due to lesions in the cellular signaling pathways that stimulate protein synthesis as well as an increase in the mechanisms that up-regulate protein breakdown. The results have important implications regarding the overall health and performance capabilities of future crewmembers that will venture beyond

  20. Vibration-related extrusion of capillary blood from the calf musculature depends upon directions of vibration of the leg and of the gravity vector.

    PubMed

    Çakar, Halil Ibrahim; Doğan, Serfiraz; Kara, Sadık; Rittweger, Jörn; Rawer, Rainer; Zange, Jochen

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of vibration of the whole lower leg on the content and the oxygenation of hemoglobin in the unloaded relaxed lateral gastrocnemius muscle. Vibration was applied orthogonal to and in parallel with leg axis to examine whether the extrusion of blood depends on an alignment of main vessel direction, axis of vibration and gravity. The blood volume in the muscles was altered by horizontal and 30° upright body posture. Fifteen male subjects were exposed to 4 sets of experiments with both vibration directions and both tilt angles applied in permutated order. The absence of voluntary muscular activity and the potential occurrence of compound action potentials by stretch reflexes were monitored using electromyography. Total hemoglobin and tissue saturation index were measured with near infrared spectroscopy. Changes of lower leg circumference were measured with strain gauge system placed around the calf. Vibration caused decrease in tHb and increase in TSI indicating extrusion of predominantly venous blood from the muscle. In 30° tilted position, muscles contained more blood at baseline and vibration ejected more blood from the muscle compared with horizontal posture (p < 0.01). At 30° tilting deeper drop in tHb and steeper increase in TSI (p < 0.01) were observed when vibration was applied in parallel with the length axis of muscle. It is concluded that the vibration extrudes more blood in 30° head up posture and the vibration applied in parallel with the length axis of the muscle is more effective than orthogonal vibration.

  1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Calf- and Yearling-Fed Beef Production Systems, With and Without the Use of Growth Promotants

    PubMed Central

    Basarab, John; Baron, Vern; López-Campos, Óscar; Aalhus, Jennifer; Haugen-Kozyra, Karen; Okine, Erasmus

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary A spring calving herd (~350 beef cows) over two production cycles was used to compare the whole-farm greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions among calf-fed vs. yearling-fed production systems, with and without growth implants. Farm GHG emissions initially included enteric CH4, manure CH4 and N2O, cropping N2O, and energy use CO2. The carbon footprint ranged from 19.9–22.5 kg CO2e per kg carcass weight. Including soil organic carbon loss from annual cropping and carbon sequestration from perennial pastures and haylands further reduced the carbon footprint by 11–16%. The carbon footprint of beef was reduced by growth promotants (4.9–5.1%) and by calf-fed beef production (6.3–7.5%). Abstract A spring calving herd consisting of about 350 beef cows, 14–16 breeding bulls, 60 replacement heifers and 112 steers were used to compare the whole-farm GHG emissions among calf-fed vs. yearling-fed production systems with and without growth implants. Carbon footprint ranged from 11.63 to 13.22 kg CO2e per kg live weight (19.87–22.52 kg CO2e per kg carcass weight). Enteric CH4 was the largest source of GHG emissions (53–54%), followed by manure N2O (20–22%), cropping N2O (11%), energy use CO2 (9–9.5%), and manure CH4 (4–6%). Beef cow accounted for 77% and 58% of the GHG emissions in the calf-fed and yearling-fed. Feeders accounted for the second highest GHG emissions (15% calf-fed; 35–36% yearling-fed). Implants reduced the carbon footprint by 4.9–5.1% compared with hormone-free. Calf-fed reduced the carbon footprint by 6.3–7.5% compared with yearling-fed. When expressed as kg CO2e per kg carcass weight per year the carbon footprint of calf-fed production was 73.9–76.1% lower than yearling-fed production, and calf-fed implanted was 85% lower than hormone-free yearling-fed. Reducing GHG emissions from beef production may be accomplished by improving the feed efficiency of the cow herd, decreasing the days on low quality feeds, and reducing the age

  2. [Calf circumference and its association with gait speed in elderly participants at Peruvian Naval Medical Center].

    PubMed

    Díaz Villegas, Gregory Mishell; Runzer Colmenares, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the association between calf circumference and gait speed in elderly patients 65 years or older at Geriatric day clinic at Peruvian Centro Médico Naval. Cross-sectional, retrospective study. We assessed 139 participants, 65 years or older at Peruvian Centro Médico Naval including calf circumference, gait speed and Short Physical Performance Battery. With bivariate analyses and logistic regression model we search for association between variables. The age mean was 79.37 years old (SD: 8.71). 59.71% were male, the 30.97% had a slow walking speed and the mean calf circumference was 33.42cm (SD: 5.61). After a bivariate analysis, we found a calf circumference mean of 30.35cm (SD: 3.74) in the slow speed group and, in normal gait group, a mean of 33.51cm (SD: 3.26) with significantly differences. We used logistic regression to analyze association with slow gait speed, founding statistically significant results adjusting model by disability and age. Low calf circumference is associated with slow speed walk in population over 65 years old. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  3. The effect of sitting and calf activity on leg fluid and snoring.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhajan; Yadollahi, Azadeh; Lyons, Owen; Alshaer, Hisham; Bradley, T Douglas

    2017-06-01

    Prolonged sitting may promote leg fluid retention that redistributes to the neck during sleep and contributes to snoring. This could be attenuated by calf activity while sitting. In 16 healthy non-obese subjects we measured leg fluid volume (LFV) below the knees using bioelectrical impedance while sitting for 4h, snoring using a portable BresoDx™ device, and Mallampati grade. Using a double cross-over study design, subjects were randomized to one of two arms and crossed-over one week later: control arm - no calf exercise while sitting; intervention arm - calf contraction against a pedal resistance while sitting. The effects of sitting±calf activity on LFV and snoring were compared. We found that LFV increased by 216±101.0ml (p<0.0001) after sitting. Calf activity while sitting attenuated LFV by 53.8ml (p<0.0001) and, in all five subjects with severe upper airway narrowing (Mallampati grade IV), reduced snoring duration (from 357±132.9 to 116.2±72.1s/h, p=0.02) suggesting reduced overnight rostral fluid shift to the neck. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Muscle twitching

    MedlinePlus

    ... Some are common and normal. Others are signs of a nervous system disorder. Causes Causes may include: Autoimmune disorders , such ... muscle Spinal muscular atrophy Weak muscles (myopathy) Symptoms of a nervous system disorder include: Loss of, or change in, sensation ...

  5. Muscle abnormalities in osteogenesis imperfecta

    PubMed Central

    Veilleux, L-N.; Trejo, P.; Rauch, F.

    2017-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is mainly characterized by bone fragility but muscle abnormalities have been reported both in OI mouse models and in children with OI. Muscle mass is decreased in OI, even when short stature is taken into account. Dynamic muscle tests aiming at maximal eccentric force production reveal functional deficits that can not be explained by low muscle mass alone. However, it appears that diaphyseal bone mass is normally adapted to muscle force. At present the determinants of muscle mass and function in OI have not been clearly defined. Physiotherapy interventions and bisphosphonate treatment appear to have some effect on muscle function in OI. Interventions targeting muscle mass have shown encouraging results in OI animal models and are an interesting area for further research. PMID:28574406

  6. Supplementation of organic and inorganic selenium to late gestation and early lactation beef cows effect on cow and preweaning calf performance.

    PubMed

    Muegge, C R; Brennan, K M; Schoonmaker, J P

    2016-08-01

    Angus × Simmental cows ( = 48; BW = 595 ± 17.4 kg, BCS = 5.26 ± 0.05, and age = 2.3 ± 0.07 yr), pregnant with male fetuses, were used to determine the effect of Se source during the last 80 d of gestation and first 108 d of lactation on cow and calf performance. At 203 d in gestation, cows were blocked by BW, breed composition, age, and calf sire and randomly allotted to organic Se, inorganic Se, or no Se treatments. Diets contained corn silage, corn stover, haylage, dried distillers' grains with solubles, and minerals and were formulated to contain 10.4% CP and 0.90 Mcal/kg NEg during gestation and 12.1% CP and 1.01 Mcal/kg NEg during lactation. Diets were fed daily as a total mixed ration and none, 3 mg/d Se as sodium selenite, or 3 mg/d Se as Sel-Plex were top-dressed daily. At 68 d postpartum (DPP), milk production was calculated using the weigh-suckle-weigh procedure and a milk sample was collected to determine composition. At 108 DPP, cow-calf pairs were commingled until weaning at 210 DPP. Cow BW and BCS ( ≥ 0.56) did not differ between treatments at any time point during the study. Milk production, milk fat, and total solids ( ≥ 0.38) did not differ among treatments. Milk protein tended to increase in cows fed inorganic Se compared with cows fed organic Se ( = 0.07) and milk lactose tended to be greatest in cows fed organic Se ( = 0.10). Conception to AI and overall pregnancy rates did not differ between treatments ( ≥ 0.39). Calf weights and ADG did not differ through 108 DPP ( ≥ 0.77) or for the preweaning period ( ≥ 0.33). Plasma Se concentration was adequate for all cows and did not differ among treatments for cows ( ≥ 0.37) or calves ( ≥ 0.90). Liver Se concentrations in cows fed inorganic or organic Se were greater than in control cows ( < 0.01). Longissimus muscles biopsies taken from progeny at 108 DPP also did not differ between treatments ( = 0.45). In conclusion, dietary Se source did not affect cow performance, milk production

  7. Interaction of three new tetradentates Schiff bases containing N2O2 donor atoms with calf thymus DNA.

    PubMed

    Ajloo, Davood; Shabanpanah, Sajede; Shafaatian, Bita; Ghadamgahi, Maryam; Alipour, Yasin; Lashgarbolouki, Taghi; Saboury, Ali Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Interaction of 1,3-bis(2-hydroxy-benzylidene)-urea (H2L1), 1,3-bis(2-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzylidene)-urea (H2L2) and 1,3-bis(2-hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzylidene)-urea nickel(II) (NiL2) with calf-thymus DNA were investigated by UV-vis absorption, fluorescence emission and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy as well as cyclic voltammetry, viscosity measurements, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation. Binding constants were determined using UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectra. The results indicated that studied Schiff-bases bind to DNA in the intercalative mode in which the metal derivative is more effective than non metals. Their interaction trend is further determined by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. MD results showed that Ni derivative reduces oligonucleotide intermolecular hydrogen bond and increases solvent accessible surface area more than other compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Longitudinal sensitivity to change of MRI-based muscle cross-sectional area versus isometric strength analysis in osteoarthritic knees with and without structural progression: pilot data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    PubMed

    Dannhauer, Torben; Sattler, Martina; Wirth, Wolfgang; Hunter, David J; Kwoh, C Kent; Eckstein, Felix

    2014-08-01

    Biomechanical measurement of muscle strength represents established technology in evaluating limb function. Yet, analysis of longitudinal change suffers from relatively large between-measurement variability. Here, we determine the sensitivity to change of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based measurement of thigh muscle anatomical cross sectional areas (ACSAs) versus isometric strength in limbs with and without structural progressive knee osteoarthritis (KOA), with focus on the quadriceps. Of 625 "Osteoarthritis Initiative" participants with radiographic KOA, 20 had MRI cartilage and radiographic joint space width loss in the right knee isometric muscle strength measurement and axial T1-weighted spin-echo acquisitions of the thigh. Muscle ACSAs were determined from manual segmentation at 33% femoral length (distal to proximal). In progressor knees, the reduction in quadriceps ACSA between baseline and 2-year follow-up was -2.8 ± 7.9 % (standardized response mean [SRM] = -0.35), and it was -1.8 ± 6.8% (SRM = -0.26) in matched, non-progressive KOA controls. The decline in extensor strength was more variable than that in ACSAs, both in progressors (-3.9 ± 20%; SRM = -0.20) and in non-progressive controls (-4.5 ± 28%; SRM = -0.16). MRI-based analysis of quadriceps muscles ACSAs appears to be more sensitive to longitudinal change than isometric extensor strength and is suggestive of greater loss in limbs with structurally progressive KOA than in non-progressive controls.

  9. Exercise intensity and muscle hypertrophy in blood flow-restricted limbs and non-restricted muscles: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Abe, Takashi; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Fahs, Christopher A; Rossow, Lindy M; Thiebaud, Robert S; Bemben, Michael G

    2012-07-01

    Although evidence for high-intensity resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy has accumulated over the last several decades, the basic concept of the training can be traced back to ancient Greece: Milo of Croton lifted a bull-calf daily until it was fully grown, which would be known today as progressive overload. Now, in the 21st century, different types of training are being tested and studied, such as low-intensity exercise combined with arterial as well as venous blood flow restriction (BFR) to/from the working muscles. Because BFR training requires the use of a cuff that is placed at the proximal ends of the arms and/or legs, the BFR is only applicable to limb muscles. Consequently, most previous BFR training studies have focused on the physiological adaptations of BFR limb muscles. Muscle adaptations in non-BFR muscles of the hip and trunk are lesser known. Recent studies that have reported both limb and trunk muscle adaptations following BFR exercise training suggest that low-intensity (20-30% of 1RM) resistance training combined with BFR elicits muscle hypertrophy in both BFR limb and non-BFR muscles. However, the combination of leg muscle BFR with walk training elicits muscle hypertrophy only in the BFR leg muscles. In contrast to resistance exercise with BFR, the exercise intensity may be too low during BFR walk training to cause muscle hypertrophy in the non-BFR gluteus maximus and other trunk muscles. Other mechanisms including hypoxia, local and systemic growth factors and muscle cell swelling may also potentially affect the hypertrophic response of non-BFR muscles to BFR resistance exercise. © 2012 The Authors Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2012 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  10. Modeling Muscles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwyn, Lauren; Salm, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Teaching the anatomy of the muscle system to high school students can be challenging. Students often learn about muscle anatomy by memorizing information from textbooks or by observing plastic, inflexible models. Although these mediums help students learn about muscle placement, the mediums do not facilitate understanding regarding integration of…

  11. Viable Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis isolated from calf milk replacer.

    PubMed

    Grant, Irene R; Foddai, Antonio C G; Tarrant, James C; Kunkel, Brenna; Hartmann, Faye A; McGuirk, Sheila; Hansen, Chungyi; Talaat, Adel M; Collins, Michael T

    2017-12-01

    When advising farmers on how to control Johne's disease in an infected herd, one of the main recommendations is to avoid feeding waste milk to calves and instead feed calf milk replacer (CMR). This advice is based on the assumption that CMR is free of viable Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) cells, an assumption that has not previously been challenged. We tested commercial CMR products (n = 83) obtained from dairy farms around the United States by the peptide-mediated magnetic separation (PMS)-phage assay, PMS followed by liquid culture (PMS-culture), and direct IS900 quantitative PCR (qPCR). Conventional microbiological analyses for total mesophilic bacterial counts, coliforms, Salmonella, coagulase-negative staphylococci, streptococci, nonhemolytic Corynebacterium spp., and Bacillus spp. were also performed to assess the overall microbiological quality of the CMR. Twenty-six (31.3%) of the 83 CMR samples showed evidence of the presence of MAP. Seventeen (20.5%) tested positive for viable MAP by the PMS-phage assay, with plaque counts ranging from 6 to 1,212 pfu/50 mL of reconstituted CMR (average 248.5 pfu/50 mL). Twelve (14.5%) CMR samples tested positive for viable MAP by PMS-culture; isolates from all 12 of these samples were subsequently confirmed by whole-genome sequencing to be different cattle strains of MAP. Seven (8.4%) CMR samples tested positive for MAP DNA by IS900 qPCR. Four CMR samples tested positive by both PMS-based tests and 5 CMR samples tested positive by IS900 qPCR plus one or other of the PMS-based tests, but only one CMR sample tested positive by all 3 MAP detection tests applied. All conventional microbiology results were within current standards for whole milk powders. A significant association existed between higher total bacterial counts and presence of viable MAP indicated by either of the PMS-based assays. This represents the first published report of the isolation of viable MAP from CMR. Our findings raise concerns

  12. Amino acid supplementation of calf milk replacers containing plasma protein.

    PubMed

    Morrison, S Y; Campbell, J M; Drackley, J K

    2017-06-01

    We determined the effects of calf milk replacers containing 0, 5, or 10% bovine plasma protein (PP), either without or with the supplemental amino acids (AA) Ile and Thr, on growth and health of male Holstein calves (n = 104) for 56 d. Milk replacers were formulated to contain 22% crude protein (CP), 20% fat, and 2.0% Lys. Milk replacers (12.5% solids) were fed at a rate of 1.5% of body weight (BW) on a dry matter basis during wk 1 and 1.75% of BW beginning on d 8. Starter was introduced on d 36 so that effects of PP and AA balance in milk replacers could be isolated. Intake, respiratory scores, and fecal scores were measured daily. Body weight and stature were measured weekly and blood serum samples were obtained during wk 4. Treatments had no effects on intakes of dry matter, CP, or metabolizable energy. During wk 6 and 8, BW was less as PP inclusion increased without AA supplementation compared with the other treatments. In wk 7, calves fed the higher level of PP without AA had lower BW than calves fed either the lower level of PP without supplemented AA or the higher inclusion of PP with supplemented AA. Average daily gain and gain:feed were lowest for calves fed the higher inclusion of PP without supplemented AA; heart girth in wk 7 was smallest for those calves. During the first 21 d, occurrence of scours was greater in calves fed the control milk replacer than in calves fed milk replacers containing the higher inclusion of PP either without or with supplemental AA. Occurrence of scours was also greater for the lower inclusion of PP compared with the higher inclusion of PP when AA were supplemented. Throughout the 56-d experiment, the chance of antibiotic treatment was greater for calves fed the control milk replacer than for all other treatments except the higher inclusion of PP without supplemental AA. Additionally, chance of antibiotic treatment was greater for the higher inclusion of PP without supplemental AA than for other milk replacers with PP. Calves

  13. Effects of starch content of calf starter on growth and rumen pH in Holstein calves during the weaning transition.

    PubMed

    Laarman, A H; Sugino, T; Oba, M

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of substituting high fiber byproducts for dry ground corn in calf starter on growth and rumen pH during the weaning transition. Holstein bull calves were raised on an intensified nursing program using milk replacer containing 26% CP and 18% fat. Calves were fed a texturized calf starter containing either dry ground corn at 18.8% of dry matter (DM; CRN), beet pulp replacing dry ground corn at 10.2% dietary DM (BP), or triticale dried distillers grains with solubles replacing dry ground corn and high-protein feedstuffs at 18.6% of dietary DM (DDGS) in the pellet; treatment calf starters differed only in the pellet portion. Starch concentrations of CRN, BP, and DDGS were 35.3, 33.4, and 31.4%, respectively. After a calf consumed 2.50 kg of starter for 3 consecutive days, a small ruminant rumen pH data logger was inserted orally and rumen pH was measured continuously for 4d. Calves were then killed and rumen fluid was sampled to determine volatile fatty acid profile. No difference was found in overall average daily gain or growth rates of hip height, withers height, and heart girth. During the weaning transition, rate of increase in calf starter intake was greater for calves fed DDGS compared with those fed CRN (87.7 vs. 77.5 g/d), but lower for calves fed BP compared with CRN (68.1 vs. 77.5 g/d). The area under pH 5.8 (470 vs. 295 min × pH/d) or pH 5.2 (72.7 vs. 16.4 min × pH/d) was greater for calves fed DDGS than those fed CRN. Rumen pH profile was not affected by BP treatment compared with CRN, but calves fed BP tended to have greater water intake than those fed CRN (6.6 vs. 5.8 L/d). Volatile fatty acid profile was not affected by treatment with the exception of molar proportion of butyrate, which tended to be lower for calves fed BP compared with those fed CRN (15.0 vs. 16.6%). Hay intake was positively correlated to mean rumen pH for calves used in this study (r=0.48). Decreasing dietary starch

  14. Evaluation of lamb and calf responses to Rift Valley fever MP-12 vaccination.

    PubMed

    Wilson, William C; Bawa, Bhupinder; Drolet, Barbara S; Lehiy, Chris; Faburay, Bonto; Jasperson, Dane C; Reister, Lindsey; Gaudreault, Natasha N; Carlson, Jolene; Ma, Wenjun; Morozov, Igor; McVey, D Scott; Richt, Jürgen A

    2014-08-06

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an important viral disease of animals and humans in Africa and the Middle East that is transmitted by mosquitoes. The disease is of concern to international agricultural and public health communities. The RVFV MP-12 strain has been the most safety tested attenuated vaccine strain; thus it is being considered as a potential vaccine for the US national veterinary stockpile. This study was designed to establish safety protocols for large animal research with virulent RVF viruses, establish a target host immune response baseline using RVF MP-12 strain, and independently evaluate this strain as a potential US emergency response vaccine. Ten, approximately four month-old lambs and calves were vaccinated with RVF MP-12 strain; two additional animals per species provided negative control specimens. The animals were monitored for clinical and immune response, fever, and viremia. Two animals per species were sacrificed on 2, 3, 4, 10 and 28 days post infection and full necropsies were performed for histopathological examination. No clinical or febrile responses were observed in this study. The onset and titer of the immune response is discussed. There was no significant histopathology in the lambs; however, 6 out of 10 vaccinated calves had multifocal, random areas of hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis. RVF MP12 antigen was detected in these areas of necrosis by immunohistochemistry in one calf. This study provides independent and baseline information on the RVF MP-12 attenuated vaccination in vaccine relevant age target species and indicates the importance of performing safety testing on vaccine relevant aged target animals. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Regional changes in muscle mass following 17 weeks of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, Adrian D.; Schneider, Victor S.; Evans, Harlan J.; Pientok, Colette; Rowe, Roger; Spector, Elisabeth

    1992-01-01

    This work reports on the muscle loss and recovery after 17 wk of continuous bed rest and 8 wk of reambulation in eight normal male volunteers. Muscle changes were assessed by urinary levels of 3-methylhistidine (3-MeH), nitrogen balance, dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and isokinetic muscle performance. The total body lean tissue loss during bed rest calculated from nitrogen balance was 3.9 +/- 2.1 kg. Although the total loss is minimal, DPA scans showed that nearly all of the lean tissue loss occurred in the lower limbs. Similarly, MRI muscle volume measurements showed greater percent loss in the limbs relative to the back muscles. MRI, DPA, and nitrogen balance suggest that muscle atrophy continued throughout bed rest with rapid recovery after reambulaton. Isokinetic muscle strength decreased significantly in the thigh and calf with no loss in the arms and with rapid recovery during reambulation.

  16. Three-Dimensional Muscle Architecture and Comprehensive Dynamic Properties of Rabbit Gastrocnemius, Plantaris and Soleus: Input for Simulation Studies

    PubMed Central

    Siebert, Tobias; Leichsenring, Kay; Rode, Christian; Wick, Carolin; Stutzig, Norman; Schubert, Harald; Blickhan, Reinhard; Böl, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The vastly increasing number of neuro-muscular simulation studies (with increasing numbers of muscles used per simulation) is in sharp contrast to a narrow database of necessary muscle parameters. Simulation results depend heavily on rough parameter estimates often obtained by scaling of one muscle parameter set. However, in vivo muscles differ in their individual properties and architecture. Here we provide a comprehensive dataset of dynamic (n = 6 per muscle) and geometric (three-dimensional architecture, n = 3 per muscle) muscle properties of the rabbit calf muscles gastrocnemius, plantaris, and soleus. For completeness we provide the dynamic muscle properties for further important shank muscles (flexor digitorum longus, extensor digitorum longus, and tibialis anterior; n = 1 per muscle). Maximum shortening velocity (normalized to optimal fiber length) of the gastrocnemius is about twice that of soleus, while plantaris showed an intermediate value. The force-velocity relation is similar for gastrocnemius and plantaris but is much more bent for the soleus. Although the muscles vary greatly in their three-dimensional architecture their mean pennation angle and normalized force-length relationships are almost similar. Forces of the muscles were enhanced in the isometric phase following stretching and were depressed following shortening compared to the corresponding isometric forces. While the enhancement was independent of the ramp velocity, the depression was inversely related to the ramp velocity. The lowest effect strength for soleus supports the idea that these effects adapt to muscle function. The careful acquisition of typical dynamical parameters (e.g. force-length and force-velocity relations, force elongation relations of passive components), enhancement and depression effects, and 3D muscle architecture of calf muscles provides valuable comprehensive datasets for e.g. simulations with neuro-muscular models, development of more realistic muscle models, or

  17. The impact of obesity on skeletal muscle strength and structure through adolescence to old age.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, D J; Erskine, R M; Morse, C I; Winwood, K; Onambélé-Pearson, Gladys

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is associated with functional limitations in muscle performance and increased likelihood of developing a functional disability such as mobility, strength, postural and dynamic balance limitations. The consensus is that obese individuals, regardless of age, have a greater absolute maximum muscle strength compared to non-obese persons, suggesting that increased adiposity acts as a chronic overload stimulus on the antigravity muscles (e.g., quadriceps and calf), thus increasing muscle size and strength. However, when maximum muscular strength is normalised to body mass, obese individuals appear weaker. This relative weakness may be caused by reduced mobility, neural adaptations and changes in muscle morphology. Discrepancies in the literature remain for maximal strength normalised to muscle mass (muscle quality) and can potentially be explained through accounting for the measurement protocol contributing to muscle strength capacity that need to be explored in more depth such as antagonist muscle co-activation, muscle architecture, a criterion valid measurement of muscle size and an accurate measurement of physical activity levels. Current evidence demonstrating the effect of obesity on muscle quality is limited. These factors not being recorded in some of the existing literature suggest a potential underestimation of muscle force either in terms of absolute force production or relative to muscle mass; thus the true effect of obesity upon skeletal muscle size, structure and function, including any interactions with ageing effects, remains to be elucidated.

  18. Causes and Correlates of Calf Mortality in Captive Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus)

    PubMed Central

    Mar, Khyne U.; Lahdenperä, Mirkka; Lummaa, Virpi

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile mortality is a key factor influencing population growth rate in density-independent, predation-free, well-managed captive populations. Currently at least a quarter of all Asian elephants live in captivity, but both the wild and captive populations are unsustainable with the present fertility and calf mortality rates. Despite the need for detailed data on calf mortality to manage effectively populations and to minimize the need for capture from the wild, very little is known of the causes and correlates of calf mortality in Asian elephants. Here we use the world's largest multigenerational demographic dataset on a semi-captive population of Asian elephants compiled from timber camps in Myanmar to investigate the survival of calves (n = 1020) to age five born to captive-born mothers (n = 391) between 1960 and 1999. Mortality risk varied significantly across different ages and was higher for males at any age. Maternal reproductive history was associated with large differences in both stillbirth and liveborn mortality risk: first-time mothers had a higher risk of calf loss as did mothers producing another calf soon (<3.7 years) after a previous birth, and when giving birth at older age. Stillbirth (4%) and pre-weaning mortality (25.6%) were considerably lower than those reported for zoo elephants and used in published population viability analyses. A large proportion of deaths were caused by accidents and lack of maternal milk/calf weakness which both might be partly preventable by supplementary feeding of mothers and calves and work reduction of high-risk mothers. Our results on Myanmar timber elephants with an extensive keeping system provide an important comparison to compromised survivorship reported in zoo elephants. They have implications for improving captive working elephant management systems in range countries and for refining population viability analyses with realistic parameter values in order to predict future population size of the Asian

  19. Causes and correlates of calf mortality in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Mar, Khyne U; Lahdenperä, Mirkka; Lummaa, Virpi

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile mortality is a key factor influencing population growth rate in density-independent, predation-free, well-managed captive populations. Currently at least a quarter of all Asian elephants live in captivity, but both the wild and captive populations are unsustainable with the present fertility and calf mortality rates. Despite the need for detailed data on calf mortality to manage effectively populations and to minimize the need for capture from the wild, very little is known of the causes and correlates of calf mortality in Asian elephants. Here we use the world's largest multigenerational demographic dataset on a semi-captive population of Asian elephants compiled from timber camps in Myanmar to investigate the survival of calves (n = 1020) to age five born to captive-born mothers (n = 391) between 1960 and 1999. Mortality risk varied significantly across different ages and was higher for males at any age. Maternal reproductive history was associated with large differences in both stillbirth and liveborn mortality risk: first-time mothers had a higher risk of calf loss as did mothers producing another calf soon (<3.7 years) after a previous birth, and when giving birth at older age. Stillbirth (4%) and pre-weaning mortality (25.6%) were considerably lower than those reported for zoo elephants and used in published population viability analyses. A large proportion of deaths were caused by accidents and lack of maternal milk/calf weakness which both might be partly preventable by supplementary feeding of mothers and calves and work reduction of high-risk mothers. Our results on Myanmar timber elephants with an extensive keeping system provide an important comparison to compromised survivorship reported in zoo elephants. They have implications for improving captive working elephant management systems in range countries and for refining population viability analyses with realistic parameter values in order to predict future population size of the Asian

  20. A survey of dairy calf management practices among farms using manual and automated milk feeding systems in Canada.

    PubMed

    Medrano-Galarza, Catalina; LeBlanc, Stephen J; DeVries, Trevor J; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Rushen, Jeffrey; Marie de Passillé, Anne; Haley, Derek B

    2017-08-01

    Dairy calves in North America traditionally are housed individually and fed by manual milk feeding (MMF) systems with buckets or bottles. Automated milk feeders (AMF) allow for more natural milk feeding frequencies and volumes, and calves are usually housed in groups. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the prevalence of various milk-fed calf management and feeding practices and (2) compare these practices between dairy farms using MMF and AMF systems. A national online survey was performed from January to May 2015 to quantify management practices for the care of milk-fed dairy calves in Canada. A total of 670 responses were received (6% of all dairy farms in Canada). Among respondents, 16% used AMF and 84% used MMF. Seventy percent of the farms using AMF had freestall barns compared with only 48% of those using MMF. A greater proportion of AMF farms (30%) also had automatic milking systems (AMS) compared with MMF farms (8%). Among tiestall farms, a herd size of >80 milking cows was associated with having an AMF [odds ratio (OR) = 3.8; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6-11.4]. For freestall or bedded-pack farms, a herd size of >80 milking cows (OR = 3.5; CI: 1.8-6.6), having an AMS (OR = 3.1; CI: 1.6-5.7), and use of cow brushes (OR = 3.1; CI: 1.3-6.9) were associated with having an AMF. Calves fed with AMS typically were housed in groups of 10 to 15, whereas almost 76% of the farms with MMF housed calves individually. Although both AMF and MMF farms fed similar amounts of milk in the first week of life (median = 6 L/d), the cumulative volume fed in the first 4 wk differed significantly, with a median of 231 versus 182 L for AMF and MMF, respectively. Median peak milk allowance was higher for AMF than for MMF (10 vs. 8 L/d, respectively). In summary, farms using AMF were larger, provided more milk to calves, and used more automation in general (i.e., in other areas of their operation). These data provide insights into calf-rearing practices across

  1. The Efficacy of Low-intensity Vibration to Improve Bone Health in Patients with End-stage Renal Disease Is Highly Dependent on Compliance and Muscle Response.

    PubMed

    Rajapakse, Chamith S; Leonard, Mary B; Kobe, Elizabeth A; Slinger, Michelle A; Borges, Kelly A; Billig, Erica; Rubin, Clinton T; Wehrli, Felix W

    2017-11-01

    Low intensity vibration (LIV) may represent a nondrug strategy to mitigate bone deficits in patients with end-stage renal disease. Thirty end-stage renal patients on maintenance hemodialysis were randomized to stand for 20 minutes each day on either an active or placebo LIV device. Analysis at baseline and completion of 6-month intervention included magnetic resonance imaging (tibia and fibula stiffness; trabecular thickness, number, separation, bone volume fraction, plate-to-rod ratio; and cortical bone porosity), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (hip and spine bone mineral density [BMD]), and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (tibia trabecular and cortical BMD; calf muscle cross-sectional area). Intention-to-treat analysis did not show any significant changes in outcomes associated with LIV. Subjects using the active device and with greater than the median adherence (70%) demonstrated an increase in distal tibia stiffness (5.3%), trabecular number (1.7%), BMD (2.3%), and plate-to-rod ratio (6.5%), and a decrease in trabecular separation (-1.8%). Changes in calf muscle cross-sectional area were associated with changes in distal tibia stiffness (R = 0.85), trabecular bone volume/total volume (R = 0.91), number (R = 0.92), and separation (R = -0.94) in the active group but not in the placebo group. Baseline parathyroid hormone levels were positively associated with increased cortical bone porosity over the 6-month study period in the placebo group (R = 0.55) but not in the active group (R = 0.01). No changes were observed in the nondistal tibia locations for either group except a decrease in hip BMD in the placebo group (-1.7%). Outcomes and adherence thresholds identified from this pilot study could guide future longitudinal studies involving vibration therapy. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Muscle Contraction.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, H Lee; Hammers, David W

    2018-02-01

    SUMMARYMuscle cells are designed to generate force and movement. There are three types of mammalian muscles-skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones and move them relative to each other. Cardiac muscle comprises the heart, which pumps blood through the vasculature. Skeletal and cardiac muscles are known as striated muscles, because the filaments of actin and myosin that power their contraction are organized into repeating arrays, called sarcomeres, that have a striated microscopic appearance. Smooth muscle does not contain sarcomeres but uses the contraction of filaments of actin and myosin to constrict blood vessels and move the contents of hollow organs in the body. Here, we review the principal molecular organization of the three types of muscle and their contractile regulation through signaling mechanisms and discuss their major structural and functional similarities that hint at the possible evolutionary relationships between the cell types. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  3. A comparison of intermittent pneumatic compression of the calf and whole leg in preventing deep venous thrombosis in urological surgery.

    PubMed

    Soderdahl, D W; Henderson, S R; Hansberry, K L

    1997-05-01

    Intermittent pneumatic compression of the calf and/or thigh effectively decreases the incidence of deep venous thrombosis and other thrombotic sequelae but clinical data comparing these modalities are currently lacking. A total of 90 patients undergoing major urological surgery was randomly assigned to receive calf length or thigh length pneumatic compression for antithrombotic prophylaxis. Duplex ultrasound of the lower extremities was performed preoperatively and twice postoperatively to evaluate for deep venous thrombosis. Health care providers in the operating room, recovery room and ward were asked to compare the compression systems, and a cost analysis was performed. A total of 47 patients wore the thigh length sequential pneumatic sleeves and 43 wore calf length uniform compression systems. A pulmonary embolus without evidence of deep venous thrombosis was detected in 1 patient (2%) using the thigh length system. A thrombus was detected in the common femoral vein by duplex ultrasonography in 1 patient (2%) with the calf length system. Nursing personnel found the calf length sleeves easier to apply and more comfortable by patient account but they were satisfied with both systems. There was a significant cost savings with the calf length pneumatic compression system. Calf and thigh length pneumatic compression systems similarly decrease the risk of deep venous thrombosis in patients undergoing urological surgery. The calf length system has the added advantage of being less expensive and easier to use.

  4. Delaying postpartum supplementation in cows consuming low-quality forage does not alter cow and calf productivity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reducing the amount of supplemental feed postpartum without affecting productivity may enhance profitability of cow-calf operations. Therefore, sixteen 2-yr-old fall calving cows were used to evaluate effects of delaying postpartum supplementation on milk production, serum metabolites, cow and calf ...

  5. Muscle force depends on the amount of transversal muscle loading.

    PubMed

    Siebert, Tobias; Till, Olaf; Stutzig, Norman; Günther, Michael; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2014-06-03

    Skeletal muscles are embedded in an environment of other muscles, connective tissue, and bones, which may transfer transversal forces to the muscle tissue, thereby compressing it. In a recent study we demonstrated that transversal loading of a muscle with 1.3Ncm(-2) reduces maximum isometric force (Fim) and rate of force development by approximately 5% and 25%, respectively. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of increasing transversal muscle loading on contraction dynamics. Therefore, we performed isometric experiments on rat M. gastrocnemius medialis (n=9) without and with five different transversal loads corresponding to increasing pressures of 1.3Ncm(-2) to 5.3Ncm(-2) at the contact area between muscle and load. Muscle loading was induced by a custom-made plunger which was able to move in transversal direction. Increasing transversal muscle loading resulted in an almost linear decrease in muscle force from 4.8±1.8% to 12.8±2% Fim. Compared to an unloaded isometric contraction, rate of force development decreased from 20.2±4.0% at 1.3Ncm(-2) muscle loading to 34.6±5.7% at 5.3Ncm(-2). Experimental observation of the impact of transversal muscle loading on contraction dynamics may help to better understand muscle tissue properties. Moreover, applying transversal loads to muscles opens a window to analyze three-dimensional muscle force generation. Data presented in this study may be important to develop and validate muscle models which enable simulation of muscle contractions under compression and enlighten the mechanisms behind. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Production of a Cloned Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Calf from Somatic Cells Isolated from Urine.

    PubMed

    Madheshiya, Pankaj K; Sahare, Amol A; Jyotsana, Basanti; Singh, Karn P; Saini, Monika; Raja, Anuj K; Kaith, Sakshi; Singla, Suresh K; Chauhan, Manmohan S; Manik, Radhey S; Palta, Prabhat

    2015-06-01

    This study was aimed at isolation of cells from urine and skin on the ventral part of the tails of healthy adult female buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis), an area rarely exposed to solar radiation, establishment of the cells in culture, and their use as donor cells for production of buffalo embryos by handmade cloning (HMC). The blastocyst rate and total cell number of urine- and tail skin-derived embryos were similar to those of control embryos derived from ear skin cells; however, their apoptotic index was lower (p<0.05) than that of control blastocysts. The global level of histone H3 acetylated at lysine 9 (H3K9ac) was similar in the three types of donor cells and in urine- and tail skin-derived HMC blastocysts and in vitro-fertilized (IVF) blastocysts (controls). The global level of histone H3 trimethylated at lysine 27 (H3K27me3) in the cells was in the order (p<0.05) urine≥tail skin>ear skin-derived cells, whereas in blastocysts, it was higher (p<0.05) in urine- and tail skin-derived HMC blastocysts than that in IVF blastocysts. The expression level of CASPASE3, CASPASE9, P53, DNMT1, DNMT3a, OCT4, and NANOG, which was similar in HMC blastocysts of three the groups, was lower (p<0.05) than that in IVF blastocysts, whereas that of HDAC1 was similar among the four groups. Following transfer of urine-derived embryos (n=10) to five recipients (two embryos/recipient), one of the recipients delivered a normal calf that is now 5 weeks old.

  7. Integrating scientific knowledge into large-scale restoration programs: the CALFED Bay-Delta Program experience

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Kimberly A.; Short, A.

    2009-01-01

    Integrating science into resource management activities is a goal of the CALFED Bay-Delta Program, a multi-agency effort to address water supply reliability, ecological condition, drinking water quality, and levees in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of northern California. Under CALFED, many different strategies were used to integrate science, including interaction between the research and management communities, public dialogues about scientific work, and peer review. This paper explores ways science was (and was not) integrated into CALFED's management actions and decision systems through three narratives describing different patterns of scientific integration and application in CALFED. Though a collaborative process and certain organizational conditions may be necessary for developing new understandings of the system of interest, we find that those factors are not sufficient for translating that knowledge into management actions and decision systems. We suggest that the application of knowledge may be facilitated or hindered by (1) differences in the objectives, approaches, and cultures of scientists operating in the research community and those operating in the management community and (2) other factors external to the collaborative process and organization.

  8. Management practices to reduce lupine-induced Crooked Calf Syndrome in the Northwest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many factors contribute to the incidence of lupine-induced “Crooked Calf Syndrome” (CCS) in the northwestern U.S. A 1-5% incidence of CCS is common on many ranches and higher incidences occur when environmental conditions are conducive to lupine population increases. Multiple management strategies s...

  9. Giardia duodenalis assemblages in weaned cattle on cow-calf operations in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To determine the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in weaned beef calves in cow-calf operations, fecal specimens were collected from 819 6- to18-month-old calves in 20 states. After cleaning and concentrating cysts from feces, DNA was extracted from each specimen. The presence of G. duodenalis was de...

  10. Forage and weather influence day versus nighttime cow behavior and calf weaning weights on rangeland

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We determined the effects of two forage allowance levels (LOW vs. HIGH) and weather conditions on day- and nighttime movement patterns of young rangeland-raised cows. We also investigated whether calf weaning weights (WW, n = 42) were significantly related to their dams' post-calving movement patter...

  11. Movement and spatial proximity patterns of rangeland-raised Raramuri Criollo cow-calf pairs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to compare movement patterns of nursing vs. nonnursing mature cows and to characterize cow-calf proximity patterns in two herds of Raramuri Criollo cattle. Herds grazed rangeland pastures in southern New Mexico (4355 ha) and west-central Chihuahua, Mexico (633 ha)'' A...

  12. Economic impacts of increasing seasonal precipitation variation on southeast Wyoming cow-calf enterprises

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Economic impacts of predicted increases in precipitation variability on cow-calf enterprises, through influences of precipitation on both forage and cattle productivity, are needed by land managers for risk management strategies. Here we utilize existing forage production and cattle performance data...

  13. Influence of late gestation drylot rations differing in protein degradability and fat content on beef cow and subsequent calf performance.

    PubMed

    Wilson, T B; Faulkner, D B; Shike, D W

    2015-12-01

    detected. Feedlot DMI and G:F were not different ( ≥ 0.19) across treatments. Feedlot calf health was monitored with no differences ( ≥ 0.68) in morbidity and mortality observed. No differences ( ≥ 0.27) were detected for HCW, LM area, backfat, marbling score, yield grade, or KPH. Increased dietary RUP and fat content during late gestation increased cow BW and BCS but did not alter milk production, subsequent reproduction, or subsequent calf performance or carcass characteristics.

  14. Extracellular polysaccharides purified from Aureobasidium pullulans SM-2001 (Polycan) inhibit dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyung-Rae; Park, Dong-Chan; Jung, Go-Woon

    2018-01-01

    The present study assessed the beneficial skeletal muscle-preserving effects of extracellular polysaccharides from Aureobasidium pullulans SM-2001 (Polycan) (EAP) on dexamethasone (DEXA)-induced catabolic muscle atrophy in mice. To investigate whether EAP prevented catabolic DEXA-induced muscle atrophy, and to examine its mechanisms of action, EAP (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) was administered orally, once a day for 24 days. EAP treatment was initiated 2 weeks prior to DEXA treatment (1 mg/kg, once a day for 10 days) in mice. Body weight alterations, serum biochemistry, calf thickness, calf muscle strength, gastrocnemius muscle thickness and weight, gastrocnemius muscle antioxidant defense parameters, gastrocnemius muscle mRNA expression, histology and histomorphometry were subsequently assessed. After 24 days, DEXA control mice exhibited muscle atrophy according to all criteria indices. However, these muscle atrophy symptoms were significantly inhibited by oral treatment with all three doses of EAP. Regarding possible mechanisms of action, EAP exhibited favorable ameliorating effects on DEXA-induced catabolic muscle atrophy via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects; these effects were mediated by modulation of the expression of genes involved in muscle protein synthesis (AKT serine/threonine kinase 1, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, adenosine A1 receptor and transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4) and degradation (atrogin-1, muscle RING-finger protein-1, myostatin and sirtuin 1). Therefore, these results indicated that EAP may be helpful in improving muscle atrophies of various etiologies. EAP at 400 mg/kg exhibited favorable muscle protective effects against DEXA-induced catabolic muscle atrophy, comparable with the effects of oxymetholone (50 mg/kg), which has been used to treat various muscle disorders. PMID:29138805

  15. Wooden hutch space allowance influences male Holstein calf health, performance, daily lying time, and respiratory immunity.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Lorenzo, M S; Hulbert, L E; Fowler, A L; Louie, A; Gershwin, L J; Pinkerton, K E; Ballou, M A; Klasing, K C; Mitloehner, F M

    2016-06-01

    Dairy calves in the western United States are commonly raised individually in wooden hutches with a space allowance of 1.23m(2)/calf. Recent legislative initiatives in California and across the United States were passed regarding concern over space allowance for farm animals. The objective of this study was to determine if rearing male Holstein calves in wooden hutches modified to increase space allowance would influence measures of performance, lying time per day, health, and respiratory immunocompetence. At 4d of age, 60 calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3housing treatments: (1) conventional housing (CONV; 1.23m(2)/calf), (2) 1.5 × CONV (MOD; 1.85m(2)/calf), or (3) 3 × CONV (MAX; 3.71m(2)/calf). Intakes of milk and solid feed were recorded daily and body weight was measured at 0, 3, 6, 10, and 12 wk of age. For the first 3 wk of the trial, calves were scored daily for fecal consistency, hydration, and hide cleanliness. In addition, calves were scored for respiratory health (i.e., nasal and eye discharge, ear position) until 7 wk of age. The total lying duration per day was recorded using data loggers at 3, 6, and 10 wk of age. Eight clinically healthy calves from each treatment were sensitized with subcutaneous ovalbumin (OVA) and then challenged with aerosolized OVA to assess calf respiratory immunity at 11 wk of age. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected 4d after the OVA challenge and analyzed for leukocyte differentials and OVA-specific IgG, IgG1, IgA, and IgE. Calf average daily gain and body weight were positively associated with space allowance at approximately 3 wk before weaning and throughout postweaning, respectively. A greater space allowance decreased lying time after 46d. Space allowance did not influence fecal consistency, but there was a tendency for MAX calves to take 1d longer to recover from loose feces than MOD calves. The MAX calves had the fewest (%) observations with feces on their body compared with CONV or MOD. At 3 wk of

  16. Viral and bacterial infections associated with camel (Camelus dromedarius) calf diarrhea in North Province, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ruwaili, Meshref A.; Khalil, Omer M.; Selim, Samy A.

    2011-01-01

    Diarrhea and deaths in new-born camel calves were noticed by veterinary investigators and pastoralist in Saudi Arabia to be very high. Hence, it is thought to be necessary to investigate this problem from the virological and bacteriological point of view. The role of pathogenic bacteria and viruses in six different towns of North Province (Al-Assafia, Arar, Domat Aljandal, Hail, Skaka and Khoa) in Saudi Arabia was studied. Survey was conducted in diarrheic camel calves aged 12 months or younger. In our study calf diarrhea was reported in 184 out of 2308 camels examined clinically during one year, the prevalence of diarrhea was found to be 8.0% in calves ranging from one month to one year. In the present study group A rotavirus and Brucella abortus were detected in 14.7% and 8.98%, respectively, using ELISA technique. Escherichia coli was isolated from diarrheic calf camel (58.2%) 99/170 samples during dry and wet season. Salmonella spp. and Enterococcus spp. were detected in 12% and 8.8% of the specimens, respectively. In this study enterotoxogenic E. coli (ET E. coli) was isolated from 7% of diarrheic camel, which indicates the strong correlation between the camel calf diarrhea and the detection of enterotoxogenic E. coli. This study represented the first report for the detection of group A rotavirus and B. abortus antigen and antibodies in calf camels in Saudi Arabia. It is recommended that the disease should be controlled by vaccination in calf camels. PMID:23961160

  17. Masticatory and cervical muscle tenderness and pain sensitivity in a remote area in subjects with a temporomandibular disorder and neck disability.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Anelise; Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Gadotti, Inae C; Magee, David

    2014-01-01

    To compare the masticatory and cervical muscle tenderness and pain sensitivity in the hand (remote region) between patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and healthy controls. Twenty female subjects were diagnosed with chronic TMD, and 20 were considered healthy. Subjects completed the Neck Disability Index and Limitations of Daily Functions in a TMD questionnaire. Tenderness of the masticatory and cervical muscles and pain sensitivity in the hand were measured using an algometer. Three-way mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) evaluated differences in muscle tenderness between groups. One-way ANOVA compared pain sensitivity in the hand between groups. Effect sizes were assessed using Cohen guidelines. Significantly increased masticatory and cervical muscle tenderness and pain sensitivity in the hand were found in subjects with TMD when compared with healthy subjects. Moderate to high effect sizes showed the clinical relevance of the findings. The results of this study have highlighted the importance of assessing TMD patients not only in the craniofacial region but also in the neck and other parts of the body. Future studies should focus on testing the effectiveness of treatments addressing the neck and the pain sensitivity in the hand in patients with TMD.

  18. Your Muscles

    MedlinePlus

    ... and you need to throw up. The muscles push the food back out of the stomach so it comes up ... body the power it needs to lift and push things. Muscles in your neck and the top part of your back aren't as large, but they are capable ...

  19. The Effect of Calf Gender on Milk Production in Seasonal Calving Cows and Its Impact on Genetic Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Melanie K.; Hess, Andrew S.; Garrick, Dorian J.

    2016-01-01

    Gender of the calf whose birth initiates lactation could influence whole lactation milk yield of the dam due to hormonal influences on mammary gland development, or through calf gender effects on gestation length. Fetal gender could influence late lactation yields because cows become pregnant at peak lactation. The effects of calf gender sequences in parities 1–3 were assessed by separately fitting animal models to datasets from New Zealand comprising 274 000 Holstein Friesian and 85 000 Jersey cows, decreasing to 12 000 and 4 000 cows by parity 3. The lactation initiated by the birth of a female rather than a male calf was associated with a 0.33–1.1% (p≤0.05) higher milk yield. Female calf gender had carryover effects associated with higher milk yield in second lactations for Holstein Friesians (0.24%; p = 0.01) and third lactations for Jerseys (1.1%; p = 0.01). Cows giving birth to bull calves have 2 day longer gestations, which reduces lactation length in seasonal calving herds. Adding a covariate for lactation length to the animal model eroded some of these calf gender effects, such that calving a female led to higher milk yield only for second lactation Holstein Friesians (1.6%; p = 0.002). The interval centering method generates lower estimates of whole lactation yield when Wood’s lactation curves are shifted to the right by 2 days for male calves and this explained the higher yield in female calves when differences in lactation length were considered. Correlations of estimated breeding values between models including or excluding calf gender sequence were 1.00 for bulls or cows. Calf gender primarily influences milk yield through increased gestation length of male calves, and bias associated with the interval centering method used to estimate whole lactation milk yields. Including information on calf gender is unlikely to have an effect on selection response in New Zealand dairy cattle. PMID:26974166

  20. Wearing Compression Tights on the Thigh during Prolonged Running Attenuated Exercise-Induced Increase in Muscle Damage Marker in Blood

    PubMed Central

    Mizuno, Sahiro; Arai, Mari; Todoko, Fumihiko; Yamada, Eri; Goto, Kazushige

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effects of wearing a lower-body compression garment with different body coverage areas during prolonged running on exercise performance and muscle damage. Methods: Thirty male subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (1) wearing a compression tights with 15 mmHg to thigh [n = 10, CT group], (2) wearing a compression socks with 15 mmHg to calf [n = 10, CS group], and (3) wearing a lower-body garment with < 5 mmHg to thigh and calf [n = 10, CON group]. The exercise consisted of 120 min of uphill running at 55% of V˙O2max. Heart rate (HR), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and running economy (evaluated by VO2) were monitored during exercise every 10 min. Changes in maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) of knee extension and plantar flexion, height of counter movement jump (CMJ) and drop jump (DJ), and scores of subjective feelings of muscle soreness and fatigue were evaluated before exercise, and 60 and 180 min after exercise. Blood samples were collected to determine blood glucose, lactate, serum free fatty acid, myoglobin (Mb), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and plasma interleukin-6 concentrations before exercise (after 20 min of rest), at 60 min of exercise, immediately after exercise, and 60 and 180 min after exercise. Results: Changes in HR, RPE, and running economy during exercise did not differ significantly among the three groups. MVC of knee extension and plantar flexion, and DJ decreased significantly following exercise, with no difference among groups. The serum Mb concentration increased significantly with exercise in all groups, whereas the area under the curve for Mb concentration during 180 min post-exercise was significantly lower in the CT group (13,833 ± 1,397 pg/mL 180 min) than in the CON group (24,343 ± 3,370 pg/mL 180 min, P = 0.03). Conclusion: Wearing compression garment on the thigh significantly attenuated the increase in serum Mb concentration after exercise, suggesting that exercise

  1. Calf birth weight, gestation length, calving ease, and neonatal calf mortality in Holstein, Jersey, and crossbred cows in a pasture system.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, K; Maltecca, C; Cassady, J P; Baloche, G; Williams, C M; Washburn, S P

    2013-01-01

    Holstein (HH), Jersey (JJ), and crosses of these breeds were mated to HH or JJ bulls to form purebreds, reciprocal crosses, backcrosses, and other crosses in a rotational mating system. The herd was located at the Center for Environmental Farming Systems in Goldsboro, North Carolina. Data for calf birth weight (CBW), calving ease (0 for unassisted, n=1,135, and 1 for assisted, n=96), and neonatal calf mortality (0 for alive, n=1,150, and 1 for abortions recorded after mid-gestation, stillborn, and dead within 48 h, n=81) of calves (n=1,231) were recorded over 9 calving seasons from 2003 through 2011. Gestation length (GL) was calculated as the number of days from last insemination to calving. Linear mixed models for CBW and GL included fixed effects of sex, parity (first vs. later parities), twin status, and 6 genetic groups: HH, JJ, reciprocal F(1) crosses (HJ, JH), crosses >50% Holsteins (HX) and crosses >50% Jerseys (JX), where sire breed is listed first. The CBW model also included GL as a covariate. Logistic regression for calving ease and neonatal calf mortality included fixed effects of sex, parity, and genetic group. Genetic groups were replaced by linear regression using percentage of HH genes as coefficients on the above models and included as covariates to determine various genetic effects. Year and dam were included as random effects in all models. Female calves (27.57±0.54 kg), twins (26.39±1.0 kg), and calves born to first-parity cows (27.67±0.56 kg) had lower CBW than respective male calves (29.53±0.53 kg), single births (30.71±0.19 kg), or calves born to multiparous cows (29.43±0.52 kg). Differences in genetic groups were observed for CBW and GL. Increased HH percentage in the calf increased CBW (+9.3±0.57 kg for HH vs. JJ calves), and increased HH percentage in the dams increased CBW (+1.71±0.53 kg for calves from HH dams vs. JJ dams); JH calves weighed 1.33 kg more than reciprocal HJ calves. Shorter GL was observed for twin births (272.6

  2. Electromyographic analysis of skeletal muscle changes arising from 9 days of weightlessness in the Apollo-Soyuz space mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lafevers, E. V.; Nicogossian, A. E.; Hursta, W. N.

    1976-01-01

    Both integration and frequency analyses of the electromyograms from voluntary contractions were performed in one crewman of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project mission. Of particular interest were changes in excitability, electrical efficiency, and fatigability. As a result of 9 days of weightlessness, muscle excitability was shown to increase; muscle electrical efficiency was found to decrease in calf muscles and to increase in arm muscles; and fatigability was found to increase significantly, as shown by spectral power shifts into lower frequencies. It was concluded from this study that skeletal muscles are affected by the disuse of weightlessness early in the period of weightlessness, antigravity muscles seem most affected by weightlessness, and exercise may abrogate the weightlessness effect. It was further concluded that electromyography is a sensitive tool for measuring spaceflight muscle effects.

  3. Autologous Minced Muscle Grafts: A Tissue Engineering Therapy for the Volumetric Loss of Skeletal Muscle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-24

    report that over the first 16 wk postinjury, MG transplantation 1) promotes remarkable regeneration of innervated muscle fibers within the defect area...i.e., de novo muscle fiber regeneration); 2) reduced evidence of chronic injury in the remaining muscle mass compared with nonrepaired muscles ...cated nuclei in 30% of fibers observed in nonrepaired muscles ); and 3) significantly improves net torque production (i.e., 55% of the functional deficit

  4. The Impact of Muscle Disuse on Muscle Atrophy in Severely Burned Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Following muscle collection from the right hindlimb, muscle isometric force of PL and SL was measured simultaneously in the left hindlimb under...37.5°C by manually adjusting the temperature of cir culating water in the rat surgical bed. The isometric force of the PL and SL muscles was then...the physiologic cross sectional area (CSA) of PL and SL was calculated using the following formula: CSA= ( muscle mass) × cos θ ( muscle fiber

  5. Resistance Training in Type II Diabetes Mellitus: Impact on Areas of Metabolic Dysfunction in Skeletal Muscle and Potential Impact on Bone

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Richard J.; O'Neill, Elizabeth C.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of Type II Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing rapidly and will continue to be a major healthcare expenditure burden. As such, identification of effective lifestyle treatments is paramount. Skeletal muscle and bone display metabolic and functional disruption in T2DM. Skeletal muscle in T2DM is characterized by insulin resistance, impaired glycogen synthesis, impairments in mitochondria, and lipid accumulation. Bone quality in T2DM is decreased, potentially due to the effects of advanced glycation endproducts on collagen, impaired osteoblast activity, and lipid accumulation. Although exercise is widely recognized as an important component of treatment for T2DM, the focus has largely been on aerobic exercise. Emerging research suggests that resistance training (strength training) may impose potent and unique benefits in T2DM. The purpose of this review is to examine the role of resistance training in treating the dysfunction in skeletal muscle and the potential role for resistance training in treating the associated dysfunction in bone. PMID:22474580

  6. Effects of late gestation distillers grains supplementation on fall-calving beef cow performance and steer calf growth and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wilson, T B; Schroeder, A R; Ireland, F A; Faulkner, D B; Shike, D W

    2015-10-01

    feedlot BW, final BW, and days on feed were not different ( ≥ 0.35); no difference ( = 0.77) in feedlot ADG was detected. Feedlot DMI and G:F were not different ( ≥ 0.52) across treatments. No differences ( = 0.62) in morbidity were observed in the feedlot. No differences ( ≥ 0.19) were detected for HCW, LM area, marbling score, or yield grade. Prepartum DDGS supplementation improved cow BW and BCS but did not alter milk production, subsequent reproduction, or subsequent calf performance or carcass characteristics.

  7. The craniosacral progression of muscle development influences the emergence of neuromuscular junction alterations in a severe murine model for spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Tilman; Neve, Anuja; Schümperli, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    As 4-day-old mice of the severe spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) model (dying at 5-8 days) display pronounced neuromuscular changes in the diaphragm but not the soleus muscle, we wanted to gain more insight into the relationship between muscle development and the emergence of pathological changes and additionally to analyse intercostal muscles which are affected in human SMA. Structures of muscle fibres and neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) of the diaphragm, intercostal and calf muscles of prenatal (E21) and postnatal (P0 and P4) healthy and SMA mice were analysed by light and transmission electron microscopy. NMJ innervation was studied by whole mount immunofluorescence in diaphragms of P4 mice. During this period, the investigated muscles still show a significant neck-to-tail developmental gradient. The diaphragm and calf muscles are most and least advanced, respectively, with respect to muscle fibre fusion and differentiation. The number and depth of subsynaptic folds increases, and perisynaptic Schwann cells (PSCs) acquire a basal lamina on their outer surface. Subsynaptic folds are connected to an extensive network of tubules and beaded caveolae, reminiscent of the T system in adult muscle. Interestingly, intercostal muscles from P4 SMA mice show weaker pathological involvement (that is, vacuolization of PSCs and perineurial cells) than those previously described by us for the diaphragm, whereas calf muscles show no pathological changes. SMA-related alterations appear to occur only when the muscles have reached a certain developmental maturity. Moreover, glial cells, in particular PSCs, play an important role in SMA pathogenesis. © 2013 British Neuropathological Society.

  8. Respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Tina; Windisch, Wolfram

    2018-07-01

    In sarcoidosis, muscle involvement is common, but mostly asymptomatic. Currently, little is known about respiratory muscle and diaphragm involvement and function in patients with sarcoidosis. Reduced inspiratory muscle strength and/or a reduced diaphragm function may contribute to exertional dyspnea, fatigue and reduced health-related quality of life. Previous studies using volitional and non-volitional tests demonstrated a reduced inspiratory muscle strength in sarcoidosis compared to control subjects, and also showed that respiratory muscle function may even be significantly impaired in a subset of patients. Areas covered: This review examines the evidence on respiratory muscle involvement and its implications in sarcoidosis with emphasis on pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of respiratory muscle dysfunction. The presented evidence was identified by a literature search performed in PubMed and Medline for articles about respiratory and skeletal muscle function in sarcoidosis through to January 2018. Expert commentary: Respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis is an underdiagnosed condition, which may have an important impact on dyspnea and health-related quality of life. Further studies are needed to understand the etiology, pathogenesis and extent of respiratory muscle involvement in sarcoidosis.

  9. Muscle disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... muscle biopsy examines a tissue sample under a microscope to confirm disease. Sometimes, a blood test to check for a genetic disorder is all that is needed based on someone's symptoms and family history.

  10. Muscle Cramps

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe Happen frequently Don't get better with stretching and drinking enough fluids Last a long time ... able to find some relief from cramps by Stretching or gently massaging the muscle Applying heat when ...

  11. Muscle Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... or tendinitis A genetic disorder, such as muscular dystrophy Some cancers Inflammation, such as myositis Diseases of nerves that affect muscles Infections Certain medicines Sometimes the cause is not ...

  12. A rare case of monozygotic iniodymic diprosopiasis in a German Holstein calf.

    PubMed

    Weber, Jim; Behn, Holger; Freick, Markus

    2017-06-01

    Craniofacial duplication abnormity is a rare phenomenon in buiatric practice. This report attends to a male German Holstein calf which could be classified as a diprosopic iniodymus. A fetus exhibiting a doubled face was delivered after fetotomy. To our knowledge, this is the first description of diprosopiasis with two cranial cavities as well as two separate encephala in a calf showing the potential extent of duplication. Throughout this work also the question is answered of whether this malformation in a bovine species arose from one embryo or rather, there is a dizygotic background by genotyping of tissue samples from both parts of the diprosopus. Regarding etiology, not only hereditary dispositions including among others a failed function of the signaling molecule Sonic hedgehog mediating regulation of craniofacial morphogenesis, but also incompletely separated monozygotic twins are discussed.

  13. Allocating forage to fall-calving cow-calf pairs strip-grazing stockpiled tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Curtis, L E; Kallenbach, R L; Roberts, C A

    2008-03-01

    In a 2-yr study, we evaluated the effect of different forage allocations on the performance of lactating beef cows and their calves grazing stockpiled tall fescue. Allocations of stockpiled tall fescue at 2.25, 3.00, 3.75, and 4.50% of cow-calf pair BW/d were set as experimental treatments. Conventional hay-feeding was also evaluated as a comparison to grazing stockpiled tall fescue. The experiment had a randomized complete block design with 3 replications and was divided into 3 phases each year. From early December to late February (phase 1) of each year, cows and calves grazed stockpiled tall fescue or were fed hay in the treatments described above. Immediately after phase 1, cows and calves were commingled and managed as a single group until weaning in April (phase 2) so that residual effects could be documented. Residual effects on cows were measured after the calves were weaned in April until mid-July (phase 3). During phase 1 of both years, apparent DMI of cow-calf pairs allocated stockpiled tall fescue at 4.50% of BW/d was 31% greater (P < 0.01) than those allocated 2.25% of BW/d. As allocation of stockpiled tall fescue increased from 2.25 to 4.50% of cow-calf BW/d, pasture utilization fell (P < 0.01) from 84 +/- 7% to 59 +/- 7%. During phase 1 of both years, cow BW losses increased linearly (P < 0.02) as forage allocations decreased, although the losses in yr 1 were almost double (P < 0.01) those in yr 2. During phases 2 and 3, few differences were noted across treatment groups, such that by the end of phase 3, cow BW in all treatments did not differ either year (P > 0.40). Calf ADG in phase 1 increased linearly (P < 0.01) with forage allocation (y = 0.063x + 0.513; R(2) = 0.91). However, calf gain per hectare decreased linearly (P < 0.01) as stockpiled tall fescue allocations increased (y = -26.5x + 212; R(2) = 0.97) such that gain per hectare for cow-calf pairs allocated stockpiled tall fescue at 4.50% BW/d was nearly 40% less (P < 0.01) than for those

  14. Non-intercalative, deoxyribose binding of boric acid to calf thymus DNA.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Ayse; Gursaclı, Refiye Tekiner; Tekinay, Turgay

    2014-05-01

    The present study characterizes the effects of the boric acid binding on calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) by spectroscopic and calorimetric methods. UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were employed to characterize binding properties. Changes in the secondary structure of ct-DNA were determined by CD spectroscopy. Sizes and morphologies of boric acid-DNA complexes were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The kinetics of boric acid binding to calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) was investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). ITC results revealed that boric acid exhibits a moderate affinity to ct-DNA with a binding constant (K a) of 9.54 × 10(4) M(-1). FT-IR results revealed that boric acid binds to the deoxyribose sugar of DNA without disrupting the B-conformation at tested concentrations.

  15. Association between cow reproduction and calf growth traits and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in a multibreed herd of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Elzo, M A; Rae, D O; Lanhart, S E; Hembry, F G; Wasdin, J G; Driver, J D

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the association between 4 cow reproductive and weight traits, and 2 preweaning calf traits and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis (0 = negative, 1 = suspect, 2 = weak-positive, and 3 = positive) in a multibreed herd of cows ranging from 100% Angus (A) to 100% Brahman (B). Cow data were 624 gestation lengths (GL), 358 records of time open (TO), 605 calving intervals (CI), and 1240 weight changes from November to weaning in September (WC) from 502 purebred and crossbred cows. Calf data consisted of 956 birth weights (BWT), and 923 weaning weights adjusted to 205 d of age (WW205) from 956 purebred and crossbred calves. Traits were analyzed individually using multibreed mixed models that assumed homogeneity of variances across breed groups. Covariances among random effects were assumed to be zero. Fixed effects were year, age of cow, sex of calf, year x age of cow interaction (except WC), age of cow x sex of calf interaction (only for WC), and covariates for B fraction of sire and cow, heterosis of cow and calf, and ELISA score. Random effects were sire (except for TO and CI), dam, and residual. Regression estimates of cow and calf traits on ELISA scores indicated that lower cow fertility (longer TO), lower ability of cows to maintain weight (negative WC), lower calf BWT, and lower calf WW205 were associated with higher cow ELISA scores. Further research on the effects of subclinical paratuberculosis in beef cattle at regional and national levels seems advisable considering the large potential economic cost of this disease.

  16. Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from waste milk delivered to California calf ranches.

    PubMed

    Ruzante, Juliana M; Gardner, Ian A; Cullor, James S; Smith, Wayne L; Kirk, John H; Adaska, John M

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) was present in waste milk delivered and fed to calves on California calf ranches. Four calf-raising facilities in the Central Valley of California that fed pasteurized waste milk to calves were enrolled. Pre- and post-pasteurization waste milk samples were cultured for MAP using liquid and solid media over a 5-day period during each of four seasons. Aerobic cultures were performed simultaneously to enumerate total bacteria count and evaluate the efficiency of pasteurization which was estimated by the log-reduction of the total number of bacteria. Viable MAP was cultured from 2% of the waste milk samples. Of the three culture-positive samples, two were from pre-pasteurized and one was from post-pasteurized milk samples. The mean total bacterial count for pre- and post-pasteurized waste milk varied from 1.8 x 10(8) to 5.5 x 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU)/mL and 4.9 x 10(5) to 1.1 x 10(8) CFU/mL, respectively, and on average ranches 1, 2, 3, and 4 had, respectively, 3.5-, 3-, 4.7-, and 2.6-log reduction in the number of total bacteria in their waste milk. This is the first study to document results from on-farm pasteurization under field conditions and it indicates the lack of uniformity and adequate controls of the process which could allow the survival of MAP and other pathogens. Calf-raising facilities could benefit from the implementation of standard operating procedures and farm worker training for pasteurization of waste milk. Dairy herds should be aware that placing calves in specialized off-site calf-raising facilities might not eliminate all possible routes of infection of calves with MAP.

  17. Survival of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in calf housing facilities in the New York City watersheds.

    PubMed

    Collick, A S; Fogarty, E A; Ziegler, P E; Walter, M T; Bowman, D D; Steenhuis, T S

    2006-01-01

    Pathogen contamination of the public drinking water supply in the New York City watersheds is a serious concern. New York City's Watershed Agriculture Program is working with dairy farms in the watersheds to implement management practices that will reduce the risk of pathogens contaminating the water supply. Solar calf housing (SCH) was suggested as a best management practice (BMP) to control Cryptosporidium parvum, a common protozoan parasite that causes disease in humans. This BMP targets young calves because they are the primary source of C. parvum in dairy herds. The objective of this project was to assess and compare the survivability of C. parvum in SCH and in conventional calf housing (CCH), usually located in the main barn. C. parvum oocysts were secured in sentinel chambers and placed in SCH and CCH bedding on four farms. The chambers were in thermal, chemical, and moisture equilibrium with their microenvironments. An oocyst-filled control chamber, sealed from its surroundings, was placed near each chamber. Chambers and controls were sampled after 4, 6, and 8 wk. Oocyst viability in the chambers decreased to less than 10% in warm months and between 15 and 30% in the winter months. The viability of the control oocysts was similar to the chambers during warm months and generally higher during winter months. There was no significant (P > 0.05) difference in the viability decrease between SCH and CCH. Although oocyst viability was similar in both types of calf housing, SCH allow contaminated calf manure to be isolated from the main barn manure and potentially managed differently and in a way to decrease the number of viable oocysts entering the environment during field spreading.

  18. Validity and reproducibility of electrical impedance tomography for measurement of calf blood flow in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Vonk Noordegraaf, A; Kunst, P W; Janse, A; Smulders, R A; Heethaar, R M; Postmus, P E; Faes, T J; de Vries, P M

    1997-03-01

    The Sheffield electrical impedance tomography; (EIT) system produces images of changes in the distribution of resistivity within tissue. The paper reports on the application of electrical impedance tomography in monitoring volume changes in the limb during venous occlusion. The aim of the study is to assess the feasibility, reproducibility and validity of calf blood flow measurements by EIT. In 14 healthy volunteers calf blood flow is compared, as determined in a calf segment by strain-gauge plethysmography (SGP), with the impedance changes measured by EIT during rest and post-ischaemic hyperaemia. The measurements are repeated to assess reproducibility. The reproducibility for the EIT, assessed from the repeated measurements and expressed as a reproducibility coefficient, is 0.88 during rest and 0.89 during hyperaemia. The reproducibility coefficient for SGP data is 0.83 at rest and 0.67 during hyperaemia. Flow measurements, assessed by means of two methods, correlate well at rest (r = 0.89), but only moderately during hyperaemia (r = 0.51). The correlation coefficient for the pooled flow measurements is 0.98. It is concluded that EIT is a valid and reliable method for assessing blood flow in the limb. Possible applications of EIT in localising fluid changes are discussed.

  19. Patterns of stillbirth and dystocia in Ontario cow-calf herds.

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, J J; Allen, O B; Martin, S W; Alves, D M

    1992-01-01

    The association between a number of individual animal and herd level factors and calving problems in beef cows and heifers were examined. Data were from the 1987 calving season for a subset of 123 herds which maintained individual-animal records, from a sample of 180 randomly selected Ontario cow-calf herds. The median herd dystocia rate was 5.8% and 24.4% of herds had no dystocias. The median herd stillbirth rate was 2.8%, and 33.3% of herds had no stillbirths. Dystocias and stillbirths were much more common in heifers than in cows. Separate statistical models of dystocia and stillbirth for cows and heifers were created. Dystocia in cows was associated with calf sex, previous calving assistance and large breed type and birth weight. Variations in 1987 cow herd dystocia rates were associated with calving season, location and density, and the herd dystocia rate in 1986. Dystocia in heifers was associated with large breed type and calf birth weight. Herd-level management practices associated with increased heifer dystocia rates included breeding heifers to calve earlier than cows and rearing heifers together with the cow herd. Stillbirths for both cows and heifers were associated with calving assistance, particularly hard assistance. Herd-level management and other factors were unassociated with stillbirths. PMID:1586893

  20. Effect of colostrum quantity and quality on neonatal calf diarrhoea due to Cryptosporidium spp. infection.

    PubMed

    Arsenopoulos, K; Theodoridis, A; Papadopoulos, E

    2017-08-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effect of colostrum quality and quantity on Cryptosporidium spp. calf diarrhoea in an intensive dairy cattle farm in Greece. Faecal samples were collected from 100 dairy calves randomly selected and born during all 4 seasons (March 2015 to May 2016) of the year. In total, 71% of the selected calves were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts. The statistical analysis revealed influence of colostrum quality on faecal score. Linear regression showed that the colostrum quantity during the first day of life was negatively associated with the number of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in faeces. During multivariable analysis, the variables representing the quality of colostrum and the season of the calf's birth were identified as confounders. Cryptosporidium spp. is a common pathogen participating in neonatal calf diarrhoea. Colostrum management and season influence the number of Cryprosporidium spp. oocysts and faecal consistency. The above findings demonstrate novel risk factors that should be included in the strategic approaches to control cryptosporidiosis in newborn calves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The role of phosphodiesterase activity on the temperature-dependent responses of calf cardiac vein.

    PubMed

    Nurullahoglu, Z U

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the role of phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity in the cooling (to 28 °C) and warming (41 °C)-induced effects of carbachol on calf cardiac vein. Rings obtained from calf hearts were suspended in organ baths containing 25 ml of Krebs-Henseleit solution, maintained at 37 °C, continuously gassed with 95%O2-5%CO2. At the end of the resting period the preparations were contracted with carbachol (10-9-3x10-4M), at 37 °C. The same protocol was repeated at 28 °C and 41 °C after the preparations were allowed to equilibrate at this temperature for 60 min. In order to analyze the role of PDE activity in the cooling-and warming-induced vascular response, carbachol (10-9-3x10-4M) was applied in the presence of cilostazol (10-6 M), IBMX (10-6 M) and rolipram (10-6 M), respectively. The sensitivity of carbachol was significantly lower during cooling, and higher during warming. Cooling to 28 and warming to 41 °C, after treatment with IBMX, cilostazol or rolipram, significantly decreased the sensitivity to carbachol (p<0.05). The results of the present study suggest that PDE activity plays an essential role in cooling-and warming-induced changes of calf cardiac vein treated with carbachol (Tab. 1, Fig. 2, Ref. 34). Text in PDF www.elis.sk.

  2. Illegitimate recombination mediated by calf thymus DNA topoisomerase II in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Y S; Kawasaki, I; Ikeda, H; Liu, L F

    1988-01-01

    We have found that purified calf thymus DNA topoisomerase II mediates recombination between two phage lambda DNA molecules in an in vitro system. The enzyme mainly produced a linear monomer recombinant DNA that can be packaged in vitro. Novobiocin and anti-calf thymus DNA topoisomerase II antibody inhibit this ATP-dependent recombination. The recombinant molecules contain duplications or deletions, and most crossovers take place between nonhomologous sequences of lambda DNA, as judged by the sequences of recombination junctions. Therefore, the recombination mediated by the calf thymus DNA topoisomerase II is an illegitimate recombination that is similar to recombination mediated by Escherichia coli DNA gyrase or phage T4 DNA topoisomerase. The subunit exchange model, which has been suggested for the DNA gyrase-mediated recombination, is now generalized as follows: DNA topoisomerase II molecules bind to DNAs, associate with each other, and lead to the exchange of DNA strands through the exchange of topoisomerase II subunits. Illegitimate recombination might be carried out by a general mechanism in organisms ranging from prokaryotes to higher eukaryotes. Images PMID:2832845

  3. [Uterine torsion in cattle--therapy and consequences for calf and cow].

    PubMed

    Erteld, E; Krohn, J; Dzhakupov, I T; Wehrend, A

    2014-01-01

    To summarize the available literature on the therapy of uterine torsion in cattle and the consequences for cow and calf. Analysis of the literature using electronic libraries (PubMed, Medline), German veterinary medical journals and obstetrical textbooks. The therapy includes the attempt to rotate the uterus back into its physiological position. Direct and indirect methods of retorsion are available and applied according to the case conditions. Subsequently, the extraction of the calf can be performed via vaginal delivery or caesarean section. The presence of uterine torsion always leads to dystocia. Following a successful retorsion, the time and degree of uterine torsion strongly influence the progress of the birth. The prognosis also depends on the aforementioned factors and varies between good to unsuccessful. The vitality of the calf displays great variation depending on the literature (14-90%), however, is generally greater under field than clinical conditions. Focussing on the puerperal development of the cow, all grades from mild irritations of the uterine involution to fatal complications occur. The influence on fertility depends on the progress of the birth and existing secondary complications. The risk for electrolyte disturbances is increased (approximately 50%) as is the risk of birth-associated injuries (approximately 20%). The incidence of placental retention varies widely between different authors (3-52%).

  4. Quantification of residual limb skeletal muscle perfusion with contrast-enhanced ultrasound during application of a focal junctional tourniquet

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Brian P.; Belcik, J. Todd; Mott, Brian H.; Landry, Gregory; Lindner, Jonathan R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Focal junctional tourniquets (JTs) have been developed to control hemorrhage from proximal limb injuries. These devices may permit greater collateral perfusion than circumferential tourniquets. We hypothesized that JTs eliminate large-vessel pulse pressure yet allow a small amount of residual limb perfusion that could be useful for maintaining tissue viability. Methods Ten healthy control subjects were studied. Transthoracic echocardiography, Doppler ultrasound of the femoral artery (FA) and posterior tibial artery, and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) perfusion imaging of the anterior thigh extensor and calf plantar flexor muscles were performed at baseline and during application of a JT over the common FA. Intramuscular arterial pulsatility index was also measured from CEU intensity variation during the cardiac cycle. Results FA flow was eliminated by JTs in all subjects; posterior tibial flow was eliminated in all but one. Perfusion measured in the thigh and calf muscles was similar at baseline (0.33 ± 0.29 vs 0.29 ± 0.22 mL/min/g). Application of the JT resulted in a reduction of perfusion (P < .05) that was similar for the thigh and calf (0.08 ± 0.07 and 0.10 ± 0.03 mL/min/g). On CEU, microvascular flux rate was reduced by ≈55%, and functional microvascular blood volume was reduced by ≈35%. Arterial pulsatility index was reduced by ≈90% in the calf. JT inflation did not alter left ventricle dimensions, fractional shortening, cardiac output, or arterial elastance as a measure of total systolic load. Conclusions Application of a JT eliminates conduit arterial pulse and markedly reduces intramuscular pulse pressure, but thigh and calf skeletal muscle perfusion is maintained at 25% to 35% of basal levels. These data suggest that JTs that are used to control limb hemorrhage allow residual tissue perfusion even when pulse pressure is absent. PMID:25065582

  5. The Evolution of and Risk Factors for Neck Muscle Atrophy and Weakness in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy: A Retrospective Study in an Endemic Area.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu-Lu; Mao, Yan-Ping; Zhou, Guan-Qun; Tang, Ling-Long; Qi, Zhen-Yu; Lin, Li; Yao, Ji-Jin; Ma, Jun; Lin, Ai-Hua; Sun, Ying

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the evolution of sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) atrophy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients following intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and the relationship between SCM atrophy and neck weakness.Data were retrospectively analyzed from 223 biopsy-proven NPC patients with no distant metastasis who underwent IMRT with or without chemotherapy. The volume of SCM was measured on pretreatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and MRIs were conducted 1, 2, and 3 years after the completion of IMRT. Change in SCM volume was calculated and classified using the late effects of normal tissues-subjective, objective, management, and analytic system. The grade of neck muscle weakness, classified by the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events V 3.0, was measured 3 years after the completion of IMRT.The average SCM atrophy ratio was -10.97%, -18.65%, and -22.25% at 1, 2, and 3 years postirradiation, respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated N stage and the length of time after IMRT were independent prognostic variables. There were significant associations between the degree of SCM atrophy and neck weakness.Radical IMRT can cause significant SCM atrophy in NPC patients. A more advanced N stage was associated with more severe SCM atrophy, but no difference was observed between N2 and N3. SCM atrophy progresses over time during the 3 years following IMRT. Grade of SCM atrophy is significantly associated with neck weakness.

  6. Effect of aqua exercise on recovery of lower limb muscles after downhill running.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Junichiro; Ishihara, Keiji; Aoki, Junichiro

    2006-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine how the recovery of physiological functioning of the leg muscles after high-intensity eccentric exercise such as downhill running could be promoted by aqua exercise for a period until the damaged muscle had recovered almost completely. Ten male long-distance runners were divided equally into an aqua exercise group and a control group. From the first day (Day 0) to the fourth day (Day 3), the participants completed a questionnaire on muscle soreness, and serum creatine kinase activity, muscle power, flexibility, whole-body reaction time and muscle stiffness were measured. After measurements on Day 0, the participants performed downhill running (three 5 min runs with a 5 min rest interval at -10%, 335.7 +/- 6.1 m . min-1). The aqua exercise group performed walking, jogging and jumping in water on three successive days following the downhill running on Day 0 for 30 min each day. Muscle power was reduced on Day 1 in the control group (P < 0.05). Muscle soreness in the calf on Day 3 was greater in the control group than that in the aqua exercise group (P < 0.05). In the aqua exercise group, muscle stiffness in the calf was less than that in the control group over 4 days (time main effect: P < 0.05; group x time interaction: P < 0.05). We conclude that aqua exercise promoted physiological functioning of the muscles in the legs after high-intensity downhill running for a period until the damaged muscles had recovered almost completely.

  7. Effects of Physical Activity and Muscle Quality on Bone Development in Girls

    PubMed Central

    Farr, Joshua N.; Laddu, Deepika R.; Blew, Robert M.; Lee, Vinson R.; Going, Scott B.

    2013-01-01

    Poor muscle quality and sedentary behavior are risk factors for metabolic dysfunction in children and adolescents. However, because longitudinal data are scarce, relatively little is known about how changes in muscle quality and physical activity influence bone development. Purpose In a 2-year longitudinal study, we examined the effects of physical activity and changes in muscle quality on bone parameters in young girls. Methods The sample included 248 healthy girls aged 9–12 years at baseline. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography was used to measure calf and thigh muscle density, an indicator of skeletal muscle fat content or muscle quality, as well as bone parameters at diaphyseal and metaphyseal sites of the femur and tibia. Physical activity was assessed using a validated questionnaire specific for youth. Results After controlling for covariates in multiple regression models, increased calf muscle density was independently associated with greater gains in cortical (β = 0.13, P < 0.01) and trabecular (β = 0.25, P < 0.001) volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and the bone strength index (BSI; β = 0.25, P < 0.001) of the tibia. Importantly, these relationships were generalized, as similar changes were present at the femur. Associations between physical activity and changes in bone parameters were weaker than those observed for muscle density. Nevertheless, physical activity was significantly (all P < 0.05) associated with greater gains in trabecular vBMD and the BSI of the distal femur. Conclusions These findings suggest that poor muscle quality may put girls at risk for suboptimal bone development. Physical activity is associated with more optimal gains in weight-bearing bone density and strength in girls, but to a lesser extent than changes in muscle quality. PMID:23698240

  8. Migratory herds of wildebeests and zebras indirectly affect calf survival of giraffes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Derek E; Kissui, Bernard M; Kiwango, Yustina A; Bond, Monica L

    2016-12-01

    In long-distance migratory systems, local fluctuations in the predator-prey ratio can exhibit extreme variability within a single year depending upon the seasonal location of migratory species. Such systems offer an opportunity to empirically investigate cyclic population density effects on short-term food web interactions by taking advantage of the large seasonal shifts in migratory prey biomass.We utilized a large-mammal predator-prey savanna food web to evaluate support for hypotheses relating to the indirect effects of "apparent competition" and "apparent mutualism" from migratory ungulate herds on survival of resident megaherbivore calves, mediated by their shared predator. African lions ( Panthera leo ) are generalist predators whose primary, preferred prey are wildebeests ( Connochaetes taurinus ) and zebras ( Equus quagga ), while lion predation on secondary prey such as giraffes ( Giraffa camelopardalis ) may change according to the relative abundance of the primary prey species.We used demographic data from five subpopulations of giraffes in the Tarangire Ecosystem of Tanzania, East Africa, to test hypotheses relating to direct predation and indirect effects of large migratory herds on calf survival of a resident megaherbivore. We examined neonatal survival via apparent reproduction of 860 adult females, and calf survival of 449 giraffe calves, during three precipitation seasons over 3 years, seeking evidence of some effect on neonate and calf survival as a consequence of the movements of large herds of migratory ungulates.We found that local lion predation pressure (lion density divided by primary prey density) was significantly negatively correlated with giraffe neonatal and calf survival probabilities. This supports the apparent mutualism hypothesis that the presence of migratory ungulates reduces lion predation on giraffe calves.Natural predation had a significant effect on giraffe calf and neonate survival, and could significantly affect giraffe

  9. Lactation and calf weight traits of mature crossbred cows fed varying daily levels of metabolizable energy.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, T G; Ferrell, C L; Roberts, A J

    2000-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate differences in lactation traits and calf weights produced by F1 cows under varying daily metabolizable energy availability. Measures of milk yields and calf weight traits were recorded on mature F1 cows. The cows were produced from matings of Angus or Hereford dams with sires representing Angus/Hereford, Shorthorn, Galloway, Longhorn, Nellore, and Salers breeds. The cows' daily DM intakes of a diet composed of a corn silage or alfalfa silage plus corn silage were recorded from approximately 2 wk postpartum until the calves were weaned at an average age of 170 d. Milk yield measurements were recorded when the calves were approximately 14, 28, 56, 84, 112, 140, and 168 d of age. Sources of variation considered for the traits of interest included sire breed of the cow (SBC) and the covariates weaning age of the calf and daily metabolizable energy intake (DMEI) of the cow for lactation and calf weights. The linear and quadratic effects were evaluated for DMEI. The SBC x DMEI (linear) interaction was significant for total milk yield. Sire breed of cow differences (P < .05) were observed for milk yield at time of peak yield, persistency, preweaning ADG, and weaning weight. Salers- and Shorthorn-sired cows had greater (P < .05) peak yield than Galloway, Longhorn, or Nellore cross-bred cows but were not significantly different from the Hereford/Angus. Increasing DMEI linearly increased peak yield and total yield (P < .05). Preweaning ADG of calves from Nellore-sired cows was greater (P < .05) than all SBC. Preweaning ADG of calves from Galloway-sired cows was less than all SBC (P < .05). The linear effect of DMEI was heterogeneous across SBC for total yield. The pooled quadratic effect of DMEI was significant for all traits except birth weight. The DMEI for expression of maximum weaning weight was estimated to be 29 Mcal. Feed efficiency ratios for the test period were 28, 27, 30, 25, 28, 32, and 30 g calf weight:Mcal DMEI for reference and

  10. Schisandrae Fructus Supplementation Ameliorates Sciatic Neurectomy-Induced Muscle Atrophy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo Wan; Ku, Sae-Kwang; Kim, Ki Young; Kim, Sung Goo; Han, Min Ho; Kim, Gi-Young; Hwang, Hye Jin; Kim, Byung Woo; Kim, Cheol Min

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the possible beneficial skeletal muscle preserving effects of ethanol extract of Schisandrae Fructus (EESF) on sciatic neurectomy- (NTX-) induced hindlimb muscle atrophy in mice. Here, calf muscle atrophy was induced by unilateral right sciatic NTX. In order to investigate whether administration of EESF prevents or improves sciatic NTX-induced muscle atrophy, EESF was administered orally. Our results indicated that EESF dose-dependently diminished the decreases in markers of muscle mass and activity levels, and the increases in markers of muscle damage and fibrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, cytokines, and apoptotic events in the gastrocnemius muscle bundles are induced by NTX. Additionally, destruction of gastrocnemius antioxidant defense systems after NTX was dose-dependently protected by treatment with EESF. EESF also upregulated muscle-specific mRNAs involved in muscle protein synthesis but downregulated those involved in protein degradation. The overall effects of 500 mg/kg EESF were similar to those of 50 mg/kg oxymetholone, but it showed more favorable antioxidant effects. The present results suggested that EESF exerts a favorable ameliorating effect on muscle atrophy induced by NTX, through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects related to muscle fiber protective effects and via an increase in protein synthesis and a decrease in protein degradation. PMID:26064425

  11. Inverse relationship between exercise economy and oxidative capacity in muscle.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Gary R; Bamman, Marcas M; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Joanisse, Denis R; McCarthy, John P; Blaudeau, Tamilane E; Newcomer, Bradley R

    2005-08-01

    An inverse relationship has been shown between running and cycling exercise economy and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). The purposes were: 1) determine the relationship between walking economy and VO2max; and 2) determine the relationship between muscle metabolic economy and muscle oxidative capacity and fiber type. Subjects were 77 premenopausal normal weight women. Walking economy (1/VO2max) was measured at 3 mph and VO2max during graded treadmill test. Muscle oxidative phosphorylation rate (OxPhos), and muscle metabolic economy (force/ATP) were measured in calf muscle using 31P MRS during isometric plantar flexion at 70 and 100% of maximum force, (HI) and (MI) respectively. Muscle fiber type and citrate synthase activity were determined in the lateral gastrocnemius. Significant inverse relationships (r from -0.28 to -0.74) were observed between oxidative metabolism measures and exercise economy (walking and muscle). Type IIa fiber distribution was inversely related to all measures of exercise economy (r from -0.51 to -0.64) and citrate synthase activity was inversely related to muscle metabolic economy at MI (r = -0.56). In addition, Type IIa fiber distribution and citrate synthase activity were positively related to VO2max and muscle OxPhos at HI and MI (r from 0.49 to 0.70). Type I fiber distribution was not related to any measure of exercise economy or oxidative capacity. Our results support the concept that exercise economy and oxidative capacity are inversely related. We have demonstrated this inverse relationship in women both by indirect calorimetry during walking and in muscle tissue by 31P MRS.

  12. Sleep-Disordered Breathing Exacerbates Muscle Vasoconstriction and Sympathetic Neural Activation in Patients with Systolic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Denise M L; Trevizan, Patricia F; Toschi-Dias, Edgar; Oliveira, Patricia A; Piveta, Rafael B; Almeida, Dirceu R; Mady, Charles; Bocchi, Edimar A; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Middlekauff, Holly R; Negrão, Carlos E

    2016-11-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is common in patients with heart failure (HF), and hypoxia and hypercapnia episodes activate chemoreceptors stimulating autonomic reflex responses. We tested the hypothesis that muscle vasoconstriction and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in response to hypoxia and hypercapnia would be more pronounced in patients with HF and SDB than in patients with HF without SDB (NoSBD). Ninety consecutive patients with HF, New York Heart Association functional class II-III, and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40% were screened for the study. Forty-one patients were enrolled: NoSDB (n=13, 46 [39-53] years) and SDB (n=28, 57 [54-61] years). SDB was characterized by apnea-hypopnea index ≥15 events per hour (polysomnography). Peripheral (10% O 2 and 90% N 2 , with CO 2 titrated) and central (7% CO 2 and 93% O 2 ) chemoreceptors were stimulated for 3 minutes. Forearm and calf blood flow were evaluated by venous occlusion plethysmography, MSNA by microneurography, and blood pressure by beat-to-beat noninvasive technique. Baseline forearm blood flow, forearm vascular conductance, calf blood flow, and calf vascular conductance were similar between groups. MSNA was higher in the SDB group. During hypoxia, the vascular responses (forearm blood flow, forearm vascular conductance, calf blood flow, and calf vascular conductance) were significantly lower in the SDB group compared with the NoSDB group (P<0.01 to all comparisons). Similarly, during hypercapnia, the vascular responses (forearm blood flow, forearm vascular conductance, calf blood flow, and calf vascular conductance) were significantly lower in the SDB group compared with the NoSDB group (P<0.001 to all comparisons). MSNA were higher in response to hypoxia (P=0.024) and tended to be higher to hypercapnia (P=0.066) in the SDB group. Patients with HF and SDB have more severe muscle vasoconstriction during hypoxia and hypercapnia than HF patients without SDB, which seems to be

  13. Influences of supplemental feeding on winter elk calf:cow ratios in the southern Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    M. Foley, Aaron; Cross, Paul C.; Christianson, David A; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Creely, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Several elk herds in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem are fed during winter to alleviate interactions with livestock, reduce damage to stored crops, and to manage for high elk numbers. The effects of supplemental feeding on ungulate population dynamics has rarely been examined, despite the fact that supplemental feeding is partially justified as necessary for maintaining or enhancing population growth rates. We used linear regression to assess how the presence of feedgrounds, snowpack, summer rainfall, indices of grizzly bear density and wolves per elk, elk population trend counts, brucellosis seroprevalence, and survey date were correlated with midwinter calf:cow ratios, a metric correlated with population growth, from 1983–2010 from 12 ecologically similar elk herd units (7 fed and 5 unfed) in Wyoming, USA. Our statistical approach allowed for rigorous tests of the hypotheses that supplemental feeding had positive effects on calf:cow ratios and reduced sensitivity of calf:cow ratios to bottom-up limitation relative to top-down limitation from native predators. Calf:cow ratios generally declined across all herd units over the study period and varied widely among units with feedgrounds. We found no evidence that the presence of feedgrounds had positive effects on midwinter calf:cow ratios in Wyoming. Further, fed elk showed stronger correlations with environmental factors, whereas calf:cow ratios for unfed elk showed stronger correlations with predator indices. Although we found no consistent association between winter feeding and higher calf:cow ratios, we did not assess late winter mortality and differences in human offtake between fed and unfed regions, which remain a priority for future research. 

  14. Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging analysis of the cross-sectional areas of the anconeus epitrochlearis muscle, cubital tunnel, and ulnar nerve with the elbow in extension in patients with and without ulnar neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Eng, Hing Y; Gunio, Drew A; Benitez, Carlos L

    2018-05-10

    The purpose of this study was to assess the cross-sectional area of the anconeus epitrochlearis muscle (AEM), cubital tunnel, and ulnar nerve with the elbow in extension in patients with and without ulnar neuropathy. We performed a retrospective, level IV review of elbow magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. Elbow MRI studies of 32 patients with an AEM (26 men and 6 women, aged 18-60 years), 32 randomly selected patients without an AEM (aged 16-71 years), and 32 patients with clinical ulnar neuritis (22 men and 10 women, aged 24-76 years) were reviewed. We evaluated the ulnar nerve cross-sectional area proximal to, within, and distal to the cubital tunnel; AEM cross-sectional area; and cubital tunnel cross-sectional area. We found no significant difference in the nerve caliber between patients with and without an AEM. No correlation was found between the AEM cross-sectional area and ulnar nerve cross-sectional area within the cubital tunnel (r = 0.14). The mean cubital tunnel cross-sectional area was larger in patients with an AEM. Only 4 of the 32 patients with an AEM had findings of ulnar neuritis on MRI. Of the 32 patients with a clinical diagnosis of ulnar neuritis, only 2 had an AEM. With the elbow in extension, the presence or cross-sectional area of an AEM does not correlate with the area of the ulnar nerve or cubital tunnel. Only a small number of individuals with MRI evidence of an AEM had clinical evidence of ulnar neuropathy. Likewise, MRI evidence of an AEM was found in only a small number of individuals with clinical evidence of ulnar neuropathy. Copyright © 2018 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reliability and Validity of Ultrasound Cross Sectional Area Measurements for Long-Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Jessica M.; Martin, David S.; Cunningham, David; Matz, Timothy; Caine, Timothy; Hackney, Kyle J.; Arzeno, Natalia; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2010-01-01

    Limb muscle atrophy and the accompanying decline in function can adversely affect the performance of astronauts during mission-related activities and upon re-ambulation in a gravitational environment. Previous characterization of space flight-induced muscle atrophy has been performed using pre and post flight magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition to being costly and time consuming, MRI is an impractical methodology for assessing in-flight changes in muscle size. Given the mobility of ultrasound (US) equipment, it may be more feasible to evaluate changes in muscle size using this technique. PURPOSE: To examine the reliability and validity of using a customized template to acquire panoramic ultrasound (US) images for determining quadriceps and gastrocnemius anatomical cross sectional area (CSA). METHODS: Vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF), medial gastrocnemius (MG), and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) CSA were assessed in 10 healthy individuals (36+/-2 yrs) using US and MRI. Panoramic US images were acquired by 2 sonographers using a customized template placed on the thigh and calf and analyzed by the same 2 sonographers (CX50 Philips). MRI images of the leg were acquired while subjects were supine in a 1.5T scanner (Signa Horizon LX, General Electric) and were analyzed by 3 trained investigators. The average of the 2 US and 3 MRI values were used for validity analysis. RESULTS: High inter-experimenter reliability was found for both the US template and MRI analysis as coefficients of variation across muscles ranged from 2.4 to 4.1% and 2.8 to 3.8%, respectively. Significant correlations were found between US and MRI CSA measures (VL, r = 0.85; RF, r = 0.60; MG, r = 0.86; LG, r = 0.73; p < 0.05). Furthermore, the standard error of measurement between US and MRI ranged from 0.91 to 2.09 sq cm with high limits of agreement analyzed by Bland-Altman plots. However, there were significant differences between absolute values of MRI and US for all muscles

  16. Maintenance energy requirements of beef cows and relationship with cow and calf performance, metabolic hormones, and functional proteins.

    PubMed

    Cooper-Prado, M J; Long, N M; Davis, M P; Wright, E C; Madden, R D; Dilwith, J W; Bailey, C L; Spicer, L J; Wettemann, R P

    2014-08-01

    Gestating Angus, nonlactating, spring-calving cows were used to determine variation in maintenance energy requirements (MR); to evaluate the relationship among MR and cow and calf performance, plasma concentrations of IGF-I, T4, glucose, insulin, and ruminal temperature; and to describe the LM proteome and evaluate protein abundance in cows with different MR. Cows (4 to 7 yr of age) with a BCS of 5.0 ± 0.2 and BW of 582 ± 37 kg in the second to third trimester of gestation were studied in 3 trials (trial 1, n = 23; trial 2, n = 32; trial 3, n = 38). Cows were individually fed a complete diet in amounts to meet predicted MR (Level 1 Model of NRC), and feed intake was adjusted weekly until constant BW was achieved for at least 21 d (maintenance). Cows were classified on the basis of MR as low (>0.5 SD less than mean, LMR), moderate (±0.5 SD of mean, MMR), or high (>0.5 SD more than mean, HMR) MR. Blood samples were taken at maintenance and at 2 mo postpartum in trial 2. Muscle biopsies were taken from LMR and HMR after cows consumed actual MR for 28 d (trial 2) or 21 d (trial 3). Proteins from LM were separated by 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and were identified, and abundance was quantified and compared. The greatest differences in MR between cows were 29%, 24%, and 25% in trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Daily MR (NEm, kcal·BW(-0.75)·d(-1)) averaged 89.2 ± 6.3, 93.0 ± 4.9, and 90.4 ± 4.6 in trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Postpartum BW and BCS, calf birth and weaning weights, postpartum luteal activity, and ruminal temperature were not influenced by MR of the cows. Concentrations of IGF-I were greater (P = 0.001) in plasma of MMR compared with LMR cows consuming predicted MR diets, and MR was negatively correlated with concentrations of IGF-I in plasma (r = -0.38; P = 0.05) at 2 mo postpartum. A total of 103 proteins were isolated from LM; 52 gene products were identified. Abundance of specific proteins in the LM was not influenced (P > 0

  17. Muscle "Building."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of constructivism in teaching human anatomy. Provides directions for constructing arm-hand and leg-foot models that include extensor and flexor muscles and that are easily and cheaply constructed. Lists resources that provide ideas for using such models depending upon the curriculum implemented in a school or the course that is…

  18. Performance of Angus and Brangus cow-calf pairs grazing Alicia bermudagrass and common bermudagrass-dallisgrass pastures.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, W E; Gates, R N; Blouin, D C; Saxton, A M; Nelson, B D

    1997-07-01

    This research was designed to examine genotype x environment interactions in cow-calf growth performance of grazing animals. Angus and Brangus cow-calf pairs (minimum of six per breed) were allowed to rotationally graze (14-d intervals) treatment pastures from approximately May through early October in each of 2 yr. Treatment pastures contained relatively pure stands of Alicia bermudagrass (AP) or a mixed stand of common bermudagrass and dallisgrass (CDP). Forage allowance was equalized, using "put-and-take" cow-calf pairs, among forage and breed types at the initiation of each 14-d grazing interval. Forage samples were obtained in each paddock at the initiation of each grazing interval. Forage CP concentration was greater (P < .05; 13.5 vs 11.6%) and NDF concentration was less (P < .05; 63.8 vs 70.6%) for CDP than for AP. Daily weight loss was similar for Angus and Brangus cows, but it was greater (P < .05) for cows grazing AP than for cows grazing CDP. Calf ADG during the grazing season was 35% greater (P < .05) for CDP than for AP pastures and was 23% greater (P < .01) for Brangus than for Angus calves. Relative performance of Angus and Brangus cow-calf pairs was consistent between forages; no breed x forage interactions were observed.

  19. Comparative biomechanical evaluation of a pin-sleeve transfixation system in cadaveric calf metacarpal bones.

    PubMed

    Brianza, Stefano; Vogel, Susan; Rothstock, Stephan; Thalhauser, Martin; Desrochers, Andrè; Boure, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    To compare proximal fragment displacement and the peri-implant strain using a pin-sleeve cast (PSC) system and a transfixation pin cast (TPC) system on a cadaveric calf metacarpal bone fracture model. Experimental. Cadaveric calf metacarpal bones (n = 6 pairs). Paired samples were instrumented with either the TPC or the PSC systems. Strain gauges were applied proximal to the transfixation implants and the bones encased in cast material. The distal part of the construct was removed to mimic an unstable distal comminuted fracture. Constructs were fixed to the material testing machine and initially loaded in axial compression in their elastic range to determine construct stiffness. Constructs were loaded cyclically with a sinusoidal curve that increased until failure. Variables compared statistically between constructs were the initial construct stiffness and, at given load points, the mean metacarpal axial displacement in loading and unloading condition and mean axial strain. Initial construct mean ± SD axial stiffness was not significantly different between constructs (PSC: 689 ± 258; TPC: 879 ± 306 N/mm). There was no significant difference between either investigated displacements of metacarpal bones transfixed with PSC and those transfixed with TPC at all load points. The PSC constructs had a significant decrease in the recorded mean strain (502 ± 340 μstrain) compared to the TPC construct (1738 ± 2218 μstrain). The PSC significantly reduced peri-implant strain with comparable axial displacement to the TPC in cadaveric calf metacarpal bones. © Copyright 2012 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  20. The impact of dystocia on dairy calf health, welfare, performance and survival.

    PubMed

    Barrier, A C; Haskell, M J; Birch, S; Bagnall, A; Bell, D J; Dickinson, J; Macrae, A I; Dwyer, C M

    2013-01-01

    Up to one-third of dairy calves are born after dystocia and this is a major cause of calf mortality. This study investigated the neonatal physiology, survival, health and subsequent growth of dairy calves following dystocia and is the first longitudinal study to analyse multiple effects and to look beyond the perinatal period. A total of 455 live born Holstein calves (N: No assistance, n=360; FN: Farmer assistance but normally presented calf, n=82; FM: Farmer assistance of malpresented calf, n=13) were followed from birth to first service (heifers) or until leaving the farm (bulls). Compared to N calves, FN and FM animals had higher salivary cortisol concentrations at day 1 (P<0.001) and FN calves had lower passive immune transfer (P=0.03). Dystocia had no biologically significant impact on rectal temperature throughout the first 4 days (P>0.05). During the first 60 days, FM calves had a higher proportion of days with non-routine health treatments (P<0.05) and, by the time of weaning, mortality in FN and FM heifers was higher than in N calves (2.8×; P<0.01). However, in surviving calves, growth to first service was not affected by dystocia category (P>0.05). Calves which survive dystocia experience lower passive immunity transfer, higher mortality and higher indicators of physiological stress. Such calves have poorer welfare in the neonatal period and possibly beyond. Strategies need to be implemented to improve the subsequent health and welfare of such calves and to lower the incidence of dystocia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Predicting the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on cetacean populations through impacts on immunity and calf survival.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ailsa J; McConnell, Bernie J; Schwacke, Lori H; Ylitalo, Gina M; Williams, Rob; Rowles, Teri K

    2018-02-01

    The potential impact of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the health and survival of cetaceans continues to be an issue for conservation and management, yet few quantitative approaches for estimating population level effects have been developed. An individual based model (IBM) for assessing effects on both calf survival and immunity was developed and tested. Three case study species (bottlenose dolphin, humpback whale and killer whale) in four populations were taken as examples and the impact of varying levels of PCB uptake on achievable population growth was assessed. The unique aspect of the model is its ability to evaluate likely effects of immunosuppression in addition to calf survival, enabling consequences of PCB exposure on immune function on all age-classes to be explored. By incorporating quantitative tissue concentration-response functions from laboratory animal model species into an IBM framework, population trajectories were generated. Model outputs included estimated concentrations of PCBs in the blubber of females by age, which were then compared to published empirical data. Achievable population growth rates were more affected by the inclusion of effects of PCBs on immunity than on calf survival, but the magnitude depended on the virulence of any subsequent encounter with a pathogen and the proportion of the population exposed. Since the starting population parameters were from historic studies, which may already be impacted by PCBs, the results should be interpreted on a relative rather than an absolute basis. The framework will assist in providing quantitative risk assessments for populations of concern. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Genome-wide association for heifer reproduction and calf performance traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Akanno, Everestus C; Plastow, Graham; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn; Miller, Stephen P; Baron, Vern; Ominski, Kimberly; Basarab, John A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify SNP markers that associate with variation in beef heifer reproduction and performance of their calves. A genome-wide association study was performed by means of the generalized quasi-likelihood score (GQLS) method using heifer genotypes from the BovineSNP50 BeadChip and estimated breeding values for pre-breeding body weight (PBW), pregnancy rate (PR), calving difficulty (CD), age at first calving (AFC), calf birth weight (BWT), calf weaning weight (WWT), and calf pre-weaning average daily gain (ADG). Data consisted of 785 replacement heifers from three Canadian research herds, namely Brandon Research Centre, Brandon, Manitoba, University of Alberta Roy Berg Kinsella Ranch, Kinsella, Alberta, and Lacombe Research Centre, Lacombe, Alberta. After applying a false discovery rate correction at a 5% significance level, a total of 4, 3, 3, 9, 6, 2, and 1 SNPs were significantly associated with PBW, PR, CD, AFC, BWT, WWT, and ADG, respectively. These SNPs were located on chromosomes 1, 5-7, 9, 13-16, 19-21, 24, 25, and 27-29. Chromosomes 1, 5, and 24 had SNPs with pleiotropic effects. New significant SNPs that impact functional traits were detected, many of which have not been previously reported. The results of this study support quantitative genetic studies related to the inheritance of these traits, and provides new knowledge regarding beef cattle quantitative trait loci effects. The identification of these SNPs provides a starting point to identify genes affecting heifer reproduction traits and performance of their calves (BWT, WWT, and ADG). They also contribute to a better understanding of the biology underlying these traits and will be potentially useful in marker- and genome-assisted selection and management.

  3. Determining physiological cross-sectional area of extensor carpi radialis longus and brevis as a whole and by regions using 3D computer muscle models created from digitized fiber bundle data.

    PubMed

    Ravichandiran, Kajeandra; Ravichandiran, Mayoorendra; Oliver, Michele L; Singh, Karan S; McKee, Nancy H; Agur, Anne M R

    2009-09-01

    Architectural parameters and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) are important determinants of muscle function. Extensor carpi radialis longus (ECRL) and brevis (ECRB) are used in muscle transfers; however, their regional architectural differences have not been investigated. The aim of this study is to develop computational algorithms to quantify and compare architectural parameters (fiber bundle length, pennation angle, and volume) and PCSA of ECRL and ECRB. Fiber bundles distributed throughout the volume of ECRL (75+/-20) and ECRB (110+/-30) were digitized in eight formalin embalmed cadaveric specimens. The digitized data was reconstructed in Autodesk Maya with computational algorithms implemented in Python. The mean PCSA and fiber bundle length were significantly different between ECRL and ECRB (p < or = 0.05). Superficial ECRL had significantly longer fiber bundle length than the deep region, whereas the PCSA of superficial ECRB was significantly larger than the deep region. The regional quantification of architectural parameters and PCSA provides a framework for the exploration of partial tendon transfers of ECRL and ECRB.

  4. Foot Drop after Ethanol Embolization of Calf Vascular Malformation: A Lesson on Nerve Injury

    SciTech Connect

    Tay, Vincent Khwee-Soon, E-mail: vincentkstay@gmail.com; Mohan, P. Chandra, E-mail: chandra.mohan@sgh.com.sg; Liew, Wendy Kein Meng, E-mail: wendy.liew.km@kkh.com.sg

    Ethanol is often used in sclerotherapy to treat vascular malformations. Nerve injury is a known complication of this procedure. However, the management of this complication is not well described in literature. This case describes a 10-year-old boy with a slow flow vascular malformation in the right calf who underwent transarterial ethanol embolization following prior unsuccessful direct percutaneous sclerotherapy. The development of a dense foot drop that subsequently recovered is described, and the management of this uncommon but distressful complication is discussed.

  5. Effects of repeated transport on Holstein calf post-transport behavior and feed intake.

    PubMed

    Adams-Progar, A L; Friend, T H; Holub, G A; Krenek, A J; Garey, S M; Terrill, C L

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have determined that stress causes decreases in feed intake and efficiency in livestock, but the effect of repeated transport on these parameters has not been well studied. This study determined how repeated transport affected calf post-transport behavior, feed intake, ADG, and feed conversion. Thirty-six 4-mo-old Holstein steer calves were housed in groups of 6 with each group randomly assigned to either transport or control treatments. Each calf was assigned to an individual Calan gate feeder and feed intake was recorded daily. Transport calves were transported for 6 h in their groups in a 7.3 by 2.4 m gooseneck trailer divided into 3 compartments, at an average density of 0.87 m/calf, every 7 d for 5 consecutive weeks. After return to their home pens, behavior was recorded for transported calves at 5-min intervals for 1 h. Calf ADG and feed conversion were analyzed in a mixed model ANOVA, whereas feed intake was analyzed as a repeated measure in a mixed model ANOVA. Post-transport, calves followed a pattern of drinking, eating, and then lying down. The highest (82 ± 5% calves) and lowest (0 ± 5% calves) incidences of eating behavior occurred 10 and 60 min post-transport, respectively. Control calves had a higher feed intake than transported calves overall (7.29 ± 0.22 kg for control and 6.91 ± 0.21 kg for transport; = 0.01), for the feeding posttreatment (6.78 ± 0.27 kg for control and 6.01 ± 0.28 kg for transport; = 0.007), and the day after treatment (7.83 ± 0.23 kg for control and 7.08 ± 0.15 kg for transport; = 0.02). Feed intake for the feeding post-transport for transport calves significantly decreased after the second transport but increased with each successive transport ( < 0.0001). Overall, control calves had higher ADG than transported calves (1.34 ± 0.13 kg/d for control and 1.15 ± 0.12 kg/d for transport; = 0.006). No significant difference ( = 0.12) between treatments was detected for feed conversion. These results

  6. Spectroscopic and molecular docking studies on the interaction of antiviral drug nevirapine with calf thymus DNA.

    PubMed

    Moghadam, Neda Hosseinpour; Salehzadeh, Sadegh; Shahabadi, Nahid

    2017-09-02

    The interaction of calf thymus DNA with nevirapine at physiological pH was studied by using absorption, circular dichroism, viscosity, differential pulse voltammetry, fluorescence techniques, salt effect studies and computational methods. The drug binds to ct-DNA in a groove binding mode, as shown by slight variation in the viscosity of ct-DNA. Furthermore, competitive fluorimetric studies with Hoechst 33258 indicate that nevirapine binds to DNA via groove binding. Moreover, the structure of nevirapine was optimized by DFT calculations and was used for the molecular docking calculations. The molecular docking results suggested that nevirapine prefers to bind on the minor groove of ct-DNA.

  7. Heterosis and direct effects for Charolais-sired calf weight and growth, cow weight and weight change, and ratios of cow and calf weights and weight changes across warm season lactation in Romosinuano, Angus, and F cows in Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Burke, J M; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W

    2016-01-01

    The use of Brahman in cow-calf production offers some adaptation to the harsh characteristics of endophyte-infected tall fescue. Criollo breeds, such as the Romosinuano, may have similar adaptation. The objectives were to estimate genetic effects in Romosinuano, Angus, and crossbred cows for their weights, weights of their calves, and ratios (calf weight:cow weight and cow weight change:calf weight gain) across lactation and to assess the influence of forage on traits and estimates. Cows ( = 91) were bred to Charolais bulls after their second parity. Calves ( = 214) were born from 2006 to 2009. Cows and calves were weighed in early (April and June), mid- (July), and late lactation (August and October). Animal was a random effect in analyses of calf data; sire was random in analyses of cow records and ratios. Fixed effects investigated included calf age, calf sex, cow age-year combinations, sire breed of cow, dam breed of cow, and interactions. Subsequent analyses evaluated the effect of forage grazed: endophyte-free or endophyte-infected tall fescue. Estimates of maternal heterosis for calf weight ranged from 9.3 ± 4.3 to 15.4 ± 5.7 kg from mid-lactation through weaning ( < 0.05). Romosinuano direct effects (of the cow) were -6.8 ± 3.0 and -8.9 ± 4.2 kg for weights recorded in April and June. Calf weights and weight gains from birth were greater ( < 0.05) for calves of cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue except in mid-summer. Cow weight change from April to each time was negative for Angus cows and lower ( < 0.05) than other groups. Cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue were heavier ( < 0.05) at all times but had more weight loss in late lactation. Angus cows had the lowest ( < 0.05) ratios (negative) of cow weight change:calf weight gain, indicating an energy-deficit condition. Cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue had more negative ( < 0.05) values for this trait but not in early lactation ( < 0.05). Estimates of heterosis ranged from 12.8 ± 9.5 to

  8. Seroprevalence of and agroecological risk factors for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Neospora caninum infection among adult beef cattle in cow-calf herds in Alberta, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Scott, H. Morgan; Sorensen, Ole; Wu, John T.Y.; Chow, Eva Y.W.; Manninen, Ken

    2007-01-01

    A province-wide cross-sectional seroprevalence and agroecological risk factor study of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and Neospora caninum (NC) infection among cattle in 100 cow-calf herds in Alberta was conducted. The seroprevalence of MAP in adult cattle was 1.5% across all herds. Using a widely accepted herd test cutpoint of 2 or more seropositive cows out of 30 animals tested, 7.9% of herds were estimated to be infected (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.3–23.4%). Seroprevalence of MAP differed by agroecological region; specifically, cattle and herds in areas with high soil pH (> 7.0), southern latitudes, and arid climates had a moderately reduced risk of infection (P < 0.10). Seroprevalence of NC infection was 9.7% among adult beef cattle province-wide — these levels also varied by agroecological region — with 91.0% of herds infected overall. PMID:17494367

  9. Capillary muscle

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Caroline; Mouterde, Timothée; Quéré, David; Clanet, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The contraction of a muscle generates a force that decreases when increasing the contraction velocity. This “hyperbolic” force–velocity relationship has been known since the seminal work of A. V. Hill in 1938 [Hill AV (1938) Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 126(843):136–195]. Hill’s heuristic equation is still used, and the sliding-filament theory for the sarcomere [Huxley H, Hanson J (1954) Nature 173(4412):973–976; Huxley AF, Niedergerke R (1954) Nature 173(4412):971–973] suggested how its different parameters can be related to the molecular origin of the force generator [Huxley AF (1957) Prog Biophys Biophys Chem 7:255–318; Deshcherevskiĭ VI (1968) Biofizika 13(5):928–935]. Here, we develop a capillary analog of the sarcomere obeying Hill’s equation and discuss its analogy with muscles. PMID:25944938

  10. Ultratrace LC-MS/MS analysis of segmented calf hair for retrospective assessment of time of clenbuterol administration in Agriforensics.

    PubMed

    Duvivier, Wilco F; van Beek, Teris A; Meijer, Thijs; Peeters, Ruth J P; Groot, Maria J; Sterk, Saskia S; Nielen, Michel W F

    2015-01-21

    In agriforensics, time of administration is often debated when illegal drug residues, such as clenbuterol, are found in frequently traded cattle. In this proof-of-concept work, the feasibility of obtaining retrospective timeline information from segmented calf tail hair analyses has been studied. First, an ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) hair analysis method was adapted to accommodate smaller sample sizes and in-house validated. Then, longitudinal 1 cm segments of calf tail hair were analyzed to obtain clenbuterol concentration profiles. The profiles found were in good agreement with calculated, theoretical positions of the clenbuterol residues along the hair. Following assessment of the average growth rate of calf tail hair, time of clenbuterol administration could be retrospectively determined from segmented hair analysis data. The data from the initial animal treatment study (n = 2) suggest that time of treatment can be retrospectively estimated with an error of 3-17 days.

  11. The association between exposure to the oil and gas industry and beef calf mortality in Western Canada.

    PubMed

    Waldner, Cheryl L

    2008-01-01

    Researchers assessed the association between exposure to emissions from oil and gas field facilities and newborn calf survival and health status by determining the risks of calf mortality and treatment reported for 27,511 beef calves born to cows in 203 herds, which were followed from the beginning of the 2001 breeding season through the 2002 calving season. They prospectively measured exposures to sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by using data from passive air monitors. They also used the density of oil and gas well sites surrounding each pasture as an additional measure of exposure. The researchers found that well-site density as well as exposures to hydrogen sulfide and VOCs measured as benzene or toluene were not associated with the odds of calf mortality in the first 3 months of life. After adjusting for cow-and herd-level risk factors, they found that exposure to sulfur dioxide near the time of calving was associated with an increased risk of calf mortality during this period. Exposure to sulfur dioxide in the 3-month period before calving was most suggestive of a causal exposure-response relationship (the odds ratio for every 1 ppb increase in sulfur dioxide=1.32; 95% confidence interval=1.13-1.54; p=0004). Exposure to sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and VOCs measured as benzene or toluene during gestation was not associated with the odds of calf treatment in the first 3 months of life. However, exposure to sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and VOCs measured as benzene or toluene, and sulfur dioxide in the first month after calving, was associated with a small increase in the odds of calf treatment after the first month of life when risk was compared across quartiles for exposure; only the association between hydrogen sulfide exposure and the odds of treatment was consistent with a causal exposure.

  12. Development of sociality and emergence of independence in a killer whale (Orcinus orca) calf from birth to 36 months.

    PubMed

    Guarino, Sara; Hill, Heather M; Sigman, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Dolphin calves spend most of their time swimming with their mother immediately after birth. As they mature, the calves become increasingly independent, and begin to interact more often with other calves, juveniles, and sub-adults. For bottlenose dolphin calves, sociality is related to maternal behaviors. Unfortunately, much less is known about the development of sociality and emergence of independence for killer whale calves. The purpose of this study was to examine the developmental changes in social behaviors and solitary activities of a killer whale calf across a 36-month period. Focal follow video recordings of a mother-calf pair housed at SeaWorld San Antonio were collected 2-6 times a day for 5-15 min at 6-month intervals. Using a sample of randomly selected video recordings at each month, developmental changes in swims and social interactions with her mother, swims and social interactions with non-maternal partners, and solitary activities (e.g., solitary swims, solitary play) were observed across the months. The calf spent most of her time swimming with the mother across the 36-month period. The time the calf socialized with her mother was greater than the time she socialized with others at each month. Besides her mother, the calf socialized more often with the other adult female compared to adult males. As the calf matured, the increase in the time she spent socializing with adult killer whales other than the mother corresponded with an increase in the rate and time spent in solitary play. The developmental trends of sociality and emerging independence replicate research conducted with calves of other dolphin species. Zoo Biol. 36:11-20, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis assemblages in weaned cattle on cow-calf operations in the United States.

    PubMed

    Santin, Monica; Dargatz, David; Fayer, Ronald

    2012-02-10

    To determine the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in weaned beef calves on cow-calf operations in the United States, fecal specimens were collected from 819 calves (6-18 months of age) from 49 operations. After cleaning and concentration procedures to maximize recovery of cysts from feces, DNA was extracted from each of the 819 specimens. The presence of G. duodenalis was determined by nested PCR of a fragment of the SSU rRNA gene. All positive PCR products were subjected to sequence analysis. The overall sample level prevalence of Giardia was 33.5% with prevalence ranging from 0 to 100% among operations. The highest within herd prevalence of infected beef calves was found in one cow-calf operation from the South region (100%), followed by a cow-calf operation from the West region (90%), and three cow-calf operations from the Midwest region (87.5, 85, and 85%). Giardia was not detected in samples from 7 operations including 5 cow-calf operations from the South region, and 1 cow-calf operation each from the Midwest and West regions. Molecular analysis of the Giardia-positive samples identified assemblage E (or E-like) in 31.7% of all samples (260/819) and assemblage A in 1.2% (10/819). A mixed infection with assemblages A and E was observed in four calves from an operation in Midwest region. The potentially zoonotic assemblage A was detected in specimens from four operations in Midwest region. These findings indicate that most G. duodenalis found in weaned beef calves was assemblage E which represents no known zoonotic threat. However, the presence of assemblage A in a small number of animals poses a potential risk of infection to humans. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Skeletal muscle weakness in osteogenesis imperfecta mice.

    PubMed

    Gentry, Bettina A; Ferreira, J Andries; McCambridge, Amanda J; Brown, Marybeth; Phillips, Charlotte L

    2010-09-01

    Exercise intolerance, muscle fatigue and weakness are often-reported, little-investigated concerns of patients with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). OI is a heritable connective tissue disorder hallmarked by bone fragility resulting primarily from dominant mutations in the proα1(I) or proα2(I) collagen genes and the recently discovered recessive mutations in post-translational modifying proteins of type I collagen. In this study we examined the soleus (S), plantaris (P), gastrocnemius (G), tibialis anterior (TA) and quadriceps (Q) muscles of mice expressing mild (+/oim) and moderately severe (oim/oim) OI for evidence of inherent muscle pathology. In particular, muscle weight, fiber cross-sectional area (CSA), fiber type, fiber histomorphology, fibrillar collagen content, absolute, relative and specific peak tetanic force (P(o), P(o)/mg and P(o)/CSA respectively) of individual muscles were evaluated. Oim/oim mouse muscles were generally smaller, contained less fibrillar collagen, had decreased P(o) and an inability to sustain P(o) for the 300-ms testing duration for specific muscles; +/oim mice had a similar but milder skeletal muscle phenotype. +/oim mice had mild weakness of specific muscles but were less affected than their oim/oim counterparts which demonstrated readily apparent skeletal muscle pathology. Therefore muscle weakness in oim mice reflects inherent skeletal muscle pathology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Effect of biological electric stimulation on free muscle transfer].

    PubMed

    Yuang, F; Guan, W; Cao, Y

    1997-01-01

    The rectus femoris muscles of rabbits were used as muscle model. The electrical stimulation which resembled the normal motor-unit activity was used to observe its effects on free transferred muscle. After three months, the moist muscle weight (MW), its maximum cross-section area, its contractility and its histochemical characteristics were examined. The results showed that the function and morphology of the muscles were well preserved. These findings might encourage its clinical application.

  16. Isolation of Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjoprajitno from a calf with clinical leptospirosis in Chile.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Miguel; Otto, Barbara; Moroni, Manuel; Sandoval, Errol; Reinhardt, German; Boqvist, Sofia; Encina, Carolina; Muñoz-Zanzi, Claudia

    2015-03-18

    Although Leptospira isolation has been reported in Chilean cattle, only serological evidence of serovar Hardjo bovis infection has been routinely reported. The present report provides characterization of the pathological presentation and etiology of a clinical case of leptospirosis in a calf from the Los Rios Region in Chile. In a dairy herd in southern Chile, 11 of 130 calves died after presenting signs such as depression and red-tinged urine. One of these calves, a female of eight months, was necropsied, and all the pathological findings were consistent with Leptospira infection. A urine sample was submitted to conventional bacteriological analysis together with highly specific molecular biology typing tools, in order to unravel the specific Leptospira specie and serovar associated with this clinical case. A significant finding of this study was that the obtained isolate was confirmed by PCR as L. interrogans, its VNTR profile properly matching with L. interrogans Hardjoprajitno as well as its specific genomic identity revealed by secY gen. Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjoprajitno was associated with the investigated calf clinical case. This information adds to the value of serologic results commonly reported, which encourage vaccination improvements to match circulating strains. In addition, this finding represents the first case report of this serovar in Chilean cattle.

  17. Twinning in Holstein-Friesian Dairy Cows: Proportion Carried to Term and Calf Sex Ratios

    PubMed Central

    Cockcroft, Peter D.; Sorrell, Emma J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the proportion of twins carried to term and the sex ratio of twin calves at birth in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle kept on commercial farms in Devon and Cornwall, England. Ten farms were used in the study. Fifty four cows with twin pregnancies were identified using trans-rectal ultra-sonographic examination between 30 and 70 days of gestation. The farm records were subsequently used to derive the number of calves born. Farm records of 66 additional sets of twin births with the sex of the calves recorded were also identified. Of the 54 cows diagnosed with twin pregnancies, 16 cows (29.6%) aborted or absorbed both fetuses, 11 cows (20.4%) carried one calf to term and 27 cows (50%) carried both calves to term. In the calf sex analysis of the additional 66 sets of twins: 13♂♂ calves (19.7%), 18 ♀♀ calves (27.3%) and 35 ♂♀ calves (53.0%). There was no statistically significant difference from an expected ratio of 1♂♂:2♂♀:1♀♀ (p = 0.61). This study provides bench marks for the expected abortion/absorption rates following the early ultra-sonographic diagnosis of twin pregnancies in comparable populations and supports earlier observations that the expected  sex ratio for twinning approximates to1♂♂:2♂♀:1♀♀. PMID:29061937

  18. Spatial and Temporal Variation in the Effects of Climatic Variables on Dugong Calf Production

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Mariana M. P. B.; Delean, Steven; Grayson, Jillian; Lavender, Sally; Logan, Murray; Marsh, Helene

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the relationships between environmental forcing and demographic parameters is important for predicting responses from climatic changes and to manage populations effectively. We explore the relationships between the proportion of sea cows (Dugong dugon) classified as calves and four climatic drivers (rainfall anomaly, Southern Oscillation El Niño Index [SOI], NINO 3.4 sea surface temperature index, and number of tropical cyclones) at a range of spatially distinct locations in Queensland, Australia, a region with relatively high dugong density. Dugong and calf data were obtained from standardized aerial surveys conducted along the study region. A range of lagged versions of each of the focal climatic drivers (1 to 4 years) were included in a global model containing the proportion of calves in each population crossed with each of the lagged versions of the climatic drivers to explore relationships. The relative influence of each predictor was estimated via Gibbs variable selection. The relationships between the proportion of dependent calves and the climatic drivers varied spatially and temporally, with climatic drivers influencing calf counts at sub-regional scales. Thus we recommend that the assessment of and management response to indirect climatic threats on dugongs should also occur at sub-regional scales. PMID:27355367

  19. Daytime mother-calf relationships in reticulated giraffes (Giraffa cameloparadalis reticulate) at the Kyoto City Zoo.

    PubMed

    Nakamichi, Masayuki; Murata, Chisa; Eto, Ryo; Takagi, Naoko; Yamada, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    The present study quantitatively assesses the relationships between a reticulated giraffe mother and her first- and second-born calves during the first 22 months of the older calf's and the first 12 months of the younger calf's life at the Kyoto City Zoo, Japan. The mother permitted her calves to suckle at over 70% of their suckling attempts in the first month after their births, and the calves ceased suckling spontaneously in 65 to 70% of the suckling bouts. From the second month on, she showed a clear tendency to reject the calves' suckling attempts and terminated almost all of their suckling bouts, which resulted in approximately 60 sec or less of suckling duration per bout. The frequency of proximity between the mother and her calves remained at 20 to 30% throughout the first year, with no apparent developmental changes being evident. The mother was mainly responsible for terminating proximity by walking away from her calves throughout their first year after birth, while both calves were mainly responsible for attempting proximity by approaching their mother after reaching 2 months of age. Our study also showed that the giraffe mother became pregnant again while nursing her calves and ceased lactation (i.e., weaned the calves) before the fetus's growth started accelerating. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. 8-Chloroadenine: a novel product formed from hypochlorous acid-induced damage to calf thymus DNA.

    PubMed

    Matthew Whiteman Andrew Jenner Barry Halliwell

    1999-01-01

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is formed by the action of the enzyme myeloperoxidase on hydrogen peroxide and chloride ions. It has been shown to be highly bactericidal and cytotoxic by a variety of mechanisms, one of which, may be the modification of DNA. Previously we have demonstrated by GC-MS analysis that exposure of calf thymus DNA to HOCl causes extensive pyrimidine modification, including 5-chlorocytosine formation. Using GC-MS analysis, we now demonstrate the formation of an additional chlorinated base product, 8-Cl adenine. The addition of 50 μM HOCl was sufficient to produce a significant increase in this product. The reaction of HOCl with adenine in calf thymus DNA was shown to be rapid with the reaction complete after 1 min. pH-dependence studies suggest HOCl rather than its conjugate base (OCl-) to be responsible for 8-Cl adenine formation. Other commercially available chlorinated base products, 6-Cl guanine or 2-Cl adenine were not detected. Therefore, 8-Cl adenine might prove a useful biomarker for studying the role of reactive chlorine species (RCS) during inflammatory processes.

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions during co-composting of calf mortalities with manure.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shanwei; Hao, Xiying; Stanford, Kim; McAllister, Tim A; Larney, Francis J; Wang, Jingguo

    2007-01-01

    Composting may be a viable on-farm option for disposal of cattle carcasses. This study investigated greenhouse gas emissions during co-composting of calf mortalities with manure. Windrows were constructed that contained manure + straw (control compost [CK]) or manure + straw + calf mortalities (CM) using two technologies: a tractor-mounted front-end loader or a shredder bucket. Composting lasted 289 d. The windrows were turned twice (on Days 72 and 190), using the same technology used in their creation. Turning technology had no effect on greenhouse gas emissions or the properties of the final compost. The CO2 (75.2 g d(-1) m(-2)), CH4 (2.503 g d(-1) m(-2)), and N2O (0.370 g d(-1) m(-2)) emissions were higher (p < 0.05) in CM than in CK (25.7, 0.094, and 0.076 g d(-1) m(-2) for CO2, CH4, and N2O, respectively), which reflected differences in materials used to construct the compost windrows and therefore their total C and total N contents. The final CM compost had higher (p < 0.05) total N, total C, and mineral N content (NO3*+ NO2* + NH4+) than did CK compost and therefore has greater agronomic value as a fertilizer.

  2. Spatial and Temporal Variation in the Effects of Climatic Variables on Dugong Calf Production.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Mariana M P B; Delean, Steven; Grayson, Jillian; Lavender, Sally; Logan, Murray; Marsh, Helene

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the relationships between environmental forcing and demographic parameters is important for predicting responses from climatic changes and to manage populations effectively. We explore the relationships between the proportion of sea cows (Dugong dugon) classified as calves and four climatic drivers (rainfall anomaly, Southern Oscillation El Niño Index [SOI], NINO 3.4 sea surface temperature index, and number of tropical cyclones) at a range of spatially distinct locations in Queensland, Australia, a region with relatively high dugong density. Dugong and calf data were obtained from standardized aerial surveys conducted along the study region. A range of lagged versions of each of the focal climatic drivers (1 to 4 years) were included in a global model containing the proportion of calves in each population crossed with each of the lagged versions of the climatic drivers to explore relationships. The relative influence of each predictor was estimated via Gibbs variable selection. The relationships between the proportion of dependent calves and the climatic drivers varied spatially and temporally, with climatic drivers influencing calf counts at sub-regional scales. Thus we recommend that the assessment of and management response to indirect climatic threats on dugongs should also occur at sub-regional scales.

  3. Interaction of a copper (II) complex containing an artificial sweetener (aspartame) with calf thymus DNA.

    PubMed

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Khodaei, Mohammad Mehdi; Kashanian, Soheila; Kheirdoosh, Fahimeh

    2014-01-01

    A copper (II) complex containing aspartame (APM) as ligand, Cu(APM)2Cl2⋅2H2O, was synthesized and characterized. In vitro binding interaction of this complex with native calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was studied at physiological pH. The interaction was studied using different methods: spectrophotometric, spectrofluorometric, competition experiment, circular dichroism (CD) and viscosimetric techniques. Hyperchromicity was observed in UV absorption band of Cu(APM)2Cl2⋅2H2O. A strong fluorescence quenching reaction of DNA to Cu(APM)2Cl2⋅2H2O was observed and the binding constants (Kf) and corresponding numbers of binding sites (n) were calculated at different temperatures. Thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (ΔH) and entropy change (ΔS) were calculated to be+89.3 kJ mol(-1) and+379.3 J mol(-1) K(-1) according to Van't Hoff equation which indicated that reaction is predominantly entropically driven. Experimental results from spectroscopic methods were comparable and further supported by viscosity measurements. We suggest that Cu(APM)2Cl2⋅2H2O interacts with calf thymus DNA via a groove interaction mode with an intrinsic binding constant of 8×10+4 M(-1). Binding of this copper complex to DNA was found to be stronger compared to aspartame which was studied recently. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Microbiological and pathological examination of fatal calf pneumonia cases induced by bacterial and viral respiratory pathogens.

    PubMed

    Szeredi, Levente; Jánosi, Szilárd; Pálfi, Vilmos

    2010-09-01

    The infectious origin of fatal cases of calf pneumonia was studied in 48 calves from 27 different herds on postmortem examination. Lung tissue samples were examined by pathological, histological, bacterial culture, virus isolation and immunohistochemical methods for the detection of viral and bacterial infections. Pneumonia was diagnosed in 47/48 cases and infectious agents were found in 40/47 (85%) of those cases. The presence of multiple respiratory pathogens in 23/40 (57.5%) cases indicated the complex origin of fatal calf pneumonia. The most important respiratory pathogens were Mannheimia-Pasteurella in 36/40 (90%) cases, followed by Arcanobacterium pyogenes in 16/40 (40%) cases, Mycoplasma bovis in 12/40 (30%) cases, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus in 4/40 (10%) cases. Histophilus somni was detected in 2/40 (5%) cases, while bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhoea virus and parainfluenza virus-3 were each found in 1/40 (2.5%) case. Mastadenovirus, bovine coronavirus, influenza A virus or Chlamydiaceae were not detected.

  5. Efficacy of reflective insulation in reducing heat stress on dairy calves housed in polyethylene calf hutches.

    PubMed

    Carter, B H; Friend, T H; Garey, S M; Sawyer, J A; Alexander, M B; Tomazewski, M A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the ability of radiant insulation hutch covers to moderate the effect of ambient temperature and radiant energy on calves housed in polyethylene hutches. The insulation had a double layer of polyethylene bubble film laminated between a layer of aluminum foil and white polyethylene (reflectance = 95%, R value (ft(2) · °F ·h/Btu) = 2.7). In each of two experiments (exp.), hutches were either uninsulated (control) or covered with reflective insulation across the top and sides of the hutch leaving the front, back, and pen exposed. Each hutch had a 1.2 × 1.8-m attached outdoor wire pen. In both exp., rate of increase of interior hutch temperature relative to ambient temperature was lower in insulated hutches (P < 0.001) indicating they were warmer at low THI and cooler at high THI. In exp. 1, increase in respiration rate and ear canal temperature of the calves, relative to THI, were moderated in insulated hutches (P < 0.001). In Exp. 2, respiration rate was not affected by treatment (P = 0.50), but increased with increasing THI (P < 0.001). Mean ADG did not differ among treatments in either exp. (P > 0.21). Insulating calf hutches with reflective insulation moderated hutch microclimate, and improved calf comfort, but did not translate to improvements in economically relevant variables such as ADG.

  6. American and German attitudes towards cow-calf separation on dairy farms

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Gesa; Weary, Daniel M.; Spiller, Achim; von Keyserlingk, Marina A. G.

    2017-01-01

    Public concerns regarding the quality of life of farm animals are often focused on specific practices such as separating the cow and calf immediately after birth. The available scientific literature provides some evidence in support of this practice (including reduced acute responses to separation when it does occur), as well as evidence of disadvantages (such as increased risk of uterine disease in cows). The aim of this study is to systematically examine public views around this practice. Specifically, this study analyzes the views of American and German citizens to separation of cow and calf at birth using a quantitative segmentation approach. Although the majority of participants opposed early separation, a small proportion of our sample supported the practice. According to participants’ preference for early and later separation and their evaluation of different arguments for both practices, three clusters were identified. US participants were more likely to support early separation compared to German participants. The arguments presented for and against both practices caused different reactions in the three clusters, but did not appear to sway the opinions of most participants. The results show considerable opposition to the practice of early separation in large parts of the sample and suggest that the dairy industry should consider approaches to address this concern. PMID:28301604

  7. Sway‐dependent changes in standing ankle stiffness caused by muscle thixotropy

    PubMed Central

    Sakanaka, Tania E.; Lakie, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Key points The passive stiffness of the calf muscles contributes to standing balance, although the properties of muscle tissue are highly labile.We investigated the effect of sway history upon intrinsic ankle stiffness and demonstrated reductions in stiffness of up to 43% during conditions of increased baseline sway.This sway dependence was most apparent when using low amplitude stiffness‐measuring perturbations, and the short‐range stiffness component was smaller during periods of high sway.These characteristics are consistent with the thixotropic properties of the calf muscles causing the observed changes in ankle stiffness.Periods of increased sway impair the passive stabilization of standing, demanding more active neural control of balance. Abstract Quiet standing is achieved through a combination of active and passive mechanisms, consisting of neural control and intrinsic mechanical stiffness of the ankle joint, respectively. The mechanical stiffness is partly determined by the calf muscles. However, the viscoelastic properties of muscle are highly labile, exhibiting a strong dependence on movement history. By measuring the effect of sway history upon ankle stiffness, the present study determines whether this lability has consequences for the passive stabilization of human standing. Ten subjects stood quietly on a rotating platform whose axis was collinear with the ankle joint. Ankle sway was increased by slowly tilting this platform in a random fashion, or decreased by fixing the body to a board. Ankle stiffness was measured by using the same platform to simultaneously apply small, brief perturbations (<0.6 deg; 140 ms) at the same time as the resulting torque response was recorded. The results show that increasing sway reduces ankle stiffness by up to 43% compared to the body‐fixed condition. Normal quiet stance was associated with intermediate values. The effect was most apparent when using smaller perturbation amplitudes to measure stiffness (0

  8. Economics of transitioning from a cow-calf-yearling operation to a stocker operation as a potential strategy to address brucellosis risk in northwestern Wyoming

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An alternative enterprise for cattle ranchers that produce cows and calves is the production of stocker cattle. While stocker only operations have generally found to be less profitable than cow-calf or cow-calf-yearling operations, potential reasons for switching to stockers from having cows could i...

  9. Lupine-Induced 'Crooked Calf Disease' in Washington and Oregon: Identification of the alkaloid profiles of Lupinus sericeus, Lupinus sulphureus, and Lupinus leucophyllus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lupines are common plants found on the rangelands in the western United States. Lupines are known to contain alkaloids that can be toxic and teratogenic causing congenital birth defects (crooked calf disease). Lupine-induced crooked calf disease cases are documented in North-eastern Oregon and the...

  10. Assessment of laryngeal muscle and testicular cell types in Xenopus laevis (Anura Pipidae) inhabiting maize and non-maize growing areas of South Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, E.E.; Du Preez, L.H.; Gentles, A.; Solomon, K.R.; Tandler, B.; Carr, J.A.; Van Der Kraak, G. L.; Kendall, R.J.; Giesy, J.P.; Gross, T.S.

    2005-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that adult African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis) inhabiting water bodies in maize-growing areas (MGA) of South Africa would exhibit differences in testicular structure compared to frogs from water bodies in non-maize-growing areas (NMGA) in the same locale. Adults of both sexes were collected during the autumn of 2002 in South Africa, and stereological analytical techniques were used to quantify the distribution of testicular cell types. In addition, total laryngeal mass was used as a gauge of secondary sex differences in animals from MGA and NMGA study sites. Evaluation of the total laryngeal mass revealed that there were no statistically significant differences between X. laevis of the same sex from the NMGA and MGA sites. Mean percent fractional-volume values for seminiferous tubule distribution of testicular cell types of mature X. laevis, ranged from 3-4% for spermatogonia, 26-28% for spermatocytes, 54-57% for spermatozoa, and 14-15% for other cells types. The mean percent volume for blood vessels ranged from 0.3-0.4%. These values did not differ significantly between frogs from NMGA and MGA areas. Collectively, these data demonstrated no differences in gonadal and laryngeal development in X. laevis collected in South Africa from MGA and NMGA areas and that there is little evidence for an effect of agricultural chemicals used in maize production functioning as endocrine disrupters in this species. Screening of X. laevis testes revealed a small incidence of Stage 1 testicular oocytes in adult male frogs collected from the NMGA (3%) and MGA (2%).

  11. Packing of muscles in the rabbit shank influences three-dimensional architecture of M. soleus.

    PubMed

    Wick, Carolin; Böl, Markus; Müller, Florian; Blickhan, Reinhard; Siebert, Tobias

    2018-07-01

    Isolated and packed muscles (e.g. in the calf) exhibit different three-dimensional muscle shapes. In packed muscles, cross-sections are more angular compared to the more elliptical ones in isolated muscles. As far as we know, it has not been examined yet, whether the shape of the muscle in its packed condition influences its internal arrangement of muscle fascicles and accordingly the contraction behavior in comparison to the isolated condition. To evaluate the impact of muscle packing, we examined the three-dimensional muscle architecture of isolated and packed rabbit M. soleus for different ankle angles (65°, 75°, 85°, 90°, and 95°) using manual digitization (MicroScribe ® MLX). In general, significantly increased values of pennation angle and fascicle curvature were found in packed compared to isolated M. soleus (except for fascicle curvature at 90° ankle angle). On average, fascicle length of isolated muscles exceeded fascicle lengths of packed muscles by 2.6%. Reduction of pennation angle in the packed condition had only marginal influence on force generation (about 1% of maximum isometric force) in longitudinal direction (along the line of action) although an increase of transversal force component (perpendicular to the line of action) of about 26% is expected. Results of this study provide initial evidence that muscle packing limits maximum muscle performance observed in isolated M. soleus. Besides an enhanced understanding of the impact of muscle packing on architectural parameters, the outcomes of this study are essential for realistic three-dimensional muscle modeling and model validation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. High-energy phosphate metabolism during incremental calf exercise in humans measured by 31 phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P MRS).

    PubMed

    Schocke, Michael F H; Esterhammer, Regina; Kammerlander, Christian; Rass, Anton; Kremser, Christian; Fraedrich, Gustav; Jaschke, Werner R; Greiner, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    Several previous 31 phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P MRS) studies performing incremental or progressive muscle exercises have observed that a decrease in pH is accompanied with an acceleration in phosphocreatine (PCr) hydrolysis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between PCr breakdown and pH during isotonic, exhaustive, incremental plantar flexion exercises. We included eight healthy, male volunteers into this study. Using a 1.5 Tesla MR scanner and a self-built exercise bench, we performed serial free induction decay (FID) (31)P MRS measurements with a time resolution of 1 min at rest, isotonic calf muscle exercise, and recovery. The exercise protocol consisted of 5-min intervals with 4.5, 6, 7.5, and 9 W workload followed by 9-min recovery. Changes in PCr and inorganic phosphate (Pi) were determined as percent changes in comparison to the baseline. In addition, pH values were calculated. This study obtained significant decreases in PCr corresponding to the gradual increases in workload. In each workload level that was succeeded by all volunteers, PCr hydrolysis passed into a steady state. After an early biphasic response, we detected a significant decrease in pH from the first to the second minute of the 6-W workload level followed by a further continuous decrease in pH up to the second minute of the recovery phase. The decrease in pH was not accompanied by acceleration in PCr hydrolysis. In conclusion, this study shows that PCr hydrolysis during incremental plantar flexion exercises passes into a steady state at different workload levels. The observed decrease in pH does not result in acceleration of PCr hydrolysis.

  13. The effect of topical arnica on muscle pain.

    PubMed

    Adkison, Julie D; Bauer, David W; Chang, Terence

    2010-10-01

    The herb Arnica montana, in topical formulations, has been reputed to decrease bruising and muscle pain. This claim has been inadequately and incompletely addressed. To determine whether topical A. montana cream could decrease subjective leg pain following calf raises. Secondary outcomes were effects on ankle range of motion and muscle tenderness. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 53 subjects. Active range of motion was measured in both ankles, and then a series of calf-raises were completed according to a standardized protocol. Each participant received 2 tubes of cream, 1 with active arnica and 1 with placebo. The creams were applied to the lower legs immediately after the exercise, and again at 24 and 48 hours postexercise according to the "RIGHT" or "LEFT" labels. At 48 hours postexercise, subjects had their ankle range of motion and muscle tenderness measured. Subjects used the analog scale to rate pain in each leg at baseline, 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours. No significant differences in pain scores were seen before exercise (arnica: 0.07 vs placebo: 0.09, p = 0.32). Pain scores on legs treated with arnica were higher than scores on those receiving placebo 24 hours after exercise (3.04 vs 2.36, respectively; p < 0.005). Pain scores on day 3 (arnica: 3.44 vs placebo: 3.20, p = 0.66) and day 4 (arnica: 2.36 vs placebo: 2.31, p = 0.62) were not significantly different. There was no difference in muscle tenderness (arnica: 1.05 vs placebo: 1.05, p = 1.0). Ankle range of motion did not differ significantly on either day 1 (arnica: 64.70 degrees vs placebo: 66.15, p = 0.352 or day 3 (arnica: 63.32 degrees vs placebo: 65.94, p = 0.058). Rather than decreasing leg pain, arnica was found to increase leg pain 24 hours after eccentric calf exercises. This effect did not extend to the 48-hour measurement.

  14. Cow and calf performance on Coastal or Tifton 85 Bermudagrass pastures with aeschynomene creep-grazing paddocks.

    PubMed

    Corriher, V A; Hill, G M; Andrae, J G; Froetschel, M A; Mullinix, B G

    2007-10-01

    Cow and calf performance was determined in a 2-yr, 2 x 2 factorial, grazing experiment using Coastal or Tifton 85 (T85) replicated Bermudagrass pastures (4 pastures each; each pasture 4.86 ha), without or with aeschynomene creep-grazing paddocks (n = 4, 0.202 ha each, planted in May of each year, 13.44 kg/ha). On June 10, 2004, and June 8, 2005, 96 winter-calving beef "tester" cows and their calves were grouped by cow breed (9 Angus and 3 Polled Hereford/group), initial cow BW (592.9 +/- 70.1 kg, 2-yr mean), age of dam, calf breed (Angus, Polled Hereford, or Angus x Polled Hereford), calf sex, initial calf age (117 +/- 20.1 d, 2-yr mean), and initial calf BW (161.3 +/- 30.4 kg) and were randomly assigned to pastures. Additional cow-calf pairs and open cows were added as the forage increased during the season. Forage mass was similar for all treatment pastures (P > 0.70; 2-yr mean, 6,939 vs. 6,628 kg/ha, Coastal vs. T85; 6,664 vs. 6,896 kg/ha, no creep grazing vs. creep grazing). Main effect interactions did not occur for performance variables (P > 0.10; 2-yr means), and year affected only the initial and final BW of the calves and cows. The 91-d tester calf ADG was greater for calves grazing T85 than Coastal (0.94 vs. 0.79 kg; P < 0.01), and for calves creep grazing aeschynomene compared with calves without creep grazing (0.90 vs. 0.82 kg; P < 0.03). Calf 205-d adjusted weaning weights were increased for calves grazing T85 compared with Coastal (252.9 vs. 240.3 kg; P < 0.01) and for calves with access to creep grazing (249.9 vs. 243.3 kg; P < 0.05). The IVDMD of esophageal masticate from pastures had a forage x creep grazing interaction (P < 0.05; Coastal, no creep grazing = 57.4%; Coastal, creep grazing = 52.1%; T85, no creep grazing = 59.1%; T85, creep grazing = 60.0%), and IVDMD was greater (P < 0.05) for T85 than for Coastal pastures. Cows were milked in August 2004, and in June and August 2005, with variable milk yields on treatments, but increased milk

  15. Heterosis and direct effects for Charolais-sired calf weight and growth, cow weight and weight change, and ratios of cow and calf weights and weight changes across warm season lactation in Romosinuano, Angus, and F1 cows in A

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of Brahman in cow-calf production in the southeastern U.S. offers some adaptation to the harsh characteristics of endophyte-infected tall fescue. Other breeds, such as the Criollo breed Romosinuano, may provide similar adaptative characteristics. The objectives were to evaluate Romosinuano...

  16. Architectural differences between the hamstring muscles.

    PubMed

    Kellis, Eleftherios; Galanis, Nikiforos; Kapetanos, George; Natsis, Konstantinos

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the detailed architectural properties of the human hamstring muscles. The long (BFlh) and short (BFsh) head of biceps femoris, semimembranosus (SM) and semitendinosus (ST) muscles were dissected and removed from their origins in eight cadaveric specimens (age 67.8±4.3 years). Mean fiber length, sarcomere length, physiological cross-section area and pennation angle were measured. These data were then used to calculate a similarity index (δ) between pairs of muscles. The results indicated moderate similarity between BFlh and BFsh (δ=0.54) and between BFlh and SM (δ=0.35). In contrast, similarity was low between SM and ST (δ=0.98) and between BFlh and SM (δ=1.17). The fascicle length/muscle length ratio was higher for the ST (0.58) and BFsh (0.50) compared with the BFlh (0.27) and SM (0.22). There were, however, high inter-correlations between individual muscle architecture values, especially for muscle thickness and fascicle length data sets. Prediction of the whole hamstring architecture was achieved by combining data from all four muscles. These data show different designs of the hamstring muscles, especially between the SM and ST (medial) and BFlh and BFsh (lateral) muscles. Modeling the hamstrings as one muscle group by assuming uniform inter-muscular architecture yields less accurate representation of human hamstring muscle function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of weightlessness on muscle function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. E.; Slentz, M.

    1995-01-01

    The most studied skeletal muscles which depend on gravity, "antigravity" muscles, are located in the posterior portion of the legs. Antigravity muscles are characterized generally by a different fiber type composition than those which are considered nonpostural. The gravity-dependent function of the antigravity muscles makes them particularly sensitive to weightlessness (unweighting) resulting in a substantial loss of muscle protein, with a relatively greater loss of myofibrillar (structural) proteins. Accordingly alpha-actin mRNA decreases in muscle of rats exposed to microgravity. In the legs, the soleus seems particularly responsive to the lack of weight-bearing associated with space flight. The loss of muscle protein leads to a decreased cross-sectional area of muscle fibers, particularly of the slow-twitch, oxidative (SO) ones compared to fast-twitch glycolytic (FG) or oxidative-glycolytic (FOG) fibers. In some muscles, a shift in fiber composition from SO to FOG has been reported in the adaptation to spaceflight. Changes in muscle composition with spaceflight have been associated with decreased maximal isometric tension (Po) and increased maximal shortening velocity. In terms of fuel metabolism, results varied depending on the pathway considered. Glucose uptake, in the presence of insulin, and activities of glycolytic enzymes are increased by space flight. In contrast, oxidation of fatty acids may be diminished. Oxidation of pyruvate, activity of the citric acid cycle, and ketone metabolism in muscle seem to be unaffected by microgravity.

  18. Venous pump of the calf: a study of venous and muscular pressures.

    PubMed

    Alimi, Y S; Barthelemy, P; Juhan, C

    1994-11-01

    Little data are available concerning the relation between the muscular pumping mechanism and the variation of superficial and deep venous pressure during normal action of the calf pump; therefore we undertook this study to determine the pressure values in three compartments of the calf and in the deep and the superficial venous system and to establish correlation between muscular and venous pressure. Nine healthy young women with a mean age of 23 years (range 19 to 28 years) were examined. In the same calf, a muscular catheter was placed in the deep posterior compartment (DPC), in the superficial posterior compartment (SPC), and in the anterior tibial compartment (ATC), and a vascular catheter was placed in the popliteal vein and in the greater saphenous vein (GSV). The five lines of pressure were simultaneously recorded in the following situations: at rest, during Valsalva maneuver, foot flexion, and foot extension. The situation was studied with the patient in the following positions: decubitus, sitting, standing, and squatting. A final continuous recording was carried out after the patient had been walking for 5 minutes. Mean values with standard errors of muscular and venous pressure were established in each situation. At rest and during Valsalva maneuver, the muscular pressures did not vary, whereas venous pressures increased significantly when the patient was sitting and standing. On the other hand, squatting was associated with a rise in the muscular and vein pressures. Foot flexion entailed a significant increase in the ATC pressure and a rise in the GSV pressure, whereas foot extension caused the DPC pressure to rise without venous pressure modifications. Walking was associated with an alternating increase in the DPC, SPC, GSV and popliteal vein pressures when the foot was compressed to floor followed by a significant decrease when the foot pressure was released. The variations in the deep and superficial venous pressures when the patient is sitting and

  19. Trailer microclimate and calf welfare during fall-run transportation of beef calves in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Goldhawk, C; Janzen, E; González, L A; Crowe, T; Kastelic, J; Pajor, E; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S

    2014-11-01

    Twenty-four commercial loads of beef calves (BW 300 ± 52 kg, mean ± SD) were evaluated for associations among transportation factors, in-transit microclimate, and calf welfare. Transport factors evaluated included vehicle speed, space allowance, compartment within trailer, and transit duration. Calves were transported for 7 h 44 min ± 4 h 15 min, with space allowances ranging from 0.56 to 1.17 m(2)/animal. Compartment within trailer, space allowance, and vehicle speed did not affect the difference between compartment ceiling-level and ambient temperatures during a 30-min period of steady-state microclimate. During the steady-state period, a 1°C increase in ambient temperature above the mean of 5.6°C was associated with a 0.62°C decrease in the difference between ceiling-level and ambient temperature (P < 0.01). Ceiling-level temperature and humidity during the first 400 min of transport could be predicted by ambient conditions and vehicle speed (pseudo-r(2) of 0.91 and 0.82 for temperature and humidity ratio; P < 0.01). Events when animal-level temperature-humidity index (THI) was classified as above the "danger" level lasted for 10.2 ± 4.1 consecutive minutes. Ambient and ceiling-level THI values were not classified as above "danger" for 90.0 and 84.9% of animal-level events. Ambient and ceiling-level THI were 5.0 ± 2.1 and 4.7 ± 2.0° Flower than animal-level THI during periods of disagreement, respectively. The majority of calves arrived in good condition and biochemical indicators of calf welfare were within reference ranges for healthy cattle. Within the study population, high pre-transport cortisol and hematocrit were associated with elevated post-transport values (P < 0.01). A 1% increase in shrink during the weaning to loading interval (24 or 48 h) decreased transportation shrink by 0.26 ± 0.04% when average animal-level temperature was greater than 5°C and decreased transportation shrink by 0.11 ± 0.04% when average animal-level temperature was

  20. Frequency of Neospora caninum infections in beef cow-calf operations under extensive management.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, A M; Maresca, S; Cano, D B; Armendano, J I; Combessies, G; Lopéz-Valiente, S; Odriozola, E R; Späth, E J L; Odeón, A C; Campero, C M; Moore, D P

    2016-03-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequencies of Neospora caninum horizontal and vertical transmissions in beef cow-calf operations under three different extensive management systems: group A: 0.75 head per hectare pasturing on natural grass; group B: 1.1 head per hectare on natural grass and improved cultured pastures; and group C: 2 head per hectare on natural grass, improved cultured pasture and whole corn silage. Serum samples from 72 multiparous cows assigned to each beef cow-calf operations were obtained every 3 months during 2 years. A group of 30 replacement heifers from each group were tested similarly since they were 10-21 months old. Twenty four, 20 and 34 calves from groups A, B and C respectively, were bled before colostrum intake and again 6 months later. The samples were analyzed by indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) for detection of total IgG against N. caninum at a serological titre ≥ 200 for multiparous cows and replacement heifers, and a serological titre ≥ 25 for calves. Serum samples from seropositive cows were assessed by ELISA to evaluate the avidity of their specific antibodies. There were no differences in the proportion of seropositive cows from groups A, B and C at the beginning of the trial (p>0.05). Interestingly, the lowest serological titres in seropositive cows from all groups were observed during the first trimester (p<0.05). Although seropositive cows had medium to high avidity antibodies, suggesting chronic infection; seroconversion associated with low antibody avidity was found in 2, 3 and 3 seropositive cows from groups A, B and C. All replacement heifers remained seronegative. No abortions were recorded but 2, 1, and 2 calves from groups A, B and C were seropositive before colostrum intake, respectively. Seropositive calves born from cows having intermediate or high avidity remained with the same serostatus at 6 months of age. Even under varying extensive management conditions, both N. caninum horizontal and

  1. Modifying a Cow-Calf Biophysical Simulation Model for Analyses of Alternative Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutes, Jennifer L.

    Cow-calf producers in the United States, tasked with providing beef calves for the beef industry, have had a multitude of difficulties to overcome in recent years. Producers in northwest Arkansas were negatively impacted by high hay prices coupled with low beef cattle market prices due to severe drought experienced in portions of 2010, 2011, and 2012. During this time they also faced high grain prices, due to a record low harvest, combined with portions of the corn harvest diverted from human and animal feed to ethanol production. Tight lending policies of this time, reminiscent of the housing market crash in 2008, along with the negative public attention associated with high levels of greenhouse gas emissions associated with beef production, lead to a tough situation for cattle producers faced with increasing input costs, decreased revenue, and lack of access to loans. With these issues in mind, this research aimed to determine if incorporating switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) production on a cow-calf farm could serve to increase net returns, decrease income volatility, lower net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions without decreasing beef output, and provide a viable source of feedstock for a potential bio-refinery. The study determined that switchgrass is a potential solution to these problems and thus aimed to discover differences in switchgrass supply under different government policies in four northwestern counties in Arkansas to an as-yet, non-existent bio-refinery. It was determined that growing switchgrass on pastureland, once devoted to cow-calf production, is a viable enterprise diversification tool that under the right conditions could be used to improve producer financial and environmental outcomes. However, bioenergy production is slow to gain traction in the US due to adverse market conditions from low fossil fuel prices. Thus, in the US, there are only a few bio-refineries currently online and accepting lignocellulosic biomass, however none of them are

  2. Review: Exogenous butyrate: implications for the functional development of ruminal epithelium and calf performance.

    PubMed

    Niwińska, B; Hanczakowska, E; Arciszewski, M B; Klebaniuk, R

    2017-09-01

    The importance of the use of exogenous butyrate in calves' diets is due to its role as a factor stimulating the functional development of ruminal epithelium and improving calf performance during the transition from preruminant to ruminant status. Our review will first present results related to effects of the administration of butyrate in calves' diets on the development of ruminal epithelium toward a more effective absorption and metabolism of fermentation products from the rumen. The introduction of sodium butyrate at a level of about 0.3% of diet dry matter is accompanied by an increase to 35% in butyrate concentration in the rumen of 33-day-old calves. Mutual reliance between an enhanced ruminal concentration of butyrate and the activities of transcription factors, genes and proteins involved in cell proliferation, ketogenesis and the maintenance of cell pH homeostasis in the ruminal epithelial cells has been clearly confirmed in many experiments. Second, the review presents results related to the effects of the introduction of butyrate salts in the diet on calf performance. Of 11 studies a positive effect was found in six; five of these were obtained from the calves that started receiving butyrate supplement at a level of about 0.3% diet dry matter from the age of 3 to 5 days. Results indicate that when a supplement is given to calves soon after birth the functional development of ruminal epithelium in cooperation with the endocrine and digestion systems is transferred into improving the efficiency of rearing. There have been no studies on the effects of greater amounts of butyrate salts in milk replacer; butyrate constitutes about 1.2% of the whole cow's milk dry matter. In older calves, when butyrate administration is provided as a component of a starter concentrate at the increasing inclusion rate from 0.3% to 3.0%, the practical effect in calf performance relates to the risk of depression of rumen pH below 5.5 and accompanying disruption of the

  3. Pasture-derived greenhouse gas emissions in cow-calf production systems.

    PubMed

    Chiavegato, M B; Powers, W J; Carmichael, D; Rowntree, J E

    2015-03-01

    There is a lack of information regarding carbon dioxide (CO), methane (CH), and nitrous oxide (NO) emissions from pasture soils and the effects of grazing. The objective of this study was to quantify greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes from pasture soils grazed with cow-calf pairs managed with different stocking rates and densities. The central hypothesis was that irrigated low-density stocking systems (SysB) would result in greater GHG emissions from pasture soils than nonirrigated high-density stocking systems (SysA) and grazing-exclusion (GRE) pasture sites. The nonirrigated high-density stocking systems consisted of 120 cow-calf pairs rotating on a total of 120 ha (stocking rate 1 cow/ha, stocking density 112,000 kg BW/ha, rest period of 60 to 90 d). The irrigated low-density stocking systems consisted of 64 cow-calf pairs rotating on a total of 26 ha of pasture (stocking rate 2.5 cows/ha, stocking density 32,700 kg BW/ha, rest period of 18 to 30 d). Both systems consisted of mixed cool-season grass-legume pastures. Static chambers were randomly placed for collection of CO, CH, and NO samples. Soil temperature (ST), ambient temperature (temperature inside the chamber; AT), and soil water content (WC) were monitored and considered explanatory variables for GHG emissions. GHG fluxes were monitored for 3 yr (2011 to 2013) at the beginning (P1) and at the end (P2) of the grazing season, always postgrazing. Paddock was the experimental unit (3 pseudoreplicates per treatment), and chambers (30 chambers per paddock) were considered multiple measurements of each experimental unit. A completely randomized design considered the term year × period as a repeated measure and chamber nested within paddock and treatment as the random term. Generally, SysB had greater CO emissions than SysA and GRE pasture sites across years and periods ( < 0.01). Soil temperature, AT, and WC had effects on CO emissions. Methane and NO emissions were observed from pasture sites of the 3 systems, but

  4. Comparison between neurectomy and botulinum toxin A injection for denervated skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Feng-Chou; Hsieh, Ming-Shium; Chou, Chih-Ming

    2010-08-01

    Neurectomy and botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) injection cause denervated muscle atrophy, but questions remain about their clinical utility. We investigated time-series alterations of rat muscle weight, functional deficits, signaling pathways, and microscopic structures, to gain an understanding of the clinical implications. Between 2008 and 2009, the maximal calf circumference of patients for calf reduction either by neurectomy or BoNT-A injections were recorded for study. A rat skeletal muscle model was established through repeated or dose-adjusted BoNT-A injections and neurectomy. The survival, apoptosis pathways, functional deficits, and microscopic structures were investigated using Western blot, sciatic functional index (SFI), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. The rat muscle weight ratio of the BoNT-A group had recovered to 89.3 +/- 3.8% by week 58, but it never recovered in the neurectomy group. Muscle weight reduction by BoNT-A not only depended on the dose, but additive effects were also obtained through repeated injections. Rat SFI demonstrated rapid recovery in both groups. Molecular expressions showed a coherent and biphasic pattern. p-Akt and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) were upregulated significantly, with a peak at 8 weeks in the neurectomy group (p < 0.01), but cleaved caspase-9 and caspase-3 showed no significant changes in either group. TEM findings showed irreversible and reversible inner-structure disruption and sarcomere discontinuity in the neurectomy and BoNT-A groups, respectively. We demonstrated that denervation induced lasting muscle weight and structural changes of different degrees. Muscle weight reduction by BoNT-A was related to frequency and dose. AIF-mediated caspase-independent apoptosis was significantly different for neurectomy and BoNT-A injection.

  5. Effects of various cryoprotectants on the quality of frozen-thawed immature bovine (Qinchuan cattle) calf testicular tissue.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X-G; Li, H; Hu, J-H

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the effects of different concentrations of various cryoprotectants (CPs) on the cell viability as well as expression of spermatogenesis-related genes, such as CREM, Stra8 and HSP70-2 in frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue, immature bovine (Qinchuan cattle) calf testicular tissue was collected and cryopreserved in the cryomedia containing different concentrations (5%, 10%, 15% and 20%) of the following three CPs: glycerol, ethylene glycol (EG) and dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) respectively. After 1 month cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen, cell viability was evaluated using Trypan blue exclusion under a bright-field microscope. The mRNA expression of the three genes was also evaluated using qRT-PCR. The results indicated that different concentrations of glycerol, EG and DMSO in cryomedia during cryopreservation could protect bovine calf testicular tissue in various ways to avoid freezing or cryopreservation-induced expression changes in spermatogenesis-related genes. The highest cell viability and the three spermatogenesis-related genes (CREM, Stra8 and HSP70-2) expression level came from the cryomedia containing glycerol, EG and DMSO at 10% concentration respectively (p < .05). Meanwhile, compared with the other CPs, the frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue treated with 10% DMSO exhibited the highest cell viability and mRNA expression level of the spermatogenesis-related genes (CREM, Stra8 and HSP70-2). © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Intermittent grazing: A management tool to reduce the impact of lupine-induced Crooked Calf Syndrome (CCS)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Lupinus genus is a large group of legumes, some of which cause a congenital condition in cattle referred to as “Crooked Calf Syndrome” (CCS). Only Lupines that contain the alkaloids anagyrine or ammodendrine are problematic to cattle producers. The syndrome is manifest by a series of multiple ...

  7. Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis assemblages in weaned cattle on cow-calf operations in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To determine the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in weaned beef calves in cow-calf operations in the United States, fecal specimens were collected from 819 calves (6 to18 months of age) in 20 states from 49 locations. After cleaning and concentration procedures to maximize the potential recovery of...

  8. Crooked Calf Syndrome: Managing Lupines on Rangelands of the Channel Scablands of East-Central Washington State

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    “Crooked calf syndrome”, the contracture-type skeletal defects and cleft palate caused by velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllus) on the channel Scablands of east-central Washington State are the same as those defects induced by Conium maculatum (poison-hemlock) and Nicotiana spp. (wild tobacco) in rum...

  9. Short-term winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cover crop grazing influence on calf growth, grain yield, and soil properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Winter cover cropping has many agronomic benefits and can provide forages base for spring livestock grazing. Winter cover crop grazing has shown immediate economic benefits through increased animal production. Winter wheat pasture grazing is common in beef cow-calf production and stocker operations....

  10. Matching forage systems with cow size and environment for sustainable cow-calf production in the southern region

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There has been increased interest in intensification of cow-calf production due to an increasing world population and red meat demand along with reductions in available grazing lands. Intensified production can come about by increasing fertilization, supplementation, or feeding of stored forages, bu...

  11. Effects of supplementing methionine hydroxy analog on beef cow performance, milk production, reproduction, and preweaning calf performance.

    PubMed

    Clements, A R; Ireland, F A; Freitas, T; Tucker, H; Shike, D W

    2017-12-01

    Mature Simmental × Angus cows (214 cows; 635 ± 7 kg) were utilized to determine the effects of late gestation and early postpartum supplementation of methionine hydroxy analog (MHA) on cow BW, BCS, milk production, milk composition, reproduction, and calf performance until weaning in a fall-calving, cool-season grazing system. Cows were stratified by BW, age, AI sire, and assigned to 1 of 12 pastures (17 or 18 cows·pasture). Pastures were randomly allotted to 1 of 2 treatments: control (0.45 kg·cow·d of wheat midd-based pellets, = 6) or supplement including MHA (0.45 kg·cow·d of wheat midd-based pellets including 10 g MHA supplied as MFP (Novus International, Inc., St. Charles, MO; = 6). Treatments were fed 23 ± 7 d prepartum through 73 ± 7 d postpartum. Cow BW was collected at postcalving (27 ± 7 d postpartum), end of supplementation (73 ± 7 d postpartum), AI, pregnancy check, and end of trial (192 and 193 ± 7 d postpartum). At 73 ± 7 d postpartum, a subset of cow-calf pairs was used in a weigh-suckle-weigh procedure to determine milk production, and milk samples were taken to determine milk composition ( = 45·treatment). Serum from blood was collected at 73 ± 7 and 83 ± 7 d postpartum to determine cow cyclicity and concentrations of 2-hydroxy4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMTBa) and L-Methionine. After supplementation, all cow-calf pairs were managed as a common group until weaning (193 ± 7 d of age). Cows were bred via AI at 97 ± 7 d postpartum and clean-up bulls were turned out 11 d post-AI for a 55-d breeding season. Cows fed MHA had greater ( < 0.01) serum concentrations of HMTBa. Cow BW and BCS were not different ( ≥ 0.10) at any time points between treatments. There was no treatment effect ( ≥ 0.17) on calf birth BW, calf weaning BW (193 ± 7 d of age), or calf ADG. Calculated 24-h milk production, milk composition and component production did not differ ( ≥ 0.21). There were no differences ( ≥ 0.50) in percentage of cows cycling

  12. Healthy Muscles Matter

    MedlinePlus

    ... How can I keep my muscles more healthy? Physical activity Muscles that are not used will get smaller ... heart muscle as well! Get 60 minutes of physical activity every day. Get 60 minutes of physical activity ...

  13. Lack of age-specific influence on leg blood flow during incremental calf plantar-flexion exercise in men and women.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Heather; Lane, Louise M; Egaña, Mikel

    2018-05-01

    Age-related exercising leg blood flow (LBF) responses during dynamic knee-extension exercise and forearm blood flow responses during handgrip exercise are preserved in normally active men but attenuated in activity-matched women. We explored whether these age- and sex-specific effects are also apparent during isometric calf plantar-flexion incremental exercise. Normally active young men (YM, n = 15, 24 ± 2 years), young women (YW, n = 8, 22 ± 1 years), older men (OM, n = 13, 70 ± 7 years) and older women (OW, n = 10, 64 ± 7 years) were tested. LBF was measured between contractions using venous occlusion plethysmography. Peak force obtained was higher (P < 0.05) in men compared with women and in young compared with older individuals. However, peak LBF (YM; 971 ± 328 ml min -1 , OM; 985 ± 504 ml min -1 , YW; 844 ± 366 ml min -1 , OW; 960 ± 244 ml min -1 ) and peak leg vascular conductance [LVC = LBF/(MAP + hydrostatic pressure)] responses (YM; 6.0 ± 1.8 ml min -1  mmHg -1 , OM; 5.5 ± 2.8 ml min -1  mmHg -1 , YW; 5.3 ± 2.1 ml min -1  mmHg -1 , OW; 5.5 ± 1.6 ml min -1 mmHg -1 ) were similar among the four groups. Furthermore, the hyperaemic (YM; 8.8 ± 3.7 ml min -1  %F peak -1 OM; 8.3 ± 5.4 ml min -1  %F peak -1 , YW; 8.2 ± 3.5 ml min -1  %F peak -1 , OW; 9.6 ± 2.2 ml min -1  %F peak -1 ) and vasodilatory responses (YM; 0.053 ± 0.020 ml min -1  mmHg -1  %F peak -1 , OM; 0.048 ± 0.028 ml min -1  mmHg -1  %F peak -1 , YW; 0.051 ± 0.019 ml min -1  mmHg -1  %F peak -1 , OW; 0.055 ± 0.014 ml min -1  mmHg -1  %F peak -1 ) were not different among the four groups. These results were accompanied by similar resting LBF responses among groups and were not affected when data were normalised to estimated leg muscle mass. Our results demonstrate that exercising LBF responses during isometric incremental

  14. Brain lesions associated with clostridium perfringens type D epsilon toxin in a Holstein heifer calf.

    PubMed

    Mete, A; Garcia, J; Ortega, J; Lane, M; Scholes, S; Uzal, F A

    2013-09-01

    A 6-month-old dairy heifer calf with no premonitory signs was acutely down after the morning feeding and could not rise. On presentation, the heifer was in right lateral recumbency and moribund with opisthotonus and left hind limb paddling. Following euthanasia, gross examination of the brain revealed multifocal loss of gray-white matter distinction and extensive petechiae throughout the brainstem. On histopathological examination, there was striking white matter edema and marked perivascular proteinaceous edema surrounding many arterioles and venules (microangiopathy), mainly in the white matter of the internal capsule, thalamus, midbrain, cerebellum, and cerebellar peduncles. The perivascular neuropil was strongly positive for Alzheimer precursor protein A4. Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin was detected in the intestinal contents. This is the first report of microangiopathy in postneonatal cattle associated with the detection of epsilon toxin in the intestinal contents.

  15. Manual calf massage and passive ankle motion reduce the incidence of deep vein thromboembolism after total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Imai, Norio; Ito, Tomoyuki; Suda, Ken; Miyasaka, Dai; Endo, Naoto

    2017-07-01

    Venous thromboembolism is one of the general complications following total hip arthroplasty, wherein various preventive treatments have been recommended. Several studies reported that venous thromboembolism incidence after total hip arthroplasty was similar in patients who were administered prophylaxis with a conventional mechanical procedure alone, and those who were administered pharmacological anticoagulation therapy. Therefore, the optimum methods of prophylaxis are still controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether manual calf massage and passive ankle motion could lower the risk for venous thromboembolism after total hip arthroplasty. We retrospectively reviewed the data of 126 consecutive patients undergoing elective primary unilateral total hip arthroplasty wherein manual calf massage and passive ankle motion were performed after the surgery at our hospitals between January and October 2014. The 138 patients of the control group underwent total hip arthroplasty using the same surgical approach and pre- and postoperative protocols without this mechanical prophylaxis between January and December 2013. This mechanical prophylaxis was performed simultaneously 30 times during approximately 10 s; these procedures were repeated thrice immediately after total hip arthroplasty. Duplex ultrasonography was performed to observe the veins of both legs in all the patients on postoperative day 7. The incidence of deep vein thrombosis was 6.52% and 0.79% in the control and manual calf massage and passive ankle motion groups, respectively. The odds ratio for the manual calf massage and passive ankle motion groups was 8.72. Performing this mechanical prophylaxis reduced the incidence of venous thromboembolism after total hip arthroplasty. This mechanical prophylaxis is not only simple and easy, but is also safe and inexpensive. We therefore recommend that manual calf massage and passive ankle motion be performed in patients who will undergo total hip

  16. FGFR1 inhibits skeletal muscle atrophy associated with hindlimb suspension

    PubMed Central

    Eash, John; Olsen, Aaron; Breur, Gert; Gerrard, Dave; Hannon, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    Background Skeletal muscle atrophy can occur under many different conditions, including prolonged disuse or immobilization, cachexia, cushingoid conditions, secondary to surgery, or with advanced age. The mechanisms by which unloading of muscle is sensed and translated into signals controlling tissue reduction remains a major question in the field of musculoskeletal research. While the fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors are synthesized by, and intimately involved in, embryonic skeletal muscle growth and repair, their role maintaining adult muscle status has not been examined. Methods We examined the effects of ectopic expression of FGFR1 during disuse-mediated skeletal muscle atrophy, utilizing hindlimb suspension and DNA electroporation in mice. Results We found skeletal muscle FGF4 and FGFR1 mRNA expression to be modified by hind limb suspension,. In addition, we found FGFR1 protein localized in muscle fibers within atrophying mouse muscle which appeared to be resistant to atrophy. Electroporation and ectopic expression of FGFR1 significantly inhibited the decrease in muscle fiber area within skeletal muscles of mice undergoing suspension induced muscle atrophy. Ectopic FGFR1 expression in muscle also significantly stimulated protein synthesis in muscle fibers, and increased protein degradation in weight bearing muscle fibers. Conclusion These results support the theory that FGF signaling can play a role in regulation of postnatal skeletal muscle maintenance, and could offer potentially novel and efficient therapeutic options for attenuating muscle atrophy during aging, illness and spaceflight. PMID:17425786

  17. Expert opinion as 'validation' of risk assessment applied to calf welfare.

    PubMed

    Bracke, Marc B M; Edwards, Sandra A; Engel, Bas; Buist, Willem G; Algers, Bo

    2008-07-14

    Recently, a Risk Assessment methodology was applied to animal welfare issues in a report of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) on intensively housed calves. Because this is a new and potentially influential approach to derive conclusions on animal welfare issues, a so-called semantic-modelling type 'validation' study was conducted by asking expert scientists, who had been involved or quoted in the report, to give welfare scores for housing systems and for welfare hazards. Kendall's coefficient of concordance among experts (n = 24) was highly significant (P < 0.001), but low (0.29 and 0.18 for housing systems and hazards respectively). Overall correlations with EFSA scores were significant only for experts with a veterinary or mixed (veterinary and applied ethological) background. Significant differences in welfare scores were found between housing systems, between hazards, and between experts with different backgrounds. For example, veterinarians gave higher overall welfare scores for housing systems than ethologists did, probably reflecting a difference in their perception of animal welfare. Systems with the lowest scores were veal calves kept individually in so-called "baby boxes" (veal crates) or in small groups, and feedlots. A suckler herd on pasture was rated as the best for calf welfare. The main hazards were related to underfeeding, inadequate colostrum intake, poor stockperson education, insufficient space, inadequate roughage, iron deficiency, inadequate ventilation, poor floor conditions and no bedding. Points for improvement of the Risk Assessment applied to animal welfare include linking information, reporting uncertainty and transparency about underlying values. The study provides novel information on expert opinion in relation to calf welfare and shows that Risk Assessment applied to animal welfare can benefit from a semantic modelling approach.

  18. Effects of spray-dried whole egg and biotin in calf milk replacer.

    PubMed

    Quigley, J D

    2002-01-01

    Holstein bull calves (n = 120) were fed milk replacers containing 0, 10, or 20% of the formulation (0, 22, or 44% of crude protein) as spray-dried whole egg powder in a 56-d feeding trial. Milk replacer was medicated with oxytetracycline and neomycin and was fed from d 1 to 42 of the study in a phase-fed program. All experimental milk replacers were supplemented with B vitamins, except biotin. One half of all calves were supplemented with 1 mg/kg of supplemental biotin to determine whether avidin in the egg protein product inhibited growth. Increasing spray-dried whole egg caused a linear reduction in body weight, body weight gain at 28 and 56 d of the study, calf starter intake, and feed efficiency. Calves fed milk replacers containing 0, 10, and 20% spray-dried whole egg gained an average of 486, 369, and 302 g/d, respectively, during the 56-d trial. Efficiency of feed utilization was 446, 318, and 231 g of body weight gain per kilogram of dry matter intake. Improvement in body weight and feed efficiency occurred when calves began consuming calf starter on d 29. Digestibility of protein or fat from egg may have been reduced during the trial; however, the addition of biotin to the milk replacer did not influence animal performance, suggesting that avidin in spray-dried whole egg was not responsible for impaired performance. The spray-dried whole egg product used in this study did not provide nutrients to support adequate growth of milk-fed calves.

  19. Impact of confinement housing on study end-points in the calf model of cryptosporidiosis.

    PubMed

    Graef, Geneva; Hurst, Natalie J; Kidder, Lance; Sy, Tracy L; Goodman, Laura B; Preston, Whitney D; Arnold, Samuel L M; Zambriski, Jennifer A

    2018-04-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death in children < 5 years globally and the parasite genus Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of that diarrhea. The global disease burden attributable to cryptosporidiosis is substantial and the only approved chemotherapeutic, nitazoxanide, has poor efficacy in HIV positive children. Chemotherapeutic development is dependent on the calf model of cryptosporidiosis, which is the best approximation of human disease. However, the model is not consistently applied across research studies. Data collection commonly occurs using two different methods: Complete Fecal Collection (CFC), which requires use of confinement housing, and Interval Collection (IC), which permits use of box stalls. CFC mimics human challenge model methodology but it is unknown if confinement housing impacts study end-points and if data gathered via this method is suitable for generalization to human populations. Using a modified crossover study design we compared CFC and IC and evaluated the impact of housing on study end-points. At birth, calves were randomly assigned to confinement (n = 14) or box stall housing (n = 9), or were challenged with 5 x 107 C. parvum oocysts, and followed for 10 days. Study end-points included fecal oocyst shedding, severity of diarrhea, degree of dehydration, and plasma cortisol. Calves in confinement had no significant differences in mean log oocysts enumerated per gram of fecal dry matter between CFC and IC samples (P = 0.6), nor were there diurnal variations in oocyst shedding (P = 0.1). Confinement housed calves shed significantly more oocysts (P = 0.05), had higher plasma cortisol (P = 0.001), and required more supportive care (P = 0.0009) than calves in box stalls. Housing method confounds study end-points in the calf model of cryptosporidiosis. Due to increased stress data collected from calves in confinement housing may not accurately estimate the efficacy of chemotherapeutics targeting C. parvum.

  20. Assessment of degree of hydration in dialysis patients using whole body and calf bioimpedance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, F.; Kotanko, P.; Handelman, G. J.; Raimann, J.; Liu, L.; Carter, M.; Kuhlmann, M. K.; Siebert, E.; Leonard, E. F.; Levin, N. W.

    2010-04-01

    Prescription of an appropriate post hemodialysis (HD) dialysis target weight requires accurate evaluation of the degree of hydration. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a state of normal hydration as defined by calf bioimpedance spectroscopy (cBIS) could be characterized in HD and normal subjects (NS). cBIS was performed in 62 NS (33 m/29 f) and 30 HD patients (16 m /14 f) pre- and post-dialysis to measure extracellular resistance. Normalized calf resistivity at 5 kHz (ρN,5) was defined as resistivity divided by body mass index. Measurements were made at baseline (BL) and at a state of normal hydration (NH) established following the progressive reduction of post-HD weight over successive dialysis treatments until the ρN,5 was in the range of NS. Blood pressures were measured pre- and post-HD treatment. ρN,5 in males and females differed significantly in NS (20.5±1.99 vs 21.7±2.6 10-2 Ωm3/kg, p>0.05). In patients, ρN,5 notably increased and reached NH range due to progressive decrease in body weight, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) significantly decreased pre- and post-HD between BL and NBH respectively. This establishes the use of ρN,5 as a new comparator allowing the clinician to incrementally monitor the effect of removal of extracellular fluid from patients over a course of dialysis treatments.

  1. Effect of ractopamine-hydrochloride and trenbolone acetate on longissimus muscle fiber area, diameter, and satellite cell numbers in cull beef cows.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, J M; Carter, J N; Johnson, D D; Ouellette, S E; Johnson, S E

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of coadministration of ractopamine-HCl (RAC) and trenbolone acetate plus estradiol (TBA) on LM fiber cross-sectional area (CSA), diameter, fiber-associated myonuclei, and satellite cell number. Culled crossbred beef cows (n = 98; 11 +/- 1.8 yr old; BCS 4.3 +/- 0.03) from a single ranch in south Florida were fed a concentrate diet for 92 d in a 2 x 2, randomized block design. Cows were blocked by BW on arrival into light (initial BW = 369.75 +/- 2.68 kg and end BW = 501.96 +/- 6.90 kg) and heavy (initial BW = 418.31 +/- 2.75 kg and end BW = 522.15 +/- 7.09 kg) groups before assignment to treatment. Factors included dietary treatment (0 or 15 ppm) and implant status (0 or 80 mg of trenbolone acetate + 16 mg of estradiol). Ractopamine was provided in the diet to 2 pens or half the treatments during the final 35 d of feeding. Cows were slaughtered on d 92. Forty-eight hours postmortem, the 6th-rib portions of the LM were obtained from 10 randomly selected carcasses from each treatment group (n = 40). Cryosections (12 mum) were immunostained for dystrophin and myosin heavy chain I or II for the measurement of fiber CSA and type, respectively. Fiber-associated nuclei and satellite cell numbers were measured in serial cryosections. There was a RAC x TBA interaction (P < 0.05). Type I fiber CSA and diameter were increased (P < 0.05) by TBA and RAC. Type I CSA and diameter were larger (P < 0.05) in TBA + RAC than RAC only. Type II fiber CSA and diameter were not affected by TBA (P = 0.48), RAC (P = 0.15), or TBA + RAC (P = 0.60). Satellite cell numbers and fiber-associated nuclei were not affected (P > 0.05) by implant status or ractopamine supplementation. These results indicate that TBA and RAC preferentially increase the size of type I fibers in cull cows.

  2. The severity of muscle ischemia during intermittent claudication.

    PubMed

    Egun, Anselm; Farooq, Vasim; Torella, Francesco; Cowley, Richard; Thorniley, Maureen S; McCollum, Charles N

    2002-07-01

    The degree of ischemia during intermittent claudication is difficult to quantify. We evaluated calf muscle ischemia during exercise in patients with claudication with near infrared spectroscopy. A Critikon Cerebral Redox Model 2001 (Johnson & Johnson Medical, Newport, Gwent, United Kingdom) was used to measure calf muscle deoxygenated hemoglobin (HHb), oxygenated hemoglobin (O(2)Hb), and total hemoglobin levels and oxygenation index (HbD; HbD = O(2)Hb - HHb) in 16 patients with claudication and in 14 control subjects before, during, and after walking on a treadmill for 1 minute (submaximal exercise). These measures were repeated after a second maximal exercise in patients with claudication and after 7 minutes walking in control subjects. Near-infrared spectroscopy readings during maximal exercise were then compared with a model of total ischemia induced with tourniquet in 16 young control subjects. Total hemoglobin level changed little during exercise in both patients with claudication and control subjects. HHb levels rose, and O(2)Hb level and HbD falls were more pronounced in patients with claudication than in control subjects after submaximal and maximal exercise. During maximal exercise, HbD fell markedly by a median (interquartile range) of 210.5 micromol/cm (108.2 to 337.0 micromol/cm) in patients with claudication compared with 66.0 micromol/cm (44.0 to 101.0 micromol/cm) in elderly control subjects and 41.0 micromol/cm (36.0 to 65.0 micromol/cm) in young control subjects (P <.001). This fall also was greater than the HbD fall induced with tourniquet ischemia at 90.8 micromol/cm (57.6 to 126.2 micromol/cm; P =.006). Hemoglobin desaturation in exercising calf muscle is profound in patients with claudication, considerably greater even than that induced with three minutes of tourniquet occlusion. Further studies are necessary to investigate the relationship between the inflammatory response and near-infrared spectroscopy during exercise in patients with

  3. Comparison Thigh Skeletal Muscles between Snowboarding Halfpipe Athletes and Healthy Volunteers Using Quantitative Multi-Parameter Magnetic Resonance Imaging at Rest.

    PubMed

    Sun, He; Xu, Meng-Tao; Wang, Xiao-Qi; Wang, Meng-Hu; Wang, Bao-Heng; Wang, Feng-Zhe; Pan, Shi-Nong

    2018-05-05

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging provides a unique, noninvasive diagnostic platform to quantify the physiological and biochemical variables of skeletal muscle at rest. This study was to investigate the difference in thigh skeletal muscles between snowboarding halfpipe athletes and healthy volunteers via multiparametric MR imaging. A comparative study was conducted between 12 healthy volunteers and 14 snowboarding halfpipe athletes. MR scanning targeted the left leg at the level of the proximal thigh on a 3.0T MR system. The measured parameters compared between the two groups included T1, T2, T2* relaxation times, fat fraction (FF), and cross-sectional area (CSA) of the quadriceps femoris and the hamstring muscles. Statistical analysis was carried out using independent sample t-test. Interrater reliability was also assessed with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). It was statistically equivalent between two groups in age, body mass index, thigh circumference, calf circumference, systolic blood pressure, and resting heart rate (all P > 0.05). However, the T1 and T2 values of the hamstring muscles in the athlete group were found to be significantly shorter than those in control group (T1: 1063.3 ± 24.1 ms vs. 1112.0 ± 38.2 ms in biceps femoris, 1050.4 ± 31.2 ms vs. 1095.0 ± 39.5 ms in semitendinosus, 1053.1 ± 31.7 ms vs. 1118.4 ± 40.0 ms in semimembranosus, respectively; T2: 33.4 ± 0.7 ms vs. 36.1 ± 1.9 ms in biceps femoris, 34.6 ± 2.0 ms vs. 37.0 ± 1.9 ms in semitendinosus, 36.9 ± 1.5 ms vs. 38.9 ± 2.4 ms in semimembranosus, respectively; all P < 0.05) although T2* relaxation time was detected with no significant difference. The FF of the hamstring muscles was obviously less than the control group (5.5 ± 1.9% vs. 10.7 ± 4.7%, P < 0.001). In addition, the quadriceps' CSA in the athlete group was substantially larger than the control group (8039.0 ± 1072.3 vs. 6258.2 ± 852.0 mm 2 , P < 0.001). Interrater reliability was excellent (ICC: 0

  4. Neurogenic muscle hypertrophy in a 12-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Zutelija Fattorini, Matija; Gagro, Alenka; Dapic, Tomislav; Krakar, Goran; Marjanovic, Josip

    2017-01-01

    Muscular hypertrophy secondary to denervation is very rare, but well-documented phenomena in adults. This is the first report of a child with neurogenic unilateral hypertrophy due to S1 radiculopathy. A 12-year-old girl presented with left calf hypertrophy and negative history of low back pain or trauma. The serum creatinine kinase level and inflammatory markers were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging showed muscle hypertrophy of the left gastrocnemius and revealed a protruded lumbar disc at the L5-S1 level. The protruded disc abuts the S1 root on the left side. Electromyography showed mild left S1 radiculopathy. Passive stretching and work load might clarify the origin of neurogenic hypertrophy but there is still a need for further evidence. Clinical, laboratory, magnetic resonance imaging and electromyography findings showed that S1 radiculopathy could be a cause of unilateral calf swelling in youth even in the absence of a history of back or leg pain. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Extraocular muscle architecture in hawks and owls.

    PubMed

    Plochocki, Jeffrey H; Segev, Tamar; Grow, Wade; Hall, Margaret I

    2018-02-06

    A complete and accurate understanding of extraocular muscle function is important to the veterinary care of the avian eye. This is especially true for birds of prey, which rely heavily on vision for survival and yet are prone to ocular injury and disease. To better understand the function of extraocular muscles in birds of prey, we studied extraocular muscle architecture grossly and histologically. This sample was composed of two each of the following species: red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), Harris's hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus), great horned owl (Bubo virginianus), and barn owl (Tyto alba). All extraocular muscles were dissected and weighed. To analyze muscle fiber architecture, the superior oblique and quadratus muscles were dissected, weighed, and sectioned at 5 μm thickness in the transverse plane. We calculated the physiologic cross-sectional area and the ratio of muscle mass to predicted effective maximum tetanic tension. Hawk and owl extraocular muscles exhibit significant physiological differences that play roles in ocular movements and closure of the nictitating membrane. Owls, which do not exhibit extraocular movement, have muscle architecture suited to stabilize the position of a massive, tubular eye that protrudes significantly from the orbit. Hawks, which have a more globose eye that is largely contained within the orbit, do not require as much muscular stability and instead have muscle architecture that facilitates rapid eye movement. © 2018 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  6. Nutritional status, muscle mass and strength of elderly in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Klee Oehlschlaeger, Maria Helena; Alberici Pastore, Carla; Schüler Cavalli, Adriana; Gonzalez, Maria Cristina

    2014-09-17

    to assess and compare nutritional status and functional capacity of elderly goers of groups for guided physical activity or for guided recreational activities. Cross-sectional study with 210 elderly (60 years old or more) of coexistence groups (for physical or recreational activities). Nutritional status was assessed by the Mini Nutritional Assessment and Body Mass Index. Muscle mass was estimated by calf circumference (cut point of 31cm for both genders) and strength was evaluated by hydraulic dynamometer, which measures the opponent's finger maximal strength. The study was approved by Research Ethics Committee. Were enrolled 106 elderly in recreational group and 104 in physical activity group. Most of the sample (86.7%) were female. The mean age was 69.3 years old. Body Mass Index showed 82.9% of seniors with excessive weight (87.7% in recreational and 77.9% in physical activity group, p=0.04). When assessed by Mini Nutritional Assessment, 22.9% was classified as malnourished or at risk of malnutrition, with no difference between groups. The mean calf circumference was 37.3 ± 4.1 cm, decreasing significantly with aging (p=0.05) and being higher in elderly with higher BMI (p=0.001). Calf circumference was also greater in physical activity group. Muscle strength's mean was 6.77 (IQR: 5.83, 7.90) kg, with significantly higher values among men. There was no significant variation between age, nutritional status or between groups. This study presented as its main findings that most seniors showed no nutritional risk, with high prevalence of overweight. The practice of physical activities was associated with greater CP and greater functionality of the opposing finger muscles, which indicates the importance of maintaining physical activity in the aging process, in order to prevent frailty and disability. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. Velopharyngeal closure and the longus capitis muscle.

    PubMed

    Yamawaki, Y; Nishimura, Y; Suzuki, Y

    1996-09-01

    The dynamic mechanism of velopharyngeal function not only in normal individuals but also in patients with velopharyngeal insufficiency, which is mainly related to cleft palate, has been the subject of considerable interest and controversy. Recently, in order to clarify velopharyngeal movement in the valvular action on phonation we examined dynamic MR images of this area taken in the transverse plane in parallel with the muscle sling of levator veli palatini. In cases in whom the closure pattern in that plane is circular, detailed observation revealed a very interesting result; that is, the longus capitis muscle, one of the group of anterior vertebral muscles, is directly involved in velopharyngeal valving function. It has not previously been reported that the longus capitis muscle acts as one of the velopharyngeal closure muscles, in addition to levator veli palatini. The present study demonstrated that contraction of the muscle contributed to velopharyngeal closure by forward movement of the pharyngeal wall.

  8. Prevalence and Genomic Characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Cow-Calf Herds throughout California.

    PubMed

    Worley, Jay N; Flores, Kristopher A; Yang, Xun; Chase, Jennifer A; Cao, Guojie; Tang, Shuai; Meng, Jianghong; Atwill, Edward R

    2017-08-15

    Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 is a zoonotic food- and waterborne bacterial pathogen that causes a high hospitalization rate and can cause life-threatening complications. Increasingly, E. coli O157:H7 infections appear to originate from fresh produce. Ruminants, such as cattle, are a prominent reservoir of E. coli O157:H7 in the United States. California is one of the most agriculturally productive regions in the world for fresh produce, beef, and milk. The close proximity of fresh produce and cattle presents food safety challenges on a uniquely large scale. We performed a survey of E. coli O157:H7 on 20 farms in California to observe the regional diversity and prevalence of E. coli O157:H7. Isolates were obtained from enrichment cultures of cow feces. Some farms were sampled on two dates. Genomes from isolates were sequenced to determine their relatedness and pathogenic potential. E. coli O157:H7 was isolated from approximately half of the farms. The point prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 on farms was highly variable, ranging from zero to nearly 90%. Within farms, generally one or a few lineages were found, even when the rate of isolation was high. On farms with high isolation rates, a single clonal lineage accounted for most of the isolates. Farms that were visited months after the first visit might have had the same lineages of E. coli O157:H7. Strains of E. coli O157:H7 may be persistent for months on farms. IMPORTANCE This survey of 20 cow-calf operations from different regions of California provides an in depth look at resident Escherichia coli O157:H7 populations at the molecular level. E. coli O157:H7 is found to have a highly variable prevalence, and with whole-genome sequencing, high prevalences in herds were found to be due to a single lineage shed from multiple cows. Few repeat lineages were found between farms in this area; therefore, we predict that E. coli O157:H7 has significant diversity in this area beyond what is detected in this survey. All

  9. Prevalence and Genomic Characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Cow-Calf Herds throughout California

    PubMed Central

    Worley, Jay N.; Flores, Kristopher A.; Yang, Xun; Chase, Jennifer A.; Cao, Guojie; Tang, Shuai; Meng, Jianghong

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 is a zoonotic food- and waterborne bacterial pathogen that causes a high hospitalization rate and can cause life-threatening complications. Increasingly, E. coli O157:H7 infections appear to originate from fresh produce. Ruminants, such as cattle, are a prominent reservoir of E. coli O157:H7 in the United States. California is one of the most agriculturally productive regions in the world for fresh produce, beef, and milk. The close proximity of fresh produce and cattle presents food safety challenges on a uniquely large scale. We performed a survey of E. coli O157:H7 on 20 farms in California to observe the regional diversity and prevalence of E. coli O157:H7. Isolates were obtained from enrichment cultures of cow feces. Some farms were sampled on two dates. Genomes from isolates were sequenced to determine their relatedness and pathogenic potential. E. coli O157:H7 was isolated from approximately half of the farms. The point prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 on farms was highly variable, ranging from zero to nearly 90%. Within farms, generally one or a few lineages were found, even when the rate of isolation was high. On farms with high isolation rates, a single clonal lineage accounted for most of the isolates. Farms that were visited months after the first visit might have had the same lineages of E. coli O157:H7. Strains of E. coli O157:H7 may be persistent for months on farms. IMPORTANCE This survey of 20 cow-calf operations from different regions of California provides an in depth look at resident Escherichia coli O157:H7 populations at the molecular level. E. coli O157:H7 is found to have a highly variable prevalence, and with whole-genome sequencing, high prevalences in herds were found to be due to a single lineage shed from multiple cows. Few repeat lineages were found between farms in this area; therefore, we predict that E. coli O157:H7 has significant diversity in this area beyond what is detected in this survey

  10. Association of polymorphism harbored by tumor necrosis factor alpha gene and sex of calf with lactation performance in cattle.

    PubMed

    Yudin, N S; Aitnazarov, R B; Voevoda, M I; Gerlinskaya, L A; Moshkin, M P

    2013-10-01

    In a majority of mammals, male infants have heavier body mass and grow faster than female infants. Accordingly, male offspring nursing requires a much greater maternal energy contribution to lactation. It is possible that the maternal-fetal immunoendocrine dialog plays an important role in female preparation for lactation during pregnancy. Immune system genes are an integral part of gene regulatory networks in lactation and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) is a proinflammatory cytokine that also plays an important role in normal mammary gland development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the sex of calf and/or the -824A/G polymorphism in the promoter region of TNFα gene on milk performance traits in Black Pied cattle over the course of lactation. We also studied the allele frequency differences of -824A/G variants across several cattle breeds, which were bred in different climatic conditions. The G allele frequency decreased gradually over the course of lactation events in the Black Pied dairy cattle because of a higher culling rate of cows with the G/G genotype (p<0.001). In contrast to the genotypes A/A and A/G, cows with G/G genotype showed significant variability of milk and milk fat yield subject to sex of delivered calf. Milk yield and milk fat yield were significantly higher in the case of birth of a bull calf than with a heifer calf (p<0.03). The G allele frequency varies from 48% to 58% in Grey Ukrainian and Black Pied cattle to 77% in aboriginal Yakut cattle. Our results suggest that the TNFα -824A/G gene polymorphism may have an influence on the reproductive efforts of cows over the course of lactation events depending on the sex of progeny. Allocation of resources according to sex of the calf allows optimizing the energy cost of lactation. This may be a probable reason for high G allele frequency in Yakut cattle breeding in extreme environmental conditions. Similarly, the dramatic fall in milk production after birth of a

  11. Weaning reactions in beef cattle are adaptively adjusted to the state of the cow and the calf.

    PubMed

    Stěhulová, I; Valníčková, B; Šárová, R; Špinka, M

    2017-03-01

    Abrupt weaning as practiced in beef cattle husbandry is stressful for both the cow and her offspring. However, the reaction to weaning varies among individuals. Based on the theory of maternal care allocation, we derived and tested the following hypotheses: 1) cow reaction to weaning will be stronger if the calf is young, if the calf is a female, and if the calf had higher daily weight gain; 2) cows in a higher parity and cows that are not concurrently pregnant will react more on weaning; and 3) young and female calves, and also calves with higher daily weight gain will respond more to weaning. We recorded frequency of vocalization and time spent moving in 50 cow-calf pairs (27 males and 23 females) immediately after weaning at 151 to 274 d of age. The recordings were made at 0 to 2 h, 6 to 8 h, and 24 to 26 h after the separation of the calves from the cows. Linear mixed models were used to test the predictions. In cows, age of the calf had the strongest effect with mothers of younger calves vocalizing more ( < 0.05). Frequency of vocalization was higher in mothers of calves with higher daily weight gain ( < 0.01) and in nonpregnant mothers ( < 0.01). Frequency of the moving was higher in younger cows ( < 0.05). Sex of the calf had no effect. In calves, females vocalized ( < 0.001) and moved ( < 0.01) more than males and calves with higher daily weight gain also called more ( < 0.01). The relationships between the 2 behaviors and their time courses were different in cows and calves. In cows, vocalization and movement were correlated ( < 0.001) and both increased until 6 to 8 h and then plateaued or declined ( < 0.001). In calves, vocalizations steadily increased until 24 to 26 h ( < 0.001) whereas movement remained unchanged in time and was uncorrelated with vocalizations. These differences indicate that vocalization may be a more sensitive indicator of weaning stress than movement. Our results document that the ability to adaptively adjust mother

  12. Skeletal muscle biopsy studies of cardiac patients.

    PubMed

    Fekete, G; Boros, Z; Cserhalmi, L; Apor, P

    1987-01-01

    Eleven patients diagnosed and treated for congestive cardiomyopathy (COCM) of unknown aetiology, and another 10 patients, with congestive alcoholic heart muscle disease (ACOCM) were studied. Muscle biopsy samples were obtained from the vastus lateralis (VL) and the gastrocnemius (G) muscles. In part of the sample muscle the fibre pattern was classified by means of ATPase activity staining, a technique based on the pH lability of the fibres concerned. Fibre typing and area measurements were carried out by light microscope. The other part of the sample was used as muscle homogenate of which the Ca2+-activated ATPase activity as well as citrate synthetase (CS) and aldolase activities were measured. No significant difference was found in these enzyme activities between the two groups of patients. The proportion of the slow twitch (ST) fibres in the VL, mainly in the patients with ACOCM, was lower as compared to data for healthy subjects. A similar tendency was revealed for G. In both muscles tested, the area of ST fibres was smaller in the ACOCM group. The fast twitch (FT) fibre area proved to be slightly different in the two groups of subjects tested. Occurrence of degenerative signs in the histological tests was higher in the ACOCM than in the COCM group. It was concluded that differences in the skeletal muscles of patients with ACOCM and COCM may primarily account for the alcoholism. The disease of the heart muscle has little effect on the function of skeletal muscle. Even so, a low amount or lack of physical activity may have an unfavourable influence on the skeletal muscles of patients with heart muscle disease.

  13. Quantitative Muscle Ultrasonography in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyewon; Jee, Sungju; Park, Soo Ho; Ahn, Seung-Chan; Im, Juneho; Sohn, Min Kyun

    2016-12-01

    To assess the reliability of quantitative muscle ultrasonography (US) in healthy subjects and to evaluate the correlation between quantitative muscle US findings and electrodiagnostic study results in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The clinical significance of quantitative muscle US in CTS was also assessed. Twenty patients with CTS and 20 age-matched healthy volunteers were recruited. All control and CTS subjects underwent a bilateral median and ulnar nerve conduction study (NCS) and quantitative muscle US. Transverse US images of the abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) were obtained to measure muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), thickness, and echo intensity (EI). EI was determined using computer-assisted, grayscale analysis. Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability for quantitative muscle US in control subjects, and differences in muscle thickness, CSA, and EI between the CTS patient and control groups were analyzed. Relationships between quantitative US parameters and electrodiagnostic study results were evaluated. Quantitative muscle US had high inter-rater and intra-rater reliability in the control group. Muscle thickness and CSA were significantly decreased, and EI was significantly increased in the APB of the CTS group (all p<0.05). EI demonstrated a significant positive correlation with latency of the median motor and sensory NCS in CTS patients (p<0.05). These findings suggest that quantitative muscle US parameters may be useful for detecting muscle changes in CTS. Further study involving patients with other neuromuscular diseases is needed to evaluate peripheral muscle change using quantitative muscle US.

  14. Molecular events in skeletal muscle during disuse atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandarian, Susan C.; Stevenson, Eric J.

    2002-01-01

    This review summarizes the current knowledge of the molecular processes underlying skeletal muscle atrophy due to disuse. Because the processes involved with muscle wasting due to illness are similar to disuse, this literature is used for comparison. Areas that are ripe for further study and that will advance our understanding of muscle atrophy are suggested.

  15. Metabolic adaptation of skeletal muscles to gravitational unloading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohira, Y.; Yasui, W.; Kariya, F.; Wakatsuki, T.; Nakamura, K.; Asakura, T.; Edgerton, V. R.

    Responses of high-energy phosphates and metabolic properties to hindlimb suspension were studied in adult rats. The relative content of phosphocreatine (PCr) in the calf muscles was significantly higher in rats suspended for 10 days than in age-matched cage controls. The Pi/PCr ratio, where Pi is inorganic phosphate, in suspended muscles was less than controls. The absolute weights of soleus and medial gastrocnemius (MG) were approximately 40% less than controls. Although the % fiber distribution in MG was unchanged, the % slow fibers decreased and the % fibers which were classified as both slow and fast was increased in soleus. The activities (per unit weight or protein) of succinate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase in soleus were unchanged but those of cytochrome oxidase, β-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase, and citrate synthase were decreased following unloading. None of these enzyme activities in MG changed. However, the total levels of all enzymes in whole muscles decreased by suspension. It is suggested that shift of slow muscle toward fast type by unloading is associated with a decrease in mitochondrial biogenesis. Further, gravitational unloading affected the levels of muscle proteins differently even in the same mitochondrial enzymes. Unloading-related atrophy is prominent in red muscle or slow-twitch fiber 1, 2. Such atrophy is accompanied by a shift of contractile properties toward fast-twitch type 2-9. Further, inhibition of mitochondrial metabolism in these muscles is also reported by some studies 10-14 suggesting a lowered mitochondrial biogenesis, although results from some studies do not necessarily agree 1, 7, 15. However, the precise mechanism responsible for such alterations of muscle properties in response to gravitational unloading is unclear. On the contrary, mitochondrial biogenesis, suggested by mitochondrial enzyme activities and/or mass, is stimulated in muscles with depleted high-energy phosphates by cold exposure 16 and/or by feeding

  16. Aging changes in the bones - muscles - joints

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/article/004015.htm Aging changes in the bones - muscles - joints To use the sharing features on ... to the body. Joints are the areas where bones come together. They allow the skeleton to be ...

  17. Alterations in Skeletal Muscle Function with Microgravity, and the Protective Effects of High Resistance Isometric and Isotonic Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitts, R. H.; Hurst, J. E.; Norenberg, K. M.; Widrick, J. J.; Riley, D. A.; Bain, J. L. W.; Trappe, S. W.; Trappe, T. A.; Costill, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity or models designed to mimic the unloaded condition, such as bed rest in humans and hindlimb unloading (HU) in rats leads to skeletal muscle atrophy, a loss in peak force and power, and an increased susceptibility to fatigue. The posterior compartment muscles of the lower leg (calf muscle group) appear to be particularly susceptible. Following only 1 wk in space or HU, rat soleus muscle showed a 30 to 40% loss in wet weight. After 3 wk of HU, almost all of the atrophied soleus fibers showed a significant increase in maximal shortening velocity (V(sub 0)), while only 25 to 30 % actually transitioned to fast fibers. The increased V(sub 0), was protective in that it reduced the decline in peak power associated with the reduced peak force. When the soleus is stimulated in situ following HU or zero-g one observes an increased rate and extent of fatigue, and in the former the increased fatigue is associated with a more rapid depletion of muscle glycogen and lactate production. Our working hypothesis is that following HU or spaceflight in rats and bed rest or spaceflight in humans limb skeletal muscles during contractile activity depend more on carbohydrates and less on fatty acids for their substrate supply. Baldwin et al. found 9 days of spaceflight to reduce by 37% the ability of both the high and low oxidative regions of the vastus muscle to oxidize long-chain fatty acids. This decline was not associated with any change in the enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle or oxidation pathway. The purpose of the current research was to establish the extent of functional change in the slow type I and fast type H fibers of the human calf muscle following 17 days of spaceflight, and determine the cellular mechanisms of the observed changes. A second goal was to study the effectiveness of high resistance isotonic and isometric exercise in preventing the deleterious functional changes associated with unloading.

  18. Inclusion of tallow and soybean oil to calf starters fed to dairy calves from birth to four months of age on calf performance and digestion.

    PubMed

    Hill, T M; Bateman, H G; Aldrich, J M; Quigley, J D; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2015-07-01

    Energy demands for calves can increase during periods of heat and cold stress. One way to potentially increase energy intake is to increase the energy density of the feed with fat. Trial 1a compared a control starter with no added fat or oil (CON) to starters with 2% tallow (TAL) and 2% soybean oil (SBO). Starters were 20% crude protein (CP) and 45 to 47% starch. Male Holstein calves that were initially 3 to 5d of age were fed a 27% CP, 17% fat milk replacer at 0.66kg of dry matter daily and fully weaned by 42d of a 56-d trial. Trial 1b estimated the digestion of the diets (employed chromic oxide as an indigestible digesta flow marker) using a subset of 5 weaned calves per treatment between d 52 and 56. Trial 2 used Holstein calves initially 59 to 61d of age fed starters CON and SBO blended with 5% chopped grass hay over a 56-d trial. Trial 3 used Holstein calves initially 59 to 61d of age fed starters CON and TAL blended with 5% chopped grass hay over a 56-d trial. Treatments were compared using repeated measures (where appropriate) in a completely randomized design. In trials 1a and 1b, preplanned contrasts compared CON versus TAL and CON versus SBO. Compared with CON, calves fed SBO had reduced starter intake, average daily gain, and digestion of dry matter, organic matter, and CP before 8wk of age. Compared with CON, calves fed SBO had reduced average daily gain and change in hip width from 2 to 4 mo of age. Compared with CON, calves fed TAL had reduced average daily gain and tended to have reduced change in hip width from 2 to 4 mo of age. Calculated metabolizable energy intake was not increased in any trial by added fat or oil. Tallow and soybean oil inclusion at 2% of the starter feed was not advantageous for calf growth before 4 mo of age. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Stockpiled "Tifton 85" bermudagrass for cow-calf production as influenced by nitrogen fertilization.

    PubMed

    Holland, Courteney McNamee; Marchant, Kaleb; Kriese-Anderson, Lisa; Gamble, Brian; Muntifering, Russell

    2018-05-28

    A 2-yr study was conducted to determine the effects of rate of N fertilization on productivity and nutritive value of stockpiled "Tifton 85" bermudagrass for lactating-cow and calf performance. On 31 October 2012 (year 1) and 11 November 2013 (year 2), 16 Angus × Simmental cows (mean initial BW for both years, 647 ± 23 kg) and their calves (mean age for both years, 16 ± 3 d) were assigned randomly to 0.76-ha paddocks (2 cow-calf pairs/paddock) of stockpiled "Tifton 85" bermudagrass pasture that had been cut to a 10-cm stubble height in early August and fertilized with either 56 (56N), 112 (112N), or 168 (168N) kg N/ha (2 paddocks/treatment), or to replicate 0.41-ha paddocks (2 cow-calf pairs/paddock) of dormant pasture with free-choice access to August-cut "Tifton 85" bermudagrass hay plus 2.7 kg whole cottonseed daily (HAY). Cows were allowed access to strips of ungrazed forage by moving polytape every 3 to 4 d to maintain a DM harvest efficiency of approximately 75%. In year 1, forage mass (6,113 kg DM/ha), IVDMD (60.9%), and grazing d/ha (314) were not different (P > 0.05) among the stockpile treatments over a 116-d grazing period; mean forage IVDMD (60.1%) and CP (12.7%) in the stockpiled treatments were greater (P < 0.05) than the HAY treatment. Stockpiled forage CP concentration was greater (P < 0.05) for the 168N than 56N and 112N treatments and was greater (P < 0.05) for the 56N than 112N treatment. In year 2, mean forage CP concentration was greater (P < 0.05) for the 168N (14.5%) than 56N (11.3%), 112N (12.0%), and HAY (9.0%) treatments; mean stockpiled forage IVDMD (59.5%) was greater (P < 0.05) than the HAY treatment (46.3%); and mean forage mass for the 168N treatment (5,017 kg DM/ha) was 378 kg and 298 kg DM/ha greater (P < 0.05) than the 112N and 56N treatments, respectively. Mean cow BW (611 ± 147 kg), body condition scores (5.5 ± 0.6), and milk production (9.0 ± 6.0 kg/d) were not different (P > 0.05) among treatments. Mean blood urea-N (BUN

  20. Pain pressure threshold of a muscle tender spot increases following local and non-local rolling massage.

    PubMed

    Aboodarda, S J; Spence, A J; Button, Duane C

    2015-09-28

    The aim of the present study was to determine the acute effect of rolling massage on pressure pain threshold (PPT) in individuals with tender spots in their plantar flexor muscles. In a randomized control trial and single blinded study, tender spots were identified in 150 participants' plantar flexor muscles (gastrocnemius or soleus). Then participants were randomly assigned to one of five intervention groups (n = 30): 1) heavy rolling massage on the calf that exhibited the higher tenderness (Ipsi-R), 2) heavy rolling massage on the contralateral calf (Contra-R), 3) light stroking of the skin with roller massager on the calf that exhibited the higher tenderness (Sham), 4) manual massage on the calf that exhibited the higher tenderness (Ipsi-M) and 5) no intervention (Control). PPT was measured at 30 s and up to 15 min post-intervention via a pressure algometer. At 30 s post-intervention, the Ipsi-R (24 %) and Contra-R (21 %) demonstrated higher (p < 0.03) PPT values compared with Control and Sham. During 15 min post-intervention, PPT was higher (p < 0.05) following Ipsi-R (19.2 %), Contra-R (15.9 %) and Ipsi-M (10.9 %) compared with Control. There was no difference between the effects of three deep tissue massages (Ipsi-R, Ipsi-M and Contra-R) on PPT. Whereas the increased PPT following ipsilateral massage (Ipsi-R and Ipsi-M) might be attributed to the release of fibrous adhesions; the non-localized effect of rolling massage on the contralateral limb suggests that other mechanisms such as a central pain-modulatory system play a role in mediation of perceived pain following brief tissue massage. Overall, rolling massage over a tender spot reduces pain perception. ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT02528812 ), August 19(th), 2015.

  1. Effects of milk replacer program fed 2 or 4 times daily on nutrient intake and calf growth.

    PubMed

    Kmicikewycz, A D; da Silva, D N L; Linn, J G; Litherland, N B

    2013-02-01

    The aims of this study were to determine if feeding frequency (FF) of milk replacer (MR; meals/d) alters starter intake, growth, and efficiency of growth in nursery calves fed a conventional or accelerated MR. We hypothesized that smaller and more frequent MR meals would increase starter intake and growth when greater amounts of MR nutrients are fed to nursery calves. Forty-eight Holstein and Holstein-cross heifer and bull calves were assigned to treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of MR and FF. Treatments included (1) standard 20% CP and 20% fat MR fed at 1.5% of body weight (BW; 2 meals/d; STD2), (2) standard 20% CP and 20% fat MR fed at 1.5% of BW (4 meals/d; STD4), (3) modified 26% CP and 18% fat MR fed at 2.0% of BW (2 meals/d; MOD2), and (4) modified 26% CP and 18% fat MR fed at 2.0% of BW (4 meals/d; MOD4; n=12). All calves were fed at 0600 and 1700 h and STD4 and MOD4 calves were fed 2 additional meals at 1100 and 1400 h, resulting in the same amount of MR offered for the 2 × and 4 × treatments. Treatments were fed from d 2 to 42 of age and all MR feeding rates were adjusted weekly to maintain MR solids intakes at 1.5 or 2.0% of BW for STD and MOD diets, respectively, and were reconstituted to 15% total solids. Milk replacer FF was reduced by 50% on d 36 and calves were weaned on d 42. Calves were housed in hutches bedded with straw and offered water and a texturized 18% CP starter ad libitum. Calf body weight and body structure were measured weekly and starter intake and fecal scores were measured daily. Through both 42 and 56 d, calves fed MOD had greater CP and fat intake, resulting in increased average daily gain, heart girth, circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and muscle total lipid compared with calves fed STD diets. Calves fed MOD diets consumed less starter grain than STD calves but total dry matter intake was similar among treatments. Increased FF for STD calves resulted in greater starter intake at weaning but increasing FF

  2. In vitro metabolism of the pro-carcinogen aflatoxin B1 by liver preparations of the calf, nurse shark and clearnose skate.

    PubMed

    Bodine, A B; Luer, C A; Gangjee, S A; Walsh, C J

    1989-01-01

    1. Liver postmitochondrial supernatant preparations of calf, clearnose skate, and nurse shark were able to metabolize the fungal toxin aflatoxin B1 to various metabolites. 2. Calf liver produced aflatoxin M1 and Q1 as the major chloroform soluble metabolites, with small amounts of aflatoxicol fo