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Sample records for calf muscle volume

  1. Relative strengths of the calf muscles based on MRI volume measurements.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Clifford L; Thawait, Gaurav K; Kwon, John Y; Machado, Antonio; Boyle, James W; Campbell, John; Carrino, John A

    2012-05-01

    In 1985, Silver et al. published a cadaver study which determined the relative order of strength of the muscles in the calf. Muscle strength, which is proportional to volume, was obtained by dissecting out the individual muscles, weighing them, and then multiplying by the specific gravity. No similar studies have been performed using {\\it in vivo} measurements of muscle volume. Ten normal subjects underwent 3-Tesla MRI's of both lower extremities using non-fat-saturated T2 SPACE sequences. The volume for each muscle was determined by tracing the muscle contour on sequential axial images and then interpolating the volume using imaging software. The results from this study differ from Silver's original article. The lateral head of the gastrocnemius was found to be stronger than the tibialis anterior muscle. The FHL and EDL muscles were both stronger than the peroneus longus. There was no significant difference in strength between the peroneus longus and brevis muscles. This revised order of muscle strengths in the calf based on in vivo MRI findings may assist surgeons in determining the optimal tendons to transfer in order to address muscle weakness and deformity.

  2. Functional roles of the calf and vastus muscles in locomotion.

    PubMed

    Brandell, B R

    1977-04-01

    Simultaneous and synchronized electromyography and cinematography were used to record the co-ordination of calf and vastus muscle activity with the angular motions of the segments and joints of the lower limb in two female and three male subjects, while each performed one complete series of tests in which they walked at 2.5, 3.2 and 4.2 mph on a treadmill, which was level, or held at upward tilts of 5 and 10 degrees. The raw EMG recordings were also integrated into uniform pulses, which were electronically counted in 5 second time blocks for each of the walking conditions tested. The objectives of this study were to: 1) quantitatively measure the relative increases of EMG activity in thses two groups of muscles under the various degrees of stress, which resulted from walking at increased speeds and degrees of upward tilt, and 2) correlate these gross quantitative relationships of activity with the patterns of co-ordination found between these two groups of muscles under the corresponding stressed conditions of walking. The results of this study indicate that although with increases of speed and upward tilt the absolute values of integrated EMG increased more for the calf than for the vastus muscles, the relative increases of EMG were consistently greater for the vasti, which reached their peak intensity of activity at moments during the walking stride, when their knee extending action stretched the gastrocnemius heads across the back of the knee joint, and thereby assisted the calf muscles lift the heel, and plantar flex the ankle joint--the most essential actions for producing the push-off and thrust in the normal walking stride.

  3. Metabolic heterogeneity in human calf muscle during maximal exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Vandenborne, K.; McCully, K.; Kakihira, H.

    1991-07-01

    Human skeletal muscle is composed of various muscle fiber types. The authors hypothesized that differences in metabolism between fiber types could be detected noninvasively with {sup 31}P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy during maximal exercise. This assumes that during maximal exercise all fiber types are recruited and all vary in the amount of acidosis. The calf muscles of seven subjects were studied. Two different coils were applied: an 11-cm-diameter surface coil and a five-segment meander coil. The meander coil was used to localize the {sup 31}P signal to either the medial or the lateral gastrocnemius. Maximal exercise, consisting of rapid plantarmore » flexions, resulted in an 83.7% {plus minus} 7.8% decrease of the phosphocreatine pool and an 8-fold increase of the inorganic phosphate (P{sub i}) pool. At rest the P{sub i} pool was observed as a single resonance (pH 7.0). Toward the end of the first minute of exercise, three subjects showed three distinct P{sub i} peaks. During the second minute of exercise the pH values stabilized. The same pattern was seen when the signal was collected from the medial or lateral gastrocnemius. In four subjects only two distinct P{sub i} peaks were observed. The P{sub i} peaks had differing relative areas in different subjects, but they were reproducible in each individual. This method allowed is to study the appearance and disappearance of the different P{sub i} peaks, together with the changes in pH. Because multiple P{sub i} peaks were seen in single muscles they most likely identify different muscle fiber types.« less

  4. Electrically induced muscle cramps induce hypertrophy of calf muscles in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Behringer, M; Moser, M; Montag, J; McCourt, M; Tenner, D; Mester, J

    2015-06-01

    Skeletal muscles usually cramp at short lengths, where the tension that can be exerted by muscle fibers is low. Since high tension is an important anabolic stimulus, it is questionable if cramps can induce hypertrophy and strength gains. In the present study we investigated if electrically induced cramps (EIMCs) can elicit these adaptations. 15 healthy male adults were randomly assigned to an intervention (IG; n=10) and a control group (CG; n=5). The cramp protocol (CP) applied twice a week to one leg of the IG, consisted of 3x6 EIMCs, of 5 s each. Calf muscles of the opposite leg were stimulated equally, but were hindered from cramping by fixating the ankle at 0° plantar flexion (nCP). After six weeks, the cross sectional area of the triceps surae was similarly increased in both the CP (+9.0±3.4%) and the nCP (+6.8±3.7%). By contrast, force of maximal voluntary contractions, measured at 0° and 30° plantar flexion, increased significantly only in nCP (0°: +8.5±8.8%; 30°: 11.7±13.7%). The present data indicate that muscle cramps can induce hypertrophy in calf muscles, though lacking high tension as an important anabolic stimulus.

  5. Electrically induced muscle cramps induce hypertrophy of calf muscles in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Behringer, M.; Moser, M.; Montag, J.; McCourt, M.; Tenner, D.; Mester, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Skeletal muscles usually cramp at short lengths, where the tension that can be exerted by muscle fibers is low. Since high tension is an important anabolic stimulus, it is questionable if cramps can induce hypertrophy and strength gains. In the present study we investigated if electrically induced cramps (EIMCs) can elicit these adaptations. Methods: 15 healthy male adults were randomly assigned to an intervention (IG; n=10) and a control group (CG; n=5). The cramp protocol (CP) applied twice a week to one leg of the IG, consisted of 3x6 EIMCs, of 5 s each. Calf muscles of the opposite leg were stimulated equally, but were hindered from cramping by fixating the ankle at 0° plantar flexion (nCP). Results: After six weeks, the cross sectional area of the triceps surae was similarly increased in both the CP (+9.0±3.4%) and the nCP (+6.8±3.7%). By contrast, force of maximal voluntary contractions, measured at 0° and 30° plantar flexion, increased significantly only in nCP (0°: +8.5±8.8%; 30°: 11.7±13.7%). Conclusion: The present data indicate that muscle cramps can induce hypertrophy in calf muscles, though lacking high tension as an important anabolic stimulus. PMID:26032216

  6. Calf Muscle Performance Deficits Remain 7 Years After an Achilles Tendon Rupture.

    PubMed

    Brorsson, Annelie; Grävare Silbernagel, Karin; Olsson, Nicklas; Nilsson Helander, Katarina

    2018-02-01

    Optimizing calf muscle performance seems to play an important role in minimizing impairments and symptoms after an Achilles tendon rupture (ATR). The literature lacks long-term follow-up studies after ATR that describe calf muscle performance over time. The primary aim was to evaluate calf muscle performance and patient-reported outcomes at a mean of 7 years after ATR in patients included in a prospective, randomized controlled trial. A secondary aim was to evaluate whether improvement in calf muscle performance continued after the 2-year follow-up. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Sixty-six subjects (13 women, 53 men) with a mean age of 50 years (SD, 8.5 years) were evaluated at a mean of 7 years (SD, 1 year) years after their ATR. Thirty-four subjects had surgical treatment and 32 had nonsurgical treatment. Patient-reported outcomes were evaluated with Achilles tendon Total Rupture Score (ATRS) and Physical Activity Scale (PAS). Calf muscle performance was evaluated with single-leg standing heel-rise test, concentric strength power heel-rise test, and single-legged hop for distance. Limb Symmetry Index (LSI = injured side/healthy side × 100) was calculated for side-to-side differences. Seven years after ATR, the injured side showed decreased values in all calf muscle performance tests ( P < .001-.012). Significant improvement in calf muscle performance did not continue after the 2-year follow-up. Heel-rise height increased significantly ( P = .002) between the 1-year (10.8 cm) and the 7-year (11.5 cm) follow-up assessments. The median ATRS was 96 (of a possible score of 100) and the median PAS was 4 (of a possible score of 6), indicating minor patient-reported symptoms and fairly high physical activity. No significant differences were found in calf muscle performance or patient-reported outcomes between the treatment groups except for the LSI for heel-rise repetitions. Continued deficits in calf muscle endurance and strength remained 7 years after ATR. No

  7. Heavy-load eccentric calf muscle training for the treatment of chronic Achilles tendinosis.

    PubMed

    Alfredson, H; Pietilä, T; Jonsson, P; Lorentzon, R

    1998-01-01

    We prospectively studied the effect of heavy-load eccentric calf muscle training in 15 recreational athletes (12 men and 3 women; mean age, 44.3 +/- 7.0 years) who had the diagnosis of chronic Achilles tendinosis (degenerative changes) with a long duration of symptoms despite conventional nonsurgical treatment. Calf muscle strength and the amount of pain during activity (recorded on a visual analog scale) were measured before onset of training and after 12 weeks of eccentric training. At week 0, all patients had Achilles tendon pain not allowing running activity, and there was significantly lower eccentric and concentric calf muscle strength on the injured compared with the noninjured side. After the 12-week training period, all 15 patients were back at their preinjury levels with full running activity. There was a significant decrease in pain during activity, and the calf muscle strength on the injured side had increased significantly and did not differ significantly from that of the noninjured side. A comparison group of 15 recreational athletes with the same diagnosis and a long duration of symptoms had been treated conventionally, i.e., rest, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, changes of shoes or orthoses, physical therapy, and in all cases also with ordinary training programs. In no case was the conventional treatment successful, and all patients were ultimately treated surgically. Our treatment model with heavy-load eccentric calf muscle training has a very good short-term effect on athletes in their early forties.

  8. Muscle cramps in the calf as presenting symptom of sarcoidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, M; Dijkmans, B A; Eulderink, F

    1991-01-01

    A patient is described, who presented with pain in the calf due to a palpable nodule as the presenting symptom of sarcoidosis. The patient was treated with rest and diclofenac, followed by intralesional injections with triamcinolone hexacetonide and became free from pain. Images PMID:1994868

  9. CONGENITAL NUTRITIONAL MYODEGENERATION (WHITE MUSCLE DISEASE) IN A GIRAFFE ( GIRAFFA CAMELOPARDALIS) CALF.

    PubMed

    Bos, Jan H; Klip, Fokko C; Kik, Marja J L

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that vitamin E and selenium deficiencies in domestic ruminants can lead to white muscle disease. After a clinically normal gestation period at Ouwehand Zoo in the Netherlands, a newborn giraffe ( Giraffa camelopardalis) calf showed clinical signs of white muscle disease almost immediately after birth. The calf was rejected by the mother and was euthanized 3 days later because of deterioration of clinical signs. At necropsy, pulmonary edema and pallor of skeletal and heart muscles was noted. Histologically, there was hyaline degeneration of skeletal muscle myocytes and pulmonary edema. Blood concentrations of vitamin E were ≤ 0.7 mg/L. Based on clinical, biochemical, and gross and microscopic pathological findings, congenital nutritional myodegeneration was diagnosed. This case of neonatal white muscle disease is particularly remarkable given that the diet of the dam contained more than the recommended amount of vitamin E.

  10. Sweating response to passive stretch of the calf muscle during activation of forearm muscle metaboreceptors in heated humans.

    PubMed

    Amano, Tatsuro; Ichinose, Masashi; Nishiyasu, Takeshi; Inoue, Yoshimitsu; Koga, Shunsaku; Miwa, Mikio; Kondo, Narihiko

    2014-05-15

    Activation of muscle metaboreceptors and mechanoreceptors has been shown to independently influence the sweating response, while their integrative control effects remain unclear. We examined the sweating response when the two muscle receptors are concurrently activated in different limbs, as well as the blood pressure response. In total, 27 young males performed passive calf muscle stretches (muscle mechanoreceptor activation) for 30 s in a semisupine position with and without postisometric handgrip exercise muscle ischemia (PEMI, muscle metaboreceptor activation) at exercise intensities of 35 and 50% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) under hot conditions (ambient temperature, 35°C, relative humidity, 50%). Passive calf muscle stretching alone increased the mean sweating rate significantly on the forehead, chest, and thigh (SRmean) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), but not the heart rate (HR), from prestretching levels by 0.04 ± 0.01 mg·cm(2)·min(-1), 4.0 ± 1.3 mmHg (P < 0.05), and -1.0 ± 0.5 beats/min (P > 0.05), respectively. The SRmean and MAP during PEMI were significantly higher than those at rest. The passive calf muscle stretch during PEMI increased MAP significantly by 3.4 ± 1.0 and 2.0 ± 0.7 mmHg for 35 and 50% of MVC, respectively (P < 0.05), but not that of SRmean or HR at either exercise intensity. These results suggest that sweating and blood pressure responses to concurrent activation of the two muscle receptors in different limbs differ and that the influence of calf muscle mechanoreceptor activation alone on the sweating response disappears during forearm muscle metaboreceptor activation. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Calf muscle involvement in Becker muscular dystrophy: when size does not matter.

    PubMed

    Monforte, Mauro; Mercuri, Eugenio; Laschena, Francesco; Ricci, Enzo; Tasca, Giorgio

    2014-12-15

    Calf hypertrophy is a common feature in Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), and it is still debated to which extent fatty degeneration or true muscle hypertrophy account for it. We wanted to investigate the relative contribution of these two components using a simple image analysis approach and their possible correlation with disease severity. Twenty-nine BMD patients' MRI scans were analyzed. A semiquantitative visual score assessing fatty replacement of calf muscles (calf MRI score, CMS) was calculated and correlated with the cross sectional area (CSA) of lower leg posterior compartment muscles, digitally measured on acquired images. The correlation between CSA and CMS was not significant. CMS in contrast correlated with disease severity (p<0.001) while CSA did not (p=0.969). In BMD, a major contribution to calf hypertrophy is provided by real muscle hypertrophy rather than by fatty degeneration. CMS appears to be a potential surrogate marker of disease severity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the calf muscle mass and architecture in elderly patients with and without sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Kuyumcu, Mehmet Emin; Halil, Meltem; Kara, Özgür; Çuni, Bledjan; Çağlayan, Gökhan; Güven, Serdar; Yeşil, Yusuf; Arık, Güneş; Yavuz, Burcu Balam; Cankurtaran, Mustafa; Özçakar, Levent

    2016-01-01

    To sonographically assess the muscle mass and architecture of sarcopenic elderly subjects, and to explore the utility of ultrasound (US) measurements in predicting sarcopenia. One hundred elderly subjects were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Mean age value of our study population was 73.08±6.18years. The diagnosis of sarcopenia was confirmed by measuring fat-free mass index (using bioelectrical impedance analysis) and handgrip strength. Calf circumference was measured and US evaluations comprised bilateral gastrocnemius muscle (MG) thickness, fascicle length and pennate angles; subcutaneous fat and dermis thicknesses in the calf. Bilateral muscle thickness and fascicle length values were significantly lower in patients with sarcopenia (both p<0.05). Sarcopenic and nonsarcopenic subjects had similar pennate angles, subcutaneous fat and dermis thicknesses. Median thickness ratio (100×t (MG)/[t (subcutaneous tissue)+t (dermis)+t (MG)]) values were 64% (40-88%) in the right and 64% (38-86%) in the left calf. Bilateral MG thickness and fascicle length values showed high sensitivity in predicting sarcopenia (all values>76.92%). Gastrocnemius muscle thickness and fascicle length values are lower in sarcopenic elderly and these two parameters can serve as alternative measurements for predicting/quantifying sarcopenia. Calf circumference measurements alone may not be appropriate for assessing sarcopenia. Instead, US imaging can conveniently be used to evaluate different compartments of the musculoskelal system in (sarcopenic) elderly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dynamic pushing on three frictional surfaces: maximum acceptable forces, cardiopulmonary and calf muscle metabolic responses in healthy men.

    PubMed

    Maikala, Rammohan V; Dempsey, Patrick G; Ciriello, Vincent M; O'Brien, Niall V

    2009-06-01

    Pushing is an important materials handling activity in many occupations; however, pushing-related physiological investigations are still in infancy. The purpose was to evaluate maximum acceptable forces and physiological responses while pushing on: treadmill (TREAD); plywood floor (PLY); and Teflon floor (TEF). Acceptable forces, cardiopulmonary and calf muscle oxygenation and blood volume responses were collected simultaneously while 12 men (age 39 +/- 13 years; height 178 +/- 6 cm; and body mass 91.5 +/- 16 kg) pushed for 2 h on each surface at their psychophysical workload. Participants selected higher forces on the PLY, resulting in higher pulmonary oxygen uptake compared to that of TEF (by approximately 9%) and TREAD (by approximately 18%). Pushing on the TEF demonstrated 50-56% lower blood volume changes and 1.5-1.8 times more oxygenation-force ratio than that for other surfaces. It is concluded that, to avoid a potential slip, participants were conservative in selecting acceptable forces to push on the slippery TEF. Part of this compensatory strategy on the TEF resulted in less muscle activity and, therefore, less demand for oxygen delivery to the calf muscle than for other surfaces. The present findings of significant force- and physiological-related differences in treadmill vs. high inertia pushcart clearly demonstrate that pushing experiments are essential to evaluate functional abilities of the workers.

  14. Diffusive sensitivity to muscle architecture: a magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging study of the human calf.

    PubMed

    Galbán, Craig J; Maderwald, Stefan; Uffmann, Kai; de Greiff, Armin; Ladd, Mark E

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the diffusive properties of adjacent muscles at rest, and to determine the relationship between diffusive and architectural properties, which are task-specific to muscles. The principle, second, and third eigenvalues, trace of the diffusion tensor, and two anisotropic parameters, ellipsoid eccentricity (e) and fractional anisotropy (FA), of various muscles in the human calf were calculated by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Linear correlations of the calculated parameters to the muscle physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), which is proportional to maximum muscle force, were performed to ascertain any linear relation between muscle architecture and diffusivity. Images of the left calf were acquired from six healthy male volunteers. Seven muscles were investigated in this study. These comprised the soleus, lateral gastrocnemius, medial gastrocnemius, posterior tibialis, anterior tibialis, extensor digitorum longus, and peroneus longus. All data were presented as the mean and standard error of the mean (SEM). In general, differences in diffusive parameter values occurred primarily between functionally different muscles. A strong correlation was also found between PCSA and the third eigenvalue, e, and FA. A mathematical derivation revealed a linear relationship between PCSA and the third eigenvalue as a result of their dependence on the average radius of all fibers within a single muscle. These findings demonstrated the ability of DTI to differentiate between functionally different muscles in the same region of the body on the basis of their diffusive properties.

  15. Comparison of calf muscle architecture between Asian children with spastic cerebral palsy and typically developing peers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinling; Guan, Buyun; Tang, Hongmei

    2018-01-01

    Objective To compare the muscle thickness, fascicle length, and pennation angle of the gastrocnemius, soleus, and tibialis anterior between Asian children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and typically developing (TD) peers. Methods This cross-sectional study involved a total of 72 children with hemiplegic CP (n = 24), and diplegic CP (n = 24) and their TD peers (n = 24). Muscle architecture was measured at rest using ultrasound. Clinical measures included gross motor function and a modified Ashworth scale. Results The thicknesses of the tibialis anterior and medial gastrocnemius muscles were smaller in the affected calf of children with CP (p<0.05) than in those of their TD peers. Additionally, the lengths of the lateral gastrocnemius and soleus fascicle were shorter (p<0.05) in children with diplegic CP than in their TD peers. The fascicle length was shorter in the affected calf of children with CP (p<0.05) than in the calves of their TD peers or the unaffected calf of children with hemiplegic CP. However, the length of the lateral gastrocnemius fascicle was similar between the two legs of children with hemiplegic CP. The pennation angles of the medial gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were larger (p<0.05) in the affected calf in children with hemiplegic CP than in the calves of their TD peers. The fascicle length of the lateral gastrocnemius and the thickness of the soleus muscle were positively correlated with gross motor function scores in children with CP (p<0.05). Conclusions Muscle thickness and fascicle length were lower in the affected tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, and soleus in children with spastic CP. These changes may limit the ability to stand and walk, and indicate a need to strengthen the affected muscle. PMID:29304114

  16. Comparison of calf muscle architecture between Asian children with spastic cerebral palsy and typically developing peers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; He, Lu; Xu, Kaishou; Li, Jinling; Guan, Buyun; Tang, Hongmei

    2018-01-01

    To compare the muscle thickness, fascicle length, and pennation angle of the gastrocnemius, soleus, and tibialis anterior between Asian children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and typically developing (TD) peers. This cross-sectional study involved a total of 72 children with hemiplegic CP (n = 24), and diplegic CP (n = 24) and their TD peers (n = 24). Muscle architecture was measured at rest using ultrasound. Clinical measures included gross motor function and a modified Ashworth scale. The thicknesses of the tibialis anterior and medial gastrocnemius muscles were smaller in the affected calf of children with CP (p<0.05) than in those of their TD peers. Additionally, the lengths of the lateral gastrocnemius and soleus fascicle were shorter (p<0.05) in children with diplegic CP than in their TD peers. The fascicle length was shorter in the affected calf of children with CP (p<0.05) than in the calves of their TD peers or the unaffected calf of children with hemiplegic CP. However, the length of the lateral gastrocnemius fascicle was similar between the two legs of children with hemiplegic CP. The pennation angles of the medial gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were larger (p<0.05) in the affected calf in children with hemiplegic CP than in the calves of their TD peers. The fascicle length of the lateral gastrocnemius and the thickness of the soleus muscle were positively correlated with gross motor function scores in children with CP (p<0.05). Muscle thickness and fascicle length were lower in the affected tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, and soleus in children with spastic CP. These changes may limit the ability to stand and walk, and indicate a need to strengthen the affected muscle.

  17. Calf muscle density is independently associated with physical function in overweight and obese older adults.

    PubMed

    Scott, David; Shore-Lorenti, Catherine; McMillan, Lachlan B; Mesinovic, Jakub; Clark, Ross A; Hayes, Alan; Sanders, Kerrie M; Duque, Gustavo; Ebeling, Peter R

    2018-03-01

    To determine whether associations of calf muscle density with physical function are independent of other determinants of functional decline in overweight and obese older adults. This was a secondary analysis of a cross-sectional study of 85 community-dwelling overweight and obese adults (mean±SD age 62.8±7.9 years; BMI 32.3±6.1 kg/m2; 58% women). Peripheral quantitative computed tomography assessed mid-calf muscle density (66% tibial length) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry determined visceral fat area. Fasting glucose, Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were analysed. Physical function assessments included hand grip and knee extension strength, balance path length (computerised posturography), stair climb test, Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and self-reported falls efficacy (Modified Falls Efficacy Scale; M-FES). Visceral fat area, not muscle density, was independently associated with CRP and fasting glucose (B=0.025; 95% CI 0.009-0.042 and B=0.009; 0.001-0.017, respectively). Nevertheless, higher muscle density was independently associated with lower path length and stair climb time, and higher SPPB and M-FES scores (all P⟨0.05). Visceral fat area, fasting glucose and CRP did not mediate these associations. Higher calf muscle density predicts better physical function in overweight and obese older adults independent of insulin resistance, visceral adiposity or inflammation.

  18. Sport socks do not enhance calf muscle pump function but inelastic wraps do.

    PubMed

    Partsch, H; Mosti, G

    2014-12-01

    Aim of the study was to measure the effect of elastic and inelastic compression on calf muscle pump function in healthy male athletes. This was an experimental study which included 21 healthy male athletes. The ejection fraction (EF) of the venous calf pump was measured comparing the effects of a variety of compression materials: 1) sport compression stockings; 2) light zinc paste bandages; 3) sport compression stockings with additional Velcro® wraps over the calf. The influence of sport stocking and wraps on the venous calibre at the largest calf circumference in the lying and standing position was investigated using MRI. Inelastic compression exerting a median pressure in the standing position of 37.5 mmHg (zinc paste) and 48 mmHg (loosely applied straps over a sport stocking) achieved a significant increase of EF up to 100%. Sport stockings alone with a standing pressure of 19-24 mmHg did not show a significant change of EF. MRI demonstrated some venous narrowing in the lying but not in the standing position. By wrapping inelastic straps over the stocking an emptying of the veins in the lying and a considerable narrowing in the standing position could be observed. Venous calf pump function in athletes is not influenced by elastic sport stockings, but inelastic wraps either alone or applied over sport stockings lead to a significant enhancement.

  19. Transcutaneous calf-muscle electro-stimulation: A prospective treatment for diabetic claudicants?

    PubMed

    Ellul, Christian; Gatt, Alfred

    2016-11-01

    First-line therapy for claudicants with diabetes include supervised exercise programmes to improve walking distance. However, exercise comes with a number of barriers and may be contraindicated in certain conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether calf-muscle electro-stimulation improves claudication distance. A prospective, one-group, pretest-posttest study design was employed on 40 participants living with type 2 diabetes mellitus, peripheral artery disease (ankle-brachial pressure index < 0.90) and calf-muscle claudication. Calf-muscle electro-stimulation of varying frequencies (1-250 Hz) was applied on both ischaemic limbs (N = 80) for 1 h per day for 12 consecutive weeks. The absolute claudication distance was measured at baseline and following the intervention. The cohort (n = 40; 30 males; mean age = 71 years; mean ankle-brachial pressure index = 0.70) registered a mean baseline absolute claudication distance of 333.71 m (standard deviation = 208). Following 91.68 days (standard deviation = 6.23) of electrical stimulation, a significant mean increase of 137 m (standard deviation = 136) in the absolute claudication distance was registered (p = 0.000, Wilcoxon signed rank test). Electrical stimulation of varying low to high frequencies on ischaemic calf muscles significantly increased the maximal walking capacity in claudicants with type 2 diabetes. This therapeutic approach may be considered in patients with impaired exercise tolerance or as an adjunct treatment modality. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Absolute quantification of carnosine in human calf muscle by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdemir, Mahir S.; Reyngoudt, Harmen; DeDeene, Yves; Sazak, Hakan S.; Fieremans, Els; Delputte, Steven; D'Asseler, Yves; Derave, Wim; Lemahieu, Ignace; Achten, Eric

    2007-12-01

    Carnosine has been shown to be present in the skeletal muscle and in the brain of a variety of animals and humans. Despite the various physiological functions assigned to this metabolite, its exact role remains unclear. It has been suggested that carnosine plays a role in buffering in the intracellular physiological pHi range in skeletal muscle as a result of accepting hydrogen ions released in the development of fatigue during intensive exercise. It is thus postulated that the concentration of carnosine is an indicator for the extent of the buffering capacity. However, the determination of the concentration of this metabolite has only been performed by means of muscle biopsy, which is an invasive procedure. In this paper, we utilized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) in order to perform absolute quantification of carnosine in vivo non-invasively. The method was verified by phantom experiments and in vivo measurements in the calf muscles of athletes and untrained volunteers. The measured mean concentrations in the soleus and the gastrocnemius muscles were found to be 2.81 ± 0.57/4.8 ± 1.59 mM (mean ± SD) for athletes and 2.58 ± 0.65/3.3 ± 0.32 mM for untrained volunteers, respectively. These values are in agreement with previously reported biopsy-based results. Our results suggest that 1H MRS can provide an alternative method for non-invasively determining carnosine concentration in human calf muscle in vivo.

  1. Bilateral idiopathic calf muscle hypertrophy: an exceptional cause of unsightly leg curvature.

    PubMed

    Herlin, C; Chaput, B; Rivier, F; Doucet, J C; Bigorre, M; Captier, G

    2015-04-01

    The authors present the management of a young female patient who presented with longstanding bilateral calf muscle hypertrophy, with no known cause. Taking into account the patient's wishes and the fact that the hypertrophy was mainly located in the posteromedial compartment, we chose to carry out a subtotal bilateral resection of medial gastrocnemius muscles. This procedure was performed with an harmonic scalpel, permitting a excellent cosmetic result while avoiding complications or functional impairment. After a reviewing of the commonly used techniques, the authors discuss the chosen surgical approach taking into account its clinical particularity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Changes in size and compliance of the calf after 30 days of simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Doerr, Donald F.; Stein, Stewart L.

    1989-01-01

    The hypothesis that reducing muscle compartment by a long-term exposure to microgravity would cause increased leg venous compliance was tested in eight men who were assessed for vascular compliance and for serial circumferences of the calf before and after 30 days of continuous 6-deg head-down bed rest. It was found that head-down bed rest caused decreases in the calculated calf volume and the calf-muscle compartment, as well as increases in calf compliance. The percent increases in calf compliance correlated significantly with decreases in calf muscle compartment.

  3. A 1D pulse wave propagation model of the hemodynamics of calf muscle pump function.

    PubMed

    Keijsers, J M T; Leguy, C A D; Huberts, W; Narracott, A J; Rittweger, J; van de Vosse, F N

    2015-07-01

    The calf muscle pump is a mechanism which increases venous return and thereby compensates for the fluid shift towards the lower body during standing. During a muscle contraction, the embedded deep veins collapse and venous return increases. In the subsequent relaxation phase, muscle perfusion increases due to increased perfusion pressure, as the proximal venous valves temporarily reduce the distal venous pressure (shielding). The superficial and deep veins are connected via perforators, which contain valves allowing flow in the superficial-to-deep direction. The aim of this study is to investigate and quantify the physiological mechanisms of the calf muscle pump, including the effect of venous valves, hydrostatic pressure, and the superficial venous system. Using a one-dimensional pulse wave propagation model, a muscle contraction is simulated by increasing the extravascular pressure in the deep venous segments. The hemodynamics are studied in three different configurations: a single artery-vein configuration with and without valves and a more detailed configuration including a superficial vein. Proximal venous valves increase effective venous return by 53% by preventing reflux. Furthermore, the proximal valves shielding function increases perfusion following contraction. Finally, the superficial system aids in maintaining the perfusion during the contraction phase and reduces the refilling time by 37%. © 2015 The Authors. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Electromyographic analysis of an eccentric calf muscle exercise in persons with and without Achilles tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Reid, Duncan; McNair, Peter J; Johnson, Shelley; Potts, Geoff; Witvrouw, Erik; Mahieu, Nele

    2012-08-01

    To compare surface electromyographic (EMG) activity of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles between persons with and without Achilles tendinopathy (AT) during an eccentric muscle exercise in different knee joint positions. Repeated measures design. Research laboratory. Participants (n = 18) diagnosed with AT and 18 control subjects were recruited. Gastrocnemius and soleus muscle activity was examined by surface (EMG) during extended and flexed knee joint conditions while performing the eccentric training technique. The EMG data were expressed as a percentage of a maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). EMG activity was notably higher (mean difference: 10%, effect size: 0.59) in those subjects with AT. Irrespective of the presence of AT, there was a significant interaction effect between muscle and joint position. The gastrocnemius muscle was significantly more active in the extended knee condition and soleus muscle activity was unchanged across joint positions. The results indicated that the presence of AT influenced calf muscle activity levels during performance of the eccentric exercise. There were differences in muscle activity during the extended and flexed knee conditions. This result does support performing Alfredson, Pietila, Jonsson, and Lorentzon (1998) eccentric exercise in an extended knee position but the specific effects of the knee flexed position on the Achilles tendon during eccentric exercise have yet to be determined, particularly in those with AT. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Achilles tendinosis and calf muscle strength. The effect of short-term immobilization after surgical treatment.

    PubMed

    Alfredson, H; Pietilä, T; Ohberg, L; Lorentzon, R

    1998-01-01

    We prospectively studied calf muscle strength in 7 men and 4 women (mean age, 40.9 +/- 10.1 years) who had surgical treatment for chronic Achilles tendinosis. Surgery was followed by immobilization in a weightbearing below-the-knee plaster cast for 2 weeks followed by a stepwise increasing strength training program. Strength measurements (peak torque and total work) were done preoperatively (Week 0) and at 16, 26, and 52 weeks postoperatively. We measured isokinetic concentric plantar flexion strength at 90 and 225 deg/sec and eccentric flexion strength at 90 deg/sec on both the injured and noninjured sides. Preoperatively, concentric and eccentric strength were significantly lower on the injured side at 90 and 225 deg/sec. Postoperatively, concentric peak torque on the injured side decreased significantly between Weeks 0 and 16 and increased significantly between Weeks 26 and 52 at 90 deg/sec but was significantly lower than that on the noninjured side at all periods and at both velocities. The eccentric strength was significantly lower on the injured side at Week 26 but increased significantly until at Week 52 no significant differences between the sides could be demonstrated. It seems, therefore, that the recovery in concentric and eccentric calf muscle strength after surgery for Achilles tendinosis is slow. We saw no obvious advantages in recovery of muscle strength with a short immobilization time (2 weeks) versus a longer (6 weeks) period used in a previous study.

  6. Triggered intravoxel incoherent motion MRI for the assessment of calf muscle perfusion during isometric intermittent exercise.

    PubMed

    Mastropietro, Alfonso; Porcelli, Simone; Cadioli, Marcello; Rasica, Letizia; Scalco, Elisa; Gerevini, Simonetta; Marzorati, Mauro; Rizzo, Giovanna

    2018-06-01

    The main aim of this paper was to propose triggered intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) imaging sequences for the evaluation of perfusion changes in calf muscles before, during and after isometric intermittent exercise. Twelve healthy volunteers were involved in the study. The subjects were asked to perform intermittent isometric plantar flexions inside the MRI bore. MRI of the calf muscles was performed on a 3.0 T scanner and diffusion-weighted (DW) images were obtained using eight different b values (0 to 500 s/mm 2 ). Acquisitions were performed at rest, during exercise and in the subsequent recovery phase. A motion-triggered echo-planar imaging DW sequence was implemented to avoid movement artifacts. Image quality was evaluated using the average edge strength (AES) as a quantitative metric to assess the motion artifact effect. IVIM parameters (diffusion D, perfusion fraction f and pseudo-diffusion D*) were estimated using a segmented fitting approach and evaluated in gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. No differences were observed in quality of IVIM images between resting state and triggered exercise, whereas the non-triggered images acquired during exercise had a significantly lower value of AES (reduction of more than 20%). The isometric intermittent plantar-flexion exercise induced an increase of all IVIM parameters (D by 10%; f by 90%; D* by 124%; fD* by 260%), in agreement with the increased muscle perfusion occurring during exercise. Finally, IVIM parameters reverted to the resting values within 3 min during the recovery phase. In conclusion, the IVIM approach, if properly adapted using motion-triggered sequences, seems to be a promising method to investigate muscle perfusion during isometric exercise. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. [Prevalence of calf muscle cramps and influencing factors for pregnant women in China during 2010-2012].

    PubMed

    Duan, Y F; Wang, J; Jiang, S; Bi, Y; Pang, X H; Yin, S A; Yang, Z Y

    2018-01-06

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of calf muscle cramps and possible influencing factors for pregnant women in China. Methods: Using a multi-stage stratified probability proportional to size cluster randomization sampling method during 2010-2012. A total of 3 582 pregnant women were investigated at 150 counties from 31 provinces in China mainland. Information on calf muscle cramps, demographic socio-economic status, pregnancy information, and the physical activities was collected through questionnaires. The semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to collect food intake of pregnant women. Dynamic cluster analysis was used to assess dietary pattern. Multiple logistic regression was used to investigate the possible influencing factors for calf muscle cramps. Results: The prevalence of calf muscle cramps was 32.9% (1 180/3 582) in Chinese pregnant women, which was 11.6% (87/748), 28.2% (420/1 492), and 50.2% (673/1 342), respectively, during the first, second and third trimester. There were significant differences between them (χ(2)=349.16, P< 0.001). Dietary patterns of the pregnant women were classified into three groups, which called relatively balanced pattern, high vegetables and fruits pattern, and high dairy pattern. Among the three groups, the prevalence of calf muscle cramps was 32.0% (952/2 971), 37.2% (186/500), and 37.8% (42/111), with significant differences (χ(2)=6.39, P= 0.041). The OR (95 %CI ) values of calf muscle cramps in the second and third trimester was 2.96 (2.28-3.83), and 8.02 (6.16-10.44), respectively, comparing with the first trimester. The OR (95 %CI ) values of calf muscle cramps in the women taking calcium before pregnant was 1.45 (1.19-1.76), comparing with the one who was not taken. The OR (95 %CI ) values of calf muscle cramps in the women who had been diagnosed by pregnancy-induced hypertension was 5.76 (2.06-16.12), comparing with the one who had not been diagnosed. The OR (95 %CI ) values of calf

  8. An epiphyseal stress fracture of the foot and shin splints in an anomalous calf muscle in a runner.

    PubMed

    Percy, E C; Gamble, F O

    1980-07-01

    The following case is presented as one of unusual foot and leg lesions encountered in an adolescent long-distance runner. The associated problems of a first metatarsal Salter Harris type II epiphyseal stress fracture, and an accessory calf muscle with "shin splints" in the contralateral leg are discussed. Treatment of these conditions is outlined with eventual return to full function by the athlete.

  9. The effect of calf muscle stretching exercises on ankle joint dorsiflexion and dynamic foot pressures, force and related temporal parameters.

    PubMed

    Macklin, K; Healy, A; Chockalingam, N

    2012-03-01

    Previous research has found that ankle joint equinus can lead to foot pathologies. Calf stretching exercises are a common treatment prescription; however, no dynamic quantitative data on its effectiveness is available. To investigate the effect of calf muscle stretching on ankle joint dorsiflexion and subsequent changes within dynamic forefoot peak plantar pressures (PPP), force and temporal parameters. Thirteen runners with ankle joint equinus were required to perform calf muscle stretching twice a day (morning and evening) on a Flexeramp. Measurements were collected on day 1, week 4 and week 8. A repeated measures ANOVA with Bonferroni-adjusted post hoc comparisons was used to assess differences across the three data collection sessions. Findings indicated that the calf stretching program increased ankle joint dorsiflexion significantly (from 5° to 16°, p≤0.05). The adaptive kinetics brought about by the increased ankle joint range of motion included significantly increased forefoot PPP and maximum force during stance phase but decreased time between heel contact and heel lift and total stance phase time. The calf stretching programme used in this study was found to increase ankle joint dorsiflexion and hence can be used for first line conservative management of ankle equinus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of repeated ankle stretching on calf muscle-tendon and ankle biomechanical properties in stroke survivors

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fan; Ren, Yupeng; Roth, Elliot J.; Harvey, Richard; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to investigate changes in active and passive biomechanical properties of the calf muscle-tendon unit induced by controlled ankle stretching in stroke survivors. Methods Ten stroke survivors with ankle spasticity/contracture and ten healthy control subjects received intervention of 60-min ankle stretching. Joint biomechanical properties including resistance torque, stiffness and index of hysteresis were evaluated pre- and post-intervention. Achilles tendon length was measured using ultrasonography. The force output of the triceps surae muscles was characterized via the torque-angle relationship, by stimulating the calf muscles at a controlled intensity across different ankle positions. Findings Compared to healthy controls, the ankle position corresponding to the peak torque of the stroke survivors was shifted towards plantar flexion (P<0.001). Stroke survivors showed significantly higher resistance torques and joint stiffness (P<0.05), and these higher resistances were reduced significantly after the stretching intervention, especially in dorsiflexion (P = 0.013). Stretching significantly improved the force output of the impaired calf muscles in stroke survivors under matched stimulations (P<0.05). Ankle range of motion was also increased by stretching (P<0.001). Interpretation At the joint level, repeated stretching loosened the ankle joint with increased passive joint range of motion and decreased joint stiffness. At the muscle-tendon level, repeated stretching improved calf muscle force output, which might be associated with decreased muscle fascicle stiffness, increased fascicle length and shortening of the Achilles tendon. The study provided evidence of improvement in muscle tendon properties through stretching intervention. PMID:21211873

  11. Effects of integrated treatment with LED and microcurrent on muscle tone and stiffness in the calf muscle during moderate aerobic exercise.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang-Wan; Lee, Jeong-Woo

    2018-06-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effects of the therapeutic device combined with LED and microcurrent (MC) on muscle tone and stiffness in the calf muscle after its application during moderate aerobic exercise. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty healthy adult subjects were randomized to either the test group of the therapeutic device combined with LED and MC or the control group, and they walked on a 10%-sloped treadmill with a 5 km/hr speed for 30 minutes. Each of the subjects in the test group performed treadmill exercise with the therapeutic device attached to the edge of his or her calf muscle. After the exercise, the muscle tone and stiffness at the edge of the calf muscle were measured. [Results] With respect to the muscle tone, a statistically significant difference was found between the two groups only 5 minutes after the exercise. Concerning muscle stiffness, significant differences were shown between the two groups right after the exercise and 5 minutes after the exercise. [Conclusion] Integrated treatment with LED and MC on is considered helpful for lowering the muscle tone 5 minutes after the exercise, and for lowering the muscle stiffness right after the exercise and 5 minutes after the exercise.

  12. Changes in extracellular muscle volume affect heart rate and blood pressure responses to static exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baum, K.; Essfeld, D.; Stegemann, J.

    To investigate the effect of μg-induced peripheral extracellular fluid reductions on heart rate and blood pressure during isometric exercise, six healthy male subjects performed three calf ergometer test with different extracellular volumes of working muscles. In all tests, body positions during exercise were identical (supine with the knee joint flexed to 900). After a pre-exercise period of 25 min, during which calf volumes were manipulated, subjects had to counteract an external force of 180 N for 5 min. During the pre-exercise period three different protocols were applied. Test A: Subjects rested in the exercise position; test B: Body position was the same as in A but calf volume was increased by venous congestion (cuffs inflated to 80 mm Hg); test C: Calf volumes were decreased by a negative hydrostatic pressure (calves about 40 cm above heart level with the subjects supine). To clamp the changed calf volumes in tests B and C, cuffs were inflated to 300 mm Hg 5 min before the onset of exercise. This occlusion was maintained until termination of exercise. Compared to tests A and B, the reduced volume of test C led to significant increases in heart rate and blood pressure during exercise. Oxygen uptake did not exceed resting levels in B and C until cuffs were deflated, indicating that exclusively calf muscles contributed to the neurogenic peripheral drive. It is concluded that changes in extracellular muscle volume have to be taken into account when comparing heart rate and blood pressure during lg- and μg- exercise.

  13. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Measurements of Calf Muscle during Walking at Simulated Reduced Gravity - Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellerby, Gwenn E. C.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stroud, Leah; Norcross, Jason; Gernhardt, Michael; Soller, Babs R.

    2008-01-01

    Consideration for lunar and planetary exploration space suit design can be enhanced by investigating the physiologic responses of individual muscles during locomotion in reduced gravity. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides a non-invasive method to study the physiology of individual muscles in ambulatory subjects during reduced gravity simulations. PURPOSE: To investigate calf muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) and pH during reduced gravity walking at varying treadmill inclines and added mass conditions using NIRS. METHODS: Four male subjects aged 42.3 +/- 1.7 years (mean +/- SE) and weighing 77.9 +/- 2.4 kg walked at a moderate speed (3.2 +/- 0.2 km/h) on a treadmill at inclines of 0, 10, 20, and 30%. Unsuited subjects were attached to a partial gravity simulator which unloaded the subject to simulate body weight plus the additional weight of a space suit (121 kg) in lunar gravity (0.17G). Masses of 0, 11, 23, and 34 kg were added to the subject and then unloaded to maintain constant weight. Spectra were collected from the lateral gastrocnemius (LG), and SmO2 and pH were calculated using previously published methods (Yang et al. 2007 Optics Express ; Soller et al. 2008 J Appl Physiol). The effects of incline and added mass on SmO2 and pH were analyzed through repeated measures ANOVA. RESULTS: SmO2 and pH were both unchanged by added mass (p>0.05), so data from trials at the same incline were averaged. LG SmO2 decreased significantly with increasing incline (p=0.003) from 61.1 +/- 2.0% at 0% incline to 48.7 +/- 2.6% at 30% incline, while pH was unchanged by incline (p=0.12). CONCLUSION: Increasing the incline (and thus work performed) during walking causes the LG to extract more oxygen from the blood supply, presumably to support the increased metabolic cost of uphill walking. The lack of an effect of incline on pH may indicate that, while the intensity of exercise has increased, the LG has not reached a level of work above the anaerobic threshold. In these

  14. Effects of isokinetic calf muscle exercise program on muscle strength and venous function in patients with chronic venous insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Ercan, Sabriye; Çetin, Cem; Yavuz, Turhan; Demir, Hilmi M; Atalay, Yurdagül B

    2018-05-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to observe the change of the ankle joint range of motion, the muscle strength values measured with an isokinetic dynamometer, pain scores, quality of life scale, and venous return time in chronic venous insufficiency diagnosed patients by prospective follow-up after 12-week exercise program including isokinetic exercises. Methods The patient group of this study comprised 27 patients (23 female, 4 male) who were diagnosed with chronic venous insufficiency. An exercise program including isokinetic exercise for the calf muscle was given to patients three days per week for 12 weeks. At the end of 12 weeks, five of the patients left the study due to inadequate compliance with the exercise program. As a result, control data of 22 patients were included. Ankle joint range of active motion, isokinetic muscle strength, pain, quality of life, and photoplethysmography measurements were assessed before starting and after the exercise program. Results Evaluating changes of the starting and control data depending on time showed that all isokinetic muscle strength measurement parameters, range of motion, and overall quality of life values of patients improved. Venous return time values have also increased significantly ( p < 0.05). Conclusion In conclusion, increase in muscle strength has been provided with exercise therapy in patients with chronic venous insufficiency. It has been determined that the increase in muscle strength affected the venous pump and this ensured improvement in venous function and range of motion of the ankle. In addition, it has been detected that pain reduced and quality of life improved after the exercise program.

  15. Bone mass in the calcaneus after heavy loaded eccentric calf-muscle training in recreational athletes with chronic achilles tendinosis.

    PubMed

    Alfredson, H; Nordström, P; Pietilä, T; Lorentzon, R

    1999-05-01

    In an ongoing prospective study of 14 recreational athletes (12 males and 2 females, mean age 44.2 +/- 7.1 years) with unilateral chronic Achilles tendinosis, we investigated the effect of treatment with heavy-loaded eccentric calf-muscle training. Pain during activity (recorded on a VAS scale) and isokinetic concentric and eccentric calf-muscle strength (peak torque at 90 degrees /second and 225 degrees /second) on the injured and noninjured side were evaluated. In this group of patients, we examined areal bone mineral density (BMD) of the calcaneus after 9 months (range 6-14 months) of training. BMD of the injured side (subjected to heavy-loaded eccentric training) was compared with BMD of the noninjured side. Before onset of heavy-loaded eccentric training, all patients had Achilles tendon pain which prohibited running activity, and significantly lower concentric and eccentric plantar flexion peak torque on the injured compared with the noninjured side. The training program consisted of 12 weeks of daily, heavy-loaded, eccentric calf-muscle training; thereafter the training was continued for 2-3 days/week. The clinical results were excellent-all 14 patients were back at their preinjury level with full running activity at the 3 month follow-up. The concentric and eccentric plantar flexion peak torque had increased significantly and did not significantly differ from the noninjured side at the 3 and 9 month follow-up. There were no significant side-to-side differences in BMD of the calcaneus. There was no significant relationship between BMD of the calcaneus and calf-muscle strength. As a comparison group, we used 10 recreational athletes (5 males and 5 females) mean age 40.9 years (range 26-55 years), who were selected for surgical treatment of chronic Achilles tendinosis localized at the 2-6 cm level. Their duration of symptoms and severity of disease were the same as in the experimental group. There were no significant side-to-side differences in BMD of the

  16. An epiphyseal stress fracture of the foot and shin splints in an anomalous calf muscle in a runner.

    PubMed Central

    Percy, E. C.; Gamble, F. O.

    1980-01-01

    The following case is presented as one of unusual foot and leg lesions encountered in an adolescent long-distance runner. The associated problems of a first metatarsal Salter Harris type II epiphyseal stress fracture, and an accessory calf muscle with "shin splints" in the contralateral leg are discussed. Treatment of these conditions is outlined with eventual return to full function by the athlete. Images p110-a Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7407448

  17. Improving the spectral resolution and spectral fitting of (1) H MRSI data from human calf muscle by the SPREAD technique.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhengchao; Zhang, Yudong; Liu, Feng; Duan, Yunsuo; Kangarlu, Alayar; Peterson, Bradley S

    2014-11-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging ((1) H MRSI) has been used for the in vivo measurement of intramyocellular lipids (IMCLs) in human calf muscle for almost two decades, but the low spectral resolution between extramyocellular lipids (EMCLs) and IMCLs, partially caused by the magnetic field inhomogeneity, has hindered the accuracy of spectral fitting. The purpose of this paper was to enhance the spectral resolution of (1) H MRSI data from human calf muscle using the SPREAD (spectral resolution amelioration by deconvolution) technique and to assess the influence of improved spectral resolution on the accuracy of spectral fitting and on in vivo measurement of IMCLs. We acquired MRI and (1) H MRSI data from calf muscles of three healthy volunteers. We reconstructed spectral lineshapes of the (1) H MRSI data based on field maps and used the lineshapes to deconvolve the measured MRS spectra, thereby eliminating the line broadening caused by field inhomogeneities and improving the spectral resolution of the (1) H MRSI data. We employed Monte Carlo (MC) simulations with 200 noise realizations to measure the variations of spectral fitting parameters and used an F-test to evaluate the significance of the differences of the variations between the spectra before SPREAD and after SPREAD. We also used Cramer-Rao lower bounds (CRLBs) to assess the improvements of spectral fitting after SPREAD. The use of SPREAD enhanced the separation between EMCL and IMCL peaks in (1) H MRSI spectra from human calf muscle. MC simulations and F-tests showed that the use of SPREAD significantly reduced the standard deviations of the estimated IMCL peak areas (p < 10(-8) ), and the CRLBs were strongly reduced (by ~37%). Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. A physiological model for interpretation of arterial spin labeling reactive hyperemia of calf muscles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hou-Jen; Wright, Graham A

    2017-01-01

    To characterize and interpret arterial spin labeling (ASL) reactive hyperemia of calf muscles for a better understanding of the microcirculation in peripheral arterial disease (PAD), we present a physiological model incorporating oxygen transport, tissue metabolism, and vascular regulation mechanisms. The model demonstrated distinct effects between arterial stenoses and microvascular dysfunction on reactive hyperemia, and indicated a higher sensitivity of 2-minute thigh cuffing to microvascular dysfunction than 5-minute cuffing. The recorded perfusion responses in PAD patients (n = 9) were better differentiated from the normal subjects (n = 7) using the model-based analysis rather than characterization using the apparent peak and time-to-peak of the responses. The analysis results suggested different amounts of microvascular disease within the patient group. Overall, this work demonstrates a novel analysis method and facilitates understanding of the physiology involved in ASL reactive hyperemia. ASL reactive hyperemia with model-based analysis may be used as a noninvasive microvascular assessment in the presence of arterial stenoses, allowing us to look beyond the macrovascular disease in PAD. A subgroup who will have a poor prognosis after revascularization in the patients with critical limb ischemia may be associated with more severe microvascular diseases, which may potentially be identified using ASL reactive hyperemia.

  19. Association of Calf Muscle Pump Stimulation With Sleep Quality in Adults.

    PubMed

    Baniak, Lynn M; Pierce, Carolyn S; McLeod, Kenneth J; Chasens, Eileen R

    2016-12-01

    Prevention of lower extremity fluid pooling (LEFP) is associated with improved sleep quality. Physical activity and compression stockings are non-invasive methods used to manage LEFP, but both are associated with low adherence. Calf muscle pump (CMP) stimulation is an alternative and more convenient approach. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 11 participants between ages 45 and 65 with poor sleep quality. A within-person single-group pre-test-post-test design was used to evaluate changes in sleep quality, daytime sleepiness, and functional outcomes sensitive to impaired sleep as measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale after 4 weeks of CMP stimulation. Statistical analysis included effect size (ES) calculations. After daily use of CMP stimulation, participants demonstrated improvement in overall sleep quality (ES = -.97) and a large reduction in daily disturbance from poor sleep (ES = -1.25). Moderate improvements were observed in daytime sleepiness (ES = -.53) and functional outcomes sensitive to sleepiness (ES = .49). Although causality could not be determined with this study design, these results support further research to determine whether CMP stimulation can improve sleep quality. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Simultaneous dynamic blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging of foot and calf muscles: aging effects at ischemia and postocclusive hyperemia in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kos, Sebastian; Klarhöfer, Markus; Aschwanden, Markus; Scheffler, Klaus; Jacob, Augustinus Ludwig; Bilecen, Deniz

    2009-11-01

    To demonstrate the feasibility of simultaneous blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging of calf and foot muscles and investigate age-related changes of BOLD signal changes during ischemia and postocclusive hyperemia in healthy volunteers. In this study, 15 healthy elderly volunteers (mean age: 69.0 +/- 7.4 years) and 15 healthy young volunteers (mean age: 26.1 +/- 3.9 years) were enrolled. In both legs, simultaneous BOLD imaging of calf and foot muscles was performed at 1.5 Tesla. Short-term ischemia and consecutive reactive hyperemia were provoked by a cuff-compression paradigm. T2*-weighted signal time courses were obtained from foot and calf muscles simultaneously. Ischemia was assessed by T2* minimum ischemic value (MIV) and the time to half ischemic minimum (THIM). Reperfusion was assessed by the time to reach T2* half hyperemia peak (THHP). Reactive hyperemia was characterized by hyperemia peak value (HPV), time to peak (TTP), and relative T2* change from end of ischemia to HPV (deltaS). Parameter differences were assessed using a 2-sided Student t test. Dynamic BOLD measurement of foot and calf muscles was techniqually feasible and successful in all volunteers.In comparison, THIM was significantly longer in elderly than in young volunteers for calf (P < 0.01) muscles (young: 28.9 +/- 3.7 seconds; elderly: 57.8 +/- 31.4 seconds) and foot (P = 0.01) muscles (young: 36.8 +/- 25.5 seconds; elderly: 56.6 +/- 31.7 seconds). MIV relative to baseline T2*-signal was significantly (P < 0.01) lower in the elderly for calf (young: 96.0% +/- 2.6%; elderly: 91.3% +/- 4.4%) and foot (young: 95.8% +/- 2.5%; elderly: 91.1% +/- 8.2%) muscles. TTP was significantly (calf: P = 0.01; foot: P = 0.02) delayed in the elderly (elderly calf: 103.0 +/- 92.7 seconds and foot: 157.1 +/- 109.9 seconds vs. young calf: 54.8 +/- 42.1 seconds and foot: 95.1 +/- 77.6 seconds). HPV was significantly (calf: P < 0.01 and foot: P = 0.03) higher in (young calf: 114.1% +/- 7

  1. Assessment of diffusion tensor imaging indices in calf muscles following postural change from standing to supine position.

    PubMed

    Elzibak, Alyaa H; Noseworthy, Michael D

    2014-10-01

    To investigate whether postural change from erect to recumbent position affects calf muscle water diffusivity. Ten healthy adults (27.2 ± 4.9 years, 3 females) were imaged at baseline (following assumption of recumbent position), and after 34 min (session 2) and 64 min (session 3) of laying supine within a 3T MRI scanner. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) eigenvalues, fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were evaluated in five calf muscles (anterior and posterior tibialis and triceps surae) during each of the three imaging sessions. Significant decreases were observed in all of the eigenvalues and ADC in each of the muscles with postural change. These reductions ranged from 3.2 to 6.7% and 3.4 to 7.5% for the various DTI metrics, following 34 and 64 min of supine rest, respectively (P < 0.05). No significant differences were noted in ADC or eigenvalues between the second and third imaging sessions for any muscle. FA did not change significantly with postural manipulation in any muscle compartment. Diffusion tensor imaging indices were altered with postural change. As differences were not apparent between the latter two imaging sessions, we suggest that a short supine resting period (~34 min) is sufficient for muscle diffusivity to stabilize prior to quantitative MR imaging in healthy young adults.

  2. Research on the performance of the spastic calf muscle of young adults with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Lampe, Renee; Mitternacht, Jurgen

    2011-02-12

    The aim of this study was to find an objective graduation of pes equinus in infantile cerebral palsy, especially with regard to functional aspects, to allow a differentiated choice of the therapeutic options. Very often raises the question of whether a surgical lengthening of the Achilles tendon may let expect a functional improvement. For this documentation 17 patients with pes equinus and a diagnosis of spastic cerebral palsy, primarily of the lower limbs, and hemiplegia were examined first clinically and then by a procedure for calculating the functional kinetic parameters from an in-shoe plantar pressure distribution measurement (novel pedar-X system), which is used in many orthopedic practices and clinics as a standard measuring device. Using additional video motion analysis, the flexion in the ankle joint and the ankle joint torque were determined. From this the physical performance of the spastically shortened calf muscle was calculated. The course of the curves of torque and joint performance allows a functional classification of the pes equinus. Approximately three quarters of all pes equinus demonstrated functional activity of the most part of the normal push-off propulsion power. Even the rigid pes equinus was capable of performing push-off propulsion work, provided it converted energy that was absorbed during the heel-strike phase and released it again during the push-off phase. This suggests that the function of paretic ankle joint is better than its kinematics of motion. A heel strike with a pes equinus triggers via stretching stimuli in the muscle-ligament structure reflex motor functions, thereby causing the typical spastic gait pattern. This remarkable gait pattern is often evaluated as dysfunctional and as absolutely requiring correction. However, an aspect possibly neglected in this instance is the fact that this gait pattern may be efficient for the patient and may in fact be a suitable means allowing for economic locomotion despite the cerebral

  3. The effect of eccentric and concentric calf muscle training on Achilles tendon stiffness.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Dylan; Roskilly, Anna; Twycross-Lewis, Richard; Isinkaye, Tomide; Screen, Hazel; Woledge, Roger; Bader, Dan

    2011-03-01

    To compare in vivo effects of eccentric and concentric calf muscle training on Achilles tendon stiffness, in subjects without tendinopathy. Thirty-eight recreational athletes completed 6 weeks eccentric (6 males, 13 females, 21.6  ±  2.2 years) or concentric training (8 males, 11 females, 21.1  ±  2.0 years). Achilles tendon stiffness, tendon modulus and single-leg jump height were measured before and after intervention. Exercise adherence was recorded using a diary. All data are reported as mean  ±  SD. Groups were matched for height and weight but the eccentric training group were more active at baseline (P < 0.05). Tendon stiffness was higher in the eccentrically trained group at baseline compared to the concentrically trained group (20.9  ±  7.3 N/mm v 13.38  ±  4.66 N/mm; P = 0.001) and decreased significantly after eccentric training (to 17.2 ( ±  5.9) N/mm (P = 0.035)). There was no stiffness change in the concentric group (P = 0.405). Stiffness modulus showed similar changes to stiffness. An inverse correlation was found between initial, and subsequent, reduction in stiffness (r = -0.66). Jump height did not change and no correlation between stiffness change and adherence was observed in either group (r = 0.01). Six weeks of eccentric training can alter Achilles tendon stiffness while a matched concentric programme shows no similar effects. Studies in patients with Achilles tendinopathy are warranted.

  4. Stiff muscle fibers in calf muscles of patients with cerebral palsy lead to high passive muscle stiffness.

    PubMed

    Mathewson, Margie A; Chambers, Henry G; Girard, Paul J; Tenenhaus, Mayer; Schwartz, Alexandra K; Lieber, Richard L

    2014-12-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP), caused by an injury to the developing brain, can lead to alterations in muscle function. Subsequently, increased muscle stiffness and decreased joint range of motion are often seen in patients with CP. We examined mechanical and biochemical properties of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, which are involved in equinus muscle contracture. Passive mechanical testing of single muscle fibers from gastrocnemius and soleus muscle of patients with CP undergoing surgery for equinus deformity showed a significant increase in fiber stiffness (p<0.01). Bundles of fibers that included their surrounding connective tissues showed no stiffness difference (p=0.28).). When in vivo sarcomere lengths were measured and fiber and bundle stiffness compared at these lengths, both fibers and bundles of patients with CP were predicted to be much stiffer in vivo compared to typically developing (TD) individuals. Interestingly, differences in fiber and bundle stiffness were not explained by typical biochemical measures such as titin molecular weight (a giant protein thought to impact fiber stiffness) or collagen content (a proxy for extracellular matrix amount). We suggest that the passive mechanical properties of fibers and bundles are thus poorly understood. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Recovery of calf muscle strength following acute achilles tendon rupture treatment: a comparison between minimally invasive surgery and conservative treatment.

    PubMed

    Metz, Roderik; van der Heijden, Geert J M G; Verleisdonk, Egbert-Jan M M; Tamminga, Rob; van der Werken, Christiaan

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the effect of treatment of acute Achilles tendon ruptures on calf muscle strength recovery. Eighty-three patients with acute Achilles tendon rupture were randomly allocated to either minimally invasive surgery with functional after-treatment or conservative treatment by functional bracing. Calf muscle strength using isokinetic testing was evaluated at 3 months and after 6 or more months posttreatment. To exclusively investigate the effect of treatment on outcome, the authors excluded patients with major complications from the analysis. In 31 of 39 patients in the surgical treatment group and 25 of 34 patients in the conservative treatment group, isokinetic strength tests were performed. In the analysis of differences in mean peak torque, no statistically significant differences were found between surgery and conservative treatment, except for plantar flexion strength at 90 degrees per second at the second measurement, favoring conservative treatment. After 8 to 10 months follow- up, loss of plantar flexion strength was still present in the injured leg in both treatment groups. In conclusion, isokinetic muscle strength testing did not detect a statistically significant difference between minimally invasive surgical treatment with functional after-treatment and conservative treatment by functional bracing of acute Achilles tendon ruptures.

  6. Peripheral artery disease, calf skeletal muscle mitochondrial DNA copy number, and functional performance.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Mary M; Peterson, Charlotte A; Sufit, Robert; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack M; Kibbe, Melina R; Polonsky, Tamar S; Tian, Lu; Criqui, Michael H; Zhao, Lihui; Stein, James H; Li, Lingyu; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2018-05-01

    In people without lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD), mitochondrial DNA copy number declines with aging, and this decline is associated with declines in mitochondrial activity and functional performance. However, whether lower extremity ischemia is associated with lower mitochondrial DNA copy number and whether mitochondrial DNA copy number is associated with the degree of functional impairment in people with PAD is unknown. In people with and without PAD, age 65 years and older, we studied associations of the ankle-brachial index (ABI) with mitochondrial DNA copy number and associations of mitochondrial DNA copy number with functional impairment. Calf muscle biopsies were obtained from 34 participants with PAD (mean age: 73.5 years (SD 6.4), mean ABI: 0.67 (SD 0.15), mean 6-minute walk distance: 1191 feet (SD 223)) and 10 controls without PAD (mean age: 73.1 years (SD 4.7), mean ABI: 1.14 (SD 0.07), mean 6-minute walk distance: 1387 feet (SD 488)). Adjusting for age and sex, lower ABI values were associated with higher mitochondrial DNA copy number, measured in relative copy number (ABI<0.60: 914, ABI 0.60-0.90: 731, ABI 0.90-1.50: 593; p trend=0.016). The association of mitochondrial DNA copy number with the 6-minute walk distance and 4-meter walking velocity differed significantly between participants with versus without PAD ( p-value for interaction=0.001 and p=0.015, respectively). The correlation coefficient between mitochondrial DNA copy number and the 6-minute walk distance was 0.653 ( p=0.056) among people without PAD and -0.254 ( p=0.154) among people with PAD and ABI < 0.90. In conclusion, lower ABI values are associated with increased mitochondrial DNA copy number. Associations of mitochondrial DNA copy number with the 6-minute walk distance and 4-meter walking velocity significantly differed between people with versus without PAD, with stronger positive associations observed in people without PAD than in people with PAD. The cross

  7. The estimation of recovery time of calf muscle oxygen saturation during exercise by using functional near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, M. A.; Shojaeifar, M.; Mohajerani, E.

    2014-08-01

    Several methods of near infrared spectroscopy such as functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and pulse oximetry have been applied for monitoring of tissue oxygenation or arterial oxygen saturation. Some vascular diseases can be diagnosed through measurements of tissue oxygenation. In this study, the temporal variation of oxygenation of calf muscle after exercise is studied by fNIRS. First, the accuracy of a low-cost fNIRS system is studied by measuring the oxygenation of a lipid phantom. Moreover, in-vivo study is performed to evaluate the precision of this system. Then, the variation of muscle oxygenation of four persons during exercise is measured and also the recovery time after walking/running is measured by this fNIRS system.

  8. An exploration of diffusion tensor eigenvector variability within human calf muscles.

    PubMed

    Rockel, Conrad; Noseworthy, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    To explore the effect of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) acquisition parameters on principal and minor eigenvector stability within human lower leg skeletal muscles. Lower leg muscles were evaluated in seven healthy subjects at 3T using an 8-channel transmit/receive coil. Diffusion-encoding was performed with nine signal averages (NSA) using 6, 15, and 25 directions (NDD). Individual DTI volumes were combined into aggregate volumes of 3, 2, and 1 NSA according to number of directions. Tensor eigenvalues (λ1 , λ2 , λ3 ), eigenvectors (ε1 , ε2 , ε3 ), and DTI metrics (fractional anisotropy [FA] and mean diffusivity [MD]) were calculated for each combination of NSA and NDD. Spatial maps of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), λ3 :λ2 ratio, and zenith angle were also calculated for region of interest (ROI) analysis of vector orientation consistency. ε1 variability was only moderately related to ε2 variability (r = 0.4045). Variation of ε1 was affected by NDD, not NSA (P < 0.0002), while variation of ε2 was affected by NSA, not NDD (P < 0.0003). In terms of tensor shape, vector variability was weakly related to FA (ε1 :r = -0.1854, ε2 : ns), but had a stronger relation to the λ3 :λ2 ratio (ε1 :r = -0.5221, ε2 :r = -0.1771). Vector variability was also weakly related to SNR (ε1 :r = -0.2873, ε2 :r = -0.3483). Zenith angle was found to be strongly associated with variability of ε1 (r = 0.8048) but only weakly with that of ε2 (r = 0.2135). The second eigenvector (ε2 ) displayed higher directional variability relative to ε1 , and was only marginally affected by experimental conditions that impacted ε1 variability. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Local and Systemic Changes in Pain Sensitivity After 4 Weeks of Calf Muscle Stretching in a Nonpainful Population: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Bartholdy, Cecilie; Zangger, Graziella; Hansen, Lisbeth; Ginnerup-Nielsen, Elisabeth; Bliddal, Henning; Henriksen, Marius

    2016-07-01

    Stretching is often used in clinical practice for a variety of purposes, including pain therapy. The possible mechanism behind the effect of stretching remains to be clarified. To investigate whether 4 weeks of unilateral stretching of the calf muscles would affect local and central pain sensitivity. This study was a randomized assessor-blinded clinical study. Healthy participants (age 18 to 40) were included and randomized. Participants in the intervention group were instructed to perform 2 stretching exercises targeting the calf muscles; 3 times 30 seconds, 7 days a week for 4 weeks on the dominant leg. Participants in the control group were instructed not to do any stretching for 4 weeks. Pressure pain threshold (PPT) and temporal summation (TS) of pressure pain were measured on the stretched calf, the contra-lateral calf, and contra-lateral lower arm using a computerized cuff algometer. Analyses of variance on the per-protocol population (defined as participants that adhered to the protocol) were used to assess group differences in the changes from baseline. Forty healthy volunteers were included, of which 34 participants adhered to the protocol (15 intervention group/19 control group). No statistically significant group differences in the changes from baseline were found regarding PPT and TS measurements for the stretched calf, the contra-lateral calf, and the arm. Four weeks of regular stretching of the calf muscles does not affect pressure pain sensitivity, suggesting that pressure pain sensitivity is unaffected by stretching in a healthy population. The mechanisms underlying any benefits of regular stretching remain to be explained. © 2015 World Institute of Pain.

  10. Effects of post-fracture non-weight-bearing immobilization on muscle atrophy, intramuscular and intermuscular adipose tissues in the thigh and calf.

    PubMed

    Yoshiko, Akito; Yamauchi, Koun; Kato, Takayuki; Ishida, Koji; Koike, Teruhiko; Oshida, Yoshiharu; Akima, Hiroshi

    2018-06-09

    Disuse and/or a non-weight-bearing condition changes muscle composition, with decreased skeletal muscle tissue and increased fat within (intramuscular adipose tissue, IntraMAT) and between (intermuscular adipose tissue, InterMAT) given muscles. Excessive adipose tissue contributes to dysfunctional and metabolically impaired muscle. How these adipose tissues change during orthopedic treatment (e.g., cast immobilization, daily use of crutches) is not well documented. This study aimed to quantify changes in IntraMAT, InterMAT, and thigh and calf muscle tissue during orthopedic treatment. We studied 8 patients with fifth metatarsal bone or fibular fractures. The ankle joint involved underwent plaster casting for approximately 4 weeks, with crutches used during that time. Axial T1-weighted MRI at the mid-thigh and a 30% proximal site at the calf were obtained to measure IntraMAT and InterMAT cross-sectional areas (CSAs) and skeletal muscle tissue CSA before treatment and 4 weeks afterward. Thigh and calf muscle tissue CSAs were significantly decreased from before to after treatment: thigh, 85.8 ± 7.6 to 77.1 ± 7.3 cm 2 ; calf, 53.3 ± 5.5 to 48.9 ± 5.0 cm 2 (p < 0.05). None of the IntraMAT or InterMAT changes was statistically significant. There was a relation between the percentage change of thigh IntraMAT CSA and muscle tissue CSA (r s  = -0.86, p < 0.01). The 4 weeks of treatment primarily induced skeletal muscle atrophy with less of an effect on IntraMAT or InterMAT. There is a risk of increasing IntraMAT relatively by decreasing skeletal muscle tissue size during orthopedic treatment.

  11. Young, Healthy Subjects Can Reduce the Activity of Calf Muscles When Provided with EMG Biofeedback in Upright Stance

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Taian M.; Baudry, Stéphane; Botter, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests the minimization of muscular effort rather than of the size of bodily sway may be the primary, nervous system goal when regulating the human, standing posture. Different programs have been proposed for balance training; none however has been focused on the activation of postural muscles during standing. In this study we investigated the possibility of minimizing the activation of the calf muscles during standing through biofeedback. By providing subjects with an audio signal that varied in amplitude and frequency with the amplitude of surface electromyograms (EMG) recorded from different regions of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, we expected them to be able to minimize the level of muscle activation during standing without increasing the excursion of the center of pressure (CoP). CoP data and surface EMG from gastrocnemii, soleus and tibialis anterior muscles were obtained from 10 healthy participants while standing at ease and while standing with EMG biofeedback. Four sensitivities were used to test subjects' responsiveness to the EMG biofeedback. Compared with standing at ease, the two most sensitive feedback conditions induced a decrease in plantar flexor activity (~15%; P < 0.05) and an increase in tibialis anterior EMG (~10%; P < 0.05). Furthermore, CoP mean position significantly shifted backward (~30 mm). In contrast, the use of less sensitive EMG biofeedback resulted in a significant decrease in EMG activity of ankle plantar flexors with a marginal increase in TA activity compared with standing at ease. These changes were not accompanied by greater CoP displacements or significant changes in mean CoP position. Key results revealed subjects were able to keep standing stability while reducing the activity of gastrocnemius and soleus without loading their tibialis anterior muscle when standing with EMG biofeedback. These results may therefore posit the basis for the development of training protocols aimed at assisting subjects in

  12. Evaluation of skeletal muscle during calf exercise by 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy in patients on statin medications.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jim S; Buettner, Catherine; Smithline, Howard; Ngo, Long H; Greenman, Robert L

    2011-01-01

    Muscle pain is a common side effect of statin medications, but the cause is poorly understood. We characterized phosphocreatine (PCr) exercise recovery kinetics in 10 patients with hypercholesterolemia before and after a 4-week regimen of statin therapy using 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31) P-MRS). (31) P spectra were obtained before, during, and after exercise on a calf flexion pedal ergometer. Creatine kinase (CK) serum levels were drawn before and after statin therapy. The mean metabolic recovery time constant in subjects increased from 28.1 s (SE = 6.5 s) to 55.4 s (SE = 7.4 s) after statin therapy. The unweighted mean of the pre/post-recovery time difference was -27.3 s (SE = 12.4 s; P = 0.02). Pre- and post-therapy CK levels were not significantly different (P = 0.50). Metabolic recovery time in the calf is prolonged in patients after statin use. This suggests that statins impair mitochondrial oxidative function, and (31) P MRS is a potential study model for statin-associated myopathy. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Evaluation of skeletal muscle during calf exercise by 31P MR spectroscopy in patients on statin medications

    PubMed Central

    Buettner, Catherine; Smithline, Howard; Ngo, Long H; Greenman, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Muscle pain is a common side effect of statin medications, however, the cause is poorly understood. Methods We characterized phosphocreatine (PCr) exercise recovery kinetics in 10 patients with hypercholesterolemia before and after a 4 week regimen of statin therapy using 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS). 31P spectra were obtained before, during, and following exercise on a calf flexion pedal ergometer. Creatine kinase (CK) serum levels were drawn before and after statin therapy. Results The mean metabolic recovery time constant in subjects increased from 28.1s (SE=6.5s) to 55.4s (SE=7.4s) following statin therapy. The unweighted mean of the pre-post recovery time difference was -27.3s (SE=12.4s); (p-value = 0.02). Pre- and post-therapy CK levels were not significantly different (p-value = 0.50). Discussion Metabolic recovery time in the calf is prolonged in patients following statin use. This suggests that statins impair mitochondrial oxidative function, and 31P –MRS is a potential study model for statin-associated myopathy. PMID:21171098

  14. Muscle function-dependent sarcopenia and cut-off values of possible predictors in community-dwelling Turkish elderly: calf circumference, midarm muscle circumference and walking speed.

    PubMed

    Akın, S; Mucuk, S; Öztürk, A; Mazıcıoğlu, M; Göçer, Ş; Arguvanlı, S; Şafak, E D

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of muscle strength-based sarcopenia and to determine possible predictors. This is a cross-sectional population-based study in the community-dwelling Turkish elderly. Anthropometric measurements, namely body height, weight, triceps skin fold (TSF), mid upper arm circumference (MUAC), waist circumference (WC) and calf circumference (CC), were noted. The midarm muscle circumference (MAMC) was calculated by using MUAC and TSF measurement. Sarcopenia was assessed, adjusted for body mass index (BMI) and gender, according to muscle strength. Physical performance was determined by 4 m walking speed (WS; m/s). The receiver operating curve analysis was performed to determine cut-offs of CC, MAMC and 4 m WS. A total of 879 elderly subjects, 50.1% of whom were female, were recruited. The mean handgrip strength (HGS) and s.d. was 24.2 (8.8) kg [17.9 (4.8) female, 30.6 (7.1) male]. The muscle function-dependent sarcopenia was 63.4% (female 73.5%, male 53.2%). The muscle mass-dependent sarcopenia for CC (<31 cm) and MAMC(<21.1 cm in males, <19.9 cm in females) was 6.7% and 7.3%, respectively. The prevalence of low 4 m WS (≤ 0.8 m/s) was 81.8% (91.3% in females and 72.3% in males, respectively). We compared MAMC, CC and 4 m WS and found that AUC for 4 m WS was the best predictor of sarcopenia. An adequate muscle mass may not mean a reliable muscle function. Muscle function may describe sarcopenia better compared with muscle mass. The CC, MAMC and 4 m WS cut-offs may be used to assess sarcopenia in certain age groups.

  15. Calf Muscle Oxygen Saturation During Six-Minute Walk Test And Its Relationship With Walking Impairment In Symptomatic Peripheral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Lima, Aluísio; Cucato, Gabriel G; Domingues, Wagner J R; Germano-Soares, Antônio H; Cavalcante, Bruno R; Correia, Marilia A; Saes, Glauco F; Wolosker, Nelson; Gardner, Andrew W; Zerati, Antônio E; Ritti-Dias, Raphael M

    2018-05-21

    Impaired microcirculation is associated with poor walking capacity in symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients during treadmill test, however, this test does not simulate the efforts of daily walking of these patients. Thus, the aim of the study was to describe the microcirculation responses during six-minute walk test (6MWT) and to analyze the relationship between microcirculation indicators and walking impairment in symptomatic PAD patients. Thirty-four patients were included (mean age = 67.6 ± 11.2). The clinical characteristics were collected and they performed a 6MWT in which initial claudication distance (ICD) and total walking distance (TWD) were recorded. During and after the 6MWT, calf muscle oxygen saturation (StO 2 ) parameters were monitored continuously to measure microcirculation behavior. The association between calf muscle StO 2 parameters and walking impairment was analyzed by Pearson or Spearman correlations. Walking impairment was not associated with any StO 2 parameters during exercise. In contrast, after 6MWT, recovery time of StO 2 (r = -0.472, P = .008) and recovery time to maximal StO 2 (r= -0.402, P = .019) were negatively correlated with ICD. Furthermore, the distance walked under claudication symptoms (ΔTWD - ICD) was positively correlated with recovery time to maximal StO 2 (r = 0.347, P = .048). In symptomatic PAD patients, shorter ICD values during a 6MWT are associated with a delayed recovery in calf muscle StO 2 after exercise. Calf muscle StO 2 parameters decrease subtly during 6MWT, suggesting that the degree of ischemia in the calf muscle during ground walking, simulating efforts of the daily walking, is relatively low. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Gene Expression Profiling in Slow-Type Calf Soleus Muscle of 30 Days Space-Flown Mice.

    PubMed

    Gambara, Guido; Salanova, Michele; Ciciliot, Stefano; Furlan, Sandra; Gutsmann, Martina; Schiffl, Gudrun; Ungethuem, Ute; Volpe, Pompeo; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Blottner, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Microgravity exposure as well as chronic disuse are two main causes of skeletal muscle atrophy in animals and humans. The antigravity calf soleus is a reference postural muscle to investigate the mechanism of disuse-induced maladaptation and plasticity of human and rodent (rats or mice) skeletal musculature. Here, we report microgravity-induced global gene expression changes in space-flown mouse skeletal muscle and the identification of yet unknown disuse susceptible transcripts found in soleus (a mainly slow phenotype) but not in extensor digitorum longus (a mainly fast phenotype dorsiflexor as functional counterpart to soleus). Adult C57Bl/N6 male mice (n = 5) flew aboard a biosatellite for 30 days on orbit (BION-M1 mission, 2013), a sex and age-matched cohort were housed in standard vivarium cages (n = 5), or in a replicate flight habitat as ground control (n = 5). Next to disuse atrophy signs (reduced size and myofiber phenotype I to II type shift) as much as 680 differentially expressed genes were found in the space-flown soleus, and only 72 in extensor digitorum longus (only 24 genes in common) compared to ground controls. Altered expression of gene transcripts matched key biological processes (contractile machinery, calcium homeostasis, muscle development, cell metabolism, inflammatory and oxidative stress response). Some transcripts (Fzd9, Casq2, Kcnma1, Ppara, Myf6) were further validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Besides previous reports on other leg muscle types we put forth for the first time a complete set of microgravity susceptible gene transcripts in soleus of mice as promising new biomarkers or targets for optimization of physical countermeasures and rehabilitation protocols to overcome disuse atrophy conditions in different clinical settings, rehabilitation and spaceflight.

  17. Gene Expression Profiling in Slow-Type Calf Soleus Muscle of 30 Days Space-Flown Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gambara, Guido; Salanova, Michele; Ciciliot, Stefano; Furlan, Sandra; Gutsmann, Martina; Schiffl, Gudrun; Ungethuem, Ute; Volpe, Pompeo; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Blottner, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Microgravity exposure as well as chronic disuse are two main causes of skeletal muscle atrophy in animals and humans. The antigravity calf soleus is a reference postural muscle to investigate the mechanism of disuse-induced maladaptation and plasticity of human and rodent (rats or mice) skeletal musculature. Here, we report microgravity-induced global gene expression changes in space-flown mouse skeletal muscle and the identification of yet unknown disuse susceptible transcripts found in soleus (a mainly slow phenotype) but not in extensor digitorum longus (a mainly fast phenotype dorsiflexor as functional counterpart to soleus). Adult C57Bl/N6 male mice (n = 5) flew aboard a biosatellite for 30 days on orbit (BION-M1 mission, 2013), a sex and age-matched cohort were housed in standard vivarium cages (n = 5), or in a replicate flight habitat as ground control (n = 5). Next to disuse atrophy signs (reduced size and myofiber phenotype I to II type shift) as much as 680 differentially expressed genes were found in the space-flown soleus, and only 72 in extensor digitorum longus (only 24 genes in common) compared to ground controls. Altered expression of gene transcripts matched key biological processes (contractile machinery, calcium homeostasis, muscle development, cell metabolism, inflammatory and oxidative stress response). Some transcripts (Fzd9, Casq2, Kcnma1, Ppara, Myf6) were further validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Besides previous reports on other leg muscle types we put forth for the first time a complete set of microgravity susceptible gene transcripts in soleus of mice as promising new biomarkers or targets for optimization of physical countermeasures and rehabilitation protocols to overcome disuse atrophy conditions in different clinical settings, rehabilitation and spaceflight. PMID:28076365

  18. Relative changes with contraction in the central excitability state of the tibialis anterior and calf muscles.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, M A

    1980-01-01

    F responses were recorded from the surface of the tibialis muscle and medial aspect of the soleus muscle in 14 normal subjects. The persistence (that is the fraction of measurable F responses found with a series of supramaximal stimuli) and average F amplitudes (measured peak-to-peak and based on at least five F responses) were determined both at rest and with isometric contraction with the ankle maintained at 90 degrees. Although the persistence at rest was significantly less in the tibialis anterior soleus than the (p less than 0.001), no significant difference was found with the muscles contracted. This was associated with a significant increase in both average F amplitudes and average F amplitude/direct motor response ratios in the tibialis anterior in comparison to the soleus. In four of the subjects, studies were also performed when the H reflex in the soleus muscle was eliminated by thigh compression. Comparable changes in both F response persistence and average F amplitude were found with and without an H reflex. These data indicate that, in contrast to the situation at rest, with isometric contraction the "central excitatory state" of the tibialis anterior is at least as great as in its antagonist antigravity muscles and that this is not due simply to increased large fiber reflex input associated with agonist contraction. PMID:7373321

  19. Video game-based neuromuscular electrical stimulation system for calf muscle training: a case study.

    PubMed

    Sayenko, D G; Masani, K; Milosevic, M; Robinson, M F; Vette, A H; McConville, K M V; Popovic, M R

    2011-03-01

    A video game-based training system was designed to integrate neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and visual feedback as a means to improve strength and endurance of the lower leg muscles, and to increase the range of motion (ROM) of the ankle joints. The system allowed the participants to perform isotonic concentric and isometric contractions in both the plantarflexors and dorsiflexors using NMES. In the proposed system, the contractions were performed against exterior resistance, and the angle of the ankle joints was used as the control input to the video game. To test the practicality of the proposed system, an individual with chronic complete spinal cord injury (SCI) participated in the study. The system provided a progressive overload for the trained muscles, which is a prerequisite for successful muscle training. The participant indicated that he enjoyed the video game-based training and that he would like to continue the treatment. The results show that the training resulted in a significant improvement of the strength and endurance of the paralyzed lower leg muscles, and in an increased ROM of the ankle joints. Video game-based training programs might be effective in motivating participants to train more frequently and adhere to otherwise tedious training protocols. It is expected that such training will not only improve the properties of their muscles but also decrease the severity and frequency of secondary complications that result from SCI. Copyright © 2010 IPEM. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of ageing on adaptation during vibratory stimulation of the calf and neck muscles.

    PubMed

    Patel, M; Fransson, P A; Magnusson, M

    2009-01-01

    The ability to adapt and habituate based on prior experiences is important for human movement control, fall prevention and for the ability to enhance performance during various human activities. However, little is known about the ability for the elderly to adapt to balance perturbations in the lateral direction. To determine whether adaptation, i.e., the ability to adjust postural control to handle balance perturbations better over time, differed in the elderly subjects compared with young subjects in the anteroposterior and lateral directions, and whether the site of the balance perturbation or the presence or absence of vision affected the response. Postural stability was measured as anteroposterior and lateral torque variance in a young group (n = 18 (9 female and 9 male), average age = 29.1 years) and an elderly group (n = 16 (5 female and 11 male), average age = 71.5 years) with eyes open and closed during balance perturbations from calf and neck vibrations. After a 30-s period of quiet stance, these vibrations were repeated over a period of 200 s, so the adaptive responses could be analyzed by splitting the data into 50-s periods. The adaptive responses in the anteroposterior and lateral directions were different. Adaptation in the anteroposterior direction occurred to an almost equal extent in the elderly and young, whereas adaptation in the lateral direction was markedly larger in the elderly in all tests except for neck vibration with eyes closed. Age, vision and vibration site were all influential factors for recorded body movements, but no significant combined effects were found. Balance perturbation instigates an adaptive response in the elderly in both the anteroposterior and lateral directions. However, during perturbation, age and vision are both very influential factors for the stability, thus associating the previously documented age-related decline in visual functioning with a higher risk of falls in this age range. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. EMG changes in thigh and calf muscles in fin swimming exercise.

    PubMed

    Jammes, Y; Delliaux, S; Coulange, M; Jammes, C; Kipson, N; Brerro-Saby, C; Bregeon, F

    2010-08-01

    Because previous researchers have reported a reduced lactic acid production that accompanies a delayed or an absent ventilatory threshold (VTh) in water-based exercise, we hypothesized that the metaboreflex, activated by muscle acidosis, might be absent in fin swimming. This motor response, delaying the occurrence of fatigue, is characterized by a decreased median frequency (MF) of electromyographic (EMG) power spectrum. Seven healthy subjects performed a maximal fin swimming exercise protocol with simultaneous recordings of surface EMGs in VASTUS MEDIALIS (VM), TIBIALIS ANTERIOR (TA) and GASTROCNEMIUS MEDIALIS (GM). We computed the root mean square (RMS) and MF and recorded the compound evoked muscle potential (M-wave) in VM. We also measured the propulsive force and oxygen uptake (VO (2)), and determined VTh. VTh was absent in 4/7 subjects and measured at 70-90% of VO (2max) in the other three. In the three studied muscles, the global EMG activity (RMS) increased while the MF decreased in proportion of VO (2), the MF changes being significantly higher in VM (-29%) and GM (-39%) than in TA (-19%). Because no M-wave changes were noted, the MF decline was attributed to the recruitment of low-frequency, fatigue-resistant motor units. Our most important finding is the persistence of the metaboreflex even in a situation of reduced muscle acidosis. (c) Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart . New York.

  2. The Effectiveness of Calf Muscle Electrostimulation on Vascular Perfusion and Walking Capacity in Patients Living With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Peripheral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Ellul, Christian; Formosa, Cynthia; Gatt, Alfred; Hamadani, Auon Abbas; Armstrong, David G

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to explore calf muscle electrostimulation on arterial inflow and walking capacity in claudicants with peripheral artery disease and diabetes mellitus. A prospective, 1-group, pretest-posttest study design was used on 40 high-risk participants (n = 40) who exhibited bilateral limb ischemia (ankle brachial pressure index [ABPI] <0.90), diabetes mellitus, and calf muscle claudication. A program of calf muscle electrical stimulation with varying frequency (1-250 Hz) was prescribed for 1 hour per day for 12 weeks. Spectral waveforms analysis, ABPI, absolute claudication distance (ACD), and thermographic temperature patterns across 4 specified regions of interest (hallux, medial forefoot, lateral forefoot, heel) at rest and after exercise, were recorded at baseline and following intervention to evaluate for therapeutic outcomes. A significant improvement in ACD and ABPI was registered following the intervention ( P = .000 and P = .001, respectively). Resting foot temperatures increased significantly ( P = .000) while the postexercise temperature drops were halved across all regions at follow-up, with hallux ( P = .005) and lateral forefoot ( P = .038) reaching statistical significance. Spectral Doppler waveforms were comparable ( P = .304) between both serial assessments. Electrical stimulation of varying frequency for 1 hour per day for 12 consecutive weeks registered statistically significant improvement in outcome measures that assess arterial inflow and walking capacity in claudicants with diabetes mellitus. These results favor the use of electrostimulation as a therapeutic measure in this high-risk population.

  3. Differences in end-point force trajectories elicited by electrical stimulation of individual human calf muscles

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, S B; Segal, R L; Abelew, T A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the end-point force trajectories of the fibularis longus (FIB), lateral gastrocnemius (LG) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles. Most information about individual muscle function has come from studies which use models based on electromyographic (EMG) recordings. In this study (N=20 subjects) we used electrical stimulation (20Hz) to elicit activity in individual muscles, recorded the end-point forces at the foot and verified the selectivity of stimulation by using magnetic resonance imaging. Unexpectedly, no significant differences were found between LG and MG force directions. Stimulation of LG and MG resulted in downward and medial or lateral forces depending on the subject. We found FIB end-point forces to be significantly different than those of LG and MG. In all subjects, stimulation of FIB resulted in downward and lateral forces. Based on our results, we suggest that there are multiple factors determining when and whether LG or MG will produce a medial or lateral force and FIB consistently plays a significant role in eversion/abduction and plantarflexion. We suggest that the inter-subject variability we found is not simply an artifact of experimental or technical error but is functionally relevant and should be addressed in future studies and models. PMID:20095454

  4. Blood pressure and calf muscle oxygen extraction during plantar flexion exercise in peripheral artery disease.

    PubMed

    Luck, J Carter; Miller, Amanda J; Aziz, Faisal; Radtka, John F; Proctor, David N; Leuenberger, Urs A; Sinoway, Lawrence I; Muller, Matthew D

    2017-07-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is an atherosclerotic vascular disease that affects 200 million people worldwide. Although PAD primarily affects large arteries, it is also associated with microvascular dysfunction, an exaggerated blood pressure (BP) response to exercise, and high cardiovascular mortality. We hypothesized that fatiguing plantar flexion exercise that evokes claudication elicits a greater reduction in skeletal muscle oxygenation (SmO 2 ) and a higher rise in BP in PAD compared with age-matched healthy subjects, but low-intensity steady-state plantar flexion elicits similar responses between groups. In the first experiment, eight patients with PAD and eight healthy controls performed fatiguing plantar flexion exercise (from 0.5 to 7 kg for up to 14 min). In the second experiment, seven patients with PAD and seven healthy controls performed low-intensity plantar flexion exercise (2.0 kg for 14 min). BP, heart rate (HR), and SmO 2 were measured continuously using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). SmO 2 is the ratio of oxygenated hemoglobin to total hemoglobin, expressed as a percent. At fatigue, patients with PAD had a greater increase in mean arterial BP (18 ± 2 vs. vs. 10 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.029) and HR (14 ± 2 vs. 6 ± 2 beats/min, P = 0.033) and a greater reduction in SmO 2 (-54 ± 10 vs. -12 ± 4%, P = 0.001). However, both groups had similar physiological responses to low-intensity, nonpainful plantar flexion exercise. These data suggest that patients with PAD have altered oxygen uptake and/or utilization during fatiguing exercise coincident with an augmented BP response. NEW & NOTEWORTHY In this laboratory study, patients with peripheral artery disease performed plantar flexion exercise in the supine posture until symptoms of claudication occurred. Relative to age- and sex-matched healthy subjects we found that patients had a higher blood pressure response, a higher heart rate response, and a greater reduction in skeletal muscle oxygenation as

  5. The pH heterogeneity in human calf muscle during neuromuscular electrical stimulation.

    PubMed

    Stutzig, Norman; Rzanny, Reinhard; Moll, Kevin; Gussew, Alexander; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Siebert, Tobias

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to examine pH heterogeneity during fatigue induced by neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) using phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 31 P-MRS). It is hypothesized that three pH components would occur in the 31 P-MRS during fatigue, representing three fiber types. The medial gastrocnemius of eight subjects was stimulated within a 3-Tesla whole body MRI scanner. The maximal force during stimulation (F stim ) was examined by a pressure sensor. Phosphocreatine (PCr), adenosintriphosphate, inorganic phosphate (Pi), and the corresponding pH were estimated by a nonvolume-selective 31 P-MRS using a small loop coil at rest and during fatigue. During fatigue, F stim and PCr decreased to 27% and 33% of their initial levels, respectively. In all cases, the Pi peak increased when NMES was started and split into three different peaks. Based on the single Pi peaks during fatigue, an alkaline (6.76 ± 0.08), a medium (6.40 ± 0.06), and an acidic (6.09 ± 0.05) pH component were observed compared to the pH (7.02 ± 0.02) at rest. It is suggested that NMES is able to induce pH heterogeneity in the medial gastrocnemius, and that the single Pi peaks represent the different muscle fiber types of the skeletal muscle. Magn Reson Med 77:2097-2106, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  6. New regimen for eccentric calf-muscle training in patients with chronic insertional Achilles tendinopathy: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, P; Alfredson, H; Sunding, K; Fahlström, M; Cook, J

    2008-09-01

    Chronic painful insertional Achilles tendinopathy is seen in both physically active and non-active individuals. Painful eccentric training, where the patients load the Achilles tendon into full dorsiflexion, has shown good results in patients with mid-portion Achilles tendinosis. However, only 32% of patients with insertional Achilles tendinopathy had good clinical results with that type of eccentric training regimen. To investigate whether a new model of painful eccentric training had an effect on chronic painful insertional Achilles tendinopathy. 27 patients (12 men, 15 women, mean age 53 years) with a total of 34 painful Achilles tendons with a long duration of pain (mean 26 months), diagnosed as insertional Achilles tendinopathy, were included. The patients performed a new model of painful eccentric training regimen without loading into dorsiflexion. This was done as 3x15 reps, twice a day, 7 days/week, for 12 weeks. Pain during Achilles-tendon-loading activity (VAS) and patient's satisfaction (back to previous activity) were evaluated. At follow-up (mean 4 months) 18 patients (67%, 23/34 tendons) were satisfied and back to their previous tendon-loading activity. Their mean VAS had decreased from 69.9 (SD 18.9) to 21 (SD 20.6) (p<0.001). Nine patients (11 tendons) were not satisfied with the treatment, although their VAS was significantly reduced from 77.5 (8.6) to 58.1 (14.8) (p<0.01). In this short-term pilot study this new model of painful eccentric calf-muscle training showed promising clinical results in 67% of the patients.

  7. Reproducibility Analysis of Diffusion Tensor Indices and Fiber Architecture of Human Calf Muscles in vivo at 1.5 Tesla in Neutral and Plantarflexed Ankle Positions at Rest

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Shantanu; Sinha, Usha

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the reproducibility of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) derived indices and fiber architecture of calf muscles at 1.5 Tesla, to establish an imaging based method to confirm ankle position, and to compare fiber architecture at different ankle positions. Materials and Methods Six subjects were imaged at 1.5T with the foot in neutral and plantarflexed positions. DTI indices were calculated in four muscle compartments (medial and lateral gastrocnemius (MG, LG), superficial and deep anterior tibialis (AT-S, AT-D). Two subjects were scanned on three days to calculate the coefficient of variability (CV) and the repeatability coefficient (RC). Results DTI indices were close to the values obtained in earlier 3T and 1.5 T studies. FA decreased significantly in the MG and increased significantly in the AT-S and AT-D compartments while fiber orientation with respect to the magnet Z-axis increased significantly in the MG and decreased significantly in the AT-S compartment with plantarflexion. The CV and RC for the DTI indices and fiber orientations were comparable to 3T studies. Fiber lengths and orientation angles in the MG matched corresponding measures from ultrasound studies. Conclusion DTI at 1.5 Tesla provides reproducible measures of diffusion indices and fiber architecture of calf muscle at different muscle lengths. PMID:21608064

  8. Effects of sequential implanting and ractopamine hydrochloride supplementation on carcass characteristics and longissimus muscle tenderness of calf-fed steers and heifers.

    PubMed

    Woerner, D R; Tatum, J D; Engle, T E; Belk, K E; Couch, D W

    2011-01-01

    A 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments (4 growth-enhancement treatments × 2 sex classes) was used to quantify effects of initial implanting (I-implant, d 0), terminal implanting (T-implant, d 63), and feeding ractopamine hydrochloride [RAC, 200 mg/(animal/d)] for the last 28 d on feed on carcass characteristics and LM shear force (WBSF) of calf-fed steers (n = 159) and heifers (n = 132). Growth-enhancement treatments included the following: TRT1, T-implant only; TRT2, I-implant and RAC; TRT3, I-implant and T-implant; TRT4, I-implant, T-implant, and RAC. Growth responses (BW and ADG) were measured in 3 segments of the finishing period: 1) d 0 to 63, 2) d 63 to 28 d before slaughter, and 3) final 28 d. Cattle were slaughtered after 152, 166, or 180 d of finishing; carcass data were collected after a 48-h chill; and LM WBSF was measured at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 d postmortem. A priori contrasts were constructed to test effects associated with use vs. exclusion of growth enhancement in each segment of the finishing period. The interaction between sex class and treatment was not significant (P > 0.05) for any trait tested, indicating that the 4 treatments elicited similar effects in both sexes. Initial implanting improved (P < 0.001) ADG from d 0 to 63 by 11.5%, terminal implanting improved (P < 0.001) ADG from d 63 to 28 d before slaughter by 15%, and supplementing twice-implanted cattle with RAC enhanced ADG during the final 28 d of finishing by 12%. Effects of I-implant, T-implant, and RAC resulted in LM area increases of 3 cm(2) (P = 0.015), 6 cm(2) (P < 0.001), and 3 cm(2) (P = 0.011), respectively, and HCW responses of 11 kg (P = 0.011), 16 kg (P = 0.001), and 6 kg (P = 0.195), respectively. Initial implanting resulted in a 20-point reduction (P = 0.097) in marbling, and T-implant reduced marbling by 25 points (P = 0.04), whereas marbling score was unaffected (P = 0.236) by RAC supplementation. Cattle that received only 1 implant (TRT1 and TRT2) produced

  9. Deep massage to posterior calf muscles in combination with neural mobilization exercises as a treatment for heel pain: a pilot randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Saban, Bernice; Deutscher, Daniel; Ziv, Tomer

    2014-04-01

    Plantar heel pain syndrome (PHPS) is a common foot disorder; however, there is limited clinical evidence on which to base treatment. Repeated clinical observations indicating heel pain during heel rise and minisquat on the affected leg, involving activation of posterior calf muscles, formed the basis of this study. To compare deep massage therapy to posterior calf muscles and neural mobilization with a self-stretch exercise program (DMS) to a common treatment protocol of ultrasound therapy to the painful heel area with the same self-stretch exercises (USS). Patients with PHPS were assigned to a program of 8 treatments over a period of 4-6 weeks in a single-blind randomized clinical trial. Functional status (FS) at admission and discharge from therapy as measured by the Foot & Ankle Computerized Adaptive Test was the main outcome measure. Sixty-nine patients were included in the trial (mean age 53, standard deviation (SD) 13, range 25-86, 57% women), 36 received DMS treatment and 33 with USS. The overall group-by-time interaction for the mixed-model analysis of variance (ANOVA) was found statistically significant (p=0.034), with a change of (mean (confidence interval, CI)) 15 (9-21) and 6 (1-11) FS points for the DMS and USS groups, respectively. Data indicated that both treatment protocols resulted in an overall short-term improvement, however, DMS treatment was significantly more effective in treating PHPS than USS treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of rigor mortis is not affected by muscle volume.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, M; Ikegaya, H; Takase, I; Hatanaka, K; Sakurada, K; Iwase, H

    2001-04-01

    There is a hypothesis suggesting that rigor mortis progresses more rapidly in small muscles than in large muscles. We measured rigor mortis as tension determined isometrically in rat musculus erector spinae that had been cut into muscle bundles of various volumes. The muscle volume did not influence either the progress or the resolution of rigor mortis, which contradicts the hypothesis. Differences in pre-rigor load on the muscles influenced the onset and resolution of rigor mortis in a few pairs of samples, but did not influence the time taken for rigor mortis to reach its full extent after death. Moreover, the progress of rigor mortis in this muscle was biphasic; this may reflect the early rigor of red muscle fibres and the late rigor of white muscle fibres.

  11. Muscle volume, strength, endurance, and exercise loads during 6-month missions in space.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Raghavan; Genc, Kerim O; Rice, Andrea J; Lee, Stuart M C; Evans, Harlan J; Maender, Christian C; Ilaslan, Hakan; Cavanagh, Peter R

    2010-02-01

    Decrements in muscular strength during long-duration missions in space could be mission-critical during construction and exploration activities. The purpose of this study was to quantify changes in muscle volume, strength, and endurance of crewmembers on the International Space Station (ISS) in the context of new measurements of loading during exercise countermeasures. Strength and muscle volumes were measured from four male ISS crewmembers (49.5 +/- 4.7 yr, 179.3 +/- 7.1 cm, 85.2 +/- 10.4 kg) before and after long-duration spaceflight (181 +/- 15 d). Preflight and in-flight measurements of forces between foot and shoe allowed comparisons of loading from 1-g exercise and exercise countermeasures on ISS. Muscle volume change was greater in the calf (-10 to 16%) than the thigh (-4% to -7%), but there was no change in the upper arm (+0.4 to -0.8%). Isometric and isokinetic strength changes at the knee (range -10.4 to -24.1%), ankle (range -4 to -22.3%), and elbow (range -7.5 to -16.7%) were observed. Although there was an overall postflight decline in total work (-14%) during the endurance test, an increase in postflight resistance to fatigue was observed. The peak in-shoe forces during running and cycling on ISS were approximately 46% and 50% lower compared to 1-g values. Muscle volume and strength were decreased in the lower extremities of crewmembers during long-duration spaceflight on ISS despite the use of exercise countermeasures. in-flight countermeasures were insufficient to replicate the daily mechanical loading experienced by the crewmembers before flight. Future exercise protocols need careful assessment both in terms of intensity and duration to maximize the "dose" of exercise and to increase loads compared to the measured levels.

  12. The validity of ultrasound estimation of muscle volumes.

    PubMed

    Infantolino, Benjamin W; Gales, Daniel J; Winter, Samantha L; Challis, John H

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate ultrasound muscle volume estimation in vivo. To examine validity, vastus lateralis ultrasound images were collected from cadavers before muscle dissection; after dissection, the volumes were determined by hydrostatic weighing. Seven thighs from cadaver specimens were scanned using a 7.5-MHz ultrasound probe (SSD-1000, Aloka, Japan). The perimeter of the vastus lateralis was identified in the ultrasound images and manually digitized. Volumes were then estimated using the Cavalieri principle, by measuring the image areas of sets of parallel two-dimensional slices through the muscles. The muscles were then dissected from the cadavers, and muscle volume was determined via hydrostatic weighing. There was no statistically significant difference between the ultrasound estimation of muscle volume and that estimated using hydrostatic weighing (p > 0.05). The mean percentage error between the two volume estimates was 0.4% +/- 6.9. Three operators all performed four digitizations of all images from one randomly selected muscle; there was no statistical difference between operators or trials and the intraclass correlation was high (>0.8). The results of this study indicate that ultrasound is an accurate method for estimating muscle volumes in vivo.

  13. Effects of duration of vitamin C supplementation during the finishing period on postmortem protein degradation, tenderness, and meat color of the longissimus muscle of calf-fed steers consuming a 0.31 or 0.59% sulfur diet.

    PubMed

    Pogge, D J; Lonergan, S M; Hansen, S L

    2015-05-01

    High-S (HS) diets have been identified as a causative agent in the development of oxidative stress in cattle, which in postmortem muscle can negatively alter meat quality. Vitamin C (VC) is a potent antioxidant produced endogenously by cattle; however, exogenous supplementation of VC may be useful when HS diets are fed to cattle. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of duration of VC supplementation, for the first 56, 90, or 127 d, during the finishing period on meat color and tenderness of the longissimus thoracis (LT) collected from calf-fed steers consuming a 0.31 or 0.59% S diet. Angus steers ( n= 42) were stratified to pens by initial BW (304 ± 13 kg) and GeneMax marbling score (4.3 ± 0.12), and each pen was randomly assigned to 1 of 7 treatments (6 steers/pen, 1 pen/treatment), including HS (0.59% S, a combination of dried distillers grains plus solubles and sodium sulfate) control (HS CON), HS CON + 10 g VC·steer·(-1)d(-1) for the first 56 d (HS VC56), 90 d (HS VC90), or 127 d (HS VC127), low S (LS; 0.31% S) + 10 g VC·steer·(-1)d(-1) for the first 56 d (LS VC56), 90 d (LS VC90), or 127 d (LS VC127). Steers were harvested (n = 40) and, after a 24-h chill, rib sections (LT) were collected. pH was determined on each rib section before division into 3 sections for determination of 1) 7-d retail display and color and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), 2) 14-d WBSF determination, and 3) protein degradation and collagen content (2 d postmortem). Data were analyzed by ANOVA as a completely randomized design, with the fixed effect of treatment. Individual feed intake was recorded, and steer was the experimental unit. The HS steers had a greater and lesser percent of the 80- and 76-kDa subunits of calpain-1 (P ≤ 0.05), respectively, and tended to have less (P = 0.08) troponin T degradation (d2), and more (P = 0.02) collagen than LS steers. Increasing days of VC supplementation decreased (P = 0.05) the percentage of the 80 kDa subunit of

  14. Predictors of calf cramping in rugby league.

    PubMed

    Summers, Katherine M; Snodgrass, Suzanne J; Callister, Robin

    2014-03-01

    Exercise-associated muscle cramps (EAMC) in the calf are common in rugby league. To date, the etiology and predictors of calf cramping are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to undertake a prospective investigation to identify predictors of calf cramping in rugby league players. Demographic and anthropometric data and calf cramp and injury history were collected in the preseason. Hydration status, number of games played, and calf cramps were recorded on game days. Male rugby league players (n = 103, mean age 18.8 ± 4.1 years) were classified as either EAMC (experienced at least 1 incident of calf cramps in the season) or no EAMC (no calf cramps). The following were investigated as possible predictors of EAMC using logistic regression modeling: competition level, age, ethnicity, playing position, history of cramping, precramping, low back pain, foot orthotic usage, foot posture, foot strike, muscle flexibility, calf girth, hydration status, and number of games played. Half the players, n = 52, experienced at least 1 incidence of calf cramping. Playing in a senior competition level (odds ratio: 0.21; 95% confidence interval: 0.06-0.75; p = 0.016), a history of calf cramping (10.85; 2.16-54.44; p = 0.004), and a history of low back pain resulting in missed field minutes (4.50, 1.37-14.79; p = 0.013) were found to predict EAMC. This study suggests that there is a high incidence of calf cramping in rugby league, especially at senior competition levels, and supports preseason screening in senior players to idetify those at risk of calf cramping and the development of possible preventative strategies.

  15. Leg size and muscle functions associated with leg compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Doerr, Donald F.; Flores, Jose F.; Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe; Buchanan, Paul

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between the leg compliance and factors related to the size of leg muscle and to physical fitness was investigated in ten healthy subjects. Vascular compliance of the leg, as determined by a mercury strain gauge, was found to be not significantly correlated with any variables associated with physical fitness per se (e.g., peak O2 uptake, calf strength, age, body weight, or body composition. On the other hand, leg compliance correlated with the calf cross-sectional area (CSA) and the calculated calf volume, with the CSA of calf muscle being the most dominant contributing factor (while fat and bone were poor predicators). It is suggested that leg compliance can be lowered by increasing calf muscle mass, thus providing structural support to limit the expansion of leg veins.

  16. Rapid desensitization and resensitization of 5-HT sub 2 receptor mediated phosphatidyl inositol hydrolysis by serotonin agonists in quiescent calf aortic smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pauwels, P.J.; Van Gompel, P.; Leysen, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    Agonist regulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine{sub 2} (5-HT{sub 2}) receptors was studied in calf aortic smooth muscle cultures incubated in a quiescent, defined synthetic medium that does not stimulate cell proliferation, but that provides cells with supplements that maintain cell viability. In these cells, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)-induced ({sup 3}H)inositol phosphates accumulation showed the characteristics of a 5-HT{sub 2} receptor coupled transducing system according to the inhibition of the response by 5-HT{sub 2} antagonists at nanomolar concentrations. The 5-HT{sub 2} receptor coupled response became rapidly desensitized during continued incubation with 5-HT and 1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-methylphenyl)-2-aminopropane (DOM); nearly full desensitization was obtained in two hours with 10more » {mu}M 5-HT and DOM pretreatment. The recovery of the response had a half-live of 5 hours after 2 hours pretreatment and of 9.5 to 12.5 hours after 24 to 96 hours agonist pretreatment. The DOM-induced desensitization of the 5-HT{sub 2} receptor coupled response was fully blocked by 0.1 {mu}M cinanserin. Cinanserin alone did not induce desensitization or up-regulation of the 5-HT{sub 2} receptor coupled response at 0.1 {mu}M.« less

  17. Predictive Accuracy of Calf Circumference Measurements to Detect Decreased Skeletal Muscle Mass and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism-Defined Malnutrition in Hospitalized Older Patients.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Keisuke; Koga, Takayuki; Nasu, Tomomi; Takaki, Miki; Akagi, Junji

    2017-01-01

    The ability to readily diagnose sarcopenia and malnutrition in a clinical setting is essential. This study is aimed at clarifying the calf circumference (CC) cut-off values for decreased skeletal muscle mass (SMM), according to the Asian Work Group for Sarcopenia's criteria definition of sarcopenia, and those for European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism-defined malnutrition, in hospitalized Japanese patients. The study involved 1,164 patients aged ≥65 years. Predictive CC cut-off values were determined using receiver operating curve (ROC) analyses. The predictive validity of the cut-off values was confirmed against in-hospital mortality. There were 654 females and 510 males (mean age, 83.5 ± 8.2 years). Decreased SMM and malnutrition were observed in 80.4 and 32.8% of all patients, respectively. ROC analyses identified CCs of ≤29 cm (female, area under the curve [AUC] 0.791) and ≤30 cm (male, AUC 0.832) as cut-off values for decreased SMM, and CCs of ≤26 cm (female, AUC 0.798) and ≤28 cm (male, AUC 0.837) for malnutrition. CC cut-off values for SMM and malnutrition were independently correlated with in-hospital mortality. The study determined appropriate cut-off values for CC to identify decreased SMM and malnutrition according to the relevant guidelines. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. The efficiency of O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides in reducing the incidence of superficial venous insufficiency in patients with calf muscle pump dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Cenk Eray; Conkbayir, Cenk; Huseynov, Eldeniz; Sayin, Omer Ali; Tok, Okan; Kaynak, Gokhan; Cebi, Deniz; Ugurlucan, Murat; Kantarci, Fatih; Inan, Muharrem

    2017-04-01

    Objective We aimed to evaluate the efficiency of O-(beta-Hydroxyethyl)-rutosides (Oxerutin) in reducing the incidence of venous system disease among patients with calf muscle pump dysfunction secondary to immobilization due to lower-limb fractures. Methods A total of 60 patients with lower-limb fractures and immobilized in plaster casts were included in this study randomized into control (n = 30; mean: 30.37 ± 6.03 years; 73.3% males; no treatment) and experiment (n = 30; mean: 31.67 ± 4.76 years; 66.6% males; Oxerutin, 500 mg po q12hr) treatment groups. Doppler ultrasound was performed to evaluate the effect of oxerutin on the alterations in the venous circulation. Results Patients in the control group were determined to be more commonly affected from the below-knee immobilization in terms of venous dysfunction in the great saphenous vein in the below-knee region when compared with the patients in the oxerutin treatment group (46.7 vs. 13.3%, respectively; p = 0.011). Incidence of reflux in the small saphenous vein was more common in the control group during the healing period when compared with the experiment group (40.0 vs. 10.0%, respectively; p = 0.017). None of the patients developed venous thrombosis. Conclusions In conclusion, the impairment of the lower extremity muscle pump should be considered as an important risk factor for venous disease, and should be evaluated. O-(beta-Hydroxyethyl)-rutosides during 6-8 week cast immobilization for a lower limb fracture may be an effective prophylactic regimen in reducing the incidence of reflux in the below-knee superficial veins.

  19. Comparison of the prevalence of sarcopenia using skeletal muscle mass index and calf circumference applying the European consensus definition in elderly Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Velazquez-Alva, Maria Consuelo; Irigoyen Camacho, Maria Esther; Lazarevich, Irina; Delgadillo Velazquez, Jaime; Acosta Dominguez, Patricia; Zepeda Zepeda, Marco A

    2017-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of sarcopenia using two indicators: skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) and calf circumference (CC) used in the algorithm proposed by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Mexican elderly women. This was a cross-sectional study. Lean body mass was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. To define sarcopenia, the SMI was obtained using a cut-off value of 5.5 kg/m 2 , and the CC cut-off was 31 cm. For gait speed and handgrip strength, the cut-off values were 0.8 m/s and 20 kg, respectively. A total of 137 women (mean age 73.8 ± 6.7 years) participated in the study. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 14.6% using SMI and 11.0% using CC (P = 0.009). Body mass index was associated with a lower probability of sarcopenia applying SMI or CC (OR 0.75, P = 0.002 for SMI and OR 0.71, P = 0.004 for CC). Sarcopenia evaluated either with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry or CC was not associated with physical performance, such as five times chair stand test, timed up and go test and short physical performance battery. Additionally, SMI was not associated with physical performance, five times chair stand test (P = 0.775) and timed up-and-go test (P = 0.341). The prevalence of sarcopenia in active elderly women was low. A higher prevalence of sarcopenia was detected using SMI compared with CC. It is important to identify the best methods to assess skeletal muscle mass to obtain a reliable diagnosis of sarcopenia. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 161-170. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  20. Exercising calf muscle T₂∗ changes correlate with pH, PCr recovery and maximum oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Albrecht Ingo; Schewzow, Kiril; Fiedler, Georg Bernd; Goluch, Sigrun; Laistler, Elmar; Wolzt, Michael; Moser, Ewald; Meyerspeer, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Skeletal muscle metabolism is impaired in disorders like diabetes mellitus or peripheral vascular disease. The skeletal muscle echo planar imaging (EPI) signal (S(EPI) ) and its relation to energy metabolism are still debated. Localised ³¹P MRS and S(EPI) data from gastrocnemius medialis of 19 healthy subjects were combined in one scanning session to study direct relationships between phosphocreatine (PCr), pH kinetics and parameters of T₂∗ time courses. Dynamic spectroscopy (semi-LASER) and EPI were performed immediately before, during and after 5 min of plantar flexions. Data were acquired in a 7 T MR scanner equipped with a custom-built ergometer and a dedicated ³¹P/¹H radio frequency (RF) coil array. Using a form-fitted multi-channel ³¹P/¹H coil array resulted in high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). PCr and pH in the gastrocnemius medialis muscle were quantified from each ³¹P spectrum, acquired every 6 s. During exercise, SEPI (t) was found to be a linear function of tissue pH(t) (cross-correlation r = -0.85 ± 0.07). Strong Pearson's correlations were observed between post exercise time-to-peak (TTP) of SEPI and (a) the time constant of PCr recovery τPCr recovery (r = 0.89, p < 10⁻⁶), (b) maximum oxidative phosphorylation using the linear model, Q(max, lin) (r = 0.65, p = 0.002), the adenosine-diphosphate-driven model, Q(max,ADP) (r = 0.73, p = 0.0002) and (c) end exercise pH (r = 0.60, p = 0.005). Based on combined accurately localised ³¹P MRS and T₂∗ weighted MRI, both with high temporal resolution, strong correlations of the skeletal muscle SEPI during exercise and tissue pH time courses and of post exercise SEPI and parameters of energy metabolism were observed. In conclusion, a tight coupling between skeletal muscle metabolic activity and tissue T₂∗ signal weighting, probably induced by osmotically driven water shift, exists and can be measured non-invasively, using NMR at 7

  1. Effects of spaceflight on human calf hemodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watenpaugh, D. E.; Buckey, J. C.; Lane, L. D.; Gaffney, F. A.; Levine, B. D.; Moore, W. E.; Wright, S. J.; Blomqvist, C. G.

    2001-01-01

    Chronic microgravity may modify adaptations of the leg circulation to gravitational pressures. We measured resting calf compliance and blood flow with venous occlusion plethysmography, and arterial blood pressure with sphygmomanometry, in seven subjects before, during, and after spaceflight. Calf vascular resistance equaled mean arterial pressure divided by calf flow. Compliance equaled the slope of the calf volume change and venous occlusion pressure relationship for thigh cuff pressures of 20, 40, 60, and 80 mmHg held for 1, 2, 3, and 4 min, respectively, with 1-min breaks between occlusions. Calf blood flow decreased 41% in microgravity (to 1.15 +/- 0.16 ml x 100 ml(-1) x min(-1)) relative to 1-G supine conditions (1.94 +/- 0.19 ml x 100 ml(-1) x min(-1), P = 0.01), and arterial pressure tended to increase (P = 0.05), such that calf vascular resistance doubled in microgravity (preflight: 43 +/- 4 units; in-flight: 83 +/- 13 units; P < 0.001) yet returned to preflight levels after flight. Calf compliance remained unchanged in microgravity but tended to increase during the first week postflight (P > 0.2). Calf vasoconstriction in microgravity qualitatively agrees with the "upright set-point" hypothesis: the circulation seeks conditions approximating upright posture on Earth. No calf hemodynamic result exhibited obvious mechanistic implications for postflight orthostatic intolerance.

  2. Locally acting ACE-083 increases muscle volume in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Glasser, Chad E; Gartner, Michael R; Wilson, Dawn; Miller, Barry; Sherman, Matthew L; Attie, Kenneth M

    2018-02-27

    ACE-083 is a locally acting follistatin-based therapeutic that binds myostatin and other muscle regulators and has been shown to increase muscle mass and force in neuromuscular disease mouse models. This first-in-human study examined these effects. In this phase 1, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study in healthy postmenopausal women, ACE-083 (50-200 mg) or placebo was administered unilaterally into rectus femoris (RF) or tibialis anterior (TA) muscles as 1 or 2 doses 3 weeks apart. Fifty-eight postmenopausal women were enrolled, 42 ACE-083 and 16 placebo. No serious adverse events (AE), dose-limiting toxicities, or discontinuations resulting from AEs occurred. Maximum (mean ± SD) increases in RF and TA muscle volume were 14.5% ± 4.5% and 8.9% ± 4.7%, respectively. No significant changes in mean muscle strength were observed. ACE-083 was well tolerated and resulted in significant targeted muscle growth. ACE-083 may have the potential to increase muscle mass in a wide range of neuromuscular disorders. Muscle Nerve, 2018. © 2018 The Authors Muscle & Nerve Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Dynamic characteristics of T2*-weighted signal in calf muscles of peripheral artery disease during low-intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhijun; Muller, Matthew D; Wang, Jianli; Sica, Christopher T; Karunanayaka, Prasanna; Sinoway, Lawrence I; Yang, Qing X

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the dynamic characteristics of T2* -weighted signal change in exercising skeletal muscle of healthy subjects and peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients under a low-intensity exercise paradigm. Nine PAD patients and nine age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers underwent a low-intensity exercise paradigm while magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (3.0T) was obtained. T2*-weighted signal time-courses in lateral gastrocnemius, medial gastrocnemius, soleus, and tibialis anterior were acquired and analyzed. Correlations were performed between dynamic T2*-weighted signal and changes in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, leg pain, and perceived exertion. A significant signal decrease was observed during exercise in soleus and tibialis anterior of healthy participants (P = 0.0007-0.04 and 0.001-0.009, respectively). In PAD, negative signals were observed (P = 0.008-0.02 and 0.003-0.01, respectively) in soleus and lateral gastrocnemius during the early exercise stage. Then the signal gradually increased above the baseline in the lateral gastrocnemius during and after exercise in six of the eight patients who completed the study. This signal increase in patients' lateral gastrocnemius was significantly greater than in healthy subjects' during the later exercise stage (two-sample t-tests, P = 0.001-0.03). Heart rate and mean arterial pressure responses to exercise were significantly higher in PAD than healthy subjects (P = 0.036 and 0.008, respectively) and the patients experienced greater leg pain and exertion (P = 0.006 and P = 0.0014, respectively). During low-intensity exercise, there were different dynamic T2*-weighted signal behavior in the healthy and PAD exercising muscles. 2 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:40-48. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  4. Evidence for a dipolar-coupled AM system in carnosine in human calf muscle from in vivo 1H NMR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Leif; Bachert, Peter

    2003-10-01

    Spin systems with residual dipolar couplings such as creatine, taurine, and lactate in skeletal muscle tissue exhibit first-order spectra in in vivo 1H NMR spectroscopy at 1.5 T because the coupled protons are represented by (nearly) symmetrized eigenfunctions. The imidazole ring protons (H2, H4) of carnosine are suspected to form also a coupled system. The ring's stiffness could enable a connectivity between these anisochronous protons with the consequence of second-order spectra at low field strength. Our purpose was to study whether this deviation from the Paschen-Back condition can be used to detect the H2-H4 coupling in localized 1D 1H NMR spectra obtained at 1.5 T (64 MHz) from the human calf in a conventional whole-body scanner. As for the hydrogen hyperfine interaction, a Breit-Rabi equation was derived to describe the transition from Zeeman to Paschen-Back regime for two dipolar-coupled protons. The ratio of the measurable coupling strength ( Sk) and the difference in resonance frequencies of the coupled spins (Δ ω) induces quantum-state mixing of various degree upon definition of an appropriate eigenbase of the coupled spin system. The corresponding Clebsch-Gordan coefficients manifest in characteristic energy corrections in the Breit-Rabi formula. These additional terms were used to define an asymmetry parameter of the line positions as a function of Sk and Δ ω. The observed frequency shifts of the resonances were found to be consistent with this parameter within the accuracy achievable in in vivo NMR spectroscopy. Thus it was possible to identify the origin of satellite peaks of H2, H4 and to describe this so far not investigated type of residual dipolar coupling in vivo.

  5. Asymmetry of magnetic motor evoked potentials recorded in calf muscles of the dominant and non-dominant lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Olex-Zarychta, Dorota; Koprowski, Robert; Sobota, Grzegorz; Wróbel, Zygmunt

    2009-08-07

    The aim of the study was to determine the applicability of magnetic stimulation and magnetic motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in motor asymmetry studies by obtaining quantitative and qualitative measures of efferent activity during low intensity magnetic stimulation of the dominant and non-dominant lower extremities. Magnetic stimulation of the tibial nerve in the popliteal fossa was performed in 10 healthy male right-handed and right-footed young adults. Responses were recorded from the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscles of the right and left lower extremities. Response characteristics (duration, onset latency, amplitude) were analyzed in relation to the functional dominance of the limbs and in relation to the direction of the current in the magnetic coil by use of the Wilcoxon pair sequence test. The CCW direction of coil current was related to reduced amplitudes of recorded MEPs. Greater amplitudes of evoked potentials were recorded in the non-dominant extremity, both in the CW and CCW coil current directions, with the statistical significance of this effect (p=0.005). No differences in duration of response were found in the CW current direction, while in CCW the time of the left-side response was prolonged (p=0.01). In the non-dominant extremity longer onset latencies were recorded in both current directions, but only for the CW direction the side asymmetries showed a statistical significance of p=0.005. In the dominant extremity the stimulation correlated with stronger paresthesias, especially using the CCW direction of coil current. The results indicate that low intensity magnetic stimulation may be useful in quantitative and qualitative research into the motor asymmetry.

  6. The determinants of transverse tubular volume in resting skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Jingwei; Fraser, James A

    2014-01-01

    The transverse tubular (t)-system of skeletal muscle couples sarcolemmal electrical excitation with contraction deep within the fibre. Exercise, pathology and the composition of the extracellular fluid (ECF) can alter t-system volume (t-volume). T-volume changes are thought to contribute to fatigue, rhabdomyolysis and disruption of excitation–contraction coupling. However, mechanisms that underlie t-volume changes are poorly understood. A multicompartment, history-independent computer model of rat skeletal muscle was developed to define the minimum conditions for t-volume stability. It was found that the t-system tends to swell due to net ionic fluxes from the ECF across the access resistance. However, a stable t-volume is possible when this is offset by a net efflux from the t-system to the cell and thence to the ECF, forming a net ion cycle ECF→t-system→sarcoplasm→ECF that ultimately depends on Na+/K+-ATPase activity. Membrane properties that maximize this circuit flux decrease t-volume, including PNa(t) > PNa(s), PK(t) < PK(s) and N(t) < N(s) [P, permeability; N, Na+/K+-ATPase density; (t), t-system membrane; (s), sarcolemma]. Hydrostatic pressures, fixed charges and/or osmoles in the t-system can influence the magnitude of t-volume changes that result from alterations in this circuit flux. Using a parameter set derived from literature values where possible, this novel theory of t-volume was tested against data from previous experiments where t-volume was measured during manipulations of ECF composition. Predicted t-volume changes correlated satisfactorily. The present work provides a robust, unifying theoretical framework for understanding the determinants of t-volume. PMID:25384782

  7. Effects of 12-wk eccentric calf muscle training on muscle-tendon glucose uptake and SEMG in patients with chronic Achilles tendon pain.

    PubMed

    Masood, Tahir; Kalliokoski, Kari; Magnusson, S Peter; Bojsen-Møller, Jens; Finni, Taija

    2014-07-15

    High-load eccentric exercises have been a key component in the conservative management of chronic Achilles tendinopathy. This study investigated the effects of a 12-wk progressive, home-based eccentric rehabilitation program on ankle plantar flexors' glucose uptake (GU) and myoelectric activity and Achilles tendon GU. A longitudinal study design with control (n = 10) and patient (n = 10) groups was used. Surface electromyography (SEMG) from four ankle plantar flexors and GU from the same muscles and the Achilles tendon were measured during submaximal intermittent isometric plantar flexion task. The results indicated that the symptomatic leg was weaker (P < 0.05) than the asymptomatic leg at baseline, but improved (P < 0.001) with eccentric rehabilitation. Additionally, the rehabilitation resulted in greater GU in both soleus (P < 0.01) and lateral gastrocnemius (P < 0.001) in the symptomatic leg, while the asymptomatic leg displayed higher uptake for medial gastrocnemius and flexor hallucis longus (P < 0.05). While both patient legs had higher tendon GU than the controls (P < 0.05), there was no rehabilitation effect on the tendon GU. Concerning SEMG, at baseline, soleus showed more relative activity in the symptomatic leg compared with both the asymptomatic and control legs (P < 0.05), probably reflecting an effort to compensate for the decreased force potential. The rehabilitation resulted in greater SEMG activity in the lateral gastrocnemius (P < 0.01) of the symptomatic leg with no other within- or between-group differences. Eccentric rehabilitation was effective in decreasing subjective severity of Achilles tendinopathy. It also resulted in redistribution of relative electrical activity, but not metabolic activity, within the triceps surae muscle. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  8. [Melanosis maculosa in a calf].

    PubMed

    Camenzind, D; Winzap, B; Hässig, M

    2003-07-01

    This work describes findings in a fattened calf, which were seen in a routine slaughter. The most important findings by the meat inspector were diffuse, black spots between 2 and 70 mm in diameter. This hyperpigmentation was observed on the entire carcass as well as on the outside and inside of all internal organs. Removal of the spinal cord produced black colored liquor. Subsequent microbiological examination of the meat resulted in sterile findings. The muscle pH was 5.8. On histological examination many macrophages containing melanin were found in the lung and liver. Based on these findings the diagnosis of Melanosis maculosa was made.

  9. Flank muscle volume changes after open and laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Crouzet, Sebastien; Chopra, Sameer; Tsai, Sheaumei; Kamoi, Kazumi; Haber, Georges-Pascal; Remer, Erick M; Berger, Andre K; Gill, Inderbir S; Aron, Monish

    2014-10-01

    To determine the occurrence of flank symptoms, flank muscle atrophy, bulge, and hernia formation after open and laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN). Our prospective Institutional Review Board-approved database was queried to identify 50 consecutive patients who were treated with open partial nephrectomy (OPN) and 50 consecutive patients who were treated with LPN between September 2006 and May 2008. Study patients had: Solitary clinical T1 renal tumor, preoperative and ≥6 month postoperative CT scan performed at our institution, and a confirmed renal-cell carcinoma on the final pathology report. Patients with previous abdominal surgery and neuromuscular disorders were excluded. Oncocare software was used to measure abdominal wall musculature on preoperative and postoperative CT scan. Bilateral flanks were compared for muscle volume, bulge, and hernia. Patients were administered a phone questionnaire to assess postoperative flank symptoms. No statistical significant difference was found in the demographics between the two groups. Median age (range) was 59.9 years (20.6-80.7) in the OPN group and 57.5 years (25-78) in the LPN group (P=0.89). Median (range) body mass index and American Society of Anesthesiologists scores were similar between the two groups. On CT scans, median percent variation (range) in abdominal wall muscle volume was significantly greater in the OPN group: -1.03% (-31.4-1.5) vs-0.39% (-5.2-1.8) (P=0.006). The median extent of flank bulge on CT scans (range) was also greater in the OPN group: 0.75 cm (-1.9-7.6) vs 0 cm (-2.7-2.8) (P=0.0004). The OPN group was also more symptomatic, including paresthesia 48% vs 8% (P=0.0053); numbness 44% vs 0% (P=0.002); and flank bulge 57% vs 12% (P=0.007). Minimally invasive partial nephrectomy has lesser deleterious impact on flank muscle volume compared with OPN with fewer symptoms of flank bulge, paresthesia, and numbness.

  10. Reference data on muscle volumes of healthy human pelvis and lower extremity muscles: an in vivo magnetic resonance imaging feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Lube, Juliane; Cotofana, Sebastian; Bechmann, Ingo; Milani, Thomas L; Özkurtul, Orkun; Sakai, Tatsuo; Steinke, Hanno; Hammer, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Muscle volumes are of crucial interest when attempting to analyze individual physical performance and disease- or age-related alterations in muscle morphology. However, very little reference data are available in the literature on pelvis and lower extremity muscle volumes originating from healthy and young individuals. Furthermore, it is of interest if representative muscle volumes, covering large anatomical regions, can be obtained using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a setting similar to the clinical routine. Our objective was therefore to provide encompassing, bilateral, 3-T MRI-based datasets on muscle volumes of the pelvis and the lower limb muscles. T1-weighted 3-T MRI records were obtained bilaterally from six young and healthy participants. Three-dimensional volumes were compiled from 28 muscles and muscle groups of each participant before the muscle volumes were computed. Muscle volumes were obtained from 28 muscles and muscle groups of the pelvis and lower extremity. Volumes were larger in male than in female participants. Volumes of the dominant and non-dominant sides were similar in both genders. The obtained results were in line with volumetric data obtained from smaller anatomical areas, thus extending the available datasets. This study provides an encompassing and feasible approach to obtain data on the muscle volumes of pelvic and limb muscles of healthy, young, and physically active individuals. The respective data form a basis to determine effects of therapeutic approaches, progression of diseases, or technical applications like automated segmentation algorithms applied to different populations.

  11. Daily muscle stretching enhances blood flow, endothelial function, capillarity, vascular volume and connectivity in aged skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Kazuki; Behnke, Bradley J; Arjmandi, Bahram; Ghosh, Payal; Chen, Bei; Brooks, Rachael; Maraj, Joshua J; Elam, Marcus L; Maher, Patrick; Kurien, Daniel; Churchill, Alexandra; Sepulveda, Jaime L; Kabolowsky, Max B; Christou, Demetra D; Muller-Delp, Judy M

    2018-05-15

    In aged rats, daily muscle stretching increases blood flow to skeletal muscle during exercise. Daily muscle stretching enhanced endothelium-dependent vasodilatation of skeletal muscle resistance arterioles of aged rats. Angiogenic markers and capillarity increased in response to daily stretching in muscles of aged rats. Muscle stretching performed with a splint could provide a feasible means of improving muscle blood flow and function in elderly patients who cannot perform regular aerobic exercise. Mechanical stretch stimuli alter the morphology and function of cultured endothelial cells; however, little is known about the effects of daily muscle stretching on adaptations of endothelial function and muscle blood flow. The present study aimed to determine the effects of daily muscle stretching on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and muscle blood flow in aged rats. The lower hindlimb muscles of aged Fischer rats were passively stretched by placing an ankle dorsiflexion splint for 30 min day -1 , 5 days week -1 , for 4 weeks. Blood flow to the stretched limb and the non-stretched contralateral limb was determined at rest and during treadmill exercise. Endothelium-dependent/independent vasodilatation was evaluated in soleus muscle arterioles. Levels of hypoxia-induced factor-1α, vascular endothelial growth factor A and neuronal nitric oxide synthase were determined in soleus muscle fibres. Levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and superoxide dismutase were determined in soleus muscle arterioles, and microvascular volume and capillarity were evaluated by microcomputed tomography and lectin staining, respectively. During exercise, blood flow to plantar flexor muscles was significantly higher in the stretched limb. Endothelium-dependent vasodilatation was enhanced in arterioles from the soleus muscle from the stretched limb. Microvascular volume, number of capillaries per muscle fibre, and levels of hypoxia-induced factor-1α, vascular endothelial growth

  12. Comparison of clinical semi-quantitative assessment of muscle fat infiltration with quantitative assessment using chemical shift-based water/fat separation in MR studies of the calf of post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Alizai, Hamza; Nardo, Lorenzo; Karampinos, Dimitrios C; Joseph, Gabby B; Yap, Samuel P; Baum, Thomas; Krug, Roland; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M

    2012-07-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the semi-quantitative Goutallier classification for fat infiltration with quantitative fat-fraction derived from a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) chemical shift-based water/fat separation technique. Sixty-two women (age 61 ± 6 years), 27 of whom had diabetes, underwent MRI of the calf using a T1-weighted fast spin-echo sequence and a six-echo spoiled gradient-echo sequence at 3 T. Water/fat images and fat fraction maps were reconstructed using the IDEAL algorithm with T2* correction and a multi-peak model for the fat spectrum. Two radiologists scored fat infiltration on the T1-weighted images using the Goutallier classification in six muscle compartments. Spearman correlations between the Goutallier grades and the fat fraction were calculated; in addition, intra-observer and inter-observer agreement were calculated. A significant correlation between the clinical grading and the fat fraction values was found for all muscle compartments (P < 0.0001, R values ranging from 0.79 to 0.88). Goutallier grades 0-4 had a fat fraction ranging from 3.5 to 19%. Intra-observer and inter-observer agreement values of 0.83 and 0.81 were calculated for the semi-quantitative grading. Semi-quantitative grading of intramuscular fat and quantitative fat fraction were significantly correlated and both techniques had excellent reproducibility. However, the clinical grading was found to overestimate muscle fat. Fat infiltration of muscle commonly occurs in many metabolic and neuromuscular diseases. • Image-based semi-quantitative classifications for assessing fat infiltration are not well validated. • Quantitative MRI techniques provide an accurate assessment of muscle fat.

  13. Effect of Real and Simulated Microgravity on Muscle Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session JA3, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Changes in Calf Muscle Performance, Energy Metabolism, and Muscle Volume Caused by Long Term Stay on Space Station MIR; Vibrografic Signs of Autonomous Muscle Tone Studied in Long Term Space Missions; Reduction of Muscle Strength After Long Duration Space Flights is Associated Primarily with Changes in Neuromuscular Function; The Effects of a 115-Day Spaceflight on Neuromuscular Function in Crewman; Effects of 17-Day Spaceflight on Human Triceps Surae Electrically-Evoked Contractions; Effects of Muscle Unloading on EMG Spectral Parameters; and Myofiber Wound-Mediated FGF Release and Muscle Atrophy During Bedrest.

  14. Calf Strength Loss During Mechanical Unloading: Does It Matter?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, K. L.; Mulavara, A.; Bloomberg, J.; Ploutz-Snyder, LL

    2016-01-01

    During the mechanical unloading of spaceflight and its ground-based analogs, muscle mass and muscle strength of the calf are difficult to preserve despite exercise countermeasures that effectively protect these parameters in the thigh. It is unclear what effects these local losses have on balance and whole body function which will be essential for successful performance of demanding tasks during future exploration missions.

  15. Effects of training in minimalist shoes on the intrinsic and extrinsic foot muscle volume.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tony Lin-Wei; Sze, Louis K Y; Davis, Irene S; Cheung, Roy T H

    2016-07-01

    Minimalist shoes have gained popularity recently because it is speculated to strengthen the foot muscles and foot arches, which may help to resist injuries. However, previous studies provided limited evidence supporting the link between changes in muscle size and footwear transition. Therefore, this study sought to examine the effects of minimalist shoes on the intrinsic and extrinsic foot muscle volume in habitual shod runners. The relationship between participants' compliance with the minimalist shoes and changes in muscle õvolume was also evaluated. Twenty habitual shod runners underwent a 6-month self-monitoring training program designed for minimalist shoe transition. Another 18 characteristics-matched shod runners were also introduced with the same program but they maintained running practice with standard shoes. Runners were monitored using an online surveillance platform during the program. We measured overall intrinsic and extrinsic foot muscle volume before and after the program using MRI scans. Runners in the experimental group exhibited significantly larger leg (P=0.01, Cohen's d=0.62) and foot (P<0.01, Cohen's d=0.54) muscle after transition. Foot muscle growth was mainly contributed by the forefoot (P<0.01, Cohen's d=0.64) but not the rearfoot muscle (P=0.10, Cohen's d=0.30). Leg and foot muscle volume of runners in the control group remained similar after the program (P=0.33-0.95). A significant positive correlation was found between participants' compliance with the minimalist shoes and changes in leg muscle volume (r=0.51; P=0.02). Habitual shod runners who transitioned to minimalist shoes demonstrated significant increase in leg and foot muscle volume. Additionally, the increase in leg muscle volume was significantly correlated associated with the compliance of minimalist shoe use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of clinical semi-quantitative assessment of muscle fat infiltration with quantitative assessment using chemical shift-based water/fat separation in MR studies of the calf of post-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Nardo, Lorenzo; Karampinos, Dimitrios C.; Joseph, Gabby B.; Yap, Samuel P.; Baum, Thomas; Krug, Roland; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to compare the semi-quantitative Goutallier classification for fat infiltration with quantitative fat-fraction derived from a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) chemical shift-based water/fat separation technique. Methods Sixty-two women (age 61±6 years), 27 of whom had diabetes, underwent MRI of the calf using a T1-weighted fast spin-echo sequence and a six-echo spoiled gradient-echo sequence at 3 T. Water/fat images and fat fraction maps were reconstructed using the IDEAL algorithm with T2* correction and a multi-peak model for the fat spectrum. Two radiologists scored fat infiltration on the T1-weighted images using the Goutallier classification in six muscle compartments. Spearman correlations between the Goutallier grades and the fat fraction were calculated; in addition, intra-observer and inter-observer agreement were calculated. Results A significant correlation between the clinical grading and the fat fraction values was found for all muscle compartments (P<0.0001, R values ranging from 0.79 to 0.88). Goutallier grades 0–4 had a fat fraction ranging from 3.5 to 19%. Intra-observer and inter-observer agreement values of 0.83 and 0.81 were calculated for the semi-quantitative grading. Conclusion Semi-quantitative grading of intramuscular fat and quantitative fat fraction were significantly correlated and both techniques had excellent reproducibility. However, the clinical grading was found to overestimate muscle fat. PMID:22411305

  17. Lean muscle volume of the thigh has a stronger relationship with muscle power than muscle strength in women with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Davison, Michael J; Maly, Monica R; Keir, Peter J; Hapuhennedige, Sandani M; Kron, Amie T; Adachi, Jonathan D; Beattie, Karen A

    2017-01-01

    Thigh lean muscle and intramuscular fat have been implicated in the impairment of physical function observed in people with knee osteoarthritis. We investigated the relationships of quadriceps and hamstrings intramuscular fat fraction and lean muscle volume with muscle power and strength, controlling for neuromuscular activation, and physical performance in women with knee OA. Women (n=20) 55years or older with symptomatic, radiographic knee osteoarthritis underwent a 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging scan of the thigh of their most symptomatic knee. Axial fat-separated images were analyzed using software to quantify intramuscular fat and lean muscle volumes of the quadriceps and hamstrings. To quantify strength and power of the knee extensors and flexors, participants performed maximum voluntary isometric contraction and isotonic knee extensions and flexions, respectively. Electromyography of the quadriceps and hamstrings was measured. Participants also completed five physical performance tests. Quadriceps and hamstrings lean muscle volumes were related to isotonic knee extensor (B=0.624; p=0.017) and flexor (B=1.518; p=0.032) power, but not knee extensor (B=0.001; p=0.615) or flexor (B=0.001; p=0.564) isometric strength. Intramuscular fat fractions were not related to isotonic knee extensor or flexor power, nor isometric strength. No relationships were found between intramuscular fat or lean muscle volume and physical performance. Muscle power may be more sensitive than strength to lean muscle mass in women with knee osteoarthritis. Thigh lean muscle mass, but neither intramuscular nor intermuscular fat, is related to knee extensor and flexor power in women with knee osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Calf pump activity influencing venous hemodynamics in the lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Recek, Cestmir

    2013-03-01

    Calf muscle pump is the motive force enhancing return of venous blood from the lower extremity to the heart. It causes displacement of venous blood in both vertical and horizontal directions, generates ambulatory pressure gradient between thigh and lower leg veins, and bidirectional streaming within calf perforators. Ambulatory pressure gradient triggers venous reflux in incompetent veins, which induces ambulatory venous hypertension in the lower leg and foot. Bidirectional flow in calf perforators enables quick pressure equalization between deep and superficial veins of the lower leg; the outward (into the superficial veins) oriented component of the bidirectional flow taking place during calf muscle contraction is no pathological reflux but a physiological centripetal flow streaming via great saphenous vein into the femoral vein. Calf perforators are communicating channels between both systems making them conjoined vessels; they are not involved in the generation of pathological hemodynamic situations, nor do they cause ambulatory venous hypertension. The real cause why recurrences develop has not as yet been cleared. Pressure gradient arising during calf pump activity between the femoral vein and the saphenous remnant after abolition of saphenous reflux triggers biophysical and biochemical events, which might induce recurrence. Thus, abolition of saphenous reflux removes the hemodynamic disturbance, but at the same time it generates precondition for reflux recurrence and for the comeback of the previous pathological situation; this chain of events has been called hemodynamic paradox.

  19. Calf enlargement associated with neurologic disease: two uncommon cases.

    PubMed

    Harwood, S C; Honet, J C

    1988-01-01

    Muscle enlargement and hypertrophy are rare findings in neurogenic lesions. The two in combination have been reported in cases of peripheral nerve lesions, polyneuropathy, and poliomyelitis. True and pseudo muscle hypertrophy are the two possible etiologies, whereas infiltration, stretch, or exercise of the muscle are the causative factors. We report two cases of unilateral calf enlargement, one occurring after surgery for S1 radiculopathy with associated cramping, and the other after poliomyelitis.

  20. Intrinsic foot muscle volume in experienced runners with and without chronic plantar fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Cheung, R T H; Sze, L K Y; Mok, N W; Ng, G Y F

    2016-09-01

    Plantar fasciitis, a common injury in runners, has been speculated to be associated with weakness of the intrinsic foot muscles. A recent study reported that atrophy of the intrinsic forefoot muscles might contribute to plantar fasciitis by destabilizing the medial longitudinal arch. However, intrinsic foot muscle volume difference between individuals with plantar fasciitis and healthy counterparts remains unknown. This study examined the relationship of intrinsic foot muscle volume and incidence of plantar fasciitis. Case-control study. 20 experienced (≥5 years) runners were recruited. Ten of them had bilateral chronic (≥2 years) plantar fasciitis while the others were healthy characteristics-matched runners. Intrinsic muscle volumes of the participants' right foot were scanned with a 1.5T magnetic resonance system and segmented using established methods. Body-mass normalized intrinsic foot muscle volumes were compared between runners with and without chronic plantar fasciitis. There was significant greater rearfoot intrinsic muscle volume in healthy runners than runners with chronic plantar fasciitis (Cohen's d=1.13; p=0.023). A similar trend was also observed in the total intrinsic foot muscle volume but it did not reach a statistical significance (Cohen's d=0.92; p=0.056). Forefoot volume was similar between runners with and without plantar fasciitis. These results suggest that atrophy of intrinsic foot muscles may be associated with symptoms of plantar fasciitis in runners. These findings may provide useful information in rehabilitation strategies of chronic plantar fasciitis. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Volume illustration of muscle from diffusion tensor images.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Yan, Zhicheng; Zhang, Song; Crow, John Allen; Ebert, David S; McLaughlin, Ronald M; Mullins, Katie B; Cooper, Robert; Ding, Zi'ang; Liao, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Medical illustration has demonstrated its effectiveness to depict salient anatomical features while hiding the irrelevant details. Current solutions are ineffective for visualizing fibrous structures such as muscle, because typical datasets (CT or MRI) do not contain directional details. In this paper, we introduce a new muscle illustration approach that leverages diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data and example-based texture synthesis techniques. Beginning with a volumetric diffusion tensor image, we reformulate it into a scalar field and an auxiliary guidance vector field to represent the structure and orientation of a muscle bundle. A muscle mask derived from the input diffusion tensor image is used to classify the muscle structure. The guidance vector field is further refined to remove noise and clarify structure. To simulate the internal appearance of the muscle, we propose a new two-dimensional example based solid texture synthesis algorithm that builds a solid texture constrained by the guidance vector field. Illustrating the constructed scalar field and solid texture efficiently highlights the global appearance of the muscle as well as the local shape and structure of the muscle fibers in an illustrative fashion. We have applied the proposed approach to five example datasets (four pig hearts and a pig leg), demonstrating plausible illustration and expressiveness.

  2. Dynamic PCr and pH imaging of human calf muscles during exercise and recovery using (31) P gradient-Echo MRI at 7 Tesla.

    PubMed

    Schmid, Albrecht Ingo; Meyerspeer, Martin; Robinson, Simon Daniel; Goluch, Sigrun; Wolzt, Michael; Fiedler, Georg Bernd; Bogner, Wolfgang; Laistler, Elmar; Krššák, Martin; Moser, Ewald; Trattnig, Siegfried; Valkovič, Ladislav

    2016-06-01

    Simultaneous acquisition of spatially resolved (31) P-MRI data for evaluation of muscle specific energy metabolism, i.e., PCr and pH kinetics. A three-dimensional (3D) gradient-echo sequence for multiple frequency-selective excitations of the PCr and Pi signals in an interleaved sampling scheme was developed and tested at 7 Tesla (T). The pH values were derived from the chemical shift-induced phase difference between the resonances. The achieved spatial resolution was ∼2 mL with image acquisition time below 6 s. Ten healthy volunteers were studied performing plantar flexions during the delay between (31) P-MRI acquisitions, yielding a temporal resolution of 9-10 s. Signal from anatomically matched regions of interest had sufficient signal-to-noise ratio to allow single-acquisition PCr and pH quantification. The Pi signal was clearly detected in voxels of actively exercising muscles. The PCr depletions were in gastrocnemius 42 ± 14% (medialis), 48 ± 17% (lateralis) and in soleus 20 ± 11%. The end exercise pH values were 6.74 ± 0.18 and 6.65 ± 0.27 for gastrocnemius medialis and lateralis, respectively, and 6.96 ± 0.12 for soleus muscle. Simultaneous acquisition of PCr and Pi images with high temporal resolution, suitable for measuring PCr and pH kinetics in exercise-recovery experiments, was demonstrated at 7T. This study presents a fast alternative to MRS for quantifying energy metabolism of posterior muscle groups of the lower leg. Magn Reson Med 75:2324-2331, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Regional muscle loss after short duration spaceflight.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, A; Rowe, R; Schneider, V; Evans, H; Hedrick, T

    1995-12-01

    Muscle strength and limb girth measurements during Skylab and Apollo missions suggested that loss of muscle mass may occur as a result of spaceflight. Extended duration spaceflight is important for the economical and practical use of space. The loss of muscle mass during spaceflight is a medical concern for long duration flights to the planets or extended stays aboard space stations. Understanding the extent and temporal relationships of muscle loss is important for the development of effective spaceflight countermeasures. We hypothesized that significant and measurable changes in muscle volume would occur in Shuttle crewmembers following 8 d of weightlessness. MRI was used to obtain the muscle volumes of the calf, thigh and lower back before and after the STS-47 Shuttle mission. Statistical analyses demonstrated that the soleus-gastrocnemius (-6.3%), anterior calf (-3.9%), hamstrings (-8.3%), quadriceps (-6.0%) and intrinsic back (-10.3%) muscles were decreased, p < 0.05, compared to baseline, 24 h after landing. At 2 weeks post recovery, the hamstrings and intrinsic lower back muscles were still below baseline, p < 0.05. These results demonstrate that even short duration spaceflight can result in significant muscle atrophy.

  4. Muscle volume is related to trabecular and cortical bone architecture in typically developing children

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, Deepti; Allerton, Brianne M.; Kirby, Joshua T.; Miller, Freeman; Rowe, David A.; Pohlig, Ryan T.; Modlesky, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Muscle is strongly related to cortical bone architecture in children; however, the relationship between muscle volume and trabecular bone architecture is poorly studied. The aim of this study was to determine if muscle volume is related to trabecular bone architecture in children and if the relationship is different than the relationship between muscle volume and cortical bone architecture. Materials and methods Forty typically developing children (20 boys and 20 girls; 6 to 12 y) were included in the study. Measures of trabecular bone architecture [apparent trabecular bone volume to total volume (appBV/TV), trabecular number (appTb.N), trabecular thickness (appTb.Th), and trabecular separation (appTb.Sp)] in the distal femur, cortical bone architecture [(cortical volume, medullary volume, total volume, polar moment of inertia (J) and section modulus (Z)] in the midfemur, muscle volume in the midthigh and femur length were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. Total and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were assessed using an accelerometer-based activity monitor worn around the waist for four days. Calcium intake was assessed using diet records. Relationships among the measures were tested using multiple linear regression analysis. Results Muscle volume was moderately-to-strongly related to measures of trabecular bone architecture [appBV/TV (r = 0.81, appTb.N (r = 0.53), appTb.Th (r = 0.67), appTb.Sp (r = −0.71; all p < 0.001] but more strongly related to measures of cortical bone architecture [cortical volume (r = 0.96), total volume (r = 0.94), Z (r = 0.94) and J (r = 0.92; all p < 0.001)]. Similar relationships were observed between femur length and measures of trabecular (p < 0.01) and cortical (p < 0.001) bone architecture. Sex, physical activity and calcium intake were not related to any measure of bone architecture (p > 0.05). Because muscle volume and femur length were strongly related (r = 0.91, p < 0.001), muscle volume was scaled

  5. Muscle volume is related to trabecular and cortical bone architecture in typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Deepti; Allerton, Brianne M; Kirby, Joshua T; Miller, Freeman; Rowe, David A; Pohlig, Ryan T; Modlesky, Christopher M

    2015-12-01

    Muscle is strongly related to cortical bone architecture in children; however, the relationship between muscle volume and trabecular bone architecture is poorly studied. The aim of this study was to determine if muscle volume is related to trabecular bone architecture in children and if the relationship is different than the relationship between muscle volume and cortical bone architecture. Forty typically developing children (20 boys and 20 girls; 6 to 12y) were included in the study. Measures of trabecular bone architecture [i.e., apparent trabecular bone volume to total volume (appBV/TV), trabecular number (appTb.N), trabecular thickness (appTb.Th) and trabecular separation (appTb.Sp)] in the distal femur, cortical bone architecture [cortical volume, total volume, section modulus (Z) and polar moment of inertia (J)] in the midfemur, muscle volume in the midthigh and femur length were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging. Total physical activity and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were assessed using an accelerometer-based activity monitor worn around the waist for four days. Calcium intake was assessed using diet records. Relationships among the measures were tested using multiple linear regression analysis. Muscle volume was moderately-to-strongly related to measures of trabecular bone architecture [appBV/TV (r=0.81), appTb.N (r=0.53), appTb.Th (r=0.67), appTb.Sp (r=-0.71); all p<0.001] but more strongly related to measures of cortical bone architecture [cortical volume (r=0.96), total volume (r=0.94), Z (r=0.94) and J (r=0.92; all p<0.001)]. Similar relationships were observed between femur length and measures of trabecular (p<0.01) and cortical (p<0.001) bone architecture. Sex, physical activity and calcium intake were not related to any measure of bone architecture (p>0.05). Because muscle volume and femur length were strongly related (r=0.91, p<0.001), muscle volume was scaled for femur length (muscle volume/femur length(2.77)). When muscle

  6. Effect of orbital bony decompression for Graves' orbitopathy on the volume of extraocular muscles.

    PubMed

    Alsuhaibani, Adel H; Carter, Keith D; Policeni, Bruno; Nerad, Jeffrey A

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the change in the rectus muscle volume following orbital bony wall decompression for Graves' orbitopathy. We used a computer program (syngo Volume Evaluation) to measure the rectus muscles from the digital preoperative and postoperative orbital CT. Of the 25 patients (20 women and five men; mean age 46 (range 18-64) years) enrolled in the study. A significant increase (mean 0.23 ml (16.5%) of preoperative volume; p=0.005) in the volume of the medial rectus muscle (MRM) was detected postoperatively, whereas no significant changes were found in the volume of the other rectus muscles and between eyes that underwent surgery in the active and inactive phases of the disease. A significant negative association was observed between the time of postoperative CT scans and the change in the MRM volume (p=0.0004) (a mean increase of 68% of preoperative MRM volume for those measured between 3 and 9 months, and a mean decrease in the volume of 50% for those measured between 41 and 50 months). The change in the volume of the MRM may partly explain the variability in the proptosis reduction following orbital decompression.

  7. Welcome to CALFED Bay-Delta Program

    Science.gov Websites

    Skip to: Content | Footer | Accessibility Search: Search CALFED Search CA.GOV | CALFED Bay-Delta California Delta Delta Home About the Delta CALFED Science About the Program Independent Science Board , CALFED Director photo of blue heron Bay-Delta Public Advisory Committee CALFED Agencies Calendar

  8. Lower-volume muscle-damaging exercise protects against high-volume muscle-damaging exercise and the detrimental effects on endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Burt, Dean; Lamb, Kevin; Nicholas, Ceri; Twist, Craig

    2015-07-01

    This study examined whether lower-volume exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) performed 2 weeks before high-volume muscle-damaging exercise protects against its detrimental effect on running performance. Sixteen male participants were randomly assigned to a lower-volume (five sets of ten squats, n = 8) or high-volume (ten sets of ten squats, n = 8) EIMD group and completed baseline measurements for muscle soreness, knee extensor torque, creatine kinase (CK), a 5-min fixed-intensity running bout and a 3-km running time-trial. Measurements were repeated 24 and 48 h after EIMD, and the running time-trial after 48 h. Two weeks later, both groups repeated the baseline measurements, ten sets of ten squats and the same follow-up testing (Bout 2). Data analysis revealed increases in muscle soreness and CK and decreases in knee extensor torque 24-48 h after the initial bouts of EIMD. Increases in oxygen uptake [Formula: see text], minute ventilation [Formula: see text] and rating of perceived exertion were observed during fixed-intensity running 24-48 h after EIMD Bout 1. Likewise, time increased and speed and [Formula: see text] decreased during a 3-km running time-trial 48 h after EIMD. Symptoms of EIMD, responses during fixed-intensity and running time-trial were attenuated in the days after the repeated bout of high-volume EIMD performed 2 weeks after the initial bout. This study demonstrates that the protective effect of lower-volume EIMD on subsequent high-volume EIMD is transferable to endurance running. Furthermore, time-trial performance was found to be preserved after a repeated bout of EIMD.

  9. Serial Changes in 3-Dimensional Supraspinatus Muscle Volume After Rotator Cuff Repair.

    PubMed

    Chung, Seok Won; Oh, Kyung-Soo; Moon, Sung Gyu; Kim, Na Ra; Lee, Ji Whan; Shim, Eungjune; Park, Sehyung; Kim, Youngjun

    2017-08-01

    There is considerable debate on the recovery of rotator cuff muscle atrophy after rotator cuff repair. To evaluate the serial changes in supraspinatus muscle volume after rotator cuff repair by using semiautomatic segmentation software and to determine the relationship with functional outcomes. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Seventy-four patients (mean age, 62.8 ± 8.8 years) who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair and obtained 3 consecutive (preoperatively, immediately postoperatively, and later postoperatively [≥1 year postoperatively]) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans having complete Y-views were included. We generated a 3-dimensional (3D) reconstructed model of the supraspinatus muscle by using in-house semiautomatic segmentation software (ITK-SNAP) and calculated both the 2-dimensional (2D) cross-sectional area and 3D volume of the muscle in 3 different views (Y-view, 1 cm medial to the Y-view [Y+1 view], and 2 cm medial to the Y-view [Y+2 view]) at the 3 time points. The area and volume changes at each time point were evaluated according to repair integrity. Later postoperative volumes were compared with immediately postoperative volumes, and their relationship with various clinical factors and the effect of higher volume increases on range of motion, muscle power, and visual analog scale pain and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores were evaluated. The interrater reliabilities were excellent for all measurements. Areas and volumes increased immediately postoperatively as compared with preoperatively; however, only volumes on the Y+1 view and Y+2 view significantly increased later postoperatively as compared with immediately postoperatively ( P < .05). There were 9 patients with healing failure, and area and volume changes were significantly less later postoperatively compared with immediately postoperatively at all measurement points in these patients ( P < .05). After omitting the patients with healing failure, volume increases

  10. Quantitative assessment of fatty infiltration and muscle volume of the rotator cuff muscles using 3-dimensional 2-point Dixon magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Noboru; Oguro, Sota; Okuda, Shigeo; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Morio; Nakamura, Masaya; Nagura, Takeo

    2017-10-01

    In patients with rotator cuff tears, muscle degeneration is known to be a predictor of irreparable tears and poor outcomes after surgical repair. Fatty infiltration and volume of the whole muscles constituting the rotator cuff were quantitatively assessed using 3-dimensional 2-point Dixon magnetic resonance imaging. Ten shoulders with a partial-thickness tear, 10 shoulders with an isolated supraspinatus tear, and 10 shoulders with a massive tear involving supraspinatus and infraspinatus were compared with 10 control shoulders after matching age and sex. With segmentation of muscle boundaries, the fat fraction value and the volume of the whole rotator cuff muscles were computed. After reliabilities were determined, differences in fat fraction, muscle volume, and fat-free muscle volume were evaluated. Intra-rater and inter-rater reliabilities were regarded as excellent for fat fraction and muscle volume. Tendon rupture adversely increased the fat fraction value of the respective rotator cuff muscle (P < .002). In the massive tear group, muscle volume was significantly decreased in the infraspinatus (P = .035) and increased in the teres minor (P = .039). With subtraction of fat volume, a significant decrease of fat-free volume of the supraspinatus muscle became apparent with a massive tear (P = .003). Three-dimensional measurement could evaluate fatty infiltration and muscular volume with excellent reliabilities. The present study showed that chronic rupture of the tendon adversely increases the fat fraction of the respective muscle and indicates that the residual capacity of the rotator cuff muscles might be overestimated in patients with severe fatty infiltration. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Resistance exercise-induced fluid shifts: change in active muscle size and plasma volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Convertino, V. A.; Dudley, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the reduction in plasma volume (PV) induced by resistance exercise reflects fluid loss to the extravascular space and subsequently selective increase in cross-sectional area (CSA) of active but not inactive skeletal muscle. We compared changes in active and inactive muscle CSA and PV after barbell squat exercise. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify muscle involvement in exercise and to determine CSA of muscle groups or individual muscles [vasti (VS), adductor (Add), hamstring (Ham), and rectus femoris (RF)]. Muscle involvement in exercise was determined using exercise-induced contrast shift in spin-spin relaxation time (T2)-weighted MR images immediately postexercise. Alterations in muscle size were based on the mean CSA of individual slices. Hematocrit, hemoglobin, and Evans blue dye were used to estimate changes in PV. Muscle CSA and PV data were obtained preexercise and immediately postexercise and 15 and 45 min thereafter. A hierarchy of muscle involvement in exercise was found such that VS > Add > Ham > RF, with the Ham and RF showing essentially no involvement. CSA of the VS and Add muscle groups were increased 10 and 5%, respectively, immediately after exercise in each thigh with no changes in Ham and RF CSA. PV was decreased 22% immediately following exercise. The absolute loss of PV was correlated (r2 = 0.75) with absolute increase in muscle CSA immediately postexercise, supporting the notion that increased muscle size after resistance exercise reflects primarily fluid movement from the vascular space into active but not inactive muscle.

  12. Volume measurements of individual muscles in human quadriceps femoris using atlas-based segmentation approaches.

    PubMed

    Le Troter, Arnaud; Fouré, Alexandre; Guye, Maxime; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Mattei, Jean-Pierre; Gondin, Julien; Salort-Campana, Emmanuelle; Bendahan, David

    2016-04-01

    Atlas-based segmentation is a powerful method for automatic structural segmentation of several sub-structures in many organs. However, such an approach has been very scarcely used in the context of muscle segmentation, and so far no study has assessed such a method for the automatic delineation of individual muscles of the quadriceps femoris (QF). In the present study, we have evaluated a fully automated multi-atlas method and a semi-automated single-atlas method for the segmentation and volume quantification of the four muscles of the QF and for the QF as a whole. The study was conducted in 32 young healthy males, using high-resolution magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the thigh. The multi-atlas-based segmentation method was conducted in 25 subjects. Different non-linear registration approaches based on free-form deformable (FFD) and symmetric diffeomorphic normalization algorithms (SyN) were assessed. Optimal parameters of two fusion methods, i.e., STAPLE and STEPS, were determined on the basis of the highest Dice similarity index (DSI) considering manual segmentation (MSeg) as the ground truth. Validation and reproducibility of this pipeline were determined using another MRI dataset recorded in seven healthy male subjects on the basis of additional metrics such as the muscle volume similarity values, intraclass coefficient, and coefficient of variation. Both non-linear registration methods (FFD and SyN) were also evaluated as part of a single-atlas strategy in order to assess longitudinal muscle volume measurements. The multi- and the single-atlas approaches were compared for the segmentation and the volume quantification of the four muscles of the QF and for the QF as a whole. Considering each muscle of the QF, the DSI of the multi-atlas-based approach was high 0.87 ± 0.11 and the best results were obtained with the combination of two deformation fields resulting from the SyN registration method and the STEPS fusion algorithm. The optimal variables for FFD

  13. Ophthalmologic diagnostic tool using MR images for biomechanically-based muscle volume deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchberger, Michael; Kaltofen, Thomas

    2003-05-01

    We would like to give a work-in-progress report on our ophthalmologic diagnostic software system which performs biomechanically-based muscle volume deformations using MR images. For reconstructing a three-dimensional representation of an extraocular eye muscle, a sufficient amount of high resolution MR images is used, each representing a slice of the muscle. In addition, threshold values are given, which restrict the amount of data used from the MR images. The Marching Cube algorithm is applied to the polygons, resulting in a 3D representation of the muscle, which can efficiently be rendered. A transformation to a dynamic, deformable model is applied by calculating the center of gravity of each muscle slice, approximating the muscle path and subsequently adding Hermite splines through the centers of gravity of all slices. Then, a radius function is defined for each slice, completing the transformation of the static 3D polygon model. Finally, this paper describes future extensions to our system. One of these extensions is the support for additional calculations and measurements within the reconstructed 3D muscle representation. Globe translation, localization of muscle pulleys by analyzing the 3D reconstruction in two different gaze positions and other diagnostic measurements will be available.

  14. Calf heads on a trophy sign: Miyoshi myopathy.

    PubMed

    Shyma, M Mundayadan; Roopchand, P Sreedharan; Ram, K Mohan; Shaji, C Velayudhan

    2015-01-01

    Miyoshi myopathy is an autosomal recessive distal myopathy with predominant involvement of the posterior calf muscles attributed to mutations in the dysferlin gene. We report a 26-year-old male, born of nonconsanginous parentage. He noticed weakness and atrophy of leg muscles with inability to walk on his heels. The creatine kinase concentration was high. The electromyography showed myopathic pattern and the muscle biopsy disclosed dystrophic changes with absence of dysferlin. Miyoshi myopathy may be distinct among the hereditary distal myopathies. There are only few reported cases of Miyoshi myopathy in the world literature. In India only 12 cases were reported who had classical features of Miyoshi myopathy. Our's is a typical case of Miyoshi myopathy, with an affected twin sister as well. He also had "calf heads on a trophy sign" on physical examination, which is considered to be pathognomonic of this disease.

  15. Calf heads on a trophy sign: Miyoshi myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Shyma, M. Mundayadan; Roopchand, P. Sreedharan; Ram, K. Mohan; Shaji, C. Velayudhan

    2015-01-01

    Miyoshi myopathy is an autosomal recessive distal myopathy with predominant involvement of the posterior calf muscles attributed to mutations in the dysferlin gene. We report a 26-year-old male, born of nonconsanginous parentage. He noticed weakness and atrophy of leg muscles with inability to walk on his heels. The creatine kinase concentration was high. The electromyography showed myopathic pattern and the muscle biopsy disclosed dystrophic changes with absence of dysferlin. Miyoshi myopathy may be distinct among the hereditary distal myopathies. There are only few reported cases of Miyoshi myopathy in the world literature. In India only 12 cases were reported who had classical features of Miyoshi myopathy. Our's is a typical case of Miyoshi myopathy, with an affected twin sister as well. He also had “calf heads on a trophy sign” on physical examination, which is considered to be pathognomonic of this disease. PMID:26167036

  16. Effect of volume of milk consumed on the attenuation of exercise-induced muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Cockburn, Emma; Robson-Ansley, Paula; Hayes, Philip R; Stevenson, Emma

    2012-09-01

    Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) leads to decrements in muscle performance, increases in intramuscular proteins and delayed-onset of muscle soreness (DOMS). Previous research demonstrated that one litre of milk-based protein-carbohydrate (CHO) consumed immediately following muscle damaging exercise can limit changes in markers of EIMD possibly due to attenuating protein degradation and/or increasing protein synthesis. If the attenuation of EIMD is derived from changes in protein metabolism then it can be hypothesised that consuming a smaller volume of CHO and protein will elicit similar effects. Three independent matched groups of 8 males consumed 500 mL of milk, 1,000 mL of milk or a placebo immediately following muscle damaging exercise. Passive and active DOMS, isokinetic muscle performance, creatine kinase (CK), myoglobin and interleukin-6 were assessed immediately before and 24, 48 and 72 h after EIMD. After 72 h 1,000 mL of milk had a likely benefit for limiting decrements in peak torque compared to the placebo. After 48 h, 1,000 mL of milk had a very likely benefit of limiting increases in CK in comparison to the placebo. There were no differences between consuming 500 or 1,000 mL of milk for changes in peak torque and CK. In conclusion, decrements in isokinetic muscle performance and increases in CK can be limited with the consumption of 500 mL of milk.

  17. Upper Extremity Muscle Volumes and Functional Strength After Resistance Training in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Melissa; Vidt, Meghan E.; Eggebeen, Joel D.; Simpson, W. Greg; Miller, Michael E.; Marsh, Anthony P.; Saul, Katherine R.

    2014-01-01

    Aging leads to a decline in strength and an associated loss of independence. The authors examined changes in muscle volume, maximum isometric joint moment, functional strength, and 1-repetition maximum (1RM) after resistance training (RT) in the upper extremity of older adults. They evaluated isometric joint moment and muscle volume as predictors of functional strength. Sixteen healthy older adults (average age 75 ± 4.3 yr) were randomized to a 6-wk upper extremity RT program or control group. The RT group increased 1RM significantly (p < .01 for all exercises). Compared with controls, randomization to RT led to greater functional pulling strength (p = .003), isometric shoulder-adduction moment (p = .041), elbow-flexor volume (p = .017), and shoulder-adductor volume (p = .009). Shoulder-muscle volumes and isometric moments were good predictors of functional strength. The authors conclude that shoulder strength is an important factor for performing functional reaching and pulling tasks and a key target for upper extremity RT interventions. PMID:22952203

  18. High-volume resistance training session acutely diminishes respiratory muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Daniel A; Johnson, Nathan A; Chow, Chin-Moi

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of a high-volume compared to a low-volume resistance training session on maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and maximal expiratory pressure (MEP). Twenty male subjects with resistance training experience (6.2 ± 3.2 y), in a crossover trial, completed two resistance training protocols (high-volume: 5 sets per exercise; low-volume: 2 sets per exercise) and a control session (no exercise) on 3 separate occasions. MIP and MEP decreased by 13.6% (p < 0.01) and 14.7% (p < 0.01) respectively from pre-session MIP and MEP, following the high-volume session. MIP and MEP were unaffected following the low-volume or the control sessions. MIP returned to pre-session values after 40 minutes, whereas MEP remained significantly reduced after 60 minutes post-session by 9.2% compared to pre-session (p < 0.01). The findings suggest that the high-volume session significantly decreased MIP and MEP post-session, implicating a substantially increased demand on the respiratory muscles and that adequate recovery is mandatory following this mode of training. Key pointsRespiratory muscular strength performance is acutely diminished following a high-volume whole-body resistance training session.Greater ventilatory requirements and generation of IAP during the high-volume resistance training session may have contributed to the increased demand placed on the respiratory muscles.Protracted return of respiratory muscular strength performance to baseline levels may have implications for individuals prior to engaging in subsequent exercise bouts.

  19. Lower limb muscle volume estimation from maximum cross-sectional area and muscle length in cerebral palsy and typically developing individuals.

    PubMed

    Vanmechelen, Inti M; Shortland, Adam P; Noble, Jonathan J

    2018-01-01

    Deficits in muscle volume may be a significant contributor to physical disability in young people with cerebral palsy. However, 3D measurements of muscle volume using MRI or 3D ultrasound may be difficult to make routinely in the clinic. We wished to establish whether accurate estimates of muscle volume could be made from a combination of anatomical cross-sectional area and length measurements in samples of typically developing young people and young people with bilateral cerebral palsy. Lower limb MRI scans were obtained from the lower limbs of 21 individuals with cerebral palsy (14.7±3years, 17 male) and 23 typically developing individuals (16.8±3.3years, 16 male). The volume, length and anatomical cross-sectional area were estimated from six muscles of the left lower limb. Analysis of Covariance demonstrated that the relationship between the length*cross-sectional area and volume was not significantly different depending on the subject group. Linear regression analysis demonstrated that the product of anatomical cross-sectional area and length bore a strong and significant relationship to the measured muscle volume (R 2 values between 0.955 and 0.988) with low standard error of the estimates of 4.8 to 8.9%. This study demonstrates that muscle volume may be estimated accurately in typically developing individuals and individuals with cerebral palsy by a combination of anatomical cross-sectional area and muscle length. 2D ultrasound may be a convenient method of making these measurements routinely in the clinic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Low Volume Aerobic Training Heightens Muscle Deoxygenation in Early Post-Angina Pectoris Patients.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Shun; Murase, Norio; Kime, Ryotaro; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Osada, Takuya; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low volume aerobic exercise training on muscle O2 dynamics during exercise in early post-angina pectoris (AP) patients, as a pilot study. Seven AP patients (age: 72 ± 6 years) participated in aerobic exercise training for 12 weeks. Training consisted of continuous cycling exercise for 30 min at the individual's estimated lactate threshold, and the subjects trained for 15 ± 5 exercise sessions over 12 weeks. Before and after training, the subjects performed ramp cycling exercise until exhaustion. Muscle O2 saturation (SmO2) and relative changes from rest in deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration (∆Deoxy-Hb) and total hemoglobin concentration (∆Total-Hb) were monitored at the vastus lateralis by near infrared spatial resolved spectroscopy during exercise. The SmO2 was significantly lower and ∆Deoxy-Hb was significantly higher after training than before training, while there were no significant changes in ∆Total-Hb. These results indicated that muscle deoxygenation and muscle O2 extraction were potentially heightened by aerobic exercise training in AP patients, even though the exercise training volume was low.

  1. The Development of a Flexible Measuring System for Muscle Volume Using Ultrasonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumoto, Kiyotaka; Fukuda, Osamu; Tsubai, Masayoshi; Muraki, Satoshi

    Quantification of muscle volume can be used as a means for the estimation of muscle strength. Its measuring process does not need the subject's muscular contractions so it is completely safe and particularly suited for elderly people. Therefore, we have developed a flexible measuring system for muscle volume using ultrasonography. In this system, an ultrasound probe is installed on a link mechanism which continuously scans fragmental images along the human body surface. These images are then measured and composed into a wide area cross-sectional image based on the spatial compounding method. The flexibility of the link mechanism enables the operator to measure the images under any body postures and body site. The spatial compounding method significantly reduces speckle and artifact noises from the composed cross-sectional image so that the operator can observe the individual muscles, such as Rectus femoris, Vastus intermedius, and so on, in detail. We conducted the experiments in order to examine the advantages of this system we have developed. The experimental results showed a high accuracy of the measuring position which was calculated using the link mechanism and presented the noise reduction effect based on the spatial compounding method. Finally, we confirmed high correlations between the MRI images and the ones of the developed system to verify the validity of the system.

  2. Diffusion tensor imaging of the human calf: Variation of inter- and intramuscle-specific diffusion parameters.

    PubMed

    Schlaffke, Lara; Rehmann, Robert; Froeling, Martijn; Kley, Rudolf; Tegenthoff, Martin; Vorgerd, Matthias; Schmidt-Wilcke, Tobias

    2017-10-01

    To investigate to what extent inter- and intramuscular variations of diffusion parameters of human calf muscles can be explained by age, gender, muscle location, and body mass index (BMI) in a specific age group (20-35 years). Whole calf muscles of 18 healthy volunteers were evaluated. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed using a 3T scanner and a 16-channel Torso XL coil. Diffusion-weighted images were acquired to perform fiber tractography and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis for each muscle of both legs. Fiber tractography was used to separate seven lower leg muscles. Associations between DTI parameters and confounds were evaluated. All muscles were additionally separated in seven identical segments along the z-axis to evaluate intramuscular differences in diffusion parameters. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were obtained for each muscle with low standard deviations (SDs) (SD FA : 0.01-0.02; SD MD : 0.07-0.14(10 -3 )). We found significant differences in FA values of the tibialis anterior muscle (AT) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles between men and women for whole muscle FA (two-sample t-tests; AT: P = 0.0014; EDL: P = 0.0004). We showed significant intramuscular differences in diffusion parameters between adjacent segments in most calf muscles (P < 0.001). Whereas muscle insertions showed higher (SD 0.03-0.06) than muscle bellies (SD 0.01-0.03), no relationships between FA or MD with age or BMI were found. Inter- and intramuscular variations in diffusion parameters of the calf were shown, which are not related to age or BMI in this age group. Differences between muscle belly and insertion should be considered when interpreting datasets not including whole muscles. 3 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;46:1137-1148. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  3. Volume regulation in mammalian skeletal muscle: the role of sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporters during exposure to hypertonic solutions.

    PubMed

    Lindinger, Michael I; Leung, Matthew; Trajcevski, Karin E; Hawke, Thomas J

    2011-06-01

    Controversy exists as to whether mammalian skeletal muscle is capable of volume regulation in response to changes in extracellular osmolarity despite evidence that muscle fibres have the required ion transport mechanisms to transport solute and water in situ. We addressed this issue by studying the ability of skeletal muscle to regulate volume during periods of induced hyperosmotic stress using single, mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibres and intact muscle (soleus and EDL). Fibres and intact muscles were loaded with the fluorophore, calcein, and the change in muscle fluorescence and width (single fibres only) used as a metric of volume change. We hypothesized that skeletal muscle exposed to increased extracellular osmolarity would elicit initial cellular shrinkage followed by a regulatory volume increase (RVI) with the RVI dependent on the sodium–potassium–chloride cotransporter (NKCC). We found that single fibres exposed to a 35% increase in extracellular osmolarity demonstrated a rapid, initial 27–32% decrease in cell volume followed by a RVI which took 10-20 min and returned cell volume to 90–110% of pre-stimulus values. Within intact muscle, exposure to increased extracellular osmolarity of varying degrees also induced a rapid, initial shrinkage followed by a gradual RVI, with a greater rate of initial cell shrinkage and a longer time for RVI to occur with increasing extracellular tonicities. Furthermore, RVI was significantly faster in slow-twitch soleus than fast-twitch EDL. Pre-treatment of muscle with bumetanide (NKCC inhibitor) or ouabain (Na+,K+-ATPase inhibitor), increased the initial volume loss and impaired the RVI response to increased extracellular osmolarity indicating that the NKCC is a primary contributor to volume regulation in skeletal muscle. It is concluded that mouse skeletal muscle initially loses volume then exhibits a RVI when exposed to increases in extracellular osmolarity. The rate of RVI is dependent on the

  4. Beef cow-calf production.

    PubMed

    Feuz, Dillon M; Umberger, Wendy J

    2003-07-01

    Cow-calf production occurs in all 50 states over varied resource bases and under vastly different environmental conditions. Multiple breeds exist and management styles and objectives are as numerous as the number of cow-calf producers. There is not one area of the country, one breed of cattle, or one management style that is most profitable for producing cows and calves. There are, however, some common strategies that can be employed by cow-calf producers to enhance profitability. Costs need to be controlled without jeopardizing cow herd productivity or net returns. It appears that the cost associated with purchased and harvested feeds varies considerably across operations. Understanding cyclic and seasonal price patterns, weight-price slides, cattle shrink, and other marketing costs can help producers enhance their profit by marketing (and not by just selling) their cattle. Producers with superior cattle genetics can become part of a specific alliance or, at a minimum, document the performance of their cattle so that they can get paid for the superior genetics. The beef industry is changing and will likely continue to change. Cow-calf producers will need to examine their own management practices to determine whether they are optimal for the current industry. Those producers who are most adept at matching their management abilities to their cattle type, their resource base, and the appropriate market outlet will be the most successful in the future.

  5. Editorial Commentary: Single-Image Slice Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessments Do Not Predict 3-Dimensional Muscle Volume.

    PubMed

    Brand, Jefferson C

    2016-01-01

    No single-image magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment-Goutallier classification, Fuchs classification, or cross-sectional area-is predictive of whole-muscle volume or fatty atrophy of the supraspinatus or infraspinatus. Rather, 3-dimensional MRI measurement of whole-muscle volume and fat-free muscle volume is required and is associated with shoulder strength, which is clinically relevant. Three-dimensional MRI may represent a new gold standard for assessment of the rotator cuff musculature using imaging and may help to predict the feasibility of repair of a rotator cuff tear as well as the postoperative outcome. Unfortunately, 3-dimensional MRI assessment of muscle volume is labor intensive and is not widely available for clinical use. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Chest wall mobility is related to respiratory muscle strength and lung volumes in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Lanza, Fernanda de Cordoba; de Camargo, Anderson Alves; Archija, Lilian Rocha Ferraz; Selman, Jessyca Pachi Rodrigues; Malaguti, Carla; Dal Corso, Simone

    2013-12-01

    Chest wall mobility is often measured in clinical practice, but the correlations between chest wall mobility and respiratory muscle strength and lung volumes are unknown. We investigate the associations between chest wall mobility, axillary and thoracic cirtometry values, respiratory muscle strength (maximum inspiratory pressure and maximum expiratory pressure), and lung volumes (expiratory reserve volume, FEV(1), inspiratory capacity, FEV(1)/FVC), and the determinants of chest mobility in healthy subjects. In 64 healthy subjects we measured inspiratory capacity, FVC, FEV(1), expiratory reserve volume, maximum inspiratory pressure, and maximum expiratory pressure, and chest wall mobility via axillary and thoracic cirtometry. We used linear regression to evaluate the influence of the measured variables on chest wall mobility. The subjects' mean ± SD values were: age 24 ± 3 years, axillary cirtometry 6.3 ± 2.0 cm, thoracic cirtometry 7.5 ± 2.3 cm; maximum inspiratory pressure 90.4 ± 10.6% of predicted, maximum expiratory pressure 92.8 ± 13.5% of predicted, inspiratory capacity 99.7 ± 8.6% of predicted, FVC 101.9 ± 10.6% of predicted, FEV(1) 98.2 ± 10.3% of predicted, expiratory reserve volume 90.9 ± 19.9% of predicted. There were significant correlations between axillary cirtometry and FVC (r = 0.32), FEV(1) (r = 0.30), maximum inspiratory pressure (r = 0.48), maximum expiratory pressure (r = 0.25), and inspiratory capacity (r = 0.24), and between thoracic cirtometry and FVC (r = 0.50), FEV(1) (r = 0.48), maximum inspiratory pressure (r = 0.46), maximum expiratory pressure (r = 0.37), inspiratory capacity (r = 0.39), and expiratory reserve volume (r = 0.47). In multiple regression analysis the variable that best explained the axillary cirtometry variation was maximum inspiratory pressure (R(2) 0.23), and for thoracic cirtometry it was FVC and maximum inspiratory pressure (R(2) 0.32). Chest mobility in healthy subjects is related to respiratory muscle

  7. Imaging skeletal muscle volume, density, and FDG uptake before and after induction therapy for non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, M D; Taylor, S; Halpenny, D F; Schwitzer, E; Gandelman, S; Jackson, J; Lukose, A; Plodkowski, A J; Tan, K S; Dunphy, M; Jones, L W; Downey, R J

    2018-05-01

    To assess whether changes in body composition could be assessed serially using conventional thoracic computed tomography (CT) and positron-emission tomography (PET)/CT imaging in patients receiving induction chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). CT-based skeletal muscle volume and density were measured retrospectively from thoracic and lumbar segment CT images from 88 patients with newly diagnosed and untreated NSCLC before and after induction chemotherapy. Skeletal muscle 2-[ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) uptake was measured from PET/CT images from a subset of patients (n=42). Comparisons of each metric before and after induction chemotherapy were conducted using the non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test for paired data. The association between clinical factors and percentage change in muscle volume was examined using univariate linear regression models, with adjustment for baseline muscle volume. Following induction chemotherapy, thoracic (-3.3%, p=0.0005) and lumbar (-2.6%, p=0.0101) skeletal muscle volume were reduced (adiposity remained unchanged). The proportion of skeletal muscle with a density <0 HU increased (7.9%, p<0.0001), reflecting a decrease in skeletal muscle density and skeletal muscle FDG uptake increased (10.4-31%, p<0.05). No imaging biomarkers were correlated with overall survival. Changes in body composition can be measured from routine thoracic imaging. During chemotherapy skeletal muscle volume and metabolism are altered; however, there was no impact on survival in this retrospective series, and further validation in prospective, well-controlled studies are required. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Longitudinal Changes in Intermuscular Fat Volume and Quadriceps Muscle Volume in the Thighs of Female Osteoarthritis Initiative Participants

    PubMed Central

    MacIntyre, Norma J.; Ramadan, Khaled; Inglis, Dean; Maly, Monica R.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To quantify rates of change in quadriceps muscle (QM) and intermuscular fat (IMF) volumes over 2-years in women in the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) study and examine group differences between those with radiographic OA (ROA) and those without (non-ROA). Methods The OAI database was queried for women ≥50 years old in the incident and progression cohorts with and without ROA at baseline. Mid-thigh MRI scans (15 contiguous slices, 5 mm slice thickness) of eligible women were randomly selected and anonymized. Image pairs were registered. QM and IMF were segmented in the 12 most proximal matching slices with the segmenter blinded to image time point. Age-adjusted differences in QM and IMF volume changes between groups were tested using ANCOVA. Results 41 women without ROA (mean (SD) age 60.7 (7.6) yrs) and 45 with ROA (mean (SD) age 64.5 (6.7) yrs) were included. Mean QM and IMF volume changes in the non-ROA group were -4.1 (11.1) cm3 and 3.4 (7.1) cm3, respectively, and -5.4 (13.5) cm3 and 3.1 (7.4) cm3 in the ROA group, respectively. Age-adjusted between-group differences in QM and IMF changes were not significant (p>0.05). Conclusions Two-year changes in QM and IMF volume appear consistent with ageing and do not seem to be related to OA status. Direct comparison with a control cohort without OA risk factors could confirm this. Since group assignment was based on baseline data, there may have been women in the non-ROA group who developed radiographic OA over follow-up resulting in some overlap between groups. PMID:21905259

  9. Leg muscle volume during 30-day 6-degree head-down bed rest with isotonic and isokinetic exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Lee, P. L.; Ellis, S.; Selzer, R. H.; Ortendahl, D. A.

    1994-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to compare the effect of two modes of lower-extremity exercise training on the mass (volume) of posterior leg group (PLG) muscles (soleus, flexor hallucis longus, tibialis posterior, lateral and medial gastrocnemius, and flexor digitorum longus) on 19 men (ages 32-42 years) subjected to intense dynamic-isotonic (ITE, cycle ergometer, number of subjects (N) = 7), isokinetic (IKE, torque egrometer, N = 7), and no exercise (NOE, N = 5) training for 60 min/day during head-down bed rest (HDBR). Total volume of the PLG muscles decreased (p less than 0.05) similarly: ITE = 4.3 +/- SE 1.6%, IKE = 7.7 +/- 1.6%, and NOE = 6.3 +/- 0.8%; combined volume (N = 19) loss was 6.1 +/- 0.9%. Ranges of volume changes were 2.6% to -9.0% (ITE), -2.1% to -14.9% (IKE), and -3.4% to -8/1% (NOE). Correlation coefficients (r) of muscle volume versus thickness measured with ultrasonography were: ITE r + 0.79 (p less than 0.05), IKE r = 0.27 (not significant (NS)), and NOE r = 0.63 (NS). Leg-muscle volume and thickness were highly correlated (r = 0.79) when plasma volume was maintained during HDBR with ITE. Thus, neither intensive lower extremity ITE nor IKE training influence the normal non-exercised posterior leg muscle atrophy during HDBR. The relationship of muscle volume and thickness may depend on the mode of exercise training associated with the maintenance of plasma volume.

  10. Influence of unstable footwear on lower leg muscle activity, volume change and subjective discomfort during prolonged standing.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Zanyar; Allahyari, Teimour; Azghani, Mahmood Reza; Khalkhali, Hamidreza

    2016-03-01

    The present study was an attempt to investigate the effect of unstable footwear on lower leg muscle activity, volume change and subjective discomfort during prolonged standing. Ten healthy subjects were recruited to stand for 2 h in three footwear conditions: barefoot, flat-bottomed shoe and unstable shoe. During standing, lower leg discomfort and EMG activity of medial gastrocnemius (MG) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were continuously monitored. Changes in lower leg volume over standing time also were measured. Lower leg discomfort rating reduced significantly while subjects standing on unstable shoe compared to the flat-bottomed shoe and barefoot condition. For lower leg volume, less changes also were observed with unstable shoe. The activity level and variation of right MG muscle was greater with unstable shoe compared to the other footwear conditions; however regarding the left MG muscle, significant difference was found between unstable shoe and flat-bottomed shoe only for activity level. Furthermore no significant differences were observed for the activity level and variation of TA muscles (right/left) among all footwear conditions. The findings suggested that prolonged standing with unstable footwear produces changes in lower leg muscles activity and leads to less volume changes. Perceived discomfort also was lower for this type of footwear and this might mean that unstable footwear can be used as ergonomic solution for employees whose work requires prolonged standing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Regional changes in muscle mass following 17 weeks of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, Adrian D.; Schneider, Victor S.; Evans, Harlan J.; Pientok, Colette; Rowe, Roger; Spector, Elisabeth

    1992-01-01

    This work reports on the muscle loss and recovery after 17 wk of continuous bed rest and 8 wk of reambulation in eight normal male volunteers. Muscle changes were assessed by urinary levels of 3-methylhistidine (3-MeH), nitrogen balance, dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and isokinetic muscle performance. The total body lean tissue loss during bed rest calculated from nitrogen balance was 3.9 +/- 2.1 kg. Although the total loss is minimal, DPA scans showed that nearly all of the lean tissue loss occurred in the lower limbs. Similarly, MRI muscle volume measurements showed greater percent loss in the limbs relative to the back muscles. MRI, DPA, and nitrogen balance suggest that muscle atrophy continued throughout bed rest with rapid recovery after reambulaton. Isokinetic muscle strength decreased significantly in the thigh and calf with no loss in the arms and with rapid recovery during reambulation.

  12. Hip Abductor Muscle Volume and Strength Differences Between Women With Chronic Hip Joint Pain and Asymptomatic Controls.

    PubMed

    Mastenbrook, Matthew J; Commean, Paul K; Hillen, Travis J; Salsich, Gretchen B; Meyer, Gretchen A; Mueller, Michael J; Clohisy, John C; Harris-Hayes, Marcie

    2017-12-01

    Study Design Secondary analysis, cross-sectional study. Background Chronic hip joint pain (CHJP) can lead to limitations in activity participation, but the musculoskeletal factors associated with the condition are relatively unknown. Understanding the factors associated with CHJP may help develop rehabilitation strategies to improve quality of life of individuals with long-term hip pain. Objectives To compare measures of hip abductor muscle volume and hip abductor muscle strength between women with CHJP and asymptomatic controls. Methods Thirty women, 15 with CHJP and 15 matched asymptomatic controls (age range, 18-40 years), participated in this study. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to determine the volume of the primary hip abductor muscles, consisting of the gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, a small portion of the gluteus maximus, and the tensor fascia latae, within a defined region of interest. Break tests were performed using a handheld dynamometer to assess hip abductor strength. During the strength test, the participant was positioned in sidelying with the involved hip in 15° of abduction. Independent-samples t tests were used to compare muscle volume and strength values between those with CHJP and asymptomatic controls. Results Compared to asymptomatic controls, women with CHJP demonstrated significantly increased gluteal muscle volume (228 ± 40 cm 3 versus 199 ± 29 cm 3 , P = .032), but decreased hip abductor strength (74.6 ± 16.8 Nm versus 93.6 ± 20.2 Nm, P = .009). There were no significant differences in tensor fascia lata muscle volume between the 2 groups (P = .640). Conclusion Women with CHJP appear to have larger gluteal muscle volume, but decreased hip abductor strength, compared to asymptomatic controls. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(12):923-930. Epub 9 Oct 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7380.

  13. Tubular system volume changes in twitch fibres from toad and rat skeletal muscle assessed by confocal microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Launikonis, Bradley S; Stephenson, D George

    2002-01-01

    The volume of the extracellular compartment (tubular system) within intact muscle fibres from cane toad and rat was measured under various conditions using confocal microscopy. Under physiological conditions at rest, the fractional volume of the tubular system (t-sysVol) was 1.38 ± 0.09 % (n = 17), 1.41 ± 0.09 % (n = 12) and 0.83 ± 0.07 % (n = 12) of the total fibre volume in the twitch fibres from toad iliofibularis muscle, rat extensor digitorum longus muscle and rat soleus muscle, respectively. In toad muscle fibres, the t-sysVol decreased by 30 % when the tubular system was fully depolarized and decreased by 15 % when membrane cholesterol was depleted from the tubular system with methyl-β-cyclodextrin but did not change as the sarcomere length was changed from 1.93 to 3.30 μm. There was also an increase by 30 % and a decrease by 25 % in t-sysVol when toad fibres were equilibrated in solutions that were 2.5-fold hypertonic and 50 % hypotonic, respectively. When the changes in total fibre volume were taken into consideration, the t-sysVol expressed as a percentage of the isotonic fibre volume did actually decrease as tonicity increased, revealing that the tubular system in intact fibres cannot be compressed below 0.9 % of the isotonic fibre volume. The results can be explained in terms of forces acting at the level of the tubular wall. These observations have important physiological implications showing that the tubular system is a dynamic membrane structure capable of changing its volume in response to the membrane potential, cholesterol depletion and osmotic stress but not when the sarcomere length is changed in resting muscle. PMID:11790823

  14. Muscle Volume Increases Following 16 Weeks of Resistive Exercise Training with the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) and Free Weights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, R. E.; Loehr, J. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; English, K. L.; Evans, H.; Smith, S. A.; Hagan, R. D.

    2009-01-01

    Space flight-induced muscle atrophy, particularly in the postural and locomotorymuscles, may impair task performance during long-duration space missions and planetary exploration. High intensity free weight (FW) resistive exercise training has been shown to prevent atrophy during bed rest, a space flight analog. NASA developed the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) to simulate the characteristics of FW exercise (i.e. constant mass, inertial force) and to be used as a countermeasure during International Space Station (ISS) missions. PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of ARED and FW training to induce hypertrophy in specific muscle groups in ambulatory subjects prior to deploying ARED on the ISS. METHODS: Twenty untrained subjects were assigned to either the ARED (8 males, 3 females) or FW (6 males, 3 females) group and participated in a periodizedtraining protocol consisting of squat (SQ), heel raise (HR), and deadlift(DL) exercises 3 d wk-1 for 16 wks. SQ, HR, and DL muscle strength (1RM) was measured before, after 8 wks, and after 16 wks of training to prescribe exercise and measure strength changes. Muscle volume of the vastigroup (V), hamstring group (H), hip adductor group (ADD), medial gastrocnemius(MG), lateral gastrocnemius(LG), and deep posterior muscles including soleus(DP) was measured using MRI pre-and post-training. Consecutive cross-sectional images (8 mm slices with a 2 mm gap) were analyzed and summed. Anatomical references insured that the same muscle sections were analyzed pre-and post-training. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs (p<0.05) were used to test for differences in muscle strength and volume between training devices. RESULTS: SQ, HR, and DL 1RM increased in both FW (SQ: 49+/-6%, HR: 12+/-2%, DL: 23+/-4%) and ARED (SQ: 31+/-4%, HR: 18+/-2%, DL: 23+/-3%) groups. Both groups increased muscle volume in the V (FW: 13+/-2%, ARED: 10+/-2%), H (FW: 3+/-1%, ARED: 3+/-1 %), ADD (FW: 15=/-2%, ARED: 10+/-1%), LG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 4+/-1%), MG (FW

  15. Hypomyelination Associated with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Type 2 Infection in a Longhorn Calf

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A newborn Longhorn heifer calf presented to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital at Texas A&M University with generalized tremors, muscle fasciculations, ataxia, and nystagmus. At necropsy, gross central nervous system lesions were not observed. Histopathologic evaluation of the brain and spin...

  16. Ramses-GPU: Second order MUSCL-Handcock finite volume fluid solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kestener, Pierre

    2017-10-01

    RamsesGPU is a reimplementation of RAMSES (ascl:1011.007) which drops the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) features to optimize 3D uniform grid algorithms for modern graphics processor units (GPU) to provide an efficient software package for astrophysics applications that do not need AMR features but do require a very large number of integration time steps. RamsesGPU provides an very efficient C++/CUDA/MPI software implementation of a second order MUSCL-Handcock finite volume fluid solver for compressible hydrodynamics as a magnetohydrodynamics solver based on the constraint transport technique. Other useful modules includes static gravity, dissipative terms (viscosity, resistivity), and forcing source term for turbulence studies, and special care was taken to enhance parallel input/output performance by using state-of-the-art libraries such as HDF5 and parallel-netcdf.

  17. The validity of anthropometric leg muscle volume estimation across a wide spectrum: From able-bodied adults to individuals with a spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Venturelli, Massimo; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Richardson, Russell S.

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of muscle volume, and changes over time, have significant clinical and research-related implications. Methods to assess muscle volume vary from simple and inexpensive to complex and expensive. Therefore this study sought to examine the validity of muscle volume estimated simply by anthropometry compared with the more complex proton magnetic resonance imaging (1H-MRI) across a wide spectrum of individuals including those with a spinal cord injury (SCI), a group recognized to exhibit significant muscle atrophy. Accordingly, muscle volume of the thigh and lower leg of eight subjects with a SCI and eight able-bodied subjects (controls) was determined by anthropometry and 1H-MRI. With either method, muscle volumes were significantly lower in the SCI compared with the controls (P < 0.05) and, using pooled data from both groups, anthropometric measurements of muscle volume were strongly correlated to the values assessed by 1H-MRI in both the thigh (r2 = 0.89; P < 0.05) and lower leg (r2 = 0.98; P < 0.05). However, the anthropometric approach systematically overestimated muscle volume compared with 1H-MRI in both the thigh (mean bias = 2407cm3) and the lower (mean bias = 170 cm3) leg. Thus with an appropriate correction for this systemic overestimation, muscle volume estimated from anthropometric measurements is a valid approach and provides acceptable accuracy across a spectrum of adults with normal muscle mass to a SCI and severe muscle atrophy. In practical terms this study provides the formulas that add validity to the already simple and inexpensive anthropometric approach to assess muscle volume in clinical and research settings. PMID:24458749

  18. A mouse anti-myostatin antibody increases muscle mass and improves muscle strength and contractility in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy and its humanized equivalent, domagrozumab (PF-06252616), increases muscle volume in cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    St Andre, Michael; Johnson, Mark; Bansal, Prashant N; Wellen, Jeremy; Robertson, Andrew; Opsahl, Alan; Burch, Peter M; Bialek, Peter; Morris, Carl; Owens, Jane

    2017-11-09

    The treatments currently approved for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a progressive skeletal muscle wasting disease, address the needs of only a small proportion of patients resulting in an urgent need for therapies that benefit all patients regardless of the underlying mutation. Myostatin is a member of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family of ligands and is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass. Loss of myostatin has been shown to increase muscle mass and improve muscle function in both normal and dystrophic mice. Therefore, myostatin blockade via a specific antibody could ameliorate the muscle weakness in DMD patients by increasing skeletal muscle mass and function, thereby reducing patients' functional decline. A murine anti-myostatin antibody, mRK35, and its humanized analog, domagrozumab, were developed and their ability to inhibit several TGB-β ligands was measured using a cell-based Smad-activity reporter system. Normal and mdx mice were treated with mRK35 to examine the antibody's effect on body weight, lean mass, muscle weights, grip strength, ex vivo force production, and fiber size. The humanized analog (domagrozumab) was tested in non-human primates (NHPs) for changes in skeletal muscle mass and volume as well as target engagement via modulation of circulating myostatin. Both the murine and human antibodies are specific and potent inhibitors of myostatin and GDF11. mRK35 is able to increase body weight, lean mass, and muscle weights in normal mice. In mdx mice, mRK35 significantly increased body weight, muscle weights, grip strength, and ex vivo force production in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle. Further, tibialis anterior (TA) fiber size was significantly increased. NHPs treated with domagrozumab demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in lean mass and muscle volume and exhibited increased circulating levels of myostatin demonstrating target engagement. We demonstrated that the potent anti-myostatin antibody mRK35 and

  19. Effects of dietary soy protein on skeletal muscle volume and strength in humans with various physical activities.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Rie; Sakai, Atsuko; Murayama, Masumi; Ochi, Arisa; Abe, Tomoki; Hirasaka, Katsuya; Ohno, Ayako; Teshima-Kondo, Shigetada; Yanagawa, Hiroaki; Yasui, Natsuo; Inatsugi, Mikiko; Doi, Daisuke; Takeda, Masanori; Mukai, Rie; Terao, Junji; Nikawa, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the number of bedridden people is rapidly increasing due to aging or lack of exercise in Japan. This problem is becoming more serious, since there is no countermeasure against it. In the present study, we designed to investigate whether dietary proteins, especially soy, had beneficial effects on skeletal muscle in 59 volunteers with various physical activities. We subjected 59 volunteers with various physical activities to meal intervention examination. Persons with low and high physical activities were divided into two dietary groups, the casein diet group and the soy diet group. They ate daily meals supplemented with 7.8 g of powdered casein or soy protein isolate every day for 30 days. Bedridden patients in hospitals were further divided into three dietary groups: the no supplementation diet group, the casein diet group and the soy diet group. They were also subjected to a blood test, a urinalysis, magnetic resonance imaging analysis and muscle strength test of the knee before and after the meal intervention study. Thirty-day soy protein supplementation significantly increased skeletal muscle volume in participants with low physical activity, compared with 30-day casein protein supplementation. Both casein and soy protein supplementation increased the volume of quadriceps femoris muscle in bedridden patients. Consistently, soy protein significantly increased their extension power of the knee, compared with casein protein. Although casein protein increased skeletal muscle volume more than soy protein in bedridden patients, their muscle strength changes by soy protein supplementation were bigger than those by casein protein supplementation. The supplementation of soy protein would be one of the effective foods which prevent the skeletal muscle atrophy caused by immobilization or unloading.

  20. Test-retest reliability of automated whole body and compartmental muscle volume measurements on a wide bore 3T MR system.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Marianna S; Newman, David; Leinhard, Olof Dahlqvist; Kasmai, Bahman; Greenwood, Richard; Malcolm, Paul N; Karlsson, Anette; Rosander, Johannes; Borga, Magnus; Toms, Andoni P

    2014-09-01

    To measure the test-retest reproducibility of an automated system for quantifying whole body and compartmental muscle volumes using wide bore 3 T MRI. Thirty volunteers stratified by body mass index underwent whole body 3 T MRI, two-point Dixon sequences, on two separate occasions. Water-fat separation was performed, with automated segmentation of whole body, torso, upper and lower leg volumes, and manually segmented lower leg muscle volumes. Mean automated total body muscle volume was 19·32 L (SD9·1) and 19·28 L (SD9·12) for first and second acquisitions (Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 1·0, 95% level of agreement -0·32-0·2 L). ICC for all automated test-retest muscle volumes were almost perfect (0·99-1·0) with 95% levels of agreement 1.8-6.6% of mean volume. Automated muscle volume measurements correlate closely with manual quantification (right lower leg: manual 1·68 L (2SD0·6) compared to automated 1·64 L (2SD 0·6), left lower leg: manual 1·69 L (2SD 0·64) compared to automated 1·63 L (SD0·61), correlation coefficients for automated and manual segmentation were 0·94-0·96). Fully automated whole body and compartmental muscle volume quantification can be achieved rapidly on a 3 T wide bore system with very low margins of error, excellent test-retest reliability and excellent correlation to manual segmentation in the lower leg. Sarcopaenia is an important reversible complication of a number of diseases. Manual quantification of muscle volume is time-consuming and expensive. Muscles can be imaged using in and out of phase MRI. Automated atlas-based segmentation can identify muscle groups. Automated muscle volume segmentation is reproducible and can replace manual measurements.

  1. Use of MRI for volume estimation of tibialis posterior and plantar intrinsic foot muscles in healthy and chronic plantar fasciitis limbs.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ryan; Kent-Braun, Jane A; Hamill, Joseph

    2012-06-01

    Due to complexity of the plantar intrinsic foot muscles, little is known about their muscle architecture in vivo. Chronic plantar fasciitis may be accompanied by muscle atrophy of plantar intrinsic foot muscles and tibialis posterior compromising the dynamic support of the foot prolonging the injury. Magnetic resonance images of the foot may be digitized to quantify muscle architecture. The first purpose of this study was to estimate in vivo the volume and distribution of healthy plantar intrinsic foot muscles. The second purpose was to determine whether chronic plantar fasciitis is accompanied by atrophy of plantar intrinsic foot muscles and tibialis posterior. Magnetic resonance images were taken bilaterally in eight subjects with unilateral plantar fasciitis. Muscle perimeters were digitally outlined and muscle signal intensity thresholds were determined for each image for volume computation. The mean volume of contractile tissue in healthy plantar intrinsic foot muscles was 113.3 cm(3). Forefoot volumes of plantar fasciitis plantar intrinsic foot muscles were 5.2% smaller than healthy feet (P=0.03, ES=0.26), but rearfoot (P=0.26, ES=0.08) and total foot volumes (P=0.07) were similar. No differences were observed in tibialis posterior size. While the total volume of plantar intrinsic foot muscles was similar in healthy and plantar fasciitis feet, atrophy of the forefoot plantar intrinsic foot muscles may contribute to plantar fasciitis by destabilizing the medial longitudinal arch. These results suggest that magnetic resonance imaging measures may be useful in understanding the etiology and rehabilitation of chronic plantar fasciitis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lung volume recruitment acutely increases respiratory system compliance in individuals with severe respiratory muscle weakness

    PubMed Central

    Molgat-Seon, Yannick; Hannan, Liam M.; Dominelli, Paolo B.; Peters, Carli M.; Fougere, Renee J.; McKim, Douglas A.; Sheel, A. William

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether lung volume recruitment (LVR) acutely increases respiratory system compliance (Crs) in individuals with severe respiratory muscle weakness (RMW). Individuals with RMW resulting from neuromuscular disease or quadriplegia (n=12) and healthy controls (n=12) underwent pulmonary function testing and the measurement of Crs at baseline, immediately after, 1 h after and 2 h after a single standardised session of LVR. The LVR session involved 10 consecutive supramaximal lung inflations with a manual resuscitation bag to the highest tolerable mouth pressure or a maximum of 50 cmH2O. Each LVR inflation was followed by brief breath-hold and a maximal expiration to residual volume. At baseline, individuals with RMW had lower Crs than controls (37±5 cmH2O versus 109±10 mL·cmH2O−1, p<0.001). Immediately after LVR, Crs increased by 39.5±9.8% to 50±7 mL·cmH2O−1 in individuals with RMW (p<0.05), while no significant change occurred in controls (p=0.23). At 1 h and 2 h post-treatment, there were no within-group differences in Crs compared to baseline (all p>0.05). LVR had no significant effect on measures of pulmonary function at any time point in either group (all p>0.05). During inflations, mean arterial pressure decreased significantly relative to baseline by 10.4±2.8 mmHg and 17.3±3.0 mmHg in individuals with RMW and controls, respectively (both p<0.05). LVR acutely increases Crs in individuals with RMW. However, the high airway pressures during inflations cause reductions in mean arterial pressure that should be considered when applying this technique. PMID:28326313

  3. Raising the standards of the calf-raise test: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hébert-Losier, Kim; Newsham-West, Richard J; Schneiders, Anthony G; Sullivan, S John

    2009-11-01

    The calf-raise test is used by clinicians and researchers in sports medicine to assess properties of the calf muscle-tendon unit. The test generally involves repetitive concentric-eccentric muscle action of the plantar-flexors in unipedal stance and is quantified by the number of raises performed. Although the calf-raise test appears to have acceptable reliability and face validity, and is commonly used for medical assessment and rehabilitation of injuries, no universally acceptable test parameters have been published to date. A systematic review of the existing literature was conducted to investigate the consistency as well as universal acceptance of the evaluation purposes, test parameters, outcome measurements and psychometric properties of the calf-raise test. Nine electronic databases were searched during the period May 30th to September 21st 2008. Forty-nine articles met the inclusion criteria and were quality assessed. Information on study characteristics and calf-raise test parameters, as well as quantitative data, were extracted; tabulated; and statistically analysed. The average quality score of the reviewed articles was 70.4+/-12.2% (range 44-90%). Articles provided various test parameters; however, a consensus was not ascertained. Key testing parameters varied, were often unstated, and few studies reported reliability or validity values, including sensitivity and specificity. No definitive normative values could be established and the utility of the test in subjects with pathologies remained unclear. Although adapted for use in several disciplines and traditionally recommended for clinical assessment, there is no uniform description of the calf-raise test in the literature. Further investigation is recommended to ensure consistent use and interpretation of the test by researchers and clinicians.

  4. Effect of volume-oriented versus flow-oriented incentive spirometry on chest wall volumes, inspiratory muscle activity, and thoracoabdominal synchrony in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Lunardi, Adriana C; Porras, Desiderio C; Barbosa, Renata Cc; Paisani, Denise M; Marques da Silva, Cibele C B; Tanaka, Clarice; Carvalho, Celso R F

    2014-03-01

    Aging causes physiological and functional changes that impair pulmonary function. Incentive spirometry is widely used for lung expansion, but the effects of volume-oriented incentive spirometry (VIS) versus flow-oriented incentive spirometry (FIS) on chest wall volumes, inspiratory muscle activity, and thoracoabdominal synchrony in the elderly are poorly understood. We compared VIS and FIS in elderly subjects and healthy adult subjects. Sixteen elderly subjects (9 women, mean ± SD age 70.6 ± 3.9 y, mean ± SD body mass index 23.8 ± 2.5 kg/m(2)) and 16 healthy adults (8 women, mean ± age 25.9 ± 4.3 y, mean ± body mass index 23.6 ± 2.4 kg/m(2)) performed quiet breathing, VIS, and FIS in randomized sequence. Chest wall kinematics (via optoelectronic plethysmography) and inspiratory muscle activity (via surface electromyography) were assessed simultaneously. Synchrony between the superior thorax and abdominal motion was calculated (phase angle). In the elderly subjects both types of incentive spirometry increased chest wall volumes similarly, whereas in the healthy adult subjects VIS increased the chest wall volume more than did FIS. FIS and VIS triggered similar lower thoracoabdominal synchrony in the elderly subjects, whereas in the healthy adults FIS induced lower synchrony than did VIS. FIS required more muscle activity in the elderly subjects to create an increase in chest wall volume. Incentive spirometry performance is influenced by age, and the differences between elderly and healthy adults response should be considered in clinical practice.

  5. Automatic assessment of volume asymmetries applied to hip abductor muscles in patients with hip arthroplasty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemt, Christian; Modat, Marc; Pichat, Jonas; Cardoso, M. J.; Henckel, Joahnn; Hart, Alister; Ourselin, Sebastien

    2015-03-01

    Metal-on-metal (MoM) hip arthroplasties have been utilised over the last 15 years to restore hip function for 1.5 million patients worldwide. Althoug widely used, this hip arthroplasty releases metal wear debris which lead to muscle atrophy. The degree of muscle wastage differs across patients ranging from mild to severe. The longterm outcomes for patients with MoM hip arthroplasty are reduced for increasing degrees of muscle atrophy, highlighting the need to automatically segment pathological muscles. The automated segmentation of pathological soft tissues is challenging as these lack distinct boundaries and morphologically differ across subjects. As a result, there is no method reported in the literature which has been successfully applied to automatically segment pathological muscles. We propose the first automated framework to delineate severely atrophied muscles by applying a novel automated segmentation propagation framework to patients with MoM hip arthroplasty. The proposed algorithm was used to automatically quantify muscle wastage in these patients.

  6. In Vivo MRI Quantification of Individual Muscle and Organ Volumes for Assessment of Anabolic Steroid Growth Effects

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ed X.; Tang, Haiying; Tong, Christopher; Heymsfield, Steve B.; Vasselli, Joseph R.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a quantitative and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) approach to investigate the muscle growth effects of anabolic steroids. A protocol of MRI acquisition on a standard clinical 1.5 Tesla scanner and quantitative image analysis was established and employed to measure the individual muscle and organ volumes in the intact and castrated guinea pigs undergoing a 16-week treatment protocol by two well-documented anabolic steroids, testosterone and nandrolone, via implanted silastic capsules. High correlations between the in vivo MRI and postmortem dissection measurements were observed for shoulder muscle complex (R = 0.86), masseter (R=0.79), temporalis (R=0.95), neck muscle complex (R=0.58), prostate gland and seminal vesicles (R=0.98), and testis (R=0.96). Furthermore, the longitudinal MRI measurements yielded adequate sensitivity to detect the restoration of growth to or towards normal in castrated guinea pigs by replacing circulating steroid levels to physiological or slightly higher levels, as expected. These results demonstrated that quantitative MRI using a standard clinical scanner provides accurate and sensitive measurement of individual muscles and organs, and this in vivo MRI protocol in conjunction with the castrated guinea pig model constitutes an effective platform to investigate the longitudinal and cross-sectional growth effects of other potential anabolic steroids. The quantitative MRI protocol developed can also be readily adapted for human studies on most clinical MRI scanner to investigate the anabolic steroid growth effects, or monitor the changes in individual muscle and organ volume and geometry following injury, strength training, neuromuscular disorders, and pharmacological or surgical interventions. PMID:18241900

  7. Effects of equal-volume resistance training with different training frequencies in muscle size and strength in trained men

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, James; Steele, James; Campos, Mario H.; Silva, Marcelo H.; Paoli, Antonio; Giessing, Jurgen; Bottaro, Martim

    2018-01-01

    Background The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of equal-volume resistance training (RT) performed with different training frequencies on muscle size and strength in trained young men. Methods Sixteen men with at least one year of RT experience were divided into two groups, G1 and G2, that trained each muscle group once and twice a week, respectively, for 10 weeks. Elbow flexor muscle thickness (MT) was measured using a B-Mode ultrasound and concentric peak torque of elbow extensors and flexors were assessed by an isokinetic dynamometer. Results ANOVA did not reveal group by time interactions for any variable, indicating no difference between groups for the changes in MT or PT of elbow flexors and extensors. Notwithstanding, MT of elbow flexors increased significantly (3.1%, P < 0.05) only in G1. PT of elbow flexors and extensors did not increase significantly for any group. Discussion The present study suggest that there were no differences in the results promoted by equal-volume resistance training performed once or twice a week on upper body muscle strength in trained men. Only the group performing one session per week significantly increased the MT of their elbow flexors. However, with either once or twice a week training, adaptations appear largely minimal in previously trained males.

  8. Effects of equal-volume resistance training with different training frequencies in muscle size and strength in trained men.

    PubMed

    Gentil, Paulo; Fisher, James; Steele, James; Campos, Mario H; Silva, Marcelo H; Paoli, Antonio; Giessing, Jurgen; Bottaro, Martim

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of equal-volume resistance training (RT) performed with different training frequencies on muscle size and strength in trained young men. Sixteen men with at least one year of RT experience were divided into two groups, G1 and G2, that trained each muscle group once and twice a week, respectively, for 10 weeks. Elbow flexor muscle thickness (MT) was measured using a B-Mode ultrasound and concentric peak torque of elbow extensors and flexors were assessed by an isokinetic dynamometer. ANOVA did not reveal group by time interactions for any variable, indicating no difference between groups for the changes in MT or PT of elbow flexors and extensors. Notwithstanding, MT of elbow flexors increased significantly (3.1%, P  < 0.05) only in G1. PT of elbow flexors and extensors did not increase significantly for any group. The present study suggest that there were no differences in the results promoted by equal-volume resistance training performed once or twice a week on upper body muscle strength in trained men. Only the group performing one session per week significantly increased the MT of their elbow flexors. However, with either once or twice a week training, adaptations appear largely minimal in previously trained males.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging with k-means clustering objectively measures whole muscle volume compartments in sarcopenia/cancer cachexia.

    PubMed

    Gray, Calum; MacGillivray, Thomas J; Eeley, Clare; Stephens, Nathan A; Beggs, Ian; Fearon, Kenneth C; Greig, Carolyn A

    2011-02-01

    Sarcopenia and cachexia are characterized by infiltration of non-contractile tissue within muscle which influences area and volume measurements. We applied a statistical clustering (k-means) technique to magnetic resonance (MR) images of the quadriceps of young and elderly healthy women and women with cancer to objectively separate the contractile and non-contractile tissue compartments. MR scans of the thigh were obtained for 34 women (n = 16 young, (median) age 26 y; n = 9 older, age 80 y; n = 9 upper gastrointestinal cancer patients, age 65 y). Segmented regions of consecutive axial images were used to calculate cross-sectional area and (gross) volume. The k-means unsupervised algorithm was subsequently applied to the MR binary mask image array data with resultant volumes compared between groups. Older women and women with cancer had 37% and 48% less quadriceps muscle respectively than young women (p < 0.001). Application of k-means subtracted a significant 9%, 14% and 20% non-contractile tissue from the quadriceps of young, older and patient groups respectively (p < 0.001). There was a significant effect of group (i.e., cancer vs healthy) when controlling for age as a covariate (p = 0.003). K-means objectively separates contractile and non-contractile tissue components. Women with upper GI cancer have significant fatty infiltration throughout whole muscle groups which is maintained when controlling for age. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of MRI-defined back muscles volume between patients with ankylosing spondylitis and control patients with chronic back pain: age and spinopelvic alignment matched study.

    PubMed

    Bok, Doo Hee; Kim, Jihye; Kim, Tae-Hwan

    2017-02-01

    To compare MRI-defined back muscle volume between AS patients and age, and spinopelvic alignment matched control patients with chronic back pain. 51 male patients with AS were enrolled. Age and spinopelvic alignment matched controls (male) were found among non-AS patients with chronic back pain. After matching procedure, fully matched controls were found in 31 of 51 AS patients (60.8%), who represent AS patients without deformity. However, matched controls were not found in 20 of 51 AS patients (39.2%), who represent AS patients with deformity. MRI parameters of back muscle (paraspinal muscle and psoas muscle) at L4/5 disc level including cross-sectional area (CSA) and fat-free cross-sectional area (FCSA) were compared between AS patients and matched controls. Covariates, including BMI, self-reported physical activity, and the presence of chronic disease, which can influence back muscle volume, were also investigated. There were no statistical differences in age, body mass index, score of back pain (NRS), and spinopelvic alignment, and physical activity between matched AS patients and control patients except for duration of back pain. All MRI parameters for paraspinal muscle volume in matched AS patients (without deformity) were significantly less than those of control patients, and significantly larger than those of non-matched AS patients (with deformity). Body size adjusted MRI parameters (relative CSA and relative FCSA) of paraspinal muscle showed strong correlations with lumbar lordosis and sacral slope. Such relationship between paraspinal muscle and spinopelvic parameters remained significant even after multivariate adjustment. AS patients without deformity already have decreased paraspinal muscle volume compared with age and spinopelvic alignment matched non-AS patients with chronic back pain. Such decrease in paraspinal muscle volume was significantly associated with kyphotic deformity of AS patients even after multivariate adjustment. Although the result

  11. Quantification of residual limb skeletal muscle perfusion with contrast-enhanced ultrasound during application of a focal junctional tourniquet

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Brian P.; Belcik, J. Todd; Mott, Brian H.; Landry, Gregory; Lindner, Jonathan R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Focal junctional tourniquets (JTs) have been developed to control hemorrhage from proximal limb injuries. These devices may permit greater collateral perfusion than circumferential tourniquets. We hypothesized that JTs eliminate large-vessel pulse pressure yet allow a small amount of residual limb perfusion that could be useful for maintaining tissue viability. Methods Ten healthy control subjects were studied. Transthoracic echocardiography, Doppler ultrasound of the femoral artery (FA) and posterior tibial artery, and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) perfusion imaging of the anterior thigh extensor and calf plantar flexor muscles were performed at baseline and during application of a JT over the common FA. Intramuscular arterial pulsatility index was also measured from CEU intensity variation during the cardiac cycle. Results FA flow was eliminated by JTs in all subjects; posterior tibial flow was eliminated in all but one. Perfusion measured in the thigh and calf muscles was similar at baseline (0.33 ± 0.29 vs 0.29 ± 0.22 mL/min/g). Application of the JT resulted in a reduction of perfusion (P < .05) that was similar for the thigh and calf (0.08 ± 0.07 and 0.10 ± 0.03 mL/min/g). On CEU, microvascular flux rate was reduced by ≈55%, and functional microvascular blood volume was reduced by ≈35%. Arterial pulsatility index was reduced by ≈90% in the calf. JT inflation did not alter left ventricle dimensions, fractional shortening, cardiac output, or arterial elastance as a measure of total systolic load. Conclusions Application of a JT eliminates conduit arterial pulse and markedly reduces intramuscular pulse pressure, but thigh and calf skeletal muscle perfusion is maintained at 25% to 35% of basal levels. These data suggest that JTs that are used to control limb hemorrhage allow residual tissue perfusion even when pulse pressure is absent. PMID:25065582

  12. Shoulder muscle volume and fat content in healthy adult volunteers: quantification with DIXON MRI to determine the influence of demographics and handedness.

    PubMed

    Kälin, Pascal S; Crawford, Rebecca J; Marcon, Magda; Manoliu, Andrei; Bouaicha, Samy; Fischer, Michael A; Ulbrich, Erika J

    2018-04-23

    We aimed to provide mean values for fat-fraction and volume for full-length bilateral rotator cuff and deltoid muscles in asymptomatic adults selected on the basis of their good musculoskeletal and systemic health, and to understand the influence of gender, age, and arm dominance. Seventy-six volunteers aged 20 to 60 years who were screened for normal BMI and high general health were included in the study. MRI was performed at 3 Tesla using three-point DIXON sequences. Volume and fat-signal fraction of the rotator cuff muscles and the deltoid muscle were determined with semi-automated segmentation of entire muscle lengths. Differences according to age, gender, and handedness per muscle were evaluated. Fat-signal fractions were comparable between genders (mean ± 2 SD, 95% CI, women 7.0 ± 3.0; 6.8-7.2%, men 6.8 ± 2.7; 6.7-7.0%) but did not show convincing changes with age. Higher shoulder muscle volume and lower fat-signal fraction in the dominant arm were shown for teres minor and deltoid (p < 0.01) with similar trends shown for the other rotator cuff muscles. Bilateral fat-signal fractions and volumes based on entire length shoulder muscles in asymptomatic 20-60 year old adults may provide reference for clinicians. Differences shown according to arm dominance should be considered and may rationalize the need for bilateral imaging in determining appropriate management.

  13. Development of Human Muscle Protein Measurement with MRI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Chen; Evans, Harlan; Leblanc, Adrian D.

    1997-01-01

    It is known that micro-gravity has a strong influence on the human musculoskeletal system. A number of studies have shown that significant changes in skeletal muscles occur in both space flight and bedrest simulation. In our 5 week bedrest study, the cross-sectional area of soleus-gastrocnemius decreased about 12% while the cross-sectional area of anterior calf muscles decreased about 4%. Using volume measurements, these losses increased after 17 weeks to approximately 30% and 21% respectively. Significant muscle atrophy was also found on the SL-J crew members after only 8 days in space. It is important that these effects are fully understood so that countermeasures can be developed. The same knowledge might also be useful in preventing muscle atrophy related to other medical problems. A major problem with anatomical measurements of muscle during bed rest and microgravity is the influence of fluid shifts and water balance on the measurement of muscle volume, especially when the exposure duration is short and the atrophy is relatively small. Fluid shifts were documented in Skylab by visual observations of blood vessel distention, rapid changes in limb volume, center of mass measurements and subjective descriptions such as puffy faces and head fullness. It has been reported that the muscle water content of biopsied soleus muscles decreased following 8 hours of head down tilt bed rest. Three aspects of fluid shifts that can affect volume measurements are: first, the shift of fluid that occurs whenever there is a change from upright to a recumbent position and vice versa; second, the potential for fluid accumulation in the lower limbs resulting from muscle damage caused by overextending atrophied muscle or swelling caused by deconditioned precapillary sphincter muscles during reambulation; third, the net change of hydration level during and after bed rest or spaceflight. Because of these transitory fluid shifts, muscle protein is expected to represent muscle capacity

  14. The effect of sitting and calf activity on leg fluid and snoring.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhajan; Yadollahi, Azadeh; Lyons, Owen; Alshaer, Hisham; Bradley, T Douglas

    2017-06-01

    Prolonged sitting may promote leg fluid retention that redistributes to the neck during sleep and contributes to snoring. This could be attenuated by calf activity while sitting. In 16 healthy non-obese subjects we measured leg fluid volume (LFV) below the knees using bioelectrical impedance while sitting for 4h, snoring using a portable BresoDx™ device, and Mallampati grade. Using a double cross-over study design, subjects were randomized to one of two arms and crossed-over one week later: control arm - no calf exercise while sitting; intervention arm - calf contraction against a pedal resistance while sitting. The effects of sitting±calf activity on LFV and snoring were compared. We found that LFV increased by 216±101.0ml (p<0.0001) after sitting. Calf activity while sitting attenuated LFV by 53.8ml (p<0.0001) and, in all five subjects with severe upper airway narrowing (Mallampati grade IV), reduced snoring duration (from 357±132.9 to 116.2±72.1s/h, p=0.02) suggesting reduced overnight rostral fluid shift to the neck. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Vibration-related extrusion of capillary blood from the calf musculature depends upon directions of vibration of the leg and of the gravity vector.

    PubMed

    Çakar, Halil Ibrahim; Doğan, Serfiraz; Kara, Sadık; Rittweger, Jörn; Rawer, Rainer; Zange, Jochen

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of vibration of the whole lower leg on the content and the oxygenation of hemoglobin in the unloaded relaxed lateral gastrocnemius muscle. Vibration was applied orthogonal to and in parallel with leg axis to examine whether the extrusion of blood depends on an alignment of main vessel direction, axis of vibration and gravity. The blood volume in the muscles was altered by horizontal and 30° upright body posture. Fifteen male subjects were exposed to 4 sets of experiments with both vibration directions and both tilt angles applied in permutated order. The absence of voluntary muscular activity and the potential occurrence of compound action potentials by stretch reflexes were monitored using electromyography. Total hemoglobin and tissue saturation index were measured with near infrared spectroscopy. Changes of lower leg circumference were measured with strain gauge system placed around the calf. Vibration caused decrease in tHb and increase in TSI indicating extrusion of predominantly venous blood from the muscle. In 30° tilted position, muscles contained more blood at baseline and vibration ejected more blood from the muscle compared with horizontal posture (p < 0.01). At 30° tilting deeper drop in tHb and steeper increase in TSI (p < 0.01) were observed when vibration was applied in parallel with the length axis of muscle. It is concluded that the vibration extrudes more blood in 30° head up posture and the vibration applied in parallel with the length axis of the muscle is more effective than orthogonal vibration.

  16. Effect of oxotremorine on resting membrane potential and cell volume in skeletal muscle fibers in rats after in vivo blockade of NO-synthase.

    PubMed

    Khairova, R A; Malomuzh, A I; Naumenko, N V; Urazaev, A Kh

    2003-02-01

    Denervation of rat phrenic muscle or block of NO-synthase in vivo increased the cross-section area of muscle fibers and decreased membrane resting potential. Oxotremorine prevented the development of denervation-induced or denervation-like (i.e. induced by NO-synthase blockade) membrane depolarization and increase of the cross-sectional area of muscle fibers. Pirenzepine abolished the effects of oxotremorine. It was concluded that non-quantal acetylcholine can be involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle fiber volume via activation of M1 muscarinic receptors followed by NO synthesis.

  17. Postmaximal contraction blood volume responses are blunted in obese and type 2 diabetic subjects in a muscle-specific manner

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Otto A.; Copenhaver, Elizabeth A.; Chance, Marti A.; Fowler, Michael J.; Towse, Theodore F.; Kent-Braun, Jane A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences in postisometric contraction blood volume and oxygenation responses among groups of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), obese, and lean individuals detectable using MRI. Eight T2DM patients were individually matched by age, sex, and race to non-T2DM individuals with similar body mass index (obese) and lean subjects. Functional MRI was performed using a dual-gradient-recalled echo, echo-planar imaging sequence with a repetition time of 1 s and at two echo times (TE = 6 and 46 ms). Data were acquired before, during, and after 10-s isometric dorsiflexion contractions performed at 50 and 100% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force. MRI signal intensity (SI) changes from the tibialis anterior and extensor digitorum longus muscles were plotted as functions of time for each TE. From each time course, the difference between the minimum and the maximum postcontraction SI (ΔSI) were determined for TE = 6 ms (ΔSI6) and TE = 46 ms (ΔSI46), reflecting variations in blood volume and oxyhemoglobin saturation, respectively. Following 50% MVC contractions, the mean postcontraction ΔSI6 values were similar in the three groups. Following MVC only, and in the EDL muscle only, T2DM and obese participants had ∼56% lower ΔSI6 than the lean individuals. Also following MVC only, the ΔSI46 response in the EDL was lower in T2DM subjects than in lean individuals. These data suggest that skeletal muscle small vessel impairment occurs in T2DM and body mass index-matched subjects, in muscle-specific and contraction intensity-dependent manners. PMID:21572006

  18. 9 CFR 113.41 - Calf safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Calf safety test. 113.41 Section 113.41 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Procedures § 113.41 Calf safety test. The calf safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when...

  19. 9 CFR 113.41 - Calf safety test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calf safety test. 113.41 Section 113.41 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Procedures § 113.41 Calf safety test. The calf safety test provided in this section shall be conducted when...

  20. Assessment of passive muscle elongation using Diffusion Tensor MRI: Correlation between fiber length and diffusion coefficients.

    PubMed

    Mazzoli, Valentina; Oudeman, Jos; Nicolay, Klaas; Maas, Mario; Verdonschot, Nico; Sprengers, Andre M; Nederveen, Aart J; Froeling, Martijn; Strijkers, Gustav J

    2016-12-01

    In this study we investigated the changes in fiber length and diffusion parameters as a consequence of passive lengthening and stretching of the calf muscles. We hypothesized that changes in radial diffusivity (RD) are caused by changes in the muscle fiber cross sectional area (CSA) as a consequence of lengthening and shortening of the muscle. Diffusion Tensor MRI (DT-MRI) measurements were made twice in five healthy volunteers, with the foot in three different positions (30° plantarflexion, neutral position and 15° dorsiflexion). The muscles of the calf were manually segmented on co-registered high resolution anatomical scans, and maps of RD and axial diffusivity (AD) were reconstructed from the DT-MRI data. Fiber tractography was performed and mean fiber length was calculated for each muscle group. Significant negative correlations were found between the changes in RD and changes in fiber length in the dorsiflexed and plantarflexed positions, compared with the neutral foot position. Changes in AD did not correlate with changes in fiber length. Assuming a simple cylindrical model with constant volume for the muscle fiber, the changes in the muscle fiber CSA were calculated from the changes in fiber length. In line with our hypothesis, we observed a significant positive correlation of the CSA with the measured changes in RD. In conclusion, we showed that changes in diffusion coefficients induced by passive muscle stretching and lengthening can be explained by changes in muscle CSA, advancing the physiological interpretation of parameters derived from skeletal muscle DT-MRI. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Effect of speed endurance training and reduced training volume on running economy and single muscle fiber adaptations in trained runners.

    PubMed

    Skovgaard, Casper; Christiansen, Danny; Christensen, Peter M; Almquist, Nicki W; Thomassen, Martin; Bangsbo, Jens

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether improved running economy with a period of speed endurance training and reduced training volume could be related to adaptations in specific muscle fibers. Twenty trained male (n = 14) and female (n = 6) runners (maximum oxygen consumption (VO 2 -max): 56.4 ± 4.6 mL/min/kg) completed a 40-day intervention with 10 sessions of speed endurance training (5-10 × 30-sec maximal running) and a reduced (36%) volume of training. Before and after the intervention, a muscle biopsy was obtained at rest, and an incremental running test to exhaustion was performed. In addition, running at 60% vVO 2 -max, and a 10-km run was performed in a normal and a muscle slow twitch (ST) glycogen-depleted condition. After compared to before the intervention, expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) was lower (P < 0.05) and dystrophin was higher (P < 0.05) in ST muscle fibers, and sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 1 (SERCA1) was lower (P < 0.05) in fast twitch muscle fibers. Running economy at 60% vVO 2 -max (11.6 ± 0.2 km/h) and at v10-km (13.7 ± 0.3 km/h) was ~2% better (P < 0.05) after the intervention in the normal condition, but unchanged in the ST glycogen-depleted condition. Ten kilometer performance was improved (P < 0.01) by 3.2% (43.7 ± 1.0 vs. 45.2 ± 1.2 min) and 3.9% (45.8 ± 1.2 vs. 47.7 ± 1.3 min) in the normal and the ST glycogen-depleted condition, respectively. VO 2 -max was the same, but vVO 2 -max was 2.0% higher (P < 0.05; 19.3 ± 0.3 vs. 18.9 ± 0.3 km/h) after than before the intervention. Thus, improved running economy with intense training may be related to changes in expression of proteins linked to energy consuming processes in primarily ST muscle fibers. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  2. Associations among circulating branched-chain amino acids and tyrosine with muscle volume and glucose metabolism in individuals without diabetes.

    PubMed

    Honda, Tatsuro; Kobayashi, Yoshinao; Togashi, Kenji; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Iwasa, Motoh; Taguchi, Osamu; Takei, Yoshiyuki; Sumida, Yasuhiro

    2016-05-01

    Amino acid metabolites, including branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and tyrosine (Tyr), affect glucose metabolism. The effects of BCAA on insulin resistance in patients with diabetes seem to conflict with mechanisms determined in animal models and cultured cells. The aim of this study was to clarify the controversy surrounding the effects of BCAA by investigating the physiological effects of BCAA and Tyr on glucose metabolism in healthy community dwellers. We investigated associations among BCAA and Tyr and metabolic parameters in 78 residents (median age, 52 y) of Mie, Japan, who did not have prediabetes, diabetes, or a body mass index >30 kg/m(2). Muscle volume, serum BCAA, and Tyr levels were higher in men than in women (n = 32 and 46, respectively; all P < 0.0001). Stepwise multiple regression analysis associated BCAA positively with muscle volume (regression coefficient/t/p/95% confidence interval, 281.8/3.7/0.0004/129.7-433.8), fasting blood glucose (FBG; 12699.4/3.22/0.0020/4830.9-20567.8), fasting immunoreactive insulin (IRI; 8505.1/2.75/0.0078/2322.5-14687.6), and homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β; 893.6/2.58/0.0122/201.8-1585.5), and negatively with the HOMA-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; -9294.1/-2.89/0.0052/-15711.0 to -2877.1). Tyr positively correlated with fasting IRI (26/2.77/0.0072/7.3-44.7). Insulin sensitivity and muscle volume are positively associated with BCAA in individuals without diabetes. In turn, BCAA correlate with increased FBG and fasting IRI levels. Tyr correlated with fasting IRI, but not with insulin sensitivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mitochondrial Respiration after One Session of Calf Raise Exercise in Patients with Peripheral Vascular Disease and Healthy Older Adults.

    PubMed

    van Schaardenburgh, Michel; Wohlwend, Martin; Rognmo, Øivind; Mattsson, Erney J R

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria are essential for energy production in the muscle cell and for this they are dependent upon a sufficient supply of oxygen by the circulation. Exercise training has shown to be a potent stimulus for physiological adaptations and mitochondria play a central role. Whether changes in mitochondrial respiration are seen after exercise in patients with a reduced circulation is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the time course and whether one session of calf raise exercise stimulates mitochondrial respiration in the calf muscle of patients with peripheral vascular disease. One group of patients with peripheral vascular disease (n = 11) and one group of healthy older adults (n = 11) were included. Patients performed one session of continuous calf raises followed by 5 extra repetitions after initiation of pain. Healthy older adults performed 100 continuous calf raises. Gastrocnemius muscle biopsies were collected at baseline and 15 minutes, one hour, three hours and 24 hours after one session of calf raise exercise. A multi substrate (octanoylcarnitine, malate, adp, glutamate, succinate, FCCP, rotenone) approach was used to analyze mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized fibers. Mixed-linear model for repeated measures was used for statistical analyses. Patients with peripheral vascular disease have a lower baseline respiration supported by complex I and they increase respiration supported by complex II at one hour post-exercise. Healthy older adults increase respiration supported by electron transfer flavoprotein and complex I at one hour and 24 hours post-exercise. Our results indicate a shift towards mitochondrial respiration supported by complex II as being a pathophysiological component of peripheral vascular disease. Furthermore exercise stimulates mitochondrial respiration already after one session of calf raise exercise in patients with peripheral vascular disease and healthy older adults. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01842412.

  4. Mitochondrial Respiration after One Session of Calf Raise Exercise in Patients with Peripheral Vascular Disease and Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Wohlwend, Martin; Rognmo, Øivind; Mattsson, Erney J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Mitochondria are essential for energy production in the muscle cell and for this they are dependent upon a sufficient supply of oxygen by the circulation. Exercise training has shown to be a potent stimulus for physiological adaptations and mitochondria play a central role. Whether changes in mitochondrial respiration are seen after exercise in patients with a reduced circulation is unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the time course and whether one session of calf raise exercise stimulates mitochondrial respiration in the calf muscle of patients with peripheral vascular disease. Methods One group of patients with peripheral vascular disease (n = 11) and one group of healthy older adults (n = 11) were included. Patients performed one session of continuous calf raises followed by 5 extra repetitions after initiation of pain. Healthy older adults performed 100 continuous calf raises. Gastrocnemius muscle biopsies were collected at baseline and 15 minutes, one hour, three hours and 24 hours after one session of calf raise exercise. A multi substrate (octanoylcarnitine, malate, adp, glutamate, succinate, FCCP, rotenone) approach was used to analyze mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized fibers. Mixed-linear model for repeated measures was used for statistical analyses. Results Patients with peripheral vascular disease have a lower baseline respiration supported by complex I and they increase respiration supported by complex II at one hour post-exercise. Healthy older adults increase respiration supported by electron transfer flavoprotein and complex I at one hour and 24 hours post-exercise. Conclusion Our results indicate a shift towards mitochondrial respiration supported by complex II as being a pathophysiological component of peripheral vascular disease. Furthermore exercise stimulates mitochondrial respiration already after one session of calf raise exercise in patients with peripheral vascular disease and healthy older adults. Trial

  5. Botulinum toxin (Dysport) treatment of the spastic gastrocnemius muscle in children with cerebral palsy: a randomized trial comparing two injection volumes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Gwo-Chi; Chuang, Yao-Chia; Liu, Jen-Pei; Chien, Kuo-Liong; Chen, Yi-Min; Chen, Ying-Fang

    2009-01-01

    To compare the effect of equivalent doses in two different volumes of botulinum toxin type A (Dysport) on gastrocnemius spasticity. Single-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Hospital rehabilitation department. Twenty-two children with spastic diplegic or quadriplegic cerebral palsy. High (500 U/5 mL) and low (500 U/1 mL)-volume preparations of Dysport were injected into the gastrocnemius muscles, each child randomly receiving one preparation in the right and the other in the left leg. Dynamic ankle joint range of motion (ROM), passive ROM of the ankle joint, modified Ashworth Scale scores, and the areas of the compound muscle action potential assessed before treatment and at four and eight weeks post treatment. Both legs improved significantly. The mean (SD) improvements between baseline and the end of follow-up were 19.7 (10.83) degrees for dynamic ROM, 8.4 (9.19) degrees for passive ROM, -1.3 (0.6) for modified Ashworth Scale scores, and -9.4 (11.41) mV-ms for compound muscle action potential in the high-volume group; and 13.5 (10.45) degrees for dynamic ROM, 7.4 (7.88) for passive ROM, -0.9 (0.5) for modified Ashworth Scale scores, and -5.9 (7.50) mV-ms for areas of compound muscle action potential in the low-volume group. The high-volume preparation yielded significantly greater improvement in dynamic ROM (P<0.001), muscle tone (P < 0.001), and lower compound muscle action potential area (P = 0.006). A high-volume preparation of Dysport is more effective than a low volume in reducing spasticity in the gastrocnemius muscle.

  6. Weight-adjusted lean body mass and calf circumference are protective against obesity-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Takamura, Toshinari; Kita, Yuki; Nakagen, Masatoshi; Sakurai, Masaru; Isobe, Yuki; Takeshita, Yumie; Kawai, Kohzo; Urabe, Takeshi; Kaneko, Shuichi

    2017-07-01

    To test the hypothesis that preserved muscle mass is protective against obesity-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities, we analyzed the relationship of lean body mass and computed tomography-assessed sectional areas of specific skeletal muscles with insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities in a healthy cohort. A total of 195 subjects without diabetes who had completed a medical examination were included in this study. Various anthropometric indices such as circumferences of the arm, waist, hip, thigh, and calf were measured. Body composition (fat and lean body mass) was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Sectional areas of specific skeletal muscles (iliopsoas, erector spinae, gluteus, femoris, and rectus abdominis muscles) were measured using computed tomography. Fat and lean body mass were significantly correlated with metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance indices. When adjusted by weight, relationships of fat and lean body mass with metabolic parameters were mirror images of each other. The weight-adjusted lean body mass negatively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressures; fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, alanine aminotransferase, and triglyceride, and insulin levels; and hepatic insulin resistance indices, and positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol levels and muscle insulin sensitivity indices. Compared with weight-adjusted lean body mass, weight-adjusted sectional areas of specific skeletal muscles showed similar, but not as strong, correlations with metabolic parameters. Among anthropometric measures, the calf circumference best reflected lean body mass, and weight-adjusted calf circumference negatively correlated with metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance indices. Weight-adjusted lean body mass and skeletal muscle area are protective against weight-associated insulin resistance and metabolic abnormalities. The calf circumference reflects lean body mass and may be useful as a protective

  7. Quantitative and qualitative MR-imaging assessment of vastus medialis muscle volume loss in asymptomatic patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Marcon, Magda; Ciritsis, Bernhard; Laux, Christoph; Nanz, Daniel; Fischer, Michael A; Andreisek, Gustav; Ulbrich, Erika J

    2015-08-01

    To quantitatively and qualitatively assess vastus medialis muscle atrophy in asymptomatic patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, using the nonoperated leg as control. Prospective Institutional Review Board approved study with written informed patient consent. Thirty-three asymptomatic patients (men, 21; women,12) with ACL-reconstruction underwent MR imaging of both legs (axial T1-weighted spin-echo and 3D spoiled dual gradient-echo sequences). Muscle volume and average fat-signal fraction (FSF) of the vastus medialis muscles were measured. Additionally, Goutallier classification was used to classify fatty muscle degeneration. Significant side differences were evaluated using the Wilcoxon test and, between volumes and FSF, using student t-tests with P-value < 0.05 and < 0.025, respectively. The muscle volume was significantly smaller in the operated (mean ± SD, 430.6 ± 119.6 cm(3) ; range, 197.3 to 641.7 cm(3) ) than in the nonoperated leg (479.5 ± 124.8 cm(3) ; 261.4 to 658.9 cm(3) ) (P < 0.001). Corresponding FSF was 6.3 ± 1.5% (3.9 to 9.2%) and 5.8 ± 0.9% (4.0 to 7.4%), respectively, with a nonsignificant (P > 0.025) difference. The relative muscle-volume and FSF differences were -10.1 ± 8.6% (7.1 to -30.1%) and 10.9 ± 29.4% (39.7 to 40.1%). The qualitative assessment revealed no significant differences (P > 0.1). A significant muscle volume loss of the vastus medialis muscle does exist in asymptomatic patients with ACL-reconstruction, but without fatty degeneration. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Calf mortality in Norwegian dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Gulliksen, S M; Lie, K I; Løken, T; Osterås, O

    2009-06-01

    The aims of this study were to estimate mortality rates in Norwegian dairy calves and young stock up to 1 yr of age, identify risk factors for calf mortality, and evaluate the etiology of calf mortality based on postmortem analyses. The material comprised 3 data sets. The first data set included information on 289,038 offspring in 14,474 dairy herds registered in the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System (NDHRS) in 2005. The second included recordings on 5,382 offspring in 125 Norwegian dairy herds participating in a survey on calf health, and the third included results from postmortem analyses of 65 calves from 37 of the survey herds. The calf mortality rate during the first year of life in all herds registered in the NDHRS was 7.8%, including abortion (0.7%) and stillbirth (3.4%). The overall calf mortality rate in liveborn calves in the survey herds was 4.6%. Cows with severe calving difficulties had an odds ratio (OR) of 38.7 of stillbirth compared with cows with no calving difficulties. Twins and triplets showed an increased risk of stillbirth compared with singletons (OR = 4.2 and 46.3, respectively), as did calves born in free stalls compared with tie stalls (OR = 1.9). Respiratory disease increased the risk of death in all age groups with hazard ratios (HR) of 6.4, 6.5, 7.4, and 5.6 during the first week of life, 8 to 30 d of age, 31 to 180 d of age, and 181 to 365 d of age, respectively. Diarrhea increased the risk of death among calves younger than 180 d of age, but the influence was only significant during the first week of life and between 8 to 31 d of age (HR = 2.4 and 2.9, respectively). Calves born during the winter were more likely to die during the first week of life than calves born during the summer (OR = 1.2), and were more likely to die during the first month of life than calves born during the autumn (OR = 1.2). Calf mortality rates in all age groups increased with increasing herd size. Calves housed in a group pen from 2 wk of age were more

  9. Low-Load High Volume Resistance Exercise Stimulates Muscle Protein Synthesis More Than High-Load Low Volume Resistance Exercise in Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Burd, Nicholas A.; West, Daniel W. D.; Staples, Aaron W.; Atherton, Philip J.; Baker, Jeff M.; Moore, Daniel R.; Holwerda, Andrew M.; Parise, Gianni; Rennie, Michael J.; Baker, Steven K.; Phillips, Stuart M.

    2010-01-01

    Background We aimed to determine the effect of resistance exercise intensity (% 1 repetition maximum—1RM) and volume on muscle protein synthesis, anabolic signaling, and myogenic gene expression. Methodology/Principal Findings Fifteen men (21±1 years; BMI = 24.1±0.8 kg/m2) performed 4 sets of unilateral leg extension exercise at different exercise loads and/or volumes: 90% of repetition maximum (1RM) until volitional failure (90FAIL), 30% 1RM work-matched to 90%FAIL (30WM), or 30% 1RM performed until volitional failure (30FAIL). Infusion of [ring-13C6] phenylalanine with biopsies was used to measure rates of mixed (MIX), myofibrillar (MYO), and sarcoplasmic (SARC) protein synthesis at rest, and 4 h and 24 h after exercise. Exercise at 30WM induced a significant increase above rest in MIX (121%) and MYO (87%) protein synthesis at 4 h post-exercise and but at 24 h in the MIX only. The increase in the rate of protein synthesis in MIX and MYO at 4 h post-exercise with 90FAIL and 30FAIL was greater than 30WM, with no difference between these conditions; however, MYO remained elevated (199%) above rest at 24 h only in 30FAIL. There was a significant increase in AktSer473 at 24h in all conditions (P = 0.023) and mTORSer2448 phosphorylation at 4 h post-exercise (P = 0.025). Phosporylation of Erk1/2Tyr202/204, p70S6KThr389, and 4E-BP1Thr37/46 increased significantly (P<0.05) only in the 30FAIL condition at 4 h post-exercise, whereas, 4E-BP1Thr37/46 phosphorylation was greater 24 h after exercise than at rest in both 90FAIL (237%) and 30FAIL (312%) conditions. Pax7 mRNA expression increased at 24 h post-exercise (P = 0.02) regardless of condition. The mRNA expression of MyoD and myogenin were consistently elevated in the 30FAIL condition. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that low-load high volume resistance exercise is more effective in inducing acute muscle anabolism than high-load low volume or work matched resistance exercise modes. PMID

  10. Intensive training and reduced volume increases muscle FXYD1 expression and phosphorylation at rest and during exercise in athletes

    PubMed Central

    Thomassen, Martin; Gunnarsson, Thomas P.; Christensen, Peter M.; Pavlovic, Davor; Shattock, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of intensive training in combination with marked reduction in training volume on phospholemman (FXYD1) expression and phosphorylation at rest and during exercise. Eight well-trained cyclists replaced their regular training with speed-endurance training (10–12 × ∼30-s sprints) two or three times per week and aerobic high-intensity training (4–5 × 3–4 min at 90–95% of peak aerobic power output) 1–2 times per week for 7 wk and reduced the training volume by 70%. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and during a repeated high-intensity exercise protocol, and protein expression and phosphorylation were determined by Western blot analysis. Expression of FXYD1 (30%), actin (40%), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) (12%), phospholamban (PLN) (16%), and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) γ/δ (25%) was higher (P < 0.05) than before the training intervention. In addition, after the intervention, nonspecific FXYD1 phosphorylation was higher (P < 0.05) at rest and during exercise, mainly achieved by an increased FXYD1 Ser-68 phosphorylation, compared with before the intervention. CaMKII, Thr-287, and eukaryotic elongation factor 2 Thr-56 phosphorylation at rest and during exercise, overall PKCα/β, Thr-638/641, and mTOR Ser-2448 phosphorylation during repeated intense exercise as well as resting PLN Thr-17 phosphorylation were also higher (P < 0.05) compared with before the intervention period. Thus, a period of high-intensity training with reduced training volume increases expression and phosphorylation levels of FXYD1, which may affect Na+/K+ pump activity and muscle K+ homeostasis during intense exercise. Furthermore, higher expression of CaMKII and PLN, as well as increased phosphorylation of CaMKII Thr-287 may have improved intracellular Ca2+ handling. PMID:26791827

  11. Intensive training and reduced volume increases muscle FXYD1 expression and phosphorylation at rest and during exercise in athletes.

    PubMed

    Thomassen, Martin; Gunnarsson, Thomas P; Christensen, Peter M; Pavlovic, Davor; Shattock, Michael J; Bangsbo, Jens

    2016-04-01

    The present study examined the effect of intensive training in combination with marked reduction in training volume on phospholemman (FXYD1) expression and phosphorylation at rest and during exercise. Eight well-trained cyclists replaced their regular training with speed-endurance training (10-12 × ∼30-s sprints) two or three times per week and aerobic high-intensity training (4-5 × 3-4 min at 90-95% of peak aerobic power output) 1-2 times per week for 7 wk and reduced the training volume by 70%. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and during a repeated high-intensity exercise protocol, and protein expression and phosphorylation were determined by Western blot analysis. Expression of FXYD1 (30%), actin (40%), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) (12%), phospholamban (PLN) (16%), and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) γ/δ (25%) was higher (P < 0.05) than before the training intervention. In addition, after the intervention, nonspecific FXYD1 phosphorylation was higher (P < 0.05) at rest and during exercise, mainly achieved by an increased FXYD1 Ser-68 phosphorylation, compared with before the intervention. CaMKII, Thr-287, and eukaryotic elongation factor 2 Thr-56 phosphorylation at rest and during exercise, overall PKCα/β, Thr-638/641, and mTOR Ser-2448 phosphorylation during repeated intense exercise as well as resting PLN Thr-17 phosphorylation were also higher (P < 0.05) compared with before the intervention period. Thus, a period of high-intensity training with reduced training volume increases expression and phosphorylation levels of FXYD1, which may affect Na(+)/K(+) pump activity and muscle K(+) homeostasis during intense exercise. Furthermore, higher expression of CaMKII and PLN, as well as increased phosphorylation of CaMKII Thr-287 may have improved intracellular Ca(2+) handling. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. [Effect of glutamate on membrane potential and volume of the skeletal muscle fibers in rats following NO-synthase inhibition in vivo].

    PubMed

    Khairova, P A; Malomuzh, A I; Naumenko, N V; Urazaev, A Kh

    2002-11-01

    Cross-sectional area (CSA) of muscle fibers incubated in culture medium 199 for 3 hours dramatically increases, whereas resting membrane potential (RMP) decreases compared to "freshly-isolated" muscles. Both glutamate and sodium nitroprusside prevent these changes. MK-801, a specific inhibitor of NMDA-receptors, eliminates protective effects of glutamate on both CSA and RMP. NO-synthase inhibition in vivo promotes an increase of initial CSA and decrease of mean RMP. Under these conditions, effects of glutamate and sodium nitroprusside on CSA and RMP of denervated muscles are less obvious. It has been concluded that synaptic glutamate is able to participate in regulation of RMP and cell volume in muscle fibers through the activation of postsynaptic NMDA-receptors and muscle NO-synthase.

  13. Hypomyelination associated with bovine viral diarrhea virus type 2 infection in a longhorn calf.

    PubMed

    Porter, B F; Ridpath, J F; Calise, D V; Payne, H R; Janke, J J; Baxter, D G; Edwards, J F

    2010-07-01

    A newborn Longhorn heifer calf presented with generalized tremors, muscle fasciculations, ataxia, and nystagmus. At necropsy, no gross central nervous system lesions were observed. Histologically, the brain and spinal cord had mild to moderate diffuse microgliosis and astrocytosis, minimal nonsuppurative encephalitis, and decreased myelin staining. Ultrastructural examination revealed thinning and absence of myelin sheaths. Various cell types were immunohistochemically positive for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Noncytopathogenic BVDV was isolated from the brain and identified as BVDV type 2 by phylogenetic analysis. BVDV-induced hypomyelination is rare and analogous to lesions in neonates infected with border disease and classical swine fever viruses. This is the first documented case of hypomyelination in a calf specifically attributed to BVDV type 2 and the first description of the ultrastructural appearance of BVDV-induced hypomyelination.

  14. Measurement of the trapezius muscle volume: A new assessment strategy of shoulder dysfunction after neck dissection for the treatment of head and neck cancers.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae-Gu; Lee, Naree; Park, Min-Woo; Baek, Seung-Kuk; Kwon, Soon-Young; Jung, Kwang-Yoon; Woo, Jeong-Soo

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the actual degree of shoulder muscle change and its relation to symptoms after neck dissection for head and neck cancers. Forty-two patients who underwent unilateral neck dissection were selected. Data obtained from each subject were trapezius muscle volume ratio and a Shoulder Disability Questionnaire (SDQ) score. Patients who had undergone neck dissection with spinal accessory nerve (SAN) preservation were compared with those who had received radical neck dissection. The preservation group was further separated into subgroups by the extent of neck dissection. Trapezius muscle volume ratio was higher and SDQ score was significantly lower in the SAN preservation group compared to the radical neck dissection group. However, the SAN preservation subgroups did not differ from each other. In addition, a good correlation between the muscle volume ratio and SDQ score was observed. With trapezius muscle volume ratio, clinicians may be able to diagnose shoulder dysfunction after neck dissection. Further research on the subject is warranted. This suggests a novel strategy for assessing the degree of shoulder dysfunction. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. An overview of calf diarrhea - infectious etiology, diagnosis, and intervention

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yong-il

    2014-01-01

    Calf diarrhea is a commonly reported disease in young animals, and still a major cause of productivity and economic loss to cattle producers worldwide. In the report of the 2007 National Animal Health Monitoring System for U.S. dairy, half of the deaths among unweaned calves was attributed to diarrhea. Multiple pathogens are known or postulated to cause or contribute to calf diarrhea development. Other factors including both the environment and management practices influence disease severity or outcomes. The multifactorial nature of calf diarrhea makes this disease hard to control effectively in modern cow-calf operations. The purpose of this review is to provide a better understanding of a) the ecology and pathogenesis of well-known and potential bovine enteric pathogens implicated in calf diarrhea, b) describe diagnostic tests used to detect various enteric pathogens along with their pros and cons, and c) propose improved intervention strategies for treating calf diarrhea. PMID:24378583

  16. Considerations in high resolution skeletal muscle DTI using single-shot EPI with stimulated echo preparation and SENSE

    PubMed Central

    Karampinos, Dimitrios C.; Banerjee, Suchandrima; King, Kevin F.; Link, Thomas M.; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that skeletal muscle diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can non-invasively probe changes in the muscle fiber architecture and microstructure in diseased and damaged muscles. However, DTI fiber reconstruction in small muscles and in muscle regions close to aponeuroses and tendons remains challenging because of partial volume effects. Increasing the spatial resolution of skeletal muscle single-shot diffusion weighted (DW)-EPI can be hindered by the inherently low SNR of muscle DW-EPI due to the short muscle T2 and the high sensitivity of single-shot EPI to off-resonance effects and T2* blurring. In the present work, eddy-current compensated diffusion-weighted stimulated echo preparation is combined with sensitivity encoding (SENSE) to maintain good SNR properties and reduce the sensitivity to distortions and T2* blurring in high resolution skeletal muscle single-shot DW-EPI. An analytical framework is developed for optimizing the reduction factor and diffusion weighting time to achieve maximum SNR. Arguments for the selection of the experimental parameters are then presented considering the compromise between SNR, B0-induced distortions, T2* blurring effects and tissue incoherent motion effects. Based on the selected parameters in a high resolution skeletal muscle single-shot DW-EPI protocol, imaging protocols at lower acquisition matrix sizes are defined with matched bandwidth in the phase-encoding direction and SNR. In vivo results show that high resolution skeletal muscle DTI with minimized sensitivity to geometric distortions and T2* blurring is feasible using the proposed methodology. In particular, a significant benefit is demonstrated from reducing partial volume effects on resolving multi-pennate muscles and muscles with small cross sections in calf muscle DTI. PMID:22081519

  17. Ultrasonographic findings of the various diseases presenting as calf pain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun Joo; Kim, Ok Hwa; Choo, Hye Jung; Park, Jun Ho; Park, Yeong-Mi; Jeong, Hae Woong; Lee, Sung Moon; Cho, Kil Ho; Choi, Jung-Ah; Jacobson, Jon A

    2016-01-01

    There are various causes of calf pain. The differential diagnoses affecting the lower leg include cystic lesions, trauma-related lesions, infection or inflammation, vascular lesions, neoplasms, and miscellaneous entities. Ultrasound (US) provide detailed anatomical information of the calf structures, and it offers the ability to confirm, other calf abnormalities, particularly when deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is ruled out. The purpose of this article is to review the causes of a painful calf presenting as DVT and incidental findings found as part of the work-up of DVT, and to provide a broad overview of US findings and clinical features of these pathologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Noninvasive, low-noise, fast imaging of blood volume and deoxygenation changes in muscles using light-emitting diode continuous-wave imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuanqing; Lech, Gwen; Nioka, Shoko; Intes, Xavier; Chance, Britton

    2002-08-01

    This article focuses on optimizing the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of a three-wavelength light-emitting diode (LED) near-infrared continuous-wave (cw) imager and its application to in vivo muscle metabolism measurement. The shot-noise limited SNR is derived and calculated to be 2 x104 for the physiological blood concentrations of muscle. Aiming at shot-noise limited SNR performance and fast imaging, we utilize sample and hold circuits to reduce high-frequency noise. These circuits have also been designed to be parallel integrating, through which SNR of 2 x103 and 2 Hz imaging acquisition rate have been achieved when the probe is placed on a muscle model. The noise corresponds to 2 x10-4 optical density error, which suggests an in vitro resolution of 15. 4 nM blood volume and 46.8 nM deoxygenation changes. A 48 dB digital gain control circuit with 256 steps is employed to enlarge the dynamic range of the imager. We utilize cuff ischemia as a living model demonstration and its results are reported. The instrument is applied during exercise to measure the changes of blood volume and deoxygenation, which provides important information about muscle metabolism. We find that the primary source of noise encountered during exercise experiment is from the random motion of muscle. The results demonstrate that the LED cw imager is ideal for the noninvasive study of muscle metabolism.

  19. Force properties of skinned cardiac muscle following increasing volumes of aerobic exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Boldt, Kevin Rudi; Rios, Jaqueline Lourdes; Joumaa, Venus; Herzog, Walter

    2018-05-03

    The positive effects of chronic endurance exercise training on health and performance have been well documented. These positive effects have been evaluated primarily at the structural level, and work has begun to evaluate mechanical adaptations of the myocardium. However, it remains poorly understood how the volume of exercise training affects cardiac adaptation. In order to gain some understanding, we subjected three-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats (N=23) to treadmill running for eleven weeks at one of three exercise volumes (moderate, high, and extra high). Following training, hearts were excised and mechanical testing was completed on skinned trabecular fiber bundles. Performance on a maximal fitness test was dose-dependent upon training volume, where greater levels of training led to greater performance. No differences were observed between animals from any group for active stress production. Heart mass and passive stress increases in a dose-dependent manner for animals in the control, moderate, and high duration groups. However, hearts from animals in the extra high duration group presented with inhibited responses for heart mass and passive stress, despite performing greatest on a graded treadmill fitness test. These results suggest that heart mass and passive stress adapt in a dose-dependent manner, until exercise becomes excessive and adaptation is inhibited. Our findings are in agreement with the beneficial role exercise has in cardiac adaptation. However, excessive exercise comes with risks of maladaptation which must be weighed against the desire to increase performance.

  20. Evaluation of lung volumes, vital capacity and respiratory muscle strength after cervical, thoracic and lumbar spinal surgery.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marcio Aparecido; Vidotto, Milena Carlos; Nascimento, Oliver Augusto; Almeida, Renato; Santoro, Ilka Lopes; Sperandio, Evandro Fornias; Jardim, José Roberto; Gazzotti, Mariana Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that physiopathological changes to the respiratory system can occur following thoracic and abdominal surgery. Laminectomy is considered to be a peripheral surgical procedure, but it is possible that thoracic spinal surgery exerts a greater influence on lung function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pulmonary volumes and maximum respiratory pressures of patients undergoing cervical, thoracic or lumbar spinal surgery. Prospective study in a tertiary-level university hospital. Sixty-three patients undergoing laminectomy due to diagnoses of tumors or herniated discs were evaluated. Vital capacity, tidal volume, minute ventilation and maximum respiratory pressures were evaluated preoperatively and on the first and second postoperative days. Possible associations between the respiratory variables and the duration of the operation, surgical diagnosis and smoking status were investigated. Vital capacity and maximum inspiratory pressure presented reductions on the first postoperative day (20.9% and 91.6%, respectively) for thoracic surgery (P = 0.01), and maximum expiratory pressure showed reductions on the first postoperative day in cervical surgery patients (15.3%; P = 0.004). The incidence of pulmonary complications was 3.6%. There were reductions in vital capacity and maximum respiratory pressures during the postoperative period in patients undergoing laminectomy. Surgery in the thoracic region was associated with greater reductions in vital capacity and maximum inspiratory pressure, compared with cervical and lumbar surgery. Thus, surgical manipulation of the thoracic region appears to have more influence on pulmonary function and respiratory muscle action.

  1. Obtaining growth hormone from calf blood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalchev, L. A.; Ralchev, K. K.; Nikolov, I. T.

    1979-01-01

    The preparation of a growth hormone from human serum was used for the isolation of the hormone from calf serum. The preparation was biologically active - it increased the quantity of the free fatty acids released in rat plasma by 36.4 percent. Electrophoresis in Veronal buffer, ph 8.6, showed the presence of a single fraction having mobility intermediate between that of alpha and beta globulins. Gel filtration through Sephadex G 100 showed an elutriation curve identical to that obtained by the growth hormone prepared from pituitary glands.

  2. Efficacy of calf:cow ratios for estimating calf production of arctic caribou

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cameron, R.D.; Griffith, B.; Parrett, L.S.; White, R.G.

    2013-01-01

    Caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti) calf:cow ratios (CCR) computed from composition counts obtained on arctic calving grounds are biased estimators of net calf production (NCP, the product of parturition rate and early calf survival) for sexually-mature females. Sexually-immature 2-year-old females, which are indistinguishable from sexually-mature females without calves, are included in the denominator, thereby biasing the calculated ratio low. This underestimate increases with the proportion of 2-year-old females in the population. We estimated the magnitude of this error with deterministic simulations under three scenarios of calf and yearling annual survival (respectively: low, 60 and 70%; medium, 70 and 80%; high, 80 and 90%) for five levels of unbiased NCP: 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100%. We assumed a survival rate of 90% for both 2-year-old and mature females. For each NCP, we computed numbers of 2-year-old females surviving annually and increased the denominator of CCR accordingly. We then calculated a series of hypothetical “observed” CCRs, which stabilized during the last 6 years of the simulations, and documented the degree to which each 6-year mean CCR differed from the corresponding NCP. For the three calf and yearling survival scenarios, proportional underestimates of NCP by CCR ranged 0.046–0.156, 0.058–0.187, and 0.071–0.216, respectively. Unfortunately, because parturition and survival rates are typically variable (i.e., age distribution is unstable), the magnitude of the error is not predictable without substantial supporting information. We recommend maintaining a sufficient sample of known-age radiocollared females in each herd and implementing a regular relocation schedule during the calving period to obtain unbiased estimates of both parturition rate and NCP.

  3. Effects of pressure- or volume-overload hypertrophy on passive stiffness in isolated adult cardiac muscle cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kato, S.; Koide, M.; Cooper, G. 4th; Zile, M. R.

    1996-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the changes in myocardial stiffness induced by chronic hemodynamic overloading are dependent on changes in the passive stiffness of the cardiac muscle cell (cardiocyte). However, no previous studies have examined the passive constitutive properties of cardiocytes isolated from animals with myocardial hypertrophy. Accordingly, changes in relative passive stiffness of cardiocytes isolated from animals with chronic pressure- or volume-overload hypertrophy were determined by examining the effects of anisosmotic stress on cardiocyte size. Anisosmotic stress was produced by altering superfusate osmolarity. Hypertrophied cardiocytes were enzymatically isolated from 16 adult cats with right ventricular (RV) pressure-overload hypertrophy induced by pulmonary artery banding (PAB) and from 6 adult cats with RV volume-overload hypertrophy induced by creating an atrial septal defect (ASD). Left ventricular (LV) cardiocytes from each cat served as nonhypertrophied, normally loaded, same-animal controls. Superfusate osmolarity was decreased from 305 +/- 3 to 135 +/- 5 mosM and increased to 645 +/- 4 mosM. During anisosmotic stress, there were no significant differences between hypertrophied RV and normal LV cardiocytes in pressure overload PAB cats with respect to percent change in cardiocyte area (47 +/- 2% in RV vs. 48 +/- 2% in LV), diameter (46 +/- 3% in RV vs. 48 +/- 2% in LV), or length (2.4 +/- 0.2% in RV vs. 2.0 +/- 0.3% in LV), or sarcomere length (1.5 +/- 0.1% in RV vs. 1.3 +/- 0.3% in LV). Likewise, there were no significant differences in cardiocyte strain between hypertrophied RV and normal LV cardiocytes from ASD cats. In conclusion, chronic pressure-overload hypertrophy and chronic volume-overload hypertrophy did not alter the cardiocyte response to anisosmotic stress. Thus chronic overload hypertrophy did not alter relative passive cardiocyte stiffness.

  4. Preventative programs for respiratory disease in cow/calf operations.

    PubMed

    Engelken, T J

    1997-11-01

    Control of respiratory disease in cow/calf operations presents many challenges. The incidence of disease in the suckling calf is not well documented and the logistics of handling range animals make control programs difficult to implement. Health programs have to be built around normal working patterns, and these patterns may not provide the best "fit" for immune management of the calf. Weaned calves undergo significant disease challenge when they enter typical marketing channels. This provides the potential for high levels of calf morbidity, mortality, medicine costs, and losses from decreased performance as they arrive at a stocker operation or feedyard. If preweaning calf health and preconditioning programs are used, they must be planned so that the producer has an opportunity to obtain a return on their investment. Options for increasing calf weight marketed, certified calf health sales, or retained ownership through the next phase of production should be evaluated carefully. Any potential increase in calf value must be weighed against program costs. This affords the veterinarian an opportunity to build on traditional disease management and prevention skills and expand their influence in overall ranch management.

  5. CalfScience: Extension Education at Many Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Dale A.; Tellessen, Kathlyn; Sischo, William M.

    2010-01-01

    The issue of antimicrobial resistance in food animal agriculture was addressed by conducting clinical trials to assess alternatives to antimicrobials in dairy calf-raising and developing outreach to three different audiences. Current research was integrated into Extension programs for calf-raisers, animal science and veterinary students, and food…

  6. Newborn calf welfare: a review focusing on mortality rates.

    PubMed

    Uetake, Katsuji

    2013-02-01

    Calf mortality control is vitally important for farmers, not only to improve animal welfare, but also to increase productivity. High calf mortality rates can be related to larger numbers of calves in a herd, employee performance, severe weather, and the neonatal period covering the first 4 weeks of life. Although the basic premise of preventing newborn calf mortality is early detection and treatment of calves at risk for failure of passive transfer of immunoglobulins, calf mortality due to infectious diseases such as acute diarrhea increases in the presence of these physical and psychological stressors. This suggests that farmers should not ignore the effects of secondary environmental factors. For prevention rather than cure, the quality of the environment should be improved, which will improve not only animal welfare but also productivity. This paper presents a review of the literature on newborn calf mortality and discusses its productivity implications. © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  7. Zinc Methionine Supplementation Impacts Gene and Protein Expression in Calf-fed Holstein Steers with Miniaml Impact on Feedlot Performance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Calf-fed Holstein steers were supplemented with a zinc (Zn) methionine supplement (ZnMet; ZINPRO®; Zinpro Corporation, Eden Prairie, MN) for 115±5 days prior to harvest along with zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; Zilmax®; Merck Animal Health, Summit, NJ) for the last 20 days with a 3 day withdrawal to ...

  8. Considerations in high-resolution skeletal muscle diffusion tensor imaging using single-shot echo planar imaging with stimulated-echo preparation and sensitivity encoding.

    PubMed

    Karampinos, Dimitrios C; Banerjee, Suchandrima; King, Kevin F; Link, Thomas M; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2012-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that skeletal muscle diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can noninvasively probe changes in the muscle fiber architecture and microstructure in diseased and damaged muscles. However, DTI fiber reconstruction in small muscles and in muscle regions close to aponeuroses and tendons remains challenging because of partial volume effects. Increasing the spatial resolution of skeletal muscle single-shot diffusion-weighted echo planar imaging (DW-EPI) can be hindered by the inherently low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of muscle DW-EPI because of the short muscle T(2) and the high sensitivity of single-shot EPI to off-resonance effects and T(2)* blurring. In this article, eddy current-compensated diffusion-weighted stimulated-echo preparation is combined with sensitivity encoding (SENSE) to maintain good SNR properties and to reduce the sensitivity to distortions and T(2)* blurring in high-resolution skeletal muscle single-shot DW-EPI. An analytical framework is developed to optimize the reduction factor and diffusion weighting time to achieve maximum SNR. Arguments for the selection of the experimental parameters are then presented considering the compromise between SNR, B(0)-induced distortions, T(2)* blurring effects and tissue incoherent motion effects. On the basis of the selected parameters in a high-resolution skeletal muscle single-shot DW-EPI protocol, imaging protocols at lower acquisition matrix sizes are defined with matched bandwidth in the phase-encoding direction and SNR. In  vivo results show that high-resolution skeletal muscle DTI with minimized sensitivity to geometric distortions and T(2)* blurring is feasible using the proposed methodology. In particular, a significant benefit is demonstrated from a reduction in partial volume effects for resolving multi-pennate muscles and muscles with small cross-sections in calf muscle DTI. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Calf antibiotic and sulfonamide test (CAST) for screening antibiotic and sulfonamide residues in calf carcasses.

    PubMed

    Dey, Bhabani P; Reamer, Richard P; Thaker, Nitin H; Thaler, Alice M

    2005-01-01

    The Calf Antibiotic and Sulfonamide Test (CAST), a microbial inhibition screening test, was developed for detecting antibiotics and sulfonamides in bob veal calf carcasses. The test uses Bacillus megaterium ATCC 9885 as the indicator organism and Mueller Hinton agar as the growth medium. Compared to Swab Test on Premises (STOP), developed in 1970, this screening test has higher sensitivity and the ability to detect a wider range of veterinary antimicrobial residual drugs, particularly sulfonamides, at lower concentrations. Carcasses that are tested with CAST and suspected of containing chemical residue above tolerance level are retained for confirmation. Disposition of these carcasses are determined upon laboratory result. Routine testing of bob veal calves with CAST allowed the Food Safety and Inspection Service to release most calf carcasses within 24 h post-slaughter, thus conserving shipping and handling resources. However, changes in the regulation in 1990 dictate that disposition of carcasses found to contain violative levels of sulfonamide residues should be based on laboratory findings. The analysis of the data for the years 1990-1994 and 1998 indicate that the use of CAST over the years was significant, and had a direct impact on reduction of residue violations in veal carcasses. With the use of CAST, potentially harmful antimicrobial chemicals entering the human food chain through veal meat have been minimized.

  10. Calf Augmentation and Restoration: Long-Term Results and the Review of the Reported Complications.

    PubMed

    Niechajev, Igor; Krag, Christen

    2017-10-01

    Augmentation or reconstruction of the calves is indicated in patients with thin legs, for bodybuilders, or when there is a defect after an injury or illness. The principle of placing implants under the investing crural fascia was worked out in the 1980s. The senior author (I.N.) introduced many technical modifications and improvements for this operation, among them the new instrument, an inserter for the calf implants. Presented patient material is unique in that the more challenging reconstructive cases almost equal the numbers of the aesthetic cases. During the years 1991 through 2016, 50 patients underwent 60 calf contour corrections. Indications were aesthetic in 23 patients, six were bodybuilders, and 21 underwent lower leg reconstruction because of deformity caused by illness. According to evaluation by the surgeon, excellent-to-good results were obtained in 30 out of 37 followed patients. Patients rated their results as very good (18), good (10), acceptable (7) and bad (2). One 28-year-old professional bodybuilder sustained acute anterior compartment syndrome in one leg. Implants were removed 16 h after surgery, but he developed ischaemia in the anterior compartment leading to the necrosis of muscles. After several surgical operations, including microsurgical transfer of the innervated central caput of the quadriceps femoris muscle, he could resume his bodybuilding activities. Other complications were minor and manageable. Calf augmentation, performed properly, has evolved to be a safe, efficient and aesthetically pleasing operation. The possibility of acute compartment syndrome should be kept in mind. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  11. Large calf circumference indicates non-sarcopenia despite body mass

    PubMed Central

    Kusaka, Satomi; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Hiyama, Yoshinori; Kusumoto, Yasuaki; Tsuchiya, Junko; Umeda, Masaru

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to evaluate the applicability of the calf circumference as a tool for screening sarcopenia. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred sixteen community-dwelling elderly females were enrolled. Calf circumference of the dominant leg was measured using a plastic measuring tape. Subjects were divided into 3 groups based on body mass index (BMI); subjects with the values for BMI <18.5 kg/m2; those with BMI 18.5 to 25.0; those with BMI ≥25.0 kg/m2. Positive predictive value and negative predictive value of sarcopenia were calculated based on the obtained cut off values of calf circumference and the diagnosis of sarcopenia in each group. [Results] Prevalence rate of sarcopenia was 9.4% (n=10). Cut off value of the calf circumference was 32.8 cm (sensitivity: 73.0%, specificity: 80.0%, AUC: 0.792). Each BMI group showed high negative predictive value of sarcopenia based on the calf circumference cut off value of 32.8 cm. [Conclusion] These results suggested that to identify non-sarcopenia by larger calf circumference is more reasonable and useful than to identify sarcopenia due to the smaller calf circumference regardless of BMI. PMID:29200625

  12. Validity and reproducibility of electrical impedance tomography for measurement of calf blood flow in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Vonk Noordegraaf, A; Kunst, P W; Janse, A; Smulders, R A; Heethaar, R M; Postmus, P E; Faes, T J; de Vries, P M

    1997-03-01

    The Sheffield electrical impedance tomography; (EIT) system produces images of changes in the distribution of resistivity within tissue. The paper reports on the application of electrical impedance tomography in monitoring volume changes in the limb during venous occlusion. The aim of the study is to assess the feasibility, reproducibility and validity of calf blood flow measurements by EIT. In 14 healthy volunteers calf blood flow is compared, as determined in a calf segment by strain-gauge plethysmography (SGP), with the impedance changes measured by EIT during rest and post-ischaemic hyperaemia. The measurements are repeated to assess reproducibility. The reproducibility for the EIT, assessed from the repeated measurements and expressed as a reproducibility coefficient, is 0.88 during rest and 0.89 during hyperaemia. The reproducibility coefficient for SGP data is 0.83 at rest and 0.67 during hyperaemia. Flow measurements, assessed by means of two methods, correlate well at rest (r = 0.89), but only moderately during hyperaemia (r = 0.51). The correlation coefficient for the pooled flow measurements is 0.98. It is concluded that EIT is a valid and reliable method for assessing blood flow in the limb. Possible applications of EIT in localising fluid changes are discussed.

  13. Septicemia in a neonatal calf associated with Chromobacterium violaceum.

    PubMed

    Ajithdoss, D K; Porter, B F; Calise, D V; Libal, M C; Edwards, J F

    2009-01-01

    Chromobacterium violaceum infections are highly fatal and rarely reported in domestic animals. This report describes a fatal case of C. violaceum septicemia in a 7-day-old female beef calf. The calf had necrosuppurative omphalophlebitis, necrotizing interstitial pneumonia, necrosuppurative hepatitis and splenitis, anterior uveitis with hypopyon, suppurative polyarthritis, and disseminated hemorrhagic meningitis with multifocal necrotizing encephalitis. Histologically, clusters of gram-negative bacilli were found in many of the lesions. C. violaceum was isolated in high numbers from the lungs, liver, spleen, carpus, and in pure culture from the cerebrospinal fluid. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of chromobacteriosis in a calf.

  14. 1H-NMR and HPLC studies of the changes involved in volume regulation in the muscle fibres of the crab, Hemigrapsus edwardsi.

    PubMed

    Bedford, J J; Smith, R A; Thomas, M; Leader, J P

    1991-01-01

    1. The process of cell volume readjustment, during adaptation to salinity changes, in muscle fibres of the euryhaline New Zealand shore crab, Hemigrapsus edwardsi, involve large changes in the amounts of free amino acid. 2. These are taurine, proline, alanine, arginine, glutamic acid, glycine and serine. 3. These changes may be quantified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography, and qualitatively demonstrated by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  15. Quantification of red myotomal muscle volume and geometry in the shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) and the salmon shark (Lamna ditropis) using T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Perry, Cameron N; Cartamil, Daniel P; Bernal, Diego; Sepulveda, Chugey A; Theilmann, Rebecca J; Graham, Jeffrey B; Frank, Lawrence R

    2007-04-01

    T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in conjunction with image and segmentation analysis (i.e., the process of digitally partitioning tissues based on specified MR image characteristics) was evaluated as a noninvasive alternative for differentiating muscle fiber types and quantifying the amounts of slow, red aerobic muscle in the shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) and the salmon shark (Lamna ditropis). MRI-determinations of red muscle quantity and position made for the mid-body sections of three mako sharks (73.5-110 cm fork length, FL) are in close agreement (within the 95% confidence intervals) with data obtained for the same sections by the conventional dissection method involving serial cross-sectioning and volumetric analyses, and with previously reported findings for this species. The overall distribution of salmon shark red muscle as a function of body fork length was also found to be consistent with previously acquired serial dissection data for this species; however, MR imaging revealed an anterior shift in peak red muscle cross-sectional area corresponding to an increase in body mass. Moreover, MRI facilitated visualization of the intact and anatomically correct relationship of tendon linking the red muscle and the caudal peduncle. This study thus demonstrates that MRI is effective in acquiring high-resolution three-dimensional digital data with high contrast between different fish tissue types. Relative to serial dissection, MRI allows more precise quantification of the position, volume, and other details about the types of muscle within the fish myotome, while conserving specimen structural integrity. Copyright (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Can the calf-raise senior test predict functional fitness in elderly people? A validation study using electromyography, kinematics and strength tests.

    PubMed

    André, Helô-Isa; Carnide, Filomena; Moço, Andreia; Valamatos, Maria-João; Ramalho, Fátima; Santos-Rocha, Rita; Veloso, António

    2018-06-05

    The assessment of the plantar-flexors muscle strength in older adults (OA) is of the utmost importance since they are strongly associated with the performance of fundamental tasks of daily life. The objective was to strengthen the validity of the Calf-Raise-Senior (CRS) test by assessing the biomechanical movement pattern of calf muscles in OA with different levels of functional fitness (FF) and physical activity (PA). Twenty-six OA were assessed with CRS, a FF battery, accelerometry, strength tests, kinematics and electromyography (EMG). OA with the best and worst CRS scores were compared. The association between the scores and EMG pattern of ankle muscles was determined. OA with the best CRS scores presented higher levels of FF, PA, strength, power, speed and range of movement, and a more efficient movement pattern during the test. Subjects who scored more at the CRS test demonstrated the possibility to use a stretch-shortening cycle type of action in the PF muscles to increase power during the movements. OA with different levels of FF can be stratified by the muscular activation pattern of the calf muscles and the scores in CRS test. This study reinforced the validity of CRS for evaluating ankle strength and power in OA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantifying Abdominal Adipose Tissue and Thigh Muscle Volume and Hepatic Proton Density Fat Fraction: Repeatability and Accuracy of an MR Imaging-based, Semiautomated Analysis Method.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Michael S; Haufe, William; Hooker, Jonathan; Borga, Magnus; Dahlqvist Leinhard, Olof; Romu, Thobias; Tunón, Patrik; Hamilton, Gavin; Wolfson, Tanya; Gamst, Anthony; Loomba, Rohit; Sirlin, Claude B

    2017-05-01

    Purpose To determine the repeatability and accuracy of a commercially available magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-based, semiautomated method to quantify abdominal adipose tissue and thigh muscle volume and hepatic proton density fat fraction (PDFF). Materials and Methods This prospective study was institutional review board- approved and HIPAA compliant. All subjects provided written informed consent. Inclusion criteria were age of 18 years or older and willingness to participate. The exclusion criterion was contraindication to MR imaging. Three-dimensional T1-weighted dual-echo body-coil images were acquired three times. Source images were reconstructed to generate water and calibrated fat images. Abdominal adipose tissue and thigh muscle were segmented, and their volumes were estimated by using a semiautomated method and, as a reference standard, a manual method. Hepatic PDFF was estimated by using a confounder-corrected chemical shift-encoded MR imaging method with hybrid complex-magnitude reconstruction and, as a reference standard, MR spectroscopy. Tissue volume and hepatic PDFF intra- and interexamination repeatability were assessed by using intraclass correlation and coefficient of variation analysis. Tissue volume and hepatic PDFF accuracy were assessed by means of linear regression with the respective reference standards. Results Adipose and thigh muscle tissue volumes of 20 subjects (18 women; age range, 25-76 years; body mass index range, 19.3-43.9 kg/m 2 ) were estimated by using the semiautomated method. Intra- and interexamination intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.996-0.998 and coefficients of variation were 1.5%-3.6%. For hepatic MR imaging PDFF, intra- and interexamination intraclass correlation coefficients were greater than or equal to 0.994 and coefficients of variation were less than or equal to 7.3%. In the regression analyses of manual versus semiautomated volume and spectroscopy versus MR imaging, PDFF slopes and intercepts were close

  18. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Phosphocreatine and Determination of BOLD Kinetics in Lower Extremity Muscles using a Dual-Frequency Coil Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Ryan; Khegai, Oleksandr; Parasoglou, Prodromos

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides the unique ability to study metabolic and microvasculature functions in skeletal muscle using phosphorus and proton measurements. However, the low sensitivity of these techniques can make it difficult to capture dynamic muscle activity due to the temporal resolution required for kinetic measurements during and after exercise tasks. Here, we report the design of a dual-nuclei coil array that enables proton and phosphorus MRI of the human lower extremities with high spatial and temporal resolution. We developed an array with whole-volume coverage of the calf and a phosphorus signal-to-noise ratio of more than double that of a birdcage coil in the gastrocnemius muscles. This enabled the local assessment of phosphocreatine recovery kinetics following a plantar flexion exercise using an efficient sampling scheme with a 6 s temporal resolution. The integrated proton array demonstrated image quality approximately equal to that of a clinical state-of-the-art knee coil, which enabled fat quantification and dynamic blood oxygen level-dependent measurements that reflect microvasculature function. The developed array and time-efficient pulse sequences were combined to create a localized assessment of calf metabolism using phosphorus measurements and vasculature function using proton measurements, which could provide new insights into muscle function.

  19. Calf health from birth to weaning. III. housing and management of calf pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Calfhood diseases have a major impact on the economic viability of cattle operations. A three part review series has been developed focusing on calf health from birth to weaning. In this paper, the last of the three part series, we review disease prevention and management with particular reference to pneumonia, focusing primarily on the pre-weaned calf. Pneumonia in recently weaned suckler calves is also considered, where the key risk factors are related to the time of weaning. Weaning of the suckler calf is often combined with additional stressors including a change in nutrition, environmental change, transport and painful husbandry procedures (castration, dehorning). The reduction of the cumulative effects of these multiple stressors around the time of weaning together with vaccination programmes (preconditioning) can reduce subsequent morbidity and mortality in the feedlot. In most studies, calves housed individually and calves housed outdoors with shelter, are associated with decreased risk of disease. Even though it poses greater management challenges, successful group housing of calves is possible. Special emphasis should be given to equal age groups and to keeping groups stable once they are formed. The management of pneumonia in calves is reliant on a sound understanding of aetiology, relevant risk factors, and of effective approaches to diagnosis and treatment. Early signs of pneumonia include increased respiratory rate and fever, followed by depression. The single most important factor determining the success of therapy in calves with pneumonia is early onset of treatment, and subsequent adequate duration of treatment. The efficacy and economical viability of vaccination against respiratory disease in calves remains unclear. PMID:22018053

  20. Estimation of carcass composition using rib dissection of calf-fed Holstein steers supplemented zilpaterol hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    McEvers, T J; May, N D; Reed, J A; Walter, L J; Hutcheson, J P; Lawrence, T E

    2018-04-14

    A serial harvest was conducted every 28 d from 254 to 534 d on feed (DOF) to quantify changes in growth and composition of calf-fed Holstein steers (n = 115, initial body weight (BW) = 449.2 ± 19.9 kg). One-half were supplemented with the β-2 adrenergic agonist zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; 8.33 mg/kg 100% dry matter (DM) basis) during the final 20 d followed by a 3-d withdrawal prior to harvest; the remainder was fed a non-ZH control (CON) ration. Five steers were randomly selected and harvested after 226 DOF which served as a reference point for modeling purposes. Fabricated carcass soft tissue was ground, mixed, and subsampled for proximate analysis. Moreover, following the traditional method of rib dissection which includes the 9th, 10th, and 11th rib contained within the IMPS 103 primal, the relationship of carcass chemical composition to 9-10-11 rib composition was evaluated. Carcasses in this investigation had more (P < 0.01) separable lean, fat, ash, and moisture concomitant with less bone and ether extract than rib dissections. However, protein levels were similar (P = 0.27) between carcasses and rib dissections. Using regression procedures, models were constructed to describe the relationship of rib dissection (RD) composition including separable lean (RDSL), separable fat (RDSF), separable bone (RDSB), ether extract (RDEE), protein (RDP), moisture (RDM), and ash (RDA) with carcass composition. Carcass lean (CL), carcass fat (CF), and carcass bone (CB) were correlated (P < 0.01) with RDSL, RDSF, and RDSB with simple r values of 0.41, 0.71, and 0.50, respectively. Chemical composition of the rib and carcass, carcass ether extract (CEE), carcass protein (CP), carcass moisture (CM), and carcass ash (CA) were correlated (P ≤ 0.01) with simple r values of 0.75, 0.31, 0.66, and 0.37, respectively. Equations to predict carcass fatness from rib dissection variables and ZH supplementation status were only able to account for 50 and 56%, of the variability of

  1. Low-volume high-intensity interval training reduces hyperglycemia and increases muscle mitochondrial capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Little, Jonathan P; Gillen, Jenna B; Percival, Michael E; Safdar, Adeel; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Punthakee, Zubin; Jung, Mary E; Gibala, Martin J

    2011-12-01

    Low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIT) is emerging as a time-efficient exercise strategy for improving health and fitness. This form of exercise has not been tested in type 2 diabetes and thus we examined the effects of low-volume HIT on glucose regulation and skeletal muscle metabolic capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Eight patients with type 2 diabetes (63 ± 8 yr, body mass index 32 ± 6 kg/m(2), Hb(A1C) 6.9 ± 0.7%) volunteered to participate in this study. Participants performed six sessions of HIT (10 × 60-s cycling bouts eliciting ∼90% maximal heart rate, interspersed with 60 s rest) over 2 wk. Before training and from ∼48 to 72 h after the last training bout, glucose regulation was assessed using 24-h continuous glucose monitoring under standardized dietary conditions. Markers of skeletal muscle metabolic capacity were measured in biopsy samples (vastus lateralis) before and after (72 h) training. Average 24-h blood glucose concentration was reduced after training (7.6 ± 1.0 vs. 6.6 ± 0.7 mmol/l) as was the sum of the 3-h postprandial areas under the glucose curve for breakfast, lunch, and dinner (both P < 0.05). Training increased muscle mitochondrial capacity as evidenced by higher citrate synthase maximal activity (∼20%) and protein content of Complex II 70 kDa subunit (∼37%), Complex III Core 2 protein (∼51%), and Complex IV subunit IV (∼68%, all P < 0.05). Mitofusin 2 (∼71%) and GLUT4 (∼369%) protein content were also higher after training (both P < 0.05). Our findings indicate that low-volume HIT can rapidly improve glucose control and induce adaptations in skeletal muscle that are linked to improved metabolic health in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  2. Fiber sources for complete calf starter rations.

    PubMed

    Murdock, F R; Wallenius, R W

    1980-11-01

    Complete calf starter rations containing either 1) alfalfa hay, 2) cottonseed hulls, or 3) alfalfa-beet pulp as sources of fiber were fed to Holstein heifer calves at two locations on a limited milk program from 3 days to 12 wk of age. Rations were isonitrogenous and similar in content of crude fiber and acid detergent fiber. Although growth and development were normal on all rations, calves fed the cottonseed hull ration consumed more starter and gained more body weight than calves fed the other sources of fiber. The similarity of feed efficiencies, rumen pH, and molar ratios of volatile fatty acids between rations indicated no appreciable differences in rumen development or function. The growth response of calves fed the cottonseed hull ration appeared to be a result of better ration acceptability for which no reason was evident. Calves raised at Puyallup gained more body weight than calves at Pullman, and these gains were made more efficiently. These location effects may be related to seasonal differences and greater demands for production of body heat. Although the incidence of scours was less for calves fed alfalfa hay starter, the incidence and severity of bloat were higher for that ration.

  3. Normative values for volume and fat content of the hip abductor muscles and their dependence on side, age and gender in a healthy population.

    PubMed

    Marcon, Magda; Berger, Nicole; Manoliu, Andrei; Fischer, Michael A; Nanz, Daniel; Andreisek, Gustav; Ulbrich, Erika J

    2016-04-01

    To determine normative values for volume and fat content of the gluteus medius (GMed) and minimus (GMin) muscle in healthy volunteers and to evaluate their dependence on age, gender and leg dominance. The IRB approval was obtained for this study. 80 healthy volunteers (females, 40; males, 40; age range 20-62 years), divided into four age groups, were included. Fat- and water-signal-separated MR images of the pelvis were acquired on a 3.0 T MR with a 3-point mDIXON sequence. Normalized volume and fat-signal fraction (FSF) of the GMed (ViGMed, FSFGMed) and GMin (ViGMin, FSFGMin) muscles were determined. The overall mean volumes (normalized) and FSF ± SD: ViGMed 105.13 ± 16.30 cm(3); ViGMin 30.24 ± 5.15 cm(3); FSFGMed 8.13 ± 1.70 % and FSFGMin 9.89 ± 2.72 %. Comparing different age subgroups within each gender no significant differences were found concerning the volumes and FSFs (except FSFGMin in male subgroup aged 20-29 versus 50-62 years, P = 0.014). Comparing FSFs differences between the two genders, only in 20-29 years subgroup, FSFGMed (P =0.003) and FSFGMin (P =0.002) were greater in female. Volume differences between the two legs were not significant (P > 0.077); FSFGMed and FSFGMin (P =0.005 for both) were significantly lower in the dominant leg in female but not in male group (P = 0.454 for FSFGMed and P = 0.643 for FSFMin). No age dependency was evident for volume normative data for GMed and GMin and normative data for FSF values showed no age- or gender dependency.

  4. Semi-automatic volume measurement for orbital fat and total extraocular muscles based on Cube FSE-flex sequence in patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Tang, X; Liu, H; Chen, L; Wang, Q; Luo, B; Xiang, N; He, Y; Zhu, W; Zhang, J

    2018-05-24

    To investigate the accuracy of two semi-automatic segmentation measurements based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) three-dimensional (3D) Cube fast spin echo (FSE)-flex sequence in phantoms, and to evaluate the feasibility of determining the volumetric alterations of orbital fat (OF) and total extraocular muscles (TEM) in patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) by semi-automatic segmentation. Forty-four fatty (n=22) and lean (n=22) phantoms were scanned by using Cube FSE-flex sequence with a 3 T MRI system. Their volumes were measured by manual segmentation (MS) and two semi-automatic segmentation algorithms (regional growing [RG], multi-dimensional threshold [MDT]). Pearson correlation and Bland-Altman analysis were used to evaluate the measuring accuracy of MS, RG, and MDT in phantoms as compared with the true volume. Then, OF and TEM volumes of 15 TAO patients and 15 normal controls were measured using MDT. Paired-sample t-tests were used to compare the volumes and volume ratios of different orbital tissues between TAO patients and controls. Each segmentation (MS RG, MDT) has a significant correlation (p<0.01) with true volume. There was a minimal bias for MS, and a stronger agreement between MDT and the true volume than RG and the true volume both in fatty and lean phantoms. The reproducibility of Cube FSE-flex determined MDT was adequate. The volumetric ratios of OF/globe (p<0.01), TEM/globe (p<0.01), whole orbit/globe (p<0.01) and bone orbit/globe (p<0.01) were significantly greater in TAO patients than those in healthy controls. MRI Cube FSE-flex determined MDT is a relatively accurate semi-automatic segmentation that can be used to evaluate OF and TEM volumes in clinic. Copyright © 2018 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantifying Antimicrobial Resistance at Veal Calf Farms

    PubMed Central

    Bosman, Angela B.; Wagenaar, Jaap; Stegeman, Arjan; Vernooij, Hans; Mevius, Dik

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to determine a sampling strategy to quantify the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance on veal calf farms, based on the variation in antimicrobial resistance within and between calves on five farms. Faecal samples from 50 healthy calves (10 calves/farm) were collected. From each individual sample and one pooled faecal sample per farm, 90 selected Escherichia coli isolates were tested for their resistance against 25 mg/L amoxicillin, 25 mg/L tetracycline, 0.5 mg/L cefotaxime, 0.125 mg/L ciprofloxacin and 8/152 mg/L trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (tmp/s) by replica plating. From each faecal sample another 10 selected E. coli isolates were tested for their resistance by broth microdilution as a reference. Logistic regression analysis was performed to compare the odds of testing an isolate resistant between both test methods (replica plating vs. broth microdilution) and to evaluate the effect of pooling faecal samples. Bootstrap analysis was used to investigate the precision of the estimated prevalence of resistance to each antimicrobial obtained by several simulated sampling strategies. Replica plating showed similar odds of E. coli isolates tested resistant compared to broth microdilution, except for ciprofloxacin (OR 0.29, p≤0.05). Pooled samples showed in general lower odds of an isolate being resistant compared to individual samples, although these differences were not significant. Bootstrap analysis showed that within each antimicrobial the various compositions of a pooled sample provided consistent estimates for the mean proportion of resistant isolates. Sampling strategies should be based on the variation in resistance among isolates within faecal samples and between faecal samples, which may vary by antimicrobial. In our study, the optimal sampling strategy from the perspective of precision of the estimated levels of resistance and practicality consists of a pooled faecal sample from 20 individual animals, of which 90 isolates are

  6. Comparison of a space shuttle flight (STS-78) and bed rest on human muscle function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trappe, S. W.; Trappe, T. A.; Lee, G. A.; Widrick, J. J.; Costill, D. L.; Fitts, R. H.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess muscle fiber size, composition, and in vivo contractile characteristics of the calf muscle of four male crew members during a 17-day spaceflight (SF; Life and Microgravity Sciences Spacelab Shuttle Transport System-78 mission) and eight men during a 17-day bed rest (BR). The protocols and timelines of these two investigations were identical, therefore allowing for direct comparisons between SF and the BR. The subjects' age, height, and weight were 43 +/- 2 yr, 183 +/- 4 cm, and 86 +/- 3 kg for SF and 43 +/- 2 yr, 182 +/- 3 cm, and 82 +/- 4 kg for BR, respectively. Calf muscle strength was examined before SF and BR; on days 2, 8, and 12 during SF and BR; and on days 2 and 8 of recovery. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and within 3 h after SF (gastrocnemius and soleus) and BR (soleus) before reloading. Maximal isometric calf strength and the force-velocity characteristics were unchanged with SF or BR. Additionally, neither SF nor BR had any effect on fiber composition or fiber size of the calf muscles studied. In summary, no changes in calf muscle strength and morphology were observed after the 17-day SF and BR. Because muscle strength is lost during unloading, both during spaceflight and on the ground, these data suggest that the testing sequence employed during the SF and BR may have served as a resistance training countermeasure to attenuate whole muscle strength loss.

  7. A 100-Year Review: Calf nutrition and management.

    PubMed

    Kertz, A F; Hill, T M; Quigley, J D; Heinrichs, A J; Linn, J G; Drackley, J K

    2017-12-01

    The first calf paper, published in the May 1919 issue of the Journal of Dairy Science (JDS), described factors affecting birth body weight of different breeds of calves. Other studies were done on nonmilk ingredients, growth charts were developed, and early weaning was followed to conserve milk fed to calves. Calf papers did not report use of statistics to control or record variation or to determine whether treatment means were different. Many experiments were more observational than comparative. Typically fewer than 5 calves, and sometimes 1 or 2 calves, were used per treatment. During the next 20 yr, calf studies increased and included colostrum feeding, milk and milk replacer feeding, minerals and vitamins, and fats and oils. Many concepts fundamental to current knowledge and understanding of digestion, rumen development, and milk replacer formulation were developed during this period. In addition, the concept of using antibiotic growth promoters in dairy calf diets was first evaluated and developed during the 1950s. During the 20-yr period of January 1957 through December 1976, a large number of universities in the United States and 1 in Canada contributed almost 150 papers on a variety of calf-related topics. These topics included genetics, physiology of the calf, review of calf immunity, antibiotic feeding, and milk replacer ingredients. This became the golden era of calf rumen development studies, which also engendered studies of calf starter rations and ingredients. A classic review of management, feeding, and housing studies summarized research related to calf feeding and management systems up to that point with an emphasis on maintaining calf growth and health while reducing labor and feed costs. It was also during this period that metric measurements replaced English units. In the 20-yr period from 1977 to 1996, more than 400 articles on calf nutrition and management were published in JDS. With the growing research interest in calves, a paper outlining

  8. Transitioning to the direct anterior approach in total hip arthroplasty. Is it a true muscle sparing approach when performed by a low volume hip replacement surgeon?

    PubMed

    Nistor, Dan-Viorel; Caterev, Sergiu; Bolboacă, Sorana-Daniela; Cosma, Dan; Lucaciu, Dan Osvald Gheorghe; Todor, Adrian

    2017-11-01

    We conducted this study to establish if the transition from a lateral approach (LA) to the direct anterior approach (DAA) for a low volume hip arthroplasty surgeon during the steep learning curve can be performed maintaining the muscle sparing approach of the DAA without increasing the complication rates. In this controlled, prospective, randomized clinical study we investigated 70 patients (35 DAA, 35 LA) with similar demographics that underwent a total hip arthroplasty. Assessment of the two approaches consisted of determining the invasiveness through serum markers for muscle damage (i.e. myoglobin, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase), the operative parameters such as post-operative pain and rescue medication consumption, the component positioning and complication rates. Post-operative myoglobin levels were higher (p < 0.001) in the LA group (326.42 ± 84.91 ng/mL) as compared to the DAA group (242.80 ± 71.03 ng/mL), but with no differences regarding other biomarkers for muscle damage. Pain levels were overall lower in the DAA group, with a statistical and clinical difference during surgery day (p < 0.001) associated with lower (p < 0.001) rescue medication consumption (median 1 (1; 3) mg morphine vs. 3 (2; 4) mg morphine). Most patients in the LA group reported chronic post-operative pain throughout all three evaluated months, while the majority of patients in the DAA group reported no pain after week six. Component positioning did not differ significantly between groups and neither did complication rates. The DAA can be transitioned from the LA safely, without higher complication rates while maintaining its muscle spearing advantages when performed by a low volume hip arthroplasty surgeon.

  9. Treatment of hypernatremia in an acidotic neonatal calf.

    PubMed

    Angelos, S M; Smith, B P; George, L W; House, J K; Van Metre, D C; Fecteau, G; Thacker, V C; Angelos, J A

    1999-05-01

    A 7-day-old Jersey calf was evaluated because of diarrhea and pneumonia. The calf was hypernatremic, hypoproteinemic, and acidemic, and was treated initially with i.v. administration of fluids with sodium concentration (175 mEq/L) similar to the calf's serum sodium concentration. Sodium concentration of the administered fluids was gradually decreased over the following days, but the calf's serum sodium concentration decreased too rapidly, and the calf developed neurologic signs attributed to cerebral edema. Treatment with mannitol and i.v. administration of fluids with a higher concentration of sodium resulted in abatement of clinical signs. In calves, hypernatremia may develop over several days. Prescribing traditional isotonic or hypotonic fluids in such cases will be harmful, because during chronic hypernatremia, the brain's adaptive mechanisms involve accumulation of organic osmoles that may take several days to equilibrate across cell membranes, and cerebral edema may result. Administration of fluids containing sodium concentration approximately equal to the patient's measured serum sodium concentration is required to decrease serum sodium concentration more slowly than is possible with traditional isotonic fluids.

  10. Fluid shifts and muscle function in humans during acute simulated weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, A. R.; Tipton, C. M.; Gollnick, P. D.; Mubarak, S. J.; Tucker, B. J.; Akeson, W. H.

    1983-01-01

    The acute effects of simulated weightlessness on transcapillary fluid balance, tissue fluid shifts, muscle function, and triceps surface reflex time were studied in eight supine human subjects who were placed in a 5 degrees head-down tilt position for 8 hr. Results show a cephalic fluid shift from the legs as indicated by facial edema, nasal congestion, increased urine flow, decreased creatinine excretion, reduced calf girth, and decreased lower leg volume. The interstitial fluid pressure in the tibialis anterior muscle and subcutaneous tissue of the lower leg was found to fall significantly, while other transcapillary pressures (capillary and interstitial fluid colloid osmotic pressures) were relatively unchanged. The total water content of the soleus muscle was unchanged during the head-down tilt. After head-down tilt, isometric strength and isokinetic strength of the plantar flexors were unchanged, while the triceps surae reflex time associated with plantar flexion movement slowed slightly. These results demonstrate a dehydration effect of head-down tilt on muscle and subcutaneous tissue of the lower leg that may affect muscle function.

  11. Calf Perforator Flaps: A Freestyle Solution for Oral Cavity Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Molina, Alexandra R; Citron, Isabelle; Chinaka, Fungayi; Cascarini, Luke; Townley, William A

    2017-02-01

    Reconstruction of oral cavity defects requires a thin, pliable flap for optimal functional results. Traditional flap choices are imperfect: the anterolateral thigh flap is excessively thick, whereas the radial forearm flap has a poor donor site. The authors therefore favor calf perforator flaps such as the medial sural artery perforator flap to provide thin tissue with an acceptable donor site. This two-part study aims to demonstrate their suitability for intraoral reconstruction. In the radiologic part of the study, the authors compared thigh and calf tissue thickness by examining lower limb computed tomographic scans of 100 legs. For their clinical study, they collected data prospectively on 20 cases of oral cavity reconstruction using calf perforator flaps. The mean thickness of the calf tissue envelope was significantly less than that of the thigh (8.4 mm compared with 17 mm) based on computed tomographic analysis. In the clinical study, a medial sural artery perforator was used in the majority of cases (17 of 20). The mean pedicle length was 10.2 cm and the mean time to raise a flap was 85 minutes. There were no flap losses. One patient was returned to the operating room for management of late hematoma and wound dehiscence. Calf perforator flaps provide ideal tissue for intraoral reconstruction and are significantly thinner than anterolateral thigh flaps. In addition to medial sural artery perforator flaps, the authors raised both sural and soleal artery perforator flaps in this series. Opportunistic use of the calf donor site allows the harvest of thin tissue with minimal donor-site morbidity. Therapeutic, IV.

  12. A calf model for left ventricular centrifugal mechanical assist.

    PubMed

    Mann, F A; Wagner-Mann, C C; Curtis, J J; Demmy, T L; Turk, J R

    1996-06-01

    The increased use of centrifugal mechanical assist (CMA) for treatment of refractory postcardiotomy cardiogenic shock highlights the need for experimental testing to improve clinical results. This report describes the preoperative conditioning, anesthetic and surgical technique, and postoperative management of a reliable calf model refined in this laboratory for in vivo subchronic (96 h) testing of CMA. Holstein bull calves (2 to 3 months old; mean body weight, 78 kg; n = 35) were instrumented for left ventricular CMA; 4 of these calves were sham-operated controls. Anesthetic recovery and postoperative restraint were accomplished in a specially designed crate to which each calf was preconditioned extensively. Younger calves were more readily conditioned and more tolerant of postoperative restraint than older calves. One calf died of ventricular fibrillation intraoperatively. One calf that had been heparinized developed uncontrollable hemothorax and died 12 h postoperatively. One calf prematurely dislodged his aortic cannula 15 h postoperatively and exsanguinated. Six calves developed pelvic limb paresis or paralysis because of lumbar spinal cord thromboembolism by 36 h postoperatively, and 3 of these calves were sacrificed by 42 h postoperatively. Fifteen calves required sedation in the first 12 h after the operation. Tachycardia associated with bottle feeding occurred in 15 calves. Second-degree atrioventricular block was noted frequently during deep relaxation. Postmortem examination demonstrated the absence of surgical wound and distant infection, security of cannulae in all but the calf that prematurely dislodged the aortic cannula, absence of thrombus formation at cannulation sites, and presence of thromboembolism in 51% of the calves. The incidence of thromboembolic lesions was not influenced by the need for chemical restraint, by the occurrence of feeding-associated tachycardia, or by the presence of atrioventricular block. There were no thromboembolic

  13. High, but not low, exercise volume shifts the balance of renin-angiotensin system toward ACE2/Mas receptor axis in skeletal muscle in obese rats.

    PubMed

    Frantz, Eliete Dalla Corte; Giori, Isabele Gomes; Machado, Marcus Vinícius; Magliano, D'Angelo Carlo; Freitas, Fernanda Marques; Andrade, Mariana Sodré Boêta; Vieira, Aline Bomfim; Nóbrega, Antonio Claudio Lucas; Tibiriçá, Eduardo

    2017-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic risk factors that is linked to central obesity, elevated blood pressure, insulin resistance (IR), and dyslipidemia, where the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may provide a link among them. This study aimed to evaluate volume exercise effects comparing low vs. high volume of chronic aerobic exercise on RAS axes in skeletal muscle in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) rat model. For this, male Wistar-Kyoto rats were fed a standard chow (SC) diet or a high-fat (HF) diet for 32 wk. Animals receiving the HF diet were randomly divided into low exercise volume (LEV, 150 min/wk) and high exercise volume (HEV, 300 min/wk) at the 20th week. After 12 wk of aerobic treadmill training, the body mass and composition, blood pressure, glucose and lipid metabolism, RAS axes, insulin signaling, and inflammatory pathway were performed. HEV slowed the body mass gain, reduced intra-abdominal fat pad and leptin levels, improved total and peripheral body composition and inflammatory cytokine, reduced angiotensin II type 1 receptor expression, and increased Mas receptor protein expression compared with the HF animals. Sedentary groups (SC and HF) presented lower time to exhaustion and maximal velocity compared with the LEV and HEV groups. Both exercise training groups showed reduced resting systolic blood pressure and heart rate, improved glucose tolerance, IR, insulin signaling, and lipid profile. We conclude that the HEV, but not LEV, shifted the balance of RAS toward the ACE2/Mas receptor axis in skeletal muscle, presenting protective effects against the DIO model. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Application of Hydrogel in Reconstruction Surgery: Hydrogel/Fat Graft Complex Filler for Volume Reconstruction in Critical Sized Muscle Defects.

    PubMed

    Lui, Y F; Ip, W Y

    2016-01-01

    Autogenic fat graft usually suffers from degeneration and volume shrinkage in volume reconstruction applications. How to maintain graft viability and graft volume is an essential consideration in reconstruction therapies. In this presented investigation, a new fat graft transplantation method was developed aiming to improve long term graft viability and volume reconstruction effect by incorporation of hydrogel. The harvested fat graft is dissociated into small fragments and incorporated into a collagen based hydrogel to form a hydrogel/fat graft complex for volume reconstruction purpose. In vitro results indicate that the collagen based hydrogel can significantly improve the survivability of cells inside isolated graft. In a 6-month investigation on artificial created defect model, this hydrogel/fat graft complex filler has demonstrated the ability of promoting fat pad formation inside the targeted defect area. The newly generated fat pad can cover the whole defect and restore its original dimension in 6-month time point. Compared to simple fat transplantation, this hydrogel/fat graft complex system provides much improvement on long term volume restoration effect against degeneration and volume shrinkage. One notable effect is that there is continuous proliferation of adipose tissue throughout the 6-month period. In summary, the hydrogel/fat graft system presented in this investigation demonstrated a better and more significant effect on volume reconstruction in large sized volume defect than simple fat transplantation.

  15. CALFED--An experiment in science and decisionmaking

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Kimberly A.; Jacobs, Katharine L.; Luoma, Samuel N.

    2003-01-01

    The CALFED Bay-Delta Program faces a challenging assignment: to develop a collaborative state-federal management plan for the complex river system and involve multiple stakeholders (primarily municipal, agricultural, and environmental entities) whose interests frequently are in direct conflict. Although many resource-management issues involve multiple stakeholders and conflict is integral to their discussion, the CALFED experience is unique because of its shared state and federal roles, the magnitude and significance of stakeholder participation, and the complexity of the scientific issues involved.

  16. Sarcopenia Impairs Prognosis of Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma: The Role of Liver Functional Reserve and Tumor-Related Factors in Loss of Skeletal Muscle Volume.

    PubMed

    Imai, Kenji; Takai, Koji; Watanabe, Satoshi; Hanai, Tatsunori; Suetsugu, Atsushi; Shiraki, Makoto; Shimizu, Masahito

    2017-09-22

    Sarcopenia impairs survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to clarify the factors that contribute to decreased skeletal muscle volume in patients with HCC. The third lumbar vertebra skeletal muscle index (L3 SMI) in 351 consecutive patients with HCC was calculated to identify sarcopenia. Sarcopenia was defined as an L3 SMI value ≤ 29.0 cm²/m² for women and ≤ 36.0 cm²/m² for men. The factors affecting L3 SMI were analyzed by multiple linear regression analysis and tree-based models. Of the 351 HCC patients, 33 were diagnosed as having sarcopenia and showed poor prognosis compared with non-sarcopenia patients ( p = 0.007). However, this significant difference disappeared after the adjustments for age, sex, Child-Pugh score, maximum tumor size, tumor number, and the degree of portal vein invasion by propensity score matching analysis. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that age ( p = 0.015) and sex ( p < 0.0001) were significantly correlated with a decrease in L3 SMI. Tree-based models revealed that sex (female) is the most significant factor that affects L3 SMI. In male patients, L3 SMI was decreased by aging, increased Child-Pugh score (≥56 years), and enlarged tumor size (<56 years). Maintaining liver functional reserve and early diagnosis and therapy for HCC are vital to prevent skeletal muscle depletion and improve the prognosis of patients with HCC.

  17. Effect of processing sorghum grain on dairy calf performance.

    PubMed

    Abdelgadir, I E; Morrill, J L

    1995-09-01

    Two trials evaluated the effect of sorghum grain processing on dairy calf performance. In trial 1, Holstein calves (n = 76; .5 to 8 wk of age) were fed one of three calf starters that contained either raw, roasted (exit temperature of 135 degrees C), or conglomerated sorghum grain. The conglomeration process consisted of grinding the grain, adding water, pelleting the mixture, and then roasting it. Raw and roasted sorghum grains were ground through a 3.2-mm screen and then included in complete pelleted starters; conglomerated sorghum grain pellets were mixed with the other pelleted ingredients of the starter. Processing did not enhance calf performance or affect selected ruminal and blood metabolites. In trial 2, roasted and conglomerated sorghum grains were ground through a 3.2-mm screen, and each was included in a pelleted starter fed for ad libitum intake to Holstein calves (n = 48) from .5 to 8 wk of age. Calf performance was not affected by method of grain processing, and ruminal and blood metabolites were similar; however, 22% of calves on the conglomerated sorghum grain starter bloated during the postweaning period, which probably resulted in reduced feed intake from wk 6 to 8. Measures to prevent bloat may be necessary to realize a potential benefit of conglomerating sorghum grain for calves.

  18. Diagnosis and treatment of lumbosacral discospondylitis in a calf

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this case report was to describe the clinical findings, treatment and outcome of lumbosacral discospondylitis in a calf. Case Presentation A 5.5-month-old calf was presented with difficulty in rising, a stiff and slightly ataxic gait in the hind limbs and a shortened stride. The lumbosacral region was severely painful on palpation. Radiographic examination confirmed lumbosacral discospondylitis. Medical treatment with stall rest was instituted over six weeks. Radiographic and ultrasonographic follow-up examinations showed lysis of the endplates initially, then collapse of the intervertebral space at the lumbosacral junction and progressive sclerosis in the periphery of the lytic zones. Four weeks after institution of treatment, the calf could rise normally and the general condition gradually had returned to normal. The calf was discharged after 6 weeks and was sound at 3.5 months clinical and radiographic follow up examination. Thereafter, it was kept on alpine pastures without problems and was pregnant 1 year after the last examination. Conclusions This report shows that recovery from lumbosacral discospondylitis is possible in heifers, provided that treatment is started before major neurologic deficits have developed and is continued for an extended period of time. PMID:21910913

  19. Acidification of calf bedding reduces fly development and bacterial abundance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Environmental stressors, such as high fly density, can impact calf well-being. Sodium bisulfate (SBS) is an acidifier that reduces the pH of flooring and bedding, creating a medium that neither bacteria nor immature flies (also known as larvae or maggots) can thrive in. Two experiments were conducte...

  20. Cow and calf weight trends on mountain summer range.

    Treesearch

    Jon M. Skovlin

    1962-01-01

    Mountain range furnishes the bulk of summer forage for commercial cow-calf operations in northeastern Oregon. Herds maintained on valley range and pasture during winter and spring months are annually trailed to mountain ranges and remain there until calves are ready for fall markets (fig. 1).

  1. Reduction of diuretics and analysis of water and muscle volumes to prevent falls and fall-related fractures in older adults.

    PubMed

    Okada, Kosuke; Okada, Masahiro; Kamada, Nanao; Yamaguchi, Yumiko; Kakehashi, Masayuki; Sasaki, Hidemi; Katoh, Shigeko; Morita, Katsuya

    2017-02-01

    In an attempt to decrease the incidence of falls and fall-related fractures at a special geriatric nursing home, we endeavored to reduce diuretic doses, and examined the relationship between the effectiveness of this approach with the body compositions and activities of daily living of the study cohort. We enrolled 93 participants living in the community, 60 residents of an intermediate geriatric nursing home and 50 residents of the 100-bed Kandayama Yasuragien special geriatric nursing home. We recorded body composition using a multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analyzer. Daily loop diuretic and other diuretic regimens of those in the special geriatric nursing home were reduced or replaced with "NY-mode" diuretic therapy, namely, spironolactone 12.5 mg orally once on alternate days. The incidence of falls fell from 53 in 2011 to 29 in 2012, and there were no fall-related proximal femoral fractures for 3 years after the introduction of NY-mode diuretic therapy. We also found statistically significant differences in muscle and intracellular water volumes in our elderly participants: those with higher care requirements or lower levels of independence had lower muscle or water volumes. We found that reducing or replacing daily diuretics with NY-mode therapy appeared to reduce the incidence of falls and fall-related proximal femoral fracture, likely by preserving intracellular and extracellular body water volumes. Low-dose spironolactone (12.5 mg on alternate days) appears to be an effective means of treating elderly individuals with chronic heart failure or other edematous states, while preventing falls and fall-related fractures. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 262-269. © 2016 The Authors. Geriatrics & Gerontology International published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Geriatrics Society.

  2. Resistance Training with Single vs. Multi-joint Exercises at Equal Total Load Volume: Effects on Body Composition, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Muscle Strength.

    PubMed

    Paoli, Antonio; Gentil, Paulo; Moro, Tatiana; Marcolin, Giuseppe; Bianco, Antonino

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effects of equal-volume resistance training performed with single-joint (SJ) or multi-joint exercises (MJ) on VO 2 max, muscle strength and body composition in physically active males. Thirty-six participants were divided in two groups: SJ group ( n = 18, 182.1 ± 5.2, 80.03 ± 2.78 kg, 23.5 ± 2.7 years) exercised with only SJ exercises (e.g., dumbbell fly, knee extension, etc.) and MJ group ( n = 18, 185.3 ± 3.6 cm, 80.69 ± 2.98 kg, 25.5 ± 3.8 years) with only MJ exercises (e.g., bench press, squat, etc.). The total work volume (repetitions × sets × load) was equated between groups. Training was performed three times a week for 8 weeks. Before and after the training period, participants were tested for VO 2 max, body composition, 1 RM on the bench press, knee extension and squat. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare post training values between groups, using baseline values as covariates. According to the results, both groups decreased body fat and increased fat free mass with no difference between them. Whilst both groups significantly increased cardiorespiratory fitness and maximal strength, the improvements in MJ group were higher than for SJ in VO 2 max (5.1 and 12.5% for SJ and MJ), bench press 1 RM (8.1 and 10.9% for SJ and MJ), knee extension 1 RM (12.4 and 18.9% for SJ and MJ) and squat 1 RM (8.3 and 13.8% for SJ and MJ). In conclusion, when total work volume was equated, RT programs involving MJ exercises appear to be more efficient for improving muscle strength and maximal oxygen consumption than programs involving SJ exercises, but no differences were found for body composition.

  3. Children and adults minimise activated muscle volume by selecting gait parameters that balance gross mechanical power and work demands.

    PubMed

    Hubel, Tatjana Y; Usherwood, James R

    2015-09-01

    Terrestrial locomotion on legs is energetically expensive. Compared with cycling, or with locomotion in swimming or flying animals, walking and running are highly uneconomical. Legged gaits that minimise mechanical work have previously been identified and broadly match walking and running at appropriate speeds. Furthermore, the 'cost of muscle force' approaches are effective in relating locomotion kinetics to metabolic cost. However, few accounts have been made for why animals deviate from either work-minimising or muscle-force-minimising strategies. Also, there is no current mechanistic account for the scaling of locomotion kinetics with animal size and speed. Here, we report measurements of ground reaction forces in walking children and adult humans, and their stance durations during running. We find that many aspects of gait kinetics and kinematics scale with speed and size in a manner that is consistent with minimising muscle activation required for the more demanding between mechanical work and power: spreading the duration of muscle action reduces activation requirements for power, at the cost of greater work demands. Mechanical work is relatively more demanding for larger bipeds--adult humans--accounting for their symmetrical M-shaped vertical force traces in walking, and relatively brief stance durations in running compared with smaller bipeds--children. The gaits of small children, and the greater deviation of their mechanics from work-minimising strategies, may be understood as appropriate for their scale, not merely as immature, incompletely developed and energetically sub-optimal versions of adult gaits. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Center of Pressure Motion After Calf Vibration Is More Random in Fallers Than Non-fallers: Prospective Study of Older Individuals

    PubMed Central

    van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Kerr, Graham K.; van Dieën, Jaap H.; Hodges, Paul W.

    2018-01-01

    Aging is associated with changes in balance control and elderly take longer to adapt to changing sensory conditions, which may increase falls risk. Low amplitude calf muscle vibration stimulates local sensory afferents/receptors and affects sense of upright when applied in stance. It has been used to assess the extent the nervous system relies on calf muscle somatosensory information and to rapidly change/perturb part of the somatosensory information causing balance unsteadiness by addition and removal of the vibratory stimulus. This study assessed the effect of addition and removal of calf vibration on balance control (in the absence of vision) in elderly individuals (>65 years, n = 99) who did (n = 41) or did not prospectively report falls (n = 58), and in a group of young individuals (18–25 years, n = 23). Participants stood barefoot and blindfolded on a force plate for 135 s. Vibrators (60 Hz, 1 mm) attached bilaterally over the triceps surae muscles were activated twice for 15 s; after 15 and 75 s (45 s for recovery). Balance measures were applied in a windowed (15 s epoch) manner to compare center-of-pressure (CoP) motion before, during and after removal of calf vibration between groups. In each epoch, CoP motion was quantified using linear measures, and non-linear measures to assess temporal structure of CoP motion [using recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) and detrended fluctuation analysis]. Mean CoP displacement during and after vibration did not differ between groups, which suggests that calf proprioception and/or weighting assigned by the nervous system to calf proprioception was similar for the young and both groups of older individuals. Overall, compared to the elderly, CoP motion of young was more predictable and persistent. Balance measures were not different between fallers and non-fallers before and during vibration. However, non-linear aspects of CoP motion of fallers and non-fallers differed after removal of vibration, when dynamic re

  5. Muscle biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... muscle ( myopathic changes ) Tissue death of the muscle (necrosis) Disorders that involve inflammation of the blood vessels and affect muscles ( necrotizing vasculitis ) Traumatic muscle damage ...

  6. Metabolic responses to the seated calf press exercise performed against inertial resistance.

    PubMed

    Caruso, John F; Herron, Jacquelyn C; Hernandez, Daniel A; Porter, Aaron; Schweickert, Torrey; Manning, Tommy F

    2005-11-01

    Future in-flight strength training devices may use inertial resistance to abate mass and strength losses to muscle groups such as the triceps surae, which incurs pronounced deficits from space travel. Yet little data exist regarding physiological outcomes to triceps surae exercise performed against inertial resistance. Two sets of subjects were employed to note either blood lactate (La-) or net caloric cost responses to seated calf presses done on an inertial resistance ergometer. Both sets of subjects performed 3 identical 3-set 10-repetition workouts. Blood La- measurements were made pre- and 5 min post-exercise. During workouts, breath-by-breath O2 uptake values were also recorded to help determine the net caloric cost of exercise. Compared to pre-exercise (mean +/- SEM) blood La- (2.01 +/- 0.08 mmol x L(-1)) values, post-exercise (4.73 +/- 0.24 mmol x L(-1)) measurements showed a significant increase. Delta (post/pre differences) La- correlated significantly (r = 0.31-0.34) to several workout performance measures. Net caloric cost averaged 52.82 +/- 3.26 kcals for workouts; multivariate regression showed a subject's height, body mass, and body surface area described the variance associated with energy expenditure. Workouts evoked minimal energy expenditure, though anaerobic glycolysis likely played a major role in ATP resynthesis. Metabolic and exercise performance measures were likely influenced by series elastic element involvement of the triceps surae-Achilles tendon complex. Ergometer calf presses provided a high-intensity workout stimulus with a minimal metabolic cost.

  7. Randomized Noninferiority Trial of Reduced High-Dose Volume Versus Standard Volume Radiation Therapy for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: Results of the BC2001 Trial (CRUK/01/004)

    SciTech Connect

    Huddart, Robert A., E-mail: robert.huddart@icr.ac.uk; Hall, Emma; Hussain, Syed A.

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To test whether reducing radiation dose to uninvolved bladder while maintaining dose to the tumor would reduce side effects without impairing local control in the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: In this phase III multicenter trial, 219 patients were randomized to standard whole-bladder radiation therapy (sRT) or reduced high-dose volume radiation therapy (RHDVRT) that aimed to deliver full radiation dose to the tumor and 80% of maximum dose to the uninvolved bladder. Participants were also randomly assigned to receive radiation therapy alone or radiation therapy plus chemotherapy in a partial 2 × 2 factorial design. Themore » primary endpoints for the radiation therapy volume comparison were late toxicity and time to locoregional recurrence (with a noninferiority margin of 10% at 2 years). Results: Overall incidence of late toxicity was less than predicted, with a cumulative 2-year Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade 3/4 toxicity rate of 13% (95% confidence interval 8%, 20%) and no statistically significant differences between groups. The difference in 2-year locoregional recurrence free rate (RHDVRT − sRT) was 6.4% (95% confidence interval −7.3%, 16.8%) under an intention to treat analysis and 2.6% (−12.8%, 14.6%) in the “per-protocol” population. Conclusions: In this study RHDVRT did not result in a statistically significant reduction in late side effects compared with sRT, and noninferiority of locoregional control could not be concluded formally. However, overall low rates of clinically significant toxicity combined with low rates of invasive bladder cancer relapse confirm that (chemo)radiation therapy is a valid option for the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer.« less

  8. Dose–volume-related dysphagia after constrictor muscles definition in head and neck cancer intensity-modulated radiation treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mazzola, R; Ricchetti, F; Fiorentino, A; Fersino, S; Giaj Levra, N; Naccarato, S; Sicignano, G; Albanese, S; Di Paola, G; Alterio, D; Ruggieri, R

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Dysphagia remains a side effect influencing the quality of life of patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) after radiotherapy. We evaluated the relationship between planned dose involvement and acute and late dysphagia in patients with HNC treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), after a recontouring of constrictor muscles (PCs) and the cricopharyngeal muscle (CM). Methods: Between December 2011 and December 2013, 56 patients with histologically proven HNC were treated with IMRT or volumetric-modulated arc therapy. The PCs and CM were recontoured. Correlations between acute and late toxicity and dosimetric parameters were evaluated. End points were analysed using univariate logistic regression. Results: An increasing risk to develop acute dysphagia was observed when constraints to the middle PCs were not respected [mean dose (Dmean) ≥50 Gy, maximum dose (Dmax) >60 Gy, V50 >70% with a p = 0.05]. The superior PC was not correlated with acute toxicity but only with late dysphagia. The inferior PC was not correlated with dysphagia; for the CM only, Dmax >60 Gy was correlated with acute dysphagia ≥ grade 2. Conclusion: According to our analysis, the superior PC has a major role, being correlated with dysphagia at 3 and 6 months after treatments; the middle PC maintains this correlation only at 3 months from the beginning of radiotherapy, but it does not have influence on late dysphagia. The inferior PC and CM have a minimum impact on swallowing symptoms. Advances in knowledge: We used recent guidelines to define dose constraints of the PCs and CM. Two results emerge in the present analysis: the superior PC influences late dysphagia, while the middle PC influences acute dysphagia. PMID:25348370

  9. Chronic Plantarflexor Stretching During Ankle Immobilization Helps Preserve Calf Girth, Plantarflexion Peak Torque, and Ankle Dorsiflexion Motion.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Samantha; Christensen, Bryan; Gange, Kara; Todden, Christopher; Hatterman-Valenti, Harlene; Albrecht, Jay M

    2017-09-27

    Chronic plantarflexor (PF) stretching during ankle immobilization helps preserve calf girth, plantarflexion peak torque, and ankle dorsiflexion (DF) motion. Immobilization can lead to decreases in muscle peak torque, muscle size, and joint ROM. Recurrent static stretching during a period of immobilization may reduce the extent of these losses. To investigate the effects of chronic static stretching on PF peak torque, calf girth, and DF range of motion (ROM) after two weeks of ankle immobilization. Randomized controlled clinical trial. Athletic training facility. Thirty-six healthy college-aged (19.81±2.48) females. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: control group, immobilized group (IM), and immobilized plus stretching group (IM+S). Each group participated in a familiarization period, a pre-test, and, two weeks later, a post-test. The IM group and IM+S group wore the Aircast FP Walker for two weeks on the left leg. During this time, the IM+S group participated in a stretching program, which consisted of two 10-minute stretching procedures each day for the 14 days. One-way ANOVA was used to determine differences in the change of ankle girth, PF peak torque, and DF ROM between groups with an α level of < 0.05. A significant difference was noted between groups in girth (F 2,31 =5.64, P=0.009), DF ROM (F 2,31 =26.13, P<0.0001), and PF peak torque (F 2,31 =7.74, P=0.002). Post-hoc testing also showed a significance difference between change in calf girth of the control group compared to the IM group (P=0.007) and a significant difference in change of peak torque in the IM+S group and the IM group (P=0.001). Also, a significant difference was shown in DF ROM between the control group and IM+S group (P=0.006), the control group and the IM group (P<0.0001), and the IM+S group and the IM group (P<0.0001). Chronic static stretching during two weeks of immobilization may decrease the loss of calf girth, ankle PF peak torque, and ankle DF ROM.

  10. Predicting red meat yields in carcasses from beef-type and calf-fed Holstein steers using the United States Department of Agriculture calculated yield grade.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, T E; Elam, N A; Miller, M F; Brooks, J C; Hilton, G G; VanOverbeke, D L; McKeith, F K; Killefer, J; Montgomery, T H; Allen, D M; Griffin, D B; Delmore, R J; Nichols, W T; Streeter, M N; Yates, D A; Hutcheson, J P

    2010-06-01

    Analyses were conducted to evaluate the ability of the USDA yield grade equation to detect differences in subprimal yield of beef-type steers and calf-fed Holstein steers that had been fed zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; Intervet Inc., Millsboro, DE) as well as those that had not been fed ZH. Beef-type steer (n = 801) and calf-fed Holstein steer (n = 235) carcasses were fabricated into subprimal cuts and trim. Simple correlations between calculated yield grades and total red meat yields ranged from -0.56 to -0.62 for beef-type steers. Reliable correlations from calf-fed Holstein steers were unobtainable; the probability of a type I error met or exceeded 0.39. Linear models were developed for the beef-type steers to predict total red meat yield based on calculated USDA yield grade within each ZH duration. At an average calculated USDA yield grade of 2.9, beef-type steer carcasses that had not been fed ZH had an estimated 69.4% red meat yield, whereas those fed ZH had an estimated 70.7% red meat yield. These results indicate that feeding ZH increased red meat yield by 1.3% at a constant calculated yield grade. However, these data also suggest that the calculated USDA yield grade score is a poor and variable estimator (adjusted R(2) of 0.31 to 0.38) of total red meat yield of beef-type steer carcasses, regardless of ZH feeding. Moreover, no relationship existed (adjusted R(2) of 0.00 to 0.01) for calf-fed Holstein steer carcasses, suggesting the USDA yield grade is not a valid estimate of calf-fed Holstein red meat yield.

  11. Mid-arm and calf circumferences are stronger mortality predictors than body mass index for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Ho, Shu-Chuan; Wang, Jiun-Yi; Kuo, Han-Pin; Huang, Chien-Da; Lee, Kang-Yun; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Feng, Po-Hao; Chen, Tzu-Tao; Hsu, Min-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is currently the third most common cause of death in the world. Patients with COPD experience airflow obstruction, weight loss, skeletal muscle dysfunction, and comorbidities. Anthropometric indicators are risk factors for mortality in geriatric assessment. This study examined and compared the associations of anthropometric indicators, such as low body mass index (BMI), low mid-arm circumference (MAC), and low calf circumference (CC), with the prediction of a 3-year follow-up mortality risk in patients with COPD. We recruited nonhospitalized patients with COPD without acute conditions from a general hospital in Taiwan. The BMI, MAC, and CC of all patients were measured, and they were followed for 3 years through telephone interviews and chart reviews. The Kaplan-Meier survival curves stratified by BMI, MAC, and CC were analyzed. Variables univariately associated with survival were entered into a multivariate Cox regression model. The Bayesian information criterion was used to compare the predictive ability of the three anthropometric indicators to predict mortality rate. In total, 104 patients were included (mean ± standard deviation age, 74.2±6.9 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 second [%], 58.4±20.4 predicted; males, 94.2%); 22 patients (21.2%) died during the 36-month follow-up. During this long-term follow-up, the three anthropometric indicators could predict mortality risk in patients with COPD (low BMI [<21 kg/m(2)], hazard ratio [HR] =2.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.10-7.10; low MAC [<23.5 cm], HR =3.09, 95% CI =1.30-7.38; low CC [<30 cm], HR =4.40, 95% CI =1.82-10.63). CC showed the strongest potential in predicting the mortality risk, followed by MAC and BMI. Among the three anthropometric variables examined, CC can be considered a strong predictor of mortality risk in patients with COPD.

  12. Deoxygenation and the blood volume signals in the flexor carpi ulnaris and radialis muscles obtained during the execution of the Mirallas's test of judo athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdaguer-Codina, Joan; Mirallas, Jaume A.

    1996-12-01

    The technique of execution of any movement in Judo is extremely important. The coaches want tests and tools easy to use and cheaper, to evaluate the progress of a judoist in the tatame. In this paper we present a test developed by Mirallas, which has his name 'Test of Mirallas' to evaluate the maximal power capacity of the judoist. The near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signals were obtained to have a measurement of the metabolic work of the flexor carpi ulnaris and radialis muscles, during the execution of the ippon-seoi-nage movement, allowing this measurement to assess by NIRS the maximal oxygen uptake. Also obtained were tympanic, skin forehead, and biceps brachii temperatures during the test time and recovery phase to study the effects of ambient conditions and the post-exercise oxygen consumption. The deoxygenation and blood volume signals obtained gave different results, demonstrating the hypothesis of the coaches that some judoist do the execution of the ippon-seoi-nage movement correctly and the rest didn't. The heart rate frequency obtained in the group of judoist was between 190-207 bpm, and in the minute five of post-exercise was 114-137 bpm; the time employed in the MIrallas's test were from 7 feet 14 inches to 13 feet 49 inches, and the total of movements were from 199 to 409. The data obtained in the skin forehead, and skin biceps brachii confirms previous works that the oxygen consumption remains after exercise in the muscle studied. According to the results, the test developed by Mirallas is a good tool to evaluate the performance of judoist any time, giving better results compared with standard tests.

  13. High-Resolution Echo-Planar Spectroscopic Imaging of the Human Calf

    PubMed Central

    Weis, Jan; Bruvold, Morten; Ortiz-Nieto, Francisco; Ahlström, Håkan

    2014-01-01

    Background This study exploits the speed benefits of echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (EPSI) to acquire lipid spectra of skeletal muscle. The main purpose was to develop a high-resolution EPSI technique for clinical MR scanner, to visualise the bulk magnetic susceptibility (BMS) shifts of extra-myocellular lipid (EMCL) spectral lines, and to investigate the feasibility of this method for the assessment of intra-myocellular (IMCL) lipids. Methods The study group consisted of six healthy volunteers. A two dimensional EPSI sequence with point-resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) spatial localization was implemented on a 3T clinical MR scanner. Measurements were performed by means of 64×64 spatial matrix and nominal voxel size 3×3×15 mm3. The total net measurement time was 3 min 12 sec for non-water-suppressed (1 acquisition) and 12 min 48 sec for water-suppressed scans (4 acquisitions). Results Spectra of the human calf had a very good signal-to-noise ratio and linewidths sufficient to differentiate IMCL resonances from EMCL. The use of a large spatial matrix reduces inter-voxel signal contamination of the strong EMCL signals. Small voxels enabled visualisation of the methylene EMCL spectral line splitting and their BMS shifts up to 0.5 ppm relative to the correspondent IMCL line. The mean soleus muscle IMCL content of our six volunteers was 0.30±0.10 vol% (range 0.18–0.46) or 3.6±1.2 mmol/kg wet weight (range: 2.1–5.4). Conclusion This study demonstrates that high-spatial resolution PRESS EPSI of the muscle lipids is feasible on standard clinical scanners. PMID:24498129

  14. Calf management practices and associations with herd-level morbidity and mortality on beef cow-calf operations.

    PubMed

    Murray, C F; Fick, L J; Pajor, E A; Barkema, H W; Jelinski, M D; Windeyer, M C

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate calf management practices on beef cow-calf operations and determine associations with herd-level morbidity and mortality of pre-weaned calves. A 40-question survey about management practices, morbidity and mortality was administered to cow-calf producers by distributing paper surveys and by circulating an online link through various media. A total of 267 producers completed the survey. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and multivariable linear regression models. Average herd-level treatment risk for pre-weaning calf diarrhea (PCD) and bovine respiratory disease (BRD) were 4.9% and 3.0%, respectively. Average herd-level mortality within the first 24 h of life (stillbirth), from 1 to 7 days and 7 days to weaning were 2.3%, 1.1%, and 1.4%, respectively. Operations that never intervened at parturition had 4.7% higher PCD than those that occasionally did. On operations using small elastrator bands for castration, PCD was 1.9% higher than those using other methods. For every increase of 100 cows in herd size, BRD decreased by 1.1%. The association between BRD and PCD varied by when calving season began. Operations that used off-farm, frozen colostrum had a 1.1% increase in stillbirths. Operations that verified a calf had suckled had 0.7% lower mortality from 1 to 7 days of age. Those that intervened when colostrum was abnormal or that used small elastrator bands for castration had 1.9% and 1.4% higher mortality during the 1st week of life, respectively, compared with other operations. Mortality from 7 days to weaning was lower by 0.7% when calving season started in April compared with January or February and was higher by 1.0% for each additional week of calving season. Operations that intervened with colostrum consumption for assisted calvings had lower mortality from 7 days to weaning by 0.8% compared with those that did not. For every 1.0% increase in BRD, mortality from 7 days to weaning increased by 1

  15. Partial Reductions in Mechanical Loading Yield Proportional Changes in Bone Density, Bone Architecture, and Muscle Mass

    PubMed Central

    Ellman, Rachel; Spatz, Jordan; Cloutier, Alison; Palme, Rupert; Christiansen, Blaine A; Bouxsein, Mary L

    2014-01-01

    Although the musculoskeletal system is known to be sensitive to changes in its mechanical environment, the relationship between functional adaptation and below-normal mechanical stimuli is not well defined. We investigated bone and muscle adaptation to a range of reduced loading using the partial weight suspension (PWS) system, in which a two-point harness is used to offload a tunable amount of body weight while maintaining quadrupedal locomotion. Skeletally mature female C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to partial weight bearing at 20%, 40%, 70%, or 100% of body weight for 21 days. A hindlimb unloaded (HLU) group was included for comparison in addition to age-matched controls in normal housing. Gait kinematics was measured across the full range of weight bearing, and some minor alterations in gait from PWS were identified. With PWS, bone and muscle changes were generally proportional to the degree of unloading. Specifically, total body and hindlimb bone mineral density, calf muscle mass, trabecular bone volume of the distal femur, and cortical area of the femur midshaft were all linearly related to the degree of unloading. Even a load reduction to 70% of normal weight bearing was associated with significant bone deterioration and muscle atrophy. Weight bearing at 20% did not lead to better bone outcomes than HLU despite less muscle atrophy and presumably greater mechanical stimulus, requiring further investigation. These data confirm that the PWS model is highly effective in applying controllable, reduced, long-term loading that produces predictable, discrete adaptive changes in muscle and bone of the hindlimb. PMID:23165526

  16. Skeletal muscle metaboreflex in patients with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Paulo J C; Silva, Leonardo R; Maldamer, Vinicius Z; Cipriano, Gerson; Chiappa, Adriana M G; Schuster, Rodrigo; Boni, Victor H F; Grandi, Tatiani; Wolpat, Andiara; Roseguini, Bruno T; Chiappa, Gaspar R

    2017-03-01

    The sympathetic nervous system is affected in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). This study tested the hypothesis that patients with CRF have an altered skeletal muscle metaboreflex. Twenty patients with CRF and 18 healthy subjects of similar age participated in the study. The muscle metaboreflex was determined based on heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure, calf blood flow and calf vascular resistance (CVR) in response to handgrip exercise. The control of vascular resistance in the calf muscle mediated by the metaboreflex was estimated by subtracting the area under the curve with circulatory occlusion from that without occlusion. Arterial pressure and HR responses during exercise and recovery were similar in two groups of subjects. In the control group, CVR increased during exercise and remained elevated during circulatory occlusion, whereas no significant change was seen in the patients. Thus, the index of the metaboreflex was 7·82 ± 9·57 in the patients versus16·52 ± 14 units in the controls. The findings demonstrate that patients with CRF have a decreased vascular resistance response in the calf during the handgrip exercise, which suggests that CRF condition attenuates this reflex. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. beta-Galactoside-binding muscle lectins of man and monkey show antigenic cross-reactions with those of bovine origin.

    PubMed Central

    Childs, R A; Feizi, T

    1979-01-01

    Endogenous beta-galactoside-binding lectins were isolated from human heart and from human and rhesus-monkey skeletal muscles. Gel precipitation and radioimmunoassays with rabbit antisera to calf heart lectin revealed antigenic cross-reactions between the primate and bovine muscle lectins. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:120198

  18. Linguine sign in musculoskeletal imaging: calf silicone implant rupture.

    PubMed

    Duryea, Dennis; Petscavage-Thomas, Jonelle; Frauenhoffer, Elizabeth E; Walker, Eric A

    2015-08-01

    Imaging findings of breast silicone implant rupture are well described in the literature. On MRI, the linguine sign indicates intracapsular rupture, while the presence of silicone particles outside the fibrous capsule indicates extracapsular rupture. The linguine sign is described as the thin, wavy hypodense wall of the implant within the hyperintense silicone on T2-weighted images indicative of rupture of the implant within the naturally formed fibrous capsule. Hyperintense T2 signal outside of the fibrous capsule is indicative of an extracapsular rupture with silicone granuloma formation. We present a rare case of a patient with a silicone calf implant rupture and discuss the MRI findings associated with this condition.

  19. Acidification of calf bedding reduces fly development and bacterial abundance.

    PubMed

    Calvo, M S; Gerry, A C; McGarvey, J A; Armitage, T L; Mitloehner, F M

    2010-03-01

    Environmental stressors, such as high fly density, can affect calf well-being. Sodium bisulfate (SBS) is an acidifier that reduces the pH of flooring and bedding, creating a medium that neither bacteria nor immature flies (also known as larvae or maggots) can thrive in. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the application of SBS to a mixture of rice hull calf bedding and calf slurry (BED) to reduce house fly (Musca domestica L.) larval density and the abundance of bacteria. In experiment 1, dish pans containing 1L of BED and 3,000 house fly eggs were treated with SBS at concentrations of 0, 8.9, 17.7, and 26.5g of SBS/0.05m(2) of BED (CON, LOW, MED, and HIGH, respectively), with each SBS concentration applied to 4 individual pans (16 pans total). Reapplication of the same SBS concentrations in each pan occurred 3 times/wk throughout the 23-d trial. Larval house fly survival was significantly reduced in all pans with SBS relative to CON pans, with lowest survival rates in the MED and HIGH pans (99% and 100% reduction, respectively). The mean pH for each treatment was inversely related to the SBS concentration. In experiment 2, pans containing 1L of BED and 3,000 house fly eggs were treated with either 0g of SBS (CON), 8.9g of SBS/0.05m(2) of BED with reapplication of the acidifier 3 times/wk (SB3x), or 8.9g of SBS/0.05m(2) of BED applied only once at 48h before the end of the 8 d-trial (SB48). Larval house fly survival and bacterial concentrations were reduced (90% larval reduction and 68% bacterial reduction) in the SB3x treatment relative to the CON. Mean pH was also reduced in SB3x pans relative to CON or SB48 pans. Overall, acidification of calf BED using the acidifier SBS resulted in a reduction of bacteria and house fly larval survival. This form of fly control might be expected to reduce adult fly production and, therefore, fly-related stress in calves.

  20. Reasons and risk factors for beef calf and youngstock on-farm mortality in extensive cow-calf herds.

    PubMed

    Mõtus, K; Viltrop, A; Emanuelson, U

    2017-12-26

    Raising calves and youngstock is an essential part of beef production. High on-farm mortality (unassisted death and euthanasia) is a consequence of poor animal health and welfare, and is economically unfavourable. The present study aimed to identify the reasons and risk factors for beef calf and youngstock on-farm mortality, using registry data for the years 2013 to 2015. Cox regression models were applied for the data of four age groups: calves up to 30 days (n=21 075), calves 1 to 5 months (n=21 116), youngstock 6 to 19 months (n=22 637) and youngstock ⩾20 months of age (n=9582). We found that dystocia, small birth weight and older parity of the mother increased the mortality hazard in calves up to 30 days of age. A summer birth was a common protective factor against mortality for calves up to 30 days and calves 1 to 5 months of age, compared with birth in other seasons. Among calves 1 to 5 months old, being the offspring of a first-parity cow was associated with significantly higher risk of death compared with calves who were the offspring of third- or higher-parity cows. A high herd-level stillbirth rate was associated with higher mortality hazard. The most commonly reported reasons for calf mortality were digestive disorders and respiratory disease. According to the models of youngstock from 6 months of age, male sex was a risk factor for mortality. Cattle having more than 10% dairy breed experienced a higher mortality risk in the ⩾20 months age group. No significant differences were found across regions, herd size or different breeds in any of the calf or youngstock groups. Metabolic and digestive disorders, as well as traumas and accidents, were the most common causes of mortality in beef youngstock older than 6 months. We can conclude that in young calves, animal-level factors associated with calving had a high impact on mortality. Further, timing calving for the warmer spring months would benefit calf survivability. Further studies including

  1. Influence of Kaolinite Clay Supplementation on Growth Performance and Digestive Function in Finishing Calf-fed Holstein Steers

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, José; Montaño, Martín; Plascencia, Alejandro; Salinas, Jaime; Torrentera, Noemí; Zinn, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the influence of kaolinite clay supplementation (0%, 1%, or 2% diet dry matter [DM] basis) on characteristics of digestion (Trial 1) and growth performance (Trial 2) in calf-fed Holstein steers fed a finishing diet. In Trial 1, 6 Holstein steers (539±15 kg) with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used to evaluate treatment effects on characteristics of digestion. Kaolinite clay supplementation decreased total tract DM digestion (linear effect, p<0.01) without effects (p≥0.10) on site and extent of digestion of organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, starch and N, or ruminal microbial efficiency. There were no treatment effects on ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids molar proportions or estimated methane production. In Trial 2, 108 Holstein steers (132.4±5.6 kg) were used in a 308-d study to evaluate growth performance and carcass characteristics. There were no treatment effects (p>0.10) on average daily gain (ADG) and gain efficiency (ADG/dry matter intake). Kaolinite supplementation tended (linear effect, p = 0.08) to increase dietary net energy (NE) during the initial 112-d period. However, the overall (308-d) effect of supplementation dietary NE was not appreciable (p>0.20). However, due to the inertness of kaolinite, itself, the ratio of observed-to-expected dietary NE increased with kaolinite supplementation. This effect was more pronounced (linear effect, p 0.03) during the initial 224 d of the study. Overall (308 d), kaolinite supplementation tended to increase (linear effect, p = 0.07) dietary NE by 3% over expected. Kaolinite supplementation did not affect carcass weight, yield grade, longissimus area, kidney, pelvic and heart fat, and quality grade, but decreased (linear effect, p = 0.01) dressing percentage. It is concluded that kaolinite supplementation up to 2% of diet DM may enhance energetic efficiency of calf-fed Holstein steers in a manner independent of changes in characteristics of ruminal and total

  2. Diagnosis of viral agents associated with neonatal calf diarrhea.

    PubMed Central

    Marsolais, G; Assaf, R; Montpetit, C; Marois, P

    1978-01-01

    During this study, 134 samples have been examined for the detection of the viruses associated with neonatal calf diarrhea. The presence of Nebraska viruses (rotavirus and coronavirus) has been demonstrated by using the electron microscope and the fluorescent antibody techniques while the presence of other viruses has been detected by the observation of a cytopathic effect on monolayer cells of calf testis. The Nebraska viruses have been demonstrated in 107 (80%) out of 134 field case specimens. An association of rotaviruses and coronaviruses was found in 58 cases (54%) whilst the coronaviruses and the rotavirus were found singly in 34 cases (53%) and in 15 cases (14%) respectively. Four bovine virus diarrhea viruses, two infectious bovine rhinotracheitis viruses and two enteroviruses have also been isolated in the preceding 107 Nebraska positive specimens. For the detection of the Nebraska viruses, the fluorescent antibody techniques were more sensitive than the electron microscopy. However, those two techniques must be used simultaneously for a better detection of a greatest possible number of cases. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:208735

  3. The Efficacy of Low-intensity Vibration to Improve Bone Health in Patients with End-stage Renal Disease Is Highly Dependent on Compliance and Muscle Response.

    PubMed

    Rajapakse, Chamith S; Leonard, Mary B; Kobe, Elizabeth A; Slinger, Michelle A; Borges, Kelly A; Billig, Erica; Rubin, Clinton T; Wehrli, Felix W

    2017-11-01

    Low intensity vibration (LIV) may represent a nondrug strategy to mitigate bone deficits in patients with end-stage renal disease. Thirty end-stage renal patients on maintenance hemodialysis were randomized to stand for 20 minutes each day on either an active or placebo LIV device. Analysis at baseline and completion of 6-month intervention included magnetic resonance imaging (tibia and fibula stiffness; trabecular thickness, number, separation, bone volume fraction, plate-to-rod ratio; and cortical bone porosity), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (hip and spine bone mineral density [BMD]), and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (tibia trabecular and cortical BMD; calf muscle cross-sectional area). Intention-to-treat analysis did not show any significant changes in outcomes associated with LIV. Subjects using the active device and with greater than the median adherence (70%) demonstrated an increase in distal tibia stiffness (5.3%), trabecular number (1.7%), BMD (2.3%), and plate-to-rod ratio (6.5%), and a decrease in trabecular separation (-1.8%). Changes in calf muscle cross-sectional area were associated with changes in distal tibia stiffness (R = 0.85), trabecular bone volume/total volume (R = 0.91), number (R = 0.92), and separation (R = -0.94) in the active group but not in the placebo group. Baseline parathyroid hormone levels were positively associated with increased cortical bone porosity over the 6-month study period in the placebo group (R = 0.55) but not in the active group (R = 0.01). No changes were observed in the nondistal tibia locations for either group except a decrease in hip BMD in the placebo group (-1.7%). Outcomes and adherence thresholds identified from this pilot study could guide future longitudinal studies involving vibration therapy. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic analysis of calf health in Charolais beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Vinet, A; Leclerc, H; Marquis, F; Phocas, F

    2018-04-14

    The objective of this study was to investigate the factors that influence calf health and survival in Charolais cattle. Data from 2,740 calves, originating from 16 French farms and observed from birth until 30 d of age, were analyzed using models that took account of direct genetic, maternal genetic, and common environmental effects. Both direct and maternal genetic parameters were estimated for birth weight (BW), calving ease (CE), neonatal vitality (NV), survival at 30 d (Surv), and umbilical infection and diarrhea at different ages (0 to 5 d: Umb1 and Diar1; 6 to 20 d: Umb2 and Diar2; and 21 to 30 d: Umb3 and Diar3). The heritability values for direct and maternal genetic effects were, 0.026 (SE = 0.027) and 0.096 (SE = 0.042) for Surv, 0.280 (SE = 0.063) and 0.063 (SE = 0.038) for BW, 0.129 (SE = 0.041) and 0 for CE, 0.073 (SE = 0.035) and 0 for NV, 0.071 (SE = 0.038) and 0.017 (SE = 0.026) for Umb1, 0 and 0.082 (SE = 0.029) for Umb2, 0 and 0.044 (SE = 0.030) for Diar1, 0.016 (SE = 0.022) and 0.012 (SE = 0.026) for Diar2, and 0.016 (SE = 0.028) and 0 for Diar3, respectively. Significant genetic variability in beef cattle was thus revealed for five calf health traits: NV, Surv, Diar1, Umb1, and Umb2. In addition, for three traits (Surv, Diar1, and Umb2), maternal genetic effects clearly contributed more to health performance than direct genetic effects. Estimates of genetic correlation between traits varied markedly (from 0 to 1 in absolute values) depending on the traits in question, the age for a given trait, and the type (direct or maternal) of the genetic effects considered. These results suggest that not all health traits in Charolais cattle can be improved simultaneously, and breeders will therefore have to prioritize certain traits of interest in their breeding objectives. Overall, our results demonstrate the potential utility of collecting and integrating data on calf diseases, NV and survival in future beef cattle breeding programs. To ensure

  5. Effect of Calf Gender on Milk Yield and Fatty Acid Content in Holstein Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Amy V; Ehrlich, James L; Grove-White, Dai H

    2017-01-01

    The scale of sexed semen use to avoid the birth of unwanted bull calves in the UK dairy industry depends on several economic factors. It has been suggested in other studies that calf gender may affect milk yield in Holsteins- something that would affect the economics of sexed semen use. The present study used a large milk recording data set to evaluate the effect of calf gender (both calf born and calf in utero) on both milk yield and saturated fat content. Linear regression was used to model data for first lactation and second lactation separately. Results showed that giving birth to a heifer calf conferred a 1% milk yield advantage in first lactation heifers, whilst giving birth to a bull calf conferred a 0.5% advantage in second lactation. Heifer calves were also associated with a 0.66kg reduction in saturated fatty acid content of milk in first lactation, but there was no significant difference between the genders in second lactation. No relationship was found between calf gender and milk mono- or polyunsaturated fatty acid content. The observed effects of calf gender on both yield and saturated fatty acid content was considered minor when compared to nutritional and genetic influences.

  6. From the Lab Bench: The fescue belt is cow-calf country

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A column was written to discuss the importance of cow-calf production to the fescue belt, which overlays what is commonly called the transition zone between the subtropical southeast and the temperate northeast (see figure). Undeniably, the “Fescue Belt” is cow-calf country. The Fescue Belt is goo...

  7. Effects of different flooring options in outside pens of hutches on dairy calf growth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Growth rates of dairy calves may vary due to many different factors, including housing. The objective of this study was to determine if calf growth was affected by different flooring options in the outside penned area of a calf hutch. For this study, 33 hutches were blocked in groups of 3 by locatio...

  8. Effect of Calf Gender on Milk Yield and Fatty Acid Content in Holstein Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Ehrlich, James L.; Grove-White, Dai H.

    2017-01-01

    The scale of sexed semen use to avoid the birth of unwanted bull calves in the UK dairy industry depends on several economic factors. It has been suggested in other studies that calf gender may affect milk yield in Holsteins- something that would affect the economics of sexed semen use. The present study used a large milk recording data set to evaluate the effect of calf gender (both calf born and calf in utero) on both milk yield and saturated fat content. Linear regression was used to model data for first lactation and second lactation separately. Results showed that giving birth to a heifer calf conferred a 1% milk yield advantage in first lactation heifers, whilst giving birth to a bull calf conferred a 0.5% advantage in second lactation. Heifer calves were also associated with a 0.66kg reduction in saturated fatty acid content of milk in first lactation, but there was no significant difference between the genders in second lactation. No relationship was found between calf gender and milk mono- or polyunsaturated fatty acid content. The observed effects of calf gender on both yield and saturated fatty acid content was considered minor when compared to nutritional and genetic influences. PMID:28068399

  9. Examining dolphin hydrodynamics provides clues to calf-loss during tuna fishing

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Pete

    2004-01-01

    A combination of mathematical modeling and direct observation of the swimming behavior of dolphin mother-calf pairs has shown how the calf can gain much of the energy required for swimming if it is positioned correctly relative to the mother, a situation that may be disrupted during the chases that result from tuna-fishing practices. PMID:15132739

  10. Calf health from birth to weaning. I. General aspects of disease prevention

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Calfhood diseases have a major impact on the economic viability of cattle operations. This is the first in a three part review series on calf health from birth to weaning, focusing on preventive measures. The review considers both pre- and periparturient management factors influencing calf health, colostrum management in beef and dairy calves and further nutrition and weaning in dairy calves. PMID:21923898

  11. Implementing a novel movement-based approach to inferring parturition and neonate caribou calf survival.

    PubMed

    Bonar, Maegwin; Ellington, E Hance; Lewis, Keith P; Vander Wal, Eric

    2018-01-01

    In ungulates, parturition is correlated with a reduction in movement rate. With advances in movement-based technologies comes an opportunity to develop new techniques to assess reproduction in wild ungulates that are less invasive and reduce biases. DeMars et al. (2013, Ecology and Evolution 3:4149-4160) proposed two promising new methods (individual- and population-based; the DeMars model) that use GPS inter-fix step length of adult female caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) to infer parturition and neonate survival. Our objective was to apply the DeMars model to caribou populations that may violate model assumptions for retrospective analysis of parturition and calf survival. We extended the use of the DeMars model after assigning parturition and calf mortality status by examining herd-wide distributions of parturition date, calf mortality date, and survival. We used the DeMars model to estimate parturition and calf mortality events and compared them with the known parturition and calf mortality events from collared adult females (n = 19). We also used the DeMars model to estimate parturition and calf mortality events for collared female caribou with unknown parturition and calf mortality events (n = 43) and instead derived herd-wide estimates of calf survival as well as distributions of parturition and calf mortality dates and compared them to herd-wide estimates generated from calves fitted with VHF collars (n = 134). For our data, the individual-based method was effective at predicting calf mortality, but was not effective at predicting parturition. The population-based method was more effective at predicting parturition but was not effective at predicting calf mortality. At the herd-level, the predicted distributions of parturition date from both methods differed from each other and from the distribution derived from the parturition dates of VHF-collared calves (log-ranked test: χ2 = 40.5, df = 2, p < 0.01). The predicted distributions of calf mortality

  12. Implementing a novel movement-based approach to inferring parturition and neonate caribou calf survival

    PubMed Central

    Ellington, E. Hance; Lewis, Keith P.; Vander Wal, Eric

    2018-01-01

    In ungulates, parturition is correlated with a reduction in movement rate. With advances in movement-based technologies comes an opportunity to develop new techniques to assess reproduction in wild ungulates that are less invasive and reduce biases. DeMars et al. (2013, Ecology and Evolution 3:4149–4160) proposed two promising new methods (individual- and population-based; the DeMars model) that use GPS inter-fix step length of adult female caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) to infer parturition and neonate survival. Our objective was to apply the DeMars model to caribou populations that may violate model assumptions for retrospective analysis of parturition and calf survival. We extended the use of the DeMars model after assigning parturition and calf mortality status by examining herd-wide distributions of parturition date, calf mortality date, and survival. We used the DeMars model to estimate parturition and calf mortality events and compared them with the known parturition and calf mortality events from collared adult females (n = 19). We also used the DeMars model to estimate parturition and calf mortality events for collared female caribou with unknown parturition and calf mortality events (n = 43) and instead derived herd-wide estimates of calf survival as well as distributions of parturition and calf mortality dates and compared them to herd-wide estimates generated from calves fitted with VHF collars (n = 134). For our data, the individual-based method was effective at predicting calf mortality, but was not effective at predicting parturition. The population-based method was more effective at predicting parturition but was not effective at predicting calf mortality. At the herd-level, the predicted distributions of parturition date from both methods differed from each other and from the distribution derived from the parturition dates of VHF-collared calves (log-ranked test: χ2 = 40.5, df = 2, p < 0.01). The predicted distributions of calf mortality

  13. Beetroot-based gel supplementation improves handgrip strength, forearm muscle O2 saturation but not exercise tolerance and blood volume in jiu-jitsu athletes.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Gustavo Vieira; Nascimento, Luiz; Volino-Souza, Mônica; Mesquita, Jacilene; Alvares, Thiago

    2018-03-22

    The ergogenic effect of beetroot on the exercise performance of trained cyclists, runners, kayakers, and swimmers has been demonstrated. However, whether or not beetroot supplementation presents a beneficial effect on the exercise performance of jiu-jitsu athletes (JJA) remains inconclusive. Therefore, present study assessed the effect of beetroot-based gel (BG) supplementation on maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), exercise time until fatigue (ETF), muscle O2 saturation (SmO2), blood volume (tHb), and plasma nitrate and lactate in response to handgrip isotonic exercise (HIE) in JJA. In a randomized, crossover, double-blind design, 12 JJA performed three sets of HIE at 40% of the MVC until fatigue after 8 days (8th dose was offered 120 min previous exercise) of BG supplementation or a nitrate-depleted gel (PLA), and forearm SmO2 and tHb were continuously monitored by using near-infrared spectroscopy. Blood samples were taken before, immediately after exercise, and 20 min after exercise recovery in PLA and BG condition. MVC was evaluated at baseline and 20 min after HIE. There was a significant reduction in ∆MVC decline after HIE in BG condition. Forearm SmO2 during exercise recovery was significantly greater only after BG supplementation. No significant difference in ETF and tHb were observed between both BG and PLA in response to HIE. Plasma nitrate increased only after BG, whereas the exercise-induced increase in plasma lactate was significantly lower in BG when compared to PLA. In conclusion, BG supplementation may be a good nutritional strategy to improve forearm SmO2 and prevent force decline in response to exercise in JJA.

  14. Annual elk calf survival in a multiple carnivore system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eacker, Daniel R.; Hebblewhite, Mark; Proffitt, Kelly M.; Jimenez, Benjamin S.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Robinson, Hugh S.

    2016-01-01

    The realized effect of multiple carnivores on juvenile ungulate recruitment may depend on the carnivore assemblage as well as compensation from forage and winter weather severity, which may mediate juvenile vulnerability to predation in ungulates. We used a time-to-event approach to test for the effects of risk factors on annual elk (Cervus canadensis) calf survival and to estimate cause-specific mortality rates for 2 elk populations in adjacent study areas in the southern Bitterroot Valley, Montana, USA, during 2011–2014. We captured and radio-tagged 286 elk calves: 226 neonates, and 60 6-month-old calves. Summer survival probability was less variable than winter (P = 0.12) and averaged 0.55 (95% CI = 0.47–0.63), whereas winter survival varied more than summer and significantly across study years (P = 0.003) and averaged 0.73 (95% CI = 0.64–0.81). During summer, elk calf survival increased with biomass of preferred forage biomass, and was slightly lower following winters with high precipitation; exposure to mountain lion (Puma concolor) predation risk was unimportant. In contrast, during winter, we found that exposure to mountain lion predation risk influenced survival, with a weak negative effect of winter precipitation. We found no evidence that forage availability or winter weather severity mediated vulnerability to mountain lion predation risk in summer or winter (e.g., an interaction), indicating that the effect of mountain lion predation was constant regardless of spatial variation in forage or weather. Mountain lions dominated known causes of elk calf mortality in summer and winter, with estimated cause-specific mortality rates of 0.14 (95% CI = 0.09–0.20) and 0.12 (95% CI = 0.07–0.18), respectively. The effect of carnivores on juvenile ungulate recruitment varies across ecological systems depending on relative carnivore densities. Mountain lions may be the most important carnivore for ungulates, especially where grizzly

  15. Long-term effect of botulinum toxin (A) in the management of calf spasticity in children with diplegic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Hawamdeh, Z M; Ibrahim, A I; Al-Qudah, A A

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible long-term effects of multi-injections of botulinum toxin A (BT-A) on muscle tone and functional abilities in children with cerebral palsy. A randomized, single blind study was carried out. Sixty patients with spastic diplegia were enrolled; 40 received 3 successive doses of BT-A to the calf muscle bilaterally at intervals of 3 to 4 months; 20 received no injections and were considered the control group. Evaluation included measurement of muscle tone, passive ankle dorsiflexion range of motion, and gross motor function. The children in the study group were assessed at entry into the study, at 3 months, and at 18 months after the last injection. An identical assessment protocol was applied to the control group, with measurements taken at entry into the study, at 12 to 15 months, and then at 27 to 30 months, roughly corresponding to the time periods set for the study group. Muscle tone and passive ankle dorsiflexion range showed clinically and statistically significant improvement following BT-A injection at 3 months (P=0.000, P=0.04, respectively) and at 18 months (P=0.005, P=0.007, respectively) compared to the control group, but gross motor function showed significant improvement only at 18 months (P=0.02). Comparison between the first and second evaluations after the last injection in the study group showed a significant improvement in gross motor function and ankle dorsiflexion range (P=0.000 for both parameters); however, muscle tone was significantly increased (P=0.002). This study gives support to a possible prolonged effect of intramuscular BT-A as an adjunct to conventional physiotherapy to reduce spasticity and improve functional mobility in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

  16. NAD+ glycohydrolase, an ecto-enzyme of calf spleen cells.

    PubMed Central

    Muller, H M; Muller, C D; Schuber, F

    1983-01-01

    By using a sensitive fluorimetric assay of NAD+ glycohydrolase (EC 3.2.2.6), we showed that calf spleen cells are able to hydrolyse 1,N6-etheno-NAD+ given in the medium. The observed rates of substrate hydrolysis and product accumulation in the medium are equivalent. Moreover, the splenocytes are able to cleave the nicotinamide-ribose bond of a water-soluble polymer of NAD+, and their NAD+ glycohydrolase activity is fully inhibited by a high-molecular-weight Blue Dextran. Selective permeation of the cellular membrane digitonin revealed an intracellular pool of NAD+ glycohydrolase, which accounts for 25% of the total activity. We conclude that NAD+ glycohydrolase associated with the splenocytes has the characteristics of an ecto-enzyme. PMID:6192807

  17. Hepatic encephalomyelopathy in a calf with congenital portosystemic shunt (CPSS)

    PubMed Central

    Oevermann, Anna; Bley, Tim; Pfister, Patrizia; Miclard, Julien

    2008-01-01

    A 4-month-old female Holstein Friesian calf was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Berne, Switzerland for evaluation of ataxia, weakness, apathy and stunted growth. Clinical examination revealed generalized ataxia, propioceptive deficits, decreased menace response and sensibility. Postmortem examination did not reveal macroscopic changes of major organs. Histologically, the brain and the spinal cord lesions were characterized by polymicrocavitation, preferentially affecting the white matter fibers at the junction of grey and white matter and by the presence of Alzheimer type II cells. The liver revealed lesions consistent with a congenital portosystemic shunt, characterized by increased numbers of arteriolar profiles and hypoplasia to absence of portal veins. The pathological investigations along with the animal history and clinical signs indicated a hepatic encephalomyelopathy due to a congenital portosystemic shunt. PMID:18296896

  18. Skeletal muscle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are approximately 650-850 muscles in the human body these include skeletal (striated), smooth and cardiac muscle. The approximation is based on what some anatomists consider separate muscle or muscle systems. Muscles are classified based on their anatomy (striated vs. smooth) and if they are v...

  19. Effects of 12 hour calf withdrawal on conception rate and calf performance of Bos indicus cattle under extensive conditions.

    PubMed

    Escrivão, R J A; Webb, E C; Garcês, A P J T

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-two multiparous Brahman type cows with reproductive tract scoring (RTS) >/=4 at 45 days post-partum were randomly assigned to two groups of 26 cows each separated into an ad libitum suckling group (C) and treatment group (T). Calves in the T group were separated for 12 h during the night from 45 days post-partum to the onset of the breeding season. Body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) were recorded 45 days post-partum, at the start of the breeding season, and at pregnancy diagnosis. Calves were weighed at calving and weaning. Weaning weights were corrected to 205 days. BW and BCS at the onset of the breeding season were similar (p > 0.05) between the experimental groups. Calving to breeding intervals were 93 +/- 18 d and 99 +/- 22 d for T and C groups, respectively. Calving to conception intervals differed significantly between the groups (111 +/- 10 d for T and 133 +/- 19 d for C) and a similar result was obtained for the breeding to conception intervals (18 +/- 15 d for T and 31 +/- 19 d for C). Conception rates were 80% for the T group and 59% for the C group, which correlated better with BW than BCS at the onset of the breeding season. Weaning weights differed (p < 0.05) between C and T groups. From 45 days post-partum to the onset of the breeding season, cows in the T group experienced a positive energy balance (3%) while those in the C group had a negative energy balance (-0.1%). It was concluded that 12 h calf separation at night increases the conception rates and improves the calf weaning weights of Bos indicus beef cattle under extensive production systems in sub-tropical conditions.

  20. Measurements of humpback whale song sound levels received by a calf in association with a singer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jessica; Pack, Adam A; Au, Whitlow W L; Stimpert, Alison K

    2016-11-01

    Male humpback whales produce loud "songs" on the wintering grounds and some sing while escorting mother-calf pairs, exposing them to near-continuous sounds at close proximity. An Acousonde acoustic and movement recording tag deployed on a calf off Maui, Hawaii captured sounds produced by a singing male escort. Root-mean-square received levels ranged from 126 to 158 dB re 1 μPa. These levels represent rare direct measurements of sound to which a newly born humpback calf may be naturally exposed by a conspecific, and may provide a basis for informed decisions regarding anthropogenic sound levels projected near calves.

  1. [Sequelae of unilateral deep venous thrombosis in plethysmography of the calf].

    PubMed

    Zicot, M; Depairon, M

    1982-01-01

    Twenty four patients suffering from unilateral venous disturbances revealed by Doppler and secondary to a deep venous thrombosis were examined. The calf venous haemodynamics was analyzed by use of a strain-jauge plethysmograph. We determined the increase in venous volume due to the inflation of a thigh pneumatic cuff (pressure at 20, 40 and 60 mm Hg; delta V20, delta V40, delta V60). The maximal venous output (Vout) was measured after a quick release of the 60 mm Hg pressure. The maximal venous drainage (VMM) was assessed during a rhythmic exercise (tiptoeing) while standing; delta V20, delta V40 and delta V60 were nearly constantly reduced on the abnormal side (t of Student respectively 3.49; 6.09 and 5.07). Vout dropped proportionaly to delta V60. Some abnormalities due to valvular insufficiency were frequently present in the beginning of the inflation curve at the level of the abnormal limbs. VMM was nearly always largely decreased on the affected side (t = 5.43). The unilateral flow disturbances displayed by the Doppler were regularly going with abnormalities of the capacitive system, well demonstrated by comparison with the non-affected limbs.

  2. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  3. Muscle atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... muscle atrophy may include: Burns Long-term corticosteroid therapy Malnutrition Muscular dystrophy and other diseases of the muscle Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid arthritis Home Care An exercise program ...

  4. A survey of dairy calf management practices among farms using manual and automated milk feeding systems in Canada.

    PubMed

    Medrano-Galarza, Catalina; LeBlanc, Stephen J; DeVries, Trevor J; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Rushen, Jeffrey; Marie de Passillé, Anne; Haley, Derek B

    2017-08-01

    Dairy calves in North America traditionally are housed individually and fed by manual milk feeding (MMF) systems with buckets or bottles. Automated milk feeders (AMF) allow for more natural milk feeding frequencies and volumes, and calves are usually housed in groups. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine the prevalence of various milk-fed calf management and feeding practices and (2) compare these practices between dairy farms using MMF and AMF systems. A national online survey was performed from January to May 2015 to quantify management practices for the care of milk-fed dairy calves in Canada. A total of 670 responses were received (6% of all dairy farms in Canada). Among respondents, 16% used AMF and 84% used MMF. Seventy percent of the farms using AMF had freestall barns compared with only 48% of those using MMF. A greater proportion of AMF farms (30%) also had automatic milking systems (AMS) compared with MMF farms (8%). Among tiestall farms, a herd size of >80 milking cows was associated with having an AMF [odds ratio (OR) = 3.8; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6-11.4]. For freestall or bedded-pack farms, a herd size of >80 milking cows (OR = 3.5; CI: 1.8-6.6), having an AMS (OR = 3.1; CI: 1.6-5.7), and use of cow brushes (OR = 3.1; CI: 1.3-6.9) were associated with having an AMF. Calves fed with AMS typically were housed in groups of 10 to 15, whereas almost 76% of the farms with MMF housed calves individually. Although both AMF and MMF farms fed similar amounts of milk in the first week of life (median = 6 L/d), the cumulative volume fed in the first 4 wk differed significantly, with a median of 231 versus 182 L for AMF and MMF, respectively. Median peak milk allowance was higher for AMF than for MMF (10 vs. 8 L/d, respectively). In summary, farms using AMF were larger, provided more milk to calves, and used more automation in general (i.e., in other areas of their operation). These data provide insights into calf-rearing practices across

  5. Rocker-soled shoes and walking distance in patients with calf claudication.

    PubMed

    Richardson, J K

    1991-07-01

    Calf claudication is the major clinical manifestation of peripheral vascular occlusive disease in a significant number of patients. Although claudication causes substantial patient disability, most patients are treated conservatively because of the risks of surgical therapy and the uncertain efficacy of drug therapy. It was hypothesized that rocker-soled shoes would decrease the work of the plantar flexors and therefore increase walking distance in patients with calf claudication. To test this hypothesis, walking distances in patients with calf claudication using rocker-soled shoes and a placebo shoe insert were compared. Rocker-soled shoes significantly increased both the total distance walked and the distance at which patients were initially bothered by symptoms by 77m (37%, p less than .0005) and 89m (91%, p = .003), respectively. It was concluded that rocker-soled shoes may reduce disability in patients with calf claudication by increasing walking distance.

  6. Association of deep venous thrombosis with calf vein diameter in acute hemorrhagic stroke.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Toshiyasu; Yasaka, Masahiro; Wakugawa, Yoshiyuki; Kitazono, Takanari; Okada, Yasushi

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the association between the development of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and calf vein diameter in patients with acute hemorrhagic stroke. We measured the maximum diameter of paralytic side posttibial veins (PTVs) and peroneal veins (PVs) in 49 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage on admission and at 2 weeks after stroke onset by ultrasonography. We also examined for the presence or absence of DVT, and then analyzed the association of DVT with the maximum vein diameter. At 2 weeks after stroke, DVTs were detected in PTVs in 7 patients and in PVs in 6 patients. The maximum calf vein diameters at 2 weeks were significantly greater in patients with DVT compared with those without DVT (PTV, P = .033; PV, P = .015). Although calf vein diameter at admission did not influence the future incidence of DVT in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage, the presence of DVT was associated with calf vein dilatation. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Quest for the binding mode of tetrabromobisphenol A with Calf thymus DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan-Qing; Zhang, Hong-Mei; Cao, Jian

    2014-10-01

    The binding interaction of tetrabromobisphenol A with Calf thymus DNA was studied by multi-spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods. The UV-vis study revealed that an obvious interaction between tetrabromobisphenol A and Calf thymus DNA happened. The π-π∗ transitions and the electron cloud of tetrabromobisphenol A might be changed by entering the groove of Calf thymus DNA. From the fluorescence spectral and thermodynamics studies, it was concluded that the hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic force played a major role in the binding of tetrabromobisphenol A to Calf thymus DNA. The molecular modeling study showed that the possible sites of tetrabromobisphenol A in the groove of DNA. Circular dichroism study also depicted that tetrabromobisphenol A bond to DNA. These above results would further advance our knowledge on the molecular mechanism of the binding interactions of brominated flame-retardants with nucleic acid.

  8. Acoustic Behavior of North Atlantic Right Whale (Eubalaena glacialis) Mother-Calf Pairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Acoustic Behavior of North Atlantic Right Whale ...LONG-TERM GOALS The long-term goal of this project is to quantify the behavior of mother-calf pairs from the North Atlantic right whale ...The primary objectives of this project are to: 1) determine the visual detectability of right whale mother-calf pairs from surface observations

  9. Acoustic Behavior of North Atlantic Right Whale (Eubalaena glacialis) Mother-Calf Pairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Acoustic Behavior of North Atlantic Right Whale ...LONG-TERM GOALS The long-term goal of this project is to quantify the behavior of mother-calf pairs from the North Atlantic right whale ...The primary objectives of this project are to: 1) determine the visual detectability of right whale mother-calf pairs from surface observations

  10. Calf Endurance and Achilles Tendon Structure in Classical Ballet Dancers.

    PubMed

    Zellers, Jennifer A; van Ostrand, Katrina; Silbernagel, Karin Grävare

    2017-06-15

    Optimal lower leg function is critical for ballet dancers to meet their occupational requirements. Achilles tendon injury is particularly detrimental to ballet dancers. While standardized measures have been validated and incorporated into clinical practice for use in people with Achilles tendon injury, normative ranges specific to the dancer population have not been described. The purpose of this pilot study was to observe the performance of pre-professional ballet students and professional ballet dancers on a well-established test battery for lower leg functional performance as well as ultra-sonographic evaluation of the structure of their Achilles tendons. The dancers in this study had significantly shorter Achilles tendons than non-dancers (p = 0.016). Dancers demonstrated significantly higher maximum heel-rise height on the heel-rise test for calf endurance (p < 0.001) but performed significantly less work than non-dancers (p = 0.014). The results of this study support the use of the heel-rise test as a tool for screening and to guide rehabilitation.

  11. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than baseline value. Reduced twitch force was correlated in a dose-dependent manner with reduced muscle oxygenation (r = 0.78, P < 0.001). Although the correlation does not prove causation, the results indicate that ischemia leading to a 7% or greater reduction in muscle oxygenation causes decreased muscle force production in the forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue.

  12. The relationship between exercise-induced muscle fatigue, arterial blood flow and muscle perfusion after 56 days local muscle unloading.

    PubMed

    Weber, Tobias; Ducos, Michel; Mulder, Edwin; Beijer, Åsa; Herrera, Frankyn; Zange, Jochen; Degens, Hans; Bloch, Wilhelm; Rittweger, Jörn

    2014-05-01

    In the light of the dynamic nature of habitual plantar flexor activity, we utilized an incremental isokinetic exercise test (IIET) to assess the work-related power deficit (WoRPD) as a measure for exercise-induced muscle fatigue before and after prolonged calf muscle unloading and in relation to arterial blood flow and muscle perfusion. Eleven male subjects (31 ± 6 years) wore the HEPHAISTOS unloading orthosis unilaterally for 56 days. It allows habitual ambulation while greatly reducing plantar flexor activity and torque production. Endpoint measurements encompassed arterial blood flow, measured in the femoral artery using Doppler ultrasound, oxygenation of the soleus muscle assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy, lactate concentrations determined in capillary blood and muscle activity using soleus muscle surface electromyography. Furthermore, soleus muscle biopsies were taken to investigate morphological muscle changes. After the intervention, maximal isokinetic torque was reduced by 23·4 ± 8·2% (P<0·001) and soleus fibre size was reduced by 8·5 ± 13% (P = 0·016). However, WoRPD remained unaffected as indicated by an unchanged loss of relative plantar flexor power between pre- and postexperiments (P = 0·88). Blood flow, tissue oxygenation, lactate concentrations and EMG median frequency kinematics during the exercise test were comparable before and after the intervention, whereas the increase of RMS in response to IIET was less following the intervention (P = 0·03). In conclusion, following submaximal isokinetic muscle work exercise-induced muscle fatigue is unaffected after prolonged local muscle unloading. The observation that arterial blood flow was maintained may underlie the unchanged fatigability. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A frozen-thawed in vitro-matured bovine oocyte derived calf with normal growth and fertility.

    PubMed

    Otoi, T; Yamamoto, K; Koyama, N; Tachikawa, S; Suzuki, T

    1996-08-01

    The growth and fertility of a female calf obtained from a frozen-thawed bovine oocyte was assessed. The birth weight of the calf was lower than the mean birth weight of calves from in vitro fertilized embryos (IVF-controls) and calves obtained by artificial insemination (AI-controls). The growth rate of the calf up to 6 months was slower than that of the IVF-controls, but similar to that of the AI-controls. When the calf developed into a heifer (200 kg), she was inseminated with frozen semen and 280 days later delivered a male calf. The chromosoms of this cow were normal. These findings suggest that the growth and fertility of the calf derived from the frozen oocyte are normal.

  14. Diffusion tensor imaging in evaluation of human skeletal muscle injury.

    PubMed

    Zaraiskaya, Tatiana; Kumbhare, Dinesh; Noseworthy, Michael D

    2006-08-01

    To explore the capability and reliability of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) in the evaluation of human skeletal muscle injury. DTI of four patients with gastrocnemius and soleus muscles injuries was compared to eight healthy controls. Imaging was performed using a GE 3.0T short-bore scanner. A diffusion-weighted 2D spin echo echo-planar imaging (EPI) pulse sequence optimized for skeletal muscle was used. From a series of axially acquired diffusion tensor images the diffusion tensor eigenparameters (eigenvalues and eigenvectors), fractional anisotropy (FA), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were calculated and compared for injured and healthy calf muscles. Two dimensional (2D) projection maps of the principal eigenvectors were plotted to visualize the healthy and pathologic muscle fiber architectures. Clear differences in FA and ADC were observed in injured skeletal muscle, compared to healthy controls. Mean control FA was 0.23 +/- 0.02 for medial and lateral gastrocnemius (mg and lg) muscles, and 0.20 +/- 0.02 for soleus (sol) muscles. In all patients FA values were reduced compared to controls, to as low as 0.08 +/- 0.02. The ADC in controls ranged from 1.41 to 1.31 x 10(-9) m(2)/second, while in patients this was consistently higher. The 2D projection maps revealed muscle fiber disorder in injured calves, while in healthy controls the 2D projection maps show a well organized (ordered) fiber structure. DTI is a suitable method to assess human calf muscle injury.

  15. Creep grazing and early weaning effects on cow and calf productivity.

    PubMed

    Harvey, R W; Burns, J C

    1988-05-01

    One hundred fifty Simmental-Hereford cows and calves were used in a 3-yr study to evaluate three creep grazing treatments and an early weaning treatment on cow and calf performance during midsummer (July to September). Calves were approximately 150 d of age and averaged 178.6 kg when treatments were initiated. Tifleaf pearl millet (Pennisetum Americanum L. Leeke) was used as the forage for two of the creep treatments, representing two cow stocking intensities of .466 (TLM1) and .239 (TLM2) ha of base hill land pasture/cow, and as pasture for early weaned calves. A red clover (Trifolium pratense L.)-Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) mixture was used as the other creep forage. Hill land pastures were similar for the mature cow units in all creep treatments. Calf average daily gains ranged from .93 to 1.10 kg and were not influenced (P greater than .05) by treatment. Calf gains per hectare were similar for the control, red clover and TLM1 treatments. The TLM2 and early weaning treatments resulted in increases of 105.4 and 39.1 kg of calf gain/ha (P less than .05) compared with the control. When calves were allowed to creep graze millet, decreasing the forage area from .466 to .239 ha per cow-calf unit resulted in an increase of 97.7 kg of calf gain/ha with no reduction in calf gain. Cows on the more intensively grazed millet creep treatment (TLM2) lost more weight (P less than .05) during midsummer than those on the TLM1 treatment, but they gained 18.5 kg more (P less than .10) weight than TLM1 cows between weaning and the start of winter feeding.

  16. Dairy calf management-A comparison of practices and producer attitudes among conventional and organic herds.

    PubMed

    Pempek, J A; Schuenemann, G M; Holder, E; Habing, G G

    2017-10-01

    Dairy calves are at high risk for morbidity and mortality early in life. Understanding producer attitudes is important for implementation of best management practices to improve calf health. The objectives of this study were to evaluate usage frequency and producer attitudes on key calf management practices between conventional and organic dairy operations. A cross-sectional survey was mailed to conventional and organic dairy producers in Ohio and Michigan that included questions on cow-calf separation, colostrum management, and vaccination use. The overall survey response rate was 49% (727/1,488); 449 and 172 conventional and organic producer respondents, respectively, were included in the final analysis. Binary, cumulative, and multinomial logistic regression models were used to test differences within and between herd types for management practices and producer attitudes. The majority of conventional (64%, 279/439) producers reported separating the calf from the dam 30 min to 6 h after birth. More organic (34%, 56/166) than conventional (18%, 80/439) producers reported separation 6 to 12 h after birth, and organic producers were more likely to agree time before separation is beneficial. Few conventional (10%, 44/448) and organic (3%, 5/171) producers reported measuring colostrum quality. Most conventional producers (68%, 304/448) hand-fed the first feeding of colostrum, whereas the majority of organic producers (38%, 69/171) allowed calves to nurse colostrum. Last, 44% (188/430) of conventional producers reported vaccinating their calves for respiratory disease, compared with 14% (22/162) of organic producers; organic producers were more likely to perceive vaccines as ineffective and harmful to calf health. Thus, the usage frequency and perceived risks and benefits of calf management practices vary considerably between conventional and organic dairy producers. These findings provide helpful information to understand decision making at the herd level regarding

  17. Use It or Lose It: Skeletal Muscle Function and Performance Results from Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program provided a wealth of valuable information regarding the adaptations of skeletal muscle to weightlessness. Studies conducted during the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) represented ground breaking work on the effects of spaceflight on muscle form and function from applied human research to cellular adaptations. Results from detailed supplementary objective (DSO) 477 demonstrated that muscle strength losses could occur rapidly in response to short-duration spaceflight. The effects of spaceflight-induced unloading were primarily restricted to postural muscles such as those of the back as well as the knee extensors. DSO 606 provided evidence from MRI that the observed strength losses were partially accounted for by a reduction in the size of the individual muscles. Muscle biopsy studies conducted during DSO 475 were able to show muscle atrophy in individual muscle fibers from the quadriceps muscles. Reduced quadriceps muscle size and strength was also observed during the 17-d Life and Microgravity Spacelab mission aboard STS-78. Multiple maximal strength tests were conducted in flight on the calf muscles and it has been hypothesized that these high force contractions may have acted as a countermeasure. Muscle fiber mechanics were studied on calf muscle samples pre- and postflight. While some responses were crewmember specific, the general trend was that muscle fiber force production dropped and shortening velocity increased. The increased shortening velocity helped to maintain muscle fiber power. Numerous rodent studies performed during Shuttle missions suggest that many of the effects reported in Shuttle crewmembers could be due to lesions in the cellular signaling pathways that stimulate protein synthesis as well as an increase in the mechanisms that up-regulate protein breakdown. The results have important implications regarding the overall health and performance capabilities of future crewmembers that will venture beyond

  18. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Calf- and Yearling-Fed Beef Production Systems, With and Without the Use of Growth Promotants

    PubMed Central

    Basarab, John; Baron, Vern; López-Campos, Óscar; Aalhus, Jennifer; Haugen-Kozyra, Karen; Okine, Erasmus

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary A spring calving herd (~350 beef cows) over two production cycles was used to compare the whole-farm greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions among calf-fed vs. yearling-fed production systems, with and without growth implants. Farm GHG emissions initially included enteric CH4, manure CH4 and N2O, cropping N2O, and energy use CO2. The carbon footprint ranged from 19.9–22.5 kg CO2e per kg carcass weight. Including soil organic carbon loss from annual cropping and carbon sequestration from perennial pastures and haylands further reduced the carbon footprint by 11–16%. The carbon footprint of beef was reduced by growth promotants (4.9–5.1%) and by calf-fed beef production (6.3–7.5%). Abstract A spring calving herd consisting of about 350 beef cows, 14–16 breeding bulls, 60 replacement heifers and 112 steers were used to compare the whole-farm GHG emissions among calf-fed vs. yearling-fed production systems with and without growth implants. Carbon footprint ranged from 11.63 to 13.22 kg CO2e per kg live weight (19.87–22.52 kg CO2e per kg carcass weight). Enteric CH4 was the largest source of GHG emissions (53–54%), followed by manure N2O (20–22%), cropping N2O (11%), energy use CO2 (9–9.5%), and manure CH4 (4–6%). Beef cow accounted for 77% and 58% of the GHG emissions in the calf-fed and yearling-fed. Feeders accounted for the second highest GHG emissions (15% calf-fed; 35–36% yearling-fed). Implants reduced the carbon footprint by 4.9–5.1% compared with hormone-free. Calf-fed reduced the carbon footprint by 6.3–7.5% compared with yearling-fed. When expressed as kg CO2e per kg carcass weight per year the carbon footprint of calf-fed production was 73.9–76.1% lower than yearling-fed production, and calf-fed implanted was 85% lower than hormone-free yearling-fed. Reducing GHG emissions from beef production may be accomplished by improving the feed efficiency of the cow herd, decreasing the days on low quality feeds, and reducing the age

  19. Effect of DHEAS on skeletal muscle over the life span: the InCHIANTI study.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Giorgio; Denti, Licia; Maggio, Marcello; Ceda, GianPaolo; Volpato, Stefano; Bandinelli, Stefania; Ceresini, Graziano; Cappola, Anne; Guralnik, Jack M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2004-05-01

    It has been suggested that the reduced production of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) may be partially responsible for the decline of muscle strength and mass that often occurs with aging. However, this hypothesis has been only tested in small series of normal volunteers, with little consideration for potential confounders. Using data from a representative sample of 558 men (20-95 years) we tested the hypothesis that circulating DHEAS is independently associated with muscle strength and mass. Data are from InCHIANTI, an epidemiological study conducted in the Chianti geographic area (Tuscany, Italy). DHEAS serum levels were related to lower extremity muscle strength assessed by hand-held dynamometry and calf muscle area estimated from quantitative computerized tomography. Confounders included age, anthropometrics, physical activity, smoking, energy and alcohol intake, albumin, lipids, interleukin-6, comorbidity, depressive symptoms, and disability in activities of daily living. In fully adjusted models predicting lower extremity muscle strength and calf muscle area, we found significant age*log DHEAS interactions, suggesting that the relationship between DHEAS levels and muscle parameters differs across the life span. In age-stratified models adjusted for confounders, serum DHEAS was an independent predictor of muscle strength (p <.02) and mass (p <.01), but only for men between 60 and 79 years of age. After adjusting these models for serum-free or bioavailable testosterone, results were unchanged. In men aged 60-79 years, circulating DHEAS is an independent correlate of muscle strength and calf muscle area. The possible causal role of declining DHEAS in age-related sarcopenia should be further explored in longitudinal studies.

  20. [Calf circumference and its association with gait speed in elderly participants at Peruvian Naval Medical Center].

    PubMed

    Díaz Villegas, Gregory Mishell; Runzer Colmenares, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the association between calf circumference and gait speed in elderly patients 65 years or older at Geriatric day clinic at Peruvian Centro Médico Naval. Cross-sectional, retrospective study. We assessed 139 participants, 65 years or older at Peruvian Centro Médico Naval including calf circumference, gait speed and Short Physical Performance Battery. With bivariate analyses and logistic regression model we search for association between variables. The age mean was 79.37 years old (SD: 8.71). 59.71% were male, the 30.97% had a slow walking speed and the mean calf circumference was 33.42cm (SD: 5.61). After a bivariate analysis, we found a calf circumference mean of 30.35cm (SD: 3.74) in the slow speed group and, in normal gait group, a mean of 33.51cm (SD: 3.26) with significantly differences. We used logistic regression to analyze association with slow gait speed, founding statistically significant results adjusting model by disability and age. Low calf circumference is associated with slow speed walk in population over 65 years old. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Espana.

  1. Beyond mean pharyngeal constrictor dose for beam path toxicity in non-target swallowing muscles: dose-volume correlates of chronic radiation-associated dysphagia (RAD) after oropharyngeal intensity modulated radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objective(s) We sought to identify swallowing muscle dose-response thresholds associated with chronic radiation-associated dysphagia (RAD) after IMRT for oropharyngeal cancer. Materials/Methods T1-4 N0-3 M0 oropharyngeal cancer patients who received definitive IMRT and systemic therapy were examined. Chronic RAD was coded as any of the following ≥ 12 months post-IMRT: videofluoroscopy/endoscopy detected aspiration or stricture, gastrostomy tube and/or aspiration pneumonia. DICOM-RT plan data were autosegmented using a custom region-of-interest (ROI) library and included inferior, middle and superior constrictors (IPC, MPC, and SPC), medial and lateral pterygoids (MPM, LPM), anterior and posterior digastrics (ADM, PDM), intrinsic tongue muscles (ITM), mylo/geniohyoid complex (MHM), genioglossus (GGM), ), masseter (MM), Buccinator (BM), palatoglossus (PGM), and cricopharyngeus (CPM), with ROI dose-volume histograms (DVHs) calculated. Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) was used to identify dose-volume effects associated with chronic-RAD, for use in a multivariate (MV) model. Results Of 300 patients, 34 (11%) had chronic-RAD. RPA showed DVH-derived MHM V69 (i.e. the volume receiving ≥69Gy), GGM V35, ADM V60, MPC V49, and SPC V70 were associated with chronic-RAD. A model including age in addition to MHM V69 as continuous variables was optimal among tested MV models (AUC 0.835). Conclusion In addition to SPCs, dose to MHM should be monitored and constrained, especially in older patients (>62-years), when feasible. PMID:26897515

  2. Beyond mean pharyngeal constrictor dose for beam path toxicity in non-target swallowing muscles: Dose-volume correlates of chronic radiation-associated dysphagia (RAD) after oropharyngeal intensity modulated radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    We sought to identify swallowing muscle dose-response thresholds associated with chronic radiation-associated dysphagia (RAD) after IMRT for oropharyngeal cancer. T1-4 N0-3 M0 oropharyngeal cancer patients who received definitive IMRT and systemic therapy were examined. Chronic RAD was coded as any of the following ⩾12months post-IMRT: videofluoroscopy/endoscopy detected aspiration or stricture, gastrostomy tube and/or aspiration pneumonia. DICOM-RT plan data were autosegmented using a custom region-of-interest (ROI) library and included inferior, middle and superior constrictors (IPC, MPC, and SPC), medial and lateral pterygoids (MPM, LPM), anterior and posterior digastrics (ADM, PDM), intrinsic tongue muscles (ITM), mylo/geniohyoid complex (MHM), genioglossus (GGM), masseter (MM), buccinator (BM), palatoglossus (PGM), and cricopharyngeus (CPM), with ROI dose-volume histograms (DVHs) calculated. Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) was used to identify dose-volume effects associated with chronic-RAD, for use in a multivariate (MV) model. Of 300 patients, 34 (11%) had chronic-RAD. RPA showed DVH-derived MHM V69 (i.e. the volume receiving⩾69Gy), GGM V35, ADM V60, MPC V49, and SPC V70 were associated with chronic-RAD. A model including age in addition to MHM V69 as continuous variables was optimal among tested MV models (AUC 0.835). In addition to SPCs, dose to MHM should be monitored and constrained, especially in older patients (>62-years), when feasible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Muscle twitching

    MedlinePlus

    ... Some are common and normal. Others are signs of a nervous system disorder. Causes Causes may include: Autoimmune disorders , such ... muscle Spinal muscular atrophy Weak muscles (myopathy) Symptoms of a nervous system disorder include: Loss of, or change in, sensation ...

  4. Supplementation of organic and inorganic selenium to late gestation and early lactation beef cows effect on cow and preweaning calf performance.

    PubMed

    Muegge, C R; Brennan, K M; Schoonmaker, J P

    2016-08-01

    Angus × Simmental cows ( = 48; BW = 595 ± 17.4 kg, BCS = 5.26 ± 0.05, and age = 2.3 ± 0.07 yr), pregnant with male fetuses, were used to determine the effect of Se source during the last 80 d of gestation and first 108 d of lactation on cow and calf performance. At 203 d in gestation, cows were blocked by BW, breed composition, age, and calf sire and randomly allotted to organic Se, inorganic Se, or no Se treatments. Diets contained corn silage, corn stover, haylage, dried distillers' grains with solubles, and minerals and were formulated to contain 10.4% CP and 0.90 Mcal/kg NEg during gestation and 12.1% CP and 1.01 Mcal/kg NEg during lactation. Diets were fed daily as a total mixed ration and none, 3 mg/d Se as sodium selenite, or 3 mg/d Se as Sel-Plex were top-dressed daily. At 68 d postpartum (DPP), milk production was calculated using the weigh-suckle-weigh procedure and a milk sample was collected to determine composition. At 108 DPP, cow-calf pairs were commingled until weaning at 210 DPP. Cow BW and BCS ( ≥ 0.56) did not differ between treatments at any time point during the study. Milk production, milk fat, and total solids ( ≥ 0.38) did not differ among treatments. Milk protein tended to increase in cows fed inorganic Se compared with cows fed organic Se ( = 0.07) and milk lactose tended to be greatest in cows fed organic Se ( = 0.10). Conception to AI and overall pregnancy rates did not differ between treatments ( ≥ 0.39). Calf weights and ADG did not differ through 108 DPP ( ≥ 0.77) or for the preweaning period ( ≥ 0.33). Plasma Se concentration was adequate for all cows and did not differ among treatments for cows ( ≥ 0.37) or calves ( ≥ 0.90). Liver Se concentrations in cows fed inorganic or organic Se were greater than in control cows ( < 0.01). Longissimus muscles biopsies taken from progeny at 108 DPP also did not differ between treatments ( = 0.45). In conclusion, dietary Se source did not affect cow performance, milk production

  5. Effect of Compression Garments on the Development of Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness: A Multimodal Approach Using Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound and Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Elastography.

    PubMed

    Heiss, Rafael; Kellermann, Marion; Swoboda, Bernd; Grim, Casper; Lutter, Christoph; May, Matthias S; Wuest, Wolfgang; Uder, Michael; Nagel, Armin M; Hotfiel, Thilo

    2018-06-12

    Study Design Controlled laboratory study with repeated measures. Background Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is one of the most common reasons for impaired muscle performance in sports. However, little consensus exists regarding which treatments may be most effective and the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Objectives To investigate the influence of compression garments on the development of DOMS, focusing on changes in muscle perfusion and muscle stiffness. Methods Muscle perfusion and stiffness, calf circumference, muscle soreness, passive ankle dorsiflexion, and creatine kinase levels were assessed on participants before (baseline) a DOMS-inducing eccentric calf exercise intervention and 60 h later (follow-up). After DOMS induction, a sports compression garment (18-21 mmHg) was worn on one randomized calf until follow-up. The contralateral calf served as an internal control. Muscle perfusion was assessed using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (peak enhancement [PE] and wash-in area under the curve [WiAUC]), while muscle stiffness was assessed using acoustic radiation force impulse (shear wave velocities [SWV]). An MRI scan of both lower legs was also performed during the follow-up testing session to characterize the extent of exercise-induced muscle damage. Comparisons were made between limbs and over time. Results SWV values of the medial gastrocnemius showed a significant interaction between time and limb (p=0.006) with the non-compressed muscle demonstrating lower muscle stiffness values at follow-up compared to baseline or the compressed muscle. No significant differences in soleus muscle stiffness were noted between limb or over time, as was the case for muscle perfusion metrics (PE and WiAUC) for the medial gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. Further, compression had no significant effect on passive ankle dorsiflexion, muscle soreness, calf circumference, or injury severity per MRI. Conclusion Continuous wearing of compression garments during the

  6. Exercise intensity and muscle hypertrophy in blood flow-restricted limbs and non-restricted muscles: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Abe, Takashi; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Fahs, Christopher A; Rossow, Lindy M; Thiebaud, Robert S; Bemben, Michael G

    2012-07-01

    Although evidence for high-intensity resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy has accumulated over the last several decades, the basic concept of the training can be traced back to ancient Greece: Milo of Croton lifted a bull-calf daily until it was fully grown, which would be known today as progressive overload. Now, in the 21st century, different types of training are being tested and studied, such as low-intensity exercise combined with arterial as well as venous blood flow restriction (BFR) to/from the working muscles. Because BFR training requires the use of a cuff that is placed at the proximal ends of the arms and/or legs, the BFR is only applicable to limb muscles. Consequently, most previous BFR training studies have focused on the physiological adaptations of BFR limb muscles. Muscle adaptations in non-BFR muscles of the hip and trunk are lesser known. Recent studies that have reported both limb and trunk muscle adaptations following BFR exercise training suggest that low-intensity (20-30% of 1RM) resistance training combined with BFR elicits muscle hypertrophy in both BFR limb and non-BFR muscles. However, the combination of leg muscle BFR with walk training elicits muscle hypertrophy only in the BFR leg muscles. In contrast to resistance exercise with BFR, the exercise intensity may be too low during BFR walk training to cause muscle hypertrophy in the non-BFR gluteus maximus and other trunk muscles. Other mechanisms including hypoxia, local and systemic growth factors and muscle cell swelling may also potentially affect the hypertrophic response of non-BFR muscles to BFR resistance exercise. © 2012 The Authors Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2012 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  7. Modeling Muscles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwyn, Lauren; Salm, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Teaching the anatomy of the muscle system to high school students can be challenging. Students often learn about muscle anatomy by memorizing information from textbooks or by observing plastic, inflexible models. Although these mediums help students learn about muscle placement, the mediums do not facilitate understanding regarding integration of…

  8. Viable Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis isolated from calf milk replacer.

    PubMed

    Grant, Irene R; Foddai, Antonio C G; Tarrant, James C; Kunkel, Brenna; Hartmann, Faye A; McGuirk, Sheila; Hansen, Chungyi; Talaat, Adel M; Collins, Michael T

    2017-12-01

    When advising farmers on how to control Johne's disease in an infected herd, one of the main recommendations is to avoid feeding waste milk to calves and instead feed calf milk replacer (CMR). This advice is based on the assumption that CMR is free of viable Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) cells, an assumption that has not previously been challenged. We tested commercial CMR products (n = 83) obtained from dairy farms around the United States by the peptide-mediated magnetic separation (PMS)-phage assay, PMS followed by liquid culture (PMS-culture), and direct IS900 quantitative PCR (qPCR). Conventional microbiological analyses for total mesophilic bacterial counts, coliforms, Salmonella, coagulase-negative staphylococci, streptococci, nonhemolytic Corynebacterium spp., and Bacillus spp. were also performed to assess the overall microbiological quality of the CMR. Twenty-six (31.3%) of the 83 CMR samples showed evidence of the presence of MAP. Seventeen (20.5%) tested positive for viable MAP by the PMS-phage assay, with plaque counts ranging from 6 to 1,212 pfu/50 mL of reconstituted CMR (average 248.5 pfu/50 mL). Twelve (14.5%) CMR samples tested positive for viable MAP by PMS-culture; isolates from all 12 of these samples were subsequently confirmed by whole-genome sequencing to be different cattle strains of MAP. Seven (8.4%) CMR samples tested positive for MAP DNA by IS900 qPCR. Four CMR samples tested positive by both PMS-based tests and 5 CMR samples tested positive by IS900 qPCR plus one or other of the PMS-based tests, but only one CMR sample tested positive by all 3 MAP detection tests applied. All conventional microbiology results were within current standards for whole milk powders. A significant association existed between higher total bacterial counts and presence of viable MAP indicated by either of the PMS-based assays. This represents the first published report of the isolation of viable MAP from CMR. Our findings raise concerns

  9. Amino acid supplementation of calf milk replacers containing plasma protein.

    PubMed

    Morrison, S Y; Campbell, J M; Drackley, J K

    2017-06-01

    We determined the effects of calf milk replacers containing 0, 5, or 10% bovine plasma protein (PP), either without or with the supplemental amino acids (AA) Ile and Thr, on growth and health of male Holstein calves (n = 104) for 56 d. Milk replacers were formulated to contain 22% crude protein (CP), 20% fat, and 2.0% Lys. Milk replacers (12.5% solids) were fed at a rate of 1.5% of body weight (BW) on a dry matter basis during wk 1 and 1.75% of BW beginning on d 8. Starter was introduced on d 36 so that effects of PP and AA balance in milk replacers could be isolated. Intake, respiratory scores, and fecal scores were measured daily. Body weight and stature were measured weekly and blood serum samples were obtained during wk 4. Treatments had no effects on intakes of dry matter, CP, or metabolizable energy. During wk 6 and 8, BW was less as PP inclusion increased without AA supplementation compared with the other treatments. In wk 7, calves fed the higher level of PP without AA had lower BW than calves fed either the lower level of PP without supplemented AA or the higher inclusion of PP with supplemented AA. Average daily gain and gain:feed were lowest for calves fed the higher inclusion of PP without supplemented AA; heart girth in wk 7 was smallest for those calves. During the first 21 d, occurrence of scours was greater in calves fed the control milk replacer than in calves fed milk replacers containing the higher inclusion of PP either without or with supplemental AA. Occurrence of scours was also greater for the lower inclusion of PP compared with the higher inclusion of PP when AA were supplemented. Throughout the 56-d experiment, the chance of antibiotic treatment was greater for calves fed the control milk replacer than for all other treatments except the higher inclusion of PP without supplemental AA. Additionally, chance of antibiotic treatment was greater for the higher inclusion of PP without supplemental AA than for other milk replacers with PP. Calves

  10. Inadequate Loading Stimulus on ISS Results in Bone and Muscle Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, A. J.; Genc, K. O.; Maender, C. C.; Gopalakrishnan, R.; Kuklis, M. M.; Cavanagh, P. R.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Exercise has been the primary countermeasure to combat musculoskeletal changes during International Space Station (ISS) missions. However, these countermeasures have not been successful in preventing loss of bone mineral density (BMD) or muscle volume in crew members. METHODS We examined lower extremity loading during typical days on-orbit and on Earth for four ISS crew members. In-shoe forces were monitored using force-measuring insoles placed inside the shoes. BMD (by DXA), muscle volumes (by MRI), and strength were measured before and after long-duration spaceflight (181 +/- 15 days). RESULTS The peak forces measured during ISS activity were significantly less than those measured in 1g for the same activities. Typical single-leg loads on-orbit during walking and running were 0.89 +/- 0.17 body weights (BW) and 1.28 +/- 0.18 BW compared to 1.18 +/- 0.11 BW and 2.36 +/- .22 BW in 1g, respectively [2]. Crew members were only loaded for an average of 43.17 +/- 14.96 min a day while performing exercise on-orbit even though 146.8 min were assigned for exercise each day. Areal BMD decreased in the femoral neck and total hip by 0.71 +/- 0.34% and 0.81 +/- 0.21% per month, respectively. Changes in muscle volume were observed in the lower extremity (-10 to -16% calf; -4 to -7% thigh) but there were no changes in the upper extremity (+0.4 to -0.8%). Decrements in isometric and isokinetic strength at the knee (range: -10.4 to -24.1%), ankle (range: -4 to -22.3%), and elbow (range: -7.5 to - 16.7%) were also observed. Knee extension endurance tests showed an overall decline in total work (-14%) but an increased resistance to fatigue post-flight. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS Our findings support the conclusion that the measured exercise durations and/or loading stimuli were insufficient to protect bone and muscle health.

  11. Three-Dimensional Muscle Architecture and Comprehensive Dynamic Properties of Rabbit Gastrocnemius, Plantaris and Soleus: Input for Simulation Studies

    PubMed Central

    Siebert, Tobias; Leichsenring, Kay; Rode, Christian; Wick, Carolin; Stutzig, Norman; Schubert, Harald; Blickhan, Reinhard; Böl, Markus

    2015-01-01

    The vastly increasing number of neuro-muscular simulation studies (with increasing numbers of muscles used per simulation) is in sharp contrast to a narrow database of necessary muscle parameters. Simulation results depend heavily on rough parameter estimates often obtained by scaling of one muscle parameter set. However, in vivo muscles differ in their individual properties and architecture. Here we provide a comprehensive dataset of dynamic (n = 6 per muscle) and geometric (three-dimensional architecture, n = 3 per muscle) muscle properties of the rabbit calf muscles gastrocnemius, plantaris, and soleus. For completeness we provide the dynamic muscle properties for further important shank muscles (flexor digitorum longus, extensor digitorum longus, and tibialis anterior; n = 1 per muscle). Maximum shortening velocity (normalized to optimal fiber length) of the gastrocnemius is about twice that of soleus, while plantaris showed an intermediate value. The force-velocity relation is similar for gastrocnemius and plantaris but is much more bent for the soleus. Although the muscles vary greatly in their three-dimensional architecture their mean pennation angle and normalized force-length relationships are almost similar. Forces of the muscles were enhanced in the isometric phase following stretching and were depressed following shortening compared to the corresponding isometric forces. While the enhancement was independent of the ramp velocity, the depression was inversely related to the ramp velocity. The lowest effect strength for soleus supports the idea that these effects adapt to muscle function. The careful acquisition of typical dynamical parameters (e.g. force-length and force-velocity relations, force elongation relations of passive components), enhancement and depression effects, and 3D muscle architecture of calf muscles provides valuable comprehensive datasets for e.g. simulations with neuro-muscular models, development of more realistic muscle models, or

  12. The impact of obesity on skeletal muscle strength and structure through adolescence to old age.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, D J; Erskine, R M; Morse, C I; Winwood, K; Onambélé-Pearson, Gladys

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is associated with functional limitations in muscle performance and increased likelihood of developing a functional disability such as mobility, strength, postural and dynamic balance limitations. The consensus is that obese individuals, regardless of age, have a greater absolute maximum muscle strength compared to non-obese persons, suggesting that increased adiposity acts as a chronic overload stimulus on the antigravity muscles (e.g., quadriceps and calf), thus increasing muscle size and strength. However, when maximum muscular strength is normalised to body mass, obese individuals appear weaker. This relative weakness may be caused by reduced mobility, neural adaptations and changes in muscle morphology. Discrepancies in the literature remain for maximal strength normalised to muscle mass (muscle quality) and can potentially be explained through accounting for the measurement protocol contributing to muscle strength capacity that need to be explored in more depth such as antagonist muscle co-activation, muscle architecture, a criterion valid measurement of muscle size and an accurate measurement of physical activity levels. Current evidence demonstrating the effect of obesity on muscle quality is limited. These factors not being recorded in some of the existing literature suggest a potential underestimation of muscle force either in terms of absolute force production or relative to muscle mass; thus the true effect of obesity upon skeletal muscle size, structure and function, including any interactions with ageing effects, remains to be elucidated.

  13. Causes and Correlates of Calf Mortality in Captive Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus)

    PubMed Central

    Mar, Khyne U.; Lahdenperä, Mirkka; Lummaa, Virpi

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile mortality is a key factor influencing population growth rate in density-independent, predation-free, well-managed captive populations. Currently at least a quarter of all Asian elephants live in captivity, but both the wild and captive populations are unsustainable with the present fertility and calf mortality rates. Despite the need for detailed data on calf mortality to manage effectively populations and to minimize the need for capture from the wild, very little is known of the causes and correlates of calf mortality in Asian elephants. Here we use the world's largest multigenerational demographic dataset on a semi-captive population of Asian elephants compiled from timber camps in Myanmar to investigate the survival of calves (n = 1020) to age five born to captive-born mothers (n = 391) between 1960 and 1999. Mortality risk varied significantly across different ages and was higher for males at any age. Maternal reproductive history was associated with large differences in both stillbirth and liveborn mortality risk: first-time mothers had a higher risk of calf loss as did mothers producing another calf soon (<3.7 years) after a previous birth, and when giving birth at older age. Stillbirth (4%) and pre-weaning mortality (25.6%) were considerably lower than those reported for zoo elephants and used in published population viability analyses. A large proportion of deaths were caused by accidents and lack of maternal milk/calf weakness which both might be partly preventable by supplementary feeding of mothers and calves and work reduction of high-risk mothers. Our results on Myanmar timber elephants with an extensive keeping system provide an important comparison to compromised survivorship reported in zoo elephants. They have implications for improving captive working elephant management systems in range countries and for refining population viability analyses with realistic parameter values in order to predict future population size of the Asian

  14. Causes and correlates of calf mortality in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Mar, Khyne U; Lahdenperä, Mirkka; Lummaa, Virpi

    2012-01-01

    Juvenile mortality is a key factor influencing population growth rate in density-independent, predation-free, well-managed captive populations. Currently at least a quarter of all Asian elephants live in captivity, but both the wild and captive populations are unsustainable with the present fertility and calf mortality rates. Despite the need for detailed data on calf mortality to manage effectively populations and to minimize the need for capture from the wild, very little is known of the causes and correlates of calf mortality in Asian elephants. Here we use the world's largest multigenerational demographic dataset on a semi-captive population of Asian elephants compiled from timber camps in Myanmar to investigate the survival of calves (n = 1020) to age five born to captive-born mothers (n = 391) between 1960 and 1999. Mortality risk varied significantly across different ages and was higher for males at any age. Maternal reproductive history was associated with large differences in both stillbirth and liveborn mortality risk: first-time mothers had a higher risk of calf loss as did mothers producing another calf soon (<3.7 years) after a previous birth, and when giving birth at older age. Stillbirth (4%) and pre-weaning mortality (25.6%) were considerably lower than those reported for zoo elephants and used in published population viability analyses. A large proportion of deaths were caused by accidents and lack of maternal milk/calf weakness which both might be partly preventable by supplementary feeding of mothers and calves and work reduction of high-risk mothers. Our results on Myanmar timber elephants with an extensive keeping system provide an important comparison to compromised survivorship reported in zoo elephants. They have implications for improving captive working elephant management systems in range countries and for refining population viability analyses with realistic parameter values in order to predict future population size of the Asian

  15. Muscle Contraction.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, H Lee; Hammers, David W

    2018-02-01

    SUMMARYMuscle cells are designed to generate force and movement. There are three types of mammalian muscles-skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones and move them relative to each other. Cardiac muscle comprises the heart, which pumps blood through the vasculature. Skeletal and cardiac muscles are known as striated muscles, because the filaments of actin and myosin that power their contraction are organized into repeating arrays, called sarcomeres, that have a striated microscopic appearance. Smooth muscle does not contain sarcomeres but uses the contraction of filaments of actin and myosin to constrict blood vessels and move the contents of hollow organs in the body. Here, we review the principal molecular organization of the three types of muscle and their contractile regulation through signaling mechanisms and discuss their major structural and functional similarities that hint at the possible evolutionary relationships between the cell types. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  16. Effect of rest-pause vs. traditional bench press training on muscle strength, electromyography, and lifting volume in randomized trial protocols.

    PubMed

    Korak, J Adam; Paquette, Max R; Brooks, Justin; Fuller, Dana K; Coons, John M

    2017-09-01

    Rest-pause (4-s unloaded rest between repetitions) training effects on one repetition maximum (1 RM), lifting volume, and neural activation via electromyography (EMG) are currently vague in the literature and can benefit strength and conditioning professionals for resistance training programme design. Therefore, this study compared 1 RM, neural activation via (EMG), and volume differences between rest-pause vs. traditional resistance training. Trained males (N = 20) were randomly assigned to either a rest-pause or a traditional training group. Pre- and post-1 RM testing was recorded. Training sessions were completed twice a week for 4 weeks and consisted of four sets of bench press to volitional fatigue at 80% of pre-test 1 RM with a 2-min rest between sets. Total volume completed was recorded on each training day. Neural activation of the pectoralis major was measured on the first and last training days. A two-way repeated-measures ANOVA indicated both groups significantly increased their 1 RMs following the 4-week training protocol (p < .05). However, no significant differences were found in 1 RM and neural activation between the two groups (p > .05). An independent samples t test indicated that total volume lifted was significantly higher for the rest-pause group (56,778 vs. 38,315 lbs; p < .05) throughout the protocol and independently during weeks 2, 3, and 4. While strength and neural activation changes did not differ between groups, both increased 1 RMs and the rest-pause group achieved greater increases in volume than the traditional group. If volume is the focus of training, the rest-pause method should be utilized.

  17. A comparison of intermittent pneumatic compression of the calf and whole leg in preventing deep venous thrombosis in urological surgery.

    PubMed

    Soderdahl, D W; Henderson, S R; Hansberry, K L

    1997-05-01

    Intermittent pneumatic compression of the calf and/or thigh effectively decreases the incidence of deep venous thrombosis and other thrombotic sequelae but clinical data comparing these modalities are currently lacking. A total of 90 patients undergoing major urological surgery was randomly assigned to receive calf length or thigh length pneumatic compression for antithrombotic prophylaxis. Duplex ultrasound of the lower extremities was performed preoperatively and twice postoperatively to evaluate for deep venous thrombosis. Health care providers in the operating room, recovery room and ward were asked to compare the compression systems, and a cost analysis was performed. A total of 47 patients wore the thigh length sequential pneumatic sleeves and 43 wore calf length uniform compression systems. A pulmonary embolus without evidence of deep venous thrombosis was detected in 1 patient (2%) using the thigh length system. A thrombus was detected in the common femoral vein by duplex ultrasonography in 1 patient (2%) with the calf length system. Nursing personnel found the calf length sleeves easier to apply and more comfortable by patient account but they were satisfied with both systems. There was a significant cost savings with the calf length pneumatic compression system. Calf and thigh length pneumatic compression systems similarly decrease the risk of deep venous thrombosis in patients undergoing urological surgery. The calf length system has the added advantage of being less expensive and easier to use.

  18. Delaying postpartum supplementation in cows consuming low-quality forage does not alter cow and calf productivity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reducing the amount of supplemental feed postpartum without affecting productivity may enhance profitability of cow-calf operations. Therefore, sixteen 2-yr-old fall calving cows were used to evaluate effects of delaying postpartum supplementation on milk production, serum metabolites, cow and calf ...

  19. Muscle anatomy and dynamic muscle function in osteogenesis imperfecta type I.

    PubMed

    Veilleux, Louis-Nicolas; Lemay, Martin; Pouliot-Laforte, Annie; Cheung, Moira S; Glorieux, Francis H; Rauch, Frank

    2014-02-01

    Results of previous studies suggested that children and adolescents with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type I have a muscle force deficit. However, muscle function has only been assessed by static isometric force tests and not in more natural conditions such as dynamic force and power tests. The purpose of this study was to assess lower extremity dynamic muscle function and muscle anatomy in OI type I. The study was performed in the outpatient department of a pediatric orthopedic hospital. A total of 54 individuals with OI type I (6-21 years; 20 male) and 54 age- and sex-matched controls took part in this study. Calf muscle cross-sectional area and density were measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Lower extremity muscle function (peak force per body weight and peak power per body mass) was measured by jumping mechanography through 5 tests: multiple two-legged hopping, multiple one-legged hopping, single two-legged jump, chair-rise test, and heel-rise test. Compared with age- and sex-matched controls, patients with OI type I had smaller muscle size (P = .04) but normal muscle density (P = .21). They also had lower average peak force and lower specific force (peak force/muscle cross-sectional area; all P < .008). Average peak power was lower in patients with OI type I but not significantly so (all P > .054). Children and adolescents with OI type I have, on average, a significant force deficit in the lower limb as measured by dynamic force tests. Nonetheless, these data also show that OI type I is compatible with normal muscle performance in some individuals.

  20. Integrating scientific knowledge into large-scale restoration programs: the CALFED Bay-Delta Program experience

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Kimberly A.; Short, A.

    2009-01-01

    Integrating science into resource management activities is a goal of the CALFED Bay-Delta Program, a multi-agency effort to address water supply reliability, ecological condition, drinking water quality, and levees in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta of northern California. Under CALFED, many different strategies were used to integrate science, including interaction between the research and management communities, public dialogues about scientific work, and peer review. This paper explores ways science was (and was not) integrated into CALFED's management actions and decision systems through three narratives describing different patterns of scientific integration and application in CALFED. Though a collaborative process and certain organizational conditions may be necessary for developing new understandings of the system of interest, we find that those factors are not sufficient for translating that knowledge into management actions and decision systems. We suggest that the application of knowledge may be facilitated or hindered by (1) differences in the objectives, approaches, and cultures of scientists operating in the research community and those operating in the management community and (2) other factors external to the collaborative process and organization.

  1. Management practices to reduce lupine-induced Crooked Calf Syndrome in the Northwest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many factors contribute to the incidence of lupine-induced “Crooked Calf Syndrome” (CCS) in the northwestern U.S. A 1-5% incidence of CCS is common on many ranches and higher incidences occur when environmental conditions are conducive to lupine population increases. Multiple management strategies s...

  2. Giardia duodenalis assemblages in weaned cattle on cow-calf operations in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To determine the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in weaned beef calves in cow-calf operations, fecal specimens were collected from 819 6- to18-month-old calves in 20 states. After cleaning and concentrating cysts from feces, DNA was extracted from each specimen. The presence of G. duodenalis was de...

  3. Forage and weather influence day versus nighttime cow behavior and calf weaning weights on rangeland

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We determined the effects of two forage allowance levels (LOW vs. HIGH) and weather conditions on day- and nighttime movement patterns of young rangeland-raised cows. We also investigated whether calf weaning weights (WW, n = 42) were significantly related to their dams' post-calving movement patter...

  4. Movement and spatial proximity patterns of rangeland-raised Raramuri Criollo cow-calf pairs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to compare movement patterns of nursing vs. nonnursing mature cows and to characterize cow-calf proximity patterns in two herds of Raramuri Criollo cattle. Herds grazed rangeland pastures in southern New Mexico (4355 ha) and west-central Chihuahua, Mexico (633 ha)'' A...

  5. Economic impacts of increasing seasonal precipitation variation on southeast Wyoming cow-calf enterprises

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Economic impacts of predicted increases in precipitation variability on cow-calf enterprises, through influences of precipitation on both forage and cattle productivity, are needed by land managers for risk management strategies. Here we utilize existing forage production and cattle performance data...

  6. BALANCE, BODY MOTION AND MUSCLE ACTIVITY AFTER HIGH VOLUME SHORT TERM DANCE-BASED REHABILITATION IN INDIVIDUALS WITH PARKINSON’S DISEASE: A PILOT STUDY

    PubMed Central

    McKay, J. Lucas; Ting, Lena H.; Hackney, Madeleine E.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The objectives of this pilot study were to 1) evaluate the feasibility and investigate the efficacy of a 3-week, high volume (450 minutes/week) Adapted Tango intervention for community dwelling individuals with mild-moderate PD, and to 2) investigate the potential efficacy of Adapted Tango in modifying electromyographic (EMG) activity and center of body mass (CoM) displacement during automatic postural responses to support surface perturbations. METHODS Individuals with PD (n=26) were recruited for high volume Adapted Tango (15 lessons, 1.5 hour each over 3 weeks). Twenty participants were assessed with clinical balance and gait measures before and after the intervention. Nine participants were also assessed with support-surface translation perturbations. RESULTS Overall adherence to the intervention was 77%. At posttest, peak forward CoM displacement was reduced (4.0±0.9 cm, pretest, vs. 3.7±1.1 cm, posttest; P=0.03; Cohen’s d=0.30) and correlated to improvements on Berg Balance Scale (BBS; rho=−0.68; P=0.04) and Dynamic Gait Index (rho=−0.75; P=0.03). Overall antagonist onset time was delayed (27 ms; P=0.02; d=0.90) and duration was reduced (56 ms, ≈39%, P=0.02; d=0.45). Reductions in EMG magnitude were also observed (P<0.05). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS Adherence was acceptable and improvements on clinical measures of balance and gait were comparable to that obtained with lower volume, 12-week programs. Following participation in Adapted Tango, changes in kinematic and some EMG measures of perturbation responses were observed in addition to improvements in clinical measures. We conclude that 3-week, high volume Adapted Tango is feasible and represents a viable alternative to longer duration adapted dance programs. Video Abstract available for more insights from the authors (see Supplemental Digital Content 1) PMID:27576092

  7. Extracellular polysaccharides purified from Aureobasidium pullulans SM-2001 (Polycan) inhibit dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyung-Rae; Park, Dong-Chan; Jung, Go-Woon

    2018-01-01

    The present study assessed the beneficial skeletal muscle-preserving effects of extracellular polysaccharides from Aureobasidium pullulans SM-2001 (Polycan) (EAP) on dexamethasone (DEXA)-induced catabolic muscle atrophy in mice. To investigate whether EAP prevented catabolic DEXA-induced muscle atrophy, and to examine its mechanisms of action, EAP (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) was administered orally, once a day for 24 days. EAP treatment was initiated 2 weeks prior to DEXA treatment (1 mg/kg, once a day for 10 days) in mice. Body weight alterations, serum biochemistry, calf thickness, calf muscle strength, gastrocnemius muscle thickness and weight, gastrocnemius muscle antioxidant defense parameters, gastrocnemius muscle mRNA expression, histology and histomorphometry were subsequently assessed. After 24 days, DEXA control mice exhibited muscle atrophy according to all criteria indices. However, these muscle atrophy symptoms were significantly inhibited by oral treatment with all three doses of EAP. Regarding possible mechanisms of action, EAP exhibited favorable ameliorating effects on DEXA-induced catabolic muscle atrophy via antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects; these effects were mediated by modulation of the expression of genes involved in muscle protein synthesis (AKT serine/threonine kinase 1, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, adenosine A1 receptor and transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4) and degradation (atrogin-1, muscle RING-finger protein-1, myostatin and sirtuin 1). Therefore, these results indicated that EAP may be helpful in improving muscle atrophies of various etiologies. EAP at 400 mg/kg exhibited favorable muscle protective effects against DEXA-induced catabolic muscle atrophy, comparable with the effects of oxymetholone (50 mg/kg), which has been used to treat various muscle disorders. PMID:29138805

  8. Wooden hutch space allowance influences male Holstein calf health, performance, daily lying time, and respiratory immunity.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Lorenzo, M S; Hulbert, L E; Fowler, A L; Louie, A; Gershwin, L J; Pinkerton, K E; Ballou, M A; Klasing, K C; Mitloehner, F M

    2016-06-01

    Dairy calves in the western United States are commonly raised individually in wooden hutches with a space allowance of 1.23m(2)/calf. Recent legislative initiatives in California and across the United States were passed regarding concern over space allowance for farm animals. The objective of this study was to determine if rearing male Holstein calves in wooden hutches modified to increase space allowance would influence measures of performance, lying time per day, health, and respiratory immunocompetence. At 4d of age, 60 calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 3housing treatments: (1) conventional housing (CONV; 1.23m(2)/calf), (2) 1.5 × CONV (MOD; 1.85m(2)/calf), or (3) 3 × CONV (MAX; 3.71m(2)/calf). Intakes of milk and solid feed were recorded daily and body weight was measured at 0, 3, 6, 10, and 12 wk of age. For the first 3 wk of the trial, calves were scored daily for fecal consistency, hydration, and hide cleanliness. In addition, calves were scored for respiratory health (i.e., nasal and eye discharge, ear position) until 7 wk of age. The total lying duration per day was recorded using data loggers at 3, 6, and 10 wk of age. Eight clinically healthy calves from each treatment were sensitized with subcutaneous ovalbumin (OVA) and then challenged with aerosolized OVA to assess calf respiratory immunity at 11 wk of age. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected 4d after the OVA challenge and analyzed for leukocyte differentials and OVA-specific IgG, IgG1, IgA, and IgE. Calf average daily gain and body weight were positively associated with space allowance at approximately 3 wk before weaning and throughout postweaning, respectively. A greater space allowance decreased lying time after 46d. Space allowance did not influence fecal consistency, but there was a tendency for MAX calves to take 1d longer to recover from loose feces than MOD calves. The MAX calves had the fewest (%) observations with feces on their body compared with CONV or MOD. At 3 wk of

  9. Bioimpedance Measurement of Segmental Fluid Volumes and Hemodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Leslie D.; Wu, Yi-Chang; Ku, Yu-Tsuan E.; Gerth, Wayne A.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Bioimpedance has become a useful tool to measure changes in body fluid compartment volumes. An Electrical Impedance Spectroscopic (EIS) system is described that extends the capabilities of conventional fixed frequency impedance plethysmographic (IPG) methods to allow examination of the redistribution of fluids between the intracellular and extracellular compartments of body segments. The combination of EIS and IPG techniques was evaluated in the human calf, thigh, and torso segments of eight healthy men during 90 minutes of six degree head-down tilt (HDT). After 90 minutes HDT the calf and thigh segments significantly (P < 0.05) lost conductive volume (eight and four percent, respectively) while the torso significantly (P < 0.05) gained volume (approximately three percent). Hemodynamic responses calculated from pulsatile IPG data also showed a segmental pattern consistent with vascular fluid loss from the lower extremities and vascular engorgement in the torso. Lumped-parameter equivalent circuit analyses of EIS data for the calf and thigh indicated that the overall volume decreases in these segments arose from reduced extracellular volume that was not completely balanced by increased intracellular volume. The combined use of IPG and EIS techniques enables noninvasive tracking of multi-segment volumetric and hemodynamic responses to environmental and physiological stresses.

  10. Weighted Mean of Signal Intensity for Unbiased Fiber Tracking of Skeletal Muscles: Development of a New Method and Comparison With Other Correction Techniques.

    PubMed

    Giraudo, Chiara; Motyka, Stanislav; Weber, Michael; Resinger, Christoph; Thorsten, Feiweier; Traxler, Hannes; Trattnig, Siegfried; Bogner, Wolfgang

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the origin of random image artifacts in stimulated echo acquisition mode diffusion tensor imaging (STEAM-DTI), assess the role of averaging, develop an automated artifact postprocessing correction method using weighted mean of signal intensities (WMSIs), and compare it with other correction techniques. Institutional review board approval and written informed consent were obtained. The right calf and thigh of 10 volunteers were scanned on a 3 T magnetic resonance imaging scanner using a STEAM-DTI sequence.Artifacts (ie, signal loss) in STEAM-based DTI, presumably caused by involuntary muscle contractions, were investigated in volunteers and ex vivo (ie, human cadaver calf and turkey leg using the same DTI parameters as for the volunteers). An automated postprocessing artifact correction method based on the WMSI was developed and compared with previous approaches (ie, iteratively reweighted linear least squares and informed robust estimation of tensors by outlier rejection [iRESTORE]). Diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tracking metrics, using different averages and artifact corrections, were compared for region of interest- and mask-based analyses. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance with Greenhouse-Geisser correction and Bonferroni post hoc tests were used to evaluate differences among all tested conditions. Qualitative assessment (ie, images quality) for native and corrected images was performed using the paired t test. Randomly localized and shaped artifacts affected all volunteer data sets. Artifact burden during voluntary muscle contractions increased on average from 23.1% to 77.5% but were absent ex vivo. Diffusion tensor imaging metrics (mean diffusivity, fractional anisotropy, radial diffusivity, and axial diffusivity) had a heterogeneous behavior, but in the range reported by literature. Fiber track metrics (number, length, and volume) significantly improved in both calves and thighs after artifact

  11. Viral and bacterial infections associated with camel (Camelus dromedarius) calf diarrhea in North Province, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ruwaili, Meshref A.; Khalil, Omer M.; Selim, Samy A.

    2011-01-01

    Diarrhea and deaths in new-born camel calves were noticed by veterinary investigators and pastoralist in Saudi Arabia to be very high. Hence, it is thought to be necessary to investigate this problem from the virological and bacteriological point of view. The role of pathogenic bacteria and viruses in six different towns of North Province (Al-Assafia, Arar, Domat Aljandal, Hail, Skaka and Khoa) in Saudi Arabia was studied. Survey was conducted in diarrheic camel calves aged 12 months or younger. In our study calf diarrhea was reported in 184 out of 2308 camels examined clinically during one year, the prevalence of diarrhea was found to be 8.0% in calves ranging from one month to one year. In the present study group A rotavirus and Brucella abortus were detected in 14.7% and 8.98%, respectively, using ELISA technique. Escherichia coli was isolated from diarrheic calf camel (58.2%) 99/170 samples during dry and wet season. Salmonella spp. and Enterococcus spp. were detected in 12% and 8.8% of the specimens, respectively. In this study enterotoxogenic E. coli (ET E. coli) was isolated from 7% of diarrheic camel, which indicates the strong correlation between the camel calf diarrhea and the detection of enterotoxogenic E. coli. This study represented the first report for the detection of group A rotavirus and B. abortus antigen and antibodies in calf camels in Saudi Arabia. It is recommended that the disease should be controlled by vaccination in calf camels. PMID:23961160

  12. Calf restoration with asymmetric fat injection in polio sequelae.

    PubMed

    Yazar, Memet; Kurt Yazar, Sevgi; Kozanoğlu, Erol

    2016-09-01

    Many things cause leg asymmetry and sequelae seen after poliomyelitis infections are still a cause of leg deformities. In this study, lipofilling and liposuction combinations are performed on patients with poliomyelitis sequelae. Volume deficiency is not the only leg problem with polio sequelae, leg length is also a problem. For this reason, the length deficiency must be addressed in order to achieve the desired symmetry. The aim of this study is correcting limb asymmetry by a method addressing both limb length deficiency by heel raise and volume deficiency by injection of fat based on corrected limb length. From 2011 through 2013, 10 female patients who had unilateral leg atrophy as a result of paediatric polio infections were included in our study. All of the patients were treated with liposuction and lipofilling combinations. During planning, a ridge was placed under the affected leg in order to equalize the lengths of both legs. The fat injection sites on the affected leg were marked to mimic the unaffected leg. All the patients stated that they were satisfied with the results. Transient hypoesthesia was seen in only one patient, but this was spontaneously resolved six months later. The study results indicate that the asymmetric fat injection procedure can be a good technique to use with patients who have polio sequelae, both with short legs and volume deformities. 4. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Milk-substitute diet composition and abomasal secretion in the calf.

    PubMed

    Williams, V J; Roy, J H; Gillies, C M

    1976-11-01

    1. The effect of different protein sources in milk-substitute diets on abomasal acidity and proteolytic activity was studied in Friesian calves, aged 20-58 d (Expt 1). The diets contained 'mildly' preheated, spray-dried skim-milk powder (MHM), severely preheated, spray-dried skim-milk powder (SHM), fish-protein concentrate (FPC) or solvent-extracted soya-bean flour (SF) as the main protein source. 2. Gastric juice was collected from abomasal pouches before feeding and at 15 min intervals for 8 h after the morning feed. Samples of digesta were obtained from the abomasum at 1 h intervals during the same period. 3. Digesta pH was lower and titratable acidity higher 0-3 after giving the diet containing MHM than when any of the other three diets was given. 3. Acid secretion from the pouches for the different diets was in the order: FPC greater than MHM greater than SHM greater than or equal to SF. 5. Protease secretion from the pouches, assayed at pH 2-1, was in the order: MHM greater than SHM = FPC greater than SF. 6. The effect of dry matter (DM) intake and concentration on abomasal acidity was also studied in calves given diets which contained MHM (Expt 2). This diet was reconstituted at either 100 or 149 g DM/kg liquid diet and fed at either 32-5 or 49-0 g DM/kg live weight 0-75 per d. Samples of abomasal digesta were collected as in Expt 1. 7. A high intake of DM at a low DM concentration resulted in low acidity of the digesta in the first 3 h after feeding, which suggested a dilution effect. Comparison of two diets of different DM concentration, which were fed in the same volume of liquid, indicated that the greater the DM intake, the greater was the amount of acid secreted. 8. It is concluded that the protein sources varied in their ability to stimulate abomasal acid and protease secretion and it is suggested that this may relate to calf performance.

  14. Morphological changes in hind limb muscles elicited by adjuvant-induced arthritis of the rat knee.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, J; Kurose, T; Kawamata, S; Yamaoka, K

    2010-02-01

    We investigated qualitative and quantitative changes in rat hind limb muscles caused by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced knee joint pain. One week after CFA injection, muscle atrophy was induced only on the CFA-injected side. Wet weight of the rectus femoris (RF) and soleus (SOL) muscles were significantly decreased by 20% and 19%, respectively. The reduction in cross-sectional areas by CFA was similar for fast and slow muscle fibers in the RF (10% vs 15%, respectively) and SOL muscles (16% vs 16%, respectively). At the light microscopic level, pathological changes were not found in the RF muscles on both sides, although the infiltration of mononuclear cells and muscle regeneration were found in the SOL muscles on CFA-injected and contralateral control sides. On the other hand, electron microscopy revealed degenerative changes in the RF and SOL muscles on the CFA-injected side. Interestingly, sarcomere hypercontraction, indicating overexercise, was observed to a limited extent in the SOL muscles on the control side. In conclusions, knee joint pain can trigger the rapid development of muscle atrophy with degenerative changes not only in thigh but also calf muscles. This indicates that early interventions to inhibit joint pain or inflammation may prevent muscle atrophy.

  15. Your Muscles

    MedlinePlus

    ... and you need to throw up. The muscles push the food back out of the stomach so it comes up ... body the power it needs to lift and push things. Muscles in your neck and the top part of your back aren't as large, but they are capable ...

  16. The Effect of Calf Gender on Milk Production in Seasonal Calving Cows and Its Impact on Genetic Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Melanie K.; Hess, Andrew S.; Garrick, Dorian J.

    2016-01-01

    Gender of the calf whose birth initiates lactation could influence whole lactation milk yield of the dam due to hormonal influences on mammary gland development, or through calf gender effects on gestation length. Fetal gender could influence late lactation yields because cows become pregnant at peak lactation. The effects of calf gender sequences in parities 1–3 were assessed by separately fitting animal models to datasets from New Zealand comprising 274 000 Holstein Friesian and 85 000 Jersey cows, decreasing to 12 000 and 4 000 cows by parity 3. The lactation initiated by the birth of a female rather than a male calf was associated with a 0.33–1.1% (p≤0.05) higher milk yield. Female calf gender had carryover effects associated with higher milk yield in second lactations for Holstein Friesians (0.24%; p = 0.01) and third lactations for Jerseys (1.1%; p = 0.01). Cows giving birth to bull calves have 2 day longer gestations, which reduces lactation length in seasonal calving herds. Adding a covariate for lactation length to the animal model eroded some of these calf gender effects, such that calving a female led to higher milk yield only for second lactation Holstein Friesians (1.6%; p = 0.002). The interval centering method generates lower estimates of whole lactation yield when Wood’s lactation curves are shifted to the right by 2 days for male calves and this explained the higher yield in female calves when differences in lactation length were considered. Correlations of estimated breeding values between models including or excluding calf gender sequence were 1.00 for bulls or cows. Calf gender primarily influences milk yield through increased gestation length of male calves, and bias associated with the interval centering method used to estimate whole lactation milk yields. Including information on calf gender is unlikely to have an effect on selection response in New Zealand dairy cattle. PMID:26974166

  17. Calf birth weight, gestation length, calving ease, and neonatal calf mortality in Holstein, Jersey, and crossbred cows in a pasture system.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, K; Maltecca, C; Cassady, J P; Baloche, G; Williams, C M; Washburn, S P

    2013-01-01

    Holstein (HH), Jersey (JJ), and crosses of these breeds were mated to HH or JJ bulls to form purebreds, reciprocal crosses, backcrosses, and other crosses in a rotational mating system. The herd was located at the Center for Environmental Farming Systems in Goldsboro, North Carolina. Data for calf birth weight (CBW), calving ease (0 for unassisted, n=1,135, and 1 for assisted, n=96), and neonatal calf mortality (0 for alive, n=1,150, and 1 for abortions recorded after mid-gestation, stillborn, and dead within 48 h, n=81) of calves (n=1,231) were recorded over 9 calving seasons from 2003 through 2011. Gestation length (GL) was calculated as the number of days from last insemination to calving. Linear mixed models for CBW and GL included fixed effects of sex, parity (first vs. later parities), twin status, and 6 genetic groups: HH, JJ, reciprocal F(1) crosses (HJ, JH), crosses >50% Holsteins (HX) and crosses >50% Jerseys (JX), where sire breed is listed first. The CBW model also included GL as a covariate. Logistic regression for calving ease and neonatal calf mortality included fixed effects of sex, parity, and genetic group. Genetic groups were replaced by linear regression using percentage of HH genes as coefficients on the above models and included as covariates to determine various genetic effects. Year and dam were included as random effects in all models. Female calves (27.57±0.54 kg), twins (26.39±1.0 kg), and calves born to first-parity cows (27.67±0.56 kg) had lower CBW than respective male calves (29.53±0.53 kg), single births (30.71±0.19 kg), or calves born to multiparous cows (29.43±0.52 kg). Differences in genetic groups were observed for CBW and GL. Increased HH percentage in the calf increased CBW (+9.3±0.57 kg for HH vs. JJ calves), and increased HH percentage in the dams increased CBW (+1.71±0.53 kg for calves from HH dams vs. JJ dams); JH calves weighed 1.33 kg more than reciprocal HJ calves. Shorter GL was observed for twin births (272.6

  18. Electromyographic analysis of skeletal muscle changes arising from 9 days of weightlessness in the Apollo-Soyuz space mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lafevers, E. V.; Nicogossian, A. E.; Hursta, W. N.

    1976-01-01

    Both integration and frequency analyses of the electromyograms from voluntary contractions were performed in one crewman of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project mission. Of particular interest were changes in excitability, electrical efficiency, and fatigability. As a result of 9 days of weightlessness, muscle excitability was shown to increase; muscle electrical efficiency was found to decrease in calf muscles and to increase in arm muscles; and fatigability was found to increase significantly, as shown by spectral power shifts into lower frequencies. It was concluded from this study that skeletal muscles are affected by the disuse of weightlessness early in the period of weightlessness, antigravity muscles seem most affected by weightlessness, and exercise may abrogate the weightlessness effect. It was further concluded that electromyography is a sensitive tool for measuring spaceflight muscle effects.

  19. Effects of black bear relocation on elk calf recruitment at Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yarkovich, J.; Clark, J.D.; Murrow, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research from 2001 to 2006 on an experimentally released elk (Cervus elaphus) population at Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP or Park) indicated that calf recruitment (i.e., calves reaching 1 yr of age per adult female elk) was low (0.306, total SE = 0.090) resulting in low or negative population growth (λ = 0.996, 95% CI = 0.945–1.047). Black bear (Ursus americanus) predation was the primary calf mortality factor. From 2006 to 2008, we trapped and relocated 49 bears (30 of which were radiocollared) from the primary calving areas in the Park and radiomonitored 67 (28 M:39 F) adult elk and 42 calves to compare vital rates and population growth with the earlier study. A model with annual calf recruitment rate correlating with the number of bears relocated each year was supported (ΔAICc = 0.000; β = 0.070, 95% CI = 0.028–0.112) and a model with annual calf recruitment differing from before to during bear relocation revealed an increase to 0.544 (total SE = 0.098; β = −1.092, 95% CI = −1.180 to −0.375). Using vital rates and estimates of process standard errors observed during our study, 25-yr simulations maintained a mean positive growth rate in 100% of the stochastic trials with λ averaging 1.118 (95% CI = 1.096–1.140), an increase compared with rates before bear relocation. A life table response experiment revealed that increases in population growth were mostly (67.1%) due to changes in calf recruitment. We speculate that behavioral adaptation of the elk since release also contributed to the observed increases in recruitment and population growth. Our results suggest that managers interested in elk reintroduction within bear range should consider bear relocation as a temporary means of increasing calf recruitment.

  20. The craniosacral progression of muscle development influences the emergence of neuromuscular junction alterations in a severe murine model for spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Tilman; Neve, Anuja; Schümperli, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    As 4-day-old mice of the severe spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) model (dying at 5-8 days) display pronounced neuromuscular changes in the diaphragm but not the soleus muscle, we wanted to gain more insight into the relationship between muscle development and the emergence of pathological changes and additionally to analyse intercostal muscles which are affected in human SMA. Structures of muscle fibres and neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) of the diaphragm, intercostal and calf muscles of prenatal (E21) and postnatal (P0 and P4) healthy and SMA mice were analysed by light and transmission electron microscopy. NMJ innervation was studied by whole mount immunofluorescence in diaphragms of P4 mice. During this period, the investigated muscles still show a significant neck-to-tail developmental gradient. The diaphragm and calf muscles are most and least advanced, respectively, with respect to muscle fibre fusion and differentiation. The number and depth of subsynaptic folds increases, and perisynaptic Schwann cells (PSCs) acquire a basal lamina on their outer surface. Subsynaptic folds are connected to an extensive network of tubules and beaded caveolae, reminiscent of the T system in adult muscle. Interestingly, intercostal muscles from P4 SMA mice show weaker pathological involvement (that is, vacuolization of PSCs and perineurial cells) than those previously described by us for the diaphragm, whereas calf muscles show no pathological changes. SMA-related alterations appear to occur only when the muscles have reached a certain developmental maturity. Moreover, glial cells, in particular PSCs, play an important role in SMA pathogenesis. © 2013 British Neuropathological Society.

  1. Muscle oxygenation and fascicle length during passive muscle stretching in ballet-trained subjects.

    PubMed

    Otsuki, A; Fujita, E; Ikegawa, S; Kuno-Mizumura, M

    2011-07-01

    Muscle stretching transiently decreases muscle-blood flow corresponding to a muscle extension. It may disturb a balance between muscular oxygen demand and oxygen supply to muscles and reduce muscle oxygenation. However, muscle-stretching training may improve blood circulatory condition, resulting in the maintained muscle oxygenation during muscle stretching. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in muscle-blood volume (tHb) and tissue oxygenation index (TOI) during muscle stretching determined by using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in ballet-trained (BT) and untrained (C) subjects. 11 BT women who regularly perform muscle stretching and 11 C women participated in this study. Fascicle lengths, tHb and TOI in the tibialis anterior muscle were measured during passive plantar flexion from ankle joint angles of 120° (baseline) to 140°, 160°, the maximal comfortable position without pain (CP), and the maximal position (MP). At 160°, the % fascicle-length change from baseline was significantly lower in the BT than the C group, however, for the changes in tHb and TOI the significant interaction effect between the 2 groups was not detected. On the other hand, although the increases in the fascicle length from baseline to CP and MP were greater in BT than C, the tHb and TOI reductions were comparable between groups. We concluded that it appears that BT can extend their muscles without excessive reduction in muscle-blood volume and muscle oxygenation at relatively same but absolutely greater muscle-stretching levels than C. The attenuation in these indices during high-level muscle stretching may be associated with the repetitive muscle stretching of long-term ballet training. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Automated unsupervised multi-parametric classification of adipose tissue depots in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Valentinitsch, Alexander; Karampinos, Dimitrios C.; Alizai, Hamza; Subburaj, Karupppasamy; Kumar, Deepak; Link, Thomas M.; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To introduce and validate an automated unsupervised multi-parametric method for segmentation of the subcutaneous fat and muscle regions in order to determine subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) areas based on data from a quantitative chemical shift-based water-fat separation approach. Materials and Methods Unsupervised standard k-means clustering was employed to define sets of similar features (k = 2) within the whole multi-modal image after the water-fat separation. The automated image processing chain was composed of three primary stages including tissue, muscle and bone region segmentation. The algorithm was applied on calf and thigh datasets to compute SAT and IMAT areas and was compared to a manual segmentation. Results The IMAT area using the automatic segmentation had excellent agreement with the IMAT area using the manual segmentation for all the cases in the thigh (R2: 0.96) and for cases with up to moderate IMAT area in the calf (R2: 0.92). The group with the highest grade of muscle fat infiltration in the calf had the highest error in the inner SAT contour calculation. Conclusion The proposed multi-parametric segmentation approach combined with quantitative water-fat imaging provides an accurate and reliable method for an automated calculation of the SAT and IMAT areas reducing considerably the total post-processing time. PMID:23097409

  3. Muscle disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... muscle biopsy examines a tissue sample under a microscope to confirm disease. Sometimes, a blood test to check for a genetic disorder is all that is needed based on someone's symptoms and family history.

  4. Muscle Cramps

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe Happen frequently Don't get better with stretching and drinking enough fluids Last a long time ... able to find some relief from cramps by Stretching or gently massaging the muscle Applying heat when ...

  5. Muscle Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... or tendinitis A genetic disorder, such as muscular dystrophy Some cancers Inflammation, such as myositis Diseases of nerves that affect muscles Infections Certain medicines Sometimes the cause is not ...

  6. Rare congenital absence of tail (anury) and anus (atresia ani) in male camel (Camelus dromedarius) calf

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, S.; Purohit, G.N.

    2012-01-01

    A one-day old male camel calf was presented to the Al-Qattara Veterinary Hospital with complaints of abdominal straining and lack of defecation. On examination it was found that the calf had no tail, the posterior sacral margin was blunt and the anal opening was absent. The case was diagnosed as congenital anury with atresia ani. The animal was sedated with 0.1 mg/kg of xylazine administered intramuscularly and under local infiltration with 2% lidocaine a circular incision was made at the anal area to create an anal opening. The animal passed plenty of meconium. The cut edges were sutured with horizontal mattress sutures. The animal was administered penicillin and streptomycin for 5 days and had an uneventful recovery. It is reported that congenital anury rarely occurs in one humped camel and accompanied atresia ani can be surgically treated. PMID:26623295

  7. A rare case of monozygotic iniodymic diprosopiasis in a German Holstein calf.

    PubMed

    Weber, Jim; Behn, Holger; Freick, Markus

    2017-06-01

    Craniofacial duplication abnormity is a rare phenomenon in buiatric practice. This report attends to a male German Holstein calf which could be classified as a diprosopic iniodymus. A fetus exhibiting a doubled face was delivered after fetotomy. To our knowledge, this is the first description of diprosopiasis with two cranial cavities as well as two separate encephala in a calf showing the potential extent of duplication. Throughout this work also the question is answered of whether this malformation in a bovine species arose from one embryo or rather, there is a dizygotic background by genotyping of tissue samples from both parts of the diprosopus. Regarding etiology, not only hereditary dispositions including among others a failed function of the signaling molecule Sonic hedgehog mediating regulation of craniofacial morphogenesis, but also incompletely separated monozygotic twins are discussed.

  8. Allocating forage to fall-calving cow-calf pairs strip-grazing stockpiled tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Curtis, L E; Kallenbach, R L; Roberts, C A

    2008-03-01

    In a 2-yr study, we evaluated the effect of different forage allocations on the performance of lactating beef cows and their calves grazing stockpiled tall fescue. Allocations of stockpiled tall fescue at 2.25, 3.00, 3.75, and 4.50% of cow-calf pair BW/d were set as experimental treatments. Conventional hay-feeding was also evaluated as a comparison to grazing stockpiled tall fescue. The experiment had a randomized complete block design with 3 replications and was divided into 3 phases each year. From early December to late February (phase 1) of each year, cows and calves grazed stockpiled tall fescue or were fed hay in the treatments described above. Immediately after phase 1, cows and calves were commingled and managed as a single group until weaning in April (phase 2) so that residual effects could be documented. Residual effects on cows were measured after the calves were weaned in April until mid-July (phase 3). During phase 1 of both years, apparent DMI of cow-calf pairs allocated stockpiled tall fescue at 4.50% of BW/d was 31% greater (P < 0.01) than those allocated 2.25% of BW/d. As allocation of stockpiled tall fescue increased from 2.25 to 4.50% of cow-calf BW/d, pasture utilization fell (P < 0.01) from 84 +/- 7% to 59 +/- 7%. During phase 1 of both years, cow BW losses increased linearly (P < 0.02) as forage allocations decreased, although the losses in yr 1 were almost double (P < 0.01) those in yr 2. During phases 2 and 3, few differences were noted across treatment groups, such that by the end of phase 3, cow BW in all treatments did not differ either year (P > 0.40). Calf ADG in phase 1 increased linearly (P < 0.01) with forage allocation (y = 0.063x + 0.513; R(2) = 0.91). However, calf gain per hectare decreased linearly (P < 0.01) as stockpiled tall fescue allocations increased (y = -26.5x + 212; R(2) = 0.97) such that gain per hectare for cow-calf pairs allocated stockpiled tall fescue at 4.50% BW/d was nearly 40% less (P < 0.01) than for those

  9. Non-intercalative, deoxyribose binding of boric acid to calf thymus DNA.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Ayse; Gursaclı, Refiye Tekiner; Tekinay, Turgay

    2014-05-01

    The present study characterizes the effects of the boric acid binding on calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) by spectroscopic and calorimetric methods. UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy were employed to characterize binding properties. Changes in the secondary structure of ct-DNA were determined by CD spectroscopy. Sizes and morphologies of boric acid-DNA complexes were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The kinetics of boric acid binding to calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) was investigated by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). ITC results revealed that boric acid exhibits a moderate affinity to ct-DNA with a binding constant (K a) of 9.54 × 10(4) M(-1). FT-IR results revealed that boric acid binds to the deoxyribose sugar of DNA without disrupting the B-conformation at tested concentrations.

  10. Association between cow reproduction and calf growth traits and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis in a multibreed herd of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Elzo, M A; Rae, D O; Lanhart, S E; Hembry, F G; Wasdin, J G; Driver, J D

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the association between 4 cow reproductive and weight traits, and 2 preweaning calf traits and ELISA scores for paratuberculosis (0 = negative, 1 = suspect, 2 = weak-positive, and 3 = positive) in a multibreed herd of cows ranging from 100% Angus (A) to 100% Brahman (B). Cow data were 624 gestation lengths (GL), 358 records of time open (TO), 605 calving intervals (CI), and 1240 weight changes from November to weaning in September (WC) from 502 purebred and crossbred cows. Calf data consisted of 956 birth weights (BWT), and 923 weaning weights adjusted to 205 d of age (WW205) from 956 purebred and crossbred calves. Traits were analyzed individually using multibreed mixed models that assumed homogeneity of variances across breed groups. Covariances among random effects were assumed to be zero. Fixed effects were year, age of cow, sex of calf, year x age of cow interaction (except WC), age of cow x sex of calf interaction (only for WC), and covariates for B fraction of sire and cow, heterosis of cow and calf, and ELISA score. Random effects were sire (except for TO and CI), dam, and residual. Regression estimates of cow and calf traits on ELISA scores indicated that lower cow fertility (longer TO), lower ability of cows to maintain weight (negative WC), lower calf BWT, and lower calf WW205 were associated with higher cow ELISA scores. Further research on the effects of subclinical paratuberculosis in beef cattle at regional and national levels seems advisable considering the large potential economic cost of this disease.

  11. Isolation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis from waste milk delivered to California calf ranches.

    PubMed

    Ruzante, Juliana M; Gardner, Ian A; Cullor, James S; Smith, Wayne L; Kirk, John H; Adaska, John M

    2008-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if viable Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) was present in waste milk delivered and fed to calves on California calf ranches. Four calf-raising facilities in the Central Valley of California that fed pasteurized waste milk to calves were enrolled. Pre- and post-pasteurization waste milk samples were cultured for MAP using liquid and solid media over a 5-day period during each of four seasons. Aerobic cultures were performed simultaneously to enumerate total bacteria count and evaluate the efficiency of pasteurization which was estimated by the log-reduction of the total number of bacteria. Viable MAP was cultured from 2% of the waste milk samples. Of the three culture-positive samples, two were from pre-pasteurized and one was from post-pasteurized milk samples. The mean total bacterial count for pre- and post-pasteurized waste milk varied from 1.8 x 10(8) to 5.5 x 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU)/mL and 4.9 x 10(5) to 1.1 x 10(8) CFU/mL, respectively, and on average ranches 1, 2, 3, and 4 had, respectively, 3.5-, 3-, 4.7-, and 2.6-log reduction in the number of total bacteria in their waste milk. This is the first study to document results from on-farm pasteurization under field conditions and it indicates the lack of uniformity and adequate controls of the process which could allow the survival of MAP and other pathogens. Calf-raising facilities could benefit from the implementation of standard operating procedures and farm worker training for pasteurization of waste milk. Dairy herds should be aware that placing calves in specialized off-site calf-raising facilities might not eliminate all possible routes of infection of calves with MAP.

  12. Survival of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in calf housing facilities in the New York City watersheds.

    PubMed

    Collick, A S; Fogarty, E A; Ziegler, P E; Walter, M T; Bowman, D D; Steenhuis, T S

    2006-01-01

    Pathogen contamination of the public drinking water supply in the New York City watersheds is a serious concern. New York City's Watershed Agriculture Program is working with dairy farms in the watersheds to implement management practices that will reduce the risk of pathogens contaminating the water supply. Solar calf housing (SCH) was suggested as a best management practice (BMP) to control Cryptosporidium parvum, a common protozoan parasite that causes disease in humans. This BMP targets young calves because they are the primary source of C. parvum in dairy herds. The objective of this project was to assess and compare the survivability of C. parvum in SCH and in conventional calf housing (CCH), usually located in the main barn. C. parvum oocysts were secured in sentinel chambers and placed in SCH and CCH bedding on four farms. The chambers were in thermal, chemical, and moisture equilibrium with their microenvironments. An oocyst-filled control chamber, sealed from its surroundings, was placed near each chamber. Chambers and controls were sampled after 4, 6, and 8 wk. Oocyst viability in the chambers decreased to less than 10% in warm months and between 15 and 30% in the winter months. The viability of the control oocysts was similar to the chambers during warm months and generally higher during winter months. There was no significant (P > 0.05) difference in the viability decrease between SCH and CCH. Although oocyst viability was similar in both types of calf housing, SCH allow contaminated calf manure to be isolated from the main barn manure and potentially managed differently and in a way to decrease the number of viable oocysts entering the environment during field spreading.

  13. Patterns of stillbirth and dystocia in Ontario cow-calf herds.

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, J J; Allen, O B; Martin, S W; Alves, D M

    1992-01-01

    The association between a number of individual animal and herd level factors and calving problems in beef cows and heifers were examined. Data were from the 1987 calving season for a subset of 123 herds which maintained individual-animal records, from a sample of 180 randomly selected Ontario cow-calf herds. The median herd dystocia rate was 5.8% and 24.4% of herds had no dystocias. The median herd stillbirth rate was 2.8%, and 33.3% of herds had no stillbirths. Dystocias and stillbirths were much more common in heifers than in cows. Separate statistical models of dystocia and stillbirth for cows and heifers were created. Dystocia in cows was associated with calf sex, previous calving assistance and large breed type and birth weight. Variations in 1987 cow herd dystocia rates were associated with calving season, location and density, and the herd dystocia rate in 1986. Dystocia in heifers was associated with large breed type and calf birth weight. Herd-level management practices associated with increased heifer dystocia rates included breeding heifers to calve earlier than cows and rearing heifers together with the cow herd. Stillbirths for both cows and heifers were associated with calving assistance, particularly hard assistance. Herd-level management and other factors were unassociated with stillbirths. PMID:1586893

  14. Effect of colostrum quantity and quality on neonatal calf diarrhoea due to Cryptosporidium spp. infection.

    PubMed

    Arsenopoulos, K; Theodoridis, A; Papadopoulos, E

    2017-08-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effect of colostrum quality and quantity on Cryptosporidium spp. calf diarrhoea in an intensive dairy cattle farm in Greece. Faecal samples were collected from 100 dairy calves randomly selected and born during all 4 seasons (March 2015 to May 2016) of the year. In total, 71% of the selected calves were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts. The statistical analysis revealed influence of colostrum quality on faecal score. Linear regression showed that the colostrum quantity during the first day of life was negatively associated with the number of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in faeces. During multivariable analysis, the variables representing the quality of colostrum and the season of the calf's birth were identified as confounders. Cryptosporidium spp. is a common pathogen participating in neonatal calf diarrhoea. Colostrum management and season influence the number of Cryprosporidium spp. oocysts and faecal consistency. The above findings demonstrate novel risk factors that should be included in the strategic approaches to control cryptosporidiosis in newborn calves. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The role of phosphodiesterase activity on the temperature-dependent responses of calf cardiac vein.

    PubMed

    Nurullahoglu, Z U

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the role of phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity in the cooling (to 28 °C) and warming (41 °C)-induced effects of carbachol on calf cardiac vein. Rings obtained from calf hearts were suspended in organ baths containing 25 ml of Krebs-Henseleit solution, maintained at 37 °C, continuously gassed with 95%O2-5%CO2. At the end of the resting period the preparations were contracted with carbachol (10-9-3x10-4M), at 37 °C. The same protocol was repeated at 28 °C and 41 °C after the preparations were allowed to equilibrate at this temperature for 60 min. In order to analyze the role of PDE activity in the cooling-and warming-induced vascular response, carbachol (10-9-3x10-4M) was applied in the presence of cilostazol (10-6 M), IBMX (10-6 M) and rolipram (10-6 M), respectively. The sensitivity of carbachol was significantly lower during cooling, and higher during warming. Cooling to 28 and warming to 41 °C, after treatment with IBMX, cilostazol or rolipram, significantly decreased the sensitivity to carbachol (p<0.05). The results of the present study suggest that PDE activity plays an essential role in cooling-and warming-induced changes of calf cardiac vein treated with carbachol (Tab. 1, Fig. 2, Ref. 34). Text in PDF www.elis.sk.

  16. Illegitimate recombination mediated by calf thymus DNA topoisomerase II in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Y S; Kawasaki, I; Ikeda, H; Liu, L F

    1988-01-01

    We have found that purified calf thymus DNA topoisomerase II mediates recombination between two phage lambda DNA molecules in an in vitro system. The enzyme mainly produced a linear monomer recombinant DNA that can be packaged in vitro. Novobiocin and anti-calf thymus DNA topoisomerase II antibody inhibit this ATP-dependent recombination. The recombinant molecules contain duplications or deletions, and most crossovers take place between nonhomologous sequences of lambda DNA, as judged by the sequences of recombination junctions. Therefore, the recombination mediated by the calf thymus DNA topoisomerase II is an illegitimate recombination that is similar to recombination mediated by Escherichia coli DNA gyrase or phage T4 DNA topoisomerase. The subunit exchange model, which has been suggested for the DNA gyrase-mediated recombination, is now generalized as follows: DNA topoisomerase II molecules bind to DNAs, associate with each other, and lead to the exchange of DNA strands through the exchange of topoisomerase II subunits. Illegitimate recombination might be carried out by a general mechanism in organisms ranging from prokaryotes to higher eukaryotes. Images PMID:2832845

  17. [Uterine torsion in cattle--therapy and consequences for calf and cow].

    PubMed

    Erteld, E; Krohn, J; Dzhakupov, I T; Wehrend, A

    2014-01-01

    To summarize the available literature on the therapy of uterine torsion in cattle and the consequences for cow and calf. Analysis of the literature using electronic libraries (PubMed, Medline), German veterinary medical journals and obstetrical textbooks. The therapy includes the attempt to rotate the uterus back into its physiological position. Direct and indirect methods of retorsion are available and applied according to the case conditions. Subsequently, the extraction of the calf can be performed via vaginal delivery or caesarean section. The presence of uterine torsion always leads to dystocia. Following a successful retorsion, the time and degree of uterine torsion strongly influence the progress of the birth. The prognosis also depends on the aforementioned factors and varies between good to unsuccessful. The vitality of the calf displays great variation depending on the literature (14-90%), however, is generally greater under field than clinical conditions. Focussing on the puerperal development of the cow, all grades from mild irritations of the uterine involution to fatal complications occur. The influence on fertility depends on the progress of the birth and existing secondary complications. The risk for electrolyte disturbances is increased (approximately 50%) as is the risk of birth-associated injuries (approximately 20%). The incidence of placental retention varies widely between different authors (3-52%).

  18. [Asymmetric hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles].

    PubMed

    Arzul, L; Corre, P; Khonsari, R H; Mercier, J-M; Piot, B

    2012-06-01

    Hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles most commonly affects the masseter. Less common cases of isolated or associated temporalis hypertrophy are also reported. Parafunctional habits, and more precisely bruxism, can favor the onset of the hypertrophy. This condition is generally idiopathic and can require both medical and/or surgical management. A 29-year-old patient was referred to our department for an asymmetric swelling of the masticatory muscles. Physical examination revealed a bilateral hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles, predominantly affecting the right temporalis and the left masseter. Major bruxism was assessed by premature dental wearing. The additional examinations confirmed the isolated muscle hypertrophy. Benign asymmetric hypertrophy of the masticatory muscles promoted by bruxism was diagnosed. Treatment with injections of type A botulinum toxin was conducted in association with a splint and relaxation. Its effectiveness has been observed at six months. Few cases of unilateral or bilateral temporalis hypertrophy have been reported, added to the more common isolated masseter muscles hypertrophy. The diagnosis requires to rule out secondary hypertrophies and tumors using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. The condition is thought to be favoured by parafunctional habits such as bruxism. The conservative treatment consists in reducing the volume of the masticatory muscles using intramuscular injections of type A botulinum toxin. Other potential conservative treatments are wearing splints and muscle relaxant drugs. Surgical procedures aiming to reduce the muscle volume and/or the bone volume (mandibular gonioplasty) can be proposed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. A different role of angiotensin II type 1a receptor in the development and hypertrophy of plantaris muscle in mice.

    PubMed

    Zempo, Hirofumi; Suzuki, Jun-Ichi; Ogawa, Masahito; Watanabe, Ryo; Isobe, Mitsuaki

    2016-02-01

    The role of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptors in muscle development and hypertrophy remains unclear. This study was designed to reveal the effects that a loss of AT1 receptors has on skeletal muscle development and hypertrophy in mice. Eight-week-old male AT1a receptor knockout (AT1a(-/-)) mice were used for this experiment. The plantaris muscle to body weight ratio, muscle fiber cross-sectional area, and number of muscle fibers of AT1a(-/-) mice was significantly greater than wild type (WT) mice in the non-intervention condition. Next, the functional overload (OL) model was used to induce plantaris muscle hypertrophy by surgically removing the two triceps muscles consisting of the calf, soleus, and gastrocnemius muscles in mice. After 14 days of OL intervention, the plantaris muscle weight, the amount of fiber, and the fiber area increased. However, the magnitude of the increment of plantaris weight was not different between the two strains. Agtr1a mRNA expression did not change after OL in WT muscle. Actually, the Agt mRNA expression level of WT-OL was lower than WT-Control (C) muscle. An atrophy-related gene, atrogin-1 mRNA expression levels of AT1a(-/-)-C, WT-OL, and AT1a(-/-)-OL muscle were lower than that of WT-C muscle. Our findings suggest that AT1 receptor contributes to plantaris muscle development via atrogin-1 in mice.

  20. Effect of aqua exercise on recovery of lower limb muscles after downhill running.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Junichiro; Ishihara, Keiji; Aoki, Junichiro

    2006-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine how the recovery of physiological functioning of the leg muscles after high-intensity eccentric exercise such as downhill running could be promoted by aqua exercise for a period until the damaged muscle had recovered almost completely. Ten male long-distance runners were divided equally into an aqua exercise group and a control group. From the first day (Day 0) to the fourth day (Day 3), the participants completed a questionnaire on muscle soreness, and serum creatine kinase activity, muscle power, flexibility, whole-body reaction time and muscle stiffness were measured. After measurements on Day 0, the participants performed downhill running (three 5 min runs with a 5 min rest interval at -10%, 335.7 +/- 6.1 m . min-1). The aqua exercise group performed walking, jogging and jumping in water on three successive days following the downhill running on Day 0 for 30 min each day. Muscle power was reduced on Day 1 in the control group (P < 0.05). Muscle soreness in the calf on Day 3 was greater in the control group than that in the aqua exercise group (P < 0.05). In the aqua exercise group, muscle stiffness in the calf was less than that in the control group over 4 days (time main effect: P < 0.05; group x time interaction: P < 0.05). We conclude that aqua exercise promoted physiological functioning of the muscles in the legs after high-intensity downhill running for a period until the damaged muscles had recovered almost completely.

  1. Effects of Physical Activity and Muscle Quality on Bone Development in Girls

    PubMed Central

    Farr, Joshua N.; Laddu, Deepika R.; Blew, Robert M.; Lee, Vinson R.; Going, Scott B.

    2013-01-01

    Poor muscle quality and sedentary behavior are risk factors for metabolic dysfunction in children and adolescents. However, because longitudinal data are scarce, relatively little is known about how changes in muscle quality and physical activity influence bone development. Purpose In a 2-year longitudinal study, we examined the effects of physical activity and changes in muscle quality on bone parameters in young girls. Methods The sample included 248 healthy girls aged 9–12 years at baseline. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography was used to measure calf and thigh muscle density, an indicator of skeletal muscle fat content or muscle quality, as well as bone parameters at diaphyseal and metaphyseal sites of the femur and tibia. Physical activity was assessed using a validated questionnaire specific for youth. Results After controlling for covariates in multiple regression models, increased calf muscle density was independently associated with greater gains in cortical (β = 0.13, P < 0.01) and trabecular (β = 0.25, P < 0.001) volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and the bone strength index (BSI; β = 0.25, P < 0.001) of the tibia. Importantly, these relationships were generalized, as similar changes were present at the femur. Associations between physical activity and changes in bone parameters were weaker than those observed for muscle density. Nevertheless, physical activity was significantly (all P < 0.05) associated with greater gains in trabecular vBMD and the BSI of the distal femur. Conclusions These findings suggest that poor muscle quality may put girls at risk for suboptimal bone development. Physical activity is associated with more optimal gains in weight-bearing bone density and strength in girls, but to a lesser extent than changes in muscle quality. PMID:23698240

  2. Migratory herds of wildebeests and zebras indirectly affect calf survival of giraffes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Derek E; Kissui, Bernard M; Kiwango, Yustina A; Bond, Monica L

    2016-12-01

    In long-distance migratory systems, local fluctuations in the predator-prey ratio can exhibit extreme variability within a single year depending upon the seasonal location of migratory species. Such systems offer an opportunity to empirically investigate cyclic population density effects on short-term food web interactions by taking advantage of the large seasonal shifts in migratory prey biomass.We utilized a large-mammal predator-prey savanna food web to evaluate support for hypotheses relating to the indirect effects of "apparent competition" and "apparent mutualism" from migratory ungulate herds on survival of resident megaherbivore calves, mediated by their shared predator. African lions ( Panthera leo ) are generalist predators whose primary, preferred prey are wildebeests ( Connochaetes taurinus ) and zebras ( Equus quagga ), while lion predation on secondary prey such as giraffes ( Giraffa camelopardalis ) may change according to the relative abundance of the primary prey species.We used demographic data from five subpopulations of giraffes in the Tarangire Ecosystem of Tanzania, East Africa, to test hypotheses relating to direct predation and indirect effects of large migratory herds on calf survival of a resident megaherbivore. We examined neonatal survival via apparent reproduction of 860 adult females, and calf survival of 449 giraffe calves, during three precipitation seasons over 3 years, seeking evidence of some effect on neonate and calf survival as a consequence of the movements of large herds of migratory ungulates.We found that local lion predation pressure (lion density divided by primary prey density) was significantly negatively correlated with giraffe neonatal and calf survival probabilities. This supports the apparent mutualism hypothesis that the presence of migratory ungulates reduces lion predation on giraffe calves.Natural predation had a significant effect on giraffe calf and neonate survival, and could significantly affect giraffe

  3. Views on contentious practices in dairy farming: the case of early cow-calf separation.

    PubMed

    Ventura, B A; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Schuppli, C A; Weary, D M

    2013-09-01

    The public has become increasingly interested in the welfare of food animals, but the food animal industries possess few mechanisms for public engagement. Here we present results from a web-based forum designed to allow stakeholders to share views on controversial issues in dairying. In response to the question "Should dairy calves be separated from the cow within the first few hours after birth?" participants were able to indicate "yes," "no," or "neutral" and either write a reason in support of their view or select reasons provided by other participants. Four independent groups of participants were recruited (a total of 163 people); 31% said they had no involvement in the dairy industry; the remaining 69% (with some involvement in the industry) were students or teachers (33%), animal advocates (13%), producers (11%), veterinarians (9%) and other dairy industry professionals (3%). Overall, little consensus existed among participants across groups; 44% chose "yes," 48% "no," and 9% "neutral." Responses varied with demographics, with opposition to early separation higher among females, animal advocates, and those with no involvement with the dairy industry. A fifth group was recruited at a dairy industry conference (an additional 28 participants); 46% chose "yes," 32% "no," and 21% "neutral." Across all 5 groups, opponents and supporters often referenced similar issues in the reasons they provided. Opponents of early separation contended that it is emotionally stressful for the calf and cow, it compromises calf and cow health, it is unnatural, and the industry can and should accommodate cow-calf pairs. In contrast, supporters of early separation reasoned that emotional distress is minimized by separating before bonds develop, that it promotes calf and cow health, and that the industry is limited in its ability to accommodate cow-calf pairs. These results illustrate the potential of web-based forums to identify areas of agreement and conflict among stakeholders

  4. Occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Neospora caninum in Alberta cow-calf operations.

    PubMed

    Pruvot, M; Kutz, S; Barkema, H W; De Buck, J; Orsel, K

    2014-11-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and Neospora caninum (NC) are two pathogens causing important production limiting diseases in the cattle industry. Significant impacts of MAP and NC have been reported on dairy cattle herds, but little is known about the importance, risk factors and transmission patterns in western Canadian cow-calf herds. In this cross-sectional study, the prevalence of MAP and NC infection in southwest Alberta cow-calf herds was estimated, risk factors for NC were identified, and the reproductive impacts of the two pathogens were assessed. Blood and fecal samples were collected from 840 cows on 28 cow-calf operations. Individual cow and herd management information was collected by self-administered questionnaires and one-on-one interviews. Bayesian estimates of the true prevalence of MAP and NC were computed, and bivariable and multivariable statistical analysis were done to assess the association between the NC serological status and ranch management risk factors, and the clinical effects of the two pathogens. Bayesian estimates of true prevalence indicated that 20% (95% probability interval: 8-38%) of herds had at least one MAP-positive cow, with a within-herd prevalence in positive herds of 22% (8-45%). From the Bayesian posterior distributions of NC prevalence, the median herd-level prevalence was 66% (33-95%) with 10% (4-21%) cow-level prevalence in positive herds. Multivariable analysis indicated that introducing purchased animals in the herd might increase the risk of NC. The negative association of NC with proper carcass disposal and presence of horses on ranch (possibly in relation to herd monitoring and guarding activities), may suggest the importance of wild carnivores in the dynamics of this pathogen in the study area. We also observed an association between MAP and NC serological status and the number of abortions. Additional studies should be done to further examine specific risk factors for MAP and NC, assess the

  5. Lactation and calf weight traits of mature crossbred cows fed varying daily levels of metabolizable energy.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, T G; Ferrell, C L; Roberts, A J

    2000-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate differences in lactation traits and calf weights produced by F1 cows under varying daily metabolizable energy availability. Measures of milk yields and calf weight traits were recorded on mature F1 cows. The cows were produced from matings of Angus or Hereford dams with sires representing Angus/Hereford, Shorthorn, Galloway, Longhorn, Nellore, and Salers breeds. The cows' daily DM intakes of a diet composed of a corn silage or alfalfa silage plus corn silage were recorded from approximately 2 wk postpartum until the calves were weaned at an average age of 170 d. Milk yield measurements were recorded when the calves were approximately 14, 28, 56, 84, 112, 140, and 168 d of age. Sources of variation considered for the traits of interest included sire breed of the cow (SBC) and the covariates weaning age of the calf and daily metabolizable energy intake (DMEI) of the cow for lactation and calf weights. The linear and quadratic effects were evaluated for DMEI. The SBC x DMEI (linear) interaction was significant for total milk yield. Sire breed of cow differences (P < .05) were observed for milk yield at time of peak yield, persistency, preweaning ADG, and weaning weight. Salers- and Shorthorn-sired cows had greater (P < .05) peak yield than Galloway, Longhorn, or Nellore cross-bred cows but were not significantly different from the Hereford/Angus. Increasing DMEI linearly increased peak yield and total yield (P < .05). Preweaning ADG of calves from Nellore-sired cows was greater (P < .05) than all SBC. Preweaning ADG of calves from Galloway-sired cows was less than all SBC (P < .05). The linear effect of DMEI was heterogeneous across SBC for total yield. The pooled quadratic effect of DMEI was significant for all traits except birth weight. The DMEI for expression of maximum weaning weight was estimated to be 29 Mcal. Feed efficiency ratios for the test period were 28, 27, 30, 25, 28, 32, and 30 g calf weight:Mcal DMEI for reference and

  6. Schisandrae Fructus Supplementation Ameliorates Sciatic Neurectomy-Induced Muscle Atrophy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo Wan; Ku, Sae-Kwang; Kim, Ki Young; Kim, Sung Goo; Han, Min Ho; Kim, Gi-Young; Hwang, Hye Jin; Kim, Byung Woo; Kim, Cheol Min

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the possible beneficial skeletal muscle preserving effects of ethanol extract of Schisandrae Fructus (EESF) on sciatic neurectomy- (NTX-) induced hindlimb muscle atrophy in mice. Here, calf muscle atrophy was induced by unilateral right sciatic NTX. In order to investigate whether administration of EESF prevents or improves sciatic NTX-induced muscle atrophy, EESF was administered orally. Our results indicated that EESF dose-dependently diminished the decreases in markers of muscle mass and activity levels, and the increases in markers of muscle damage and fibrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration, cytokines, and apoptotic events in the gastrocnemius muscle bundles are induced by NTX. Additionally, destruction of gastrocnemius antioxidant defense systems after NTX was dose-dependently protected by treatment with EESF. EESF also upregulated muscle-specific mRNAs involved in muscle protein synthesis but downregulated those involved in protein degradation. The overall effects of 500 mg/kg EESF were similar to those of 50 mg/kg oxymetholone, but it showed more favorable antioxidant effects. The present results suggested that EESF exerts a favorable ameliorating effect on muscle atrophy induced by NTX, through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects related to muscle fiber protective effects and via an increase in protein synthesis and a decrease in protein degradation. PMID:26064425

  7. Inverse relationship between exercise economy and oxidative capacity in muscle.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Gary R; Bamman, Marcas M; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Joanisse, Denis R; McCarthy, John P; Blaudeau, Tamilane E; Newcomer, Bradley R

    2005-08-01

    An inverse relationship has been shown between running and cycling exercise economy and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). The purposes were: 1) determine the relationship between walking economy and VO2max; and 2) determine the relationship between muscle metabolic economy and muscle oxidative capacity and fiber type. Subjects were 77 premenopausal normal weight women. Walking economy (1/VO2max) was measured at 3 mph and VO2max during graded treadmill test. Muscle oxidative phosphorylation rate (OxPhos), and muscle metabolic economy (force/ATP) were measured in calf muscle using 31P MRS during isometric plantar flexion at 70 and 100% of maximum force, (HI) and (MI) respectively. Muscle fiber type and citrate synthase activity were determined in the lateral gastrocnemius. Significant inverse relationships (r from -0.28 to -0.74) were observed between oxidative metabolism measures and exercise economy (walking and muscle). Type IIa fiber distribution was inversely related to all measures of exercise economy (r from -0.51 to -0.64) and citrate synthase activity was inversely related to muscle metabolic economy at MI (r = -0.56). In addition, Type IIa fiber distribution and citrate synthase activity were positively related to VO2max and muscle OxPhos at HI and MI (r from 0.49 to 0.70). Type I fiber distribution was not related to any measure of exercise economy or oxidative capacity. Our results support the concept that exercise economy and oxidative capacity are inversely related. We have demonstrated this inverse relationship in women both by indirect calorimetry during walking and in muscle tissue by 31P MRS.

  8. Sleep-Disordered Breathing Exacerbates Muscle Vasoconstriction and Sympathetic Neural Activation in Patients with Systolic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Denise M L; Trevizan, Patricia F; Toschi-Dias, Edgar; Oliveira, Patricia A; Piveta, Rafael B; Almeida, Dirceu R; Mady, Charles; Bocchi, Edimar A; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Middlekauff, Holly R; Negrão, Carlos E

    2016-11-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is common in patients with heart failure (HF), and hypoxia and hypercapnia episodes activate chemoreceptors stimulating autonomic reflex responses. We tested the hypothesis that muscle vasoconstriction and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in response to hypoxia and hypercapnia would be more pronounced in patients with HF and SDB than in patients with HF without SDB (NoSBD). Ninety consecutive patients with HF, New York Heart Association functional class II-III, and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40% were screened for the study. Forty-one patients were enrolled: NoSDB (n=13, 46 [39-53] years) and SDB (n=28, 57 [54-61] years). SDB was characterized by apnea-hypopnea index ≥15 events per hour (polysomnography). Peripheral (10% O 2 and 90% N 2 , with CO 2 titrated) and central (7% CO 2 and 93% O 2 ) chemoreceptors were stimulated for 3 minutes. Forearm and calf blood flow were evaluated by venous occlusion plethysmography, MSNA by microneurography, and blood pressure by beat-to-beat noninvasive technique. Baseline forearm blood flow, forearm vascular conductance, calf blood flow, and calf vascular conductance were similar between groups. MSNA was higher in the SDB group. During hypoxia, the vascular responses (forearm blood flow, forearm vascular conductance, calf blood flow, and calf vascular conductance) were significantly lower in the SDB group compared with the NoSDB group (P<0.01 to all comparisons). Similarly, during hypercapnia, the vascular responses (forearm blood flow, forearm vascular conductance, calf blood flow, and calf vascular conductance) were significantly lower in the SDB group compared with the NoSDB group (P<0.001 to all comparisons). MSNA were higher in response to hypoxia (P=0.024) and tended to be higher to hypercapnia (P=0.066) in the SDB group. Patients with HF and SDB have more severe muscle vasoconstriction during hypoxia and hypercapnia than HF patients without SDB, which seems to be

  9. Influences of supplemental feeding on winter elk calf:cow ratios in the southern Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    M. Foley, Aaron; Cross, Paul C.; Christianson, David A; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Creely, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Several elk herds in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem are fed during winter to alleviate interactions with livestock, reduce damage to stored crops, and to manage for high elk numbers. The effects of supplemental feeding on ungulate population dynamics has rarely been examined, despite the fact that supplemental feeding is partially justified as necessary for maintaining or enhancing population growth rates. We used linear regression to assess how the presence of feedgrounds, snowpack, summer rainfall, indices of grizzly bear density and wolves per elk, elk population trend counts, brucellosis seroprevalence, and survey date were correlated with midwinter calf:cow ratios, a metric correlated with population growth, from 1983–2010 from 12 ecologically similar elk herd units (7 fed and 5 unfed) in Wyoming, USA. Our statistical approach allowed for rigorous tests of the hypotheses that supplemental feeding had positive effects on calf:cow ratios and reduced sensitivity of calf:cow ratios to bottom-up limitation relative to top-down limitation from native predators. Calf:cow ratios generally declined across all herd units over the study period and varied widely among units with feedgrounds. We found no evidence that the presence of feedgrounds had positive effects on midwinter calf:cow ratios in Wyoming. Further, fed elk showed stronger correlations with environmental factors, whereas calf:cow ratios for unfed elk showed stronger correlations with predator indices. Although we found no consistent association between winter feeding and higher calf:cow ratios, we did not assess late winter mortality and differences in human offtake between fed and unfed regions, which remain a priority for future research. 

  10. Maintenance energy requirements of beef cows and relationship with cow and calf performance, metabolic hormones, and functional proteins.

    PubMed

    Cooper-Prado, M J; Long, N M; Davis, M P; Wright, E C; Madden, R D; Dilwith, J W; Bailey, C L; Spicer, L J; Wettemann, R P

    2014-08-01

    Gestating Angus, nonlactating, spring-calving cows were used to determine variation in maintenance energy requirements (MR); to evaluate the relationship among MR and cow and calf performance, plasma concentrations of IGF-I, T4, glucose, insulin, and ruminal temperature; and to describe the LM proteome and evaluate protein abundance in cows with different MR. Cows (4 to 7 yr of age) with a BCS of 5.0 ± 0.2 and BW of 582 ± 37 kg in the second to third trimester of gestation were studied in 3 trials (trial 1, n = 23; trial 2, n = 32; trial 3, n = 38). Cows were individually fed a complete diet in amounts to meet predicted MR (Level 1 Model of NRC), and feed intake was adjusted weekly until constant BW was achieved for at least 21 d (maintenance). Cows were classified on the basis of MR as low (>0.5 SD less than mean, LMR), moderate (±0.5 SD of mean, MMR), or high (>0.5 SD more than mean, HMR) MR. Blood samples were taken at maintenance and at 2 mo postpartum in trial 2. Muscle biopsies were taken from LMR and HMR after cows consumed actual MR for 28 d (trial 2) or 21 d (trial 3). Proteins from LM were separated by 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and were identified, and abundance was quantified and compared. The greatest differences in MR between cows were 29%, 24%, and 25% in trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Daily MR (NEm, kcal·BW(-0.75)·d(-1)) averaged 89.2 ± 6.3, 93.0 ± 4.9, and 90.4 ± 4.6 in trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Postpartum BW and BCS, calf birth and weaning weights, postpartum luteal activity, and ruminal temperature were not influenced by MR of the cows. Concentrations of IGF-I were greater (P = 0.001) in plasma of MMR compared with LMR cows consuming predicted MR diets, and MR was negatively correlated with concentrations of IGF-I in plasma (r = -0.38; P = 0.05) at 2 mo postpartum. A total of 103 proteins were isolated from LM; 52 gene products were identified. Abundance of specific proteins in the LM was not influenced (P > 0

  11. Phosphocreatine resynthesis during recovery in different muscles of the exercising leg by 31P-MRS.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, T; Abe, D; Fukuoka, Y

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the high-energy phosphate metabolism by (31) P-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy during off-transition of exercise in different muscle groups, such as calf muscles and biceps femoris muscles, seven male long-distance runners (LDR) and nine untrained males (UT) performed both submaximal constant and incremental exercises. The relative exercise intensity was set at 60% of the maximal work rate (60%W max) during both knee flexion and plantar flexion submaximal constant load exercises. The relative areas under the inorganic phosphate (Pi ) and phosphocreatine (PCr) peaks were determined. During the 5-min recovery following the 60%W max, the time constant for the PCr off-kinetics was significantly faster in the plantar flexion (LDR: 17.3 ± 3.6 s, UT: 26.7 ± 6.7 s) than in the knee flexion (LDR: 29.7 ± 4.7 s, UT: 42.7 ± 2.8 s, P < 0.05). In addition, a significantly faster PCr off-kinetics was observed in LDR than in UT for both exercises. The ratio of Pi to PCr (Pi /PCr) during exercise was significantly lower during the plantar flexion than during the knee flexion (P < 0.01). These findings indicated that the calf muscles had relatively higher potential for oxidative capacity than that of biceps femoris muscles with an association of training status. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Muscle "Building."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of constructivism in teaching human anatomy. Provides directions for constructing arm-hand and leg-foot models that include extensor and flexor muscles and that are easily and cheaply constructed. Lists resources that provide ideas for using such models depending upon the curriculum implemented in a school or the course that is…

  13. Performance of Angus and Brangus cow-calf pairs grazing Alicia bermudagrass and common bermudagrass-dallisgrass pastures.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, W E; Gates, R N; Blouin, D C; Saxton, A M; Nelson, B D

    1997-07-01

    This research was designed to examine genotype x environment interactions in cow-calf growth performance of grazing animals. Angus and Brangus cow-calf pairs (minimum of six per breed) were allowed to rotationally graze (14-d intervals) treatment pastures from approximately May through early October in each of 2 yr. Treatment pastures contained relatively pure stands of Alicia bermudagrass (AP) or a mixed stand of common bermudagrass and dallisgrass (CDP). Forage allowance was equalized, using "put-and-take" cow-calf pairs, among forage and breed types at the initiation of each 14-d grazing interval. Forage samples were obtained in each paddock at the initiation of each grazing interval. Forage CP concentration was greater (P < .05; 13.5 vs 11.6%) and NDF concentration was less (P < .05; 63.8 vs 70.6%) for CDP than for AP. Daily weight loss was similar for Angus and Brangus cows, but it was greater (P < .05) for cows grazing AP than for cows grazing CDP. Calf ADG during the grazing season was 35% greater (P < .05) for CDP than for AP pastures and was 23% greater (P < .01) for Brangus than for Angus calves. Relative performance of Angus and Brangus cow-calf pairs was consistent between forages; no breed x forage interactions were observed.

  14. Should we be looking for and treating isolated calf vein thrombosis?

    PubMed

    Horner, Daniel; Hogg, Kerstin; Body, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Management of isolated calf deep vein thrombosis is an area of significant international debate and variable clinical practice. Both therapeutic anticoagulation and conservative management carry risk. As clinical care of suspected and confirmed venous thromboembolic disease increasingly becomes the remit of emergency medicine, complex decisions are left to practising clinicians at the front door. We aim to provide a contemporary overview of recent evidence on this topic and associated challenges facing clinicians. Given the lack of high-level evidence, we present this work as a narrative review, based on structured literature review and expert opinion. A decision to manage calf thrombosis is principally dependent on the risk of complications without treatment balanced against the risks of therapeutic anticoagulation. Estimates of the former risks taken from systematic review, meta-analysis, observational cohort and recent pilot trial evidence include proximal propagation 7%-10%, pulmonary embolism 2%-3% and death <1%. Fatal bleeding with therapeutic anticoagulation stands at <0.5%, and major bleeding at approximately 2%. Estimates of haemorrhagic risk are based on robust data from large prospective management studies of venous thromboembolic disease; the risks of untreated calf deep vein thrombosis are based on small cohorts and therefore less exact. Pending further trial evidence, these risks should be discussed with patients openly, in the context of personal preference and shared decision-making. Anticoagulation may maximally benefit those patients with extensive and/or symptomatic disease or those with higher risk for complication (unprovoked, cancer-associated or pregnancy). Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Comparative biomechanical evaluation of a pin-sleeve transfixation system in cadaveric calf metacarpal bones.

    PubMed

    Brianza, Stefano; Vogel, Susan; Rothstock, Stephan; Thalhauser, Martin; Desrochers, Andrè; Boure, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    To compare proximal fragment displacement and the peri-implant strain using a pin-sleeve cast (PSC) system and a transfixation pin cast (TPC) system on a cadaveric calf metacarpal bone fracture model. Experimental. Cadaveric calf metacarpal bones (n = 6 pairs). Paired samples were instrumented with either the TPC or the PSC systems. Strain gauges were applied proximal to the transfixation implants and the bones encased in cast material. The distal part of the construct was removed to mimic an unstable distal comminuted fracture. Constructs were fixed to the material testing machine and initially loaded in axial compression in their elastic range to determine construct stiffness. Constructs were loaded cyclically with a sinusoidal curve that increased until failure. Variables compared statistically between constructs were the initial construct stiffness and, at given load points, the mean metacarpal axial displacement in loading and unloading condition and mean axial strain. Initial construct mean ± SD axial stiffness was not significantly different between constructs (PSC: 689 ± 258; TPC: 879 ± 306 N/mm). There was no significant difference between either investigated displacements of metacarpal bones transfixed with PSC and those transfixed with TPC at all load points. The PSC constructs had a significant decrease in the recorded mean strain (502 ± 340 μstrain) compared to the TPC construct (1738 ± 2218 μstrain). The PSC significantly reduced peri-implant strain with comparable axial displacement to the TPC in cadaveric calf metacarpal bones. © Copyright 2012 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  16. The impact of dystocia on dairy calf health, welfare, performance and survival.

    PubMed

    Barrier, A C; Haskell, M J; Birch, S; Bagnall, A; Bell, D J; Dickinson, J; Macrae, A I; Dwyer, C M

    2013-01-01

    Up to one-third of dairy calves are born after dystocia and this is a major cause of calf mortality. This study investigated the neonatal physiology, survival, health and subsequent growth of dairy calves following dystocia and is the first longitudinal study to analyse multiple effects and to look beyond the perinatal period. A total of 455 live born Holstein calves (N: No assistance, n=360; FN: Farmer assistance but normally presented calf, n=82; FM: Farmer assistance of malpresented calf, n=13) were followed from birth to first service (heifers) or until leaving the farm (bulls). Compared to N calves, FN and FM animals had higher salivary cortisol concentrations at day 1 (P<0.001) and FN calves had lower passive immune transfer (P=0.03). Dystocia had no biologically significant impact on rectal temperature throughout the first 4 days (P>0.05). During the first 60 days, FM calves had a higher proportion of days with non-routine health treatments (P<0.05) and, by the time of weaning, mortality in FN and FM heifers was higher than in N calves (2.8×; P<0.01). However, in surviving calves, growth to first service was not affected by dystocia category (P>0.05). Calves which survive dystocia experience lower passive immunity transfer, higher mortality and higher indicators of physiological stress. Such calves have poorer welfare in the neonatal period and possibly beyond. Strategies need to be implemented to improve the subsequent health and welfare of such calves and to lower the incidence of dystocia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Predicting the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on cetacean populations through impacts on immunity and calf survival.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ailsa J; McConnell, Bernie J; Schwacke, Lori H; Ylitalo, Gina M; Williams, Rob; Rowles, Teri K

    2018-02-01

    The potential impact of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the health and survival of cetaceans continues to be an issue for conservation and management, yet few quantitative approaches for estimating population level effects have been developed. An individual based model (IBM) for assessing effects on both calf survival and immunity was developed and tested. Three case study species (bottlenose dolphin, humpback whale and killer whale) in four populations were taken as examples and the impact of varying levels of PCB uptake on achievable population growth was assessed. The unique aspect of the model is its ability to evaluate likely effects of immunosuppression in addition to calf survival, enabling consequences of PCB exposure on immune function on all age-classes to be explored. By incorporating quantitative tissue concentration-response functions from laboratory animal model species into an IBM framework, population trajectories were generated. Model outputs included estimated concentrations of PCBs in the blubber of females by age, which were then compared to published empirical data. Achievable population growth rates were more affected by the inclusion of effects of PCBs on immunity than on calf survival, but the magnitude depended on the virulence of any subsequent encounter with a pathogen and the proportion of the population exposed. Since the starting population parameters were from historic studies, which may already be impacted by PCBs, the results should be interpreted on a relative rather than an absolute basis. The framework will assist in providing quantitative risk assessments for populations of concern. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Genome-wide association for heifer reproduction and calf performance traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Akanno, Everestus C; Plastow, Graham; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn; Miller, Stephen P; Baron, Vern; Ominski, Kimberly; Basarab, John A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify SNP markers that associate with variation in beef heifer reproduction and performance of their calves. A genome-wide association study was performed by means of the generalized quasi-likelihood score (GQLS) method using heifer genotypes from the BovineSNP50 BeadChip and estimated breeding values for pre-breeding body weight (PBW), pregnancy rate (PR), calving difficulty (CD), age at first calving (AFC), calf birth weight (BWT), calf weaning weight (WWT), and calf pre-weaning average daily gain (ADG). Data consisted of 785 replacement heifers from three Canadian research herds, namely Brandon Research Centre, Brandon, Manitoba, University of Alberta Roy Berg Kinsella Ranch, Kinsella, Alberta, and Lacombe Research Centre, Lacombe, Alberta. After applying a false discovery rate correction at a 5% significance level, a total of 4, 3, 3, 9, 6, 2, and 1 SNPs were significantly associated with PBW, PR, CD, AFC, BWT, WWT, and ADG, respectively. These SNPs were located on chromosomes 1, 5-7, 9, 13-16, 19-21, 24, 25, and 27-29. Chromosomes 1, 5, and 24 had SNPs with pleiotropic effects. New significant SNPs that impact functional traits were detected, many of which have not been previously reported. The results of this study support quantitative genetic studies related to the inheritance of these traits, and provides new knowledge regarding beef cattle quantitative trait loci effects. The identification of these SNPs provides a starting point to identify genes affecting heifer reproduction traits and performance of their calves (BWT, WWT, and ADG). They also contribute to a better understanding of the biology underlying these traits and will be potentially useful in marker- and genome-assisted selection and management.

  19. Eccentric muscle challenge shows osteopontin polymorphism modulation of muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Barfield, Whitney L; Uaesoontrachoon, Kitipong; Wu, Chung-Sheih; Lin, Stephen; Chen, Yue; Wang, Paul C; Kanaan, Yasmine; Bond, Vernon; Hoffman, Eric P

    2014-08-01

    A promoter polymorphism of the osteopontin (OPN) gene (rs28357094) has been associated with multiple inflammatory states, severity of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and muscle size in healthy young adults. We sought to define the mechanism of action of the polymorphism, using allele-specific in vitro reporter assays in muscle cells, and a genotype-stratified intervention in healthy controls. In vitro reporter constructs showed the G allele to respond to estrogen treatment, whereas the T allele showed no transcriptional response. Young adult volunteers (n = 187) were enrolled into a baseline study, and subjects with specific rs28357094 genotypes enrolled into an eccentric muscle challenge intervention [n = 3 TT; n = 3 GG/GT (dominant inheritance model)]. Female volunteers carrying the G allele showed significantly greater inflammation and increased muscle volume change as determined by magnetic resonance imaging T1- and T2-weighted images after eccentric challenge, as well as greater decrement in biceps muscle force. Our data suggest a model where the G allele enables enhanced activities of upstream enhancer elements due to loss of Sp1 binding at the polymorphic site. This results in significantly greater expression of the pro-inflammatory OPN cytokine during tissue remodeling in response to challenge in G allele carriers, promoting muscle hypertrophy in normal females, but increased damage in DMD patients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  20. Foot Drop after Ethanol Embolization of Calf Vascular Malformation: A Lesson on Nerve Injury

    SciTech Connect

    Tay, Vincent Khwee-Soon, E-mail: vincentkstay@gmail.com; Mohan, P. Chandra, E-mail: chandra.mohan@sgh.com.sg; Liew, Wendy Kein Meng, E-mail: wendy.liew.km@kkh.com.sg

    Ethanol is often used in sclerotherapy to treat vascular malformations. Nerve injury is a known complication of this procedure. However, the management of this complication is not well described in literature. This case describes a 10-year-old boy with a slow flow vascular malformation in the right calf who underwent transarterial ethanol embolization following prior unsuccessful direct percutaneous sclerotherapy. The development of a dense foot drop that subsequently recovered is described, and the management of this uncommon but distressful complication is discussed.

  1. Effects of repeated transport on Holstein calf post-transport behavior and feed intake.

    PubMed

    Adams-Progar, A L; Friend, T H; Holub, G A; Krenek, A J; Garey, S M; Terrill, C L

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have determined that stress causes decreases in feed intake and efficiency in livestock, but the effect of repeated transport on these parameters has not been well studied. This study determined how repeated transport affected calf post-transport behavior, feed intake, ADG, and feed conversion. Thirty-six 4-mo-old Holstein steer calves were housed in groups of 6 with each group randomly assigned to either transport or control treatments. Each calf was assigned to an individual Calan gate feeder and feed intake was recorded daily. Transport calves were transported for 6 h in their groups in a 7.3 by 2.4 m gooseneck trailer divided into 3 compartments, at an average density of 0.87 m/calf, every 7 d for 5 consecutive weeks. After return to their home pens, behavior was recorded for transported calves at 5-min intervals for 1 h. Calf ADG and feed conversion were analyzed in a mixed model ANOVA, whereas feed intake was analyzed as a repeated measure in a mixed model ANOVA. Post-transport, calves followed a pattern of drinking, eating, and then lying down. The highest (82 ± 5% calves) and lowest (0 ± 5% calves) incidences of eating behavior occurred 10 and 60 min post-transport, respectively. Control calves had a higher feed intake than transported calves overall (7.29 ± 0.22 kg for control and 6.91 ± 0.21 kg for transport; = 0.01), for the feeding posttreatment (6.78 ± 0.27 kg for control and 6.01 ± 0.28 kg for transport; = 0.007), and the day after treatment (7.83 ± 0.23 kg for control and 7.08 ± 0.15 kg for transport; = 0.02). Feed intake for the feeding post-transport for transport calves significantly decreased after the second transport but increased with each successive transport ( < 0.0001). Overall, control calves had higher ADG than transported calves (1.34 ± 0.13 kg/d for control and 1.15 ± 0.12 kg/d for transport; = 0.006). No significant difference ( = 0.12) between treatments was detected for feed conversion. These results

  2. Spectroscopic and molecular docking studies on the interaction of antiviral drug nevirapine with calf thymus DNA.

    PubMed

    Moghadam, Neda Hosseinpour; Salehzadeh, Sadegh; Shahabadi, Nahid

    2017-09-02

    The interaction of calf thymus DNA with nevirapine at physiological pH was studied by using absorption, circular dichroism, viscosity, differential pulse voltammetry, fluorescence techniques, salt effect studies and computational methods. The drug binds to ct-DNA in a groove binding mode, as shown by slight variation in the viscosity of ct-DNA. Furthermore, competitive fluorimetric studies with Hoechst 33258 indicate that nevirapine binds to DNA via groove binding. Moreover, the structure of nevirapine was optimized by DFT calculations and was used for the molecular docking calculations. The molecular docking results suggested that nevirapine prefers to bind on the minor groove of ct-DNA.

  3. Heterosis and direct effects for Charolais-sired calf weight and growth, cow weight and weight change, and ratios of cow and calf weights and weight changes across warm season lactation in Romosinuano, Angus, and F cows in Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Burke, J M; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W

    2016-01-01

    The use of Brahman in cow-calf production offers some adaptation to the harsh characteristics of endophyte-infected tall fescue. Criollo breeds, such as the Romosinuano, may have similar adaptation. The objectives were to estimate genetic effects in Romosinuano, Angus, and crossbred cows for their weights, weights of their calves, and ratios (calf weight:cow weight and cow weight change:calf weight gain) across lactation and to assess the influence of forage on traits and estimates. Cows ( = 91) were bred to Charolais bulls after their second parity. Calves ( = 214) were born from 2006 to 2009. Cows and calves were weighed in early (April and June), mid- (July), and late lactation (August and October). Animal was a random effect in analyses of calf data; sire was random in analyses of cow records and ratios. Fixed effects investigated included calf age, calf sex, cow age-year combinations, sire breed of cow, dam breed of cow, and interactions. Subsequent analyses evaluated the effect of forage grazed: endophyte-free or endophyte-infected tall fescue. Estimates of maternal heterosis for calf weight ranged from 9.3 ± 4.3 to 15.4 ± 5.7 kg from mid-lactation through weaning ( < 0.05). Romosinuano direct effects (of the cow) were -6.8 ± 3.0 and -8.9 ± 4.2 kg for weights recorded in April and June. Calf weights and weight gains from birth were greater ( < 0.05) for calves of cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue except in mid-summer. Cow weight change from April to each time was negative for Angus cows and lower ( < 0.05) than other groups. Cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue were heavier ( < 0.05) at all times but had more weight loss in late lactation. Angus cows had the lowest ( < 0.05) ratios (negative) of cow weight change:calf weight gain, indicating an energy-deficit condition. Cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue had more negative ( < 0.05) values for this trait but not in early lactation ( < 0.05). Estimates of heterosis ranged from 12.8 ± 9.5 to

  4. Capillary muscle

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Caroline; Mouterde, Timothée; Quéré, David; Clanet, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The contraction of a muscle generates a force that decreases when increasing the contraction velocity. This “hyperbolic” force–velocity relationship has been known since the seminal work of A. V. Hill in 1938 [Hill AV (1938) Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 126(843):136–195]. Hill’s heuristic equation is still used, and the sliding-filament theory for the sarcomere [Huxley H, Hanson J (1954) Nature 173(4412):973–976; Huxley AF, Niedergerke R (1954) Nature 173(4412):971–973] suggested how its different parameters can be related to the molecular origin of the force generator [Huxley AF (1957) Prog Biophys Biophys Chem 7:255–318; Deshcherevskiĭ VI (1968) Biofizika 13(5):928–935]. Here, we develop a capillary analog of the sarcomere obeying Hill’s equation and discuss its analogy with muscles. PMID:25944938

  5. Ultratrace LC-MS/MS analysis of segmented calf hair for retrospective assessment of time of clenbuterol administration in Agriforensics.

    PubMed

    Duvivier, Wilco F; van Beek, Teris A; Meijer, Thijs; Peeters, Ruth J P; Groot, Maria J; Sterk, Saskia S; Nielen, Michel W F

    2015-01-21

    In agriforensics, time of administration is often debated when illegal drug residues, such as clenbuterol, are found in frequently traded cattle. In this proof-of-concept work, the feasibility of obtaining retrospective timeline information from segmented calf tail hair analyses has been studied. First, an ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) hair analysis method was adapted to accommodate smaller sample sizes and in-house validated. Then, longitudinal 1 cm segments of calf tail hair were analyzed to obtain clenbuterol concentration profiles. The profiles found were in good agreement with calculated, theoretical positions of the clenbuterol residues along the hair. Following assessment of the average growth rate of calf tail hair, time of clenbuterol administration could be retrospectively determined from segmented hair analysis data. The data from the initial animal treatment study (n = 2) suggest that time of treatment can be retrospectively estimated with an error of 3-17 days.

  6. Calf and colostrum management practices on New Zealand dairy farms and their associations with concentrations of total protein in calf serum.

    PubMed

    Cuttance, E L; Mason, W A; Laven, R A; Denholm, K S; Yang, D

    2018-05-01

    To gather information on management practices and farmer attitudes to management of cows and calves during the immediate post-partum period on dairy farms in New Zealand, and to assess these practices for associations with concentrations of total protein (TP) in serum of calves 1-8 days-old. Between July and September 2015 blood samples were collected from calves aged between 24 hours and 7 days, from dairy farms (n=105) in nine areas in New Zealand, on three occasions throughout the calving period. Concentrations of TP were determined in all serum samples. At each visit technicians collected 1 L of the pooled colostrum that was intended for feeding to newborn calves that day. These samples were assessed for Brix, coliform and total bacterial counts. After the last sampling visit, the calf rearer or farm manager were asked to complete a questionnaire describing calf and colostrum management practices on the farm. Potential farm-level variables associated with concentrations of TP in serum of sampled calves were identified using univariable and multivariable linear mixed models. Mean concentration of TP in serum of calves across all farms was 59.8 (95% CI=59.4-60.2) g/L, and was associated with region and herd size in the final multivariable model. Concentrations of TP were lower in calves from farms in Otago (56.2 (95% CI=53.4-58.9) g/L) and Southland (56.9 (95% CI=54.1-59.7) g/L) compared to calves on farms in the Far North (62.6 (95% CI=59.8-65.3) g/L), and were lower in calves from farms with a herd size >600 (58.3 (95% CI=56.7-59.8) g/L) than ≤600 (61.3 (95% CI=60.1-62.5) g/L) cows. After accounting for fixed effects, farm accounted for only 8.4% of the unexplained variation. There was no association between any of the measures of colostrum quality and concentrations of TP in serum (p>0.2). Very few herd-level variables were associated with concentrations of TP in serum. Risk factors that have been shown to be of importance in previous studies outside New

  7. The association between exposure to the oil and gas industry and beef calf mortality in Western Canada.

    PubMed

    Waldner, Cheryl L

    2008-01-01

    Researchers assessed the association between exposure to emissions from oil and gas field facilities and newborn calf survival and health status by determining the risks of calf mortality and treatment reported for 27,511 beef calves born to cows in 203 herds, which were followed from the beginning of the 2001 breeding season through the 2002 calving season. They prospectively measured exposures to sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by using data from passive air monitors. They also used the density of oil and gas well sites surrounding each pasture as an additional measure of exposure. The researchers found that well-site density as well as exposures to hydrogen sulfide and VOCs measured as benzene or toluene were not associated with the odds of calf mortality in the first 3 months of life. After adjusting for cow-and herd-level risk factors, they found that exposure to sulfur dioxide near the time of calving was associated with an increased risk of calf mortality during this period. Exposure to sulfur dioxide in the 3-month period before calving was most suggestive of a causal exposure-response relationship (the odds ratio for every 1 ppb increase in sulfur dioxide=1.32; 95% confidence interval=1.13-1.54; p=0004). Exposure to sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and VOCs measured as benzene or toluene during gestation was not associated with the odds of calf treatment in the first 3 months of life. However, exposure to sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and VOCs measured as benzene or toluene, and sulfur dioxide in the first month after calving, was associated with a small increase in the odds of calf treatment after the first month of life when risk was compared across quartiles for exposure; only the association between hydrogen sulfide exposure and the odds of treatment was consistent with a causal exposure.

  8. Development of sociality and emergence of independence in a killer whale (Orcinus orca) calf from birth to 36 months.

    PubMed

    Guarino, Sara; Hill, Heather M; Sigman, Julie

    2017-01-01

    Dolphin calves spend most of their time swimming with their mother immediately after birth. As they mature, the calves become increasingly independent, and begin to interact more often with other calves, juveniles, and sub-adults. For bottlenose dolphin calves, sociality is related to maternal behaviors. Unfortunately, much less is known about the development of sociality and emergence of independence for killer whale calves. The purpose of this study was to examine the developmental changes in social behaviors and solitary activities of a killer whale calf across a 36-month period. Focal follow video recordings of a mother-calf pair housed at SeaWorld San Antonio were collected 2-6 times a day for 5-15 min at 6-month intervals. Using a sample of randomly selected video recordings at each month, developmental changes in swims and social interactions with her mother, swims and social interactions with non-maternal partners, and solitary activities (e.g., solitary swims, solitary play) were observed across the months. The calf spent most of her time swimming with the mother across the 36-month period. The time the calf socialized with her mother was greater than the time she socialized with others at each month. Besides her mother, the calf socialized more often with the other adult female compared to adult males. As the calf matured, the increase in the time she spent socializing with adult killer whales other than the mother corresponded with an increase in the rate and time spent in solitary play. The developmental trends of sociality and emerging independence replicate research conducted with calves of other dolphin species. Zoo Biol. 36:11-20, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis assemblages in weaned cattle on cow-calf operations in the United States.

    PubMed

    Santin, Monica; Dargatz, David; Fayer, Ronald

    2012-02-10

    To determine the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in weaned beef calves on cow-calf operations in the United States, fecal specimens were collected from 819 calves (6-18 months of age) from 49 operations. After cleaning and concentration procedures to maximize recovery of cysts from feces, DNA was extracted from each of the 819 specimens. The presence of G. duodenalis was determined by nested PCR of a fragment of the SSU rRNA gene. All positive PCR products were subjected to sequence analysis. The overall sample level prevalence of Giardia was 33.5% with prevalence ranging from 0 to 100% among operations. The highest within herd prevalence of infected beef calves was found in one cow-calf operation from the South region (100%), followed by a cow-calf operation from the West region (90%), and three cow-calf operations from the Midwest region (87.5, 85, and 85%). Giardia was not detected in samples from 7 operations including 5 cow-calf operations from the South region, and 1 cow-calf operation each from the Midwest and West regions. Molecular analysis of the Giardia-positive samples identified assemblage E (or E-like) in 31.7% of all samples (260/819) and assemblage A in 1.2% (10/819). A mixed infection with assemblages A and E was observed in four calves from an operation in Midwest region. The potentially zoonotic assemblage A was detected in specimens from four operations in Midwest region. These findings indicate that most G. duodenalis found in weaned beef calves was assemblage E which represents no known zoonotic threat. However, the presence of assemblage A in a small number of animals poses a potential risk of infection to humans. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Muscle organizers in Drosophila: the role of persistent larval fibers in adult flight muscle development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, E. R.; Fernandes, J.; Keshishian, H.

    1996-01-01

    In many organisms muscle formation depends on specialized cells that prefigure the pattern of the musculature and serve as templates for myoblast organization and fusion. These include muscle pioneers in insects and muscle organizing cells in leech. In Drosophila, muscle founder cells have been proposed to play a similar role in organizing larval muscle development during embryogenesis. During metamorphosis in Drosophila, following histolysis of most of the larval musculature, there is a second round of myogenesis that gives rise to the adult muscles. It is not known whether muscle founder cells organize the development of these muscles. However, in the thorax specific larval muscle fibers do not histolyze at the onset of metamorphosis, but instead serve as templates for the formation of a subset of adult muscles, the dorsal longitudinal flight muscles (DLMs). Because these persistent larval muscle fibers appear to be functioning in many respects like muscle founder cells, we investigated whether they were necessary for DLM development by using a microbeam laser to ablate them singly and in combination. We found that, in the absence of the larval muscle fibers, DLMs nonetheless develop. Our results show that the persistent larval muscle fibers are not required to initiate myoblast fusion, to determine DLM identity, to locate the DLMs in the thorax, or to specify the total DLM fiber volume. However, they are required to regulate the number of DLM fibers generated. Thus, while the persistent larval muscle fibers are not obligatory for DLM fiber formation and differentiation, they are necessary to ensure the development of the correct number of fibers.

  11. Isolation of Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjoprajitno from a calf with clinical leptospirosis in Chile.

    PubMed

    Salgado, Miguel; Otto, Barbara; Moroni, Manuel; Sandoval, Errol; Reinhardt, German; Boqvist, Sofia; Encina, Carolina; Muñoz-Zanzi, Claudia

    2015-03-18

    Although Leptospira isolation has been reported in Chilean cattle, only serological evidence of serovar Hardjo bovis infection has been routinely reported. The present report provides characterization of the pathological presentation and etiology of a clinical case of leptospirosis in a calf from the Los Rios Region in Chile. In a dairy herd in southern Chile, 11 of 130 calves died after presenting signs such as depression and red-tinged urine. One of these calves, a female of eight months, was necropsied, and all the pathological findings were consistent with Leptospira infection. A urine sample was submitted to conventional bacteriological analysis together with highly specific molecular biology typing tools, in order to unravel the specific Leptospira specie and serovar associated with this clinical case. A significant finding of this study was that the obtained isolate was confirmed by PCR as L. interrogans, its VNTR profile properly matching with L. interrogans Hardjoprajitno as well as its specific genomic identity revealed by secY gen. Leptospira interrogans serovar Hardjoprajitno was associated with the investigated calf clinical case. This information adds to the value of serologic results commonly reported, which encourage vaccination improvements to match circulating strains. In addition, this finding represents the first case report of this serovar in Chilean cattle.

  12. Twinning in Holstein-Friesian Dairy Cows: Proportion Carried to Term and Calf Sex Ratios

    PubMed Central

    Cockcroft, Peter D.; Sorrell, Emma J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the proportion of twins carried to term and the sex ratio of twin calves at birth in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle kept on commercial farms in Devon and Cornwall, England. Ten farms were used in the study. Fifty four cows with twin pregnancies were identified using trans-rectal ultra-sonographic examination between 30 and 70 days of gestation. The farm records were subsequently used to derive the number of calves born. Farm records of 66 additional sets of twin births with the sex of the calves recorded were also identified. Of the 54 cows diagnosed with twin pregnancies, 16 cows (29.6%) aborted or absorbed both fetuses, 11 cows (20.4%) carried one calf to term and 27 cows (50%) carried both calves to term. In the calf sex analysis of the additional 66 sets of twins: 13♂♂ calves (19.7%), 18 ♀♀ calves (27.3%) and 35 ♂♀ calves (53.0%). There was no statistically significant difference from an expected ratio of 1♂♂:2♂♀:1♀♀ (p = 0.61). This study provides bench marks for the expected abortion/absorption rates following the early ultra-sonographic diagnosis of twin pregnancies in comparable populations and supports earlier observations that the expected  sex ratio for twinning approximates to1♂♂:2♂♀:1♀♀. PMID:29061937

  13. Spatial and Temporal Variation in the Effects of Climatic Variables on Dugong Calf Production

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Mariana M. P. B.; Delean, Steven; Grayson, Jillian; Lavender, Sally; Logan, Murray; Marsh, Helene

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the relationships between environmental forcing and demographic parameters is important for predicting responses from climatic changes and to manage populations effectively. We explore the relationships between the proportion of sea cows (Dugong dugon) classified as calves and four climatic drivers (rainfall anomaly, Southern Oscillation El Niño Index [SOI], NINO 3.4 sea surface temperature index, and number of tropical cyclones) at a range of spatially distinct locations in Queensland, Australia, a region with relatively high dugong density. Dugong and calf data were obtained from standardized aerial surveys conducted along the study region. A range of lagged versions of each of the focal climatic drivers (1 to 4 years) were included in a global model containing the proportion of calves in each population crossed with each of the lagged versions of the climatic drivers to explore relationships. The relative influence of each predictor was estimated via Gibbs variable selection. The relationships between the proportion of dependent calves and the climatic drivers varied spatially and temporally, with climatic drivers influencing calf counts at sub-regional scales. Thus we recommend that the assessment of and management response to indirect climatic threats on dugongs should also occur at sub-regional scales. PMID:27355367

  14. Daytime mother-calf relationships in reticulated giraffes (Giraffa cameloparadalis reticulate) at the Kyoto City Zoo.

    PubMed

    Nakamichi, Masayuki; Murata, Chisa; Eto, Ryo; Takagi, Naoko; Yamada, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    The present study quantitatively assesses the relationships between a reticulated giraffe mother and her first- and second-born calves during the first 22 months of the older calf's and the first 12 months of the younger calf's life at the Kyoto City Zoo, Japan. The mother permitted her calves to suckle at over 70% of their suckling attempts in the first month after their births, and the calves ceased suckling spontaneously in 65 to 70% of the suckling bouts. From the second month on, she showed a clear tendency to reject the calves' suckling attempts and terminated almost all of their suckling bouts, which resulted in approximately 60 sec or less of suckling duration per bout. The frequency of proximity between the mother and her calves remained at 20 to 30% throughout the first year, with no apparent developmental changes being evident. The mother was mainly responsible for terminating proximity by walking away from her calves throughout their first year after birth, while both calves were mainly responsible for attempting proximity by approaching their mother after reaching 2 months of age. Our study also showed that the giraffe mother became pregnant again while nursing her calves and ceased lactation (i.e., weaned the calves) before the fetus's growth started accelerating. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. 8-Chloroadenine: a novel product formed from hypochlorous acid-induced damage to calf thymus DNA.

    PubMed

    Matthew Whiteman Andrew Jenner Barry Halliwell

    1999-01-01

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is formed by the action of the enzyme myeloperoxidase on hydrogen peroxide and chloride ions. It has been shown to be highly bactericidal and cytotoxic by a variety of mechanisms, one of which, may be the modification of DNA. Previously we have demonstrated by GC-MS analysis that exposure of calf thymus DNA to HOCl causes extensive pyrimidine modification, including 5-chlorocytosine formation. Using GC-MS analysis, we now demonstrate the formation of an additional chlorinated base product, 8-Cl adenine. The addition of 50 μM HOCl was sufficient to produce a significant increase in this product. The reaction of HOCl with adenine in calf thymus DNA was shown to be rapid with the reaction complete after 1 min. pH-dependence studies suggest HOCl rather than its conjugate base (OCl-) to be responsible for 8-Cl adenine formation. Other commercially available chlorinated base products, 6-Cl guanine or 2-Cl adenine were not detected. Therefore, 8-Cl adenine might prove a useful biomarker for studying the role of reactive chlorine species (RCS) during inflammatory processes.

  16. Greenhouse gas emissions during co-composting of calf mortalities with manure.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shanwei; Hao, Xiying; Stanford, Kim; McAllister, Tim A; Larney, Francis J; Wang, Jingguo

    2007-01-01

    Composting may be a viable on-farm option for disposal of cattle carcasses. This study investigated greenhouse gas emissions during co-composting of calf mortalities with manure. Windrows were constructed that contained manure + straw (control compost [CK]) or manure + straw + calf mortalities (CM) using two technologies: a tractor-mounted front-end loader or a shredder bucket. Composting lasted 289 d. The windrows were turned twice (on Days 72 and 190), using the same technology used in their creation. Turning technology had no effect on greenhouse gas emissions or the properties of the final compost. The CO2 (75.2 g d(-1) m(-2)), CH4 (2.503 g d(-1) m(-2)), and N2O (0.370 g d(-1) m(-2)) emissions were higher (p < 0.05) in CM than in CK (25.7, 0.094, and 0.076 g d(-1) m(-2) for CO2, CH4, and N2O, respectively), which reflected differences in materials used to construct the compost windrows and therefore their total C and total N contents. The final CM compost had higher (p < 0.05) total N, total C, and mineral N content (NO3*+ NO2* + NH4+) than did CK compost and therefore has greater agronomic value as a fertilizer.

  17. Spatial and Temporal Variation in the Effects of Climatic Variables on Dugong Calf Production.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Mariana M P B; Delean, Steven; Grayson, Jillian; Lavender, Sally; Logan, Murray; Marsh, Helene

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the relationships between environmental forcing and demographic parameters is important for predicting responses from climatic changes and to manage populations effectively. We explore the relationships between the proportion of sea cows (Dugong dugon) classified as calves and four climatic drivers (rainfall anomaly, Southern Oscillation El Niño Index [SOI], NINO 3.4 sea surface temperature index, and number of tropical cyclones) at a range of spatially distinct locations in Queensland, Australia, a region with relatively high dugong density. Dugong and calf data were obtained from standardized aerial surveys conducted along the study region. A range of lagged versions of each of the focal climatic drivers (1 to 4 years) were included in a global model containing the proportion of calves in each population crossed with each of the lagged versions of the climatic drivers to explore relationships. The relative influence of each predictor was estimated via Gibbs variable selection. The relationships between the proportion of dependent calves and the climatic drivers varied spatially and temporally, with climatic drivers influencing calf counts at sub-regional scales. Thus we recommend that the assessment of and management response to indirect climatic threats on dugongs should also occur at sub-regional scales.

  18. Interaction of a copper (II) complex containing an artificial sweetener (aspartame) with calf thymus DNA.

    PubMed

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Khodaei, Mohammad Mehdi; Kashanian, Soheila; Kheirdoosh, Fahimeh

    2014-01-01

    A copper (II) complex containing aspartame (APM) as ligand, Cu(APM)2Cl2⋅2H2O, was synthesized and characterized. In vitro binding interaction of this complex with native calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was studied at physiological pH. The interaction was studied using different methods: spectrophotometric, spectrofluorometric, competition experiment, circular dichroism (CD) and viscosimetric techniques. Hyperchromicity was observed in UV absorption band of Cu(APM)2Cl2⋅2H2O. A strong fluorescence quenching reaction of DNA to Cu(APM)2Cl2⋅2H2O was observed and the binding constants (Kf) and corresponding numbers of binding sites (n) were calculated at different temperatures. Thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (ΔH) and entropy change (ΔS) were calculated to be+89.3 kJ mol(-1) and+379.3 J mol(-1) K(-1) according to Van't Hoff equation which indicated that reaction is predominantly entropically driven. Experimental results from spectroscopic methods were comparable and further supported by viscosity measurements. We suggest that Cu(APM)2Cl2⋅2H2O interacts with calf thymus DNA via a groove interaction mode with an intrinsic binding constant of 8×10+4 M(-1). Binding of this copper complex to DNA was found to be stronger compared to aspartame which was studied recently. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Microbiological and pathological examination of fatal calf pneumonia cases induced by bacterial and viral respiratory pathogens.

    PubMed

    Szeredi, Levente; Jánosi, Szilárd; Pálfi, Vilmos

    2010-09-01

    The infectious origin of fatal cases of calf pneumonia was studied in 48 calves from 27 different herds on postmortem examination. Lung tissue samples were examined by pathological, histological, bacterial culture, virus isolation and immunohistochemical methods for the detection of viral and bacterial infections. Pneumonia was diagnosed in 47/48 cases and infectious agents were found in 40/47 (85%) of those cases. The presence of multiple respiratory pathogens in 23/40 (57.5%) cases indicated the complex origin of fatal calf pneumonia. The most important respiratory pathogens were Mannheimia-Pasteurella in 36/40 (90%) cases, followed by Arcanobacterium pyogenes in 16/40 (40%) cases, Mycoplasma bovis in 12/40 (30%) cases, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus in 4/40 (10%) cases. Histophilus somni was detected in 2/40 (5%) cases, while bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhoea virus and parainfluenza virus-3 were each found in 1/40 (2.5%) case. Mastadenovirus, bovine coronavirus, influenza A virus or Chlamydiaceae were not detected.

  20. Efficacy of reflective insulation in reducing heat stress on dairy calves housed in polyethylene calf hutches.

    PubMed

    Carter, B H; Friend, T H; Garey, S M; Sawyer, J A; Alexander, M B; Tomazewski, M A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the ability of radiant insulation hutch covers to moderate the effect of ambient temperature and radiant energy on calves housed in polyethylene hutches. The insulation had a double layer of polyethylene bubble film laminated between a layer of aluminum foil and white polyethylene (reflectance = 95%, R value (ft(2) · °F ·h/Btu) = 2.7). In each of two experiments (exp.), hutches were either uninsulated (control) or covered with reflective insulation across the top and sides of the hutch leaving the front, back, and pen exposed. Each hutch had a 1.2 × 1.8-m attached outdoor wire pen. In both exp., rate of increase of interior hutch temperature relative to ambient temperature was lower in insulated hutches (P < 0.001) indicating they were warmer at low THI and cooler at high THI. In exp. 1, increase in respiration rate and ear canal temperature of the calves, relative to THI, were moderated in insulated hutches (P < 0.001). In Exp. 2, respiration rate was not affected by treatment (P = 0.50), but increased with increasing THI (P < 0.001). Mean ADG did not differ among treatments in either exp. (P > 0.21). Insulating calf hutches with reflective insulation moderated hutch microclimate, and improved calf comfort, but did not translate to improvements in economically relevant variables such as ADG.

  1. American and German attitudes towards cow-calf separation on dairy farms

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Gesa; Weary, Daniel M.; Spiller, Achim; von Keyserlingk, Marina A. G.

    2017-01-01

    Public concerns regarding the quality of life of farm animals are often focused on specific practices such as separating the cow and calf immediately after birth. The available scientific literature provides some evidence in support of this practice (including reduced acute responses to separation when it does occur), as well as evidence of disadvantages (such as increased risk of uterine disease in cows). The aim of this study is to systematically examine public views around this practice. Specifically, this study analyzes the views of American and German citizens to separation of cow and calf at birth using a quantitative segmentation approach. Although the majority of participants opposed early separation, a small proportion of our sample supported the practice. According to participants’ preference for early and later separation and their evaluation of different arguments for both practices, three clusters were identified. US participants were more likely to support early separation compared to German participants. The arguments presented for and against both practices caused different reactions in the three clusters, but did not appear to sway the opinions of most participants. The results show considerable opposition to the practice of early separation in large parts of the sample and suggest that the dairy industry should consider approaches to address this concern. PMID:28301604

  2. Sway‐dependent changes in standing ankle stiffness caused by muscle thixotropy

    PubMed Central

    Sakanaka, Tania E.; Lakie, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Key points The passive stiffness of the calf muscles contributes to standing balance, although the properties of muscle tissue are highly labile.We investigated the effect of sway history upon intrinsic ankle stiffness and demonstrated reductions in stiffness of up to 43% during conditions of increased baseline sway.This sway dependence was most apparent when using low amplitude stiffness‐measuring perturbations, and the short‐range stiffness component was smaller during periods of high sway.These characteristics are consistent with the thixotropic properties of the calf muscles causing the observed changes in ankle stiffness.Periods of increased sway impair the passive stabilization of standing, demanding more active neural control of balance. Abstract Quiet standing is achieved through a combination of active and passive mechanisms, consisting of neural control and intrinsic mechanical stiffness of the ankle joint, respectively. The mechanical stiffness is partly determined by the calf muscles. However, the viscoelastic properties of muscle are highly labile, exhibiting a strong dependence on movement history. By measuring the effect of sway history upon ankle stiffness, the present study determines whether this lability has consequences for the passive stabilization of human standing. Ten subjects stood quietly on a rotating platform whose axis was collinear with the ankle joint. Ankle sway was increased by slowly tilting this platform in a random fashion, or decreased by fixing the body to a board. Ankle stiffness was measured by using the same platform to simultaneously apply small, brief perturbations (<0.6 deg; 140 ms) at the same time as the resulting torque response was recorded. The results show that increasing sway reduces ankle stiffness by up to 43% compared to the body‐fixed condition. Normal quiet stance was associated with intermediate values. The effect was most apparent when using smaller perturbation amplitudes to measure stiffness (0

  3. Economics of transitioning from a cow-calf-yearling operation to a stocker operation as a potential strategy to address brucellosis risk in northwestern Wyoming

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An alternative enterprise for cattle ranchers that produce cows and calves is the production of stocker cattle. While stocker only operations have generally found to be less profitable than cow-calf or cow-calf-yearling operations, potential reasons for switching to stockers from having cows could i...

  4. Lupine-Induced 'Crooked Calf Disease' in Washington and Oregon: Identification of the alkaloid profiles of Lupinus sericeus, Lupinus sulphureus, and Lupinus leucophyllus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lupines are common plants found on the rangelands in the western United States. Lupines are known to contain alkaloids that can be toxic and teratogenic causing congenital birth defects (crooked calf disease). Lupine-induced crooked calf disease cases are documented in North-eastern Oregon and the...

  5. Packing of muscles in the rabbit shank influences three-dimensional architecture of M. soleus.

    PubMed

    Wick, Carolin; Böl, Markus; Müller, Florian; Blickhan, Reinhard; Siebert, Tobias

    2018-07-01

    Isolated and packed muscles (e.g. in the calf) exhibit different three-dimensional muscle shapes. In packed muscles, cross-sections are more angular compared to the more elliptical ones in isolated muscles. As far as we know, it has not been examined yet, whether the shape of the muscle in its packed condition influences its internal arrangement of muscle fascicles and accordingly the contraction behavior in comparison to the isolated condition. To evaluate the impact of muscle packing, we examined the three-dimensional muscle architecture of isolated and packed rabbit M. soleus for different ankle angles (65°, 75°, 85°, 90°, and 95°) using manual digitization (MicroScribe ® MLX). In general, significantly increased values of pennation angle and fascicle curvature were found in packed compared to isolated M. soleus (except for fascicle curvature at 90° ankle angle). On average, fascicle length of isolated muscles exceeded fascicle lengths of packed muscles by 2.6%. Reduction of pennation angle in the packed condition had only marginal influence on force generation (about 1% of maximum isometric force) in longitudinal direction (along the line of action) although an increase of transversal force component (perpendicular to the line of action) of about 26% is expected. Results of this study provide initial evidence that muscle packing limits maximum muscle performance observed in isolated M. soleus. Besides an enhanced understanding of the impact of muscle packing on architectural parameters, the outcomes of this study are essential for realistic three-dimensional muscle modeling and model validation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. High-energy phosphate metabolism during incremental calf exercise in humans measured by 31 phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P MRS).

    PubMed

    Schocke, Michael F H; Esterhammer, Regina; Kammerlander, Christian; Rass, Anton; Kremser, Christian; Fraedrich, Gustav; Jaschke, Werner R; Greiner, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    Several previous 31 phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P MRS) studies performing incremental or progressive muscle exercises have observed that a decrease in pH is accompanied with an acceleration in phosphocreatine (PCr) hydrolysis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between PCr breakdown and pH during isotonic, exhaustive, incremental plantar flexion exercises. We included eight healthy, male volunteers into this study. Using a 1.5 Tesla MR scanner and a self-built exercise bench, we performed serial free induction decay (FID) (31)P MRS measurements with a time resolution of 1 min at rest, isotonic calf muscle exercise, and recovery. The exercise protocol consisted of 5-min intervals with 4.5, 6, 7.5, and 9 W workload followed by 9-min recovery. Changes in PCr and inorganic phosphate (Pi) were determined as percent changes in comparison to the baseline. In addition, pH values were calculated. This study obtained significant decreases in PCr corresponding to the gradual increases in workload. In each workload level that was succeeded by all volunteers, PCr hydrolysis passed into a steady state. After an early biphasic response, we detected a significant decrease in pH from the first to the second minute of the 6-W workload level followed by a further continuous decrease in pH up to the second minute of the recovery phase. The decrease in pH was not accompanied by acceleration in PCr hydrolysis. In conclusion, this study shows that PCr hydrolysis during incremental plantar flexion exercises passes into a steady state at different workload levels. The observed decrease in pH does not result in acceleration of PCr hydrolysis.

  7. Torsional Carbon Nanotube Artificial Muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foroughi, Javad; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Wallace, Gordon G.; Oh, Jiyoung; Kozlov, Mikhail E.; Fang, Shaoli; Mirfakhrai, Tissaphern; Madden, John D. W.; Shin, Min Kyoon; Kim, Seon Jeong; Baughman, Ray H.

    2011-10-01

    Rotary motors of conventional design can be rather complex and are therefore difficult to miniaturize; previous carbon nanotube artificial muscles provide contraction and bending, but not rotation. We show that an electrolyte-filled twist-spun carbon nanotube yarn, much thinner than a human hair, functions as a torsional artificial muscle in a simple three-electrode electrochemical system, providing a reversible 15,000° rotation and 590 revolutions per minute. A hydrostatic actuation mechanism, as seen in muscular hydrostats in nature, explains the simultaneous occurrence of lengthwise contraction and torsional rotation during the yarn volume increase caused by electrochemical double-layer charge injection. The use of a torsional yarn muscle as a mixer for a fluidic chip is demonstrated.

  8. The effect of topical arnica on muscle pain.

    PubMed

    Adkison, Julie D; Bauer, David W; Chang, Terence

    2010-10-01

    The herb Arnica montana, in topical formulations, has been reputed to decrease bruising and muscle pain. This claim has been inadequately and incompletely addressed. To determine whether topical A. montana cream could decrease subjective leg pain following calf raises. Secondary outcomes were effects on ankle range of motion and muscle tenderness. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in 53 subjects. Active range of motion was measured in both ankles, and then a series of calf-raises were completed according to a standardized protocol. Each participant received 2 tubes of cream, 1 with active arnica and 1 with placebo. The creams were applied to the lower legs immediately after the exercise, and again at 24 and 48 hours postexercise according to the "RIGHT" or "LEFT" labels. At 48 hours postexercise, subjects had their ankle range of motion and muscle tenderness measured. Subjects used the analog scale to rate pain in each leg at baseline, 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours. No significant differences in pain scores were seen before exercise (arnica: 0.07 vs placebo: 0.09, p = 0.32). Pain scores on legs treated with arnica were higher than scores on those receiving placebo 24 hours after exercise (3.04 vs 2.36, respectively; p < 0.005). Pain scores on day 3 (arnica: 3.44 vs placebo: 3.20, p = 0.66) and day 4 (arnica: 2.36 vs placebo: 2.31, p = 0.62) were not significantly different. There was no difference in muscle tenderness (arnica: 1.05 vs placebo: 1.05, p = 1.0). Ankle range of motion did not differ significantly on either day 1 (arnica: 64.70 degrees vs placebo: 66.15, p = 0.352 or day 3 (arnica: 63.32 degrees vs placebo: 65.94, p = 0.058). Rather than decreasing leg pain, arnica was found to increase leg pain 24 hours after eccentric calf exercises. This effect did not extend to the 48-hour measurement.

  9. Volatile organic compounds detected in vapor-diffusion samplers placed in sediments along and near the shoreline at Allen Harbor Landfill and Calf Pasture Point, Davisville, Rhode Island, March-April 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyford, F.P.; Kliever, J.D.; Scott, Clifford

    1999-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds are present in ground water at the Allen Harbor Landfill and the Calf Pasture Point sites on the former Naval Construction Battalion Center in Davisville, R.I. Vapor-diffusion samplers were used at the two sites during March-April 1998 to identify possible discharge points for contaminants along the shore of Allen Harbor and in two wetland areas near the shore. Results from vapor-diffusion samplers will be used in conjunction with other site information to evaluate proposed ground-water monitoring programs. Volatile organic compounds were detected in 41 of 115 samplers placed along the shoreline at the Allen Harbor Landfill. Trichloroethylene was the principal volatile organic compound detected of eight target compounds. The highest vapor concentration measured exceeded 300,000 parts per billion by volume in an area where TCE was detected in groundwater from nearby monitoring wells. Other chemicals detected in vapor-diffusion samplers included tetrachloroethylene, toluene, and benzene. Concentrations of individual volatile organic compounds were less than 100 parts per billion by volume in most samplers. Volatile organic compounds, principally trichloroethylene, were detected in 7 of 30 samplers placed along the shoreline at Calf Pasture Point; the highest trichloroethylene concentration was 1,900 parts per billion by volume. A trace concentration of tetrachloroethylene was detected in one of the samplers. One of 24 samplers placed in two wetland areas near the shore (suspected discharge areas for ground-water containing volatile organic compounds) detected trichloroethylene at a vapor concentration of 14 parts per billion by volume.

  10. Cow and calf performance on Coastal or Tifton 85 Bermudagrass pastures with aeschynomene creep-grazing paddocks.

    PubMed

    Corriher, V A; Hill, G M; Andrae, J G; Froetschel, M A; Mullinix, B G

    2007-10-01

    Cow and calf performance was determined in a 2-yr, 2 x 2 factorial, grazing experiment using Coastal or Tifton 85 (T85) replicated Bermudagrass pastures (4 pastures each; each pasture 4.86 ha), without or with aeschynomene creep-grazing paddocks (n = 4, 0.202 ha each, planted in May of each year, 13.44 kg/ha). On June 10, 2004, and June 8, 2005, 96 winter-calving beef "tester" cows and their calves were grouped by cow breed (9 Angus and 3 Polled Hereford/group), initial cow BW (592.9 +/- 70.1 kg, 2-yr mean), age of dam, calf breed (Angus, Polled Hereford, or Angus x Polled Hereford), calf sex, initial calf age (117 +/- 20.1 d, 2-yr mean), and initial calf BW (161.3 +/- 30.4 kg) and were randomly assigned to pastures. Additional cow-calf pairs and open cows were added as the forage increased during the season. Forage mass was similar for all treatment pastures (P > 0.70; 2-yr mean, 6,939 vs. 6,628 kg/ha, Coastal vs. T85; 6,664 vs. 6,896 kg/ha, no creep grazing vs. creep grazing). Main effect interactions did not occur for performance variables (P > 0.10; 2-yr means), and year affected only the initial and final BW of the calves and cows. The 91-d tester calf ADG was greater for calves grazing T85 than Coastal (0.94 vs. 0.79 kg; P < 0.01), and for calves creep grazing aeschynomene compared with calves without creep grazing (0.90 vs. 0.82 kg; P < 0.03). Calf 205-d adjusted weaning weights were increased for calves grazing T85 compared with Coastal (252.9 vs. 240.3 kg; P < 0.01) and for calves with access to creep grazing (249.9 vs. 243.3 kg; P < 0.05). The IVDMD of esophageal masticate from pastures had a forage x creep grazing interaction (P < 0.05; Coastal, no creep grazing = 57.4%; Coastal, creep grazing = 52.1%; T85, no creep grazing = 59.1%; T85, creep grazing = 60.0%), and IVDMD was greater (P < 0.05) for T85 than for Coastal pastures. Cows were milked in August 2004, and in June and August 2005, with variable milk yields on treatments, but increased milk

  11. Heterosis and direct effects for Charolais-sired calf weight and growth, cow weight and weight change, and ratios of cow and calf weights and weight changes across warm season lactation in Romosinuano, Angus, and F1 cows in A

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of Brahman in cow-calf production in the southeastern U.S. offers some adaptation to the harsh characteristics of endophyte-infected tall fescue. Other breeds, such as the Criollo breed Romosinuano, may provide similar adaptative characteristics. The objectives were to evaluate Romosinuano...

  12. Venous pump of the calf: a study of venous and muscular pressures.

    PubMed

    Alimi, Y S; Barthelemy, P; Juhan, C

    1994-11-01

    Little data are available concerning the relation between the muscular pumping mechanism and the variation of superficial and deep venous pressure during normal action of the calf pump; therefore we undertook this study to determine the pressure values in three compartments of the calf and in the deep and the superficial venous system and to establish correlation between muscular and venous pressure. Nine healthy young women with a mean age of 23 years (range 19 to 28 years) were examined. In the same calf, a muscular catheter was placed in the deep posterior compartment (DPC), in the superficial posterior compartment (SPC), and in the anterior tibial compartment (ATC), and a vascular catheter was placed in the popliteal vein and in the greater saphenous vein (GSV). The five lines of pressure were simultaneously recorded in the following situations: at rest, during Valsalva maneuver, foot flexion, and foot extension. The situation was studied with the patient in the following positions: decubitus, sitting, standing, and squatting. A final continuous recording was carried out after the patient had been walking for 5 minutes. Mean values with standard errors of muscular and venous pressure were established in each situation. At rest and during Valsalva maneuver, the muscular pressures did not vary, whereas venous pressures increased significantly when the patient was sitting and standing. On the other hand, squatting was associated with a rise in the muscular and vein pressures. Foot flexion entailed a significant increase in the ATC pressure and a rise in the GSV pressure, whereas foot extension caused the DPC pressure to rise without venous pressure modifications. Walking was associated with an alternating increase in the DPC, SPC, GSV and popliteal vein pressures when the foot was compressed to floor followed by a significant decrease when the foot pressure was released. The variations in the deep and superficial venous pressures when the patient is sitting and

  13. Trailer microclimate and calf welfare during fall-run transportation of beef calves in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Goldhawk, C; Janzen, E; González, L A; Crowe, T; Kastelic, J; Pajor, E; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S

    2014-11-01

    Twenty-four commercial loads of beef calves (BW 300 ± 52 kg, mean ± SD) were evaluated for associations among transportation factors, in-transit microclimate, and calf welfare. Transport factors evaluated included vehicle speed, space allowance, compartment within trailer, and transit duration. Calves were transported for 7 h 44 min ± 4 h 15 min, with space allowances ranging from 0.56 to 1.17 m(2)/animal. Compartment within trailer, space allowance, and vehicle speed did not affect the difference between compartment ceiling-level and ambient temperatures during a 30-min period of steady-state microclimate. During the steady-state period, a 1°C increase in ambient temperature above the mean of 5.6°C was associated with a 0.62°C decrease in the difference between ceiling-level and ambient temperature (P < 0.01). Ceiling-level temperature and humidity during the first 400 min of transport could be predicted by ambient conditions and vehicle speed (pseudo-r(2) of 0.91 and 0.82 for temperature and humidity ratio; P < 0.01). Events when animal-level temperature-humidity index (THI) was classified as above the "danger" level lasted for 10.2 ± 4.1 consecutive minutes. Ambient and ceiling-level THI values were not classified as above "danger" for 90.0 and 84.9% of animal-level events. Ambient and ceiling-level THI were 5.0 ± 2.1 and 4.7 ± 2.0° Flower than animal-level THI during periods of disagreement, respectively. The majority of calves arrived in good condition and biochemical indicators of calf welfare were within reference ranges for healthy cattle. Within the study population, high pre-transport cortisol and hematocrit were associated with elevated post-transport values (P < 0.01). A 1% increase in shrink during the weaning to loading interval (24 or 48 h) decreased transportation shrink by 0.26 ± 0.04% when average animal-level temperature was greater than 5°C and decreased transportation shrink by 0.11 ± 0.04% when average animal-level temperature was

  14. Body condition score at parturition and postpartum supplemental fat effects on cow and calf performance.

    PubMed

    Lake, S L; Scholljegerdes, E J; Atkinson, R L; Nayigihugu, V; Paisley, S I; Rule, D C; Moss, G E; Robinson, T J; Hess, B W

    2005-12-01

    Three-year-old Angus x Gelbvieh beef cows nutritionally managed to achieve a BCS of 4 +/- 0.07 (479.3 +/- 36.3 kg of BW) or 6 +/- 0.07 (579.6 +/- 53.1 kg of BW) at parturition were used in a 2-yr experiment (n = 36/yr) to determine the effects of prepartum energy balance and postpartum lipid supplementation on cow and calf performance. Beginning 3 d postpartum, cows within each BCS were assigned randomly to be fed hay and a low-fat control supplement or supplements with either high-linoleate cracked safflower seeds or high-oleate cracked safflower seeds until d 60 of lactation. Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric, and safflower seed supplements were provided to achieve 5% of DMI as fat. Ultrasonic 12th rib fat and LM area were lower (P < 0.001) for cows in BCS 4 compared with BCS 6 cows throughout the study. Cows in BCS 4 at parturition maintained (P = 0.02) condition over the course of the study, whereas cows in BCS 6 lost condition. No differences (P = 0.44 to 0.71) were detected for milk yield, milk energy, milk fat percentage, or milk lactose percentage because of BCS; however, milk protein percentage was less (P = 0.03) for BCS 4 cows. First-service conception rates did not differ (P = 0.22) because of BCS at parturition, but overall pregnancy rate was greater (P = 0.02) in BCS 6 cows. No differences (P = 0.48 to 0.83) were detected in calf birth weight or ADG because of BCS at parturition. Dietary lipid supplementation did not influence (P = 0.23 to 0.96) cow BW change, BCS change, 12th rib fat, LM area, milk yield, milk energy, milk fat percentage, milk lactose percentage, first service conception, overall pregnancy rates, or calf performance. Although cows in BCS of 4 at parturition seemed capable of maintaining BCS during lactation, the overall decrease in pregnancy rate indicates cows should be managed to achieve a BCS >4 before parturition to improve reproductive success.

  15. Frequency of Neospora caninum infections in beef cow-calf operations under extensive management.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, A M; Maresca, S; Cano, D B; Armendano, J I; Combessies, G; Lopéz-Valiente, S; Odriozola, E R; Späth, E J L; Odeón, A C; Campero, C M; Moore, D P

    2016-03-30

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequencies of Neospora caninum horizontal and vertical transmissions in beef cow-calf operations under three different extensive management systems: group A: 0.75 head per hectare pasturing on natural grass; group B: 1.1 head per hectare on natural grass and improved cultured pastures; and group C: 2 head per hectare on natural grass, improved cultured pasture and whole corn silage. Serum samples from 72 multiparous cows assigned to each beef cow-calf operations were obtained every 3 months during 2 years. A group of 30 replacement heifers from each group were tested similarly since they were 10-21 months old. Twenty four, 20 and 34 calves from groups A, B and C respectively, were bled before colostrum intake and again 6 months later. The samples were analyzed by indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) for detection of total IgG against N. caninum at a serological titre ≥ 200 for multiparous cows and replacement heifers, and a serological titre ≥ 25 for calves. Serum samples from seropositive cows were assessed by ELISA to evaluate the avidity of their specific antibodies. There were no differences in the proportion of seropositive cows from groups A, B and C at the beginning of the trial (p>0.05). Interestingly, the lowest serological titres in seropositive cows from all groups were observed during the first trimester (p<0.05). Although seropositive cows had medium to high avidity antibodies, suggesting chronic infection; seroconversion associated with low antibody avidity was found in 2, 3 and 3 seropositive cows from groups A, B and C. All replacement heifers remained seronegative. No abortions were recorded but 2, 1, and 2 calves from groups A, B and C were seropositive before colostrum intake, respectively. Seropositive calves born from cows having intermediate or high avidity remained with the same serostatus at 6 months of age. Even under varying extensive management conditions, both N. caninum horizontal and

  16. Groundwater phosphorus in forage-based landscape with cow-calf operation.

    PubMed

    Sigua, Gilbert C; Chase, Chad C

    2014-02-01

    Forage-based cow-calf operations may have detrimental impacts on the chemical status of groundwater and streams and consequently on the ecological and environmental status of surrounding ecosystems. Assessing and controlling phosphorus (P) inputs are, thus, considered the key to reducing eutrophication and managing ecological integrity. In this paper, we monitored and evaluated P concentrations of groundwater (GW) compared to the concentration of surface water (SW) P in forage-based landscape with managed cow-calf operations for 3 years (2007-2009). Groundwater samples were collected from three landscape locations along the slope gradient (GW1 10-30% slope, GW2 5-10% slope, and GW3 0-5% slope). Surface water samples were collected from the seepage area (SW 0% slope) located at the bottom of the landscape. Of the total P collected (averaged across year) in the landscape, 62.64% was observed from the seepage area or SW compared with 37.36% from GW (GW1 = 8.01%; GW2 = 10.92%; GW3 = 18.43%). Phosphorus in GW ranged from 0.02 to 0.20 mg L(-1) while P concentration in SW ranged from 0.25 to 0.71 mg L(-1). The 3-year average of P in GW of 0.09 mg L(-1) was lower than the recommended goal or the Florida's numeric nutrients standards (NNS) of 0.12 mg P L(-1). The 3-year average of P concentration in SW of 0.45 mg L(-1) was about fourfold higher than the Florida's NNS value. Results suggest that cow-calf operation in pasture-based landscape would contribute more P to SW than in the GW. The risk of GW contamination by P from animal agriculture production system is limited, while the solid forms of P subject to loss via soil erosion could be the major water quality risk from P.

  17. Modifying a Cow-Calf Biophysical Simulation Model for Analyses of Alternative Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutes, Jennifer L.

    Cow-calf producers in the United States, tasked with providing beef calves for the beef industry, have had a multitude of difficulties to overcome in recent years. Producers in northwest Arkansas were negatively impacted by high hay prices coupled with low beef cattle market prices due to severe drought experienced in portions of 2010, 2011, and 2012. During this time they also faced high grain prices, due to a record low harvest, combined with portions of the corn harvest diverted from human and animal feed to ethanol production. Tight lending policies of this time, reminiscent of the housing market crash in 2008, along with the negative public attention associated with high levels of greenhouse gas emissions associated with beef production, lead to a tough situation for cattle producers faced with increasing input costs, decreased revenue, and lack of access to loans. With these issues in mind, this research aimed to determine if incorporating switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) production on a cow-calf farm could serve to increase net returns, decrease income volatility, lower net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions without decreasing beef output, and provide a viable source of feedstock for a potential bio-refinery. The study determined that switchgrass is a potential solution to these problems and thus aimed to discover differences in switchgrass supply under different government policies in four northwestern counties in Arkansas to an as-yet, non-existent bio-refinery. It was determined that growing switchgrass on pastureland, once devoted to cow-calf production, is a viable enterprise diversification tool that under the right conditions could be used to improve producer financial and environmental outcomes. However, bioenergy production is slow to gain traction in the US due to adverse market conditions from low fossil fuel prices. Thus, in the US, there are only a few bio-refineries currently online and accepting lignocellulosic biomass, however none of them are

  18. Liquid egg as an alternative protein source in calf milk replacers.

    PubMed

    Touchette, K J; O'Brien, M L; Coalson, J A

    2003-08-01

    The use of alternative proteins in milk replacer has been evaluated for their ability to decrease the cost of milk replacers without negatively impacting performance of the calf. Three studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of calves fed milk replacer utilizing liquid egg as an alternative protein and to determine the optimal concentration of liquid egg to include in milk replacers. Calves in trials 1 and 2 were assigned to a control diet of all milk protein replacer (MILK) or a diet formulated to contain 5% of the diet (13.5% of the protein) from liquid egg (5% EGG). Calves in trial 3 were assigned to one of four diets: the control (MILK) and 5% EGG diets fed in trials 1 and 2, or diets formulated to contain either 10 or 15% of the diet (27 or 40.5% of the protein) from liquid egg (10% EGG, 15% EGG). For all experiments, milk replacers were formulated to contain 20% protein, 20% fat and were fed at 454 g/d reconstituted to 12% DM. Production of the diets containing egg protein utilized breaker eggs that were pasteurized during manufacturing. Holstein bull calves (n = 44 for experiment 1, n = 38 for experiment 2, and n = 120 for experiment 3), were purchased from an area sale barn. Calves were housed in individual hutches with water available free choice starting on d 0. A commercially available calf starter was offered free choice beginning on d 7 for experiments 1 and 2 and on d 1 for experiment 3. Feed intake, scour scores, and antibiotic treatments were recorded daily. For experiment 1, calves fed 5% EGG had greater weight gains than calves fed MILK. No differences in average daily feed intake were observed. For experiment 2, weight gains tended to be lower with 5% EGG, whereas feed intakes and gain to feed ratios were similar between calves fed MILK or 5% EGG. For experiment 3, as the amount of egg in the diet increased, weight gain decreased in a linear fashion during the milk replacer feeding period, but the decrease in gain was significant only

  19. Review: Exogenous butyrate: implications for the functional development of ruminal epithelium and calf performance.

    PubMed

    Niwińska, B; Hanczakowska, E; Arciszewski, M B; Klebaniuk, R

    2017-09-01

    The importance of the use of exogenous butyrate in calves' diets is due to its role as a factor stimulating the functional development of ruminal epithelium and improving calf performance during the transition from preruminant to ruminant status. Our review will first present results related to effects of the administration of butyrate in calves' diets on the development of ruminal epithelium toward a more effective absorption and metabolism of fermentation products from the rumen. The introduction of sodium butyrate at a level of about 0.3% of diet dry matter is accompanied by an increase to 35% in butyrate concentration in the rumen of 33-day-old calves. Mutual reliance between an enhanced ruminal concentration of butyrate and the activities of transcription factors, genes and proteins involved in cell proliferation, ketogenesis and the maintenance of cell pH homeostasis in the ruminal epithelial cells has been clearly confirmed in many experiments. Second, the review presents results related to the effects of the introduction of butyrate salts in the diet on calf performance. Of 11 studies a positive effect was found in six; five of these were obtained from the calves that started receiving butyrate supplement at a level of about 0.3% diet dry matter from the age of 3 to 5 days. Results indicate that when a supplement is given to calves soon after birth the functional development of ruminal epithelium in cooperation with the endocrine and digestion systems is transferred into improving the efficiency of rearing. There have been no studies on the effects of greater amounts of butyrate salts in milk replacer; butyrate constitutes about 1.2% of the whole cow's milk dry matter. In older calves, when butyrate administration is provided as a component of a starter concentrate at the increasing inclusion rate from 0.3% to 3.0%, the practical effect in calf performance relates to the risk of depression of rumen pH below 5.5 and accompanying disruption of the

  20. Pasture-derived greenhouse gas emissions in cow-calf production systems.

    PubMed

    Chiavegato, M B; Powers, W J; Carmichael, D; Rowntree, J E

    2015-03-01

    There is a lack of information regarding carbon dioxide (CO), methane (CH), and nitrous oxide (NO) emissions from pasture soils and the effects of grazing. The objective of this study was to quantify greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes from pasture soils grazed with cow-calf pairs managed with different stocking rates and densities. The central hypothesis was that irrigated low-density stocking systems (SysB) would result in greater GHG emissions from pasture soils than nonirrigated high-density stocking systems (SysA) and grazing-exclusion (GRE) pasture sites. The nonirrigated high-density stocking systems consisted of 120 cow-calf pairs rotating on a total of 120 ha (stocking rate 1 cow/ha, stocking density 112,000 kg BW/ha, rest period of 60 to 90 d). The irrigated low-density stocking systems consisted of 64 cow-calf pairs rotating on a total of 26 ha of pasture (stocking rate 2.5 cows/ha, stocking density 32,700 kg BW/ha, rest period of 18 to 30 d). Both systems consisted of mixed cool-season grass-legume pastures. Static chambers were randomly placed for collection of CO, CH, and NO samples. Soil temperature (ST), ambient temperature (temperature inside the chamber; AT), and soil water content (WC) were monitored and considered explanatory variables for GHG emissions. GHG fluxes were monitored for 3 yr (2011 to 2013) at the beginning (P1) and at the end (P2) of the grazing season, always postgrazing. Paddock was the experimental unit (3 pseudoreplicates per treatment), and chambers (30 chambers per paddock) were considered multiple measurements of each experimental unit. A completely randomized design considered the term year × period as a repeated measure and chamber nested within paddock and treatment as the random term. Generally, SysB had greater CO emissions than SysA and GRE pasture sites across years and periods ( < 0.01). Soil temperature, AT, and WC had effects on CO emissions. Methane and NO emissions were observed from pasture sites of the 3 systems, but

  1. Skeletal muscle satellite cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, E.; McCormick, K. M.

    1994-01-01

    Evidence now suggests that satellite cells constitute a class of myogenic cells that differ distinctly from other embryonic myoblasts. Satellite cells arise from somites and first appear as a distinct myoblast type well before birth. Satellite cells from different muscles cannot be functionally distinguished from one another and are able to provide nuclei to all fibers without regard to phenotype. Thus, it is difficult to ascribe any significant function to establishing or stabilizing fiber type, even during regeneration. Within a muscle, satellite cells exhibit marked heterogeneity with respect to their proliferative behavior. The satellite cell population on a fiber can be partitioned into those that function as stem cells and those which are readily available for fusion. Recent studies have shown that the cells are not simply spindle shaped, but are very diverse in their morphology and have multiple branches emanating from the poles of the cells. This finding is consistent with other studies indicating that the cells have the capacity for extensive migration within, and perhaps between, muscles. Complexity of cell shape usually reflects increased cytoplasmic volume and organelles including a well developed Golgi, and is usually associated with growing postnatal muscle or muscles undergoing some form of induced adaptive change or repair. The appearance of activated satellite cells suggests some function of the cells in the adaptive process through elaboration and secretion of a product. Significant advances have been made in determining the potential secretion products that satellite cells make. The manner in which satellite cell proliferative and fusion behavior is controlled has also been studied. There seems to be little doubt that cellcell coupling is not how satellite cells and myofibers communicate. Rather satellite cell regulation is through a number of potential growth factors that arise from a number of sources. Critical to the understanding of this form

  2. Comparison between neurectomy and botulinum toxin A injection for denervated skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Feng-Chou; Hsieh, Ming-Shium; Chou, Chih-Ming

    2010-08-01

    Neurectomy and botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) injection cause denervated muscle atrophy, but questions remain about their clinical utility. We investigated time-series alterations of rat muscle weight, functional deficits, signaling pathways, and microscopic structures, to gain an understanding of the clinical implications. Between 2008 and 2009, the maximal calf circumference of patients for calf reduction either by neurectomy or BoNT-A injections were recorded for study. A rat skeletal muscle model was established through repeated or dose-adjusted BoNT-A injections and neurectomy. The survival, apoptosis pathways, functional deficits, and microscopic structures were investigated using Western blot, sciatic functional index (SFI), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. The rat muscle weight ratio of the BoNT-A group had recovered to 89.3 +/- 3.8% by week 58, but it never recovered in the neurectomy group. Muscle weight reduction by BoNT-A not only depended on the dose, but additive effects were also obtained through repeated injections. Rat SFI demonstrated rapid recovery in both groups. Molecular expressions showed a coherent and biphasic pattern. p-Akt and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) were upregulated significantly, with a peak at 8 weeks in the neurectomy group (p < 0.01), but cleaved caspase-9 and caspase-3 showed no significant changes in either group. TEM findings showed irreversible and reversible inner-structure disruption and sarcomere discontinuity in the neurectomy and BoNT-A groups, respectively. We demonstrated that denervation induced lasting muscle weight and structural changes of different degrees. Muscle weight reduction by BoNT-A was related to frequency and dose. AIF-mediated caspase-independent apoptosis was significantly different for neurectomy and BoNT-A injection.

  3. Muscle Torque Relative to Cross-Sectional Area and the Functional Muscle-Bone Unit in Children and Adolescents with Chronic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dale Y.; Wetzsteon, Rachel J.; Zemel, Babette S.; Shults, Justine; Organ, Jason M.; Foster, Bethany J.; Herskovitz, Rita M.; Foerster, Debbie L.; Leonard, Mary B.

    2015-01-01

    Measures of muscle mass or size are often used as surrogates of forces acting on bone. However, chronic diseases may be associated with abnormal muscle force relative to muscle size. The muscle-bone unit was examined in 64 children and adolescents with new-onset Crohn’s disease (CD), 54 with chronic kidney disease (CKD), 51 treated with glucocorticoids for nephrotic syndrome (NS), and 264 healthy controls. Muscle torque was assessed by isometric ankle dynamometry. Calf muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and tibia cortical section modulus (Zp) were assessed by quantitative CT. Log-linear regression was used to determine the relations among muscle CSA, muscle torque, and Zp, adjusted for tibia length, age, Tanner stage, sex, and race. Muscle CSA and muscle torque-relative-to-muscle CSA were significantly lower than controls in advanced CKD (CSA −8.7%, p = 0.01; torque −22.9%, p < 0.001) and moderate-to-severe CD (CSA −14.1%, p < 0.001; torque −7.6%, p = 0.05), but not in NS. Zp was 11.5% lower in advanced CKD (p = 0.005) compared to controls, and this deficit was attenuated to 6.7% (p = 0.05) with adjustment for muscle CSA. With additional adjustment for muscle torque and body weight, Zp was 5.9% lower and the difference with controls was no longer significant (p = 0.09). In participants with moderate-to-severe CD, Zp was 6.8% greater than predicted (p = 0.01) given muscle CSA and torque deficits (R2=0.92), likely due to acute muscle loss in newly diagnosed patients. Zp did not differ in NS, compared with controls. In conclusion, muscle torque relative to muscle CSA was significantly lower in CKD and CD, compared with controls, and was independently associated with Zp. Future studies are needed to determine if abnormal muscle strength contributes to progressive bone deficits in chronic disease, independent of muscle area. PMID:25264231

  4. Effects of various cryoprotectants on the quality of frozen-thawed immature bovine (Qinchuan cattle) calf testicular tissue.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X-G; Li, H; Hu, J-H

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the effects of different concentrations of various cryoprotectants (CPs) on the cell viability as well as expression of spermatogenesis-related genes, such as CREM, Stra8 and HSP70-2 in frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue, immature bovine (Qinchuan cattle) calf testicular tissue was collected and cryopreserved in the cryomedia containing different concentrations (5%, 10%, 15% and 20%) of the following three CPs: glycerol, ethylene glycol (EG) and dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) respectively. After 1 month cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen, cell viability was evaluated using Trypan blue exclusion under a bright-field microscope. The mRNA expression of the three genes was also evaluated using qRT-PCR. The results indicated that different concentrations of glycerol, EG and DMSO in cryomedia during cryopreservation could protect bovine calf testicular tissue in various ways to avoid freezing or cryopreservation-induced expression changes in spermatogenesis-related genes. The highest cell viability and the three spermatogenesis-related genes (CREM, Stra8 and HSP70-2) expression level came from the cryomedia containing glycerol, EG and DMSO at 10% concentration respectively (p < .05). Meanwhile, compared with the other CPs, the frozen-thawed bovine calf testicular tissue treated with 10% DMSO exhibited the highest cell viability and mRNA expression level of the spermatogenesis-related genes (CREM, Stra8 and HSP70-2). © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Intermittent grazing: A management tool to reduce the impact of lupine-induced Crooked Calf Syndrome (CCS)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Lupinus genus is a large group of legumes, some of which cause a congenital condition in cattle referred to as “Crooked Calf Syndrome” (CCS). Only Lupines that contain the alkaloids anagyrine or ammodendrine are problematic to cattle producers. The syndrome is manifest by a series of multiple ...

  6. Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis assemblages in weaned cattle on cow-calf operations in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To determine the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis in weaned beef calves in cow-calf operations in the United States, fecal specimens were collected from 819 calves (6 to18 months of age) in 20 states from 49 locations. After cleaning and concentration procedures to maximize the potential recovery of...

  7. Crooked Calf Syndrome: Managing Lupines on Rangelands of the Channel Scablands of East-Central Washington State

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    “Crooked calf syndrome”, the contracture-type skeletal defects and cleft palate caused by velvet lupine (Lupinus leucophyllus) on the channel Scablands of east-central Washington State are the same as those defects induced by Conium maculatum (poison-hemlock) and Nicotiana spp. (wild tobacco) in rum...

  8. Short-term winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cover crop grazing influence on calf growth, grain yield, and soil properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Winter cover cropping has many agronomic benefits and can provide forages base for spring livestock grazing. Winter cover crop grazing has shown immediate economic benefits through increased animal production. Winter wheat pasture grazing is common in beef cow-calf production and stocker operations....

  9. Matching forage systems with cow size and environment for sustainable cow-calf production in the southern region

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There has been increased interest in intensification of cow-calf production due to an increasing world population and red meat demand along with reductions in available grazing lands. Intensified production can come about by increasing fertilization, supplementation, or feeding of stored forages, bu...

  10. Effects of supplementing methionine hydroxy analog on beef cow performance, milk production, reproduction, and preweaning calf performance.

    PubMed

    Clements, A R; Ireland, F A; Freitas, T; Tucker, H; Shike, D W

    2017-12-01

    Mature Simmental × Angus cows (214 cows; 635 ± 7 kg) were utilized to determine the effects of late gestation and early postpartum supplementation of methionine hydroxy analog (MHA) on cow BW, BCS, milk production, milk composition, reproduction, and calf performance until weaning in a fall-calving, cool-season grazing system. Cows were stratified by BW, age, AI sire, and assigned to 1 of 12 pastures (17 or 18 cows·pasture). Pastures were randomly allotted to 1 of 2 treatments: control (0.45 kg·cow·d of wheat midd-based pellets, = 6) or supplement including MHA (0.45 kg·cow·d of wheat midd-based pellets including 10 g MHA supplied as MFP (Novus International, Inc., St. Charles, MO; = 6). Treatments were fed 23 ± 7 d prepartum through 73 ± 7 d postpartum. Cow BW was collected at postcalving (27 ± 7 d postpartum), end of supplementation (73 ± 7 d postpartum), AI, pregnancy check, and end of trial (192 and 193 ± 7 d postpartum). At 73 ± 7 d postpartum, a subset of cow-calf pairs was used in a weigh-suckle-weigh procedure to determine milk production, and milk samples were taken to determine milk composition ( = 45·treatment). Serum from blood was collected at 73 ± 7 and 83 ± 7 d postpartum to determine cow cyclicity and concentrations of 2-hydroxy4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMTBa) and L-Methionine. After supplementation, all cow-calf pairs were managed as a common group until weaning (193 ± 7 d of age). Cows were bred via AI at 97 ± 7 d postpartum and clean-up bulls were turned out 11 d post-AI for a 55-d breeding season. Cows fed MHA had greater ( < 0.01) serum concentrations of HMTBa. Cow BW and BCS were not different ( ≥ 0.10) at any time points between treatments. There was no treatment effect ( ≥ 0.17) on calf birth BW, calf weaning BW (193 ± 7 d of age), or calf ADG. Calculated 24-h milk production, milk composition and component production did not differ ( ≥ 0.21). There were no differences ( ≥ 0.50) in percentage of cows cycling

  11. Healthy Muscles Matter

    MedlinePlus

    ... How can I keep my muscles more healthy? Physical activity Muscles that are not used will get smaller ... heart muscle as well! Get 60 minutes of physical activity every day. Get 60 minutes of physical activity ...

  12. Muscle and bone follow similar temporal patterns of recovery from muscle-induced disuse due to botulinum toxin injection.

    PubMed

    Manske, Sarah L; Boyd, Steven K; Zernicke, Ronald F

    2010-01-01

    If muscle force is a primary source for triggering bone adaptation, with disuse and reloading, bone changes should follow muscle changes. We examined the timing and magnitude of changes in muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA) and bone architecture in response to muscle inactivity following botulinum toxin (BTX) injection. We hypothesized that MCSA would return to baseline levels sooner than bone properties following BTX injection. Female BALB mice (15 weeks old) were injected with 20 muL of BTX (1 U/100 g body mass, n=18) or saline (SAL, n=18) into the posterior calf musculature of one limb. The contralateral limb (CON) served as an internal control. MCSA and bone properties were assessed at baseline, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks post-injection using in vivo micro-CT at the tibia proximal metaphysis (bone only) and diaphysis. Muscles were dissected and weighed after sacrifice. Significant GroupxLegxTime interactions indicated that the maximal decrease in MCSA (56%), proximal metaphyseal BV/TV (38%) and proximal diaphyseal Ct.Ar (7%) occurred 4 weeks after injection. There was no delay prior to bone recovery as both muscle and bone properties began to recover after this time, but MCSA and BV/TV remained 15% and 20% lower, respectively, in the BTX-injected leg than the BTX-CON leg 16 weeks post-injection. Gastrocnemius mass (primarily fast-twitch) was 14% lower in the BTX-injected leg than the SAL-injected leg, while soleus mass (primarily slow-twitch) was 15% greater in the BTX group than the SAL group. Our finding that muscle size and bone began to recover at similar times after BTX injection was unexpected. This suggested that partial weight-bearing and/or return of slow-twitch muscle activity in the BTX leg may have been sufficient to stimulate bone recovery. Alternatively, muscle function may have recovered sooner than MCSA. Our results indicated that muscle cross-sectional area, while important, may not be the primary factor associated with bone loss and recovery

  13. Lack of age-specific influence on leg blood flow during incremental calf plantar-flexion exercise in men and women.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Heather; Lane, Louise M; Egaña, Mikel

    2018-05-01

    Age-related exercising leg blood flow (LBF) responses during dynamic knee-extension exercise and forearm blood flow responses during handgrip exercise are preserved in normally active men but attenuated in activity-matched women. We explored whether these age- and sex-specific effects are also apparent during isometric calf plantar-flexion incremental exercise. Normally active young men (YM, n = 15, 24 ± 2 years), young women (YW, n = 8, 22 ± 1 years), older men (OM, n = 13, 70 ± 7 years) and older women (OW, n = 10, 64 ± 7 years) were tested. LBF was measured between contractions using venous occlusion plethysmography. Peak force obtained was higher (P < 0.05) in men compared with women and in young compared with older individuals. However, peak LBF (YM; 971 ± 328 ml min -1 , OM; 985 ± 504 ml min -1 , YW; 844 ± 366 ml min -1 , OW; 960 ± 244 ml min -1 ) and peak leg vascular conductance [LVC = LBF/(MAP + hydrostatic pressure)] responses (YM; 6.0 ± 1.8 ml min -1  mmHg -1 , OM; 5.5 ± 2.8 ml min -1  mmHg -1 , YW; 5.3 ± 2.1 ml min -1  mmHg -1 , OW; 5.5 ± 1.6 ml min -1 mmHg -1 ) were similar among the four groups. Furthermore, the hyperaemic (YM; 8.8 ± 3.7 ml min -1  %F peak -1 OM; 8.3 ± 5.4 ml min -1  %F peak -1 , YW; 8.2 ± 3.5 ml min -1  %F peak -1 , OW; 9.6 ± 2.2 ml min -1  %F peak -1 ) and vasodilatory responses (YM; 0.053 ± 0.020 ml min -1  mmHg -1  %F peak -1 , OM; 0.048 ± 0.028 ml min -1  mmHg -1  %F peak -1 , YW; 0.051 ± 0.019 ml min -1  mmHg -1  %F peak -1 , OW; 0.055 ± 0.014 ml min -1  mmHg -1  %F peak -1 ) were not different among the four groups. These results were accompanied by similar resting LBF responses among groups and were not affected when data were normalised to estimated leg muscle mass. Our results demonstrate that exercising LBF responses during isometric incremental

  14. Brain lesions associated with clostridium perfringens type D epsilon toxin in a Holstein heifer calf.

    PubMed

    Mete, A; Garcia, J; Ortega, J; Lane, M; Scholes, S; Uzal, F A

    2013-09-01

    A 6-month-old dairy heifer calf with no premonitory signs was acutely down after the morning feeding and could not rise. On presentation, the heifer was in right lateral recumbency and moribund with opisthotonus and left hind limb paddling. Following euthanasia, gross examination of the brain revealed multifocal loss of gray-white matter distinction and extensive petechiae throughout the brainstem. On histopathological examination, there was striking white matter edema and marked perivascular proteinaceous edema surrounding many arterioles and venules (microangiopathy), mainly in the white matter of the internal capsule, thalamus, midbrain, cerebellum, and cerebellar peduncles. The perivascular neuropil was strongly positive for Alzheimer precursor protein A4. Clostridium perfringens epsilon toxin was detected in the intestinal contents. This is the first report of microangiopathy in postneonatal cattle associated with the detection of epsilon toxin in the intestinal contents.

  15. Interaction of vasicine with calf thymus DNA: Molecular docking, spectroscopic and differential scanning calorimetric insights.

    PubMed

    R S, Sai Murali; R S, Sai Siddhardha; D, Rajesh Babu; S, Venketesh; R, Basavaraju; G, Nageswara Rao

    2017-06-05

    The present study brings out the interaction between vasicine, an alkaloid and Adhatoda vasica Nees with double stranded DNA. The physico-chemical interaction between small molecules and nucleic acids is a major area of focus in screening drugs against various cancers. Molecular probing in our study using Molecular Operating Environment (MOE) has revealed interaction of vasicine with DNA double helix. Here we report the interaction of vasicine with Calf thymus DNA. We present for the first time the results obtained from UV-visible, fluorescence spectroscopic and differential scanning calorimetric techniques that suggest a moderate to strong electrostatic, hydrophobic and van der Waals interactions mediating the DNA binding properties of vasicine, leading to disruption of DNA secondary structure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Interaction of vasicine with calf thymus DNA: Molecular docking, spectroscopic and differential scanning calorimetric insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    R. S., Sai Murali; R. S., Sai Siddhardha; Rajesh Babu, D.; Venketesh, S.; Basavaraju, R.; Nageswara Rao, G.

    2017-06-01

    The present study brings out the interaction between vasicine, an alkaloid and Adhatoda vasica Nees with double stranded DNA. The physico-chemical interaction between small molecules and nucleic acids is a major area of focus in screening drugs against various cancers. Molecular probing in our study using Molecular Operating Environment (MOE) has revealed interaction of vasicine with DNA double helix. Here we report the interaction of vasicine with Calf thymus DNA. We present for the first time the results obtained from UV-visible, fluorescence spectroscopic and differential scanning calorimetric techniques that suggest a moderate to strong electrostatic, hydrophobic and van der Waals interactions mediating the DNA binding properties of vasicine, leading to disruption of DNA secondary structure.

  17. Congenital hypertrophy of multiple intrinsic muscles of the foot.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Tomohiro; Park, Susam; Niu, Atushi; Hasegawa, Hiromi

    2014-12-01

    Congenital hypertrophy of a single intrinsic muscle of the foot is rare, and as far as we know, only six cases have been reported. We describe a case of congenital anomaly that showed hypertrophy of multiple intrinsic muscles of the foot; the affected muscles were all the intrinsic muscles of the foot except the extensor digitorum brevis or extensor hallucis. Other tissues such as adipose tissue, nervous tissue, or osseous tissue showed no abnormalities. To reduce the volume of the foot we removed parts of the enlarged muscles.

  18. Manual calf massage and passive ankle motion reduce the incidence of deep vein thromboembolism after total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Imai, Norio; Ito, Tomoyuki; Suda, Ken; Miyasaka, Dai; Endo, Naoto

    2017-07-01

    Venous thromboembolism is one of the general complications following total hip arthroplasty, wherein various preventive treatments have been recommended. Several studies reported that venous thromboembolism incidence after total hip arthroplasty was similar in patients who were administered prophylaxis with a conventional mechanical procedure alone, and those who were administered pharmacological anticoagulation therapy. Therefore, the optimum methods of prophylaxis are still controversial. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether manual calf massage and passive ankle motion could lower the risk for venous thromboembolism after total hip arthroplasty. We retrospectively reviewed the data of 126 consecutive patients undergoing elective primary unilateral total hip arthroplasty wherein manual calf massage and passive ankle motion were performed after the surgery at our hospitals between January and October 2014. The 138 patients of the control group underwent total hip arthroplasty using the same surgical approach and pre- and postoperative protocols without this mechanical prophylaxis between January and December 2013. This mechanical prophylaxis was performed simultaneously 30 times during approximately 10 s; these procedures were repeated thrice immediately after total hip arthroplasty. Duplex ultrasonography was performed to observe the veins of both legs in all the patients on postoperative day 7. The incidence of deep vein thrombosis was 6.52% and 0.79% in the control and manual calf massage and passive ankle motion groups, respectively. The odds ratio for the manual calf massage and passive ankle motion groups was 8.72. Performing this mechanical prophylaxis reduced the incidence of venous thromboembolism after total hip arthroplasty. This mechanical prophylaxis is not only simple and easy, but is also safe and inexpensive. We therefore recommend that manual calf massage and passive ankle motion be performed in patients who will undergo total hip

  19. Expert opinion as 'validation' of risk assessment applied to calf welfare.

    PubMed

    Bracke, Marc B M; Edwards, Sandra A; Engel, Bas; Buist, Willem G; Algers, Bo

    2008-07-14

    Recently, a Risk Assessment methodology was applied to animal welfare issues in a report of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) on intensively housed calves. Because this is a new and potentially influential approach to derive conclusions on animal welfare issues, a so-called semantic-modelling type 'validation' study was conducted by asking expert scientists, who had been involved or quoted in the report, to give welfare scores for housing systems and for welfare hazards. Kendall's coefficient of concordance among experts (n = 24) was highly significant (P < 0.001), but low (0.29 and 0.18 for housing systems and hazards respectively). Overall correlations with EFSA scores were significant only for experts with a veterinary or mixed (veterinary and applied ethological) background. Significant differences in welfare scores were found between housing systems, between hazards, and between experts with different backgrounds. For example, veterinarians gave higher overall welfare scores for housing systems than ethologists did, probably reflecting a difference in their perception of animal welfare. Systems with the lowest scores were veal calves kept individually in so-called "baby boxes" (veal crates) or in small groups, and feedlots. A suckler herd on pasture was rated as the best for calf welfare. The main hazards were related to underfeeding, inadequate colostrum intake, poor stockperson education, insufficient space, inadequate roughage, iron deficiency, inadequate ventilation, poor floor conditions and no bedding. Points for improvement of the Risk Assessment applied to animal welfare include linking information, reporting uncertainty and transparency about underlying values. The study provides novel information on expert opinion in relation to calf welfare and shows that Risk Assessment applied to animal welfare can benefit from a semantic modelling approach.

  20. Effects of spray-dried whole egg and biotin in calf milk replacer.

    PubMed

    Quigley, J D

    2002-01-01

    Holstein bull calves (n = 120) were fed milk replacers containing 0, 10, or 20% of the formulation (0, 22, or 44% of crude protein) as spray-dried whole egg powder in a 56-d feeding trial. Milk replacer was medicated with oxytetracycline and neomycin and was fed from d 1 to 42 of the study in a phase-fed program. All experimental milk replacers were supplemented with B vitamins, except biotin. One half of all calves were supplemented with 1 mg/kg of supplemental biotin to determine whether avidin in the egg protein product inhibited growth. Increasing spray-dried whole egg caused a linear reduction in body weight, body weight gain at 28 and 56 d of the study, calf starter intake, and feed efficiency. Calves fed milk replacers containing 0, 10, and 20% spray-dried whole egg gained an average of 486, 369, and 302 g/d, respectively, during the 56-d trial. Efficiency of feed utilization was 446, 318, and 231 g of body weight gain per kilogram of dry matter intake. Improvement in body weight and feed efficiency occurred when calves began consuming calf starter on d 29. Digestibility of protein or fat from egg may have been reduced during the trial; however, the addition of biotin to the milk replacer did not influence animal performance, suggesting that avidin in spray-dried whole egg was not responsible for impaired performance. The spray-dried whole egg product used in this study did not provide nutrients to support adequate growth of milk-fed calves.

  1. Impact of confinement housing on study end-points in the calf model of cryptosporidiosis.

    PubMed

    Graef, Geneva; Hurst, Natalie J; Kidder, Lance; Sy, Tracy L; Goodman, Laura B; Preston, Whitney D; Arnold, Samuel L M; Zambriski, Jennifer A

    2018-04-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death in children < 5 years globally and the parasite genus Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of that diarrhea. The global disease burden attributable to cryptosporidiosis is substantial and the only approved chemotherapeutic, nitazoxanide, has poor efficacy in HIV positive children. Chemotherapeutic development is dependent on the calf model of cryptosporidiosis, which is the best approximation of human disease. However, the model is not consistently applied across research studies. Data collection commonly occurs using two different methods: Complete Fecal Collection (CFC), which requires use of confinement housing, and Interval Collection (IC), which permits use of box stalls. CFC mimics human challenge model methodology but it is unknown if confinement housing impacts study end-points and if data gathered via this method is suitable for generalization to human populations. Using a modified crossover study design we compared CFC and IC and evaluated the impact of housing on study end-points. At birth, calves were randomly assigned to confinement (n = 14) or box stall housing (n = 9), or were challenged with 5 x 107 C. parvum oocysts, and followed for 10 days. Study end-points included fecal oocyst shedding, severity of diarrhea, degree of dehydration, and plasma cortisol. Calves in confinement had no significant differences in mean log oocysts enumerated per gram of fecal dry matter between CFC and IC samples (P = 0.6), nor were there diurnal variations in oocyst shedding (P = 0.1). Confinement housed calves shed significantly more oocysts (P = 0.05), had higher plasma cortisol (P = 0.001), and required more supportive care (P = 0.0009) than calves in box stalls. Housing method confounds study end-points in the calf model of cryptosporidiosis. Due to increased stress data collected from calves in confinement housing may not accurately estimate the efficacy of chemotherapeutics targeting C. parvum.

  2. Assessment of degree of hydration in dialysis patients using whole body and calf bioimpedance analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, F.; Kotanko, P.; Handelman, G. J.; Raimann, J.; Liu, L.; Carter, M.; Kuhlmann, M. K.; Siebert, E.; Leonard, E. F.; Levin, N. W.

    2010-04-01

    Prescription of an appropriate post hemodialysis (HD) dialysis target weight requires accurate evaluation of the degree of hydration. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a state of normal hydration as defined by calf bioimpedance spectroscopy (cBIS) could be characterized in HD and normal subjects (NS). cBIS was performed in 62 NS (33 m/29 f) and 30 HD patients (16 m /14 f) pre- and post-dialysis to measure extracellular resistance. Normalized calf resistivity at 5 kHz (ρN,5) was defined as resistivity divided by body mass index. Measurements were made at baseline (BL) and at a state of normal hydration (NH) established following the progressive reduction of post-HD weight over successive dialysis treatments until the ρN,5 was in the range of NS. Blood pressures were measured pre- and post-HD treatment. ρN,5 in males and females differed significantly in NS (20.5±1.99 vs 21.7±2.6 10-2 Ωm3/kg, p>0.05). In patients, ρN,5 notably increased and reached NH range due to progressive decrease in body weight, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) significantly decreased pre- and post-HD between BL and NBH respectively. This establishes the use of ρN,5 as a new comparator allowing the clinician to incrementally monitor the effect of removal of extracellular fluid from patients over a course of dialysis treatments.

  3. Optimizing the Distribution of Leg Muscles for Vertical Jumping

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jeremy D.; Bobbert, Maarten F.; van Soest, Arthur J.; Gribble, Paul L.; Kistemaker, Dinant A.

    2016-01-01

    A goal of biomechanics and motor control is to understand the design of the human musculoskeletal system. Here we investigated human functional morphology by making predictions about the muscle volume distribution that is optimal for a specific motor task. We examined a well-studied and relatively simple human movement, vertical jumping. We investigated how high a human could jump if muscle volume were optimized for jumping, and determined how the optimal parameters improve performance. We used a four-link inverted pendulum model of human vertical jumping actuated by Hill-type muscles, that well-approximates skilled human performance. We optimized muscle volume by allowing the cross-sectional area and muscle fiber optimum length to be changed for each muscle, while maintaining constant total muscle volume. We observed, perhaps surprisingly, that the reference model, based on human anthropometric data, is relatively good for vertical jumping; it achieves 90% of the jump height predicted by a model with muscles designed specifically for jumping. Alteration of cross-sectional areas—which determine the maximum force deliverable by the muscles—constitutes the majority of improvement to jump height. The optimal distribution results in large vastus, gastrocnemius and hamstrings muscles that deliver more work, while producing a kinematic pattern essentially identical to the reference model. Work output is increased by removing muscle from rectus femoris, which cannot do work on the skeleton given its moment arm at the hip and the joint excursions during push-off. The gluteus composes a disproportionate amount of muscle volume and jump height is improved by moving it to other muscles. This approach represents a way to test hypotheses about optimal human functional morphology. Future studies may extend this approach to address other morphological questions in ethological tasks such as locomotion, and feature other sets of parameters such as properties of the skeletal

  4. Biceps brachii muscle oxygenation in electrical muscle stimulation.

    PubMed

    Muthalib, Makii; Jubeau, Marc; Millet, Guillaume Y; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Ferrari, Marco; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare between electrical muscle stimulation (EMS) and maximal voluntary (VOL) isometric contractions of the elbow flexors for changes in biceps brachii muscle oxygenation (tissue oxygenation index, TOI) and haemodynamics (total haemoglobin volume, tHb = oxygenated-Hb + deoxygenated-Hb) determined by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The biceps brachii muscle of 10 healthy men (23-39 years) was electrically stimulated at high frequency (75 Hz) via surface electrodes to evoke 50 intermittent (4-s contraction, 15-s relaxation) isometric contractions at maximum tolerated current level (EMS session). The contralateral arm performed 50 intermittent (4-s contraction, 15-s relaxation) maximal voluntary isometric contractions (VOL session) in a counterbalanced order separated by 2-3 weeks. Results indicated that although the torque produced during EMS was approximately 50% of VOL (P<0.05), there was no significant difference in the changes in TOI amplitude or TOI slope between EMS and VOL over the 50 contractions. However, the TOI amplitude divided by peak torque was approximately 50% lower for EMS than VOL (P<0.05), which indicates EMS was less efficient than VOL. This seems likely because of the difference in the muscles involved in the force production between conditions. Mean decrease in tHb amplitude during the contraction phases was significantly (P<0.05) greater for EMS than VOL from the 10th contraction onwards, suggesting that the muscle blood volume was lower in EMS than VOL. It is concluded that local oxygen demand of the biceps brachii sampled by NIRS is similar between VOL and EMS.

  5. The severity of muscle ischemia during intermittent claudication.

    PubMed

    Egun, Anselm; Farooq, Vasim; Torella, Francesco; Cowley, Richard; Thorniley, Maureen S; McCollum, Charles N

    2002-07-01

    The degree of ischemia during intermittent claudication is difficult to quantify. We evaluated calf muscle ischemia during exercise in patients with claudication with near infrared spectroscopy. A Critikon Cerebral Redox Model 2001 (Johnson & Johnson Medical, Newport, Gwent, United Kingdom) was used to measure calf muscle deoxygenated hemoglobin (HHb), oxygenated hemoglobin (O(2)Hb), and total hemoglobin levels and oxygenation index (HbD; HbD = O(2)Hb - HHb) in 16 patients with claudication and in 14 control subjects before, during, and after walking on a treadmill for 1 minute (submaximal exercise). These measures were repeated after a second maximal exercise in patients with claudication and after 7 minutes walking in control subjects. Near-infrared spectroscopy readings during maximal exercise were then compared with a model of total ischemia induced with tourniquet in 16 young control subjects. Total hemoglobin level changed little during exercise in both patients with claudication and control subjects. HHb levels rose, and O(2)Hb level and HbD falls were more pronounced in patients with claudication than in control subjects after submaximal and maximal exercise. During maximal exercise, HbD fell markedly by a median (interquartile range) of 210.5 micromol/cm (108.2 to 337.0 micromol/cm) in patients with claudication compared with 66.0 micromol/cm (44.0 to 101.0 micromol/cm) in elderly control subjects and 41.0 micromol/cm (36.0 to 65.0 micromol/cm) in young control subjects (P <.001). This fall also was greater than the HbD fall induced with tourniquet ischemia at 90.8 micromol/cm (57.6 to 126.2 micromol/cm; P =.006). Hemoglobin desaturation in exercising calf muscle is profound in patients with claudication, considerably greater even than that induced with three minutes of tourniquet occlusion. Further studies are necessary to investigate the relationship between the inflammatory response and near-infrared spectroscopy during exercise in patients with

  6. Neurogenic muscle hypertrophy in a 12-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Zutelija Fattorini, Matija; Gagro, Alenka; Dapic, Tomislav; Krakar, Goran; Marjanovic, Josip

    2017-01-01

    Muscular hypertrophy secondary to denervation is very rare, but well-documented phenomena in adults. This is the first report of a child with neurogenic unilateral hypertrophy due to S1 radiculopathy. A 12-year-old girl presented with left calf hypertrophy and negative history of low back pain or trauma. The serum creatinine kinase level and inflammatory markers were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging showed muscle hypertrophy of the left gastrocnemius and revealed a protruded lumbar disc at the L5-S1 level. The protruded disc abuts the S1 root on the left side. Electromyography showed mild left S1 radiculopathy. Passive stretching and work load might clarify the origin of neurogenic hypertrophy but there is still a need for further evidence. Clinical, laboratory, magnetic resonance imaging and electromyography findings showed that S1 radiculopathy could be a cause of unilateral calf swelling in youth even in the absence of a history of back or leg pain. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Nutritional status, muscle mass and strength of elderly in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Klee Oehlschlaeger, Maria Helena; Alberici Pastore, Carla; Schüler Cavalli, Adriana; Gonzalez, Maria Cristina

    2014-09-17

    to assess and compare nutritional status and functional capacity of elderly goers of groups for guided physical activity or for guided recreational activities. Cross-sectional study with 210 elderly (60 years old or more) of coexistence groups (for physical or recreational activities). Nutritional status was assessed by the Mini Nutritional Assessment and Body Mass Index. Muscle mass was estimated by calf circumference (cut point of 31cm for both genders) and strength was evaluated by hydraulic dynamometer, which measures the opponent's finger maximal strength. The study was approved by Research Ethics Committee. Were enrolled 106 elderly in recreational group and 104 in physical activity group. Most of the sample (86.7%) were female. The mean age was 69.3 years old. Body Mass Index showed 82.9% of seniors with excessive weight (87.7% in recreational and 77.9% in physical activity group, p=0.04). When assessed by Mini Nutritional Assessment, 22.9% was classified as malnourished or at risk of malnutrition, with no difference between groups. The mean calf circumference was 37.3 ± 4.1 cm, decreasing significantly with aging (p=0.05) and being higher in elderly with higher BMI (p=0.001). Calf circumference was also greater in physical activity group. Muscle strength's mean was 6.77 (IQR: 5.83, 7.90) kg, with significantly higher values among men. There was no significant variation between age, nutritional status or between groups. This study presented as its main findings that most seniors showed no nutritional risk, with high prevalence of overweight. The practice of physical activities was associated with greater CP and greater functionality of the opposing finger muscles, which indicates the importance of maintaining physical activity in the aging process, in order to prevent frailty and disability. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. [The respiratory muscles in emphysema. The effects of thoracic distension].

    PubMed

    Cassart, M; Estenne, M

    2000-04-01

    Besides increasing the work of ventilation, emphysema increases lung volume which in itself has a deleterious effect on the inspiratory muscles. We review here the effects of an acute change in lung volume on the configuration of the rib cage and muscle function. We also discuss the effects of the chronic distension associated with emphysema. The effects produced by changes in muscle length and configuration on the mechanical force and action of inspiratory muscles is detailed with particular focus on the diaphragm and its structural adaptations to experimental emphysema. We also analyze the activation pattern of inspiratory and expiratory muscles during the breathing process in patients with emphysema. Finally, we discuss the effects of single-lung transplantation and reduction surgery on chest distension and improved inspiratory muscle function.

  9. Expiratory muscle loading increases intercostal muscle blood flow during leg exercise in healthy humans

    PubMed Central

    Athanasopoulos, Dimitris; Louvaris, Zafeiris; Cherouveim, Evgenia; Andrianopoulos, Vasilis; Roussos, Charis; Zakynthinos, Spyros

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether expiratory muscle loading induced by the application of expiratory flow limitation (EFL) during exercise in healthy subjects causes a reduction in quadriceps muscle blood flow in favor of the blood flow to the intercostal muscles. We hypothesized that, during exercise with EFL quadriceps muscle blood flow would be reduced, whereas intercostal muscle blood flow would be increased compared with exercise without EFL. We initially performed an incremental exercise test on eight healthy male subjects with a Starling resistor in the expiratory line limiting expiratory flow to ∼ 1 l/s to determine peak EFL exercise workload. On a different day, two constant-load exercise trials were performed in a balanced ordering sequence, during which subjects exercised with or without EFL at peak EFL exercise workload for 6 min. Intercostal (probe over the 7th intercostal space) and vastus lateralis muscle blood flow index (BFI) was calculated by near-infrared spectroscopy using indocyanine green, whereas cardiac output (CO) was measured by an impedance cardiography technique. At exercise termination, CO and stroke volume were not significantly different during exercise, with or without EFL (CO: 16.5 vs. 15.2 l/min, stroke volume: 104 vs. 107 ml/beat). Quadriceps muscle BFI during exercise with EFL (5.4 nM/s) was significantly (P = 0.043) lower compared with exercise without EFL (7.6 nM/s), whereas intercostal muscle BFI during exercise with EFL (3.5 nM/s) was significantly (P = 0.021) greater compared with that recorded during control exercise (0.4 nM/s). In conclusion, increased respiratory muscle loading during exercise in healthy humans causes an increase in blood flow to the intercostal muscles and a concomitant decrease in quadriceps muscle blood flow. PMID:20507965

  10. Association of polymorphism harbored by tumor necrosis factor alpha gene and sex of calf with lactation performance in cattle.

    PubMed

    Yudin, N S; Aitnazarov, R B; Voevoda, M I; Gerlinskaya, L A; Moshkin, M P

    2013-10-01

    In a majority of mammals, male infants have heavier body mass and grow faster than female infants. Accordingly, male offspring nursing requires a much greater maternal energy contribution to lactation. It is possible that the maternal-fetal immunoendocrine dialog plays an important role in female preparation for lactation during pregnancy. Immune system genes are an integral part of gene regulatory networks in lactation and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) is a proinflammatory cytokine that also plays an important role in normal mammary gland development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the sex of calf and/or the -824A/G polymorphism in the promoter region of TNFα gene on milk performance traits in Black Pied cattle over the course of lactation. We also studied the allele frequency differences of -824A/G variants across several cattle breeds, which were bred in different climatic conditions. The G allele frequency decreased gradually over the course of lactation events in the Black Pied dairy cattle because of a higher culling rate of cows with the G/G genotype (p<0.001). In contrast to the genotypes A/A and A/G, cows with G/G genotype showed significant variability of milk and milk fat yield subject to sex of delivered calf. Milk yield and milk fat yield were significantly higher in the case of birth of a bull calf than with a heifer calf (p<0.03). The G allele frequency varies from 48% to 58% in Grey Ukrainian and Black Pied cattle to 77% in aboriginal Yakut cattle. Our results suggest that the TNFα -824A/G gene polymorphism may have an influence on the reproductive efforts of cows over the course of lactation events depending on the sex of progeny. Allocation of resources according to sex of the calf allows optimizing the energy cost of lactation. This may be a probable reason for high G allele frequency in Yakut cattle breeding in extreme environmental conditions. Similarly, the dramatic fall in milk production after birth of a

  11. Weaning reactions in beef cattle are adaptively adjusted to the state of the cow and the calf.

    PubMed

    Stěhulová, I; Valníčková, B; Šárová, R; Špinka, M

    2017-03-01

    Abrupt weaning as practiced in beef cattle husbandry is stressful for both the cow and her offspring. However, the reaction to weaning varies among individuals. Based on the theory of maternal care allocation, we derived and tested the following hypotheses: 1) cow reaction to weaning will be stronger if the calf is young, if the calf is a female, and if the calf had higher daily weight gain; 2) cows in a higher parity and cows that are not concurrently pregnant will react more on weaning; and 3) young and female calves, and also calves with higher daily weight gain will respond more to weaning. We recorded frequency of vocalization and time spent moving in 50 cow-calf pairs (27 males and 23 females) immediately after weaning at 151 to 274 d of age. The recordings were made at 0 to 2 h, 6 to 8 h, and 24 to 26 h after the separation of the calves from the cows. Linear mixed models were used to test the predictions. In cows, age of the calf had the strongest effect with mothers of younger calves vocalizing more ( < 0.05). Frequency of vocalization was higher in mothers of calves with higher daily weight gain ( < 0.01) and in nonpregnant mothers ( < 0.01). Frequency of the moving was higher in younger cows ( < 0.05). Sex of the calf had no effect. In calves, females vocalized ( < 0.001) and moved ( < 0.01) more than males and calves with higher daily weight gain also called more ( < 0.01). The relationships between the 2 behaviors and their time courses were different in cows and calves. In cows, vocalization and movement were correlated ( < 0.001) and both increased until 6 to 8 h and then plateaued or declined ( < 0.001). In calves, vocalizations steadily increased until 24 to 26 h ( < 0.001) whereas movement remained unchanged in time and was uncorrelated with vocalizations. These differences indicate that vocalization may be a more sensitive indicator of weaning stress than movement. Our results document that the ability to adaptively adjust mother

  12. Metabolic adaptation of skeletal muscles to gravitational unloading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohira, Y.; Yasui, W.; Kariya, F.; Wakatsuki, T.; Nakamura, K.; Asakura, T.; Edgerton, V. R.

    Responses of high-energy phosphates and metabolic properties to hindlimb suspension were studied in adult rats. The relative content of phosphocreatine (PCr) in the calf muscles was significantly higher in rats suspended for 10 days than in age-matched cage controls. The Pi/PCr ratio, where Pi is inorganic phosphate, in suspended muscles was less than controls. The absolute weights of soleus and medial gastrocnemius (MG) were approximately 40% less than controls. Although the % fiber distribution in MG was unchanged, the % slow fibers decreased and the % fibers which were classified as both slow and fast was increased in soleus. The activities (per unit weight or protein) of succinate dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase in soleus were unchanged but those of cytochrome oxidase, β-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase, and citrate synthase were decreased following unloading. None of these enzyme activities in MG changed. However, the total levels of all enzymes in whole muscles decreased by suspension. It is suggested that shift of slow muscle toward fast type by unloading is associated with a decrease in mitochondrial biogenesis. Further, gravitational unloading affected the levels of muscle proteins differently even in the same mitochondrial enzymes. Unloading-related atrophy is prominent in red muscle or slow-twitch fiber 1, 2. Such atrophy is accompanied by a shift of contractile properties toward fast-twitch type 2-9. Further, inhibition of mitochondrial metabolism in these muscles is also reported by some studies 10-14 suggesting a lowered mitochondrial biogenesis, although results from some studies do not necessarily agree 1, 7, 15. However, the precise mechanism responsible for such alterations of muscle properties in response to gravitational unloading is unclear. On the contrary, mitochondrial biogenesis, suggested by mitochondrial enzyme activities and/or mass, is stimulated in muscles with depleted high-energy phosphates by cold exposure 16 and/or by feeding

  13. Alterations in Skeletal Muscle Function with Microgravity, and the Protective Effects of High Resistance Isometric and Isotonic Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitts, R. H.; Hurst, J. E.; Norenberg, K. M.; Widrick, J. J.; Riley, D. A.; Bain, J. L. W.; Trappe, S. W.; Trappe, T. A.; Costill, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity or models designed to mimic the unloaded condition, such as bed rest in humans and hindlimb unloading (HU) in rats leads to skeletal muscle atrophy, a loss in peak force and power, and an increased susceptibility to fatigue. The posterior compartment muscles of the lower leg (calf muscle group) appear to be particularly susceptible. Following only 1 wk in space or HU, rat soleus muscle showed a 30 to 40% loss in wet weight. After 3 wk of HU, almost all of the atrophied soleus fibers showed a significant increase in maximal shortening velocity (V(sub 0)), while only 25 to 30 % actually transitioned to fast fibers. The increased V(sub 0), was protective in that it reduced the decline in peak power associated with the reduced peak force. When the soleus is stimulated in situ following HU or zero-g one observes an increased rate and extent of fatigue, and in the former the increased fatigue is associated with a more rapid depletion of muscle glycogen and lactate production. Our working hypothesis is that following HU or spaceflight in rats and bed rest or spa