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Sample records for calf muscle characteristics

  1. Effects of sequential implanting and ractopamine hydrochloride supplementation on carcass characteristics and longissimus muscle tenderness of calf-fed steers and heifers.

    PubMed

    Woerner, D R; Tatum, J D; Engle, T E; Belk, K E; Couch, D W

    2011-01-01

    A 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments (4 growth-enhancement treatments × 2 sex classes) was used to quantify effects of initial implanting (I-implant, d 0), terminal implanting (T-implant, d 63), and feeding ractopamine hydrochloride [RAC, 200 mg/(animal/d)] for the last 28 d on feed on carcass characteristics and LM shear force (WBSF) of calf-fed steers (n = 159) and heifers (n = 132). Growth-enhancement treatments included the following: TRT1, T-implant only; TRT2, I-implant and RAC; TRT3, I-implant and T-implant; TRT4, I-implant, T-implant, and RAC. Growth responses (BW and ADG) were measured in 3 segments of the finishing period: 1) d 0 to 63, 2) d 63 to 28 d before slaughter, and 3) final 28 d. Cattle were slaughtered after 152, 166, or 180 d of finishing; carcass data were collected after a 48-h chill; and LM WBSF was measured at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d postmortem. A priori contrasts were constructed to test effects associated with use vs. exclusion of growth enhancement in each segment of the finishing period. The interaction between sex class and treatment was not significant (P > 0.05) for any trait tested, indicating that the 4 treatments elicited similar effects in both sexes. Initial implanting improved (P < 0.001) ADG from d 0 to 63 by 11.5%, terminal implanting improved (P < 0.001) ADG from d 63 to 28 d before slaughter by 15%, and supplementing twice-implanted cattle with RAC enhanced ADG during the final 28 d of finishing by 12%. Effects of I-implant, T-implant, and RAC resulted in LM area increases of 3 cm(2) (P = 0.015), 6 cm(2) (P < 0.001), and 3 cm(2) (P = 0.011), respectively, and HCW responses of 11 kg (P = 0.011), 16 kg (P = 0.001), and 6 kg (P = 0.195), respectively. Initial implanting resulted in a 20-point reduction (P = 0.097) in marbling, and T-implant reduced marbling by 25 points (P = 0.04), whereas marbling score was unaffected (P = 0.236) by RAC supplementation. Cattle that received only 1 implant (TRT1 and TRT2) produced

  2. Dynamic characteristics of T2*-weighted signal in calf muscles of peripheral artery disease during low-intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhijun; Muller, Matthew D; Wang, Jianli; Sica, Christopher T; Karunanayaka, Prasanna; Sinoway, Lawrence I; Yang, Qing X

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the dynamic characteristics of T2* -weighted signal change in exercising skeletal muscle of healthy subjects and peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients under a low-intensity exercise paradigm. Nine PAD patients and nine age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers underwent a low-intensity exercise paradigm while magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (3.0T) was obtained. T2*-weighted signal time-courses in lateral gastrocnemius, medial gastrocnemius, soleus, and tibialis anterior were acquired and analyzed. Correlations were performed between dynamic T2*-weighted signal and changes in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, leg pain, and perceived exertion. A significant signal decrease was observed during exercise in soleus and tibialis anterior of healthy participants (P = 0.0007-0.04 and 0.001-0.009, respectively). In PAD, negative signals were observed (P = 0.008-0.02 and 0.003-0.01, respectively) in soleus and lateral gastrocnemius during the early exercise stage. Then the signal gradually increased above the baseline in the lateral gastrocnemius during and after exercise in six of the eight patients who completed the study. This signal increase in patients' lateral gastrocnemius was significantly greater than in healthy subjects' during the later exercise stage (two-sample t-tests, P = 0.001-0.03). Heart rate and mean arterial pressure responses to exercise were significantly higher in PAD than healthy subjects (P = 0.036 and 0.008, respectively) and the patients experienced greater leg pain and exertion (P = 0.006 and P = 0.0014, respectively). During low-intensity exercise, there were different dynamic T2*-weighted signal behavior in the healthy and PAD exercising muscles. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:40-48. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  3. Functional roles of the calf and vastus muscles in locomotion.

    PubMed

    Brandell, B R

    1977-04-01

    Simultaneous and synchronized electromyography and cinematography were used to record the co-ordination of calf and vastus muscle activity with the angular motions of the segments and joints of the lower limb in two female and three male subjects, while each performed one complete series of tests in which they walked at 2.5, 3.2 and 4.2 mph on a treadmill, which was level, or held at upward tilts of 5 and 10 degrees. The raw EMG recordings were also integrated into uniform pulses, which were electronically counted in 5 second time blocks for each of the walking conditions tested. The objectives of this study were to: 1) quantitatively measure the relative increases of EMG activity in thses two groups of muscles under the various degrees of stress, which resulted from walking at increased speeds and degrees of upward tilt, and 2) correlate these gross quantitative relationships of activity with the patterns of co-ordination found between these two groups of muscles under the corresponding stressed conditions of walking. The results of this study indicate that although with increases of speed and upward tilt the absolute values of integrated EMG increased more for the calf than for the vastus muscles, the relative increases of EMG were consistently greater for the vasti, which reached their peak intensity of activity at moments during the walking stride, when their knee extending action stretched the gastrocnemius heads across the back of the knee joint, and thereby assisted the calf muscles lift the heel, and plantar flex the ankle joint--the most essential actions for producing the push-off and thrust in the normal walking stride.

  4. Metabolic heterogeneity in human calf muscle during maximal exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenborne, K.; McCully, K.; Kakihira, H.

    1991-07-01

    Human skeletal muscle is composed of various muscle fiber types. The authors hypothesized that differences in metabolism between fiber types could be detected noninvasively with {sup 31}P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy during maximal exercise. This assumes that during maximal exercise all fiber types are recruited and all vary in the amount of acidosis. The calf muscles of seven subjects were studied. Two different coils were applied: an 11-cm-diameter surface coil and a five-segment meander coil. The meander coil was used to localize the {sup 31}P signal to either the medial or the lateral gastrocnemius. Maximal exercise, consisting of rapid plantarmore » flexions, resulted in an 83.7% {plus minus} 7.8% decrease of the phosphocreatine pool and an 8-fold increase of the inorganic phosphate (P{sub i}) pool. At rest the P{sub i} pool was observed as a single resonance (pH 7.0). Toward the end of the first minute of exercise, three subjects showed three distinct P{sub i} peaks. During the second minute of exercise the pH values stabilized. The same pattern was seen when the signal was collected from the medial or lateral gastrocnemius. In four subjects only two distinct P{sub i} peaks were observed. The P{sub i} peaks had differing relative areas in different subjects, but they were reproducible in each individual. This method allowed is to study the appearance and disappearance of the different P{sub i} peaks, together with the changes in pH. Because multiple P{sub i} peaks were seen in single muscles they most likely identify different muscle fiber types.« less

  5. Electrically induced muscle cramps induce hypertrophy of calf muscles in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Behringer, M; Moser, M; Montag, J; McCourt, M; Tenner, D; Mester, J

    2015-06-01

    Skeletal muscles usually cramp at short lengths, where the tension that can be exerted by muscle fibers is low. Since high tension is an important anabolic stimulus, it is questionable if cramps can induce hypertrophy and strength gains. In the present study we investigated if electrically induced cramps (EIMCs) can elicit these adaptations. 15 healthy male adults were randomly assigned to an intervention (IG; n=10) and a control group (CG; n=5). The cramp protocol (CP) applied twice a week to one leg of the IG, consisted of 3x6 EIMCs, of 5 s each. Calf muscles of the opposite leg were stimulated equally, but were hindered from cramping by fixating the ankle at 0° plantar flexion (nCP). After six weeks, the cross sectional area of the triceps surae was similarly increased in both the CP (+9.0±3.4%) and the nCP (+6.8±3.7%). By contrast, force of maximal voluntary contractions, measured at 0° and 30° plantar flexion, increased significantly only in nCP (0°: +8.5±8.8%; 30°: 11.7±13.7%). The present data indicate that muscle cramps can induce hypertrophy in calf muscles, though lacking high tension as an important anabolic stimulus.

  6. Electrically induced muscle cramps induce hypertrophy of calf muscles in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Behringer, M.; Moser, M.; Montag, J.; McCourt, M.; Tenner, D.; Mester, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Skeletal muscles usually cramp at short lengths, where the tension that can be exerted by muscle fibers is low. Since high tension is an important anabolic stimulus, it is questionable if cramps can induce hypertrophy and strength gains. In the present study we investigated if electrically induced cramps (EIMCs) can elicit these adaptations. Methods: 15 healthy male adults were randomly assigned to an intervention (IG; n=10) and a control group (CG; n=5). The cramp protocol (CP) applied twice a week to one leg of the IG, consisted of 3x6 EIMCs, of 5 s each. Calf muscles of the opposite leg were stimulated equally, but were hindered from cramping by fixating the ankle at 0° plantar flexion (nCP). Results: After six weeks, the cross sectional area of the triceps surae was similarly increased in both the CP (+9.0±3.4%) and the nCP (+6.8±3.7%). By contrast, force of maximal voluntary contractions, measured at 0° and 30° plantar flexion, increased significantly only in nCP (0°: +8.5±8.8%; 30°: 11.7±13.7%). Conclusion: The present data indicate that muscle cramps can induce hypertrophy in calf muscles, though lacking high tension as an important anabolic stimulus. PMID:26032216

  7. Calf Muscle Performance Deficits Remain 7 Years After an Achilles Tendon Rupture.

    PubMed

    Brorsson, Annelie; Grävare Silbernagel, Karin; Olsson, Nicklas; Nilsson Helander, Katarina

    2018-02-01

    Optimizing calf muscle performance seems to play an important role in minimizing impairments and symptoms after an Achilles tendon rupture (ATR). The literature lacks long-term follow-up studies after ATR that describe calf muscle performance over time. The primary aim was to evaluate calf muscle performance and patient-reported outcomes at a mean of 7 years after ATR in patients included in a prospective, randomized controlled trial. A secondary aim was to evaluate whether improvement in calf muscle performance continued after the 2-year follow-up. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Sixty-six subjects (13 women, 53 men) with a mean age of 50 years (SD, 8.5 years) were evaluated at a mean of 7 years (SD, 1 year) years after their ATR. Thirty-four subjects had surgical treatment and 32 had nonsurgical treatment. Patient-reported outcomes were evaluated with Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) and Physical Activity Scale (PAS). Calf muscle performance was evaluated with single-leg standing heel-rise test, concentric strength power heel-rise test, and single-legged hop for distance. Limb Symmetry Index (LSI = injured side/healthy side × 100) was calculated for side-to-side differences. Seven years after ATR, the injured side showed decreased values in all calf muscle performance tests ( P < .001-.012). Significant improvement in calf muscle performance did not continue after the 2-year follow-up. Heel-rise height increased significantly ( P = .002) between the 1-year (10.8 cm) and the 7-year (11.5 cm) follow-up assessments. The median ATRS was 96 (of a possible score of 100) and the median PAS was 4 (of a possible score of 6), indicating minor patient-reported symptoms and fairly high physical activity. No significant differences were found in calf muscle performance or patient-reported outcomes between the treatment groups except for the LSI for heel-rise repetitions. Continued deficits in calf muscle endurance and strength remained 7 years after ATR. No

  8. Heavy-load eccentric calf muscle training for the treatment of chronic Achilles tendinosis.

    PubMed

    Alfredson, H; Pietilä, T; Jonsson, P; Lorentzon, R

    1998-01-01

    We prospectively studied the effect of heavy-load eccentric calf muscle training in 15 recreational athletes (12 men and 3 women; mean age, 44.3 +/- 7.0 years) who had the diagnosis of chronic Achilles tendinosis (degenerative changes) with a long duration of symptoms despite conventional nonsurgical treatment. Calf muscle strength and the amount of pain during activity (recorded on a visual analog scale) were measured before onset of training and after 12 weeks of eccentric training. At week 0, all patients had Achilles tendon pain not allowing running activity, and there was significantly lower eccentric and concentric calf muscle strength on the injured compared with the noninjured side. After the 12-week training period, all 15 patients were back at their preinjury levels with full running activity. There was a significant decrease in pain during activity, and the calf muscle strength on the injured side had increased significantly and did not differ significantly from that of the noninjured side. A comparison group of 15 recreational athletes with the same diagnosis and a long duration of symptoms had been treated conventionally, i.e., rest, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, changes of shoes or orthoses, physical therapy, and in all cases also with ordinary training programs. In no case was the conventional treatment successful, and all patients were ultimately treated surgically. Our treatment model with heavy-load eccentric calf muscle training has a very good short-term effect on athletes in their early forties.

  9. Muscle cramps in the calf as presenting symptom of sarcoidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, M; Dijkmans, B A; Eulderink, F

    1991-01-01

    A patient is described, who presented with pain in the calf due to a palpable nodule as the presenting symptom of sarcoidosis. The patient was treated with rest and diclofenac, followed by intralesional injections with triamcinolone hexacetonide and became free from pain. Images PMID:1994868

  10. CONGENITAL NUTRITIONAL MYODEGENERATION (WHITE MUSCLE DISEASE) IN A GIRAFFE ( GIRAFFA CAMELOPARDALIS) CALF.

    PubMed

    Bos, Jan H; Klip, Fokko C; Kik, Marja J L

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that vitamin E and selenium deficiencies in domestic ruminants can lead to white muscle disease. After a clinically normal gestation period at Ouwehand Zoo in the Netherlands, a newborn giraffe ( Giraffa camelopardalis) calf showed clinical signs of white muscle disease almost immediately after birth. The calf was rejected by the mother and was euthanized 3 days later because of deterioration of clinical signs. At necropsy, pulmonary edema and pallor of skeletal and heart muscles was noted. Histologically, there was hyaline degeneration of skeletal muscle myocytes and pulmonary edema. Blood concentrations of vitamin E were ≤ 0.7 mg/L. Based on clinical, biochemical, and gross and microscopic pathological findings, congenital nutritional myodegeneration was diagnosed. This case of neonatal white muscle disease is particularly remarkable given that the diet of the dam contained more than the recommended amount of vitamin E.

  11. Sweating response to passive stretch of the calf muscle during activation of forearm muscle metaboreceptors in heated humans.

    PubMed

    Amano, Tatsuro; Ichinose, Masashi; Nishiyasu, Takeshi; Inoue, Yoshimitsu; Koga, Shunsaku; Miwa, Mikio; Kondo, Narihiko

    2014-05-15

    Activation of muscle metaboreceptors and mechanoreceptors has been shown to independently influence the sweating response, while their integrative control effects remain unclear. We examined the sweating response when the two muscle receptors are concurrently activated in different limbs, as well as the blood pressure response. In total, 27 young males performed passive calf muscle stretches (muscle mechanoreceptor activation) for 30 s in a semisupine position with and without postisometric handgrip exercise muscle ischemia (PEMI, muscle metaboreceptor activation) at exercise intensities of 35 and 50% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) under hot conditions (ambient temperature, 35°C, relative humidity, 50%). Passive calf muscle stretching alone increased the mean sweating rate significantly on the forehead, chest, and thigh (SRmean) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), but not the heart rate (HR), from prestretching levels by 0.04 ± 0.01 mg·cm(2)·min(-1), 4.0 ± 1.3 mmHg (P < 0.05), and -1.0 ± 0.5 beats/min (P > 0.05), respectively. The SRmean and MAP during PEMI were significantly higher than those at rest. The passive calf muscle stretch during PEMI increased MAP significantly by 3.4 ± 1.0 and 2.0 ± 0.7 mmHg for 35 and 50% of MVC, respectively (P < 0.05), but not that of SRmean or HR at either exercise intensity. These results suggest that sweating and blood pressure responses to concurrent activation of the two muscle receptors in different limbs differ and that the influence of calf muscle mechanoreceptor activation alone on the sweating response disappears during forearm muscle metaboreceptor activation. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Calf muscle involvement in Becker muscular dystrophy: when size does not matter.

    PubMed

    Monforte, Mauro; Mercuri, Eugenio; Laschena, Francesco; Ricci, Enzo; Tasca, Giorgio

    2014-12-15

    Calf hypertrophy is a common feature in Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), and it is still debated to which extent fatty degeneration or true muscle hypertrophy account for it. We wanted to investigate the relative contribution of these two components using a simple image analysis approach and their possible correlation with disease severity. Twenty-nine BMD patients' MRI scans were analyzed. A semiquantitative visual score assessing fatty replacement of calf muscles (calf MRI score, CMS) was calculated and correlated with the cross sectional area (CSA) of lower leg posterior compartment muscles, digitally measured on acquired images. The correlation between CSA and CMS was not significant. CMS in contrast correlated with disease severity (p<0.001) while CSA did not (p=0.969). In BMD, a major contribution to calf hypertrophy is provided by real muscle hypertrophy rather than by fatty degeneration. CMS appears to be a potential surrogate marker of disease severity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the calf muscle mass and architecture in elderly patients with and without sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Kuyumcu, Mehmet Emin; Halil, Meltem; Kara, Özgür; Çuni, Bledjan; Çağlayan, Gökhan; Güven, Serdar; Yeşil, Yusuf; Arık, Güneş; Yavuz, Burcu Balam; Cankurtaran, Mustafa; Özçakar, Levent

    2016-01-01

    To sonographically assess the muscle mass and architecture of sarcopenic elderly subjects, and to explore the utility of ultrasound (US) measurements in predicting sarcopenia. One hundred elderly subjects were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Mean age value of our study population was 73.08±6.18years. The diagnosis of sarcopenia was confirmed by measuring fat-free mass index (using bioelectrical impedance analysis) and handgrip strength. Calf circumference was measured and US evaluations comprised bilateral gastrocnemius muscle (MG) thickness, fascicle length and pennate angles; subcutaneous fat and dermis thicknesses in the calf. Bilateral muscle thickness and fascicle length values were significantly lower in patients with sarcopenia (both p<0.05). Sarcopenic and nonsarcopenic subjects had similar pennate angles, subcutaneous fat and dermis thicknesses. Median thickness ratio (100×t (MG)/[t (subcutaneous tissue)+t (dermis)+t (MG)]) values were 64% (40-88%) in the right and 64% (38-86%) in the left calf. Bilateral MG thickness and fascicle length values showed high sensitivity in predicting sarcopenia (all values>76.92%). Gastrocnemius muscle thickness and fascicle length values are lower in sarcopenic elderly and these two parameters can serve as alternative measurements for predicting/quantifying sarcopenia. Calf circumference measurements alone may not be appropriate for assessing sarcopenia. Instead, US imaging can conveniently be used to evaluate different compartments of the musculoskelal system in (sarcopenic) elderly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Relative strengths of the calf muscles based on MRI volume measurements.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Clifford L; Thawait, Gaurav K; Kwon, John Y; Machado, Antonio; Boyle, James W; Campbell, John; Carrino, John A

    2012-05-01

    In 1985, Silver et al. published a cadaver study which determined the relative order of strength of the muscles in the calf. Muscle strength, which is proportional to volume, was obtained by dissecting out the individual muscles, weighing them, and then multiplying by the specific gravity. No similar studies have been performed using {\\it in vivo} measurements of muscle volume. Ten normal subjects underwent 3-Tesla MRI's of both lower extremities using non-fat-saturated T2 SPACE sequences. The volume for each muscle was determined by tracing the muscle contour on sequential axial images and then interpolating the volume using imaging software. The results from this study differ from Silver's original article. The lateral head of the gastrocnemius was found to be stronger than the tibialis anterior muscle. The FHL and EDL muscles were both stronger than the peroneus longus. There was no significant difference in strength between the peroneus longus and brevis muscles. This revised order of muscle strengths in the calf based on in vivo MRI findings may assist surgeons in determining the optimal tendons to transfer in order to address muscle weakness and deformity.

  15. Diffusive sensitivity to muscle architecture: a magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging study of the human calf.

    PubMed

    Galbán, Craig J; Maderwald, Stefan; Uffmann, Kai; de Greiff, Armin; Ladd, Mark E

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the diffusive properties of adjacent muscles at rest, and to determine the relationship between diffusive and architectural properties, which are task-specific to muscles. The principle, second, and third eigenvalues, trace of the diffusion tensor, and two anisotropic parameters, ellipsoid eccentricity (e) and fractional anisotropy (FA), of various muscles in the human calf were calculated by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Linear correlations of the calculated parameters to the muscle physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), which is proportional to maximum muscle force, were performed to ascertain any linear relation between muscle architecture and diffusivity. Images of the left calf were acquired from six healthy male volunteers. Seven muscles were investigated in this study. These comprised the soleus, lateral gastrocnemius, medial gastrocnemius, posterior tibialis, anterior tibialis, extensor digitorum longus, and peroneus longus. All data were presented as the mean and standard error of the mean (SEM). In general, differences in diffusive parameter values occurred primarily between functionally different muscles. A strong correlation was also found between PCSA and the third eigenvalue, e, and FA. A mathematical derivation revealed a linear relationship between PCSA and the third eigenvalue as a result of their dependence on the average radius of all fibers within a single muscle. These findings demonstrated the ability of DTI to differentiate between functionally different muscles in the same region of the body on the basis of their diffusive properties.

  16. Comparison of calf muscle architecture between Asian children with spastic cerebral palsy and typically developing peers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinling; Guan, Buyun; Tang, Hongmei

    2018-01-01

    Objective To compare the muscle thickness, fascicle length, and pennation angle of the gastrocnemius, soleus, and tibialis anterior between Asian children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and typically developing (TD) peers. Methods This cross-sectional study involved a total of 72 children with hemiplegic CP (n = 24), and diplegic CP (n = 24) and their TD peers (n = 24). Muscle architecture was measured at rest using ultrasound. Clinical measures included gross motor function and a modified Ashworth scale. Results The thicknesses of the tibialis anterior and medial gastrocnemius muscles were smaller in the affected calf of children with CP (p<0.05) than in those of their TD peers. Additionally, the lengths of the lateral gastrocnemius and soleus fascicle were shorter (p<0.05) in children with diplegic CP than in their TD peers. The fascicle length was shorter in the affected calf of children with CP (p<0.05) than in the calves of their TD peers or the unaffected calf of children with hemiplegic CP. However, the length of the lateral gastrocnemius fascicle was similar between the two legs of children with hemiplegic CP. The pennation angles of the medial gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were larger (p<0.05) in the affected calf in children with hemiplegic CP than in the calves of their TD peers. The fascicle length of the lateral gastrocnemius and the thickness of the soleus muscle were positively correlated with gross motor function scores in children with CP (p<0.05). Conclusions Muscle thickness and fascicle length were lower in the affected tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, and soleus in children with spastic CP. These changes may limit the ability to stand and walk, and indicate a need to strengthen the affected muscle. PMID:29304114

  17. Comparison of calf muscle architecture between Asian children with spastic cerebral palsy and typically developing peers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; He, Lu; Xu, Kaishou; Li, Jinling; Guan, Buyun; Tang, Hongmei

    2018-01-01

    To compare the muscle thickness, fascicle length, and pennation angle of the gastrocnemius, soleus, and tibialis anterior between Asian children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and typically developing (TD) peers. This cross-sectional study involved a total of 72 children with hemiplegic CP (n = 24), and diplegic CP (n = 24) and their TD peers (n = 24). Muscle architecture was measured at rest using ultrasound. Clinical measures included gross motor function and a modified Ashworth scale. The thicknesses of the tibialis anterior and medial gastrocnemius muscles were smaller in the affected calf of children with CP (p<0.05) than in those of their TD peers. Additionally, the lengths of the lateral gastrocnemius and soleus fascicle were shorter (p<0.05) in children with diplegic CP than in their TD peers. The fascicle length was shorter in the affected calf of children with CP (p<0.05) than in the calves of their TD peers or the unaffected calf of children with hemiplegic CP. However, the length of the lateral gastrocnemius fascicle was similar between the two legs of children with hemiplegic CP. The pennation angles of the medial gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were larger (p<0.05) in the affected calf in children with hemiplegic CP than in the calves of their TD peers. The fascicle length of the lateral gastrocnemius and the thickness of the soleus muscle were positively correlated with gross motor function scores in children with CP (p<0.05). Muscle thickness and fascicle length were lower in the affected tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, and soleus in children with spastic CP. These changes may limit the ability to stand and walk, and indicate a need to strengthen the affected muscle.

  18. Calf muscle density is independently associated with physical function in overweight and obese older adults.

    PubMed

    Scott, David; Shore-Lorenti, Catherine; McMillan, Lachlan B; Mesinovic, Jakub; Clark, Ross A; Hayes, Alan; Sanders, Kerrie M; Duque, Gustavo; Ebeling, Peter R

    2018-03-01

    To determine whether associations of calf muscle density with physical function are independent of other determinants of functional decline in overweight and obese older adults. This was a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study of 85 community-dwelling overweight and obese adults (mean±SD age 62.8±7.9 years; BMI 32.3±6.1 kg/m2; 58% women). Peripheral quantitative computed tomography assessed mid-calf muscle density (66% tibial length) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry determined visceral fat area. Fasting glucose, Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were analysed. Physical function assessments included hand grip and knee extension strength, balance path length (computerised posturography), stair climb test, Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and self-reported falls efficacy (Modified Falls Efficacy Scale; M-FES). Visceral fat area, not muscle density, was independently associated with CRP and fasting glucose (B=0.025; 95% CI 0.009-0.042 and B=0.009; 0.001-0.017, respectively). Nevertheless, higher muscle density was independently associated with lower path length and stair climb time, and higher SPPB and M-FES scores (all P⟨0.05). Visceral fat area, fasting glucose and CRP did not mediate these associations. Higher calf muscle density predicts better physical function in overweight and obese older adults independent of insulin resistance, visceral adiposity or inflammation.

  19. Sport socks do not enhance calf muscle pump function but inelastic wraps do.

    PubMed

    Partsch, H; Mosti, G

    2014-12-01

    Aim of the study was to measure the effect of elastic and inelastic compression on calf muscle pump function in healthy male athletes. This was an experimental study which included 21 healthy male athletes. The ejection fraction (EF) of the venous calf pump was measured comparing the effects of a variety of compression materials: 1) sport compression stockings; 2) light zinc paste bandages; 3) sport compression stockings with additional Velcro® wraps over the calf. The influence of sport stocking and wraps on the venous calibre at the largest calf circumference in the lying and standing position was investigated using MRI. Inelastic compression exerting a median pressure in the standing position of 37.5 mmHg (zinc paste) and 48 mmHg (loosely applied straps over a sport stocking) achieved a significant increase of EF up to 100%. Sport stockings alone with a standing pressure of 19-24 mmHg did not show a significant change of EF. MRI demonstrated some venous narrowing in the lying but not in the standing position. By wrapping inelastic straps over the stocking an emptying of the veins in the lying and a considerable narrowing in the standing position could be observed. Venous calf pump function in athletes is not influenced by elastic sport stockings, but inelastic wraps either alone or applied over sport stockings lead to a significant enhancement.

  20. Transcutaneous calf-muscle electro-stimulation: A prospective treatment for diabetic claudicants?

    PubMed

    Ellul, Christian; Gatt, Alfred

    2016-11-01

    First-line therapy for claudicants with diabetes include supervised exercise programmes to improve walking distance. However, exercise comes with a number of barriers and may be contraindicated in certain conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether calf-muscle electro-stimulation improves claudication distance. A prospective, one-group, pretest-posttest study design was employed on 40 participants living with type 2 diabetes mellitus, peripheral artery disease (ankle-brachial pressure index < 0.90) and calf-muscle claudication. Calf-muscle electro-stimulation of varying frequencies (1-250 Hz) was applied on both ischaemic limbs (N = 80) for 1 h per day for 12 consecutive weeks. The absolute claudication distance was measured at baseline and following the intervention. The cohort (n = 40; 30 males; mean age = 71 years; mean ankle-brachial pressure index = 0.70) registered a mean baseline absolute claudication distance of 333.71 m (standard deviation = 208). Following 91.68 days (standard deviation = 6.23) of electrical stimulation, a significant mean increase of 137 m (standard deviation = 136) in the absolute claudication distance was registered (p = 0.000, Wilcoxon signed rank test). Electrical stimulation of varying low to high frequencies on ischaemic calf muscles significantly increased the maximal walking capacity in claudicants with type 2 diabetes. This therapeutic approach may be considered in patients with impaired exercise tolerance or as an adjunct treatment modality. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Absolute quantification of carnosine in human calf muscle by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdemir, Mahir S.; Reyngoudt, Harmen; DeDeene, Yves; Sazak, Hakan S.; Fieremans, Els; Delputte, Steven; D'Asseler, Yves; Derave, Wim; Lemahieu, Ignace; Achten, Eric

    2007-12-01

    Carnosine has been shown to be present in the skeletal muscle and in the brain of a variety of animals and humans. Despite the various physiological functions assigned to this metabolite, its exact role remains unclear. It has been suggested that carnosine plays a role in buffering in the intracellular physiological pHi range in skeletal muscle as a result of accepting hydrogen ions released in the development of fatigue during intensive exercise. It is thus postulated that the concentration of carnosine is an indicator for the extent of the buffering capacity. However, the determination of the concentration of this metabolite has only been performed by means of muscle biopsy, which is an invasive procedure. In this paper, we utilized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) in order to perform absolute quantification of carnosine in vivo non-invasively. The method was verified by phantom experiments and in vivo measurements in the calf muscles of athletes and untrained volunteers. The measured mean concentrations in the soleus and the gastrocnemius muscles were found to be 2.81 ± 0.57/4.8 ± 1.59 mM (mean ± SD) for athletes and 2.58 ± 0.65/3.3 ± 0.32 mM for untrained volunteers, respectively. These values are in agreement with previously reported biopsy-based results. Our results suggest that 1H MRS can provide an alternative method for non-invasively determining carnosine concentration in human calf muscle in vivo.

  2. Bilateral idiopathic calf muscle hypertrophy: an exceptional cause of unsightly leg curvature.

    PubMed

    Herlin, C; Chaput, B; Rivier, F; Doucet, J C; Bigorre, M; Captier, G

    2015-04-01

    The authors present the management of a young female patient who presented with longstanding bilateral calf muscle hypertrophy, with no known cause. Taking into account the patient's wishes and the fact that the hypertrophy was mainly located in the posteromedial compartment, we chose to carry out a subtotal bilateral resection of medial gastrocnemius muscles. This procedure was performed with an harmonic scalpel, permitting a excellent cosmetic result while avoiding complications or functional impairment. After a reviewing of the commonly used techniques, the authors discuss the chosen surgical approach taking into account its clinical particularity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Calf Muscle Oxygen Saturation During Six-Minute Walk Test And Its Relationship With Walking Impairment In Symptomatic Peripheral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Lima, Aluísio; Cucato, Gabriel G; Domingues, Wagner J R; Germano-Soares, Antônio H; Cavalcante, Bruno R; Correia, Marilia A; Saes, Glauco F; Wolosker, Nelson; Gardner, Andrew W; Zerati, Antônio E; Ritti-Dias, Raphael M

    2018-05-21

    Impaired microcirculation is associated with poor walking capacity in symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients during treadmill test, however, this test does not simulate the efforts of daily walking of these patients. Thus, the aim of the study was to describe the microcirculation responses during six-minute walk test (6MWT) and to analyze the relationship between microcirculation indicators and walking impairment in symptomatic PAD patients. Thirty-four patients were included (mean age = 67.6 ± 11.2). The clinical characteristics were collected and they performed a 6MWT in which initial claudication distance (ICD) and total walking distance (TWD) were recorded. During and after the 6MWT, calf muscle oxygen saturation (StO 2 ) parameters were monitored continuously to measure microcirculation behavior. The association between calf muscle StO 2 parameters and walking impairment was analyzed by Pearson or Spearman correlations. Walking impairment was not associated with any StO 2 parameters during exercise. In contrast, after 6MWT, recovery time of StO 2 (r = -0.472, P = .008) and recovery time to maximal StO 2 (r= -0.402, P = .019) were negatively correlated with ICD. Furthermore, the distance walked under claudication symptoms (ΔTWD - ICD) was positively correlated with recovery time to maximal StO 2 (r = 0.347, P = .048). In symptomatic PAD patients, shorter ICD values during a 6MWT are associated with a delayed recovery in calf muscle StO 2 after exercise. Calf muscle StO 2 parameters decrease subtly during 6MWT, suggesting that the degree of ischemia in the calf muscle during ground walking, simulating efforts of the daily walking, is relatively low. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A 1D pulse wave propagation model of the hemodynamics of calf muscle pump function.

    PubMed

    Keijsers, J M T; Leguy, C A D; Huberts, W; Narracott, A J; Rittweger, J; van de Vosse, F N

    2015-07-01

    The calf muscle pump is a mechanism which increases venous return and thereby compensates for the fluid shift towards the lower body during standing. During a muscle contraction, the embedded deep veins collapse and venous return increases. In the subsequent relaxation phase, muscle perfusion increases due to increased perfusion pressure, as the proximal venous valves temporarily reduce the distal venous pressure (shielding). The superficial and deep veins are connected via perforators, which contain valves allowing flow in the superficial-to-deep direction. The aim of this study is to investigate and quantify the physiological mechanisms of the calf muscle pump, including the effect of venous valves, hydrostatic pressure, and the superficial venous system. Using a one-dimensional pulse wave propagation model, a muscle contraction is simulated by increasing the extravascular pressure in the deep venous segments. The hemodynamics are studied in three different configurations: a single artery-vein configuration with and without valves and a more detailed configuration including a superficial vein. Proximal venous valves increase effective venous return by 53% by preventing reflux. Furthermore, the proximal valves shielding function increases perfusion following contraction. Finally, the superficial system aids in maintaining the perfusion during the contraction phase and reduces the refilling time by 37%. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Electromyographic analysis of an eccentric calf muscle exercise in persons with and without Achilles tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Reid, Duncan; McNair, Peter J; Johnson, Shelley; Potts, Geoff; Witvrouw, Erik; Mahieu, Nele

    2012-08-01

    To compare surface electromyographic (EMG) activity of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles between persons with and without Achilles tendinopathy (AT) during an eccentric muscle exercise in different knee joint positions. Repeated measures design. Research laboratory. Participants (n = 18) diagnosed with AT and 18 control subjects were recruited. Gastrocnemius and soleus muscle activity was examined by surface (EMG) during extended and flexed knee joint conditions while performing the eccentric training technique. The EMG data were expressed as a percentage of a maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). EMG activity was notably higher (mean difference: 10%, effect size: 0.59) in those subjects with AT. Irrespective of the presence of AT, there was a significant interaction effect between muscle and joint position. The gastrocnemius muscle was significantly more active in the extended knee condition and soleus muscle activity was unchanged across joint positions. The results indicated that the presence of AT influenced calf muscle activity levels during performance of the eccentric exercise. There were differences in muscle activity during the extended and flexed knee conditions. This result does support performing Alfredson, Pietila, Jonsson, and Lorentzon (1998) eccentric exercise in an extended knee position but the specific effects of the knee flexed position on the Achilles tendon during eccentric exercise have yet to be determined, particularly in those with AT. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Achilles tendinosis and calf muscle strength. The effect of short-term immobilization after surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Alfredson, H; Pietilä, T; Ohberg, L; Lorentzon, R

    1998-01-01

    We prospectively studied calf muscle strength in 7 men and 4 women (mean age, 40.9 +/- 10.1 years) who had surgical treatment for chronic Achilles tendinosis. Surgery was followed by immobilization in a weightbearing below-the-knee plaster cast for 2 weeks followed by a stepwise increasing strength training program. Strength measurements (peak torque and total work) were done preoperatively (Week 0) and at 16, 26, and 52 weeks postoperatively. We measured isokinetic concentric plantar flexion strength at 90 and 225 deg/sec and eccentric flexion strength at 90 deg/sec on both the injured and noninjured sides. Preoperatively, concentric and eccentric strength were significantly lower on the injured side at 90 and 225 deg/sec. Postoperatively, concentric peak torque on the injured side decreased significantly between Weeks 0 and 16 and increased significantly between Weeks 26 and 52 at 90 deg/sec but was significantly lower than that on the noninjured side at all periods and at both velocities. The eccentric strength was significantly lower on the injured side at Week 26 but increased significantly until at Week 52 no significant differences between the sides could be demonstrated. It seems, therefore, that the recovery in concentric and eccentric calf muscle strength after surgery for Achilles tendinosis is slow. We saw no obvious advantages in recovery of muscle strength with a short immobilization time (2 weeks) versus a longer (6 weeks) period used in a previous study.

  7. Triggered intravoxel incoherent motion MRI for the assessment of calf muscle perfusion during isometric intermittent exercise.

    PubMed

    Mastropietro, Alfonso; Porcelli, Simone; Cadioli, Marcello; Rasica, Letizia; Scalco, Elisa; Gerevini, Simonetta; Marzorati, Mauro; Rizzo, Giovanna

    2018-06-01

    The main aim of this paper was to propose triggered intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) imaging sequences for the evaluation of perfusion changes in calf muscles before, during and after isometric intermittent exercise. Twelve healthy volunteers were involved in the study. The subjects were asked to perform intermittent isometric plantar flexions inside the MRI bore. MRI of the calf muscles was performed on a 3.0 T scanner and diffusion-weighted (DW) images were obtained using eight different b values (0 to 500 s/mm 2 ). Acquisitions were performed at rest, during exercise and in the subsequent recovery phase. A motion-triggered echo-planar imaging DW sequence was implemented to avoid movement artifacts. Image quality was evaluated using the average edge strength (AES) as a quantitative metric to assess the motion artifact effect. IVIM parameters (diffusion D, perfusion fraction f and pseudo-diffusion D*) were estimated using a segmented fitting approach and evaluated in gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. No differences were observed in quality of IVIM images between resting state and triggered exercise, whereas the non-triggered images acquired during exercise had a significantly lower value of AES (reduction of more than 20%). The isometric intermittent plantar-flexion exercise induced an increase of all IVIM parameters (D by 10%; f by 90%; D* by 124%; fD* by 260%), in agreement with the increased muscle perfusion occurring during exercise. Finally, IVIM parameters reverted to the resting values within 3 min during the recovery phase. In conclusion, the IVIM approach, if properly adapted using motion-triggered sequences, seems to be a promising method to investigate muscle perfusion during isometric exercise. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. [Prevalence of calf muscle cramps and influencing factors for pregnant women in China during 2010-2012].

    PubMed

    Duan, Y F; Wang, J; Jiang, S; Bi, Y; Pang, X H; Yin, S A; Yang, Z Y

    2018-01-06

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of calf muscle cramps and possible influencing factors for pregnant women in China. Methods: Using a multi-stage stratified probability proportional to size cluster randomization sampling method during 2010-2012. A total of 3 582 pregnant women were investigated at 150 counties from 31 provinces in China mainland. Information on calf muscle cramps, demographic socio-economic status, pregnancy information, and the physical activities was collected through questionnaires. The semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to collect food intake of pregnant women. Dynamic cluster analysis was used to assess dietary pattern. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate the possible influencing factors for calf muscle cramps. Results: The prevalence of calf muscle cramps was 32.9% (1 180/3 582) in Chinese pregnant women, which was 11.6% (87/748), 28.2% (420/1 492), and 50.2% (673/1 342), respectively, during the first, second and third trimester. There were significant differences between them (χ(2)=349.16, P< 0.001). Dietary patterns of the pregnant women were classified into three groups, which called relatively balanced pattern, high vegetables and fruits pattern, and high dairy pattern. Among the three groups, the prevalence of calf muscle cramps was 32.0% (952/2 971), 37.2% (186/500), and 37.8% (42/111), with significant differences (χ(2)=6.39, P= 0.041). The OR (95 %CI ) values of calf muscle cramps in the second and third trimester was 2.96 (2.28-3.83), and 8.02 (6.16-10.44), respectively, comparing with the first trimester. The OR (95 %CI ) values of calf muscle cramps in the women taking calcium before pregnant was 1.45 (1.19-1.76), comparing with the one who was not taken. The OR (95 %CI ) values of calf muscle cramps in the women who had been diagnosed by pregnancy-induced hypertension was 5.76 (2.06-16.12), comparing with the one who had not been diagnosed. The OR (95 %CI ) values of calf

  9. An epiphyseal stress fracture of the foot and shin splints in an anomalous calf muscle in a runner.

    PubMed

    Percy, E C; Gamble, F O

    1980-07-01

    The following case is presented as one of unusual foot and leg lesions encountered in an adolescent long-distance runner. The associated problems of a first metatarsal Salter Harris type II epiphyseal stress fracture, and an accessory calf muscle with "shin splints" in the contralateral leg are discussed. Treatment of these conditions is outlined with eventual return to full function by the athlete.

  10. The effect of calf muscle stretching exercises on ankle joint dorsiflexion and dynamic foot pressures, force and related temporal parameters.

    PubMed

    Macklin, K; Healy, A; Chockalingam, N

    2012-03-01

    Previous research has found that ankle joint equinus can lead to foot pathologies. Calf stretching exercises are a common treatment prescription; however, no dynamic quantitative data on its effectiveness is available. To investigate the effect of calf muscle stretching on ankle joint dorsiflexion and subsequent changes within dynamic forefoot peak plantar pressures (PPP), force and temporal parameters. Thirteen runners with ankle joint equinus were required to perform calf muscle stretching twice a day (morning and evening) on a Flexeramp. Measurements were collected on day 1, week 4 and week 8. A repeated measures ANOVA with Bonferroni-adjusted post hoc comparisons was used to assess differences across the three data collection sessions. Findings indicated that the calf stretching program increased ankle joint dorsiflexion significantly (from 5° to 16°, p≤0.05). The adaptive kinetics brought about by the increased ankle joint range of motion included significantly increased forefoot PPP and maximum force during stance phase but decreased time between heel contact and heel lift and total stance phase time. The calf stretching programme used in this study was found to increase ankle joint dorsiflexion and hence can be used for first line conservative management of ankle equinus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of repeated ankle stretching on calf muscle-tendon and ankle biomechanical properties in stroke survivors

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fan; Ren, Yupeng; Roth, Elliot J.; Harvey, Richard; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate changes in active and passive biomechanical properties of the calf muscle-tendon unit induced by controlled ankle stretching in stroke survivors. Methods Ten stroke survivors with ankle spasticity/contracture and ten healthy control subjects received intervention of 60-min ankle stretching. Joint biomechanical properties including resistance torque, stiffness and index of hysteresis were evaluated pre- and post-intervention. Achilles tendon length was measured using ultrasonography. The force output of the triceps surae muscles was characterized via the torque-angle relationship, by stimulating the calf muscles at a controlled intensity across different ankle positions. Findings Compared to healthy controls, the ankle position corresponding to the peak torque of the stroke survivors was shifted towards plantar flexion (P<0.001). Stroke survivors showed significantly higher resistance torques and joint stiffness (P<0.05), and these higher resistances were reduced significantly after the stretching intervention, especially in dorsiflexion (P = 0.013). Stretching significantly improved the force output of the impaired calf muscles in stroke survivors under matched stimulations (P<0.05). Ankle range of motion was also increased by stretching (P<0.001). Interpretation At the joint level, repeated stretching loosened the ankle joint with increased passive joint range of motion and decreased joint stiffness. At the muscle-tendon level, repeated stretching improved calf muscle force output, which might be associated with decreased muscle fascicle stiffness, increased fascicle length and shortening of the Achilles tendon. The study provided evidence of improvement in muscle tendon properties through stretching intervention. PMID:21211873

  12. Effects of integrated treatment with LED and microcurrent on muscle tone and stiffness in the calf muscle during moderate aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang-Wan; Lee, Jeong-Woo

    2018-06-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effects of the therapeutic device combined with LED and microcurrent (MC) on muscle tone and stiffness in the calf muscle after its application during moderate aerobic exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy adult subjects were randomized to either the test group of the therapeutic device combined with LED and MC or the control group, and they walked on a 10%-sloped treadmill with a 5 km/hr speed for 30 minutes. Each of the subjects in the test group performed treadmill exercise with the therapeutic device attached to the edge of his or her calf muscle. After the exercise, the muscle tone and stiffness at the edge of the calf muscle were measured. [Results] With respect to the muscle tone, a statistically significant difference was found between the two groups only 5 minutes after the exercise. Concerning muscle stiffness, significant differences were shown between the two groups right after the exercise and 5 minutes after the exercise. [Conclusion] Integrated treatment with LED and MC on is considered helpful for lowering the muscle tone 5 minutes after the exercise, and for lowering the muscle stiffness right after the exercise and 5 minutes after the exercise.

  13. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Measurements of Calf Muscle during Walking at Simulated Reduced Gravity - Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellerby, Gwenn E. C.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stroud, Leah; Norcross, Jason; Gernhardt, Michael; Soller, Babs R.

    2008-01-01

    Consideration for lunar and planetary exploration space suit design can be enhanced by investigating the physiologic responses of individual muscles during locomotion in reduced gravity. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides a non-invasive method to study the physiology of individual muscles in ambulatory subjects during reduced gravity simulations. PURPOSE: To investigate calf muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) and pH during reduced gravity walking at varying treadmill inclines and added mass conditions using NIRS. METHODS: Four male subjects aged 42.3 +/- 1.7 years (mean +/- SE) and weighing 77.9 +/- 2.4 kg walked at a moderate speed (3.2 +/- 0.2 km/h) on a treadmill at inclines of 0, 10, 20, and 30%. Unsuited subjects were attached to a partial gravity simulator which unloaded the subject to simulate body weight plus the additional weight of a space suit (121 kg) in lunar gravity (0.17G). Masses of 0, 11, 23, and 34 kg were added to the subject and then unloaded to maintain constant weight. Spectra were collected from the lateral gastrocnemius (LG), and SmO2 and pH were calculated using previously published methods (Yang et al. 2007 Optics Express ; Soller et al. 2008 J Appl Physiol). The effects of incline and added mass on SmO2 and pH were analyzed through repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS: SmO2 and pH were both unchanged by added mass (p>0.05), so data from trials at the same incline were averaged. LG SmO2 decreased significantly with increasing incline (p=0.003) from 61.1 +/- 2.0% at 0% incline to 48.7 +/- 2.6% at 30% incline, while pH was unchanged by incline (p=0.12). CONCLUSION: Increasing the incline (and thus work performed) during walking causes the LG to extract more oxygen from the blood supply, presumably to support the increased metabolic cost of uphill walking. The lack of an effect of incline on pH may indicate that, while the intensity of exercise has increased, the LG has not reached a level of work above the anaerobic threshold. In these

  14. Effects of isokinetic calf muscle exercise program on muscle strength and venous function in patients with chronic venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Ercan, Sabriye; Çetin, Cem; Yavuz, Turhan; Demir, Hilmi M; Atalay, Yurdagül B

    2018-05-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to observe the change of the ankle joint range of motion, the muscle strength values measured with an isokinetic dynamometer, pain scores, quality of life scale, and venous return time in chronic venous insufficiency diagnosed patients by prospective follow-up after 12-week exercise program including isokinetic exercises. Methods The patient group of this study comprised 27 patients (23 female, 4 male) who were diagnosed with chronic venous insufficiency. An exercise program including isokinetic exercise for the calf muscle was given to patients three days per week for 12 weeks. At the end of 12 weeks, five of the patients left the study due to inadequate compliance with the exercise program. As a result, control data of 22 patients were included. Ankle joint range of active motion, isokinetic muscle strength, pain, quality of life, and photoplethysmography measurements were assessed before starting and after the exercise program. Results Evaluating changes of the starting and control data depending on time showed that all isokinetic muscle strength measurement parameters, range of motion, and overall quality of life values of patients improved. Venous return time values have also increased significantly ( p < 0.05). Conclusion In conclusion, increase in muscle strength has been provided with exercise therapy in patients with chronic venous insufficiency. It has been determined that the increase in muscle strength affected the venous pump and this ensured improvement in venous function and range of motion of the ankle. In addition, it has been detected that pain reduced and quality of life improved after the exercise program.

  15. Bone mass in the calcaneus after heavy loaded eccentric calf-muscle training in recreational athletes with chronic achilles tendinosis.

    PubMed

    Alfredson, H; Nordström, P; Pietilä, T; Lorentzon, R

    1999-05-01

    In an ongoing prospective study of 14 recreational athletes (12 males and 2 females, mean age 44.2 +/- 7.1 years) with unilateral chronic Achilles tendinosis, we investigated the effect of treatment with heavy-loaded eccentric calf-muscle training. Pain during activity (recorded on a VAS scale) and isokinetic concentric and eccentric calf-muscle strength (peak torque at 90 degrees /second and 225 degrees /second) on the injured and noninjured side were evaluated. In this group of patients, we examined areal bone mineral density (BMD) of the calcaneus after 9 months (range 6-14 months) of training. BMD of the injured side (subjected to heavy-loaded eccentric training) was compared with BMD of the noninjured side. Before onset of heavy-loaded eccentric training, all patients had Achilles tendon pain which prohibited running activity, and significantly lower concentric and eccentric plantar flexion peak torque on the injured compared with the noninjured side. The training program consisted of 12 weeks of daily, heavy-loaded, eccentric calf-muscle training; thereafter the training was continued for 2-3 days/week. The clinical results were excellent-all 14 patients were back at their preinjury level with full running activity at the 3 month follow-up. The concentric and eccentric plantar flexion peak torque had increased significantly and did not significantly differ from the noninjured side at the 3 and 9 month follow-up. There were no significant side-to-side differences in BMD of the calcaneus. There was no significant relationship between BMD of the calcaneus and calf-muscle strength. As a comparison group, we used 10 recreational athletes (5 males and 5 females) mean age 40.9 years (range 26-55 years), who were selected for surgical treatment of chronic Achilles tendinosis localized at the 2-6 cm level. Their duration of symptoms and severity of disease were the same as in the experimental group. There were no significant side-to-side differences in BMD of the

  16. An epiphyseal stress fracture of the foot and shin splints in an anomalous calf muscle in a runner.

    PubMed Central

    Percy, E. C.; Gamble, F. O.

    1980-01-01

    The following case is presented as one of unusual foot and leg lesions encountered in an adolescent long-distance runner. The associated problems of a first metatarsal Salter Harris type II epiphyseal stress fracture, and an accessory calf muscle with "shin splints" in the contralateral leg are discussed. Treatment of these conditions is outlined with eventual return to full function by the athlete. Images p110-a Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7407448

  17. Improving the spectral resolution and spectral fitting of (1) H MRSI data from human calf muscle by the SPREAD technique.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhengchao; Zhang, Yudong; Liu, Feng; Duan, Yunsuo; Kangarlu, Alayar; Peterson, Bradley S

    2014-11-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ((1) H MRSI) has been used for the in vivo measurement of intramyocellular lipids (IMCLs) in human calf muscle for almost two decades, but the low spectral resolution between extramyocellular lipids (EMCLs) and IMCLs, partially caused by the magnetic field inhomogeneity, has hindered the accuracy of spectral fitting. The purpose of this paper was to enhance the spectral resolution of (1) H MRSI data from human calf muscle using the SPREAD (spectral resolution amelioration by deconvolution) technique and to assess the influence of improved spectral resolution on the accuracy of spectral fitting and on in vivo measurement of IMCLs. We acquired MRI and (1) H MRSI data from calf muscles of three healthy volunteers. We reconstructed spectral lineshapes of the (1) H MRSI data based on field maps and used the lineshapes to deconvolve the measured MRS spectra, thereby eliminating the line broadening caused by field inhomogeneities and improving the spectral resolution of the (1) H MRSI data. We employed Monte Carlo (MC) simulations with 200 noise realizations to measure the variations of spectral fitting parameters and used an F-test to evaluate the significance of the differences of the variations between the spectra before SPREAD and after SPREAD. We also used Cramer-Rao lower bounds (CRLBs) to assess the improvements of spectral fitting after SPREAD. The use of SPREAD enhanced the separation between EMCL and IMCL peaks in (1) H MRSI spectra from human calf muscle. MC simulations and F-tests showed that the use of SPREAD significantly reduced the standard deviations of the estimated IMCL peak areas (p < 10(-8) ), and the CRLBs were strongly reduced (by ~37%). Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. A physiological model for interpretation of arterial spin labeling reactive hyperemia of calf muscles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hou-Jen; Wright, Graham A

    2017-01-01

    To characterize and interpret arterial spin labeling (ASL) reactive hyperemia of calf muscles for a better understanding of the microcirculation in peripheral arterial disease (PAD), we present a physiological model incorporating oxygen transport, tissue metabolism, and vascular regulation mechanisms. The model demonstrated distinct effects between arterial stenoses and microvascular dysfunction on reactive hyperemia, and indicated a higher sensitivity of 2-minute thigh cuffing to microvascular dysfunction than 5-minute cuffing. The recorded perfusion responses in PAD patients (n = 9) were better differentiated from the normal subjects (n = 7) using the model-based analysis rather than characterization using the apparent peak and time-to-peak of the responses. The analysis results suggested different amounts of microvascular disease within the patient group. Overall, this work demonstrates a novel analysis method and facilitates understanding of the physiology involved in ASL reactive hyperemia. ASL reactive hyperemia with model-based analysis may be used as a noninvasive microvascular assessment in the presence of arterial stenoses, allowing us to look beyond the macrovascular disease in PAD. A subgroup who will have a poor prognosis after revascularization in the patients with critical limb ischemia may be associated with more severe microvascular diseases, which may potentially be identified using ASL reactive hyperemia.

  19. Association of Calf Muscle Pump Stimulation With Sleep Quality in Adults.

    PubMed

    Baniak, Lynn M; Pierce, Carolyn S; McLeod, Kenneth J; Chasens, Eileen R

    2016-12-01

    Prevention of lower extremity fluid pooling (LEFP) is associated with improved sleep quality. Physical activity and compression stockings are non-invasive methods used to manage LEFP, but both are associated with low adherence. Calf muscle pump (CMP) stimulation is an alternative and more convenient approach. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 11 participants between ages 45 and 65 with poor sleep quality. A within-person single-group pre-test-post-test design was used to evaluate changes in sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and functional outcomes sensitive to impaired sleep as measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale after 4 weeks of CMP stimulation. Statistical analysis included effect size (ES) calculations. After daily use of CMP stimulation, participants demonstrated improvement in overall sleep quality (ES = -.97) and a large reduction in daily disturbance from poor sleep (ES = -1.25). Moderate improvements were observed in daytime sleepiness (ES = -.53) and functional outcomes sensitive to sleepiness (ES = .49). Although causality could not be determined with this study design, these results support further research to determine whether CMP stimulation can improve sleep quality. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Simultaneous dynamic blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging of foot and calf muscles: aging effects at ischemia and postocclusive hyperemia in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kos, Sebastian; Klarhöfer, Markus; Aschwanden, Markus; Scheffler, Klaus; Jacob, Augustinus Ludwig; Bilecen, Deniz

    2009-11-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of simultaneous blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging of calf and foot muscles and investigate age-related changes of BOLD signal changes during ischemia and postocclusive hyperemia in healthy volunteers. In this study, 15 healthy elderly volunteers (mean age: 69.0 +/- 7.4 years) and 15 healthy young volunteers (mean age: 26.1 +/- 3.9 years) were enrolled. In both legs, simultaneous BOLD imaging of calf and foot muscles was performed at 1.5 Tesla. Short-term ischemia and consecutive reactive hyperemia were provoked by a cuff-compression paradigm. T2*-weighted signal time courses were obtained from foot and calf muscles simultaneously. Ischemia was assessed by T2* minimum ischemic value (MIV) and the time to half ischemic minimum (THIM). Reperfusion was assessed by the time to reach T2* half hyperemia peak (THHP). Reactive hyperemia was characterized by hyperemia peak value (HPV), time to peak (TTP), and relative T2* change from end of ischemia to HPV (deltaS). Parameter differences were assessed using a 2-sided Student t test. Dynamic BOLD measurement of foot and calf muscles was techniqually feasible and successful in all volunteers.In comparison, THIM was significantly longer in elderly than in young volunteers for calf (P < 0.01) muscles (young: 28.9 +/- 3.7 seconds; elderly: 57.8 +/- 31.4 seconds) and foot (P = 0.01) muscles (young: 36.8 +/- 25.5 seconds; elderly: 56.6 +/- 31.7 seconds). MIV relative to baseline T2*-signal was significantly (P < 0.01) lower in the elderly for calf (young: 96.0% +/- 2.6%; elderly: 91.3% +/- 4.4%) and foot (young: 95.8% +/- 2.5%; elderly: 91.1% +/- 8.2%) muscles. TTP was significantly (calf: P = 0.01; foot: P = 0.02) delayed in the elderly (elderly calf: 103.0 +/- 92.7 seconds and foot: 157.1 +/- 109.9 seconds vs. young calf: 54.8 +/- 42.1 seconds and foot: 95.1 +/- 77.6 seconds). HPV was significantly (calf: P < 0.01 and foot: P = 0.03) higher in (young calf: 114.1% +/- 7

  1. Assessment of diffusion tensor imaging indices in calf muscles following postural change from standing to supine position.

    PubMed

    Elzibak, Alyaa H; Noseworthy, Michael D

    2014-10-01

    To investigate whether postural change from erect to recumbent position affects calf muscle water diffusivity. Ten healthy adults (27.2 ± 4.9 years, 3 females) were imaged at baseline (following assumption of recumbent position), and after 34 min (session 2) and 64 min (session 3) of laying supine within a 3T MRI scanner. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) eigenvalues, fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were evaluated in five calf muscles (anterior and posterior tibialis and triceps surae) during each of the three imaging sessions. Significant decreases were observed in all of the eigenvalues and ADC in each of the muscles with postural change. These reductions ranged from 3.2 to 6.7% and 3.4 to 7.5% for the various DTI metrics, following 34 and 64 min of supine rest, respectively (P < 0.05). No significant differences were noted in ADC or eigenvalues between the second and third imaging sessions for any muscle. FA did not change significantly with postural manipulation in any muscle compartment. Diffusion tensor imaging indices were altered with postural change. As differences were not apparent between the latter two imaging sessions, we suggest that a short supine resting period (~34 min) is sufficient for muscle diffusivity to stabilize prior to quantitative MR imaging in healthy young adults.

  2. Research on the performance of the spastic calf muscle of young adults with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Lampe, Renee; Mitternacht, Jurgen

    2011-02-12

    The aim of this study was to find an objective graduation of pes equinus in infantile cerebral palsy, especially with regard to functional aspects, to allow a differentiated choice of the therapeutic options. Very often raises the question of whether a surgical lengthening of the Achilles tendon may let expect a functional improvement. For this documentation 17 patients with pes equinus and a diagnosis of spastic cerebral palsy, primarily of the lower limbs, and hemiplegia were examined first clinically and then by a procedure for calculating the functional kinetic parameters from an in-shoe plantar pressure distribution measurement (novel pedar-X system), which is used in many orthopedic practices and clinics as a standard measuring device. Using additional video motion analysis, the flexion in the ankle joint and the ankle joint torque were determined. From this the physical performance of the spastically shortened calf muscle was calculated. The course of the curves of torque and joint performance allows a functional classification of the pes equinus. Approximately three quarters of all pes equinus demonstrated functional activity of the most part of the normal push-off propulsion power. Even the rigid pes equinus was capable of performing push-off propulsion work, provided it converted energy that was absorbed during the heel-strike phase and released it again during the push-off phase. This suggests that the function of paretic ankle joint is better than its kinematics of motion. A heel strike with a pes equinus triggers via stretching stimuli in the muscle-ligament structure reflex motor functions, thereby causing the typical spastic gait pattern. This remarkable gait pattern is often evaluated as dysfunctional and as absolutely requiring correction. However, an aspect possibly neglected in this instance is the fact that this gait pattern may be efficient for the patient and may in fact be a suitable means allowing for economic locomotion despite the cerebral

  3. The effect of eccentric and concentric calf muscle training on Achilles tendon stiffness.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Dylan; Roskilly, Anna; Twycross-Lewis, Richard; Isinkaye, Tomide; Screen, Hazel; Woledge, Roger; Bader, Dan

    2011-03-01

    To compare in vivo effects of eccentric and concentric calf muscle training on Achilles tendon stiffness, in subjects without tendinopathy. Thirty-eight recreational athletes completed 6 weeks eccentric (6 males, 13 females, 21.6  ±  2.2 years) or concentric training (8 males, 11 females, 21.1  ±  2.0 years). Achilles tendon stiffness, tendon modulus and single-leg jump height were measured before and after intervention. Exercise adherence was recorded using a diary. All data are reported as mean  ±  SD. Groups were matched for height and weight but the eccentric training group were more active at baseline (P < 0.05). Tendon stiffness was higher in the eccentrically trained group at baseline compared to the concentrically trained group (20.9  ±  7.3 N/mm v 13.38  ±  4.66 N/mm; P = 0.001) and decreased significantly after eccentric training (to 17.2 ( ±  5.9) N/mm (P = 0.035)). There was no stiffness change in the concentric group (P = 0.405). Stiffness modulus showed similar changes to stiffness. An inverse correlation was found between initial, and subsequent, reduction in stiffness (r = -0.66). Jump height did not change and no correlation between stiffness change and adherence was observed in either group (r = 0.01). Six weeks of eccentric training can alter Achilles tendon stiffness while a matched concentric programme shows no similar effects. Studies in patients with Achilles tendinopathy are warranted.

  4. Stiff muscle fibers in calf muscles of patients with cerebral palsy lead to high passive muscle stiffness.

    PubMed

    Mathewson, Margie A; Chambers, Henry G; Girard, Paul J; Tenenhaus, Mayer; Schwartz, Alexandra K; Lieber, Richard L

    2014-12-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP), caused by an injury to the developing brain, can lead to alterations in muscle function. Subsequently, increased muscle stiffness and decreased joint range of motion are often seen in patients with CP. We examined mechanical and biochemical properties of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, which are involved in equinus muscle contracture. Passive mechanical testing of single muscle fibers from gastrocnemius and soleus muscle of patients with CP undergoing surgery for equinus deformity showed a significant increase in fiber stiffness (p<0.01). Bundles of fibers that included their surrounding connective tissues showed no stiffness difference (p=0.28).). When in vivo sarcomere lengths were measured and fiber and bundle stiffness compared at these lengths, both fibers and bundles of patients with CP were predicted to be much stiffer in vivo compared to typically developing (TD) individuals. Interestingly, differences in fiber and bundle stiffness were not explained by typical biochemical measures such as titin molecular weight (a giant protein thought to impact fiber stiffness) or collagen content (a proxy for extracellular matrix amount). We suggest that the passive mechanical properties of fibers and bundles are thus poorly understood. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Dynamic pushing on three frictional surfaces: maximum acceptable forces, cardiopulmonary and calf muscle metabolic responses in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Maikala, Rammohan V; Dempsey, Patrick G; Ciriello, Vincent M; O'Brien, Niall V

    2009-06-01

    Pushing is an important materials handling activity in many occupations; however, pushing-related physiological investigations are still in infancy. The purpose was to evaluate maximum acceptable forces and physiological responses while pushing on: treadmill (TREAD); plywood floor (PLY); and Teflon floor (TEF). Acceptable forces, cardiopulmonary and calf muscle oxygenation and blood volume responses were collected simultaneously while 12 men (age 39 +/- 13 years; height 178 +/- 6 cm; and body mass 91.5 +/- 16 kg) pushed for 2 h on each surface at their psychophysical workload. Participants selected higher forces on the PLY, resulting in higher pulmonary oxygen uptake compared to that of TEF (by approximately 9%) and TREAD (by approximately 18%). Pushing on the TEF demonstrated 50-56% lower blood volume changes and 1.5-1.8 times more oxygenation-force ratio than that for other surfaces. It is concluded that, to avoid a potential slip, participants were conservative in selecting acceptable forces to push on the slippery TEF. Part of this compensatory strategy on the TEF resulted in less muscle activity and, therefore, less demand for oxygen delivery to the calf muscle than for other surfaces. The present findings of significant force- and physiological-related differences in treadmill vs. high inertia pushcart clearly demonstrate that pushing experiments are essential to evaluate functional abilities of the workers.

  6. Recovery of calf muscle strength following acute achilles tendon rupture treatment: a comparison between minimally invasive surgery and conservative treatment.

    PubMed

    Metz, Roderik; van der Heijden, Geert J M G; Verleisdonk, Egbert-Jan M M; Tamminga, Rob; van der Werken, Christiaan

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the effect of treatment of acute Achilles tendon ruptures on calf muscle strength recovery. Eighty-three patients with acute Achilles tendon rupture were randomly allocated to either minimally invasive surgery with functional after-treatment or conservative treatment by functional bracing. Calf muscle strength using isokinetic testing was evaluated at 3 months and after 6 or more months posttreatment. To exclusively investigate the effect of treatment on outcome, the authors excluded patients with major complications from the analysis. In 31 of 39 patients in the surgical treatment group and 25 of 34 patients in the conservative treatment group, isokinetic strength tests were performed. In the analysis of differences in mean peak torque, no statistically significant differences were found between surgery and conservative treatment, except for plantar flexion strength at 90 degrees per second at the second measurement, favoring conservative treatment. After 8 to 10 months follow- up, loss of plantar flexion strength was still present in the injured leg in both treatment groups. In conclusion, isokinetic muscle strength testing did not detect a statistically significant difference between minimally invasive surgical treatment with functional after-treatment and conservative treatment by functional bracing of acute Achilles tendon ruptures.

  7. Peripheral artery disease, calf skeletal muscle mitochondrial DNA copy number, and functional performance.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Mary M; Peterson, Charlotte A; Sufit, Robert; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack M; Kibbe, Melina R; Polonsky, Tamar S; Tian, Lu; Criqui, Michael H; Zhao, Lihui; Stein, James H; Li, Lingyu; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2018-05-01

    In people without lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD), mitochondrial DNA copy number declines with aging, and this decline is associated with declines in mitochondrial activity and functional performance. However, whether lower extremity ischemia is associated with lower mitochondrial DNA copy number and whether mitochondrial DNA copy number is associated with the degree of functional impairment in people with PAD is unknown. In people with and without PAD, age 65 years and older, we studied associations of the ankle-brachial index (ABI) with mitochondrial DNA copy number and associations of mitochondrial DNA copy number with functional impairment. Calf muscle biopsies were obtained from 34 participants with PAD (mean age: 73.5 years (SD 6.4), mean ABI: 0.67 (SD 0.15), mean 6-minute walk distance: 1191 feet (SD 223)) and 10 controls without PAD (mean age: 73.1 years (SD 4.7), mean ABI: 1.14 (SD 0.07), mean 6-minute walk distance: 1387 feet (SD 488)). Adjusting for age and sex, lower ABI values were associated with higher mitochondrial DNA copy number, measured in relative copy number (ABI<0.60: 914, ABI 0.60-0.90: 731, ABI 0.90-1.50: 593; p trend=0.016). The association of mitochondrial DNA copy number with the 6-minute walk distance and 4-meter walking velocity differed significantly between participants with versus without PAD ( p-value for interaction=0.001 and p=0.015, respectively). The correlation coefficient between mitochondrial DNA copy number and the 6-minute walk distance was 0.653 ( p=0.056) among people without PAD and -0.254 ( p=0.154) among people with PAD and ABI < 0.90. In conclusion, lower ABI values are associated with increased mitochondrial DNA copy number. Associations of mitochondrial DNA copy number with the 6-minute walk distance and 4-meter walking velocity significantly differed between people with versus without PAD, with stronger positive associations observed in people without PAD than in people with PAD. The cross

  8. The estimation of recovery time of calf muscle oxygen saturation during exercise by using functional near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, M. A.; Shojaeifar, M.; Mohajerani, E.

    2014-08-01

    Several methods of near infrared spectroscopy such as functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and pulse oximetry have been applied for monitoring of tissue oxygenation or arterial oxygen saturation. Some vascular diseases can be diagnosed through measurements of tissue oxygenation. In this study, the temporal variation of oxygenation of calf muscle after exercise is studied by fNIRS. First, the accuracy of a low-cost fNIRS system is studied by measuring the oxygenation of a lipid phantom. Moreover, in-vivo study is performed to evaluate the precision of this system. Then, the variation of muscle oxygenation of four persons during exercise is measured and also the recovery time after walking/running is measured by this fNIRS system.

  9. Local and Systemic Changes in Pain Sensitivity After 4 Weeks of Calf Muscle Stretching in a Nonpainful Population: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Bartholdy, Cecilie; Zangger, Graziella; Hansen, Lisbeth; Ginnerup-Nielsen, Elisabeth; Bliddal, Henning; Henriksen, Marius

    2016-07-01

    Stretching is often used in clinical practice for a variety of purposes, including pain therapy. The possible mechanism behind the effect of stretching remains to be clarified. To investigate whether 4 weeks of unilateral stretching of the calf muscles would affect local and central pain sensitivity. This study was a randomized assessor-blinded clinical study. Healthy participants (age 18 to 40) were included and randomized. Participants in the intervention group were instructed to perform 2 stretching exercises targeting the calf muscles; 3 times 30 seconds, 7 days a week for 4 weeks on the dominant leg. Participants in the control group were instructed not to do any stretching for 4 weeks. Pressure pain threshold (PPT) and temporal summation (TS) of pressure pain were measured on the stretched calf, the contra-lateral calf, and contra-lateral lower arm using a computerized cuff algometer. Analyses of variance on the per-protocol population (defined as participants that adhered to the protocol) were used to assess group differences in the changes from baseline. Forty healthy volunteers were included, of which 34 participants adhered to the protocol (15 intervention group/19 control group). No statistically significant group differences in the changes from baseline were found regarding PPT and TS measurements for the stretched calf, the contra-lateral calf, and the arm. Four weeks of regular stretching of the calf muscles does not affect pressure pain sensitivity, suggesting that pressure pain sensitivity is unaffected by stretching in a healthy population. The mechanisms underlying any benefits of regular stretching remain to be explained. © 2015 World Institute of Pain.

  10. Effects of post-fracture non-weight-bearing immobilization on muscle atrophy, intramuscular and intermuscular adipose tissues in the thigh and calf.

    PubMed

    Yoshiko, Akito; Yamauchi, Koun; Kato, Takayuki; Ishida, Koji; Koike, Teruhiko; Oshida, Yoshiharu; Akima, Hiroshi

    2018-06-09

    Disuse and/or a non-weight-bearing condition changes muscle composition, with decreased skeletal muscle tissue and increased fat within (intramuscular adipose tissue, IntraMAT) and between (intermuscular adipose tissue, InterMAT) given muscles. Excessive adipose tissue contributes to dysfunctional and metabolically impaired muscle. How these adipose tissues change during orthopedic treatment (e.g., cast immobilization, daily use of crutches) is not well documented. This study aimed to quantify changes in IntraMAT, InterMAT, and thigh and calf muscle tissue during orthopedic treatment. We studied 8 patients with fifth metatarsal bone or fibular fractures. The ankle joint involved underwent plaster casting for approximately 4 weeks, with crutches used during that time. Axial T1-weighted MRI at the mid-thigh and a 30% proximal site at the calf were obtained to measure IntraMAT and InterMAT cross-sectional areas (CSAs) and skeletal muscle tissue CSA before treatment and 4 weeks afterward. Thigh and calf muscle tissue CSAs were significantly decreased from before to after treatment: thigh, 85.8 ± 7.6 to 77.1 ± 7.3 cm 2 ; calf, 53.3 ± 5.5 to 48.9 ± 5.0 cm 2 (p < 0.05). None of the IntraMAT or InterMAT changes was statistically significant. There was a relation between the percentage change of thigh IntraMAT CSA and muscle tissue CSA (r s  = -0.86, p < 0.01). The 4 weeks of treatment primarily induced skeletal muscle atrophy with less of an effect on IntraMAT or InterMAT. There is a risk of increasing IntraMAT relatively by decreasing skeletal muscle tissue size during orthopedic treatment.

  11. Young, Healthy Subjects Can Reduce the Activity of Calf Muscles When Provided with EMG Biofeedback in Upright Stance

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Taian M.; Baudry, Stéphane; Botter, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests the minimization of muscular effort rather than of the size of bodily sway may be the primary, nervous system goal when regulating the human, standing posture. Different programs have been proposed for balance training; none however has been focused on the activation of postural muscles during standing. In this study we investigated the possibility of minimizing the activation of the calf muscles during standing through biofeedback. By providing subjects with an audio signal that varied in amplitude and frequency with the amplitude of surface electromyograms (EMG) recorded from different regions of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, we expected them to be able to minimize the level of muscle activation during standing without increasing the excursion of the center of pressure (CoP). CoP data and surface EMG from gastrocnemii, soleus and tibialis anterior muscles were obtained from 10 healthy participants while standing at ease and while standing with EMG biofeedback. Four sensitivities were used to test subjects' responsiveness to the EMG biofeedback. Compared with standing at ease, the two most sensitive feedback conditions induced a decrease in plantar flexor activity (~15%; P < 0.05) and an increase in tibialis anterior EMG (~10%; P < 0.05). Furthermore, CoP mean position significantly shifted backward (~30 mm). In contrast, the use of less sensitive EMG biofeedback resulted in a significant decrease in EMG activity of ankle plantar flexors with a marginal increase in TA activity compared with standing at ease. These changes were not accompanied by greater CoP displacements or significant changes in mean CoP position. Key results revealed subjects were able to keep standing stability while reducing the activity of gastrocnemius and soleus without loading their tibialis anterior muscle when standing with EMG biofeedback. These results may therefore posit the basis for the development of training protocols aimed at assisting subjects in

  12. Evaluation of skeletal muscle during calf exercise by 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy in patients on statin medications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jim S; Buettner, Catherine; Smithline, Howard; Ngo, Long H; Greenman, Robert L

    2011-01-01

    Muscle pain is a common side effect of statin medications, but the cause is poorly understood. We characterized phosphocreatine (PCr) exercise recovery kinetics in 10 patients with hypercholesterolemia before and after a 4-week regimen of statin therapy using 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31) P-MRS). (31) P spectra were obtained before, during, and after exercise on a calf flexion pedal ergometer. Creatine kinase (CK) serum levels were drawn before and after statin therapy. The mean metabolic recovery time constant in subjects increased from 28.1 s (SE = 6.5 s) to 55.4 s (SE = 7.4 s) after statin therapy. The unweighted mean of the pre/post-recovery time difference was -27.3 s (SE = 12.4 s; P = 0.02). Pre- and post-therapy CK levels were not significantly different (P = 0.50). Metabolic recovery time in the calf is prolonged in patients after statin use. This suggests that statins impair mitochondrial oxidative function, and (31) P MRS is a potential study model for statin-associated myopathy. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Evaluation of skeletal muscle during calf exercise by 31P MR spectroscopy in patients on statin medications

    PubMed Central

    Buettner, Catherine; Smithline, Howard; Ngo, Long H; Greenman, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Muscle pain is a common side effect of statin medications, however, the cause is poorly understood. Methods We characterized phosphocreatine (PCr) exercise recovery kinetics in 10 patients with hypercholesterolemia before and after a 4 week regimen of statin therapy using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS). 31P spectra were obtained before, during, and following exercise on a calf flexion pedal ergometer. Creatine kinase (CK) serum levels were drawn before and after statin therapy. Results The mean metabolic recovery time constant in subjects increased from 28.1s (SE=6.5s) to 55.4s (SE=7.4s) following statin therapy. The unweighted mean of the pre-post recovery time difference was -27.3s (SE=12.4s); (p-value = 0.02). Pre- and post-therapy CK levels were not significantly different (p-value = 0.50). Discussion Metabolic recovery time in the calf is prolonged in patients following statin use. This suggests that statins impair mitochondrial oxidative function, and 31P –MRS is a potential study model for statin-associated myopathy. PMID:21171098

  14. Muscle function-dependent sarcopenia and cut-off values of possible predictors in community-dwelling Turkish elderly: calf circumference, midarm muscle circumference and walking speed.

    PubMed

    Akın, S; Mucuk, S; Öztürk, A; Mazıcıoğlu, M; Göçer, Ş; Arguvanlı, S; Şafak, E D

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of muscle strength-based sarcopenia and to determine possible predictors. This is a cross-sectional population-based study in the community-dwelling Turkish elderly. Anthropometric measurements, namely body height, weight, triceps skin fold (TSF), mid upper arm circumference (MUAC), waist circumference (WC) and calf circumference (CC), were noted. The midarm muscle circumference (MAMC) was calculated by using MUAC and TSF measurement. Sarcopenia was assessed, adjusted for body mass index (BMI) and gender, according to muscle strength. Physical performance was determined by 4 m walking speed (WS; m/s). The receiver operating curve analysis was performed to determine cut-offs of CC, MAMC and 4 m WS. A total of 879 elderly subjects, 50.1% of whom were female, were recruited. The mean handgrip strength (HGS) and s.d. was 24.2 (8.8) kg [17.9 (4.8) female, 30.6 (7.1) male]. The muscle function-dependent sarcopenia was 63.4% (female 73.5%, male 53.2%). The muscle mass-dependent sarcopenia for CC (<31 cm) and MAMC(<21.1 cm in males, <19.9 cm in females) was 6.7% and 7.3%, respectively. The prevalence of low 4 m WS (≤ 0.8 m/s) was 81.8% (91.3% in females and 72.3% in males, respectively). We compared MAMC, CC and 4 m WS and found that AUC for 4 m WS was the best predictor of sarcopenia. An adequate muscle mass may not mean a reliable muscle function. Muscle function may describe sarcopenia better compared with muscle mass. The CC, MAMC and 4 m WS cut-offs may be used to assess sarcopenia in certain age groups.

  15. Gene Expression Profiling in Slow-Type Calf Soleus Muscle of 30 Days Space-Flown Mice.

    PubMed

    Gambara, Guido; Salanova, Michele; Ciciliot, Stefano; Furlan, Sandra; Gutsmann, Martina; Schiffl, Gudrun; Ungethuem, Ute; Volpe, Pompeo; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Blottner, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Microgravity exposure as well as chronic disuse are two main causes of skeletal muscle atrophy in animals and humans. The antigravity calf soleus is a reference postural muscle to investigate the mechanism of disuse-induced maladaptation and plasticity of human and rodent (rats or mice) skeletal musculature. Here, we report microgravity-induced global gene expression changes in space-flown mouse skeletal muscle and the identification of yet unknown disuse susceptible transcripts found in soleus (a mainly slow phenotype) but not in extensor digitorum longus (a mainly fast phenotype dorsiflexor as functional counterpart to soleus). Adult C57Bl/N6 male mice (n = 5) flew aboard a biosatellite for 30 days on orbit (BION-M1 mission, 2013), a sex and age-matched cohort were housed in standard vivarium cages (n = 5), or in a replicate flight habitat as ground control (n = 5). Next to disuse atrophy signs (reduced size and myofiber phenotype I to II type shift) as much as 680 differentially expressed genes were found in the space-flown soleus, and only 72 in extensor digitorum longus (only 24 genes in common) compared to ground controls. Altered expression of gene transcripts matched key biological processes (contractile machinery, calcium homeostasis, muscle development, cell metabolism, inflammatory and oxidative stress response). Some transcripts (Fzd9, Casq2, Kcnma1, Ppara, Myf6) were further validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Besides previous reports on other leg muscle types we put forth for the first time a complete set of microgravity susceptible gene transcripts in soleus of mice as promising new biomarkers or targets for optimization of physical countermeasures and rehabilitation protocols to overcome disuse atrophy conditions in different clinical settings, rehabilitation and spaceflight.

  16. Gene Expression Profiling in Slow-Type Calf Soleus Muscle of 30 Days Space-Flown Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gambara, Guido; Salanova, Michele; Ciciliot, Stefano; Furlan, Sandra; Gutsmann, Martina; Schiffl, Gudrun; Ungethuem, Ute; Volpe, Pompeo; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Blottner, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Microgravity exposure as well as chronic disuse are two main causes of skeletal muscle atrophy in animals and humans. The antigravity calf soleus is a reference postural muscle to investigate the mechanism of disuse-induced maladaptation and plasticity of human and rodent (rats or mice) skeletal musculature. Here, we report microgravity-induced global gene expression changes in space-flown mouse skeletal muscle and the identification of yet unknown disuse susceptible transcripts found in soleus (a mainly slow phenotype) but not in extensor digitorum longus (a mainly fast phenotype dorsiflexor as functional counterpart to soleus). Adult C57Bl/N6 male mice (n = 5) flew aboard a biosatellite for 30 days on orbit (BION-M1 mission, 2013), a sex and age-matched cohort were housed in standard vivarium cages (n = 5), or in a replicate flight habitat as ground control (n = 5). Next to disuse atrophy signs (reduced size and myofiber phenotype I to II type shift) as much as 680 differentially expressed genes were found in the space-flown soleus, and only 72 in extensor digitorum longus (only 24 genes in common) compared to ground controls. Altered expression of gene transcripts matched key biological processes (contractile machinery, calcium homeostasis, muscle development, cell metabolism, inflammatory and oxidative stress response). Some transcripts (Fzd9, Casq2, Kcnma1, Ppara, Myf6) were further validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Besides previous reports on other leg muscle types we put forth for the first time a complete set of microgravity susceptible gene transcripts in soleus of mice as promising new biomarkers or targets for optimization of physical countermeasures and rehabilitation protocols to overcome disuse atrophy conditions in different clinical settings, rehabilitation and spaceflight. PMID:28076365

  17. Compensatory Hypertrophy of Skeletal Muscle: Contractile Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ianuzzo, C. D.; Chen, V.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment using rats that demonstrates contractile characteristics of normal and hypertrophied muscle. Compensatory hypertrophy of the plantaris muscle is induced by surgical removal of the synergistic gastrocnemium muscle. Includes methods for determination of contractile properties of normal and hypertrophied muscle and…

  18. Binding characteristics and protective capacity of cyanidin-3-glucoside and its aglycon to calf thymus DNA.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Guo, Xiaofei; Cai, Wenqian; Ma, Yue; Zhao, Xiaoyan

    2015-04-01

    The binding characteristics and protective capacity of cyanidin (Cy) and cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) to calf thymus DNA were explored for the first time. The Cy and C3G gave a bathochromic shift to the ultraviolet-visible spectra of the DNA, indicating the formation of the DNA-Cy and DNA-C3G complexes. The complexes were formed by an intercalative binding mode based on the results of the fluorescence spectra and competitive binding analysis. Meanwhile, the Cy and C3G protected the DNA from the damage induced by the hydroxyl radical. The binding capacity and protective capacity of the C3G were stronger than that of the Cy. Furthermore, the formation of the DNA-anthocyanin complexes was spontaneous when the hydrogen bond and hydrophobic force played a key role. Hence, the Cy and C3G could protect the DNA automatically from the damage induced by the hydroxyl radical. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Relative changes with contraction in the central excitability state of the tibialis anterior and calf muscles.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, M A

    1980-01-01

    F responses were recorded from the surface of the tibialis muscle and medial aspect of the soleus muscle in 14 normal subjects. The persistence (that is the fraction of measurable F responses found with a series of supramaximal stimuli) and average F amplitudes (measured peak-to-peak and based on at least five F responses) were determined both at rest and with isometric contraction with the ankle maintained at 90 degrees. Although the persistence at rest was significantly less in the tibialis anterior soleus than the (p less than 0.001), no significant difference was found with the muscles contracted. This was associated with a significant increase in both average F amplitudes and average F amplitude/direct motor response ratios in the tibialis anterior in comparison to the soleus. In four of the subjects, studies were also performed when the H reflex in the soleus muscle was eliminated by thigh compression. Comparable changes in both F response persistence and average F amplitude were found with and without an H reflex. These data indicate that, in contrast to the situation at rest, with isometric contraction the "central excitatory state" of the tibialis anterior is at least as great as in its antagonist antigravity muscles and that this is not due simply to increased large fiber reflex input associated with agonist contraction. PMID:7373321

  20. Video game-based neuromuscular electrical stimulation system for calf muscle training: a case study.

    PubMed

    Sayenko, D G; Masani, K; Milosevic, M; Robinson, M F; Vette, A H; McConville, K M V; Popovic, M R

    2011-03-01

    A video game-based training system was designed to integrate neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and visual feedback as a means to improve strength and endurance of the lower leg muscles, and to increase the range of motion (ROM) of the ankle joints. The system allowed the participants to perform isotonic concentric and isometric contractions in both the plantarflexors and dorsiflexors using NMES. In the proposed system, the contractions were performed against exterior resistance, and the angle of the ankle joints was used as the control input to the video game. To test the practicality of the proposed system, an individual with chronic complete spinal cord injury (SCI) participated in the study. The system provided a progressive overload for the trained muscles, which is a prerequisite for successful muscle training. The participant indicated that he enjoyed the video game-based training and that he would like to continue the treatment. The results show that the training resulted in a significant improvement of the strength and endurance of the paralyzed lower leg muscles, and in an increased ROM of the ankle joints. Video game-based training programs might be effective in motivating participants to train more frequently and adhere to otherwise tedious training protocols. It is expected that such training will not only improve the properties of their muscles but also decrease the severity and frequency of secondary complications that result from SCI. Copyright © 2010 IPEM. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of ageing on adaptation during vibratory stimulation of the calf and neck muscles.

    PubMed

    Patel, M; Fransson, P A; Magnusson, M

    2009-01-01

    The ability to adapt and habituate based on prior experiences is important for human movement control, fall prevention and for the ability to enhance performance during various human activities. However, little is known about the ability for the elderly to adapt to balance perturbations in the lateral direction. To determine whether adaptation, i.e., the ability to adjust postural control to handle balance perturbations better over time, differed in the elderly subjects compared with young subjects in the anteroposterior and lateral directions, and whether the site of the balance perturbation or the presence or absence of vision affected the response. Postural stability was measured as anteroposterior and lateral torque variance in a young group (n = 18 (9 female and 9 male), average age = 29.1 years) and an elderly group (n = 16 (5 female and 11 male), average age = 71.5 years) with eyes open and closed during balance perturbations from calf and neck vibrations. After a 30-s period of quiet stance, these vibrations were repeated over a period of 200 s, so the adaptive responses could be analyzed by splitting the data into 50-s periods. The adaptive responses in the anteroposterior and lateral directions were different. Adaptation in the anteroposterior direction occurred to an almost equal extent in the elderly and young, whereas adaptation in the lateral direction was markedly larger in the elderly in all tests except for neck vibration with eyes closed. Age, vision and vibration site were all influential factors for recorded body movements, but no significant combined effects were found. Balance perturbation instigates an adaptive response in the elderly in both the anteroposterior and lateral directions. However, during perturbation, age and vision are both very influential factors for the stability, thus associating the previously documented age-related decline in visual functioning with a higher risk of falls in this age range. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. EMG changes in thigh and calf muscles in fin swimming exercise.

    PubMed

    Jammes, Y; Delliaux, S; Coulange, M; Jammes, C; Kipson, N; Brerro-Saby, C; Bregeon, F

    2010-08-01

    Because previous researchers have reported a reduced lactic acid production that accompanies a delayed or an absent ventilatory threshold (VTh) in water-based exercise, we hypothesized that the metaboreflex, activated by muscle acidosis, might be absent in fin swimming. This motor response, delaying the occurrence of fatigue, is characterized by a decreased median frequency (MF) of electromyographic (EMG) power spectrum. Seven healthy subjects performed a maximal fin swimming exercise protocol with simultaneous recordings of surface EMGs in VASTUS MEDIALIS (VM), TIBIALIS ANTERIOR (TA) and GASTROCNEMIUS MEDIALIS (GM). We computed the root mean square (RMS) and MF and recorded the compound evoked muscle potential (M-wave) in VM. We also measured the propulsive force and oxygen uptake (VO (2)), and determined VTh. VTh was absent in 4/7 subjects and measured at 70-90% of VO (2max) in the other three. In the three studied muscles, the global EMG activity (RMS) increased while the MF decreased in proportion of VO (2), the MF changes being significantly higher in VM (-29%) and GM (-39%) than in TA (-19%). Because no M-wave changes were noted, the MF decline was attributed to the recruitment of low-frequency, fatigue-resistant motor units. Our most important finding is the persistence of the metaboreflex even in a situation of reduced muscle acidosis. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  3. The Effectiveness of Calf Muscle Electrostimulation on Vascular Perfusion and Walking Capacity in Patients Living With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Peripheral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Ellul, Christian; Formosa, Cynthia; Gatt, Alfred; Hamadani, Auon Abbas; Armstrong, David G

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to explore calf muscle electrostimulation on arterial inflow and walking capacity in claudicants with peripheral artery disease and diabetes mellitus. A prospective, 1-group, pretest-posttest study design was used on 40 high-risk participants (n = 40) who exhibited bilateral limb ischemia (ankle brachial pressure index [ABPI] <0.90), diabetes mellitus, and calf muscle claudication. A program of calf muscle electrical stimulation with varying frequency (1-250 Hz) was prescribed for 1 hour per day for 12 weeks. Spectral waveforms analysis, ABPI, absolute claudication distance (ACD), and thermographic temperature patterns across 4 specified regions of interest (hallux, medial forefoot, lateral forefoot, heel) at rest and after exercise, were recorded at baseline and following intervention to evaluate for therapeutic outcomes. A significant improvement in ACD and ABPI was registered following the intervention ( P = .000 and P = .001, respectively). Resting foot temperatures increased significantly ( P = .000) while the postexercise temperature drops were halved across all regions at follow-up, with hallux ( P = .005) and lateral forefoot ( P = .038) reaching statistical significance. Spectral Doppler waveforms were comparable ( P = .304) between both serial assessments. Electrical stimulation of varying frequency for 1 hour per day for 12 consecutive weeks registered statistically significant improvement in outcome measures that assess arterial inflow and walking capacity in claudicants with diabetes mellitus. These results favor the use of electrostimulation as a therapeutic measure in this high-risk population.

  4. Rapid desensitization and resensitization of 5-HT sub 2 receptor mediated phosphatidyl inositol hydrolysis by serotonin agonists in quiescent calf aortic smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pauwels, P.J.; Van Gompel, P.; Leysen, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    Agonist regulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine{sub 2} (5-HT{sub 2}) receptors was studied in calf aortic smooth muscle cultures incubated in a quiescent, defined synthetic medium that does not stimulate cell proliferation, but that provides cells with supplements that maintain cell viability. In these cells, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced ({sup 3}H)inositol phosphates accumulation showed the characteristics of a 5-HT{sub 2} receptor coupled transducing system according to the inhibition of the response by 5-HT{sub 2} antagonists at nanomolar concentrations. The 5-HT{sub 2} receptor coupled response became rapidly desensitized during continued incubation with 5-HT and 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOM); nearly full desensitization was obtained in two hours with 10more » {mu}M 5-HT and DOM pretreatment. The recovery of the response had a half-live of 5 hours after 2 hours pretreatment and of 9.5 to 12.5 hours after 24 to 96 hours agonist pretreatment. The DOM-induced desensitization of the 5-HT{sub 2} receptor coupled response was fully blocked by 0.1 {mu}M cinanserin. Cinanserin alone did not induce desensitization or up-regulation of the 5-HT{sub 2} receptor coupled response at 0.1 {mu}M.« less

  5. Differences in end-point force trajectories elicited by electrical stimulation of individual human calf muscles

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, S B; Segal, R L; Abelew, T A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the end-point force trajectories of the fibularis longus (FIB), lateral gastrocnemius (LG) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles. Most information about individual muscle function has come from studies which use models based on electromyographic (EMG) recordings. In this study (N=20 subjects) we used electrical stimulation (20Hz) to elicit activity in individual muscles, recorded the end-point forces at the foot and verified the selectivity of stimulation by using magnetic resonance imaging. Unexpectedly, no significant differences were found between LG and MG force directions. Stimulation of LG and MG resulted in downward and medial or lateral forces depending on the subject. We found FIB end-point forces to be significantly different than those of LG and MG. In all subjects, stimulation of FIB resulted in downward and lateral forces. Based on our results, we suggest that there are multiple factors determining when and whether LG or MG will produce a medial or lateral force and FIB consistently plays a significant role in eversion/abduction and plantarflexion. We suggest that the inter-subject variability we found is not simply an artifact of experimental or technical error but is functionally relevant and should be addressed in future studies and models. PMID:20095454

  6. Blood pressure and calf muscle oxygen extraction during plantar flexion exercise in peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Luck, J Carter; Miller, Amanda J; Aziz, Faisal; Radtka, John F; Proctor, David N; Leuenberger, Urs A; Sinoway, Lawrence I; Muller, Matthew D

    2017-07-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is an atherosclerotic vascular disease that affects 200 million people worldwide. Although PAD primarily affects large arteries, it is also associated with microvascular dysfunction, an exaggerated blood pressure (BP) response to exercise, and high cardiovascular mortality. We hypothesized that fatiguing plantar flexion exercise that evokes claudication elicits a greater reduction in skeletal muscle oxygenation (SmO 2 ) and a higher rise in BP in PAD compared with age-matched healthy subjects, but low-intensity steady-state plantar flexion elicits similar responses between groups. In the first experiment, eight patients with PAD and eight healthy controls performed fatiguing plantar flexion exercise (from 0.5 to 7 kg for up to 14 min). In the second experiment, seven patients with PAD and seven healthy controls performed low-intensity plantar flexion exercise (2.0 kg for 14 min). BP, heart rate (HR), and SmO 2 were measured continuously using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). SmO 2 is the ratio of oxygenated hemoglobin to total hemoglobin, expressed as a percent. At fatigue, patients with PAD had a greater increase in mean arterial BP (18 ± 2 vs. vs. 10 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.029) and HR (14 ± 2 vs. 6 ± 2 beats/min, P = 0.033) and a greater reduction in SmO 2 (-54 ± 10 vs. -12 ± 4%, P = 0.001). However, both groups had similar physiological responses to low-intensity, nonpainful plantar flexion exercise. These data suggest that patients with PAD have altered oxygen uptake and/or utilization during fatiguing exercise coincident with an augmented BP response. NEW & NOTEWORTHY In this laboratory study, patients with peripheral artery disease performed plantar flexion exercise in the supine posture until symptoms of claudication occurred. Relative to age- and sex-matched healthy subjects we found that patients had a higher blood pressure response, a higher heart rate response, and a greater reduction in skeletal muscle oxygenation as

  7. An exploration of diffusion tensor eigenvector variability within human calf muscles.

    PubMed

    Rockel, Conrad; Noseworthy, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    To explore the effect of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) acquisition parameters on principal and minor eigenvector stability within human lower leg skeletal muscles. Lower leg muscles were evaluated in seven healthy subjects at 3T using an 8-channel transmit/receive coil. Diffusion-encoding was performed with nine signal averages (NSA) using 6, 15, and 25 directions (NDD). Individual DTI volumes were combined into aggregate volumes of 3, 2, and 1 NSA according to number of directions. Tensor eigenvalues (λ1 , λ2 , λ3 ), eigenvectors (ε1 , ε2 , ε3 ), and DTI metrics (fractional anisotropy [FA] and mean diffusivity [MD]) were calculated for each combination of NSA and NDD. Spatial maps of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), λ3 :λ2 ratio, and zenith angle were also calculated for region of interest (ROI) analysis of vector orientation consistency. ε1 variability was only moderately related to ε2 variability (r = 0.4045). Variation of ε1 was affected by NDD, not NSA (P < 0.0002), while variation of ε2 was affected by NSA, not NDD (P < 0.0003). In terms of tensor shape, vector variability was weakly related to FA (ε1 :r = -0.1854, ε2 : ns), but had a stronger relation to the λ3 :λ2 ratio (ε1 :r = -0.5221, ε2 :r = -0.1771). Vector variability was also weakly related to SNR (ε1 :r = -0.2873, ε2 :r = -0.3483). Zenith angle was found to be strongly associated with variability of ε1 (r = 0.8048) but only weakly with that of ε2 (r = 0.2135). The second eigenvector (ε2 ) displayed higher directional variability relative to ε1 , and was only marginally affected by experimental conditions that impacted ε1 variability. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The pH heterogeneity in human calf muscle during neuromuscular electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Stutzig, Norman; Rzanny, Reinhard; Moll, Kevin; Gussew, Alexander; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Siebert, Tobias

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to examine pH heterogeneity during fatigue induced by neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) using phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 31 P-MRS). It is hypothesized that three pH components would occur in the 31 P-MRS during fatigue, representing three fiber types. The medial gastrocnemius of eight subjects was stimulated within a 3-Tesla whole body MRI scanner. The maximal force during stimulation (F stim ) was examined by a pressure sensor. Phosphocreatine (PCr), adenosintriphosphate, inorganic phosphate (Pi), and the corresponding pH were estimated by a nonvolume-selective 31 P-MRS using a small loop coil at rest and during fatigue. During fatigue, F stim and PCr decreased to 27% and 33% of their initial levels, respectively. In all cases, the Pi peak increased when NMES was started and split into three different peaks. Based on the single Pi peaks during fatigue, an alkaline (6.76 ± 0.08), a medium (6.40 ± 0.06), and an acidic (6.09 ± 0.05) pH component were observed compared to the pH (7.02 ± 0.02) at rest. It is suggested that NMES is able to induce pH heterogeneity in the medial gastrocnemius, and that the single Pi peaks represent the different muscle fiber types of the skeletal muscle. Magn Reson Med 77:2097-2106, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  9. New regimen for eccentric calf-muscle training in patients with chronic insertional Achilles tendinopathy: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, P; Alfredson, H; Sunding, K; Fahlström, M; Cook, J

    2008-09-01

    Chronic painful insertional Achilles tendinopathy is seen in both physically active and non-active individuals. Painful eccentric training, where the patients load the Achilles tendon into full dorsiflexion, has shown good results in patients with mid-portion Achilles tendinosis. However, only 32% of patients with insertional Achilles tendinopathy had good clinical results with that type of eccentric training regimen. To investigate whether a new model of painful eccentric training had an effect on chronic painful insertional Achilles tendinopathy. 27 patients (12 men, 15 women, mean age 53 years) with a total of 34 painful Achilles tendons with a long duration of pain (mean 26 months), diagnosed as insertional Achilles tendinopathy, were included. The patients performed a new model of painful eccentric training regimen without loading into dorsiflexion. This was done as 3x15 reps, twice a day, 7 days/week, for 12 weeks. Pain during Achilles-tendon-loading activity (VAS) and patient's satisfaction (back to previous activity) were evaluated. At follow-up (mean 4 months) 18 patients (67%, 23/34 tendons) were satisfied and back to their previous tendon-loading activity. Their mean VAS had decreased from 69.9 (SD 18.9) to 21 (SD 20.6) (p<0.001). Nine patients (11 tendons) were not satisfied with the treatment, although their VAS was significantly reduced from 77.5 (8.6) to 58.1 (14.8) (p<0.01). In this short-term pilot study this new model of painful eccentric calf-muscle training showed promising clinical results in 67% of the patients.

  10. Reproducibility Analysis of Diffusion Tensor Indices and Fiber Architecture of Human Calf Muscles in vivo at 1.5 Tesla in Neutral and Plantarflexed Ankle Positions at Rest

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Shantanu; Sinha, Usha

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the reproducibility of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) derived indices and fiber architecture of calf muscles at 1.5 Tesla, to establish an imaging based method to confirm ankle position, and to compare fiber architecture at different ankle positions. Materials and Methods Six subjects were imaged at 1.5T with the foot in neutral and plantarflexed positions. DTI indices were calculated in four muscle compartments (medial and lateral gastrocnemius (MG, LG), superficial and deep anterior tibialis (AT-S, AT-D). Two subjects were scanned on three days to calculate the coefficient of variability (CV) and the repeatability coefficient (RC). Results DTI indices were close to the values obtained in earlier 3T and 1.5 T studies. FA decreased significantly in the MG and increased significantly in the AT-S and AT-D compartments while fiber orientation with respect to the magnet Z-axis increased significantly in the MG and decreased significantly in the AT-S compartment with plantarflexion. The CV and RC for the DTI indices and fiber orientations were comparable to 3T studies. Fiber lengths and orientation angles in the MG matched corresponding measures from ultrasound studies. Conclusion DTI at 1.5 Tesla provides reproducible measures of diffusion indices and fiber architecture of calf muscle at different muscle lengths. PMID:21608064

  11. Evidence for a dipolar-coupled AM system in carnosine in human calf muscle from in vivo 1H NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Leif; Bachert, Peter

    2003-10-01

    Spin systems with residual dipolar couplings such as creatine, taurine, and lactate in skeletal muscle tissue exhibit first-order spectra in in vivo 1H NMR spectroscopy at 1.5 T because the coupled protons are represented by (nearly) symmetrized eigenfunctions. The imidazole ring protons (H2, H4) of carnosine are suspected to form also a coupled system. The ring's stiffness could enable a connectivity between these anisochronous protons with the consequence of second-order spectra at low field strength. Our purpose was to study whether this deviation from the Paschen-Back condition can be used to detect the H2-H4 coupling in localized 1D 1H NMR spectra obtained at 1.5 T (64 MHz) from the human calf in a conventional whole-body scanner. As for the hydrogen hyperfine interaction, a Breit-Rabi equation was derived to describe the transition from Zeeman to Paschen-Back regime for two dipolar-coupled protons. The ratio of the measurable coupling strength ( Sk) and the difference in resonance frequencies of the coupled spins (Δ ω) induces quantum-state mixing of various degree upon definition of an appropriate eigenbase of the coupled spin system. The corresponding Clebsch-Gordan coefficients manifest in characteristic energy corrections in the Breit-Rabi formula. These additional terms were used to define an asymmetry parameter of the line positions as a function of Sk and Δ ω. The observed frequency shifts of the resonances were found to be consistent with this parameter within the accuracy achievable in in vivo NMR spectroscopy. Thus it was possible to identify the origin of satellite peaks of H2, H4 and to describe this so far not investigated type of residual dipolar coupling in vivo.

  12. Deep massage to posterior calf muscles in combination with neural mobilization exercises as a treatment for heel pain: a pilot randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Saban, Bernice; Deutscher, Daniel; Ziv, Tomer

    2014-04-01

    Plantar heel pain syndrome (PHPS) is a common foot disorder; however, there is limited clinical evidence on which to base treatment. Repeated clinical observations indicating heel pain during heel rise and minisquat on the affected leg, involving activation of posterior calf muscles, formed the basis of this study. To compare deep massage therapy to posterior calf muscles and neural mobilization with a self-stretch exercise program (DMS) to a common treatment protocol of ultrasound therapy to the painful heel area with the same self-stretch exercises (USS). Patients with PHPS were assigned to a program of 8 treatments over a period of 4-6 weeks in a single-blind randomized clinical trial. Functional status (FS) at admission and discharge from therapy as measured by the Foot & Ankle Computerized Adaptive Test was the main outcome measure. Sixty-nine patients were included in the trial (mean age 53, standard deviation (SD) 13, range 25-86, 57% women), 36 received DMS treatment and 33 with USS. The overall group-by-time interaction for the mixed-model analysis of variance (ANOVA) was found statistically significant (p=0.034), with a change of (mean (confidence interval, CI)) 15 (9-21) and 6 (1-11) FS points for the DMS and USS groups, respectively. Data indicated that both treatment protocols resulted in an overall short-term improvement, however, DMS treatment was significantly more effective in treating PHPS than USS treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative feeding value of distillers dried grains plus solubles as a partial replacement for steam-flaked corn in diets for calf-fed Holstein steers: characteristics of digestion, growth performance, and dietary energetics.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, R; Arrizon, A A; Plascencia, A; Torrentera, N G; Zinn, R A

    2013-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of level of dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) supplementation (0, 10, 20, and 30%; DM basis), replacing steam-flaked (SF) corn in finishing diets, on characteristics of digestion (Exp. 1) and growth performance (Exp. 2) in calf-fed Holstein steers. In Exp.1, 4 cannulated Holstein steers (349 ± 12 kg) were used to evaluate treatment effects on characteristics of digestion. Ruminal NDF digestion tended to increase (quadratic effect, P = 0.09) and ruminal OM digestion decreased (linear effect, P = 0.01) with DDGS substitution. There were no treatment effects on duodenal flow of microbial N (MN). Substitution with DDGS increased (linear effect, P < 0.01) N flow to the small intestine. The undegradable intake protein (UIP) value of DDGS was 35%. Postruminal digestion of OM (linear effect, P = 0.04) and fatty acids (linear effect, P = 0.03) and total tract digestion of OM and GE decreased (linear effect, P < 0.03) with increasing level of DDGS substitution. Substitution with DDGS did not affect (P = 0.80) ruminal pH but increased (linear effect, P = 0.01) acetate:propionate molar ratio. In Exp.2, 144 Holsteins steer (112 ± 6 kg) were used in a 305-d trial to evaluate treatment effects on growth performance and carcass characteristics. During the initial 126 d, DDGS substitution increased ADG (linear effect, P = 0.03), G:F (quadratic effect, P = 0.03), and dietary NE (quadratic effect, P = 0.02), maximal for both at 20% DDGS inclusion rate. Based on estimated indispensable AA supply to the small intestine as a percentage of requirements during the initial 126-d period, histidine was first limiting followed by methionine. During the final 179-d period and overall (305-d feeding period), treatment effects on ADG and G:F were small (P ≥ 0.22). Compared with the other treatments, HCW was greater (3.4; P = 0.03) at the 20% level of DDGS substitution. The NE value for DDGS in SF corn-based diets for the calf-fed

  14. Effects of duration of vitamin C supplementation during the finishing period on postmortem protein degradation, tenderness, and meat color of the longissimus muscle of calf-fed steers consuming a 0.31 or 0.59% sulfur diet.

    PubMed

    Pogge, D J; Lonergan, S M; Hansen, S L

    2015-05-01

    High-S (HS) diets have been identified as a causative agent in the development of oxidative stress in cattle, which in postmortem muscle can negatively alter meat quality. Vitamin C (VC) is a potent antioxidant produced endogenously by cattle; however, exogenous supplementation of VC may be useful when HS diets are fed to cattle. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of duration of VC supplementation, for the first 56, 90, or 127 d, during the finishing period on meat color and tenderness of the longissimus thoracis (LT) collected from calf-fed steers consuming a 0.31 or 0.59% S diet. Angus steers ( n= 42) were stratified to pens by initial BW (304 ± 13 kg) and GeneMax marbling score (4.3 ± 0.12), and each pen was randomly assigned to 1 of 7 treatments (6 steers/pen, 1 pen/treatment), including HS (0.59% S, a combination of dried distillers grains plus solubles and sodium sulfate) control (HS CON), HS CON + 10 g VC·steer·(-1)d(-1) for the first 56 d (HS VC56), 90 d (HS VC90), or 127 d (HS VC127), low S (LS; 0.31% S) + 10 g VC·steer·(-1)d(-1) for the first 56 d (LS VC56), 90 d (LS VC90), or 127 d (LS VC127). Steers were harvested (n = 40) and, after a 24-h chill, rib sections (LT) were collected. pH was determined on each rib section before division into 3 sections for determination of 1) 7-d retail display and color and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), 2) 14-d WBSF determination, and 3) protein degradation and collagen content (2 d postmortem). Data were analyzed by ANOVA as a completely randomized design, with the fixed effect of treatment. Individual feed intake was recorded, and steer was the experimental unit. The HS steers had a greater and lesser percent of the 80- and 76-kDa subunits of calpain-1 (P ≤ 0.05), respectively, and tended to have less (P = 0.08) troponin T degradation (d2), and more (P = 0.02) collagen than LS steers. Increasing days of VC supplementation decreased (P = 0.05) the percentage of the 80 kDa subunit of

  15. Predictors of calf cramping in rugby league.

    PubMed

    Summers, Katherine M; Snodgrass, Suzanne J; Callister, Robin

    2014-03-01

    Exercise-associated muscle cramps (EAMC) in the calf are common in rugby league. To date, the etiology and predictors of calf cramping are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to undertake a prospective investigation to identify predictors of calf cramping in rugby league players. Demographic and anthropometric data and calf cramp and injury history were collected in the preseason. Hydration status, number of games played, and calf cramps were recorded on game days. Male rugby league players (n = 103, mean age 18.8 ± 4.1 years) were classified as either EAMC (experienced at least 1 incident of calf cramps in the season) or no EAMC (no calf cramps). The following were investigated as possible predictors of EAMC using logistic regression modeling: competition level, age, ethnicity, playing position, history of cramping, precramping, low back pain, foot orthotic usage, foot posture, foot strike, muscle flexibility, calf girth, hydration status, and number of games played. Half the players, n = 52, experienced at least 1 incidence of calf cramping. Playing in a senior competition level (odds ratio: 0.21; 95% confidence interval: 0.06-0.75; p = 0.016), a history of calf cramping (10.85; 2.16-54.44; p = 0.004), and a history of low back pain resulting in missed field minutes (4.50, 1.37-14.79; p = 0.013) were found to predict EAMC. This study suggests that there is a high incidence of calf cramping in rugby league, especially at senior competition levels, and supports preseason screening in senior players to idetify those at risk of calf cramping and the development of possible preventative strategies.

  16. Asymmetry of magnetic motor evoked potentials recorded in calf muscles of the dominant and non-dominant lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Olex-Zarychta, Dorota; Koprowski, Robert; Sobota, Grzegorz; Wróbel, Zygmunt

    2009-08-07

    The aim of the study was to determine the applicability of magnetic stimulation and magnetic motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in motor asymmetry studies by obtaining quantitative and qualitative measures of efferent activity during low intensity magnetic stimulation of the dominant and non-dominant lower extremities. Magnetic stimulation of the tibial nerve in the popliteal fossa was performed in 10 healthy male right-handed and right-footed young adults. Responses were recorded from the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscles of the right and left lower extremities. Response characteristics (duration, onset latency, amplitude) were analyzed in relation to the functional dominance of the limbs and in relation to the direction of the current in the magnetic coil by use of the Wilcoxon pair sequence test. The CCW direction of coil current was related to reduced amplitudes of recorded MEPs. Greater amplitudes of evoked potentials were recorded in the non-dominant extremity, both in the CW and CCW coil current directions, with the statistical significance of this effect (p=0.005). No differences in duration of response were found in the CW current direction, while in CCW the time of the left-side response was prolonged (p=0.01). In the non-dominant extremity longer onset latencies were recorded in both current directions, but only for the CW direction the side asymmetries showed a statistical significance of p=0.005. In the dominant extremity the stimulation correlated with stronger paresthesias, especially using the CCW direction of coil current. The results indicate that low intensity magnetic stimulation may be useful in quantitative and qualitative research into the motor asymmetry.

  17. Effect of nursing-calf implant timing on growth performance and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Webb, M J; Harty, A A; Salverson, R R; Kincheloe, J J; Zuelly, S M S; Underwood, K R; Luebbe, M K; Olson, K C; Blair, A D

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare pre- and postweaning growth performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality attributes of calves that did not receive an implant or were implanted early or late in the nursing period. Crossbred steer calves ( = 135) were stratified by birth date and birth weight and randomly assigned to the following implant treatments: control (CON; no preweaning implant), 58 d (EARLY; 36 mg zeranol, administered at an average of 58 ± 13 d of age), and 121 d (LATE; 36 mg zeranol, administered at an average 121 ± 13 d of age). After weaning, steers were blocked by initial feed yard BW to 15 pens (5 pens/treatment and 9 steers/pen). All steers were implanted on d 21 after arrival at the feed yard and again on d 108 of finishing. Steer BW and ultrasound assessment of rib eye area (uREA), rib fat thickness (uRFT), and percent intramuscular fat (uIMF) were collected when implants were administered, at weaning, and on harvest day. Carcass measurements included HCW, rib eye area (REA), 12th-rib fat thickness (FT), and marbling score. Objective color (L*, a*, and b*) was recorded, and a 3.8-cm strip loin section was removed from both sides of each carcass and portioned into 2.54-cm steaks that were aged for 3 or 14 d for analysis of cook loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). The remaining portion of each sample was used for analysis of moisture and crude fat. Steer BW, ADG, and G:F did not differ among treatments ( > 0.05). Steers implanted in the EARLY treatment had a greater ( < 0.05) cumulative DMI than CON but were not different from steers implanted in the LATE treatment. Ultrasound REA and uRFT (averaged across all collection days) did not differ ( > 0.05); however, steers on the CON treatment had a greater ( ≤ 0.05) percent uIMF than EARLY implanted steers, whereas steers receiving the LATE implant were intermediate and not different from the other treatments. Hot carcass weight, REA, FT, USDA yield grade, marbling score

  18. Predictive Accuracy of Calf Circumference Measurements to Detect Decreased Skeletal Muscle Mass and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism-Defined Malnutrition in Hospitalized Older Patients.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Keisuke; Koga, Takayuki; Nasu, Tomomi; Takaki, Miki; Akagi, Junji

    2017-01-01

    The ability to readily diagnose sarcopenia and malnutrition in a clinical setting is essential. This study is aimed at clarifying the calf circumference (CC) cut-off values for decreased skeletal muscle mass (SMM), according to the Asian Work Group for Sarcopenia's criteria definition of sarcopenia, and those for European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism-defined malnutrition, in hospitalized Japanese patients. The study involved 1,164 patients aged ≥65 years. Predictive CC cut-off values were determined using receiver operating curve (ROC) analyses. The predictive validity of the cut-off values was confirmed against in-hospital mortality. There were 654 females and 510 males (mean age, 83.5 ± 8.2 years). Decreased SMM and malnutrition were observed in 80.4 and 32.8% of all patients, respectively. ROC analyses identified CCs of ≤29 cm (female, area under the curve [AUC] 0.791) and ≤30 cm (male, AUC 0.832) as cut-off values for decreased SMM, and CCs of ≤26 cm (female, AUC 0.798) and ≤28 cm (male, AUC 0.837) for malnutrition. CC cut-off values for SMM and malnutrition were independently correlated with in-hospital mortality. The study determined appropriate cut-off values for CC to identify decreased SMM and malnutrition according to the relevant guidelines. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Changes in size and compliance of the calf after 30 days of simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Doerr, Donald F.; Stein, Stewart L.

    1989-01-01

    The hypothesis that reducing muscle compartment by a long-term exposure to microgravity would cause increased leg venous compliance was tested in eight men who were assessed for vascular compliance and for serial circumferences of the calf before and after 30 days of continuous 6-deg head-down bed rest. It was found that head-down bed rest caused decreases in the calculated calf volume and the calf-muscle compartment, as well as increases in calf compliance. The percent increases in calf compliance correlated significantly with decreases in calf muscle compartment.

  20. The efficiency of O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides in reducing the incidence of superficial venous insufficiency in patients with calf muscle pump dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Cenk Eray; Conkbayir, Cenk; Huseynov, Eldeniz; Sayin, Omer Ali; Tok, Okan; Kaynak, Gokhan; Cebi, Deniz; Ugurlucan, Murat; Kantarci, Fatih; Inan, Muharrem

    2017-04-01

    Objective We aimed to evaluate the efficiency of O-(beta-Hydroxyethyl)-rutosides (Oxerutin) in reducing the incidence of venous system disease among patients with calf muscle pump dysfunction secondary to immobilization due to lower-limb fractures. Methods A total of 60 patients with lower-limb fractures and immobilized in plaster casts were included in this study randomized into control (n = 30; mean: 30.37 ± 6.03 years; 73.3% males; no treatment) and experiment (n = 30; mean: 31.67 ± 4.76 years; 66.6% males; Oxerutin, 500 mg po q12hr) treatment groups. Doppler ultrasound was performed to evaluate the effect of oxerutin on the alterations in the venous circulation. Results Patients in the control group were determined to be more commonly affected from the below-knee immobilization in terms of venous dysfunction in the great saphenous vein in the below-knee region when compared with the patients in the oxerutin treatment group (46.7 vs. 13.3%, respectively; p = 0.011). Incidence of reflux in the small saphenous vein was more common in the control group during the healing period when compared with the experiment group (40.0 vs. 10.0%, respectively; p = 0.017). None of the patients developed venous thrombosis. Conclusions In conclusion, the impairment of the lower extremity muscle pump should be considered as an important risk factor for venous disease, and should be evaluated. O-(beta-Hydroxyethyl)-rutosides during 6-8 week cast immobilization for a lower limb fracture may be an effective prophylactic regimen in reducing the incidence of reflux in the below-knee superficial veins.

  1. Comparison of the prevalence of sarcopenia using skeletal muscle mass index and calf circumference applying the European consensus definition in elderly Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Velazquez-Alva, Maria Consuelo; Irigoyen Camacho, Maria Esther; Lazarevich, Irina; Delgadillo Velazquez, Jaime; Acosta Dominguez, Patricia; Zepeda Zepeda, Marco A

    2017-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of sarcopenia using two indicators: skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) and calf circumference (CC) used in the algorithm proposed by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Mexican elderly women. This was a cross-sectional study. Lean body mass was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. To define sarcopenia, the SMI was obtained using a cut-off value of 5.5 kg/m 2 , and the CC cut-off was 31 cm. For gait speed and handgrip strength, the cut-off values were 0.8 m/s and 20 kg, respectively. A total of 137 women (mean age 73.8 ± 6.7 years) participated in the study. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 14.6% using SMI and 11.0% using CC (P = 0.009). Body mass index was associated with a lower probability of sarcopenia applying SMI or CC (OR 0.75, P = 0.002 for SMI and OR 0.71, P = 0.004 for CC). Sarcopenia evaluated either with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry or CC was not associated with physical performance, such as five times chair stand test, timed up and go test and short physical performance battery. Additionally, SMI was not associated with physical performance, five times chair stand test (P = 0.775) and timed up-and-go test (P = 0.341). The prevalence of sarcopenia in active elderly women was low. A higher prevalence of sarcopenia was detected using SMI compared with CC. It is important to identify the best methods to assess skeletal muscle mass to obtain a reliable diagnosis of sarcopenia. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 161-170. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  2. Exercising calf muscle T₂∗ changes correlate with pH, PCr recovery and maximum oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Albrecht Ingo; Schewzow, Kiril; Fiedler, Georg Bernd; Goluch, Sigrun; Laistler, Elmar; Wolzt, Michael; Moser, Ewald; Meyerspeer, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Skeletal muscle metabolism is impaired in disorders like diabetes mellitus or peripheral vascular disease. The skeletal muscle echo planar imaging (EPI) signal (S(EPI) ) and its relation to energy metabolism are still debated. Localised ³¹P MRS and S(EPI) data from gastrocnemius medialis of 19 healthy subjects were combined in one scanning session to study direct relationships between phosphocreatine (PCr), pH kinetics and parameters of T₂∗ time courses. Dynamic spectroscopy (semi-LASER) and EPI were performed immediately before, during and after 5 min of plantar flexions. Data were acquired in a 7 T MR scanner equipped with a custom-built ergometer and a dedicated ³¹P/¹H radio frequency (RF) coil array. Using a form-fitted multi-channel ³¹P/¹H coil array resulted in high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). PCr and pH in the gastrocnemius medialis muscle were quantified from each ³¹P spectrum, acquired every 6 s. During exercise, SEPI (t) was found to be a linear function of tissue pH(t) (cross-correlation r = -0.85 ± 0.07). Strong Pearson's correlations were observed between post exercise time-to-peak (TTP) of SEPI and (a) the time constant of PCr recovery τPCr recovery (r = 0.89, p < 10⁻⁶), (b) maximum oxidative phosphorylation using the linear model, Q(max, lin) (r = 0.65, p = 0.002), the adenosine-diphosphate-driven model, Q(max,ADP) (r = 0.73, p = 0.0002) and (c) end exercise pH (r = 0.60, p = 0.005). Based on combined accurately localised ³¹P MRS and T₂∗ weighted MRI, both with high temporal resolution, strong correlations of the skeletal muscle SEPI during exercise and tissue pH time courses and of post exercise SEPI and parameters of energy metabolism were observed. In conclusion, a tight coupling between skeletal muscle metabolic activity and tissue T₂∗ signal weighting, probably induced by osmotically driven water shift, exists and can be measured non-invasively, using NMR at 7

  3. Breast muscle tissue characteristics in growing broilers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Muscle cell development in broilers influences growth rate, breast meat yield, and meat quality. The objective of this study was to characterize muscle tissue changes in breast muscles from two commercial lines of broilers from 21 to 56 days of age. The experiment was designed as a 2×2×6 factorial...

  4. Effects of late gestation distillers grains supplementation on fall-calving beef cow performance and steer calf growth and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wilson, T B; Schroeder, A R; Ireland, F A; Faulkner, D B; Shike, D W

    2015-10-01

    Fall-calving, mature Angus and Simmental × Angus cows ( = 251 total) and their progeny were used to evaluate the effects of late gestation dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) supplementation on cow performance and progeny growth and carcass characteristics. Cows were blocked by breed and allotted to 12 tall fescue pastures (6.8 ha average). Pastures were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: cows were offered 2.1 kg DM DDGS·cow·d (SUP; CP = 23%, fat = 7%; = 6 pastures) or were not offered a supplement (CON; = 6 pastures) 69 ± 9 d before expected calving date. Cows remained on treatments until calving. Once weekly, cows that had calved were removed from treatment pastures and were moved to new tall fescue pastures (21.6 ha average) where cows from both treatments were comingled without further supplementation. Cows ( = 74) were removed from study for calving more than 30 d after expected calving date, calf loss and injury, or euthanasia. Cow BW and BCS were recorded at the beginning of the supplementation period, after calving, and at breeding. Calf BW was taken at birth and early weaning (82 ± 14 d of age). After weaning, 71 steer progeny (representative of dam breed and treatment pastures) were transitioned to a common feedlot diet with individual feed intake monitored using the GrowSafe feeding system. Steers were slaughtered at 47 ± 4 d after a minimum 12th rib fat thickness (back fat) estimation of 0.6 cm, with cattle being shipped in 3 groups. Forage availability was not different between treatments ( = 0.69). Cows offered SUP gained more BW and BCS ( ≤ 0.02) during the supplementation period. There were no differences ( ≥ 0.12) in calving date, calf birth or weaning BW, or preweaning ADG. Cow BW at breeding was not different ( = 0.19); however, BCS at breeding was greater ( < 0.01) for cows offered supplement. No differences ( ≥ 0.11) in milk production, AI conception, or overall pregnancy rate were detected. For steer progeny, initial

  5. Histochemical characteristics of a tonic smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Gilloteaux, J; Stalmans-Falys, M

    1979-09-01

    It is suggested that ABRM, smooth muscle of Mytilus edulis L. and Mytilus galloprovincialis Lmk. (Mollusca Pelecypoda), is composed of one histochemical fibre type. The fibres are characterized by a low myofibrillar ATPase activity. Succinic and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidoreductase activities are distributed in a reverse pattern than that of the ATPase activity. Glycogen phosphorylase is richly represented in ABRM fibres and this detection is in opposition with the negative detection of alkaline phosphatase activity. These preliminary histochemical observations are similar to those found in some vertebrate smooth muscles. Mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate, 6-phosphogluconate, lactate and octopine dehydrogenases are not detected in muscle fibres whereas glio-interstitial tissues show weak but distinct reactivity. These last results especially characterize Mytilus catch fibres and are briefly discussed in relationship with previous physiological, biochemical and morphological observations.

  6. Effects of 12-wk eccentric calf muscle training on muscle-tendon glucose uptake and SEMG in patients with chronic Achilles tendon pain.

    PubMed

    Masood, Tahir; Kalliokoski, Kari; Magnusson, S Peter; Bojsen-Møller, Jens; Finni, Taija

    2014-07-15

    High-load eccentric exercises have been a key component in the conservative management of chronic Achilles tendinopathy. This study investigated the effects of a 12-wk progressive, home-based eccentric rehabilitation program on ankle plantar flexors' glucose uptake (GU) and myoelectric activity and Achilles tendon GU. A longitudinal study design with control (n = 10) and patient (n = 10) groups was used. Surface electromyography (SEMG) from four ankle plantar flexors and GU from the same muscles and the Achilles tendon were measured during submaximal intermittent isometric plantar flexion task. The results indicated that the symptomatic leg was weaker (P < 0.05) than the asymptomatic leg at baseline, but improved (P < 0.001) with eccentric rehabilitation. Additionally, the rehabilitation resulted in greater GU in both soleus (P < 0.01) and lateral gastrocnemius (P < 0.001) in the symptomatic leg, while the asymptomatic leg displayed higher uptake for medial gastrocnemius and flexor hallucis longus (P < 0.05). While both patient legs had higher tendon GU than the controls (P < 0.05), there was no rehabilitation effect on the tendon GU. Concerning SEMG, at baseline, soleus showed more relative activity in the symptomatic leg compared with both the asymptomatic and control legs (P < 0.05), probably reflecting an effort to compensate for the decreased force potential. The rehabilitation resulted in greater SEMG activity in the lateral gastrocnemius (P < 0.01) of the symptomatic leg with no other within- or between-group differences. Eccentric rehabilitation was effective in decreasing subjective severity of Achilles tendinopathy. It also resulted in redistribution of relative electrical activity, but not metabolic activity, within the triceps surae muscle. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Muscle contractile characteristics: relationship to high-intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Morris, Martyn G; Dawes, Helen; Howells, Ken; Scott, Oona M; Cramp, Mary; Izadi, Hooshang

    2010-09-01

    We investigated the relationship between muscle contractile characteristics, collected using percutaneous electrical stimulation, and high-intensity exercise performance. Seventeen participants performed a muscle performance test for the calculation of rate of torque development (RTD), rate of relaxation (RR(1/2)), rate of fatigue and fatigue resistance. On a second visit the participants completed a Wingate cycle ergometer test with peak power, mean power, fatigue index and fatigue rate calculated. The muscle fatigue index related significantly to the WAnT fatigue index and fatigue rate (p < 0.01). The change in rate of torque development (%DeltaRTD) was also related significantly to the fatigue rate (W/s) during the WAnT. Subjects displaying the greatest reduction in RTD had the greatest fatigue rate during the WAnT and greater fatigue during the electrical stimulation protocol. There were no significant relationships between peak (r 0.36; p > 0.01) or mean power (r -0.11, p > 0.01) with any of the muscle performance measures. These findings demonstrate that muscle contractile characteristics, elicited during standardised in vivo electrical stimulation, relate to performance during a Wingate anaerobic test. They suggest that muscle contraction characteristics play an important role in high-intensity exercise performance and indicate that electrical stimulation protocols can be a useful additional tool to explore muscle contraction characteristics in relation to exercise performance and trainability.

  8. Biochemical and Anatomical Characteristics of Dolphin Muscles.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    the Bioengineering Branch (Code 5143) of the Naval Ocean Systems Center and the Kinesiology Department of the University of California, Los Angeles...such a sample. TENDON ANALYSES The biochemistry of the dolphin tendon suggests that this tissue is well adapted to withstand large forces and significant...neuromuscular physiology, connective tissue, and muscle biochemistry . A detailed proposal outlining the goals, approach, milestones, and costs for

  9. Symptom characteristics and psychiatric comorbidity among males with muscle dysmorphia.

    PubMed

    Cafri, Guy; Olivardia, Roberto; Thompson, J Kevin

    2008-01-01

    Muscle dysmorphia has been described as a disorder in which individuals are pathologically preoccupied with their muscularity. This study was designed to further investigate the symptom characteristics and psychiatric conditions associated with the disorder. Weight lifting males meeting current criteria for muscle dysmorphia (n = 15), past muscle dysmorphia (n = 8), and no history of muscle dysmorphia (n = 28) responded to advertisements placed in gymnasium and nutrition stores. Structured and semistructured interviews were administered, as well as survey measures. Relative to controls, males with current muscle dysmorphia experienced more aversive symptoms related to the appearance of their bodies, including more often thinking about their muscularity, dissatisfaction with appearance, appearance checking, bodybuilding dependence, and functional impairment. Higher rates of mood and anxiety disorders were found among individuals with a history of muscle dysmorphia relative to individuals with no history of muscle dysmorphia. The findings suggest that muscle dysmorphia can be distinguished from normal weight lifting on a number of clinical dimensions. Muscle dysmorphia appears to be comorbid with other psychiatric conditions. Limitations of the current study and directions for future research are considered.

  10. [Melanosis maculosa in a calf].

    PubMed

    Camenzind, D; Winzap, B; Hässig, M

    2003-07-01

    This work describes findings in a fattened calf, which were seen in a routine slaughter. The most important findings by the meat inspector were diffuse, black spots between 2 and 70 mm in diameter. This hyperpigmentation was observed on the entire carcass as well as on the outside and inside of all internal organs. Removal of the spinal cord produced black colored liquor. Subsequent microbiological examination of the meat resulted in sterile findings. The muscle pH was 5.8. On histological examination many macrophages containing melanin were found in the lung and liver. Based on these findings the diagnosis of Melanosis maculosa was made.

  11. Raising the standards of the calf-raise test: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hébert-Losier, Kim; Newsham-West, Richard J; Schneiders, Anthony G; Sullivan, S John

    2009-11-01

    The calf-raise test is used by clinicians and researchers in sports medicine to assess properties of the calf muscle-tendon unit. The test generally involves repetitive concentric-eccentric muscle action of the plantar-flexors in unipedal stance and is quantified by the number of raises performed. Although the calf-raise test appears to have acceptable reliability and face validity, and is commonly used for medical assessment and rehabilitation of injuries, no universally acceptable test parameters have been published to date. A systematic review of the existing literature was conducted to investigate the consistency as well as universal acceptance of the evaluation purposes, test parameters, outcome measurements and psychometric properties of the calf-raise test. Nine electronic databases were searched during the period May 30th to September 21st 2008. Forty-nine articles met the inclusion criteria and were quality assessed. Information on study characteristics and calf-raise test parameters, as well as quantitative data, were extracted; tabulated; and statistically analysed. The average quality score of the reviewed articles was 70.4+/-12.2% (range 44-90%). Articles provided various test parameters; however, a consensus was not ascertained. Key testing parameters varied, were often unstated, and few studies reported reliability or validity values, including sensitivity and specificity. No definitive normative values could be established and the utility of the test in subjects with pathologies remained unclear. Although adapted for use in several disciplines and traditionally recommended for clinical assessment, there is no uniform description of the calf-raise test in the literature. Further investigation is recommended to ensure consistent use and interpretation of the test by researchers and clinicians.

  12. Muscle architecture and fibre characteristics of rat gastrocnemius and semimembranosus muscles during isometric contractions.

    PubMed

    Huijing, P A; van Lookeren Campagne, A A; Koper, J F

    1989-01-01

    Rat gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles have a very different morphology. GM is a very pennate muscle, combining relatively short muscle fibre length with sizable fibre angles and long muscle and aponeurosis lengths. SM is a more parallel-fibred muscle, combining a relatively long fibre length with a small fibre angle and short aponeurosis length. The mechanisms of fibre shortening as well as angle increase are operational in GM as well as SM. However, as a consequence of isometric contraction, changes of fibre length and angle are greater for GM than for SM at any relative muscle length. These differences are particularly notable at short muscle lengths: at 80% of optimum muscle length, fibre length changes of approximately 30% are coupled to fibre angle changes of 15 degrees in GM, while for SM these changes are 4% and 0.6 degrees, respectively. A considerable difference was found for normalized active slack muscle length (GM approximately 80 and SM approximately 45%). This is explained by differences of degree of pennation as well as factors related to differences found for estimated fibre length-force characteristics. Estimated normalized active fibre slack length was considerably smaller for SM than for GM (approximately 40 and 60%, respectively). The most likely explanation of these findings are differences of distribution of optimum fibre lengths, possibly in combination with differences of myofilament lengths and/or fibre length distributions.

  13. Muscle characteristics only partially explain color variations in fresh hams.

    PubMed

    Stufft, K; Elgin, J; Patterson, B; Matarneh, S K; Preisser, R; Shi, H; England, E M; Scheffler, T L; Mills, E W; Gerrard, D E

    2017-06-01

    Fresh hams display significant lean color variation that persists through further processing and contributes to a less desirable cured product. In an attempt to understand the underlying cause of this color disparity, we evaluated the differences in muscle characteristics and energy metabolites across semimembranosus (SM) muscles differing in color variation. The L* (lightness) and a* (redness) values were highest and lowest (P<0.001), respectfully in the most caudal aspects of the muscle while the ultimate pH was the lowest (P<0.001). Correspondingly, this region possessed highest (P<0.01) glycolytic potential (GP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels but did not differ in the amount of myoglobin or myosin heavy chain type I isoform. These data show that differences in muscle may contribute to ham color variation but suggest other factors may mitigate or exacerbate these variances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Poultry Meat Quality in Relation to Muscle Growth and Muscle Fiber Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Ishamri; Joo, Seon-Tea

    2017-01-01

    Variations in the definition of poultry meat quality exist because the quality traits are not solely based on intrinsic and extrinsic factors but also consumers’ preference. Appearance quality traits (AQT), eating quality traits (EQT), and reliance quality traits (RQT) are the major factors focused by the consumer before buying good quality of poultry meat. AQT and EQT of poultry meat are controlled by physical and biochemical characteristics of muscle fibers which can be categorized into a total number of fibers (TNF), cross-sectional area of fibers (CSAF), and fiber type composition (FTC). In poultry meat, it has been shown that muscle fiber properties play a key role in meat quality because numerous studies have reported the relationships between quality traits and fiber characteristics. Despite intensive research has been carried out to manipulate the muscle fiber to improve poultry meat quality, demand in a rapid growth of poultry muscle has correlated to the deterioration in the meat quality. The present paper reviews the definition of poultry meat quality, meat quality traits, and variations of meat quality. Also, this review presents recent knowledge underlying the relationship between poultry meat quality traits and muscle fiber characteristics. PMID:29725209

  15. Characteristics of locomotion, muscle strength, and muscle tissue in regenerating rat skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Akira; Fuchioka, Satoshi; Hiraoka, Koichi; Masuhara, Mitsuhiko; Kami, Katsuya

    2010-05-01

    Although numerous studies have aimed to elucidate the mechanisms used to repair the structure and function of injured skeletal muscles, it remains unclear how and when movement recovers following damage. We performed a temporal analysis to characterize the changes in movement, muscle function, and muscle structure after muscle injury induced by the drop-mass technique. At each time-point, movement recovery was determined by ankle kinematic analysis of locomotion, and functional recovery was represented by isometric force. As a histological analysis, the cross-sectional area of myotubes was measured to examine structural regeneration. The dorsiflexion angle of the ankle, as assessed by kinematic analysis of locomotion, increased after injury and then returned to control levels by day 14 post-injury. The isometric force returned to normal levels by day 21 post-injury. However, the size of the myotubes did not reach normal levels, even at day 21 post-injury. These results indicate that recovery of locomotion occurs prior to recovery of isometric force and that functional recovery occurs earlier than structural regeneration. Thus, it is suggested that recovery of the movement and function of injured skeletal muscles might be insufficient as markers for estimating the degree of neuromuscular system reconstitution.

  16. Comparison of clinical semi-quantitative assessment of muscle fat infiltration with quantitative assessment using chemical shift-based water/fat separation in MR studies of the calf of post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Alizai, Hamza; Nardo, Lorenzo; Karampinos, Dimitrios C; Joseph, Gabby B; Yap, Samuel P; Baum, Thomas; Krug, Roland; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M

    2012-07-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the semi-quantitative Goutallier classification for fat infiltration with quantitative fat-fraction derived from a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) chemical shift-based water/fat separation technique. Sixty-two women (age 61 ± 6 years), 27 of whom had diabetes, underwent MRI of the calf using a T1-weighted fast spin-echo sequence and a six-echo spoiled gradient-echo sequence at 3 T. Water/fat images and fat fraction maps were reconstructed using the IDEAL algorithm with T2* correction and a multi-peak model for the fat spectrum. Two radiologists scored fat infiltration on the T1-weighted images using the Goutallier classification in six muscle compartments. Spearman correlations between the Goutallier grades and the fat fraction were calculated; in addition, intra-observer and inter-observer agreement were calculated. A significant correlation between the clinical grading and the fat fraction values was found for all muscle compartments (P < 0.0001, R values ranging from 0.79 to 0.88). Goutallier grades 0-4 had a fat fraction ranging from 3.5 to 19%. Intra-observer and inter-observer agreement values of 0.83 and 0.81 were calculated for the semi-quantitative grading. Semi-quantitative grading of intramuscular fat and quantitative fat fraction were significantly correlated and both techniques had excellent reproducibility. However, the clinical grading was found to overestimate muscle fat. Fat infiltration of muscle commonly occurs in many metabolic and neuromuscular diseases. • Image-based semi-quantitative classifications for assessing fat infiltration are not well validated. • Quantitative MRI techniques provide an accurate assessment of muscle fat.

  17. Comparison of a space shuttle flight (STS-78) and bed rest on human muscle function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trappe, S. W.; Trappe, T. A.; Lee, G. A.; Widrick, J. J.; Costill, D. L.; Fitts, R. H.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess muscle fiber size, composition, and in vivo contractile characteristics of the calf muscle of four male crew members during a 17-day spaceflight (SF; Life and Microgravity Sciences Spacelab Shuttle Transport System-78 mission) and eight men during a 17-day bed rest (BR). The protocols and timelines of these two investigations were identical, therefore allowing for direct comparisons between SF and the BR. The subjects' age, height, and weight were 43 +/- 2 yr, 183 +/- 4 cm, and 86 +/- 3 kg for SF and 43 +/- 2 yr, 182 +/- 3 cm, and 82 +/- 4 kg for BR, respectively. Calf muscle strength was examined before SF and BR; on days 2, 8, and 12 during SF and BR; and on days 2 and 8 of recovery. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and within 3 h after SF (gastrocnemius and soleus) and BR (soleus) before reloading. Maximal isometric calf strength and the force-velocity characteristics were unchanged with SF or BR. Additionally, neither SF nor BR had any effect on fiber composition or fiber size of the calf muscles studied. In summary, no changes in calf muscle strength and morphology were observed after the 17-day SF and BR. Because muscle strength is lost during unloading, both during spaceflight and on the ground, these data suggest that the testing sequence employed during the SF and BR may have served as a resistance training countermeasure to attenuate whole muscle strength loss.

  18. A characteristic analysis of the fluidic muscle cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Soo; Bae, Sang-Kyu; Hong, Sung-In

    2005-12-01

    The fluidic muscle cylinder consists of an air bellows tube, flanges and lock nuts. It's features are softness of material and motion, simplicity of structure, low production cost and high power efficiency. Recently, unlikely the pneumatic cylinder, the fluidic muscle cylinder without air leakage, stick slip, friction, and seal was developed as a new concept actuator. It has the characteristics such as light weight, low price, high response, durable design, long life, high power, high contraction, which is innovative product fulfilling RT(Robot Technology) which is one of the nation-leading next generation strategy technologies 6T as well as cleanness technology. The application fields of the fluidic muscle cylinder are so various like fatigue tester, brake, accelerator, high technology testing device such as driving simulator, precise position, velocity, intelligent servo actuator under special environment such as load controlling system, and intelligent robot. In this study, we carried out the finite element modeling and analysis about the main design variables such as contraction ration and force, diameter increment of fluidic muscle cylinder. On the basis of finite element analysis, the prototype of fluidic muscle cylinder was manufactured and tested. Finally, we compared the results between the test and the finite element analysis.

  19. Calf Strength Loss During Mechanical Unloading: Does It Matter?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, K. L.; Mulavara, A.; Bloomberg, J.; Ploutz-Snyder, LL

    2016-01-01

    During the mechanical unloading of spaceflight and its ground-based analogs, muscle mass and muscle strength of the calf are difficult to preserve despite exercise countermeasures that effectively protect these parameters in the thigh. It is unclear what effects these local losses have on balance and whole body function which will be essential for successful performance of demanding tasks during future exploration missions.

  20. Muscle Characteristics and Substrate Energetics in Lifelong Endurance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Dubé, John J.; Broskey, Nicholas T.; Despines, Alex A.; Stefanovic-Racic, Maja; Toledo, Frederico G.S.; Goodpaster, Bret H.; Amati, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to explore the effect of lifelong aerobic exercise (i.e. chronic training) on skeletal muscle substrate stores (intramyocellular triglyceride [IMTG] and glycogen), skeletal muscle phenotypes, and oxidative capacity (ox), in older endurance-trained master athletes (OA) compared to non-competitive recreational younger (YA) athletes matched by frequency and mode of training. Methods Thirteen OA (64.8±4.9 yo) exercising ≥ 5 times/week were compared to 14 YA (27.8±4.9 yo) males and females. IMTG, glycogen, fiber types, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and capillarization were measured by immunohistochemistry in vastus lateralis biopsies. Fat-ox and carbohydrate (CHO)-ox were measured by indirect calorimetry before and after an insulin clamp and during a cycle ergometer graded maximal test. Results V̇O2peak was lower in OA than YA. OA had greater IMTG in all fiber types and lower glycogen stores than YA. This was reflected in greater proportion of type I and less type II fibers in OA. Type I fibers were similar in size, while type II fibers were smaller in OA compared to YA. Both groups had similar SDH content. Numbers of capillaries per fiber were reduced in OA but with a higher number of capillaries per area. Metabolic flexibility and insulin sensitivity were similar in both groups. Exercise metabolic efficiency was higher in OA. At moderate exercise intensities, CHO-ox was lower in OA but with similar Fatox. Conclusion Lifelong exercise is associated with higher IMTG content in all muscle fibers and higher metabolic efficiency during exercise that are not explained by differences in muscle fibers types and other muscle characteristics when comparing older to younger athletes matched by exercise mode and frequency. PMID:26460630

  1. Comparison of clinical semi-quantitative assessment of muscle fat infiltration with quantitative assessment using chemical shift-based water/fat separation in MR studies of the calf of post-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Nardo, Lorenzo; Karampinos, Dimitrios C.; Joseph, Gabby B.; Yap, Samuel P.; Baum, Thomas; Krug, Roland; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to compare the semi-quantitative Goutallier classification for fat infiltration with quantitative fat-fraction derived from a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) chemical shift-based water/fat separation technique. Methods Sixty-two women (age 61±6 years), 27 of whom had diabetes, underwent MRI of the calf using a T1-weighted fast spin-echo sequence and a six-echo spoiled gradient-echo sequence at 3 T. Water/fat images and fat fraction maps were reconstructed using the IDEAL algorithm with T2* correction and a multi-peak model for the fat spectrum. Two radiologists scored fat infiltration on the T1-weighted images using the Goutallier classification in six muscle compartments. Spearman correlations between the Goutallier grades and the fat fraction were calculated; in addition, intra-observer and inter-observer agreement were calculated. Results A significant correlation between the clinical grading and the fat fraction values was found for all muscle compartments (P<0.0001, R values ranging from 0.79 to 0.88). Goutallier grades 0–4 had a fat fraction ranging from 3.5 to 19%. Intra-observer and inter-observer agreement values of 0.83 and 0.81 were calculated for the semi-quantitative grading. Conclusion Semi-quantitative grading of intramuscular fat and quantitative fat fraction were significantly correlated and both techniques had excellent reproducibility. However, the clinical grading was found to overestimate muscle fat. PMID:22411305

  2. In vitro culture of human osteosarcoma cell lines: a comparison of functional characteristics for cell lines cultured in medium without and with fetal calf serum.

    PubMed

    Bruserud, Oystein; Tronstad, Karl Johan; Berge, Rolf

    2005-06-01

    Experimental in vitro models including well-characterised cell lines can be used to identify possible new therapeutic targets for the treatment of osteosarcoma. Culture media including inactivated serum is often recommended for in vitro culture of osteosarcoma cells, but the serum component then represents a nonstandardised parameter including a wide range of unidentified mediators. To improve the standardisation we have investigated whether serum-free culture media can be used in experimental in vitro studies of osteosarcoma cell lines. The seven osteosarcoma cell lines Cal72, SJSA-1, Saos-2, SK-ES-1, U2OS, 143.98.2, and KHOS-32IH were cultured in vitro in various serum-free media and media supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated fetal calf serum (FCS). Although proliferation often was relatively low in serum-free media (X-vivo 10, X-vivo 15, X-vivo 20, Stem Span SFEM), some cell lines (Cal72, KHOS-32IH, Saos-2) showed proliferation comparable with the recommended FCS-containing media even when using serum-free conditions. The optimal serum-free medium then varied between cell lines. We also compared 6 different FCS-containing media (including Stem Span with 10% FCS) and the optimal FCS-containing medium varied between cell lines. However, all cell lines proliferated well in Stem Span with FCS, and this medium was regarded as optimal for four of the lines. FCS could not be replaced by fatty acids or low density lipoprotein when testing the Stem Span medium. The release of a wide range of soluble mediators showed only minor differences when using serum-free and FCS-containing media (including Stem Span with and without FCS), and serum-free Stem Span could also be used for in vitro studies of mitogen-stimulated T cell activation in the presence of accessory osteosarcoma cells. The use of Stem Span with 10% FCS allowed the release of a wide range of chemokines by osteosarcoma cell lines (Cal72, SJSA-1), and the chemokine release profile was very similar to the

  3. Heat and ultraviolet light treatment of colostrum and hospital milk: effects on colostrum and hospital milk characteristics and calf health and growth parameters.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, A G V; Bicalho, M L S; Machado, V S; Oikonomou, G; Kacar, C; Foditsch, C; Young, R; Knauer, W A; Nydam, D V; Bicalho, R C

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different physical treatments of bovine colostrum and hospital milk on milk bacteriology, immunoglobulin G (IgG) and lactoferrin concentrations, calf serum IgG concentrations and calf health, growth and survivability. Pooled colostrum samples (n=297) were heat treated (HTC; 63°C for 60 min), exposed to ultraviolet light (UVC; 45 J/cm(2)) or untreated ('raw', RC). Hospital milk (n=712) was subjected to high temperature short time pasteurization (HTST; 72°C for 15s), ultraviolet light irradiation (UVH; 45 J/cm(2)) or was untreated. Neonatal Holstein heifer calves (n=875) were randomly enrolled (309 HTC, 285 UVC, 281 RC) and block randomized (by colostrum treatment) into hospital milk treatments HTST (n=449) or UVH (n=426). HTC was more effective than UVC and HTST was more effective than UVH in reducing bacterial counts. IgG and lactoferrin concentrations were significantly lower in HTC and UVC than in RC. Lactoferrin concentrations were significantly lower in HTST than in UVH or untreated hospital milk. There were no significant differences in serum IgG concentrations among calves fed HTC, UVC or RC. Colostrum and hospital milk treatments did not have any significant effect on calf body weight gain, survivability, or frequency of diarrhea or pneumonia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Calf pump activity influencing venous hemodynamics in the lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Recek, Cestmir

    2013-03-01

    Calf muscle pump is the motive force enhancing return of venous blood from the lower extremity to the heart. It causes displacement of venous blood in both vertical and horizontal directions, generates ambulatory pressure gradient between thigh and lower leg veins, and bidirectional streaming within calf perforators. Ambulatory pressure gradient triggers venous reflux in incompetent veins, which induces ambulatory venous hypertension in the lower leg and foot. Bidirectional flow in calf perforators enables quick pressure equalization between deep and superficial veins of the lower leg; the outward (into the superficial veins) oriented component of the bidirectional flow taking place during calf muscle contraction is no pathological reflux but a physiological centripetal flow streaming via great saphenous vein into the femoral vein. Calf perforators are communicating channels between both systems making them conjoined vessels; they are not involved in the generation of pathological hemodynamic situations, nor do they cause ambulatory venous hypertension. The real cause why recurrences develop has not as yet been cleared. Pressure gradient arising during calf pump activity between the femoral vein and the saphenous remnant after abolition of saphenous reflux triggers biophysical and biochemical events, which might induce recurrence. Thus, abolition of saphenous reflux removes the hemodynamic disturbance, but at the same time it generates precondition for reflux recurrence and for the comeback of the previous pathological situation; this chain of events has been called hemodynamic paradox.

  5. Calf enlargement associated with neurologic disease: two uncommon cases.

    PubMed

    Harwood, S C; Honet, J C

    1988-01-01

    Muscle enlargement and hypertrophy are rare findings in neurogenic lesions. The two in combination have been reported in cases of peripheral nerve lesions, polyneuropathy, and poliomyelitis. True and pseudo muscle hypertrophy are the two possible etiologies, whereas infiltration, stretch, or exercise of the muscle are the causative factors. We report two cases of unilateral calf enlargement, one occurring after surgery for S1 radiculopathy with associated cramping, and the other after poliomyelitis.

  6. Dynamic PCr and pH imaging of human calf muscles during exercise and recovery using (31) P gradient-Echo MRI at 7 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Albrecht Ingo; Meyerspeer, Martin; Robinson, Simon Daniel; Goluch, Sigrun; Wolzt, Michael; Fiedler, Georg Bernd; Bogner, Wolfgang; Laistler, Elmar; Krššák, Martin; Moser, Ewald; Trattnig, Siegfried; Valkovič, Ladislav

    2016-06-01

    Simultaneous acquisition of spatially resolved (31) P-MRI data for evaluation of muscle specific energy metabolism, i.e., PCr and pH kinetics. A three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo sequence for multiple frequency-selective excitations of the PCr and Pi signals in an interleaved sampling scheme was developed and tested at 7 Tesla (T). The pH values were derived from the chemical shift-induced phase difference between the resonances. The achieved spatial resolution was ∼2 mL with image acquisition time below 6 s. Ten healthy volunteers were studied performing plantar flexions during the delay between (31) P-MRI acquisitions, yielding a temporal resolution of 9-10 s. Signal from anatomically matched regions of interest had sufficient signal-to-noise ratio to allow single-acquisition PCr and pH quantification. The Pi signal was clearly detected in voxels of actively exercising muscles. The PCr depletions were in gastrocnemius 42 ± 14% (medialis), 48 ± 17% (lateralis) and in soleus 20 ± 11%. The end exercise pH values were 6.74 ± 0.18 and 6.65 ± 0.27 for gastrocnemius medialis and lateralis, respectively, and 6.96 ± 0.12 for soleus muscle. Simultaneous acquisition of PCr and Pi images with high temporal resolution, suitable for measuring PCr and pH kinetics in exercise-recovery experiments, was demonstrated at 7T. This study presents a fast alternative to MRS for quantifying energy metabolism of posterior muscle groups of the lower leg. Magn Reson Med 75:2324-2331, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Cysteamine supplementation during in vitro maturation of slaughterhouse- and opu-derived bovine oocytes improves embryonic development without affecting cryotolerance, pregnancy rate, and calf characteristics.

    PubMed

    Merton, J S; Knijn, H M; Flapper, H; Dotinga, F; Roelen, B A J; Vos, P L A M; Mullaart, E

    2013-09-01

    Optimization of ovum pick up (OPU) followed by in vitro embryo production (IVP) is strongly driven by the needs of both beef and dairy cattle breeders to enhance genetic improvement. The rapidly growing use of genomic selection in cattle has increased the interest in using OPU-IVP technology to increase the number of embryos and offspring per donor, thus allowing enhanced selection intensity for the next generation. The aim of this study was to optimize embryo production through supplementation of cysteamine during in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro culture (IVC) of both slaughterhouse- and OPU-derived oocytes. The effects on embryo production and on embryo cryotolerance, post-transfer embryo survival, and calf characteristics, including gestation length, birth weight, perinatal mortality, and sex ratio were studied. In study 1, immature slaughterhouse-derived cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were matured in IVM medium supplemented with or without 0.1 mM cysteamine, fertilized and cultured for 7 days in 0.5 ml SOFaaBSA. In study 2, cysteamine was present during both IVM (0.1 mM) and IVC (0.01, 0.05, 0.1 mM) from Days 1 to 4. In study 3, OPU-derived COCs were matured in medium supplemented with or without 0.1 mM cysteamine in a 2 × 2 factorial design (OPU week and cysteamine treatment). Embryos were evaluated for stage and grade on Day 7 and, depending on the number of transferable embryos and recipients available, the embryos were transferred either fresh or frozen-thawed at a later date. The presence of cysteamine during IVM significantly increased the embryo production rate with slaughterhouse-derived COCs (24.0% vs. 19.4%). The higher number of embryos at Day 7 was due to an increased number of blastocysts, whereas the distribution of embryos among different quality grades and cryotolerance was not affected. Embryo production rate was negatively affected when cysteamine was present during both the processes of IVM and IVC during Days 1 to 4 of culture (13

  8. Welcome to CALFED Bay-Delta Program

    Science.gov Websites

    Skip to: Content | Footer | Accessibility Search: Search CALFED Search CA.GOV | CALFED Bay-Delta California Delta Delta Home About the Delta CALFED Science About the Program Independent Science Board , CALFED Director photo of blue heron Bay-Delta Public Advisory Committee CALFED Agencies Calendar

  9. Morphological classification and comparison of suboccipital muscle fiber characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Masahito; Kitamura, Kei; Morita, Sumiharu; Nagakura, Ryotaro; Matsunaga, Satoru; Abe, Shinichi

    2017-01-01

    In an attempt to clarify the function of the suboccipital muscles, we performed morphological observation of the suboccipital muscles for variations in the muscle belly and compared the morphology of their muscle fibers in terms of cross-sectional area by immunostaining with anti-myosin heavy chain antibodies. The cadavers of 25 Japanese individuals were used: 22 for morphological examinations and three for histological examinations. Among samples of the rectus capitis posterior major muscle (RCPma) and rectus capitis posterior minor muscle (RCPmi), 86.4% had a typical muscle appearance with a single belly, and 13.6% had an anomalous morphology. None of the samples of the obliquus capitis superior (OCS) or obliquus capitis inferior (OCI) muscles had an anomalous appearance. Measurement of cross-sectional area revealed that fast-twitch muscle fibers in the RCPma and OCI had a significantly greater cross-sectional area than those of the RCPmi and OCS. The cross-sectional area of intermediate muscle fibers was also significantly greater in the OCS than in the RCPma, RCPmi, and OCI. The cross-sectional area of slow-twitch muscle fibers was significantly greater in the OCS than in the RCPma, RCPmi, and OCI, and the RCPmi showed a significantly greater cross-sectional area for slow-twitch muscle fibers than did the RCPma, and OCI. Our findings indicate that the RCPmi and OCS exert a greater force than the RCPma and OCI, and act as anti-gravity agonist muscles of the head. Prolonged head extension in individuals with anomalous suboccipital muscle groups could result in dysfunction due to undue stress. PMID:29354295

  10. Morphological classification and comparison of suboccipital muscle fiber characteristics.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Masato; Yamamoto, Masahito; Kitamura, Kei; Morita, Sumiharu; Nagakura, Ryotaro; Matsunaga, Satoru; Abe, Shinichi

    2017-12-01

    In an attempt to clarify the function of the suboccipital muscles, we performed morphological observation of the suboccipital muscles for variations in the muscle belly and compared the morphology of their muscle fibers in terms of cross-sectional area by immunostaining with anti-myosin heavy chain antibodies. The cadavers of 25 Japanese individuals were used: 22 for morphological examinations and three for histological examinations. Among samples of the rectus capitis posterior major muscle (RCPma) and rectus capitis posterior minor muscle (RCPmi), 86.4% had a typical muscle appearance with a single belly, and 13.6% had an anomalous morphology. None of the samples of the obliquus capitis superior (OCS) or obliquus capitis inferior (OCI) muscles had an anomalous appearance. Measurement of cross-sectional area revealed that fast-twitch muscle fibers in the RCPma and OCI had a significantly greater cross-sectional area than those of the RCPmi and OCS. The cross-sectional area of intermediate muscle fibers was also significantly greater in the OCS than in the RCPma, RCPmi, and OCI. The cross-sectional area of slow-twitch muscle fibers was significantly greater in the OCS than in the RCPma, RCPmi, and OCI, and the RCPmi showed a significantly greater cross-sectional area for slow-twitch muscle fibers than did the RCPma, and OCI. Our findings indicate that the RCPmi and OCS exert a greater force than the RCPma and OCI, and act as anti-gravity agonist muscles of the head. Prolonged head extension in individuals with anomalous suboccipital muscle groups could result in dysfunction due to undue stress.

  11. Muscle Fiber Characteristics and Fatty Acid Compositions of the Four Major Muscles in Korean Native Black Goat.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Young-Hwa; Joo, Sung-Hyun; Bakhsh, Allah; Ismail, Ishamri; Joo, Seon-Tea

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between muscle fiber characteristics and fatty acid composition of four major muscles in Korean native black goat (KNBG). Longissimus lumborum (LL), psoas major (PM), semimembranosus (SM), and gluteus medius (GM) were obtained from five male KNBGs of 36 mon of age and subjected to histochemical analysis and to determine fatty acid composition and meat quality traits. There were significant ( p <0.05) differences in fiber number percentage (FNP) and fiber area percentage (FAP) of fiber types among these four muscles. PM had the highest FNP of type I and the lowest FNP of type IIB, while SM had the highest FNP of type IIB. The highest fat content was observed in LL while SM had the lowest fat content. The proportions of SFA and MUFA were significantly ( p <0.05) different among four muscles due to differences in the majority of fatty acids such as oleic (C18:1) and palmitic (C16:0) acids. The PUFA/SFA ratio was significantly ( p <0.05) different among four muscles, and the highest PUFA/SFA ratio was observed in PM. Results suggested that LL and PM might be healthful because of higher desirable fatty acid value and PUFA/SFA ratio, respectively. Also, data showed that correlations between muscle fiber types and fatty acids proportion of goat muscles were reversed with those of cattle muscles.

  12. Functional characteristics of the rat jaw muscles: daily muscle activity and fiber type composition.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Nobuhiko; Sano, Ryota; Korfage, Joannes A M; Nakamura, Saika; Tanaka, Eiji; van Wessel, Tim; Langenbach, Geerling E J; Tanne, Kazuo

    2009-12-01

    Skeletal muscles have a heterogeneous fiber type composition, which reflects their functional demand. The daily muscle use and the percentage of slow-type fibers have been shown to be positively correlated in skeletal muscles of larger animals but for smaller animals there is no information. The examination of this relationship in adult rats was the purpose of this study. We hypothesized a positive relationship between the percentage of fatigue-resistant fibers in each muscle and its total duration of use per day. Fourteen Wistar strain male rats (410-450 g) were used. A radio-telemetric device was implanted to record muscle activity continuously from the superficial masseter, deep masseter, anterior belly of digastric and anterior temporalis muscles. The degree of daily muscle use was quantified by the total duration of muscle activity per day (duty time) exceeding specified levels of the peak activity (2, 5, 20 and 50%). The fiber type composition of the muscles was examined by the myosin heavy chain content of the fibers by means of immunohistochemical staining. At lower activity levels (exceeding 2 and 5% of the peak activity), the duty time of the anterior belly of digastric muscle was significantly (P < 0.01) longer than those of the other muscles. The anterior belly of digastric muscle also contained the highest percentage of slow-type fibers (type I fiber and hybrid fiber co-expressing myosin heavy chain I + IIA) (ca. 11%; P < 0.05). By regression analysis for all four muscles, an inter-muscular comparison showed a positive relationship between the duty time (exceeding 50% of the peak activity) and the percentage of type IIX fibers (P < 0.05), which demonstrate intermediate physiological properties relative to type IIA and IIB fibers. For the jaw muscles of adult male rats, the variations of fiber type composition and muscle use suggest that the muscle containing the largest amounts of slow-type fibers (the anterior belly of digastric muscle) is mainly

  13. Muscle quality characteristics of muscles in the thigh, upper arm and lower back in elderly men and women.

    PubMed

    Yoshiko, Akito; Kaji, Takashi; Sugiyama, Hiroki; Koike, Teruhiko; Oshida, Yoshiharu; Akima, Hiroshi

    2018-04-23

    The ratio of fat within skeletal muscle is an important parameter that is indicative of muscle quality, and can be assessed using ultrasonography to measure echo intensity (EI). Muscle EI indicates muscle strength and risk of physical dysfunction; however, this observation was determined following examinations of only selected muscle. The purpose of this study was to investigate the EI characteristics of muscles in several regions in elderly men and women, using physical function tests and serum cholesterol levels. Twenty-two men and women (age 78 ± 8 years) participated in this study. The EIs were calculated from rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF) triceps brachii (TB) and multifidus (MF) using B-mode transverse ultrasound images. Seven functional tests (isometric knee-extension peak torque, functional reach, sit-to-stand, 5-m normal/maximal speed walking, handgrip strength and timed up-and-go) and blood lipid components including adipocytokines were measured in all participants. A statistically significant correlation between EI of the RF, TB and BF was observed (r = 0.46-0.50, P < 0.05), but not between EI of the MF and that of other muscles. EI of muscles of the limbs, which was averaged EI for RF, TB and BF, was negatively correlated with leptin levels (adjusted R 2  = 0.27, P < 0.01), and EI of the MF was correlated with muscle mass and performance in the timed up-and-go test (adjusted R 2  = 0.61, P < 0.01). These results suggest that EI might be influenced by specific parameters depending on the location of the muscle.

  14. Calf heads on a trophy sign: Miyoshi myopathy.

    PubMed

    Shyma, M Mundayadan; Roopchand, P Sreedharan; Ram, K Mohan; Shaji, C Velayudhan

    2015-01-01

    Miyoshi myopathy is an autosomal recessive distal myopathy with predominant involvement of the posterior calf muscles attributed to mutations in the dysferlin gene. We report a 26-year-old male, born of nonconsanginous parentage. He noticed weakness and atrophy of leg muscles with inability to walk on his heels. The creatine kinase concentration was high. The electromyography showed myopathic pattern and the muscle biopsy disclosed dystrophic changes with absence of dysferlin. Miyoshi myopathy may be distinct among the hereditary distal myopathies. There are only few reported cases of Miyoshi myopathy in the world literature. In India only 12 cases were reported who had classical features of Miyoshi myopathy. Our's is a typical case of Miyoshi myopathy, with an affected twin sister as well. He also had "calf heads on a trophy sign" on physical examination, which is considered to be pathognomonic of this disease.

  15. Calf heads on a trophy sign: Miyoshi myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Shyma, M. Mundayadan; Roopchand, P. Sreedharan; Ram, K. Mohan; Shaji, C. Velayudhan

    2015-01-01

    Miyoshi myopathy is an autosomal recessive distal myopathy with predominant involvement of the posterior calf muscles attributed to mutations in the dysferlin gene. We report a 26-year-old male, born of nonconsanginous parentage. He noticed weakness and atrophy of leg muscles with inability to walk on his heels. The creatine kinase concentration was high. The electromyography showed myopathic pattern and the muscle biopsy disclosed dystrophic changes with absence of dysferlin. Miyoshi myopathy may be distinct among the hereditary distal myopathies. There are only few reported cases of Miyoshi myopathy in the world literature. In India only 12 cases were reported who had classical features of Miyoshi myopathy. Our's is a typical case of Miyoshi myopathy, with an affected twin sister as well. He also had “calf heads on a trophy sign” on physical examination, which is considered to be pathognomonic of this disease. PMID:26167036

  16. MALDI imaging mass spectrometry: discrimination of pathophysiological regions in traumatized skeletal muscle by characteristic peptide signatures.

    PubMed

    Klein, Oliver; Strohschein, Kristin; Nebrich, Grit; Oetjen, Janina; Trede, Dennis; Thiele, Herbert; Alexandrov, Theodore; Giavalisco, Patrick; Duda, Georg N; von Roth, Philipp; Geissler, Sven; Klose, Joachim; Winkler, Tobias

    2014-10-01

    Due to formation of fibrosis and the loss of contractile muscle tissue, severe muscle injuries often result in insufficient healing marked by a significant reduction of muscle force and motor activity. Our previous studies demonstrated that the local transplantation of mesenchymal stromal cells into an injured skeletal muscle of the rat improves the functional outcome of the healing process. Since, due to the lack of sufficient markers, the accurate discrimination of pathophysiological regions in injured skeletal muscle is inadequate, underlying mechanisms of the beneficial effects of mesenchymal stromal cell transplantation on primary trauma and trauma adjacent muscle area remain elusive. For discrimination of these pathophysiological regions, formalin-fixed injured skeletal muscle tissue was analyzed by MALDI imaging MS. By using two computational evaluation strategies, a supervised approach (ClinProTools) and unsupervised segmentation (SCiLS Lab), characteristic m/z species could be assigned to primary trauma and trauma adjacent muscle regions. Using "bottom-up" MS for protein identification and validation of results by immunohistochemistry, we could identify two proteins, skeletal muscle alpha actin and carbonic anhydrase III, which discriminate between the secondary damage on adjacent tissue and the primary traumatized muscle area. Our results underscore the high potential of MALDI imaging MS to describe the spatial characteristics of pathophysiological changes in muscle. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Correlation between muscle structure and filter characteristics of the muscle-joint system in three orthopteran insect species

    PubMed

    BÄSsler; BÜSchges; Meditz; BÄSsler

    1996-01-01

    In orthopteran insects, neural networks for joint control exhibit different characteristics due to behavioural specializations. We investigated whether these differences are generated purely by the neuronal networks, or whether characteristics of the muscles or joint architecture (muscle­joint system) are also involved in these behavioural specializations. We compared the properties of the muscle system moving the femur­tibia joint of the middle and hindleg of three species, Carausius morosus, Cuniculina impigra and Locusta migratoria. Four aspects were analysed for the tibial extensor muscle: (i) the frequency-dependence of motoneuronal activity in response to sinusoidal stimulation of the femoral chordotonal organ (fCO), (ii) the muscle structure, (iii) the innervation pattern of the muscle and (iv) the histochemical properties of the muscle fibres. These aspects were compared with the filter characteristics of the open-loop femur­tibia control system and of the muscle­joint system involved. Whereas in both phasmid species (Carausius morosus and Cuniculina impigra) the motoneuronal activity steadily increases with sinusoidal stimulation of the fCO in the frequency range 0.01­5 Hz, in Locusta migratoria there is a decrease in motoneuronal activity between 0.01 and 0.3 Hz. The muscle structure is basically similar in all three species, as the number of singly innervated muscle fibres (supplied by the fast extensor tibiae motor neurone, FETi) decreases from proximal to distal. The number of triply innervated fibres supplied by the FETi, the slow extensor tibiae (SETi) and the common inhibitor 1 (CI1) is maximal in the middle of the muscle, and the number of dually innervated fibres (supplied by SETi, CI1) increases from proximal to distal. Differences between the locust and the two phasmid species exist in the distal portion of the muscle. The phasmid extensor tibiae muscle contains a morphologically distinct bundle of muscle fibres, not present

  18. Spatiotemporal characteristics of muscle patterns for ball catching

    PubMed Central

    D'Andola, M.; Cesqui, B.; Portone, A.; Fernandez, L.; Lacquaniti, F.; d'Avella, A.

    2013-01-01

    What sources of information and what control strategies the central nervous system (CNS) uses to perform movements that require accurate sensorimotor coordination, such as catching a flying ball, is still debated. Here we analyzed the EMG waveforms recorded from 16 shoulder and elbow muscles in six subjects during catching of balls projected frontally from a distance of 6 m and arriving at two different heights and with three different flight times (550, 650, 750 ms). We found that a large fraction of the variation in the muscle patterns was captured by two time-varying muscle synergies, coordinated recruitment of groups of muscles with specific activation waveforms, modulated in amplitude and shifted in time according to the ball's arrival height and flight duration. One synergy was recruited with a short and fixed delay from launch time. Remarkably, a second synergy was recruited at a fixed time before impact, suggesting that it is timed according to an accurate time-to-contact estimation. These results suggest that the control of interceptive movements relies on a combination of reactive and predictive processes through the intermittent recruitment of time-varying muscle synergies. Knowledge of the dynamic effect of gravity and drag on the ball may be then implicitly incorporated in a direct mapping of visual information into a small number of synergy recruitment parameters. PMID:23966939

  19. Changes in contractile activation characteristics of rat fast and slow skeletal muscle fibres during regeneration.

    PubMed

    Gregorevic, Paul; Plant, David R; Stupka, Nicole; Lynch, Gordon S

    2004-07-15

    Damaged skeletal muscle fibres are replaced with new contractile units via muscle regeneration. Regenerating muscle fibres synthesize functionally distinct isoforms of contractile and regulatory proteins but little is known of their functional properties during the regeneration process. An advantage of utilizing single muscle fibre preparations is that assessment of their function is based on the overall characteristics of the contractile apparatus and regulatory system and as such, these preparations are sensitive in revealing not only coarse, but also subtle functional differences between muscle fibres. We examined the Ca(2+)- and Sr(2+)-activated contractile characteristics of permeabilized fibres from rat fast-twitch (extensor digitorum longus) and slow-twitch (soleus) muscles at 7, 14 and 21 days following myotoxic injury, to test the hypothesis that fibres from regenerating fast and slow muscles have different functional characteristics to fibres from uninjured muscles. Regenerating muscle fibres had approximately 10% of the maximal force producing capacity (P(o)) of control (uninjured) fibres, and an altered sensitivity to Ca(2+) and Sr(2+) at 7 days post-injury. Increased force production and a shift in Ca(2+) sensitivity consistent with fibre maturation were observed during regeneration such that P(o) was restored to 36-45% of that in control fibres by 21 days, and sensitivity to Ca(2+) and Sr(2+) was similar to that of control (uninjured) fibres. The findings support the hypothesis that regenerating muscle fibres have different contractile activation characteristics compared with mature fibres, and that they adopt properties of mature fast- or slow-twitch muscle fibres in a progressive manner as the regeneration process is completed.

  20. Heat sink effect on tumor ablation characteristics as observed in monopolar radiofrequency, bipolar radiofrequency, and microwave, using ex vivo calf liver model.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Krishna; Akhter, Javid; Chua, Terence C; Shehata, Mena; Alzahrani, Nayef; Al-Alem, Issan; Morris, David L

    2015-03-01

    Thermal ablation of liver tumors near large blood vessels is affected by the cooling effect of blood flow, leading to incomplete ablation. Hence, we conducted a comparative investigation of heat sink effect in monopolar (MP) and bipolar (BP) radiofrequency ablation (RFA), and microwave (MW) ablation devices.With a perfused calf liver, the ablative performances (volume, mass, density, dimensions), with and without heat sink, were measured. Heat sink was present when the ablative tip of the probes were 8.0 mm close to a major hepatic vein and absent when >30 mm away. Temperatures (T1 and T2) on either side of the hepatic vein near the tip of the probes, heating probe temperature (T3), outlet perfusate temperature (T4), and ablation time were monitored.With or without heat sink, BP radiofrequency ablated a larger volume and mass, compared with MP RFA or MW ablation, with latter device producing the highest density of tissue ablated. MW ablation produced an ellipsoidal shape while radiofrequency devices produced spheres.Percentage heat sink effect in Bipolar radiofrequency : Mono-polar radiofrequency : Microwave was (Volume) 33:41:22; (mass) 23:56:34; (density) 9.0:26:18; and (relative elipscity) 5.8:12.9:1.3, indicating that BP and MW devices were less affected.Percentage heat sink effect on time (minutes) to reach maximum temperature (W) = 13.28:9.2:29.8; time at maximum temperature (X) is 87:66:16.66; temperature difference (Y) between the thermal probes (T3) and the temperature (T1 + T2)/2 on either side of the hepatic vessel was 100:87:20; and temperature difference between the (T1 + T2)/2 and temperature of outlet circulating solution (T4), Z was 20.33:30.23:37.5.MW and BP radiofrequencies were less affected by heat sink while MP RFA was the most affected. With a single ablation, BP radiofrequency ablated a larger volume and mass regardless of heat sink.

  1. Heat Sink Effect on Tumor Ablation Characteristics as Observed in Monopolar Radiofrequency, Bipolar Radiofrequency, and Microwave, Using Ex Vivo Calf Liver Model

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Krishna; Akhter, Javid; Chua, Terence C.; Shehata, Mena; Alzahrani, Nayef; Al-Alem, Issan; Morris, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Thermal ablation of liver tumors near large blood vessels is affected by the cooling effect of blood flow, leading to incomplete ablation. Hence, we conducted a comparative investigation of heat sink effect in monopolar (MP) and bipolar (BP) radiofrequency ablation (RFA), and microwave (MW) ablation devices. With a perfused calf liver, the ablative performances (volume, mass, density, dimensions), with and without heat sink, were measured. Heat sink was present when the ablative tip of the probes were 8.0 mm close to a major hepatic vein and absent when >30 mm away. Temperatures (T1 and T2) on either side of the hepatic vein near the tip of the probes, heating probe temperature (T3), outlet perfusate temperature (T4), and ablation time were monitored. With or without heat sink, BP radiofrequency ablated a larger volume and mass, compared with MP RFA or MW ablation, with latter device producing the highest density of tissue ablated. MW ablation produced an ellipsoidal shape while radiofrequency devices produced spheres. Percentage heat sink effect in Bipolar radiofrequency : Mono-polar radiofrequency : Microwave was (Volume) 33:41:22; (mass) 23:56:34; (density) 9.0:26:18; and (relative elipscity) 5.8:12.9:1.3, indicating that BP and MW devices were less affected. Percentage heat sink effect on time (minutes) to reach maximum temperature (W) = 13.28:9.2:29.8; time at maximum temperature (X) is 87:66:16.66; temperature difference (Y) between the thermal probes (T3) and the temperature (T1 + T2)/2 on either side of the hepatic vessel was 100:87:20; and temperature difference between the (T1 + T2)/2 and temperature of outlet circulating solution (T4), Z was 20.33:30.23:37.5. MW and BP radiofrequencies were less affected by heat sink while MP RFA was the most affected. With a single ablation, BP radiofrequency ablated a larger volume and mass regardless of heat sink. PMID:25738477

  2. Relation of systemic and local muscle exercise capacity to skeletal muscle characteristics in men with congestive heart failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massie, B. M.; Simonini, A.; Sahgal, P.; Wells, L.; Dudley, G. A.

    1996-01-01

    patients. None of the skeletal muscle characteristics examined correlated with exercise capacity in control subjects. CONCLUSIONS. These results indicate that congestive heart failure is associated with changes in the characteristics of skeletal muscle and local as well as systemic exercise performance. There are fewer slow twitch fibers, smaller fast twitch fibers and lower succinate dehydrogenase activity. The latter finding suggests that mitochondrial content of muscle is reduced in heart failure and that impaired aerobic-oxidative capacity may play a role in the limitation of systemic exercise capacity.

  3. Effect of ractopamine-HCl supplementation for 28 days on carcass characteristics, muscle fiber morphometrics, and whole muscle yields of six distinct muscles of the loin and round.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, J M; Johnson, S E; Stelzleni, A M; Thrift, T A; Savell, J D; Warnock, T M; Johnson, D D

    2010-07-01

    This study evaluated the effects of ractopamine-HCl (RAC) supplementation on carcass characteristics, muscle fiber morphometrics, and tenderness. Thirty-four steers (2 groups, 4 replicates) were fed RAC or carrier for 28 days prior to harvest. Seventy-two hours postmortem, the Longissimus lumborum (LL), Gracilis (GRA), Vastus lateralis (VL), Rectus femoris (RF), Semimembranosus (SM), and Adductor (ADD) were dissected from each carcass. Commodity weight, denuded weight, and muscle dimensions were collected. RAC supplementation tended to affect dressing percentage (P=0.15) and muscle firmness (P<0.15), and significantly affected lean maturity (P<0.05) and marbling score (P<0.05). With the exception of the LL and GRA (P<0.05), RAC had no effect on muscle dimensions. RAC did not influence the tenderness of vacuum-packaged, aged steaks as measured by Warner-Bratzler shear force. Muscle fiber size within the six muscles was unchanged (P>0.05) by RAC. Thus, RAC improves carcass parameters without a negative impact on tenderness. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Diffusion tensor imaging of the human calf: Variation of inter- and intramuscle-specific diffusion parameters.

    PubMed

    Schlaffke, Lara; Rehmann, Robert; Froeling, Martijn; Kley, Rudolf; Tegenthoff, Martin; Vorgerd, Matthias; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias

    2017-10-01

    To investigate to what extent inter- and intramuscular variations of diffusion parameters of human calf muscles can be explained by age, gender, muscle location, and body mass index (BMI) in a specific age group (20-35 years). Whole calf muscles of 18 healthy volunteers were evaluated. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed using a 3T scanner and a 16-channel Torso XL coil. Diffusion-weighted images were acquired to perform fiber tractography and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis for each muscle of both legs. Fiber tractography was used to separate seven lower leg muscles. Associations between DTI parameters and confounds were evaluated. All muscles were additionally separated in seven identical segments along the z-axis to evaluate intramuscular differences in diffusion parameters. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were obtained for each muscle with low standard deviations (SDs) (SD FA : 0.01-0.02; SD MD : 0.07-0.14(10 -3 )). We found significant differences in FA values of the tibialis anterior muscle (AT) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles between men and women for whole muscle FA (two-sample t-tests; AT: P = 0.0014; EDL: P = 0.0004). We showed significant intramuscular differences in diffusion parameters between adjacent segments in most calf muscles (P < 0.001). Whereas muscle insertions showed higher (SD 0.03-0.06) than muscle bellies (SD 0.01-0.03), no relationships between FA or MD with age or BMI were found. Inter- and intramuscular variations in diffusion parameters of the calf were shown, which are not related to age or BMI in this age group. Differences between muscle belly and insertion should be considered when interpreting datasets not including whole muscles. 3 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;46:1137-1148. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  5. Beef cow-calf production.

    PubMed

    Feuz, Dillon M; Umberger, Wendy J

    2003-07-01

    Cow-calf production occurs in all 50 states over varied resource bases and under vastly different environmental conditions. Multiple breeds exist and management styles and objectives are as numerous as the number of cow-calf producers. There is not one area of the country, one breed of cattle, or one management style that is most profitable for producing cows and calves. There are, however, some common strategies that can be employed by cow-calf producers to enhance profitability. Costs need to be controlled without jeopardizing cow herd productivity or net returns. It appears that the cost associated with purchased and harvested feeds varies considerably across operations. Understanding cyclic and seasonal price patterns, weight-price slides, cattle shrink, and other marketing costs can help producers enhance their profit by marketing (and not by just selling) their cattle. Producers with superior cattle genetics can become part of a specific alliance or, at a minimum, document the performance of their cattle so that they can get paid for the superior genetics. The beef industry is changing and will likely continue to change. Cow-calf producers will need to examine their own management practices to determine whether they are optimal for the current industry. Those producers who are most adept at matching their management abilities to their cattle type, their resource base, and the appropriate market outlet will be the most successful in the future.

  6. Structural and biochemical characteristics of locomotory muscles of emperor penguins, Aptenodytes forsteri.

    PubMed

    Ponganis, P J; Costello, M L; Starke, L N; Mathieu-Costello, O; Kooyman, G L

    1997-07-01

    Structural and biochemical characteristics of the primary muscles used for swimming (pectoralis, PEC and supracoracoideus, SC) were compared to those of leg muscles in emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri). The mass of PEC-SC was four times that of the leg musculature, and mitochondrial volume density in PEC and SC (4%) was two-thirds that in sartorius (S) and gastrocnemius. The differences in muscle mass and mitochondrial density yielded a 2.2-fold greater total mitochondrial content in PEC-SC than leg muscles, which appears to account for the 1.8-fold greater whole-body highest oxygen consumption previously recorded in emperor penguins during swimming compared to walking. Calculation of maximal mitochondrial O2 consumption in PEC-SC and leg muscle yielded value of 5.8-6.9 ml O2 ml-1 min-1, which are similar to those in locomotory muscles of most mammals and birds. A distinct feature of emperor penguin muscle was its myoglobin content, with concentrations in PEC-SC (6.4 g 100 g-1 among the highest measured in any species. This resulted in a PEC-SC O2 store greater than that of the entire blood. In addition, ratios of myoglobin content to mitochondrial volume density and to citrate synthase activity were 4.4 and 2.5 times greater in PEC than in S, indicative of the significant role of myoglobin in the adaptation of muscle to cardiovascular adjustments during diving.

  7. Characteristic MR image finding of squatting exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis of the thigh muscles.

    PubMed

    Yeon, Eung K; Ryu, Kyung N; Kang, Hye J; Yoon, So H; Park, So Y; Park, Ji S; Jin, Wook

    2017-04-01

    To describe the characteristic MRI appearance of squatting-induced rhabdomyolysis involving the thigh muscles. This study consisted of 10 cases obtained at 3 institutions from 2005 to 2015. A retrospective review was performed to obtain clinical information and MR scans for rhabdomyolysis of the thigh muscles. MRI was analyzed according to the distribution and degree of muscle involvement; the degree was assessed and graded as normal, mild or prominent. The mean patient age was 20.2 years (range, 15-24 years), and 7 of the 10 patients were male. All patients had history of excessive squatting action, suffered clinically from bilateral thigh pain and were confirmed to have rhabdomyolysis through analysis of serum creatine kinase (CK) levels. All of the patients (10/10) exhibited diffuse mild to prominent degree involvement of the anterior thigh muscles according to fluid-sensitive MR sequences. Among the anterior thigh muscles, the rectus femoris was spared in 8 patients (8/10) and mild degree involved in 2 patients (2/10). Thus, no cases exhibited prominent degree involvement of the rectus femoris muscle. Preservation of the rectus femoris muscle on MRI in squatting-induced rhabdomyolysis may be useful for differentiating rhabdomyolysis from other aetiologies. Advances in knowledge: Preservation of rectus femoris on MRI is distinguishable finding in squatting-induced rhabdomyolysis and reflects the functional anatomy of anterior thigh muscles.

  8. Characteristic MR image finding of squatting exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis of the thigh muscles

    PubMed Central

    Yeon, Eung K; Kang, Hye J; Yoon, So H; Park, So Y; Park, Ji S; Jin, Wook

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To describe the characteristic MRI appearance of squatting-induced rhabdomyolysis involving the thigh muscles. Methods: This study consisted of 10 cases obtained at 3 institutions from 2005 to 2015. A retrospective review was performed to obtain clinical information and MR scans for rhabdomyolysis of the thigh muscles. MRI was analyzed according to the distribution and degree of muscle involvement; the degree was assessed and graded as normal, mild or prominent. Results: The mean patient age was 20.2 years (range, 15–24 years), and 7 of the 10 patients were male. All patients had history of excessive squatting action, suffered clinically from bilateral thigh pain and were confirmed to have rhabdomyolysis through analysis of serum creatine kinase (CK) levels. All of the patients (10/10) exhibited diffuse mild to prominent degree involvement of the anterior thigh muscles according to fluid-sensitive MR sequences. Among the anterior thigh muscles, the rectus femoris was spared in 8 patients (8/10) and mild degree involved in 2 patients (2/10). Thus, no cases exhibited prominent degree involvement of the rectus femoris muscle. Conclusion: Preservation of the rectus femoris muscle on MRI in squatting-induced rhabdomyolysis may be useful for differentiating rhabdomyolysis from other aetiologies. Advances in knowledge: Preservation of rectus femoris on MRI is distinguishable finding in squatting-induced rhabdomyolysis and reflects the functional anatomy of anterior thigh muscles. PMID:28181821

  9. Molecules, muscles, and machines: Universal performance characteristics of motors

    PubMed Central

    Marden, James H.; Allen, Lee R.

    2002-01-01

    Animal- and human-made motors vary widely in size and shape, are constructed of vastly different materials, use different mechanisms, and produce an enormous range of mass-specific power. Despite these differences, there is remarkable consistency in the maximum net force produced by broad classes of animal- and human-made motors. Motors that use force production to accomplish steady translational motion of a load (myosin, kinesin, dynein, and RNA polymerase molecules, muscle cells, whole muscles, winches, linear actuators, and rockets) have maximal force outputs that scale as the two-thirds power of mass, i.e., with cross-sectional area. Motors that use cyclical motion to generate force and are more subject to multiaxial stress and vibration have maximal force outputs that scale as a single isometric function of motor mass with mass-specific net force output averaging 57 N⋅kg−1 (SD = 14). Examples of this class of motors includes flying birds, bats, and insects, swimming fish, various taxa of running animals, piston engines, electric motors, and all types of jets. Dependence of force production and stress resistance on cross-sectional area is well known, but the isometric scaling and common upper limit of mass-specific force production by cyclical motion motors has not been recognized previously and is not explained by an existing body of theory. Remarkably, this finding indicates that most of the motors used by humans and animals for transportation have a common upper limit of mass-specific net force output that is independent of materials and mechanisms. PMID:11917097

  10. Investigation into response characteristics of the chitosan gel artificial muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Gang; Yang, Junjie; Wang, Yujian; Zhao, Honghao; Fu, Yu; Zhang, Guangli; Yu, Shuqin; Wu, Yuda; Wei, Chengye; Liu, Xuxiong; Wang, Zhijie

    2018-01-01

    Bionic artificial muscle made from chitosan gel is an emerging type of the ionic electro active polymer with advantages of large deformation, low cost and environmental protection etc, which leads to a research focus and wide application in the fields of bionic engineering and intelligence material recently. In this paper, effects and improvement mechanisms of the direct casting and genipin cross-linking processes on response speed properties of the chitosan gel artificial muscle (CGAM) were mainly studied. Based on in-depth analysis of the CGAM response mechanism, a platform was built for testing the response performance of the CGAM, then its equivalent circuit and mathematical models were also established. Furthermore, control experiments were carried out to test and analyze several performances of the CGAM on response speed, electrical conductivity, mechanical properties and microstructure with different control variables. The experimental results illustrated that the CGAM assembled by direct casting enabled its electric actuating membrane and non-metallic electrode membrane tightly attached together with low contact resistance, which dramatically promoted the electrical conductivity of the CGAM resulting in nearly doubled response speed. Besides, different concentrations of genipin were adopted to cross-link the CGAM actuating membranes, and then it was found that the response speed of the uncross-linked CGAM was fast in the initial stage, but as time increased, it declined rapidly with poor steadiness. While there was no obvious decrease over time on the response speed of the CGAM cross-linked with low genipin concentration. Namely, its stability was getting better and better. In addition, the response speed of the CGAM cross-linked with low concentration of genipin was roughly the same as uncross-linked CGAM, which was quicker than that of high concentration. In this work, its internal mechanisms, feasible assembly technique and green modification method were

  11. Molecules, muscles, and machines: universal performance characteristics of motors.

    PubMed

    Marden, James H; Allen, Lee R

    2002-04-02

    Animal- and human-made motors vary widely in size and shape, are constructed of vastly different materials, use different mechanisms, and produce an enormous range of mass-specific power. Despite these differences, there is remarkable consistency in the maximum net force produced by broad classes of animal- and human-made motors. Motors that use force production to accomplish steady translational motion of a load (myosin, kinesin, dynein, and RNA polymerase molecules, muscle cells, whole muscles, winches, linear actuators, and rockets) have maximal force outputs that scale as the two-thirds power of mass, i.e., with cross-sectional area. Motors that use cyclical motion to generate force and are more subject to multiaxial stress and vibration have maximal force outputs that scale as a single isometric function of motor mass with mass-specific net force output averaging 57 N x kg(-1) (SD = 14). Examples of this class of motors includes flying birds, bats, and insects, swimming fish, various taxa of running animals, piston engines, electric motors, and all types of jets. Dependence of force production and stress resistance on cross-sectional area is well known, but the isometric scaling and common upper limit of mass-specific force production by cyclical motion motors has not been recognized previously and is not explained by an existing body of theory. Remarkably, this finding indicates that most of the motors used by humans and animals for transportation have a common upper limit of mass-specific net force output that is independent of materials and mechanisms.

  12. Primary skeletal muscle cells cultured on gelatin bead microcarriers develop structural and biochemical features characteristic of adult skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Kubis, Hans-Peter; Scheibe, Renate J; Decker, Brigitte; Hufendiek, Karsten; Hanke, Nina; Gros, Gerolf; Meissner, Joachim D

    2016-04-01

    A primary skeletal muscle cell culture, in which myoblasts derived from newborn rabbit hindlimb muscles grow on gelatin bead microcarriers in suspension and differentiate into myotubes, has been established previously. In the course of differentiation and beginning spontaneous contractions, these multinucleated myotubes do not detach from their support. Here, we describe the development of the primary myotubes with respect to their ultrastructural differentiation. Scanning electron microscopy reveals that myotubes not only grow around the surface of one carrier bead but also attach themselves to neighboring carriers, forming bridges between carriers. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrates highly ordered myofibrils, T-tubules, and sarcoplasmic reticulum. The functionality of the contractile apparatus is evidenced by contractile activity that occurs spontaneously or can be elicited by electrostimulation. Creatine kinase activity increases steadily until day 20 of culture. Regarding the expression of isoforms of myosin heavy chains (MHC), we could demonstrate that from day 16 on, no non-adult MHC isoform mRNAs are present. Instead, on day 28 the myotubes express predominantly adult fast MHCIId/x mRNA and protein. This MHC pattern resembles that of fast muscles of adult rabbits. In contrast, primary myotubes grown on matrigel-covered culture dishes express substantial amounts of non-adult MHC protein even on day 21. To conclude, primary myotubes grown on microcarriers in their later stages exhibit many features of adult skeletal muscle and characteristics of fast type II fibers. Thus, the culture represents an excellent model of adult fast skeletal muscle, for example, when investigating molecular mechanisms of fast-to-slow fiber-type transformation. © 2015 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  13. Assessment of frozen storage duration effect on quality characteristics of various horse muscles.

    PubMed

    Seong, Pil Nam; Seo, Hyun Woo; Kim, Jin-Hyoung; Kang, Geun Ho; Cho, Soo-Hyun; Chae, Hyun Seok; Park, Beom Young; Van Ba, Hoa

    2017-12-01

    The study aimed at assessing the effects of frozen storage duration on quality characteristics, lipid oxidation and sensory quality of various horse muscles. Five representative muscles: longissimus dorsi (LD), gluteus medius (GM), semimembranosus (SM), biceps femoris (BF), and triceps brachii (TB) at 24 h post-mortem obtained from 28-mo-old Jeju female breed horses (n = 8) were used in the present investigation. The muscles were vacuum-packaged and frozen at -20°C for 120, 240, and 360 days. All the samples were analyzed for thawing and cooking losses, pH, Warner-Bratzler shear forces (WBSF), color traits, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and sensory traits. The muscle samples analyzed on day 0 of frozen storage (fresh, non-frozen) were used for comparison. Results revealed that thawing and cooking losses significantly (p<0.05) increased in all the muscles after 120 days and then remained unchanged up to 360 days of frozen storage. The TBARS and TVBN contents significantly increased as increasing frozen storage time up to 360 days (p<0.05). While, significant decreases in WBSF values were observed for all the muscles with increased frozen storage time (p<0.05). Frozen storage variously affected the color traits of the muscles for instance; the redness of LD, GM, and BF muscles showed a decreasing tendency during frozen storage while it was not changed in TB and SM muscles. Furthermore, the frozen storage did not produce detrimental effects on sensory quality as it did not cause flavor and juiciness defects whereas it partially improved the tenderness of all the muscles studied. Based on the results obtained from our work, it is concluded that frozen storage could be applied to increase the long-term shelf life of horsemeat while still retaining its sensory quality.

  14. Neck movement and muscle activity characteristics in female office workers with neck pain.

    PubMed

    Johnston, V; Jull, G; Souvlis, T; Jimmieson, N L

    2008-03-01

    Cross-sectional study. To explore aspects of cervical musculoskeletal function in female office workers with neck pain. Evidence of physical characteristics that differentiate computer workers with and without neck pain is sparse. Patients with chronic neck pain demonstrate reduced motion and altered patterns of muscle control in the cervical flexor and upper trapezius (UT) muscles during specific tasks. Understanding cervical musculoskeletal function in office workers will better direct intervention and prevention strategies. Measures included neck range of motion; superficial neck flexor muscle activity during a clinical test, the craniocervical flexion test; and a motor task, a unilateral muscle coordination task, to assess the activity of both the anterior and posterior neck muscles. Office workers with and without neck pain were formed into 3 groups based on their scores on the Neck Disability Index. Nonworking women without neck pain formed the control group. Surface electromyographic activity was recorded bilaterally from the sternocleidomastoid, anterior scalene (AS), cervical extensor (CE) and UT muscles. Workers with neck pain had reduced rotation range and increased activity of the superficial cervical flexors during the craniocervical flexion test. During the coordination task, workers with pain demonstrated greater activity in the CE muscles bilaterally. On completion of the task, the UT and dominant CE and AS muscles demonstrated an inability to relax in workers with pain. In general, there was a linear relationship between the workers' self-reported levels of pain and disability and the movement and muscle changes. These results are consistent with those found in other cervical musculoskeletal disorders and may represent an altered muscle recruitment strategy to stabilize the head and neck. An exercise program including motor reeducation may assist in the management of neck pain in office workers.

  15. Effects of Different Environment Temperatures on Some Motor Characteristics and Muscle Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çakir, Ergün; Yüksek, Selami; Asma, Bülent; Arslanoglu, Erkal

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was determine the effects of different environment temperatures on motor characteristics and muscle strength. 15 athletes participated to study. Flexibility, vertical jump, hand grip-leg strength, 30m sprint, 20-meter shuttle run and coordination-agility tests were measured in five different environment temperatures. (22°C,…

  16. Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium: developmental programming in cattle: consequences for growth, efficiency, carcass, muscle, and beef quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Robinson, D L; Cafe, L M; Greenwood, P L

    2013-03-01

    This paper reviews results of studies on effects of fetal programming and maternal nutrition during pregnancy on growth, efficiency, carcass, muscle, and meat quality characteristics of cattle. It includes results from our Australian Beef Cooperative Research Centre studies on factors such as chronic severe nutritional restriction from approximately d 80 of pregnancy to parturition and/or throughout lactation used to create early-life growth differences in the offspring of cows within pasture-based systems and the effect of these treatments on production characteristics to 30 mo of age. Fetal programming and related maternal effects are most pronounced and explain substantial amounts of variation for growth-related production characteristics such as BW, feed intake, carcass weight, muscle weights, meat yield, and fat and bone weights at any given age but are less evident when assessed at the same BW and carcass weight. Some effects of maternal and early-life factors in our studies were evident for efficiency traits but fewer affected beef quality characteristics at 30 mo of age, explaining only small amounts of variation in these traits. It is difficult to uncouple maternal nutritional effects specific to prenatal life from those that carry over to the postnatal period until weaning, particularly the effects of maternal nutrition during pregnancy on subsequent lactational performance. Hence, experimental design considerations for studying fetal programming effects on offspring during later life are discussed in relation to minimizing or removing prenatal and postnatal confounding effects. The relative contribution of fetal programming to the profitability of beef production systems is also briefly discussed. In this regard, the importance of health and survival of cows and calves, the capacity of cows to rebreed in a timely manner, and the efficiency with which feed and other resources are used cannot be overemphasized in relation to economics, welfare, and the

  17. Relationships among muscle dysmorphia characteristics, body image quality of life, and coping in males.

    PubMed

    Tod, D; Edwards, C

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among bodybuilding dependence, muscle satisfaction, body image-related quality of life and body image-related coping strategies, and test the hypothesis that muscle dysmorphia characteristics may predict quality of life via coping strategies. Participants (294 males, Mage=20.5 years, SD=3.1) participated in a cross-sectional survey. Participants completed questionnaires assessing muscle satisfaction, bodybuilding dependence, body image-related quality of life and body image-related coping. Quality of life was correlated positively with muscle satisfaction and bodybuilding dependence but negatively with body image coping (P<0.05). Body image coping was correlated positively with bodybuilding dependence and negatively with muscle satisfaction (P<0.05). Mediation analysis found that bodybuilding dependence and muscle satisfaction predicted quality of life both directly and indirectly via body image coping strategies (as evidenced by the bias corrected and accelerated bootstrapped confidence intervals). These results provide preliminary evidence regarding the ways that muscularity concerns might influence body image-related quality of life. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Anatomic and physiological characteristics of the ferret lateral rectus muscle and abducens nucleus.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Keith N; McClung, J Ross; Goldberg, Stephen J; Shall, Mary S

    2007-11-01

    The ferret has become a popular model for physiological and neurodevelopmental research in the visual system. We believed it important, therefore, to study extraocular whole muscle as well as single motor unit physiology in the ferret. Using extracellular stimulation, 62 individual motor units in the ferret abducens nucleus were evaluated for their contractile characteristics. Of these motor units, 56 innervated the lateral rectus (LR) muscle alone, while 6 were split between the LR and retractor bulbi (RB) muscle slips. In addition to individual motor units, the whole LR muscle was evaluated for twitch, tetanic peak force, and fatigue. The abducens nucleus motor units showed a twitch contraction time of 15.4 ms, a mean twitch tension of 30.2 mg, and an average fusion frequency of 154 Hz. Single-unit fatigue index averaged 0.634. Whole muscle twitch contraction time was 16.7 ms with a mean twitch tension of 3.32 g. The average fatigue index of whole muscle was 0.408. The abducens nucleus was examined with horseradish peroxidase conjugated with the subunit B of cholera toxin histochemistry and found to contain an average of 183 motoneurons. Samples of LR were found to contain an average of 4,687 fibers, indicating an LR innervation ratio of 25.6:1. Compared with cat and squirrel monkeys, the ferret LR motor units contract more slowly yet more powerfully. The functional visual requirements of the ferret may explain these fundamental differences.

  19. The effect of material characteristics of shoe soles on muscle activation and energy aspects during running.

    PubMed

    Nigg, B M; Stefanyshyn, D; Cole, G; Stergiou, P; Miller, J

    2003-04-01

    The purposes of this study were (a) to determine group and individual differences in oxygen consumption during heel-toe running and (b) to quantify the differences in EMG activity for selected muscle groups of the lower extremities when running in shoes with different mechanical heel characteristics. Twenty male runners performed heel-toe running using two shoe conditions, one with a mainly elastic and a visco-elastic heel. Oxygen consumption was quantified during steady state runs of 6 min duration, running slightly above the aerobic threshold providing four pairs of oxygen consumption results for comparison. Muscle activity was quantified using bipolar surface EMG measurements from the tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, vastus medialis and the hamstrings muscle groups. EMG data were sampled for 5 s every minute for the 6 min providing 30 trials. EMG data were compared for the different conditions using an ANOVA (alpha=0.05). The findings of this study showed that changes in the heel material characteristics of running shoes were associated with (a) subject specific changes in oxygen consumption and (b) subject and muscle specific changes in the intensities of muscle activation before heel strike in the lower extremities. It is suggested that further study of these phenomena will help understand many aspects of human locomotion, including work, performance, fatigue and possible injuries.

  20. Effects of spaceflight on human calf hemodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watenpaugh, D. E.; Buckey, J. C.; Lane, L. D.; Gaffney, F. A.; Levine, B. D.; Moore, W. E.; Wright, S. J.; Blomqvist, C. G.

    2001-01-01

    Chronic microgravity may modify adaptations of the leg circulation to gravitational pressures. We measured resting calf compliance and blood flow with venous occlusion plethysmography, and arterial blood pressure with sphygmomanometry, in seven subjects before, during, and after spaceflight. Calf vascular resistance equaled mean arterial pressure divided by calf flow. Compliance equaled the slope of the calf volume change and venous occlusion pressure relationship for thigh cuff pressures of 20, 40, 60, and 80 mmHg held for 1, 2, 3, and 4 min, respectively, with 1-min breaks between occlusions. Calf blood flow decreased 41% in microgravity (to 1.15 +/- 0.16 ml x 100 ml(-1) x min(-1)) relative to 1-G supine conditions (1.94 +/- 0.19 ml x 100 ml(-1) x min(-1), P = 0.01), and arterial pressure tended to increase (P = 0.05), such that calf vascular resistance doubled in microgravity (preflight: 43 +/- 4 units; in-flight: 83 +/- 13 units; P < 0.001) yet returned to preflight levels after flight. Calf compliance remained unchanged in microgravity but tended to increase during the first week postflight (P > 0.2). Calf vasoconstriction in microgravity qualitatively agrees with the "upright set-point" hypothesis: the circulation seeks conditions approximating upright posture on Earth. No calf hemodynamic result exhibited obvious mechanistic implications for postflight orthostatic intolerance.

  1. Electrical Stimulation Frequency and Skeletal Muscle Characteristics: Effects on Force and Fatigue.

    PubMed

    Vromans, Maria; Faghri, Pouran

    2017-12-05

    This investigation aimed to determine the force and muscle surface electromyography (EMG) responses to different frequencies of electrical stimulation (ES) in two groups of muscles with different size and fiber composition (fast- and slow-twitch fiber proportions) during a fatigue-inducing protocol. Progression towards fatigue was evaluated in the abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and vastus lateralis (VL) when activated by ES at three frequencies (10, 35, and 50Hz). Ten healthy adults (mean age: 23.2 ± 3.0 years) were recruited; participants signed an IRB approved consent form prior to participation. Protocols were developed to 1) identify initial ES current intensity required to generate the 25% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) at each ES frequency and 2) evaluate changes in force and EMG activity during ES-induced contraction at each frequency while progressing towards fatigue. For both muscles, stimulation at 10Hz required higher current intensity of ES to generate the initial force. There was a significant decline in force in response to ES-induced fatigue for all frequencies and for both muscles (p<0.05). However, the EMG response was not consistent between muscles. During the progression towards fatigue, the APB displayed an initial drop in force followed by an increase in EMG activity and the VL displayed a decrease in EMG activity for all frequencies. Overall, it appeared that there were some significant interactions between muscle size and fiber composition during progression towards fatigue for different ES frequencies. It could be postulated that muscle characteristics (size and fiber composition) should be considered when evaluating progression towards fatigue as EMG and force responses are not consistent between muscles.

  2. Endurance and fatigue characteristics in the neck muscles during sub-maximal isometric test in patients with cervical radiculopathy.

    PubMed

    Halvorsen, Marie; Abbott, Allan; Peolsson, Anneli; Dedering, Åsa

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to compare myoelectric manifestation in neck muscle endurance and fatigue characteristics during sub-maximal isometric endurance test in patients with cervical radiculopathy and asymptomatic subjects. An additional aim was to explore associations between primary neck muscle endurance, myoelectric fatigability, and self-rated levels of fatigue, pain and subjective health measurements in patients with cervical radiculopathy. Muscle fatigue in the ventral and dorsal neck muscles was assessed in patients with cervical radiculopathy and in an asymptomatic group during an isometric neck muscle endurance test in prone and supine. 46 patients and 34 asymptomatic subjects participated. Surface electromyography signals were recorded from the sternocleidomastoid, cervical paraspinal muscles and upper and middle trapezius bilaterally during the endurance test. Subjective health measurements were assessed with questionnaires. The results showed altered neck muscle endurance in several of the muscles investigated with greater negative median frequency slope, greater variability, side imbalance, lower endurance time and higher experience of fatigue among the cervical radiculopathy patients compared with healthy subjects. Endurance times were significantly lower in both prone and in supine positions between the patients compared to asymptomatic subjects. During the neck muscle endurance test, fatigues in the upper trapezius muscles during the prone test and in the sternocleidomastoid muscles during the supine test were of more importance than self-perceived pain, fatigue, disability and kinesiophobia in predicting neck muscle endurance (NME). NME testing in the primary neck muscles seems to be an important factor to take into consideration in rehabilitation.

  3. Histochemical and morphometric characteristics of the normal human vastus medialis longus and vastus medialis obliquus muscles.

    PubMed Central

    Travnik, L; Pernus, F; Erzen, I

    1995-01-01

    The histochemical and morphometric characteristics of the vastus medialis longus and vastus medialis obliquus muscles were studied and compared with data on vastus lateralis. Cross-sections of autopsied muscles from 9 healthy men, aged 18-44 y, who had died suddenly were analysed. Data were obtained on proportions, cross-sectional diameter, and on atrophy and hypertrophy factors, of type 1, 2a, 2b, and 2c fibres. The analysis showed that the anatomical differences and the different functional demands placed on vastus medialis longus and vastus medialis obliquus are also expressed in different proportions and sizes of fibre types in the two muscles. The proportion of type 1 fibres was significantly higher (P < 0.01), and the proportion of 2b fibres was significantly lower (P < 0.01) in vastus medialis longus than in vastus medialis obliquus. The diameters of type 1 and type 2a fibres were significantly smaller (P < 0.01) in vastus medialis longus than in vastus medialis obliquus, although the differences were small. Within muscles a nonrandom arrangement of fibre types existed with the deeper portions of the muscles having more type 1 fibres than the more superficial portions. The histochemical and morphometric characteristics of vastus lateralis and vastus medialis obliquus show great similarity, reflecting the common function of both muscles which is taking part in transverse knee stability. Estimates of the limits of normality of the proportion, diameter, atrophy and hypertrophy factors of type 1, 2a, 2b, and 2c fibres might be useful in obtaining information on how different physiological and pathological conditions influence the proportion and size of different fibre types.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7592003

  4. Hypomyelination Associated with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type 2 Infection in a Longhorn Calf

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A newborn Longhorn heifer calf presented to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital at Texas A&M University with generalized tremors, muscle fasciculations, ataxia, and nystagmus. At necropsy, gross central nervous system lesions were not observed. Histopathologic evaluation of the brain and spin...

  5. Modeling and experiments on the drive characteristics of high-strength water hydraulic artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zengmeng; Hou, Jiaoyi; Ning, Dayong; Gong, Xiaofeng; Gong, Yongjun

    2017-05-01

    Fluidic artificial muscles are popular in robotics and function as biomimetic actuators. Their pneumatic version has been widely investigated. A novel water hydraulic artificial muscle (WHAM) with high strength is developed in this study. WHAMs can be applied to underwater manipulators widely used in ocean development because of their environment-friendly characteristics, high force-to-weight ratio, and good bio-imitability. Therefore, the strength of WHAMs has been improved to fit the requirements of underwater environments and the work pressure of water hydraulic components. However, understanding the mechanical behaviors of WHAMs is necessary because WHAMs use work media and pressure control that are different from those used by pneumatic artificial muscles. This paper presents the static and dynamic characteristics of the WHAM system, including the water hydraulic pressure control circuit. A test system is designed and built to analyze the drive characteristics of the developed WHAM. The theoretical relationships among the amount of contraction, pressure, and output drawing force of the WHAM are tested and verified. A linearized transfer function is proposed, and the dynamic characteristics of the WHAM are investigated through simulation and inertia load experiments. Simulation results agree with the experimental results and show that the proposed model can be applied to the control of WHAM actuators.

  6. Comparison of Muscle Fiber and Meat Quality Characteristics in Different Japanese Quail Lines

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Y. M.; Hwang, S.; Lee, K.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the growth performance, fiber characteristics of the pectoralis major muscle, and meat quality characteristics in the heavy weight (HW) and random bred control (RBC) quail lines and genders. The HW male exhibited more than two times greater body (245.7 vs 96.1 g, p<0.05) and pectoralis major muscle (PMW; 37.1 vs 11.1 g, p<0.05) weights compared to the RBC female. This growth performance in the HW line was associated with a greater muscle fiber area (1,502 vs 663.0 μm2, p<0.001) compared to the RBC line. Greater muscle mass of the HW male was accompanied by a higher percentage of type IIB fiber compared to the HW female (64.0% vs 51.0%, p<0.05). However, muscle fiber hyperplasia (increase in fiber number) has had a somewhat limited effect on PMW between the two lines. On the other hand, the HW line harboring a higher proportion of type IIB fiber showed rapid pH decline at the early postmortem period (6.23 vs 6.41, p<0.05) and lighter meat surface (53.5 vs 47.3, p<0.05) compared to the RBC line harboring a lower proportion of type IIB fiber. There were no significant differences observed in the measurement of water-holding capacity including drip loss (2.74% vs 3.07%, p>0.05) and cooking loss (21.9% vs 20.4%, p>0.05) between the HW and RBC lines. Therefore, the HW quail line developed by selection from the RBC quail, was slightly different in the meat quality characteristics compared to the RBC line, and a marked difference was found in growth performance between the two quail lines. PMID:27383804

  7. Maternal and paternal genomes differentially affect myofibre characteristics and muscle weights of bovine fetuses at midgestation.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Ruidong; Ghanipoor-Samami, Mani; Johns, William H; Eindorf, Tanja; Rutley, David L; Kruk, Zbigniew A; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn J; Thomsen, Dana A; Roberts, Claire T; Burns, Brian M; Anderson, Gail I; Greenwood, Paul L; Hiendleder, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Postnatal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass are largely determined during fetal development and may be significantly affected by epigenetic parent-of-origin effects. However, data on such effects in prenatal muscle development that could help understand unexplained variation in postnatal muscle traits are lacking. In a bovine model we studied effects of distinct maternal and paternal genomes, fetal sex, and non-genetic maternal effects on fetal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass. Data from 73 fetuses (Day153, 54% term) of four genetic groups with purebred and reciprocal cross Angus and Brahman genetics were analyzed using general linear models. Parental genomes explained the greatest proportion of variation in myofibre size of Musculus semitendinosus (80-96%) and in absolute and relative weights of M. supraspinatus, M. longissimus dorsi, M. quadriceps femoris and M. semimembranosus (82-89% and 56-93%, respectively). Paternal genome in interaction with maternal genome (P<0.05) explained most genetic variation in cross sectional area (CSA) of fast myotubes (68%), while maternal genome alone explained most genetic variation in CSA of fast myofibres (93%, P<0.01). Furthermore, maternal genome independently (M. semimembranosus, 88%, P<0.0001) or in combination (M. supraspinatus, 82%; M. longissimus dorsi, 93%; M. quadriceps femoris, 86%) with nested maternal weight effect (5-6%, P<0.05), was the predominant source of variation for absolute muscle weights. Effects of paternal genome on muscle mass decreased from thoracic to pelvic limb and accounted for all (M. supraspinatus, 97%, P<0.0001) or most (M. longissimus dorsi, 69%, P<0.0001; M. quadriceps femoris, 54%, P<0.001) genetic variation in relative weights. An interaction between maternal and paternal genomes (P<0.01) and effects of maternal weight (P<0.05) on expression of H19, a master regulator of an imprinted gene network, and negative correlations between H19 expression and fetal muscle mass (P<0

  8. Maternal and Paternal Genomes Differentially Affect Myofibre Characteristics and Muscle Weights of Bovine Fetuses at Midgestation

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Ruidong; Ghanipoor-Samami, Mani; Johns, William H.; Eindorf, Tanja; Rutley, David L.; Kruk, Zbigniew A.; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn J.; Thomsen, Dana A.; Roberts, Claire T.; Burns, Brian M.; Anderson, Gail I.; Greenwood, Paul L.; Hiendleder, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Postnatal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass are largely determined during fetal development and may be significantly affected by epigenetic parent-of-origin effects. However, data on such effects in prenatal muscle development that could help understand unexplained variation in postnatal muscle traits are lacking. In a bovine model we studied effects of distinct maternal and paternal genomes, fetal sex, and non-genetic maternal effects on fetal myofibre characteristics and muscle mass. Data from 73 fetuses (Day153, 54% term) of four genetic groups with purebred and reciprocal cross Angus and Brahman genetics were analyzed using general linear models. Parental genomes explained the greatest proportion of variation in myofibre size of Musculus semitendinosus (80–96%) and in absolute and relative weights of M. supraspinatus, M. longissimus dorsi, M. quadriceps femoris and M. semimembranosus (82–89% and 56–93%, respectively). Paternal genome in interaction with maternal genome (P<0.05) explained most genetic variation in cross sectional area (CSA) of fast myotubes (68%), while maternal genome alone explained most genetic variation in CSA of fast myofibres (93%, P<0.01). Furthermore, maternal genome independently (M. semimembranosus, 88%, P<0.0001) or in combination (M. supraspinatus, 82%; M. longissimus dorsi, 93%; M. quadriceps femoris, 86%) with nested maternal weight effect (5–6%, P<0.05), was the predominant source of variation for absolute muscle weights. Effects of paternal genome on muscle mass decreased from thoracic to pelvic limb and accounted for all (M. supraspinatus, 97%, P<0.0001) or most (M. longissimus dorsi, 69%, P<0.0001; M. quadriceps femoris, 54%, P<0.001) genetic variation in relative weights. An interaction between maternal and paternal genomes (P<0.01) and effects of maternal weight (P<0.05) on expression of H19, a master regulator of an imprinted gene network, and negative correlations between H19 expression and fetal muscle mass

  9. Slow and fast fatigable frog muscle fibres: electrophysiological and histochemical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Vydevska-Chichova, M; Mileva, K; Todorova, R; Dimitrova, M; Radicheva, N

    2005-12-01

    Continuous activity of isolated frog gastrocnemius muscle fibres provoked by repetitive stimulation of 5 Hz was used as an experimental model for fatigue development in different fibre types. Parameter changes of the elicited intracellular action potentials and mechanical twitches during the period of uninterrupted activity were used as criteria for fatigue evaluation. Slow fatigable muscle fibre (SMF) and fast fatigable muscle fibre (FMF) types were distinguished depending on the duration of their uninterrupted activity, which was significantly longer in SMFs than in FMFs. The normalized changes of action potential amplitude and duration were significantly smaller in FMFs than in SMFs. The average twitch force and velocity of contraction and relaxation were significantly higher in FMFs than in SMFs. Myosin ATPase (mATPase) and succinate dehydrogenase activity were studied by histochemical assessment in order to validate the fibre type classification based on their electrophysiological characteristics. Based on the relative mATPase reactivity, the fibres of the studied muscle were classified as one of five different types (1-2, 2, 2-3, 3 and tonic). Smaller sized fibres (tonic and type 3) expressed higher succinate dehydrogenase activity than larger sized fibres (type 1-2, 2), which is related to the fatigue resistance. The differences between fatigue development in SMFs and FMFs during continuous activity were associated with fibre-type specific mATPase and succinate dehydrogenase activity.

  10. The bigger, the stronger? Insights from muscle architecture and nervous characteristics in obese adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Vicencio, S; Coudeyre, E; Kluka, V; Cardenoux, C; Jegu, A-G; Fourot, A-V; Ratel, S; Martin, V

    2016-02-01

    Young obese youth are generally stronger than lean youth. This has been linked to the loading effect of excess body mass, acting as a training stimulus comparable to strength training. Whether this triggers specific adaptations of the muscle architecture (MA) and voluntary activation (VA) that could account for the higher strength of obese subjects remains unknown. MA characteristics (that is, pennation angle (PA), fascicle length (FL) and muscle thickness (MT)) and muscle size (that is, anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA)) of the knee extensor (KE) and plantar flexor (PF) muscles were evaluated in 12 obese and 12 non-obese adolescent girls (12-15 years). Maximal isometric torque and VA of the KE and PF muscles were also assessed. Results revealed higher PA (P<0.05), greater MT (P<0.001), ACSA (P<0.01), segmental lean mass (P<0.001) and VA (P<0.001) for KE and PF muscles in obese girls. Moreover, obese individuals produced a higher absolute torque than their lean counterparts on the KE (224.6±39.5 vs 135.7±32.7 N m, respectively; P<0.001) and PF muscles (73.3±16.5 vs 44.5±6.2 N m; P<0.001). Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) was correlated to PA for the KE (r=0.46-0.57, P<0.05-0.01) and PF muscles (r=0.45-0.55, P<0.05-0.01). MVC was also correlated with VA (KE: r=0.44, P<0.05; PF: r=0.65, P<0.001) and segmental lean mass (KE: r=0.48, P<0.05; PF: r=0.57, P<0.01). This study highlighted favorable muscular and nervous adaptations to obesity that account for the higher strength of obese youth. The excess of body mass supported during daily activities could act as a chronic training stimulus responsible for these adaptations.

  11. Discrepancies between Skinned Single Muscle Fibres and Whole Thigh Muscle Function Characteristics in Young and Elderly Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to analyse the mechanical properties of skinned single muscle fibres derived from the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle in relation to those of the whole intact thigh muscle and to compare any difference between young and older adults. Sixteen young men (29.25 ± 4.65 years), 11 older men (71.45 ± 2.94 years), 11 young women (29.64 ± 4.88 years), and 7 older women (67.29 ± 1.70 years) were recruited. In vivo analyses were performed for mechanical properties such as isokinetic performance, isometric torque, and power. Specific force and maximum shortening velocity (Vo) were measured with single muscle fibres. Sex difference showed greater impact on the functional properties of both the whole muscle (p < 0.01) and single muscle fibres than aging (p < 0.05). Sex difference, rather than aging, yielded more remarkable differences in gross mechanical properties in the single muscle fibre study in which significant differences between young men and young women were found only in the cross-sectional area and Vo (p < 0.05). Age and sex differences reflect the mechanical properties of both single muscle fibres and whole thigh muscle, with the whole muscle yielding more prominent functional properties. PMID:28070513

  12. Characteristics of Paraspinal Muscle Spindle Response to Mechanically Assisted Spinal Manipulation: A Preliminary Report.

    PubMed

    Reed, William R; Pickar, Joel G; Sozio, Randall S; Liebschner, Michael A K; Little, Joshua W; Gudavalli, Maruti R

    The purpose of this preliminary study is to determine muscle spindle response characteristics related to the use of 2 solenoid powered clinical mechanically assisted manipulation (MAM) devices. L6 muscle spindle afferents with receptive fields in paraspinal muscles were isolated in 6 cats. Neural recordings were made during L7 MAM thrusts using the Activator V (Activator Methods Int. Ltd., Phoenix, AZ) and/or Pulstar (Sense Technology Inc., Pittsburgh, PA) devices at their 3 lowest force settings. Mechanically assisted manipulation response measures included (a) the time required post-thrust until the first action potential, (b) differences in mean frequency (MF) and mean instantaneous frequency (MIF) 2 seconds before and after MAM, and (c) the time required for muscle spindle discharge (MF and MIF) to return to 95% of baseline after MAM. Depending on device setting, between 44% to 80% (Pulstar) and 11% to 63% (Activator V) of spindle afferents required >6 seconds to return to within 95% of baseline MF values; whereas 66% to 89% (Pulstar) and 75% to 100% (Activator V) of spindle responses returned to within 95% of baseline MIF in <6 seconds after MAM. Nonparametric comparisons between the 22 N and 44 N settings of the Pulstar yielded significant differences for the time required to return to baseline MF and MIF. Short duration (<10 ms) MAM thrusts decrease muscle spindle discharge with a majority of afferents requiring prolonged periods (>6 seconds) to return to baseline MF activity. Physiological consequences and clinical relevance of described MAM mechanoreceptor responses will require additional investigation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Alpine Skiing With total knee ArthroPlasty (ASWAP): metabolism, inflammation, and skeletal muscle fiber characteristics.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, M; Pötzelsberger, B; Scheiber, P; Bergdahl, A; Hansen, C N; Andersen, J L; Narici, M; Salvioli, S; Conte, M; Müller, E; Dela, F

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the effect of alpine skiing for 12 weeks on skeletal muscle characteristics and biomarkers of glucose homeostasis and cardiovascular risk factors. Twenty-three patients with a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) were studied 2.9 ± 0.9 years (mean ± SD) after the operation. Fourteen patients participated in the intervention group (IG) and nine in the control group (CG). Blood samples and muscle biopsies were obtained before (PRE) and 7.3 ± 0.8 days after (POST) the intervention, and blood samples again after a retention (RET) phase of 8 weeks. With skiing, glucose homeostasis improved in IG (decrease in fasting insulin, increase in muscle glycogen) but not in CG. Fiber type distribution and size, as well as capillary density and number of capillaries around the fibers (CAF), were not different between the operated and the non-operated leg in either group. The relative number of type I fibers increased with skiing in IG with no change in CG. Inflammatory biomarkers, plasma lipids, and mitochondrial proteins and activity did not change. Alpine skiing is metabolically beneficial and can be used as a training modality by elderly people with TKA. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Frequency characteristics of human muscle and cortical responses evoked by noisy Achilles tendon vibration.

    PubMed

    Mildren, Robyn L; Peters, Ryan M; Hill, Aimee J; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien; Carpenter, Mark G; Inglis, J Timothy

    2017-05-01

    Noisy stimuli, along with linear systems analysis, have proven to be effective for mapping functional neural connections. We explored the use of noisy (10-115 Hz) Achilles tendon vibration to examine somatosensory reflexes in the triceps surae muscles in standing healthy young adults ( n = 8). We also examined the association between noisy vibration and electrical activity recorded over the sensorimotor cortex using electroencephalography. We applied 2 min of vibration and recorded ongoing muscle activity of the soleus and gastrocnemii using surface electromyography (EMG). Vibration amplitude was varied to characterize reflex scaling and to examine how different stimulus levels affected postural sway. Muscle activity from the soleus and gastrocnemii was significantly correlated with the tendon vibration across a broad frequency range (~10-80 Hz), with a peak located at ~40 Hz. Vibration-EMG coherence positively scaled with stimulus amplitude in all three muscles, with soleus displaying the strongest coupling and steepest scaling. EMG responses lagged the vibration by ~38 ms, a delay that paralleled observed response latencies to tendon taps. Vibration-evoked cortical oscillations were observed at frequencies ~40-70 Hz (peak ~54 Hz) in most subjects, a finding in line with previous reports of sensory-evoked γ-band oscillations. Further examination of the method revealed 1 ) accurate reflex estimates could be obtained with <60 s of low-level (root mean square = 10 m/s 2 ) vibration; 2 ) responses did not habituate over 2 min of exposure; and importantly, 3 ) noisy vibration had a minimal influence on standing balance. Our findings suggest noisy tendon vibration is an effective novel approach to characterize somatosensory reflexes during standing. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We applied noisy (10-115 Hz) vibration to the Achilles tendon to examine the frequency characteristics of lower limb somatosensory reflexes during standing. Ongoing muscle activity was coherent with the

  15. Not just quantity: gluteus maximus muscle characteristics in able-bodied and SCI individuals--implications for tissue viability.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gary A; Bogie, Kath M

    2013-08-01

    Some individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) remain pressure ulcer (PU) free whilst others experience a recurring cycle of tissue breakdown. Detailed analysis of gluteal muscle characteristics may provide insights to local tissue viability variability. The study hypothesis was that SCI individuals have altered muscle composition compared to able-bodied (AB). Ten AB and ten SCI received a supine pelvic CT scan, with contrast. Cross-sectional area (CSA) and overall muscle volume were derived using image analysis. Gluteal muscle tissue type was classified at the S2/S3 sacral vertebrae midpoint, the superior greater trochanters margin (GT) and the inferior ischial tuberosities margin (IT) using the linear transformation Hounsfield Unit scale. SCI gluteal CSA was less than for AB throughout the muscle, with the greatest relative atrophy at the IT (48%). Average AB gluteal volume was nearly double SCI. Eight SCI had over 20% infiltrative adipose tissue, three with over 50%. SCI gluteal CSA and intramuscular fat infiltration were significantly negatively correlated (p < 0.05). SCI IT axial slices showed less lean muscle and higher intramuscular fat infiltration than more proximally (p < 0.05). SCI gluteal muscle characteristics were indicative of impaired tissue viability. SCI disuse muscle atrophy was anticipated; the analytic approach further indicated that intramuscular atrophy was not uniform. SCI muscle composition showed increased proportions of both low density muscle and adipose tissue. CT scan with contrast is effective for gluteal muscle characterization. This assessment technique may contribute to determination of personalized risk for PU development and other secondary complications. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Characteristics of upper extremity's muscle strength in Turkish national wheelchair basketball players team.

    PubMed

    Akınoğlu, Bihter; Kocahan, Tuğba

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to reveal characteristics of muscle strength of upper extremities of wheelchair (WC) basketball players and to ensure more-specific training program preparation. Isokinetic muscle strength of 12 WC basketball players were assessed by ISOMED 2000 device. The assessment protocol was evaluated at 60°/sec velocity with 5 times repeated force and at 240°/sec with 15 times repeated force. This protocol was carried out individually for shoulder flexion-extension and wrist flexion-extension movements at the right and left extremities. The flexion/extension ratio was determined to be outside of the ratios accepted as normal for primarily shoulder joint and for wrist joint. The extension movement was stronger than flexion movement in the shoulders at both velocities and the flexion movement was stronger than ex-tension movement in the wrist. The repeat times where the peak torque occurred were 2-3 repeats at 60°/sec velocity during flexion and extension movements for the wrist and shoulders, and the peak torque occurred at an average of 5-6 repeats in the shoulders at 240°/sec velocity and it occurred at 3-4 repeats in the wrist. The angles where the peak torque of the shoulder flexion and extension occurred varied between 80°-115° at both velocities, and it varied between 5°-30° angles for the wrist. As this study revealed, determination of muscle strength characteristics of WC athletes and especially using objective isokinetic devices will guide the planning of the appropriate training and exercise programs and preventing sports injuries in long term.

  17. Effects of dietary protein restriction on muscle fiber characteristics and mTORC1 pathway in the skeletal muscle of growing-finishing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Yinghui; Li, Fengna; Wu, Li; Wei, Hongkui; Liu, Yingying; Li, Tiejun; Tan, Bie; Kong, Xiangfeng; Yao, Kang; Chen, Shuai; Wu, Fei; Duan, Yehui; Yin, Yulong

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects of dietary crude protein (CP) restriction on muscle fiber characteristics and key regulators related to protein deposition in skeletal muscle, a total of 18 growing-finishing pigs (62.30 ± 0.88 kg) were allotted to 3 groups and fed with the recommended adequate protein (AP, 16 % CP) diet, moderately restricted protein (MP, 13 % CP) diet and low protein (LP, 10 % CP) diet, respectively. The skeletal muscle of different locations in pigs, including longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM), psoas major muscle (PMM) and biceps femoris muscle (BFM) were collected and analyzed. Results showed that growing-finishing pigs fed the MP or AP diet improved (P < 0.01) the average daily gain and feed: gain ratio compared with those fed the LP diet, and the MP diet tended to increase (P = 0.09) the weight of LDM. Moreover, the ATP content and energy charge value were varied among muscle samples from different locations of pigs fed the reduced protein diets. We also observed that pigs fed the MP diet up-regulated (P < 0.05) muscular mRNA expression of all the selected key genes, except that myosin heavy chain (MyHC) IIb, MyHC IIx, while mRNA expression of ubiquitin ligases genes was not affected by dietary CP level. Additionally, the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway was stimulated (P < 0.05) in skeletal muscle of the pigs fed the MP or AP diet compared with those fed the LP diet. The results suggest that the pigs fed the MP diet could catch up to the growth performance and the LDM weight of the pigs fed the AP diet, and the underlying mechanism may be partly due to the alteration in energy status, modulation of muscle fiber characteristics and mTORC1 activation as well as its downstream effectors in skeletal muscle of different locations in growing-finishing pigs.

  18. Fresh meat and further processing characteristics of ham muscles from finishing pigs fed ractopamine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Boler, D D; Holmer, S F; Duncan, D A; Carr, S N; Ritter, M J; Stites, C R; Petry, D B; Hinson, R B; Allee, G L; McKeith, F K; Killefer, J

    2011-01-01

    Ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) has consistently led to an advantage in carcass cutting yields of finishing pigs and remains a common feed additive in US finishing pig diets. Less is known about the effect of RAC on further processing characteristics. Some researchers have reported advantages in ultimate pH of the LM in pigs fed RAC. If a greater ultimate pH was also observed in hams, the increased pH could affect further processing characteristics and lead to better protein interaction and improved textural properties. The objective of this experiment was to determine if RAC-fed pigs yielded hams with a greater ultimate pH, and if so, whether or not that advantage improves textural properties and water retention of further processed hams. Two hundred hams from barrows and gilts fed RAC or control diets were selected based on HCW. Hams were fabricated into 5 separate pieces to determine cutting yields, and 6 muscles were evaluated for ultimate pH. Hams were processed to make cured and smoked hams. Ractopamine increased cutting yields of the whole ham (P < 0.0001), inside (P < 0.01), outside (P < 0.01), and knuckle (P < 0.01) when expressed as a percentage of chilled side weight. Ultimate pH of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, and semitendinosus were all 0.06 pH units greater (P < 0.05), the biceps femoris was 0.04 pH units greater (P = 0.02), and the semimembranosus and adductor muscles were 0.03 pH units greater in pigs fed 7.4 mg/kg of RAC when compared with control pigs. Cured hams from RAC-fed pigs were heavier at all stages of production. No differences were detected in binding strengths (P = 0.88) or protein fat-free values (P = 0.13) between RAC (9.06 kg and 20.37) and control hams (9.01 kg and 20.13). Ractopamine increased cutting yields, total weight of cured hams, and ultimate muscle pH. Ractopamine can be fed to pigs to achieve the desired growth characteristic advantages and cutting yields without affecting further processed ham characteristics.

  19. Chicken meat quality: genetic variability and relationship with growth and muscle characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Debut, Martine; Berri, Cécile M; Sellier, Nadine; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique; Jégo, Yves; Beaumont, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    Background The qualitative properties of the meat are of major importance for poultry breeding, since meat is now widely consumed as cuts or as processed products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic parameters of several breast meat quality traits and their genetic relationships with muscle characteristics in a heavy commercial line of broilers. Results Significant levels of heritability (averaging 0.3) were obtained for breast meat quality traits such as pH at 15 min post-slaughter, ultimate pH (pHu), color assessed by lightness L*, redness a* and yellowness b*, drip loss, thawing-cooking loss and shear-force. The rate of decrease in pH early post-mortem and the final pH of the meat were shown to be key factors of chicken meat quality. In particular, a decrease in the final pH led to paler, more exudative and tougher breast meat. The level of glycogen stored in breast muscle estimated by the Glycolytic Potential (GP) at slaughter time was shown to be highly heritable (h2 0.43). There was a very strong negative genetic correlation (rg) with ultimate meat pH (rg -0.97), suggesting a common genetic control for GP and pHu. While breast muscle weight was genetically positively correlated with fiber size (rg 0.76), it was negatively correlated with the level of glycogen stored in the muscle (rg -0.58), and as a consequence it was positively correlated with the final pH of the meat (rg 0.84). Conclusion This genetic study confirmed that selection should be useful to improve meat characteristics of meat-type chickens without impairing profitability because no genetic conflict was detected between meat quality and meat quantity. Moreover, the results suggested relevant selection criteria such as ultimate pH, which is strongly related to color, water-holding capacity and texture of the meat in this heavy chicken line. PMID:18706119

  20. Ankle and toe muscle strength characteristics in runners with a history of medial tibial stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Junya; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Nakao, Sayaka; Fujita, Kosuke; Yanase, Ko; Morishita, Katsuyuki; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2017-01-01

    A high proportion of flexor digitorum longus attachment is found at the posteromedial border of the tibia, which is the most common location of medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). Therefore, plantar flexion strength of the lesser toes could be related to MTSS; however, the relationship between MTSS and muscle strength of the hallux and lesser toes is not yet evaluated due to the lack of quantitative methods. This study investigated the muscle strength characteristics in runners with a history of MTSS by using a newly developed device to measure the muscle strength of the hallux, lesser toes, and ankle. This study comprised 27 collegiate male runner participants (20.0 ± 1.6 years, 172.1 ± 5.1 cm, 57.5 ± 4.0 kg). Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) torque of the plantar flexion, dorsiflexion, inversion, and eversion of the ankle were measured by using an electric dynamometer. MVIC torque of the 1st metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) and 2nd-5th MTPJ were measured by using a custom-made torque-measuring device. MVIC torques were compared between runners with and without a history of MTSS. MVIC torque of the 1st MTPJ plantar flexion was significantly higher in runners with a history of MTSS than in those without it. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the MVIC torque values of the 2nd-5th MTPJ plantar flexion and each MVIC torque of the ankle between runners with and without a history of MTSS. A history of MTSS increased the isometric FHL strength.

  1. Muscle fiber characteristics and performance correlates of male Olympic-style weightlifters.

    PubMed

    Fry, Andrew C; Schilling, Brian K; Staron, Robert S; Hagerman, Fredrick C; Hikida, Robert S; Thrush, John T

    2003-11-01

    Biopsies fro the vastus lateralis muscle of male weightlifters (WL; n=6; X +/- SE, age=27.0 +/- 2.1 years), and non-weight-trained men (CON; n=7; age=27.0 +/- 2.0 years) were compared for fiber types, myosin heavy chain (MHC) and titin content, and fiber type-specific capillary density. Differences (p<0.05) were observed for percent fiber types IIC (WL=0.4 +/- 0.2, CON=2.4 +/- 0.8); IIA (WL=50.5 +/- 3.2, CON=26.9 +/- 3.7); and IIB (WL=1.7 +/- 1.4, CON=21.0 +/- 5.3), as well as percent MHC IIa (WL=65.3 +/- 2.4, CON=52.1 +/- 4.2) and percent MHC IIB (WL=0.9 +/- 0.9; CON=18.2 +/- 6.1). All WL exhibited only the titin-1 isoform. Capillary density (caps.mm(-2)) for all fiber types combined was greater for the CON subjects (WL=192.7 +/- 17.3; CON=262.9 +/- 26.3), due primarily to a greater capillary density in the IIA fibers. Weightlifting performances and vertical jump power were correlated with type II fiber characteristics. These results suggest that successful weightlifting performance is not dependent on IIB fibers, and that weightlifters exhibit large percentages of type IIA muscle fibers and MHC IIa isoform content.

  2. Influence of Kaolinite Clay Supplementation on Growth Performance and Digestive Function in Finishing Calf-fed Holstein Steers

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, José; Montaño, Martín; Plascencia, Alejandro; Salinas, Jaime; Torrentera, Noemí; Zinn, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the influence of kaolinite clay supplementation (0%, 1%, or 2% diet dry matter [DM] basis) on characteristics of digestion (Trial 1) and growth performance (Trial 2) in calf-fed Holstein steers fed a finishing diet. In Trial 1, 6 Holstein steers (539±15 kg) with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used to evaluate treatment effects on characteristics of digestion. Kaolinite clay supplementation decreased total tract DM digestion (linear effect, p<0.01) without effects (p≥0.10) on site and extent of digestion of organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, starch and N, or ruminal microbial efficiency. There were no treatment effects on ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids molar proportions or estimated methane production. In Trial 2, 108 Holstein steers (132.4±5.6 kg) were used in a 308-d study to evaluate growth performance and carcass characteristics. There were no treatment effects (p>0.10) on average daily gain (ADG) and gain efficiency (ADG/dry matter intake). Kaolinite supplementation tended (linear effect, p = 0.08) to increase dietary net energy (NE) during the initial 112-d period. However, the overall (308-d) effect of supplementation dietary NE was not appreciable (p>0.20). However, due to the inertness of kaolinite, itself, the ratio of observed-to-expected dietary NE increased with kaolinite supplementation. This effect was more pronounced (linear effect, p 0.03) during the initial 224 d of the study. Overall (308 d), kaolinite supplementation tended to increase (linear effect, p = 0.07) dietary NE by 3% over expected. Kaolinite supplementation did not affect carcass weight, yield grade, longissimus area, kidney, pelvic and heart fat, and quality grade, but decreased (linear effect, p = 0.01) dressing percentage. It is concluded that kaolinite supplementation up to 2% of diet DM may enhance energetic efficiency of calf-fed Holstein steers in a manner independent of changes in characteristics of ruminal and total

  3. Force-time curve characteristics of dynamic and isometric muscle actions of elite women olympic weightlifters.

    PubMed

    Haff, G Gregory; Carlock, Jon M; Hartman, Michael J; Kilgore, J Lon; Kawamori, Naoki; Jackson, Janna R; Morris, Robert T; Sands, William A; Stone, Michael H

    2005-11-01

    Six elite women weightlifters were tested to evaluate force-time curve characteristics and intercorrelations of isometric and dynamic muscle actions. Subjects performed isometric and dynamic mid-thigh clean pulls at 30% of maximal isometric peak force and 100 kg from a standardized position on a 61.0 x 121.9 cm AMTI forceplate. Isometric peak force showed strong correlations to the athletes' competitive snatch, clean and jerk, and combined total (r = 0.93, 0.64, and 0.80 respectively). Isometric rate of force development showed moderate to strong relationships to the athletes' competitive snatch, clean and jerk, and combined total (r = 0.79, 0.69, and 0.80 respectively). The results of this study suggest that the ability to perform maximal snatch and clean and jerks shows some structural and functional foundation with the ability to generate high forces rapidly in elite women weightlifters.

  4. Leg size and muscle functions associated with leg compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Doerr, Donald F.; Flores, Jose F.; Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe; Buchanan, Paul

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between the leg compliance and factors related to the size of leg muscle and to physical fitness was investigated in ten healthy subjects. Vascular compliance of the leg, as determined by a mercury strain gauge, was found to be not significantly correlated with any variables associated with physical fitness per se (e.g., peak O2 uptake, calf strength, age, body weight, or body composition. On the other hand, leg compliance correlated with the calf cross-sectional area (CSA) and the calculated calf volume, with the CSA of calf muscle being the most dominant contributing factor (while fat and bone were poor predicators). It is suggested that leg compliance can be lowered by increasing calf muscle mass, thus providing structural support to limit the expansion of leg veins.

  5. Anatomical characteristics of the flexor digitorum accessorius longus muscle and their relevance to tarsal tunnel syndrome a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Deleu, Paul-André; Bevernage, Bernhard Devos; Birch, Ivan; Maldague, Pierre; Gombault, Vincent; Leemrijse, Thibaut

    2015-07-01

    Clinical and cadaver studies have reported that supernumerary muscles could be the etiology of a variety of pathologic disorders, such as posterior impingement syndrome, tarsal tunnel syndrome (TTS), and flexor hallucis longus tenosynovitis. We describe a unique variant of the flexor digitorum accessorius longus (FDAL) muscle as an apparent cause of TTS, functioning as an independent flexor of the second toe, which has not been described in the literature. In addition to this case report, a systematic review was performed of TTS caused by the FDAL muscle. A targeted search of PubMed, the Cochrane Library, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Web of Science identified full-text papers that fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Twenty-nine papers were identified for inclusion in the systematic review: 12 clinical papers of TTS caused by the FDAL muscle and 17 cadaver-based papers. Clinicians often do not include the FDAL muscle in the differential diagnosis of TTS. This literature review suggests that the FDAL is an important muscle in terms of its functional and clinical significance. Knowledge of this muscle, its anatomical location and variations, and its magnetic resonance imaging characteristics may help clinicians make an accurate differential diagnosis.

  6. Knee Moment-Angle Characteristics and Semitendinosus Muscle Morphology in Children with Spastic Paresis Selected for Medial Hamstring Lengthening

    PubMed Central

    Haberfehlner, Helga; Jaspers, Richard T.; Rutz, Erich; Becher, Jules G.; Harlaar, Jaap; van der Sluijs, Johannes A.; Witbreuk, Melinda M.; Romkes, Jacqueline; Freslier, Marie; Brunner, Reinald

    2016-01-01

    To increase knee range of motion and improve gait in children with spastic paresis (SP), the semitendinosus muscle (ST) amongst other hamstring muscles is frequently lengthened by surgery, but with variable success. Little is known about how the pre-surgical mechanical and morphological characteristics of ST muscle differ between children with SP and typically developing children (TD). The aims of this study were to assess (1) how knee moment-angle characteristics and ST morphology in children with SP selected for medial hamstring lengthening differ from TD children, as well as (2) how knee moment-angle characteristics and ST morphology are related. In nine SP and nine TD children, passive knee moment-angle characteristics and morphology of ST (i.e. fascicle length, muscle belly length, tendon length, physiological cross-sectional area, and volume) were assessed by hand-held dynamometry and freehand 3D ultrasound, respectively. At net knee flexion moments above 0.5 Nm, more flexed knee angles were found for SP compared to TD children. The measured knee angle range between 0 and 4 Nm was 30% smaller in children with SP. Muscle volume, physiological cross-sectional area, and fascicle length normalized to femur length were smaller in SP compared to TD children (62%, 48%, and 18%, respectively). Sixty percent of the variation in knee angles at 4 Nm net knee moment was explained by ST fascicle length. Altered knee moment-angle characteristics indicate an increased ST stiffness in SP children. Morphological observations indicate that in SP children planned for medial hamstring lengthening, the longitudinal and cross-sectional growth of ST muscle fibers is reduced. The reduced fascicle length can partly explain the increased ST stiffness and, hence, a more flexed knee joint in these SP children. PMID:27861523

  7. Knee Moment-Angle Characteristics and Semitendinosus Muscle Morphology in Children with Spastic Paresis Selected for Medial Hamstring Lengthening.

    PubMed

    Haberfehlner, Helga; Jaspers, Richard T; Rutz, Erich; Becher, Jules G; Harlaar, Jaap; van der Sluijs, Johannes A; Witbreuk, Melinda M; Romkes, Jacqueline; Freslier, Marie; Brunner, Reinald; Maas, Huub; Buizer, Annemieke I

    2016-01-01

    To increase knee range of motion and improve gait in children with spastic paresis (SP), the semitendinosus muscle (ST) amongst other hamstring muscles is frequently lengthened by surgery, but with variable success. Little is known about how the pre-surgical mechanical and morphological characteristics of ST muscle differ between children with SP and typically developing children (TD). The aims of this study were to assess (1) how knee moment-angle characteristics and ST morphology in children with SP selected for medial hamstring lengthening differ from TD children, as well as (2) how knee moment-angle characteristics and ST morphology are related. In nine SP and nine TD children, passive knee moment-angle characteristics and morphology of ST (i.e. fascicle length, muscle belly length, tendon length, physiological cross-sectional area, and volume) were assessed by hand-held dynamometry and freehand 3D ultrasound, respectively. At net knee flexion moments above 0.5 Nm, more flexed knee angles were found for SP compared to TD children. The measured knee angle range between 0 and 4 Nm was 30% smaller in children with SP. Muscle volume, physiological cross-sectional area, and fascicle length normalized to femur length were smaller in SP compared to TD children (62%, 48%, and 18%, respectively). Sixty percent of the variation in knee angles at 4 Nm net knee moment was explained by ST fascicle length. Altered knee moment-angle characteristics indicate an increased ST stiffness in SP children. Morphological observations indicate that in SP children planned for medial hamstring lengthening, the longitudinal and cross-sectional growth of ST muscle fibers is reduced. The reduced fascicle length can partly explain the increased ST stiffness and, hence, a more flexed knee joint in these SP children.

  8. 9 CFR 113.41 - Calf safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calf safety test. 113.41 Section 113.41 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Procedures § 113.41 Calf safety test. The calf safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when...

  9. 9 CFR 113.41 - Calf safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calf safety test. 113.41 Section 113.41 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Procedures § 113.41 Calf safety test. The calf safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when...

  10. Effect of dietary selenium source (organic vs. mineral) and muscle pH on meat quality characteristics of pigs.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Luis; Toldrá, Fidel; Rodríguez, Ana I; López-Bote, Clemente; Rey, Ana I

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the effect of organic (Se-enriched yeast; SeY) versus inorganic selenium (sodium selenite; SeS) supplementation and the different response of selenium source according to muscle pH on pork meat quality characteristics. Pigs ( n  = 30) were fed the Se-supplemented diets (0.3 mg/kg) for 65 days. Neither electric conductivity (EC) nor drip loss were affected by the selenium source. The SeY group had lower TBARS in muscle samples after day 7 of refrigerated storage and higher a * values on days 1 and 7 than the SeS group. The effect of dietary selenium source on some meat quality characteristics was affected by muscle pH. Hence, as the muscle pH increases, the drip loss decreases but this effect is more marked with the dietary organic Se enrichment. Muscle pH seems to modulate the action of selenium in pork, especially some meat characteristics such as drip loss.

  11. Mitochondrial Respiration after One Session of Calf Raise Exercise in Patients with Peripheral Vascular Disease and Healthy Older Adults.

    PubMed

    van Schaardenburgh, Michel; Wohlwend, Martin; Rognmo, Øivind; Mattsson, Erney J R

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are essential for energy production in the muscle cell and for this they are dependent upon a sufficient supply of oxygen by the circulation. Exercise training has shown to be a potent stimulus for physiological adaptations and mitochondria play a central role. Whether changes in mitochondrial respiration are seen after exercise in patients with a reduced circulation is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the time course and whether one session of calf raise exercise stimulates mitochondrial respiration in the calf muscle of patients with peripheral vascular disease. One group of patients with peripheral vascular disease (n = 11) and one group of healthy older adults (n = 11) were included. Patients performed one session of continuous calf raises followed by 5 extra repetitions after initiation of pain. Healthy older adults performed 100 continuous calf raises. Gastrocnemius muscle biopsies were collected at baseline and 15 minutes, one hour, three hours and 24 hours after one session of calf raise exercise. A multi substrate (octanoylcarnitine, malate, adp, glutamate, succinate, FCCP, rotenone) approach was used to analyze mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized fibers. Mixed-linear model for repeated measures was used for statistical analyses. Patients with peripheral vascular disease have a lower baseline respiration supported by complex I and they increase respiration supported by complex II at one hour post-exercise. Healthy older adults increase respiration supported by electron transfer flavoprotein and complex I at one hour and 24 hours post-exercise. Our results indicate a shift towards mitochondrial respiration supported by complex II as being a pathophysiological component of peripheral vascular disease. Furthermore exercise stimulates mitochondrial respiration already after one session of calf raise exercise in patients with peripheral vascular disease and healthy older adults. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01842412.

  12. Mitochondrial Respiration after One Session of Calf Raise Exercise in Patients with Peripheral Vascular Disease and Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wohlwend, Martin; Rognmo, Øivind; Mattsson, Erney J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Mitochondria are essential for energy production in the muscle cell and for this they are dependent upon a sufficient supply of oxygen by the circulation. Exercise training has shown to be a potent stimulus for physiological adaptations and mitochondria play a central role. Whether changes in mitochondrial respiration are seen after exercise in patients with a reduced circulation is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the time course and whether one session of calf raise exercise stimulates mitochondrial respiration in the calf muscle of patients with peripheral vascular disease. Methods One group of patients with peripheral vascular disease (n = 11) and one group of healthy older adults (n = 11) were included. Patients performed one session of continuous calf raises followed by 5 extra repetitions after initiation of pain. Healthy older adults performed 100 continuous calf raises. Gastrocnemius muscle biopsies were collected at baseline and 15 minutes, one hour, three hours and 24 hours after one session of calf raise exercise. A multi substrate (octanoylcarnitine, malate, adp, glutamate, succinate, FCCP, rotenone) approach was used to analyze mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized fibers. Mixed-linear model for repeated measures was used for statistical analyses. Results Patients with peripheral vascular disease have a lower baseline respiration supported by complex I and they increase respiration supported by complex II at one hour post-exercise. Healthy older adults increase respiration supported by electron transfer flavoprotein and complex I at one hour and 24 hours post-exercise. Conclusion Our results indicate a shift towards mitochondrial respiration supported by complex II as being a pathophysiological component of peripheral vascular disease. Furthermore exercise stimulates mitochondrial respiration already after one session of calf raise exercise in patients with peripheral vascular disease and healthy older adults. Trial

  13. INFLUENCE OF INTRAMUSCULAR FAT LEVEL ON ORGANOLEPTIC, PHYSICAL, AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF IRRADIATED PORK MUSCLE

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehair, L.A.

    1962-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the influence of marbling on certain organoleptic, physical, and chemical characteristics of precooked and irradiated pork loin muscle (longissimus dorsi). The study consisted of two separate phases. Loins utilized in Phase I were selected by visual appraisal and categorized into three distinct marbling level scores. A high temperature, short time blanching treatment was used for proteolytic enzyme inactivation. Phase II loins were selected and classified into three marbling levels by both visual appraisal amd ether extraction analysis of total fat. A low temperature, long time heat treatment was used for enzyme inactivation. Samples weremore » packed under vacuum in rigid containers and irradiated at a dosage level of 4.5 megarads gamma radiation. Non-irradiated samples were stored at -65 deg F. Irradiated and control samples were evaluated at periodic intervals by a panel. Physical and chemical analyses were made initially on samples representing each treatment and subsequently at the termination of each storage period. Organoleptic results indicated that degree of marbling did not influence preference ratings of plain radiosterilized longissimus dorsi muscle (pork). However, irradiated longissimus dorsi (pork) sandwich items with lower marbling scores were consistently preferred over highly marbled, irradiated sandwich items. Non-irradiated longissimus dorsi samples were preferred to irradiated longissimus dorsi samples in all tests. The short term-high temperature method of blanching used in Phase I resulted in products of slightly superior quality to those of Phase II, which possessed softer, slightly drier texture characteristics. The practical storage life of irradiated samples under the conditions was approximately 150 days. Hunter color values were increased by radiation treatment. Irradiated longissimus dorsi samples developed a characteristic pink-red color. Mechanical tenderness values in both irradiated and non

  14. Impact of the hydrodyne process on tenderness, microbial load, and sensory characteristics of pork longissimus muscle.

    PubMed

    Moeller, S; Wulf, D; Meeker, D; Ndife, M; Sundararajan, N; Solomon, M B

    1999-08-01

    Paired, boneless pork loin muscles were obtained from 76 market hogs to evaluate tenderness, meat quality characteristics, sensory attributes, and microbial characterization of pork muscle exposed to the Hydrodyne Process (H) compared with untreated control (C) loin. A subset of 16 paired loins was randomly selected for use in sensory evaluation and microbial characterization. Loins were vacuum packaged and immersed in a heat shrink tank prior to the H treatment. The Hydrodyne treatment exposed the loin to the pressure equivalent of a 150-g explosive, generating a pressure distribution of approximately 703 kg/cm2 at the surface of the samples. Meat quality assessments taken following treatment included subjective color, firmness/wetness, marbling scores (1 to 5 scale), Minolta reflectance and color readings, drip loss, and lipid content. The P-value for statistical significance for main effects and interactions was set at <.05 in all analyses. Administration of H resulted in a 17% improvement in Warner-Bratzler shear force (2.69 vs. 3.24 kg), with the shear force similar at two end-point cooking times (11 and 16 min) corresponding to approximately 75 and 83 degrees C, respectively. No differences between H and C were observed for color score, firmness score, Minolta L, Minolta Y, or drip loss on uncooked samples. The H loins had lower marbling scores (P<.05) and intramuscular lipid (P<.05) content than the paired C loin. Sensory evaluation on the randomly selected (n = 16) paired loins samples showed no improvement in Warner-Bratzler shear force. Sensory panelists were also unable to detect a difference between H and C loins for both initial and sustained tenderness scores. No differences between H and C loins were found for pork flavor, off-flavor, cohesiveness, or number of chews before swallowing, but H loins had a significantly lower juiciness score and more cooking loss than C loins. Microbial analysis results showed no differences in coliform bacteria counts

  15. Weight-adjusted lean body mass and calf circumference are protective against obesity-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Takamura, Toshinari; Kita, Yuki; Nakagen, Masatoshi; Sakurai, Masaru; Isobe, Yuki; Takeshita, Yumie; Kawai, Kohzo; Urabe, Takeshi; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2017-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that preserved muscle mass is protective against obesity-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities, we analyzed the relationship of lean body mass and computed tomography-assessed sectional areas of specific skeletal muscles with insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities in a healthy cohort. A total of 195 subjects without diabetes who had completed a medical examination were included in this study. Various anthropometric indices such as circumferences of the arm, waist, hip, thigh, and calf were measured. Body composition (fat and lean body mass) was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Sectional areas of specific skeletal muscles (iliopsoas, erector spinae, gluteus, femoris, and rectus abdominis muscles) were measured using computed tomography. Fat and lean body mass were significantly correlated with metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance indices. When adjusted by weight, relationships of fat and lean body mass with metabolic parameters were mirror images of each other. The weight-adjusted lean body mass negatively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressures; fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, alanine aminotransferase, and triglyceride, and insulin levels; and hepatic insulin resistance indices, and positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol levels and muscle insulin sensitivity indices. Compared with weight-adjusted lean body mass, weight-adjusted sectional areas of specific skeletal muscles showed similar, but not as strong, correlations with metabolic parameters. Among anthropometric measures, the calf circumference best reflected lean body mass, and weight-adjusted calf circumference negatively correlated with metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance indices. Weight-adjusted lean body mass and skeletal muscle area are protective against weight-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities. The calf circumference reflects lean body mass and may be useful as a protective

  16. Effects of dietary supplementation with carnosine on growth performance, meat quality, antioxidant capacity and muscle fiber characteristics in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Cong, Jiahui; Zhang, Lin; Li, Jiaolong; Wang, Shuhao; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong

    2017-08-01

    The effects of dietary carnosine were evaluated on the growth performance, meat quality, antioxidant capacity and muscle fiber characteristics in thigh muscle of 256 one-day-old male broilers assigned to four diets - basal diets supplemented with 0, 100, 200 or 400 mg kg -1 carnosine respectively - during a 42 day experiment. Carnosine concentration and carnosine synthase expression in thigh muscle were linearly increased (P < 0.05) and the feed/gain ratio was decreased (P < 0.05) in the starter period by carnosine addition. Dietary supplementation with carnosine resulted in linear increases in pH 45 min , redness and cohesiveness and decreases in drip loss, cooking loss, shear force and hardness (P < 0.05). Carnosine addition elevated the activities of antioxidant enzymes and reduced contents of malondialdehyde and carbonyl compounds (P < 0.05). Dietary carnosine linearly decreased diameters and increased densities of muscle fibers (P < 0.01). The ratios of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) I and IIa were increased while that of MyHC IIb was decreased (P < 0.01). The mRNA expressions of genes related to fiber type transformation were linearly up-regulated (P < 0.05). These findings indicated that carnosine supplementation was beneficial to improve the growth performance, meat quality, antioxidant capacity and muscle fiber characteristics of broilers. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Pre-Training Muscle Characteristics of Subjects Who Are Obese Determine How Well Exercise Training Will Improve Their Insulin Responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Charles A; Lee, Michelle L; South, Mark A; Howell, Mary E A; Cartwright, Brian M; Ramsey, Michael W; Stone, Michael H

    2017-03-01

    Stuart, CA, Lee, ML, South, MA, Howell, MEA, Cartwright, BM, Ramsey, MW, and Stone, MH. Pre-training muscle characteristics of subjects who are obese determine how well exercise training will improve their insulin responsiveness. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 798-808, 2017-Only half of prediabetic subjects who are obese who underwent exercise training without weight loss increased their insulin responsiveness. We hypothesized that those who improved their insulin responsiveness might have pretraining characteristics favoring a positive response to exercise training. Thirty nondiabetic subjects who were obese volunteered for 8 weeks of either strength training or endurance training. During training, subjects increased their caloric intake to prevent weight loss. Insulin responsiveness by euglycemic clamps and muscle fiber composition, and expression of muscle key biochemical pathways were quantified. Positive responders initially had 52% higher intermediate muscle fibers (fiber type IIa) with 27% lower slow-twitch fibers (type I) and 23% lower expression of muscle insulin receptors. Whether after weight training or stationary bike training, positive responders' fiber type shifted away from type I and type IIa fibers to an increased proportion of type IIx fibers (fast twitch). Muscle insulin receptor expression and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) expression increased in all trained subjects, but these moderate changes did not consistently translate to improvement in whole-body insulin responsiveness. Exercise training of previously sedentary subjects who are obese can result in muscle remodeling and increased expression of key elements of the insulin pathway, but in the absence of weight loss, insulin sensitivity improvement was modest and limited to about half of the participants. Our data suggest rather than responders being more fit, they may have been less fit, only catching up to the other half of subjects who are obese whose insulin responsiveness did not

  18. Biochemical and physical factors affecting discoloration characteristics of 19 bovine muscles.

    PubMed

    McKenna, D R; Mies, P D; Baird, B E; Pfeiffer, K D; Ellebracht, J W; Savell, J W

    2005-08-01

    Steaks from muscles (n=19 from nine beef carcasses) were evaluated over the course of retail display (0-, 1-, 2-, 3-, 4- or 5-d) for objective measures of discoloration (metmyoglobin, oxymyoglobin, L*-, a*-, and b*-values), reducing ability (metmyoglobin reductase activity (MRA), resistance to induced metmyoglobin formation (RIMF), and nitric oxide metmyoglobin reducing ability (NORA)), oxygen consumption rate (OCR), oxygen penetration depth, myoglobin content, oxidative rancidity, and pH. Muscles were grouped according to objective color measures of discoloration. M. longissimus lumborum, M. longissimus thoracis, M. semitendinosus, and M. tensor fasciae latae were grouped as "high" color stability muscles, M. semimembranosus, M. rectus femoris, and M. vastus lateralis were grouped as "moderate" color stability muscles, M. trapezius, M. gluteus medius, and M. latissimus dorsi were grouped as "intermediate" color stability muscles, M. triceps brachi - long head, M. biceps femoris, M. pectoralis profundus, M. adductor, M. triceps brachi - lateral head, and M. serratus ventralis were grouped as "low" color stability muscles, and M. supraspinatus, M. infraspinatus, and M. psoas major were grouped as "very low" color stability muscles. Generally, muscles of high color stability had high RIMF, nitric oxide reducing ability, and oxygen penetration depth and possessed low OCRs, myoglobin content, and oxidative rancidity. In contrast, muscles of low color stability had high MRA, OCRs, myoglobin content, and oxidative rancidity and low RIMF, NORA, and oxygen penetration depth. Data indicate that discoloration differences between muscles are related to the amount of reducing activity relative to the OCR.

  19. Calf mortality in Norwegian dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Gulliksen, S M; Lie, K I; Løken, T; Osterås, O

    2009-06-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate mortality rates in Norwegian dairy calves and young stock up to 1 yr of age, identify risk factors for calf mortality, and evaluate the etiology of calf mortality based on postmortem analyses. The material comprised 3 data sets. The first data set included information on 289,038 offspring in 14,474 dairy herds registered in the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System (NDHRS) in 2005. The second included recordings on 5,382 offspring in 125 Norwegian dairy herds participating in a survey on calf health, and the third included results from postmortem analyses of 65 calves from 37 of the survey herds. The calf mortality rate during the first year of life in all herds registered in the NDHRS was 7.8%, including abortion (0.7%) and stillbirth (3.4%). The overall calf mortality rate in liveborn calves in the survey herds was 4.6%. Cows with severe calving difficulties had an odds ratio (OR) of 38.7 of stillbirth compared with cows with no calving difficulties. Twins and triplets showed an increased risk of stillbirth compared with singletons (OR = 4.2 and 46.3, respectively), as did calves born in free stalls compared with tie stalls (OR = 1.9). Respiratory disease increased the risk of death in all age groups with hazard ratios (HR) of 6.4, 6.5, 7.4, and 5.6 during the first week of life, 8 to 30 d of age, 31 to 180 d of age, and 181 to 365 d of age, respectively. Diarrhea increased the risk of death among calves younger than 180 d of age, but the influence was only significant during the first week of life and between 8 to 31 d of age (HR = 2.4 and 2.9, respectively). Calves born during the winter were more likely to die during the first week of life than calves born during the summer (OR = 1.2), and were more likely to die during the first month of life than calves born during the autumn (OR = 1.2). Calf mortality rates in all age groups increased with increasing herd size. Calves housed in a group pen from 2 wk of age were more

  20. Characteristics of power spectrum density function of EMG during muscle contraction below 30%MVC.

    PubMed

    Roman-Liu, Danuta; Konarska, Maria

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify changes in PSDF frequency bands of the EMG signal and EMG parameters such as MF, MPF and zero crossing, with an increase in the level of muscle contractions in the range from 0.5% to 30% RMS(max) and to determine the frequency bands with the lowest dependency on RMS level so that this could be used in investigating muscle fatigue. Sixteen men, aged from 23 to 33 years old (mean 26.1), who participated in the study performed two force exertion tests. Fragments of EMG which corresponded to the levels of muscle contraction of 0.5%, 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% RMS(max) registered from left and right trapezius pars descendents (TP) and left and right extensor digitorum superficialis (ED) muscles were selected for analysis. The analysis included changes in standard parameters of the EMG signal and changes in PSDF frequency bands, which occurred across muscle contraction levels. To analyze changes in PSDF across the level of muscle contraction, the spectrum was divided into six frequency bandwidths. The analysis of parameters focused on the differences in those parameters between the analyzed muscles, at different levels of muscle contraction. The study revealed that, at muscle contraction levels below 5% RMSmax, contraction level influences standard parameters of the EMG signal and that at such levels of muscle contraction every change in muscle contraction level (recruitment of additional MUs) is reflected in PSDF. The frequency band with the lowest dependency on contraction level was 76-140 Hz for which in both muscles no contraction level effect was detected for contraction levels above 5% RMS(max). The reproducibility of the results was very high, since the observations in of the left and right muscles were almost equal. The other factor, which strongly influences PSDF of the EMG signal, is probably the examined muscle structure (muscle morphology, size, function, subcutaneous layer, cross talk). It seems that low

  1. Associations among animal, carcass, muscle characteristics, and fresh meat color traits in Charolais cattle.

    PubMed

    Gagaoua, Mohammed; Picard, Brigitte; Monteils, Valérie

    2018-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of animal, carcass and muscle characteristics on initial color traits of steaks from 887 Charolais cattle. First, the fixed factors of year of birth, experiment and sex had strong impacts on color traits. From the covariates, increased age lead to intense color (low h*, -1.55 units) and darker and vivid meat (high a*, b* and C*: +4.56, +3.41 and +5.61, respectively). Increases in fatness score and carcass fat weight were associated with increases in a*, b* and C* (redness; +2.90 to +4.06 for a*; yellowness; +2.60 to +3.76 for b*; and vividness, +3.87 to +5.49 for C*) and a darker colored lean (L*; -1.56 to -3.23). As pH24h increased, a* (less red) and C* (less vivid) decreased (-3.06), whereas hue angle increased (+2.69) leading to poorer color. The selection of animals for high degree of muscularity or slaughter weight resulted in lighter and darker meat, respectively. The studied covariates could be used as indicators of Charolais beef color traits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Immortalization of cat iris sphincter smooth muscle cells by SV40 virus: growth, morphological, biochemical and pharmacological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ocklind, A; Yousufzai, S Y; Ghosh, S; Coca-Prados, M; St Jernschantz, J; Abdel-Latif, A A

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish immortalized cell cultures of cat iris sphincter smooth muscle cells for a model investigating ocular receptors and their signal transduction pathways. Cultured cat iris sphincter muscle cells were immortalized by viral transformation with SV40 virus and the morphological and immunocytochemical properties of the normal and immortalized cells were investigated. The transformed cell clone, SV-CISM-2, was further characterized biochemically and pharmacologically. The normal muscle cells showed characteristics of smooth muscle cells, as judged by their growth and the presence of smooth muscle alpha-actin and desmin. After seven passages the normal cells ceased to proliferate. In contrast, the immortalized cells retained their proliferative ability for more than 220 population doublings over 55 passages. The transformation phenotype in these cells was confirmed by their expression of the large T-antigen, the incorporation of viral DNA into cellular DNA, growth in agarose and in low-serum medium, and complete loss of contact inhibition. The immortalized cells expressed smooth muscle alpha-actin, desmin and MLC protein. Biochemical and pharmacological studies on the SV-CISM cells revealed the presence of several functional receptors including muscarinic cholinergic, beta-adrenergic, peptidergic (substance P and endothelin). Platelet-activating factor, and prostaglandin (PG). Muscarinic stimulation of these cells resulted in: (a) a dose-dependent increase in the release of arachidonic acid (AA) and (PGs) and enhancement in the production of inositol trisphosphate (IP3); and (b) a substantial increase in MLC phosphorylation (118%), an indicator of smooth muscle contractility. The stimulatory effects of carbachol on these responses were completely blocked by atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist. This study constitutes the first successful immortalization of iris sphincter smooth muscle cells. The SV-CISM-2 cells can serve as

  3. Effect of copper on performance, carcass characteristics, and muscle fatty acid composition of meat goat kids.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y L; Wang, Y; Spears, J W; Lin, X; Guo, C H

    2013-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary Cu on performance, carcass characteristics, and muscle fatty acid composition in meat goats. Thirty five Jianyang Big-ear goat (JYB) kids (average BW 20.3 ± 0.6 kg and age 3 to 4 mo) were stratified by weight and randomly assigned to 1 of 7 experimental treatments (n = 5 goats per treatment). Treatments consisted of: 1) control (no supplemental Cu; 14.3 mg Cu/kg DM), 2) 20 mg supplemental Cu/kg DM, 3) 40 mg supplemental Cu/kg DM, 4) 80 mg supplemental Cu/kg DM, 5) 160 mg supplemental Cu/kg DM, 6) 320 mg supplemental Cu/kg DM, and 7) 640 mg supplemental Cu/kg DM. Copper was supplemented from CuSO4•5H2O (25.2% Cu). Goats were individually fed a concentrate-hay based diet for 96 d. Performance was not affected by Cu concentration. Liver Cu concentration was increased (P < 0.01) with Cu supplementation. Goats supplemented with 0 or 20 mg Cu/kg DM had lower (P < 0.01) liver Cu concentrations than the other treatments. Backfat depth (P < 0.01) and intramuscular fat (IMF) content (P < 0.01) were also increased with Cu supplementation. However, Cu-supplemented goats had lower (P = 0.04) longissimus muscle area (LMA) compared with control. Dietary Cu supplementation increased the percentage of C14:0 (P < 0.01), C20:4 (P < 0.01), and total polyunsaturated fatty acids (P = 0.03), decreased C18:1 trans (P = 0.04), and tended to decrease C18:0 (P = 0.08) in LM. Other fatty acids detected were not affected by dietary Cu supplementation (P > 0.10). These results indicate that JYB goats can tolerate up to 640 mg Cu/kg DM for 96 d without adverse effects on performance, but fat deposition and fatty acid composition in the body could be altered by Cu supplementation as low as 20 mg/kg of diet with high concentrate-hay. Copper supplementation increased backfat depth, IMF, and percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids in LM and decreased LMA in the carcass of JYB goats.

  4. Hypomyelination associated with bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 infection in a longhorn calf.

    PubMed

    Porter, B F; Ridpath, J F; Calise, D V; Payne, H R; Janke, J J; Baxter, D G; Edwards, J F

    2010-07-01

    A newborn Longhorn heifer calf presented with generalized tremors, muscle fasciculations, ataxia, and nystagmus. At necropsy, no gross central nervous system lesions were observed. Histologically, the brain and spinal cord had mild to moderate diffuse microgliosis and astrocytosis, minimal nonsuppurative encephalitis, and decreased myelin staining. Ultrastructural examination revealed thinning and absence of myelin sheaths. Various cell types were immunohistochemically positive for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Noncytopathogenic BVDV was isolated from the brain and identified as BVDV type 2 by phylogenetic analysis. BVDV-induced hypomyelination is rare and analogous to lesions in neonates infected with border disease and classical swine fever viruses. This is the first documented case of hypomyelination in a calf specifically attributed to BVDV type 2 and the first description of the ultrastructural appearance of BVDV-induced hypomyelination.

  5. Shoulder Rotator Muscle Dynamometry Characteristics: Side Asymmetry and Correlations with Ball-Throwing Speed in Adolescent Handball Players

    PubMed Central

    Pontaga, Inese; Zidens, Janis

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to: 1) compare shoulder external/internal rotator muscles’ peak torques and average power values and their ratios in the dominant and non-dominant arm; 2) determine correlations between shoulder rotator muscles’ peak torques, average power and ball-throwing speed in handball players. Fourteen 14 to 15-year-old male athletes with injury-free shoulders participated in the study (body height: 176 ± 7 cm, body mass 63 ± 9 kg). The tests were carried out by an isokinetic dynamometer system in the shoulder internal and external rotation movements at angular velocities of 60°/s, 90°/s and 240°/s during concentric contractions. The eccentric external– concentric internal rotator muscle contractions were performed at the velocity of 90°/s. The player threw a ball at maximal speed keeping both feet on the floor. The speed was recorded with reflected light rays. Training in handball does not cause significant side asymmetry in shoulder external/internal rotator muscle peak torques or the average power ratio. Positive correlations between isokinetic characteristics of the shoulder internal and external rotator muscles and ball-throwing speed were determined. The power produced by internal rotator muscles during concentric contractions after eccentric contractions of external rotator muscles was significantly greater in the dominant than in the non-dominant arm. Thus, it may be concluded that the shoulder eccentric external/concentric internal rotator muscle power ratio is significantly greater than this ratio in the concentric contractions of these muscles. PMID:25414738

  6. Characteristics of the Localization of Connexin 43 in Satellite Cells during Skeletal Muscle Regeneration In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ishido, Minenori; Kasuga, Norikatsu

    2015-01-01

    For myogenesis, new myotubes are formed by the fusion of differentiated myoblasts. In the sequence of events for myotube formation, intercellular communication through gap junctions composed of connexin 43 (Cx43) plays critical roles in regulating the alignment and fusion of myoblasts in advances of myotube formation in vitro. On the other hand, the relationship between the expression patterns of Cx43 and the process of myotube formation in satellite cells during muscle regeneration in vivo remains poorly understood. The present study investigated the relationship between Cx43 and satellite cells in muscle regeneration in vivo. The expression of Cx43 was detected in skeletal muscles on day 1 post-muscle injury, but not in control muscles. Interestingly, the expression of Cx43 was not localized on the inside of the basement membrane of myofibers in the regenerating muscles. Moreover, although the clusters of differentiated satellite cells, which represent a more advanced stage of myotube formation, were observed on the inside of the basement membrane of myofibers in regenerating muscles, the expression of Cx43 was not localized in the clusters of these satellite cells. Therefore, in the present study, it was suggested that Cx43 may not directly contribute to muscle regeneration via satellite cells. PMID:26019374

  7. Muscle fiber characteristics of broiler breast fillets with the wooden breast condition.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Broiler breast fillets exhibiting the wooden breast condition are described as having a rigid feel and abnormal texture attributes; however, changes at the muscle fiber level in wooden breast fillets are not well understood. The objective of this study was to compare the histochemical muscle fiber ...

  8. Gut microbiota can transfer fiber characteristics and lipid metabolic profiles of skeletal muscle from pigs to germ-free mice.

    PubMed

    Yan, Honglin; Diao, Hui; Xiao, Yi; Li, Wenxia; Yu, Bing; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Zheng, Ping; Mao, Xiangbing; Luo, Yuheng; Zeng, Benhua; Wei, Hong; Chen, Daiwen

    2016-08-22

    Obesity causes changes in microbiota composition, and an altered gut microbiota can transfer obesity-associated phenotypes from donors to recipients. Obese Rongchang pigs (RP) exhibited distinct fiber characteristics and lipid metabolic profiles in their muscle compared with lean Yorkshire pigs (YP). However, whether RP have a different gut microbiota than YP and whether there is a relationship between the microbiota and muscle properties are poorly understood. The present study was conducted to test whether the muscle properties can be transferred from pigs to germ-free (GF) mice. High-throughput pyrosequencing confirms the presence of distinct core microbiota between pig breeds, with alterations in taxonomic distribution and modulations in β diversity. RP displayed a significant higher Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and apparent genera differences compared with YP. Transplanting the porcine microbiota into GF mice replicated the phenotypes of the donors. RP and their GF mouse recipients exhibited a higher body fat mass, a higher slow-contracting fiber proportion, a decreased fiber size and fast IIb fiber percentage, and enhanced lipogenesis in the gastrocnemius muscle. Furthermore, the gut microbiota composition of colonized mice shared high similarity with their donor pigs. Taken together, the gut microbiota of obese pigs intrinsically influences skeletal muscle development and the lipid metabolic profiles.

  9. Whiplash evokes descending muscle recruitment and sympathetic responses characteristic of startle

    PubMed Central

    Mang, Daniel WH; Siegmund, Gunter P; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Whiplash injuries are the most common injuries following rear-end collisions. During a rear-end collision, the human muscle response consists of both a postural and a startle response that may exacerbate injury. However, most previous studies only assessed the presence of startle using data collected from the neck muscles and head/neck kinematics. The startle response also evokes a descending pattern of muscle recruitment and changes in autonomic activity. Here we examined the recruitment of axial and appendicular muscles along with autonomic responses to confirm whether these other features of a startle response were present during the first exposure to a whiplash perturbation. Ten subjects experienced a single whiplash perturbation while recording electromyography, electrocardiogram, and electrodermal responses. All subjects exhibited a descending pattern of muscle recruitment, and increasing heart rate and electrodermal responses following the collision. Our results provide further support that the startle response is a component of the response to whiplash collisions. PMID:24932015

  10. Structural and functional characteristics of the thoracolumbar multifidus muscle in horses.

    PubMed

    García Liñeiro, J A; Graziotti, G H; Rodríguez Menéndez, J M; Ríos, C M; Affricano, N O; Victorica, C L

    2017-03-01

    The multifidus muscle fascicles of horses attach to vertebral spinous processes after crossing between one to six metameres. The fascicles within one or two metameres are difficult to distinguish in horses. A vertebral motion segment is anatomically formed by two adjacent vertebrae and the interposed soft tissue structures, and excessive mobility of a vertebral motion segment frequently causes osteoarthropathies in sport horses. The importance of the equine multifidus muscle as a vertebral motion segment stabilizer has been demonstrated; however, there is scant documentation of the structure and function of this muscle. By studying six sport horses postmortem, the normalized muscle fibre lengths of the the multifidus muscle attached to the thoracic (T)4, T9, T12, T17 and lumbar (L)3 vertebral motion segments were determined and the relative areas occupied by fibre types I, IIA and IIX were measured in the same muscles after immunohistochemical typying. The values for the normalized muscle fibre lengths and the relative areas were analysed as completely randomized blocks using an anova (P ≤ 0.05). The vertebral motion segments of the T4 vertebra include multifidus bundles extending between two and eight metameres; the vertebral motion segments of the T9, T12, T17 and L3 vertebrae contain fascicles extending between two and four metameres The muscle fibres with high normalized lengths that insert into the T4 (three and eight metameres) vertebral motion segment tend to have smaller physiological cross-sectional areas, indicating their diminished capacity to generate isometric force. In contrast, the significantly decreased normalized muscle fibre lengths and the increased physiological cross-sectional areas of the fascicles of three metameres with insertions on T9, T17, T12, L3 and the fascicles of four metameres with insertions on L3 increase their capacities to generate isometric muscle force and neutralize excessive movements of the vertebral segments with

  11. Heterosis and direct effects for Charolais-sired calf weight and growth, cow weight and weight change, and ratios of cow and calf weights and weight changes across warm season lactation in Romosinuano, Angus, and F1 cows in A

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of Brahman in cow-calf production in the southeastern U.S. offers some adaptation to the harsh characteristics of endophyte-infected tall fescue. Other breeds, such as the Criollo breed Romosinuano, may provide similar adaptative characteristics. The objectives were to evaluate Romosinuano...

  12. Characteristics of Lower Leg Muscle Activity in Patients with Cerebral Palsy during Cycling on an Ergometer.

    PubMed

    Roy, Susmita; Alves-Pinto, Ana; Lampe, Renée

    2018-01-01

    Cycling on ergometer is often part of rehabilitation programs for patients with cerebral palsy (CP). The present study analyzed activity patterns of individual lower leg muscle during active cycling on ergometer in patients with CP and compared them to similar recordings in healthy participants. Electromyographic (EMG) recordings of lower leg muscle activity were collected from 14 adult patients and 10 adult healthy participants. Activity of the following muscles was recorded: Musculus tibialis anterior, Musculus gastrocnemius, Musculus rectus femoris, and Musculus biceps femoris. Besides qualitative analysis also quantitative analysis of individual muscle activity was performed by computing the coefficient of variation of EMG signal amplitude. More irregular EMG patterns were observed in patients in comparison to healthy participants: agonist-antagonist cocontractions were more frequent, muscle activity measured at specific points of the cycle path was more variable, and dynamic range of muscle activity along the cycle path was narrower in patients. Hypertonicity was also more frequent in patients. Muscle activity patterns during cycling differed substantially across patients. It showed irregular nature and occasional sharp high peaks. Dynamic range was also narrower than in controls. Observations underline the need for individualized cycling training to optimize rehabilitation effects.

  13. Electrophysiological characteristics of IB4-negative TRPV1-expressing muscle afferent DRG neurons.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Wen; Chen, Chih-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Muscle afferent neurons that express transient receptor potential vanilloid type I (TRPV1) are responsible for muscle pain associated with tissue acidosis. We have previously found that TRPV1 of isolectin B4 (IB4)-negative muscle nociceptors plays an important role in the acid-induced hyperalgesic priming and the development of chronic hyperalgesia in a mouse model of fibromyalgia. To understand the electrophysiological properties of the TRPV1-expressing muscle afferent neurons, we used whole-cell patch clamp recording to study the acid responsiveness and action potential (AP) configuration of capsaicin-sensitive neurons innervating to gastrocnemius muscle. Here we showed that IB4-negative TRPV1-expressing muscle afferent neurons are heterogeneous in terms of cell size, resting membrane potential, AP configuration, tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistance, and acid-induced current (I acid), as well as capsaicin-induced current (I cap). TRPV1-expressing neurons were all acid-sensitive and could be divided into two acid-sensitive groups depending on an acid-induced sustained current (type I) or an acid-induced biphasic ASIC3-like current (type II). Type I TRPV1-expressing neurons were distinguishable from type II TRPV1-expressing neurons in AP overshoot, after-hyperpolarization duration, and all I acid parameters, but not in AP threshold, TTX-resistance, resting membrane potential, and I cap parameters. These differential biophysical properties of TRPV1-expressing neurons might partially annotate their different roles involved in the development and maintenance of chronic muscle pain.

  14. Recruitment and derecruitment characteristics of motor units in a hand muscle of young and old adults.

    PubMed

    Jesunathadas, Mark; Marmon, Adam R; Gibb, James M; Enoka, Roger M

    2010-06-01

    The significant decline in motor neuron number after approximately 60 yr of age is accompanied by a remodeling of the neuromuscular system so that average motor unit force increases and the ability of old adults to produce an intended force declines. One possible explanation for the loss of movement precision is that the remodeling increases the difference in recruitment forces between successively recruited motor units in old adults and this augments force variability at motor unit recruitment. The purpose of the study was to compare the forces and discharge characteristics of motor units in a hand muscle of young and old adults at motor unit recruitment and derecruitment. The difference in recruitment force between pairs of motor units did not differ between young (n=54) and old adults (n=56; P=0.702). However, old adults had a greater proportion of contractions in which motor units discharged action potentials transiently before discharging continuously during the ramp increase in force (young: 0.32; old: 0.41; P=0.045). Force variability at motor unit recruitment was greater for old adults compared with young adults (Por=0.729). These results suggest that the difference in force between the recruitment of successive motor units does not differ between age groups, but that motor unit recruitment may be more transient and could contribute to the greater variability in force observed in old adults during graded ramp contractions.

  15. An overview of calf diarrhea - infectious etiology, diagnosis, and intervention

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yong-il

    2014-01-01

    Calf diarrhea is a commonly reported disease in young animals, and still a major cause of productivity and economic loss to cattle producers worldwide. In the report of the 2007 National Animal Health Monitoring System for U.S. dairy, half of the deaths among unweaned calves was attributed to diarrhea. Multiple pathogens are known or postulated to cause or contribute to calf diarrhea development. Other factors including both the environment and management practices influence disease severity or outcomes. The multifactorial nature of calf diarrhea makes this disease hard to control effectively in modern cow-calf operations. The purpose of this review is to provide a better understanding of a) the ecology and pathogenesis of well-known and potential bovine enteric pathogens implicated in calf diarrhea, b) describe diagnostic tests used to detect various enteric pathogens along with their pros and cons, and c) propose improved intervention strategies for treating calf diarrhea. PMID:24378583

  16. NAD+ glycohydrolase, an ecto-enzyme of calf spleen cells.

    PubMed Central

    Muller, H M; Muller, C D; Schuber, F

    1983-01-01

    By using a sensitive fluorimetric assay of NAD+ glycohydrolase (EC 3.2.2.6), we showed that calf spleen cells are able to hydrolyse 1,N6-etheno-NAD+ given in the medium. The observed rates of substrate hydrolysis and product accumulation in the medium are equivalent. Moreover, the splenocytes are able to cleave the nicotinamide-ribose bond of a water-soluble polymer of NAD+, and their NAD+ glycohydrolase activity is fully inhibited by a high-molecular-weight Blue Dextran. Selective permeation of the cellular membrane digitonin revealed an intracellular pool of NAD+ glycohydrolase, which accounts for 25% of the total activity. We conclude that NAD+ glycohydrolase associated with the splenocytes has the characteristics of an ecto-enzyme. PMID:6192807

  17. Aerobic characteristics of red kangaroo skeletal muscles: is a high aerobic capacity matched by muscle mitochondrial and capillary morphology as in placental mammals?

    PubMed

    Dawson, Terence J; Mifsud, Brock; Raad, Matthew C; Webster, Koa N

    2004-07-01

    Marsupials and placentals together comprise the Theria, the advanced mammals, but they have had long independent evolutionary histories, with the last common ancestor occurring more than 125 million years ago. Although in the past the marsupials were considered to be metabolically 'primitive', the red kangaroo Macropus rufus has been reported to have an aerobic capacity (VO2max) comparable to that of the most 'athletic' of placentals such as dogs. However, kangaroos travel at moderate speeds with lower relative cost than quadrupedal placentals. Given the long independent evolution of the two therian groups, and their unusual locomotor energetics, do kangaroos achieve their high aerobic capacity using the same structural and functional mechanisms used by (athletic) placentals? Red kangaroo skeletal muscle morphometry matched closely the general aerobic characteristics of placental mammals. The relationship between total mitochondrial volume in skeletal muscle and VO2max during exercise was identical to that in quadrupedal placentals, and differed from that in bipedal humans. As for placentals generally, red kangaroo mitochondrial oxygen consumption at VO2max was 4.7 ml O2 min(-1) ml(-1) of mitochondria. Also, the inner mitochondrial membrane densities were 35.8 +/- 0.7 m2 ml(-1) of mitochondria, which is the same as for placental mammals, and the same pattern of similarity was seen for capillary densities and volumes. The overall data for kangaroos was equivalent to that seen in athletic placentals such as dogs and pronghorns. Total skeletal muscle mass was high, being around 50% of body mass, and was concentrated around the pelvis and lower back. The majority of the muscles sampled had relatively high mitochondrial volume densities, in the range 8.8-10.6% in the major locomotor muscles. Again, capillary densities and capillary blood volumes followed the pattern seen for mitochondria. Our results indicate that the red kangaroo, despite its locomotion and extreme

  18. Adaptive functional specialisation of architectural design and fibre type characteristics in agonist shoulder flexor muscles of the llama, Lama glama

    PubMed Central

    Graziotti, Guillermo H; Chamizo, Verónica E; Ríos, Clara; Acevedo, Luz M; Rodríguez-Menéndez, J M; Victorica, C; Rivero, José-Luis L

    2012-01-01

    Like other camelids, llamas (Lama glama) have the natural ability to pace (moving ipsilateral limbs in near synchronicity). But unlike the Old World camelids (bactrian and dromedary camels), they are well adapted for pacing at slower or moderate speeds in high-altitude habitats, having been described as good climbers and used as pack animals for centuries. In order to gain insight into skeletal muscle design and to ascertain its relationship with the llama’s characteristic locomotor behaviour, this study examined the correspondence between architecture and fibre types in two agonist muscles involved in shoulder flexion (M. teres major – TM and M. deltoideus, pars scapularis – DS and pars acromialis – DA). Architectural properties were found to be correlated with fibre-type characteristics both in DS (long fibres, low pinnation angle, fast-glycolytic fibre phenotype with abundant IIB fibres, small fibre size, reduced number of capillaries per fibre and low oxidative capacity) and in DA (short fibres, high pinnation angle, slow-oxidative fibre phenotype with numerous type I fibres, very sparse IIB fibres, and larger fibre size, abundant capillaries and high oxidative capacity). This correlation suggests a clear division of labour within the M. deltoideus of the llama, DS being involved in rapid flexion of the shoulder joint during the swing phase of the gait, and DA in joint stabilisation during the stance phase. However, the architectural design of the TM muscle (longer fibres and lower fibre pinnation angle) was not strictly matched with its fibre-type characteristics (very similar to those of the postural DA muscle). This unusual design suggests a dual function of the TM muscle both in active flexion of the shoulder and in passive support of the limb during the stance phase, pulling the forelimb to the trunk. This functional specialisation seems to be well suited to a quadruped species that needs to increase ipsilateral stability of the limb during the

  19. Adaptive functional specialisation of architectural design and fibre type characteristics in agonist shoulder flexor muscles of the llama, Lama glama.

    PubMed

    Graziotti, Guillermo H; Chamizo, Verónica E; Ríos, Clara; Acevedo, Luz M; Rodríguez-Menéndez, J M; Victorica, C; Rivero, José-Luis L

    2012-08-01

    Like other camelids, llamas (Lama glama) have the natural ability to pace (moving ipsilateral limbs in near synchronicity). But unlike the Old World camelids (bactrian and dromedary camels), they are well adapted for pacing at slower or moderate speeds in high-altitude habitats, having been described as good climbers and used as pack animals for centuries. In order to gain insight into skeletal muscle design and to ascertain its relationship with the llama's characteristic locomotor behaviour, this study examined the correspondence between architecture and fibre types in two agonist muscles involved in shoulder flexion (M. teres major - TM and M. deltoideus, pars scapularis - DS and pars acromialis - DA). Architectural properties were found to be correlated with fibre-type characteristics both in DS (long fibres, low pinnation angle, fast-glycolytic fibre phenotype with abundant IIB fibres, small fibre size, reduced number of capillaries per fibre and low oxidative capacity) and in DA (short fibres, high pinnation angle, slow-oxidative fibre phenotype with numerous type I fibres, very sparse IIB fibres, and larger fibre size, abundant capillaries and high oxidative capacity). This correlation suggests a clear division of labour within the M. deltoideus of the llama, DS being involved in rapid flexion of the shoulder joint during the swing phase of the gait, and DA in joint stabilisation during the stance phase. However, the architectural design of the TM muscle (longer fibres and lower fibre pinnation angle) was not strictly matched with its fibre-type characteristics (very similar to those of the postural DA muscle). This unusual design suggests a dual function of the TM muscle both in active flexion of the shoulder and in passive support of the limb during the stance phase, pulling the forelimb to the trunk. This functional specialisation seems to be well suited to a quadruped species that needs to increase ipsilateral stability of the limb during the support

  20. Pre-Training Muscle Characteristics of Subjects Who Are Obese Determine How Well Exercise Training Will Improve Their Insulin Responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Charles A.; Lee, Michelle L.; South, Mark A.; Howell, Mary E.A.; Cartwright, Brian M.; Ramsey, Michael W.; Stone, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    Only half of pre-diabetic, subjects who are obese who underwent exercise training without weight loss increased their insulin responsiveness. We hypothesized that those who improved their insulin responsiveness might have pre-training characteristics favoring a positive response to exercise training. Thirty non-diabetic, subjects who are obese volunteered for eight weeks of either strength training or endurance training. During training, subjects increased their caloric intake to prevent weight loss. Insulin responsiveness by euglycemic clamps and muscle fiber composition and expression of muscle key biochemical pathways were quantified. Positive responders initially had 52% higher intermediate muscle fibers (fiber type IIa) with 27% lower slow twitch fibers (type I) and 23% lower expression of muscle insulin receptors. Whether after weight training or stationary bike training, positive responders' fiber type shifted away from type I and type IIa fibers to an increased proportion of type IIx fibers (fast twitch). Muscle insulin receptor expression and GLUT4 expression increased in all trained subjects, but these moderate changes did not consistently translate to improvement in whole body insulin responsiveness. Exercise training of previously sedentary subjects who are obese can result in muscle remodeling and increased expression of key elements of the insulin pathway, but in the absence of weight loss, insulin sensitivity improvement was modest and limited to about half of the participants. Our data suggest rather than responders being more fit, they may have been less fit, only catching up to the other half of subjects who are obese whose insulin responsiveness did not increase beyond their pre-training baseline. PMID:27379957

  1. Ultrasonographic findings of the various diseases presenting as calf pain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Joo; Kim, Ok Hwa; Choo, Hye Jung; Park, Jun Ho; Park, Yeong-Mi; Jeong, Hae Woong; Lee, Sung Moon; Cho, Kil Ho; Choi, Jung-Ah; Jacobson, Jon A

    2016-01-01

    There are various causes of calf pain. The differential diagnoses affecting the lower leg include cystic lesions, trauma-related lesions, infection or inflammation, vascular lesions, neoplasms, and miscellaneous entities. Ultrasound (US) provide detailed anatomical information of the calf structures, and it offers the ability to confirm, other calf abnormalities, particularly when deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is ruled out. The purpose of this article is to review the causes of a painful calf presenting as DVT and incidental findings found as part of the work-up of DVT, and to provide a broad overview of US findings and clinical features of these pathologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Muscle fibre characteristics and lactate responses to exercise in chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lane, R J; Barrett, M C; Woodrow, D; Moss, J; Fletcher, R; Archard, L C

    1998-03-01

    To examine the proportions of type 1 and type 2 muscle fibres and the degree of muscle fibre atrophy and hypertrophy in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome in relation to lactate responses to exercise, and to determine to what extent any abnormalities found might be due to inactivity. Quadriceps needle muscle biopsies were obtained from 105 patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and the proportions of type 1 and 2 fibres and fibre atrophy and hypertrophy factors were determined from histochemical preparations, using a semiautomated image analysis system. Forty one randomly selected biopsies were also examined by electron microscopy. Lactate responses to exercise were measured in the subanaerobic threshold exercise test (SATET). Inactivity would be expected to result in a shift to type 2 fibre predominance and fibre atrophy, but type 1 predominance (23%) was more common than type 2 predominance (3%), and fibre atrophy was found in only 10.4% of cases. Patients with increased lactate responses to exercise did have significantly fewer type 1 muscle fibres (p<0.043 males, p<0.0003 females), but there was no evidence that this group was less active than the patients with normal lactate responses. No significant ultrastructural abnormalities were found. Muscle histometry in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome generally did not show the changes expected as a result of inactivity. However, patients with abnormal lactate responses to exercise had a significantly lower proportion of mitochondria rich type 1 muscle fibres.

  3. Molecular characteristics suggest an effector function of palisade endings in extraocular muscles.

    PubMed

    Konakci, Kadriye Zeynep; Streicher, Johannes; Hoetzenecker, Wolfram; Blumer, Michael Josef Franz; Lukas, Julius-Robert; Blumer, Roland

    2005-01-01

    To analyze palisade endings in cat extraocular muscles (EOMs) and to clarify whether these EOM-specific organs are sensory or motor. Twelve cats aged between 1 and 16 years were analyzed. Whole EOM tendons were immunostained using four different combinations of triple fluorescence labeling. Triple labeling included antibodies against choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), neurofilament, synaptophysin, and alpha-bungarotoxin. Preparations were examined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. ChAT-labeled EOMs were also analyzed by immunoelectron microscopy. Three-dimensional reconstructions were made of palisade endings. Palisade endings were found in the distal and proximal myotendinous regions of cat EOMs. These endings arose from thin nerve fibers coming from the muscle and extending into the tendon. There, the nerve fibers turned back 180 degrees to divide into terminal branches around the muscle fiber tips. Terminal branches established numerous contacts with the tendon attached to the muscle fiber tip and only a few contacts with the muscle fiber. Often, nerve fibers forming palisade endings on muscle fiber tips were observed to establish multiple motor contacts on muscle fibers outside palisade endings. Three-dimensional reconstructions depicted the complex morphology of the palisade endings. All nerve fibers supplying palisade endings stained positively for ChAT and neurofilament. All nerve terminals in palisade endings were ChAT and synaptophysin positive. Only neuromuscular contacts in palisade endings were positive for alpha-bungarotoxin, as well. This study provides evidence that palisade endings in cat EOMs have effector function. The findings may be of significance for strabismus surgery because palisade endings are also found in human EOMs.

  4. Obtaining growth hormone from calf blood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalchev, L. A.; Ralchev, K. K.; Nikolov, I. T.

    1979-01-01

    The preparation of a growth hormone from human serum was used for the isolation of the hormone from calf serum. The preparation was biologically active - it increased the quantity of the free fatty acids released in rat plasma by 36.4 percent. Electrophoresis in Veronal buffer, ph 8.6, showed the presence of a single fraction having mobility intermediate between that of alpha and beta globulins. Gel filtration through Sephadex G 100 showed an elutriation curve identical to that obtained by the growth hormone prepared from pituitary glands.

  5. Efficacy of calf:cow ratios for estimating calf production of arctic caribou

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cameron, R.D.; Griffith, B.; Parrett, L.S.; White, R.G.

    2013-01-01

    Caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) calf:cow ratios (CCR) computed from composition counts obtained on arctic calving grounds are biased estimators of net calf production (NCP, the product of parturition rate and early calf survival) for sexually-mature females. Sexually-immature 2-year-old females, which are indistinguishable from sexually-mature females without calves, are included in the denominator, thereby biasing the calculated ratio low. This underestimate increases with the proportion of 2-year-old females in the population. We estimated the magnitude of this error with deterministic simulations under three scenarios of calf and yearling annual survival (respectively: low, 60 and 70%; medium, 70 and 80%; high, 80 and 90%) for five levels of unbiased NCP: 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100%. We assumed a survival rate of 90% for both 2-year-old and mature females. For each NCP, we computed numbers of 2-year-old females surviving annually and increased the denominator of CCR accordingly. We then calculated a series of hypothetical “observed” CCRs, which stabilized during the last 6 years of the simulations, and documented the degree to which each 6-year mean CCR differed from the corresponding NCP. For the three calf and yearling survival scenarios, proportional underestimates of NCP by CCR ranged 0.046–0.156, 0.058–0.187, and 0.071–0.216, respectively. Unfortunately, because parturition and survival rates are typically variable (i.e., age distribution is unstable), the magnitude of the error is not predictable without substantial supporting information. We recommend maintaining a sufficient sample of known-age radiocollared females in each herd and implementing a regular relocation schedule during the calving period to obtain unbiased estimates of both parturition rate and NCP.

  6. Effect of Amidated Low-Methoxyl Pectin on Physicochemical Characteristics of Jumbo Squid (Dosidicus gigas) Mantle Muscle Gels

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Summary Jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) muscle proteins show low functionality with limited use in gel products. This work aims to assess the influence of adding the natural and commercially available fibre, amidated low-methoxyl pectin (at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0%), on the physicochemical and functional characteristics of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) mantle muscle gels. The addition of 0.5% fibre showed an immediate effect on the gel texture profile analysis, improving hardness (p<0.05) from (3.4±0.7) N of the control (no added fibre) to (5.2±0.9) N, and increasing elasticity (p≥0.05). Shear force was significant only at 3.0% fibre addition. Water holding capacity also improved (p<0.05) with fibre addition (from 75% in the control to 90–95% after the treatments). Whiteness was affected (p<0.05) when 3.0% fibre was added. Differential scanning calorimetry showed two endothermic transition peaks in the gels. The second peak (actin) increased (p<0.05) by 1–2 °C with fibre addition. Therefore, the present study demonstrates that amidated low-methoxyl pectin (0.5–3.0%) is an excellent ingredient to improve jumbo squid mantle muscle protein functionality, increasing the gel texture and water retention characteristics. PMID:29089853

  7. Effect of Amidated Low-Methoxyl Pectin on Physicochemical Characteristics of Jumbo Squid (Dosidicus gigas) Mantle Muscle Gels.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Suarez, Juan C; Álvarez-Armenta, Andrés; García-Sánchez, Guillermina; Pacheco-Aguilar, Ramón; Scheuren-Acevedo, Susana M; Mazorra-Manzano, Miguel A; Rascón-Chu, Agustín

    2017-09-01

    Jumbo squid ( Dosidicus gigas ) muscle proteins show low functionality with limited use in gel products. This work aims to assess the influence of adding the natural and commercially available fibre, amidated low-methoxyl pectin (at 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0%), on the physicochemical and functional characteristics of jumbo squid ( Dosidicus gigas ) mantle muscle gels. The addition of 0.5% fibre showed an immediate effect on the gel texture profile analysis, improving hardness (p<0.05) from (3.4±0.7) N of the control (no added fibre) to (5.2±0.9) N, and increasing elasticity (p≥0.05). Shear force was significant only at 3.0% fibre addition. Water holding capacity also improved (p<0.05) with fibre addition (from 75% in the control to 90-95% after the treatments). Whiteness was affected (p<0.05) when 3.0% fibre was added. Differential scanning calorimetry showed two endothermic transition peaks in the gels. The second peak (actin) increased (p<0.05) by 1-2 °C with fibre addition. Therefore, the present study demonstrates that amidated low-methoxyl pectin (0.5-3.0%) is an excellent ingredient to improve jumbo squid mantle muscle protein functionality, increasing the gel texture and water retention characteristics.

  8. MRI-based registration of pelvic alignment affected by altered pelvic floor muscle characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bendová, Petra; Růzicka, Pavel; Peterová, Vera; Fricová, Martina; Springrová, Ingrid

    2007-11-01

    Pelvic floor muscles have potential to influence relative pelvic alignment. Side asymmetry in pelvic floor muscle tension is claimed to induce pelvic malalignment. However, its nature and amplitude are not clear. There is a need for non-invasive and reliable assessment method. An intervention experiment of unilateral pelvic floor muscle activation on healthy females was performed using image data for intra-subject comparison of normal and altered configuration of bony pelvis. Sequent magnetic resonance imaging of 14 females in supine position was performed with 1.5 T static body coil in coronal orientation. The intervention, surface functional electrostimulation, was applied to activate pelvic floor muscles on the right side. Spatial coordinates of 23 pelvic landmarks were localized in each subject and registered by specially designed magnetic resonance image data processing tool (MPT2006), where individual error calculation; data registration, analysis and 3D visualization were interfaced. The effect of intervention was large (Cohen's d=1.34). We found significant differences in quantity (P<0.01) and quality (P=0.02) of normal and induced pelvic displacements. After pelvic floor muscle activation on the right side, pelvic structures shifted most frequently to the right side in ventro-caudal direction. The right femoral head, the right innominate and the coccyx showed the largest displacements. The consequences arising from the capacity of pelvic floor muscles to displace pelvic bony structures are important to consider not only in management of malalignment syndrome but also in treatment of incontinence. The study has demonstrated benefits associated with processing of magnetic resonance image data within pelvic region with high localization and registration reliability.

  9. Preventative programs for respiratory disease in cow/calf operations.

    PubMed

    Engelken, T J

    1997-11-01

    Control of respiratory disease in cow/calf operations presents many challenges. The incidence of disease in the suckling calf is not well documented and the logistics of handling range animals make control programs difficult to implement. Health programs have to be built around normal working patterns, and these patterns may not provide the best "fit" for immune management of the calf. Weaned calves undergo significant disease challenge when they enter typical marketing channels. This provides the potential for high levels of calf morbidity, mortality, medicine costs, and losses from decreased performance as they arrive at a stocker operation or feedyard. If preweaning calf health and preconditioning programs are used, they must be planned so that the producer has an opportunity to obtain a return on their investment. Options for increasing calf weight marketed, certified calf health sales, or retained ownership through the next phase of production should be evaluated carefully. Any potential increase in calf value must be weighed against program costs. This affords the veterinarian an opportunity to build on traditional disease management and prevention skills and expand their influence in overall ranch management.

  10. CalfScience: Extension Education at Many Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Dale A.; Tellessen, Kathlyn; Sischo, William M.

    2010-01-01

    The issue of antimicrobial resistance in food animal agriculture was addressed by conducting clinical trials to assess alternatives to antimicrobials in dairy calf-raising and developing outreach to three different audiences. Current research was integrated into Extension programs for calf-raisers, animal science and veterinary students, and food…

  11. Expression of developmental myosin and morphological characteristics in adult rat skeletal muscle following exercise-induced injury.

    PubMed

    Smith, H K; Plyley, M J; Rodgers, C D; McKee, N H

    1999-07-01

    The extent and stability of the expression of developmental isoforms of myosin heavy chain (MHCd), and their association with cellular morphology, were determined in adult rat skeletal muscle fibres following injury induced by eccentrically-biased exercise. Adult female Wistar rats [274 (10) g] were either assigned as non-exercised controls or subjected to 30 min of treadmill exercise (grade, -16 degrees; speed, 15 m x min(-1)), and then sacrificed following 1, 2, 4, 7, or 12 days of recovery (n = 5-6 per group). Histologically and immunohistologically stained serial, transverse cryosections of the soleus (S), vastus intermedius (VI), and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were examined using light microscopy and digital imaging. Fibres staining positively for MHCd (MHCd+) were seldom detected in the TA. In the VI and S, higher proportions of MHCd+ fibres (0.8% and 2.5%, respectively) were observed in rats at 4 and 7 days post-exercise, in comparison to all other groups combined (0.2%, 1.2%; P < or = 0.01). In S, MHCd+ fibres were observed less frequently by 12 days (0.7%) than at 7 days (2.6%) following exercise. The majority (85.1%) of the MHCd+ fibres had morphological characteristics indicative of either damage, degeneration, repair or regeneration. Most of the MHCd+ fibres also expressed adult slow, and/or fast myosin heavy chain. Quantitatively, the MHCd+ fibres were smaller (< 2500 microm2) and more angular than fibres not expressing MHCd. Thus, there was a transient increase in a small, but distinct population of MHCd+ fibres following unaccustomed, functional exercise in adult rat S and VI muscles. The observed close coupling of MHCd expression with morphological changes within muscle fibres suggests that these characteristics have a common, initial exercise-induced injury-related stimulus.

  12. A quantitative study of the histochemical and morphometric characteristics of the human cricopharyngeus muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Brownlow, H; Whitmore, I; Willan, P L

    1989-01-01

    Samples of human cricopharyngeus muscles obtained at postmortem were assessed for fibre type composition and fibre size. Fibre type was determined using serial cryostat sections exposed to several histochemical reactions; narrow fibre diameter and fibre area were measured from photomicrographs using a digitiser interfaced to a microcomputer. Results were compared with values from samples of vastus lateralis obtained from the same subjects. Cricopharyngeus muscle, in comparison with vastus lateralis, contained significantly more oxidative fibres but fewer glycolytic fibres and significantly more Type I fibres but fewer Type IIB. Cricopharyngeal fibres were significantly smaller than the fibres in vastus lateralis and in neither muscle were fibre sizes normally distributed. In each muscle most Type I fibres were oxidative, and the ratio of oxidative: glycolytic fibres was similar for Type IIA and IIB fibres. The fibre type proportions and fibre sizes in cricopharyngeus did not vary significantly with age or between males and females. The composition of cricopharyngeus--mostly Type I oxidative fibres and few Type II glycolytic fibres--correlated well with the functions of sustained tonicity to prevent aerophagia and occasional forceful contraction during deglutition. Images Fig. 1 PMID:2621147

  13. Newborn calf welfare: a review focusing on mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Uetake, Katsuji

    2013-02-01

    Calf mortality control is vitally important for farmers, not only to improve animal welfare, but also to increase productivity. High calf mortality rates can be related to larger numbers of calves in a herd, employee performance, severe weather, and the neonatal period covering the first 4 weeks of life. Although the basic premise of preventing newborn calf mortality is early detection and treatment of calves at risk for failure of passive transfer of immunoglobulins, calf mortality due to infectious diseases such as acute diarrhea increases in the presence of these physical and psychological stressors. This suggests that farmers should not ignore the effects of secondary environmental factors. For prevention rather than cure, the quality of the environment should be improved, which will improve not only animal welfare but also productivity. This paper presents a review of the literature on newborn calf mortality and discusses its productivity implications. © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. Muscle fibre characteristics, enzyme activity and meat colour of wild boar (Sus scrofa s. L.) muscle with 2n=36 compared to those of phenotypically similar crossbreeds (2n=37 and 2n=38).

    PubMed

    Skewes, Oscar; Cádiz, Patricia; Merino, Victoria; Islas, Armando; Morales, Rodrigo

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate European wild boar (Sus scrofa s. L.) of chromosomal number 2n=36 in comparison with phenotypically similar crossbreeds (2n=37 and 2n=38) with respect to the muscle fibre characteristics and enzyme activity as well as meat colour in the longissimus dorsi (LD) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles. Differences in the proportion of IIA fibre in the LD muscle between karyotypes 2n=37 and 2n=38 were found. The 2n=36 group showed a lower muscle fibre cross-section area than the 2n=38 karyotype. The meat colour of the 2n=36 karyotype group was redder than 2n=37 and 2n=38. The muscle fibre cross-section area might explain the differences in colour of the meat of wild boar. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Zinc Methionine Supplementation Impacts Gene and Protein Expression in Calf-fed Holstein Steers with Miniaml Impact on Feedlot Performance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Calf-fed Holstein steers were supplemented with a zinc (Zn) methionine supplement (ZnMet; ZINPRO®; Zinpro Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN) for 115±5 days prior to harvest along with zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; Zilmax®; Merck Animal Health, Summit, NJ) for the last 20 days with a 3 day withdrawal to ...

  16. Sway‐dependent changes in standing ankle stiffness caused by muscle thixotropy

    PubMed Central

    Sakanaka, Tania E.; Lakie, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Key points The passive stiffness of the calf muscles contributes to standing balance, although the properties of muscle tissue are highly labile.We investigated the effect of sway history upon intrinsic ankle stiffness and demonstrated reductions in stiffness of up to 43% during conditions of increased baseline sway.This sway dependence was most apparent when using low amplitude stiffness‐measuring perturbations, and the short‐range stiffness component was smaller during periods of high sway.These characteristics are consistent with the thixotropic properties of the calf muscles causing the observed changes in ankle stiffness.Periods of increased sway impair the passive stabilization of standing, demanding more active neural control of balance. Abstract Quiet standing is achieved through a combination of active and passive mechanisms, consisting of neural control and intrinsic mechanical stiffness of the ankle joint, respectively. The mechanical stiffness is partly determined by the calf muscles. However, the viscoelastic properties of muscle are highly labile, exhibiting a strong dependence on movement history. By measuring the effect of sway history upon ankle stiffness, the present study determines whether this lability has consequences for the passive stabilization of human standing. Ten subjects stood quietly on a rotating platform whose axis was collinear with the ankle joint. Ankle sway was increased by slowly tilting this platform in a random fashion, or decreased by fixing the body to a board. Ankle stiffness was measured by using the same platform to simultaneously apply small, brief perturbations (<0.6 deg; 140 ms) at the same time as the resulting torque response was recorded. The results show that increasing sway reduces ankle stiffness by up to 43% compared to the body‐fixed condition. Normal quiet stance was associated with intermediate values. The effect was most apparent when using smaller perturbation amplitudes to measure stiffness (0

  17. Effect of maternal dietary restriction during pregnancy on lamb carcass characteristics and muscle fiber composition.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Z C T R; Brameld, J M; Craigon, J; Scollan, N D; Buttery, P J

    2007-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine whether the decreased proportion of fast muscle fibers seen previously in 2-wk-old lambs from ewes that were dietary restricted from d 30 to 70 of gestation are still evident in older lambs and what the consequences may be in terms of growth rates and carcass composition. Throughout both experiments, ewes were fed on an individual basis according to the recommended dietary allowance throughout pregnancy relative to metabolic BW (BW(0.73)). Control groups were fed as above, and the treatment groups had their nutrient supply reduced to 50% of this recommended allowance from d 30 to 70 (Exp. 1) or d 30 to 85 (Exp. 2) of gestation, after which they were returned to the same level of nutrition as the control group. All twin lambs were kept with their dams, and at 2 wk were given access to creep. After weaning, lambs were individually housed and fed ad libitum to 24 or 17 wk of age for Exp. 1 and 2, respectively. Although not significant (P = 0.18), growth to 24 wk (Exp. 1) resulted in a small decrease in the protein content and therefore an increase in the fat:lean ratio in the carcass of lambs subjected to maternal dietary restriction. This was not apparent when animals were slaughtered at 17 wk (Exp. 2; P > 0.68). Few significant effects of maternal dietary restriction on the fiber type composition of muscles were observed. In Exp. 1 the number of fast fibers increased (P < 0.008) with no effect on slow fiber number in LM. In Exp. 2 an increase in the total number of fibers in male lambs and an increase in type II (A and B) fibers in female lambs were observed in the LM, and an increase in IIB fiber number was observed in semitendinosus (ST) muscle from male lambs. Prenatal maternal dietary restriction during the time of muscle differentiation demonstrated an increase in type IIB muscle fibers and increase in intramuscular fat; although significant, effects on subsequent carcass quality of lambs were relatively small. These

  18. Distinct skeletal muscle fiber characteristics and gene expression in diet-sensitive versus diet-resistant obesity.

    PubMed

    Gerrits, Martin F; Ghosh, Sujoy; Kavaslar, Nihan; Hill, Benjamin; Tour, Anastasia; Seifert, Erin L; Beauchamp, Brittany; Gorman, Shelby; Stuart, Joan; Dent, Robert; McPherson, Ruth; Harper, Mary-Ellen

    2010-08-01

    Inter-individual variability in weight gain and loss under energy surfeit and deficit conditions, respectively, are well recognized but poorly understood phenomena. We documented weight loss variability in an intensively supervised clinical weight loss program and assessed skeletal muscle gene expression and phenotypic characteristics related to variable response to a 900 kcal regimen. Matched pairs of healthy, diet-compliant, obese diet-sensitive (ODS) and diet-resistant (ODR) subjects were defined as those in the highest and lowest quintiles for weight loss rate. Physical activity energy expenditure was minimal and comparable. Following program completion and weight stabilization, skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained. Gene expression analysis of rectus femoris and vastus lateralis indicated upregulation of genes and gene sets involved in oxidative phosphorylation and glucose and fatty acid metabolism in ODS compared with ODR. In vastus lateralis, there was a higher proportion of oxidative (type I) fibers in ODS compared with ODR women and lean controls, fiber hypertrophy in ODS compared with ODR women and lean controls, and lower succinate dehydrogenase in oxidative and oxidative-glycolytic fibers in all obese compared with lean subjects. Intramuscular lipid content was generally higher in obese versus lean, and specifically higher in ODS vs. lean women. Altogether, our findings demonstrate differences in muscle gene expression and fiber composition related to clinical weight loss success.

  19. Distinct skeletal muscle fiber characteristics and gene expression in diet-sensitive versus diet-resistant obesity

    PubMed Central

    Gerrits, Martin F.; Ghosh, Sujoy; Kavaslar, Nihan; Hill, Benjamin; Tour, Anastasia; Seifert, Erin L.; Beauchamp, Brittany; Gorman, Shelby; Stuart, Joan; Dent, Robert; McPherson, Ruth; Harper, Mary-Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Inter-individual variability in weight gain and loss under energy surfeit and deficit conditions, respectively, are well recognized but poorly understood phenomena. We documented weight loss variability in an intensively supervised clinical weight loss program and assessed skeletal muscle gene expression and phenotypic characteristics related to variable response to a 900 kcal regimen. Matched pairs of healthy, diet-compliant, obese diet-sensitive (ODS) and diet-resistant (ODR) subjects were defined as those in the highest and lowest quintiles for weight loss rate. Physical activity energy expenditure was minimal and comparable. Following program completion and weight stabilization, skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained. Gene expression analysis of rectus femoris and vastus lateralis indicated upregulation of genes and gene sets involved in oxidative phosphorylation and glucose and fatty acid metabolism in ODS compared with ODR. In vastus lateralis, there was a higher proportion of oxidative (type I) fibers in ODS compared with ODR women and lean controls, fiber hypertrophy in ODS compared with ODR women and lean controls, and lower succinate dehydrogenase in oxidative and oxidative-glycolytic fibers in all obese compared with lean subjects. Intramuscular lipid content was generally higher in obese versus lean, and specifically higher in ODS vs. lean women. Altogether, our findings demonstrate differences in muscle gene expression and fiber composition related to clinical weight loss success. PMID:20332421

  20. Normal paraspinal muscle electromyographic fatigue characteristics in patients with primary fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Stokes, M J; Colter, C; Klestov, A; Cooper, R G

    1993-08-01

    Paraspinal muscle fatigue mechanisms were compared in 14 primary fibromyalgia patients and 14 age and sex matched normal subjects using a standardized 60-s isometric endurance test of the paraspinal muscles, during which surface integrated electromyographic (IEMG) activity was recorded. Fatigue-induced IEMG increases were similar for both groups during the initial 40 s (up to 112 +/- 20% and 111 +/- 6% of initial values in patients and normal subjects respectively). Thereafter, IEMG fell significantly in patients (P < 0.05) but only slightly in controls, so that at 58 s IEMG was 102 +/- 13% in patients and 109 +/- 12% in controls. If patients were divided according to body mass index (BMI, range 19-25 in controls) those with a BMI < 26 (n = 5) showed IEMG changes similar to those of control subjects throughout the test, while obese patients with BMI > 26 (n = 9) showed greater IEMG declines after 40 s than either normal subjects or in the fibromyalgia group as a whole. Paraspinal muscle fatigue mechanisms appear normal in primary fibromyalgia patients. Isometric force maintenance in overweight patients, despite IEMG declines, illustrates the action of intrinsic fatigue resistance mechanisms which were presumably utilized to a greater extent in these patients to cope with the extra load.

  1. Calf antibiotic and sulfonamide test (CAST) for screening antibiotic and sulfonamide residues in calf carcasses.

    PubMed

    Dey, Bhabani P; Reamer, Richard P; Thaker, Nitin H; Thaler, Alice M

    2005-01-01

    The Calf Antibiotic and Sulfonamide Test (CAST), a microbial inhibition screening test, was developed for detecting antibiotics and sulfonamides in bob veal calf carcasses. The test uses Bacillus megaterium ATCC 9885 as the indicator organism and Mueller Hinton agar as the growth medium. Compared to Swab Test on Premises (STOP), developed in 1970, this screening test has higher sensitivity and the ability to detect a wider range of veterinary antimicrobial residual drugs, particularly sulfonamides, at lower concentrations. Carcasses that are tested with CAST and suspected of containing chemical residue above tolerance level are retained for confirmation. Disposition of these carcasses are determined upon laboratory result. Routine testing of bob veal calves with CAST allowed the Food Safety and Inspection Service to release most calf carcasses within 24 h post-slaughter, thus conserving shipping and handling resources. However, changes in the regulation in 1990 dictate that disposition of carcasses found to contain violative levels of sulfonamide residues should be based on laboratory findings. The analysis of the data for the years 1990-1994 and 1998 indicate that the use of CAST over the years was significant, and had a direct impact on reduction of residue violations in veal carcasses. With the use of CAST, potentially harmful antimicrobial chemicals entering the human food chain through veal meat have been minimized.

  2. Mild heat stress enhances differentiation and proliferation of Japanese quail myoblasts and enhances slow muscle fiber characteristics.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y M; Chen, P R; Shin, S; Zhang, J; Hwang, S; Lee, K

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of mild heat stress on muscle fiber hyperplastic and hypertrophic growth in quail primary myogenic cells to better understand the mechanisms leading to increased skeletal muscle development in avian embryos incubated at a higher temperature. Compared to control cultures maintained at 37°C, incubation at 39°C enhanced myotube length (P < 0.01) and diameter (P < 0.001) at 3 days after differentiation (D3). This enlargement of the myotubes incubated at 39°C can be explained by differences in the fusion index (56.7 vs. 46.2%, P < 0.05) and nuclei number per myotube (18.1 vs. 10.8, P < 0.001) compared to the control cells at D3. Additionally, a higher density of myotubes at D3 in cultures exposed to a higher temperature were related to higher levels of Pax-7 (P < 0.05) compared to the control cells incubated continuously at 37°C. These results indicated a higher proliferative capacity in cells exposed to mild heat stress compared to the control cells. On the other hand, mild heat stress enhanced protein levels of slow myosin heavy chain isoform (P < 0.01) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV (P < 0.01) compared to the control cells at D3. These discrepancies in protein expression indicated maintenance of slow muscle fiber type characteristics in myotubes incubated at 39°C. Our results suggest that mild heat stress plays a significant role in myogenic mechanisms related to muscle mass and development. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Calf Augmentation and Restoration: Long-Term Results and the Review of the Reported Complications.

    PubMed

    Niechajev, Igor; Krag, Christen

    2017-10-01

    Augmentation or reconstruction of the calves is indicated in patients with thin legs, for bodybuilders, or when there is a defect after an injury or illness. The principle of placing implants under the investing crural fascia was worked out in the 1980s. The senior author (I.N.) introduced many technical modifications and improvements for this operation, among them the new instrument, an inserter for the calf implants. Presented patient material is unique in that the more challenging reconstructive cases almost equal the numbers of the aesthetic cases. During the years 1991 through 2016, 50 patients underwent 60 calf contour corrections. Indications were aesthetic in 23 patients, six were bodybuilders, and 21 underwent lower leg reconstruction because of deformity caused by illness. According to evaluation by the surgeon, excellent-to-good results were obtained in 30 out of 37 followed patients. Patients rated their results as very good (18), good (10), acceptable (7) and bad (2). One 28-year-old professional bodybuilder sustained acute anterior compartment syndrome in one leg. Implants were removed 16 h after surgery, but he developed ischaemia in the anterior compartment leading to the necrosis of muscles. After several surgical operations, including microsurgical transfer of the innervated central caput of the quadriceps femoris muscle, he could resume his bodybuilding activities. Other complications were minor and manageable. Calf augmentation, performed properly, has evolved to be a safe, efficient and aesthetically pleasing operation. The possibility of acute compartment syndrome should be kept in mind. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  4. Large calf circumference indicates non-sarcopenia despite body mass

    PubMed Central

    Kusaka, Satomi; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Hiyama, Yoshinori; Kusumoto, Yasuaki; Tsuchiya, Junko; Umeda, Masaru

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to evaluate the applicability of the calf circumference as a tool for screening sarcopenia. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred sixteen community-dwelling elderly females were enrolled. Calf circumference of the dominant leg was measured using a plastic measuring tape. Subjects were divided into 3 groups based on body mass index (BMI); subjects with the values for BMI <18.5 kg/m2; those with BMI 18.5 to 25.0; those with BMI ≥25.0 kg/m2. Positive predictive value and negative predictive value of sarcopenia were calculated based on the obtained cut off values of calf circumference and the diagnosis of sarcopenia in each group. [Results] Prevalence rate of sarcopenia was 9.4% (n=10). Cut off value of the calf circumference was 32.8 cm (sensitivity: 73.0%, specificity: 80.0%, AUC: 0.792). Each BMI group showed high negative predictive value of sarcopenia based on the calf circumference cut off value of 32.8 cm. [Conclusion] These results suggested that to identify non-sarcopenia by larger calf circumference is more reasonable and useful than to identify sarcopenia due to the smaller calf circumference regardless of BMI. PMID:29200625

  5. Dietary resveratrol supplementation improves meat quality of finishing pigs through changing muscle fiber characteristics and antioxidative status.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Luo, Junqiu; Yu, Bing; Zheng, Ping; Huang, Zhiqing; Mao, Xiangbing; He, Jun; Yu, Jie; Chen, Jiali; Chen, Daiwen

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of resveratrol (0, 300, 600 mg/kg) on meat quality, muscle fiber characteristics and antioxidative capacity of finishing pigs. The results showed that resveratrol not only increased m. longissimus dorsi (LM) pH(24 h), a*, crude protein and myoglobin content but also decreased L*(24 h), shear force, drip loss, glycolytic potential, as well as backfat depth, LM lactate dehydrogenase activity and mRNA level. Meanwhile, LM total antioxidative capacity, glutathione peroxidase activity and its mRNA level were increased by resveratrol, while malonaldehyde content was decreased. In addition, resveratrol increased myosin heavy chain (MyHC)IIa mRNA level and decreased MyHCIIb mRNA level, along with decreased myofiber cross-sectional area. In conclusion, these results suggest that resveratrol is an effective feed additive to improve pork quality, and the underlying mechanism may be partly due to the changed muscle fiber characteristics and antioxidative capacity induced by resveratrol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of tensiomyographic neuromuscular characteristics between muscles of the dominant and non-dominant lower extremity in male soccer players.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Diaz, Pedro; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Ramon, Silvia; Marin, Miguel; Steinbacher, Gilbert; Rius, Marta; Seijas, Roberto; Ballester, Jordi; Cugat, Ramon

    2016-07-01

    Tensiomyography (TMG) has been used to assess neuromuscular characteristics of muscles of the lower extremity in soccer players. However, the effects of lower extremity dominance on TMG characteristics in this population have not been reported to date. The purpose of this study was to compare the TMG neuromuscular characteristics between the dominant and non-dominant lower extremity in male soccer players. Thirty-eight consecutive healthy male soccer players underwent resting TMG assessment of vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF), semitendinosus (ST), biceps femoris (BF), gastrocnemius medialis (GM), and gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) in both lower extremities. The maximal displacement, delay time, contraction time, sustained time, and half-relaxation time were obtained and compared between both sides. There were no significant differences in the vast majority of the TMG parameters between both lower extremities. The dominant side demonstrated higher VM contraction time (p = 0.008), RF sustained time (p = 0.009), RF half-relaxation time (p = 0.01), and BF sustained time (p = 0.04), but lower VL contraction time (p = 0.03) and VL delay time (p = 0.02) compared to the non-dominant side. In general, TMG-assessed neuromuscular characteristics of the VM, VL, RF, ST, BF, GM, and GL were not affected by lower extremity dominance in male soccer players. Therefore, there is no need to assess both sides when using TMG to monitor the response to training or muscles at risk of injury in soccer players unless there is a specific reason. Prognostic study, Level II.

  7. Septicemia in a neonatal calf associated with Chromobacterium violaceum.

    PubMed

    Ajithdoss, D K; Porter, B F; Calise, D V; Libal, M C; Edwards, J F

    2009-01-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum infections are highly fatal and rarely reported in domestic animals. This report describes a fatal case of C. violaceum septicemia in a 7-day-old female beef calf. The calf had necrosuppurative omphalophlebitis, necrotizing interstitial pneumonia, necrosuppurative hepatitis and splenitis, anterior uveitis with hypopyon, suppurative polyarthritis, and disseminated hemorrhagic meningitis with multifocal necrotizing encephalitis. Histologically, clusters of gram-negative bacilli were found in many of the lesions. C. violaceum was isolated in high numbers from the lungs, liver, spleen, carpus, and in pure culture from the cerebrospinal fluid. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of chromobacteriosis in a calf.

  8. Work capacity and metabolic and morphologic characteristics of the human quadriceps muscle in response to unloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, H. E.; Dudley, G. A.; Hather, B.; Tesch, P. A.

    1993-01-01

    The response of skeletal muscle to unweighting was studied in six healthy males who were subjected to four weeks of lowerlimb suspension. They performed three bouts of 30 consecutive maximal concentric knee extensions, before unloading and the day after (POST 1), 4 days after (POST 2) and 7 weeks after (REC) resumed weight-bearing. Peak torque of each contraction was recorded and work was calculated as the mean of the average peak torque for the three bouts and fatigability was measured as the decline in average peak torque over bouts. Needle biopsies were obtained from m. vastus lateralis of each limb before and at POST 1. Muscle fibre type composition and area, capillarity and the enzyme activities of citrate synthase (CS) and phosphofructokinase (PFK) were subsequently analysed. Mean average peak torque for the three bouts at POST1, POST2 and REC was reduced (P < 0.05) by 17, 13 and 7%, respectively. Fatigability was greater (P < 0.05) at POST2 than before unloading. Type I, IIA and IIB percentage, Type I and II area and capillaries per fibre of Type I and II did not change (P > 0.05) in response to unloading. The activity of CS, but not PFK, decreased (P < 0.05) after unloading. The weight-bearing limb showed no changes in the variables measured. The results of this study suggest that this human lowerlimb suspension model produces substantial impairments of work and oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle. The performance decrements are most likely induced by lack of weight-bearing.

  9. Insights into the skeletal muscle characteristics of three southern African antelope species.

    PubMed

    Kohn, Tertius Abraham

    2014-10-17

    Skeletal muscle fibre type, cross-sectional area (CSA), maximum enzyme capacities and fibre oxidative capacities were investigated in three southern African antelope species. Muscle samples from blesbok (Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi), mountain reedbuck (Redunca fulvorufula) and greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) were collected post mortem from the Vastus lateralis and analysed for myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform content, citrate synthase (CS), 3-hydroxyacyl Co A dehydrogenase (3-HAD), phosphofructokinase (PFK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) activities. Histochemistry and immunohistochemistry were performed to determine relative fibre oxidative capacity, fibre type and cross-sectional area (CSA). Type IIX fibres were the most abundant fibre type in all three species, ranging from 43 to 57%. Kudu had less type IIX fibres than mountain reedbuck and blesbok (P<0.05), values confirmed by their respective MHC isoform content. Blesbok had the smallest fibres, followed by mountain reedbuck and finally kudu (P<0.001). Overall, all three species had high oxidative and glycolytic capacities, but species differences were found. Kudu had the lowest CS activity, followed by blesbok and mountain reedbuck, but the highest PFK, LDH and CK activities. This study confirmed large variation in oxidative capacities within a single fibre type, as well as overlap between the fibre types with no distinct differences between the three species. The fibre type profile of each species is discussed and confirms some of their physical attributes and capabilities. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. beta. -Adrenoceptors in human tracheal smooth muscle: characteristics of binding and relaxation

    SciTech Connect

    van Koppen, C.J.; Hermanussen, M.W.; Verrijp, K.N.

    1987-06-29

    Specific binding of (/sup 125/I)-(-)-cyanopindolol to human tracheal smooth muscle membranes was saturable, stereo-selective and of high affinity (K/sub d/ = 5.3 +/- 0.9 pmol/l and R/sub T/ = 78 +/- 7 fmol/g tissue). The ..beta../sub 1/-selective antagonists atenolol and LK 203-030 inhibited specific (/sup 125/I)-(-)-cyanopindolol binding according to a one binding site model with low affinity in nearly all subjects, pointing to a homogeneous BETA/sub 2/-adrenoceptor population. In one subject using LK 203-030 a small ..beta../sub 1/-adrenoceptor subpopulation could be demonstrated. The beta-mimetics isoprenaline, fenoterol, salbutamol and terbutaline recognized high and low affinity agonist binding sites. Isoprenaline's pK/sub H/-more » and pK/sub L/-values for the high and low affinity sites were 8.0 +/- 0.2 and 5.9 +/- 0.3 respectively. In functional experiments isoprenaline relaxed tracheal smooth muscle strips having intrinsic tone with a pD/sub 2/-value of 6.63 +/- 0.19. 32 references, 4 figures, 2 tables.« less

  11. Season-long increases in perceived muscle soreness in professional rugby league players: role of player position, match characteristics and playing surface.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Ben D; Twist, Craig; Haigh, Julian D; Brewer, Clive; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L

    2016-01-01

    Rugby League (RL) is a high-impact collision sport characterised by repeated sprints and numerous high-speed impacts and consequently players often report immediate and prolonged muscle soreness in the days after a match. We examined muscle soreness after matches during a full season to understand the extent to which match characteristics influence soreness. Thirty-one elite Super League players provided daily measures of muscle soreness after each of the 26 competitive fixtures of the 2012 season. Playing position, phase of the season, playing surface and match characteristics were recorded from each match. Muscle soreness peaked at day 1 and was still apparent at day 4 post-game with no attenuation in the magnitude of muscle soreness over the course of the season. Neither playing position, phase of season or playing surface had any effects on the extent of muscle soreness. Playing time and total number of collisions were significantly correlated with higher ratings of muscle soreness, especially in the forwards. These data indicate the absence "contact adaptations" in elite rugby players with soreness present throughout the entire season. Strategies must now be implemented to deal with the physical and psychological consequences of prolonged feeling of pain.

  12. Can the calf-raise senior test predict functional fitness in elderly people? A validation study using electromyography, kinematics and strength tests.

    PubMed

    André, Helô-Isa; Carnide, Filomena; Moço, Andreia; Valamatos, Maria-João; Ramalho, Fátima; Santos-Rocha, Rita; Veloso, António

    2018-06-05

    The assessment of the plantar-flexors muscle strength in older adults (OA) is of the utmost importance since they are strongly associated with the performance of fundamental tasks of daily life. The objective was to strengthen the validity of the Calf-Raise-Senior (CRS) test by assessing the biomechanical movement pattern of calf muscles in OA with different levels of functional fitness (FF) and physical activity (PA). Twenty-six OA were assessed with CRS, a FF battery, accelerometry, strength tests, kinematics and electromyography (EMG). OA with the best and worst CRS scores were compared. The association between the scores and EMG pattern of ankle muscles was determined. OA with the best CRS scores presented higher levels of FF, PA, strength, power, speed and range of movement, and a more efficient movement pattern during the test. Subjects who scored more at the CRS test demonstrated the possibility to use a stretch-shortening cycle type of action in the PF muscles to increase power during the movements. OA with different levels of FF can be stratified by the muscular activation pattern of the calf muscles and the scores in CRS test. This study reinforced the validity of CRS for evaluating ankle strength and power in OA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of resistance exercise and the use of anabolic androgenic steroids on hemodynamic characteristics and muscle damage markers in bodybuilders.

    PubMed

    Nasseri, Azadeh; Nadimi, Amir; Nikookheslat, Saeed D

    2016-09-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), synthetic compounds of testosterone commonly used as sport performance enhancers, could cause cardiovascular dysfunction and cell damage. Even though the side effects of AAS intake have been widely studied, yet little is known about how resistance exercise can alter these side effects. This study aimed to determine the effects of one session resistance exercise and the use of AAS on hemodynamic characteristics and muscle damage markers in professional bodybuilders. Sixteen bodybuilders were divided into two groups: bodybuilders using AAS for at least 5 years (users; N.=8) and AAS-free bodybuilders (non-users; N.=8). The exercise protocol was a circuit strength training session involved three sets of 8-9 repetitions at 80-85% of 1-RM. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP) and concentrations of serum creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured at three different time points, immediately before and after the exercise session and 24 hours following the exercise session. The users group showed greater basal levels of hemodynamic characteristics (i.e. HR and BP) and cell damage markers (i.e. CK and LDH) compared to those in the non-users group (all P<0.05). Furthermore, the exercise session significantly increased the levels of HR (P=0.02) and CK (P=0.01) in the users group compared to those in the non-users group immediately after the exercise. No significant differences were observed in BP and LDH responses to exercise between the users and the non-users groups (P>0.05). These findings indicate that the use of AAS could be potentially harmful as it enhances the levels of the hemodynamic characteristics and the muscle enzymes. These harmful effects of AAS intake could be more evident in response to resistance exercise.

  14. Heterosis and direct effects for Charolais-sired calf weight and growth, cow weight and weight change, and ratios of cow and calf weights and weight changes across warm season lactation in Romosinuano, Angus, and F cows in Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Burke, J M; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W

    2016-01-01

    The use of Brahman in cow-calf production offers some adaptation to the harsh characteristics of endophyte-infected tall fescue. Criollo breeds, such as the Romosinuano, may have similar adaptation. The objectives were to estimate genetic effects in Romosinuano, Angus, and crossbred cows for their weights, weights of their calves, and ratios (calf weight:cow weight and cow weight change:calf weight gain) across lactation and to assess the influence of forage on traits and estimates. Cows ( = 91) were bred to Charolais bulls after their second parity. Calves ( = 214) were born from 2006 to 2009. Cows and calves were weighed in early (April and June), mid- (July), and late lactation (August and October). Animal was a random effect in analyses of calf data; sire was random in analyses of cow records and ratios. Fixed effects investigated included calf age, calf sex, cow age-year combinations, sire breed of cow, dam breed of cow, and interactions. Subsequent analyses evaluated the effect of forage grazed: endophyte-free or endophyte-infected tall fescue. Estimates of maternal heterosis for calf weight ranged from 9.3 ± 4.3 to 15.4 ± 5.7 kg from mid-lactation through weaning ( < 0.05). Romosinuano direct effects (of the cow) were -6.8 ± 3.0 and -8.9 ± 4.2 kg for weights recorded in April and June. Calf weights and weight gains from birth were greater ( < 0.05) for calves of cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue except in mid-summer. Cow weight change from April to each time was negative for Angus cows and lower ( < 0.05) than other groups. Cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue were heavier ( < 0.05) at all times but had more weight loss in late lactation. Angus cows had the lowest ( < 0.05) ratios (negative) of cow weight change:calf weight gain, indicating an energy-deficit condition. Cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue had more negative ( < 0.05) values for this trait but not in early lactation ( < 0.05). Estimates of heterosis ranged from 12.8 ± 9.5 to

  15. How Hinge Positioning in Cross-Country Ski Bindings Affect Exercise Efficiency, Cycle Characteristics and Muscle Coordination during Submaximal Roller Skiing

    PubMed Central

    Bolger, Conor M.; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Ettema, Gertjan; Federolf, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of the current study were to 1) test if the hinge position in the binding of skating skis has an effect on gross efficiency or cycle characteristics and 2) investigate whether hinge positioning affects synergistic components of the muscle activation in six lower leg muscles. Eleven male skiers performed three 4-min sessions at moderate intensity while cross-country ski-skating and using a klapskate binding. Three different positions were tested for the binding’s hinge, ranging from the front of the first distal phalange to the metatarsal-phalangeal joint. Gross efficiency and cycle characteristics were determined, and the electromyographic (EMG) signals of six lower limb muscles were collected. EMG signals were wavelet transformed, normalized, joined into a multi-dimensional vector, and submitted to a principle component analysis (PCA). Our results did not reveal any changes to gross efficiency or cycle characteristics when altering the hinge position. However, our EMG analysis found small but significant effects of hinge positioning on muscle coordinative patterns (P < 0.05). The changed patterns in muscle activation are in alignment with previously described mechanisms that explain the effects of hinge positioning in speed-skating klapskates. Finally, the within-subject results of the EMG analysis suggested that in addition to the between-subject effects, further forms of muscle coordination patterns appear to be employed by some, but not all participants. PMID:27203597

  16. Muscle fiber type characteristics in females with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Green, Howard J; Burnett, M E; D'Arsigny, C; Iqbal, S; Ouyang, J; Webb, K A; O'Donnell, D E

    2009-02-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is known to elicit intrinsic abnormalities in male skeletal muscle. However, it is unclear to what extent these changes occur in women and whether they are fiber-type specific. We investigated fiber-type specific differences in selected histochemical properties in muscle obtained from women with moderate to severe COPD compared to healthy control (CON) women. Tissue was obtained from the vastus lateralis in five COPD patients (age 66.9 +/- 2.6 years; FEV1 = 43 +/- 7%) and eight CON (age 68 +/- 4.9 years; FEV1 = 113 +/- 4.2%). Compared to CON, the distribution (30.6 +/- 5.2 vs. 57.9 +/- 4.6%) and cross sectional area of type I (CSA, 5660 +/- 329 vs. 3586 +/- 257 microm2) and type IIA (2770 +/- 302 vs. 2099 +/- 206 microm2) were lower (P < 0.05) and higher (P < 0.05), respectively, in COPD. Disease state did not alter either the distribution or CSA of the IIA, IIAX or type X subtypes. Although differences were found between fiber types in the number of capillary contacts (n) (I > IIAX, IIX; IIA > IIX) and the capillaries per CSA (microm210(-3)) (I < IIA, IIAX, IIX), no differences were found between CON and COPD. Succinic dehydrogenase activity and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+-ATPase activity, measured photometrically (OD units), were higher (P < 0.05), and lower (P < 0.05), respectively, in type I compared to the type II fiber subtypes. These properties were not altered with COPD. COPD in females is accompanied by a higher percent of type II fibers, a larger CSA of type I and type IIA fibers, both of which occur in the absence of differences in oxidative potential and the potential for SR Ca2+-sequestration.

  17. Muscle size, quality, and body composition: characteristics of division I cross-country runners.

    PubMed

    Roelofs, Erica J; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Melvin, Malia N; Wingfield, Hailee L; Trexler, Eric T; Walker, Nina

    2015-02-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between muscle cross-sectional area (mCSA), echo intensity (EI), and body composition of Division I cross-country runners. The secondary purpose was to examine differences in these variables in athletes stratified based on stress-fracture (SFx) history. Thirty-six athletes were stratified based on sex and SFx history. A panoramic scan vastus lateralis was performed using a GE Logiq-e B-mode ultrasound. Echo intensity and mCSA were determined from the scan using a grayscale imaging software (ImageJ). Body composition measures were determined using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. For females, mCSA was significantly correlated with left leg lean mass (LM; R = 0.54) and EI (R = -0.57). Lean mass was significantly correlated with bone mineral density (BMD; R = 0.58) and bone mineral content (BMC; R = 0.56), whereas BMC was also correlated with leg LM (R = 0.72). For males, mCSA was significantly correlated with leg LM (R = 0.66), BMD (R = 0.50), and BMC (R = 0.54). Leg LM was significantly correlated with BMD (R = 0.53) and BMC (R = 0.77). Personal best times for males were significantly correlated with fat mass (R = 0.489) and %fat (R = 0.556) for the 10- and 5-km races, respectively. Female and male athletes with a history of SFx were not significantly different across any variables when compared with athletes with no history. These correlations suggest that more muscle mass may associate with higher BMD and BMC for stronger bone structure. Modifications in training strategies to include heavy resistance training and plyometrics may be advantageous for preventing risk factors associated with SFx reoccurrence.

  18. Calf health from birth to weaning. III. housing and management of calf pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Calfhood diseases have a major impact on the economic viability of cattle operations. A three part review series has been developed focusing on calf health from birth to weaning. In this paper, the last of the three part series, we review disease prevention and management with particular reference to pneumonia, focusing primarily on the pre-weaned calf. Pneumonia in recently weaned suckler calves is also considered, where the key risk factors are related to the time of weaning. Weaning of the suckler calf is often combined with additional stressors including a change in nutrition, environmental change, transport and painful husbandry procedures (castration, dehorning). The reduction of the cumulative effects of these multiple stressors around the time of weaning together with vaccination programmes (preconditioning) can reduce subsequent morbidity and mortality in the feedlot. In most studies, calves housed individually and calves housed outdoors with shelter, are associated with decreased risk of disease. Even though it poses greater management challenges, successful group housing of calves is possible. Special emphasis should be given to equal age groups and to keeping groups stable once they are formed. The management of pneumonia in calves is reliant on a sound understanding of aetiology, relevant risk factors, and of effective approaches to diagnosis and treatment. Early signs of pneumonia include increased respiratory rate and fever, followed by depression. The single most important factor determining the success of therapy in calves with pneumonia is early onset of treatment, and subsequent adequate duration of treatment. The efficacy and economical viability of vaccination against respiratory disease in calves remains unclear. PMID:22018053

  19. Estimation of carcass composition using rib dissection of calf-fed Holstein steers supplemented zilpaterol hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    McEvers, T J; May, N D; Reed, J A; Walter, L J; Hutcheson, J P; Lawrence, T E

    2018-04-14

    A serial harvest was conducted every 28 d from 254 to 534 d on feed (DOF) to quantify changes in growth and composition of calf-fed Holstein steers (n = 115, initial body weight (BW) = 449.2 ± 19.9 kg). One-half were supplemented with the β-2 adrenergic agonist zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; 8.33 mg/kg 100% dry matter (DM) basis) during the final 20 d followed by a 3-d withdrawal prior to harvest; the remainder was fed a non-ZH control (CON) ration. Five steers were randomly selected and harvested after 226 DOF which served as a reference point for modeling purposes. Fabricated carcass soft tissue was ground, mixed, and subsampled for proximate analysis. Moreover, following the traditional method of rib dissection which includes the 9th, 10th, and 11th rib contained within the IMPS 103 primal, the relationship of carcass chemical composition to 9-10-11 rib composition was evaluated. Carcasses in this investigation had more (P < 0.01) separable lean, fat, ash, and moisture concomitant with less bone and ether extract than rib dissections. However, protein levels were similar (P = 0.27) between carcasses and rib dissections. Using regression procedures, models were constructed to describe the relationship of rib dissection (RD) composition including separable lean (RDSL), separable fat (RDSF), separable bone (RDSB), ether extract (RDEE), protein (RDP), moisture (RDM), and ash (RDA) with carcass composition. Carcass lean (CL), carcass fat (CF), and carcass bone (CB) were correlated (P < 0.01) with RDSL, RDSF, and RDSB with simple r values of 0.41, 0.71, and 0.50, respectively. Chemical composition of the rib and carcass, carcass ether extract (CEE), carcass protein (CP), carcass moisture (CM), and carcass ash (CA) were correlated (P ≤ 0.01) with simple r values of 0.75, 0.31, 0.66, and 0.37, respectively. Equations to predict carcass fatness from rib dissection variables and ZH supplementation status were only able to account for 50 and 56%, of the variability of

  20. Estimation of chemical carcass composition from 8th rib characteristics with Belgian blue double-muscled bulls.

    PubMed

    De Campeneere, S; Fiems, L O; Van de Voorde, G; Vanacker, J M; Boucque, C V; Demeyer, D I

    1999-01-01

    Characteristics from the 8th rib cut: chemical composition, tissue composition after dissection, specific gravity (SG) and m. longissimus thoracis (LT) composition, collected on 17 Belgian Blue double-muscled fattening bulls were used to generate equations for predicting chemical carcass composition. Carcass composition was best predicted from chemical analysis of the 8th rib cut and the empty body weight (EBW) of the bull. Carcass chemical fat content (CCF, kg) was predicted from the 8th rib cut fat content (ether extract, 8RF, kg) by the following regression: CCF=1.94+27.37 8RF (R(2)=0.957, RSD =9.89%). A higher coefficient was found for carcass water (CCW, kg) predicted from 8RF and EBW: CCW=-2.26+0.28 EBW-34.28 8RF (R(2)=0.997, RSD=1.48%). No parameter was found to improve the prediction of CCP from EBW solely: CCP=-0.86+0.08 EBW (R(2) =0.992, RSD=2.61%). Prediction equations based solely on LT composition had low R(2) values of between 0.38 and 0.67, whereas no significant equations were found using SG. However, equations based on EBW had R(2) values between 0.78 and 0.99. Chemical components of the 8th rib cut in combination with EBW are most useful in predicting the chemical composition of the carcass of Belgian-Blue double-muscled bulls.

  1. Fiber sources for complete calf starter rations.

    PubMed

    Murdock, F R; Wallenius, R W

    1980-11-01

    Complete calf starter rations containing either 1) alfalfa hay, 2) cottonseed hulls, or 3) alfalfa-beet pulp as sources of fiber were fed to Holstein heifer calves at two locations on a limited milk program from 3 days to 12 wk of age. Rations were isonitrogenous and similar in content of crude fiber and acid detergent fiber. Although growth and development were normal on all rations, calves fed the cottonseed hull ration consumed more starter and gained more body weight than calves fed the other sources of fiber. The similarity of feed efficiencies, rumen pH, and molar ratios of volatile fatty acids between rations indicated no appreciable differences in rumen development or function. The growth response of calves fed the cottonseed hull ration appeared to be a result of better ration acceptability for which no reason was evident. Calves raised at Puyallup gained more body weight than calves at Pullman, and these gains were made more efficiently. These location effects may be related to seasonal differences and greater demands for production of body heat. Although the incidence of scours was less for calves fed alfalfa hay starter, the incidence and severity of bloat were higher for that ration.

  2. Characteristics of microstrip muscle-loaded single-arm Archimedean spiral antennas as investigated by FDTD numerical computations.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Svein; Rolfsnes, Hans Olav; Stauffer, Paul R

    2005-02-01

    The radiation characteristics and mode of operation of single-arm, groundplane backed, Archimedean spiral antennas are investigated by means of conformal finite difference time domain numerical analysis. It is shown that this antenna type may be categorized as a well-matched, broadband, circularly polarized traveling wave structure that can be fed directly by nonbalanced coaxial networks. The study further concentrates on relevant design and description features parameterized in terms of measures like radiation efficiency, sensing depth, directivity, and axial ratio of complementary polarizations. We document that an antenna of only 30-mm transverse size produces circularly polarized waves in a two-octave frequency span (2-8 GHz) with acceptable radiation efficiency (76%-94%) when loaded by muscle-like tissue.

  3. Comparison of palatability characteristics of beef gluteus medius and triceps brachii muscles.

    PubMed

    King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate triceps brachii steaks as a substitute for gluteus medius steaks in foodservice and retail applications, including the effect of aging time and USDA quality grade on the palatability of both muscles. Top sirloin butts (n = 600) and shoulder clod arm roasts (n = 600) representing US Choice and US Select quality grades were selected at 48 h postmortem and aged for 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, or 42 d. Steaks were evaluated using a trained sensory panel, slice shear force, sarcomere length, and Western blotting of desmin measurements. Sarcomere length was measured only on steaks at 14 and 42 d. Triceps brachii and gluteus medius steaks were similar in tenderness rating at 7 and 14 d, but triceps brachii steaks aged longer were more tender (P < 0.05) than were gluteus medius steaks. Triceps brachii steaks reached ultimate tenderness values by 21 d. Gluteus medius steak tenderness ratings improved through 35 d, and at 42 d were similar to those given to triceps brachii steaks at 21 d. Sarcomere lengths were longer (P < 0.05) in triceps brachii than in gluteus medius (2.09 and 1.58 mum, respectively). Significant increases in desmin degradation were detected through 42 d in both muscles (30.9, 46.3, 50.6, 51.0, 57.6, and 64.1% at d 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 for gluteus medius and 28.9, 40.8, 49.3, 59.2, 61.8, and 71.9% at d 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 for triceps brachii). At 14 d, gluteus medius had more (P < 0.05) desmin degraded than triceps brachii, but by 28 d, desmin degradation was greater (P < 0.05) in triceps brachii. Quality grade had minimal effects on palatability traits. Desmin degradation contributed to gluteus medius tenderness variation (r = 0.36) across all aging times, but not at individual aging times. Sarcomere length contributed to variation in slice shear force values of gluteus medius at 14 and 42 d (r = -0.59 and -0.48, respectively). Sarcomere length contributed to triceps brachii tenderness variation at 14 d

  4. Alteration of muscle fiber characteristics and the AMPK-SIRT1-PGC-1α axis in skeletal muscle of growing pigs fed low-protein diets with varying branched-chain amino acid ratios

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Yehui; Li, Fengna; Wang, Wenlong; Guo, Qiuping; Wen, Chaoyue; Yin, Yulong

    2017-01-01

    There mainly exists four major myosin heavy chains (MyHC) (i.e., I, IIa, IIx, and IIb) in growing pigs. The current study aimed to explore the effects of low-protein diets supplemented with varying branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) on muscle fiber characteristics and the AMPK-SIRT1-PGC-1α axis in skeletal muscles. Forty growing pigs (9.85 ± 0.35 kg) were allotted to 5 groups and fed with diets supplemented with varying leucine: isoleucine: valine ratios: 1:0.51:0.63 (20% crude protein, CP), 1:1:1 (17% CP), 1:0.75:0.75 (17% CP), 1:0.51:0.63 (17% CP), and 1:0.25:0.25 (17% CP), respectively. The skeletal muscles of different muscle fiber composition, that is, longissimus dorsi muscle (LM, a fast-twitch glycolytic muscle), biceps femoris muscle (BM, a mixed slow- and fast-twitch oxido-glycolytic muscle), and psoas major muscle (PM, a slow-twitch oxidative muscle) were collected and analyzed. Results showed that relative to the control group (1:0.51:0.63, 20% CP), the low-protein diets with the leucine: isoleucine: valine ratio ranging from 1:0.75:0.75 to 1:0.25:0.25 especially augmented the mRNA and protein abundance of MyHC I fibers in BM and lowered the mRNA abundance of MyHC IIb particularly in LM (P < 0.05), with a concurrent increase in the activation of AMPK and the mRNA abundance of SIRT and PGC-1α in BM (P < 0.05). The results reveal that low-protein diets supplemented with optimal BCAA ratio, i.e. 1:0.75:0.75-1:0.25:0.25, induce muscle more oxidative especially in oxido-glycolytic skeletal muscle of growing pigs. These effects are likely associated with the activation of the AMPK-SIRT1-PGC-1α axis. PMID:29291007

  5. Mechanical principles of effects of botulinum toxin on muscle length-force characteristics: an assessment by finite element modeling.

    PubMed

    Turkoglu, Ahu N; Huijing, Peter A; Yucesoy, Can A

    2014-05-07

    Recent experiments involving muscle force measurements over a range of muscle lengths show that effects of botulinum toxin (BTX) are complex e.g., force reduction varies as a function of muscle length. We hypothesized that altered conditions of sarcomeres within active parts of partially paralyzed muscle is responsible for this effect. Using finite element modeling, the aim was to test this hypothesis and to study principles of how partial activation as a consequence of BTX affects muscle mechanics. In order to model the paralyzing effect of BTX, only 50% of the fascicles (most proximal, or middle, or most distal) of the modeled muscle were activated. For all muscle lengths, a vast majority of sarcomeres of these BTX-cases were at higher lengths than identical sarcomeres of the BTX-free muscle. Due to such "longer sarcomere effect", activated muscle parts show an enhanced potential of active force exertion (up to 14.5%). Therefore, a muscle force reduction originating exclusively from the paralyzed muscle fiber populations, is compromised by the changes of active sarcomeres leading to a smaller net force reduction. Moreover, such "compromise to force reduction" varies as a function of muscle length and is a key determinant of muscle length dependence of force reduction caused by BTX. Due to longer sarcomere effect, muscle optimum length tends to shift to a lower muscle length. Muscle fiber-extracellular matrix interactions occurring via their mutual connections along full peripheral fiber lengths (i.e., myofascial force transmission) are central to these effects. Our results may help improving our understanding of mechanisms of how the toxin secondarily affects the muscle mechanically. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantifying Antimicrobial Resistance at Veal Calf Farms

    PubMed Central

    Bosman, Angela B.; Wagenaar, Jaap; Stegeman, Arjan; Vernooij, Hans; Mevius, Dik

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to determine a sampling strategy to quantify the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance on veal calf farms, based on the variation in antimicrobial resistance within and between calves on five farms. Faecal samples from 50 healthy calves (10 calves/farm) were collected. From each individual sample and one pooled faecal sample per farm, 90 selected Escherichia coli isolates were tested for their resistance against 25 mg/L amoxicillin, 25 mg/L tetracycline, 0.5 mg/L cefotaxime, 0.125 mg/L ciprofloxacin and 8/152 mg/L trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (tmp/s) by replica plating. From each faecal sample another 10 selected E. coli isolates were tested for their resistance by broth microdilution as a reference. Logistic regression analysis was performed to compare the odds of testing an isolate resistant between both test methods (replica plating vs. broth microdilution) and to evaluate the effect of pooling faecal samples. Bootstrap analysis was used to investigate the precision of the estimated prevalence of resistance to each antimicrobial obtained by several simulated sampling strategies. Replica plating showed similar odds of E. coli isolates tested resistant compared to broth microdilution, except for ciprofloxacin (OR 0.29, p≤0.05). Pooled samples showed in general lower odds of an isolate being resistant compared to individual samples, although these differences were not significant. Bootstrap analysis showed that within each antimicrobial the various compositions of a pooled sample provided consistent estimates for the mean proportion of resistant isolates. Sampling strategies should be based on the variation in resistance among isolates within faecal samples and between faecal samples, which may vary by antimicrobial. In our study, the optimal sampling strategy from the perspective of precision of the estimated levels of resistance and practicality consists of a pooled faecal sample from 20 individual animals, of which 90 isolates are

  7. A 100-Year Review: Calf nutrition and management.

    PubMed

    Kertz, A F; Hill, T M; Quigley, J D; Heinrichs, A J; Linn, J G; Drackley, J K

    2017-12-01

    The first calf paper, published in the May 1919 issue of the Journal of Dairy Science (JDS), described factors affecting birth body weight of different breeds of calves. Other studies were done on nonmilk ingredients, growth charts were developed, and early weaning was followed to conserve milk fed to calves. Calf papers did not report use of statistics to control or record variation or to determine whether treatment means were different. Many experiments were more observational than comparative. Typically fewer than 5 calves, and sometimes 1 or 2 calves, were used per treatment. During the next 20 yr, calf studies increased and included colostrum feeding, milk and milk replacer feeding, minerals and vitamins, and fats and oils. Many concepts fundamental to current knowledge and understanding of digestion, rumen development, and milk replacer formulation were developed during this period. In addition, the concept of using antibiotic growth promoters in dairy calf diets was first evaluated and developed during the 1950s. During the 20-yr period of January 1957 through December 1976, a large number of universities in the United States and 1 in Canada contributed almost 150 papers on a variety of calf-related topics. These topics included genetics, physiology of the calf, review of calf immunity, antibiotic feeding, and milk replacer ingredients. This became the golden era of calf rumen development studies, which also engendered studies of calf starter rations and ingredients. A classic review of management, feeding, and housing studies summarized research related to calf feeding and management systems up to that point with an emphasis on maintaining calf growth and health while reducing labor and feed costs. It was also during this period that metric measurements replaced English units. In the 20-yr period from 1977 to 1996, more than 400 articles on calf nutrition and management were published in JDS. With the growing research interest in calves, a paper outlining

  8. Methodological Choices in Muscle Synergy Analysis Impact Differentiation of Physiological Characteristics Following Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Caitlin L.; Pai, Mihir M.; McGuirk, Theresa E.; Fregly, Benjamin J.; Patten, Carolynn

    2017-01-01

    Muscle synergy analysis (MSA) is a mathematical technique that reduces the dimensionality of electromyographic (EMG) data. Used increasingly in biomechanics research, MSA requires methodological choices at each stage of the analysis. Differences in methodological steps affect the overall outcome, making it difficult to compare results across studies. We applied MSA to EMG data collected from individuals post-stroke identified as either responders (RES) or non-responders (nRES) on the basis of a critical post-treatment increase in walking speed. Importantly, no clinical or functional indicators identified differences between the cohort of RES and nRES at baseline. For this exploratory study, we selected the five highest RES and five lowest nRES available from a larger sample. Our goal was to assess how the methodological choices made before, during, and after MSA affect the ability to differentiate two groups with intrinsic physiologic differences based on MSA results. We investigated 30 variations in MSA methodology to determine which choices allowed differentiation of RES from nRES at baseline. Trial-to-trial variability in time-independent synergy vectors (SVs) and time-varying neural commands (NCs) were measured as a function of: (1) number of synergies computed; (2) EMG normalization method before MSA; (3) whether SVs were held constant across trials or allowed to vary during MSA; and (4) synergy analysis output normalization method after MSA. MSA methodology had a strong effect on our ability to differentiate RES from nRES at baseline. Across all 10 individuals and MSA variations, two synergies were needed to reach an average of 90% variance accounted for (VAF). Based on effect sizes, differences in SV and NC variability between groups were greatest using two synergies with SVs that varied from trial-to-trial. Differences in SV variability were clearest using unit magnitude per trial EMG normalization, while NC variability was less sensitive to EMG

  9. Methodological Choices in Muscle Synergy Analysis Impact Differentiation of Physiological Characteristics Following Stroke.

    PubMed

    Banks, Caitlin L; Pai, Mihir M; McGuirk, Theresa E; Fregly, Benjamin J; Patten, Carolynn

    2017-01-01

    Muscle synergy analysis (MSA) is a mathematical technique that reduces the dimensionality of electromyographic (EMG) data. Used increasingly in biomechanics research, MSA requires methodological choices at each stage of the analysis. Differences in methodological steps affect the overall outcome, making it difficult to compare results across studies. We applied MSA to EMG data collected from individuals post-stroke identified as either responders (RES) or non-responders (nRES) on the basis of a critical post-treatment increase in walking speed. Importantly, no clinical or functional indicators identified differences between the cohort of RES and nRES at baseline. For this exploratory study, we selected the five highest RES and five lowest nRES available from a larger sample. Our goal was to assess how the methodological choices made before, during, and after MSA affect the ability to differentiate two groups with intrinsic physiologic differences based on MSA results. We investigated 30 variations in MSA methodology to determine which choices allowed differentiation of RES from nRES at baseline. Trial-to-trial variability in time-independent synergy vectors (SVs) and time-varying neural commands (NCs) were measured as a function of: (1) number of synergies computed; (2) EMG normalization method before MSA; (3) whether SVs were held constant across trials or allowed to vary during MSA; and (4) synergy analysis output normalization method after MSA. MSA methodology had a strong effect on our ability to differentiate RES from nRES at baseline. Across all 10 individuals and MSA variations, two synergies were needed to reach an average of 90% variance accounted for (VAF). Based on effect sizes, differences in SV and NC variability between groups were greatest using two synergies with SVs that varied from trial-to-trial. Differences in SV variability were clearest using unit magnitude per trial EMG normalization, while NC variability was less sensitive to EMG

  10. Treatment of hypernatremia in an acidotic neonatal calf.

    PubMed

    Angelos, S M; Smith, B P; George, L W; House, J K; Van Metre, D C; Fecteau, G; Thacker, V C; Angelos, J A

    1999-05-01

    A 7-day-old Jersey calf was evaluated because of diarrhea and pneumonia. The calf was hypernatremic, hypoproteinemic, and acidemic, and was treated initially with i.v. administration of fluids with sodium concentration (175 mEq/L) similar to the calf's serum sodium concentration. Sodium concentration of the administered fluids was gradually decreased over the following days, but the calf's serum sodium concentration decreased too rapidly, and the calf developed neurologic signs attributed to cerebral edema. Treatment with mannitol and i.v. administration of fluids with a higher concentration of sodium resulted in abatement of clinical signs. In calves, hypernatremia may develop over several days. Prescribing traditional isotonic or hypotonic fluids in such cases will be harmful, because during chronic hypernatremia, the brain's adaptive mechanisms involve accumulation of organic osmoles that may take several days to equilibrate across cell membranes, and cerebral edema may result. Administration of fluids containing sodium concentration approximately equal to the patient's measured serum sodium concentration is required to decrease serum sodium concentration more slowly than is possible with traditional isotonic fluids.

  11. Skeletal muscle stem cell characteristics and myonuclei content in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Boutrup, Rasmus Jentoft; Farup, Jean; Vissing, Kristian; Kjaer, Michael; Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer

    2018-06-01

    To investigate satellite cells (SCs) and myonuclei characteristics in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Resting biopsies from m. vastus lateralis were obtained from thirteen RA patients and thirteen matched healthy controls (CON). Muscle biopsies were immunohistochemically stained and analyzed for fiber type specific content of SCs (Pax7 + ), proliferating SCs (Pax7 + /MyoD + ) and differentiating SCs (myogenin + ). Furthermore, we quantified fiber type specific content of myonuclei and myofiber cross-sectional area (CSA). Finally, newly formed/regenerating fibers expressing neonatal MHC (nMHC + ) were determined. The fiber type specific number of SCs did not differ between RA patients and CON, nor did the content of proliferating or differentiating SCs. In contrast, the content of myonuclei per fiber was higher in RA patients than CON for both type I (2.01 ± 0.41 vs. 1.42 ± 0.40 myonuclei/fiber, p < 0.01) and type II fibers (2.01 ± 0.41 vs. 1.37 ± 0.32 myonuclei/fiber, p < 0.01). No differences were observed in fiber composition, fiber type specific CSA or content of nMHC + fibers. Our results indicate an increased propensity for myogenic differentiation of SC leading to an elevated myonuclear content in the skeletal muscle of RA patients. It is hypothesized that this could be a compensatory regulatory response related to the chronic inflammation in these patients.

  12. Effect of Real and Simulated Microgravity on Muscle Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session JA3, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Changes in Calf Muscle Performance, Energy Metabolism, and Muscle Volume Caused by Long Term Stay on Space Station MIR; Vibrografic Signs of Autonomous Muscle Tone Studied in Long Term Space Missions; Reduction of Muscle Strength After Long Duration Space Flights is Associated Primarily with Changes in Neuromuscular Function; The Effects of a 115-Day Spaceflight on Neuromuscular Function in Crewman; Effects of 17-Day Spaceflight on Human Triceps Surae Electrically-Evoked Contractions; Effects of Muscle Unloading on EMG Spectral Parameters; and Myofiber Wound-Mediated FGF Release and Muscle Atrophy During Bedrest.

  13. Benchmarking carcass characteristics and muscles from commercially identified beef and dairy cull cow carcasses for Warner-Bratzler shear force and sensory attributes.

    PubMed

    Stelzleni, A M; Patten, L E; Johnson, D D; Calkins, C R; Gwartney, B L

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to benchmark carcasses and muscles from commercially identified fed (animals that were perceived to have been fed an increased plane of nutrition before slaughter) and nonfed cull beef and dairy cows and A-maturity, USDA Select steers, so that the muscles could be identified from cull cow carcasses that may be used to fill a void of intermediately priced beef steaks. Carcass characteristics were measured at 24 h postmortem for 75 carcasses from 5 populations consisting of cull beef cows commercially identified as fed (B-F, n = 15); cull beef cows commercially identified as nonfed (B-NF, n = 15); cull dairy cows commercially identified as fed (D-F, n = 15); cull dairy cows commercially identified as nonfed (D-NF, n = 15); and A-maturity, USDA Select grade steers (SEL, n = 15). Nine muscles were excised from each carcass [m. infraspinatus, m. triceps brachii (lateral and long heads), m. teres major, m. longissimus dorsi (also termed LM), m. psoas major, m. gluteus medius, m. rectus femoris, and m. tensor fasciae latae] and subjected to Warner-Bratzler shear force testing and objective sensory panel evaluation after 14 d of postmortem aging. Carcass characteristics differed (P < 0.05) among the 5 commercially identified slaughter groups for the traits of lean maturity, bone maturity, muscle score, HCW, fat color, subjective lean color, marbling, ribeye area, 12th-rib fat thickness, and preliminary yield grade. Carcasses from commercially identified, fed cull cows exhibited more (P < 0.01) weight in carcass lean than did commercially identified, nonfed cull cows. There was a group x muscle interaction (P = 0.02) for Warner-Bratzler shear force. Warner-Bratzler shear force and sensory overall tenderness values demonstrates that muscles from the SEL group were the most tender (P < 0.01), whereas muscles from the B-NF group were the least tender (P < 0.01). Sensory, beef flavor intensity was similar (P > 0.20) among cull cow carcass groups

  14. Calf Perforator Flaps: A Freestyle Solution for Oral Cavity Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Molina, Alexandra R; Citron, Isabelle; Chinaka, Fungayi; Cascarini, Luke; Townley, William A

    2017-02-01

    Reconstruction of oral cavity defects requires a thin, pliable flap for optimal functional results. Traditional flap choices are imperfect: the anterolateral thigh flap is excessively thick, whereas the radial forearm flap has a poor donor site. The authors therefore favor calf perforator flaps such as the medial sural artery perforator flap to provide thin tissue with an acceptable donor site. This two-part study aims to demonstrate their suitability for intraoral reconstruction. In the radiologic part of the study, the authors compared thigh and calf tissue thickness by examining lower limb computed tomographic scans of 100 legs. For their clinical study, they collected data prospectively on 20 cases of oral cavity reconstruction using calf perforator flaps. The mean thickness of the calf tissue envelope was significantly less than that of the thigh (8.4 mm compared with 17 mm) based on computed tomographic analysis. In the clinical study, a medial sural artery perforator was used in the majority of cases (17 of 20). The mean pedicle length was 10.2 cm and the mean time to raise a flap was 85 minutes. There were no flap losses. One patient was returned to the operating room for management of late hematoma and wound dehiscence. Calf perforator flaps provide ideal tissue for intraoral reconstruction and are significantly thinner than anterolateral thigh flaps. In addition to medial sural artery perforator flaps, the authors raised both sural and soleal artery perforator flaps in this series. Opportunistic use of the calf donor site allows the harvest of thin tissue with minimal donor-site morbidity. Therapeutic, IV.

  15. A calf model for left ventricular centrifugal mechanical assist.

    PubMed

    Mann, F A; Wagner-Mann, C C; Curtis, J J; Demmy, T L; Turk, J R

    1996-06-01

    The increased use of centrifugal mechanical assist (CMA) for treatment of refractory postcardiotomy cardiogenic shock highlights the need for experimental testing to improve clinical results. This report describes the preoperative conditioning, anesthetic and surgical technique, and postoperative management of a reliable calf model refined in this laboratory for in vivo subchronic (96 h) testing of CMA. Holstein bull calves (2 to 3 months old; mean body weight, 78 kg; n = 35) were instrumented for left ventricular CMA; 4 of these calves were sham-operated controls. Anesthetic recovery and postoperative restraint were accomplished in a specially designed crate to which each calf was preconditioned extensively. Younger calves were more readily conditioned and more tolerant of postoperative restraint than older calves. One calf died of ventricular fibrillation intraoperatively. One calf that had been heparinized developed uncontrollable hemothorax and died 12 h postoperatively. One calf prematurely dislodged his aortic cannula 15 h postoperatively and exsanguinated. Six calves developed pelvic limb paresis or paralysis because of lumbar spinal cord thromboembolism by 36 h postoperatively, and 3 of these calves were sacrificed by 42 h postoperatively. Fifteen calves required sedation in the first 12 h after the operation. Tachycardia associated with bottle feeding occurred in 15 calves. Second-degree atrioventricular block was noted frequently during deep relaxation. Postmortem examination demonstrated the absence of surgical wound and distant infection, security of cannulae in all but the calf that prematurely dislodged the aortic cannula, absence of thrombus formation at cannulation sites, and presence of thromboembolism in 51% of the calves. The incidence of thromboembolic lesions was not influenced by the need for chemical restraint, by the occurrence of feeding-associated tachycardia, or by the presence of atrioventricular block. There were no thromboembolic

  16. Force-velocity and power characteristics of rat soleus muscle fibers after hindlimb suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, K. S.; Blaser, C. A.; Fitts, R. H.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of 1, 2, and 3 wk of hindlimb suspension (HS) on force-velocity and power characteristics of single rat soleus fibers were determined. After 1, 2, or 3 wk of HA, small fiber bundles were isolated, placed in skinning solution, and stored at -20 C until studied. Single fibers were isolated and placed between a motor arm and force transducer, functional properties were studied, and fiber protein content was subsequently analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Additional fibers were isolated from soleus of control after 1 and 3 wk of HS, and fiber type distribution and myosin light chain stoichiometry were determined from SDS-PAGE analysis. After 1 wk of HS, percent type I fibers declined from 82 to 74%, whereas hybrid fibers increased from 10 to 18%. Percent fast type II fibers increased from 8% in control and 1 wk of HS to 26% by 3 wk of HS. Most fibers showed an increased unloaded maximal shortening velocity (V sub O)), but myosin heavy chain remained entirely slow type I. The mechanism for increased V(sub O) is unknown. There was a progressive decrease in fiber diameter and peak force after 1, 2, and 3 wk of HS, respectively. One week of HS resulted in a shift of the force-velocity curve, and between 2 and 3 wk of HS the curve shifted further such that V(sub O) was higher than control at all relative loads less than 45% peak isometric force. Peak absolute power output of soleus fibers progressively decreased through 2 wk of HS but showed no further change at 3 wk. The results suggest that between 2 and 3 wk the HS-induced alterations in the force-velocity relationship act to maintain the power output of single soleus fibers despite a continued reduction in fiber force.

  17. Force-Velocity and Power Characteristics of Rat Soleus Muscle Fibers after Hindlimb Suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, K. S.; Blaser, C. A.; Fitts, R. H.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of 1, 2, and 3 wk of Hindlimb Suspension (HS) on force-velocity and power characteristics of single rat soleus fibers were determined. After 1, 2, or 3 wk of HS, small fiber bundles were isolated, placed in skinning solution, and stored at -20 C until studied. Single fibers were isolated and placed between a motor arm and force transducer, functional properties were studied, and fiber protein content was subsequently analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Additional fibers were isolated from soleus of control and after 1 and 3 wk of HS, and fiber type distribution and myosin light chain stoichiometry were determined from SDS-PAGE analysis. After 1 wk of HS, percent type I fibers declined from 82 to 74%, whereas hybrid fibers increased from 10 to 18%. Percent fast type 11 fibers increased from 8% in control and 1 wk of HS to 26% by 3 wk of HS. Most fibers showed an increased unloaded maximal shortening velocity (V(sub 0)), but myosin heavy chain remained entirely slow type I. The mechanism for increased V(sub 0) is unknown. There was a progressive decrease in fiber diameter (14, 30, and 38%) and peak force (38, 56, and 63%) after 1, 2, and 3 wk of HS, respectively. One week of HS resulted in a shift of the force-velocity curve, and between 2 and 3 wk of HS the curve shifted further such that V(sub 0) was higher than control at all relative loads less than 45% peak isometric force. Peak absolute power output of soleus fibers progressively decreased through 2 wk of HS but showed no further change at 3 wk. The results suggest that between 2 and 3 wk the HS-induced alterations in the force-velocity relationship act to maintain the power output of single soleus fibers despite a continued reduction in fiber force.

  18. CALFED--An experiment in science and decisionmaking

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Kimberly A.; Jacobs, Katharine L.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2003-01-01

    The CALFED Bay-Delta Program faces a challenging assignment: to develop a collaborative state-federal management plan for the complex river system and involve multiple stakeholders (primarily municipal, agricultural, and environmental entities) whose interests frequently are in direct conflict. Although many resource-management issues involve multiple stakeholders and conflict is integral to their discussion, the CALFED experience is unique because of its shared state and federal roles, the magnitude and significance of stakeholder participation, and the complexity of the scientific issues involved.

  19. Active and passive characteristics of muscle tone and their relationship to models of subluxation/joint dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Knutson, Gary A.; Owens, Edward F.

    2003-01-01

    The relationship of muscles to the causes and effects of the pathophysiologic entity referred to as chiropractic subluxation or joint dysfunction is critical. Part I of this paper reviewed the complexities of skeletal muscle in regards to anatomy, active and passive tone, detection of muscle tone, neurophysiology, and how muscle function fits into a variety of subluxation/joint dysfunction models. The concluding part of the review culminates in a hypothesis to describe and explain varying degrees of muscle tone that may be encountered clinically. It is hoped that knowledge of the differing levels of muscle tone and their causes will help the clinician to better determine the underlying cause of a neuromusculoskeletal problem allowing application of necessary and proper intervention.

  20. Dietary supplementation of l-arginine and chromium picolinate in sows during gestation affects the muscle fibre characteristics but not the performance of their progeny.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhan; Song, Wentao; Sun, Yuecheng; Wang, Liansheng; Shi, Baoming; Shan, Anshan; Bi, Zhongpeng

    2018-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of l-arginine and chromium picolinate (CrP) in sows during gestation on muscle fibre characteristics, performance and carcass characteristics of their progeny. Sixty healthy sows were randomly divided into four groups as a 2 × 2 factorial experiment design: one group received the control diet, another received the control diet + 10 g kg -1 l-arginine, the third group received the control diet + 400 ppb CrP, and the fourth group received the control diet + 10 g kg -1 l-arginine and 400 ppb CrP. The results showed that sows fed the diet supplemented with CrP produced progeny with higher muscle fibre numbers at birth, weaning and slaughter compared to sows fed the control diet. For mean fibre areas, the same result was found at weaning. For progeny of sows fed diets supplemented with l-arginine, only higher muscle fibre numbers at slaughter was observed. Almost no differences were observed regarding average daily gains, average daily feed intake, gain-to-feed ratios, carcass and meat traits. The results of the present study indicate that dietary supplementation of l-arginine and particularly CrP in sows during gestation alters muscle fibre numbers in their offspring, although not their performance or carcass characteristics. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Loss of IL-15 receptor α alters the endurance, fatigability, and metabolic characteristics of mouse fast skeletal muscles

    PubMed Central

    Pistilli, Emidio E.; Bogdanovich, Sasha; Garton, Fleur; Yang, Nan; Gulbin, Jason P.; Conner, Jennifer D.; Anderson, Barbara G.; Quinn, LeBris S.; North, Kathryn; Ahima, Rexford S.; Khurana, Tejvir S.

    2011-01-01

    IL-15 receptor α (IL-15Rα) is a component of the heterotrimeric plasma membrane receptor for the pleiotropic cytokine IL-15. However, IL-15Rα is not merely an IL-15 receptor subunit, as mice lacking either IL-15 or IL-15Rα have unique phenotypes. IL-15 and IL-15Rα have been implicated in muscle phenotypes, but a role in muscle physiology has not been defined. Here, we have shown that loss of IL-15Rα induces a functional oxidative shift in fast muscles, substantially increasing fatigue resistance and exercise capacity. IL-15Rα–knockout (IL-15Rα–KO) mice ran greater distances and had greater ambulatory activity than controls. Fast muscles displayed fatigue resistance and a slower contractile phenotype. The molecular signature of these muscles included altered markers of mitochondrial biogenesis and calcium homeostasis. Morphologically, fast muscles had a greater number of muscle fibers, smaller fiber areas, and a greater ratio of nuclei to fiber area. The alterations of physiological properties and increased resistance to fatigue in fast muscles are consistent with a shift toward a slower, more oxidative phenotype. Consistent with a conserved functional role in humans, a genetic association was found between a SNP in the IL15RA gene and endurance in athletes stratified by sport. Therefore, we propose that IL-15Rα has a role in defining the phenotype of fast skeletal muscles in vivo. PMID:21765213

  2. Regional muscle loss after short duration spaceflight.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, A; Rowe, R; Schneider, V; Evans, H; Hedrick, T

    1995-12-01

    Muscle strength and limb girth measurements during Skylab and Apollo missions suggested that loss of muscle mass may occur as a result of spaceflight. Extended duration spaceflight is important for the economical and practical use of space. The loss of muscle mass during spaceflight is a medical concern for long duration flights to the planets or extended stays aboard space stations. Understanding the extent and temporal relationships of muscle loss is important for the development of effective spaceflight countermeasures. We hypothesized that significant and measurable changes in muscle volume would occur in Shuttle crewmembers following 8 d of weightlessness. MRI was used to obtain the muscle volumes of the calf, thigh and lower back before and after the STS-47 Shuttle mission. Statistical analyses demonstrated that the soleus-gastrocnemius (-6.3%), anterior calf (-3.9%), hamstrings (-8.3%), quadriceps (-6.0%) and intrinsic back (-10.3%) muscles were decreased, p < 0.05, compared to baseline, 24 h after landing. At 2 weeks post recovery, the hamstrings and intrinsic lower back muscles were still below baseline, p < 0.05. These results demonstrate that even short duration spaceflight can result in significant muscle atrophy.

  3. Use of a fiber glass optical system to measure the contractile characteristics of a single isolated muscle cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chulung; Yin, Shizhuo; Li, Jiang; Yu, Francis T. S.; Cheung, Joseph Y.; Zhang, Xueqian; Lei, Xiaoxiao; Wu, Zhongkong

    1998-05-01

    Cell is the basic structural and fundamental unit of all organisms; the smallest structure capable of performing all the activities vital to life. One goal of current research interest is to learn how the muscle varies the strength of its contraction in response to electric stimuli. A wide variety of techniques have been developed to monitor the mechanical response of isolated cardiac myocytes. Some success has been reported either with the use of intact rat myocytes supported by suction micropipettes or in guinea pig myocytes adhering to glass beams. However, the usual measuring techniques exhibit destructive contact performance on live cells. They could not solve the problem, since the cell may die during or after the time-consuming attachment process at the beginning of each experiment. In contrast, a novel optical system, which consists of a microglass tube with an inner diameter the same size of a real cardiac cell, is proposed to simulate real cell's twitch process. the physical parameters of synthetic cell are well known. By comparing the dynamics of the real cell with that of the simulated cell, the twitch characteristics of the real cell can be measured.

  4. Physico-chemical characteristics of Longissimus lumborum muscle in goats subjected to halal slaughter and anesthesia (halothane) pre-slaughter.

    PubMed

    Sabow, Azad Behnan; Sazili, Awis Qurni; Zulkifli, Idrus; Goh, Yong Meng; Ab Kadir, Mohd Zainal Abidin; Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the effect of halal slaughter and anesthesia pre-slaughter followed by bleeding on meat quality characteristics of goats. Eleven male Boer cross goats were divided into two groups and subjected to either halal slaughter (HS) or anesthesia with halothane and propofol pre-slaughter (AS). At pre-rigor, HS had significantly lower (P < 0.05) muscle pH and glycogen than AS. However, no significant difference was observed in the pH and glycogen content between the treatments on 1, 3 and 7 days post mortem. The drip loss of HS was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that of AS at all aging periods. Treatment had no effect on sarcomere length, myofibrillar fragmentation index and shear force values, loss of thiol groups and degradation of major myofibrillar proteins. It can be concluded that HS did not have deleterious effect on meat quality traits of goat when compared to AS. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Fibromyalgia is Associated With Altered Skeletal Muscle Characteristics Which May Contribute to Post-Exertional Fatigue in Post-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Srikuea, Ratchakrit; Symons, T. Brock; Long, Douglas E.; Lee, Jonah D.; Shang, Yu; Chomentowski, Peter J.; Yu, Guoqiang; Crofford, Leslie J.; Peterson, Charlotte A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify muscle physiological properties that may contribute to post-exertional fatigue and malaise in women with fibromyalgia (FM). Methods Healthy postmenopausal women with (n=11) and without (n=11) fibromyalgia, age 51–70 years, participated in this study. Physical characteristics along with self-reported questionnaires were evaluated. Strength loss and tissue oxygenation in response to a fatiguing exercise protocol were used to quantify fatigability and the local muscle hemodynamic profile. Muscle biopsies were obtained to assess between-group differences in baseline muscle properties using histochemical, immunohistochemical and electron microscopic analyses. Results No significant difference in muscle fatigue in response to exercise was apparent between healthy controls and subjects with FM. However, self-reported fatigue and pain were correlated to prolonged loss of strength following 12-min of recovery in subjects with FM. Although there was no difference in percent SDH positive (type I) and SDH negative (type II) fibers or in mean fiber cross-sectional area between groups, subjects with FM showed greater size variability and altered fiber size distribution. Only in healthy controls, fatigue-resistance was strongly correlated with the size of SDH positive fibers and hemoglobin oxygenation. By contrast, subjects with FM with the highest percentage of SDH positive fibers recovered strength most effectively, which was correlated to capillary density. However, overall, capillary density was lower in subjects with FM. Conclusion Peripheral mechanisms i.e. altered muscle fiber size distribution and decreased capillary density may contribute to post-exertional fatigue in subjects with FM. Understanding these defects in fibromyalgic muscle may provide valuable insight for treatment. PMID:23124535

  6. Maximal Voluntary Static Force Production Characteristics of Skeletal Muscle in Children 8-11 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Going, Scott B.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A study of maximal voluntary isometric muscle contraction force-time curves among 32 normal, healthy 8- to 11-year-olds performing tasks involving separate muscle groups found that force and maximal rate of force increase were quite reproducible, but time to selected force levels reflected considerable variations. (Author/CB)

  7. Effect of processing sorghum grain on dairy calf performance.

    PubMed

    Abdelgadir, I E; Morrill, J L

    1995-09-01

    Two trials evaluated the effect of sorghum grain processing on dairy calf performance. In trial 1, Holstein calves (n = 76; .5 to 8 wk of age) were fed one of three calf starters that contained either raw, roasted (exit temperature of 135 degrees C), or conglomerated sorghum grain. The conglomeration process consisted of grinding the grain, adding water, pelleting the mixture, and then roasting it. Raw and roasted sorghum grains were ground through a 3.2-mm screen and then included in complete pelleted starters; conglomerated sorghum grain pellets were mixed with the other pelleted ingredients of the starter. Processing did not enhance calf performance or affect selected ruminal and blood metabolites. In trial 2, roasted and conglomerated sorghum grains were ground through a 3.2-mm screen, and each was included in a pelleted starter fed for ad libitum intake to Holstein calves (n = 48) from .5 to 8 wk of age. Calf performance was not affected by method of grain processing, and ruminal and blood metabolites were similar; however, 22% of calves on the conglomerated sorghum grain starter bloated during the postweaning period, which probably resulted in reduced feed intake from wk 6 to 8. Measures to prevent bloat may be necessary to realize a potential benefit of conglomerating sorghum grain for calves.

  8. Diagnosis and treatment of lumbosacral discospondylitis in a calf

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this case report was to describe the clinical findings, treatment and outcome of lumbosacral discospondylitis in a calf. Case Presentation A 5.5-month-old calf was presented with difficulty in rising, a stiff and slightly ataxic gait in the hind limbs and a shortened stride. The lumbosacral region was severely painful on palpation. Radiographic examination confirmed lumbosacral discospondylitis. Medical treatment with stall rest was instituted over six weeks. Radiographic and ultrasonographic follow-up examinations showed lysis of the endplates initially, then collapse of the intervertebral space at the lumbosacral junction and progressive sclerosis in the periphery of the lytic zones. Four weeks after institution of treatment, the calf could rise normally and the general condition gradually had returned to normal. The calf was discharged after 6 weeks and was sound at 3.5 months clinical and radiographic follow up examination. Thereafter, it was kept on alpine pastures without problems and was pregnant 1 year after the last examination. Conclusions This report shows that recovery from lumbosacral discospondylitis is possible in heifers, provided that treatment is started before major neurologic deficits have developed and is continued for an extended period of time. PMID:21910913

  9. Acidification of calf bedding reduces fly development and bacterial abundance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Environmental stressors, such as high fly density, can impact calf well-being. Sodium bisulfate (SBS) is an acidifier that reduces the pH of flooring and bedding, creating a medium that neither bacteria nor immature flies (also known as larvae or maggots) can thrive in. Two experiments were conducte...

  10. Cow and calf weight trends on mountain summer range.

    Treesearch

    Jon M. Skovlin

    1962-01-01

    Mountain range furnishes the bulk of summer forage for commercial cow-calf operations in northeastern Oregon. Herds maintained on valley range and pasture during winter and spring months are annually trailed to mountain ranges and remain there until calves are ready for fall markets (fig. 1).

  11. Effect of dietary zinc and ractopamine hydrochloride on pork chop muscle fiber type distribution, tenderness, and color characteristics.

    PubMed

    Paulk, C B; Tokach, M D; Nelssen, J L; Burnett, D D; Vaughn, M A; Phelps, K J; Dritz, S S; Derouchey, J M; Goodband, R D; Woodworth, J C; Houser, T A; Haydon, K D; Gonzalez, J M

    2014-05-01

    A total of 320 finishing pigs (PIC 327 × 1050; initially 98 kg) were used to determine the effects of adding Zn to diets containing ractopamine HCl (RAC) on muscle fiber type distribution, fresh chop color, and cooked meat characteristics. Dietary treatments were fed for approximately 35 d and consisted of a corn-soybean meal-based negative control (CON), a positive control diet with 10 mg/kg of RAC (RAC+), and the RAC+ diet plus 75, 150, or 225 mg/kg added Zn from either ZnO or Availa-Zn. Loins randomly selected from each treatment (n = 20) were evaluated using contrasts: CON vs. RAC+, interaction of Zn level × source, Zn level linear and quadratic polynomials, and Zn source. There were no Zn source effects or Zn source × level interactions throughout the study (P > 0.10). Pigs fed RAC+ had increased (P < 0.02) percentage type IIX and a tendency for increased (P = 0.10) percent type IIB muscle fibers. Increasing added Zn decreased (linear, P = 0.01) percentage type IIA and tended to increase (P = 0.09) IIX muscle fibers. On d 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 of display, pork chops from pigs fed the RAC+ treatment had greater (P < 0.03) L* values compared to the CON. On d 0 and 3 of display, increasing added Zn tended to decrease (quadratic, P = 0.10) L* values and decreased (quadratic, P < 0.03) L* values on d 1, 2, 4, and 5. Pigs fed RAC+ had decreased (P < 0.05) a* values on d 1 and 4 of display and tended to have decreased (P < 0.10) a* values on d 0 and 2 compared to CON pork chops. Pork chops from the RAC+ treatment had a tendency for increased (P < 0.08) oxymyoglobin percentage compared to CON pork chops on d 1, 2, 4, and 5. On d 0, as dietary Zn increased in RAC+ diets, there was a decrease (linear, P < 0.01) in the formation of pork chop surface oxymyoglobin percentage. Metmyoglobin reducing ability (MRA) of pork chops on d 5 was decreased in the RAC+ group. Chops from pigs fed added Zn had increased (quadratic, P < 0.03) MRA on d 3 and 5 of the display period. There

  12. Male sex, height, weight, and body mass index can increase external pressure to calf region using knee-crutch-type leg holder system in lithotomy position.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Ju; Takahashi, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Well-leg compartment syndrome (WLCS) is one of the catastrophic complications related to prolonged surgical procedures performed in the lithotomy position, using a knee-crutch-type leg holder (KCLH) system, to support the popliteal fossae and calf regions. Obesity has been implicated as a risk factor in the lithotomy position-related WLCS during surgery. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the external pressure (EP) applied to the calf region using a KCLH system in the lithotomy position and selected physical characteristics. Twenty-one young, healthy volunteers (21.4±0.5 years of age, eleven males and ten females) participated in this study. The KCLH system used was Knee Crutch(®). We assessed four types of EPs applied to the calf region: box pressure, peak box pressure, contact pressure, and peak contact pressure, using pressure-distribution measurement system (BIG-MAT(®)). Relationships between these four EPs to the calf regions of both lower legs and a series of physical characteristics (sex, height, weight, and body mass index [BMI]) were analyzed. All four EPs applied to the bilateral calf regions were higher in males than in females. For all subjects, significant positive correlations were observed between all four EPs and height, weight, and BMI. EP applied to the calf region is higher in males than in females when the subject is supported by a KCLH system in the lithotomy position. In addition, EP increases with the increase in height, weight, and BMI. Therefore, male sex, height, weight, and BMI may contribute to the risk of inducing WLCS.

  13. The meat quality, muscle fiber characteristics and fatty acid profile in Jinjiang and F1 Simmental×Jinjiang yellow cattle.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yue; Wang, Shizhi; Yan, Peishi

    2018-02-01

    This study compared the meat quality, muscle fiber characteristics, and fatty acids between Jinjiang yellow cattle (JJ) and F1 Simmental×Jinjiang yellow cattle (SJ) which were offered the same diet. Six JJ and six SJ individuals were reared and fattened from 10 to 26 months of age. After feeding, the highrib (HR), ribeye (RB), and tenderloin (TL) samples were taken from the carcass for meat quality evaluations. The results showed that growth performance of SJ was higher than that of JJ (higher live weight and average daily gain), and the hot carcass weight of SJ was higher than that of JJ (p<0.05). pH of JJ was higher than that of SJ in TL (p<0.05); the color of a* of SJ was higher than that of JJ in TL and RB (p<0.05); the cooking loss of SJ was significantly lower than that of JJ in TL and RB (p<0.05); the shear force value was significantly lower in SJ compared to JJ (p<0.05); the muscle fiber diameter was higher and the fiber density was lower in SJ compared to JJ in HR and TL (p<0.05); compared to SJ, the muscles of JJ had higher saturated fatty acid (SFA) composition; the sum of monounsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) were lower in the muscle of JJ; the mRNA expressions of myosin heavy chain-I (MyHC-I) and MyHC-IIa were higher in SJ compared to JJ in muscle of HR and RB; the mRNA expressions of MyHC-IIx and MyHC-IIb were lower in SJ compared to JJ in HR and RB (p<0.05). Meat quality and fatty acid profile differed between SJ and JJ; the muscle of SJ had higher a* and SFA; SJ had lower cooking loss, shear force and PUFA compared to the muscle of JJ. In addition, the type and development characteristics of the muscle fiber had some difference between SJ and JJ; these might be factors which caused the differences in meat quality and fatty acid profile between SJ and JJ.

  14. The meat quality, muscle fiber characteristics and fatty acid profile in Jinjiang and F1 Simmental×Jinjiang yellow cattle

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yue; Wang, Shizhi

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study compared the meat quality, muscle fiber characteristics, and fatty acids between Jinjiang yellow cattle (JJ) and F1 Simmental×Jinjiang yellow cattle (SJ) which were offered the same diet. Methods Six JJ and six SJ individuals were reared and fattened from 10 to 26 months of age. After feeding, the highrib (HR), ribeye (RB), and tenderloin (TL) samples were taken from the carcass for meat quality evaluations. Results The results showed that growth performance of SJ was higher than that of JJ (higher live weight and average daily gain), and the hot carcass weight of SJ was higher than that of JJ (p<0.05). pH of JJ was higher than that of SJ in TL (p<0.05); the color of a* of SJ was higher than that of JJ in TL and RB (p<0.05); the cooking loss of SJ was significantly lower than that of JJ in TL and RB (p<0.05); the shear force value was significantly lower in SJ compared to JJ (p<0.05); the muscle fiber diameter was higher and the fiber density was lower in SJ compared to JJ in HR and TL (p<0.05); compared to SJ, the muscles of JJ had higher saturated fatty acid (SFA) composition; the sum of monounsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) were lower in the muscle of JJ; the mRNA expressions of myosin heavy chain-I (MyHC-I) and MyHC-IIa were higher in SJ compared to JJ in muscle of HR and RB; the mRNA expressions of MyHC-IIx and MyHC-IIb were lower in SJ compared to JJ in HR and RB (p<0.05). Conclusion Meat quality and fatty acid profile differed between SJ and JJ; the muscle of SJ had higher a* and SFA; SJ had lower cooking loss, shear force and PUFA compared to the muscle of JJ. In addition, the type and development characteristics of the muscle fiber had some difference between SJ and JJ; these might be factors which caused the differences in meat quality and fatty acid profile between SJ and JJ. PMID:28823135

  15. Effects of strength training on muscle strength characteristics, functional capabilities, and balance in middle-aged and older women.

    PubMed

    Holviala, Jarkko H S; Sallinen, Janne M; Kraemer, William J; Alen, Markku J; Häkkinen, Keijo K T

    2006-05-01

    Progressive strength training can lead to substantial increases in maximal strength and mass of trained muscles, even in older women and men, but little information is available about the effects of strength training on functional capabilities and balance. Thus, the effects of 21 weeks of heavy resistance training--including lower loads performed with high movement velocities--twice a week on isometric maximal force (ISOmax) and force-time curve (force produced in 500 milliseconds, F0-500) and dynamic 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength of the leg extensors, 10-m walking time (10WALK) and dynamic balance test (DYN.D) were investigated in 26 middle-aged (MI; 52.8 +/- 2.4 years) and 22 older women (O; 63.8 +/- 3.8 years). 1RM, ISOmax, and F0-500 increased significantly in MI by 28 +/- 10%, 20 +/- 19%, 31 +/- 34%, and in O by 27 +/- 8%, 20 +/- 16%, 18 +/- 45%, respectively. 10WALK (MI and O, p < 0.001) shortened and DYN.D improved (MI and O, p < 0.001). The present strength-training protocol led to large increases in maximal and explosive strength characteristics of leg extensors and in walking speed, as well to an improvement in the present dynamic balance test performance in both age groups. Although training-induced increase in explosive strength is an important factor for aging women, there are other factors that contribute to improvements in dynamic balance capacity. This study indicates that total body heavy resistance training, including explosive dynamic training, may be applied in rehabilitation or preventive exercise protocols in aging women to improve dynamic balance capabilities.

  16. Dependence of the paired motor unit analysis on motor unit discharge characteristics in the human tibialis anterior muscle

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Jennifer L.; Maluf, Katrina S.

    2011-01-01

    The paired motor unit analysis provides in vivo estimates of the magnitude of persistent inward currents (PIC) in human motoneurons by quantifying changes in the firing rate (ΔF) of an earlier recruited (reference) motor unit at the time of recruitment and derecruitment of a later recruited (test) motor unit. This study assessed the variability of ΔF estimates, and quantified the dependence of ΔF on the discharge characteristics of the motor units selected for analysis. ΔF was calculated for 158 pairs of motor units recorded from nine healthy individuals during repeated submaximal contractions of the tibialis anterior muscle. The mean (SD) ΔF was 3.7 (2.5) pps (range −4.2 to 8.9 pps). The median absolute difference in ΔF for the same motor unit pair across trials was 1.8 pps, and the minimal detectable change in ΔF required to exceed measurement error was 4.8 pps. ΔF was positively related to the amount of discharge rate modulation in the reference motor unit (r2=0.335; P<0.001), and inversely related to the rate of increase in discharge rate (r2=0.125; P<0.001). A quadratic function provided the best fit for relations between ΔF and the time between recruitment of the reference and test motor units (r2=0.229, P<0.001), the duration of test motor unit activity (r2=0.110, P<0.001), and the recruitment threshold of the test motor unit (r2=0.237, P<0.001). Physiological and methodological contributions to the variability in ΔF estimates of PIC magnitude are discussed, and selection criteria to reduce these sources of variability are suggested for the paired motor unit analysis. PMID:21459110

  17. Influence of blood flow occlusion on muscle oxygenation characteristics and the parameters of the power-duration relationship.

    PubMed

    Broxterman, R M; Ade, C J; Craig, J C; Wilcox, S L; Schlup, S J; Barstow, T J

    2015-04-01

    It was previously (Monod H, Scherrer J. Ergonomics 8: 329-338, 1965) postulated that blood flow occlusion during exercise would reduce critical power (CP) to 0 Watts (W), while not altering the curvature constant (W'). We empirically assessed the influence of blood flow occlusion on CP, W', and muscle oxygenation characteristics. Ten healthy men (age: 24.8 ± 2.6 yr; height: 180 ± 5 cm; weight: 84.6 ± 10.1 kg) completed four constant-power handgrip exercise tests during both control blood flow (control) and blood flow occlusion (occlusion) for the determination of the power-duration relationship. Occlusion CP (-0.7 ± 0.4 W) was significantly (P < 0.001) lower than control CP (4.1 ± 0.7 W) and significantly (P < 0.001) lower than 0 W. Occlusion W' (808 ± 155 J) was significantly (P < 0.001) different from control W' (558 ± 129 J), and all 10 subjects demonstrated an increased occlusion W' with a mean increase of ∼49%. The present findings support the aerobic nature of CP. The findings also demonstrate that the amount of work that can be performed above CP is constant for a given condition, but can vary across conditions. Moreover, this amount of work that can be performed above CP does not appear to be the determinant of W', but rather a consequence of the depletion of intramuscular energy stores and/or the accumulation of fatigue-inducing metabolites, which limit exercise tolerance and determine W'. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Center of Pressure Motion After Calf Vibration Is More Random in Fallers Than Non-fallers: Prospective Study of Older Individuals

    PubMed Central

    van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Kerr, Graham K.; van Dieën, Jaap H.; Hodges, Paul W.

    2018-01-01

    Aging is associated with changes in balance control and elderly take longer to adapt to changing sensory conditions, which may increase falls risk. Low amplitude calf muscle vibration stimulates local sensory afferents/receptors and affects sense of upright when applied in stance. It has been used to assess the extent the nervous system relies on calf muscle somatosensory information and to rapidly change/perturb part of the somatosensory information causing balance unsteadiness by addition and removal of the vibratory stimulus. This study assessed the effect of addition and removal of calf vibration on balance control (in the absence of vision) in elderly individuals (>65 years, n = 99) who did (n = 41) or did not prospectively report falls (n = 58), and in a group of young individuals (18–25 years, n = 23). Participants stood barefoot and blindfolded on a force plate for 135 s. Vibrators (60 Hz, 1 mm) attached bilaterally over the triceps surae muscles were activated twice for 15 s; after 15 and 75 s (45 s for recovery). Balance measures were applied in a windowed (15 s epoch) manner to compare center-of-pressure (CoP) motion before, during and after removal of calf vibration between groups. In each epoch, CoP motion was quantified using linear measures, and non-linear measures to assess temporal structure of CoP motion [using recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) and detrended fluctuation analysis]. Mean CoP displacement during and after vibration did not differ between groups, which suggests that calf proprioception and/or weighting assigned by the nervous system to calf proprioception was similar for the young and both groups of older individuals. Overall, compared to the elderly, CoP motion of young was more predictable and persistent. Balance measures were not different between fallers and non-fallers before and during vibration. However, non-linear aspects of CoP motion of fallers and non-fallers differed after removal of vibration, when dynamic re

  19. Dystocia in nine British breeds of cattle and its relationship to the dimensions of the dam and calf.

    PubMed

    Schwabe, A E; Hall, S J

    The degree of assistance provided at 1353 calvings from 954 heifers and cows of nine breeds of British cattle (Ayrshire, British White, Dexter, Friesian/Holstein type, Gloucester, Kerry, Longhorn, Shetland and White Park) was recorded and analysed in terms of the dimensions of the dam and the calf. The sires had been chosen in accordance with normal farming practice. A heavy calf did not lead to dystocia. Assistance at calving was most frequently provided in the Ayrshire herd, which was used for veterinary teaching. There were very few difficult calvings in the seven rare breeds, but this was as likely to have been due to management policy as to the breed characteristics. A large tuber coxae measurement was associated with ease of calving, particularly in the Dexter. The breeds showed a wide range of pelvic dimensions and therefore provide a source of genetic variation.

  20. Results of an online questionnaire to survey calf management practices on dairy cattle breeding farms in Austria and to estimate differences in disease incidences depending on farm structure and management practices.

    PubMed

    Klein-Jöbstl, Daniela; Arnholdt, Tim; Sturmlechner, Franz; Iwersen, Michael; Drillich, Marc

    2015-08-19

    Calf disease may result in great economic losses. To implement prevention strategies it is important to gain information on management and to point out risk factors. The objective of this internet based survey was to describe calf management practices on registered dairy breeding farms in Austria and to estimate differences in calf disease incidences depending on farm structure and management practices. A total of 1287 questionnaires were finally analysed (response rate 12.2 %). Herd characteristics and regional distribution of farms indicated that this survey gives a good overview on calf management practices on registered dairy farms in Austria. The median number of cows per farm was 20 (interquartile range 13-30). Significant differences regarding farm characteristics and calf management between small and large farms (≤20 vs >20 cows) were present. Only 2.8 % of farmers tested first colostrum quality by use of a hydrometer. Storing frozen colostrum was more prevalent on large farms (80.8 vs 64.2 %). On 85.1 % of the farms, whole milk, including waste milk, was fed to the calves. Milk replacer and waste milk were more often used on large farms. In accordance with similar studies from other countries, calf diarrhoea was indicated as the most prevalent disease. Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that herd size was associated with calf diarrhoea and calf respiratory tract disease, with higher risk of disease on large farms. Furthermore, feeding waste milk to the calves was associated with increasing calf diarrhoea incidence on farm. In the final model with calf respiratory tract disease as outcome, respondents from organic farms reported less often a respiratory tract disease incidence of over 10 % compared with conventional farms [odds ratio (OR) 0.40, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.21-0.75] and farmers that housed calves individually or in groups after birth significantly reported more often to have an incidence of respiratory tract

  1. Muscle biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... muscle ( myopathic changes ) Tissue death of the muscle (necrosis) Disorders that involve inflammation of the blood vessels and affect muscles ( necrotizing vasculitis ) Traumatic muscle damage ...

  2. Lack of independent effect of type 2 diabetes beyond characteristic comorbidities and medications on small muscle mass exercising muscle blood flow and exercise tolerance.

    PubMed

    Poitras, Veronica J; Bentley, Robert F; Hopkins-Rosseel, Diana H; LaHaye, Stephen A; Tschakovsky, Michael E

    2015-08-01

    Persons with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are believed to have reduced exercise tolerance; this may be partly due to impaired exercising muscle blood flow (MBF). Whether there is an impact of T2D on exercising MBF within the typical constellation of comorbidities (hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity) and their associated medications has not been investigated. We tested the hypothesis that small muscle mass exercise tolerance is reduced in persons with T2D versus Controls (matched for age, body mass index, fitness, comorbidities, non-T2D medications) and that this is related to blunted MBF. Eight persons with T2D and eight controls completed a forearm critical force (fCFimpulse) test as a measure of exercise tolerance (10-min intermittent maximal effort forearm contractions; the average contraction impulse in the last 30 sec quantified fCFimpulse). Forearm blood flow (FBF; ultrasound) and mean arterial pressure (MAP; finger photoplethysmography) were measured; forearm vascular conductance (FVK) was calculated. Data are means ± SD, T2D versus Control. fCFimpulse was not different between groups (136.9 ± 47.3  N·sec vs. 163.1 ± 49.7 N·sec, P = 0.371) nor was the ∆FBF from rest to during exercise at fCFimpulse (502.9 ± 144.6 vs. 709.1 ± 289.2 mL/min, P = 0.092), or its determinants ∆FVK and ∆MAP (both P > 0.05), although there was considerable interindividual variability. ∆FBF was strongly related to fCFimpulse (r = 0.727, P = 0.002), providing support for the relationship between oxygen delivery and exercise tolerance. We conclude that small muscle mass exercising MBF and exercise tolerance are not impaired in representative persons with T2D versus appropriately matched controls. This suggests that peripheral vascular control impairment does not contribute to reduced exercise tolerance in this population. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and

  3. Lack of independent effect of type 2 diabetes beyond characteristic comorbidities and medications on small muscle mass exercising muscle blood flow and exercise tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Poitras, Veronica J; Bentley, Robert F; Hopkins-Rosseel, Diana H; LaHaye, Stephen A; Tschakovsky, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Persons with type 2 diabetes (T2D) are believed to have reduced exercise tolerance; this may be partly due to impaired exercising muscle blood flow (MBF). Whether there is an impact of T2D on exercising MBF within the typical constellation of comorbidities (hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity) and their associated medications has not been investigated. We tested the hypothesis that small muscle mass exercise tolerance is reduced in persons with T2D versus Controls (matched for age, body mass index, fitness, comorbidities, non-T2D medications) and that this is related to blunted MBF. Eight persons with T2D and eight controls completed a forearm critical force (fCFimpulse) test as a measure of exercise tolerance (10-min intermittent maximal effort forearm contractions; the average contraction impulse in the last 30 sec quantified fCFimpulse). Forearm blood flow (FBF; ultrasound) and mean arterial pressure (MAP; finger photoplethysmography) were measured; forearm vascular conductance (FVK) was calculated. Data are means ± SD, T2D versus Control. fCFimpulse was not different between groups (136.9 ± 47.3  N·sec vs. 163.1 ± 49.7 N·sec, P = 0.371) nor was the ΔFBF from rest to during exercise at fCFimpulse (502.9 ± 144.6 vs. 709.1 ± 289.2 mL/min, P = 0.092), or its determinants ΔFVK and ΔMAP (both P > 0.05), although there was considerable interindividual variability. ΔFBF was strongly related to fCFimpulse (r = 0.727, P = 0.002), providing support for the relationship between oxygen delivery and exercise tolerance. We conclude that small muscle mass exercising MBF and exercise tolerance are not impaired in representative persons with T2D versus appropriately matched controls. This suggests that peripheral vascular control impairment does not contribute to reduced exercise tolerance in this population. PMID:26265750

  4. Effects of transportation during the hot season, breed and electrical stimulation on histochemical and meat quality characteristics of goat longissimus muscle.

    PubMed

    Kadim, Isam T; Mahgoub, Osman; Al-Marzooqi, Waleed; Khalaf, Samera; Al-Sinawi, Shadia S H; Al-Amri, Issa

    2010-06-01

    The effects of transportation and electrical stimulation (90 V) on physiological, histochemical and meat quality characteristics of two breeds of Omani goats were assessed. Twenty 1-year-old male goats from each breed (Batina and Dhofari) were divided into two groups: 3 h transported during the hot season (42 degrees C day time temperature) and non-transported. Animals were blood-sampled before loading and prior to slaughter. Electrical stimulation was applied 20 min postmortem to 50% randomly selected carcasses of both breeds. Temperature and pH decline of the Longissimus was monitored. Ultimate pH, shear force, sarcomere length, myofibrillar fragmentation index, expressed juice, cooking loss and colour were measured from samples of Longissimus dorsi muscles. Electrical stimulation and transportation had a significant effect on most biochemical and meat quality characteristics of Longissimus dorsi. The transported goats had higher plasma cortisol (P < 0.01), adrenaline, nor-adrenaline and dopamine concentrations (P < 0.05) than non-transported goats. Electrical stimulation resulted in a significantly (P < 0.05) more rapid muscle pH fall during the first 12 h after slaughter. Muscles from electrically-stimulated carcasses had significantly (P < 0.05) longer sarcomeres, lower shear force value, a lighter colour (higher L* value), higher expressed juice and myofibrillar fragmentation index than those from non-stimulated ones. Meat from transported goats had significantly higher pH, expressed juice and shear force, but contained significantly lower sarcomere length and L* values than non-transported goats. The proportion of the myosin ATPase staining did not change as a function of stimulation, transportation or breed. These results indicated that subjecting goats to transportation for 3 h under high ambient temperatures can generate major physiological and muscle metabolism responses. Electrical stimulation improved quality characteristics of meat from both groups

  5. Colour of fat, and colour, fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics of muscle from heifers offered alternative forages to grass silage in a finishing ration.

    PubMed

    Moloney, A P; Mooney, M T; Kerry, J P; Stanton, C; O'Kiely, P

    2013-11-01

    The effect of type of silage offered to beef heifers during the finishing period on aspects of beef quality was determined. In two experiments, a diet based on grass silage (GS) was compared with a diet based on maize silage (MS) or whole-crop wheat silage (WCW). Compared to the GS-based diet, increasing the amount of MS linearly increased fat whiteness while the increase in fat whiteness due to WCW was dependent on the stage of crop maturity at harvesting. There was no effect of diet on muscle colour or on muscle pH measured at 48h post-mortem, drip loss, taste panel traits after 14days ageing or shear force values at 2, 7 or 14days ageing. The alternative silages decreased the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid proportion and increased the linoleic:linolenic acid ratio in intramuscular lipid. It is concluded that type of silage affects fat colour and fatty acid composition of muscle but not the other muscle characteristics examined. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of rice whole-crop silage diet on growth performance, carcass and meat characteristics and muscle-related gene expression in Japanese Black steers.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Masahiro; Hikino, Yasuko; Imanari, Mai; Matsumoto, Kazunori; Yamamoto, Naoyuki

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the influence of a diet largely comprising rice whole-crop silage (rWCS) on growth performance, carcass and meat characteristics, and expression of genes involved in muscle growth of Japanese Black steers. Steers were randomly separated into rWCS-fed (rWCS ad libitum and restricted feeding of concentrate) and concentrate-fed groups. Total digestible nutrient intake and daily gain (DG) decreased in rWCS-fed steers in comparison with concentrate-fed steers, whereas dressed carcass weight and final body weight did not significantly differ between the groups. Decreases in drip loss in the muscle of rWCS-fed steers may be caused by α-tocopherol and β-carotene in muscle. Feeding large amounts of rWCS to steers may maintain quantitative productivity of beef steers equally to a concentrate-based diet, and improve the qualitative productivity. Results of gene expression suggest that activation of skeletal muscle growth in rWCS-fed steers may occur at the late fattening period owing to a decrease in myostatin and increase in myosin heavy chain gene expression. Preadipocyte factor-1 and myostatin genes may be strongly involved in the control of lipid accumulation. This rearing system would allow beef production to switch to rWCS-based diets from concentrate-based diets. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. Metabolic responses to the seated calf press exercise performed against inertial resistance.

    PubMed

    Caruso, John F; Herron, Jacquelyn C; Hernandez, Daniel A; Porter, Aaron; Schweickert, Torrey; Manning, Tommy F

    2005-11-01

    Future in-flight strength training devices may use inertial resistance to abate mass and strength losses to muscle groups such as the triceps surae, which incurs pronounced deficits from space travel. Yet little data exist regarding physiological outcomes to triceps surae exercise performed against inertial resistance. Two sets of subjects were employed to note either blood lactate (La-) or net caloric cost responses to seated calf presses done on an inertial resistance ergometer. Both sets of subjects performed 3 identical 3-set 10-repetition workouts. Blood La- measurements were made pre- and 5 min post-exercise. During workouts, breath-by-breath O2 uptake values were also recorded to help determine the net caloric cost of exercise. Compared to pre-exercise (mean +/- SEM) blood La- (2.01 +/- 0.08 mmol x L(-1)) values, post-exercise (4.73 +/- 0.24 mmol x L(-1)) measurements showed a significant increase. Delta (post/pre differences) La- correlated significantly (r = 0.31-0.34) to several workout performance measures. Net caloric cost averaged 52.82 +/- 3.26 kcals for workouts; multivariate regression showed a subject's height, body mass, and body surface area described the variance associated with energy expenditure. Workouts evoked minimal energy expenditure, though anaerobic glycolysis likely played a major role in ATP resynthesis. Metabolic and exercise performance measures were likely influenced by series elastic element involvement of the triceps surae-Achilles tendon complex. Ergometer calf presses provided a high-intensity workout stimulus with a minimal metabolic cost.

  8. Chronic Plantarflexor Stretching During Ankle Immobilization Helps Preserve Calf Girth, Plantarflexion Peak Torque, and Ankle Dorsiflexion Motion.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Samantha; Christensen, Bryan; Gange, Kara; Todden, Christopher; Hatterman-Valenti, Harlene; Albrecht, Jay M

    2017-09-27

    Chronic plantarflexor (PF) stretching during ankle immobilization helps preserve calf girth, plantarflexion peak torque, and ankle dorsiflexion (DF) motion. Immobilization can lead to decreases in muscle peak torque, muscle size, and joint ROM. Recurrent static stretching during a period of immobilization may reduce the extent of these losses. To investigate the effects of chronic static stretching on PF peak torque, calf girth, and DF range of motion (ROM) after two weeks of ankle immobilization. Randomized controlled clinical trial. Athletic training facility. Thirty-six healthy college-aged (19.81±2.48) females. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: control group, immobilized group (IM), and immobilized plus stretching group (IM+S). Each group participated in a familiarization period, a pre-test, and, two weeks later, a post-test. The IM group and IM+S group wore the Aircast FP Walker for two weeks on the left leg. During this time, the IM+S group participated in a stretching program, which consisted of two 10-minute stretching procedures each day for the 14 days. One-way ANOVA was used to determine differences in the change of ankle girth, PF peak torque, and DF ROM between groups with an α level of < 0.05. A significant difference was noted between groups in girth (F 2,31 =5.64, P=0.009), DF ROM (F 2,31 =26.13, P<0.0001), and PF peak torque (F 2,31 =7.74, P=0.002). Post-hoc testing also showed a significance difference between change in calf girth of the control group compared to the IM group (P=0.007) and a significant difference in change of peak torque in the IM+S group and the IM group (P=0.001). Also, a significant difference was shown in DF ROM between the control group and IM+S group (P=0.006), the control group and the IM group (P<0.0001), and the IM+S group and the IM group (P<0.0001). Chronic static stretching during two weeks of immobilization may decrease the loss of calf girth, ankle PF peak torque, and ankle DF ROM.

  9. Characteristics of muscle dysmorphia in male football, weight training, and competitive natural and non-natural bodybuilding samples.

    PubMed

    Baghurst, Timothy; Lirgg, Cathy

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify differences in traits associated with muscle dysmorphia between collegiate football players (n=66), weight trainers for physique (n=115), competitive non-natural bodybuilders (n=47), and competitive natural bodybuilders (n=65). All participants completed demographic questionnaires in addition to the Muscle Dysmorphia Inventory (Rhea, Lantz, & Cornelius, 2004). Results revealed a significant main effect for group, and post hoc tests found that the non-natural bodybuilding group did not score significantly higher than the natural bodybuilding group on any subscale except for Pharmacological Use. Both the non-natural and natural bodybuilding groups scored significantly higher than those that weight trained for physique on the Dietary Behavior and Supplement Use subscales. The collegiate football players scored lowest on all subscales of the Muscle Dysmorphia Inventory except for Physique Protection where they scored highest. Findings are discussed with future research expounded.

  10. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation improves GLUT-4 and morphological characteristics of skeletal muscle in rats with heart failure.

    PubMed

    de Leon, E B; Bortoluzzi, A; Rucatti, A; Nunes, R B; Saur, L; Rodrigues, M; Oliveira, U; Alves-Wagner, A B; Xavier, L L; Machado, U F; Schaan, B D; Dall'Ago, P

    2011-02-01

    Changes in skeletal muscle morphology and metabolism are associated with limited functional capacity in heart failure, which can be attenuated by neuromuscular electrical stimulation (ES). The purpose of the present study was to analyse the effects of ES upon GLUT-4 protein content, fibre structure and vessel density of the skeletal muscle in a rat model of HF subsequent to myocardial infarction. Forty-four male Wistar rats were assigned to one of four groups: sham (S), sham submitted to ES (S+ES), heart failure (HF) and heart failure submitted to ES (HF+ES). The rats in the ES groups were submitted to ES of the left leg during 20 days (2.5 kHz, once a day, 30 min, duty cycle 50%- 15 s contraction/15 s rest). After this period, the left tibialis anterior muscle was collected from all the rats for analysis. HF+ES rats showed lower values of lung congestion when compared with HF rats (P = 0.0001). Although muscle weight was lower in HF rats than in the S group, thus indicating hypotrophy, 20 days of ES led to their recovery (P < 0.0001). In both groups submitted to ES, there was an increase in muscle vessel density (P < 0.04). Additionally, heart failure determined a 49% reduction in GLUT-4 protein content (P < 0.03), which was recovered by ES (P < 0.01). In heart failure, ES improves morphological changes and raises GLUT-4 content in skeletal muscle. © 2010 The Authors. Acta Physiologica © 2010 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  11. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes and Pathways for Myofiber Characteristics in Soleus Muscles between Chicken Breeds Differing in Meat Quality.

    PubMed

    Du, Y F; Ding, Q L; Li, Y M; Fang, W R

    2017-04-03

    In the modern chicken industry, fast-growing broilers have undergone strong artificial selection for muscle growth, which has led to remarkable phenotypic variations compared with slow-growing chickens. However, the molecular mechanism underlying these phenotypes differences remains unknown. In this study, a systematic identification of candidate genes and new pathways related to myofiber development and composition in chicken Soleus muscle (SOL) has been made using gene expression profiles of two distinct breeds: Qingyuan partridge (QY), a slow-growing Chinese breed possessing high meat quality and Cobb 500 (CB), a commercial fast-growing broiler line. Agilent cDNA microarray analyses were conducted to determine gene expression profiles of soleus muscle sampled at sexual maturity age of QY (112 d) and CB (42 d). The 1318 genes with at least 2-fold differences were identified (P < 0.05, FDR <0.05, FC ≥ 2) in SOL muscles of QY and CB chickens. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to muscle development, energy metabolism or lipid metabolism processes were examined further in each breed based on Gene Ontology (GO) analysis, and 11 genes involved in these processes were selected for further validation studies by qRT-PCR. In addition, based on KEGG pathway analysis of DEGs in both QY and CB chickens, it was found that in addition to pathways affecting myogenic fibre-type development and differentiation (pathways for Hedgehog & Calcium signaling), energy metabolism (Phosphatidylinositol signaling system, VEGF signaling pathway, Purine metabolism, Pyrimidine metabolism) were also enriched and might form a network with pathways related to muscle metabolism to influence the development of myofibers. This study is the first stage in the understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying variations in poultry meat quality. Large scale analyses are now required to validate the role of the genes identified and ultimately to find molecular markers that can be

  12. Correlation of fresh muscle firmness with sensory characteristics of pork loins destined for a quality focused market.

    PubMed

    Arkfeld, E K; Mancini, S; Fields, B; Dilger, A C; Boler, D D

    2015-10-01

    Production of pork for quality-driven export markets offers economic incentive. Pork processors use subjective firmness as a sorting tool for loins intended for high-quality export. The objectives of this study were to determine 1) durometer efficacy in muscle, 2) if firmness on one portion of the loin is indicative of other locations, 3) if 1 d firmness is related to export quality traits, and 4) if variation in firmness is explained by mechanistic measures. Subjective firmness scores (1 = extremely soft and 5 = extremely firm) were determined by a trained individual 1 d (initial time point) postmortem. Loins (North American Meat Processors number 414 Canadian back; = 154) were wet aged for 28 d at 1.7°C. On d 28, a panel of 4 individuals assigned firmness scores on the ventral side of the loin at the area of the 10th rib, the anterior half, and the posterior half of the loin. Durometer readings were collected at the area of the 10th rib on the dorsal and ventral side of the loin. Spearman correlation coefficients were computed in SAS (version 9.3) to account for nonnormality of categorical data. Subjective firmness measurements at d 28 at the 10th rib and on the anterior portion of the loin were not correlated ( ≥ 0.21) with whole loin durometer readings on the dorsal or ventral portion of the loin or the average of the whole loin values. Subjective firmness (d 28) at the 10th rib accounted for 38.44 ( = 0.620) and 48.30% ( = 0.695) of the variation in firmness at the anterior portion of the loin and the posterior portion of the loin, respectively ( ≤ 0.05). One-day subjective firmness measurements were correlated with 28-d Warner-Bratzler shear force measurements ( = 0.174, = 0.03) but were not significantly correlated with sensory characteristics ( ≥ 0.08). Purge tended to be correlated with 1 d firmness ( = 0.136, = 0.10); however, drip and cooking loss, 24-h and 28-d pH, and soluble and insoluble collagen content were not correlated ( ≥ 0

  13. [Alteration of metabolic characteristics on the masseter muscle fiber of unilateral chewing rats and its adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase regulatory mechanism].

    PubMed

    Andi, Shi; Lin, Zeng; Jing, Liu

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to determine the influence of unilateral chewing on metabolic characteristics of masseter muscle fibers in rats and the regulatory effect of an adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) signal pathway on metabolism. Rats were submitted to exodontia of all the right maxillary molars and divided into 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks groups, and corresponding control groups were set as well. Sections were stained by nicotine adenine dinucleotide tetrazolim reductase(NADH-TRase) to demonstrate the types, proportion, and density of masseter muscle fibers. AMPKα1 and p-AMPK(Thr172) levels in bilateral masseter muscles were detected by Western blot. In the 2-week group, the percentage of dark fibers augmented in the ipsilateral side, whereas the percentage of intermediary fibers in the contralateral side was increased accompanied by a decrease of light fibers, compared with the control group (P<0.05). The percentage of dark fibers was increased in the bilateral sides, whereas the percentage of dark fiber in the ipsilateral sides surpassed that of the contralateral sides in the 4, 6, and 8-week groups. The percentage of intermediary fibers was decreased in the bilateral sides in the 6 and 8-week groups (P<0.05). The percentage of light fibers was reduced in the ipsilateral sides in the 8-week group, whereas no alteration was observed in contralateral sides (P>0.05). In the ipsilateral sides, p-AMPK (Thr172)/AMPKα1 levels were increased in the 2 and 4-week groups (P<0.05), whereas no change was observed in the contralateral sides in either group (P>0.05). Unilateral chewing increases the oxidative metabolic ability in bilateral masseter muscle fibers especially in the non-working side accompanied with change of muscle fiber types. The improvement of aerobic metabolism ability is related to the AMPK signal pathway.
.

  14. Altered fast- and slow-twitch muscle fibre characteristics in female mice with a (S248F) knock-in mutation of the brain neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Cannata, David J; Finkelstein, David I; Gantois, Ilse; Teper, Yaroslav; Drago, John; West, Jan M

    2009-01-01

    We generated a mouse line with a missense mutation (S248F) in the gene (CHRNA4) encoding the alpha4 subunit of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). Mutant mice demonstrate brief nicotine induced dystonia that resembles the clinical events seen in patients with the same mutation. Drug-induced dystonia is more pronounced in female mice, thus our aim was to determine if the S248F mutation changed the properties of fast- and slow-twitch muscle fibres from female mutant mice. Reverse transcriptase-PCR confirmed CHRNA4 gene expression in the brain but not skeletal muscles in normal and mutant mice. Ca(2+) and Sr(2+) force activation curves were obtained using skinned muscle fibres prepared from slow-twitch (soleus) and fast-twitch (EDL) muscles. Two significant results were found: (1) the (pCa(50) - pSr(50)) value from EDL fibres was smaller in mutant mice than in wild type (1.01 vs. 1.30), (2) the percentage force produced at pSr 5.5 was larger in mutants than in wild type (5.76 vs. 0.24%). Both results indicate a shift to slow-twitch characteristics in the mutant. This conclusion is supported by the identification of the myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. Mutant EDL fibres expressed MHC I (usually only found in slow-twitch fibres) as well as MHC IIa. Despite the lack of spontaneous dystonic events, our findings suggest that mutant mice may be having subclinical events or the mutation results in a chronic alteration to muscle neural input.

  15. Predicting red meat yields in carcasses from beef-type and calf-fed Holstein steers using the United States Department of Agriculture calculated yield grade.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, T E; Elam, N A; Miller, M F; Brooks, J C; Hilton, G G; VanOverbeke, D L; McKeith, F K; Killefer, J; Montgomery, T H; Allen, D M; Griffin, D B; Delmore, R J; Nichols, W T; Streeter, M N; Yates, D A; Hutcheson, J P

    2010-06-01

    Analyses were conducted to evaluate the ability of the USDA yield grade equation to detect differences in subprimal yield of beef-type steers and calf-fed Holstein steers that had been fed zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; Intervet Inc., Millsboro, DE) as well as those that had not been fed ZH. Beef-type steer (n = 801) and calf-fed Holstein steer (n = 235) carcasses were fabricated into subprimal cuts and trim. Simple correlations between calculated yield grades and total red meat yields ranged from -0.56 to -0.62 for beef-type steers. Reliable correlations from calf-fed Holstein steers were unobtainable; the probability of a type I error met or exceeded 0.39. Linear models were developed for the beef-type steers to predict total red meat yield based on calculated USDA yield grade within each ZH duration. At an average calculated USDA yield grade of 2.9, beef-type steer carcasses that had not been fed ZH had an estimated 69.4% red meat yield, whereas those fed ZH had an estimated 70.7% red meat yield. These results indicate that feeding ZH increased red meat yield by 1.3% at a constant calculated yield grade. However, these data also suggest that the calculated USDA yield grade score is a poor and variable estimator (adjusted R(2) of 0.31 to 0.38) of total red meat yield of beef-type steer carcasses, regardless of ZH feeding. Moreover, no relationship existed (adjusted R(2) of 0.00 to 0.01) for calf-fed Holstein steer carcasses, suggesting the USDA yield grade is not a valid estimate of calf-fed Holstein red meat yield.

  16. Differential changes in myoelectric characteristics of slow and fast fatigable frog muscle fibres during long-lasting activity.

    PubMed

    Vydevska-Chichova, M; Mileva, K; Radicheva, N

    2007-04-01

    The electrical activity of different muscle fibre types during fatigue at varying stimulation frequency and fibre stretch was studied. Extracellular action potentials (ECAPs) were recorded from isolated frog muscle fibres at initial length and stretched by 15%, 25% and 35% and stimulated for 180 s by suprathreshold pulses with frequencies of 5, 6.7 and 10Hz. The changes in ECAP negative phase duration (T(0)), propagation velocity of excitation (PV), potential power spectrum and its median frequency (MDF) were analysed for the period of uninterrupted activity (endurance time, ET). Slow (SMF) and fast (FMF) fatigable muscle fibre types were distinguished by the rate of PV decrease during ET. With the increase of stimulation frequency and fibre stretch, the rate of ECAP parameter changes increased and was larger in FMF, but this proportion was reversed with stretching over 25% and 10Hz stimulation. In both fibre types the power spectrum shift to lower frequencies during continuous activity was more pronounced with higher stimulation frequency. In FMFs the rates of MDF changes were positively and more strongly correlated with the rates of PV changes, whilst in SMFs the inverse correlation between the rates of changes of MDF and T(0) was stronger. The results indicate specific adaptation of slow and fast fatigable muscle fibres to stretch and activation frequency due to the differences in their membrane processes.

  17. Effect of vitamin D status improvement with 25-hydroxycholecalciferol on skeletal muscle growth characteristics and satellite cell activity in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Hutton, K C; Vaughn, M A; Litta, G; Turner, B J; Starkey, J D

    2014-08-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells (SC) play a critical role in the hypertrophic growth of postnatal muscle. Increases in breast meat yield have been consistently observed in broiler chickens fed 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD3), but it is unclear whether this effect is mediated by SC. Thus, our objective was to determine the effect of vitamin D status improvement by replacing the majority of dietary vitamin D3 (D3) with 25OHD3 on SC activity and muscle growth characteristics in the pectoralis major (PM) and the biceps femoris (BF) muscles. Day-old, male Ross 708 broiler chickens (n = 150) were fed 1 of 2 corn and soybean meal-based diets for 49 d. The control diet (CTL) contained 5,000 IU D3 per kg of diet and the experimental diet (25OHD3) contained 2,240 IU D3 per kg of diet + 2,760 IU 25OHD3 per kg of diet. Ten birds per treatment were harvested every 7 d. Two hours before harvest, birds were injected intraperitoneally with 5'-bromo-2'deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label mitotically active cells. Blood was collected from each bird at harvest to measure circulating concentrations of 25OHD3, a marker of vitamin D status. The PM and BF muscles were weighed and processed for cryohistological determination of skeletal muscle fiber cross-sectional area, enumeration of Myf-5+ and Pax7+ SC, and mitotically active (BrdU+) SC using immunofluorescence microscopy. Circulating 25OHD3 concentrations were greater in 25OHD3-fed birds on d 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, and 49 when compared with CTL (P < 0.001). Growth performance and feed efficiency did not differ among dietary treatments (P > 0.10). Improved vitamin D status as a result of feeding 25OHD3 increased the number of mitotically active (Pax7+;BrdU+) SC (P = 0.01) and tended to increase the density of Pax7+ SC (P = 0.07) in the PM muscles of broilers on d 21 and 35, respectively. Broiler chickens fed 25OHD3 also tended to have greater Myf-5+ SC density (P = 0.09) on d 14, greater total nuclear density (P = 0.05) on d 28, and a

  18. High-Resolution Echo-Planar Spectroscopic Imaging of the Human Calf

    PubMed Central

    Weis, Jan; Bruvold, Morten; Ortiz-Nieto, Francisco; Ahlström, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    Background This study exploits the speed benefits of echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI) to acquire lipid spectra of skeletal muscle. The main purpose was to develop a high-resolution EPSI technique for clinical MR scanner, to visualise the bulk magnetic susceptibility (BMS) shifts of extra-myocellular lipid (EMCL) spectral lines, and to investigate the feasibility of this method for the assessment of intra-myocellular (IMCL) lipids. Methods The study group consisted of six healthy volunteers. A two dimensional EPSI sequence with point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) spatial localization was implemented on a 3T clinical MR scanner. Measurements were performed by means of 64×64 spatial matrix and nominal voxel size 3×3×15 mm3. The total net measurement time was 3 min 12 sec for non-water-suppressed (1 acquisition) and 12 min 48 sec for water-suppressed scans (4 acquisitions). Results Spectra of the human calf had a very good signal-to-noise ratio and linewidths sufficient to differentiate IMCL resonances from EMCL. The use of a large spatial matrix reduces inter-voxel signal contamination of the strong EMCL signals. Small voxels enabled visualisation of the methylene EMCL spectral line splitting and their BMS shifts up to 0.5 ppm relative to the correspondent IMCL line. The mean soleus muscle IMCL content of our six volunteers was 0.30±0.10 vol% (range 0.18–0.46) or 3.6±1.2 mmol/kg wet weight (range: 2.1–5.4). Conclusion This study demonstrates that high-spatial resolution PRESS EPSI of the muscle lipids is feasible on standard clinical scanners. PMID:24498129

  19. Calf management practices and associations with herd-level morbidity and mortality on beef cow-calf operations.

    PubMed

    Murray, C F; Fick, L J; Pajor, E A; Barkema, H W; Jelinski, M D; Windeyer, M C

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate calf management practices on beef cow-calf operations and determine associations with herd-level morbidity and mortality of pre-weaned calves. A 40-question survey about management practices, morbidity and mortality was administered to cow-calf producers by distributing paper surveys and by circulating an online link through various media. A total of 267 producers completed the survey. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and multivariable linear regression models. Average herd-level treatment risk for pre-weaning calf diarrhea (PCD) and bovine respiratory disease (BRD) were 4.9% and 3.0%, respectively. Average herd-level mortality within the first 24 h of life (stillbirth), from 1 to 7 days and 7 days to weaning were 2.3%, 1.1%, and 1.4%, respectively. Operations that never intervened at parturition had 4.7% higher PCD than those that occasionally did. On operations using small elastrator bands for castration, PCD was 1.9% higher than those using other methods. For every increase of 100 cows in herd size, BRD decreased by 1.1%. The association between BRD and PCD varied by when calving season began. Operations that used off-farm, frozen colostrum had a 1.1% increase in stillbirths. Operations that verified a calf had suckled had 0.7% lower mortality from 1 to 7 days of age. Those that intervened when colostrum was abnormal or that used small elastrator bands for castration had 1.9% and 1.4% higher mortality during the 1st week of life, respectively, compared with other operations. Mortality from 7 days to weaning was lower by 0.7% when calving season started in April compared with January or February and was higher by 1.0% for each additional week of calving season. Operations that intervened with colostrum consumption for assisted calvings had lower mortality from 7 days to weaning by 0.8% compared with those that did not. For every 1.0% increase in BRD, mortality from 7 days to weaning increased by 1

  20. CE-TOF MS-based metabolomic profiling revealed characteristic metabolic pathways in postmortem porcine fast and slow type muscles.

    PubMed

    Muroya, Susumu; Oe, Mika; Nakajima, Ikuyo; Ojima, Koichi; Chikuni, Koichi

    2014-12-01

    To determine key compounds and metabolic pathways associated with meat quality, we profiled metabolites in postmortem porcine longissimus lumborum (LL) and vastus intermedius (VI) muscles with different aging times by global metabolomics using capillary electrophoresis-time of flight mass spectrometry. Loading analyses of the principal component analysis showed that hydrophilic amino acids and β-alanine-related compounds contributed to the muscle type positively and negatively, respectively, whereas glycolytic and ATP degradation products contributed to aging time. At 168h postmortem, LL samples were characterized by abundance of combinations of amino acids, dipeptides, and glycolytic products, whereas the VI samples were characterized by abundance of both sulfur-containing compounds and amino acids. The AMP and inosine contents in the VI were approx. 10 times higher than those in the LL at 4h postmortem, suggesting different rates of inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) accumulation by adenylate kinase 7 and 5'-nucleotidase, and subsequent different production levels of IMP and hypoxanthine between these two porcine muscles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes of hypertonic saline-induced masseter muscle pain characteristics, by an infusion of the serotonin receptor type 3 antagonist granisetron.

    PubMed

    Christidis, Nikolaos; Ioannidou, Kiriaki; Milosevic, Milena; Segerdahl, Märta; Ernberg, Malin

    2008-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether granisetron reduces masseter muscle pain and allodynia induced by hypertonic saline. Fifteen healthy women and 15 age-matched healthy men participated in this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study. They first received bilateral injections of hypertonic saline into the masseter muscles (internal control). The evoked pain intensity and the pressure-pain threshold (PPT) were recorded during 30 minutes. Granisetron was then injected on one side and placebo (normal saline) on the contralateral side. Two minutes thereafter, the hypertonic saline injections were repeated. Pain and PPT were again recorded. The first injection of hypertonic saline induced pain of similar intensity, duration, and pain area on both sides, but with larger pain area in the women (P = .017). The PPT did not change significantly. The second injection of hypertonic saline induced considerably less pain (62.5%), of shorter duration (44.1%), and of smaller area (77.4%) on the side pretreated with granisetron (P = .005). The PPT was increased on the granisetron side in the men (P = .002). The results of this study show that local injection of a single dose of granisetron attenuates masseter muscle pain induced by hypertonic saline. This article presents the changes of hypertonic saline-induced masseter muscle pain characteristics by infusion of granisetron. It appears that the pain-inducing effect in this experimental pain model is partly due to activation of 5-HT3-receptors. Hence, the results indicate that granisetron might offer a new treatment approach for localized myofascial pain.

  2. Evolutionary adaptation of muscle power output to environmental temperature: force-velocity characteristics of skinned fibres isolated from antarctic, temperate and tropical marine fish.

    PubMed

    Johnston, I A; Altringham, J D

    1985-09-01

    Single fast fibres were isolated from the myotomal muscles of icefish (Chaenocephalus aceratus Lönnberg, Antarctica), North Sea Cod (Gadus morhua L.) and Pacific Blue Marlin (Makaira nigricans Wakiya, Hawaii). Fibres were chemically skinned with the non-ionic detergent Brij-58. Maximum tensions (Po, kN m-2) developed at the characteristic body temperature of each species are 231 for icefish (-1 degree C), 187 for cod (8 degrees C) and 156 for marlin (20 degrees C). At 0 degree C Po is 7 times higher for fibres from the icefish than from the marlin. Fibres from icefish and cod failed to relax completely following activations at temperatures above approximately 12 degrees C. The resultant post-contraction force is associated with a proportional increase in stiffness, suggesting the formation of a population of Ca-insensitive cross bridges. At 10 degrees C there is little interspecific variation in unloaded contraction velocity (Vmax) among the three species. Vmax (muscle lengths s-1) at normal body temperatures are 0.9 for icefish (-1 degree C), 1.0 for cod (8 degrees C) and 3.4 for marlin (20 degrees C). The force-velocity (P-V) relationship becomes progressively more curved with increasing temperature for all three species. Maximum power output for the fast muscle fibres from the Antarctic species at -1 degree C is around 60% of that of the tropical fish at 20 degrees C. Evolutionary temperature compensation of muscle power output appears largely to involve differences in the ability of cross bridges to generate force.

  3. Skeletal muscle metaboreflex in patients with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Paulo J C; Silva, Leonardo R; Maldamer, Vinicius Z; Cipriano, Gerson; Chiappa, Adriana M G; Schuster, Rodrigo; Boni, Victor H F; Grandi, Tatiani; Wolpat, Andiara; Roseguini, Bruno T; Chiappa, Gaspar R

    2017-03-01

    The sympathetic nervous system is affected in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). This study tested the hypothesis that patients with CRF have an altered skeletal muscle metaboreflex. Twenty patients with CRF and 18 healthy subjects of similar age participated in the study. The muscle metaboreflex was determined based on heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure, calf blood flow and calf vascular resistance (CVR) in response to handgrip exercise. The control of vascular resistance in the calf muscle mediated by the metaboreflex was estimated by subtracting the area under the curve with circulatory occlusion from that without occlusion. Arterial pressure and HR responses during exercise and recovery were similar in two groups of subjects. In the control group, CVR increased during exercise and remained elevated during circulatory occlusion, whereas no significant change was seen in the patients. Thus, the index of the metaboreflex was 7·82 ± 9·57 in the patients versus16·52 ± 14 units in the controls. The findings demonstrate that patients with CRF have a decreased vascular resistance response in the calf during the handgrip exercise, which suggests that CRF condition attenuates this reflex. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. beta-Galactoside-binding muscle lectins of man and monkey show antigenic cross-reactions with those of bovine origin.

    PubMed Central

    Childs, R A; Feizi, T

    1979-01-01

    Endogenous beta-galactoside-binding lectins were isolated from human heart and from human and rhesus-monkey skeletal muscles. Gel precipitation and radioimmunoassays with rabbit antisera to calf heart lectin revealed antigenic cross-reactions between the primate and bovine muscle lectins. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:120198

  5. Linguine sign in musculoskeletal imaging: calf silicone implant rupture.

    PubMed

    Duryea, Dennis; Petscavage-Thomas, Jonelle; Frauenhoffer, Elizabeth E; Walker, Eric A

    2015-08-01

    Imaging findings of breast silicone implant rupture are well described in the literature. On MRI, the linguine sign indicates intracapsular rupture, while the presence of silicone particles outside the fibrous capsule indicates extracapsular rupture. The linguine sign is described as the thin, wavy hypodense wall of the implant within the hyperintense silicone on T2-weighted images indicative of rupture of the implant within the naturally formed fibrous capsule. Hyperintense T2 signal outside of the fibrous capsule is indicative of an extracapsular rupture with silicone granuloma formation. We present a rare case of a patient with a silicone calf implant rupture and discuss the MRI findings associated with this condition.

  6. Acidification of calf bedding reduces fly development and bacterial abundance.

    PubMed

    Calvo, M S; Gerry, A C; McGarvey, J A; Armitage, T L; Mitloehner, F M

    2010-03-01

    Environmental stressors, such as high fly density, can affect calf well-being. Sodium bisulfate (SBS) is an acidifier that reduces the pH of flooring and bedding, creating a medium that neither bacteria nor immature flies (also known as larvae or maggots) can thrive in. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the application of SBS to a mixture of rice hull calf bedding and calf slurry (BED) to reduce house fly (Musca domestica L.) larval density and the abundance of bacteria. In experiment 1, dish pans containing 1L of BED and 3,000 house fly eggs were treated with SBS at concentrations of 0, 8.9, 17.7, and 26.5g of SBS/0.05m(2) of BED (CON, LOW, MED, and HIGH, respectively), with each SBS concentration applied to 4 individual pans (16 pans total). Reapplication of the same SBS concentrations in each pan occurred 3 times/wk throughout the 23-d trial. Larval house fly survival was significantly reduced in all pans with SBS relative to CON pans, with lowest survival rates in the MED and HIGH pans (99% and 100% reduction, respectively). The mean pH for each treatment was inversely related to the SBS concentration. In experiment 2, pans containing 1L of BED and 3,000 house fly eggs were treated with either 0g of SBS (CON), 8.9g of SBS/0.05m(2) of BED with reapplication of the acidifier 3 times/wk (SB3x), or 8.9g of SBS/0.05m(2) of BED applied only once at 48h before the end of the 8 d-trial (SB48). Larval house fly survival and bacterial concentrations were reduced (90% larval reduction and 68% bacterial reduction) in the SB3x treatment relative to the CON. Mean pH was also reduced in SB3x pans relative to CON or SB48 pans. Overall, acidification of calf BED using the acidifier SBS resulted in a reduction of bacteria and house fly larval survival. This form of fly control might be expected to reduce adult fly production and, therefore, fly-related stress in calves.

  7. Partial body weight support treadmill training speed influences paretic and non-paretic leg muscle activation, stride characteristics, and ratings of perceived exertion during acute stroke rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Burnfield, Judith M; Buster, Thad W; Goldman, Amy J; Corbridge, Laura M; Harper-Hanigan, Kellee

    2016-06-01

    Intensive task-specific training is promoted as one approach for facilitating neural plastic brain changes and associated motor behavior gains following neurologic injury. Partial body weight support treadmill training (PBWSTT), is one task-specific approach frequently used to improve walking during the acute period of stroke recovery (<1month post infarct). However, only limited data have been published regarding the relationship between training parameters and physiologic demands during this early recovery phase. To examine the impact of four walking speeds on stride characteristics, lower extremity muscle demands (both paretic and non-paretic), Borg ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and blood pressure. A prospective, repeated measures design was used. Ten inpatients post unilateral stroke participated. Following three familiarization sessions, participants engaged in PBWSTT at four predetermined speeds (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0mph) while bilateral electromyographic and stride characteristic data were recorded. RPE was evaluated immediately following each trial. Stride length, cadence, and paretic single limb support increased with faster walking speeds (p⩽0.001), while non-paretic single limb support remained nearly constant. Faster walking resulted in greater peak and mean muscle activation in the paretic medial hamstrings, vastus lateralis and medial gastrocnemius, and non-paretic medial gastrocnemius (p⩽0.001). RPE also was greatest at the fastest compared to two slowest speeds (p<0.05). During the acute phase of stroke recovery, PBWSTT at the fastest speed (2.0mph) promoted practice of a more optimal gait pattern with greater intensity of effort as evidenced by the longer stride length, increased between-limb symmetry, greater muscle activation, and higher RPE compared to training at the slowest speeds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Mega-MUSCLES Treasury Survey: Measurements of the Ultraviolet Spectral Characteristics of Low-mass Exoplanetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froning, Cynthia

    2017-08-01

    JWST will be able to observe the atmospheres of rocky planets transiting nearby M dwarfs. A few such planets are already known (around GJ1132, Proxima Cen, and Trappist-1) and TESS is predicted to find many more, including 14 habitable zone planets. To interpret observations of these exoplanets' atmospheres, we must understand the high-energy SED of their host stars: X-ray/EUV irradiation can erode a planet's gaseous envelope and FUV/NUV-driven photochemistry shapes an atmosphere's molecular abundances, including potential biomarkers like O2, O3, and CH4. Our MUSCLES Treasury Survey (Cycles 19+22) used Hubble/COS+STIS UV observations with contemporaneous X-ray and ground-based data to construct complete SEDs for 11 low-mass exoplanet hosts. MUSCLES is the most widely used database for early-M and K dwarf (>0.3 M_sun) irradiance spectra and has supported a wide range of atmospheric stability and biomarker modeling work. However, TESS will find most of its habitable planets transiting stars less massive than this, and these will be the planets to characterize with JWST. Here, we propose to expand the MUSCLES project to: (a) new M dwarf exoplanet hosts with varying properties; (b) reference M dwarfs below 0.3 solar masses that may be used as proxies for M dwarf planet hosts discovered after HST's lifetime; and (c) more rapidly rotating stars of GJ1132's mass to probe XUV evolution over gigayear timescales. We propose to gather the first panchromatic SEDs of rocky planet hosts GJ1132 and Trappist-1. This proposal extends proven methods to a key new sample of stars, upon which critically depends the long-term goal of studying habitable planet atmospheres with JWST and beyond.

  9. The Effect of Experimental Hyperthyroidism on Characteristics of Actin-Myosin Interaction in Fast and Slow Skeletal Muscles.

    PubMed

    Kopylova, G V; Shchepkin, D V; Bershitsky, S Y

    2018-05-01

    The molecular mechanism of the failure of contractile function of skeletal muscles caused by oxidative damage to myosin in hyperthyroidism is not fully understood. Using an in vitro motility assay, we studied the effect of myosin damage caused by oxidative stress in experimental hyperthyroidism on the actin-myosin interaction and its regulation by calcium. We found that hyperthyroidism-induced oxidation of myosin is accompanied by a decrease in the sliding velocity of the regulated thin filaments in the in vitro motility assay, and this effect is increased with the duration of the pathological process.

  10. Reasons and risk factors for beef calf and youngstock on-farm mortality in extensive cow-calf herds.

    PubMed

    Mõtus, K; Viltrop, A; Emanuelson, U

    2017-12-26

    Raising calves and youngstock is an essential part of beef production. High on-farm mortality (unassisted death and euthanasia) is a consequence of poor animal health and welfare, and is economically unfavourable. The present study aimed to identify the reasons and risk factors for beef calf and youngstock on-farm mortality, using registry data for the years 2013 to 2015. Cox regression models were applied for the data of four age groups: calves up to 30 days (n=21 075), calves 1 to 5 months (n=21 116), youngstock 6 to 19 months (n=22 637) and youngstock ⩾20 months of age (n=9582). We found that dystocia, small birth weight and older parity of the mother increased the mortality hazard in calves up to 30 days of age. A summer birth was a common protective factor against mortality for calves up to 30 days and calves 1 to 5 months of age, compared with birth in other seasons. Among calves 1 to 5 months old, being the offspring of a first-parity cow was associated with significantly higher risk of death compared with calves who were the offspring of third- or higher-parity cows. A high herd-level stillbirth rate was associated with higher mortality hazard. The most commonly reported reasons for calf mortality were digestive disorders and respiratory disease. According to the models of youngstock from 6 months of age, male sex was a risk factor for mortality. Cattle having more than 10% dairy breed experienced a higher mortality risk in the ⩾20 months age group. No significant differences were found across regions, herd size or different breeds in any of the calf or youngstock groups. Metabolic and digestive disorders, as well as traumas and accidents, were the most common causes of mortality in beef youngstock older than 6 months. We can conclude that in young calves, animal-level factors associated with calving had a high impact on mortality. Further, timing calving for the warmer spring months would benefit calf survivability. Further studies including

  11. Diagnosis of viral agents associated with neonatal calf diarrhea.

    PubMed Central

    Marsolais, G; Assaf, R; Montpetit, C; Marois, P

    1978-01-01

    During this study, 134 samples have been examined for the detection of the viruses associated with neonatal calf diarrhea. The presence of Nebraska viruses (rotavirus and coronavirus) has been demonstrated by using the electron microscope and the fluorescent antibody techniques while the presence of other viruses has been detected by the observation of a cytopathic effect on monolayer cells of calf testis. The Nebraska viruses have been demonstrated in 107 (80%) out of 134 field case specimens. An association of rotaviruses and coronaviruses was found in 58 cases (54%) whilst the coronaviruses and the rotavirus were found singly in 34 cases (53%) and in 15 cases (14%) respectively. Four bovine virus diarrhea viruses, two infectious bovine rhinotracheitis viruses and two enteroviruses have also been isolated in the preceding 107 Nebraska positive specimens. For the detection of the Nebraska viruses, the fluorescent antibody techniques were more sensitive than the electron microscopy. However, those two techniques must be used simultaneously for a better detection of a greatest possible number of cases. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:208735

  12. Genetic analysis of calf health in Charolais beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Vinet, A; Leclerc, H; Marquis, F; Phocas, F

    2018-04-14

    The objective of this study was to investigate the factors that influence calf health and survival in Charolais cattle. Data from 2,740 calves, originating from 16 French farms and observed from birth until 30 d of age, were analyzed using models that took account of direct genetic, maternal genetic, and common environmental effects. Both direct and maternal genetic parameters were estimated for birth weight (BW), calving ease (CE), neonatal vitality (NV), survival at 30 d (Surv), and umbilical infection and diarrhea at different ages (0 to 5 d: Umb1 and Diar1; 6 to 20 d: Umb2 and Diar2; and 21 to 30 d: Umb3 and Diar3). The heritability values for direct and maternal genetic effects were, 0.026 (SE = 0.027) and 0.096 (SE = 0.042) for Surv, 0.280 (SE = 0.063) and 0.063 (SE = 0.038) for BW, 0.129 (SE = 0.041) and 0 for CE, 0.073 (SE = 0.035) and 0 for NV, 0.071 (SE = 0.038) and 0.017 (SE = 0.026) for Umb1, 0 and 0.082 (SE = 0.029) for Umb2, 0 and 0.044 (SE = 0.030) for Diar1, 0.016 (SE = 0.022) and 0.012 (SE = 0.026) for Diar2, and 0.016 (SE = 0.028) and 0 for Diar3, respectively. Significant genetic variability in beef cattle was thus revealed for five calf health traits: NV, Surv, Diar1, Umb1, and Umb2. In addition, for three traits (Surv, Diar1, and Umb2), maternal genetic effects clearly contributed more to health performance than direct genetic effects. Estimates of genetic correlation between traits varied markedly (from 0 to 1 in absolute values) depending on the traits in question, the age for a given trait, and the type (direct or maternal) of the genetic effects considered. These results suggest that not all health traits in Charolais cattle can be improved simultaneously, and breeders will therefore have to prioritize certain traits of interest in their breeding objectives. Overall, our results demonstrate the potential utility of collecting and integrating data on calf diseases, NV and survival in future beef cattle breeding programs. To ensure

  13. Effect of Calf Gender on Milk Yield and Fatty Acid Content in Holstein Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Amy V; Ehrlich, James L; Grove-White, Dai H

    2017-01-01

    The scale of sexed semen use to avoid the birth of unwanted bull calves in the UK dairy industry depends on several economic factors. It has been suggested in other studies that calf gender may affect milk yield in Holsteins- something that would affect the economics of sexed semen use. The present study used a large milk recording data set to evaluate the effect of calf gender (both calf born and calf in utero) on both milk yield and saturated fat content. Linear regression was used to model data for first lactation and second lactation separately. Results showed that giving birth to a heifer calf conferred a 1% milk yield advantage in first lactation heifers, whilst giving birth to a bull calf conferred a 0.5% advantage in second lactation. Heifer calves were also associated with a 0.66kg reduction in saturated fatty acid content of milk in first lactation, but there was no significant difference between the genders in second lactation. No relationship was found between calf gender and milk mono- or polyunsaturated fatty acid content. The observed effects of calf gender on both yield and saturated fatty acid content was considered minor when compared to nutritional and genetic influences.

  14. From the Lab Bench: The fescue belt is cow-calf country

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A column was written to discuss the importance of cow-calf production to the fescue belt, which overlays what is commonly called the transition zone between the subtropical southeast and the temperate northeast (see figure). Undeniably, the “Fescue Belt” is cow-calf country. The Fescue Belt is goo...

  15. Effects of different flooring options in outside pens of hutches on dairy calf growth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Growth rates of dairy calves may vary due to many different factors, including housing. The objective of this study was to determine if calf growth was affected by different flooring options in the outside penned area of a calf hutch. For this study, 33 hutches were blocked in groups of 3 by locatio...

  16. Effect of Calf Gender on Milk Yield and Fatty Acid Content in Holstein Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, James L.; Grove-White, Dai H.

    2017-01-01

    The scale of sexed semen use to avoid the birth of unwanted bull calves in the UK dairy industry depends on several economic factors. It has been suggested in other studies that calf gender may affect milk yield in Holsteins- something that would affect the economics of sexed semen use. The present study used a large milk recording data set to evaluate the effect of calf gender (both calf born and calf in utero) on both milk yield and saturated fat content. Linear regression was used to model data for first lactation and second lactation separately. Results showed that giving birth to a heifer calf conferred a 1% milk yield advantage in first lactation heifers, whilst giving birth to a bull calf conferred a 0.5% advantage in second lactation. Heifer calves were also associated with a 0.66kg reduction in saturated fatty acid content of milk in first lactation, but there was no significant difference between the genders in second lactation. No relationship was found between calf gender and milk mono- or polyunsaturated fatty acid content. The observed effects of calf gender on both yield and saturated fatty acid content was considered minor when compared to nutritional and genetic influences. PMID:28068399

  17. Examining dolphin hydrodynamics provides clues to calf-loss during tuna fishing

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Pete

    2004-01-01

    A combination of mathematical modeling and direct observation of the swimming behavior of dolphin mother-calf pairs has shown how the calf can gain much of the energy required for swimming if it is positioned correctly relative to the mother, a situation that may be disrupted during the chases that result from tuna-fishing practices. PMID:15132739

  18. Calf health from birth to weaning. I. General aspects of disease prevention

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Calfhood diseases have a major impact on the economic viability of cattle operations. This is the first in a three part review series on calf health from birth to weaning, focusing on preventive measures. The review considers both pre- and periparturient management factors influencing calf health, colostrum management in beef and dairy calves and further nutrition and weaning in dairy calves. PMID:21923898

  19. Implementing a novel movement-based approach to inferring parturition and neonate caribou calf survival.

    PubMed

    Bonar, Maegwin; Ellington, E Hance; Lewis, Keith P; Vander Wal, Eric

    2018-01-01

    In ungulates, parturition is correlated with a reduction in movement rate. With advances in movement-based technologies comes an opportunity to develop new techniques to assess reproduction in wild ungulates that are less invasive and reduce biases. DeMars et al. (2013, Ecology and Evolution 3:4149-4160) proposed two promising new methods (individual- and population-based; the DeMars model) that use GPS inter-fix step length of adult female caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) to infer parturition and neonate survival. Our objective was to apply the DeMars model to caribou populations that may violate model assumptions for retrospective analysis of parturition and calf survival. We extended the use of the DeMars model after assigning parturition and calf mortality status by examining herd-wide distributions of parturition date, calf mortality date, and survival. We used the DeMars model to estimate parturition and calf mortality events and compared them with the known parturition and calf mortality events from collared adult females (n = 19). We also used the DeMars model to estimate parturition and calf mortality events for collared female caribou with unknown parturition and calf mortality events (n = 43) and instead derived herd-wide estimates of calf survival as well as distributions of parturition and calf mortality dates and compared them to herd-wide estimates generated from calves fitted with VHF collars (n = 134). For our data, the individual-based method was effective at predicting calf mortality, but was not effective at predicting parturition. The population-based method was more effective at predicting parturition but was not effective at predicting calf mortality. At the herd-level, the predicted distributions of parturition date from both methods differed from each other and from the distribution derived from the parturition dates of VHF-collared calves (log-ranked test: χ2 = 40.5, df = 2, p < 0.01). The predicted distributions of calf mortality

  20. Implementing a novel movement-based approach to inferring parturition and neonate caribou calf survival

    PubMed Central

    Ellington, E. Hance; Lewis, Keith P.; Vander Wal, Eric

    2018-01-01

    In ungulates, parturition is correlated with a reduction in movement rate. With advances in movement-based technologies comes an opportunity to develop new techniques to assess reproduction in wild ungulates that are less invasive and reduce biases. DeMars et al. (2013, Ecology and Evolution 3:4149–4160) proposed two promising new methods (individual- and population-based; the DeMars model) that use GPS inter-fix step length of adult female caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) to infer parturition and neonate survival. Our objective was to apply the DeMars model to caribou populations that may violate model assumptions for retrospective analysis of parturition and calf survival. We extended the use of the DeMars model after assigning parturition and calf mortality status by examining herd-wide distributions of parturition date, calf mortality date, and survival. We used the DeMars model to estimate parturition and calf mortality events and compared them with the known parturition and calf mortality events from collared adult females (n = 19). We also used the DeMars model to estimate parturition and calf mortality events for collared female caribou with unknown parturition and calf mortality events (n = 43) and instead derived herd-wide estimates of calf survival as well as distributions of parturition and calf mortality dates and compared them to herd-wide estimates generated from calves fitted with VHF collars (n = 134). For our data, the individual-based method was effective at predicting calf mortality, but was not effective at predicting parturition. The population-based method was more effective at predicting parturition but was not effective at predicting calf mortality. At the herd-level, the predicted distributions of parturition date from both methods differed from each other and from the distribution derived from the parturition dates of VHF-collared calves (log-ranked test: χ2 = 40.5, df = 2, p < 0.01). The predicted distributions of calf mortality

  1. Mega-MUSCLES Treasury Survey: Measurements of the Ultraviolet Spectral Characteristics of Low-mass Exoplanetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froning, Cynthia

    2017-09-01

    To interpret observations of exoplanets' atmospheres, we must understand the high-energy SEDs of their host stars. We propose to expand our Cycle 19/22 MUSCLES project to: (a) new M dwarf exoplanet hosts with varying properties; (b) reference M dwarfs below 0.3 solar masses that may be used as proxies for M dwarf planet hosts discovered after HST's lifetime; and (c) more rapidly rotating stars of GJ1132's mass to probe XUV evolution over gigayear timescales. We propose to gather the first panchromatic SEDs of rocky planet hosts GJ1132 and Trappist-1. This proposal extends proven methods to a key new sample of stars, upon which critically depends the long-term goal of studying habitable planet atmospheres with JWST and beyond.

  2. The interrelation between mechanical characteristics of contracting muscle, cross-bridge internal structure, and the mechanism of chemomechanical energy transduction.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, E V

    2012-09-01

    The cross-bridge working stroke is regarded as a continuous (without jumps) change of myosin head internal state under the action of a force exerted within the nucleotide-binding site. Involvement of a concept of continuous cross-bridge conformation enables discussion of the nature of the force propelling muscle, and the Coulomb repulsion of like-charged adenosine triphosphate (ATP) fragments ADP(2-) and P (i) (2-) can quite naturally be considered as the source of this force. Two entirely different types of working stroke termination are considered. Along with the fluctuation mechanism, which controls the working stroke duration t (w) at isometric contraction, another interrupt mechanism is initially taken into account. It is triggered when the lever arm shift amounts to the maximal value S ≈ 11 nm, the back door opens, and P(i) crashes out. As a result, t (w) becomes inversely proportional to the velocity v of sliding filaments t (w) ≈ S/v for a wide range of values of v. Principal features of the experimentally observed dependences of force, efficiency, and rate of heat production on velocity and ATP concentration can then be reproduced by fitting a single parameter: the velocity-independent time span t (r) between the termination of the last and beginning of the next working stroke. v becomes the principal variable of the model, and the muscle force changes under external load are determined by variations in v rather than in the tension of filaments. The Boltzmann equation for an ensemble of cross-bridges is obtained, and some collective effects are discussed.

  3. Characteristic changes of motor unit activity in hip joint flexor muscles during voluntary isometric contraction during water immersion.

    PubMed

    Sugajima, Y; Mitarai, G; Koeda, M; Moritani, T

    1996-06-01

    The effect of whole body water immersion on the recruitment order of hip flexor motor units was investigated in 11 male subjects. Intramuscular spike potentials were recorded, with fine bipolar wire electrodes, from the iliopsoas, the sartorius, the rectus femoris and the tensor fasciae latae during voluntary isometric contraction while the subjects were standing erect with the hip on the test side flexed to 60 degrees and the knee flexed to 120 degrees . Data were analysed by measuring the recruitment threshold in slow ramp contraction and by a computer-aided amplitude-frequency histogram of the spike potentials during short sustained contraction. The motor units were classified as low-amplitude units if they delivered spike potentials of less than 0.5 mV and high-amplitude units if the spike potentials exceeded 0.5 mV. In the ramp experiments, exposure to water immersion gave rise to a sudden increase in the recruitment thresholds of the low-amplitude units in all muscles, while in the recruitment thresholds of the high-amplitude units, the alterations differed among the muscles. The thresholds in the rectus femoris and tensor fasciae latae increased in the same direction as those of the low-amplitude units, while those in the iliopsoas and sartorius decreased in the opposite direction. The amplitude-frequency histograms clearly indicated that these different alterations occurred in all subjects, without exception. We concluded that unloading induced by water immersion changed the recruitment order of motor units during isometric contraction in the iliopsoas and sartorius, facilitating the recruitment of their larger motor units.

  4. Dairy calf rearing unit and infectious diseases: diarrhea outbreak by bovine coronavirus as a model for the dispersion of pathogenic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Alfieri, Amauri Alcindo; Ribeiro, Juliane; de Carvalho Balbo, Luciana; Lorenzetti, Elis; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes

    2018-04-18

    Dairy calf rearing unit is a management system that is only recently being implemented by some milk producer's cooperatives in southern Brazil. However, aspects related to the health profile of the heifer calves that arrive in the rearing unit as well as about biosecurity practices and microbiological challenges have not yet been evaluated in this rearing system in a tropical country. Diarrhea is the main and most frequent consequence of enteric infections in newborn calves. This study, through some etiological and epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak of neonatal diarrhea, has the aim to alert to the possibility of pathogenic microorganism spread in a dairy heifer calf rearing unit. The diarrhea outbreak presented some non-regular characteristics observed in bovine coronavirus (BCoV) enteric infections in dairy calves. The spread of infection was extremely rapid (1 week); the attack rate (> 50%) was much higher than that observed in calves subjected to conventional rearing; and the age range (5 to 90 days) of the affected heifer calves was much broader than that often observed in the BCoV diarrhea worldwide. These unusual epidemiological characteristics observed in this BCoV diarrhea outbreak raise awareness of the health threat present in calf rearing units as well as of the easy and rapid viral spread in a population of young animals from different dairy herds and, therefore, with very distinct immunological status.

  5. The Relevance of Proprioception to Chronic Neck Pain: A Correlational Analysis of Flexor Muscle Size and Endurance, Clinical Neck Pain Characteristics, and Proprioception.

    PubMed

    Amiri Arimi, Somayeh; Ghamkhar, Leila; Kahlaee, Amir H

    2018-01-02

    Impairment in the cervical proprioception and deep flexor muscle function and morphology have been regarded to be associated with chronic neck pain (CNP).  The aim of the study is to assess the relationship between proprioception and flexor endurance capacity and size and clinical CNP characteristics.  This was an observational, cross-sectional study.  Rehabilitation hospital laboratory.  Sixty subjects with or without CNP participated in the study.  Joint position error, clinical deep flexor endurance test score, longus colli/capitis and sternocleidomastoid muscle size, pain intensity, neck pain-related disability, and fear of movement were assessed. Multivariate analysis of variance and Pearson correlation tests were used to compare the groups and quantify the strength of the associations among variables, respectively. Logistic regression analysis was performed to test the predictive value of the dependent variables for the development of neck pain.  CNP patients showed lower flexor endurance (P = 0.01) and smaller longus colli size (P < 0.01). The joint position error was not statistically different between the groups. Longus colli size was correlated with local flexor endurance in both CNP (P = 0.01) and control (P = 0.04) groups. Among clinical CNP characteristics, kinesiophobia showed fair correlation with joint position error (r = 0.39, P = 0.03). Left rotation error and local flexor endurance were significant predictors of CNP development (β = 1.22, P = 0.02, and β = 0.97, P = 0.02, respectively).  The results indicated that cervical proprioception was associated neither with deep flexor muscle structure/function nor with clinical CNP characteristics. Left rotation error and local flexor endurance were found relevant to neck pain development. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  6. Postneedling soreness after deep dry needling of a latent myofascial trigger point in the upper trapezius muscle: Characteristics, sex differences and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Martín-Pintado-Zugasti, Aitor; Rodríguez-Fernández, Ángel Luis; Fernandez-Carnero, Josue

    2016-04-27

    Postneedling soreness is considered the most frequent secondary effect associated to dry needling. A detailed description of postneedling soreness characteristics has not been previously reported. (1) to assess the intensity and duration of postneedling soreness and tenderness after deep dry needling of a trapezius latent myofascial trigger point (MTrP), (2) to evaluate the possible differences in postneedling soreness between sexes and (3) to analyze the influence on postneedling soreness of factors involved in the dry needling process. Sixty healthy subjects (30 men, 30 women) with latent MTrPs in the upper trapezius muscle received a dry needling intervention in the MTrP. Pain and pressure pain threshold (PPT) were assessed during a 72 hours follow-up period. Repeated measures analysis of covariance showed a significant effect for time in pain and in PPT. An interaction between sex and time in pain was obtained: women exhibited higher intensity in postneedling pain than men. The pain during needling and the number of needle insertions significantly correlated with postneedling soreness. Soreness and hyperalgesia are present in all subjects after dry needling of a latent MTrP in the upper trapezius muscle. Women exhibited higher intensity of postneedling soreness than men.

  7. Annual elk calf survival in a multiple carnivore system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eacker, Daniel R.; Hebblewhite, Mark; Proffitt, Kelly M.; Jimenez, Benjamin S.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Robinson, Hugh S.

    2016-01-01

    The realized effect of multiple carnivores on juvenile ungulate recruitment may depend on the carnivore assemblage as well as compensation from forage and winter weather severity, which may mediate juvenile vulnerability to predation in ungulates. We used a time-to-event approach to test for the effects of risk factors on annual elk (Cervus canadensis) calf survival and to estimate cause-specific mortality rates for 2 elk populations in adjacent study areas in the southern Bitterroot Valley, Montana, USA, during 2011–2014. We captured and radio-tagged 286 elk calves: 226 neonates, and 60 6-month-old calves. Summer survival probability was less variable than winter (P = 0.12) and averaged 0.55 (95% CI = 0.47–0.63), whereas winter survival varied more than summer and significantly across study years (P = 0.003) and averaged 0.73 (95% CI = 0.64–0.81). During summer, elk calf survival increased with biomass of preferred forage biomass, and was slightly lower following winters with high precipitation; exposure to mountain lion (Puma concolor) predation risk was unimportant. In contrast, during winter, we found that exposure to mountain lion predation risk influenced survival, with a weak negative effect of winter precipitation. We found no evidence that forage availability or winter weather severity mediated vulnerability to mountain lion predation risk in summer or winter (e.g., an interaction), indicating that the effect of mountain lion predation was constant regardless of spatial variation in forage or weather. Mountain lions dominated known causes of elk calf mortality in summer and winter, with estimated cause-specific mortality rates of 0.14 (95% CI = 0.09–0.20) and 0.12 (95% CI = 0.07–0.18), respectively. The effect of carnivores on juvenile ungulate recruitment varies across ecological systems depending on relative carnivore densities. Mountain lions may be the most important carnivore for ungulates, especially where grizzly

  8. Jumping in aquatic environment after sciatic nerve compression: nociceptive evaluation and morphological characteristics of the soleus muscle of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Malanotte, Jéssica Aline; Kakihata, Camila Mayumi Martin; Karvat, Jhenifer; Brancalhão, Rose Meire Costa; Ribeiro, Lucinéia de Fátima Chasko; Bertolini, Gladson Ricardo Flor

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of jumping in aquatic environment on nociception and in the soleus muscle of trained and not trained Wistar rats, in the treatment of compressive neuropathy of the sciatic nerve. Twenty-five Wistar rats were distributed into five groups: Control, Lesion, Trained + Lesion, Lesion + Exercise, and Trained + Lesion + Exercise. The training was jumping exercise in water environment for 20 days prior to injury, and treatment after the injury. Nociception was evaluated in two occasions, before injury and seven after injury. On the last day of the experiment, the right soleus muscles were collected, processed and analyzed as to morphology and morphometry. In the assessment of nociception in the injury site, the Control Group had higher average than the rest, and the Lesion Group was larger than the Trained + Lesion and Lesion + Exercise Groups. The Control Group showed higher nociceptive threshold in paw, compared to the others. In the morphometric analysis, in relation to Control Group, all the injured groups showed decreased muscle fiber area, and in the Lesion Group was lower than in the Lesion + Exercise Group and Trained + Lesion Group. Considering the diameter of the muscle fiber, the Control Group had a higher average than the Trained + Lesion Group and the Trained + Lesion + Exercise Group; and the Lesion Group showed an average lower than the Trained + Lesion and Lesion + Exercise Groups. Resistance exercise produced increased nociception. When performed prior or after nerve damage, it proved effective in avoiding hypotrophy. The combination of the two protocols led to decrease in diameter and area of the muscle fiber. Avaliar os efeitos do salto em meio aquático, na nocicepção e no músculo sóleo, em ratos Wistar treinados e não treinados, no tratamento de neuropatia compressiva do nervo isquiático. Foram distribuídos em cinco grupos 25 ratos Wistar: Controle, Lesão, Treinado + Lesão, Lesão + Exercício e Treinado + Lesão + Exerc

  9. Long-term effect of botulinum toxin (A) in the management of calf spasticity in children with diplegic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Hawamdeh, Z M; Ibrahim, A I; Al-Qudah, A A

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible long-term effects of multi-injections of botulinum toxin A (BT-A) on muscle tone and functional abilities in children with cerebral palsy. A randomized, single blind study was carried out. Sixty patients with spastic diplegia were enrolled; 40 received 3 successive doses of BT-A to the calf muscle bilaterally at intervals of 3 to 4 months; 20 received no injections and were considered the control group. Evaluation included measurement of muscle tone, passive ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, and gross motor function. The children in the study group were assessed at entry into the study, at 3 months, and at 18 months after the last injection. An identical assessment protocol was applied to the control group, with measurements taken at entry into the study, at 12 to 15 months, and then at 27 to 30 months, roughly corresponding to the time periods set for the study group. Muscle tone and passive ankle dorsiflexion range showed clinically and statistically significant improvement following BT-A injection at 3 months (P=0.000, P=0.04, respectively) and at 18 months (P=0.005, P=0.007, respectively) compared to the control group, but gross motor function showed significant improvement only at 18 months (P=0.02). Comparison between the first and second evaluations after the last injection in the study group showed a significant improvement in gross motor function and ankle dorsiflexion range (P=0.000 for both parameters); however, muscle tone was significantly increased (P=0.002). This study gives support to a possible prolonged effect of intramuscular BT-A as an adjunct to conventional physiotherapy to reduce spasticity and improve functional mobility in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

  10. Hepatic encephalomyelopathy in a calf with congenital portosystemic shunt (CPSS)

    PubMed Central

    Oevermann, Anna; Bley, Tim; Pfister, Patrizia; Miclard, Julien

    2008-01-01

    A 4-month-old female Holstein Friesian calf was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Berne, Switzerland for evaluation of ataxia, weakness, apathy and stunted growth. Clinical examination revealed generalized ataxia, propioceptive deficits, decreased menace response and sensibility. Postmortem examination did not reveal macroscopic changes of major organs. Histologically, the brain and the spinal cord lesions were characterized by polymicrocavitation, preferentially affecting the white matter fibers at the junction of grey and white matter and by the presence of Alzheimer type II cells. The liver revealed lesions consistent with a congenital portosystemic shunt, characterized by increased numbers of arteriolar profiles and hypoplasia to absence of portal veins. The pathological investigations along with the animal history and clinical signs indicated a hepatic encephalomyelopathy due to a congenital portosystemic shunt. PMID:18296896

  11. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and muscle amino-acid profile of different rabbits breeds and their crosses.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Mohammed A F; Abd-Elhamid, Tamer; Hussein, Mohamed A

    2017-12-01

    Meat production efficiency can be enhanced by crossbreeding to capture heterosis. This study aimed to investigate the impact of rabbit genotype on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and amino acids profile. A total of 504 weaned rabbits from nine genotypes of full factorial crossing of New Zealand White (NZW), Californian (CA) and Rex (RX) were used. Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscles were assessed for meat quality and amino acids profile. There were no differences between groups at weaning and 6weeks, but by 10weeks differences were significant (P<0.001) and the numerically heaviest groups were CA×RX and RX×NZW (1970g, P<0.001) with to some extent better amino acids profile. In conclusion, RX growth performance was improved by crossing CA sire with RX dam and RX sire with NZW dam and to have dual purpose breed with better growth performance without hazard on carcass and meat quality. CA×RX and RX×NZW had the heaviest body weight at 10weeks of age and highest body weight gain during the whole finishing period. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. WHITE STRIPING AND WOODEN BREAST DEFECTS INFLUENCE MEAT QUALITY AND MUSCLE PROTEIN CHARACTERISTICS IN BROILER BREAST MEAT

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective was to determine the effects of the wooden breast (WB) and white striping (WS) myopathies on meat quality and protein characteristics of broiler breast meat. Breast fillets (Pectoralis major) from a commercial processing plant were segregated into four groups: normal (neither WS nor W...

  13. Genetic response to selection for weaning weight or yearling weight or yearling weight and muscle score in Hereford cattle: efficiency of gain, growth, and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Koch, R M; Cundiff, L V; Gregory, K E; Van Vleck, L D

    2004-03-01

    An experiment involving crosses among selection and control lines was conducted to partition direct and maternal additive genetic response to 20 yr of selection for 1) weaning weight, 2) yearling weight, and 3) index of yearling weight and muscle score. Selection response was evaluated for efficiency of gain, growth from birth through market weight, and carcass characteristics. Heritability and genetic correlations among traits were estimated using animal model analyses. Over a time-constant interval, selected lines were heavier, gained more weight, consumed more ME, and had more gain/ME than the control. Over a weight-constant interval, selected lines required fewer days, consumed less ME, had more efficient gains, and required less energy for maintenance than control. Direct and maternal responses were estimated from reciprocal crosses among unselected sires and dams of control and selection lines. Most of the genetic response to selection in all three lines was associated with direct genetic effects, and the highest proportion was from postweaning gain. Indirect responses of carcass characteristics to selection over the 20 yr were increased weight of carcasses that had more lean meat, produced with less feed per unit of gain. At a constant carcass weight, selected lines had 1.32 to 1.85% more retail product and 1.62 to 2.24% less fat trim and 10/100 to 25/100 degrees less marbling than control. At a constant age, heritability of direct and maternal effects and correlations between them were as follows: market weight, 0.36, 0.14, and 0.10; carcass weight, 0.26, 0.15, and 0.03; longissimus muscle area, 0.33, 0.00, and 0.00; marbling, 0.36, 0.07, and -0.35; fat thickness, 0.41, 0.05, and -0.18; percentage of kidney, pelvic, and heart fat, 0.12, 0.08, and -0.76; percentage of retail product, 0.46, 0.05, and -0.29; retail product weight, 0.44, 0.08, -0.14; and muscle score, 0.37, 0.14, and -0.54. Selection criteria in all lines improved efficiency of postweaning gain

  14. Skeletal muscle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are approximately 650-850 muscles in the human body these include skeletal (striated), smooth and cardiac muscle. The approximation is based on what some anatomists consider separate muscle or muscle systems. Muscles are classified based on their anatomy (striated vs. smooth) and if they are v...

  15. Effects of 12 hour calf withdrawal on conception rate and calf performance of Bos indicus cattle under extensive conditions.

    PubMed

    Escrivão, R J A; Webb, E C; Garcês, A P J T

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-two multiparous Brahman type cows with reproductive tract scoring (RTS) >/=4 at 45 days post-partum were randomly assigned to two groups of 26 cows each separated into an ad libitum suckling group (C) and treatment group (T). Calves in the T group were separated for 12 h during the night from 45 days post-partum to the onset of the breeding season. Body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) were recorded 45 days post-partum, at the start of the breeding season, and at pregnancy diagnosis. Calves were weighed at calving and weaning. Weaning weights were corrected to 205 days. BW and BCS at the onset of the breeding season were similar (p > 0.05) between the experimental groups. Calving to breeding intervals were 93 +/- 18 d and 99 +/- 22 d for T and C groups, respectively. Calving to conception intervals differed significantly between the groups (111 +/- 10 d for T and 133 +/- 19 d for C) and a similar result was obtained for the breeding to conception intervals (18 +/- 15 d for T and 31 +/- 19 d for C). Conception rates were 80% for the T group and 59% for the C group, which correlated better with BW than BCS at the onset of the breeding season. Weaning weights differed (p < 0.05) between C and T groups. From 45 days post-partum to the onset of the breeding season, cows in the T group experienced a positive energy balance (3%) while those in the C group had a negative energy balance (-0.1%). It was concluded that 12 h calf separation at night increases the conception rates and improves the calf weaning weights of Bos indicus beef cattle under extensive production systems in sub-tropical conditions.

  16. Measurements of humpback whale song sound levels received by a calf in association with a singer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jessica; Pack, Adam A; Au, Whitlow W L; Stimpert, Alison K

    2016-11-01

    Male humpback whales produce loud "songs" on the wintering grounds and some sing while escorting mother-calf pairs, exposing them to near-continuous sounds at close proximity. An Acousonde acoustic and movement recording tag deployed on a calf off Maui, Hawaii captured sounds produced by a singing male escort. Root-mean-square received levels ranged from 126 to 158 dB re 1 μPa. These levels represent rare direct measurements of sound to which a newly born humpback calf may be naturally exposed by a conspecific, and may provide a basis for informed decisions regarding anthropogenic sound levels projected near calves.

  17. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  18. Muscle development and obesity

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The formation of skeletal muscle from the epithelial somites involves a series of events triggered by temporally and spatially discrete signals resulting in the generation of muscle fibers which vary in their contractile and metabolic nature. The fiber type composition of muscles varies between individuals and it has now been found that there are differences in fiber type proportions between lean and obese animals and humans. Amongst the possible causes of obesity, it has been suggested that inappropriate prenatal environments may ‘program’ the fetus and may lead to increased risks for disease in adult life. The characteristics of muscle are both heritable and plastic, giving the tissue some ability to adapt to signals and stimuli both pre and postnatally. Given that muscle is a site of fatty acid oxidation and carbohydrate metabolism and that its development can be changed by prenatal events, it is interesting to examine the possible relationship between muscle development and the risk of obesity. PMID:19279728

  19. Compensatory growth in crossbred Aberdeen Angus and Belgian Blue steers: Effects on the colour, shear force and sensory characteristics of longissimus muscle.

    PubMed

    Keady, S M; Waters, S M; Hamill, R M; Dunne, P G; Keane, M G; Richardson, R I; Kenny, D A; Moloney, A P

    2017-03-01

    The effect of feed restriction (99days) followed by compensatory growth during a 200day re-alimentation period on the colour and sensory characteristics of meat from Aberdeen Angus×Holstein-Friesian (AN) and Belgian Blue×Holstein-Friesian (BB) steers was examined. Compensatory growth had no effect on muscle pH and temperature decline, chemical composition, drip loss, fat colour, or juiciness, but increased (P=0.009) Warner-Bratzler shear force and decreased tenderness (P=0.08) and overall liking (P=0.09). Compared to meat from BB steers, meat from AN steers had a higher intramuscular fat concentration and was rated similarly for tenderness, but higher for many of the flavour characteristics examined. While adjustment for intramuscular fat concentration removed some of these differences, genotype-specific flavour differences remained. It is concluded that genotype had greater effects on meat quality than the compensatory growth feeding regime imposed in this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of supplemental lysine and methionine with zilpaterol hydrochloride on feedlot performance, carcass merit, and skeletal muscle fiber characteristics in finishing feedlot cattle.

    PubMed

    Hosford, A D; Hergenreder, J E; Kim, J K; Baggerman, J O; Ribeiro, F R B; Anderson, M J; Spivey, K S; Rounds, W; Johnson, B J

    2015-09-01

    Feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) with ruminally protected AA was evaluated in a small-pen feeding trial. Crossbred steers ( = 180; initial BW = 366 kg) were blocked by weight and then randomly assigned to treatments (45 pens; 9 pens/treatment). Treatment groups consisted of no ZH and no AA (Cont-), ZH and no AA (Cont+), ZH and a ruminally protected lysine supplement (Lys), ZH and a ruminally protected methionine supplement (Met), and ZH and ruminally protected lysine and methionine (Lys+Met). Zilpaterol hydrochloride (8.3 mg/kg DM) was fed for the last 20 d of the finishing period with a 3-d withdrawal period. Lysine and Met were top dressed daily for the 134-d feeding trial to provide 12 or 4 g·hd·d, respectively, to the small intestine. Carcass characteristics, striploins, and prerigor muscle samples were collected following harvest at a commercial facility. Steaks from each steer were aged for 7, 14, 21, and 28 d, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) was determined as an indicator of tenderness. Prerigor muscle samples were used for immunohistological analysis. Cattle treated with Met and Lys+Met had increased final BW ( < 0.3) and ADG ( < 0.05) compared to Cont- and Cont+. Supplementation of Lys, Met, and Lys+Met improved G:F ( < 0.05) compared to Cont- during the ZH feeding period (d 111 to 134) as well as the entire feeding period ( < 0.05). Zilpaterol hydrochloride increased carcass ADG ( < 0.05) when compared to non-ZH-fed steers. Methionine and Lys+Met treatments had heavier HCW ( < 0.02) than that of Cont-. Yield grade was decreased ( < 0.04) for Cont+ steers compared to steers treated with Lys, Lys+Met, and Cont-. Tenderness was reduced ( < 0.05) with ZH regardless of AA supplementation. Lysine, Met, Lys+Met, and Cont+ had less tender steaks ( < 0.05) throughout all aging groups compared to Cont-. Steaks from Lys-treated steers were less tender ( < 0.05) than those of Cont+ during the 7- and 14-d aging periods. Nuclei density was the greatest

  1. Muscle atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... muscle atrophy may include: Burns Long-term corticosteroid therapy Malnutrition Muscular dystrophy and other diseases of the muscle Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid arthritis Home Care An exercise program ...

  2. Rocker-soled shoes and walking distance in patients with calf claudication.

    PubMed

    Richardson, J K

    1991-07-01

    Calf claudication is the major clinical manifestation of peripheral vascular occlusive disease in a significant number of patients. Although claudication causes substantial patient disability, most patients are treated conservatively because of the risks of surgical therapy and the uncertain efficacy of drug therapy. It was hypothesized that rocker-soled shoes would decrease the work of the plantar flexors and therefore increase walking distance in patients with calf claudication. To test this hypothesis, walking distances in patients with calf claudication using rocker-soled shoes and a placebo shoe insert were compared. Rocker-soled shoes significantly increased both the total distance walked and the distance at which patients were initially bothered by symptoms by 77m (37%, p less than .0005) and 89m (91%, p = .003), respectively. It was concluded that rocker-soled shoes may reduce disability in patients with calf claudication by increasing walking distance.

  3. Association of deep venous thrombosis with calf vein diameter in acute hemorrhagic stroke.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Toshiyasu; Yasaka, Masahiro; Wakugawa, Yoshiyuki; Kitazono, Takanari; Okada, Yasushi

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the association between the development of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and calf vein diameter in patients with acute hemorrhagic stroke. We measured the maximum diameter of paralytic side posttibial veins (PTVs) and peroneal veins (PVs) in 49 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage on admission and at 2 weeks after stroke onset by ultrasonography. We also examined for the presence or absence of DVT, and then analyzed the association of DVT with the maximum vein diameter. At 2 weeks after stroke, DVTs were detected in PTVs in 7 patients and in PVs in 6 patients. The maximum calf vein diameters at 2 weeks were significantly greater in patients with DVT compared with those without DVT (PTV, P = .033; PV, P = .015). Although calf vein diameter at admission did not influence the future incidence of DVT in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage, the presence of DVT was associated with calf vein dilatation. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Quest for the binding mode of tetrabromobisphenol A with Calf thymus DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan-Qing; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Cao, Jian

    2014-10-01

    The binding interaction of tetrabromobisphenol A with Calf thymus DNA was studied by multi-spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods. The UV-vis study revealed that an obvious interaction between tetrabromobisphenol A and Calf thymus DNA happened. The π-π∗ transitions and the electron cloud of tetrabromobisphenol A might be changed by entering the groove of Calf thymus DNA. From the fluorescence spectral and thermodynamics studies, it was concluded that the hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic force played a major role in the binding of tetrabromobisphenol A to Calf thymus DNA. The molecular modeling study showed that the possible sites of tetrabromobisphenol A in the groove of DNA. Circular dichroism study also depicted that tetrabromobisphenol A bond to DNA. These above results would further advance our knowledge on the molecular mechanism of the binding interactions of brominated flame-retardants with nucleic acid.

  5. Acoustic Behavior of North Atlantic Right Whale (Eubalaena glacialis) Mother-Calf Pairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Acoustic Behavior of North Atlantic Right Whale ...LONG-TERM GOALS The long-term goal of this project is to quantify the behavior of mother-calf pairs from the North Atlantic right whale ...The primary objectives of this project are to: 1) determine the visual detectability of right whale mother-calf pairs from surface observations

  6. Acoustic Behavior of North Atlantic Right Whale (Eubalaena glacialis) Mother-Calf Pairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Acoustic Behavior of North Atlantic Right Whale ...LONG-TERM GOALS The long-term goal of this project is to quantify the behavior of mother-calf pairs from the North Atlantic right whale ...The primary objectives of this project are to: 1) determine the visual detectability of right whale mother-calf pairs from surface observations

  7. Characterization of R5020 and RU486 binding to progesterone receptor from calf uterus

    SciTech Connect

    Hurd, C.; Moudgil, V.K.

    1988-05-17

    The authors have examined and compared the binding characteristics of the progesterone agonist R5020 (promegestrone, 17,21-dimethylpregna-4,9(10)-diene-3,20-dione) and the progesterone antagonist RU486 (mifepristone, 17..beta..-hydroxy-11..beta..-(4-(dimethylamino)phenyl)-17..cap alpha..-(prop-1-ynyl)-estra-4,9-dien-3-one) in calf uterine cytosol. Both steroids bound cytosol macromolecule(s) with high affinity, exhibiting K/sub d/ values of 5.6 and 3.6 nM for R5020 and RU486 binding, respectively. The binding of the steroids to the macromolecule(s) was rapid at 4/sup 0/C, showing saturation of binding sites at 1-2 h for (/sup 3/H)progesterone and 2-4 h for both (/sup 3/H)R5020 and (/sup 3/H)RU486. Addition of molybdate and glycerol to cytosol increased the extent of (/sup 3/H)R5020 binding. Themore » extent of (/sup 3/H)RU486 binding remained unchanged in the presence of molybdate, whereas glycerol had an inhibitory effect. Molybdate alone or in combination with glycerol stabilized the (/sup 3/H)R5020- and (/sup 3/H)RU486-receptor complexes at 37/sup 0/C. Competitive steroid binding analysis revealed that (/sup 3/H)progesterone, (/sup 3/H)R5020, and (/sup 3/H)RU486 compete for the same site(s) in the uterine cytosol, suggesting that all three bind to the progesterone receptor (PR). Sedimentation rate analysis showed that both steroids were bound to a molecule that sediments in the 8S region. The 8S (/sup 3/H)R5020 and (/sup 3/H)RU486 peaks were abolished by excess radioinert progesterone, RU486, or R5020. The results of this study suggest that, although there are some differences in the nature of their interaction with the PR, both R5020 and RU486 bind to the same 8S receptor in calf uterine cytosol.« less

  8. Calf Endurance and Achilles Tendon Structure in Classical Ballet Dancers.

    PubMed

    Zellers, Jennifer A; van Ostrand, Katrina; Silbernagel, Karin Grävare

    2017-06-15

    Optimal lower leg function is critical for ballet dancers to meet their occupational requirements. Achilles tendon injury is particularly detrimental to ballet dancers. While standardized measures have been validated and incorporated into clinical practice for use in people with Achilles tendon injury, normative ranges specific to the dancer population have not been described. The purpose of this pilot study was to observe the performance of pre-professional ballet students and professional ballet dancers on a well-established test battery for lower leg functional performance as well as ultra-sonographic evaluation of the structure of their Achilles tendons. The dancers in this study had significantly shorter Achilles tendons than non-dancers (p = 0.016). Dancers demonstrated significantly higher maximum heel-rise height on the heel-rise test for calf endurance (p < 0.001) but performed significantly less work than non-dancers (p = 0.014). The results of this study support the use of the heel-rise test as a tool for screening and to guide rehabilitation.

  9. Changes in extracellular muscle volume affect heart rate and blood pressure responses to static exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, K.; Essfeld, D.; Stegemann, J.

    To investigate the effect of μg-induced peripheral extracellular fluid reductions on heart rate and blood pressure during isometric exercise, six healthy male subjects performed three calf ergometer test with different extracellular volumes of working muscles. In all tests, body positions during exercise were identical (supine with the knee joint flexed to 900). After a pre-exercise period of 25 min, during which calf volumes were manipulated, subjects had to counteract an external force of 180 N for 5 min. During the pre-exercise period three different protocols were applied. Test A: Subjects rested in the exercise position; test B: Body position was the same as in A but calf volume was increased by venous congestion (cuffs inflated to 80 mm Hg); test C: Calf volumes were decreased by a negative hydrostatic pressure (calves about 40 cm above heart level with the subjects supine). To clamp the changed calf volumes in tests B and C, cuffs were inflated to 300 mm Hg 5 min before the onset of exercise. This occlusion was maintained until termination of exercise. Compared to tests A and B, the reduced volume of test C led to significant increases in heart rate and blood pressure during exercise. Oxygen uptake did not exceed resting levels in B and C until cuffs were deflated, indicating that exclusively calf muscles contributed to the neurogenic peripheral drive. It is concluded that changes in extracellular muscle volume have to be taken into account when comparing heart rate and blood pressure during lg- and μg- exercise.

  10. The relationship between exercise-induced muscle fatigue, arterial blood flow and muscle perfusion after 56 days local muscle unloading.

    PubMed

    Weber, Tobias; Ducos, Michel; Mulder, Edwin; Beijer, Åsa; Herrera, Frankyn; Zange, Jochen; Degens, Hans; Bloch, Wilhelm; Rittweger, Jörn

    2014-05-01

    In the light of the dynamic nature of habitual plantar flexor activity, we utilized an incremental isokinetic exercise test (IIET) to assess the work-related power deficit (WoRPD) as a measure for exercise-induced muscle fatigue before and after prolonged calf muscle unloading and in relation to arterial blood flow and muscle perfusion. Eleven male subjects (31 ± 6 years) wore the HEPHAISTOS unloading orthosis unilaterally for 56 days. It allows habitual ambulation while greatly reducing plantar flexor activity and torque production. Endpoint measurements encompassed arterial blood flow, measured in the femoral artery using Doppler ultrasound, oxygenation of the soleus muscle assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy, lactate concentrations determined in capillary blood and muscle activity using soleus muscle surface electromyography. Furthermore, soleus muscle biopsies were taken to investigate morphological muscle changes. After the intervention, maximal isokinetic torque was reduced by 23·4 ± 8·2% (P<0·001) and soleus fibre size was reduced by 8·5 ± 13% (P = 0·016). However, WoRPD remained unaffected as indicated by an unchanged loss of relative plantar flexor power between pre- and postexperiments (P = 0·88). Blood flow, tissue oxygenation, lactate concentrations and EMG median frequency kinematics during the exercise test were comparable before and after the intervention, whereas the increase of RMS in response to IIET was less following the intervention (P = 0·03). In conclusion, following submaximal isokinetic muscle work exercise-induced muscle fatigue is unaffected after prolonged local muscle unloading. The observation that arterial blood flow was maintained may underlie the unchanged fatigability. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Hypodynamic and hypokinetic condition of skeletal muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katinas, G. S.; Oganov, V. S.; Potapov, A. N.

    1980-01-01

    Data are presented in regard to the effect of unilateral brachial amputation on the physiological characteristics of two functionally different muscles, the brachial muscle (flexor of the brachium) and the medial head of the brachial triceps muscle (extensor of the brachium), which in rats represents a separate muscle. Hypokinesia and hypodynamia were studied.

  12. A frozen-thawed in vitro-matured bovine oocyte derived calf with normal growth and fertility.

    PubMed

    Otoi, T; Yamamoto, K; Koyama, N; Tachikawa, S; Suzuki, T

    1996-08-01

    The growth and fertility of a female calf obtained from a frozen-thawed bovine oocyte was assessed. The birth weight of the calf was lower than the mean birth weight of calves from in vitro fertilized embryos (IVF-controls) and calves obtained by artificial insemination (AI-controls). The growth rate of the calf up to 6 months was slower than that of the IVF-controls, but similar to that of the AI-controls. When the calf developed into a heifer (200 kg), she was inseminated with frozen semen and 280 days later delivered a male calf. The chromosoms of this cow were normal. These findings suggest that the growth and fertility of the calf derived from the frozen oocyte are normal.

  13. Morphologic Characteristics and Strength of the Hamstring Muscles Remain Altered at 2 Years After Use of a Hamstring Tendon Graft in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Konrath, Jason M; Vertullo, Christopher J; Kennedy, Ben A; Bush, Hamish S; Barrett, Rod S; Lloyd, David G

    2016-10-01

    The hamstring tendon graft used in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has been shown to lead to changes to the semitendinosus and gracilis musculature. We hypothesized that (1) loss of donor muscle size would significantly correlate with knee muscle strength deficits, (2) loss of donor muscle size would be greater for muscles that do not experience tendon regeneration, and (3) morphological adaptations would also be evident in nondonor knee muscles. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Twenty participants (14 men and 6 women, mean age 29 ± 7 years, mean body mass 82 ± 15 kg) who had undergone an ACL reconstruction with a hamstring tendon graft at least 2 years previously underwent bilateral magnetic resonance imaging and subsequent strength testing. Muscle and tendon volumes, peak cross-sectional areas (CSAs), and lengths were determined for 12 muscles and 6 functional muscle groups of the surgical and contralateral limbs. Peak isokinetic concentric strength was measured in knee flexion/extension and internal/external tibial rotation. Only 35% of the patients showed regeneration of both the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons. The regenerated tendons were longer with larger volume and CSA compared with the contralateral side. Deficits in semitendinosus and gracilis muscle size were greater for muscles in which tendons did not regenerate. In addition, combined hamstring muscles (semitendinosus, semimembranosus, and biceps femoris) and combined medial knee muscles (semitendinosus, semimembranosus, gracilis, vastus medialis, medial gastrocnemius, and sartorius) on the surgical side were reduced in volume by 12% and 10%, respectively. A 7% larger volume was observed in the surgical limb for the biceps femoris muscle and corresponded with a lower internal/external tibial rotation strength ratio. The difference in volume, peak CSA, and length of the semitendinosus and gracilis correlated significantly with the deficit in knee flexion strength, with

  14. Diffusion tensor imaging in evaluation of human skeletal muscle injury.

    PubMed

    Zaraiskaya, Tatiana; Kumbhare, Dinesh; Noseworthy, Michael D

    2006-08-01

    To explore the capability and reliability of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) in the evaluation of human skeletal muscle injury. DTI of four patients with gastrocnemius and soleus muscles injuries was compared to eight healthy controls. Imaging was performed using a GE 3.0T short-bore scanner. A diffusion-weighted 2D spin echo echo-planar imaging (EPI) pulse sequence optimized for skeletal muscle was used. From a series of axially acquired diffusion tensor images the diffusion tensor eigenparameters (eigenvalues and eigenvectors), fractional anisotropy (FA), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were calculated and compared for injured and healthy calf muscles. Two dimensional (2D) projection maps of the principal eigenvectors were plotted to visualize the healthy and pathologic muscle fiber architectures. Clear differences in FA and ADC were observed in injured skeletal muscle, compared to healthy controls. Mean control FA was 0.23 +/- 0.02 for medial and lateral gastrocnemius (mg and lg) muscles, and 0.20 +/- 0.02 for soleus (sol) muscles. In all patients FA values were reduced compared to controls, to as low as 0.08 +/- 0.02. The ADC in controls ranged from 1.41 to 1.31 x 10(-9) m(2)/second, while in patients this was consistently higher. The 2D projection maps revealed muscle fiber disorder in injured calves, while in healthy controls the 2D projection maps show a well organized (ordered) fiber structure. DTI is a suitable method to assess human calf muscle injury.

  15. Creep grazing and early weaning effects on cow and calf productivity.

    PubMed

    Harvey, R W; Burns, J C

    1988-05-01

    One hundred fifty Simmental-Hereford cows and calves were used in a 3-yr study to evaluate three creep grazing treatments and an early weaning treatment on cow and calf performance during midsummer (July to September). Calves were approximately 150 d of age and averaged 178.6 kg when treatments were initiated. Tifleaf pearl millet (Pennisetum Americanum L. Leeke) was used as the forage for two of the creep treatments, representing two cow stocking intensities of .466 (TLM1) and .239 (TLM2) ha of base hill land pasture/cow, and as pasture for early weaned calves. A red clover (Trifolium pratense L.)-Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) mixture was used as the other creep forage. Hill land pastures were similar for the mature cow units in all creep treatments. Calf average daily gains ranged from .93 to 1.10 kg and were not influenced (P greater than .05) by treatment. Calf gains per hectare were similar for the control, red clover and TLM1 treatments. The TLM2 and early weaning treatments resulted in increases of 105.4 and 39.1 kg of calf gain/ha (P less than .05) compared with the control. When calves were allowed to creep graze millet, decreasing the forage area from .466 to .239 ha per cow-calf unit resulted in an increase of 97.7 kg of calf gain/ha with no reduction in calf gain. Cows on the more intensively grazed millet creep treatment (TLM2) lost more weight (P less than .05) during midsummer than those on the TLM1 treatment, but they gained 18.5 kg more (P less than .10) weight than TLM1 cows between weaning and the start of winter feeding.

  16. Dairy calf management-A comparison of practices and producer attitudes among conventional and organic herds.

    PubMed

    Pempek, J A; Schuenemann, G M; Holder, E; Habing, G G

    2017-10-01

    Dairy calves are at high risk for morbidity and mortality early in life. Understanding producer attitudes is important for implementation of best management practices to improve calf health. The objectives of this study were to evaluate usage frequency and producer attitudes on key calf management practices between conventional and organic dairy operations. A cross-sectional survey was mailed to conventional and organic dairy producers in Ohio and Michigan that included questions on cow-calf separation, colostrum management, and vaccination use. The overall survey response rate was 49% (727/1,488); 449 and 172 conventional and organic producer respondents, respectively, were included in the final analysis. Binary, cumulative, and multinomial logistic regression models were used to test differences within and between herd types for management practices and producer attitudes. The majority of conventional (64%, 279/439) producers reported separating the calf from the dam 30 min to 6 h after birth. More organic (34%, 56/166) than conventional (18%, 80/439) producers reported separation 6 to 12 h after birth, and organic producers were more likely to agree time before separation is beneficial. Few conventional (10%, 44/448) and organic (3%, 5/171) producers reported measuring colostrum quality. Most conventional producers (68%, 304/448) hand-fed the first feeding of colostrum, whereas the majority of organic producers (38%, 69/171) allowed calves to nurse colostrum. Last, 44% (188/430) of conventional producers reported vaccinating their calves for respiratory disease, compared with 14% (22/162) of organic producers; organic producers were more likely to perceive vaccines as ineffective and harmful to calf health. Thus, the usage frequency and perceived risks and benefits of calf management practices vary considerably between conventional and organic dairy producers. These findings provide helpful information to understand decision making at the herd level regarding

  17. Evidence for the presence of an autoimmune component to the chronic muscle wasting disease characteristic of calves infected with Aarcocystis cruzi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infection with Sarcocystis spp. often resolves in a progressive decline in muscle integrity. The underlying cause for this has remained undetermined. Previously, we described the presence of proinflammatory muscle protein nitration (PMPN) in calves (ScI) chronically infected with Sarcocystis cruzi. ...

  18. Use It or Lose It: Skeletal Muscle Function and Performance Results from Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program provided a wealth of valuable information regarding the adaptations of skeletal muscle to weightlessness. Studies conducted during the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) represented ground breaking work on the effects of spaceflight on muscle form and function from applied human research to cellular adaptations. Results from detailed supplementary objective (DSO) 477 demonstrated that muscle strength losses could occur rapidly in response to short-duration spaceflight. The effects of spaceflight-induced unloading were primarily restricted to postural muscles such as those of the back as well as the knee extensors. DSO 606 provided evidence from MRI that the observed strength losses were partially accounted for by a reduction in the size of the individual muscles. Muscle biopsy studies conducted during DSO 475 were able to show muscle atrophy in individual muscle fibers from the quadriceps muscles. Reduced quadriceps muscle size and strength was also observed during the 17-d Life and Microgravity Spacelab mission aboard STS-78. Multiple maximal strength tests were conducted in flight on the calf muscles and it has been hypothesized that these high force contractions may have acted as a countermeasure. Muscle fiber mechanics were studied on calf muscle samples pre- and postflight. While some responses were crewmember specific, the general trend was that muscle fiber force production dropped and shortening velocity increased. The increased shortening velocity helped to maintain muscle fiber power. Numerous rodent studies performed during Shuttle missions suggest that many of the effects reported in Shuttle crewmembers could be due to lesions in the cellular signaling pathways that stimulate protein synthesis as well as an increase in the mechanisms that up-regulate protein breakdown. The results have important implications regarding the overall health and performance capabilities of future crewmembers that will venture beyond

  19. Vibration-related extrusion of capillary blood from the calf musculature depends upon directions of vibration of the leg and of the gravity vector.

    PubMed

    Çakar, Halil Ibrahim; Doğan, Serfiraz; Kara, Sadık; Rittweger, Jörn; Rawer, Rainer; Zange, Jochen

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of vibration of the whole lower leg on the content and the oxygenation of hemoglobin in the unloaded relaxed lateral gastrocnemius muscle. Vibration was applied orthogonal to and in parallel with leg axis to examine whether the extrusion of blood depends on an alignment of main vessel direction, axis of vibration and gravity. The blood volume in the muscles was altered by horizontal and 30° upright body posture. Fifteen male subjects were exposed to 4 sets of experiments with both vibration directions and both tilt angles applied in permutated order. The absence of voluntary muscular activity and the potential occurrence of compound action potentials by stretch reflexes were monitored using electromyography. Total hemoglobin and tissue saturation index were measured with near infrared spectroscopy. Changes of lower leg circumference were measured with strain gauge system placed around the calf. Vibration caused decrease in tHb and increase in TSI indicating extrusion of predominantly venous blood from the muscle. In 30° tilted position, muscles contained more blood at baseline and vibration ejected more blood from the muscle compared with horizontal posture (p < 0.01). At 30° tilting deeper drop in tHb and steeper increase in TSI (p < 0.01) were observed when vibration was applied in parallel with the length axis of muscle. It is concluded that the vibration extrudes more blood in 30° head up posture and the vibration applied in parallel with the length axis of the muscle is more effective than orthogonal vibration.

  20. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Calf- and Yearling-Fed Beef Production Systems, With and Without the Use of Growth Promotants

    PubMed Central

    Basarab, John; Baron, Vern; López-Campos, Óscar; Aalhus, Jennifer; Haugen-Kozyra, Karen; Okine, Erasmus

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary A spring calving herd (~350 beef cows) over two production cycles was used to compare the whole-farm greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions among calf-fed vs. yearling-fed production systems, with and without growth implants. Farm GHG emissions initially included enteric CH4, manure CH4 and N2O, cropping N2O, and energy use CO2. The carbon footprint ranged from 19.9–22.5 kg CO2e per kg carcass weight. Including soil organic carbon loss from annual cropping and carbon sequestration from perennial pastures and haylands further reduced the carbon footprint by 11–16%. The carbon footprint of beef was reduced by growth promotants (4.9–5.1%) and by calf-fed beef production (6.3–7.5%). Abstract A spring calving herd consisting of about 350 beef cows, 14–16 breeding bulls, 60 replacement heifers and 112 steers were used to compare the whole-farm GHG emissions among calf-fed vs. yearling-fed production systems with and without growth implants. Carbon footprint ranged from 11.63 to 13.22 kg CO2e per kg live weight (19.87–22.52 kg CO2e per kg carcass weight). Enteric CH4 was the largest source of GHG emissions (53–54%), followed by manure N2O (20–22%), cropping N2O (11%), energy use CO2 (9–9.5%), and manure CH4 (4–6%). Beef cow accounted for 77% and 58% of the GHG emissions in the calf-fed and yearling-fed. Feeders accounted for the second highest GHG emissions (15% calf-fed; 35–36% yearling-fed). Implants reduced the carbon footprint by 4.9–5.1% compared with hormone-free. Calf-fed reduced the carbon footprint by 6.3–7.5% compared with yearling-fed. When expressed as kg CO2e per kg carcass weight per year the carbon footprint of calf-fed production was 73.9–76.1% lower than yearling-fed production, and calf-fed implanted was 85% lower than hormone-free yearling-fed. Reducing GHG emissions from beef production may be accomplished by improving the feed efficiency of the cow herd, decreasing the days on low quality feeds, and reducing the age

  1. Kinetic behaviour of calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase with pNPP.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Gouri; Chatterjee, Saswata; Venu-Babu, P; Ramasamy, K; Thilagaraj, W Richard

    2013-02-01

    The hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNPP) by calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase (CIAP) was investigated with respect to kinetic parameters such as V(max), K(m) and K(cat) under varying pH, buffers, substrate concentration, temperature and period of incubation. Highest activity was obtained with Tris-HCl at pH 11, while in the case of glycine-NaOH buffer the peak activity was recorded at pH 9.5. The enzyme showed the following kinetic characteristics with pNPP in 50 mM Tris-HCl at pH 11 and 100 mM glycine-NaOH at pH 9.5 at an incubation temperature of 37 degrees C: V(max), 3.12 and 1.6 micromoles min(-1) unit(-1); K(m), 7.6 x 10(-4) M and 4 x 10(-4) M; and K(cat), 82.98 s(-1) and 42.55 s(-1), respectively. CIAP displayed a high temperature optimum of 45 degrees C at pH 11. The kinetic behaviour of the enzyme under different parameters suggested that the enzyme might undergo subtle conformational changes in response to the buffers displaying unique characteristics. Bioprecipitation of Cu2+ from 50 ppm of CuCl2 solution was studied where 64.3% of precipitation was obtained. P(i) generated from CIAP-mediated hydrolysis of pNPP was found to bind with copper and precipitated as copper-phosphate. Thus, CIAP could be used as a test candidate in bioremediation of heavy metals from industrial wastes through generation of metal-phosphate complexes.

  2. Alpharma Beef Cattle Nutrition Symposium: implications of nutritional management for beef cow-calf systems.

    PubMed

    Funston, R N; Summers, A F; Roberts, A J

    2012-07-01

    The beef cattle industry relies on the use of high-forage diets to develop replacement females, maintain the cow herd, and sustain stocker operations Forage quantity and quality fluctuate with season and environmental conditions Depending on class and physiological state of the animal, a forage diet may not always meet nutritional requirements, resulting in reduced ADG or BW loss if supplemental nutrients are not provided It is important to understand the consequences of such BW loss and the economics of providing supplementation to the beef production system Periods of limited or insufficient nutrient availability can be followed by periods of compensatory BW gain once dietary conditions improve This may have less impact on breeding animals, provided reproductive efficiency is not compromised, where actual BW is not as important as it is in animals destined for the feedlot A rapidly evolving body of literature is also demonstrating that nutritional status of cows during pregnancy can affect subsequent offspring development and production characteristics later in life The concept of fetal programming is that maternal stimuli during critical periods of fetal development have long-term implications for offspring Depending on timing, magnitude, and duration of nutrient limitation or supplementation, it is possible that early measures in life, such as calf birth BW, may be unaffected, whereas measures later in life, such as weaning BW, carcass characteristics, and reproductive traits, may be influenced This body of research provides compelling evidence of a fetal programming response to maternal nutrition in beef cattle Future competitiveness of the US beef industry will continue to be dependent on the use of high-forage diets to meet the majority of nutrient requirements Consequences of nutrient restriction or supplementation must be considered not only on individual animal performance but also the developing fetus and its subsequent performance throughout life.

  3. MRI detection of soleus muscle injuries in professional football players.

    PubMed

    Pezzotta, G; Querques, G; Pecorelli, A; Nani, R; Sironi, S

    2017-11-01

    To describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of soleus muscle injuries in symptomatic professional football players stratified according to both the Munich consensus statement and the British Athletics Muscle Injury Classification (BAMIC), and to investigate the association between specific MRI features and the "return to play" (RTP). Professional football players with an episode of acute posterior calf pain and impaired function, subsequent to sports activity, underwent ultrasound followed by MRI examination reviewed by two different radiologists with more than 10 years of experience in the musculoskeletal system. MRI features and RTP outcome were evaluated for all types of injuries. During a 36-month period, a total of 20 professional football players were evaluated. According to the Munich consensus, 11 were type 3A, 8 were type 3B, and 1 was type 4, whereas according to the BAMIC, 11 lesions were considered grade 1, 4 grade 2, 4 grade 3, and 1 grade 4. RTP data were available for all patients (mean 3.3 ± 1.6 weeks). Both the Munich consensus and the BAMIC correlated with RTP (Spearman correlation = 0.982 and p < 0.0001 and 0.886 and p < 0.0001 respectively). Extension of edema was an independent prognostic factor for RTP in two different models of multivariate regression analysis (p = 0.044 model A; p = 0.031 model B). The Munich consensus and BAMIC grading systems are useful tools for defining the patient's prognosis and proper rehabilitation time after injury. The MRI feature that we should carefully look for is the extension of edema, as it seems to significantly affect the RTP.

  4. Effect of DHEAS on skeletal muscle over the life span: the InCHIANTI study.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Giorgio; Denti, Licia; Maggio, Marcello; Ceda, GianPaolo; Volpato, Stefano; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ceresini, Graziano; Cappola, Anne; Guralnik, Jack M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2004-05-01

    It has been suggested that the reduced production of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) may be partially responsible for the decline of muscle strength and mass that often occurs with aging. However, this hypothesis has been only tested in small series of normal volunteers, with little consideration for potential confounders. Using data from a representative sample of 558 men (20-95 years) we tested the hypothesis that circulating DHEAS is independently associated with muscle strength and mass. Data are from InCHIANTI, an epidemiological study conducted in the Chianti geographic area (Tuscany, Italy). DHEAS serum levels were related to lower extremity muscle strength assessed by hand-held dynamometry and calf muscle area estimated from quantitative computerized tomography. Confounders included age, anthropometrics, physical activity, smoking, energy and alcohol intake, albumin, lipids, interleukin-6, comorbidity, depressive symptoms, and disability in activities of daily living. In fully adjusted models predicting lower extremity muscle strength and calf muscle area, we found significant age*log DHEAS interactions, suggesting that the relationship between DHEAS levels and muscle parameters differs across the life span. In age-stratified models adjusted for confounders, serum DHEAS was an independent predictor of muscle strength (p <.02) and mass (p <.01), but only for men between 60 and 79 years of age. After adjusting these models for serum-free or bioavailable testosterone, results were unchanged. In men aged 60-79 years, circulating DHEAS is an independent correlate of muscle strength and calf muscle area. The possible causal role of declining DHEAS in age-related sarcopenia should be further explored in longitudinal studies.

  5. [Calf circumference and its association with gait speed in elderly participants at Peruvian Naval Medical Center].

    PubMed

    Díaz Villegas, Gregory Mishell; Runzer Colmenares, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the association between calf circumference and gait speed in elderly patients 65 years or older at Geriatric day clinic at Peruvian Centro Médico Naval. Cross-sectional, retrospective study. We assessed 139 participants, 65 years or older at Peruvian Centro Médico Naval including calf circumference, gait speed and Short Physical Performance Battery. With bivariate analyses and logistic regression model we search for association between variables. The age mean was 79.37 years old (SD: 8.71). 59.71% were male, the 30.97% had a slow walking speed and the mean calf circumference was 33.42cm (SD: 5.61). After a bivariate analysis, we found a calf circumference mean of 30.35cm (SD: 3.74) in the slow speed group and, in normal gait group, a mean of 33.51cm (SD: 3.26) with significantly differences. We used logistic regression to analyze association with slow gait speed, founding statistically significant results adjusting model by disability and age. Low calf circumference is associated with slow speed walk in population over 65 years old. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  6. The effect of sitting and calf activity on leg fluid and snoring.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhajan; Yadollahi, Azadeh; Lyons, Owen; Alshaer, Hisham; Bradley, T Douglas

    2017-06-01

    Prolonged sitting may promote leg fluid retention that redistributes to the neck during sleep and contributes to snoring. This could be attenuated by calf activity while sitting. In 16 healthy non-obese subjects we measured leg fluid volume (LFV) below the knees using bioelectrical impedance while sitting for 4h, snoring using a portable BresoDx™ device, and Mallampati grade. Using a double cross-over study design, subjects were randomized to one of two arms and crossed-over one week later: control arm - no calf exercise while sitting; intervention arm - calf contraction against a pedal resistance while sitting. The effects of sitting±calf activity on LFV and snoring were compared. We found that LFV increased by 216±101.0ml (p<0.0001) after sitting. Calf activity while sitting attenuated LFV by 53.8ml (p<0.0001) and, in all five subjects with severe upper airway narrowing (Mallampati grade IV), reduced snoring duration (from 357±132.9 to 116.2±72.1s/h, p=0.02) suggesting reduced overnight rostral fluid shift to the neck. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Muscle twitching

    MedlinePlus

    ... Some are common and normal. Others are signs of a nervous system disorder. Causes Causes may include: Autoimmune disorders , such ... muscle Spinal muscular atrophy Weak muscles (myopathy) Symptoms of a nervous system disorder include: Loss of, or change in, sensation ...

  8. Supplementation of organic and inorganic selenium to late gestation and early lactation beef cows effect on cow and preweaning calf performance.

    PubMed

    Muegge, C R; Brennan, K M; Schoonmaker, J P

    2016-08-01

    Angus × Simmental cows ( = 48; BW = 595 ± 17.4 kg, BCS = 5.26 ± 0.05, and age = 2.3 ± 0.07 yr), pregnant with male fetuses, were used to determine the effect of Se source during the last 80 d of gestation and first 108 d of lactation on cow and calf performance. At 203 d in gestation, cows were blocked by BW, breed composition, age, and calf sire and randomly allotted to organic Se, inorganic Se, or no Se treatments. Diets contained corn silage, corn stover, haylage, dried distillers' grains with solubles, and minerals and were formulated to contain 10.4% CP and 0.90 Mcal/kg NEg during gestation and 12.1% CP and 1.01 Mcal/kg NEg during lactation. Diets were fed daily as a total mixed ration and none, 3 mg/d Se as sodium selenite, or 3 mg/d Se as Sel-Plex were top-dressed daily. At 68 d postpartum (DPP), milk production was calculated using the weigh-suckle-weigh procedure and a milk sample was collected to determine composition. At 108 DPP, cow-calf pairs were commingled until weaning at 210 DPP. Cow BW and BCS ( ≥ 0.56) did not differ between treatments at any time point during the study. Milk production, milk fat, and total solids ( ≥ 0.38) did not differ among treatments. Milk protein tended to increase in cows fed inorganic Se compared with cows fed organic Se ( = 0.07) and milk lactose tended to be greatest in cows fed organic Se ( = 0.10). Conception to AI and overall pregnancy rates did not differ between treatments ( ≥ 0.39). Calf weights and ADG did not differ through 108 DPP ( ≥ 0.77) or for the preweaning period ( ≥ 0.33). Plasma Se concentration was adequate for all cows and did not differ among treatments for cows ( ≥ 0.37) or calves ( ≥ 0.90). Liver Se concentrations in cows fed inorganic or organic Se were greater than in control cows ( < 0.01). Longissimus muscles biopsies taken from progeny at 108 DPP also did not differ between treatments ( = 0.45). In conclusion, dietary Se source did not affect cow performance, milk production

  9. Effect of Compression Garments on the Development of Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness: A Multimodal Approach Using Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound and Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Elastography.

    PubMed

    Heiss, Rafael; Kellermann, Marion; Swoboda, Bernd; Grim, Casper; Lutter, Christoph; May, Matthias S; Wuest, Wolfgang; Uder, Michael; Nagel, Armin M; Hotfiel, Thilo

    2018-06-12

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study with repeated measures. Background Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is one of the most common reasons for impaired muscle performance in sports. However, little consensus exists regarding which treatments may be most effective and the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Objectives To investigate the influence of compression garments on the development of DOMS, focusing on changes in muscle perfusion and muscle stiffness. Methods Muscle perfusion and stiffness, calf circumference, muscle soreness, passive ankle dorsiflexion, and creatine kinase levels were assessed on participants before (baseline) a DOMS-inducing eccentric calf exercise intervention and 60 h later (follow-up). After DOMS induction, a sports compression garment (18-21 mmHg) was worn on one randomized calf until follow-up. The contralateral calf served as an internal control. Muscle perfusion was assessed using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (peak enhancement [PE] and wash-in area under the curve [WiAUC]), while muscle stiffness was assessed using acoustic radiation force impulse (shear wave velocities [SWV]). An MRI scan of both lower legs was also performed during the follow-up testing session to characterize the extent of exercise-induced muscle damage. Comparisons were made between limbs and over time. Results SWV values of the medial gastrocnemius showed a significant interaction between time and limb (p=0.006) with the non-compressed muscle demonstrating lower muscle stiffness values at follow-up compared to baseline or the compressed muscle. No significant differences in soleus muscle stiffness were noted between limb or over time, as was the case for muscle perfusion metrics (PE and WiAUC) for the medial gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. Further, compression had no significant effect on passive ankle dorsiflexion, muscle soreness, calf circumference, or injury severity per MRI. Conclusion Continuous wearing of compression garments during the

  10. Exercise intensity and muscle hypertrophy in blood flow-restricted limbs and non-restricted muscles: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Abe, Takashi; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Fahs, Christopher A; Rossow, Lindy M; Thiebaud, Robert S; Bemben, Michael G

    2012-07-01

    Although evidence for high-intensity resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy has accumulated over the last several decades, the basic concept of the training can be traced back to ancient Greece: Milo of Croton lifted a bull-calf daily until it was fully grown, which would be known today as progressive overload. Now, in the 21st century, different types of training are being tested and studied, such as low-intensity exercise combined with arterial as well as venous blood flow restriction (BFR) to/from the working muscles. Because BFR training requires the use of a cuff that is placed at the proximal ends of the arms and/or legs, the BFR is only applicable to limb muscles. Consequently, most previous BFR training studies have focused on the physiological adaptations of BFR limb muscles. Muscle adaptations in non-BFR muscles of the hip and trunk are lesser known. Recent studies that have reported both limb and trunk muscle adaptations following BFR exercise training suggest that low-intensity (20-30% of 1RM) resistance training combined with BFR elicits muscle hypertrophy in both BFR limb and non-BFR muscles. However, the combination of leg muscle BFR with walk training elicits muscle hypertrophy only in the BFR leg muscles. In contrast to resistance exercise with BFR, the exercise intensity may be too low during BFR walk training to cause muscle hypertrophy in the non-BFR gluteus maximus and other trunk muscles. Other mechanisms including hypoxia, local and systemic growth factors and muscle cell swelling may also potentially affect the hypertrophic response of non-BFR muscles to BFR resistance exercise. © 2012 The Authors Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2012 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  11. Modeling Muscles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwyn, Lauren; Salm, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Teaching the anatomy of the muscle system to high school students can be challenging. Students often learn about muscle anatomy by memorizing information from textbooks or by observing plastic, inflexible models. Although these mediums help students learn about muscle placement, the mediums do not facilitate understanding regarding integration of…

  12. Viable Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis isolated from calf milk replacer.

    PubMed

    Grant, Irene R; Foddai, Antonio C G; Tarrant, James C; Kunkel, Brenna; Hartmann, Faye A; McGuirk, Sheila; Hansen, Chungyi; Talaat, Adel M; Collins, Michael T

    2017-12-01

    When advising farmers on how to control Johne's disease in an infected herd, one of the main recommendations is to avoid feeding waste milk to calves and instead feed calf milk replacer (CMR). This advice is based on the assumption that CMR is free of viable Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) cells, an assumption that has not previously been challenged. We tested commercial CMR products (n = 83) obtained from dairy farms around the United States by the peptide-mediated magnetic separation (PMS)-phage assay, PMS followed by liquid culture (PMS-culture), and direct IS900 quantitative PCR (qPCR). Conventional microbiological analyses for total mesophilic bacterial counts, coliforms, Salmonella, coagulase-negative staphylococci, streptococci, nonhemolytic Corynebacterium spp., and Bacillus spp. were also performed to assess the overall microbiological quality of the CMR. Twenty-six (31.3%) of the 83 CMR samples showed evidence of the presence of MAP. Seventeen (20.5%) tested positive for viable MAP by the PMS-phage assay, with plaque counts ranging from 6 to 1,212 pfu/50 mL of reconstituted CMR (average 248.5 pfu/50 mL). Twelve (14.5%) CMR samples tested positive for viable MAP by PMS-culture; isolates from all 12 of these samples were subsequently confirmed by whole-genome sequencing to be different cattle strains of MAP. Seven (8.4%) CMR samples tested positive for MAP DNA by IS900 qPCR. Four CMR samples tested positive by both PMS-based tests and 5 CMR samples tested positive by IS900 qPCR plus one or other of the PMS-based tests, but only one CMR sample tested positive by all 3 MAP detection tests applied. All conventional microbiology results were within current standards for whole milk powders. A significant association existed between higher total bacterial counts and presence of viable MAP indicated by either of the PMS-based assays. This represents the first published report of the isolation of viable MAP from CMR. Our findings raise concerns

  13. Amino acid supplementation of calf milk replacers containing plasma protein.

    PubMed

    Morrison, S Y; Campbell, J M; Drackley, J K

    2017-06-01

    We determined the effects of calf milk replacers containing 0, 5, or 10% bovine plasma protein (PP), either without or with the supplemental amino acids (AA) Ile and Thr, on growth and health of male Holstein calves (n = 104) for 56 d. Milk replacers were formulated to contain 22% crude protein (CP), 20% fat, and 2.0% Lys. Milk replacers (12.5% solids) were fed at a rate of 1.5% of body weight (BW) on a dry matter basis during wk 1 and 1.75% of BW beginning on d 8. Starter was introduced on d 36 so that effects of PP and AA balance in milk replacers could be isolated. Intake, respiratory scores, and fecal scores were measured daily. Body weight and stature were measured weekly and blood serum samples were obtained during wk 4. Treatments had no effects on intakes of dry matter, CP, or metabolizable energy. During wk 6 and 8, BW was less as PP inclusion increased without AA supplementation compared with the other treatments. In wk 7, calves fed the higher level of PP without AA had lower BW than calves fed either the lower level of PP without supplemented AA or the higher inclusion of PP with supplemented AA. Average daily gain and gain:feed were lowest for calves fed the higher inclusion of PP without supplemented AA; heart girth in wk 7 was smallest for those calves. During the first 21 d, occurrence of scours was greater in calves fed the control milk replacer than in calves fed milk replacers containing the higher inclusion of PP either without or with supplemental AA. Occurrence of scours was also greater for the lower inclusion of PP compared with the higher inclusion of PP when AA were supplemented. Throughout the 56-d experiment, the chance of antibiotic treatment was greater for calves fed the control milk replacer than for all other treatments except the higher inclusion of PP without supplemental AA. Additionally, chance of antibiotic treatment was greater for the higher inclusion of PP without supplemental AA than for other milk replacers with PP. Calves

  14. Regional changes in muscle mass following 17 weeks of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, Adrian D.; Schneider, Victor S.; Evans, Harlan J.; Pientok, Colette; Rowe, Roger; Spector, Elisabeth

    1992-01-01

    This work reports on the muscle loss and recovery after 17 wk of continuous bed rest and 8 wk of reambulation in eight normal male volunteers. Muscle changes were assessed by urinary levels of 3-methylhistidine (3-MeH), nitrogen balance, dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and isokinetic muscle performance. The total body lean tissue loss during bed rest calculated from nitrogen balance was 3.9 +/- 2.1 kg. Although the total loss is minimal, DPA scans showed that nearly all of the lean tissue loss occurred in the lower limbs. Similarly, MRI muscle volume measurements showed greater percent loss in the limbs relative to the back muscles. MRI, DPA, and nitrogen balance suggest that muscle atrophy continued throughout bed rest with rapid recovery after reambulaton. Isokinetic muscle strength decreased significantly in the thigh and calf with no loss in the arms and with rapid recovery during reambulation.

  15. Three-Dimensional Muscle Architecture and Comprehensive Dynamic Properties of Rabbit Gastrocnemius, Plantaris and Soleus: Input for Simulation Studies

    PubMed Central

    Siebert, Tobias; Leichsenring, Kay; Rode, Christian; Wick, Carolin; Stutzig, Norman; Schubert, Harald; Blickhan, Reinhard; Böl, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The vastly increasing number of neuro-muscular simulation studies (with increasing numbers of muscles used per simulation) is in sharp contrast to a narrow database of necessary muscle parameters. Simulation results depend heavily on rough parameter estimates often obtained by scaling of one muscle parameter set. However, in vivo muscles differ in their individual properties and architecture. Here we provide a comprehensive dataset of dynamic (n = 6 per muscle) and geometric (three-dimensional architecture, n = 3 per muscle) muscle properties of the rabbit calf muscles gastrocnemius, plantaris, and soleus. For completeness we provide the dynamic muscle properties for further important shank muscles (flexor digitorum longus, extensor digitorum longus, and tibialis anterior; n = 1 per muscle). Maximum shortening velocity (normalized to optimal fiber length) of the gastrocnemius is about twice that of soleus, while plantaris showed an intermediate value. The force-velocity relation is similar for gastrocnemius and plantaris but is much more bent for the soleus. Although the muscles vary greatly in their three-dimensional architecture their mean pennation angle and normalized force-length relationships are almost similar. Forces of the muscles were enhanced in the isometric phase following stretching and were depressed following shortening compared to the corresponding isometric forces. While the enhancement was independent of the ramp velocity, the depression was inversely related to the ramp velocity. The lowest effect strength for soleus supports the idea that these effects adapt to muscle function. The careful acquisition of typical dynamical parameters (e.g. force-length and force-velocity relations, force elongation relations of passive components), enhancement and depression effects, and 3D muscle architecture of calf muscles provides valuable comprehensive datasets for e.g. simulations with neuro-muscular models, development of more realistic muscle models, or

  16. Influence of late gestation drylot rations differing in protein degradability and fat content on beef cow and subsequent calf performance.

    PubMed

    Wilson, T B; Faulkner, D B; Shike, D W

    2015-12-01

    Spring-calving, mature cows ( = 191 total) and their progeny were used to evaluate the effects of late gestation drylot rations differing in RUP and fat content on cow performance as well as performance and carcass characteristics of subsequent progeny. Cows were blocked by BW and anticipated calving date and assigned to 16 pens. Pens were randomly allotted to 1 of 2 treatments: limit-fed corn coproducts and ground cornstalks (COP; TDN = 64.4%, CP = 11.1%, RDP = 60.2% of CP, and fat = 5.1%) or limit-fed ground mixed, cool-season grass hay (HY; TDN = 55.7%, CP = 9.5%, RDP = 86.0% of CP, and fat = 2.3%). Treatments were limit fed as isocaloric, isonitrogenous rations from 88 ± 11 d prepartum to calving. All cows were fed a common diet postpartum. Cow BW and BCS were collected at the beginning of the feeding period, within 48 h after calving, and at breeding. Calf BW was collected at birth and at 64 ± 11 and 124 ± 11 d of age. Milk production was determined using the weigh-suckle-weigh technique at 64 ± 11 and 124 ± 11 d postpartum. At 124 ± 11 d of age, steers ( = 68) and nonreplacement heifer calves ( = 25) were weaned and placed on a common feedlot diet with individual feed intake monitored using GrowSafe. Feedlot calves were slaughtered at a commercial facility 35 ± 10 d after a minimum ultrasound 12-rib fat thickness estimation of 0.9 cm. After calving, cow BW was greater ( < 0.01) and BCS was greater ( < 0.01) for cows fed COP than for cows fed HY. Calf birth BW was greater ( = 0.04) for those born to cows fed COP with no difference ( = 0.43) in percentage of unassisted births across treatment. Cows fed HY were lighter ( < 0.01) at breeding with lower BCS ( = 0.03); nevertheless, overall pregnancy rate was not different ( = 0.80). No differences ( ≥ 0.22) in milk production were detected. For feedlot progeny, initial feedlot BW, final BW, and days on feed were not different ( ≥ 0.23), and as a result, no difference ( = 0.21) in feedlot ADG was

  17. The impact of obesity on skeletal muscle strength and structure through adolescence to old age.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, D J; Erskine, R M; Morse, C I; Winwood, K; Onambélé-Pearson, Gladys

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is associated with functional limitations in muscle performance and increased likelihood of developing a functional disability such as mobility, strength, postural and dynamic balance limitations. The consensus is that obese individuals, regardless of age, have a greater absolute maximum muscle strength compared to non-obese persons, suggesting that increased adiposity acts as a chronic overload stimulus on the antigravity muscles (e.g., quadriceps and calf), thus increasing muscle size and strength. However, when maximum muscular strength is normalised to body mass, obese individuals appear weaker. This relative weakness may be caused by reduced mobility, neural adaptations and changes in muscle morphology. Discrepancies in the literature remain for maximal strength normalised to muscle mass (muscle quality) and can potentially be explained through accounting for the measurement protocol contributing to muscle strength capacity that need to be explored in more depth such as antagonist muscle co-activation, muscle architecture, a criterion valid measurement of muscle size and an accurate measurement of physical activity levels. Current evidence demonstrating the effect of obesity on muscle quality is limited. These factors not being recorded in some of the existing literature suggest a potential underestimation of muscle force either in terms of absolute force production or relative to muscle mass; thus the true effect of obesity upon skeletal muscle size, structure and function, including any interactions with ageing effects, remains to be elucidated.

  18. Proteomics Analysis of Skeletal Muscle from Leptin-Deficient ob/ob Mice Reveals Adaptive Remodeling of Metabolic Characteristics and Fiber Type Composition.

    PubMed

    Schönke, Milena; Björnholm, Marie; Chibalin, Alexander V; Zierath, Juleen R; Deshmukh, Atul S

    2018-03-01

    Skeletal muscle insulin resistance, an early metabolic defect in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D), may be a cause or consequence of altered protein expression profiles. Proteomics technology offers enormous promise to investigate molecular mechanisms underlying pathologies, however, the analysis of skeletal muscle is challenging. Using state-of-the-art multienzyme digestion and filter-aided sample preparation (MED-FASP) and a mass spectrometry (MS)-based workflow, we performed a global proteomics analysis of skeletal muscle from leptin-deficient, obese, insulin resistant (ob/ob) and lean mice in mere two fractions in a short time (8 h per sample). We identified more than 6000 proteins with 118 proteins differentially regulated in obesity. This included protein kinases, phosphatases, and secreted and fiber type associated proteins. Enzymes involved in lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle from ob/ob mice were increased, providing evidence against reduced fatty acid oxidation in lipid-induced insulin resistance. Mitochondrial and peroxisomal proteins, as well as components of pyruvate and lactate metabolism, were increased. Finally, the skeletal muscle proteome from ob/ob mice displayed a shift toward the "slow fiber type." This detailed characterization of an obese rodent model of T2D demonstrates an efficient workflow for skeletal muscle proteomics, which may easily be adapted to other complex tissues. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Causes and Correlates of Calf Mortality in Captive Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus)

    PubMed Central

    Mar, Khyne U.; Lahdenperä, Mirkka; Lummaa, Virpi

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile mortality is a key factor influencing population growth rate in density-independent, predation-free, well-managed captive populations. Currently at least a quarter of all Asian elephants live in captivity, but both the wild and captive populations are unsustainable with the present fertility and calf mortality rates. Despite the need for detailed data on calf mortality to manage effectively populations and to minimize the need for capture from the wild, very little is known of the causes and correlates of calf mortality in Asian elephants. Here we use the world's largest multigenerational demographic dataset on a semi-captive population of Asian elephants compiled from timber camps in Myanmar to investigate the survival of calves (n = 1020) to age five born to captive-born mothers (n = 391) between 1960 and 1999. Mortality risk varied significantly across different ages and was higher for males at any age. Maternal reproductive history was associated with large differences in both stillbirth and liveborn mortality risk: first-time mothers had a higher risk of calf loss as did mothers producing another calf soon (<3.7 years) after a previous birth, and when giving birth at older age. Stillbirth (4%) and pre-weaning mortality (25.6%) were considerably lower than those reported for zoo elephants and used in published population viability analyses. A large proportion of deaths were caused by accidents and lack of maternal milk/calf weakness which both might be partly preventable by supplementary feeding of mothers and calves and work reduction of high-risk mothers. Our results on Myanmar timber elephants with an extensive keeping system provide an important comparison to compromised survivorship reported in zoo elephants. They have implications for improving captive working elephant management systems in range countries and for refining population viability analyses with realistic parameter values in order to predict future population size of the Asian

  20. Causes and correlates of calf mortality in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Mar, Khyne U; Lahdenperä, Mirkka; Lummaa, Virpi

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile mortality is a key factor influencing population growth rate in density-independent, predation-free, well-managed captive populations. Currently at least a quarter of all Asian elephants live in captivity, but both the wild and captive populations are unsustainable with the present fertility and calf mortality rates. Despite the need for detailed data on calf mortality to manage effectively populations and to minimize the need for capture from the wild, very little is known of the causes and correlates of calf mortality in Asian elephants. Here we use the world's largest multigenerational demographic dataset on a semi-captive population of Asian elephants compiled from timber camps in Myanmar to investigate the survival of calves (n = 1020) to age five born to captive-born mothers (n = 391) between 1960 and 1999. Mortality risk varied significantly across different ages and was higher for males at any age. Maternal reproductive history was associated with large differences in both stillbirth and liveborn mortality risk: first-time mothers had a higher risk of calf loss as did mothers producing another calf soon (<3.7 years) after a previous birth, and when giving birth at older age. Stillbirth (4%) and pre-weaning mortality (25.6%) were considerably lower than those reported for zoo elephants and used in published population viability analyses. A large proportion of deaths were caused by accidents and lack of maternal milk/calf weakness which both might be partly preventable by supplementary feeding of mothers and calves and work reduction of high-risk mothers. Our results on Myanmar timber elephants with an extensive keeping system provide an important comparison to compromised survivorship reported in zoo elephants. They have implications for improving captive working elephant management systems in range countries and for refining population viability analyses with realistic parameter values in order to predict future population size of the Asian

  1. Cow attributes, herd management, and reproductive history events associated with abortion in cow-calf herds from Western Canada.

    PubMed

    Waldner, C L

    2014-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to identify herd management and cow characteristics that are associated with abortion in cow-calf herds in Western Canada. Reproductive events were closely monitored in 29,713 cows in 203 herds from the beginning of the breeding season in 2001 through the calving season in 2002. Herd management and cow-level risk factors such as age, body condition score, and previous reproductive history were measured through a series of herd visits by project personnel and detailed individual animal records maintained by the herd owner. Pregnancy status was assessed in fall of 2001 by the herd veterinarian. Cows most likely to abort were replacement heifers, cows that were more than 10 years of age, cows with a body condition score of less than or equal to or 5 of 9 at pregnancy testing, or with twin pregnancies. Cows vaccinated for bovine viral diarrhea virus and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis and bred on community pastures were less likely to abort than cows from community pastures that were not vaccinated. Cows bred on community pastures that were not vaccinated were also more likely to abort than cows that were not on community pastures regardless of vaccination status. Adverse calving-associated events such as severe dystocia, problems such as uterine prolapse or retained placentas, abortion or calf death within 1 hour of birth were also associated with an increased risk of abortion the subsequent calving season after accounting for all other factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Muscle Contraction.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, H Lee; Hammers, David W

    2018-02-01

    SUMMARYMuscle cells are designed to generate force and movement. There are three types of mammalian muscles-skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones and move them relative to each other. Cardiac muscle comprises the heart, which pumps blood through the vasculature. Skeletal and cardiac muscles are known as striated muscles, because the filaments of actin and myosin that power their contraction are organized into repeating arrays, called sarcomeres, that have a striated microscopic appearance. Smooth muscle does not contain sarcomeres but uses the contraction of filaments of actin and myosin to constrict blood vessels and move the contents of hollow organs in the body. Here, we review the principal molecular organization of the three types of muscle and their contractile regulation through signaling mechanisms and discuss their major structural and functional similarities that hint at the possible evolutionary relationships between the cell types. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  3. A comparison of intermittent pneumatic compression of the calf and whole leg in preventing deep venous thrombosis in urological surgery.

    PubMed

    Soderdahl, D W; Henderson, S R; Hansberry, K L

    1997-05-01

    Intermittent pneumatic compression of the calf and/or thigh effectively decreases the incidence of deep venous thrombosis and other thrombotic sequelae but clinical data comparing these modalities are currently lacking. A total of 90 patients undergoing major urological surgery was randomly assigned to receive calf length or thigh length pneumatic compression for antithrombotic prophylaxis. Duplex ultrasound of the lower extremities was performed preoperatively and twice postoperatively to evaluate for deep venous thrombosis. Health care providers in the operating room, recovery room and ward were asked to compare the compression systems, and a cost analysis was performed. A total of 47 patients wore the thigh length sequential pneumatic sleeves and 43 wore calf length uniform compression systems. A pulmonary embolus without evidence of deep venous thrombosis was detected in 1 patient (2%) using the thigh length system. A thrombus was detected in the common femoral vein by duplex ultrasonography in 1 patient (2%) with the calf length system. Nursing personnel found the calf length sleeves easier to apply and more comfortable by patient account but they were satisfied with both systems. There was a significant cost savings with the calf length pneumatic compression system. Calf and thigh length pneumatic compression systems similarly decrease the risk of deep venous thrombosis in patients undergoing urological surgery. The calf length system has the added advantage of being less expensive and easier to use.

  4. Delaying postpartum supplementation in cows consuming low-quality forage does not alter cow and calf productivity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reducing the amount of supplemental feed postpartum without affecting productivity may enhance profitability of cow-calf operations. Therefore, sixteen 2-yr-old fall calving cows were used to evaluate effects of delaying postpartum supplementation on milk production, serum metabolites, cow and calf ...

  5. Force encoding in muscle spindles during stretch of passive muscle

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Kyle P.; Zytnicki, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Muscle spindle proprioceptive receptors play a primary role in encoding the effects of external mechanical perturbations to the body. During externally-imposed stretches of passive, i.e. electrically-quiescent, muscles, the instantaneous firing rates (IFRs) of muscle spindles are associated with characteristics of stretch such as length and velocity. However, even in passive muscle, there are history-dependent transients of muscle spindle firing that are not uniquely related to muscle length and velocity, nor reproduced by current muscle spindle models. These include acceleration-dependent initial bursts, increased dynamic response to stretch velocity if a muscle has been isometric, and rate relaxation, i.e., a decrease in tonic IFR when a muscle is held at a constant length after being stretched. We collected muscle spindle spike trains across a variety of muscle stretch kinematic conditions, including systematic changes in peak length, velocity, and acceleration. We demonstrate that muscle spindle primary afferents in passive muscle fire in direct relationship to muscle force-related variables, rather than length-related variables. Linear combinations of whole muscle-tendon force and the first time derivative of force (dF/dt) predict the entire time course of transient IFRs in muscle spindle Ia afferents during stretch (i.e., lengthening) of passive muscle, including the initial burst, the dynamic response to lengthening, and rate relaxation following lengthening. Similar to acceleration scaling found previously in postural responses to perturbations, initial burst amplitude scaled equally well to initial stretch acceleration or dF/dt, though later transients were only described by dF/dt. The transient increase in dF/dt at the onset of lengthening reflects muscle short-range stiffness due to cross-bridge dynamics. Our work demonstrates a critical role of muscle cross-bridge dynamics in history-dependent muscle spindle IFRs in passive muscle lengthening conditions

  6. Force encoding in muscle spindles during stretch of passive muscle.

    PubMed

    Blum, Kyle P; Lamotte D'Incamps, Boris; Zytnicki, Daniel; Ting, Lena H

    2017-09-01

    Muscle spindle proprioceptive receptors play a primary role in encoding the effects of external mechanical perturbations to the body. During externally-imposed stretches of passive, i.e. electrically-quiescent, muscles, the instantaneous firing rates (IFRs) of muscle spindles are associated with characteristics of stretch such as length and velocity. However, even in passive muscle, there are history-dependent transients of muscle spindle firing that are not uniquely related to muscle length and velocity, nor reproduced by current muscle spindle models. These include acceleration-dependent initial bursts, increased dynamic response to stretch velocity if a muscle has been isometric, and rate relaxation, i.e., a decrease in tonic IFR when a muscle is held at a constant length after being stretched. We collected muscle spindle spike trains across a variety of muscle stretch kinematic conditions, including systematic changes in peak length, velocity, and acceleration. We demonstrate that muscle spindle primary afferents in passive muscle fire in direct relationship to muscle force-related variables, rather than length-related variables. Linear combinations of whole muscle-tendon force and the first time derivative of force (dF/dt) predict the entire time course of transient IFRs in muscle spindle Ia afferents during stretch (i.e., lengthening) of passive muscle, including the initial burst, the dynamic response to lengthening, and rate relaxation following lengthening. Similar to acceleration scaling found previously in postural responses to perturbations, initial burst amplitude scaled equally well to initial stretch acceleration or dF/dt, though later transients were only described by dF/dt. The transient increase in dF/dt at the onset of lengthening reflects muscle short-range stiffness due to cross-bridge dynamics. Our work demonstrates a critical role of muscle cross-bridge dynamics in history-dependent muscle spindle IFRs in passive muscle lengthening conditions

  7. Correlation of trabeculae and papillary muscles with clinical and cardiac characteristics and impact on CMR measures of LV anatomy and function.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Michael L; Gona, Philimon; Hautvast, Gilion L T F; Salton, Carol J; Blease, Susan J; Yeon, Susan B; Breeuwer, Marcel; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Manning, Warren J

    2012-11-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the relationship of left ventricular (LV) trabeculae and papillary muscles (TPM) with clinical characteristics in a community-based, free-living adult cohort and to determine the effect of TPM on quantitative measures of LV volume, mass, and ejection fraction (EF). Hypertrabeculation has been associated with adverse cardiovascular events, but the distribution and clinical correlates of the volume and mass of the TPM in a normal left ventricle have not been well characterized. Short-axis cine cardiac magnetic resonance images, obtained using a steady-state free precession sequence from 1,494 members of the Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort, were analyzed with software that automatically segments TPM. Absolute TPM volume, TPM as a fraction of end-diastolic volume (EDV) (TPM/EDV), and TPM mass as a fraction of LV mass were determined in all offspring and in a referent group of offspring free of clinical cardiovascular disease and hypertension. In the referent group (mean age 61 ± 9 years; 262 men and 423 women), mean TPM was 23 ± 3% of LV EDV in both sexes (p = 0.9). TPM/EDV decreased with age (p < 0.02) but was not associated with body mass index. TPM mass as a fraction of LV mass was inversely correlated with age (p < 0.0001), body mass index (p < 0.018), and systolic blood pressure (p < 0.0001). Among all 1,494 participants (699 men), LV volumes decreased 23%, LV mass increased 28%, and EF increased by 7.5 EF units (p < 0.0001) when TPM were considered myocardial mass rather than part of the LV blood pool. Global cardiac magnetic resonance LV parameters were significantly affected by whether TPM was considered as part of the LV blood pool or as part of LV mass. Our cross-sectional data from a healthy referent group of adults free of clinical cardiovascular disease demonstrated that TPM/EDV decreases with increasing age in both sexes but is not related to hypertension or obesity. Copyright © 2012 American College of

  8. Effects of a myosin-II inhibitor (N-benzyl-p-toluene sulphonamide, BTS) on contractile characteristics of intact fast-twitch mammalian muscle fibres.

    PubMed

    Pinniger, G J; Bruton, J D; Westerblad, H; Ranatunga, K W

    2005-01-01

    We have examined the effects of N-benzyl-p-toluene sulphonamide (BTS), a potent and specific inhibitor of fast muscle myosin-II, using small bundles of intact fibres or single fibres from rat foot muscle. BTS decreased tetanic tension reversibly in a concentration-dependent manner with half-maximal inhibition at approximately approximately 2 microM at 20 degrees C. The inhibition of tension with 10 microM BTS was marked at the three temperatures examined (10, 20 and 30 degrees C), but greatest at 10 degrees C. BTS decreased active muscle stiffness to a lesser extent than tetanic tension indicating that not all of the tension inhibition was due to a reduced number of attached cross-bridges. BTS-induced inhibition of active tension was not accompanied by any change in the free myoplasmic Ca2+ transients. The potency and specificity of BTS make it a very suitable myosin inhibitor for intact mammalian fast muscle and should be a useful tool for the examination of outstanding questions in muscle contraction.

  9. Muscle anatomy and dynamic muscle function in osteogenesis imperfecta type I.

    PubMed

    Veilleux, Louis-Nicolas; Lemay, Martin; Pouliot-Laforte, Annie; Cheung, Moira S; Glorieux, Francis H; Rauch, Frank

    2014-02-01

    Results of previous studies suggested that children and adolescents with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type I have a muscle force deficit. However, muscle function has only been assessed by static isometric force tests and not in more natural conditions such as dynamic force and power tests. The purpose of this study was to assess lower extremity dynamic muscle function and muscle anatomy in OI type I. The study was performed in the outpatient department of a pediatric orthopedic hospital. A total of 54 individuals with OI type I (6-21 years; 20 male) and 54 age- and sex-matched controls took part in this study. Calf muscle cross-sectional area and density were measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Lower extremity muscle function (peak force per body weight and peak power per body mass) was measured by jumping mechanography through 5 tests: multiple two-legged hopping, multiple one-legged hopping, single two-legged jump, chair-rise test, and heel-rise test. Compared with age- and sex-matched controls, patients with OI type I had smaller muscle size (P = .04) but normal muscle density (P = .21). They also had lower average peak force and lower specific force (peak force/muscle cross-sectional area; all P < .008). Average peak power was lower in patients with OI type I but not significantly so (all P > .054). Children and adolescents with OI type I have, on average, a significant force deficit in the lower limb as measured by dynamic force tests. Nonetheless, these data also show that OI type I is compatible with normal muscle performance in some individuals.

  10. Characteristics and Preliminary Observations of the Influence of Electromyostimulation on the Size and Function of Human Skeletal Muscle During 30 Days of Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvoisin, Marc R.; Convertino, Victor A; Buchanan, Paul; Gollinick, Philip D.; Dudley, Gary A.

    1989-01-01

    During 30 days (d) of bedrest, the practicality of using Elec- troMyoStimulation (EMS) as a deterrent to atrophy and strength loss of lower limb musculature was examined. An EMS system was developed that provided variable but quantifiable levels of EMS, and measured torque. The dominant log of three male subjects was stimulated twice daily in a 3-d on/1-d off cycle during bedrest. The non-dominant leg of each subject acted as a control. A stimulator, using a 0.3 ms monophasic 60 Hz pulse waveform, activated muscle tissue for 4 s. The output waveform from the stimulator was sequenced to the Knee Extensors (KE), Knee Flex- ors (KF), Ankle Extensors (AE), and Ankle Flexors (AF), and caused three isometric contractions of each muscle group per minute. Subject tolerance determined EMS Intensity. Each muscle group received four 5-min bouts of EMS each session with a 10 -min rest between bouts. EMS and torque levels for each muscle action were recorded directly an a computer. Overall average EMS Intensity was 197, 197, 195, and 188 mA for the KE, KF, AF, and AE, respectively. Overall average torque development for these muscle groups was 70, 16, 12, and 27 Nm, respectively. EMS intensity doubled during the study, and average torque increased 2.5 times. Average maximum torque throughout a session reached 54% of maximal voluntary for the KE and 29% for the KF. Reductions in leg volume, muscle compartment size, cross-sectional area of slow and fast-twitch fibers, strength, and aerobic enzyme activities, and increased log compliance were attenuated in the legs which received EMS during bedrest. These results indicate that similar EMS levels induce different torques among different muscle groups and that repeated exposure to EMS increases tolerance and torque development. Longer orien- tation periods, therefore, may enhance its effectiveness. Our preliminary data suggest that the efficacy of EMS as an effective countermeasure for muscle atrophy and strength loss during long

  11. In ovo leptin administration accelerates post-hatch muscle growth and changes myofibre characteristics, gene expression and enzymes activity in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Liu, P; Hu, Y; Grossmann, R; Zhao, R

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of maternal leptin on muscle growth, we injected 0 μg (control, CON), 0.5 μg (low leptin dose, LL) or 5.0 μg (high leptin dose, HL) of recombinant murine leptin dissolved in 100 μl of PBS into the albumen of broiler eggs prior to incubation. The newly hatched chicks were all raised under the same conditions until 21 days of age (D21), when body weight was measured and samples of gastrocnemius muscle were collected and weighed. Myosin ATPase staining was applied to identify myofibre types and measure the cross-sectional area (CSA) of myofibres. Real-time PCR was performed to quantify leptin receptor (LEPR), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R), growth hormone receptor (GHR) and myostatin (MSTN) mRNA expression in the gastrocnemius muscle. The activity of calpains (CAPNs) in the gastrocnemius muscle was measured using a quantitative fluorescence detection kit. Male chickens treated with both high and low doses of leptin had significantly higher (p < 0.05) body weight on D21. The high leptin significantly increased the CSA (p < 0.05) of gastrocnemius muscle in male chickens, which coincided with a 93% increase (p < 0.05) in IGF-1 mRNA expression. Likewise, the LL dose increased the weight of gastrocnemius muscle in male chickens (p < 0.05), which was accompanied by a 41% down-regulation (p < 0.05) of MSTN mRNA expression and a decreased activity of CAPNs. However, all these changes were not observed in female chickens. The proportion of myofibre types did not altered. No significant change was detected for LEPR and GHR mRNA expression. These results indicate that in ovo leptin treatment affects skeletal muscle growth in chickens in a dose-dependent and sex-specific manner. The altered expression of IGF-1, MSTN mRNA and activity of CAPNs in skeletal muscle may be responsible for such effects. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Integrating scientific knowledge into large-scale restoration programs: the CALFED Bay-Delta Program experience

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Kimberly A.; Short, A.

    2009-01-01

    Integrating science into resource management activities is a goal of the CALFED Bay-Delta Program, a multi-agency effort to address water supply reliability, ecological condition, drinking water quality, and levees in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of northern California. Under CALFED, many different strategies were used to integrate science, including interaction between the research and management communities, public dialogues about scientific work, and peer review. This paper explores ways science was (and was not) integrated into CALFED's management actions and decision systems through three narratives describing different patterns of scientific integration and application in CALFED. Though a collaborative process and certain organizational conditions may be necessary for developing new understandings of the system of interest, we find that those factors are not sufficient for translating that knowledge into management actions and decision systems. We suggest that the application of knowledge may be facilitated or hindered by (1) differences in the objectives, approaches, and cultures of scientists operating in the research community and those operating in the management community and (2) other factors external to the collaborative process and organization.

  13. Management practices to reduce lupine-induced Crooked Calf Syndrome in the Northwest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many factors contribute to the incidence of lupine-induced “Crooked Calf Syndrome” (CCS) in the northwestern U.S. A 1-5% incidence of CCS is common on many ranches and higher incidences occur when environmental conditions are conducive to lupine population increases. Multiple management strategies s...

  14. Giardia duodenalis assemblages in weaned cattle on cow-calf operations in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To determine the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in weaned beef calves in cow-calf operations, fecal specimens were collected from 819 6- to18-month-old calves in 20 states. After cleaning and concentrating cysts from feces, DNA was extracted from each specimen. The presence of G. duodenalis was de...

  15. Forage and weather influence day versus nighttime cow behavior and calf weaning weights on rangeland

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We determined the effects of two forage allowance levels (LOW vs. HIGH) and weather conditions on day- and nighttime movement patterns of young rangeland-raised cows. We also investigated whether calf weaning weights (WW, n = 42) were significantly related to their dams' post-calving movement patter...

  16. Movement and spatial proximity patterns of rangeland-raised Raramuri Criollo cow-calf pairs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to compare movement patterns of nursing vs. nonnursing mature cows and to characterize cow-calf proximity patterns in two herds of Raramuri Criollo cattle. Herds grazed rangeland pastures in southern New Mexico (4355 ha) and west-central Chihuahua, Mexico (633 ha)'' A...

  17. Economic impacts of increasing seasonal precipitation variation on southeast Wyoming cow-calf enterprises

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Economic impacts of predicted increases in precipitation variability on cow-calf enterprises, through influences of precipitation on both forage and cattle productivity, are needed by land managers for risk management strategies. Here we utilize existing forage production and cattle performance data...

  18. Extracellular polysaccharides purified from Aureobasidium pullulans SM-2001 (Polycan) inhibit dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyung-Rae; Park, Dong-Chan; Jung, Go-Woon

    2018-01-01

    The present study assessed the beneficial skeletal muscle-preserving effects of extracellular polysaccharides from Aureobasidium pullulans SM-2001 (Polycan) (EAP) on dexamethasone (DEXA)-induced catabolic muscle atrophy in mice. To investigate whether EAP prevented catabolic DEXA-induced muscle atrophy, and to examine its mechanisms of action, EAP (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) was administered orally, once a day for 24 days. EAP treatment was initiated 2 weeks prior to DEXA treatment (1 mg/kg, once a day for 10 days) in mice. Body weight alterations, serum biochemistry, calf thickness, calf muscle strength, gastrocnemius muscle thickness and weight, gastrocnemius muscle antioxidant defense parameters, gastrocnemius muscle mRNA expression, histology and histomorphometry were subsequently assessed. After 24 days, DEXA control mice exhibited muscle atrophy according to all criteria indices. However, these muscle atrophy symptoms were significantly inhibited by oral treatment with all three doses of EAP. Regarding possible mechanisms of action, EAP exhibited favorable ameliorating effects on DEXA-induced catabolic muscle atrophy via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects; these effects were mediated by modulation of the expression of genes involved in muscle protein synthesis (AKT serine/threonine kinase 1, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, adenosine A1 receptor and transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4) and degradation (atrogin-1, muscle RING-finger protein-1, myostatin and sirtuin 1). Therefore, these results indicated that EAP may be helpful in improving muscle atrophies of various etiologies. EAP at 400 mg/kg exhibited favorable muscle protective effects against DEXA-induced catabolic muscle atrophy, comparable with the effects of oxymetholone (50 mg/kg), which has been used to treat various muscle disorders. PMID:29138805

  19. Wooden hutch space allowance influences male Holstein calf health, performance, daily lying time, and respiratory immunity.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Lorenzo, M S; Hulbert, L E; Fowler, A L; Louie, A; Gershwin, L J; Pinkerton, K E; Ballou, M A; Klasing, K C; Mitloehner, F M

    2016-06-01

    Dairy calves in the western United States are commonly raised individually in wooden hutches with a space allowance of 1.23m(2)/calf. Recent legislative initiatives in California and across the United States were passed regarding concern over space allowance for farm animals. The objective of this study was to determine if rearing male Holstein calves in wooden hutches modified to increase space allowance would influence measures of performance, lying time per day, health, and respiratory immunocompetence. At 4d of age, 60 calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3housing treatments: (1) conventional housing (CONV; 1.23m(2)/calf), (2) 1.5 × CONV (MOD; 1.85m(2)/calf), or (3) 3 × CONV (MAX; 3.71m(2)/calf). Intakes of milk and solid feed were recorded daily and body weight was measured at 0, 3, 6, 10, and 12 wk of age. For the first 3 wk of the trial, calves were scored daily for fecal consistency, hydration, and hide cleanliness. In addition, calves were scored for respiratory health (i.e., nasal and eye discharge, ear position) until 7 wk of age. The total lying duration per day was recorded using data loggers at 3, 6, and 10 wk of age. Eight clinically healthy calves from each treatment were sensitized with subcutaneous ovalbumin (OVA) and then challenged with aerosolized OVA to assess calf respiratory immunity at 11 wk of age. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected 4d after the OVA challenge and analyzed for leukocyte differentials and OVA-specific IgG, IgG1, IgA, and IgE. Calf average daily gain and body weight were positively associated with space allowance at approximately 3 wk before weaning and throughout postweaning, respectively. A greater space allowance decreased lying time after 46d. Space allowance did not influence fecal consistency, but there was a tendency for MAX calves to take 1d longer to recover from loose feces than MOD calves. The MAX calves had the fewest (%) observations with feces on their body compared with CONV or MOD. At 3 wk of

  20. Effects of a traditional Chinese medicine formula and its extraction on muscle fiber characteristics in finishing pigs, porcine cell proliferation and isoforms of myosin heavy chain gene expression in myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qin Ping; Feng, Ding Yuan; He, Xiao Jun; Wu, Fan; Xia, Min Hao; Dong, Tao; Liu, Yi Hua; Tan, Hui Ze; Zou, Shi Geng; Zheng, Tao; Ou, Xian Hua; Zuo, Jian Jun

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the effects of a traditional Chinese medicine formula (TCMF) on muscle fiber characteristics in finishing pigs and the effects of the formula’s extract (distilled water, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extraction) on porcine cell proliferation and isoforms of myosin heavy chain (MyHC) gene expression in myocytes. Methods In a completely randomized design, ninety pigs were assigned to three diets with five replications per treatment and six pigs per pen. The diets included the basal diet (control group), TCMF1 (basal diet+2.5 g/kg TCMF) and TCMF2 (basal diet+5 g/kg TCMF). The psoas major muscle was obtained from pigs at the end of the experiment. Muscle fiber characteristics in the psoas major muscle were analyzed using myosin ATPase staining. Cell proliferation was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye and cytometry. Isoforms of MyHC gene expression were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results The final body weight and carcass weight of finishing pigs were increased by TCMF1 (p<0.05), while the psoas major muscle cross-sectional area was increased by TCMF (p<0.05). The cross-sectional area and diameter of psoas major muscle fiber I, IIA, and IIB were increased by TCMF2 (p<0.05). The cross-sectional area and fiber diameter of psoas major muscle fiber IIA and IIB were increased by diet supplementation with TCMF1 (p<0.05). Psoas major muscle fiber IIA and IIB fiber density from the pigs fed the TCMF1 diet and the type IIB fiber density from the pigs fed the TCMF2 diet were lower compared to pigs fed the control diet (p<0.05). Pigs fed TCMF2 had a higher composition of type I fiber and a lower percentage of type IIB fiber in the psoas major muscle (p<0.05). The expression levels of MyHC I, MyHC IIa, and MyHC IIx mRNA increased and the amount of MyHC IIb mRNA decreased in the psoas major muscle from TCMF2, whereas MyHC I and MyHC IIx mRNA increased in the

  1. Management characteristics of cow-calf, stocker, and finishing operations in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An assessment of the sustainability of beef production in the Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas region requires information on their production practices. A voluntary survey was conducted for ranches and feedyards in the region along with site visits to gather information on production practices. Responses...

  2. Escherichia coli isolates from calf diarrhea in Korea and their virulent genetic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jin; Jeon, Byung Woo; Kim, Yeong Ju; Oh, In Gyeong; Lee, John Hwa

    2013-05-02

    Escherichia coli strains were isolated from the feces of 130 diarrheic calves at different farms locations in Korea. The presence of the virulence genes, such as fanC, f41, f17a, eaeA, clpG, afa-8D, sta, stx1 and stx2, in each E. coli isolate was examined. Among the 314 isolates, 157 carried one or more of the virulence genes tested in this study. The most prevalent virulence gene was clpG (45.9%), although f17A (36.9%) and afa-8D (21.7%) were also frequently observed. The sta, stx1 and eaeA genes were detected in between approximately 13 and 17% of the isolates, and the fanC and fim41a genes were detected to a lesser extent. Collectively, our data indicated that diarrhea in calves in these locations can be ascribed to various virulence factors, and the pathogenesis may be more related to virulence genes such as, clpG, f17A, and afa-8D.

  3. Viral and bacterial infections associated with camel (Camelus dromedarius) calf diarrhea in North Province, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ruwaili, Meshref A.; Khalil, Omer M.; Selim, Samy A.

    2011-01-01

    Diarrhea and deaths in new-born camel calves were noticed by veterinary investigators and pastoralist in Saudi Arabia to be very high. Hence, it is thought to be necessary to investigate this problem from the virological and bacteriological point of view. The role of pathogenic bacteria and viruses in six different towns of North Province (Al-Assafia, Arar, Domat Aljandal, Hail, Skaka and Khoa) in Saudi Arabia was studied. Survey was conducted in diarrheic camel calves aged 12 months or younger. In our study calf diarrhea was reported in 184 out of 2308 camels examined clinically during one year, the prevalence of diarrhea was found to be 8.0% in calves ranging from one month to one year. In the present study group A rotavirus and Brucella abortus were detected in 14.7% and 8.98%, respectively, using ELISA technique. Escherichia coli was isolated from diarrheic calf camel (58.2%) 99/170 samples during dry and wet season. Salmonella spp. and Enterococcus spp. were detected in 12% and 8.8% of the specimens, respectively. In this study enterotoxogenic E. coli (ET E. coli) was isolated from 7% of diarrheic camel, which indicates the strong correlation between the camel calf diarrhea and the detection of enterotoxogenic E. coli. This study represented the first report for the detection of group A rotavirus and B. abortus antigen and antibodies in calf camels in Saudi Arabia. It is recommended that the disease should be controlled by vaccination in calf camels. PMID:23961160

  4. Morphological changes in hind limb muscles elicited by adjuvant-induced arthritis of the rat knee.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, J; Kurose, T; Kawamata, S; Yamaoka, K

    2010-02-01

    We investigated qualitative and quantitative changes in rat hind limb muscles caused by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced knee joint pain. One week after CFA injection, muscle atrophy was induced only on the CFA-injected side. Wet weight of the rectus femoris (RF) and soleus (SOL) muscles were significantly decreased by 20% and 19%, respectively. The reduction in cross-sectional areas by CFA was similar for fast and slow muscle fibers in the RF (10% vs 15%, respectively) and SOL muscles (16% vs 16%, respectively). At the light microscopic level, pathological changes were not found in the RF muscles on both sides, although the infiltration of mononuclear cells and muscle regeneration were found in the SOL muscles on CFA-injected and contralateral control sides. On the other hand, electron microscopy revealed degenerative changes in the RF and SOL muscles on the CFA-injected side. Interestingly, sarcomere hypercontraction, indicating overexercise, was observed to a limited extent in the SOL muscles on the control side. In conclusions, knee joint pain can trigger the rapid development of muscle atrophy with degenerative changes not only in thigh but also calf muscles. This indicates that early interventions to inhibit joint pain or inflammation may prevent muscle atrophy.

  5. Your Muscles

    MedlinePlus

    ... and you need to throw up. The muscles push the food back out of the stomach so it comes up ... body the power it needs to lift and push things. Muscles in your neck and the top part of your back aren't as large, but they are capable ...

  6. The Effect of Calf Gender on Milk Production in Seasonal Calving Cows and Its Impact on Genetic Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Melanie K.; Hess, Andrew S.; Garrick, Dorian J.

    2016-01-01

    Gender of the calf whose birth initiates lactation could influence whole lactation milk yield of the dam due to hormonal influences on mammary gland development, or through calf gender effects on gestation length. Fetal gender could influence late lactation yields because cows become pregnant at peak lactation. The effects of calf gender sequences in parities 1–3 were assessed by separately fitting animal models to datasets from New Zealand comprising 274 000 Holstein Friesian and 85 000 Jersey cows, decreasing to 12 000 and 4 000 cows by parity 3. The lactation initiated by the birth of a female rather than a male calf was associated with a 0.33–1.1% (p≤0.05) higher milk yield. Female calf gender had carryover effects associated with higher milk yield in second lactations for Holstein Friesians (0.24%; p = 0.01) and third lactations for Jerseys (1.1%; p = 0.01). Cows giving birth to bull calves have 2 day longer gestations, which reduces lactation length in seasonal calving herds. Adding a covariate for lactation length to the animal model eroded some of these calf gender effects, such that calving a female led to higher milk yield only for second lactation Holstein Friesians (1.6%; p = 0.002). The interval centering method generates lower estimates of whole lactation yield when Wood’s lactation curves are shifted to the right by 2 days for male calves and this explained the higher yield in female calves when differences in lactation length were considered. Correlations of estimated breeding values between models including or excluding calf gender sequence were 1.00 for bulls or cows. Calf gender primarily influences milk yield through increased gestation length of male calves, and bias associated with the interval centering method used to estimate whole lactation milk yields. Including information on calf gender is unlikely to have an effect on selection response in New Zealand dairy cattle. PMID:26974166

  7. The Influence of Climate, Soil and Pasture Type on Productivity and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Intensity of Modeled Beef Cow-Calf Grazing Systems in Southern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Matthew J.; Cullen, Brendan R.; Eckard, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary Livestock production systems and the agricultural industries in general face challenges to meet the global demand for food, whilst also minimizing their environmental impact through the production of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Livestock grazing systems in southern Australia are low input and reliant on pasture as a low-cost source of feed. The balance between productivity and GHG emission intensity of beef cow-calf grazing systems was studied at sites chosen to represent a range of climatic zones, soil and pasture types. While the climatic and edaphic characteristics of a location may impact on the emissions from a grazing system, management to efficiently use pasture can reduce emissions per unit product. Abstract A biophysical whole farm system model was used to simulate the interaction between the historical climate, soil and pasture type at sites in southern Australia and assess the balance between productivity and greenhouse gas emissions (expressed in carbon dioxide equivalents, CO2-eq.) intensity of beef cow-calf grazing systems. Four sites were chosen to represent a range of climatic zones, soil and pasture types. Poorer feed quality and supply limited the annual carrying capacity of the kikuyu pasture compared to phalaris pastures, with an average long-term carrying capacity across sites estimated to be 0.6 to 0.9 cows/ha. A relative reduction in level of feed intake to productivity of calf live weight/ha at weaning by feeding supplementary feed reduced the average CO2-eq. emissions/kg calf live weight at weaning of cows on the kikuyu pasture (18.4 and 18.9 kg/kg with and without supplementation, respectively), whereas at the other sites studied an increase in intake level to productivity and emission intensity was seen (between 10.4 to 12.5 kg/kg without and with supplementary feed, respectively). Enteric fermentationand nitrous oxide emissions from denitrification were the main sources of annual variability in emissions intensity

  8. Calf birth weight, gestation length, calving ease, and neonatal calf mortality in Holstein, Jersey, and crossbred cows in a pasture system.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, K; Maltecca, C; Cassady, J P; Baloche, G; Williams, C M; Washburn, S P

    2013-01-01

    Holstein (HH), Jersey (JJ), and crosses of these breeds were mated to HH or JJ bulls to form purebreds, reciprocal crosses, backcrosses, and other crosses in a rotational mating system. The herd was located at the Center for Environmental Farming Systems in Goldsboro, North Carolina. Data for calf birth weight (CBW), calving ease (0 for unassisted, n=1,135, and 1 for assisted, n=96), and neonatal calf mortality (0 for alive, n=1,150, and 1 for abortions recorded after mid-gestation, stillborn, and dead within 48 h, n=81) of calves (n=1,231) were recorded over 9 calving seasons from 2003 through 2011. Gestation length (GL) was calculated as the number of days from last insemination to calving. Linear mixed models for CBW and GL included fixed effects of sex, parity (first vs. later parities), twin status, and 6 genetic groups: HH, JJ, reciprocal F(1) crosses (HJ, JH), crosses >50% Holsteins (HX) and crosses >50% Jerseys (JX), where sire breed is listed first. The CBW model also included GL as a covariate. Logistic regression for calving ease and neonatal calf mortality included fixed effects of sex, parity, and genetic group. Genetic groups were replaced by linear regression using percentage of HH genes as coefficients on the above models and included as covariates to determine various genetic effects. Year and dam were included as random effects in all models. Female calves (27.57±0.54 kg), twins (26.39±1.0 kg), and calves born to first-parity cows (27.67±0.56 kg) had lower CBW than respective male calves (29.53±0.53 kg), single births (30.71±0.19 kg), or calves born to multiparous cows (29.43±0.52 kg). Differences in genetic groups were observed for CBW and GL. Increased HH percentage in the calf increased CBW (+9.3±0.57 kg for HH vs. JJ calves), and increased HH percentage in the dams increased CBW (+1.71±0.53 kg for calves from HH dams vs. JJ dams); JH calves weighed 1.33 kg more than reciprocal HJ calves. Shorter GL was observed for twin births (272.6

  9. Pelvic floor muscle training versus watchful waiting or pessary treatment for pelvic organ prolapse (POPPS): design and participant baseline characteristics of two parallel pragmatic randomized controlled trials in primary care.

    PubMed

    Wiegersma, Marian; Panman, Chantal M C R; Kollen, Boudewijn J; Vermeulen, Karin M; Schram, Aaltje J; Messelink, Embert J; Berger, Marjolein Y; Lisman-Van Leeuwen, Yvonne; Dekker, Janny H

    2014-02-01

    Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) and pessaries are commonly used in the conservative treatment of pelvic organ prolapse (POP). Because there is a lack of evidence regarding the optimal choice between these two interventions, we designed the "Pelvic Organ prolapse in primary care: effects of Pelvic floor muscle training and Pessary treatment Study" (POPPS). POPPS consists of two parallel open label randomized controlled trials performed in primary care, in women aged ≥55 years, recruited through a postal questionnaire. In POPPS trial 1, women with mild POP receive either PFMT or watchful waiting. In POPPS trial 2, women with advanced POP receive either PFMT or pessary treatment. Patient recruitment started in 2009 and was finished in December 2012. Primary outcome of both POPPS trials is improvement in POP-related symptoms. Secondary outcomes are quality of life, sexual function, POP-Q stage, pelvic floor muscle function, post-void residual volume, patients' perception of improvement, and costs. All outcomes are measured 3, 12, and 24 months after the start of treatment. Cost-effectiveness will be calculated based on societal costs, using the PFDI-20 and the EQ-5D as outcomes. In this paper the POPPS design, the encountered challenges and our solutions, and participant baseline characteristics are presented. For both trials the target numbers of patients in each treatment group are achieved, giving this study sufficient power to lead to promising results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Striated Muscle Function, Regeneration, and Repair

    PubMed Central

    Shadrin, I.Y.; Khodabukus, A.; Bursac, N.

    2016-01-01

    As the only striated muscle tissues in the body, skeletal and cardiac muscle share numerous structural and functional characteristics, while exhibiting vastly different size and regenerative potential. Healthy skeletal muscle harbors a robust regenerative response that becomes inadequate after large muscle loss or in degenerative pathologies and aging. In contrast, the mammalian heart loses its regenerative capacity shortly after birth, leaving it susceptible to permanent damage by acute injury or chronic disease. In this review, we compare and contrast the physiology and regenerative potential of native skeletal and cardiac muscles, mechanisms underlying striated muscle dysfunction, and bioengineering strategies to treat muscle disorders. We focus on different sources for cellular therapy, biomaterials to augment the endogenous regenerative response, and progress in engineering and application of mature striated muscle tissues in vitro and in vivo. Finally, we discuss the challenges and perspectives in translating muscle bioengineering strategies to clinical practice. PMID:27271751

  11. Biomechanical characteristics of skeletal muscles and associations between running speed and contraction time in 8- to 13-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Završnik, Jernej; Pišot, Rado; Šimunič, Boštjan; Kokol, Peter; Blažun Vošner, Helena

    2017-02-01

    Objective To investigate associations between running speeds and contraction times in 8- to 13-year-old children. Method This longitudinal study analyzed tensiomyographic measurements of vastus lateralis and biceps femoris muscles' contraction times and maximum running speeds in 107 children (53 boys, 54 girls). Data were evaluated using multiple correspondence analysis. Results A gender difference existed between the vastus lateralis contraction times and running speeds. The running speed was less dependent on vastus lateralis contraction times in boys than in girls. Analysis of biceps femoris contraction times and running speeds revealed that running speeds of boys were much more structurally associated with contraction times than those of girls, for whom the association seemed chaotic. Conclusion Joint category plots showed that contraction times of biceps femoris were associated much more closely with running speed than those of the vastus lateralis muscle. These results provide insight into a new dimension of children's development.

  12. Characteristics and preliminary observations of the influence of electromyostimulation on the size and function of human skeletal muscle during 30 days of simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duvoisin, Marc R.; Convertino, Victor A.; Buchanan, Paul; Gollnick, Philip A.; Dudley, Gary A.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of transcutaneous electromyostimulation (EMS) on the development of atrophy and the loss of strength in lower limb musculature in humans exposed to microgravity was determined in three subjects who received EMS twice daily in a 3-d on/1-d off cycle on their dominant leg during 30 days of bedrest. The output waveform from the stimulator was sequenced to the knee extensors, knee flexors, ankle extensors, and ankle flexors, and caused three isometric contractions of each muscle group per minute. It was found that, in the dominant leg, EMS acted to attenuate the changes caused by bedrest, such as reductions in the leg volume, muscle compartment size, cross-sectional area of slow- and fast-twitch fibers, strength, and aerobic enzyme activities, and an increase in leg compliance.

  13. Electromyographic analysis of skeletal muscle changes arising from 9 days of weightlessness in the Apollo-Soyuz space mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lafevers, E. V.; Nicogossian, A. E.; Hursta, W. N.

    1976-01-01

    Both integration and frequency analyses of the electromyograms from voluntary contractions were performed in one crewman of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project mission. Of particular interest were changes in excitability, electrical efficiency, and fatigability. As a result of 9 days of weightlessness, muscle excitability was shown to increase; muscle electrical efficiency was found to decrease in calf muscles and to increase in arm muscles; and fatigability was found to increase significantly, as shown by spectral power shifts into lower frequencies. It was concluded from this study that skeletal muscles are affected by the disuse of weightlessness early in the period of weightlessness, antigravity muscles seem most affected by weightlessness, and exercise may abrogate the weightlessness effect. It was further concluded that electromyography is a sensitive tool for measuring spaceflight muscle effects.

  14. Quality characteristics of chunked and formed hams from pale, average and dark muscles were improved using an ammonium hydroxide curing solution.

    PubMed

    Everts, A J; Wulf, D M; Everts, A K R; Nath, T M; Jennings, T D; Weaver, A D

    2010-10-01

    Cooking yield, cooked pH, purge loss, moisture, lipid oxidation, external and internal color, break strength and elongation distance were assessed for pale (PALE), average (AVG) and dark (DARK) inside hams injected with either a control cure solution (CON) or BPI-processing technology cure solution (BPT). Following enhancement, muscles were chunked, vacuum tumbled, smoked and cooked to 66 degrees C. Cooked ham pH was 6.49 for DARK, 6.40 for AVG, and 6.30 for PALE, respectively (P<0.0001). Cooked pH was higher (P<.0001) for BPT than CON. Cooked ham moisture content was higher (P<0.0001) for BPT hams than CON hams (74.83 vs. 74.11%) but BPT did not significantly influence cooking yield or lipid oxidation. Consumers (n=150) of diverse demographics rated hams for appearance and taste. Results indicated that BPI-processing technology improved visual appearance of hams made from pale, average, and dark muscles and improved the eating quality of hams made from pale muscles. Copyright (c) 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of black bear relocation on elk calf recruitment at Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yarkovich, J.; Clark, J.D.; Murrow, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research from 2001 to 2006 on an experimentally released elk (Cervus elaphus) population at Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP or Park) indicated that calf recruitment (i.e., calves reaching 1 yr of age per adult female elk) was low (0.306, total SE = 0.090) resulting in low or negative population growth (λ = 0.996, 95% CI = 0.945–1.047). Black bear (Ursus americanus) predation was the primary calf mortality factor. From 2006 to 2008, we trapped and relocated 49 bears (30 of which were radiocollared) from the primary calving areas in the Park and radiomonitored 67 (28 M:39 F) adult elk and 42 calves to compare vital rates and population growth with the earlier study. A model with annual calf recruitment rate correlating with the number of bears relocated each year was supported (ΔAICc = 0.000; β = 0.070, 95% CI = 0.028–0.112) and a model with annual calf recruitment differing from before to during bear relocation revealed an increase to 0.544 (total SE = 0.098; β = −1.092, 95% CI = −1.180 to −0.375). Using vital rates and estimates of process standard errors observed during our study, 25-yr simulations maintained a mean positive growth rate in 100% of the stochastic trials with λ averaging 1.118 (95% CI = 1.096–1.140), an increase compared with rates before bear relocation. A life table response experiment revealed that increases in population growth were mostly (67.1%) due to changes in calf recruitment. We speculate that behavioral adaptation of the elk since release also contributed to the observed increases in recruitment and population growth. Our results suggest that managers interested in elk reintroduction within bear range should consider bear relocation as a temporary means of increasing calf recruitment.

  16. Proteomic analysis reveals the distinct energy and protein metabolism characteristics involved in myofiber type conversion and resistance of atrophy in the extensor digitorum longus muscle of hibernating Daurian ground squirrels.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hui; Jiang, Shanfeng; Ma, Xiufeng; Peng, Xin; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Zhe; Xu, Shenhui; Wang, Huiping; Gao, Yunfang

    2018-06-01

    Previous hibernation studies demonstrated that such a natural model of skeletal muscle disuse causes limited muscle atrophy and a significant fast-to-slow fiber type shift. However, the underlying mechanism as defined in a large-scale analysis remains unclarified. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) based quantitative analysis were used to examine proteomic changes in the fast extensor digitorum longus muscles (EDL) of Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus). Although the wet weights and fiber cross-sectional area of the EDL muscle showed no significant decrease, the percentage of slow type fiber was 61% greater (P < 0.01) in the hibernation group. Proteomics analysis identified 264 proteins that were significantly changed (ratio < 0.83 or >1.2-fold and P < 0.05) in the hibernation group, of which 23 proteins were categorized into energy production and conversion and translation and 22 proteins were categorized into ribosomal structure and biogenesis. Along with the validation by western blot, MAPKAP kinase 2, ATP5D, ACADSB, calcineurin, CSTB and EIF2S were up-regulated in the hibernation group, whereas PDK4, COX II and EIF3C were down-regulated in the hibernation group. MAPKAP kinase 2 and PDK4 were associated with glycolysis, COX II and ATP5D were associated with oxidative phosphorylation, ACADSB was associated with fatty acid metabolism, calcineurin and CSTB were associated with catabolism, and EIF2S and EIF3C were associated with anabolism. Moreover, the total proteolysis rate of EDL in the hibernation group was significantly inhibited compared with that in the pre-hibernation group. These distinct energy and protein metabolism characteristics may be involved in myofiber type conversion and resistance to atrophy in the EDL of hibernating Daurian ground squirrels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The craniosacral progression of muscle development influences the emergence of neuromuscular junction alterations in a severe murine model for spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Tilman; Neve, Anuja; Schümperli, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    As 4-day-old mice of the severe spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) model (dying at 5-8 days) display pronounced neuromuscular changes in the diaphragm but not the soleus muscle, we wanted to gain more insight into the relationship between muscle development and the emergence of pathological changes and additionally to analyse intercostal muscles which are affected in human SMA. Structures of muscle fibres and neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) of the diaphragm, intercostal and calf muscles of prenatal (E21) and postnatal (P0 and P4) healthy and SMA mice were analysed by light and transmission electron microscopy. NMJ innervation was studied by whole mount immunofluorescence in diaphragms of P4 mice. During this period, the investigated muscles still show a significant neck-to-tail developmental gradient. The diaphragm and calf muscles are most and least advanced, respectively, with respect to muscle fibre fusion and differentiation. The number and depth of subsynaptic folds increases, and perisynaptic Schwann cells (PSCs) acquire a basal lamina on their outer surface. Subsynaptic folds are connected to an extensive network of tubules and beaded caveolae, reminiscent of the T system in adult muscle. Interestingly, intercostal muscles from P4 SMA mice show weaker pathological involvement (that is, vacuolization of PSCs and perineurial cells) than those previously described by us for the diaphragm, whereas calf muscles show no pathological changes. SMA-related alterations appear to occur only when the muscles have reached a certain developmental maturity. Moreover, glial cells, in particular PSCs, play an important role in SMA pathogenesis. © 2013 British Neuropathological Society.

  18. Understanding antimicrobial stewardship: Disease severity treatment thresholds and antimicrobial alternatives among organic and conventional calf producers.

    PubMed

    Habing, Greg; Djordjevic, Catherine; Schuenemann, Gustavo M; Lakritz, Jeff

    2016-08-01

    Reductions in livestock antimicrobial use (AMU) can be achieved through identification of effective antimicrobial alternatives as well as accurate and stringent identification of cases requiring antimicrobial therapy. Objective measurements of selectivity that incorporate appropriate case definitions are necessary to understand the need and potential for reductions in AMU through judicious use. The objective of this study was to measure selectivity using a novel disease severity treatment threshold for calf diarrhea, and identify predictors of more selective application of antimicrobials among conventional dairy producers. A second objective of this study was to describe the usage frequency and perceptions of efficacy of common antimicrobial alternatives among conventional and organic producers. The cross-sectional survey was mailed to Michigan and Ohio, USA dairy producers and contained questions on AMU attitudes, AMU practices, veterinary-written protocols, and antimicrobial alternatives. The treatment threshold, defined based on the case severity where the producer would normally apply antimicrobials, was identified with a series of descriptions with increasing severity, and ordinal multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the association between the treatment threshold and individual or herd characteristics. The response rate was 49% (727/1488). Overall, 42% of conventional producers reported any veterinary-written treatment protocol, and 27% (113/412) of conventional producers had a veterinary-written protocol for the treatment of diarrhea that included a case identification. The majority (58%, 253/437) of conventional producers, but a minority (7%) of organic producers disagreed that antibiotic use in agriculture led to resistant bacterial infections in people. Among conventional producers, the proportion of producers applying antimicrobials for therapy increased from 13% to 67% with increasing case severity. The treatment threshold was low

  19. Automated unsupervised multi-parametric classification of adipose tissue depots in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Valentinitsch, Alexander; Karampinos, Dimitrios C.; Alizai, Hamza; Subburaj, Karupppasamy; Kumar, Deepak; Link, Thomas M.; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To introduce and validate an automated unsupervised multi-parametric method for segmentation of the subcutaneous fat and muscle regions in order to determine subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) areas based on data from a quantitative chemical shift-based water-fat separation approach. Materials and Methods Unsupervised standard k-means clustering was employed to define sets of similar features (k = 2) within the whole multi-modal image after the water-fat separation. The automated image processing chain was composed of three primary stages including tissue, muscle and bone region segmentation. The algorithm was applied on calf and thigh datasets to compute SAT and IMAT areas and was compared to a manual segmentation. Results The IMAT area using the automatic segmentation had excellent agreement with the IMAT area using the manual segmentation for all the cases in the thigh (R2: 0.96) and for cases with up to moderate IMAT area in the calf (R2: 0.92). The group with the highest grade of muscle fat infiltration in the calf had the highest error in the inner SAT contour calculation. Conclusion The proposed multi-parametric segmentation approach combined with quantitative water-fat imaging provides an accurate and reliable method for an automated calculation of the SAT and IMAT areas reducing considerably the total post-processing time. PMID:23097409

  20. Muscle disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... muscle biopsy examines a tissue sample under a microscope to confirm disease. Sometimes, a blood test to check for a genetic disorder is all that is needed based on someone's symptoms and family history.

  1. Muscle Cramps

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe Happen frequently Don't get better with stretching and drinking enough fluids Last a long time ... able to find some relief from cramps by Stretching or gently massaging the muscle Applying heat when ...

  2. Muscle Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... or tendinitis A genetic disorder, such as muscular dystrophy Some cancers Inflammation, such as myositis Diseases of nerves that affect muscles Infections Certain medicines Sometimes the cause is not ...

  3. Rare congenital absence of tail (anury) and anus (atresia ani) in male camel (Camelus dromedarius) calf

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, S.; Purohit, G.N.

    2012-01-01

    A one-day old male camel calf was presented to the Al-Qattara Veterinary Hospital with complaints of abdominal straining and lack of defecation. On examination it was found that the calf had no tail, the posterior sacral margin was blunt and the anal opening was absent. The case was diagnosed as congenital anury with atresia ani. The animal was sedated with 0.1 mg/kg of xylazine administered intramuscularly and under local infiltration with 2% lidocaine a circular incision was made at the anal area to create an anal opening. The animal passed plenty of meconium. The cut edges were sutured with horizontal mattress sutures. The animal was administered penicillin and streptomycin for 5 days and had an uneventful recovery. It is reported that congenital anury rarely occurs in one humped camel and accompanied atresia ani can be surgically treated. PMID:26623295

  4. A rare case of monozygotic iniodymic diprosopiasis in a German Holstein calf.

    PubMed

    Weber, Jim; Behn, Holger; Freick, Markus

    2017-06-01

    Craniofacial duplication abnormity is a rare phenomenon in buiatric practice. This report attends to a male German Holstein calf which could be classified as a diprosopic iniodymus. A fetus exhibiting a doubled face was delivered after fetotomy. To our knowledge, this is the first description of diprosopiasis with two cranial cavities as well as two separate encephala in a calf showing the potential extent of duplication. Throughout this work also the question is answered of whether this malformation in a bovine species arose from one embryo or rather, there is a dizygotic background by genotyping of tissue samples from both parts of the diprosopus. Regarding etiology, not only hereditary dispositions including among others a failed function of the signaling molecule Sonic hedgehog mediating regulation of craniofacial morphogenesis, but also incompletely separated monozygotic twins are discussed.

  5. Allocating forage to fall-calving cow-calf pairs strip-grazing stockpiled tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Curtis, L E; Kallenbach, R L; Roberts, C A

    2008-03-01

    In a 2-yr study, we evaluated the effect of different forage allocations on the performance of lactating beef cows and their calves grazing stockpiled tall fescue. Allocations of stockpiled tall fescue at 2.25, 3.00, 3.75, and 4.50% of cow-calf pair BW/d were set as experimental treatments. Conventional hay-feeding was also evaluated as a comparison to grazing stockpiled tall fescue. The experiment had a randomized complete block design with 3 replications and was divided into 3 phases each year. From early December to late February (phase 1) of each year, cows and calves grazed stockpiled tall fescue or were fed hay in the treatments described above. Immediately after phase 1, cows and calves were commingled and managed as a single group until weaning in April (phase 2) so that residual effects could be documented. Residual effects on cows were measured after the calves were weaned in April until mid-July (phase 3). During phase 1 of both years, apparent DMI of cow-calf pairs allocated stockpiled tall fescue at 4.50% of BW/d was 31% greater (P < 0.01) than those allocated 2.25% of BW/d. As allocation of stockpiled tall fescue increased from 2.25 to 4.50% of cow-calf BW/d, pasture utilization fell (P < 0.01) from 84 +/- 7% to 59 +/- 7%. During phase 1 of both years, cow BW losses increased linearly (P < 0.02) as forage allocations decreased, although the losses in yr 1 were almost double (P < 0.01) those in yr 2. During phases 2 and 3, few differences were noted across treatment groups, such that by the end of phase 3, cow BW in all treatments did not differ either year (P > 0.40). Calf ADG in phase 1 increased linearly (P < 0.01) with forage allocation (y = 0.063x + 0.513; R(2) = 0.91). However, calf gain per hectare decreased linearly (P < 0.01) as stockpiled tall fescue allocations increased (y = -26.5x + 212; R(2) = 0.97) such that gain per hectare for cow-calf pairs allocated stockpiled tall fescue at 4.50% BW/d was nearly 40% less (P < 0.01) than for those

  6. Non-intercalative, deoxyribose binding of boric acid to calf thymus DNA.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Ayse; Gursaclı, Refiye Tekiner; Tekinay, Turgay

    2014-05-01

    The present study characterizes the effects of the boric acid binding on calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) by spectroscopic and calorimetric methods. UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were employed to characterize binding properties. Changes in the secondary structure of ct-DNA were determined by CD spectroscopy. Sizes and morphologies of boric acid-DNA complexes were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The kinetics of boric acid binding to calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) was investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). ITC results revealed that boric acid exhibits a moderate affinity to ct-DNA with a binding constant (K a) of 9.54 × 10(4) M(-1). FT-IR results revealed that boric acid binds to the deoxyribose sugar of DNA without disrupting the B-conformation at tested concentrations.

  7. Association between cow reproduction and calf growth traits and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in a multibreed herd of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Elzo, M A; Rae, D O; Lanhart, S E; Hembry, F G; Wasdin, J G; Driver, J D

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the association between 4 cow reproductive and weight traits, and 2 preweaning calf traits and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis (0 = negative, 1 = suspect, 2 = weak-positive, and 3 = positive) in a multibreed herd of cows ranging from 100% Angus (A) to 100% Brahman (B). Cow data were 624 gestation lengths (GL), 358 records of time open (TO), 605 calving intervals (CI), and 1240 weight changes from November to weaning in September (WC) from 502 purebred and crossbred cows. Calf data consisted of 956 birth weights (BWT), and 923 weaning weights adjusted to 205 d of age (WW205) from 956 purebred and crossbred calves. Traits were analyzed individually using multibreed mixed models that assumed homogeneity of variances across breed groups. Covariances among random effects were assumed to be zero. Fixed effects were year, age of cow, sex of calf, year x age of cow interaction (except WC), age of cow x sex of calf interaction (only for WC), and covariates for B fraction of sire and cow, heterosis of cow and calf, and ELISA score. Random effects were sire (except for TO and CI), dam, and residual. Regression estimates of cow and calf traits on ELISA scores indicated that lower cow fertility (longer TO), lower ability of cows to maintain weight (negative WC), lower calf BWT, and lower calf WW205 were associated with higher cow ELISA scores. Further research on the effects of subclinical paratuberculosis in beef cattle at regional and national levels seems advisable considering the large potential economic cost of this disease.

  8. Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from waste milk delivered to California calf ranches.

    PubMed

    Ruzante, Juliana M; Gardner, Ian A; Cullor, James S; Smith, Wayne L; Kirk, John H; Adaska, John M

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) was present in waste milk delivered and fed to calves on California calf ranches. Four calf-raising facilities in the Central Valley of California that fed pasteurized waste milk to calves were enrolled. Pre- and post-pasteurization waste milk samples were cultured for MAP using liquid and solid media over a 5-day period during each of four seasons. Aerobic cultures were performed simultaneously to enumerate total bacteria count and evaluate the efficiency of pasteurization which was estimated by the log-reduction of the total number of bacteria. Viable MAP was cultured from 2% of the waste milk samples. Of the three culture-positive samples, two were from pre-pasteurized and one was from post-pasteurized milk samples. The mean total bacterial count for pre- and post-pasteurized waste milk varied from 1.8 x 10(8) to 5.5 x 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU)/mL and 4.9 x 10(5) to 1.1 x 10(8) CFU/mL, respectively, and on average ranches 1, 2, 3, and 4 had, respectively, 3.5-, 3-, 4.7-, and 2.6-log reduction in the number of total bacteria in their waste milk. This is the first study to document results from on-farm pasteurization under field conditions and it indicates the lack of uniformity and adequate controls of the process which could allow the survival of MAP and other pathogens. Calf-raising facilities could benefit from the implementation of standard operating procedures and farm worker training for pasteurization of waste milk. Dairy herds should be aware that placing calves in specialized off-site calf-raising facilities might not eliminate all possible routes of infection of calves with MAP.

  9. Survival of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in calf housing facilities in the New York City watersheds.

    PubMed

    Collick, A S; Fogarty, E A; Ziegler, P E; Walter, M T; Bowman, D D; Steenhuis, T S

    2006-01-01

    Pathogen contamination of the public drinking water supply in the New York City watersheds is a serious concern. New York City's Watershed Agriculture Program is working with dairy farms in the watersheds to implement management practices that will reduce the risk of pathogens contaminating the water supply. Solar calf housing (SCH) was suggested as a best management practice (BMP) to control Cryptosporidium parvum, a common protozoan parasite that causes disease in humans. This BMP targets young calves because they are the primary source of C. parvum in dairy herds. The objective of this project was to assess and compare the survivability of C. parvum in SCH and in conventional calf housing (CCH), usually located in the main barn. C. parvum oocysts were secured in sentinel chambers and placed in SCH and CCH bedding on four farms. The chambers were in thermal, chemical, and moisture equilibrium with their microenvironments. An oocyst-filled control chamber, sealed from its surroundings, was placed near each chamber. Chambers and controls were sampled after 4, 6, and 8 wk. Oocyst viability in the chambers decreased to less than 10% in warm months and between 15 and 30% in the winter months. The viability of the control oocysts was similar to the chambers during warm months and generally higher during winter months. There was no significant (P > 0.05) difference in the viability decrease between SCH and CCH. Although oocyst viability was similar in both types of calf housing, SCH allow contaminated calf manure to be isolated from the main barn manure and potentially managed differently and in a way to decrease the number of viable oocysts entering the environment during field spreading.

  10. Succinylcholine activation of human horizontal eye muscles.

    PubMed

    Lennerstrand, Gunnar; Bolzani, Roberto; Tian, Suna; Benassi, Mariagrazia; Fusari, Maurizio; Campos, Emilio; Schiavi, Costantino

    2010-12-01

    Succinylcholine (Sch) can induce contracture in slow, multiply innervated muscle fibres of the extraocular muscles in animals of different species. Slow muscle fibres also exist in human eye muscle but their physiological properties have not been studied. Isometric tension development was recorded in the lateral and medial rectus muscles in 12 patients operated under general anaesthesia. A strain gauge probe was attached with 5-0 silk sutures to the muscle tendon. Recordings were made in 12 eye muscles with the tendon attached to the globe and in four muscles detached from the globe. Muscle activation was produced by i.v. injection of Sch at a dose of 0.2-0.3 mg/kg bodyweight.   A single injection of Sch induced slow contractures lasting for several minutes. In the muscles attached to the globe, mean maximal isometric tension was 12.2 g in the lateral rectus and 12.8 g in the medial rectus. Similar tension was shown in the muscles detached from the globe. The contracture of eye muscles in response to Sch showed characteristics typical of slow muscle fibre activation in amphibian and avian muscle and confirmed the participation of slow fibre systems in ocular motor control. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Acta Ophthalmol.

  11. Correlation of embryonic skeletal muscle myotube physical characteristics with contractile force generation on an atomic force microscope-based bio-microelectromechanical systems device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirozzi, K. L.; Long, C. J.; McAleer, C. W.; Smith, A. S. T.; Hickman, J. J.

    2013-08-01

    Rigorous analysis of muscle function in in vitro systems is needed for both acute and chronic biomedical applications. Forces generated by skeletal myotubes on bio-microelectromechanical cantilevers were calculated using a modified version of Stoney's thin-film equation and finite element analysis (FEA), then analyzed for regression to physical parameters. The Stoney's equation results closely matched the more intensive FEA and the force correlated to cross-sectional area (CSA). Normalizing force to measured CSA significantly improved the statistical sensitivity and now allows for close comparison of in vitro data to in vivo measurements for applications in exercise physiology, robotics, and modeling neuromuscular diseases.

  12. Validity and reproducibility of electrical impedance tomography for measurement of calf blood flow in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Vonk Noordegraaf, A; Kunst, P W; Janse, A; Smulders, R A; Heethaar, R M; Postmus, P E; Faes, T J; de Vries, P M

    1997-03-01

    The Sheffield electrical impedance tomography; (EIT) system produces images of changes in the distribution of resistivity within tissue. The paper reports on the application of electrical impedance tomography in monitoring volume changes in the limb during venous occlusion. The aim of the study is to assess the feasibility, reproducibility and validity of calf blood flow measurements by EIT. In 14 healthy volunteers calf blood flow is compared, as determined in a calf segment by strain-gauge plethysmography (SGP), with the impedance changes measured by EIT during rest and post-ischaemic hyperaemia. The measurements are repeated to assess reproducibility. The reproducibility for the EIT, assessed from the repeated measurements and expressed as a reproducibility coefficient, is 0.88 during rest and 0.89 during hyperaemia. The reproducibility coefficient for SGP data is 0.83 at rest and 0.67 during hyperaemia. Flow measurements, assessed by means of two methods, correlate well at rest (r = 0.89), but only moderately during hyperaemia (r = 0.51). The correlation coefficient for the pooled flow measurements is 0.98. It is concluded that EIT is a valid and reliable method for assessing blood flow in the limb. Possible applications of EIT in localising fluid changes are discussed.

  13. Patterns of stillbirth and dystocia in Ontario cow-calf herds.

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, J J; Allen, O B; Martin, S W; Alves, D M

    1992-01-01

    The association between a number of individual animal and herd level factors and calving problems in beef cows and heifers were examined. Data were from the 1987 calving season for a subset of 123 herds which maintained individual-animal records, from a sample of 180 randomly selected Ontario cow-calf herds. The median herd dystocia rate was 5.8% and 24.4% of herds had no dystocias. The median herd stillbirth rate was 2.8%, and 33.3% of herds had no stillbirths. Dystocias and stillbirths were much more common in heifers than in cows. Separate statistical models of dystocia and stillbirth for cows and heifers were created. Dystocia in cows was associated with calf sex, previous calving assistance and large breed type and birth weight. Variations in 1987 cow herd dystocia rates were associated with calving season, location and density, and the herd dystocia rate in 1986. Dystocia in heifers was associated with large breed type and calf birth weight. Herd-level management practices associated with increased heifer dystocia rates included breeding heifers to calve earlier than cows and rearing heifers together with the cow herd. Stillbirths for both cows and heifers were associated with calving assistance, particularly hard assistance. Herd-level management and other factors were unassociated with stillbirths. PMID:1586893

  14. Effect of colostrum quantity and quality on neonatal calf diarrhoea due to Cryptosporidium spp. infection.

    PubMed

    Arsenopoulos, K; Theodoridis, A; Papadopoulos, E

    2017-08-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effect of colostrum quality and quantity on Cryptosporidium spp. calf diarrhoea in an intensive dairy cattle farm in Greece. Faecal samples were collected from 100 dairy calves randomly selected and born during all 4 seasons (March 2015 to May 2016) of the year. In total, 71% of the selected calves were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts. The statistical analysis revealed influence of colostrum quality on faecal score. Linear regression showed that the colostrum quantity during the first day of life was negatively associated with the number of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in faeces. During multivariable analysis, the variables representing the quality of colostrum and the season of the calf's birth were identified as confounders. Cryptosporidium spp. is a common pathogen participating in neonatal calf diarrhoea. Colostrum management and season influence the number of Cryprosporidium spp. oocysts and faecal consistency. The above findings demonstrate novel risk factors that should be included in the strategic approaches to control cryptosporidiosis in newborn calves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of phosphodiesterase activity on the temperature-dependent responses of calf cardiac vein.

    PubMed

    Nurullahoglu, Z U

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the role of phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity in the cooling (to 28 °C) and warming (41 °C)-induced effects of carbachol on calf cardiac vein. Rings obtained from calf hearts were suspended in organ baths containing 25 ml of Krebs-Henseleit solution, maintained at 37 °C, continuously gassed with 95%O2-5%CO2. At the end of the resting period the preparations were contracted with carbachol (10-9-3x10-4M), at 37 °C. The same protocol was repeated at 28 °C and 41 °C after the preparations were allowed to equilibrate at this temperature for 60 min. In order to analyze the role of PDE activity in the cooling-and warming-induced vascular response, carbachol (10-9-3x10-4M) was applied in the presence of cilostazol (10-6 M), IBMX (10-6 M) and rolipram (10-6 M), respectively. The sensitivity of carbachol was significantly lower during cooling, and higher during warming. Cooling to 28 and warming to 41 °C, after treatment with IBMX, cilostazol or rolipram, significantly decreased the sensitivity to carbachol (p<0.05). The results of the present study suggest that PDE activity plays an essential role in cooling-and warming-induced changes of calf cardiac vein treated with carbachol (Tab. 1, Fig. 2, Ref. 34). Text in PDF www.elis.sk.

  16. Illegitimate recombination mediated by calf thymus DNA topoisomerase II in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Y S; Kawasaki, I; Ikeda, H; Liu, L F

    1988-01-01

    We have found that purified calf thymus DNA topoisomerase II mediates recombination between two phage lambda DNA molecules in an in vitro system. The enzyme mainly produced a linear monomer recombinant DNA that can be packaged in vitro. Novobiocin and anti-calf thymus DNA topoisomerase II antibody inhibit this ATP-dependent recombination. The recombinant molecules contain duplications or deletions, and most crossovers take place between nonhomologous sequences of lambda DNA, as judged by the sequences of recombination junctions. Therefore, the recombination mediated by the calf thymus DNA topoisomerase II is an illegitimate recombination that is similar to recombination mediated by Escherichia coli DNA gyrase or phage T4 DNA topoisomerase. The subunit exchange model, which has been suggested for the DNA gyrase-mediated recombination, is now generalized as follows: DNA topoisomerase II molecules bind to DNAs, associate with each other, and lead to the exchange of DNA strands through the exchange of topoisomerase II subunits. Illegitimate recombination might be carried out by a general mechanism in organisms ranging from prokaryotes to higher eukaryotes. Images PMID:2832845

  17. [Uterine torsion in cattle--therapy and consequences for calf and cow].

    PubMed

    Erteld, E; Krohn, J; Dzhakupov, I T; Wehrend, A

    2014-01-01

    To summarize the available literature on the therapy of uterine torsion in cattle and the consequences for cow and calf. Analysis of the literature using electronic libraries (PubMed, Medline), German veterinary medical journals and obstetrical textbooks. The therapy includes the attempt to rotate the uterus back into its physiological position. Direct and indirect methods of retorsion are available and applied according to the case conditions. Subsequently, the extraction of the calf can be performed via vaginal delivery or caesarean section. The presence of uterine torsion always leads to dystocia. Following a successful retorsion, the time and degree of uterine torsion strongly influence the progress of the birth. The prognosis also depends on the aforementioned factors and varies between good to unsuccessful. The vitality of the calf displays great variation depending on the literature (14-90%), however, is generally greater under field than clinical conditions. Focussing on the puerperal development of the cow, all grades from mild irritations of the uterine involution to fatal complications occur. The influence on fertility depends on the progress of the birth and existing secondary complications. The risk for electrolyte disturbances is increased (approximately 50%) as is the risk of birth-associated injuries (approximately 20%). The incidence of placental retention varies widely between different authors (3-52%).

  18. Quantification of residual limb skeletal muscle perfusion with contrast-enhanced ultrasound during application of a focal junctional tourniquet

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Brian P.; Belcik, J. Todd; Mott, Brian H.; Landry, Gregory; Lindner, Jonathan R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Focal junctional tourniquets (JTs) have been developed to control hemorrhage from proximal limb injuries. These devices may permit greater collateral perfusion than circumferential tourniquets. We hypothesized that JTs eliminate large-vessel pulse pressure yet allow a small amount of residual limb perfusion that could be useful for maintaining tissue viability. Methods Ten healthy control subjects were studied. Transthoracic echocardiography, Doppler ultrasound of the femoral artery (FA) and posterior tibial artery, and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) perfusion imaging of the anterior thigh extensor and calf plantar flexor muscles were performed at baseline and during application of a JT over the common FA. Intramuscular arterial pulsatility index was also measured from CEU intensity variation during the cardiac cycle. Results FA flow was eliminated by JTs in all subjects; posterior tibial flow was eliminated in all but one. Perfusion measured in the thigh and calf muscles was similar at baseline (0.33 ± 0.29 vs 0.29 ± 0.22 mL/min/g). Application of the JT resulted in a reduction of perfusion (P < .05) that was similar for the thigh and calf (0.08 ± 0.07 and 0.10 ± 0.03 mL/min