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Sample records for california condor population

  1. Environmental contaminants in California condors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Scott, J.M.; Anderson, M.P.; Bloom, P.H.; Stafford, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    Five wild Califorinia condors (Gymnogyps californianus) that died in 1980-86 were necropsied and tissues were analyzed for environmental contaminants. Three died of lead (Pb) poisoning, 1 presumably of cyanide (CN) poisoning, and 1 nestling of handling shock. Organochlorine concentrations were low in 4 condors that were analyzed for these contaminants. Blood samples from 14 wild and 14 captive condors were analyzed primarily for Pb. Five of 14 wild condors sampled had elevated (> 0.70 ppm) concentrations of Pb in blood whereas Pb concentrations in all captive condors were low. Lead levels in individual birds often fluctuated over time. Lead exposure, especially poisoning, was a major factor affecting the wild California condor population during 1982-86. The probable source of Pb was bullet fragments in carrion on which condors were feeding.

  2. Turkey vulture and California condor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pattee, O.H.; Wilbur, S.R.; Pendleton, Beth Giron

    1989-01-01

    Populations of turkey vultures in the western states appear stable, with no evidence of recent significant changes in distribution. Turkey vultures occupy a variety of habitats, nest in diverse situations and utilize a wide variety of carrion. Consequently, no particular limiting factor is likely to have a major effect on the total population. California condor numbers, in contrast, have continued to decline. With the capture of the last wild bird in 1987, the species has been extirpated from the wild. Reestablishment will depend on production and introduction of captive-reared birds, hopefully within the next 10 years. In the 18th century, condors inhabited areas along the Pacific coast from British Columbia to Baja California. Since 1950, the range has been restricted to a six county area adjacent to the southern San Joaquin Valley of California. Within this area, there appears to be no shortage of suitable nest sites; all recently used nest sites are within federally-controlled lands. Suitable foraging grounds have continued to diminish and are now largely limited to private rangelands and some Bureau of Land Management rangelands within the foothills of the San Joaquin Valley. Only these areas continue to supply the large mammal carcasses that the California condor needs for survival. The habitat of the condor is subject to a variety of land use practices and development pressures. Excessive mortality, coupled with low reproductive potential, continues to threaten the recovery of the species. Development of management practices to reduce mortality, particularly those that are contaminant-related, and of a preserve design to insure adequate habitat for the reintroduced population are still necessary for eventual recovery of the species.

  3. Primary molt of California condors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, N.F.R.; Johnson, E.V.; Clendenen, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Primary molt of the California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus) was studied intensively from 1982 through 1985, using repeated flight photographs of the remaining individuals in the wild population as a basis for most analyses. On the average, wild condors replaced 4.4 of the 8 emarginated primaries on each wing each year. The sepcific primaries molted were generally the ones missed in the previous year and were usually well-distributed among the eight possibilities, with a tendency for low-numbered primaries to molt earlier than high-numbered primaries. Within individuals, molt of one wing was commonly very different from that of the other wing. Primarily molt of captive juveniles was similar to that of wild juveniles. The interval from loss to full replacement of individual primary feathers was normally 3 1/2 to 4 months, with the primaries closest to the leading edge of the wing growing most slowly. Most primarities were shed between 1 February and 1 September. Primaries lost in late fall and early winter were not replaced until the following summer, indicating interrupted molt over the winter. In general, primary molt of the condor differs from that of smaller cathartids in being highly seasonal, highly variable in sequence, highly asymmetric between wings, and in following a roughly 2-year cycle. Molt of the condor shows many similarities to that of the White Stork (Ciconia ciconia) and to that of large accipitrid vultures.

  4. Copulation by California condors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilbur, S.R.; Borneman, J.C.

    1972-01-01

    Koford (Res. Rept. No. 3, Natl. Audubon Soc., 1953) observed sexual display among California Condors (Gymnogyps californianus) on more than 30 occasions, yet only once did he see what he thought was copulation. Some of the displays he watched were quite intricate, with considerable posturing and "male" aggression, but no such activity preceded this copulation. The birds sat several feet apart for over 1 hour, then one climbed onto the other's back, staying there 1/2 minute and flapping gently at the apparent moment of coition. Afterward they sat quietly 1/2 hour before flying away. This led Koford to state (p. 79) that "possibly in Gymnogyps copulation is not immediately preceded by display." We have records of 8 California Condor copulations, 5 of which are similar to that described above. The three other occasions began similarly, with the birds sitting quietly, but then the "male" displayed briefly before the "female" with wings half spread and head drooping forward. This elicited no apparent response, but the male immediately walked behind and mounted the female. The apparent moment of coition was accompanied by gentle wing flapping in all instances.

  5. Ancient DNA reveals substantial genetic diversity in the California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus) prior to a population bottleneck

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    D'Elia, Jesse; Haig, Susan M.; Mullins, Thomas D.; Miller, Mark P.

    2016-01-01

    Critically endangered species that have undergone severe population bottlenecks often have little remaining genetic variation, making it difficult to reconstruct population histories to apply in reintroduction and recovery strategies. By using ancient DNA techniques, it is possible to combine genetic evidence from the historical population with contemporary samples to provide a more complete picture of a species' genetic variation across its historical range and through time. Applying this approach, we examined changes in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (526 base pairs) of the endangered California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus). Results showed a >80% reduction in unique haplotypes over the past 2 centuries. We found no spatial sorting of haplotypes in the historical population; the periphery of the range contained haplotypes that were common throughout the historical range. Direct examination of mtDNA from California Condor museum specimens provided a new window into historical population connectivity and genetic diversity showing: (1) a substantial loss of haplotypes, which is consistent with the hypothesis that condors were relatively abundant in the nineteenth century, but declined rapidly as a result of human-caused mortality; and (2) no evidence of historical population segregation, meaning that the available genetic data offer no cause to avoid releasing condors in unoccupied portions of their historical range.

  6. Range use and movements of California condors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meretsky, V.J.; Snyder, N.F.R.

    1992-01-01

    Between 1982 and 1987, photographic and telemetric tracking of California Condors (Gymnogyps californianus) yielded information on use of the last known range of the species by 23 individual birds. Except for yearlings, most and possibly all individuals in the population used all major foraging zones. Use of the foraging zones was not uniform among individuals, however. Breeding pairs tended to forage most frequently in zones close to their nests (usually within 70 km, occasionally as far away as 180 km). Immatures (at least older immatures), unpaired birds, and paired birds that were not breeding foraged more widely. Male and female adults used the foraging range in a similar manner. Although most portions of the foraging range received some condor use throughout the year, use varied seasonally in accord with recent and historical patterns of food availability. Nesting areas were separated from foraging zones and were visited much less freely than foraging zones. Paired birds tended strongly to visit only their own and immediately adjacent nesting areas. Their nesting areas remained stable over the years. Unpaired adults and immatures ranged more widely among nesting areas. Condors were sometimes documented flying more than 200 km and traversing the entire range of the species during a day. Birds were variably social in movements. Pair members tended to stay together during long-distance travels. Immatures and unpaired birds sometimes traveled with other condors but often moved singly. In years when the population still included many breeders, the largest observed aggregations included one-half to two-thirds of the total population. The comparative strengths and weaknesses of photographic and telemetric methods are described for tracking and other research endeavors.

  7. The Andean condor as a research surrogate for the California condor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, J.W.; Dein, F.J.; Ellis, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    Captive propagation of Andean Condors (Vultur gryphus) was initiated at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in 1966 in anticipation of the need to apply resulting techniques to the captive breeding of the endangered California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus). This report summarizes the progress made on this Andean Condor breeding and research project, with emphasis on recent fostering/cross-fostering studies. These studies include: (a) fostering eggs/chicks between Andean Condors; (b) fostering of two chicks each to Andean Condor pairs; (c) cross-fostering of a Turkey Vulture (Cathartes aura) to Andean Condors; and (d) cross-fostering an Andean Condor chick to wild California Condors. Implications of these studies for the recovery of the California Condor will be discussed.

  8. The Andean condor as a research surrogate for the California condor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, J.W.; Dein, F.J.; Ellis, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    Captive propagation of Andean Condors (Vultur gryphus) was initiated at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in 1966 in anticipation of the need to apply resulting techniques to the captive breeding of the endangered California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus). This report summarizes the progress made on this Andean Condor breeding and research project, with emphasis on recent fostering/cross-fostering studies. These studies include: a) fostering eggs/chicks between Andean Condors; b) fostering of two chicks each to Andean Condor pairs; c) cross-fostering of a TurkeyVulture (Cathartes aura) to Andean Condors; and d) cross-fostering an Andean Condor chick to wild California Condors. Implications of these studies for the recovery of the California Condor will be discussed.

  9. California condors: status of the recovery effort

    Treesearch

    Jared Verner

    1978-01-01

    Disturbance and high mortality related to human activity have apparently caused the decline of the condor population to about 50 birds. Failure to reproduce successfully is now the central problem; inadequate food supply near nest sites, lack of nest sites in new concentration areas, and pesticide accumulation in condor tissues are possible causes. Low reproductive...

  10. Food resources of the California condor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilbur, S.R.

    1972-01-01

    food source may become most productive and significant in the preservation of this species. These sites, which are in the Piru Creek area, are outside the boundaries o:f the Sespe Condor Sanctuary, but are recognized by the U.S. Forest Service (1971) as extremely important to condor survival. Protective measures recommended in the Forest Service plan should be implemented as soon as possible to preserve this area's usefulness as condor nesting habitat. Food may not be the factor currently limiting condor reproduction. However, the reproductive rate is inadequate to sustain the condor population for long. As food shortage has been shown to limit breeding in many species (Lack 1954, 1966), and as it is something which can be manipulated, it is a logical factor for further study and experimentation.

  11. California condor plumage and molt as field study aids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilbur, S.R.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis is made of the reliability of plumage and molt characteristics of the California condor for estimating age and identifying individual birds. Neither character seems sufficiently reliable to use in more than a general way.

  12. Analysis of California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus) use of six management units using location data from global positioning system transmitters, southern California, 2004-09-Initial report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Matthew; Kern, Jeffrey; Haig, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    This report provides an analysis of California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus) space use of six management units in southern California (Hopper Mountain and Bitter Creek National Wildlife Refuges, Wildlands Conservancy-Wind Wolves Preserve, Tejon Mountain Village Specific Plan, California Condor Study Area, and the Tejon Ranch excluding Tejon Mountain Village Specific Plan and California Condor Study Area). Space use was analyzed to address urgent management needs using location data from Global Positioning System transmitters. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service provided the U.S. Geological Survey with location data (2004-09) for California Condors from Global Positioning System transmitters and Geographic Information System data for the six management units in southern California. We calculated relative concentration of use estimates for each management unit for each California Condor (n = 21) on an annual basis (n = 39 annual home ranges) and evaluated resource selection for the population each year using the individual as our sampling unit. The most striking result from our analysis was the recolonization of the Tejon Mountain Village Specific Plan, California Condor Study Area, and Tejon Ranch management units during 2008. During 2004-07, the home range estimate for two (25 percent) California Condors overlapped the Tejon Mountain Village Specific Plan, California Condor Study Area, and Tejon Ranch management units (n = 8), and use within the annual home range generally was bimodal and was concentrated on the Bitter Creek and Hopper Mountain National Wildlife Refuges. However, 10 (77 percent) California Condor home ranges overlapped the Tejon Mountain Village Specific Plan, California Condor Study Area, and Tejon Ranch management units during 2008 (n = 13), and by 2009, the home range of every condor carrying a Global Positioning System transmitter (n = 14) overlapped these management units. Space use was multimodal within the home range during 2008-09 and was

  13. Environmental contaminants in tissues, foods, and feces of California condors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Krynitsky, A.J.; Wilbur, S.R.; Wilbur, Sanford R.; Jackson, Jerome A.

    1983-01-01

    Two wild California Condors contained moderate to high levels of DDE in their tissues. The levels found could be high enough to cause reproductive problems in adult condors, if the assumption is made that condors are as susceptible to DDE as many other species of birds of prey. Other organochlorines occurred at low levels and probably were not high enough to cause deleterious effects. Metal residues in tissues of one bird were generally low except for copper in liver and lead in bone. Normal background levels of these metals in cathartids are unknown, making interpretation of the results difficult. Organochlorine residues in biopsy samples from a captive condor were low and probably would not have an adverse effect on reproduction if the bird were used for captive breeding. Organochlorines were not detected in food items used in the supplemental feeding program, and mercury and lead residues in these items were generally low. Information is needed on current contaminant levels in natural condor prey throughout the condor range.

  14. Lead poisoning and the deceptive recovery of the critically endangered California condor.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Myra E; Doak, Daniel F; George, Daniel; Burnett, Joe; Brandt, Joseph; Church, Molly; Grantham, Jesse; Smith, Donald R

    2012-07-10

    Endangered species recovery programs seek to restore populations to self-sustaining levels. Nonetheless, many recovering species require continuing management to compensate for persistent threats in their environment. Judging true recovery in the face of this management is often difficult, impeding thorough analysis of the success of conservation programs. We illustrate these challenges with a multidisciplinary study of one of the world's rarest birds-the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus). California condors were brought to the brink of extinction, in part, because of lead poisoning, and lead poisoning remains a significant threat today. We evaluated individual lead-related health effects, the efficacy of current efforts to prevent lead-caused deaths, and the consequences of any reduction in currently intensive management actions. Our results show that condors in California remain chronically exposed to harmful levels of lead; 30% of the annual blood samples collected from condors indicate lead exposure (blood lead ≥ 200 ng/mL) that causes significant subclinical health effects, measured as >60% inhibition of the heme biosynthetic enzyme δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase. Furthermore, each year, ∼20% of free-flying birds have blood lead levels (≥450 ng/mL) that indicate the need for clinical intervention to avert morbidity and mortality. Lead isotopic analysis shows that lead-based ammunition is the principle source of lead poisoning in condors. Finally, population models based on condor demographic data show that the condor's apparent recovery is solely because of intensive ongoing management, with the only hope of achieving true recovery dependent on the elimination or substantial reduction of lead poisoning rates.

  15. Environmental contaminants in surrogates, foods, and feathers of California condors (Gymnogyps californianus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Jurek, R.M.; Moore, John F.

    1986-01-01

    California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) foods and feathers, and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), common ravens (Corvus corax), and their eggs were collected within the condor range to determine exposure of condors to environmental contaminants. Samples were analyzed for organochlorines and trace elements. Food items contained low concentrations of organochlorines and generally low concentrations of lead. DDE was detected in all vulture carcasses and nearly all raven carcasses at generally moderate concentrations. Other organochlorines occurred infrequently in carcasses and generally at low concentrations. Turkey vulture eggshells were 16% thinner than the pre-DDT mean; there was no change in shell thickness of raven eggs. Vulture eggs contained an average of 6.9 ppm DDE and two contained excessive concentrations of endrin. DDE concentrations were low in raven eggs. Residues of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Se, Tl, and Zn in tissues of vultures and ravens appeared normal when compared with reference values for other species. Lead concentrations in bone of turkey vultures and feathers of condors appeared to be elevated above normal background concentrations in some cases. Current exposure of condors to organochlorines appears low; however, we are concerned about the excessive exposure of turkey vultures to organochlorines, possibly in Central America. Lead exposure to vultures and condors has occurred, but its significance to their populations is unknown.

  16. Age and diet of fossil california condors in grand canyon, Arizona.

    PubMed

    Emslie, S D

    1987-08-14

    A dozen new radiocarbon dates, together with a thorough review of its fossil distribution, shed new light on the time and probable cause of extinction of the California condor, Gymnogyps californianus, in Grand Canyon, Arizona. The radiocarbon data indicate that this species became extinct in Grand Canyon, and other parts of the inland West, more than 10,000 years ago in coincidence with the extinction of megafauna (proboscidians, edentates, perissodactyls). That condors relied on the megafauna for food is suggested by the recovery of food bones from a late Pleistocene nest cave in Grand Canyon. These fossil data have relevance to proposed release and recovery programs of the present endangered population of California condors.

  17. Lead poisoning and the deceptive recovery of the critically endangered California condor

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, Myra E.; Doak, Daniel F.; George, Daniel; Burnett, Joe; Brandt, Joseph; Church, Molly; Grantham, Jesse; Smith, Donald R.

    2012-01-01

    Endangered species recovery programs seek to restore populations to self-sustaining levels. Nonetheless, many recovering species require continuing management to compensate for persistent threats in their environment. Judging true recovery in the face of this management is often difficult, impeding thorough analysis of the success of conservation programs. We illustrate these challenges with a multidisciplinary study of one of the world’s rarest birds—the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus). California condors were brought to the brink of extinction, in part, because of lead poisoning, and lead poisoning remains a significant threat today. We evaluated individual lead-related health effects, the efficacy of current efforts to prevent lead-caused deaths, and the consequences of any reduction in currently intensive management actions. Our results show that condors in California remain chronically exposed to harmful levels of lead; 30% of the annual blood samples collected from condors indicate lead exposure (blood lead ≥ 200 ng/mL) that causes significant subclinical health effects, measured as >60% inhibition of the heme biosynthetic enzyme δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase. Furthermore, each year, ∼20% of free-flying birds have blood lead levels (≥450 ng/mL) that indicate the need for clinical intervention to avert morbidity and mortality. Lead isotopic analysis shows that lead-based ammunition is the principle source of lead poisoning in condors. Finally, population models based on condor demographic data show that the condor’s apparent recovery is solely because of intensive ongoing management, with the only hope of achieving true recovery dependent on the elimination or substantial reduction of lead poisoning rates. PMID:22733770

  18. Resource Selection by the California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus) Relative to Terrestrial-Based Habitats and Meteorological Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Rivers, James W.; Johnson, J. Matthew; Haig, Susan M.; Schwarz, Carl J.; Glendening, John W.; Burnett, L. Joseph; George, Daniel; Grantham, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Condors and vultures are distinct from most other terrestrial birds because they use extensive soaring flight for their daily movements. Therefore, assessing resource selection by these avian scavengers requires quantifying the availability of terrestrial-based habitats, as well as meteorological variables that influence atmospheric conditions necessary for soaring. In this study, we undertook the first quantitative assessment of habitat- and meteorological-based resource selection in the endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) within its California range and across the annual cycle. We found that condor use of terrestrial areas did not change markedly within the annual cycle, and that condor use was greatest for habitats where food resources and potential predators could be detected and where terrain was amenable for taking off from the ground in flight (e.g., sparse habitats, coastal areas). Condors originating from different release sites differed in their use of habitat, but this was likely due in part to variation in habitats surrounding release sites. Meteorological conditions were linked to condor use of ecological subregions, with thermal height, thermal velocity, and wind speed having both positive (selection) and negative (avoidance) effects on condor use in different areas. We found little evidence of systematic effects between individual characteristics (i.e., sex, age, breeding status) or components of the species management program (i.e., release site, rearing method) relative to meteorological conditions. Our findings indicate that habitat type and meteorological conditions can interact in complex ways to influence condor resource selection across landscapes, which is noteworthy given the extent of anthropogenic stressors that may impact condor populations (e.g., lead poisoning, wind energy development). Additional studies will be valuable to assess small-scale condor movements in light of these stressors to help minimize their risk to

  19. Resource selection by the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) relative to terrestrial-based habitats and meteorological conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J. Matthew; Haig, Susan M.; Schwarz, Carl J.; Glendening, John W.; Burnett, L. Joseph; George, Daniel; Grantham, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Condors and vultures are distinct from most other terrestrial birds because they use extensive soaring flight for their daily movements. Therefore, assessing resource selection by these avian scavengers requires quantifying the availability of terrestrial-based habitats, as well as meteorological variables that influence atmospheric conditions necessary for soaring. In this study, we undertook the first quantitative assessment of habitat- and meteorological-based resource selection in the endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) within its California range and across the annual cycle. We found that condor use of terrestrial areas did not change markedly within the annual cycle, and that condor use was greatest for habitats where food resources and potential predators could be detected and where terrain was amenable for taking off from the ground in flight (e.g., sparse habitats, coastal areas). Condors originating from different release sites differed in their use of habitat, but this was likely due in part to variation in habitats surrounding release sites. Meteorological conditions were linked to condor use of ecological subregions, with thermal height, thermal velocity, and wind speed having both positive (selection) and negative (avoidance) effects on condor use in different areas. We found little evidence of systematic effects between individual characteristics (i.e., sex, age, breeding status) or components of the species management program (i.e., release site, rearing method) relative to meteorological conditions. Our findings indicate that habitat type and meteorological conditions can interact in complex ways to influence condor resource selection across landscapes, which is noteworthy given the extent of anthropogenic stressors that may impact condor populations (e.g., lead poisoning, wind energy development). Additional studies will be valuable to assess small-scale condor movements in light of these stressors to help minimize their risk to

  20. Status of the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) and efforts to achieve its recovery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, Jeffrey R.; Derrickson, Scott R.; Fry, D. Michael; Haig, Susan M.; Marzluff, John M.; Wunderle, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    The California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus; hereafter "condor"; Fig. 1) has long been symbolic of avian conservation in the United States. Its large size, inquisitiveness, and association with remote places make it highly charismatic, and its decline to the brink of extinction aroused a continuing public interest in its plight. By 1982, only 22 individuals remained of this species whose range once encompassed much of North America. The last wild bird was trapped and brought into captivity in 1987, which rendered the species extinct in the wild (Snyder and Snyder 1989). In the 1980s, some questioned whether viable populations could ever again exist in the natural environment, and whether limited conservation funds should be expended on what they viewed as a hopeless cause (Pitelka 1981). Nevertheless, since that low point, a captive-breeding and release program has increased the total population by an order of magnitude, and condors fly free again in California, Arizona, Utah, and Baja California, Mexico (Fig. 2). At this writing (summer 2009), more than 350 condors exist, 180 of which are in the wild (J. Grantham pers. comm.). The free-living birds face severe challenges, however, and receive constant human assistance. The intensive management applied to the free-living populations, as well as the ongoing monitoring and captive-breeding programs, are tremendously expensive and become more so as the population grows. Thus, the program has reached a crossroads, caught between the financial and logistical pressures required to maintain an increasing number of condors in the wild and the environmental problems that preclude establishment of naturally sustainable, free-ranging populations.

  1. Patterns of mortality in free-ranging California condors (Gymnogyps californianus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rideout, B.A.; Stalis, I.; Papendick, R.; Pessier, A.; Puschner, B.; Finkelstein, M.E.; Smith, D.R.; Johnson, Matthew; Mace, M.; Stroud, R.; Brandt, J.; Burnett, J.; Parish, C.; Petterson, J.; Witte, C.; Stringfield, C.; Orr, K.; Zuba, J.; Wallace, M.; Grantham, J.

    2012-01-01

    We document causes of death in free-ranging California Condors (Gymnogyps californianus) from the inception of the reintroduction program in 1992 through December 2009 to identify current and historic mortality factors that might interfere with establishment of self-sustaining populations in the wild. A total of 135 deaths occurred from October 1992 (the first post-release death) through December 2009, from a maximum population-at-risk of 352 birds, for a cumulative crude mortality rate of 38%. A definitive cause of death was determined for 76 of the 98 submitted cases, 70% (53/76) of which were attributed to anthropogenic causes. Trash ingestion was the most important mortality factor in nestlings (proportional mortality rate [PMR] 73%; 8/11), while lead toxicosis was the most important factor in juveniles (PMR 26%; 13/50) and adults (PMR 67%; 10/15). These results demonstrate that the leading causes of death at all California Condor release sites are anthropogenic. The mortality factors thought to be important in the decline of the historic California Condor population, particularly lead poisoning, remain the most important documented mortality factors today. Without effective mitigation, these factors can be expected to have the same effects on the sustainability of the wild populations as they have in the past.

  2. Feather lead concentrations and (207)Pb/(206)Pb ratios reveal lead exposure history of California Condors (Gymnogyps californianus).

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, M E; George, D; Scherbinski, S; Gwiazda, R; Johnson, M; Burnett, J; Brandt, J; Lawrey, S; Pessier, A P; Clark, M; Wynne, J; Grantham, J; Smith, D R

    2010-04-01

    Lead poisoning is a primary factor impeding the survival and recovery of the critically endangered California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus). However, the frequency and magnitude of lead exposure in condors is not well-known in part because most blood lead monitoring occurs biannually, and biannual blood samples capture only approximately 10% of a bird's annual exposure history. We investigated the use of growing feathers from free-flying condors in California to establish a bird's lead exposure history. We show that lead concentration and stable lead isotopic composition analyses of sequential feather sections and concurrently collected blood samples provided a comprehensive history of lead exposure over the 2-4 month period of feather growth. Feather analyses identified exposure events not evident from blood monitoring efforts, and by fitting an empirically derived timeline to actively growing feathers, we were able to estimate the time frame for specific lead exposure events. Our results demonstrate the utility of using sequentially sampled feathers to reconstruct lead exposure history. Since exposure risk in individuals is one determinant of population health, our findings should increase the understanding of population-level effects from lead poisoning in condors; this information may also be helpful for other avian species potentially impacted by lead poisoning.

  3. Feather lead concentrations and 207Pb/206Pb ratios reveal lead exposure history of California Condors (Gymnogyps californianus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelstein, M.E.; George, D.; Scherbinski, S.; Gwiazda, R.; Johnson, M.; Burnett, J.; Brandt, J.; Lawrey, S.; Pessier, Allan P.; Clark, M.R.; Wynne, J.; Grantham, And J.; Smith, D.R.

    2010-01-01

    Lead poisoning is a primary factor impeding the survival and recovery of the critically endangered California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus). However, the frequency and magnitude of lead exposure in condors is not well-known in part because most blood lead monitoring occurs biannually, and biannual blood samples capture only ∼10% of a bird’s annual exposure history. We investigated the use of growing feathers from free-flying condors in California to establish a bird’s lead exposure history. We show that lead concentration and stable lead isotopic composition analyses of sequential feather sections and concurrently collected blood samples provided a comprehensive history of lead exposure over the 2−4 month period of feather growth. Feather analyses identified exposure events not evident from blood monitoring efforts, and by fitting an empirically derived timeline to actively growing feathers, we were able to estimate the time frame for specific lead exposure events. Our results demonstrate the utility of using sequentially sampled feathers to reconstruct lead exposure history. Since exposure risk in individuals is one determinant of population health, our findings should increase the understanding of population-level effects from lead poisoning in condors; this information may also be helpful for other avian species potentially impacted by lead poisoning.

  4. Ammunition is the principal source of lead accumulated by California condors re-introduced to the wild.

    PubMed

    Church, Molly E; Gwiazda, Roberto; Risebrough, Robert W; Sorenson, Kelly; Chamberlain, C Page; Farry, Sean; Heinrich, William; Rideout, Bruce A; Smith, Donald R

    2006-10-01

    The endangered California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus) was reduced to a total population of 22 birds by the end of 1982. Their captive-bred descendants are now being released back into the wild in California, Arizona, and Baja California, where monitoring indicates they may accumulate lead to toxic levels. Fragments of ammunition in the carcasses of game animals such as deer, elk, and feral pigs not retrieved by hunters or in gut piles left in the field have been considered a plausible source of the lead, though little direct evidence is available to support this hypothesis. Here, we measured lead concentrations and isotope ratios in blood from 18 condors living in the wild in central California, in 8 pre-release birds, and in diet and ammunition samples to determine the importance of ammunition as a source of exposure. Blood lead levels in pre-release condors were low (average 27.7 ng/mL, SD 4.9 ng/ mL) and isotopically similar to dietary and background environmental lead in California. In contrast, blood lead levels in free-flying condors were substantially higher (average 246 ng/mL, SD 229 ng/mL) with lead isotopic compositions that approached or matched those of the lead ammunition. A two-endmember mixing model defined by the background 207Pb/206Pb ratio of representative condor diet samples (0.8346) and the upper 207Pb/206Pb ratio of the ammunition samples (0.8184) was able to account for the blood lead isotopic compositions in 20 out of the 26 live condors sampled in this study (i.e., 77%). Finally, lead in tissues and in a serially sampled growing feather recovered postmortem from a lead-poisoned condor in Arizona evidence acute exposure from an isotopically distinct lead source. Together, these data indicate that incidental ingestion of ammunition in carcasses of animals killed by hunters is the principal source of elevated lead exposure that threatens the recovery in the wild of this endangered species.

  5. Lack of observed movement response to lead exposure of California condors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poessel, Sharon; Brandt, Joseph; Uyeda, Linda; Astell, Molly; Katzner, Todd E.

    2018-01-01

    Lead poisoning is an important conservation concern for wildlife, and scavenging birds are especially at risk from consumption of carcasses of animals killed with lead ammunition. Because current methods to identify lead exposure require animal capture and blood collection, management would benefit from the development of a less costly and noninvasive behavioral test for illness in wild animals. We attempted to design such a test to identify lead exposure in California condors (Gymnogyps californianus) that we tracked with global positioning system (GPS) telemetry in southern California, USA, 2013–2016. We measured blood-lead concentrations in tracked birds and expected that flight behavior would be influenced by lead exposure; thus, we measured the effect of blood-lead concentrations on 2 different types of movement rates and on the proportion of time condors spent in flight. We found no effect of lead exposure on any of these 3 behavioral metrics. Our work suggests that the measurements we took of flight behaviors were not a useful tool in predicting lead exposure in the mildly to moderately exposed birds we studied. Wild birds are effective at hiding illness, especially condors who have a strong social hierarchy in which showing weakness is a disadvantage. However, focusing on behaviors other than flight, expanding the sample studied to include birds with a wider range of lead concentration values, or analyzing tissues such as feathers (rather than, or in addition to, blood) may be more useful for identification of lead exposure and other diseases that may limit wildlife populations. © 2017 This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Linking cases of illegal shootings of the endangered California condor using stable lead isotope analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, Myra E., E-mail: myraf@ucsc.edu; Kuspa, Zeka E.; Welch, Alacia

    Lead poisoning is preventing the recovery of the critically endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) and lead isotope analyses have demonstrated that ingestion of spent lead ammunition is the principal source of lead poisoning in condors. Over an 8 month period in 2009, three lead-poisoned condors were independently presented with birdshot embedded in their tissues, evidencing they had been shot. No information connecting these illegal shooting events existed and the timing of the shooting(s) was unknown. Using lead concentration and stable lead isotope analyses of feathers, blood, and recovered birdshot, we observed that: i) lead isotope ratios of embedded shot frommore » all three birds were measurably indistinguishable from each other, suggesting a common source; ii) lead exposure histories re-constructed from feather analysis suggested that the shooting(s) occurred within the same timeframe; and iii) two of the three condors were lead poisoned from a lead source isotopically indistinguishable from the embedded birdshot, implicating ingestion of this type of birdshot as the source of poisoning. One of the condors was subsequently lead poisoned the following year from ingestion of a lead buckshot (blood lead 556 µg/dL), illustrating that ingested shot possess a substantially greater lead poisoning risk compared to embedded shot retained in tissue (blood lead ∼20 µg/dL). To our knowledge, this is the first study to use lead isotopes as a tool to retrospectively link wildlife shooting events. - Highlights: • We conducted a case-based analysis of illegal shootings of California condors. • Blood and feather Pb isotopes were used to reconstruct the illegal shooting events. • Embedded birdshot from the three condors had the same Pb isotope ratios. • Feather and blood Pb isotopes indicated that the condors were shot in a common event. • Ingested shot causes substantially greater lead exposure compared to embedded shot.« less

  7. Terrestrial Scavenging of Marine Mammals: Cross-Ecosystem Contaminant Transfer and Potential Risks to Endangered California Condors (Gymnogyps californianus).

    PubMed

    Kurle, Carolyn M; Bakker, Victoria J; Copeland, Holly; Burnett, Joe; Jones Scherbinski, Jennie; Brandt, Joseph; Finkelstein, Myra E

    2016-09-06

    The critically endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) has relied intermittently on dead-stranded marine mammals since the Pleistocene, and this food source is considered important for their current recovery. However, contemporary marine mammals contain persistent organic pollutants that could threaten condor health. We used stable carbon and nitrogen isotope, contaminant, and behavioral data in coastal versus noncoastal condors to quantify contaminant transfer from marine mammals and created simulation models to predict the risk of reproductive impairment for condors from exposure to DDE (p,p'-DDE), a major metabolite of the chlorinated pesticide DDT. Coastal condors had higher whole blood isotope values and mean concentrations of contaminants associated with marine mammals, including mercury (whole blood), sum chlorinated pesticides (comprised of ∼95% DDE) (plasma), sum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) (plasma), and sum polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (plasma), 12-100-fold greater than those of noncoastal condors. The mean plasma DDE concentration for coastal condors was 500 ± 670 (standard deviation) (n = 22) versus 24 ± 24 (standard deviation) (n = 8) ng/g of wet weight for noncoastal condors, and simulations predicted ∼40% of breeding-age coastal condors have DDE levels associated with eggshell thinning in other avian species. Our analyses demonstrate potentially harmful levels of marine contaminant transfer to California condors, which could hinder the recovery of this terrestrial species.

  8. Activity-specific ecological niche models for planning reintroductions of California condors (Gymnogyps californianus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    D'Elia, Jesse; Haig, Susan M.; Johnson, Matthew J.; Marcot, Bruce G.; Young, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Ecological niche models can be a useful tool to identify candidate reintroduction sites for endangered species but have been infrequently used for this purpose. In this paper, we (1) develop activity-specific ecological niche models (nesting, roosting, and feeding) for the critically endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) to aid in reintroduction planning in California, Oregon, and Washington, USA, (2) test the accuracy of these models using empirical data withheld from model development, and (3) integrate model results with information on condor movement ecology and biology to produce predictive maps of reintroduction site suitability. Our approach, which disentangles niche models into activity-specific components, has applications for other species where it is routinely assumed (often incorrectly) that individuals fulfill all requirements for life within a single environmental space. Ecological niche models conformed to our understanding of California condor ecology, had good predictive performance when tested with data withheld from model development, and aided in the identification of several candidate reintroduction areas outside of the current distribution of the species. Our results suggest there are large unoccupied regions of the California condor’s historical range that have retained ecological features similar to currently occupied habitats, and thus could be considered for future reintroduction efforts. Combining our activity-specific ENMs with ground reconnaissance and information on other threat factors that could not be directly incorporated into empirical ENMs will ultimately improve our ability to select successful reintroduction sites for the California condor.

  9. Activity-specific ecological niche models for planning reintroductions of California condors (Gymnogyps californianus)

    Treesearch

    Jesse D’Elia; Susan M. Haig; Matthew Johnson; Richard Young; Bruce G. Marcot

    2015-01-01

    Ecological niche models can be a useful tool to identify candidate reintroduction sites for endangered species but have been infrequently used for this purpose. In this paper, we (1) develop activity-specific ecological niche models (nesting, roosting, and feeding) for the critically endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus) to aid in...

  10. Flight response to spatial and temporal correlates informs risk from wind turbines to the California Condor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poessel, Sharon; Brandt, Joseph; Mendenhall, Laura C.; Braham, Melissa A.; Lanzone, Michael J.; McGann, Andrew J.; Katzner, Todd

    2018-01-01

    Wind power is a fast-growing energy resource, but wind turbines can kill volant wildlife, and the flight behavior of obligate soaring birds can place them at risk of collision with these structures. We analyzed altitudinal data from GPS telemetry of critically endangered California Condors (Gymnogyps californianus) to assess the circumstances under which their flight behavior may place them at risk from collision with wind turbines. Condor flight behavior was strongly influenced by topography and land cover, and birds flew at lower altitudes and closer to the rotor-swept zone of wind turbines when over ridgelines and steep slopes and over forested and grassland cover types. Condor flight behavior was temporally predictable, and birds flew lower and closer to the rotor-swept zone during early morning and evening hours and during the winter months, when thermal updrafts were weakest. Although condors only occasionally flew at altitudes that placed them in the rotor-swept zone of turbines, they regularly flew near or within wind resource areas preferred by energy developers. Practitioners aiming to mitigate collision risk to this and other soaring bird species of conservation concern can consider the manner in which flight behavior varies temporally and in response to areas of high topographic relief and proximity to nocturnal roosting sites. By contrast, collision risk to large soaring birds from turbines should be relatively lower over flatter and less rugged areas and in habitat used during daytime soaring.

  11. An analysis of monthly home range size in the critically endangered California Condor Gymnogyps californianus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rivers, James W.; Johnson, Matthew J.; Haig, Susan M.; Schwarz, Carl J.; Burnett, Joseph; Brandt, Joseph; George, Daniel; Grantham, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Condors and vultures comprise the only group of terrestrial vertebrates in the world that are obligate scavengers, and these species move widely to locate ephemeral, unpredictable, and patchily-distributed food resources. In this study, we used high-resolution GPS location data to quantify monthly home range size of the critically endangered California Condor Gymnogyps californianus throughout the annual cycle in California. We assessed whether individual-level characteristics (age, sex and breeding status) and factors related to endangered species recovery program efforts (rearing method, release site) were linked to variation in monthly home range size. We found that monthly home range size varied across the annual cycle, with the largest monthly home ranges observed during late summer and early fall (July–October), a pattern that may be linked to seasonal changes in thermals that facilitate movement. Monthly home ranges of adults were significantly larger than those of immatures, but males and females used monthly home ranges of similar size throughout the year and breeding adults did not differ from non-breeding adults in their average monthly home range size. Individuals from each of three release sites differed significantly in the size of their monthly home ranges, and no differences in monthly home range size were detected between condors reared under captive conditions relative to those reared in the wild. Our study provides an important foundation for understanding the movement ecology of the California Condor and it highlights the importance of seasonal variation in space use for effective conservation planning for this critically endangered species.

  12. Improve wildlife species tracking—Implementing an enhanced global positioning system data management system for California condors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waltermire, Robert G.; Emmerich, Christopher U.; Mendenhall, Laura C.; Bohrer, Gil; Weinzierl, Rolf P.; McGann, Andrew J.; Lineback, Pat K.; Kern, Tim J.; Douglas, David C.

    2016-05-03

    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) staff in the Pacific Southwest Region and at the Hopper Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex requested technical assistance to improve their global positioning system (GPS) data acquisition, management, and archive in support of the California Condor Recovery Program. The USFWS deployed and maintained GPS units on individual Gymnogyps californianus (California condor) in support of long-term research and daily operational monitoring and management of California condors. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) obtained funding through the Science Support Program to provide coordination among project participants, provide GPS Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) transmitters for testing, and compare GSM/GPS with existing Argos satellite GPS technology. The USFWS staff worked with private companies to design, develop, and fit condors with GSM/GPS transmitters. The Movebank organization, an online database of animal tracking data, coordinated with each of these companies to automatically stream their GPS data into Movebank servers and coordinated with USFWS to improve Movebank software for managing transmitter data, including proofing/error checking of incoming GPS data. The USGS arranged to pull raw GPS data from Movebank into the USGS California Condor Management and Analysis Portal (CCMAP) (https://my.usgs.gov/ccmap) for production and dissemination of a daily map of condor movements including various automated alerts. Further, the USGS developed an automatic archiving system for pulling raw and proofed Movebank data into USGS ScienceBase to comply with the Federal Information Security Management Act of 2002. This improved data management system requires minimal manual intervention resulting in more efficient data flow from GPS data capture to archive status. As a result of the project’s success, Pinnacles National Park and the Ventana Wildlife Society California condor programs became partners and adopted the same

  13. Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) in Ecuador: Geographic Distribution, Population Size and Extinction Risk.

    PubMed

    Naveda-Rodríguez, Adrián; Vargas, Félix Hernán; Kohn, Sebastián; Zapata-Ríos, Galo

    2016-01-01

    The Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) in Ecuador is classified as Critically Endangered. Before 2015, standardized and systematic estimates of geographic distribution, population size and structure were not available for this species, hampering the assessment of its current status and hindering the design and implementation of effective conservation actions. In this study, we performed the first quantitative assessment of geographic distribution, population size and population viability of Andean Condor in Ecuador. We used a methodological approach that included an ecological niche model to study geographic distribution, a simultaneous survey of 70 roosting sites to estimate population size and a population viability analysis (PVA) for the next 100 years. Geographic distribution in the form of extent of occurrence was 49 725 km2. During a two-day census, 93 Andean Condors were recorded and a population of 94 to 102 individuals was estimated. In this population, adult-to-immature ratio was 1:0.5. In the modeled PVA scenarios, the probability of extinction, mean time to extinction and minimum population size varied from zero to 100%, 63 years and 193 individuals, respectively. Habitat loss is the greatest threat to the conservation of Andean Condor populations in Ecuador. Population size reduction in scenarios that included habitat loss began within the first 15 years of this threat. Population reinforcement had no effects on the recovery of Andean Condor populations given the current status of the species in Ecuador. The population size estimate presented in this study is the lower than those reported previously in other countries where the species occur. The inferences derived from the population viability analysis have implications for Condor management in Ecuador. This study highlights the need to redirect efforts from captive breeding and population reinforcement to habitat conservation.

  14. Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) in Ecuador: Geographic Distribution, Population Size and Extinction Risk

    PubMed Central

    Naveda-Rodríguez, Adrián; Vargas, Félix Hernán; Kohn, Sebastián; Zapata-Ríos, Galo

    2016-01-01

    The Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus) in Ecuador is classified as Critically Endangered. Before 2015, standardized and systematic estimates of geographic distribution, population size and structure were not available for this species, hampering the assessment of its current status and hindering the design and implementation of effective conservation actions. In this study, we performed the first quantitative assessment of geographic distribution, population size and population viability of Andean Condor in Ecuador. We used a methodological approach that included an ecological niche model to study geographic distribution, a simultaneous survey of 70 roosting sites to estimate population size and a population viability analysis (PVA) for the next 100 years. Geographic distribution in the form of extent of occurrence was 49 725 km2. During a two-day census, 93 Andean Condors were recorded and a population of 94 to 102 individuals was estimated. In this population, adult-to-immature ratio was 1:0.5. In the modeled PVA scenarios, the probability of extinction, mean time to extinction and minimum population size varied from zero to 100%, 63 years and 193 individuals, respectively. Habitat loss is the greatest threat to the conservation of Andean Condor populations in Ecuador. Population size reduction in scenarios that included habitat loss began within the first 15 years of this threat. Population reinforcement had no effects on the recovery of Andean Condor populations given the current status of the species in Ecuador. The population size estimate presented in this study is the lower than those reported previously in other countries where the species occur. The inferences derived from the population viability analysis have implications for Condor management in Ecuador. This study highlights the need to redirect efforts from captive breeding and population reinforcement to habitat conservation. PMID:26986004

  15. Lead contamination of golden eagles Aquila chrysaetos within the range of the California condor Gymnogyps californianus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bloom, P.H.; Scott, J.M.; Pattee, O.H.; Smith, M.R.; Meyburg, B-U.; Chancellor, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    Blood samples were taken from 66 golden eagles from June 1985 to January 1986 and analyzed for their lead content. Thirty-nine percent had blood lead levels greater than 0.2 ppm, indicating exposure to environmental lead. Within the exposed group, 3 had blood levels exceeding 0.6 ppm and one exceeded 1.0 ppm. These data suggest that lead, probably in the form of shot, bullets, or bullet fragments, poses a hazard to scavenging birds within the range of the California condor.

  16. Effectiveness of action to reduce exposure of free-ranging California condors in Arizona and Utah to lead from spent ammunition.

    PubMed

    Green, Rhys E; Hunt, W Grainger; Parish, Christopher N; Newton, Ian

    2008-01-01

    California condors (Gymnogyps californianus) released into the wild in Arizona ranged widely in Arizona and Utah. Previous studies have shown that the blood lead concentrations of many of the birds rise because of ingestion of spent lead ammunition. Condors were routinely recaptured and treated to reduce their lead levels as necessary but, even so, several died from lead poisoning. We used tracking data from VHF and satellite tags, together with the results of routine testing of blood lead concentrations, to estimate daily changes in blood lead level in relation to the location of each bird. The mean daily increment in blood lead concentration depended upon both the location of the bird and the time of year. Birds that spent time during the deer hunting season in two areas in which deer were shot with lead ammunition (Kaibab Plateau (Arizona) and Zion (Utah)) were especially likely to have high blood lead levels. The influence upon blood lead level of presence in a particular area declined with time elapsed since the bird was last there. We estimated the daily blood lead level for each bird and its influence upon daily mortality rate from lead poisoning. Condors with high blood lead over a protracted period were much more likely to die than birds with low blood lead or short-term elevation. We simulated the effect of ending the existing lead exposure reduction measures at Kaibab Plateau, which encourage the voluntary use of non-lead ammunition and removal of gut piles of deer and elk killed using lead ammunition. The estimated mortality rate due to lead in the absence of this program was sufficiently high that the condor population would be expected to decline rapidly. The extension of the existing lead reduction program to cover Zion (Utah), as well as the Kaibab plateau, would be expected to reduce mortality caused by lead substantially and allow the condor population to increase.

  17. Effectiveness of Action to Reduce Exposure of Free-Ranging California Condors in Arizona and Utah to Lead from Spent Ammunition

    PubMed Central

    Green, Rhys E.; Hunt, W. Grainger; Parish, Christopher N.; Newton, Ian

    2008-01-01

    California condors (Gymnogyps californianus) released into the wild in Arizona ranged widely in Arizona and Utah. Previous studies have shown that the blood lead concentrations of many of the birds rise because of ingestion of spent lead ammunition. Condors were routinely recaptured and treated to reduce their lead levels as necessary but, even so, several died from lead poisoning. We used tracking data from VHF and satellite tags, together with the results of routine testing of blood lead concentrations, to estimate daily changes in blood lead level in relation to the location of each bird. The mean daily increment in blood lead concentration depended upon both the location of the bird and the time of year. Birds that spent time during the deer hunting season in two areas in which deer were shot with lead ammunition (Kaibab Plateau (Arizona) and Zion (Utah)) were especially likely to have high blood lead levels. The influence upon blood lead level of presence in a particular area declined with time elapsed since the bird was last there. We estimated the daily blood lead level for each bird and its influence upon daily mortality rate from lead poisoning. Condors with high blood lead over a protracted period were much more likely to die than birds with low blood lead or short-term elevation. We simulated the effect of ending the existing lead exposure reduction measures at Kaibab Plateau, which encourage the voluntary use of non-lead ammunition and removal of gut piles of deer and elk killed using lead ammunition. The estimated mortality rate due to lead in the absence of this program was sufficiently high that the condor population would be expected to decline rapidly. The extension of the existing lead reduction program to cover Zion (Utah), as well as the Kaibab plateau, would be expected to reduce mortality caused by lead substantially and allow the condor population to increase. PMID:19107211

  18. Preliminary design of four aircraft to service the California Corridor in the year 2010: The California Condor, California Sky-Hopper, high capacity short range transport tilt rotor aircraft needed to simplify intercity transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The major objective of this project was to design an aircraft for use in the California Corridor in the year 2010. The design process, completed by students in a senior design class at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, used a Class 1 airplane design analysis from Jan Roskam's Airplane Design. The California Condor (CC-38), a 38 passenger, 400 mph aircraft, was designed to meet the needs of tomorrow's passengers while conforming to the California Corridor's restrictions. Assumptions were made using today's technology with forecasts into 21st Century technology. Doubling today's commuter aircraft passenger capacity, travelling at Mach .57 with improved cruise efficiencies of over 10 percent, with the ability to land within field lengths of 4000 feet, are the CC-38's strongest points. The California Condor has a very promising future in helping to relieve the air traffic and airport congestion in the 21st Century.

  19. Meteorological and environmental variables affect flight behaviour and decision-making of an obligate soaring bird, the California Condor Gymnogyps californianus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poessel, Sharon; Brandt, Joseph; Miller, Tricia A.; Katzner, Todd

    2018-01-01

    The movements of animals are limited by evolutionary constraints and ecological processes and are strongly influenced by the medium through which they travel. For flying animals, variation in atmospheric conditions is critically influential in movement. Obligate soaring birds depend on external sources of updraft more than do other flying species, as without that updraft they are unable to sustain flight for extended periods. These species are therefore good models for understanding how the environment can influence decisions about movement. We used meteorological and topographic variables to understand the environmental influences on the decision to engage in flight by obligate soaring and critically endangered California Condors Gymnogyps californianus. Condors were more likely to fly, soared at higher altitudes and flew over smoother terrain when weather conditions promoted either thermal or orographic updrafts, for example when turbulence and solar radiation were higher and when winds from the east and north were stronger. However, increased atmospheric stability, which is inconsistent with thermal development but may be associated with orographic updrafts, was correlated with a somewhat higher probability of being in flight at lower altitudes and over rougher terrain. The close and previously undescribed linkages between Condor flight and conditions that support development of thermal and orographic updrafts provide important insight into the behaviour of obligate soaring birds and into the environmental parameters that may define the currently expanding distribution of Condors within and outside the state of California.

  20. Big Spring spinedace and associated fish populations and habitat conditions in Condor Canyon, Meadow Valley Wash, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jezorek, Ian G.; Connolly, Patrick J.; Munz, Carrie S.; Dixon, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Executive Summary: This project was designed to document habitat conditions and populations of native and non-native fish within the 8-kilometer Condor Canyon section of Meadow Valley Wash, Nevada, with an emphasis on Big Spring spinedace (Lepidomeda mollispinis pratensis). Other native fish present were speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus) and desert sucker (Catostomus clarki). Big Spring spinedace were known to exist only within this drainage and were known to have been extirpated from a portion of their former habitat located downstream of Condor Canyon. Because of this extirpation and the limited distribution of Big Spring spinedace, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service listed this species as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 1985. Prior to our effort, little was known about Big Spring spinedace populations or life histories and habitat associations. In 2008, personnel from the U.S. Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory began surveys of Meadow Valley Wash in Condor Canyon. Habitat surveys characterized numerous variables within 13 reaches, thermologgers were deployed at 9 locations to record water temperatures, and fish populations were surveyed at 22 individual sites. Additionally, fish were tagged with Passive Integrated Transponder (PIT) tags, which allowed movement and growth information to be collected on individual fish. The movements of tagged fish were monitored with a combination of recapture events and stationary in-stream antennas, which detected tagged fish. Meadow Valley Wash within Condor Canyon was divided by a 12-meter (m) waterfall known as Delmue Falls. About 6,100 m of stream were surveyed downstream of the falls and about 2,200 m of stream were surveyed upstream of the falls. Although about three-quarters of the surveyed stream length was downstream of Delmue Falls, the highest densities and abundance of native fish were upstream of the falls. Big Spring spinedace and desert sucker populations were highest near the

  1. Lead poisoning in captive Andean condors (Vultur gryphus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pattee, O.H.; Carpenter, J.W.; Fritts, S.H.; Rattner, B.A.; Wiemeyer, Stanley N.; Royle, J. Andrew; Smith, M.R.

    2006-01-01

    Elevated lead in the tissues of raptors, especially those that scavenge, is a common occurrence, and lead poisoning appears to be a significant problem in the ongoing recovery effort for California condors (Gymnogyps californianus). Elevated blood lead levels have been found in released birds, and a number of birds have died of lead poisoning. In earlier work, we dosed turkey vultures (Cathartes aura) with lead shot but found them to be a poor model for lead poisoning. In this study, we dosed four Andean condors (Vultur gryphus) with lead shot and found them to be quite sensitive, as two of the birds died and the other two exhibit signs of lead poisoning within 50 days. All lead-responsive parameters were affected, and regurgitation of dosed shot occurred only once. The response of the Andean condors appeared to mimic California condors, suggesting that once exposed to lead, the possibility of survival is poor. This is consistent with observations in the wild, where otherwise healthy birds exposed to metallic lead quickly succumb. At the very least, the release program has to maintain constant surveillance and an active lead monitoring program.

  2. Seroepidemiologic Survey of Potential Pathogens in Obligate and Facultative Scavenging Avian Species in California

    PubMed Central

    Straub, Mary H.; Kelly, Terra R.; Rideout, Bruce A.; Eng, Curtis; Wynne, Janna; Braun, Josephine; Johnson, Christine K.

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the world, populations of scavenger birds are declining rapidly with some populations already on the brink of extinction. Much of the current research into the factors contributing to these declines has focused on exposure to drug residues, lead, and other toxins. Despite increased monitoring of these declining populations, little is known about infectious diseases affecting scavenger bird species. To assess potential infectious disease risks to both obligate and facultative scavenger bird species, we performed a serosurvey for eleven potential pathogens in three species of scavenging birds in California: the California condor (Gymnogyps californianus), turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) and golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos). California condors were seropositive for avian adenovirus, infectious bronchitis virus, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, avian paramyxovirus-2, West Nile virus (WNV) and Toxoplasma gondii. Golden eagles were seropositive for avian adenovirus, Chlamydophila psittaci and Toxoplasma gondii, and turkey vultures were seropositive for avian adenovirus, Chlamydophila psittaci, avian paramyxovirus-1, Toxoplasma gondii and WNV. Risk factor analyses indicated that rearing site and original release location were significantly associated with a positive serologic titer to WNV among free-flying condors. This study provides preliminary baseline data on infectious disease exposure in these populations for aiding in early disease detection and provides potentially critical information for conservation of the endangered California condor as it continues to expand its range and encounter new infectious disease threats. PMID:26606755

  3. Abundance of litter on Condor seamount (Azores, Portugal, Northeast Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, C. K.; Gomes-Pereira, J. N.; Isidro, E. J.; Santos, R. S.; Morato, T.

    2013-12-01

    Marine litter is an emerging problem for the world's ocean health but little is known on its distribution and abundance on seamounts and how it affects deep-sea ecosystems. The scientific underwater laboratory set up on Condor seamount offered an ideal case study for the first documentation of litter distribution on a shallow seamount with historical fishing. A total of 48 video transects deployed on the summit (n=45) and the northern flank (n=3) covered an area of 0.031 and 0.025km2, respectively, revealing 55 litter items. Litter density on the summit was 1439 litter items km-2, whilst on the deeper northern flank, estimates indicate densities of 397 litter items km-2. Lost fishing line was the dominant litter item encountered on both areas (73% of total litter on the summit and 50% on northern flank), all being entirely or partly entangled in the locally abundant gorgonians Dentomuricea cf. meteor and Viminella flagellum. Other items included lost weights, anchors and glass bottles. The predominance of lost fishing gear identifies the source of litter on Condor seamount as exclusively ocean-based and related to fishing activities. Abundance of litter on the Condor seamount was much lower than that reported from other locations closer to populated areas.

  4. Feasibility of a portable X-ray fluorescence device for bone lead measurements of condor bones.

    PubMed

    Specht, Aaron J; Parish, Chris N; Wallens, Emma K; Watson, Rick T; Nie, Linda H; Weisskopf, Marc G

    2018-02-15

    Lead based ammunition is a primary source of lead exposure, especially for scavenging wildlife. Lead poisoning remains the leading cause of diagnosed death for the critically endangered California condors, which are annually monitored via blood tests for lead exposure. The results of these tests are helpful in determining recent exposure in condors and in defining the potential for exposure to other species including humans. Since condors are victim to acute and chronic lead exposure, being able to measure both would lend valuable information on the rates of exposure and accumulation through time. A commercial portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) device has been optimized to measure bone lead in vivo in humans, but this device could also be valuable for field measurements of bone lead in avian species. In this study, we performed measurements of bone Pb in excised, bare condor bones using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), a cadmium 109 (Cd-109) K-shell X-ray fluorescence (KXRF) system, and a portable XRF system. Both KXRF and portable XRF bone Pb measurement techniques demonstrated good correlations with ICP-MS results (r=0.93 and r=0.92 respectively), even with increasing skin thickness (r=0.86 between ICP-MS and portable XRF at 1.54mm of soft tissue). In conclusion, our results suggest that a portable XRF could be a useful option for measurement of bone Pb in avian species in the field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Population dynamics of the California spotted owl in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Treesearch

    J.A. Blakesley; M.E. Seamans; M.M. Connor; A.B. Franklin; G.C. White; R.J. Gutierrez; J.E. Hines; J.D. Nichols; T.E. Munton; D.W.H. Shaw; J.J. Keane; G.N. Steger; T.L. McDonald

    2010-01-01

    The California spotted owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) is the only spotted owl subspecies not listed as threatened or endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act despite petitions to list it as threatened. We conducted a meta-analysis of population data for 4 populations in the southern Cascades and Sierra Nevada, California,...

  6. Condor-COPASI: high-throughput computing for biochemical networks

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mathematical modelling has become a standard technique to improve our understanding of complex biological systems. As models become larger and more complex, simulations and analyses require increasing amounts of computational power. Clusters of computers in a high-throughput computing environment can help to provide the resources required for computationally expensive model analysis. However, exploiting such a system can be difficult for users without the necessary expertise. Results We present Condor-COPASI, a server-based software tool that integrates COPASI, a biological pathway simulation tool, with Condor, a high-throughput computing environment. Condor-COPASI provides a web-based interface, which makes it extremely easy for a user to run a number of model simulation and analysis tasks in parallel. Tasks are transparently split into smaller parts, and submitted for execution on a Condor pool. Result output is presented to the user in a number of formats, including tables and interactive graphical displays. Conclusions Condor-COPASI can effectively use a Condor high-throughput computing environment to provide significant gains in performance for a number of model simulation and analysis tasks. Condor-COPASI is free, open source software, released under the Artistic License 2.0, and is suitable for use by any institution with access to a Condor pool. Source code is freely available for download at http://code.google.com/p/condor-copasi/, along with full instructions on deployment and usage. PMID:22834945

  7. An American Laboratory: Population Growth and Environmental Quality in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Describes the cumulative impact of rapid population growth, industrial and military activity, agriculture, and motor vehicles on California's environmental and social fabric. Discusses these problems in California as a forecast for the nation and test to consensus-based U.S. representative government. (Author/ MCO)

  8. DEMOGRAPHY AND SPATIAL POPULATION STRUCTURE IN CALIFORNIA TIGER SALAMANDER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although the causes of many amphibian declines remain mysterious, there is general agreement that human habitat alteration represents the greatest threat to amphibian populations. In January 2000 the US Fish and Wildlife Service proposed listing Santa Barbara County California Ti...

  9. The California Health Interview Survey 2001: translation of a major survey for California's multiethnic population.

    PubMed

    Ponce, Ninez A; Lavarreda, Shana Alex; Yen, Wei; Brown, E Richard; DiSogra, Charles; Satter, Delight E

    2004-01-01

    The cultural and linguistic diversity of the U.S. population presents challenges to the design and implementation of population-based surveys that serve to inform public policies. Information derived from such surveys may be less than representative if groups with limited or no English language skills are not included. The California Health Interview Survey (CHIS), first administered in 2001, is a population-based health survey of more than 55,000 California households. This article describes the process that the designers of CHIS 2001 underwent in culturally adapting the survey and translating it into an unprecedented number of languages: Spanish, Chinese, Vietnamese, Korean, and Khmer. The multiethnic and multilingual CHIS 2001 illustrates the importance of cultural and linguistic adaptation in raising the quality of population-based surveys, especially when the populations they intend to represent are as diverse as California's.

  10. Chapter 33: Offshore Population Estimates of Marbled Murrelets in California

    Treesearch

    C. John Ralph; Sherri L. Miller

    1995-01-01

    We devised a method of estimating population size of Marbled Murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus) found in California’s offshore waters. The method involves determining the distribution of birds from the shore outward to 6,000 m offshore. Applying this distribution to data from boat surveys, we derived population estimates and estimates of sampling...

  11. California's population geography: lessons for a fourth grade class.

    PubMed

    Rushdoony, H A

    1978-11-01

    Purpose of this paper is to present a model for teaching fourth grade children some aspects of the population geography of California from a nontextual approach. The objective is to interest and instruct children in the mobility of the people, and on the reasons why so many families have moved to California from other states. Students should be alerted not only to internal migration problems, but to the excess of births over deaths. Materials necessary for the lessons are transparencies, overhead projector, marking pencils, chalk and chalkboard. After showing the students that California population has approximately doubled every 20 years, the students should be encouraged to find reasons explaining why people have moved to the state, should be able to categorize those reasons under the terms industrial/manufacturing, agricultural, urban or recreational, should learn how to plot population distribution on a California regional outline map, and should attempt to explain why certain parts of California are more popular than others. The teaching model described in this paper may be replicated with modfications for any grade level and area of study.

  12. Pesticides and Population Declines of California Alpine Frogs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne pesticides from the Central Valley of California have been implicated as a cause for population declines of several amphibian species, with the strongest evidence for the mountain yellow-legged frog complex (Rana muscosa and R. sierrae) in the Sierra Nevada. We measured ...

  13. Impact of the California lead ammunition ban on reducing lead exposure in golden eagles and turkey vultures.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Terra R; Bloom, Peter H; Torres, Steve G; Hernandez, Yvette Z; Poppenga, Robert H; Boyce, Walter M; Johnson, Christine K

    2011-04-06

    Predatory and scavenging birds may be exposed to high levels of lead when they ingest shot or bullet fragments embedded in the tissues of animals injured or killed with lead ammunition. Lead poisoning was a contributing factor in the decline of the endangered California condor population in the 1980s, and remains one of the primary factors threatening species recovery. In response to this threat, a ban on the use of lead ammunition for most hunting activities in the range of the condor in California was implemented in 2008. Monitoring of lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds is essential for assessing the effectiveness of the lead ammunition ban in reducing lead exposure in these species. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of the regulation in decreasing blood lead concentration in two avian sentinels, golden eagles and turkey vultures, within the condor range in California. We compared blood lead concentration in golden eagles and turkey vultures prior to the lead ammunition ban and one year following implementation of the ban. Lead exposure in both golden eagles and turkey vultures declined significantly post-ban. Our findings provide evidence that hunter compliance with lead ammunition regulations was sufficient to reduce lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds at our study sites.

  14. Impact of the California Lead Ammunition Ban on Reducing Lead Exposure in Golden Eagles and Turkey Vultures

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Terra R.; Bloom, Peter H.; Torres, Steve G.; Hernandez, Yvette Z.; Poppenga, Robert H.; Boyce, Walter M.; Johnson, Christine K.

    2011-01-01

    Predatory and scavenging birds may be exposed to high levels of lead when they ingest shot or bullet fragments embedded in the tissues of animals injured or killed with lead ammunition. Lead poisoning was a contributing factor in the decline of the endangered California condor population in the 1980s, and remains one of the primary factors threatening species recovery. In response to this threat, a ban on the use of lead ammunition for most hunting activities in the range of the condor in California was implemented in 2008. Monitoring of lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds is essential for assessing the effectiveness of the lead ammunition ban in reducing lead exposure in these species. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of the regulation in decreasing blood lead concentration in two avian sentinels, golden eagles and turkey vultures, within the condor range in California. We compared blood lead concentration in golden eagles and turkey vultures prior to the lead ammunition ban and one year following implementation of the ban. Lead exposure in both golden eagles and turkey vultures declined significantly post-ban. Our findings provide evidence that hunter compliance with lead ammunition regulations was sufficient to reduce lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds at our study sites. PMID:21494329

  15. Reproduction, abundance, and population growth for a fisher (Pekania pennanti) population in the Sierra National Forest, California

    Treesearch

    Rick A. Sweitzer; Viorel D. Popescu; Reginald H. Barrett; Kathryn L. Purcell; Craig M. Thompson

    2015-01-01

    In the west coast region of the United States, fishers (Pekania pennanti) exist in 2 remnant populations—1 in northern California and 1 in the southern Sierra Nevada, California—and 3 reintroduced populations (western Washington, southern Oregon, and northeastern California). The West Coast Distinct Population Segment of fishers encompassing all of...

  16. Repeated conservation threats across the Americas: High levels of blood and bone lead in the Andean Condor widen the problem to a continental scale.

    PubMed

    Wiemeyer, Guillermo M; Pérez, Miguel A; Torres Bianchini, Laura; Sampietro, Luciano; Bravo, Guillermo F; Jácome, N Luis; Astore, Vanesa; Lambertucci, Sergio A

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife lead exposure is an increasing conservation threat that is being widely investigated. However, for some areas of the world (e.g., South America) and certain species, research on this subject is still scarce or only local information is available. We analyzed the extent and intensity of lead exposure for a widely distributed threatened species, the Andean Condor (Vultur gryphus). We conducted the study at two different scales: 1) sampling of birds received for rehabilitation or necropsy in Argentina, and 2) bibliographic review and extensive survey considering exposure event for the species' distribution in South America. Wild condors from Argentina (n = 76) presented high lead levels consistent with both recent and previous exposure (up to 104 μg/dL blood level, mean 15.47 ± 21.21 μg/dL and up to 148.20 ppm bone level, mean 23.08 ± 31.39 ppm). In contrast, captive bred individuals -not exposed to lead contamination- had much lower lead levels (mean blood level 5.63 ± 3.08 μg/dL, and mean bone level 2.76 ± 3.06 ppm). Condors were exposed to lead throughout their entire range in continental Argentina, which represents almost sixty percent (>4000 km) of their geographical distribution. We also present evidence of lead exposure events in Chile, Ecuador, and Peru. Lead poisoning is a widespread major conservation threat for the Andean Condor, and probably other sympatric carnivores from South America. The high number and wide range of Andean Condors with lead values complement the results for the California Condor and other scavengers in North America suggesting lead poisoning is a continental threat. Urgent actions are needed to reduce this poison in the wild. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Population genetic structure of the round stingray Urobatis halleri (Elasmobranchii: Rajiformes) in southern California and the Gulf of California

    PubMed Central

    Plank, S. M.; Lowe, C. G.; Feldheim, K. A.; Wilson, R. R.; Brusslan, J. A.

    2017-01-01

    The round stingray, Urobatis halleri, is a viviparous elasmobranch that inhabits inshore, benthic habitats ranging from the western U.S.A. to Panama. The population genetic structure of this species was inferred with seven polymorphic microsatellite loci in samples collected at three sites in coastal southern California, one near Santa Catalina Island, California and one in the eastern Gulf of California. Urobatis halleri is relatively common, but little is known of its movement patterns or population structure. Small FST values (−0·0017 to 0·0005) suggested little structure among coastal populations of southern and Baja California. The population sampled at Santa Catalina Island, which is separated by a deep-water channel from the coastal sites, however, was significantly divergent (large FST, 0·0251) from the other populations, suggesting low connectivity with coastal populations. The Santa Catalina Island population also had the lowest allele richness and lowest average heterozygosity, suggesting recent population bottlenecks in size. PMID:20646159

  18. Synchronous population dynamics in California butterflies explained by climatic forcing

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Arthur M.

    2017-01-01

    A long-standing challenge for population biology has been to understand why some species are characterized by populations that fluctuate in size independently, while populations of other species fluctuate synchronously across space. The effects of climatic variation and dispersal have been invoked to explain synchronous population dynamics, however an understanding of the relative influence of these drivers in natural populations is lacking. Here we compare support for dispersal- versus climate-driven models of interspecific variation in synchrony using 27 years of observations of 65 butterfly species at 10 sites spanning 2750 m of elevation in Northern California. The degree of spatial synchrony exhibited by each butterfly species was used as a response in a unique approach that allowed us to investigate whether interspecific variation in response to climate or dispersal propensity was most predictive of interspecific variation in synchrony. We report that variation in sensitivity to climate explained 50% of interspecific variation in synchrony, whereas variation in dispersal propensity explained 23%. Sensitivity to the El Niño Southern Oscillation, a primary driver of regional climate, was the best predictor of synchrony. Combining sensitivity to climate and dispersal propensity into a single model did not greatly increase model performance, confirming the primacy of climatic sensitivity for driving spatial synchrony in butterflies. Finally, we uncovered a relationship between spatial synchrony and population decline that is consistent with theory, but small in magnitude, which suggests that the degree to which populations fluctuate in synchrony is of limited use for understanding the ongoing decline of the Northern California butterfly fauna. PMID:28791146

  19. Quantifying the direct use value of Condor seamount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ressurreição, Adriana; Giacomello, Eva

    2013-12-01

    Seamounts often satisfy numerous uses and interests. Multiple uses can generate multiple benefits but also conflicts and impacts, calling, therefore, for integrated and sustainable management. To assist in developing comprehensive management strategies, policymakers recognise the need to include measures of socioeconomic analysis alongside ecological data so that practical compromises can be made. This study assessed the direct output impact (DOI) of the relevant marine activities operating at Condor seamount (Azores, central northeast Atlantic) as proxies of the direct use values provided by the resource system. Results demonstrated that Condor seamount supported a wide range of uses yielding distinct economic outputs. Demersal fisheries, scientific research and shark diving were the top-three activities generating the highest revenues, while tuna fisheries, whale watching and scuba-diving had marginal economic significance. Results also indicated that the economic importance of non-extractive uses of Condor is considerable, highlighting the importance of these uses as alternative income-generating opportunities for local communities. It is hoped that quantifying the direct use values provided by Condor seamount will contribute to the decision making process towards its long-term conservation and sustainable use.

  20. Pesticides and amphibian population declines in California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, Donald W.; Fellers, Gary M.; McConnell, Laura L.

    2001-01-01

    Several species of anuran amphibians have undergone drastic population declines in the western United States over the last 10 to 15 years. In California, the most severe declines are in the Sierra Mountains east of the Central Valley and downwind of the intensely agricultural San Joaquin Valley. In contrast, coastal and more northern populations across from the less agrarian Sacramento Valley are stable or declining less precipitously. In this article, we provide evidence that pesticides are instrumental in declines of these species. Using Hyla regilla as a sentinel species, we found that cholinesterase (ChE) activity in tadpoles was depressed in mountainous areas east of the Central Valley compared with sites along the coast or north of the Valley. Cholinesterase was also lower in areas where ranid population status was poor or moderate compared with areas with good ranid status. Up to 50% of the sampled population in areas with reduced ChE had detectable organophosphorus residues, with concentrations as high as 190 ppb wet weight. In addition, up to 86% of some populations had measurable endosulfan concentrations and 40% had detectable 4,4'- dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, 4,4'-DDT, and 2,4'-DDT residues.

  1. Climate change and the northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) population in Baja California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    García-Aguilar, María C; Turrent, Cuauhtémoc; Elorriaga-Verplancken, Fernando R; Arias-Del-Razo, Alejandro; Schramm, Yolanda

    2018-01-01

    The Earth's climate is warming, especially in the mid- and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. The northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) breeds and haul-outs on islands and the mainland of Baja California, Mexico, and California, U.S.A. At the beginning of the 21st century, numbers of elephant seals in California are increasing, but the status of Baja California populations is unknown, and some data suggest they may be decreasing. We hypothesize that the elephant seal population of Baja California is experiencing a decline because the animals are not migrating as far south due to warming sea and air temperatures. Here we assessed population trends of the Baja California population, and climate change in the region. The numbers of northern elephant seals in Baja California colonies have been decreasing since the 1990s, and both the surface waters off Baja California and the local air temperatures have warmed during the last three decades. We propose that declining population sizes may be attributable to decreased migration towards the southern portions of the range in response to the observed temperature increases. Further research is needed to confirm our hypothesis; however, if true, it would imply that elephant seal colonies of Baja California and California are not demographically isolated which would pose challenges to environmental and management policies between Mexico and the United States.

  2. Population distribution and trends of California spotted owls

    Treesearch

    Douglas J. Tempel; R.J. Gutiérrez; M. Zachariah Peery

    2017-01-01

    Following Verner et al.’s (1992) technical assessment of the California spotted owl (CASPO), we divided the range of the California spotted owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) into two major physiographic provinces: the Sierra Nevada and the mountains of southern California (Tehachapi Pass was the demarcation between the regions). Verner et al. (...

  3. Population diversity and evidence of introgression among the black oaks of California

    Treesearch

    Richard S. Dodd; Nasser Kashani; Zara Afzal-Rafii

    2002-01-01

    The black oaks of California include 4 tree species (California black oak, coast live oak, Shreve oak, interior live oak) that are known to hybridize. Complex patterns of population variation within each species are likely to result from these hybrid combinations and from subsequent introgressions. We have been studying population variation using biochemical and...

  4. Movements of radio-marked California Ridgway's rails during monitoring surveys: Implications for population monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bui, Thuy-Vy D.; Takekawa, John Y.; Overton, Cory T.; Schultz, Emily R.; Hull, Joshua M.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    The California Ridgway's rail Rallus obsoletus obsoletus (hereafter California rail) is a secretive marsh bird endemic to tidal marshes in the San Francisco Bay (hereafter bay) of California. The California rail has undergone significant range contraction and population declines due to a variety of factors, including predation and the degradation and loss of habitat. Call-count surveys, which include call playbacks, based on the standardized North American marsh bird monitoring protocol have been conducted throughout the bay since 2005 to monitor population size and distribution of the California rail. However, call-count surveys are difficult to evaluate for efficacy or accuracy. To measure the accuracy of call-count surveys and investigate whether radio-marked California rails moved in response to call-count surveys, we compared locations of radio-marked California rails collected at frequent intervals (15 min) to California rail detections recorded during call-count surveys conducted over the same time periods. Overall, 60% of radio-marked California rails within 200 m of observers were not detected during call-count surveys. Movements of radio-marked California rails showed no directional bias (P = 0.92) irrespective of whether or not playbacks of five marsh bird species (including the California rail) were broadcast from listening stations. Our findings suggest that playbacks of rail vocalizations do not consistently influence California rail movements during surveys. However, call-count surveys may underestimate California rail presence; therefore, caution should be used when relating raw numbers of call-count detections to population abundance.

  5. Mucosal melanomas in the racially diverse population of California.

    PubMed

    Altieri, Lisa; Wong, Michael K; Peng, David H; Cockburn, Myles

    2017-02-01

    Mucosal melanomas are rare, poorly understood neoplasms without a consensus standard of care. We sought to define mucosal melanoma tumor characteristics and the racial/ethnic attributes of patients with mucosal melanomas. We analyzed 130,920 cutaneous melanomas and 1919 mucosal melanomas recorded in the population-based California Cancer Registry from 1988 to 2013. Although only 1% of melanomas occurring in nonHispanic whites were mucosal, other racial/ethnic groups had a higher proportion of mucosal melanomas (15% for Asian/Pacific Islanders, 9% for nonHispanic blacks, and 4% for Hispanics). Anorectal mucosal melanomas were most common in female Asian/Pacific Islanders, whereas genitourinary mucosal melanomas were highest in nonHispanic whites, and head and neck tumors were most common among Hispanics. Stage at presentation was not uniform among racial/ethnic groups, with Asian/Pacific Islanders having the highest rates of metastasis. The lack of a standardized staging system for mucosal melanomas confounds classification and knowledge regarding metastasis. Small sample size limits comparative analysis across race, stage, site, and depth. Mucosal melanomas differ by race/ethnicity with regard to anatomic site, stage, and depth. Because early detection offers the best chance of increased survival, greater awareness will aid clinicians who care for patients at risk for these aggressive tumors. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Proceedings of the Convocation on Providing Public Library Service to California's 21st Century Population (Sacramento, California, May 22-23, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Shelly G., Ed.

    The California State Library convened the Convocation on Providing Public Library Service to California's 21st Century Population with the goal of creating a vision of public library service in California. Over 100 library leaders and supporters gathered for two days of meetings and work sessions. These proceedings are designed to give a detailed…

  7. Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Risk Behaviors among California Farmworkers: Results from a Population-Based Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brammeier, Monique; Chow, Joan M.; Samuel, Michael C.; Organista, Kurt C.; Miller, Jamie; Bolan, Gail

    2008-01-01

    Context: The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers is not well described. Purpose: To estimate the prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and associated risk behaviors among California farmworkers. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of population-based survey data from 6…

  8. California's Changing Face: The Challenge Ahead. Future in Focus, 2000-2025: Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan-Rice, Pamela, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Part of a series on California's future through 2025, this theme issue of California Agriculture examines how demographic changes and increased ethnic diversity will affect the state's agriculture, economy, and educational system. Research articles are: "Immigration, High Fertility Fuel State's Population Growth" (William A. V. Clark);…

  9. Population dynamics of spotted owls in the Sierra Nevada, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blakesley, J.A.; Seamans, M.E.; Conner, M.M.; Franklin, A.B.; White, Gary C.; Gutierrez, R.J.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Munton, T.E.; Shaw, D.W.H.; Keane, J.J.; Steger, G.N.; McDonald, T.L.

    2010-01-01

    The California spotted owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) is the only spotted owl subspecies not listed as threatened or endangered under the United States Endangered Species Act despite petitions to list it as threatened. We conducted a meta-analysis of population data for 4 populations in the southern Cascades and Sierra Nevada, California, USA, from 1990 to 2005 to assist a listing evaluation by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Our study areas (from N to S) were on the Lassen National Forest (LAS), Eldorado National Forest (ELD), Sierra National Forest (SIE), and Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks (SKC). These study areas represented a broad spectrum of habitat and management conditions in these mountain ranges. We estimated apparent survival probability, reproductive output, and rate of population change for spotted owls on individual study areas and for all study areas combined (meta-analysis) using model selection or model-averaging based on maximum-likelihood estimation. We followed a formal protocol to conduct this analysis that was similar to other spotted owl meta-analyses. Consistency of field and analytical methods among our studies reduced confounding methodological effects when evaluating results. We used 991 marked spotted owls in the analysis of apparent survival. Apparent survival probability was higher for adult than for subadult owls. There was little difference in apparent survival between male and female owls. Model-averaged mean estimates of apparent survival probability of adult owls varied from 0.811 ?? 0.021 for females at LAS to 0.890 ?? 0.016 for males at SKC. Apparent survival increased over time for owls of all age classes at LAS and SIE, for adults at ELD, and for second-year subadults and adults at SKC. The meta-analysis of apparent survival, which included only adult owls, confirmed an increasing trend in survival over time. Survival rates were higher for owls on SKC than on the other study areas. We analyzed data

  10. JavaGenes and Condor: Cycle-Scavenging Genetic Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Al; Langhirt, Eric; Livny, Miron; Ramamurthy, Ravishankar; Soloman, Marvin; Traugott, Steve

    2000-01-01

    A genetic algorithm code, JavaGenes, was written in Java and used to evolve pharmaceutical drug molecules and digital circuits. JavaGenes was run under the Condor cycle-scavenging batch system managing 100-170 desktop SGI workstations. Genetic algorithms mimic biological evolution by evolving solutions to problems using crossover and mutation. While most genetic algorithms evolve strings or trees, JavaGenes evolves graphs representing (currently) molecules and circuits. Java was chosen as the implementation language because the genetic algorithm requires random splitting and recombining of graphs, a complex data structure manipulation with ample opportunities for memory leaks, loose pointers, out-of-bound indices, and other hard to find bugs. Java garbage-collection memory management, lack of pointer arithmetic, and array-bounds index checking prevents these bugs from occurring, substantially reducing development time. While a run-time performance penalty must be paid, the only unacceptable performance we encountered was using standard Java serialization to checkpoint and restart the code. This was fixed by a two-day implementation of custom checkpointing. JavaGenes is minimally integrated with Condor; in other words, JavaGenes must do its own checkpointing and I/O redirection. A prototype Java-aware version of Condor was developed using standard Java serialization for checkpointing. For the prototype to be useful, standard Java serialization must be significantly optimized. JavaGenes is approximately 8700 lines of code and a few thousand JavaGenes jobs have been run. Most jobs ran for a few days. Results include proof that genetic algorithms can evolve directed and undirected graphs, development of a novel crossover operator for graphs, a paper in the journal Nanotechnology, and another paper in preparation.

  11. Simplified Virtualization in a HEP/NP Environment with Condor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strecker-Kellogg, W.; Caramarcu, C.; Hollowell, C.; Wong, T.

    2012-12-01

    In this work we will address the development of a simple prototype virtualized worker node cluster, using Scientific Linux 6.x as a base OS, KVM and the libvirt API for virtualization, and the Condor batch software to manage virtual machines. The discussion in this paper provides details on our experience with building, configuring, and deploying the various components from bare metal, including the base OS, creation and distribution of the virtualized OS images and the integration of batch services with the virtual machines. Our focus was on simplicity and interoperability with our existing architecture.

  12. Vicariance and dispersal across Baja California in disjunct marine fish populations.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Giacomo; Findley, Lloyd; Rocha-Olivares, Axayacatl

    2003-07-01

    Population disjunctions, as a first step toward complete allopatry, present an interesting situation to study incipient speciation. The geological formation of the Baja California Peninsula currently divides 19 species of fish into disjunct populations that are found on its Pacific Coast and in the northern part of the Gulf of California (also called the Sea of Cortez), but are absent from the Cape (Cabo San Lucas) region. We studied the genetic makeup of disjunct populations for 12 of these 19 fish species. Phylogeographic patterns for the 12 species can be separated into two major classes: a first group (eight species) showed reciprocal monophyly and high genetic divergence between disjunct populations. A second group (four species) displayed what appeared to be panmictic populations. Population structure between Pacific Coast populations, across the Punta Eugenia biogeographic boundary, was also evaluated. While dispersal potential (inferred by pelagic larval duration) was a poor predictor of population structure between Gulf of California and Pacific populations, we found that population genetic subdivision along the Pacific Coast at Punta Eugenia was always positively correlated with differentiation between Pacific and Gulf of California populations. Vicariant events, ongoing gene flow, and ecological characteristics played essential roles in shaping the population structures observed in this study.

  13. Osprey distribution, abundance, and status in western North America: III. The Baja California and Gulf of California population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Anderson, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    -An estimated 810 ? 55 pairs (minimum estimate) of ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) were nesting in the study area during our survey (24 March-l April 1977). Approximately 174 pairs nested along the Pacific side of Baja California, 255 pairs along the gulf side, 187 pairs on the Midriff Islands, and 194 pairs in coastal Sonora and Sinaloa. Most nested on cliffs adjacent to the sea (59%); some nested on cactus in flat terrain (26%). Seven per cent nested on the ground, three percent nested in mangroves and other trees in the southern portion of the study area,.and four percent nested on man-made structures. The extreme northwestern Baja California population that was extirpated early in this century has not recovered. However, several populations immediately to the south along the Pacific Coast now appear stationary. Pesticide residues in osprey eggs from Mexico were among the lowest reported for the species in North America.

  14. Monitoring Martes populations in California: survey design and power analysis

    Treesearch

    William J. Zielinski; Howard B. Stauffer

    1996-01-01

    Fishers (Martes pennanti) and American martens (M. americana) have been protected from trapping in California since the mid-1900s, yet in portions of each of their historic ranges their numbers are extremely low, perhaps due to the effects of timber harvest. We propose a method capable of detecting declines in the occurrence and...

  15. AIRBORNE PESTICIDES AND POPULATION DECLINES OF A CALIFORNIA ALPINE FROG

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mountain yellow-legged frog (Rana muscosa) has disappeared from most of its historic localities in the Sierra Nevada of California, and airborne pesticides from the Central Valley have been implicated as a causal agent. To determine the distribution and temporal variation of ...

  16. California.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1991-08-01

    On January 1, 1990 California lowered the allowable blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at which it is illegal to drive from 0.10 to 0.08. On July 1, 1990 California also implemented an Administrative Per Be (also known as Administrative License . Revo...

  17. Population dynamics of the deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) and Sin Nombre Virus, California Channel Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, T.B.; Chomel, B.B.

    1997-01-01

    Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, first documented in 1993, is caused by Sin Nombre virus (SNV), which is carried by the Peromyscus species. In 1994, high SNV antibody prevalence was identified in deer mice from two California Channel Islands. We sampled two locations on three islands to estimate mouse population density and SNV prevalence. Population flux and SNV prevalence appear to vary independently.

  18. Population Trends and Management of the Bank Swallow (Riparia riparia) on the Sacramento River, California

    Treesearch

    Barrett A. Garrison; Ronald W. Schlorff; Joan M. Humphrey; Stephen A. Laymon; Frank J. Michny

    1989-01-01

    Annual monitoring of Bank Swallows (Riparia riparia) along the Sacramento River, California has been conducted since 1986 to determine population trends, evaluate impacts from bank protection and flood control projects, and implement and monitor mitigation efforts. The population of Bank Swallows in a 50-mile river reach remained static over 3...

  19. Electric field measurements during the Condor critical velocity experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, M. C.; Pfaff, R. F.; Haerendel, G.

    1986-01-01

    The instrumentation of the Condor critical velocity Ba experiment (Wescott et al., 1986) for the measurements of the energetic particles and the electric field associated with a Ba explosion is described. The Ba explosion created a complex electric field pulse detected in situ by a single-axis double electric-field probe on a separate spacecraft. The measurements provide evidence of several important links in the critical-velocity chain, and are consistent with two hypotheses. The first hypothesis involves the creation of large polarization electric field due to charge separation; the second hypothesis implies a polarization of the beam by currents flowing across it. The chain of physical processes inferred from the observations is in agreement with most theories for the Alfven process.

  20. CONDOR: Long endurance high altitude vehicle, volume 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, L. Cullen; Augsburger, Bill; Cote, Thomas; Ghitea, Mihael; Lee, Il Sik; Lee, Susik; Leong, Gary

    1988-01-01

    The results of a design study resulting in the proposed CONDOR aircraft are presented. The basic requirements are for the aircraft to maintain continuous altitude at or above 45,000 feet for at least a 3-day mission, be able to comfortably support a two-man crew during this period with their field of vision not obstructed to a significant degree, carry a payload of 200 pounds, and provide a power supply to the payload of 2000 watts. The take-off and landing distances must be below 5000. feet, and time to reach cruise altitude must not exceed 3 hours. The subjects discussed are configuration selection, structural analysis, stability and control, crew and payload accomodations, and economic estimates.

  1. A discrete stage-structured model of California newt population dynamics during a period of drought.

    PubMed

    Jones, Marjorie T; Milligan, William R; Kats, Lee B; Vandergon, Thomas L; Honeycutt, Rodney L; Fisher, Robert N; Davis, Courtney L; Lucas, Timothy A

    2017-02-07

    We introduce a mathematical model for studying the population dynamics under drought of the California newt (Taricha torosa), a species of special concern in the state of California. Since 2012, California has experienced a record-setting drought, and multiple studies predict drought conditions currently underway will persist and even increase in severity. Recent declines and local extinctions of California newt populations in Santa Monica Mountain streams motivate our study of the impact of drought on newt population sizes. Although newts are terrestrial salamanders, they migrate to streams each spring to breed and lay eggs. Since egg and larval stages occur in water, a precipitation deficit due to drought conditions reduces the space for newt egg-laying and the necessary habitat for larval development. To mathematically forecast newt population dynamics, we develop a nonlinear system of discrete equations that includes demographic parameters such as survival rates for newt life stages and egg production, which depend on habitat availability and rainfall. We estimate these demographic parameters using 15 years of stream survey data collected from Cold Creek in Los Angeles County, California, and our model captures the observed decline of the parameterized Cold Creek newt population. Based upon data analysis, we predict how the number of available newt egg-laying sites varies with annual precipitation. Our model allows us to make predictions about how the length and severity of drought can affect the likelihood of persistence and the time to critical endangerment of a local newt population. We predict that sustained severe drought will critically endanger the newt population but that the newt population can rebound if a drought is sufficiently short. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A discrete stage-structured model of California newt population dynamics during a period of drought

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Marjorie T.; Milligan, William R.; Kats, Lee B.; Vandergon, Thomas L.; Honeycutt, Rodney L.; Fisher, Robert N.; Davis, Courtney L.; Lucas, Timothy A.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a mathematical model for studying the population dynamics under drought of the California newt (Taricha torosa), a species of special concern in the state of California. Since 2012, California has experienced a record-setting drought, and multiple studies predict drought conditions currently underway will persist and even increase in severity. Recent declines and local extinctions of California newt populations in Santa Monica Mountain streams motivate our study of the impact of drought on newt population sizes. Although newts are terrestrial salamanders, they migrate to streams each spring to breed and lay eggs. Since egg and larval stages occur in water, a precipitation deficit due to drought conditions reduces the space for newt egg-laying and the necessary habitat for larval development. To mathematically forecast newt population dynamics, we develop a nonlinear system of discrete equations that includes demographic parameters such as survival rates for newt life stages and egg production, which depend on habitat availability and rainfall. We estimate these demographic parameters using 15 years of stream survey data collected from Cold Creek in Los Angeles County, California, and our model captures the observed decline of the parameterized Cold Creek newt population. Based upon data analysis, we predict how the number of available newt egg-laying sites varies with annual precipitation. Our model allows us to make predictions about how the length and severity of drought can affect the likelihood of persistence and the time to critical endangerment of a local newt population. We predict that sustained severe drought will critically endanger the newt population but that the newt population can rebound if a drought is sufficiently short.

  3. County-level analysis of the impact of temperature and population increases on California wildfire data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baltar, M.; Keeley, Jon E.; Schoenberg, F.P.

    2013-01-01

    The extent to which the apparent increase in wildfire incidence and burn area in California from 1990 to 2006 is affected by population and temperature increases is examined. Using generalized linear models with random effects, we focus on the estimated impacts of increases in mean daily temperatures and populations in different counties on wildfire in those counties, after essentially controlling for the overall differences between counties in their overall mean temperatures and populations. We find that temperature increase appears to have a significant positive impact on both total burn area and number of observed wildfires. Population growth appears to have a much less pronounced impact on total burn area than do annual temperature increases, and population growth appears to be negatively correlated with the total number of observed wildfires. These effects are especially pronounced in the winter season and in Southern California counties.

  4. Canine Distemper in an isolated population of fishers (Martes pennanti) from California

    Treesearch

    Stefan m. Keller; Mourad Gabriel; Karen A. Terio; Edward J. Dubovi; Elizabeth Van Wormer; Rick Sweitzer; Reginald Barret; Craig Thompson; Kathryn Purcell; Linda Munson

    2012-01-01

    Four fishers (Martes pennanti) from an insular population in the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, USA died as a consequence of an infection with canine distemper virus (CDV) in 2009. Three fishers were found in close temporal and spatial relationship; the fourth fisher died 4 mo later at a 70 km distance from the initial group. Gross...

  5. Pesticide Distributions and Population Declines of California Alpine Frogs, Rana Muscosa and Rana Sierrae

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atmospherically deposited pesticides from the intensively cultivated Central Valley of California have been implicated as a cause for population declines of several amphibian species, with the strongest evidence for the frogs Rana muscosa and Rana sierrae at high elevation in th...

  6. Psychometric Characteristics of the California Preschool Social Competence Scale in a Spanish Population Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julvez, Jordi; Forns, Maria; Ribas-Fito, Nuria; Mazon, Carlos; Torrent, Maties; Garcia-Esteban, Raquel; Ellison-Loschmann, Lis; Sunyer, Jordi

    2008-01-01

    Research Findings: Few rating scales measure social competence in very young Spanish or Catalan children. We aimed to analyze the psychometric characteristics of the California Preschool Social Competence Scale (CPSCS) when applied to a Spanish- and Catalan-speaking population. Children were rated by their respective teachers within 6 months…

  7. Steelhead of the south-central/southern California coast: Population characterization for recovery planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boughton, David A.; Adams, P.B.; Anderson, E.; Fusaro, Craig; Keller, E.; Kelley, Elsie; Lentsch, Leo; Nielsen, J. L.; Perry, Katie; Regan, Helen; Swift, C.; Watson, Fred

    2006-01-01

    This report by the National Marine Fisheries Service applies a formal evaluation framework to the problem of delineating Oncorhynchus mykiss populations in the South-Central/Southern California Coast recovery domain, in support of recovery planning under the Endangered Species Act.

  8. The Intrusion of Human Population into Forest and Range Lands of California

    Treesearch

    Ted D. Bradshaw

    1987-01-01

    Demographic and economic growth are pushing deeper into California's forest and range lands, making effective fire protection and traditional industrial uses of the land more difficult. Urban forces that will increase the difficulties in the future include: increasing urban population pressures, selective migration, low-priced housing, adequate infrastructure,...

  9. Population genetics and biological control of goldspotted oak borer, an invasive pest of California oaks

    Treesearch

    Vanessa Lopez; Paul F. Rugman-Jones; Tom W. Coleman; Richard Stouthamer; Mark Hoddle

    2015-01-01

    California’s oak woodlands are threatened by the recent introduction of goldspotted oak borer (Agrilus auroguttatus). This invasive wood-borer is indigenous to mountain ranges in southern Arizona where its low population densities may be due to the presence of co-evolved, host-specific natural enemies. Reuniting A. auroguttatus...

  10. HIV/AIDS Misconceptions among Latinos: Findings from a Population-Based Survey of California Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritieni, Assunta; Moskowitz, Joel; Tholandi, Maya

    2008-01-01

    Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS among Latino adults (N=454) in California were examined using data from a population-based telephone survey conducted in 2000. Common misconceptions concerning modes of HIV transmission included transmission via mosquito or animal bite (64.1%), public facilities (48.3%), or kissing someone on the cheek (24.8%). A…

  11. Population genetic structure of a California endemic Branchiopod, Branchinecta sandiegonensis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davies, Cathleen P.; Simovich, Marie A.; Hathaway, Stacie A.

    1997-01-01

    Branchinecta sandiegonensis (Crustacea: Anostraca) is a narrow range endemic fairy shrimp discontinuously distributed in ephemeral pools on coastal mesas in San Diego County, USA. Ten populations across the range of the species were subjected to allozyme analysis for eleven loci. The species exhibits low variability (P95 =9.1–45.5) and one third of the loci tested did not conform to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations. The species also exhibited a high degree of genetic differentiation between populations. F ST values (fixation index) for most pairs of populations were above 0.25 (0.036–0.889).Low genetic variability and high genetic structure may result from low gene flow and founder effects due to habitat fragmentation and the lack of potential vectors for cyst dispersal. The unpredictable rainfall of the region also creates potential for variable population sizes which could affect structure and variability.

  12. Genetic diversity of a newly established population of golden eagles on the Channel Islands, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Coonan, Timothy J.; Latta, Brian C.; Sage, George K.; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Gene flow can have profound effects on the genetic diversity of a founding population depending on the number and relationship among colonizers and the duration of the colonization event. Here we used data from nuclear microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA control region loci to assess genetic diversity in golden eagles of the recently colonized Channel Islands, California. Genetic diversity in the Channel Island population was low, similar to signatures observed for other recent colonizing island populations. Differences in levels of genetic diversity and structure observed between mainland California and the islands suggests that few individuals were involved in the initial founding event, and may have comprised a family group. The spatial genetic structure observed between Channel Island and mainland California golden eagle populations across marker types, and genetic signature of population decline observed for the Channel Island population, suggest a single or relatively quick colonization event. Polarity in gene flow estimates based on mtDNA confirm an initial colonization of the Channel Islands by mainland golden eagles, but estimates from microsatellite data suggest that golden eagles on the islands were dispersing more recently to the mainland, possibly after reaching the carrying capacity of the island system. These results illustrate the strength of founding events on the genetic diversity of a population, and confirm that changes to genetic diversity can occur within just a few generations.

  13. Predatory bird populations in the east Mojave Desert, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knight, R.L.; Camp, R.J.; Boarman, W.I.; Knight, H.A.L.

    1999-01-01

    We surveyed 7 species of predatory birds weekly during a 12-month period (December 1992 through November 1993) in the east Mojave Desert, California. The Common Raven (Corvus corax) was the most frequently observed species with an average of 6.9 sightings per 100 km. Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura), Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), Loggerhead Shrikes (Lanius ludovicianus), American Kestrels (Falco sparverius), Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), and Prairie Falcons (Falco mexicanus) were seen in decreasing order of frequency of observation through the study period. Ravens, Red-tailed Hawks, Loggerhead Shrikes, American Kestrels, and Prairie Falcons were seen throughout the year. Turkey Vultures were not present during winter months, while Golden Eagles were seen only during November and December. Turkey Vultures, Red-tailed Hawks, and ravens were most numerous on agricultural lands, while Loggerhead Shrikes were most Common at urban areas. Raven numbers increased with increasing number of linear rights-of-way parallel to the survey route. Perching was the most common behavior type, although Turkey Vultures and ravens were often observed soaring, flying, or standing on the ground near highways. Transmission powerline towers and telephone poles were used as perch sites disproportionately to availability.

  14. California's Growing Bilingual Population. EL Facts, Number 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumberger, Russell W.

    2003-01-01

    Data from the last two U.S. decennial censuses provide an estimate of the bilingual population. In the 1990 and 2000 censuses, respondents (or parents of children) were asked whether they speak a language other than English at home and, if they do, how well they speak English. Although the data do not reveal how well respondents read and write…

  15. Population structure of Fusarium fujikuroi from California rice and water grass.

    PubMed

    Carter, L L A; Leslie, J F; Webster, R K

    2008-09-01

    The recent observance of Fusarium fujikuroi, the causal agent of Bakanae disease of rice, in California provides a unique opportunity to assess the population diversity of an introduced pathogen in a new environment. We collected 172 isolates of this pathogen between 2000 and 2003 from California rice and two from water grass (Echinochloa spp.). Pathogenicity of F. fujikuroi was demonstrated on early water grass (E. oryzoides) and barnyard grass (E. crus-galli) indicating that weed control should be part of Bakanae management programs. Both mating types and six unique amplified fragment length polymorphism haplotypes corresponding to six identified vegetative compatibility groups were detected. The two most frequently isolated haplotypes encompassed 94% of the collected isolates, suggesting that clonal reproduction dominates. Coefficients of similarity between the unique haplotypes ranged from 0.94 to 0.98, and indicate that there is very little genotypic variation in the F. fujikuroi population in California. The near fixation of the MAT-1 idiomorph (observed ratio 170 MAT-1:4 MAT-2), is consistent with a hypothesis of predominant or exclusive asexual reproduction. The low level of introduced genotypic diversity, in conjunction with the asexual reproductive strategy of this population will slow evolutionary processes, including adaptation to the California environment.

  16. Distribution and movement of Big Spring spinedace (Lepidomeda mollispinis pratensis) in Condor Canyon, Meadow Valley Wash, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jezorek, Ian G.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Big Spring spinedace (Lepidomeda mollispinis pratensis) is a cyprinid whose entire population occurs within a section of Meadow Valley Wash, Nevada. Other spinedace species have suffered population and range declines (one species is extinct). Managers, concerned about the vulnerability of Big Spring spinedace, have considered habitat restoration actions or translocation, but they have lacked data on distribution or habitat use. Our study occurred in an 8.2-km section of Meadow Valley Wash, including about 7.2 km in Condor Canyon and 0.8 km upstream of the canyon. Big Spring spinedace were present upstream of the currently listed critical habitat, including in the tributary Kill Wash. We found no Big Spring spinedace in the lower 3.3 km of Condor Canyon. We tagged Big Spring spinedace ≥70 mm fork length (range 70–103 mm) with passive integrated transponder tags during October 2008 (n = 100) and March 2009 (n = 103) to document movement. At least 47 of these individuals moved from their release location (up to 2 km). Thirty-nine individuals moved to Kill Wash or the confluence area with Meadow Valley Wash. Ninety-three percent of movement occurred in spring 2009. Fish moved both upstream and downstream. We found no movement downstream over a small waterfall at river km 7.9 and recorded only one fish that moved downstream over Delmue Falls (a 12-m drop) at river km 6.1. At the time of tagging, there was no significant difference in fork length or condition between Big Spring Spinedace that were later detected moving and those not detected moving. We found no significant difference in fork length or condition at time of tagging of Big Spring spinedace ≥70 mm fork length that were detected moving and those not detected moving. Kill Wash and its confluence area appeared important to Big Spring spinedace; connectivity with these areas may be key to species persistence. These areas may provide a habitat template for restoration or translocation. The lower 3.3 km of

  17. Kit fox population trends at the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, T.T.; Scrivner, J.H.; Warrick, G.

    The San Joaquin kit fox was listed as an endangered subspecies following passage of the Endangered Species Protection Act of 1966, and further classified as rare under the California Endangered Species Act of 1970. The San Joaquin kit fox occurs on the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California administered by the Department of Energy (DOE). A long term kit fox population monitoring program was initiated as part of DOE's mitigation strategy to comply with the Endangered Species Act. In addition to monitoring kit fox populations, the program includes assessments of kit fox prey density and assessments of predator abundance. The objectivesmore » of this study were to: describe the long term changes in the kit fox population on the Reserves and assess the roles of coyotes and lagomorphs in kit fox population dynamics. When the fox population on NPR-1 declined between 1980 and 1984, it appeared to have been negatively impacted by a declining prey base (lagomorphs) and an increasing coyote population. Declining lagomorph densities may have been a more important factor because as coyote numbers declined between 1985 and 1990, the kit fox population remained stable. The fox population on NPR-2 remained at a higher and more stable level than the population on NPR-1. The factors determining the higher densities and greater stability of the fox population on NPR-2 are unknown.« less

  18. Nuisance Ecology: Do Scavenging Condors Exact Foraging Costs on Pumas in Patagonia?

    PubMed Central

    Elbroch, L. Mark; Wittmer, Heiko U.

    2013-01-01

    Predation risk describes the energetic cost an animal suffers when making a trade off between maximizing energy intake and minimizing threats to its survival. We tested whether Andean condors (Vultur gryphus) influenced the foraging behaviors of a top predator in Patagonia, the puma (Puma concolor), in ways comparable to direct risks of predation for prey to address three questions: 1) Do condors exact a foraging cost on pumas?; 2) If so, do pumas exhibit behaviors indicative of these risks?; and 3) Do pumas display predictable behaviors associated with prey species foraging in risky environments? Using GPS location data, we located 433 kill sites of 9 pumas and quantified their kill rates. Based upon time pumas spent at a carcass, we quantified handling time. Pumas abandoned >10% of edible meat at 133 of 266 large carcasses after a single night, and did so most often in open grasslands where their carcasses were easily detected by condors. Our data suggested that condors exacted foraging costs on pumas by significantly decreasing puma handling times at carcasses, and that pumas increased their kill rates by 50% relative to those reported for North America to compensate for these losses. Finally, we determined that the relative risks of detection and associated harassment by condors, rather than prey densities, explained puma “giving up times” (GUTs) across structurally variable risk classes in the study area, and that, like many prey species, pumas disproportionately hunted in high-risk, high-resource reward areas. PMID:23301093

  19. Nuisance ecology: do scavenging condors exact foraging costs on pumas in Patagonia?

    PubMed

    Elbroch, L Mark; Wittmer, Heiko U

    2013-01-01

    Predation risk describes the energetic cost an animal suffers when making a trade off between maximizing energy intake and minimizing threats to its survival. We tested whether Andean condors (Vultur gryphus) influenced the foraging behaviors of a top predator in Patagonia, the puma (Puma concolor), in ways comparable to direct risks of predation for prey to address three questions: 1) Do condors exact a foraging cost on pumas?; 2) If so, do pumas exhibit behaviors indicative of these risks?; and 3) Do pumas display predictable behaviors associated with prey species foraging in risky environments? Using GPS location data, we located 433 kill sites of 9 pumas and quantified their kill rates. Based upon time pumas spent at a carcass, we quantified handling time. Pumas abandoned >10% of edible meat at 133 of 266 large carcasses after a single night, and did so most often in open grasslands where their carcasses were easily detected by condors. Our data suggested that condors exacted foraging costs on pumas by significantly decreasing puma handling times at carcasses, and that pumas increased their kill rates by 50% relative to those reported for North America to compensate for these losses. Finally, we determined that the relative risks of detection and associated harassment by condors, rather than prey densities, explained puma "giving up times" (GUTs) across structurally variable risk classes in the study area, and that, like many prey species, pumas disproportionately hunted in high-risk, high-resource reward areas.

  20. Paleoepidemiolgical patterns of trauma in a prehistoric population from central California.

    PubMed

    Jurmain, R

    2001-05-01

    Skeletal trauma was investigated in a large collection of human remains from central California (N = 162 aged and sexed adults). Lesions investigated included cranial and long bone fractures, projectile wounds, and dislocation. Long bone fractures were found in 10.5% of individuals; overall, incidence by element was 2.3%. In addition, cranial injuries were found in 4.4% of complete adult crania. Projectile wounds were seen unambiguously in four individuals (with embedded obsidian fragments) and strongly suggested in two other individuals with partially healed lesions. Finally, one case of traumatic hip dislocation was also observed. In both incidence and patterning of injuries, this population is similar to other archeological groups from California. This evidence further supports earlier reports indicating that interpersonal aggression was quite common in prehistoric California.

  1. Star of Condor - A strontium critical velocity experiment, Peru, 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wescott, E. M.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Hallinan, T.; Foeppl, H.; Valenzuela, A.

    1986-01-01

    'Star of Condor' was a critical velocity experiment using Sr vapor produced in a radial shaped charge, which was carried to 571.11 km altitude on a Taurus-Tomahawk rocket launched from Punto Lobos, Peru, and detonated in the plane of the magnetic field lines so that all ranges of pitch angles from parallel to B to perpendicular to B were covered. Sr has a critical velocity of 3.3 km/s, and from observation, 42.5 percent of the neutral Sr gas had a velocity component perpendicular to B exceeding that value. No Sr ion emissions were detected shortly after the burst with usual TV integration times. However, about 10 min after the detonation a faint field-aligned streak was discovered with long TV integration times. The brightness is estimated as 5 R, which, combined with the streak geometry, implies an ion production of 2.4 x 10 to the 19th ions. This is only 0.0036 percent ionization of the Sr vapor. All the ions could easily have been produced by thermal ionization from the original detonation thermal distribution. The breakup of the Sr gas into small bloblike structures may have allowed the high-energy electrons to escape before an ionization cascade could be produced. For whatever reason, the Alfven mechanism proposed for space plasmas in the absence of laboratory walls did not produce an ionization cascade in the experiment.

  2. Urban habitat fragmentation and genetic population structure of bobcats in coastal southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruell, E.W.; Riley, S.P.D.; Douglas, M.R.; Antolin, M.F.; Pollinger, J.R.; Tracey, J.A.; Lyren, L.M.; Boydston, E.E.; Fisher, R.N.; Crooks, K.R.

    2012-01-01

    Although habitat fragmentation is recognized as a primary threat to biodiversity, the effects of urban development on genetic population structure vary among species and landscapes and are not yet well understood. Here we use non-invasive genetic sampling to compare the effects of fragmentation by major roads and urban development on levels of dispersal, genetic diversity, and relatedness between paired bobcat populations in replicate landscapes in coastal southern California. We hypothesized that bobcat populations in sites surrounded by urbanization would experience reduced functional connectivity relative to less isolated nearby populations. Our results show that bobcat genetic population structure is affected by roads and development but not always as predicted by the degree that these landscape features surround fragments. Instead, we suggest that urban development may affect functional connectivity between bobcat populations more by limiting the number and genetic diversity of source populations of migrants than by creating impermeable barriers to dispersal.

  3. Cancer Incidence in the Middle Eastern Population of California, 1988–2004

    PubMed Central

    Nasseri, Kiumarss; Mills, Paul K; Allan, Mark

    2008-01-01

    International statistics suggest lower cancer incidence in the Middle East and Middle Eastern (ME) immigrants in Europe, Australia, and Canada, but little is known from the United States. This study compares cancer rates in ME population with other race/ethnic groups in California from 1988 through 2004. ME cases in California cancer registry were identified by surname and ME population was estimated from U.S. Census data. Cancer rates for ME countries was obtained from Globocan. The ME incidence rate ratios for all sites combined in male and female were 0.77 and 0.82, respectively and were statistically significant. ME rates were significantly lower for cancers of the colon, lung, skin melanoma, female breast and prostate, and were significantly higher for cancers of the stomach, liver, thyroid, leukemia, and male breast. Cancer incidence in ME population in California was 2.4 times higher than rates in home countries. Incidence trends in ME males remained fairly stable but in females shows a slight decline in recent years. Cancer incidence in ME population is lower than non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic Black, but is higher than rates for Hispanics and Asians, and ME countries. Improved data quality, chronic infections, acculturation, and access to screening services are some of the factors responsible for the observed patterns. PMID:18159978

  4. Cancer incidence in the Middle Eastern population of California, 1988-2004.

    PubMed

    Nasseri, Kiumarss; Mills, Paul K; Allan, Mark

    2007-01-01

    International statistics suggest lower cancer incidence in the Middle East and Middle Eastern (ME) immigrants in Europe, Australia, and Canada, but little is known from the United States. This study compares cancer rates in ME population with other race/ethnic groups in California from 1988 through 2004. ME cases in California cancer registry were identified by surname and ME population was estimated from U.S. Census data. Cancer rates for ME countries was obtained from Globocan. The ME incidence rate ratios for all sites combined in male and female were 0.77 and 0.82, respectively and were statistically significant. ME rates were significantly lower for cancers of the colon, lung, skin melanoma, female breast and prostate, and were significantly higher for cancers of the stomach, liver, thyroid, leukemia, and male breast. Cancer incidence in ME population in California was 2.4 times higher than rates in home countries. Incidence trends in ME males remained fairly stable but in females shows a slight decline in recent years. Cancer incidence in ME population is lower than non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic Black, but is higher than rates for Hispanics and Asians, and ME countries. Improved data quality, chronic infections, acculturation, and access to screening services are some of the factors responsible for the observed pattern.

  5. Tracking the source of mercury in coastal populations of California Cougars (puma concolor)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss-Penzias, P. S.; Wilmers, C.; Yovovich, V.; Houghtaling, P.; Torregrosa, A.

    2015-12-01

    As part of a project on the cycling of mercury (Hg) from the ocean to fog and deposition to land in coastal California, the whiskers of pumas from coastal and inland populations in California were analyzed for total Hg (HgT). Previous studies have shown that fog water in coastal California contains enhanced concentrations of monomethyl Hg (MMHg) compared to rain water. The likely source of fog MMHg is from evasion and demethylation of dimethyl Hg (DMHg) from coastal ocean upwelling. The California coast receives seasonal inputs of fog drip, and we hypothesized that if fog water deposition of MMHg was making an impact, the observable effects might be seen in high trophic level predators of the terrestrial ecosystem. Puma whiskers from 88 individuals from the Santa Cruz Mountains, a sub-range of the California Coast Range, were obtained and compared with puma whiskers from 12 individuals from the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Mean total Hg in puma whiskers from the coastal population is 1.0 ± 1.5 ug Hg / g whisker (ppm), whereas mean HgT from the inland puma population is 0.13 ± 0.09 ppm. The difference between these means is significant to the 95% confidence level. For the coastal puma population, the whiskers from 10 individuals had HgT concentrations > 2.0 ppm and 3 individuals had HgT > 4 ppm, which exceeds the U.S. EPA reference dose for humans (1 ppm) approaches a level of concern found for other large mammals such as polar bears (5 ppm). The study is ongoing and HgT concentrations will be determined in the fur and flesh of deer from the same locations as the puma whiskers, since deer comprise ~95% of the puma diet. Samples of plants that are likely fed upon by deer that span the coastal-inland transect will also be analyzed for HgT. Estimates of fog frequency spatial patterns, derived from weather satellite observations and topographic modeling, will be compared with the HgT content of plant and animal tissue in coastal California to quantify

  6. Breast cancer in the Middle Eastern population of California, 1988-2004.

    PubMed

    Nasseri, Kiumarss

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the patterns of incidence, survival, and mortality of breast cancer in the Middle Eastern (ME) population of California. Cases were identified through surname recognition and population estimates were obtained from census public use files. Rates, trends, and survival in this ethnic group were compared with the non-Hispanic White (NHW) of California, as well as natives in the Middle East. Age-adjusted incidence rates for the insitu (22.8), invasive (126.2), and mortality (23.2) in ME women were significantly lower than similar rates of 26.0, 146.9, and 30.6 in the NHW women. Incidence rate in ME women in California was higher than rates in women in the Middle East. Lower rates for early stage and higher rates for late stage diagnoses in this ethnic population suggest lack of optimal access to preventive healthcare. Relative survival in the two groups is negatively associated with stage at diagnosis and is slightly higher in ME women, probably due to large numbers of lost to follow-up in ME women suggesting the presence of salmon bias. Positive association with socioeconomic standing was detected only in the NHW women. Incidence of breast cancer in ME men was significantly higher than that of NHW men.

  7. Sexual minority population density and incidence of lung, colorectal and female breast cancer in California.

    PubMed

    Boehmer, Ulrike; Miao, Xiaopeng; Maxwell, Nancy I; Ozonoff, Al

    2014-03-26

    Risk factors for breast, colorectal, and lung cancer are known to be more common among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals, suggesting they may be more likely to develop these cancers. Our objective was to determine differences in cancer incidence by sexual orientation, using sexual orientation data aggregated at the county level. Data on cancer incidence were obtained from the California Cancer Registry and data on sexual orientation were obtained from the California Health Interview Survey, from which a measure of age-specific LGB population density by county was calculated. Using multivariable Poisson regression models, the association between the age-race-stratified incident rate of breast, lung and colorectal cancer in each county and LGB population density was examined, with race, age group and poverty as covariates. Among men, bisexual population density was associated with lower incidence of lung cancer and with higher incidence of colorectal cancer. Among women, lesbian population density was associated with lower incidence of lung and colorectal cancer and with higher incidence of breast cancer; bisexual population density was associated with higher incidence of lung and colorectal cancer and with lower incidence of breast cancer. These study findings clearly document links between county-level LGB population density and cancer incidence, illuminating an important public health disparity.

  8. Causes of mortality in California sea otters during periods of population growth and decline

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Estes, J.A.; Hatfield, B.B.; Ralls, K.; Ames, J.

    2003-01-01

    Elevated mortality appears to be the main reason for both sluggish growth and periods of decline in the threatened California sea otter population. We assessed causes of mortality from salvage records of 3,105 beach-cast carcasses recovered from 1968 through 1999, contrasting two periods of growth with two periods of decline. Overall, an estimated 40%-60% of the deaths were not recovered and 70% of the recovered carcasses died from unknown causes. Nonetheless, several common patterns were evident in the salvage records during the periods of population decline. These included greater percentages of (1) prime age animals (3-10 yr), (2) carcasses killed by great white shark attacks, (3) carcasses recovered in spring and summer, and (4) carcasses for which the cause of death was unknown. Neither sex composition nor the proportion of carcasses dying of infectious disease varied consistently between periods of population increase and decline. The population decline from 1976 to 1984 was likely due to incidental mortality in a set-net fishery, and the decline from 1995 to 1999 may be related to a developing live-fish fishery. Long-term trends unrelated to periods of growth and decline included a decrease in per capita pup production and mass/length ratios of adult carcasses over the 31-yr study. The generally high proportion of deaths from infectious disease suggests that this factor has contributed to the chronically sluggish growth rate of the California sea otter population.

  9. Fractured Genetic Connectivity Threatens a Southern California Puma (Puma concolor) Population

    PubMed Central

    Ernest, Holly B.; Vickers, T. Winston; Morrison, Scott A.; Buchalski, Michael R.; Boyce, Walter M.

    2014-01-01

    Pumas (Puma concolor; also known as mountain lions and cougars) in southern California live among a burgeoning human population of roughly 20 million people. Yet little is known of the consequences of attendant habitat loss and fragmentation, and human-caused puma mortality to puma population viability and genetic diversity. We examined genetic status of pumas in coastal mountains within the Peninsular Ranges south of Los Angeles, in San Diego, Riverside, and Orange counties. The Santa Ana Mountains are bounded by urbanization to the west, north, and east, and are separated from the eastern Peninsular Ranges to the southeast by a ten lane interstate highway (I-15). We analyzed DNA samples from 97 pumas sampled between 2001 and 2012. Genotypic data for forty-six microsatellite loci revealed that pumas sampled in the Santa Ana Mountains (n = 42) displayed lower genetic diversity than pumas from nearly every other region in California tested (n = 257), including those living in the Peninsular Ranges immediately to the east across I-15 (n = 55). Santa Ana Mountains pumas had high average pairwise relatedness, high individual internal relatedness, a low estimated effective population size, and strong evidence of a bottleneck and isolation from other populations in California. These and ecological findings provide clear evidence that Santa Ana Mountains pumas have been experiencing genetic impacts related to barriers to gene flow, and are a warning signal to wildlife managers and land use planners that mitigation efforts will be needed to stem further genetic and demographic decay in the Santa Ana Mountains puma population. PMID:25295530

  10. Quantifying population exposure to airborne particulate matter during extreme events in California due to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, A.; Hixson, M.; Kleeman, M. J.

    2012-02-01

    The effect of climate change on population-weighted concentrations of particulate matter (PM) during extreme events was studied using the Parallel Climate Model (PCM), the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the UCD/CIT 3-D photochemical air quality model. A "business as usual" (B06.44) global emissions scenario was dynamically downscaled for the entire state of California between the years 2000-2006 and 2047-2053. Air quality simulations were carried out for 1008 days in each of the present-day and future climate conditions using year-2000 emissions. Population-weighted concentrations of PM0.1, PM2.5, and PM10 total mass, components species, and primary source contributions were calculated for California and three air basins: the Sacramento Valley air basin (SV), the San Joaquin Valley air basin (SJV) and the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). Results over annual-average periods were contrasted with extreme events. Climate change between 2000 vs. 2050 did not cause a statistically significant change in annual-average population-weighted PM2.5 mass concentrations within any major sub-region of California in the current study. Climate change did alter the annual-average composition of the airborne particles in the SoCAB, with notable reductions of elemental carbon (EC; -3%) and organic carbon (OC; -3%) due to increased annual-average wind speeds that diluted primary concentrations from gasoline combustion (-3%) and food cooking (-4%). In contrast, climate change caused significant increases in population-weighted PM2.5 mass concentrations in central California during extreme events. The maximum 24-h average PM2.5 concentration experienced by an average person during a ten-year period in the SJV increased by 21% due to enhanced production of secondary particulate matter (manifested as NH4NO3). In general, climate change caused increased stagnation during future extreme pollution events, leading to higher exposure to diesel engines particles (+32%) and wood

  11. Quantifying population exposure to airborne particulate matter during extreme events in California due to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, A.; Hixson, M.; Kleeman, M. J.

    2012-08-01

    The effect of climate change on population-weighted concentrations of particulate matter (PM) during extreme pollution events was studied using the Parallel Climate Model (PCM), the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the UCD/CIT 3-D photochemical air quality model. A "business as usual" (B06.44) global emissions scenario was dynamically downscaled for the entire state of California between the years 2000-2006 and 2047-2053. Air quality simulations were carried out for 1008 days in each of the present-day and future climate conditions using year-2000 emissions. Population-weighted concentrations of PM0.1, PM2.5, and PM10 total mass, components species, and primary source contributions were calculated for California and three air basins: the Sacramento Valley air basin (SV), the San Joaquin Valley air basin (SJV) and the South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). Results over annual-average periods were contrasted with extreme events. The current study found that the change in annual-average population-weighted PM2.5 mass concentrations due to climate change between 2000 vs. 2050 within any major sub-region in California was not statistically significant. However, climate change did alter the annual-average composition of the airborne particles in the SoCAB, with notable reductions of elemental carbon (EC; -3%) and organic carbon (OC; -3%) due to increased annual-average wind speeds that diluted primary concentrations from gasoline combustion (-3%) and food cooking (-4%). In contrast, climate change caused significant increases in population-weighted PM2.5 mass concentrations in central California during extreme events. The maximum 24-h average PM2.5 concentration experienced by an average person during a ten-yr period in the SJV increased by 21% due to enhanced production of secondary particulate matter (manifested as NH4NO3). In general, climate change caused increased stagnation during future extreme pollution events, leading to higher exposure to diesel engines

  12. Perspectives on the crisis and challenge of cardiovascular disease in the diverse Asian populations of California.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Colman; Shaw, Richard E

    2010-05-01

    Recent data demonstrate alarming increases in mortality from cardiovascular disease and increase in risk factors that are pushing this disease to epidemic proportions in Asians living in the Bay Area of Northern California. Although genetics may have an important role, environmental factors including diet, stress and lack of exercise are contributing to the incidence of hypertension, diabetes and obesity in this population. Research at the San Francisco Heart and Vascular Institute in Daly City, California shows that this trend is continuing, and combined with a delay in seeking treatment in this diverse ethnic group, leads to poorer outcomes in revascularization therapies used to treat these patients. More intensive community education that includes patients and his/her family and more aggressive preventive treatment programs are needed to slow the progress of this growing health problem. Hawaii Medical Journal Copyright 2010.

  13. Genetic signals of past demographic changes and the history of oak populations in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, R. S.

    2009-04-01

    A retrospective view of species' demographic changes can inform on population stability through times of climatic change and the origins and spatial structure of genetic diversity in contemporary populations. The former provides the means to predict responses to future climatic change, while the latter allows us to infer the ability of populations to buffer the effects of reductions in population size and fragmentation. The approximately 1.8 my of the Pleistocene is believed to have had a significant impact on diversity through high rates of extinction during early glacial cycles and population expansions and contractions during the later cycles. In the Mediterranean basin, early emphasis on taxa with wide latitudinal ranges led to models of refugial sites and subsequent recolonization routes that could explain geographic patterns in genetic diversity, with a trend towards reduced genetic diversity in the north. More recently, the study of strictly Mediterranean taxa has revealed relictual sites that have persisted over very long periods of time, commonly relatively poor in diversity, but populations well differentiated from one site to another. In California, relatively little is known of the population dynamics of plant taxa during the Pleistocene glacial cycles, or to what extent differentiation today is a result of pre-Pleistocene events. For several animal taxa, differentiation between Coastal and Sierran taxa are believed to date to the Pliocene. Major demographic changes resulting in population isolation, bottlenecks, founder events and population expansions leave a genetic signal that can be detected through appropriate genetic markers and analyses. Such signals help to infer whether past climate fluctuations have had important effects on population demographics. Here, I will focus on key oak species of the California mediterranean climate zone. I will explore the likely effects of the last glacial maximum on oak populations using palaeoclimate and niche

  14. Osprey distribution, abundance, and status in western North America: I. The northern California population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, Charles J.; Dunaway, David J.; Mallette, Robert D.; Koplin, James R.

    1978-01-01

    An estimated 355± 40 pairs (95 percent C.I.) of Ospreys (Pandion haliaetus carolinensis) nested in the northern California survey area in 1975. Eighty-one pairs were estimated along the extreme northern coast in Del Norte and Humboldt Counties. One hundred and forty-four pairs were estimated along California's northern coast in Mendociuo, Sonoma, and Marin Counties. The northern interior region, primarily in Siskiyou, Trinity, Shasta, Lassen, and Plumas Counties, contained an estimated 130 pairs. Forty-nine percent of the interior Osprey population is associated with reservoirs that were not present in 1900. We believe more Ospreys are present in the interior now than 75 years ago because of the increase in suitable habitat; nevertheless, populations at Shasta Lake and Clair Engle Lake are now exhibiting below-normal production rates and local declines. The long-term status of the coastal population, nesting along rivers, streams, and bays, is not clear. Recent production rates from two segments of the coastal population appear to be normal, but production at Usal Creek is below normal.

  15. Epidemiology of primary brain tumors in the Middle Eastern population in California, USA 2001-2005.

    PubMed

    Nasseri, Kiumarss; Mills, John R

    2009-01-01

    The fast growing Middle Eastern (ME) population has rarely been studied in the U.S.. The purpose of this study was to compare the epidemiology of primary brain tumors in this ethnic population with the non-Hispanic, non-Middle Eastern White (NHNMW) in California. ME cases were identified by surname in the California cancer registry and ME population estimates were based on ancestry. Data for 683 cases of primary brain tumors (429 benign, 238 malignant, 16 uncertain) in the ME and 15,589 cases (8352 benign, 6812 malignant, 425 uncertain) in the NHNMW were available for this study. ME patients were significantly (p < 0.05) younger and their age-adjusted incidence rates per 100,000 for benign tumors of 10.0 in men and 17.6 in women were higher than similar rates of 7.3 and 10.6 in the NHNMW group (p < 0.05). Rates for malignant tumors were similar. Meningioma was the main histology responsible for the observed increase in patients over 40 years of age. Also increased were benign tumors of the pituitary and pineal glands. The overall mortality in patients with benign tumors was significantly lower than malignant tumors. This study presents a significantly high incidence of benign meningioma in the ME population in California. This may be due to higher susceptibility or exposure of this ethnic group to the risk factor(s) for this neoplasm. Considering the reported causal association of benign meningioma with childhood radiation exposure from Israel, exposure to this risk factor in this ethnic group needs to be evaluated in future studies.

  16. Geographic Clusters of Basal Cell Carcinoma in a Northern California Health Plan Population.

    PubMed

    Ray, G Thomas; Kulldorff, Martin; Asgari, Maryam M

    2016-11-01

    Rates of skin cancer, including basal cell carcinoma (BCC), the most common cancer, have been increasing over the past 3 decades. A better understanding of geographic clustering of BCCs can help target screening and prevention efforts. Present a methodology to identify spatial clusters of BCC and identify such clusters in a northern California population. This retrospective study used a BCC registry to determine rates of BCC by census block group, and used spatial scan statistics to identify statistically significant geographic clusters of BCCs, adjusting for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. The study population consisted of white, non-Hispanic members of Kaiser Permanente Northern California during years 2011 and 2012. Statistically significant geographic clusters of BCC as determined by spatial scan statistics. Spatial analysis of 28 408 individuals who received a diagnosis of at least 1 BCC in 2011 or 2012 revealed distinct geographic areas with elevated BCC rates. Among the 14 counties studied, BCC incidence ranged from 661 to 1598 per 100 000 person-years. After adjustment for age, sex, and neighborhood socioeconomic status, a pattern of 5 discrete geographic clusters emerged, with a relative risk ranging from 1.12 (95% CI, 1.03-1.21; P = .006) for a cluster in eastern Sonoma and northern Napa Counties to 1.40 (95% CI, 1.15-1.71; P < .001) for a cluster in east Contra Costa and west San Joaquin Counties, compared with persons residing outside that cluster. In this study of a northern California population, we identified several geographic clusters with modestly elevated incidence of BCC. Knowledge of geographic clusters can help inform future research on the underlying etiology of the clustering including factors related to the environment, health care access, or other characteristics of the resident population, and can help target screening efforts to areas of highest yield.

  17. PanDA Pilot Submission using Condor-G: Experience and Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao X.; Hover John; Wlodek Tomasz

    2011-01-01

    PanDA (Production and Distributed Analysis) is the workload management system of the ATLAS experiment, used to run managed production and user analysis jobs on the grid. As a late-binding, pilot-based system, the maintenance of a smooth and steady stream of pilot jobs to all grid sites is critical for PanDA operation. The ATLAS Computing Facility (ACF) at BNL, as the ATLAS Tier1 center in the US, operates the pilot submission systems for the US. This is done using the PanDA 'AutoPilot' scheduler component which submits pilot jobs via Condor-G, a grid job scheduling system developed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.more » In this paper, we discuss the operation and performance of the Condor-G pilot submission at BNL, with emphasis on the challenges and issues encountered in the real grid production environment. With the close collaboration of Condor and PanDA teams, the scalability and stability of the overall system has been greatly improved over the last year. We review improvements made to Condor-G resulting from this collaboration, including isolation of site-based issues by running a separate Gridmanager for each remote site, introduction of the 'Nonessential' job attribute to allow Condor to optimize its behavior for the specific character of pilot jobs, better understanding and handling of the Gridmonitor process, as well as better scheduling in the PanDA pilot scheduler component. We will also cover the monitoring of the health of the system.« less

  18. Organic matter composition and macrofaunal diversity in sediments of the Condor Seamount (Azores, NE Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongiorni, Lucia; Ravara, Ascensão; Parretti, Paola; Santos, Ricardo S.; Rodrigues, Clara F.; Amaro, Teresa; Cunha, Marina R.

    2013-12-01

    In recent years increasing knowledge has been accumulated on seamounts ecology; however their sedimentary environments and associated biological communities remain largely understudied. In this study we investigated quantity and biochemical composition of organic matter and macrofaunal diversity in sediments of the Condor Seamount (NE Atlantic, Azores). In order to test the effect of the seamount on organic matter distribution, sediment samples were collected in 6 areas: the summit, the northern and southern flanks and bases, and in an external far field site. Macrofauna abundance and diversity were investigated on the summit, the southern flank and in the far field site. The organic matter distribution reflected the complex hydrodynamic conditions occurring on the Condor. Concentrations of organic matter compounds were generally lower on the whole seamount than in the far field site and on the seamount summit compared to flanks and bases. A clear difference was also evident between the northern and southern slopes of the Condor, suggesting a role of the seamount in conditioning sedimentation processes and distribution of food resources for benthic consumers. Macrofauna assemblages changed significantly among the three sampling sites. High abundance and dominance, accompanied by low biodiversity, characterized the macrofauna community on the Condor summit, while low dominance and high biodiversity were observed at the flank. Our results, although limited to five samples on the seamount and two off the seamount, do not necessarily support the paradigm that seamounts are more biodiverse than the surrounding seafloor. However, the abundance (and biomass), functional diversity and taxonomical distinctiveness of the macrofaunal assemblages from the Condor Seamount suggest that seamounts habitats may play a relevant role in adding to the regional biodiversity.

  19. Toxicity of two insecticides to California, USA, anurans and its relevance to declining amphibian populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.; Fellers, G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Contaminants have been associated with population declines of several amphibian species in California (USA). Pesticides from the Central Valley of California are transported by winds into the Sierra Nevada Mountains and precipitate into wet meadows where amphibians breed. The present study examined the chronic toxicity of two of the insecticides most commonly used in the Central Valley and found in the mountains, chlorpyrifos and endosulfan, to larval Pacific treefrogs (Pseudacris regilla) and foothill yellow-legged frogs (Rana boylii) and discusses the implications of this toxicity to declining amphibian populations. Larvae were exposed to the pesticides from Gosner stages 25 to 26 through metamorphosis. The estimated median lethal concentration (LC50) for chlorpyrifos was 365 ??g/L in P. regilla and 66.5 ??g/L for R. boylii. Time to metamorphosis increased with concentration of chlorpyrifos in both species, and cholinesterase activity declined with exposure concentration in metamorphs of both species at Gosner stages 42 to 46. For endosulfan, the estimated LC50 was 15.6 ??g/L for P. regilla and 0.55 ??g/L for R. boylii. All R. boylii exposed to concentrations of greater than 0.8 ??g/L died before they entered metamorphosis. Pseudacris regilla remains relatively abundant and is broadly distributed throughout California. In contrast, R. boylii is among the species experiencing severe population declines. The present study adds to the increasing evidence that pesticides are very harmful to amphibians living in areas that are miles from sources of pesticide application. ?? 2009 SETAC.

  20. Ecology and control of an introduced population of Southern Watersnakes (Nerodia fasciata) in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Robert; Todd, Brian D; Miano, Oliver J.; Canfield, Mark; Fisher, Robert N.; McMartin, Louanne

    2016-01-01

    Native to the southeastern United States, Southern Watersnakes (Nerodia fasciata) are known from two sites in California, but their ecological impacts are poorly understood. We investigated the ecology of Southern Watersnakes in Machado Lake, Harbor City, Los Angeles County, California, including an assessment of control opportunities. We captured 306 watersnakes as a result of aquatic trapping and hand captures. We captured snakes of all sizes (162–1063 mm snout–vent length [SVL], 3.5–873.3 g), demonstrating the existence of a well-established population. The smallest reproductive female was 490 mm SVL and females contained 12–46 postovulatory embryos (mean  =  21). Small watersnakes largely consumed introduced Western Mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis), while larger snakes specialized on larval and metamorph American Bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) and Green Sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus). Overall capture per unit effort (CPUE) in traps declined with time during an intensive 76-d trapping bout, but CPUE trends varied considerably among traplines and it is unlikely that the overall decline in CPUE represented a major decrease in the snake population size. Although we found no direct evidence that Southern Watersnakes are affecting native species in Machado Lake, this population may serve as a source for intentional or unintentional transportation of watersnakes to bodies of water containing imperiled native prey species or potential competitors.

  1. Identifying Population Vulnerable to Extreme Heat Events in San Jose, California.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, A. L.

    2016-12-01

    The extreme heat days not only make cities less comfortable for living but also they are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Mapping studies have demonstrated spatial variability in heat vulnerability. A study conducted between 2000 and 2011 in New York City shows that deaths during heat waves was more likely to occur in black individuals, at home in census tracts which received greater public assistance. This map project intends to portray areas in San Jose California that are vulnerable to extreme heat events. The variables considered to build a vulnerability index are: land surface temperature, vegetated areas (NDVI), and people exposed to these area (population density).

  2. Colorectal cancer incidence in Asian populations in California: effect of nativity and neighborhood-level factors.

    PubMed

    Ladabaum, Uri; Clarke, Christina A; Press, David J; Mannalithara, Ajitha; Myer, Parvathi A; Cheng, Iona; Gomez, Scarlett Lin

    2014-04-01

    Heritable and environmental factors may contribute to differences in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence across populations. We capitalized on the resources of the California Cancer Registry (CCR) and California's diverse Asian population to perform a cohort study exploring the relationships between CRC incidence, nativity, and neighborhood-level factors across Asian subgroups. We identified CRC cases in the CCR from 1990 to 2004 and calculated age-adjusted CRC incidence rates for non-Hispanic Whites and US-born vs. foreign-born Asian ethnic subgroups, stratified by neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and "ethnic enclave." Trends were studied with joinpoint analysis. CRC incidence was lowest among foreign-born South Asians (22.0/100,000; 95% confidence interval (CI): 19.7-24.5/100,000) and highest among foreign-born Japanese (74.6/100,000; 95% CI: 70.1-79.2/100,000). Women in all Asian subgroups except Japanese, and men in all Asian subgroups except Japanese and US-born Chinese, had lower CRC incidence than non-Hispanic Whites. Among Chinese men and Filipino women and men, CRC incidence was lower among foreign-born than US-born persons; the opposite was observed for Japanese women and men. Among non-Hispanic Whites, but not most Asian subgroups, CRC incidence decreased over time. CRC incidence was inversely associated with neighborhood SES among non-Hispanic Whites, and level of ethnic enclave among Asians. CRC incidence rates differ substantially across Asian subgroups in California. The significant associations between CRC incidence and nativity and residence in an ethnic enclave suggest a substantial effect of acquired environmental factors. The absence of declines in CRC incidence rates among most Asians during our study period may point to disparities in screening compared with Whites.

  3. The accuracy of matrix population model projections for coniferous trees in the Sierra Nevada, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Mantgem, P.J.; Stephenson, N.L.

    2005-01-01

    1 We assess the use of simple, size-based matrix population models for projecting population trends for six coniferous tree species in the Sierra Nevada, California. We used demographic data from 16 673 trees in 15 permanent plots to create 17 separate time-invariant, density-independent population projection models, and determined differences between trends projected from initial surveys with a 5-year interval and observed data during two subsequent 5-year time steps. 2 We detected departures from the assumptions of the matrix modelling approach in terms of strong growth autocorrelations. We also found evidence of observation errors for measurements of tree growth and, to a more limited degree, recruitment. Loglinear analysis provided evidence of significant temporal variation in demographic rates for only two of the 17 populations. 3 Total population sizes were strongly predicted by model projections, although population dynamics were dominated by carryover from the previous 5-year time step (i.e. there were few cases of recruitment or death). Fractional changes to overall population sizes were less well predicted. Compared with a null model and a simple demographic model lacking size structure, matrix model projections were better able to predict total population sizes, although the differences were not statistically significant. Matrix model projections were also able to predict short-term rates of survival, growth and recruitment. Mortality frequencies were not well predicted. 4 Our results suggest that simple size-structured models can accurately project future short-term changes for some tree populations. However, not all populations were well predicted and these simple models would probably become more inaccurate over longer projection intervals. The predictive ability of these models would also be limited by disturbance or other events that destabilize demographic rates. ?? 2005 British Ecological Society.

  4. Nutrient fluxes and the recent collapse of coastal California salmon populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Jonathan W.; Hayes, Sean A.; Duffy, Walter; Gallagher, Sean; Michel, Cyril J.; Wright, David

    2011-01-01

    Migratory salmon move nutrients both in and out of fresh waters during the different parts of their life cycle. We used a mass-balance approach to quantify recent changes in phosphorus (P) fluxes in six coastal California, USA, watersheds that have recently experienced dramatic decreases in salmon populations. As adults, semelparous Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) salmon imported 8.3 and 10.4 times more P from the ocean, respectively, than they exported as smolts, while iteroparous steelhead (i.e., sea-run rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) imported only 1.6 times more than they exported as kelts and smolts. Semelparous species whose life histories led them to import more nutrients were also the species whose populations decreased the most dramatically in California in recent years. In addition, the relationship between import and export was nonlinear, with export being proportionally more important at lower levels of import. This pattern was driven by two density-dependent processes — smolts were larger and disproportionately more abundant at lower spawner abundances. In fact, in four of our six streams we found evidence that salmon can drive net export of P at low abundance, evidence for the reversal of the "conveyor belt" of nutrients.

  5. Who are medical marijuana patients? Population characteristics from nine California assessment clinics.

    PubMed

    Reinarman, Craig; Nunberg, Helen; Lanthier, Fran; Heddleston, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Marijuana is a currently illegal psychoactive drug that many physicians believe has substantial therapeutic uses. The medical literature contains a growing number of studies on cannabinoids as well as case studies and anecdotal reports suggesting therapeutic potential. Fifteen states have passed medical marijuana laws, but little is known about the growing population of patients who use marijuana medicinally. This article reports on a sample of 1,746 patients from a network of nine medical marijuana evaluation clinics in California. Patients completed a standardized medical history form; evaluating physicians completed standardized evaluation forms. From this data we describe patient characteristics, self-reported presenting symptoms, physician evaluations, other treatments tried, other drug use, and medical marijuana use practices. Pain, insomnia, and anxiety were the most common conditions for which evaluating physicians recommended medical marijuana. Shifts in the medical marijuana patient population over time, the need for further research, and the issue of diversion are discussed.

  6. El Niño controls Holocene rabbit and hare populations in Baja California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Isaac A.; Broughton, Jack M.; Gruhn, Ruth

    2015-07-01

    The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a major source of climatic variation worldwide, with significant impacts on modern human and animal populations. However, few detailed records exist on the long-term effects of ENSO on prehistoric vertebrate populations. Here we examine how lagomorph (rabbit and hare) deposition rate, population age structure and taxonomic composition from Abrigo de los Escorpiones, a well-dated, trans-Holocene vertebrate fauna from northern Baja California, Mexico, vary as a function of the frequency of wet El Niño events and eastern Pacific sea-surface temperatures (SSTs) derived from eastern Pacific geological records. Faunal indices vary significantly in response to El Niño-based precipitation and SST, with substantial moisture-driven variability in the middle and late Holocene. The late Holocene moisture pulse is coincident with previously documented changes in the population dynamics of other vertebrates, including humans. As the frequency and intensity of ENSO is anticipated to vary in the future, these results have important implications for change in future vertebrate populations.

  7. A sublittoral population of Pleurophycus gardneri Setchell and Saunders 1900 (Phaeophyceae: Laminariaceae) in central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    VanBlaricom, Glenn R.; Reed, Daniel C.; Harrold, Christopher; Bodkin, James L.

    1986-01-01

    Published distributional records for the stipitate kelp Pleurophycus gardneri Setchell and Saunders 1900 (Phaeophyceae: Laminariaceae) indicae a geographic range from Montague Island (59°58’N, 147°22W), Alaska to Fort Bragg (39°27’N, 123°47’W), California (Druehl 1969, 1970; Kjeldsen 1972). P. gardneri is found primarily in rocky intertidal and shallow subtidal locations (Scagel 1967; Nicholson 1976). In California, populations of P. gardneri have been reported only from the lower rocky intertidal near Fort Bragg (Kjeldsen 1972).On 7 and 8 July 1982 and 23 March 1984 we censused stipitate kelps during SCUBS dives at a site 2.3 km south southeast of Pt. Sierra Nevada (35°41’ N, 121°18’W). we counted kelps in 1 x 5-m plots along a 50-m tape laid across the bottom in an arbitrarily predetermined direction from the skiff anchor. We also measured water depth at 1-m intervals along the tape, using a SCUBA depth gauge. On 20 August 1982, we used the same tehniques to sample kelp densities at a site 2.4 km east southeast of Pt. Piedras Blancas (35°39’N, 121°15’W).The most abundant kelps at the Pt. Sierra Nevada ste were Pterygophora californica Ruprect 1852 (Phaeophyceae: Alariaceae) and a species we tentatively identified as P. gardneri (Table 1). Based on specimens we collected on 8 July 1982, our field identification was subsequently confirmed by I. A. Abbot. Voucher specimens were placed in the Gilbert M. Smith Herbarium at Hopkins Marine Station, Stanford University, Pacific Grove, California.

  8. ATYPICAL CHLAMYDIACEAE IN WILD POPULATIONS OF HAWKS ( BUTEO SPP.) IN CALIFORNIA.

    PubMed

    Luján-Vega, Charlene; Hawkins, Michelle G; Johnson, Christine K; Briggs, Christopher; Vennum, Chris; Bloom, Peter H; Hull, Joshua M; Cray, Carolyn; Pesti, Denise; Johnson, Lisa; Ciembor, Paula; Ritchie, Branson R

    2018-03-01

    Chlamydiaceae bacteria infect many vertebrate hosts, and previous reports based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and serologic assays that are prone to cross-reaction among chlamydial organisms have been used to describe the prevalence of either DNA fragments or antibodies to Chlamydia spp. in wild raptorial populations. This study reports the PCR-based prevalence of Chlamydiaceae DNA that does not 100% match any avian or mammalian Chlamydiaceae in wild populations of hawks in California Buteo species. In this study, multimucosal swab samples ( n = 291) for quantitative PCR (qPCR) and plasma ( n = 78) for serology were collected from wild hawks. All available plasma samples were negative for antibodies using a C. psittaci-specific elementary body agglutination test (EBA; n = 78). For IgY antibodies all 51 available samples were negative using the indirect immunofluorescent assay. The overall prevalence of Chlamydiaceae DNA detection in wild Buteo species sampled was 1.37% (4/291) via qPCR-based analysis. Two fledgling Swainson's hawks ( Buteo swainsoni) and two juvenile red-tailed hawks ( Buteo jamaicensis) were positive by qPCR-based assay for an atypical chlamydial sequence that did not 100% match any known C. psittaci genotype. Positive swab samples from these four birds were sequenced based on the ompA gene and compared by high-resolution melt analysis with all known avian and mammalian Chlamydiaceae. The amplicon sequence did not 100% match any known avian chlamydial sequence; however, it was most similar (98.6%) to C. psittaci M56, a genotype that is typically found in muskrats and hares. Culture and full genome sequence analysis of Chlamydia spp. isolated from diseased hawks will be necessary to classify this organism and to better understand its epizootiology and potential health impact on wild Buteo populations in California.

  9. Preventable Injury Deaths: A Population-Based Proxy of Child Maltreatment Risk in California

    PubMed Central

    Putnam-Hornstein, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study used group variations in child injury fatality rates to assess racial bias in the population of children identified as victims of maltreatment. Methods Injury fatality and maltreatment data from California were compiled for the years 1998–2007. Death and maltreatment risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed by race and age. Rates of excess child injury mortality by race were derived from three different baseline rates of death. Substantiations per excess injury death were calculated. Results Compared with white children, black children faced a risk of substantiated maltreatment that was more than twice as great (black RR: 2.39, 95% CI 2.37, 2.42) and were fatally injured at nearly twice the rate (black RR: 1.89, 95% CI 1.68, 2.12). Per excess death, however, black children had rates of substantiated maltreatment allegations that were equivalent to or lower than the rates for white children. Conclusions These data support claims that, at least in California, black-white racial disparities observed in maltreatment rates reflect real group differences in risk. These data provide no evidence of systematic racial bias in the child protective services' substantiation process. PMID:22379216

  10. Population targeting amid complex mental health programming: Are California's Full Service Partnerships reaching underserved children?

    PubMed

    Cordell, Katharan D; Snowden, Lonnie R

    2017-01-01

    California's Mental Health Services Act (MHSA) created Full Service Partnership programs (FSPs) targeting socially and economically vulnerable children with mental illness who are underserved by counties' public mental health treatment system. To determine whether FSPs reach a distinctive group of children, this study compares indicators of FSP-targeted underservice for FSP entrants (n = 15,598) versus everyone treated in the counties' public mental health systems (n = 282,178) and for FSP entrants versus entrants in the most intensive Medicaid delivered program in California, Therapeutic Behavioral Services (TBS, n = 11,993). Results identify that, despite first encountering mental health services systems at earlier ages, FSP clients had fewer months of treatment and were less likely to have been treated in the prior 6 months, except for crisis care, as compared to all other children served, after considering clinical severity and indicators of service need. FSP entrants also had more substance abuse and trauma-related problems. Although less seriously ill than TBS served children, FSP served children were significantly underserved. The results indicate that, amid overlapping policies and programs, carving out and reaching a distinctly underserved population can be achieved in practice, and that specialized programs, such as the FSP program, which target underserved children, have the potential to augment a system's ability to reach the underserved. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Spatial Dependence and Sampling of Phytoseiid Populations on Hass Avocados in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Lara, Jesús R; Amrich, Ruth; Saremi, Naseem T; Hoddle, Mark S

    2016-04-22

    Research on phytoseiid mites has been critical for developing an effective biocontrol strategy for suppressing Oligonchus perseae Tuttle, Baker, and Abatiello (Acari: Tetranychidae) in California avocado orchards. However, basic understanding of the spatial ecology of natural populations of phytoseiids in relation to O. perseae infestations and the validation of research-based strategies for assessing densities of these predators has been limited. To address these shortcomings, cross-sectional and longitudinal observations consisting of >3,000 phytoseiids and 500,000 O. perseae counted on 11,341 leaves were collected across 10 avocado orchards during a 10-yr period. Subsets of these data were analyzed statistically to characterize the spatial distribution of phytoseiids in avocado orchards and to evaluate the merits of developing binomial and enumerative sampling strategies for these predators. Spatial correlation of phytoseiids between trees was detected at one site, and a strong association of phytoseiids with elevated O. perseae densities was detected at four sites. Sampling simulations revealed that enumeration-based sampling performed better than binomial sampling for estimating phytoseiid densities. The ecological implications of these findings and potential for developing a custom sampling plan to estimate densities of phytoseiids inhabiting sampled trees in avocado orchards in California are discussed. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Population dynamics of tule elk at point Reyes National Seashore, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howell, J.A.; Brooks, G.C.; Semenoff-Irving, M.; Greene, C.

    2002-01-01

    The presence of locally abundant wildlife raises questions about natural regulation and ecological consequences of overpopulation. We sought to establish precise information about population size, structure, and productivity to examine the role of natural regulation in a closed tule elk (Cervus elaphus nannodes) population at Point Reyes National Seashore, California, USA. We estimated an instantaneous exponential growth rate of 0.19 with an adjusted R2 = 0.98 during 1998, 20 years after the elk were introduced. We estimated annual survival for adult cows of nearly 0.95. Calf survival from birth through the rut ending during October-November was 0.85. Male calves exhibited higher mortality than female calves. Cow mortality was associated with the calving season. We measured a 42% increase in cow:calf density from 0.733 ha-1 to 1.043 ha-1 during 1996-1998. We observed a density-correlated reduction in the rate of increase and in the cow:calf ratios prior to high precipitation El Nin??o Southern Oscillation years, 1993, 1996, and 1997, precipitation >1.23 m year-1. Given the high population growth rate and model evaluation of management scenarios, park managers will need to use a suite of approaches, such as contraception and removal, to maintain the elk population at levels at or near the closed-range carrying capacity for years between El Nin??o events.

  13. Ecology of a population of subsidized predators: Common ravens in the central Mojave Desert, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boarman, W.I.; Patten, M.A.; Camp, R.J.; Collis, S.J.

    2006-01-01

    Human subsidies have resulted in the rapid growth of populations of common ravens (Corvus corax) in the Mojave Desert. This is a management concern because ravens prey on threatened desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii). We conducted weekly counts for 29 months at 10 sites on the US Army's National Training Center, Fort Irwin, California to evaluate factors affecting the distribution of ravens. Raven abundance varied seasonally, diurnally, and with human abundance. It was greatest near resource subsidies, specifically the landfill and sewage ponds. Although other studies have documented heavy use of landfills by ravens, the use of sewage ponds had not been previously reported in the published literature. We suggest that raven management should focus on reducing access to anthropogenic resources. ?? 2006.

  14. Effects of Seasonal and Site Factors on Xiphinema index Populations in Two California Vineyards.

    PubMed

    Feil, H; Westerdahl, B B; Smith, R J; Verdegaal, P

    1997-12-01

    Sampling of Xiphinema index for 2 years (1993-95) in two California vineyards indicated that a greater number of nematodes occurred during the winter months. The number of juveniles increased four-fold from December 1993 to January 1994, indicating a high reproductive rate during this time. Extremely high or low soil temperatures corresponded to low nematode numbers. Samples were taken from 0 to 31 cm and 31 to 62 cm deep both within and between the vine rows. Numbers of nematodes were greatest at the 0- to 31-cm depth in one vineyard with a loamy sand soil, and at a depth of 31 to 62 cm in the second vineyard, which had a silt loam soil. In both vineyards, X. index population densities were greater within the vine row.

  15. Colorectal Cancer Incidence in Asian Populations in California: Effect of Nativity and Neighborhood-Level Factors

    PubMed Central

    Ladabaum, Uri; Clarke, Christina A.; Press, David J.; Mannalithara, Ajitha; Myer, Parvathi A.; Cheng, Iona; Gomez, Scarlett Lin

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Heritable and environmental factors may contribute to differences in colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence across populations. We capitalized on the resources of the California Cancer Registry (CCR) and California’s diverse Asian population to perform a cohort study exploring the relationships between CRC incidence, nativity, and neighborhood-level factors across Asian subgroups. METHODS We identified CRC cases in the CCR from 1990 to 2004 and calculated age-adjusted CRC incidence rates for non-Hispanic Whites and US-born vs. foreign-born Asian ethnic subgroups, stratified by neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and “ethnic enclave.” Trends were studied with joinpoint analysis. RESULTS CRC incidence was lowest among foreign-born South Asians (22.0/100,000; 95% confidence interval (CI): 19.7–24.5/100,000) and highest among foreign-born Japanese (74.6/100,000; 95% CI: 70.1–79.2/100,000). Women in all Asian subgroups except Japanese, and men in all Asian subgroups except Japanese and US-born Chinese, had lower CRC incidence than non-Hispanic Whites. Among Chinese men and Filipino women and men, CRC incidence was lower among foreign-born than US-born persons; the opposite was observed for Japanese women and men. Among non-Hispanic Whites, but not most Asian subgroups, CRC incidence decreased over time. CRC incidence was inversely associated with neighborhood SES among non-Hispanic Whites, and level of ethnic enclave among Asians. CONCLUSIONS CRC incidence rates differ substantially across Asian subgroups in California. The significant associations between CRC incidence and nativity and residence in an ethnic enclave suggest a substantial effect of acquired environmental factors. The absence of declines in CRC incidence rates among most Asians during our study period may point to disparities in screening compared with Whites. PMID:24492754

  16. Airborne Pesticides as an Unlikely Cause for Population Declines of Alpine Frogs in the Sierra Nevada, California

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne pesticides from the Central Valley of California have been implicated as a cause for population declines of several amphibian species, with the strongest evidence for the mountain yellow-legged frog complex (Rana muscosa and R. sierrae) in the Sierra Nevada. We measured...

  17. Certified Therapeutic Recreation Specialists' Use of Knowledge Competencies in Job Tasks When Working with the California Senior Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Erick

    2014-01-01

    The Problem: The purpose of this study was to explore the association between the knowledge competencies and the job tasks among Certified Therapeutic Recreation Specialists (CTRS) who are working with the senior population in the State of California by asking the following questions: (1) To what extent are CTRS using the principle of group…

  18. Population dynamics of the California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis): a meta-analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franklin, A.B.; Gutierrez, R.J.; Nichols, J.D.; Seamans, M.E.; White, Gary C.; Zimmerman, G.S.; Hines, J.E.; Munton, T.E.; LaHaye, W.S.; Blakesley, J.A.; Steger, G.N.; Noon, B.R.; Shaw, D.W.H.; Keane, J.J.; McDonald, T.L.; Britting, S.

    2004-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis to provide a current assessment of the population characteristics of California Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) resident on four study areas in the Sierra Nevada and one study area in southern California. Our meta-analysis followed rigorous a priori analysis protocols, which we derived through extensive discussion during a week-long analysis workshop. Because there is great interest in the owl?s population status, we used state-of-the-art analytical methods to obtain results as precise as possible. Our meta-analysis included data from five California study areas located on the Lassen National Forest (1990-2000), Eldorado National Forest (1986-2000), Sierra National Forest (1990-2000), Sequoia and Kings Canyon national parks (1990-2000), and San Bernardino National Forest (1987-1998). Four of the five study areas spanned the length of the Sierra Nevada, whereas the fifth study area encompassed the San Bernardino Mountains in southern California. Study areas ranged in size from 343 km2 (Sequoia and Kings Canyon) to 2,200 km (Lassen). All studies were designed to use capture-recapture methods and analysis. We used survival in a meta-analysis because field methods were very similar among studies. However, we did not use reproduction in a meta-analysis because it was not clear if variation among individual study-area protocols used to assess reproductive output of owls would confound results. Thus, we analyzed fecundity only by individual study area. We examined population trend using the reparameterized Jolly-Seber capture-recapture estimator (8t) We did not estimate juvenile survival rates because of estimation problems and potential bias because of juvenile emigration from study areas. We used mark-recapture estimators under an information theoretic framework to assess apparent survival rates of adult owls. The pooled estimate for adult apparent survival for the five study areas was 0.833, which was lower than pooled adult

  19. Population genetics of the California National Primate Research Center’s (CNPRC) captive Callicebuscupreus colony

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Adrian; Ng, Jillian; Bales, Karen; Mendoza, Sally P.; George, Debra A.; Smith, David Glenn; Kanthaswamy, Sree

    2014-01-01

    The California National Primate Research Center (CNPRC) maintains a small colony of titi monkeys (Callicebuscupreus) for behavioral studies. While short tandem repeat (STR) markers are critical for the genetic management of the center’s rhesus macaque (Macacamulatta) breeding colony, STRs are not used for this purpose in the maintenance of the center’s titi monkey colony. Consequently, the genetic structure of this titi monkey population has not been characterized. A lack of highly informative genetic markers in titi monkeys has also resulted in scant knowledge of the species’ genetic variation in the wild. The purpose of this study was to develop a panel of highly polymorphic titi monkey STRs using a cross-species PCR amplification protocol that could be used for the genetic management of the titi monkey colony. We screened 16 STR primer pairs and selected those that generated robust and reproducible polymorphic amplicons. Loci that were found to be highly polymorphic, very likely to be useful for parentage verification, pedigree assessment, and for studying titi monkey population genetics, were validated using Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium analyses. The genetic data generated in this study were also used to directly assess the impact of a recent adenovirus outbreak on the colony’s genetic diversity. While the adenovirus epizootic disease caused significant mortality (19 deaths among the 65 colony animals), our results suggest that the disease exhibited little or no influence on the overall genetic diversity of the colony. PMID:25179309

  20. Population structure and relatedness among female Northern Pintails in three California wintering regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Fowler, Ada C.; Casazza, Michael L.; Eadie, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Female Northern Pintails (Anas acuta) were sampled in California's three main Central Valley wintering regions (Sacramento Valley, Suisun Marsh, San Joaquin Valley) during September–October before most regional movements occur and microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA were analyzed to examine population structure and relatedness. Despite reportedly high rates of early-fall pairing and regional fidelity, both sets of markers indicated that there was little overall genetic structuring by region. Pintails from Suisun Marsh did exhibit higher relatedness among individuals and capture groups than in the Sacramento or San Joaquin Valleys, likely reflecting a sample comprised of a greater proportion of local breeders. The lack of genetic structuring among regions indicates that a high degree of movement and interchange occurs among pintails wintering in the Central Valley. Thus, although maintaining the existing distribution of pintails among Central Valley regions is important for other reasons, it does not appear to be critical to retain current patterns of population genetic variation. Because of potential lack of independence among highly related study individuals, researchers should consider regional differences in relatedness when designing sampling schemes and interpreting research findings.

  1. Simulated effect of tobacco tax variation on population health in California.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, R M; Ake, C F; Emery, S L; Navarro, A M

    2001-02-01

    This study simulated the effects of tobacco excise tax increases on population health. Five simulations were used to estimate health outcomes associated with tobacco tax policies: (1) the effects of price on smoking prevalence; (2) the effects of tobacco use on years of potential life lost; (3) the effect of tobacco use on quality of life (morbidity); (4) the integration of prevalence, mortality, and morbidity into a model of quality adjusted life years (QALYs); and (5) the development of confidence intervals around these estimates. Effects were estimated for 1 year after the tax's initiation and 75 years into the future. In California, a $0.50 tax increase and price elasticity of -0.40 would result in about 8389 QALYs (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4629, 12,113) saved the first year. Greater benefits would accrue each year until a steady state was reached after 75 years, when 52,136 QALYs (95% CI = 38,297, 66,262) would accrue each year. Higher taxes would produce even greater health benefits. A tobacco excise tax may be among a few policy options that will enhance a population's health status while making revenues available to government.

  2. Selenium teratogenesis in natural populations of aquatic birds in central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Ohlendorf, H.M.; Aldrich, T.W.

    1988-01-01

    The frequency and types of malformations are described that were encountered during the spring of 1983 in a natural population of aquatic birds exposed to agricultural drainwater ponds and food items containing high concentrations of selenium in central California. A total of 347 nests of aquatic birds containing 1,681 eggs was selected for study at Kesterson Reservoir located in the Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Merced County, California. Embryos collected during incubation or from eggs that failed to hatch were examined to determine the age at death and presence of malformations. Embryonic death was generally high; approximately 17?60% of the nests of different species contained at least one dead embryo. The incidence of malformed embryos was also high; approximately 22?65% of the nests where at least two embryos were examined contained abnormal embryos. American coots (Fulica americana) and black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus) experienced the highest incidence of malformed embryos. For all species, the average percentage of eggs containing dead or live abnormal embryos was 16.1 whereas the average percentage containing live abnormal embryos was 10.7. Multiple gross malformations of the eyes, brain, and feet were often present. Brain defects included hydrocephaly and exencephaly. Eye defects included both unilateral and bilateral anophthalmia and microphthalmia. Eye and foot defects with ectrodactyly and swollen joints were the most common in coots. Beak defects also occurred frequently and most often included incomplete development of the lower beak of ducks (Anas spp.) and stilts. Wing and leg defects were most prevalent in stilts and ducks, with ectromelia and amelia most prevalent in stilts. Other malformations occurring at lower frequencies included enlarged hearts with thin ventricular walls, liver hypopiasia, and gastroschisis. Based upon simultaneous examination of a control population of aquatic birds of the same species and published

  3. A preliminary design proposal for a maritime patrol strike aircraft: MPS-2000 Condor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The four member graduate design team assembled to submit a proposal for the 1993/1994 RFP at the University of Kansas has designed a four seat, variable swept wing, twin turbofan aircraft with STOL capabilities. The aircraft is named the MPS-2000 Condor and is capable of carrying air-to-surface or air-to-air weapon systems along with attack and surveillance radar and IRF systems. The aircraft has a cruise range of 800 nautical miles, a loiter of 4 hours, and a dash speed of 500 kts.

  4. Contaminants in eggs of western snowy plovers and California least terns: is there a link to population decline?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hothern, R.L.; Powell, A.N.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental contaminants may have adverse effects on avian reproduction and may be contributing to declines of avian species nesting along the southern California Coast. Examples of impaired reproduction caused by organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and elements such as mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) include delayed ovulation, reduced egg production, defective eggshells, decreased hatchability, embryotoxicosis, aberrant incubation behavior, and mortality of chicks and adults (Heinz 1976; Blus 1982; Ohlendorf et al. 1986).The federal government listed the California least tern (Sterna antillarum browni) as endangered in 1970 (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 1985). The Pacific Coast population of western snowy plover (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus) was listed as threatened by the federal government in 1993 (Federal Register 1993). Habitat loss and human-related disturbance have been identified as primary causes of the decline of both the primarily insectivorous plover (Powell 1998) and the primarily piscivorous tern, but local food shortages have also limited the terns.Both species breed along the highly urbanized coastline of southern California. A portion of the snowy plover population is present on the breeding grounds yearround, while the remainder winters along the Pacific Coast south into Baja California, Mexico (Stenzel et al. 1994). Least terns winter primarily along the Pacific Coast of Central America (Massey et al. 1992). This study was designed to evaluate the effects that contaminants acquired on the breeding or wintering grounds might be having on reproduction by snowy plovers and least terns.

  5. Survey of citrus tristeza virus populations in Central California that react with MCA13 monoclonal antibody

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Citrus Pest Detection Program (CPDP) of the Central California Tristeza Eradication Agency monitors Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) in Central California. MCA13 is a severe strain discriminating monoclonal antibody used to screen for potentially virulent CTV isolates. MCA13-reactive CTV isolates are...

  6. Reaching High-Need Youth Populations With Evidence-Based Sexual Health Education in California.

    PubMed

    Campa, Mary I; Leff, Sarah Z; Tufts, Margaret

    2018-02-01

    To explore the programmatic reach and experience of high-need adolescents who received sexual health education in 3 distinct implementation settings (targeted-prevention settings, traditional schools, and alternative schools) through a statewide sexual health education program. Data are from youth surveys collected between September 2013 and December 2014 in the California Personal Responsibility Education Program. A sample of high-need participants (n = 747) provided data to examine the impact of implementation setting on reach and program experience. Implementation in targeted-prevention settings was equal to or more effective at providing a positive program experience for high-need participants. More than 5 times as many high-need participants were served in targeted-prevention settings compared with traditional schools. Reaching the same number of high-need participants served in targeted-prevention settings over 15 months would take nearly 7 years of programming in traditional schools. To maximize the reach and experience of high-need youth populations receiving sexual health education, state and local agencies should consider the importance of implementation setting. Targeted resources and efforts should be directed toward high-need young people by expanding beyond traditional school settings.

  7. Attributes of desert tortoise populations at the National Training Center, Central Mojave Desert, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berry, K.H.; Bailey, T.Y.; Anderson, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    We sampled 21 study plots for desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) at the National Training Center, Fort Irwin, California. Each plot was sampled once between 1997 and 2003 to obtain a snapshot of population attributes, status, and relationships between tortoise densities and human activities. Densities ranged from <1 to 28 tortoises km-2; overall, tortoises were uncommon to rare at 16 of the 21 plots. Tortoise densities were negatively correlated with death rates, infectious disease (mycoplasmosis), surface disturbance and trash. Health status of tortoises was correlated with some anthropogenic uses. The presence of infectious disease in tortoises was negatively correlated with distances from offices, the Ft. Irwin cantonment, and paved roads. Also, significantly more tortoises with shell disease were found on plots with current and recent military use than on plots with no history of military use. Factors contributing to or causing deaths of tortoises included vehicles, vandalism, predation, mycoplasmosis and shell diseases. Annual death rates for subadult and adult tortoises ranged from 1.9% to 95.2% for the 4 years preceding surveys. Deaths from anthropogenic sources were significantly correlated with surface disturbances, trash, military ordnance, and proximity to offices and paved roads-typical characteristics of military training areas.

  8. Prevalence of Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome in a Migrant Mixtec Population, Baja California, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, David; Fraga, Miguel A.; Brodine, Stephanie; Ibarra, Maria-de-la-Luz; Garfein, Richard S.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and correlates of metabolic syndrome (MS) and diabetes among a migrant Mixtec population residing in San Quintin, Baja California, Mexico. A cross-sectional study utilizing data collected during a 2-day clinic in 2008 in a rural farming community with a high prevalence of Mixtec Indians. Interviews and clinical examinations were performed to assess sociodemographic data, medical history and anthropometric measures. Blood samples were obtained to measure glycated hemoglobin, fasting glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL and LDL. Of the 107 patients surveyed, 56 % were female and mean age was 38.5 (range: 18–74, SD = 12.6) years. Overall, 41.1 % had MS and 26.2 % had diabetes. Drinking alcohol more than once a week [adjusted OR (AOR) = 16.0, p = 0.008] and being literate (AOR = 0.38, p = 0.035) were independently associated with MS. Only female gender was significantly associated with diabetes (OR = 3.95, p = 0.005). The high prevalence of MS, diabetes and other metabolic abnormalities among migrant farm workers in San Quintin suggest the need for interventions to reduce the risk for these conditions. PMID:22961334

  9. Variability of zooplankton communities at Condor seamount and surrounding areas, Azores (NE Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmo, Vanda; Santos, Mariana; Menezes, Gui M.; Loureiro, Clara M.; Lambardi, Paolo; Martins, Ana

    2013-12-01

    Seamounts are common topographic features around the Azores archipelago (NE Atlantic). Recently there has been increasing research effort devoted to the ecology of these ecosystems. In the Azores, the mesozooplankon is poorly studied, particularly in relation to these seafloor elevations. In this study, zooplankton communities in the Condor seamount area (Azores) were investigated during March, July and September 2010. Samples were taken during both day and night with a Bongo net of 200 µm mesh that towed obliquely within the first 100 m of the water column. Total abundance, biomass and chlorophyll a concentrations did not vary with sampling site or within the diel cycle but significant seasonal variation was observed. Moreover, zooplankton community composition showed the same strong seasonal pattern regardless of spatial or daily variability. Despite seasonal differences, the zooplankton community structure remained similar for the duration of this study. Seasonal variability better explained our results than mesoscale spatial variability. Spatial homogeneity is probably related with island proximity and local dynamics over Condor seamount. Zooplankton literature for the region is sparse, therefore a short review of the most important zooplankton studies from the Azores is also presented.

  10. A re-evaluation of the size of the white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) population off California, USA.

    PubMed

    Burgess, George H; Bruce, Barry D; Cailliet, Gregor M; Goldman, Kenneth J; Grubbs, R Dean; Lowe, Christopher G; MacNeil, M Aaron; Mollet, Henry F; Weng, Kevin C; O'Sullivan, John B

    2014-01-01

    White sharks are highly migratory and segregate by sex, age and size. Unlike marine mammals, they neither surface to breathe nor frequent haul-out sites, hindering generation of abundance data required to estimate population size. A recent tag-recapture study used photographic identifications of white sharks at two aggregation sites to estimate abundance in "central California" at 219 mature and sub-adult individuals. They concluded this represented approximately one-half of the total abundance of mature and sub-adult sharks in the entire eastern North Pacific Ocean (ENP). This low estimate generated great concern within the conservation community, prompting petitions for governmental endangered species designations. We critically examine that study and find violations of model assumptions that, when considered in total, lead to population underestimates. We also use a Bayesian mixture model to demonstrate that the inclusion of transient sharks, characteristic of white shark aggregation sites, would substantially increase abundance estimates for the adults and sub-adults in the surveyed sub-population. Using a dataset obtained from the same sampling locations and widely accepted demographic methodology, our analysis indicates a minimum all-life stages population size of >2000 individuals in the California subpopulation is required to account for the number and size range of individual sharks observed at the two sampled sites. Even accounting for methodological and conceptual biases, an extrapolation of these data to estimate the white shark population size throughout the ENP is inappropriate. The true ENP white shark population size is likely several-fold greater as both our study and the original published estimate exclude non-aggregating sharks and those that independently aggregate at other important ENP sites. Accurately estimating the central California and ENP white shark population size requires methodologies that account for biases introduced by sampling a

  11. Contextual Analysis of the Decision To Adopt a Regional Satellite System: The Case of the Andean CONDOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, Leonardo; Mody, Bella

    Acknowledging the importance of communications in economic development, this paper discusses the rationale behind the decision of the Andean Pact nations of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela to develop a regional satellite communication system to be known as CONDOR. The application of contextual theorizing to the decision-making…

  12. Education can improve the negative perception of a threatened long-lived scavenging bird, the Andean condor

    PubMed Central

    Cailly Arnulphi, Verónica B.; Lambertucci, Sergio A.

    2017-01-01

    Human-wildlife conflicts currently represent one of the main conservation problems for wildlife species around the world. Vultures have serious conservation concerns, many of which are related to people's adverse perception about them due to the belief that they prey on livestock. Our aim was to assess local perception and the factors influencing people's perception of the largest scavenging bird in South America, the Andean condor. For this, we interviewed 112 people from Valle Fértil, San Juan province, a rural area of central west Argentina. Overall, people in the area mostly have an elementary education, and their most important activity is livestock rearing. The results showed that, in general, most people perceive the Andean condor as an injurious species and, in fact, some people recognize that they still kill condors. We identified two major factors that affect this perception, the education level of villagers and their relationship with livestock ranching. Our study suggests that conservation of condors and other similar scavengers depends on education programs designed to change the negative perception people have about them. Such programs should be particularly focused on ranchers since they are the ones who have the worst perception of these scavengers. We suggest that highlighting the central ecological role of scavengers and recovering their cultural value would be fundamental to reverse their persecution and their negative perception by people. PMID:28950019

  13. NASA Satellite Imagery Shows Sparse Population of Region Near Baja, California Earthquake

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-04-09

    This image from NASA Terra spacecraft shows where a magnitude 7.2 earthquake struck in Mexico Baja, California at shallow depth along the principal plate boundary between the North American and Pacific plates on April 4, 2010.

  14. Toxic volatile organic compounds in environmental tobacco smoke: Emission factors for modeling exposures of California populations

    SciTech Connect

    Daisey, J.M.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Hodgson, A.T.

    The primary objective of this study was to measure emission factors for selected toxic air contaminants in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) using a room-sized environmental chamber. The emissions of 23 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including, 1,3-butadiene, three aldehydes and two vapor-phase N-nitrosamines were determined for six commercial brands of cigarettes and reference cigarette 1R4F. The commercial brands were selected to represent 62.5% of the cigarettes smoked in California. For each brand, three cigarettes were machine smoked in the chamber. The experiments were conducted over four hours to investigate the effects of aging. Emission factors of the target compounds were alsomore » determined for sidestream smoke (SS). For almost all target compounds, the ETS emission factors were significantly higher than the corresponding SS values probably due to less favorable combustion conditions and wall losses in the SS apparatus. Where valid comparisons could be made, the ETS emission factors were generally in good agreement with the literature. Therefore, the ETS emission factors, rather than the SS values, are recommended for use in models to estimate population exposures from this source. The variabilities in the emission factors ({mu}g/cigarette) of the selected toxic air contaminants among brands, expressed as coefficients of variation, were 16 to 29%. Therefore, emissions among brands were Generally similar. Differences among brands were related to the smoked lengths of the cigarettes and the masses of consumed tobacco. Mentholation and whether a cigarette was classified as light or regular did not significantly affect emissions. Aging was determined not to be a significant factor for the target compounds. There were, however, deposition losses of the less volatile compounds to chamber surfaces.« less

  15. Racial differences in birth weight of term infants in a northern California population.

    PubMed

    Madan, Ashima; Holland, Sharon; Humbert, John E; Benitz, William E

    2002-01-01

    Census data show that an increasing proportion of the population of the United States is of Asian or Hispanic origin. Reference curves used to characterize fetal growth relative to gestational age are predominantly based on data for White infants. The goal of this study was to compare the birth weight distributions for term Asian or Hispanic infants with that for White infants, and to determine whether the prevalence of small (SGA) or large size(LGA) for gestational age differs between Asian or Hispanic and White infants. A community hospital in Northern California. Data was collected prospectively from May 1 to September 13, 2000 on all singleton term infants born at this hospital. Gestational age was assessed by the best obstetrical estimate and ethnicity was determined by parental report. Infants were categorized as White, Hispanic, Chinese, Asian Indian, Other Asian, and Other. Birth weights, length, and head circumferences were compared using ANOVA and the Student-Newman-Keuls test. Differences in rates of diagnosis of SGA or LGA were assessed by chi square. 1539 infants were included in the study sample; 30% were White, 21% Asian Indian, 15% Chinese, 9% Hispanic, 7% other Asian, and 18% Other. Asian (Chinese, Asian Indian, or Other Asian), Hispanic, and Other babies had lower mean birth weights, shorter mean lengths, and smaller mean head circumferences than White babies. Asian, Hispanic, and Other male babies were lighter, shorter, and had smaller heads than white male babies. Asian females, but not Hispanic or Other ones, were lighter and had smaller head circumferences than White females; Asian Indian, Other Asian, and Other females had shorter lengths than White female infants. Indian and Other Asian, but not Chinese, babies were more likely than White babies to be SGA; babies in all three Asian groups were less likely than White babies to be LGA. Failure to account for ethnic differences in intrauterine growth may lead to inaccurate diagnosis of fetal

  16. The Use of Surrogate Data in Demographic Population Viability Analysis: A Case Study of California Sea Lions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Reliable data necessary to parameterize population models are seldom available for imperiled species. As an alternative, data from populations of the same species or from ecologically similar species have been used to construct models. In this study, we evaluated the use of demographic data collected at one California sea lion colony (Los Islotes) to predict the population dynamics of the same species from two other colonies (San Jorge and Granito) in the Gulf of California, Mexico, for which demographic data are lacking. To do so, we developed a stochastic demographic age-structured matrix model and conducted a population viability analysis for each colony. For the Los Islotes colony we used site-specific pup, juvenile, and adult survival probabilities, as well as birth rates for older females. For the other colonies, we used site-specific pup and juvenile survival probabilities, but used surrogate data from Los Islotes for adult survival probabilities and birth rates. We assessed these models by comparing simulated retrospective population trajectories to observed population trends based on count data. The projected population trajectories approximated the observed trends when surrogate data were used for one colony but failed to match for a second colony. Our results indicate that species-specific and even region-specific surrogate data may lead to erroneous conservation decisions. These results highlight the importance of using population-specific demographic data in assessing extinction risk. When vital rates are not available and immediate management actions must be taken, in particular for imperiled species, we recommend the use of surrogate data only when the populations appear to have similar population trends. PMID:26413746

  17. Adult Demography and Larval Processes in Coastal Benthic Populations: Intertidal Barnacles in Southern California and Baja California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    mechanism for near-shore concentration and estuarine recruitment of post-larval Penaeus plebejus Hess ( Decapoda , Penaeidae). Estuarine, Coastal and...the physical The dynamics of coastal populations is highly processes that are likely to affect the distribution dependent on the mechanisms and...help. I was lucky to land on a lab where, depending on the lunar phase, time of year, and who knows what other environmental variables, I would find a

  18. Breeding-season sympatry facilitates genetic exchange among allopatric wintering populations of Northern Pintails in Japan and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flint, Paul L.; Ozaki, Kiyoaki; Pearce, John M.; Guzzetti, Brian; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi; Fleskes, Joseph P.; Shimada, Tetsuo; Derksen, Dirk V.

    2009-01-01

    The global redistribution of pathogens, such as highly pathogenic avian influenza, has renewed interest in the connectivity of continental populations of birds. Populations of the Northern Pintail (Anas acuta) wintering in Japan and California are considered separate from a management perspective. We used data from band recoveries and population genetics to assess the degree of biological independence of these wintering populations. Distributions of recoveries in Russia of Northern Pintails originally banded during winter in North America overlapped with distributions of Northern Pintails banded during winter in Japan. Thus these allopatric wintering populations are partially sympatric during the breeding season. The primary areas of overlap were along the Chukotka and Kamchatka peninsulas in Russia. Furthermore, band recoveries demonstrated dispersal of individuals between wintering populations both from North America to Japan and vice versa. Genetic analyses of samples from both wintering populations showed little evidence of population differentiation. The combination of banding and genetic markers demonstrates that these two continental populations are linked by low levels of dispersal as well as likely interbreeding in eastern Russia. Although the levels of dispersal are inconsequential for population dynamics, the combination of dispersal and interbreeding represents a viable pathway for exchange of genes, diseases, and/or parasites.

  19. Star formation in the Auriga-California Giant Molecular Cloud and its circumstellar disk population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah

    2016-05-01

    This thesis presents a multiwavelength analysis, from the infrared to the microwave, of the young, forming stars in the Auriga-California Molecular Cloud and a first look at the disks they host and their potential for forming planetary systems. At the beginning of this thesis, Auriga-Cal had only recently been identified as one contiguous cloud with its distance placing it within the Gould Belt of nearby star-forming regions (Lada et al. 2009). This thesis presents the largest body of work to date on Auriga-Cal's star formation and disk population. Auriga-Cal is one of two nearby giant molecular clouds (GMCs) in the Gould Belt, the other being the Orion A molecular cloud. These two GMCs have similar mass ( 10^5 Msolar), spatial scale ( 80 pc), distance ( 450 pc), and filamentary morphology, yet the two clouds present very different star formation qualities and quantities. Namely, Auriga-Cal is forming far fewer stars and does not exhibit the high-mass star formation seen in Orion A. In this thesis, I present a census of the star forming objects in the infrared with the Spitzer Space Telescope showing that Auriga-Cal contains at least 166 young stellar objects (YSOs), 15-20x fewer stars than Orion A, the majority of which are located in the cluster around LkHalpha 101, NGC 1529, and the filament extending from it. I find the submillimetre census with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, sensitive to the youngest objects, arrives at a similar result showing the disparity between the two clouds observed in the infrared continues to the submillimetre. Therefore the relative star formation rate between the two clouds has remained constant in recent times. The final chapter introduces the first study targeted at the disk population to measure the formation potential of planetary systems around the young stars in Auriga-Cal. The dust thermal emission at cm wavelengths is observed to measure the relative amounts of cm-sized grains, indicative of the grain growth processes

  20. Growth, population structure, and reproduction of western pond turtles (Actinemys marmorata) on the central coast of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Germano, D.J.; Rathbun, G.B.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the population structure and growth of western pond turtles (Actinemys marmorata) at Vandenberg Air Force Base along the coast of central California in April 1995 and June 1996. We captured 179 individuals (115 males, 27 females) from 7 ponds during 26 days of trapping. Many turtles were adult-sized, but based on scute annuli, 74% were < 10 years of age, including many 2- to 3-year-olds. This population structure likely was due to a relatively fast growth rate, especially compared with closely related aquatic turtles in eastern North America. Mean clutch size was 5.2, but 66.7% of females were gravid, and 1 female produced 2 clutches. These reproductive data are similar to those reported for other populations in the southern portion of the species' range. Females reached reproductive maturity as early as 4 years of age. The relatively mild temperatures of California's Mediterranean climate, especially when compared to the seasonal extremes in more continental and northern regions of North America, may explain the different growth rates and population characteristics of freshwater turtles from these 2 regions of North America. ?? 2008 Chelonian Research Foundation.

  1. Population ecology of nitrifying archaea and bacteria in the Southern California Bight.

    PubMed

    Beman, J Michael; Sachdeva, Rohan; Fuhrman, Jed A

    2010-05-01

    Marine Crenarchaeota are among the most abundant microbial groups in the ocean, and although relatively little is currently known about their biogeochemical roles in marine ecosystems, recognition that Crenarchaeota posses ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes and may act as ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) offers another means of probing the ecology of these microorganisms. Here we use a time series approach combining quantification of archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidizers with bacterial community fingerprints and biogeochemistry, to explore the population and community ecology of nitrification. At multiple depths (150, 500 and 890 m) in the Southern California Bight sampled monthly from 2003 to 2006, AOA were enumerated via quantitative PCR of archaeal amoA and marine group 1 Crenarchaeota 16S rRNA genes. Based on amoA genes, AOA were highly variable in time - a consistent feature of marine Crenarchaeota- however, average values were similar at different depths and ranged from 2.20 to 2.76 x 10(4) amoA copies ml(-1). Archaeal amoA genes were correlated with Crenarchaeota 16S rRNA genes (r(2) = 0.79) and the slope of this relationship was 1.02, demonstrating that the majority of marine group 1 Crenarchaeota present over the dates and depths sampled possessed amoA. Two AOA clades were specifically quantified and compared with betaproteobacterial ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (beta-AOB) amoA genes at 150 m; these AOA groups were found to strongly co-vary in time (r(2) = 0.70, P < 0.001) whereas AOA : beta-AOB ratios ranged from 13 to 5630. Increases in the AOA : beta-AOB ratio correlated with the accumulation of nitrite (r(2) = 0.87, P < 0.001), and may be indicative of differences in substrate affinities and activities leading to periodic decoupling between ammonia and nitrite oxidation. These data capture a dynamic nitrogen cycle in which multiple microbial groups appear to be active participants.

  2. COmet Nucleus Dust and Organics Return (CONDOR): a New Frontiers 4 Mission Proposal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choukroun, M.; Raymond, C.; Wadhwa, M.

    2017-09-01

    CONDOR would collect and return a ≥ 50 g sample from the surface of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko for detailed analysis in terrestrial laboratories. It would carry a simple payload comprising a narrow-angle camera and mm-wave radiometer to select a sampling site, and perform a gravity science investigation to survey changes of 67P since Rosetta. The proposed sampling system uses the BiBlade tool to acquire a sample down to 15 cm depth in a Touch-and-Go event. The Stardust-based sample return capsule is augmented with cooling and purge systems to maintain sample integrity during landing and until delivery to JSC's Astromaterials Curation Facility. Analysis of rock-forming minerals, organics, water and noble gases would probe the origin of these materials, and their evolution from the primordial molecular cloud to the 67P environment.

  3. A Re-Evaluation of the Size of the White Shark (Carcharodon carcharias) Population off California, USA

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, George H.; Bruce, Barry D.; Cailliet, Gregor M.; Goldman, Kenneth J.; Grubbs, R. Dean; Lowe, Christopher G.; MacNeil, M. Aaron; Mollet, Henry F.; Weng, Kevin C.; O'Sullivan, John B.

    2014-01-01

    White sharks are highly migratory and segregate by sex, age and size. Unlike marine mammals, they neither surface to breathe nor frequent haul-out sites, hindering generation of abundance data required to estimate population size. A recent tag-recapture study used photographic identifications of white sharks at two aggregation sites to estimate abundance in “central California” at 219 mature and sub-adult individuals. They concluded this represented approximately one-half of the total abundance of mature and sub-adult sharks in the entire eastern North Pacific Ocean (ENP). This low estimate generated great concern within the conservation community, prompting petitions for governmental endangered species designations. We critically examine that study and find violations of model assumptions that, when considered in total, lead to population underestimates. We also use a Bayesian mixture model to demonstrate that the inclusion of transient sharks, characteristic of white shark aggregation sites, would substantially increase abundance estimates for the adults and sub-adults in the surveyed sub-population. Using a dataset obtained from the same sampling locations and widely accepted demographic methodology, our analysis indicates a minimum all-life stages population size of >2000 individuals in the California subpopulation is required to account for the number and size range of individual sharks observed at the two sampled sites. Even accounting for methodological and conceptual biases, an extrapolation of these data to estimate the white shark population size throughout the ENP is inappropriate. The true ENP white shark population size is likely several-fold greater as both our study and the original published estimate exclude non-aggregating sharks and those that independently aggregate at other important ENP sites. Accurately estimating the central California and ENP white shark population size requires methodologies that account for biases introduced by

  4. Population dynamics of dwarf mistletoe on young true firs in the central Sierra Nevada, California

    Treesearch

    Robert E Scharpf; J. R. Jr. Parmeter

    1982-01-01

    Young red firs (Abies magnifica A. Murr.) and white firs (A. concolor [Gord. & Glend.] Lindl. ex Hildebr.) on the Stanislaus National Forest, California, were inoculated with seeds of dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium abietinum) for 5 successive years. Only 3 to 4 percent of about 7000 seeds placed on branches...

  5. Habitat Effects on Population Density and Movement of Insect Vectors of Xylella fastidiosa in California, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-limited bacterium that causes disease in grapevines, almonds, citrus, pear, alfalfa, and many other economically important plants. In California, USA, the bacteria are transmitted by several species of leafhoppers including the cicadellids Draeculacephala minerva Ball a...

  6. Newly discovered populations of salamanders from Siskiyou County California represent a species distinct from Plethodon Stormi.

    Treesearch

    Louise S. Mead; David R. Clayton; Richard S. Nauman; Deanna H. Olson; Michael E. Pfrender

    2005-01-01

    Plethodon stormi and Plethodon elongatus are two closely related species of plethodontid salamanders that are restricted to the Klamath Province of northwestern California and southwestern Oregon. Discovery of three localities south of the Klamath River, in the Scott River drainage, not assignable to either P....

  7. Population genetic analysis of four Phytophthoras recently described in California reveal they are all introduced

    Treesearch

    M. Garbelotto; R. Linzer; W. Monahan; S. Bergeman

    2009-01-01

    Four Phytophthora species have recently been described in California natural ecosystems: Phytophthora ramorum, P. ilicis, P. pseudosyringae, and P. cinnamomi. The first three species are of recent description, while the last one is a well-known pathogen associated with agricultural crops in the Western USA...

  8. Risk Factors for "Chlamydia Trachomatis" Infection in a California Collegiate Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipkin, Diane L.; Gillam, Alix; Grady, Laurie Bisset

    2003-01-01

    "Chlamydia trachomatis" infection in college students has not undergone a detailed large-scale evaluation. The authors undertook a cross-sectional study of 4,086 students enrolled on the campuses of California State University, Sacramento, and 3 local community colleges from fall 2000 through spring 2002. They used an outreach screening…

  9. Preparing a population for an earthquake like Chi-Chi: The Great Southern California ShakeOut

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Lucile M.; ,

    2009-01-01

    goals were met. The final registration at www.shakeout.org for the 2008 ShakeOut was 5.47 million people, or one-quarter of the population of the region. A survey conducted with the registered participants showed that the messages they took from the ShakeOut were the concepts intended, including the importance of “Drop, Cover, Hold On”, the interdependency of earthquake risk (“We are all in this together”) and the possibility of reducing losses through preparation and mitigation. Sales data from the Home Depot hardware stores in southern California showed a 260% increase in the sale of earthquake safety products during the month of the ShakeOut, November 2008.

  10. Population dynamics and the economics of invasive species management: the greenhouse whitefly in California-grown strawberries.

    PubMed

    McKee, Gregory J; Goodhue, Rachael E; Zalom, Frank G; Carter, Colin A; Chalfant, James A

    2009-01-01

    In agriculture, relatively few efficacious control measures may be available for an invasive pest. In the case of a new insect pest, insecticide use decisions are affected by regulations associated with its registration, insect population dynamics, and seasonal market price cycles. We assess the costs and benefits of environmental regulations designed to regulate insecticide applications on an invasive species. We construct a bioeconomic model, based on detailed scientific data, of management decisions for a specific invasion: greenhouse whiteflies in California-grown strawberries. The empirical model integrates whitefly population dynamics, the effect of whitefly feeding on strawberry yields, and weekly strawberry price. We use the model to assess the optimality of alternative treatment programs on a simulated greenhouse whitefly population. Our results show that regulations may lead growers to "under-spray" when placed in an economic context, and provide some general lessons about the design of optimal invasive species control policies.

  11. Exotic pediculosis and hair-loss syndrome in deer (Odocoileus hemionus) populations in California.

    PubMed

    Roug, Annette; Swift, Pamela; Puschner, Birgit; Gerstenberg, Greg; Mertins, James W; Johnson, Christine Kreuder; Torres, Steve; Mortensen, Jack; Woods, Leslie

    2016-07-01

    Infestation with nonnative, "exotic" lice was first noted in Washington black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) in 1994 and has since then spread throughout the western United States. In California, infestation with the exotic louse Damalinia (Cervicola) sp. was first detected in black-tailed deer from northern California in 2004, and, in 2009, the exotic louse species Bovicola tibialis and Linognathus africanus were identified on mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus californicus) in central Sierra Nevada in association with a mortality event. Exotic lice have since been detected in various locations throughout the state. We describe the geographic distribution of these exotic lice within California, using data from 520 live-captured and 9 postmortem-sampled, free-ranging mule deer examined between 2009 and 2014. Data from live-captured deer were used to assess possible associations between louse infestation and host age, host sex, migratory behavior, season, and blood selenium and serum copper concentrations. Damalinia (Cervicola) sp. and B. tibialis lice were distinctively distributed geographically, with D. (Cervicola) sp. infesting herds in northern and central coastal California, B. tibialis occurring in the central coastal mountains and the Sierra Nevada, and L. africanus occurring only sporadically. Younger age classes and low selenium concentrations were significantly associated with exotic louse infestation, whereas no significant relationship was detected with serum copper levels. Our results show that exotic lice are widespread in California, and younger age classes with low blood selenium concentrations are more likely to be infested with lice than older deer. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Population genetic structure of Phytophthora cinnamomi associated with avocado in California and the discovery of a potentially recent introduction of a new clonal lineage.

    PubMed

    Pagliaccia, D; Pond, E; McKee, B; Douhan, G W

    2013-01-01

    Phytophthora root rot (PRR) of avocado (Persea americana), caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi, is the most serious disease of avocado worldwide. Previous studies have determined that this pathogen exhibits a primarily clonal reproductive mode but no population level studies have been conducted in the avocado-growing regions of California. Therefore, we used amplified fragment length polymorphism based on 22 polymorphic loci and mating type to investigate pathogen diversity from 138 isolates collected in 2009 to 2010 from 15 groves from the Northern and Southern avocado-growing regions. Additional isolates collected from avocado from 1966 to 2007 as well as isolates from other countries and hosts were also used for comparative purposes. Two distinct clades of A2 mating-type isolates from avocado were found based on neighbor joining analysis; one clade contained both newer and older collections from Northern and Southern California, whereas the other clade only contained isolates collected in 2009 and 2010 from Southern California. A third clade was also found that only contained A1 isolates from various hosts. Within the California population, a total of 16 genotypes were found with only one to four genotypes identified from any one location. The results indicate significant population structure in the California avocado P. cinnamomi population, low genotypic diversity consistent with asexual reproduction, potential evidence for the movement of clonal genotypes between the two growing regions, and a potential introduction of a new clonal lineage into Southern California.

  13. Variation in Use of Pediatric Cardiology Subspecialty Care: A Total Population Study in California, 1983 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Lisa J; Fernandes, Susan M; Saynina, Olga; Grady, Stafford; Sanders, Lee; Staves, Kelly; Wise, Paul H

    2015-07-07

    American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines emphasize regionalized systems of care for pediatric chronic illness. There remains a paucity of information on the status of regionalized systems of care for pediatric congenital heart disease (CHD). This study evaluated variations in use of pediatric cardiology specialty care centers (PCSCC) for pediatric patients with CHD in California between 1983 and 2011. We performed a retrospective, total population analysis of pediatric CHD patients using the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development unmasked database. PCSCCs were identified by California's Title V program. There were 164,310 discharges meeting inclusion criterion. Discharges from PCSCCs grew from 58% to 88% between 1983 and 2011. Regionalized care was highest for surgical (96%) versus nonsurgical (71%) admissions. Admissions with a public payer increased from 42% (1983) to 61% (2011). Total bed days nearly doubled, and median length of stay increased from 2 to 3 days (nonspecialty care) and from 4 to 5 days (specialty care). There was a decrease in the pediatric CHD in-hospital death rate from 5.1 to 2.3 per 100,000 between 1983 and 2011, and a shift toward a larger percent of deaths occurring in the newborn period. California's inpatient regionalized specialty care of pediatric CHD has increased substantially since 1983, especially for surgical CHD discharges. The death rate has decreased, the number of bed days has increased, and a large proportion of these discharges now have public payers. Health care reform efforts must consider these shifts while protecting advances in regionalization of pediatric CHD care. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Realized population change for long-term monitoring: California spotted owl case study

    Treesearch

    Mary M. Conner; John J. Keane; Claire V. Gallagher; Gretchen Jehle; Thomas E. Munton; Paula A. Shaklee; Ross A. Gerrard

    2013-01-01

    The annual rate of population change (λt) is a good metric for evaluating population performance because it summarizes survival and recruitment rates and can be used for open populations. Another measure of population performance, realized population change (Δt...

  15. Changes in Nematode Communities in Different Physiographic Sites of the Condor Seamount (North-East Atlantic Ocean) and Adjacent Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Zeppilli, Daniela; Bongiorni, Lucia; Serrão Santos, Ricardo; Vanreusel, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Several seamounts are known as ‘oases’ of high abundances and biomass and hotspots of biodiversity in contrast to the surrounding deep-sea environments. Recent studies have indicated that each single seamount can exhibit a high intricate habitat turnover. Information on alpha and beta diversity of single seamount is needed in order to fully understand seamounts contribution to regional and global biodiversity. However, while most of the seamount research has been focused on summits, studies considering the whole seamount structure are still rather poor. In the present study we analysed abundance, biomass and diversity of nematodes collected in distinct physiographic sites and surrounding sediments of the Condor Seamount (Azores, North-East Atlantic Ocean). Our study revealed higher nematode biomass in the seamount bases and values 10 times higher in the Condor sediments than in the far-field site. Although biodiversity indices did not showed significant differences comparing seamount sites and far-field sites, significant differences were observed in term of nematode composition. The Condor summit harboured a completely different nematode community when compared to the other seamount sites, with a high number of exclusive species and important differences in term of nematode trophic diversity. The oceanographic conditions observed around the Condor Seamount and the associated sediment mixing, together with the high quality of food resources available in seamount base could explain the observed patterns. Our results support the hypothesis that seamounts maintain high biodiversity through heightened beta diversity and showed that not only summits but also seamount bases can support rich benthic community in terms of standing stocks and diversity. Furthermore functional diversity of nematodes strongly depends on environmental conditions link to the local setting and seamount structure. This finding should be considered in future studies on seamounts, especially in

  16. Childhood leukaemia and distance from power lines in California: a population-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Crespi, Catherine M; Vergara, Ximena P; Hooper, Chris; Oksuzyan, Sona; Wu, Sheng; Cockburn, Myles; Kheifets, Leeka

    2016-01-01

    Background: Studies have reported an increased risk of childhood leukaemia associated with living near high-voltage electric power transmission lines that extend to distances at which magnetic fields from lines are negligible. We conducted a large records-based case-control study of childhood leukaemia risk in the population living near power lines in California. Methods: The study included 5788 childhood leukaemia and 3308 central nervous system (CNS) cancer cases (for comparison) born in and diagnosed in California (1986–2008), and matched to population-based controls by age and sex. We geocoded birth address and estimated the distance from residence to transmission lines using geographic information systems, aerial imagery, and, for some residences, site visits. Results: For leukaemia, there was a slight excess of cases within 50 m of a transmission line over 200 kV (odds ratio 1.4, 95% confidence interval 0.7–2.7). There was no evidence of increased risk for distances beyond 50 m, for lower-voltage lines, or for CNS cancers. Conclusions: Our findings did not clearly support an increased childhood leukaemia risk associated with close proximity (<50 m) to higher voltage lines, but could be consistent with a small increased risk. Reports of increased risk for distances beyond 50 m were not replicated. PMID:27219016

  17. Childhood leukaemia and distance from power lines in California: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Crespi, Catherine M; Vergara, Ximena P; Hooper, Chris; Oksuzyan, Sona; Wu, Sheng; Cockburn, Myles; Kheifets, Leeka

    2016-06-28

    Studies have reported an increased risk of childhood leukaemia associated with living near high-voltage electric power transmission lines that extend to distances at which magnetic fields from lines are negligible. We conducted a large records-based case-control study of childhood leukaemia risk in the population living near power lines in California. The study included 5788 childhood leukaemia and 3308 central nervous system (CNS) cancer cases (for comparison) born in and diagnosed in California (1986-2008), and matched to population-based controls by age and sex. We geocoded birth address and estimated the distance from residence to transmission lines using geographic information systems, aerial imagery, and, for some residences, site visits. For leukaemia, there was a slight excess of cases within 50 m of a transmission line over 200 kV (odds ratio 1.4, 95% confidence interval 0.7-2.7). There was no evidence of increased risk for distances beyond 50 m, for lower-voltage lines, or for CNS cancers. Our findings did not clearly support an increased childhood leukaemia risk associated with close proximity (<50 m) to higher voltage lines, but could be consistent with a small increased risk. Reports of increased risk for distances beyond 50 m were not replicated.

  18. Smoking ban policies and their influence on smoking behaviors among current California smokers: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Zablocki, Rong W; Edland, Steven D; Myers, Mark G; Strong, David R; Hofstetter, C Richard; Al-Delaimy, Wael K

    2014-02-01

    To assess whether smoking ban policies are associated with smoking reduction and quit attempts among California smokers. Data were examined for 1718 current smokers from follow-up telephone interviews conducted in 2011 of persons previously identified as smokers in a representative sample of the adult population of California. Population weighted logistic regressions controlling for demographic and other variables were used to evaluate the association between smoking ban policies (home, work, and town) and changes in tobacco use (past year quit attempt or reduction in smoking rate). Living in a home with a total ban was significantly associated with smoking reduction (adjusted odds ratio, AOR: 2.4, 95% CI: 1.4-4.2) and making a quit attempt (AOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.3-3.9) compared to living in a home with no home ban. Self-reported perception of an outdoor ban in one's city/town was associated with smoking reduction (AOR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.02-2.7) and making a quit attempt (AOR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.05-2.9). These results indicate that smoking bans not only protect nonsmokers from the harms of secondhand smoke, but are also associated with smoking reduction and cessation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Meiofauna assemblages of the Condor Seamount (North-East Atlantic Ocean) and adjacent deep-sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeppilli, Daniela; Bongiorni, Lucia; Cattaneo, Antonio; Danovaro, Roberto; Santos, Ricardo Serrão

    2013-12-01

    Seamounts are currently considered hotspots of biodiversity and biomass for macro- and megabenthic taxa, but knowledge of meiofauna is still limited. Studies have revealed the existence of highly diverse meiofauna assemblages; however most data are mainly qualitative or focused only on specific groups, thus preventing comparisons among seamounts and with other deep-sea areas. This study, conducted on Condor Seamount (Azores, North-East Atlantic Ocean), describes variation in abundance, biomass, community structure and biodiversity of benthic meiofauna from five sites located on the Condor Seamount: and one site away from the seamount. While the summit of the seamount hosted the highest alpha biodiversity, the flanks and the bases showed a rich meiofauna assemblage in terms of abundance and biomass. The observed marked differences in grain size composition of sediments reflected the oceanographic conditions impacting different sectors of the Condor seamount, and could play an important role in the spatial distribution of different meiofaunal taxa. Trophic conditions (biochemical composition of organic matter) explained 78% of the variability in the meiofauna biomass pattern while sediment grain influenced the vertical distribution of meiofauna and only partially explained meiofaunal taxa composition. This study provides a further advancement in the knowledge of meiofaunal communities of seamounts. Only a deeper understanding of the whole benthic communities (including meiofauna) will allow to elaborate effective management and conservation tools for seamount ecosystems.

  20. Population Structure of Xylella fastidiosa Associated with Almond Leaf Scorch Disease in the San Joaquin Valley of California.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong; Islam, Md Sajedul; Cabrera-La Rosa, Juan C; Civerolo, Edwin L; Groves, Russell L

    2015-06-01

    Xylella fastidiosa causes disease in many commercial crops, including almond leaf scorch (ALS) disease in susceptible almond (Prunus dulcis). In this study, genetic diversity and population structure of X. fastidiosa associated with ALS disease were evaluated. Isolates obtained from two almond orchards in Fresno and Kern County in the San Joaquin Valley of California were analyzed for two successive years. Multilocus simple-sequence repeat (SSR) analysis revealed two major genetic clusters that were associated with two host cultivars, 'Sonora' and 'Nonpareil', respectively, regardless of the year of study or location of the orchard. These relationships suggest that host cultivar selection and adaptation are major driving forces shaping ALS X. fastidiosa population structure in the San Joaquin Valley. This finding will provide insight into understanding pathogen adaptation and host selection in the context of ALS disease dynamics.

  1. Effects of wind energy production on growth, demography, and survivorship of a Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) population in Southern California with comparisons to natural populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovich, J.E.; Ennen, J.R.; Madrak, S.; Meyer, K.; Loughran, C.; Bjurlin, C.; Arundel, T.; Turner, W.; Jones, C.; Groenendaal, G.M.

    2011-01-01

    We studied a Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) population at a large wind energy generation facility near Palm Springs, California over six field seasons from 1997 to 2010. We compared growth and demographic parameters to populations living in less disturbed areas; as well as populations of the closely-related and newly-described G. morafkai elsewhere in the Sonoran Desert of Arizona. We marked 69 individuals of all size classes and estimated a population size of 96 tortoises, or about 15.4/km2. Growth rates for males were lower than reported elsewhere, although maximum body size was larger. The smallest female with shelled eggs was 221 mm and males mature at over 200 mm. Mean male size was greater than that of females. The adult sex ratio was not significantly different from unity. Size frequency histograms were similar over time and when compared to most, but not all, G. morafkai populations in the Sonoran Desert. For a cohort of adult females, we estimated mortality at 8.4% annually due, in part, to site operations. This value was low in comparison to many other populations during the same time period. Other than possible differences in growth rate of males and the high survivorship of females, there appear to be few differences between this population and those in more natural areas. The high productivity of food plants at the site and its limited public access may contribute to the overall stability of the population. However, the effects of utility-scale renewable energy development on tortoises in other, less productive, areas are unknown. Additional research (especially controlled and replicated before and after studies) is urgently needed to address this deficiency because of forecasted expansion of utility-scale renewable energy development in the future.

  2. ECOLOGIC DRIVERS AND POPULATION IMPACTS OF AVIAN TRICHOMONOSIS MORTALITY EVENTS IN BAND-TAILED PIGEONS (PATAGIOENAS FASCIATA) IN CALIFORNIA, USA.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Krysta H; Girard, Yvette A; Koenig, Walter D; Johnson, Christine K

    2016-07-01

    :   Avian trichomonosis, a disease typically caused by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas gallinae , is a well recognized cause of death in many avian species. In California, US, trichomonosis has caused periodic epidemics in Pacific Coast Band-tailed Pigeons ( Patagioenas fasciata monilis). We summarize reported mortality events and investigate ecologic drivers and population impacts associated with epidemic mortality due to trichomonosis in Band-tailed Pigeons. Between 1945 and 2014, 59 mortality events involving Band-tailed Pigeons were reported in California with the number of reported events increasing over time. Estimated mortality for these events was variable, ranging between 10 and 10,000 pigeons. Events were most-frequently reported in Monterey (19%; 11/59) and San Luis Obispo (8%; 5/59) counties. Events often started in January (32%; 9/28) and February (50%; 14/28) and lasted 5-68 d. Impacts of mortality events on pigeon populations were indicated by Breeding Bird Survey and Christmas Bird Count abundance indices, which showed a decline in outbreak years compared to nonoutbreak years. Environmental conditions most associated with outbreak years included higher average temperatures between January and March, the period most associated with mortality events, and lower average precipitation in December just prior to mortality events. In Monterey County, events tended to occur in winters following higher acorn production of coast live oaks ( Quercus agrifolia ) in the fall. Weather and food abundance could be related to increased transmission or enhanced viability of Trichomonas spp. Although estimated mortality due to avian trichomonosis was highly variable across years, cumulative losses were substantial and likely to have a negative impact on population size.

  3. Variations in population exposure and evacuation potential to multiple tsunami evacuation phases on Alameda and Bay Farm Islands, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, J.

    2015-12-01

    Planning for a tsunami evacuation is challenging for California communities due to the variety of earthquake sources that could generate a tsunami. A maximum tsunami inundation zone is currently the basis for all tsunami evacuations in California, although an Evacuation Playbook consisting of specific event-based evacuation phases relating to flooding severity is in development. We chose to investigate the Evacuation Playbook approach for the island community of Alameda, CA since past reports estimated a significant difference in numbers of residents in the maximum inundation zone when compared to an event-based inundation zone. In order to recognize variations in the types of residents and businesses within each phase, a population exposure analysis was conducted for each of the four Alameda evacuation phases. A pedestrian evacuation analysis using an anisotropic, path distance model was also conducted to understand the time it would take for populations to reach high ground by foot. Initial results suggest that the two islands of the City of Alameda have different situations when it comes to the four tsunami evacuation phases. Pedestrian evacuation results suggest that Bay Farm Island would have more success evacuating by vehicle due to limited nearby high ground for pedestrians to reach safety. Therefore, agent-based traffic simulation software was used to model vehicle evacuation off Bay Farm Island. Initial results show that Alameda Island could face challenges evacuating numerous boat docks and a large beach for phases 1 and 2, whereas Bay Farm Island is unaffected at these phases but might be challenged with evacuating by vehicle for phases 3 and maximum due to congestion on limited egress routes. A better understanding of the population exposure within each tsunami Evacuation Playbook phase and the time it would take to evacuate out of each phase by foot or vehicle will help emergency managers implement the evacuation phases during an actual tsunami event.

  4. Seizing the moment: California's opportunity to prevent nutrition-related health disparities in low-income Asian American population.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Gail G; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Foerster, Susan B; Lee, Henry; Pham Kim, Loan; Nguyen, Tu-Uyen; Fernandez-Ami, Allyn; Quinn, Valerie; Bal, Dileep G

    2005-12-15

    Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPI) have the fastest growing rate of overweight and obese children. Aggressive programs are urgently needed to prevent unhealthy acculturation-related changes in diet and physical activity and to promote the healthier aspects of traditional lifestyle habits. We conducted focus groups and key informant interviews to explore knowledge, attitudes, dietary practices, and physical activity levels among three low-income Asian American ethnic groups, Chinese, Vietnamese, and Hmong, in California. Content analysis was used to identify similarities and differences among the groups. Several common health beliefs clearly emerged. Participants noted the importance of fresh (not frozen) fruit and vegetable consumption and physical activity for general health. The concept of good health included having a harmonious family, balance, and mental and emotional stability. All groups also expressed the general belief that specific foods have hot or cold properties and are part of the Yin/Yang belief system common to Asian cultures. The lure of fast food, children's adoption of American eating habits, and long work hours were identified as barriers to a healthy, more traditional lifestyle. A California campaign for Asian Americans using multilevel strategies is recommended to counter the alarming rise of obesity among AAPI youth. Strategies directed to individual, community, and policy levels should emphasize maintenance of healthy traditional diets, informed selection of mainstream U.S. foods, and promotion of active lifestyles to prevent an impending burden from cancer and nutrition-related chronic diseases in AAPI populations. Cancer 2005. (c) 2005 American Cancer Society.

  5. Nesting ecology of a population of Gopherus agassizii at a utility-scale wind energy facility in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ennen, Joshua R.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Meyer, Katherin P.; Bjurlin, Curtis; Arundel, Terence R.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the annual nesting ecology of a population of Desert Tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) inhabiting a utility-scale renewable energy (USRE) facility in southern California and compared our results with populations inhabiting relatively undisturbed sites. In 2000, 15 radio-tracked females produced 29 clutches, and 24 nests were monitored to examine nest-site selection, nest predation, hatching success, date of emergence of hatchlings, and hatchling mass and carapace length. Overall, the nesting ecology of the population inhabiting the USRE facility was very similar to other populations of Desert Tortoises inhabiting relatively undisturbed habitats. Oviposition occurred from 12 May to 8 July, which was similar to other sites. Nest depths (11.1 cm), nest predation (12%), hatchling emergence date (7 August and 29 September), and hatchling morphometrics (i.e., MCL: 44.5 mm; mass: 23 g) were all within ranges reported in other populations. Unlike within other populations, we observed no relationship between hatchling size and either maternal body size or egg width. We found no evidence of females selecting for a particular burrow for oviposition of eggs based on environmental or anthropogenic variables. Most nests were located in or near burrows, and nest depth was greater for nests near the entrance than those deeper in the burrow. Although this study suggests that the nesting ecology of the Desert Tortoise population we studied was not adversely affected by the USRE facility, this relationship is only correlative because our study was not a before-after-control-impact (BACI) study, which would establish a cause and effect relationship. As pointed out in a recent review, BACI studies are critically needed to address the wildlife impacts of utility-scale renewable energy development.

  6. Residential proximity to methyl bromide use and birth outcomes in an agricultural population in California.

    PubMed

    Gemmill, Alison; Gunier, Robert B; Bradman, Asa; Eskenazi, Brenda; Harley, Kim G

    2013-06-01

    Methyl bromide, a fungicide often used in strawberry cultivation, is of concern for residents who live near agricultural applications because of its toxicity and potential for drift. Little is known about the effects of methyl bromide exposure during pregnancy. We investigated the relationship between residential proximity to methyl bromide use and birth outcomes. Participants were from the CHAMACOS (Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas) study (n = 442), a longitudinal cohort study examining the health effects of environmental exposures on pregnant women and their children in an agricultural community in northern California. Using data from the California Pesticide Use Reporting system, we employed a geographic information system to estimate the amount of methyl bromide applied within 5 km of a woman's residence during pregnancy. Multiple linear regression models were used to estimate associations between trimester-specific proximity to use and birth weight, length, head circumference, and gestational age. High methyl bromide use (vs. no use) within 5 km of the home during the second trimester was negatively associated with birth weight (β = -113.1 g; CI: -218.1, -8.1), birth length (β = -0.85 cm; CI: -1.44, -0.27), and head circumference (β = -0.33 cm; CI: -0.67, 0.01). These outcomes were also associated with moderate methyl bromide use during the second trimester. Negative associations with fetal growth parameters were stronger when larger (5 km and 8 km) versus smaller (1 km and 3 km) buffer zones were used to estimate exposure. Residential proximity to methyl bromide use during the second trimester was associated with markers of restricted fetal growth in our study.

  7. Transformational Communications Architecture for the Unit Operations Center (UOC); Common Aviation Command and Control System (CAC2S); and Command and Control On-the-Move Network, Digital Over-the-Horizon Relay (CONDOR)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    CAPABILITY SETS..............................................................................11 Figure 6. T3 DESIGN ...Radio System (JTRS) in 2008 and beyond. JTRS is being designed to provide a flexible new approach to meet diverse warfighter communications needs...Command and Control On-the-Move Network, Digital Over the Horizon Relay (CoNDOR) The CoNDOR Capability Set is an Architectural Approach designed to

  8. Population dynamics of aerial and terrestrial populations Phytophthora ramorum in a California forest under different climatic conditions

    Treesearch

    C.A. Eyre; M. Kozanitas; M. Garbelotto

    2013-01-01

    Limited information is available on how soil and leaf populations of the sudden oak death pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum, may differ in their response to changing weather conditions, and their corresponding role in initiating the next disease cycle after unfavorable weather conditions. We sampled and cultured from 425 trees in six sites, three...

  9. Population buildup and vertical spread of dwarf mistletoe on young red and white firs in California

    Treesearch

    Robert F. Scharpf; John R. Parmeter Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Rate of population buildup of dwarf mistletoe, Arceuthobium abietinum Engelm. ex Munz., was slow in most small red firs and white firs 12 to 15 years after inoculation with the parasite. Where population buildup did occur, it remained clustered in the lower portions of tree crowns near inoculation sites. Maximum distance of vertical spread was 16...

  10. Analysis of the Causes of a Decline in the San Joaquin Kit Fox Population on the Elk Hills, Naval Petroleum Reserve #1, California

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is announcing the availability of the final report, Analysis of the Causes of a Decline in the San Joaquin Kit Fox Population on the Elk Hills, Naval Petroleum Reserve #1, California. This report describes a causal assessment of the decline in the abundance of San Joaq...

  11. Drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis in the Baja California-San Diego County border population.

    PubMed Central

    Peter, C R; Schultz, E; Moser, K; Cox, M; Freeman, R; Ramirez-Zetina, M; Lomeli, M R

    1998-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the frequency of, and risk factors for, drug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) among Baja California (BC) and San Diego County (SDC) residents. Another purpose was to document the amount of contact between pulmonary TB patients and residents of the opposite side of the the border. During the period from February 1995 to May 1996, pulmonary TB patients from BC (n = 427) and SDC (n = 331) were evaluated with cultures, drug susceptibility tests, and questionnaires. Drug resistance was found in 41% of the BC Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB) isolates and 20% of the SDC isolates. Resistance to both isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RIF) varied from 1% of isolates from SDC patients to 17% of isolates from BC patients. Patients with a history of previous treatment had increased odds of drug-resistant disease. Older BC patients were more likely to have INH- or RIF-resistant TB. Although 42% of Tijuana TB patients reported recent contact with residents from SDC, travel to Mexico and contact with residents from Mexico were not significant risk factors for drug-resistant TB among SDC residents. However, the demonstrated contact between TB patients and residents on opposite sides of the border indicates the importance of coordinating efforts internationally to control TB. PMID:9795580

  12. Effects of hydrologic infrastructure on flow regimes of California's Central Valley rivers: Implications for fish populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Larry R.; Bauer, Marissa L.

    2010-01-01

    Alteration of natural flow regimes is generally acknowledged to have negative effects on native biota; however, methods for defining ecologically appropriate flow regimes in managed river systems are only beginning to be developed. Understanding how past and present water management has affected rivers is an important part of developing such tools. In this paper, we evaluate how existing hydrologic infrastructure and management affect streamflow characteristics of rivers in the Central Valley, California and discuss those characteristics in the context of habitat requirements of native and alien fishes. We evaluated the effects of water management by comparing observed discharges with estimated discharges assuming no water management ("full natural runoff"). Rivers in the Sacramento River drainage were characterized by reduced winter–spring discharges and augmented discharges in other months. Rivers in the San Joaquin River drainage were characterized by reduced discharges in all months but particularly in winter and spring. Two largely unaltered streams had hydrographs similar to those based on full natural runoff of the regulated rivers. The reduced discharges in the San Joaquin River drainage streams are favourable for spawning of many alien species, which is consistent with observed patterns of fish distribution and abundance in the Central Valley. However, other factors, such as water temperature, are also important to the relative success of native and alien resident fishes. As water management changes in response to climate change and societal demands, interdisciplinary programs of research and monitoring will be essential for anticipating effects on fishes and to avoid unanticipated ecological outcomes.

  13. Maternal Occupation and Term Low Birth Weight in a Predominantly Latina Population in Los Angeles, California

    PubMed Central

    von Ehrenstein, Ondine S.; Wilhelm, Michelle; Ritz, Beate

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Focussing on Latinas, we investigated whether maternal occupations during pregnancy increase term low birth weight (TLBW) (<2,500 gram, ≥37 weeks). Methods In a case-control study (n=1,498) nested within the 2003 birth-cohort (n=58,316) in Los Angeles county, California, (65% Latina) we assessed the influence of maternal occupation on TLBW using U.S. Census-Occupational Categories. Results Odds ratios for TLBW were increased among women working during pregnancy in “Transportation and Material Moving Operations” (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=3.28; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.00, 10.73), “Food Preparation and Serving Occupations” (aOR=3.03; 95%CI=1.21, 7.62), or in “Production Occupations” (aOR=2.63; 95%CI=1.01, 6.82) compared with “Office Occupations”; 73%–93% of women working in these higher risk jobs were immigrant Latinas. Conclusions Working conditions in various jobs held mainly by first-generation-immigrant Latinas increase risks for TLBW, and need to be addressed to develop strategies to reduce TLBW. PMID:23969503

  14. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in populations of the clam Chione californiensis in coastal lagoons of the Gulf of California.

    PubMed

    Vargas-González, Héctor H; Méndez-Rodríguez, Lía C; García-Hernández, Jaqueline; Mendoza-Salgado, Renato A; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Arreola-Lizárraga, José A

    2016-07-02

    This study examines the potential public health risk due to the massive use of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in agriculture in the Gulf of California. Specimens of the clam Chione californiensis were collected from three coastal lagoons (Yavaros, Altata and Reforma). Sites were classified as polluted/nonpolluted based on the presence/absence of OCs as an indicator of the persistence of these pollutants; in polluted sites, the time elapsed since pesticide application (past or recent) was estimated. Screening values (SV) for protecting human health as per the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) were used for risk assessment. OCs detected were ranked according to frequency of occurrence as follows: γ-chlordane (75%) > endrin (54%) > aldrin (48%) > heptachlor, and dichlorodiphenyl-trichloroethane (DDE) (37%) > β-heptachlor epoxide (30%) > lindane (α-BHC, δ-BHC) and endosulphan I (≤ 6%). Specifically, OCs detected at the highest concentration were heptachlor in Yavaros (0.0168 µgg(-1)) and Altata (0.0046 µgg(-1)), and aldrin in Reforma (0.0019 µgg(-1)). β-Heptachlor epoxide in Altata and Reforma was the only OC with a concentration exceeding the EPA Screening Value. From our results and based on the monthly consumption limit set forth by EPA, the maximum safe consumption of clams to avoid a carcinogenic risk derived from β-heptachlor epoxide in the fishing villages of Yavaros and Altata is 4 servings per month (1 serving = 0.227 kg) by a 70-kg person. These findings suggest that concentrations of OCs and their isomers in C. californiensis populations reflect environmental persistence as well as recent inputs of OCs into coastal lagoons in the Gulf of California.

  15. Racial/ethnic variation in EBV-positive classical Hodgkin lymphoma in California populations

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Sally L.; Gulley, Margaret L.; Clarke, Christina A.; Keegan, Theresa H.; Chang, Ellen T.; Shema, Sarah J.; Craig, Fiona E.; DiGiuseppe, Joseph A.; Dorfman, Ronald F.; Mann, Risa B.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ambinder, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is detected in the tumor cells of some but not all Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients, and evidence indicates that EBV-positive and –negative HL are distinct entities. Racial/ethnic variation in EBV-positive HL in international comparisons suggests etiologic roles for environmental and genetic factors, but these studies used clinical series and evaluated EBV presence by differing protocols. Therefore, we evaluated EBV presence in the tumors of a large (n=1,032), racially and sociodemographically diverse series of California incident classical HL cases with uniform pathology re-review and EBV detection methods. Tumor EBV-positivity was associated with Hispanic and Asian/Pacific Islander (API) but not black race/ethnicity, irrespective of demographic and clinical factors. Complex race-specific associations were observed between EBV-positive HL and age, sex, histology, stage, neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES), and birth place. In Hispanics, EBV-positive HL was associated not only with young and older age, male sex, and mixed cellularity histology, but also with foreign birth and lower SES in females, suggesting immune function responses to correlates of early childhood experience and later environmental exposures, respectively, as well as of pregnancy. For APIs, a lack of association with birth place may reflect the higher SES of API than Hispanic immigrants. In blacks, EBV-positive HL was associated with later-stage disease, consistent with racial/ethnic variation in certain cytokine polymorphisms. The racial/ethnic variation in our findings suggests that EBV-positive HL results from an intricate interplay of early- and later-life environmental, hormonal, and genetic factors leading to depressed immune function and poorly controlled EBV infection. PMID:18646185

  16. Persistence of historical population structure in an endangered species despite near-complete biome conversion in California's San Joaquin Desert.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Jonathan Q; Wood, Dustin A; Westphal, Michael F; Vandergast, Amy G; Leaché, Adam D; Saslaw, Lawrence R; Butterfield, H Scott; Fisher, Robert N

    2017-07-01

    Genomic responses to habitat conversion can be rapid, providing wildlife managers with time-limited opportunities to enact recovery efforts that use population connectivity information that reflects predisturbance landscapes. Despite near-complete biome conversion, such opportunities may still exist for the endemic fauna and flora of California's San Joaquin Desert, but comprehensive genetic data sets are lacking for nearly all species in the region. To fill this knowledge gap, we studied the rangewide population structure of the endangered blunt-nosed leopard lizard Gambelia sila, a San Joaquin Desert endemic, using restriction site-associated DNA (RAD), microsatellite and mtDNA data to test whether admixture patterns and estimates of effective migration surfaces (EEMS) can identify land areas with high population connectivity prior to the conversion of native xeric habitats. Clustering and phylogenetic analyses indicate a recent shared history between numerous isolated populations and EEMS reveals latent signals of corridors and barriers to gene flow over areas now replaced by agriculture and urbanization. Conflicting histories between the mtDNA and nuclear genomes are consistent with hybridization with the sister species G. wislizenii, raising important questions about where legal protection should end at the southern range limit of G. sila. Comparative analysis of different data sets also adds to a growing list of advantages in using RAD loci for genetic studies of rare species. We demonstrate how the results of this work can serve as an evolutionary guidance tool for managing endemic, arid-adapted taxa in one of the world's most compromised landscapes. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Persistence of historical population structure in an endangered species despite near-complete biome conversion in California's San Joaquin Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richmond, Jonathan Q.; Wood, Dustin A.; Westphal, Michael F.; Vandergast, Amy; Leache, Adam D.; Saslaw, Lawrence; Butterfield, H. Scott; Fisher, Robert N.

    2017-01-01

    Genomic responses to habitat conversion can be rapid, providing wildlife managers with time-limited opportunities to enact recovery efforts that use population connectivity information that reflects predisturbance landscapes. Despite near-complete biome conversion, such opportunities may still exist for the endemic fauna and flora of California's San Joaquin Desert, but comprehensive genetic data sets are lacking for nearly all species in the region. To fill this knowledge gap, we studied the rangewide population structure of the endangered blunt-nosed leopard lizard Gambelia sila, a San Joaquin Desert endemic, using restriction site-associated DNA (RAD), microsatellite and mtDNA data to test whether admixture patterns and estimates of effective migration surfaces (EEMS) can identify land areas with high population connectivity prior to the conversion of native xeric habitats. Clustering and phylogenetic analyses indicate a recent shared history between numerous isolated populations and EEMS reveals latent signals of corridors and barriers to gene flow over areas now replaced by agriculture and urbanization. Conflicting histories between the mtDNA and nuclear genomes are consistent with hybridization with the sister species G. wislizenii, raising important questions about where legal protection should end at the southern range limit of G. sila. Comparative analysis of different data sets also adds to a growing list of advantages in using RAD loci for genetic studies of rare species. We demonstrate how the results of this work can serve as an evolutionary guidance tool for managing endemic, arid-adapted taxa in one of the world's most compromised landscapes.

  18. Incidence of fumonisin B2 production within Aspergillus section Nigri populations isolated from California raisins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fungi belonging to Aspergillus section Nigri occur frequently and in high populations on grapes. Species within this section include A. niger, A. tubingensis, and A. carbonarius, and are potential sources for mycotoxins including ochratoxin A and fumonisin B2 (FB2) in grapes and grape products. As...

  19. A hierarchical integrated population model for greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Bi-State Distinct Population Segment, California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, Peter S.; Halstead, Brian J.; Blomberg, Erik J.; Brussee, Brianne; Howe, Kristy B.; Wiechman, Lief; Tebbenkamp, Joel; Reese, Kerry P.; Gardner, Scott C.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus, hereafter referred to as “sage-grouse”) are endemic to sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystems throughout Western North America. Populations of sage-grouse have declined in distribution and abundance across the range of the species (Schroeder and others, 2004; Knick and Connelly, 2011), largely as a result of human disruption of sagebrush communities (Knick and Connelly, 2011). The Bi-State Distinct Population Segment (DPS) represents sage-grouse populations that are geographically isolated and genetically distinct (Benedict and others, 2003; Oyler-McCance and others, 2005) and that are present at the extreme southwestern distribution of the sage-grouse range (Schroeder and others, 2004), straddling the border of California and Nevada. Subpopulations of sage-grouse in the DPS may be at increased risk of extirpation because of a substantial loss of sagebrush habitat and lack of connectivity (Oyler-McCance and others, 2005). Sage-grouse in the Bi-State DPS represent small, localized breeding populations distributed across 18,325 km2. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service currently (2014) is evaluating the Bi-State DPS as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, independent of other sage-grouse populations. This DPS was designated as a higher priority for listing than sage-grouse in other parts of the species’ range (U.S. Department of the Interior, 2010). Range-wide population analyses for sage-grouse have included portions of the Bi-State DPS (Sage and Columbian Sharp-tailed Grouse Technical Committee 2008; Garton and others, 2011). Although these analyses are informative, the underlying data only represent a portion of the DPS and are comprised of lek count observations only. A thorough examination of population dynamics and persistence that includes multiple subpopulations and represents the majority of the DPS is largely lacking. Furthermore, fundamental information on population growth

  20. Simulation model of Skeletonema costatum population dynamics in northern San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cloern, J.E.; Cheng, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    A pseudo-two-dimensional model is developed to simulate population dynamics of one dominant phytoplankton species (Skeletonema costatum) in northern San Francisco Bay. The model is formulated around a conceptualization of this estuary as two distinct but coupled subsystems-a deep (10-20 m) central channel and lateral areas with shallow (<2 m) water and slow circulation. Algal growth rates are governed by solar irradiation, temperature and salinity, while population losses are assumed to result from grazing bycalanoid copepods. Consequences of estuarine gravitational circulation are approximated simply by reducing convective-dispersive transport in that section of the channel (null zone) where residual bottom currents are near zero, and lateral mixing is treated as a bulkexchange process between the channel and the shoals. Model output is consistent with the hypothesis that, because planktonic algae are light-limited, shallow areas are the sites of active population growth. Seasonal variation in the location of the null zone (a response to variable river discharge) is responsible for maintaining the spring bloom of neritic diatoms in the seaward reaches of the estuary (San Pablo Bay) and the summer bloom upstream (Suisun Bay). Model output suggests that these spring and summer blooms result from the same general process-establishment of populations over the shoals, where growth rates are rapid, coupled with reduced particulate transport due to estuarine gravitational circulation. It also suggests, however, that the relative importance of physical and biological processes to phytoplankton dynamics is different in San Pablo and Suisun Bays. Finally, the model has helped us determine those processes having sufficient importance to merit further refinement in the next generation of models, and it has given new direction to field studies. ?? 1981 Academic Press Inc. (London) Ltd.

  1. Top-down and bottom-up factors affecting seabird population trends in the California current system (1985-2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ainley, David G.; David Hyrenbach, K.

    2010-03-01

    To characterize the environmental factors affecting seabird population trends in the central portion of the California current system (CCS), we analyzed standardized vessel-based surveys collected during the late spring (May-June) upwelling season over 22 yr (1985-2006). We tested the working hypothesis that population trends are related to species-specific foraging ecology, and predicted that temporal variation in population size should be most extreme in diving species with higher energy expenditure during foraging. We related variation in individual species abundance (number km -2) to seasonally lagged (late winter, early spring, late spring) and concurrent ocean conditions, and to long-term trends (using a proxy variable: year) during a multi-decadal period of major fluctuations in the El Niño-Southern oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO). We considered both remote (Multivariate ENSO Index, PDO) and local (coastal upwelling indices and sea-surface temperature) environmental variables as proxies for ocean productivity and prey availability. We also related seabird trends to those of potentially major trophic competitors, humpback ( Megaptera novaeangliae) and blue ( Balaenoptera musculus) whales, which increased in number 4-5-fold midway during our study. Cyclical oscillations in seabird abundance were apparent in the black-footed albatross ( Phoebastria nigripes), and decreasing trends were documented for ashy storm-petrel ( Oceanodroma homochroa), pigeon guillemot ( Cepphus columbus), rhinoceros auklet ( Cerorhinca monocerata), Cassin’s auklet ( Ptychoramphus aleuticus), and western gull ( Larus occidentalis); the sooty shearwater ( Puffinus griseus), exhibited a marked decline before signs of recovery at the end of the study period. The abundance of nine other focal species varied with ocean conditions, but without decadal or long-term trends. Six of these species have the largest global populations in the CCS, and four are highly

  2. Disparities in location of death of adolescents and young adults with cancer: A longitudinal, population study in California.

    PubMed

    Rajeshuni, Nitya; Johnston, Emily E; Saynina, Olga; Sanders, Lee M; Chamberlain, Lisa J

    2017-11-01

    Patients with a terminal illness should have access to their chosen location of death. Cancer is the leading cause of non-accidental death among adolescents and young adults (AYAs; those aged 15-39 years). Although surveys have suggested that a majority of these patients prefer a home death, to the authors' knowledge, little is known regarding their barriers to accessing their preferred location of death. As a first step, the authors sought to determine, across a large population, 20-year trends in the location of death among AYA patients with cancer. Using the Vital Statistics Death Certificate Database of the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development, the authors performed a retrospective, population-based analysis of California patients with cancer aged 15 to 39 years who died between 1989 and 2011. Sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with hospital death were examined using multivariable logistic regression. Of 30,573 AYA oncology decedents, 57% died in a hospital, 33% died at home, and 10% died in other locations (eg, hospice facility or nursing facility). Between 1989 and 1994, hospital death rates decreased from 68.3% to 53.6% and at-home death rates increased from 16.8% to 35.5%. Between 1995 and 2011, these rates were stable. Those individuals who were more likely to die in a hospital were those aged <30 years, of minority race, of Hispanic ethnicity, who lived ≤10 miles from a specialty center, and who had a diagnosis of leukemia or lymphoma. Overall, the majority of AYA cancer deaths occurred in a hospital, with a 5-year shift to more in-home deaths that abated after 1995. In-hospital deaths were more common among younger patients, patients of minority race/ethnicities, and those with a leukemia or lymphoma diagnosis. Further study is needed to determine whether these rates and disparities are consistent with patient preferences. Cancer 2017;123:4178-4184. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  3. Predicting Response to Reassurances and Uncertainties in Bioterrorism Communications for Urban Populations in New York and California

    PubMed Central

    Vaughan, Elaine; Tinker, Tim L.; Truman, Benedict I.; Edelson, Paul; Morse, Stephen S.

    2015-01-01

    Recent national plans for recovery from bioterrorism acts perpetrated in densely populated urban areas acknowledge the formidable technical and social challenges of consequence management. Effective risk and crisis communication is one priority to strengthen the U.S.’s response and resilience. However, several notable risk events since September 11, 2001, have revealed vulnerabilities in risk/crisis communication strategies and infrastructure of agencies responsible for protecting civilian populations. During recovery from a significant biocontamination event, 2 goals are essential: (1) effective communication of changing risk circumstances and uncertainties related to cleanup, restoration, and reoccupancy; and (2) adequate responsiveness to emerging information needs and priorities of diverse populations in high-threat, vulnerable locations. This telephone survey study explored predictors of public reactions to uncertainty communications and reassurances from leaders related to the remediation stage of an urban-based bioterrorism incident. African American and Hispanic adults (N = 320) were randomly sampled from 2 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse geographic areas in New York and California assessed as high threat, high vulnerability for terrorism and other public health emergencies. Results suggest that considerable heterogeneity exists in risk perspectives and information needs within certain sociodemographic groups; that success of risk/crisis communication during recovery is likely to be uneven; that common assumptions about public responsiveness to particular risk communications need further consideration; and that communication effectiveness depends partly on preexisting values and risk perceptions and prior trust in leaders. Needed improvements in communication strategies are possible with recognition of where individuals start as a reference point for reasoning about risk information, and comprehension of how this influences subsequent

  4. Predicting response to reassurances and uncertainties in bioterrorism communications for urban populations in New York and California.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Elaine; Tinker, Tim L; Truman, Benedict I; Edelson, Paul; Morse, Stephen S

    2012-06-01

    Recent national plans for recovery from bioterrorism acts perpetrated in densely populated urban areas acknowledge the formidable technical and social challenges of consequence management. Effective risk and crisis communication is one priority to strengthen the U.S.'s response and resilience. However, several notable risk events since September 11, 2001, have revealed vulnerabilities in risk/crisis communication strategies and infrastructure of agencies responsible for protecting civilian populations. During recovery from a significant biocontamination event, 2 goals are essential: (1) effective communication of changing risk circumstances and uncertainties related to cleanup, restoration, and reoccupancy; and (2) adequate responsiveness to emerging information needs and priorities of diverse populations in high-threat, vulnerable locations. This telephone survey study explored predictors of public reactions to uncertainty communications and reassurances from leaders related to the remediation stage of an urban-based bioterrorism incident. African American and Hispanic adults (N=320) were randomly sampled from 2 ethnically and socioeconomically diverse geographic areas in New York and California assessed as high threat, high vulnerability for terrorism and other public health emergencies. Results suggest that considerable heterogeneity exists in risk perspectives and information needs within certain sociodemographic groups; that success of risk/crisis communication during recovery is likely to be uneven; that common assumptions about public responsiveness to particular risk communications need further consideration; and that communication effectiveness depends partly on preexisting values and risk perceptions and prior trust in leaders. Needed improvements in communication strategies are possible with recognition of where individuals start as a reference point for reasoning about risk information, and comprehension of how this influences subsequent interpretation

  5. Population declines lead to replicate patterns of internal range structure at the tips of the distribution of the California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richmond, Jonathan Q.; Backlin, Adam R.; Tatarian, Patricia J.; Solvesky, Ben G.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2014-01-01

    Demographic declines and increased isolation of peripheral populations of the threatened California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii) have led to the formation of internal range boundaries at opposite ends of the species’ distribution. While the population genetics of the southern internal boundary has been studied in some detail, similar information is lacking for the northern part of the range. In this study, we used microsatellite and mtDNA data to examine the genetic structuring and diversity of some of the last remaining R. draytonii populations in the northern Sierra Nevada, which collectively form the northern external range boundary. We compared these data to coastal populations in the San Francisco Bay Area, where the species is notably more abundant and still exists throughout much of its historic range. We show that ‘external’ Sierra Nevada populations have lower genetic diversity and are more differentiated from one another than their ‘internal’ Bay Area counterparts. This same pattern was mirrored across the distribution in California, where Sierra Nevada and Bay Area populations had lower allelic variability compared to those previously studied in coastal southern California. This genetic signature of northward range expansion was mirrored in the phylogeography of mtDNA haplotypes; northern Sierra Nevada haplotypes showed greater similarity to haplotypes from the south Coast Ranges than to the more geographically proximate populations in the Bay Area. These data cast new light on the geographic origins of Sierra Nevada R. draytonii populations and highlight the importance of distinguishing the genetic effects of contemporary demographic declines from underlying signatures of historic range expansion when addressing the most immediate threats to population persistence. Because there is no evidence of contemporary gene flow between any of the Sierra Nevada R. draytonii populations, we suggest that management activities should focus on

  6. Tuberculosis testing among populations with high HIV risk in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Velasquez, Michele G.; Laniado-Laborin, Rafael; Rodwell, Timothy C.; Cerecer, Paris; Lozada, Remedios; Cuevas-Mota, Jazmine; Burgos, Jose Luis; Garfein, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence of prior tuberculin skin testing (TST) among populations at risk for HIV infection in Tijuana, Mexico, and to identify factors associated with TST. Methods Sex workers, injection drug users, noninjecting drug users, and homeless persons ≥ 18 years old were recruited by using targeted sampling for risk assessment interviews and serologic testing for HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to identify correlates of self-reported TST history. Results Of 502 participants, 38.0% reported prior TST, which was associated with previous incarceration in the United States of America [odds ratio (OR) = 13.38; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 7.37–24.33] and injection drug use (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.27–3.11). Positive results on serologic tests for M. tuberculosis infection (57%) and HIV (4.2%) were not associated with a prior TST. Conclusions A history of TST was lower in HIV-positive participants even though TST is indicated for persons with HIV in Mexico. Fewer than half the individuals at high risk for HIV in this study had a history of TST; however, TST was fairly common among those individuals with a prior history of incarceration. Increased tuberculosis screening is needed for populations at risk of contracting HIV in Tijuana, particularly those outside of criminal justice settings. PMID:22910722

  7. Tuberculosis testing among populations with high HIV risk in Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Velasquez, Michele G; Laniado-Laborin, Rafael; Rodwell, Timothy C; Cerecer, Paris; Lozada, Remedios; Cuevas-Mota, Jazmine; Burgos, Jose Luis; Garfein, Richard S

    2012-07-01

    To assess the prevalence of prior tuberculin skin testing (TST) among populations at risk for HIV infection in Tijuana, Mexico, and to identify factors associated with TST. Sex workers, injection drug users, noninjecting drug users, and homeless persons > 18 years old were recruited by using targeted sampling for risk assessment interviews and serologic testing for HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to identify correlates of self-reported TST history. Of 502 participants, 38.0% reported prior TST, which was associated with previous incarceration in the United States of America [odds ratio (OR) = 13.38; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 7.37-24.33] and injection drug use (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.27- 3.11). Positive results on serologic tests for M. tuberculosis infection (57%) and HIV (4.2%) were not associated with a prior TST. A history of TST was lower in HIV-positive participants even though TST is indicated for persons with HIV in Mexico. Fewer than half the individuals at high risk for HIV in this study had a history of TST; however, TST was fairly common among those individuals with a prior history of incarceration. Increased tuberculosis screening is needed for populations at risk of contracting HIV in Tijuana, particularly those outside of criminal justice settings.

  8. Identifying the location and population served by domestic wells in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Tyler D.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Aggregating the results indicates that three hydrogeologic provinces contain nearly 80% of all domestic wells and also have the highest density of domestic well users: Central Valley (31.6%), Sierra Nevada (31.5%), and Northern Coast Ranges (16.6%). Results were also aggregated into groundwater basins and highland areas, collectively called Groundwater Units (GUs). Twenty-eight of the 938 GUs contain more than 50% of the total population served by domestic wells, 70 GUs contain more than 75%, and 150 GUs contain 90%. The 28 GUs are mostly located in the eastern and southern San Joaquin Valley (11), the Sacramento Valley (7), and the western foothills of the Sierra Nevada province (5). Using the information presented in this research along with other information about domestic-well use, the US Geological Survey has begun sampling high-use GUs for the Shallow Aquifer Assessment component of the Groundwater Ambient Assessment (GAMA) program.

  9. Scorpions from the Island of Côn Son (Poulo Condore), Vietnam and description of a new species of Chaerilus Simon, 1877 (Scorpiones, Chaerilidae).

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Wilson R

    2011-10-01

    The scorpion fauna of the Island of Côn Son (Poulo Condore), Vietnam is briefly discussed and a new species, Chaerilus phami sp. n. is described. The new species is morphologically distinct from all the other species of Chaerilus described from the mainland in Vietnam. Copyright © 2011 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Temporal changes in HCV genotype distribution in three different high risk populations in San Francisco, California

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype (GT) has become an important measure in the diagnosis and monitoring of HCV infection treatment. In the United States (U.S.) HCV GT 1 is reported as the most common infecting GT among chronically infected patients. In Europe, however, recent studies have suggested that the epidemiology of HCV GTs is changing. Methods We assessed HCV GT distribution in 460 patients from three HCV-infected high risk populations in San Francisco, and examined patterns by birth cohort to assess temporal trends. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess factors independently associated with GT 1 infection compared to other GTs (2, 3, and 4). Results Overall, GT 1 was predominant (72.4%), however younger injection drug users (IDU) had a lower proportion of GT 1 infections (54.7%) compared to older IDU and HIV-infected patients (80.5% and 76.6%, respectively). Analysis by birth cohort showed increasing proportions of non-GT 1 infections associated with year of birth: birth before 1970 was independently associated with higher adjusted odds of GT 1: AOR 2.03 (95% CI: 1.23, 3.34). African-Americans as compared to whites also had higher adjusted odds of GT 1 infection (AOR: 3.37; 95% CI: 1.89, 5.99). Conclusions Although, HCV GT 1 remains the most prevalent GT, especially among older groups, changes in GT distribution could have significant implications for how HCV might be controlled on a population level and treated on an individual level. PMID:21810243

  11. A pilot golden eagle population study in the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, California

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, G.

    1995-05-01

    Orloff and Flannery (1992) estimated that several hundred reports are annually killed by turbine collisions, wire strikes, and electrocutions at the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area (WRA). The most common fatalities were those of red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), American kestrels (Falco sparvatius), and golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), with lesser numbers of turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), common ravens (Corvus corax), bam owls (Tyto alba), and others. Among the species of raptors killed at Altamont Pass, the one whose local population is most likely to be impacted is the golden eagle. Besides its being less abundant than the others, the breeding andmore » recruitment rates of golden eagles are naturally slow, increasing their susceptibility to decline as a result of mortality influences. The golden eagle is a species afforded special federal protection because of its inclusion within the Bald Eagle Protection Act as amended in 1963. There are no provisions within the Act which would allow the killing ``taking`` of golden eagles by WRA structures. This report details the results of field studies conducted during 19941. The primary purpose of the investigation is to lay the groundwork for determining whether or not turbine strikes and other hazards related to energy at Altamont Pass may be expected to affect golden eagles on a population basis. We also seek an understanding of the physical and biotic circumstances which attract golden eagles to the WRA within the context of the surrounding landscape and the conditions under which they are killed by wind turbines. Such knowledge may suggest turbine-related or habitat modifications that would result in a lower incidence of eagle mortality.« less

  12. Amphibian populations in the terrestrial environment: Is there evidence of declines of terrestrial forest amphibians in northwestern California?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welsh, H.H.; Fellers, G.M.; Lind, A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Amphibian declines have been documented worldwide; however the vast majority are species associated with aquatic habitats. Information on the status and trends of terrestrial amphibians is almost entirely lacking. Here we use data collected across a 12-yr period (sampling from 1984-86 and from 1993-95) to address the question of whether evidence exists for declines among terrestrial amphibians in northwestern California forests. The majority of amphibians, both species and relative numbers, in these forests are direct-developing salamanders of the family Plethodontidae. We examined amphibian richness and evenness, and the relative abundances of the four most common species of plethodontid salamanders. We examined evidence of differences between years in two ecological provinces (coastal and interior) and across young, mature, and late seral forests and with reference to a moisture gradient from xeric to hydric within late seral forests. We found evidence of declines in species richness across years on late seral mesic stands and in the coastal ecological province, but these differences appeared to be caused by differences in the detection of rarer species, rather than evidence of an overall pattern. We also found differences among specific years in numbers of individuals of the most abundant species, Ensatina eschscholtzii, but these differences also failed to reflect a consistent pattern of declines between the two decadal sample periods. Results showing differences in richness, evenness, and relative abundances along both the seral and moisture continua were consistent with previous research. Overall, we found no compelling evidence of a downward trend in terrestrial plethodontid salamanders. We believe that continued monitoring of terrestrial salamander populations is important to understanding mechanisms of population declines in amphibian species. Copyright 2007 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  13. Serum concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFC) among selected populations of children and adults in California.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiangmei May; Bennett, Deborah H; Calafat, Antonia M; Kato, Kayoko; Strynar, Mark; Andersen, Erik; Moran, Rebecca E; Tancredi, Daniel J; Tulve, Nicolle S; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2015-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been widely used in industrial applications and consumer products. Their persistent nature and potential health impacts are of concern. Given the high cost of collecting serum samples, this study is to understand whether we can quantify PFC serum concentrations using factors extracted from questionnaire responses and indirect measurements, and whether a single serum measurement can be used to classify an individual's exposure over a one-year period. The study population included three demographic groups: young children (2-8 years old) (N=67), parents of young children (<55 years old) (N=90), and older adults (>55 years old) (N=59). PFC serum concentrations, house dust concentrations, and questionnaires were collected. The geometric mean of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was highest for the older adults. In contrast, the geometric mean of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was highest for children. Serum concentrations of the parent and the child from the same family were moderately correlated (Spearman correlation (r)=0.26-0.79, p<0.05), indicating common sources within a family. For adults, age, having occupational exposure or having used fire extinguisher, frequencies of consuming butter/margarine, pork, canned meat entrées, tuna and white fish, freshwater fish, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significantly positively associated with serum concentrations of individual PFCs. For children, residential dust concentrations, frequency of wearing waterproof clothes, frequency of having canned fish, hotdogs, chicken nuggets, French fries, and chips, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significant positive predictors of individual PFC serum concentrations. In addition, the serum concentrations collected in a subset of young children (N=20) and the parents (N=42) one year later were strongly correlated (r=0.68-0.98, p<0.001) with the levels measured at the first visits, but showed a decreasing trend. Children had

  14. Serum concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFC) among selected populations of children and Adults in California

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiangmei (May); Bennett, Deborah H.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Kato, Kayoko; Strynar, Mark; Andersen, Erik; Moran, Rebecca E.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Tulve, Nicolle S.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2016-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been widely used in industrial applications and consumer products. Their persistent nature and potential health impacts are of concern. Given the high cost of collecting serum samples, this study is to understand whether we can quantify PFC serum concentrations using factors extracted from questionnaire responses and indirect measurements, and whether a single serum measurement can be used to classify an individual’s exposure over a one-year period. The study population included three demographic groups: young children (2–8 years old) (N=67), parents of young children (<55 years old) (N=90), and older adults (>55 years old) (N=59). PFC serum concentrations, house dust concentrations, and questionnaires were collected. The geometric mean of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was highest for the older adults. In contrast, the geometric mean of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was highest for children. Serum concentrations of the parent and the child from the same family were moderately correlated (Spearman correlation (r)=0.26–0.79, p<0.05), indicating common sources within a family. For adults, age, having occupational exposure or having used fire extinguisher, frequencies of consuming butter/margarine, pork, canned meat entrées, tuna and white fish, freshwater fish, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significantly positively associated with serum concentrations of individual PFCs. For children, residential dust concentrations, frequency of wearing waterproof clothes, frequency of having canned fish, hotdogs, chicken nuggets, French fries, and chips, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significant positive predictors of individual PFC serum concentrations. In addition, the serum concentrations collected in a subset of young children (N=20) and the parents (N=42) one year later were strongly correlated (r=0.68–0.98, p<0.001) with the levels measured at the first visits, but showed a decreasing trend

  15. Collaborative assessment of California spiny lobster population and fishery responses to a marine reserve network.

    PubMed

    Kay, Matthew C; Lenihan, Hunter S; Guenther, Carla M; Wilson, Jono R; Miller, Christopher J; Shrout, Samuel W

    2012-01-01

    Assessments of the conservation and fisheries effects of marine reserves typically focus on single reserves where sampling occurs over narrow spatiotemporal scales. A strategy for broadening the collection and interpretation of data is collaborative fisheries research (CFR). Here we report results of a CFR program formed in part to test whether reserves at the Santa Barbara Channel Islands, USA, influenced lobster size and trap yield, and whether abundance changes in reserves led to spillover that influenced trap yield and effort distribution near reserve borders. Industry training of scientists allowed us to sample reserves with fishery relevant metrics that we compared with pre-reserve fishing records, a concurrent port sampling program, fishery effort patterns, the local ecological knowledge (LEK) of fishermen, and fishery-independent visual surveys of lobster abundance. After six years of reserve protection, there was a four- to eightfold increase in trap yield, a 5-10% increase in the mean size (carapace length) of legal sized lobsters, and larger size structure of lobsters trapped inside vs. outside of three replicate reserves. Patterns in trap data were corroborated by visual scuba surveys that indicated a four- to sixfold increase in lobster density inside reserves. Population increases within reserves did not lead to increased trap yields or effort concentrations (fishing the line) immediately outside reserve borders. The absence of these catch and effort trends, which are indicative of spillover, may be due to moderate total mortality (Z = 0.59 for legal sized lobsters outside reserves), which was estimated from analysis of growth and length frequency data collected as part of our CFR program. Spillover at the Channel Islands reserves may be occurring but at levels that are insufficient to influence the fishery dynamics that we measured. Future increases in fishing effort (outside reserves) and lobster biomass (inside reserves) are likely and may lead to

  16. Biology and conservation of the common murre in California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia: Vol. 1, Natural history and population trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manuwal, David Allen; Carter, Harry R.; Zimmerman, Tara; Orthmeyer, Dennis L.

    2001-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, the common murre (Uria aalge californica) has been recognized as a prominent indicator of marine conservation issues in California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia, especially regarding oil pollution, certain fisheries, and human disturbance. To assist the effective management of the common murre and the marine environments in which they live, this summary of available information on the biology and regional status of the common murre has been sponsored by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Division of Migratory Bird Management). In Volume 1 (Chapter 1), the natural history of the common murre is summarized, drawing heavily on breeding studies from the South Farallon Islands, California, plus a host of detailed breeding studies from the North Atlantic Ocean. Population trends of the common murre are summarized in Volume 1 (Chapter 2), focusing on changes in whole-colony counts determined from aerial photographs between the late 1970s and 1995 in California, Oregon and Washington. Historical data and human impacts to murre colonies since the early nineteenth century are also summarized. Volume 2 will summarize population threats, conservation, and management.Information presented in Volume 1 has been obtained and recorded by a large number of researchers and natural historians over two centuries. From the 1960s to 1995, most work in California, Oregon, and Washington was sponsored by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Minerals Management Service, and California Department of Fish and Game. Important breeding biology studies were conducted at the South Farallon Islands (Farallon National Wildlife Refuge) by the Point Reyes Bird Observatory, in coordination with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge). Colony surveys in California were conducted mainly by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge), U.S. Geological Survey (Western Ecological Research Center

  17. Toxic Volatile Organic Compounds in Environmental Tobacco Smoke:Emission Factors for Modeling Exposures of California Populations

    SciTech Connect

    Daisey, J.M.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Hodgson, A.T.

    The primary objective of this study was to measure emission factors for selected toxic air in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) using a room-sized environmental chamber. The emissions of 23 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including 1,3-butadiene, three aldehydes and two vapor-phase N-nitrosarnines were determined for six commercial brands of cigarettes and reference cigarette 1R4F. The commercial brands were selected to represent 62.5% of the cigarettes smoked in California. For each brand, three cigarettes were machine smoked in the chamber. The experiments were conducted over four hours to investigate the effects of aging. Emission factors of the target compounds were also determinedmore » for sidestream smoke (SS). For almost all target compounds, the ETS emission factors were significantly higher than the corresponding SS values probably due to less favorable combustion conditions and wall losses in the SS apparatus. Where valid comparisons could be made, the ETS emission factors were generally in good agreement with the literature. Therefore, the ETS emission factors, rather than the SS values, are recommended for use in models to estimate population exposures from this source. The variabilities in the emission factors (pgkigarette) of the selected toxic air contaminants among brands, expressed as coefficients of variation, were 16 to 29%. Therefore, emissions among brands were generally similar. Differences among brands were related to the smoked lengths of the cigarettes and the masses of consumed tobacco. Mentholation and whether a cigarette was classified as light or regular did not significantly affect emissions. Aging was determined not to be a significant factor for the target compounds. There were, however, deposition losses of the less volatile compounds to chamber surfaces.« less

  18. CHKA and PCYT1A gene polymorphisms, choline intake and spina bifida risk in a California population

    PubMed Central

    Enaw, James O Ebot; Zhu, Huiping; Yang, Wei; Lu, Wei; Shaw, Gary M; Lammer, Edward J; Finnell, Richard H

    2006-01-01

    Background Neural tube defects (NTDs) are among the most common of all human congenital defects. Over the last two decades, accumulating evidence has made it clear that periconceptional intake of folic acid can significantly reduce the risk of NTD affected pregnancies. This beneficial effect may be related to the ability of folates to donate methyl groups for critical physiological reactions. Choline is an essential nutrient and it is also a methyl donor critical for the maintenance of cell membrane integrity and methyl metabolism. Perturbations in choline metabolism in vitro have been shown to induce NTDs in mouse embryos. Methods This study investigated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in human choline kinase A (CHKA) gene and CTP:phosphocholine cytidylytransferase (PCYT1A) gene were risk factors for spina bifida. Fluorescence-based allelic discrimination analysis was performed for the two CHKA intronic SNPs hCV1562388 (rs7928739) and hCV1562393, and PCYT1A SNP rs939883 and rs3772109. The study population consisted of 103 infants with spina bifida and 338 non-malformed control infants who were born in selected California counties in the period 1989–1991. Results The CHKA SNP hCV1562388 genotypes with at least one C allele were associated with a reduced risk of spina bifida (odds ratio = 0.60, 95%CI = 0.38–0.94). The PCYT1A SNP rs939883 genotype AA was associated with a twofold increased risk of spina bifida (odds ratio = 1.89, 95% CI = 0.97–3.67). These gene-only effects were not substantially modified by analytic consideration to maternal periconceptional choline intake. Conclusion Our analyses showed genotype effects of CHKA and PCYT1A genes on spina bifida risk, but did not show evidence of gene-nutrient interactions. The underlying mechanisms are yet to be resolved. PMID:17184542

  19. Latinos and public lands in California

    Treesearch

    Deborah J. Chavez

    2005-01-01

    Management of leisure resources in California would be incomplete with out consideration of the fastest growing ethnic group-Latinos. There are approximately 12 million Latinos in California (about one-third of California's population; Bear Facts, 2004), and this is expected to grow to 21 million Latinos by the year 2025 (about 40% of California's population...

  20. [Sex ratio and environmental influence on population growth rate of Callinectes bellicosus (Decapoda: Portunidae) in the Gulf of California].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Félix, Demetrio; Cisneros-Mata, Miguel Angel; Aragón-Noriega, Eugenio Alberto; Arreola-Lizárraga, José Alfredo

    2016-09-01

    The brown swimming crab (Callinectes bellicosus) is an economically important species in the Gulf of California, and its fishing activity, held in Sonora from 1986, has been affected by a 20-year declining trend in its biomass. With the aim to understand the possible reasons of this species population changes along time, we estimated population growth rate (r) and sex ratio of C. bellicosus, and combined them with three parameters describing its habitat: sea temperature, wetland extension and habitat size in four areas along the coast of Sonora. For this, monthly mean sex ratio was estimated from crabs samples obtained from commercial catches during 1998-2002 and 2012; mean sea surface temperature for the spawning period (May-August) were derived from remote sensors for the same years; while wetland coverages were obtained from published reports, and habitat size was estimated as the fishing surface. For each area, r was estimated using a method developed for limited data situations using commercial landings (t) from 1986-2013. With data from the four areas, simple and multiple linear regression models were developed to ascertain theoretical sensitivities of r to variations in sex ratio and environmental parameters. A total of 24 556 crabs were sampled; males dominated (68.8 %) over females during the study period and in all areas; a cluster analysis identified two groups according to sex ratio: a Northern group with zones 1 and 2, and a Southern group with zones 3 and 4. r values were different in all zones (P<0.001) as was sex ratio (P=0.037); no differences in temperature were identified within the study years (P>0.995). Both the estimated data and sensitivity analyses suggest the existence of a direct and positive dependence of r on the proportion of female crabs and wetland size. We hypothesize that excess fishing of females caused the declining biomass trend of the brown swimming crab in Sonora, and concluded on the convenience of implementing harvest refugia

  1. Health Benefits of Reducing Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake in High Risk Populations of California: Results from the Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Policy Model

    PubMed Central

    Mekonnen, Tekeshe A.; Odden, Michelle C.; Coxson, Pamela G.; Guzman, David; Lightwood, James; Wang, Y. Claire; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Background Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) has risen over the past two decades, with over 10 million Californians drinking one or more SSB per day. High SSB intake is associated with risk of type 2 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and coronary heart disease (CHD). Reduction of SSB intake and the potential impact on health outcomes in California and among racial, ethnic, and low-income sub-groups has not been quantified. Methods We projected the impact of reduced SSB consumption on health outcomes among all Californians and California subpopulations from 2013 to 2022. We used the CVD Policy Model – CA, an established computer simulation of diabetes and heart disease adapted to California. We modeled a reduction in SSB intake by 10–20% as has been projected to result from proposed penny-per-ounce excise tax on SSB and modeled varying effects of this reduction on health parameters including body mass index, blood pressure, and diabetes risk. We projected avoided cases of diabetes and CHD, and associated health care cost savings in 2012 US dollars. Results Over the next decade, a 10–20% SSB consumption reduction is projected to result in a 1.8–3.4% decline in the new cases of diabetes and an additional drop of 0.5–1% in incident CHD cases and 0.5–0.9% in total myocardial infarctions. The greatest reductions are expected in African Americans, Mexican Americans, and those with limited income regardless of race and ethnicity. This reduction in SSB consumption is projected to yield $320–620 million in medical cost savings associated with diabetes cases averted and an additional savings of $14–27 million in diabetes-related CHD costs avoided. Conclusions A reduction of SSB consumption could yield substantial population health benefits and cost savings for California. In particular, racial, ethnic, and low-income subgroups of California could reap the greatest health benefits. PMID:24349119

  2. Development and validation of a quantitative PCR for rapid and specific detection of California sea lion adenovirus 1 and prevalence in wild and managed populations.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Hinojosa, Galaxia; Gulland, Frances M D; Goldstein, Tracey; Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Rivera, Rebecca; Archer, Linda L; Waltzek, Thomas B; Gray, Gregory C; Wellehan, James F X

    2017-03-01

    California sea lion adenovirus 1 (CSLAdV-1) has been associated with hepatitis and enteritis in several wild and captive populations of diverse pinniped species. Currently available tests have been limited to pan-adenoviral polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by sequencing. We present the development of a quantitative probe-hybridization PCR (qPCR) assay for rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of this virus in California sea lions ( Zalophus californianus) and other pinnipeds. This assay did not amplify other mammalian adenoviruses and is able to detect consistently down to 10 viral copies per well. Compared with the gold standard conventional pan-adenovirus PCR/sequencing assay, diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 88.2% were found, respectively. The lower diagnostic specificity of this qPCR assay may be the result of the lower limit of detection of this assay compared with the gold standard rather than the result of detection of true false-positives.

  3. Growth and fatbody cycles in feral populations of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis (Pipidae), in California with comments on reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCoid, M.J.; Fritts, T.H.

    1989-01-01

    Feral populations of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) exist in several areas of southern California. By following the first cohort of progeny produced by African clawed frogs at a recently colonized site, data on the growth rates and age at first maturity were obtained in field conditions. Females reached maturity at an earlier age than males, grew faster than males, and attained body lengths up to 25% larger than males. Larger females were capable of producing larger numbers of eggs than small females and, therefore, had greater reproductive potential. The relatively stable ambient temperatures of southern California contributed to the possibility of reproduction of clawed frogs during all but the coolest periods of the year. Cycles detected in the mass of fatbodies suggested that nutrients were mobilized from fat prior to and during ovulation. The amount of fat in females varied widely, but fat in males tended to accumulate as the males grew during the study period.

  4. Growth and fat-body cycles in feral populations of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis (Pipidae), in California with comments on reproduction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCoid, Michael J.; Fritts, Thomas H.

    1989-01-01

    Feral populations of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) exist in several areas of southern California. By following the first cohort of progeny produced by African clawed frogs at a recently colonized site, data on the growth rates and age at first maturity were obtained in field conditions. Females reached maturity at an earlier age than males, grew faster than males, and attained body lengths up to 25% larger than males. Larger females were capable of producing larger numbers of eggs than small females and, therefore, had greater reproductive potential. The relatively stable ambient temperatures of southern California contributed to the possibility of reproduction of clawed frogs during all but the coolest periods of the year. Cycles detected in the mass of fatbodies suggested that nutrients were mobilized from fat prior to and during ovulation. The amount of fat in females varies widely, but fat in males tended to accumulate as the males grew during the study period.

  5. Birth weight and risk of paediatric Hodgkin lymphoma: Findings from a population-based record linkage study in California.

    PubMed

    Triebwasser, Corey; Wang, Rong; DeWan, Andrew T; Metayer, Catherine; Morimoto, Libby; Wiemels, Joseph L; Kadan-Lottick, Nina; Ma, Xiaomei

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the relationship between birth weight (along with a variety of pre and perinatal characteristics) and the risk of paediatric Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) diagnosed at age <20 years. We linked California statewide birth records from 1978-2009 and cancer diagnosis data from 1988-2011 to conduct a population-based case-control study with 1216 cases and 4485 controls (matched on birth month and year, sex, and race/ethnicity). Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of paediatric HL overall and by age of diagnosis, controlling for other perinatal factors. Compared to children with a normal birth weight (2500-3999 g), those who had a high birth weight (≥4000 g) had an increased risk of paediatric HL overall (OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.02-1.48) after adjusting for birth order, maternal age at the time of delivery, and paternal age at the time of delivery. The magnitude of association appeared larger for subgroups of children whose age of diagnosis was 0-10 years (OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.04-2.24) or 15-19 years (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.11-1.83), while no association was observed in 11-14 year olds. Compared with firstborn children, those who were third or higher in birth order had a reduced risk of paediatric HL overall (OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.67-0.95), and this association also varied by age of diagnosis. In this study with the largest number of paediatric HL cases, high birth weight was associated with an increased disease risk for most but not all ages of diagnosis. The different findings by age of diagnosis regarding both birth weight and birth order underscore the importance to stratify paediatric HL by age at diagnosis in future etiological investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Population genetic structure of an edaphic beetle (Ptiliidae) among late successional reserves within the Klamath-Siskiyou ecoregion, California

    Treesearch

    Ryan M. Caesar; Nancy Gillette; Anthony I. Cognato

    2005-01-01

    The Klamath-Siskiyou ecoregion of northern California is one of the most diverse temperate coniferous forests. A network of "late successional reserves" (LSRs) has been established to maintain characteristics of late successional forest and to promote late successional characteristics in younger stands. Also, an important goal of conservation management is...

  7. Phenotypic variation in California populations of valley oak (Quercus lobata Née) sampled along elevational gradients

    Treesearch

    Ana L. Albarrán-Lara; Jessica W. Wright; Paul F. Gugger; Annette Delfino-Mix; Juan Manuel Peñaloza-Ramírez; Victoria L. Sork

    2015-01-01

    California oaks exhibit tremendous phenotypic variation throughout their range. This variation reflects phenotypic plasticity in tree response to local environmental conditions as well as genetic differences underlying those phenotypes. In this study, we analyze phenotypic variation in leaf traits for valley oak adults sampled along three elevational transects and in...

  8. Determining the population boundaries of a narrowly endemic perennial plant, Lane Mountain milk-vetch, in San Bernardino County, California

    Treesearch

    David Charlton

    2007-01-01

    The Lane Mountain milk-vetch (Astragalus jaegerianus) is a federally endangered species. It was first discovered in 1939 by Edmund Jaeger in the central Mojave Desert of California. This plant species was not collected again until the army became interested in expanding Fort Irwin’s western boundary in the 1980’s. Following its rediscovery,...

  9. Fluctuating populations of house wrens and Bewick's wrens in foothills of the western Sierra Nevada of California

    Treesearch

    Jared Verner; Kathryn L. Purcell

    1999-01-01

    In foothills of the western Sierra Nevada, 31 km east of Madera, California, we studied whether Bewick's Wrens (Thryomanes bewickii) tend to be excluded from an area occupied by House Wrens (Troglodytes aedon) as reported in several studies in the eastern United States. Neither point counts from 1985 to 1997 nor spot mapping from 1989 to 1993 suggests any...

  10. Dynamics of aerial and terrestrial populations of Phytophthora ramorum in a California watershed under different climatic conditions

    Treesearch

    Catherine A. Eyre; Melina Kozanitas; Matteo Garbelotto

    2013-01-01

    We present a study of the epidemiology of sudden oak death (SOD) in California within a watershed based on temporally and spatially replicated surveys of symptoms, viability of the pathogen from symptomatic leaves, and genetic analyses using polymorphic SSR markers.Phytophthora ramorum is sensitive to climate; its...

  11. Spatial estimation of the density and carbon content of host populations for Phytophthora ramorum in California and Oregon

    Treesearch

    Sanjay Lamsal; Richard C. Cobb; J. Hall Cushman; Qingmin Meng; David M. Rizzo; Ross K. Meentemeyer.

    2011-01-01

    Outbreak of the emerging infectious disease sudden oak death continues to threaten California and Oregon forests following introduction of the exotic plant pathogen Phytophthora ramorum. Identifying areas at risk and forecasting changes in forest carbon following disease outbreak requires an understanding of the geographical distribution of host...

  12. Population structure of the lyme borreliosis spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi in the western black-legged tick (Ixodes pacificus) in Northern California.

    PubMed

    Girard, Yvette A; Travinsky, Bridgit; Schotthoefer, Anna; Fedorova, Natalia; Eisen, Rebecca J; Eisen, Lars; Barbour, Alan G; Lane, Robert S

    2009-11-01

    Factors potentially contributing to the lower incidence of Lyme borreliosis (LB) in the far-western than in the northeastern United States include tick host-seeking behavior resulting in fewer human tick encounters, lower densities of Borrelia burgdorferi-infected vector ticks in peridomestic environments, and genetic variation among B. burgdorferi spirochetes to which humans are exposed. We determined the population structure of B. burgdorferi in over 200 infected nymphs of the primary bridging vector to humans, Ixodes pacificus, collected in Mendocino County, CA. This was accomplished by sequence typing the spirochete lipoprotein ospC and the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer (IGS). Thirteen ospC alleles belonging to 12 genotypes were found in California, and the two most abundant, ospC genotypes H3 and E3, have not been detected in ticks in the Northeast. The most prevalent ospC and IGS biallelic profile in the population, found in about 22% of ticks, was a new B. burgdorferi strain defined by ospC genotype H3. Eight of the most common ospC genotypes in the northeastern United States, including genotypes I and K that are associated with disseminated human infections, were absent in Mendocino County nymphs. ospC H3 was associated with hardwood-dominated habitats where western gray squirrels, the reservoir host, are commonly infected with LB spirochetes. The differences in B. burgdorferi population structure in California ticks compared to the Northeast emphasize the need for a greater understanding of the genetic diversity of spirochetes infecting California LB patients.

  13. Contrasting patterns of variation in weedy traits and unique crop features in divergent populations of US weedy rice (Oryza sativa sp.) in Arkansas and California.

    PubMed

    Kanapeckas, Kimberly L; Tseng, Te-Ming; Vigueira, Cynthia C; Ortiz, Aida; Bridges, William C; Burgos, Nilda R; Fischer, Albert J; Lawton-Rauh, Amy

    2018-06-01

    Weed evolution from crops involves changes in key traits, but it is unclear how genetic and phenotypic variation contribute to weed diversification and productivity. Weedy rice is a conspecific weed of rice (Oryza sativa) worldwide. We used principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering to understand how morphologically and evolutionarily distinct US weedy rice populations persist in rice fields in different locations under contrasting management regimes. Further, we used a representative subset of 15 sequence-tagged site fragments of expressed genes from global Oryza to assess genome-wide sequence variation among populations. Crop hull color and crop-overlapping maturity dates plus awns, seed (panicle) shattering (> 50%), pigmented pericarp and stature variation (30.2% of total phenotypic variance) characterize genetically less diverse California weedy rice. By contrast, wild-like hull color, seed shattering (> 50%) and stature differences (55.8% of total phenotypic variance) typify genetically diverse weedy rice ecotypes in Arkansas. Recent de-domestication of weedy species - such as in California weedy rice - can involve trait combinations indistinguishable from the crop. This underscores the need for strict seed certification with genetic monitoring and proactive field inspection to prevent proliferation of weedy plant types. In established populations, tillage practice may affect weed diversity and persistence over time. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. California's Early ACA Expansion Increased Coverage And Reduced Out-Of-Pocket Spending For The State's Low-Income Population

    PubMed Central

    Golberstein, Ezra; Gonzales, Gilbert; Sommers, Benjamin D.

    2016-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act has expanded Medicaid to millions of low-income adults since the law first went into effect. While many states implemented the Medicaid expansion since 2014, five states and the District of Columbia took advantage of provisions in the ACA and Medicaid waivers that allowed them to expand public coverage as early as 2010. We examined the impact of California's Low-Income Health Program that began in 2010, using restricted data from the National Health Interview Survey. Our study demonstrates that the county-by-county roll out of expanded eligibility for public insurance in California increased coverage by 7 percentage points (p < 0.05) and reduced the likelihood of any family out-of-pocket medical spending in the past year by 10 percentage points (p < 0.05) among low-income adults. PMID:26438745

  15. Effects of flow regimes altered by dams on survival, population declines, and range-wide losses of California river-breeding frogs.

    PubMed

    Kupferberg, Sarah J; Palen, Wendy J; Lind, Amy J; Bobzien, Steve; Catenazzi, Alessandro; Drennan, Joe; Power, Mary E

    2012-06-01

    Widespread alteration of natural hydrologic patterns by large dams combined with peak demands for power and water delivery during summer months have resulted in frequent aseasonal flow pulses in rivers of western North America. Native species in these ecosystems have evolved with predictable annual flood-drought cycles; thus, their likelihood of persistence may decrease in response to disruption of the seasonal synchrony between stable low-flow conditions and reproduction. We evaluated whether altered flow regimes affected 2 native frogs in California and Oregon (U.S.A.) at 4 spatial and temporal extents. We examined changes in species distribution over approximately 50 years, current population density in 11 regulated and 16 unregulated rivers, temporal trends in abundance among populations occupying rivers with different hydrologic histories, and within-year patterns of survival relative to seasonal hydrology. The foothill yellow-legged frog (Rana boylii), which breeds only in flowing water, is more likely to be absent downstream of large dams than in free-flowing rivers, and breeding populations are on average 5 times smaller in regulated rivers than in unregulated rivers. Time series data (range = 8 - 19 years) from 5 populations of yellow-legged frogs and 2 populations of California red-legged frogs (R. draytonii) across a gradient of natural to highly artificial timing and magnitude of flooding indicate that variability of flows in spring and summer is strongly correlated with high mortality of early life stages and subsequent decreases in densities of adult females. Flow management that better mimics natural flow timing is likely to promote persistence of these species and others with similar phenology. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. Phosphine Resistance in Adult and Immature Life Stages of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Plodia interpunctella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Populations in California.

    PubMed

    Gautam, S G; Opit, G P; Hosoda, E

    2016-12-01

    Phosphine resistance in stored-product insects occurs worldwide and is a major challenge to continued effective use of this fumigant. We determined resistance frequencies and levels of resistance in Tribolium castaneum and Plodia interpunctella collected from California almond storage and processing facilities. Discriminating doses of phosphine were established for eggs and larvae of P. interpunctella and eggs of T. castaneum using laboratory susceptible strains of the two species. For T. castaneum and P. interpunctella eggs, discriminating doses were 62.4 and 107.8 ppm, respectively, over a 3-d fumigation period, and for P. interpunctella larvae, discriminating dose was 98.7 ppm over a 20-h fumigation period. Discriminating dose tests on adults and eggs showed that 4 out of 11 T. castaneum populations tested had resistance frequencies that ranged from 42 to 100% for adults and 54 to 100% for eggs. LC99 values for the susceptible and the most resistant adults of T. castaneum were 7.4 and 356.9 ppm over 3 d, respectively. LC99 values for T. castaneum eggs were 51.5 and 653.9 ppm, respectively. Based on adult data, the most resistant T. castaneum beetle population was 49× more resistant than the susceptible strain. Phosphine resistance frequencies in P. interpunctella eggs ranged from 4 to 20%. Results show phosphine resistance is present in both species in California. Future research will investigate phosphine resistance over a wider geographic area. In addition, the history of pest management practices in facilities where insects tested in this study originated will be determined in order to develop phosphine resistance management strategies for California almond storage and processing facilities. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Spatial clustering of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato within populations of Allen's chipmunks and dusky-footed woodrats in northwestern California

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Richard N.; Fedorova, Natalia; Girard, Yvette A.; Higley, Mark; Clueit, Bernadette; Lane, Robert S.

    2018-01-01

    The ecology of Lyme borreliosis is complex in northwestern California, with several potential reservoir hosts, tick vectors, and genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. The primary objective of this study was to determine the fine-scale spatial distribution of different genospecies in four rodent species, the California ground squirrel (Otospermophilus beecheyi), northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus), dusky-footed woodrat (Neotoma fuscipes), and Allen’s chipmunk (Neotamias senex). Rodents were live-trapped between June 2004 and May 2005 at the Hoopa Valley Tribal Reservation (HVTR) in Humboldt County, California. Ear-punch biopsies obtained from each rodent were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing analysis. The programs ArcGIS and SaTScan were used to examine the spatial distribution of genospecies. Multinomial log-linear models were used to model habitat and host-specific characteristics and their effect on the presence of each borrelial genospecies. The Akaike information criterion (AICc) was used to compare models and determine model fit. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto was primarily associated with chipmunks and B. bissettiae largely with woodrats. The top model included the variables “host species”, “month”, and “elevation” (weight = 0.84). Spatial clustering of B. bissettiae was detected in the northwestern section of the HVTR, whereas B. burgdorferi sensu stricto was clustered in the southeastern section. We conclude that the spatial distribution of these borreliae are driven at least in part by host species, time-of-year, and elevation. PMID:29634745

  18. Spatial clustering of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato within populations of Allen's chipmunks and dusky-footed woodrats in northwestern California.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Gregory M; Brown, Richard N; Fedorova, Natalia; Girard, Yvette A; Higley, Mark; Clueit, Bernadette; Lane, Robert S

    2018-01-01

    The ecology of Lyme borreliosis is complex in northwestern California, with several potential reservoir hosts, tick vectors, and genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. The primary objective of this study was to determine the fine-scale spatial distribution of different genospecies in four rodent species, the California ground squirrel (Otospermophilus beecheyi), northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus), dusky-footed woodrat (Neotoma fuscipes), and Allen's chipmunk (Neotamias senex). Rodents were live-trapped between June 2004 and May 2005 at the Hoopa Valley Tribal Reservation (HVTR) in Humboldt County, California. Ear-punch biopsies obtained from each rodent were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing analysis. The programs ArcGIS and SaTScan were used to examine the spatial distribution of genospecies. Multinomial log-linear models were used to model habitat and host-specific characteristics and their effect on the presence of each borrelial genospecies. The Akaike information criterion (AICc) was used to compare models and determine model fit. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto was primarily associated with chipmunks and B. bissettiae largely with woodrats. The top model included the variables "host species", "month", and "elevation" (weight = 0.84). Spatial clustering of B. bissettiae was detected in the northwestern section of the HVTR, whereas B. burgdorferi sensu stricto was clustered in the southeastern section. We conclude that the spatial distribution of these borreliae are driven at least in part by host species, time-of-year, and elevation.

  19. Predictors of skin examination in California twins Prevalence and predictors of recent skin examination in a population-based twin cohort

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Kimberly A.; Langholz, Bryan M.; Zadnick, John; Hamilton, Ann S.; Cozen, Wendy; Mack, Thomas M.; Cockburn, Myles G.

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of melanoma is increasing worldwide. Guidelines for clinical skin exam for improving early diagnosis of melanoma remain inconsistent, and current data on factors associated with regular skin screening on a population basis are limited. Methods We used self-reported data from 50,044 members of the California Twin Program, a population-based cohort of twins born in California between 1908 and 1982, to identify prevalence and determinants of recent clinical screening for skin cancer. Results Prevalence of skin examination was higher than national estimates, with 32% of respondents of all ages reporting ever having skin examination. Socio-demographic and constitutional risk factors including white race, educational attainment, marital status, and number of large moles were strongly associated with recent screening, as were individual and family history of skin cancer. Lower socioeconomic status, racial/ethnic minority status, and paradoxically, frequent UV-related risk behaviors in adulthood were associated with a lower likelihood of recent screening. Conclusions As the evidence concerning the efficacy of skin examination continues to evolve, attention should be paid to motivators and barriers of screening, particularly in high-risk subgroups where lack of screening may contribute to disparate rates of thicker melanomas and lower survival. Impact Our results demonstrate the need for prevention strategies targeted to specific at-risk groups to increase earlier detection leading to improved outcomes. PMID:25994738

  20. Turning population trend monitoring into active conservation: Can we save the cascades frog (Rang cascadae) in the Lassen Region of California?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fellers, G.M.; Pope, K.L.; Stead, J.E.; Koo, M.S.; Welsh, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    Monitoring the distribution, population size, and trends of declining species is necessary to evaluate their vulnerability to extinction. It is the responsibility of scientists to alert management professionals of the need for preemptive action if a species approaches imminent, regional extirpation. This is the case with Rana cascadae (Cascades Frog) populations near Lassen Peak From 1993 to 2007, we conducted 1,873 amphibian surveys at 856 sites within Lassen Volcanic National Park and Lassen National Forest, California, USA. These surveys encompassed all R. cascadae habitats: ponds, lakes, meadows, and streams on those lands. We found frogs at only six sites during 14 years of surveys, and obtained one report of a single frog at one additional locality. These sites represented 12 years. Causes for the decline remain unclear, but introduced trout, disease, and pesticides are likely factors. We recommend that (1) additional protection for R. cascadae within 50 km of Lassen Peak; (2) investigation of the genetics of R. cascadae in California; (3) research into the role of possible causative factors in these declines; and (4) implementation of a feasibility study to captive breed and reintroduce R. cascadae in the Lassen area. Copyright ?? 2008. Gary Fellers. All rights reserved.

  1. Exposure to community violence and self-harm in California: A multi-level, population-based, case-control study.

    PubMed

    Matthay, Ellicott C; Farkas, Kriszta; Skeem, Jennifer; Ahern, Jennifer

    2018-06-07

    Self-harm is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Exposure to community violence is an important and potentially modifiable feature of the social environment that may affect self-harm, but studies to date are limited in the samples and outcomes examined. We conducted a population-based, nested case-control study. Cases were all deaths and hospital visits due to self-harm in California, 2006-2013. We frequency-matched California resident population-based controls from the American Community Survey to cases on age, gender, race/ethnicity, and year of survey/injury. We assessed past-year community violence using deaths and hospital visits due to interpersonal violence in the community of residence. We estimated risk-difference parameters that were defined to avoid extrapolation and to capture associations between changes in the distribution of community violence and the population-level risk of self-harm. After adjustment for confounders, setting past-year community violence to the lowest monthly levels observed within each community over the study period was associated with a 30.1 (95% CI: 29.6 to 30.5) per 100,000 persons per year lower risk of nonfatal self-harm, but no difference in the risk of fatal self-harm. Associations for a parameter corresponding to a hypothetical violence prevention intervention targeting high-violence communities indicated a 5% decrease in self-harm at the population level. In sensitivity analyses, results were robust. This study strengthens evidence on the relationship between community violence and self-harm. Future research should investigate reasons for differential associations by age and gender and whether community violence prevention programs have meaningful impacts on self-harm.

  2. Chloroplast DNA Diversity among Trees, Populations and Species in the California Closed-Cone Pines (Pinus Radiata, Pinus Muricata and Pinus Attenuata)

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Y. P.; Hipkins, V. D.; Strauss, S. H.

    1993-01-01

    The amount, distribution and mutational nature of chloroplast DNA polymorphisms were studied via analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in three closely related species of conifers, the California closed-cone pines-knobcone pine: Pinus attenuata Lemm.; bishop pine: Pinus muricata D. Don; and Monterey pine: Pinus radiata D. Don. Genomic DNA from 384 trees representing 19 populations were digested with 9-20 restriction enzymes and probed with cloned cpDNA fragments from Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] that comprise 82% of the chloroplast genome. Up to 313 restriction sites were surveyed, and 25 of these were observed to be polymorphic among or within species. Differences among species accounted for the majority of genetic (haplotypic) diversity observed [G(st) = 84(+/-13)%]; nucleotide diversity among species was estimated to be 0.3(+/-0.1)%. Knobcone pine and Monterey pine displayed almost no genetic variation within or among populations. Bishop pine also showed little variability within populations, but did display strong population differences [G(st) = 87(+/-8)%] that were a result of three distinct geographic groups. Mean nucleotide diversity within populations was 0.003(+/-0.002)%; intrapopulation polymorphisms were found in only five populations. This pattern of genetic variation contrasts strongly with findings from study of nuclear genes (allozymes) in the group, where most genetic diversity resides within populations rather than among populations or species. Regions of the genome subject to frequent length mutations were identified; estimates of subdivision based on length variant frequencies in one region differed strikingly from those based on site mutations or allozymes. Two trees were identified with a major chloroplast DNA inversion that closely resembled one documented between Pinus and Pseudotsuga. PMID:7905846

  3. Placental biomarkers of PAH exposure and glutathione-S-transferase biotransformation enzymes in an obstetric population from Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Dodd-Butera, Teresa; Quintana, Penelope J E; Ramirez-Zetina, Martha; Batista-Castro, Ana C; Sierra, Maria M; Shaputnic, Carolyn; Garcia-Castillo, Maura; Ingmanson, Sonja; Hull, Stacy

    2017-01-01

    Environmental exposures along the US-Mexico border have the potential to adversely affect the maternal-fetal environment. The purpose of this study was to assess placental biomarkers of environmental exposures in an obstetric population at the California-Baja California border in relation to detoxifying enzymes in the placenta and nutritional status. This study was conducted on consenting, full-term, obstetric patients (n=54), delivering in a hospital in Tijuana, Baja California (BC), Mexico. Placental polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA adducts were measured in addition to placental glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity and genotype, maternal serum folate, and maternal and umbilical cord blood lead and cadmium levels. A questionnaire was administered to the mothers to determine maternal occupation in a maquiladora, other exposures, and obstetric indicators. In univariate analysis, maternal serum folate levels were inversely correlated with total PAH-DNA adducts (rho=-0.375, p=0.007); adduct #1 (rho=-0.388, p=0.005); and adduct #3 (rho =-0.430, p=0.002). Maternal lead levels were significantly positively correlated with cord blood lead levels (rho=0.512, p<0.001). Cadmium levels were generally very low but significantly higher in mothers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) (either at work or at home, n=10). In multivariate analysis, only maternal serum folate levels remained as a significant negative predictor of total DNA-PAH adducts levels in placenta. These findings affirm that placental tissue is a valuable and readily available source of human tissue for biomonitoring; and indicate that further study of the role of nutrition in detoxification and mitigation of environmental exposures in pregnant women is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Agricultural pesticide use in California: pesticide prioritization, use densities, and population distributions for a childhood cancer study.

    PubMed Central

    Gunier, R B; Harnly, M E; Reynolds, P; Hertz, A; Von Behren, J

    2001-01-01

    Several studies have suggested an association between childhood cancer and pesticide exposure. California leads the nation in agricultural pesticide use. A mandatory reporting system for all agricultural pesticide use in the state provides information on the active ingredient, amount used, and location. We calculated pesticide use density to quantify agricultural pesticide use in California block groups for a childhood cancer study. Pesticides with similar toxicologic properties (probable carcinogens, possible carcinogens, genotoxic compounds, and developmental or reproductive toxicants) were grouped together for this analysis. To prioritize pesticides, we weighted pesticide use by the carcinogenic and exposure potential of each compound. The top-ranking individual pesticides were propargite, methyl bromide, and trifluralin. We used a geographic information system to calculate pesticide use density in pounds per square mile of total land area for all United States census-block groups in the state. Most block groups (77%) averaged less than 1 pound per square mile of use for 1991-1994 for pesticides classified as probable human carcinogens. However, at the high end of use density (> 90th percentile), there were 493 block groups with more than 569 pounds per square mile. Approximately 170,000 children under 15 years of age were living in these block groups in 1990. The distribution of agricultural pesticide use and number of potentially exposed children suggests that pesticide use density would be of value for a study of childhood cancer. PMID:11689348

  5. Hepatitis B Sero-Prevalence and Risk Behaviors Among Immigrant Men in a Population-Based Household Survey in Low-Income Neighborhoods of Northern California

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jinwei; Ruiz, Juan; Morrow, Scott; Reardon, Juan; Facer, Mathew; Molitor, Fred; Allen, Barbara; Ajufo, Barbara Green; Bell-Sanford, Geneva; McFarland, Willi; Raymond, Henry F.; Kellogg, Tim; Page, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite an effective vaccine, 60,000 new HBV infections were reported in the US in 2004; 95% in adults. We evaluate HBV sero-prevalence, risk behaviors and self-reported vaccination among Latino immigrant, Asian immigrant and US born low income men in five northern California counties. Methods Population based, cross sectional survey of HBV sero-prevalence and risk behaviors in men aged 18 to 35 years. Results Among 1,512 men screened, Asian immigrants were most likely to have had prior HBV infection (15.1%) and chronic infection (3.8%) compared to US born (prior 5.1%, chronic 0.6%) and Latino immigrant men (prior 2.0%, chronic 0.3%.) Reported HBV vaccination was lowest for Latino immigrants (12%) compared to Asian immigrants and US born men (35% in both.) Latino immigrants reported less educational attainment, medical insurance coverage and access to a physician in the last six months. Discussion Healthcare providers should routinely screen Asian immigrants for HBV regardless of their self reported vaccination status. Latino immigrants may comprise an important group of under-vaccinated, at risk persons in California. HBV testing and vaccination of immigrants soon after US arrival should be encouraged. PMID:19319680

  6. California's "5 a day--for better health!" campaign: an innovative population-based effort to effect large-scale dietary change.

    PubMed

    Foerster, S B; Kizer, K W; Disogra, L K; Bal, D G; Krieg, B F; Bunch, K L

    1995-01-01

    The annual toll of diet-related diseases in the United States is similar to that taken by tobacco, but less progress has been achieved in reaching the Public Health Service's Healthy People 2000 objectives for improving food consumption than for reducing tobacco use. In 1988, the California Department of Health Services embarked upon an innovative multi-year social marketing program to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. The 5 a Day--for Better Health! Campaign had several distinctive features, including its simple, positive, behavior-specific message to eat 5 servings of fruits and vegetables every day as part of a low-fat, high fiber diet; its use of mass media; its partnership between the state health department and the produce and supermarket industries; and its extensive use of point-of-purchase messages. Over its nearly three years of operation in California, the 5 a Day Campaign appears to have raised public awareness that fruits and vegetables help reduce cancer risk, increased fruit and vegetable consumption in major population segments, and created an ongoing partnership between public health and agribusiness that has allowed extension of the campaign to other population segments, namely children and Latino adults. In 1991 the campaign was adopted as a national initiative by the National Cancer Institute and the Produce for Better Health Foundation. By 1994, over 700 industry organizations and 48 states, territories, and the District of Columbia were licensed to participate. Preventive medicine practitioners and others involved in health promotion may build upon the 5 a Day Campaign experience in developing and implementing efforts to reach the nation's dietary goals.

  7. Weed control and cover crop management affect mycorrhizal colonization of grapevine roots and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal spore populations in a California vineyard.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Kendra; Smith, Richard F; Bettiga, Larry

    2005-03-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi naturally colonize grapevines in California vineyards. Weed control and cover cropping may affect AM fungi directly, through destruction of extraradical hyphae by soil disruption, or indirectly, through effects on populations of mycorrhizal weeds and cover crops. We examined the effects of weed control (cultivation, post-emergence herbicides, pre-emergence herbicides) and cover crops (Secale cereale cv. Merced rye, x Triticosecale cv.Trios 102) on AM fungi in a Central Coast vineyard. Seasonal changes in grapevine mycorrhizal colonization differed among weed control treatments, but did not correspond with seasonal changes in total weed frequency. Differences in grapevine colonization among weed control treatments may be due to differences in mycorrhizal status and/or AM fungal species composition among dominant weed species. Cover crops had no effect on grapevine mycorrhizal colonization, despite higher spring spore populations in cover cropped middles compared to bare middles. Cover crops were mycorrhizal and shared four AM fungal species (Glomus aggregatum, G. etunicatum, G. mosseae, G. scintillans) in common with grapevines. Lack of contact between grapevine roots and cover crop roots may have prevented grapevines from accessing higher spore populations in the middles.

  8. Distribution and habitat association of benthic fish on the Condor seamount (NE Atlantic, Azores) from in situ observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porteiro, Filipe M.; Gomes-Pereira, José N.; Pham, Christopher K.; Tempera, Fernando; Santos, Ricardo S.

    2013-12-01

    Distribution of fish assemblages and habitat associations of demersal fishes on the Condor seamount were investigated by analyzing in situ video imagery acquired by the Remotely-Operated Vehicles ROV SP300 and Luso 6000. A total of 51 fish taxa from 32 families were inventoried. Zooplanktivores (10 species) were the most abundant group followed by carnivores (23 species) and benthivores (18 species). Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) analyses were performed on dive segments to visualize the spatial relationships between species and habitat type, substrate type or depth, with depth being the most significant parameter influencing fish distribution. Four major fish groups were identified from their vertical distribution alone: summit species (generally to <300 m depth); broad ranging species (ca. from 200 to 800 m); intermediate ranging slope species (ca. from 400 m to 800-850 m); and deeper species (800-850-1100 m). The fish fauna observed at the summit is more abundant (15.2 fish/100 m2) and habitat-specialized than the fish observed along the seamount slope. Down the seamount slope, the summit fish assemblage is gradually replaced as depth increases, with an overall reduction in abundance. On the summit, three species (Callanthias ruber, Anthias anthias and Lappanella fasciata) had higher affinity to coral habitats compared to non-coral habitats. A coherent specialized fish assemblage associated to coral habitats could not be identified, because most species were observed also in non-coral areas. On the seamount's slope (300-1100 m), no relationship between fish and coral habitats could be identified, although these might occur at larger scales. This study shows that in situ video imagery complements traditional fishing surveys, by providing information on unknown or rarely seen species, being fundamental for the development of more comprehensive ecosystem-based management towards a sustainable use of the marine environment.

  9. Population vulnerability and evacuation challenges in California for the SAFRR tsunami scenario: Chapter I in The SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) Tsunami Scenario

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Nathan; Ratliff, Jamie; Peters, Jeff; Shoaf, Kimberley

    2013-01-01

    The SAFRR tsunami scenario models the impacts of a hypothetical yet plausible tsunami associated with a magnitude 9.1 megathrust earthquake east of the Alaska Peninsula. This report summarizes community variations in population vulnerability and potential evacuation challenges to the tsunami. The most significant public-health concern for California coastal communities during a distant-source tsunami is the ability to evacuate people out of potential inundation zones. Fatalities from the SAFRR tsunami scenario could be low if emergency managers can implement an effective evacuation in the time between tsunami generation and arrival, as well as keep people from entering tsunami-prone areas until all-clear messages can be delivered. This will be challenging given the estimated 91,956 residents, 81,277 employees, as well as numerous public venues, dependent-population facilities, community-support businesses, and high-volume beaches that are in the 79 incorporated communities and 17 counties that have land in the scenario tsunami-inundation zone. Although all coastal communities face some level of threat from this scenario, the highest concentrations of people in the scenario tsunami-inundation zone are in Long Beach, San Diego, Newport Beach, Huntington Beach, and San Francisco. Communities also vary in the prevalent categories of populations that are in scenario tsunami-inundation zones, such as residents in Long Beach, employees in San Francisco, tourists at public venues in Santa Cruz, and beach or park visitors in unincorporated Los Angeles County. Certain communities have higher percentages of groups that may need targeted outreach and preparedness training, such as renters, the very young and very old, and individuals with limited English-language skills or no English-language skills at all. Sustained education and targeted evacuation messaging is also important at several high-occupancy public venues in the scenario tsunami-inundation zone (for example, city

  10. Visitor effects on a zoo population of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina).

    PubMed

    de Vere, Amber J

    2018-05-01

    The effects of visitor presence on zoo and aquarium animals have become increasingly well studied, using measures such as behavioral responses and exhibit usage. Many taxa remain underrepresented in this literature; this is the case for marine mammals, despite widespread public concern for their welfare in managed care settings. The current study therefore used behavioral activity budgets and exhibit usage to assess the responses of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) to visitors at the Seal Cove exhibit at Six Flags Discovery Kingdom, Vallejo CA. Data was collected via focal follow video recordings over the summer season of 2016, and analyzed using MANCOVAs, discriminant analyses, and modified Spread of Participation Indices. The sea lions showed no significant changes in behavior when visitors were present, but did show greater preference for the water bordering visitor viewing areas during these times. Two sea lions gave birth during the study period, and showed greater preference for land areas both adjacent to and out of sight of visitors when nursing compared to while pregnant. In contrast, the harbor seals showed significant behavioral changes in the presence of visitors, including increased vigilance and feeding. This was associated with increased preferential use of water areas adjacent to the visitor viewing area. Visitors were able to purchase fish to throw to the animals, which likely contributed to the differences observed. Overall, this study found little evidence for negative visitor impacts on two pinniped species in a zoo setting. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Placental biomarkers of PAH exposure and glutathione-S-transferase biotransformation enzymes in an obstetric population from Tijuana, Baja California, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Dodd-Butera, Teresa, E-mail: tdbutera@csusb.edu

    Environmental exposures along the US-Mexico border have the potential to adversely affect the maternal-fetal environment. The purpose of this study was to assess placental biomarkers of environmental exposures in an obstetric population at the California-Baja California border in relation to detoxifying enzymes in the placenta and nutritional status. This study was conducted on consenting, full-term, obstetric patients (n=54), delivering in a hospital in Tijuana, Baja California (BC), Mexico. Placental polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-DNA adducts were measured in addition to placental glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity and genotype, maternal serum folate, and maternal and umbilical cord blood lead and cadmium levels. A questionnaire wasmore » administered to the mothers to determine maternal occupation in a maquiladora, other exposures, and obstetric indicators. In univariate analysis, maternal serum folate levels were inversely correlated with total PAH-DNA adducts (rho=−0.375, p=0.007); adduct #1 (rho=−0.388, p=0.005); and adduct #3 (rho =−0.430, p=0.002). Maternal lead levels were significantly positively correlated with cord blood lead levels (rho=0.512, p<0.001). Cadmium levels were generally very low but significantly higher in mothers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) (either at work or at home, n=10). In multivariate analysis, only maternal serum folate levels remained as a significant negative predictor of total DNA-PAH adducts levels in placenta. These findings affirm that placental tissue is a valuable and readily available source of human tissue for biomonitoring; and indicate that further study of the role of nutrition in detoxification and mitigation of environmental exposures in pregnant women is warranted. - Highlights: • Maternal-fetal environment susceptible to toxic exposures at US-Mexico border. • Lower serum folate was correlated with higher PAH-DNA adduct levels at birth. • Placental DNA adducts in GST mu (-) cord

  12. Preterm delivery among first-time Mexico-born mothers: a binational population-based comparison of deliveries in California and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Guendelman, Sylvia; Thornton, Dorothy; Perez-Cuevas, Ricardo; Walsh, Julia

    2015-01-01

    While studies have attributed the favourable birth outcomes of Mexico-born mothers in the USA to a 'healthy immigrant effect' that confers protection to immigrants, a comparison of immigrants with the source population in Mexico has been lacking. We compared preterm delivery (PTD) rates of Mexico-born immigrants who delivered in California with Mexico-born women who delivered in Mexico (WIMX) and with a subgroup who delivered in the five top immigrant sending states in Mexico. Using 2009 birth records, we selected all live-born singletons of primiparous WIMX (699 129) and immigrants in California (33 251). We examined the unadjusted and adjusted association between place of delivery and any PTD (<37 weeks gestation), including PTD subcategories (early, moderate, late), using relative risks (RR) and 95% CIs. Multivariate models controlled for demographic and health system characteristics. PTD rates were higher among immigrants in California (6.7%) than WIMX (5.8%) and compared to women in the sending states (5.5%). The unadjusted risk of any PTD (RR=1.17 (1.12 to 1.22)), early/moderate PTD (<34 weeks gestation; RR=1.27 (1.18 to 1.38)) and late PTD (34-36 weeks; RR=1.14 (1.08 to 1.19)) was higher for immigrants than for WIMX and remained higher when controlling for age, education and healthcare variables. Birth weight <1500 g was also higher among immigrants (RR=1.27 (1.14 to 1.44)). Similar patterns were observed when comparing women in the sending states. We found no evidence of a 'healthy immigrant effect'. Further research must assess the comparability of gestational-age data in Mexican and Californian birth certificates. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Disparities in Adolescent and Young Adult Survival After Testicular Cancer Vary by Histologic Subtype: A Population-Based Study in California 1988–2010

    PubMed Central

    Mujahid, Mahasin; Srinivas, Sandy; Keegan, Theresa H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Testicular cancer is the most common cancer among adolescent and young adult (AYA) men 15–39 years of age. This study aims to determine whether race/ethnicity and/or neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) contribute independently to survival of AYAs with testicular cancer. Methods: Data on 14,249 eligible AYAs with testicular cancer diagnosed in California between 1988 and 2010 were obtained from the population-based California Cancer Registry. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine overall and testicular cancer-specific survival and survival for the seminoma and nonseminoma histologic subtypes according to race/ethnicity, census-tract level neighborhood SES, and other patient and clinical characteristics. Results: Compared with White AYAs, Hispanic AYAs had worse overall and testicular cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07–1.37) and Black AYAs had worse overall survival (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.01–1.97), independent of neighborhood SES and other demographic and clinical factors. Racial/ethnic disparities in survival were more pronounced for nonseminoma than for seminoma. AYAs residing in middle and low SES neighborhoods experienced worse survival across both histologic subtypes independent of race/ethnicity and other factors, while improvements in survival over time were more pronounced for seminoma. Longer time to treatment was also associated with worse survival, particularly for AYAs with nonseminoma. Conclusion: Among AYAs, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood SES are independently associated with survival after testicular cancer. Variation in disparities by histologic type according to demographic factors, year of diagnosis, and time to treatment may reflect differences in prognosis and extent of treatment for the two histologies. PMID:26812451

  14. Disparities in Adolescent and Young Adult Survival After Testicular Cancer Vary by Histologic Subtype: A Population-Based Study in California 1988-2010.

    PubMed

    DeRouen, Mindy C; Mujahid, Mahasin; Srinivas, Sandy; Keegan, Theresa H M

    2016-03-01

    Testicular cancer is the most common cancer among adolescent and young adult (AYA) men 15-39 years of age. This study aims to determine whether race/ethnicity and/or neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) contribute independently to survival of AYAs with testicular cancer. Data on 14,249 eligible AYAs with testicular cancer diagnosed in California between 1988 and 2010 were obtained from the population-based California Cancer Registry. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to examine overall and testicular cancer-specific survival and survival for the seminoma and nonseminoma histologic subtypes according to race/ethnicity, census-tract level neighborhood SES, and other patient and clinical characteristics. Compared with White AYAs, Hispanic AYAs had worse overall and testicular cancer-specific survival (hazard ratio [HR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.37) and Black AYAs had worse overall survival (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.01-1.97), independent of neighborhood SES and other demographic and clinical factors. Racial/ethnic disparities in survival were more pronounced for nonseminoma than for seminoma. AYAs residing in middle and low SES neighborhoods experienced worse survival across both histologic subtypes independent of race/ethnicity and other factors, while improvements in survival over time were more pronounced for seminoma. Longer time to treatment was also associated with worse survival, particularly for AYAs with nonseminoma. Among AYAs, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood SES are independently associated with survival after testicular cancer. Variation in disparities by histologic type according to demographic factors, year of diagnosis, and time to treatment may reflect differences in prognosis and extent of treatment for the two histologies.

  15. Documentation of Psychiatric Disorders and Related Factors in a Large Sample Population of HIV-Positive Patients in California

    PubMed Central

    Parhami, Iman; Fong, Timothy W.; Siani, Aaron; Carlotti, Claudia; Khanlou, Homayoon

    2013-01-01

    This retrospective cohort study examined electronic medical records of HIV-positive patients in California (N=7,834) to find the prevalence of any psychiatric condition and the associations between several factors and the likelihood of these disorders. Approximately 53% of the patients in this study had a documented psychiatric condition, including 23% who had a mood disorder, 19% who had a substance-related disorder, and 16% who had an anxiety disorder. After controlling for potential confounders, significant positive associations (p<0.001) were found between female gender and the presence of any mood disorder (Adjusted Odds Ratio [95% Confidence Interval]=1.58[1.26–1.99]) or anxiety disorder (AOR=1.54[1.18–2.02]) and between homosexual orientation and the presence of any psychiatric condition (AOR=1.33[1.15–1.55]), mood disorder (AOR=1.71[1.42–2.07]), or anxiety disorder (AOR=1.41[1.22–1.88]). There were also significant negative associations between African American race and the presence of any psychiatric condition (AOR=0.68[0.60–0.77]), mood disorder (AOR=0.74[0.64–0.86]), anxiety disorder (AOR=0.43[0.36–0.52]), or substance-related disorder (AOR=0.78[0.67–0.91]) and between state/federal insurance and the presence of any psychiatric condition (AOR=0.70[0.62–0.79]), mood disorder (AOR=0.71[0.62–0.80]), or anxiety disorder (AOR=0.77[0.66–0.89]). PMID:23247363

  16. Differential mental health impact of cancer across racial/ethnic groups: findings from a population-based study in California.

    PubMed

    Alcalá, Héctor E

    2014-09-08

    Little research has examined the interactive effect of cancer status and race/ethnicity on mental health. As such, the present study examined the mental health of adults, 18 and over, diagnosed with cancer. This study examined the extent to which a cancer diagnosis is related to poorer mental health because it erodes finances and the extent to which the mental health impact of cancer differs across racial/ethnic groups. Furthermore, this study aimed to test the stress process model, which posits that the proliferation of stress can lead to mental illness and this process can differ across racial/ethnic groups. Data from the 2005 Adult California Health Interview Survey was used (N = 42,879). The Kessler 6, a validated measure of psychological distress, was used to measure mental health, with higher scores suggesting poorer mental health. Scores on the Kessler 6 ranged from 0 to 24. Linear regression models estimating psychological distress tested each aim. The mediating effect of income and the race by cancer interaction were tested. After controlling for gender, age, insurance status, education and race/ethnicity, cancer was associated with higher Kessler 6 scores. About 6% of this effect was mediated by household income (t = 4.547; SE = 0.011; p < 0.001). The mental health impact of cancer was significantly worse for Latinos and Blacks than for non-Hispanic Whites. The mental health impact of cancer is not uniform across groups. Future work should explore reasons for these disparities. Efforts to increase access to mental health services among minorities with cancer are needed.

  17. Investigating the impact of large carcass feeding on the behavior of captive Andean condors (Vultur gryphus) and its perception by zoo visitors.

    PubMed

    Gaengler, Hannah; Clum, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Naturalistic feeding methods, such as the provision of whole carcasses to zoo animals, are potentially controversial because zoo visitors might not approve of them. However, since several species of zoo animals feed from large carcasses in the wild, this food type could benefit their welfare in captivity compared to other less-natural food types. Scavengers in particular almost exclusively live on carcasses in nature; therefore, their welfare in captivity could significantly depend on the opportunity to express behaviors related to carcass feeding. In this study, we assessed the frequency of carcass feeding for vultures in North American zoos and investigated the effect of different food types on the behavior of zoo-housed Andean condors (Vultur gryphus). We also evaluated the opinion of North American zoo visitors about carcass feeding. Our results show that small whole carcasses (rats, rabbits) are part of the diet of vultures in most North American zoos, but large whole carcasses (ungulates) are rarely fed. Our behavioral study indicated that Andean condors appear to be more motivated to feed on more natural food types, which also seem to physically engage the birds more and occupy them longer. Most zoo visitors approved of carcass feeding for captive vultures over a range of prey animals, and the majority would also like to observe the vultures eat. Collectively, our results demonstrate that carcass feeding, particularly with larger prey, potentially enriches both zoo-housed vultures as well as the visitor experience. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Population Replacement and Immigrant Adaptation: New Issues Facing the West. Impact of Immigration in California, Policy Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espenshade, Thomas J.

    The low fertility of Western industrial nations is likely to become a permanent condition; in the absence of immigration, populations with below-replacement fertility will eventually decline in size. But at the same time fertility is declining, international migration to the West is accelerating. Legal immigration to the United States rose from…

  19. Genetic differentiation at microsatellite loci among populations of Mycosphaerella Graminicola from California, Indiana, Kansas and North Dakota

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mycosphaerella graminicola causes Septoria tritici blotch and is considered one of the most devastating pathogens of wheat. Although the genetic structures of M. graminicola populations from different countries have been analyzed using various molecular markers, relatively little is known about thos...

  20. Sequential sampling of ribes populations in the control of white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola Fischer) in California

    Treesearch

    Harold R. Offord

    1966-01-01

    Sequential sampling based on a negative binomial distribution of ribes populations required less than half the time taken by regular systematic line transect sampling in a comparison test. It gave the same control decision as the regular method in 9 of 13 field trials. A computer program that permits sequential plans to be built readily for other white pine regions is...

  1. A spatial analysis of the Burrowing Owl (Speotyto cunicularia) population in Santa Clara County, California, using a geographic information system

    Treesearch

    Janice Taylor Buchanan

    1997-01-01

    A small population of Burrowing Owls (Speotyto cunicularia) is found in the San Francisco Bay Area, particularly in Santa Clara County. These owls utilize habitat that is dispersed throughout this heavily urbanized region. In an effort to establish a conservation plan for Burrowing Owls in Santa Clara County, a spatial analysis of owl distribution...

  2. (CALIFORNIA) META-ANALYSIS OF THE LIFE STYLE FACTORS RELEVANT TO ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS FOR THE AGING POPULATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Aging Initiative study is to characterize activity patterns, physiological changes, and environmental exposures for the aging population. Meta-analysis was performed on more than 2000 reviewed articles to evaluate the l...

  3. Report of the California Community College Special Populations Advisory Committee: Recommendations for the State Plan for Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

    This paper offers the definition of the term "special populations" that appears in Section 3 of the Carl D. Perkins Vocational-Technical Education Act of 1998: (1) individuals with disabilities; (2) individuals from economically disadvantaged families, including foster children; (3) individuals preparing for nontraditional training and…

  4. Temporal and Spatial Patterns of Airborne Contaminants Relative to Amphibian Population in Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne agricultural pesticides are being transported many tens of kilometers to remote locations in mountain areas, and they have been implicated as a cause for recent, dramatic population declines of several amphibian species in such areas. The strongest case is for the mount...

  5. Radiotelemetry Study of a Desert Tortoise Population: Sand Hill Training Mea, Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center, Twentynine Palms, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-01

    shallow caliche burrows. Mojave populations differ genetically ( Lamb et al. 1989), morphologically (Weinstein and Berry 1987), in burrow construction...34 Abstract in The Desert Tortoise Council Symposium (1995d), p 92. Lamb , T., J.C. Avise, and J.W. Gibbons, "Phylogeographic Patterns in Mitochondrial...ATTN: STEWS -EL US Army Envr Hygiene Agency ATTN:HSHB-ME 21010 US Army Environmental Center ATTN: SFIM-AEC 21010-5401 Defense Tech Info Center

  6. Examining effects of vineyard development on bird populations of California's oak woodlands--use of GIS and power analysis to select study sites

    Treesearch

    Emily Heaton; Colin Brooks; Adina Merenlender; Mark Reynolds; Mary Chase

    2002-01-01

    Vineyard expansion into California’s oak woodlands is creating an increasingly fragmented and altered landscape for wildlife. This landscape-level study is designed to provide information about the effects of vineyard development and oak habitat retention on oak-associated bird communities in northern coastal California. We have used Geographic Information System (GIS...

  7. The California Partnership Academies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raby, Marilyn

    The California Partnership Academies Program is a highly successful school/business collaboration that allows students who are at risk of not graduating from high school to see clearly the connection between school and the workplace. The following key components are discussed: (1) an at-risk student population made up largely of the educationally…

  8. Workforce Brief: California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In California, the nation's most populous state, the demand for well-educated employees will only increase over the next several years. In the decade leading up to 2012, healthcare occupations will see growth of 28 percent; over 157,000 new practitioners and technicians will be needed. Teachers will be in high demand: over a quarter million new…

  9. Higher Education in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Policy Institute of California, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Higher education enhances Californians' lives and contributes to the state's economic growth. But population and education trends suggest that California is facing a large shortfall of college graduates. Addressing this short­fall will require strong gains for groups that have been historically under­represented in higher education. Substantial…

  10. Preterm Birth and Prenatal Maternal Occupation: The Role of Hispanic Ethnicity and Nativity in a Population-Based Sample in Los Angeles, California

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, Michelle; Wang, Anthony; Ritz, Beate

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated preterm birth (PTB) in relation to maternal occupational exposure and whether effect measures were modified by Hispanic ethnicity and nativity in a population-based sample with high proportion of Hispanics. Methods. We used a case-control study (n = 2543) nested within a cohort of 58 316 births in Los Angeles County, California, in 2003. We categorized prenatal occupations using the US Census Occupation Codes and Classification System and developed a job exposure matrix. Odds ratios for PTB were estimated using logistic regression. Results. Odds ratios for PTB were increased for all women in health care practitioner and technical occupations, but the 95% confidence intervals included the null value; effects were more pronounced among Hispanics. We estimated elevated odds ratios for foreign-born Hispanic women in building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations. Shift work and physically demanding work affected births among US-born but not foreign-born Hispanics. Conclusions. Hispanic women are at particular risk for PTB related to adverse prenatal occupational exposure. Nativity may moderate these effects on PTB. Maternal occupational exposures likely contribute to ethnic disparities in PTB. PMID:24354840

  11. Incidence of lung cancer histologic cell-types according to neighborhood factors: A population based study in California

    PubMed Central

    McKinley, Meg; Gali, Kathleen; Patel, Manali; Clarke, Christina; Wakelee, Heather; Haile, Robert; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Cheng, Iona

    2018-01-01

    Background The relationships between neighborhood factors (i.e., neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES) and ethnic enclave) and histologic subtypes of lung cancer for racial/ethnic groups, particularly Hispanics and Asian American/Pacific Islanders (AAPIs), are poorly understood. Methods We conducted a population-based study of 75,631 Californians diagnosed with lung cancer from 2008 through2012. We report incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for lung cancer histologic cell-types by nSES among racial/ethnic groups (non-Hispanic (NH) Whites, NH Blacks, Hispanics and AAPIs) and according to Hispanic or Asian neighborhood ethnic enclave status among Hispanics and AAPIs, respectively. In addition, we examined incidence jointly by nSES and ethnic enclave. Results Patterns of lung cancer incidence by nSES and ethnic enclave differed across race/ethnicity, sex, and histologic cell-type. For adenocarcinoma, Hispanic males and females, residing in both low nSES and high nSES neighborhoods that were low enclave, had higher incidence rates compared to those residing in low nSES, high enclave neighborhoods; males (IRR, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.04–1.32] and IRR, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.02–1.29], respectively) and females (IRR, 1.29 [95% CI, 1.15–1.44] and IRR, 1.51 [95% CI, 1.36–1.67], respectively). However, AAPI males residing in both low and high SES neighborhoods that were also low enclave had lower adenocarcinoma incidence. Conclusions Neighborhood factors differentially influence the incidence of lung cancer histologic cell-types with heterogeneity in these associations by race/ethnicity and sex. For Hispanic males and females and AAPI males, neighborhood ethnic enclave status is strongly associated with lung adenocarcinoma incidence. PMID:29791458

  12. How do we know how many salmon returned to spawn? Implementing the California Coastal salmonid monitoring plan in Mendocino County, California

    Treesearch

    Sean P. Gallagher; David W. Wright

    2012-01-01

    California's coastal salmon and steelhead populations are listed under California and Federal Endangered Species Acts; both require monitoring to provide measures of recovery. Since 2004 the California Department of Fish and Game and NOAA Fisheries have been developing a monitoring plan for California¡¯s coastal salmonids (the California Coastal Salmonid...

  13. Population Dynamics of Adult Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and Shortnose (Chasmistes brevirostris) Suckers in Clear Lake Reservoir, California, 2006-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barry, Patrick M.; Janney, Eric C.; Hewitt, David A.; Hayes, Brian S.; Scott, Alta C.

    2009-01-01

    We report results from ongoing research into the population dynamics of endangered Lost River and shortnose suckers in Clear Lake Reservoir, California. Results are included for sampling that occurred from fall 2006 to spring 2008. We summarize catches and passive integrated transponder tagging efforts from trammel net sampling in fall 2006 and fall 2007, and report on detections of tagged suckers on remote antennas in the primary spawning tributary, Willow Creek, in spring 2007 and spring 2008. Results from trammel net sampling were similar to previous years, although catches of suckers in fall 2006 were lower than in 2007 and past years. Lost River and shortnose suckers combined made up about 80 percent of the sucker catch in each year, and more than 2,000 new fish were tagged across the 2 years. Only a small number of the suckers captured in fall sampling were recaptures of previously tagged fish, reinforcing the importance of remote detections of fish for capture-recapture analysis. Detections of tagged suckers in Willow Creek were low in spring 2007, presumably because of low flows. Nonetheless, the proportions of tagged fish that were detected were reasonably high and capture-recapture analyses should be possible after another year of data collection. Run timing for Lost River and shortnose suckers was well described by first detections of individuals by antennas in Willow Creek, although we may not have installed the antennas early enough in 2008 to monitor the earliest portion of the Lost River sucker migration. The duration and magnitude of the spawning runs for both species were influenced by flows and water temperature. Flows in Willow Creek were much higher in 2008 than in 2007, and far more detections were recorded in 2008 and the migrations were more protracted. In both years and for both species, migrations began in early March at water temperatures between 5 and 6 deg C and peaks were related to periods of increasing water temperature. The sex ratio

  14. Fungicide resistance profiling in Botrytis cinerea populations from blueberries in California and Washington and their impact on control of gray mold

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is a major postharvest disease of blueberries grown in the Central Valley of California (CA) and western Washington State (WA). Sensitivities to boscalid, cyprodinil, fenhexamid, fludioxonil, and pyraclostrobin, representing five different fungicide classes, were...

  15. Persistent digital divide in access to and use of the Internet as a resource for health information: Results from a California population-based study.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Amy; Mosadeghi, Sasan; Almario, Christopher V

    2017-07-01

    Access to the Internet has grown dramatically over the past two decades. Using data from a population-based survey, we aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of (i) access to the Internet, and (ii) use of the Internet to search for health information. We analyzed data from the 2011-12 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) and included all individuals 18 years of age and older. Our outcomes were (i) prior use of the Internet, and (ii) use of the Internet to find health or medical information within the past year. We performed survey-weighted logistic regression models on our outcomes to adjust for potentially confounding demographic and socioeconomic factors. Our study included an unweighted and survey-weighted sample of 42,935 and 27,796,484 individuals, respectively. We found that 81.5% of the weighted sample reported having previously used the Internet. Among Internet users, 64.5% stated that they used the Internet within the past year to find health or medical information. Racial/ethnic minorities, older individuals, and those who lived in lower income households and rural areas were less likely to have access to and use the Internet to search for health information. Conversely, English-proficiency and increasing levels of education were positively associated with online health information-seeking. We found that most Californians have access to and use the Internet to search for health information, but still noted a persistent digital divide. Interventions to narrow the divide are needed, otherwise this may lead to a continued widening of existing healthcare disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Population

    EPA Science Inventory

    Population growth influences many stressors on Narragansett Bay and its Watershed, including all landscape and chemical stressors discussed in other chapters of this report. In numerous ways, population growth affects the condition of the Bay ecosystem, Watershed ecosystem, and h...

  17. Wasco, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-19

    Wasco, California advertises itself as the Rose Capital of the World; over 8000 acres are devoted to cultivation of existing and new varieties of roses, shipped to every state in the U.S. and all over the world.

  18. California Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... title:  Smoke from Station Fire Blankets Southern California     View Larger Image ... that had not burned in decades, and years of extended drought contributed to the explosive growth of wildfires throughout southern ...

  19. California Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ...     View Larger Image Lightning strikes sparked more than a thousand fires in northern California. This image was captured by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument's nadir ...

  20. [Population].

    PubMed

    1979-01-01

    Data on the population of Venezuela between 1975 and 1977 are presented in descriptive tables and graphs. Information is included on the employed population according to category, sex, and type of economic activity, and by sex, age, and area on the employment rate and the total, the economically active, and the unemployed population.

  1. The California Hazards Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rundle, J. B.; Kellogg, L. H.; Turcotte, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    California's abundant resources are linked with its natural hazards. Earthquakes, landslides, wildfires, floods, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, severe storms, fires, and droughts afflict the state regularly. These events have the potential to become great disasters, like the San Francisco earthquake and fire of 1906, that overwhelm the capacity of society to respond. At such times, the fabric of civic life is frayed, political leadership is tested, economic losses can dwarf available resources, and full recovery can take decades. A patchwork of Federal, state and local programs are in place to address individual hazards, but California lacks effective coordination to forecast, prevent, prepare for, mitigate, respond to, and recover from, the harmful effects of natural disasters. Moreover, we do not know enough about the frequency, size, time, or locations where they may strike, nor about how the natural environment and man-made structures would respond. As California's population grows and becomes more interdependent, even moderate events have the potential to trigger catastrophes. Natural hazards need not become natural disasters if they are addressed proactively and effectively, rather than reactively. The University of California, with 10 campuses distributed across the state, has world-class faculty and students engaged in research and education in all fields of direct relevance to hazards. For that reason, the UC can become a world leader in anticipating and managing natural hazards in order to prevent loss of life and property and degradation of environmental quality. The University of California, Office of the President, has therefore established a new system-wide Multicampus Research Project, the California Hazards Institute (CHI), as a mechanism to research innovative, effective solutions for California. The CHI will build on the rich intellectual capital and expertise of the Golden State to provide the best available science, knowledge and tools for

  2. Dietary controls on extinction versus survival among avian megafauna in the late Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox-Dobbs, Kena; Stidham, Thomas A.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Emslie, Steven D.; Koch, Paul L.

    2006-08-01

    The late Pleistocene extinction decimated terrestrial megafaunal communities in North America, but did not affect marine mammal populations. In coastal regions, marine megafauna may have provided a buffer that allowed some large predators or scavengers, such as California condors (Gymnogyps californianus), to survive into the Holocene. To track the influence of marine resources on avifaunas we analyzed the carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen isotope composition of collagen from late Pleistocene vultures and raptors, including species that survived the extinction (condor, bald eagle, golden eagle) and extinct species (teratorn, black vulture). At the Rancho La Brea and McKittrick tar pits of southern California, isotope values for extinct teratorns (Teratornis merriami, n = 10) and black vultures (Coragyps occidentalis, n = 8) show that they fed entirely in a terrestrial C3 ecosystem. In contrast, La Brea condors cluster into two groups, one with a terrestrial diet (n = 4), and the other with a strong marine influence (n = 5). At localities in the American southwest, Texas, and Florida, where condors became extinct, they have isotope values indicating entirely terrestrial diets (n = 10). Our results suggest that dependence upon terrestrial megafaunal carrion as a food source led to the extinction of inland California condor populations and coastal populations of teratorns and black vultures at the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary, whereas use of marine foods allowed coastal condor populations to survive.

  3. Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    In an effort to help meet the growing interest and concern about the problems created by the rapid growth of population, The International Planned Parenthood Federation has prepared this booklet with the aim of assisting the study of the history and future trends of population growth and its impact on individual and family welfare, national,…

  4. Evidence for divergence in cuticular hydrocarbon sex pheromone between California and Mississippi (United States of America) populations of bark beetle parasitoid Roptrocerus xylophagorum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae).

    Treesearch

    Brian Sullivan; Nadir Erbilgin

    2014-01-01

    Roptrocerus xylophagorum (Ratzeburg) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) is a common Holarctic parasitoid of the larvae and pupae of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scotytinae). In no-choice laboratory bioassays, we found that male wasps derived either from northern California or southwestern Mississippi, United States of America more frequently displayed sexual...

  5. California Psychological Inventory Dominance Scale Measurement Equivalence: General Population Normative and Indian, U.K., and U.S. Managerial Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulas, John T.; Thompson, Richard C.; Anderson, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    The California Psychological Inventory's Dominance scale was investigated for inconsistencies in item-trait associations across four samples (one American normative and three culturally dissociated manager groupings). The Kim, Cohen, and Park procedure was used, enabling simultaneous multigroup comparison in addition to the traditional…

  6. Changes in the Population of Persons with Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders in California's Developmental Services System: 1987 through 1998. A Report to the Legislature, March 1, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Developmental Services, Sacramento.

    This report discusses the results of an analysis of demographic and Client Development Evaluation Record data compiled at each of the 21 regional centers in California serving individuals with autism and pervasive developmental disorders. Data covering a period of 11 years, beginning in January 1987 and continuing through December 1998, show that…

  7. California Coast

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... shades of red. The distinctive chevron shape of the Mojave Desert is bordered by the San Andreas Fault on the south and the Garlock Fault ... March 14, 2000 - Southern California with the Mojave Desert and surrounding area. project:  MISR ...

  8. California Fires

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Wildfires Rage in Southern California     ... Image Large plumes of smoke rising from devastating wildfires burning near Los Angeles and San Diego on Sunday, October 26, 2003, ... at JPL October 26, 2003 - Smoke from wildfires near Los Angeles and San Diego. project:  MISR ...

  9. California Dreaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2011-01-01

    After getting her master's degree from UCLA, Nancy Wills dreamed of starting a school-based guitar program so she could teach students to make music on the instrument she'd loved since she was a kid growing up outside of Yosemite, California. She had a strong belief that guitar was perfect for schools, ideal for individualized playing but also…

  10. Culicoides variipennis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) complex in California.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, F R; Tabachnick, W J

    1995-07-01

    Genetic relationships were examined among 24 collections, representing 23 populations of Culicoides variipennis (Coquillett) using isozyme electrophoresis of 11 protein encoding loci. The populations were collected from alkaline or fresh water larval habitats in California. Distance analysis demonstrated that C. v. occidentalis Wirth and Jones and C. v. sonorensis Wirth and Jones are genetically distinct. All C. v. occidentalis were geographically isolated from each other in highly alkaline or saline larval habitats, whereas C. v. sonorensis populations were collected from artificial freshwater habitats that were polluted with organic wastes. Higher levels of gene flow were found between C. v. sonorensis populations than from C. v. sonorensis populations to nearby C. v. occidentalis populations, indicative of genetic isolation between subspecies. Northern California C. v. sonorensis were genetically distinguishable from southern California C. v. sonorensis. The relationship between this variation and bluetongue disease epidemiology in California is discussed.

  11. Preliminary geologic map of the Los Angeles 30' x 60' quadrangle, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    complied by Yerkes, Robert F.; Campbell, Russell H.; digital preparation by Alvarez, Rachel M.; Bovard, Kelly R.

    2005-01-01

    This data set maps and describes the geology of the Los Angeles 30? x 60? quadrangle, southern California. Compilation of the Los Angeles quadrangle is based upon published mapping at scales of 1:12,000 and smaller, unpublished mapping at scales of 1:12,000 and smaller, with reconnaissance mapping by the compilers to resolve some edge-matching problems. The Los Angeles 30? x 60? quadrangle covers approximately 5,000 km2 including some of the most densely populated urban and suburban areas of the southern California megalopolis. It extends about 90 km E-W and about 55 km N-S, from Fillmore and Thousand Oaks in the west to Vincent in the northeast and Montebello in the southeast, and includes urban San Gabriel Valley and San Gabriel Mountain foothill communities from Monrovia to Pasadena, as well as Glendale, downtown Los Angeles, Hollywood, Santa Monica, Malibu, in addition to all the communities in the San Fernando Valley, Simi Valley, and the upper Santa Clara River Valley. From the 2000 Census, the population of these urban and suburban areas totals approximately 5.6 million, and estimates of property value total hundreds of billions of dollars. Residents and transient visitors are subject to potential hazards from earthquakes, debris flows and other landslides, floods, wildfires, subsidence from ground water and petroleum withdrawal, and swelling soils; and coastal areas are exposed to flooding and erosion by storm and tsunami waves. Topographic relief ranges from about one hundred meters sub sea (in Santa Monica Bay) to more than 2,000 meters above sea level at Pacifico Mountain in the high San Gabriel Mountains. In addition to the populated area, the quadrangle includes significant areas of wilderness in the Angeles and Los Padres National Forests, in the Santa Monica Mountains National Recreation Area, and the Sespe Condor Sanctuary. The geologic map illustrates the general distribution of the rocks and surficial deposits in the area and their structural and

  12. Measuring the impact of practice-based research networks on member dentists in the Collaboration on Networked Dental and Oral Health Research, CONDOR.

    PubMed

    McBride, Ruth; Leroux, Brian; Lindblad, Anne; Williams, O Dale; Lehmann, Maryann; Rindal, D Brad; Botello-Harbaum, Maria; Gilbert, Gregg H; Gillette, Jane; Demko, Catherine

    2013-05-01

    The National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research funded three practice-based research networks (PBRNs), NW-PRECEDENT, PEARL and DPBRN to conduct studies relevant to practicing general dentists. These PBRNs collaborated to develop a questionnaire to assess the impact of network participation on changes in practice patterns. This report presents results from the initial administration of the questionnaire. Questionnaires were administered to network dentists and a non-network reference group. Practice patterns including caries diagnosis and treatment, pulp cap materials, third molar extraction, dentine hypersensitivity treatments and endodontic treatment and restoration were assessed by network, years in practice, and level of network participation. Test-retest reliability of the questionnaire was evaluated. 950 practitioners completed the questionnaire. Test-retest reliability was good-excellent (kappa>0.4) for most questions. Significant differences in responses by network were not observed. The use of caries risk assessment forms differed by both network participation (p<0.001) and years since dental degree (p=0.026). Recent dental graduates are more likely to recommend third molar removal for preventive reasons (p=0.003). Practitioners in the CONDOR research networks are similar to their US colleagues. As a group, however, these practitioners show a more evidence-based approach to their practice. Dental PBRNs have the potential to improve the translation of evidence into daily practice. Designing methods to assess practice change and the associated factors is essential to addressing this important issue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Biomonitoring in California Firefighters

    PubMed Central

    Israel, Leslie; McNeel, Sandra; Voss, Robert; Wang, Miaomiao; Gajek, Ryszard; Park, June-Soo; Harwani, Suhash; Barley, Frank; She, Jianwen; Das, Rupali

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess California firefighters' blood concentrations of selected chemicals and compare with a representative US population. Methods: We report laboratory methods and analytic results for cadmium, lead, mercury, and manganese in whole blood and 12 serum perfluorinated chemicals in a sample of 101 Southern California firefighters. Results: Firefighters' blood metal concentrations were all similar to or lower than the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) values, except for six participants whose mercury concentrations (range: 9.79 to 13.42 μg/L) were close to or higher than the NHANES reporting threshold of 10 μg/L. Perfluorodecanoic acid concentrations were elevated compared with NHANES and other firefighter studies. Conclusions: Perfluorodecanoic acid concentrations were three times higher in this firefighter group than in NHANES adult males. Firefighters may have unidentified sources of occupational exposure to perfluorinated chemicals. PMID:25563545

  14. Home range characteristics of fishers in California

    Treesearch

    W. J. Zielinski; R. L. Truex; G. A. Schmidt; F. V. Schlexer; K. N. Schmidt; R. H. Barrett

    2004-01-01

    The fisher (Martes pennanti) is a forest mustelid that historically occurred in California from the mixed conifer forests of the north coast, east to the southern Cascades, and south throughout the Sierra Nevada. Today fishers in California occur only in 2 disjunct populations in the northwestern mountains and the...

  15. Collaborative monitoring in Walnut Creek, California

    Treesearch

    Heidi Ballard; Ralph Kraetsch; Lynn Huntsinger

    2002-01-01

    In 1995 and 2000, a monitoring program was designed and implemented to track oak regeneration and native grass populations in target management areas in the four Open Space Preserves of the City of Walnut Creek, California. The program resulted from a collaboration of scientists at the University of California, Berkeley, a group of interested citizens known as the...

  16. Threats to the viability of California spotted owls

    Treesearch

    John J. Keane

    2017-01-01

    The California spotted owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) is a species of conservation concern owing to threats to its habitat and populations. Verner et al. (1992) first assessed the status of the California spotted owl "The California Spotted Owl: A technical Assessment of it’s current status" (CASPO) and identified four factors as either threats or...

  17. California Report Card, 2000: How Young People Are Faring Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez-Arms, Amy

    Noting that California is in the middle of a decade during which its adolescent population will increase by 36 percent to nearly 5 million by 2005, this report examines the well-being of California's adolescents. The report's introduction notes that although California youth are more likely to complete high school, less likely to be unemployed,…

  18. Lecturas de Baja California (Readings from Baja California).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Gabriel Trujillo, Ed.

    This anthology/textbook is part of a Mexican series of instructional materials designed for Spanish speaking adults who are in the process of becoming literate or have recently become literate in their native language. This document presents a collection of works from important writers directed to the population of Baja California, especially to…

  19. The California School Psychologist, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Marilyn, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This publication of the California Association of School Psychologists includes articles written by practitioners, trainers, and students. The topics represent a sampling of the broad range of students that school psychologists are asked to serve today. Two articles discuss current findings relevant to working with the populations of students who…

  20. Special Education Finance in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Laura; Warren, Paul; Murphy, Patrick; Ugo, Iwunze; Pathak, Aditi

    2016-01-01

    California's system of special education served about 718,000 students in 2014-15, or about 11.5 percent of the K-12 population. It is expensive, consuming some $12 billion in federal, state, and local dollars annually. Special education operates within a legal framework that sets it apart from the rest of the K-12 system. The state's enactment of…

  1. Conservation issues: California chaparral

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halsey, Richard W.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2016-01-01

    California chaparral, a sclerophyllous shrub-dominated plant community shaped by a Mediterranean-type climate and infrequent, high-intensity fire, is one of the most biodiverse and threatened habitats on Earth. Distinct forms of chaparral, distinguished by differing species composition, geography, and edaphic characteristics, can cover thousands of hectares with dense vegetation or be restricted to smaller communities identified by the presence of endemic species. To maintain the biodiversity of chaparral, protective land management actions will be required to mitigate the loss due to the impacts of human population growth, development, climate change, and increased fire frequencies.

  2. Reducing Lead on the Landscape: Anticipating Hunter Behavior in Absence of a Free Nonlead Ammunition Program

    PubMed Central

    Chase, Loren; Rabe, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Lead is a neurotoxin that has been documented to affect many forms of wildlife, and has been identified as a limiting factor in a population of California Condors in Northern Arizona. The Arizona Game and Fish Department provides vouchers for free nonlead ammunition to hunters selected to hunt within the distribution of California Condors, with the intention of having fewer lead-laden offal piles available to California Condors. Although wildlife agencies may reasonably assume voucher programs motivate hunters into choosing nonlead ammunition, the lead reduction efforts attributable to the voucher program has not been empirically quantified. Our intention was to compare a control group of hunters to a treatment group of hunters within California Condor occupied areas. Both groups received educational materials regarding the deleterious effects of lead, but the treatment group also received a voucher for a free initial box of ammunition. About half of the control group used nonlead ammunition, compared to about three-fourths of the treatment group. Prominent barriers to adoption of nonlead ammunition included a general difficulty of obtaining it, obtaining it in the desired caliber, and its costliness. Frequently mentioned motivations for using nonlead was the exhortation to use it by the Department, and the desire to aid California Condor recovery by hunters. The disparate compliance rates found herein confirm and quantify the success of nonlead ammunition voucher programs, but underscore the importance of working to increase the supply of nonlead ammunition with the end of facilitating its procurement and reducing its cost. PMID:26114878

  3. Reducing Lead on the Landscape: Anticipating Hunter Behavior in Absence of a Free Nonlead Ammunition Program.

    PubMed

    Chase, Loren; Rabe, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Lead is a neurotoxin that has been documented to affect many forms of wildlife, and has been identified as a limiting factor in a population of California Condors in Northern Arizona. The Arizona Game and Fish Department provides vouchers for free nonlead ammunition to hunters selected to hunt within the distribution of California Condors, with the intention of having fewer lead-laden offal piles available to California Condors. Although wildlife agencies may reasonably assume voucher programs motivate hunters into choosing nonlead ammunition, the lead reduction efforts attributable to the voucher program has not been empirically quantified. Our intention was to compare a control group of hunters to a treatment group of hunters within California Condor occupied areas. Both groups received educational materials regarding the deleterious effects of lead, but the treatment group also received a voucher for a free initial box of ammunition. About half of the control group used nonlead ammunition, compared to about three-fourths of the treatment group. Prominent barriers to adoption of nonlead ammunition included a general difficulty of obtaining it, obtaining it in the desired caliber, and its costliness. Frequently mentioned motivations for using nonlead was the exhortation to use it by the Department, and the desire to aid California Condor recovery by hunters. The disparate compliance rates found herein confirm and quantify the success of nonlead ammunition voucher programs, but underscore the importance of working to increase the supply of nonlead ammunition with the end of facilitating its procurement and reducing its cost.

  4. California's Demographic Future. A Rand Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Kevin F.; Valdez, R. Burciaga

    California's image as the Golden State is based largely on its rapid population and economic growth. However, recent trends show an aging population, a decline in population growth, a reduction in the number of migrants from other states, and a dramatic increase in foreign-born residents. Since 1960, the state's growth rate has slowed…

  5. Maternal pre-pregnancy and gestational diabetes, obesity, gestational weight gain, and risk of cancer in young children: a population-based study in California.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Zuelma A; Ritz, Beate; Virk, Jasveer; Cockburn, Myles; Heck, Julia E

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to examine the influence of pre-pregnancy diabetes, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational diabetes, and gestational weight gain on childhood cancer risk in offspring. We identified cancer cases (n = 11,149) younger than age 6 years at diagnosis from the California Cancer Registry registered between 1988 and 2013. Controls (n = 270,147) were randomly sampled from California birth records, and frequency matched by year of birth to all childhood cancers during the study period. Exposure and covariate information were extracted from birth records. Unconditional logistic regression models were generated to assess the importance of pre-pregnancy diabetes, pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational diabetes, and gestational weight gain on childhood cancer risk. We observed increased risks of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and Wilms' tumor in children of mothers with pre-pregnancy diabetes [odds ratio (OR) 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.37 (1.11, 1.69); OR (95 % CI) 1.45 (0.97, 2.18), respectively]. When born to mothers who were overweight prior to pregnancy (BMI 25-<30), children were at increased risk of leukemia [OR (95 % CI) 1.27 (1.01, 1.59)]. Insufficient gestational weight gain increased the risk of acute myeloid leukemia [OR (95 % CI) 1.50 (0.92, 2.42)] while excessive gestational weight gain increased the risk of astrocytomas [OR (95 % CI) 1.56 (0.97, 2.50)]. No associations were found between gestational diabetes and childhood cancer risk in offspring. We estimated elevated risks of several childhood cancers in the offspring of mothers who had diabetes and were overweight prior to pregnancy, as well as mothers who gained insufficient or excessive weight. Since few studies have focused on these factors in relation to childhood cancer, replication of our findings in future studies is warranted.

  6. Substance Abuse and Other Adverse Outcomes for Military-Connected Youth in California: Results From a Large-Scale Normative Population Survey.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kathrine; Capp, Gordon; Gilreath, Tamika D; Benbenishty, Rami; Roziner, Ilan; Astor, Ron Avi

    2015-10-01

    Military families and military-connected youth exhibit significant strengths; however, a sizeable proportion of these families appear to be struggling in the face of war-related stressors. Understanding the consequences of war is critical as a public health concern and because additional resources may be needed to support military families. To determine whether rates of adverse outcomes are higher for military-connected adolescents during war compared with nonmilitary peers. This study is a secondary data analysis of a large, normative, and geographically comprehensive administrative data set (2013 California Healthy Kids Survey) to determine whether military-connected youth are at risk for adverse outcomes, including substance use, experiencing violence and harassment, and weapon carrying, during wartime. These outcomes are of particular concern because they affect socioemotional adjustment and academic success. Data were collected in March and April 2013 and participants included 54,679 military-connected and 634,034 nonmilitary-connected secondary school students from public civilian schools in every county and almost all school districts in California. Outcomes included lifetime and recent use of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, prescription medications, and other drugs, as well as experiences of physical and nonphysical violence and harassment and weapon carrying during the last year. Multivariable logistic regression models indicated that military-connected youth had greater odds of substance use, experience of physical violence and nonphysical harassment, and weapon carrying. For example, military-connected youth had 73% greater odds of recent other drug use (eg, cocaine and lysergic acid diethylamide; odds ratio [OR], 1.73; 95% CI, 1.66-1.80) and twice the odds of bringing a gun to school (OR, 2.20; 95% CI, 2.10-2.30) compared with nonmilitary-connected peers. Their odds of being threatened with a weapon or being in a fight were also significantly higher than

  7. The costs of crime during and after publicly-funded treatment for opioid use disorders: a population-level study for the state of California

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Emanuel; Urada, Darren; Evans, Elizabeth; Huang, David; Hser, Yih-Ing; Nosyk, Bohdan

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Treatment for opioid use disorders (OUD) reduces the risk of mortality and infectious disease transmission; however, opportunities to quantify the potential economic benefits of associated decreases in drug-related crime are scarce. This paper aimed to estimate the costs of crime during and after periods of engagement in publicly-funded treatment for OUD to compare total costs of crime over a hypothetical 6-month period following initiation of opioid agonist treatment (OAT) versus detoxification. Design Retrospective, administrative data-based cohort study with comprehensive information on drug treatment and criminal justice systems interactions. Setting Publicly-funded drug treatment facilities in California, USA (2006–2010). Participants 31,659 individuals admitted for the first time to treatment for OUD, and who were linked with criminal justice and mortality data, were followed during a median 2.3 years. Median age at first treatment admission was 32, 35.8% were women, and 37.1% primarily used prescription opioids. Measurements Daily costs of crime (2014$US) were calculated from a societal perspective and were composed of the costs of policing, court, corrections, and criminal victimization. We estimated the average marginal effect of treatment engagement in OAT or detoxification adjusting for potential fixed and time-varying confounders, including drug use and criminal justice system involvement prior to treatment initiation. Findings Daily costs of crime during treatment compared with after treatment were $126 lower for OAT (95% CI: $116, $136) and $144 lower for detoxification ($135, $154). Summing the costs of crime during and after treatment over a hypothetical 6-month period using the observed median durations of OAT (161 days) and detoxification (19 days), we estimated that enrolling an individual in OAT as opposed to detoxification would save $17,550 ($16,840, $18,383). Conclusions In publicly-funded drug treatment facilities in

  8. The costs of crime during and after publicly funded treatment for opioid use disorders: a population-level study for the state of California.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Emanuel; Urada, Darren; Evans, Elizabeth; Huang, David; Hser, Yih-Ing; Nosyk, Bohdan

    2017-05-01

    Treatment for opioid use disorders (OUD) reduces the risk of mortality and infectious disease transmission; however, opportunities to quantify the potential economic benefits of associated decreases in drug-related crime are scarce. This paper aimed to estimate the costs of crime during and after periods of engagement in publicly funded treatment for OUD to compare total costs of crime during a hypothetical 6-month period following initiation of opioid agonist treatment (OAT) versus detoxification. Retrospective, administrative data-based cohort study with comprehensive information on drug treatment and criminal justice systems interactions. Publicly funded drug treatment facilities in California, USA (2006-10). A total of 31 659 individuals admitted for the first time to treatment for OUD, and who were linked with criminal justice and mortality data, were followed during a median 2.3 years. Median age at first treatment admission was 32, 35.8% were women and 37.1% primarily used prescription opioids. Daily costs of crime (US$2014) were calculated from a societal perspective and were composed of the costs of policing, court, corrections and criminal victimization. We estimated the average marginal effect of treatment engagement in OAT or detoxification adjusting for potential fixed and time-varying confounders, including drug use and criminal justice system involvement prior to treatment initiation. Daily costs of crime during treatment compared with after treatment were $126 lower for OAT [95% confidence interval (CI) = $116, $136] and $144 lower for detoxification (95% CI = $135, $154). Summing the costs of crime during and after treatment over a hypothetical 6-month period using the observed median durations of OAT (161 days) and detoxification (19 days), we estimated that enrolling an individual in OAT as opposed to detoxification would save $17 550 ($16 840, $18 383). In publicly funded drug treatment facilities in California, USA, engagement in

  9. Epidemiologic study of residential proximity to transmission lines and childhood cancer in California: description of design, epidemiologic methods and study population

    PubMed Central

    Kheifets, Leeka; Crespi, Catherine M; Hooper, Chris; Oksuzyan, Sona; Cockburn, Myles; Ly, Thomas; Mezei, Gabor

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a large epidemiologic case-control study in California to examine the association between childhood cancer risk and distance from the home address at birth to the nearest high-voltage overhead transmission line as a replication of the study of Draper et al. in the United Kingdom. We present a detailed description of the study design, methods of case ascertainment, control selection, exposure assessment and data analysis plan. A total of 5788 childhood leukemia cases and 3308 childhood central nervous system cancer cases (included for comparison) and matched controls were available for analysis. Birth and diagnosis addresses of cases and birth addresses of controls were geocoded. Distance from the home to nearby overhead transmission lines was ascertained on the basis of the electric power companies’ geographic information system (GIS) databases, additional Google Earth aerial evaluation and site visits to selected residences. We evaluated distances to power lines up to 2000 m and included consideration of lower voltages (60–69 kV). Distance measures based on GIS and Google Earth evaluation showed close agreement (Pearson correlation >0.99). Our three-tiered approach to exposure assessment allowed us to achieve high specificity, which is crucial for studies of rare diseases with low exposure prevalence. PMID:24045429

  10. Monitoring and research on the Bi-State Distinct Population Segment of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in the Pine Nut Mountains, California and Nevada—Study progress report, 2011–15

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, Peter S.; Andrle, Katie M.; Ziegler, Pilar T.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2016-09-29

    The Bi-State distinct population segment (DPS) of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) that occurs along the Nevada–California border was proposed for listing as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) in October 2013. However, in April 2015, the FWS determined that the Bi-State DPS no longer required protection under the ESA and withdrew the proposed rule to list the Bi-State DPS (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 2015). The Bi-State DPS occupies portions of Alpine, Mono, and Inyo Counties in California, and Douglas, Esmeralda, Lyon, Carson City, and Mineral Counties in Nevada. Unique threats facing this population include geographic isolation, expansion of single-leaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla) and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma), anthropogenic activities, and recent changes in predator communities. Estimating population vital rates, identifying seasonal habitat, quantifying threats, and identifying movement patterns are important first steps in developing effective sage-grouse management and conservation plans. During 2011–15, we radio- and Global Positioning System (GPS)-marked (2012–14 only) 44, 47, 17, 9, and 3 sage-grouse, respectively, for a total of 120, in the Pine Nut Mountains Population Management Unit (PMU). No change in lek attendance was detected at Mill Canyon (maximum=18 males) between 2011 and 2012; however, 1 male was observed in 2014 and no males were observed in 2013 and 2015. Males were observed near Bald Mountain in 2013, making it the first year this lek was observed to be active during the study period. Males were observed at a new site in the Buckskin Range in 2014 during trapping efforts and again observed during surveys in 2015. Findings indicate that pinyon-juniper is avoided by sage-grouse during every life stage. Nesting females selected increased sagebrush cover, sagebrush height, and understory horizontal cover, and brood-rearing females selected similar areas

  11. Lead in ammunition: a persistent threat to health and conservation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C K; Kelly, T R; Rideout, B A

    2013-12-01

    Many scavenging bird populations have experienced abrupt declines across the globe, and intensive recovery activities have been necessary to sustain several species, including the critically endangered California condor (Gymnogyps californianus). Exposure to lead from lead-based ammunition is widespread in condors and lead toxicosis presents an immediate threat to condor recovery, accounting for the highest proportion of adult mortality. Lead contamination of carcasses across the landscape remains a serious threat to the health and sustainability of scavenging birds, and here we summarize recent evidence for exposure to lead-based ammunition and health implications across many species. California condors and other scavenging species are sensitive indicators of the occurrence of lead contaminated carcasses in the environment. Transdisciplinary science-based approaches have been critical to managing lead exposure in California condors and paving the way for use of non-lead ammunition in California. Similar transdisciplinary approaches are now needed to translate the science informing on this issue and establish education and outreach efforts that focus on concerns brought forth by key stakeholders.

  12. Hydroperiod and cattle use associated with lower recruitment in an r-selected amphibian with a declining population trend in the Klamath Mountains, California

    Treesearch

    Esther M. Cole; Rosemary Hartman; Malcolm P. North

    2016-01-01

    Recent population declines in amphibians associated with mortality in early life stages highlight the need for a better understanding of the environmental factors related to successful survival to metamorphosis. In our study, we closely examine the relative importance of environmental factors to three stages of recruitment for Cascade frogs (Rana cascadae...

  13. DIETARY RECONSTRUCTION OF AN EARLY TO MIDDLE HOLOCENE HUMAN POPULATION FROM THE CENTRAL CALIFORNIA COAST: INSIGHTS FROM ADVANCED STABLE ISOTOPE MIXING MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The inherent sampling and preservational biases of the archaeological record make it difficult
    to quantify prehistoric human diets, especially in coastal settings, where populations had access to a wide range of marine and terrestrial food sources. In certain cases, geochemica...

  14. Turning population trend monitoring into active conservation: Can we save the Cascades Frog (Rana cascadae) in the Lassen region of California?

    Treesearch

    Gary M. Fellers; Karen L. Pope; Jonathan E. Stead; Michelle S. Koo; Hartwell H. Welsh

    2007-01-01

    Monitoring the distribution, population size, and trends of declining species is necessary to evaluate their vulnerability to extinction. It is the responsibility of scientists to alert management professionals of the need for preemptive action if a species approaches imminent, regional extirpation. This is the case with Rana cascadae (Cascades Frog...

  15. Can genomics clarify the origins of Boreioglycaspis melaleucae in California, USA?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Australian psyllid Boreioglycaspis melaleucae is a biological control agent of Melaleuca quinquenervia in Florida (USA) but was observed attacking M. quinquenervia trees in southern California (USA). Genotyping revealed the California population matched three of eight Australian haplotypes and ...

  16. California Schemin'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drozdowski, Mark J.

    2008-01-01

    One may be surprised to learn that the author's institution, a small state college in Massachusetts, has a significant alumni population in and around Los Angeles. In fact, while they do not have an alumni chapter in Boston, they do have one in Los Angeles. The reason is that one of their most popular majors is communications media. They pump out…

  17. California Bioresources Alliance Symposia

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Past and upcoming events and infromation from the California Bioresources Alliance Symposium, focusing on management of organic residuals in California including manure, biosolids, food waste, agricultural wastes, green waste and wood waste.

  18. California-Baja California border master plan - plan maestro fronterizo California-Baja California : technical appendix.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-09-01

    Under the direction of the U.S. / Mexico Joint Working Committee, the California Department of : Transportation (Caltrans) and the State of Baja Californias Secretariat of Infrastructure and Urban : Development (SIDUE) hereby establish the Califor...

  19. Hayward Fault, California Interferogram

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-08-17

    This image of California Hayward fault is an interferogram created using a pair of images taken by ESA ERS-1 and ERS-2 in June 1992 and September 1997 over the central San Francisco Bay in California.

  20. Mediterranean California, Chapter 13

    Treesearch

    M.E. Fenn; E.B. Allen; L.H. Geiser

    2011-01-01

    The Mediterranean California ecoregion (CEC 1997; Fig 2.2) encompasses the greater Central Valley, Sierra foothills, and central coast ranges of California south to Mexico and is bounded by the Pacific Ocean, Sierra Nevada Mountains and Mojave Desert.

  1. USGS California Water Science Center water programs in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shulters, Michael V.

    2005-01-01

    California is threatened by many natural hazards—fire, floods, landslides, earthquakes. The State is also threatened by longer-term problems, such as hydrologic effects of climate change, and human-induced problems, such as overuse of ground water and degradation of water quality. The threats and problems are intensified by increases in population, which has risen to nearly 36.8 million. For the USGS California Water Science Center, providing scientific information to help address hazards, threats, and hydrologic issues is a top priority. To meet the demands of a growing California, USGS scientific investigations are helping State and local governments improve emergency management, optimize resources, collect contaminant-source and -mobility information, and improve surface- and ground-water quality. USGS hydrologic studies and data collection throughout the State give water managers quantifiable and detailed scientific information that can be used to plan for development and to protect and more efficiently manage resources. The USGS, in cooperation with state, local, and tribal agencies, operates more than 500 instrument stations, which monitor streamflow, ground-water levels, and surface- and ground-water constituents to help protect water supplies and predict the threats of natural hazards. The following are some of the programs implemented by the USGS, in cooperation with other agencies, to obtain and analyze information needed to preserve California's environment and resources.

  2. Variation in δ13C and δ15N diet–vibrissae trophic discrimination factors in a wild population of California sea otters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newsome, Seth D.; Bentall, Gena B.; Tinker, M. Tim; Oftedal, Olav T.; Ralls, Katherine; Estes, James A.; Fogel, Marilyn L.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to quantify dietary inputs using stable isotope data depends on accurate estimates of isotopic differences between a consumer (c) and its diet (d), commonly referred to as trophic discrimination factors (TDFs) and denoted by Δc-d. At present, TDFs are available for only a few mammals and are usually derived in captive settings. The magnitude of TDFs and the degree to which they vary in wild populations is unknown. We determined δ13C and δ15N TDFs for vibrissae (i.e., whiskers), a tissue that is rapidly becoming an informative isotopic substrate for ecologists, of a wild population of sea otters for which individual diet has been quantified through extensive observational study. This is one of the very few studies that report TDFs for free-living wild animals feeding on natural diets. Trophic discrimination factors of 2.2‰ ± 0.7‰ for δ13C and 3.5‰ ± 0.6‰ for δ15N (mean ± SD) were similar to those reported for captive carnivores, and variation in individual δ13C TDFs was negatively but significantly related to sea urchin consumption. This pattern may relate to the lipid-rich diet consumed by most sea otters in this population and suggests that it may not be appropriate to lipid-extract prey samples when using the isotopic composition of keratinaceous tissues to examine diet in consumers that frequently consume lipid-rich foods, such as many marine mammals and seabirds. We suggest that inherent variation in TDFs should be included in isotopically based estimates of trophic level, food chain length, and mixing models used to quantify dietary inputs in wild populations; this practice will further define the capabilities and limitations of isotopic approaches in ecological studies.

  3. California Burn Scars

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Burn Scars Across Southern California     ... California between October 21 and November 18, 2003. Burn scars and vegetation changes wrought by the fires are illustrated in these ... and Nov 18, 2003 Images:  California Burn Scars location:  United States region:  ...

  4. State summaries: California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kohl, S. G.

    2006-01-01

    According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), California ranked second behind Arizona among the states in nonfuel mineral production during 2005. It accounted for 7% of the US's total. The market value of mineral production for California amounted to $3.7 billion. During the year, California produced 30 varieties of industrial minerals. The nonfuel minerals came from 820 active mines.

  5. Phenotypic Variation among Culex pipiens Complex (Diptera: Culicidae) Populations from the Sacramento Valley, California: Horizontal and Vertical Transmission of West Nile Virus, Diapause Potential, Autogeny, and Host Selection

    PubMed Central

    Nelms, Brittany M.; Kothera, Linda; Thiemann, Tara; Macedo, Paula A.; Savage, Harry M.; Reisen, William K.

    2013-01-01

    The vector competence and bionomics of Culex pipiens form pipiens L. and Cx. pipiens f. molestus Forskäl were evaluated for populations from the Sacramento Valley. Both f. pipiens and f. molestus females became infected, produced disseminated infections, and were able to transmit West Nile virus. Form molestus females also transmitted West Nile virus vertically to egg rafts and F1 progeny, whereas f. pipiens females only transmitted to egg rafts. Culex pipiens complex from urban Sacramento blood-fed on seven different avian species and two mammalian species. Structure analysis of blood-fed mosquitoes identified K = 4 genetic clusters: f. molestus, f. pipiens, a group of genetically similar hybrids (Cluster X), and admixed individuals. When females were exposed as larvae to midwinter conditions in bioenvironmental chambers, 85% (N = 79) of aboveground Cx. pipiens complex females and 100% (N = 34) of underground f. molestus females did not enter reproductive diapause. PMID:24043690

  6. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of San Gregorio, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Watt, Janet T.; Golden, Nadine E.; Endris, Charles A.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Bretz, Carrie K.; Manson, Michael W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Chin, John L.; Cochran, Susan A.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California's State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of San Gregorio map area is located in northern California, on the Pacific coast of the San Francisco Peninsula about 50 kilometers south of the Golden Gate. The map area lies offshore of the Santa Cruz Mountains, part of the northwest-trending Coast Ranges that run roughly parallel to the San Andreas Fault Zone. The Santa Cruz Mountains lie between the San Andreas Fault Zone and the San Gregorio Fault system. The nearest significant onshore cultural centers in the map area are San Gregorio and Pescadero, both unincorporated communities with populations well under 1,000. Both communities are situated inland of state beaches that share their names. No harbor facilities are within the Offshore of San Gregorio map area. The hilly coastal area is virtually undeveloped grazing land for sheep and cattle. The coastal geomorphology is controlled by late Pleistocene and Holocene slip in the San Gregorio Fault system. A westward bend in the San Andreas Fault Zone, southeast of the map area, coupled with right-lateral movement along the San Gregorio Fault system have caused regional folding and uplift. The coastal area consists of high coastal bluffs and vertical sea cliffs. Coastal promontories in

  7. Bisphenol-A (BPA), BPA glucuronide, and BPA sulfate in mid-gestation umbilical cord serum in a Northern and Central California population

    PubMed Central

    Gerona, Roy R.; Woodruff, Tracey J.; Dickenson, Carrie A.; Pan, Janet; Schwartz, Jackie M.; Sen, Saunak; Friesen, Matthew M.; Fujimoto, Victor Y.; Hunt, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) is an endocrine disrupting chemical used in numerous consumer products, resulting in universal exposure in the United States. Prenatal exposure to BPA is associated with numerous reproductive and developmental effects in animals. However, little is known about human fetal exposure or metabolism of BPA during mid-gestation. In the present study, we present a new liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to directly measure concentrations of BPA and two predominant metabolic conjugates – BPA glucuronide and BPA sulfate – in umbilical cord serum collected from elective 2nd trimester pregnancy terminations. We detected at least one form of BPA in all umbilical cord serum samples: BPA (GM 0.16; range population, with some at relatively high levels, and we provide the first evidence of detectable BPA sulfate in mid-gestation fetuses. PMID:23941471

  8. Population receptivity to tobacco advertising/promotions and exposure to anti-tobacco media: effect of Master Settlement Agreement in California: 1992-2002.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, Elizabeth A; Distefan, Janet M; Pierce, John P

    2004-07-01

    Tobacco marketing contributes to adolescent smoking initiation, and the Master Settlement Agreement (MSA), therefore, included relevant restrictions. We analyzed data from large population surveys of Californians, conducted in 1992 (11,905 adults, ages 18 years and older), 1993 (5,531 adolescents, ages 12 to 17 years), and 1996 (6,252 adolescents, 18,616 adults) before the MSA, and in 1999 (6,090 adolescents, 14,729 adults) and 2002 (5,857 adolescents, 20,525 adults) following its implementation. Camel lost favorite-advertisement popularity after 1996, and between 1999 and 2002, there were large increases in the percentages declining to name a favorite advertisement. Ownership of tobacco promotional items declined from its peak in 1996. Furthermore, in 2002, close to 90% of adolescents and young adults reported seeing anti-tobacco messages on television in the past month, significantly higher than 1996. These trends indicate less receptivity to tobacco advertising and promotions following the MSA but leave room for additional restrictions to further reduce receptivity.

  9. The California Cauldron: Immigration and the Fortunes of Local Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, William A. V.

    Since 1965, changes in the immigration law have altered the influx from abroad and transformed the nation, especially California. This book examines the fundamental transformation of the state's population, focusing on local outcomes in California communities. Chapters 1 and 2 discuss social and economic causes of immigration, types of migrants,…

  10. What Has Created California's School Facilities Predicament? EdFact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EdSource, Inc., Palo Alto, CA.

    The growth in California's student population currently exceeds the peak years of the baby boom generation by more than one million students. This increase, combined with deferred maintenance, has created a strain on the state's educational facilities. An analysis of this predicament is presented in this bulletin. It describes why California needs…

  11. New cooperative seismograph networks established in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, D.P.

    1974-01-01

    Southern California has more active faults located close to large, urban population centers than any other region in the United States. Reduction of risk to life and property posed by potential earthquakes along these active faults is a primary motivation for a cooperative earthquake research program between the U.S Geological Survey and major universities in Southern California

  12. 77 FR 36287 - Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the California Tiger Salamander, Calaveras...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ...-FXES11120800000F2-123-F2] Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the California Tiger Salamander... animal, the threatened Central California Distinct Population Segment of the California tiger salamander (tiger salamander). The applicant would implement a conservation program to minimize and mitigate the...

  13. 77 FR 64316 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Recovery Plan South-Central California Coast Steelhead...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-19

    ... and Threatened Species; Recovery Plan South-Central California Coast Steelhead Distinct Population... Coast (SCCCS) (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Distinct Population (DPS). NMFS is soliciting review and comment... plan development. NMFS is hereby soliciting relevant information on SCCC Steelhead DPS populations and...

  14. County portraits of Oregon and Northern California.

    Treesearch

    Wendy J. McGinnis; Richard H. Phillips; Kent P. Connaughton

    1996-01-01

    This publication provides a general picture of the population, economy, and natural resources of the counties in Oregon and northern California. The intent of this report is to provide insight to changes in a county over the last 10 to 20 years, to compare county trends to statewide trends (and state trends to national trends), and to provide information on all the...

  15. Resting habitat selection by fishers in California

    Treesearch

    William J. Zielinski; Richard L. Truex; Gregory A. Schmidt; Fredrick V. Schlexer; Kristin N. Schmidt; Reginald H. Barrett

    2004-01-01

    We studied the resting habitat ecology of fishers (Martes pennanti) in 2 disjunct populations in California, USA: the northwestern coastal mountains (hereafter, Coastal) and the southern Sierra Nevada (hereafter, Sierra). We described resting structures and compared features surrounding resting structures (the resting site) with those at randomly...

  16. MANPOWER FOR CALIFORNIA HOSPITALS, 1964-1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Commission on Manpower, Automation, and Technology, Sacramento.

    AN EXAMINATION OF THE HOSPITAL AND NURSING AND CONVALESCENT HOME INDUSTRY IN 1964 AND EMPLOYMENT PROJECTIONS ARE PRESENTED AS AN INITIAL CONTRIBUTION TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN ONGOING MANPOWER INFORMATION PROGRAM IN THE STATE. DATA WERE COMPILED FROM POPULATION PROJECTIONS BY THE CALIFORNIA DEPARTMENT OF FINANCE, WAGE SURVEY STUDIES BY THE…

  17. The biology of the California spotted owl

    Treesearch

    R.J. Gutiérrez; Douglas J. Tempel; M. Zachariah Peery

    2017-01-01

    The spotted owl (Strix occidentalis) is one of the most studied raptors in the world (Lõmus 2004) because forest management throughout its range has the potential to negatively affect owl populations. Information on the California spotted owl (S. o. occidentalis) has been summarized in several literature reviews (e.g.,...

  18. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Reports

    SciTech Connect

    Olfe, J.; Lang, C.; Vernet, M.

    1989-10-01

    This document contains 15 papers. Topics include a review of some California fisheries, spawning biomass of the northern anchovy, marine fisheries, habitat alterations, fishery management, reproduction, population dynamics, acoustic Doppler currents and sea lion interaction and depredation. Each paper will be indexed and entered separately on the energy data base. 54 figs., 29 tabs. (KD)

  19. Recreational Gun Use by California Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vittes, Katherine A.; Sorenson, Susan B.

    2005-01-01

    Most research on adolescents and firearms focuses on urban populations, handguns, and homicide. This study examines the prevalence and correlates of recreational gun use (RGU)--for hunting or target shooting--among 5,801 community-residing 12- to 17-year-old Californians. Data are from the first statewide California Health Interview Survey (CHIS),…

  20. Prenatal Serum Concentrations of Brominated Flame Retardants and Autism Spectrum Disorder and Intellectual Disability in the Early Markers of Autism Study: A Population-Based Case–Control Study in California

    PubMed Central

    Croen, Lisa A.; Weiss, Lauren A.; Kharrazi, Martin; Traglia, Michela; Delorenze, Gerald N.; Windham, Gayle C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Prior studies suggest neurodevelopmental impacts of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), but few have examined diagnosed developmental disorders. Objectives: Our aim was to determine whether prenatal exposure to brominated flame retardants (BFRs) is associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or intellectual disability without autism (ID). Methods: We conducted a population-based case–control study including children with ASD (n=545) and ID (n=181) identified from the California Department of Developmental Services and general population (GP) controls (n=418) from state birth certificates. ASD cases were matched to controls by sex, birth month, and birth year. Concentrations of 10 BFRs were measured in maternal second trimester serum samples stored from routine screening. Logistic regression was used to calculate crude and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) for associations with ASD, and separately for ID, compared with GP controls, by quartiles of analyte concentrations in primary analyses. Results: Geometric mean concentrations of five of the six congeners with ≥55% of samples above the limit of detection were lower in mothers of children with ASD or ID than in controls. In adjusted analyses, inverse associations with several congeners were found for ASD relative to GP (e.g., quartile 4 vs. 1, BDE-153: AOR=0.56, 95% CI: 0.38, 0.84). When stratified by child sex (including 99 females with ASD, 77 with ID, and 73 with GP), estimates were consistent with overall analyses in boys, but in the opposite direction among girls, particularly for BDE-28 and -47 (AOR=2.58, 95% CI: 0.86, 7.79 and AOR=2.64, 95% CI: 0.97, 7.19, respectively). Similar patterns overall and by sex were observed for ID. Conclusions: Contrary to expectation, higher PBDE concentrations were associated with decreased odds of ASD and ID, though not in girls. These findings require confirmation but suggest potential sexual dimorphism in associations with prenatal exposure to BFRs. https

  1. Spain: Europe's California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilvert, Calvin

    1994-01-01

    Contends that, as Spain integrates into the European Economic Community, it is considered to be Europe's California. Asserts that making regional comparisons between California and Spain can be an effective teaching method. Provides comparisons in such areas as agriculture and tourism. (CFR)

  2. How California Ranks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EdSource, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Public education supports California's economic growth and creates opportunities for the state's youth. Given that, it is important for Californians to understand how much the state is investing in its schools and how that money is being spent. Comparing California with the nation and other similar states can provide a useful perspective in…

  3. California-Baja California border master plan - plan maestro fronterizo California-Baja California.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-09-01

    Crossborder travel at the six land ports of entry (POEs) in the California-Baja California region has grown : significantly over the years. The San Diego County-Tijuana/Tecate region is home to the San Ysidro- : Puerta Mxico, the Otay Mesa-Mesa de ...

  4. California wood energy program

    Treesearch

    Gary Brittner

    1983-01-01

    Many varieties of eucalyptus adapt well to growing conditions in the coastal and central valley regions of California. The California Department of Forestry is conducting growth research on a variety of sites throughout the state with many species. Eucalyptus is an excellent fuelwood and has potential for other uses, including chemical feedstocks. Plantations...

  5. California tree seed zones

    Treesearch

    John M. Buck; Ronald S. Adams; Jerrold Cone; M. Thompson Conkle; William J. Libby; Cecil J. Eden; Michel J. Knight

    1970-01-01

    California forest tree seed zones were established originally by Fowells (1946), with revisions proposed by Roy (1963) and Schubert (1966). The Forest Tree Seed Committee of the Northern California Section, Society of American Foresters, has revised the original zones and updated the recording system described in the earlier reports. Fowells' (1946) Research Note...

  6. California-Baja California border master plan - plan maestro fronterizo California-Baja California : executive summary.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-09-01

    Crossborder travel at the six land ports of entry (POEs) in the California-Baja California region has grown : significantly over the years. The San Diego County-Tijuana/Tecate region is home to the San Ysidro- : Puerta Mxico, the Otay Mesa-Mesa de ...

  7. California: Library Information Technologies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Will, Barbara, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    Describes six information technology projects in California libraries, including Internet access in public libraries; digital library developments at the University of California, Berkeley; the World Wide Web home page for the state library; Pacific Bell's role in statewide connectivity; state government initiatives; and services of the state…

  8. California Library Laws. 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Cy H.

    This document contains selections from the California Administrative Code, Education Code, Government Code, and others relating to public libraries, county law libraries and the State Library. The first section presents legal developments in California from 1974 to 1976 which are of interest to librarians. Laws and regulations are presented under…

  9. Variability of germination in digger pine in California

    Treesearch

    James R. Griffin

    1971-01-01

    Seeds collected from 17 Pinus sabiniana Dougl. populations in California were tested for germination. Unstratified seeds germinated slower than stratified seeds. Germination of stratified seeds showed distinct population differences. Some populations started germination at 5°C. and reached a level of 60 to 70 percent after 30 days at 25°. Less than...

  10. Cancer Survival in California Hispanic Farmworkers, 1988-2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Jennifer L.; Mills, Paul K.; Riordan, Deborah G.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Although epidemiologic studies have identified elevated cancer risk in farmworkers for some cancer types, little is known about cancer survival in this population. Purpose: To determine if cancer survival differs between a Hispanic farmworker population and the general Hispanic population in California. Methods: Hispanic United Farm…

  11. California energy flow in 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Borg, I.Y.; Briggs, C.K.

    1995-04-01

    Energy consumption in the state of California decreased about 3% in 1993 reflecting continuation of the recession that was manifest in a moribund construction industry and a high state unemployment that ran counter to national recovery trends. Residential/commercial use decreased slightly reflecting a mild winter in the populous southern portion of the state, a decrease that was offset to some extent by an increase in the state population. Industrial consumption of purchased energy declined substantially as did production of self-generated electricity for in-house use. Consumption in the transportation sector decreased slightly. The amount of power transmitted by the utilities wasmore » at 1992 levels; however a smaller proportion was produced by the utilities themselves. Generation of electricity by nonutilities, primarily cogenerators and small power producers, was the largest of any state in the US. The growth in the number of private power producers combined with increased amounts of electricity sold to the public utilities set the stage for the sweeping proposals before the California Public Utility Commission to permit direct sales from the nonutilities to retail customers. California production of both oil and natural gas declined; however, to meet demand only the imports of natural gas increased. A break in the decade-long drought during the 1992--1993 season resulted in a substantial increase in the amount of hydroelectricity generated during the year. Geothermal energy`s contribution increased substantially because of the development of new resources by small power producers. Decline in steam production continued at The Geysers, the state`s largest field, principally owned and managed by a public utility. Increases in windpower constituted 1--1/2% of the total electric supply--up slightly from 1992. Several solar photo voltaic demonstration plants were in operation, but their contribution remained small.« less

  12. California energy flow in 1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, I. Y.; Briggs, C. K.

    1995-04-01

    Energy consumption in the state of California decreased about 3% in 1993 reflecting continuation of the recession that was manifest in a moribund construction industry and a high state unemployment that ran counter to national recovery trends. Residential/commercial use decreased slightly reflecting a mild winter in the populous southern portion of the state, a decrease that was offset to some extent by an increase in the state population. Industrial consumption of purchased energy declined substantially as did production of self-generated electricity for in-house use. Consumption in the transportation sector decreased slightly. The amount of power transmitted by the utilities was at 1992 levels; however a smaller proportion was produced by the utilities themselves. Generation of electricity by nonutilities, primarily cogenerators and small power producers, was the largest of any state in the US. The growth in the number of private power producers combined with increased amounts of electricity sold to the public utilities set the stage for the sweeping proposals before the California Public Utility Commission to permit direct sales from the nonutilities to retail customers. California production of both oil and natural gas declined; however, to meet demand only the imports of natural gas increased. A break in the decade-long drought during the 1992-1993 season resulted in a substantial increase in the amount of hydroelectricity generated during the year. Geothermal energy's contribution increased substantially because of the development of new resources by small power producers. Decline in steam production continued at The Geysers, the state's largest field, principally owned and managed by a public utility. Increases in windpower constituted 1-1/2% of the total electric supply, up slightly from 1992. Several solar photovoltaic demonstration plants were in operation, but their contribution remained small.

  13. Seasonal Variation and Impact of Waste-Water Lagoons as Larval Habitat on the Population Dynamics of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera:Ceratpogonidae) at Two Dairy Farms in Northern California

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, Christie E.; Osborne, Cameron J.; Mullens, Bradley A.; Gerry, Alec C.; Gardner, Ian A.; Reisen, William K.; Barker, Christopher M.; MacLachlan, N. James

    2014-01-01

    The Sacramento (northern Central) Valley of California (CA) has a hot Mediterranean climate and a diverse ecological landscape that is impacted extensively by human activities, which include the intensive farming of crops and livestock. Waste-water ponds, marshes, and irrigated fields associated with these agricultural activities provide abundant larval habitats for C. sonorensis midges, in addition to those sites that exist in the natural environment. Within this region, C. sonorensis is an important vector of bluetongue (BTV) and related viruses that adversely affect the international trade and movement of livestock, the economics of livestock production, and animal welfare. To characterize the seasonal dynamics of immature and adult C. sonorensis populations, abundance was monitored intensively on two dairy farms in the Sacramento Valley from August 2012– to July 2013. Adults were sampled every two weeks for 52 weeks by trapping (CDC style traps without light and baited with dry-ice) along N-S and E-W transects on each farm. One farm had large operational waste-water lagoons, whereas the lagoon on the other farm was drained and remained dry during the study. Spring emergence and seasonal abundance of adult C. sonorensis on both farms coincided with rising vernal temperature. Paradoxically, the abundance of midges on the farm without a functioning waste-water lagoon was increased as compared to abundance on the farm with a waste-water lagoon system, indicating that this infrastructure may not serve as the sole, or even the primary larval habitat. Adult midges disappeared from both farms from late November until May; however, low numbers of parous female midges were detected in traps set during daylight in the inter-seasonal winter period. This latter finding is especially critical as it provides a potential mechanism for the “overwintering” of BTV in temperate regions such as northern CA. Precise documentation of temporal changes in the annual abundance and

  14. Seasonal variation and impact of waste-water lagoons as larval habitat on the population dynamics of Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera:Ceratpogonidae) at two dairy farms in northern California.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Christie E; Osborne, Cameron J; Mullens, Bradley A; Gerry, Alec C; Gardner, Ian A; Reisen, William K; Barker, Christopher M; Maclachlan, N James

    2014-01-01

    The Sacramento (northern Central) Valley of California (CA) has a hot Mediterranean climate and a diverse ecological landscape that is impacted extensively by human activities, which include the intensive farming of crops and livestock. Waste-water ponds, marshes, and irrigated fields associated with these agricultural activities provide abundant larval habitats for C. sonorensis midges, in addition to those sites that exist in the natural environment. Within this region, C. sonorensis is an important vector of bluetongue (BTV) and related viruses that adversely affect the international trade and movement of livestock, the economics of livestock production, and animal welfare. To characterize the seasonal dynamics of immature and adult C. sonorensis populations, abundance was monitored intensively on two dairy farms in the Sacramento Valley from August 2012- to July 2013. Adults were sampled every two weeks for 52 weeks by trapping (CDC style traps without light and baited with dry-ice) along N-S and E-W transects on each farm. One farm had large operational waste-water lagoons, whereas the lagoon on the other farm was drained and remained dry during the study. Spring emergence and seasonal abundance of adult C. sonorensis on both farms coincided with rising vernal temperature. Paradoxically, the abundance of midges on the farm without a functioning waste-water lagoon was increased as compared to abundance on the farm with a waste-water lagoon system, indicating that this infrastructure may not serve as the sole, or even the primary larval habitat. Adult midges disappeared from both farms from late November until May; however, low numbers of parous female midges were detected in traps set during daylight in the inter-seasonal winter period. This latter finding is especially critical as it provides a potential mechanism for the "overwintering" of BTV in temperate regions such as northern CA. Precise documentation of temporal changes in the annual abundance and

  15. Pertussis epidemic--California, 2014.

    PubMed

    Winter, Kathleen; Glaser, Carol; Watt, James; Harriman, Kathleen

    2014-12-05

    On June 13, 2014, the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) declared that a pertussis epidemic was occurring in the state when reported incidence was more than five times greater than baseline levels. The incidence of pertussis in the United States is cyclical, with peaks every 3-5 years, as the number of susceptible persons in the population increases. The last pertussis epidemic in California occurred in 2010, when approximately 9,000 cases were reported, including 808 hospitalizations and 10 infant deaths, for a statewide incidence of 24.6 cases per 100,000 population. During January 1-November 26, 2014, a total of 9,935 cases of pertussis with onset in 2014 were reported to CDPH, for a statewide incidence of 26.0 cases per 100,000. CDPH is working closely with local health departments to prioritize public health activities, with the primary goal of preventing severe cases of pertussis, which typically occurs in infants. All prenatal care providers are being encouraged to provide tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) to pregnant women during each pregnancy, ideally at 27-36 weeks' gestation, as is recommended by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), or refer patients to an alternative provider, such as a pharmacy or local public health department, to receive Tdap.

  16. Fin whale song variability in southern California and the Gulf of California.

    PubMed

    Širović, Ana; Oleson, Erin M; Buccowich, Jasmine; Rice, Ally; Bayless, Alexandra R

    2017-08-31

    Songs are distinct, patterned sounds produced by a variety of animals including baleen whales. Fin whale songs, which consist of short pulses repeated at regular interpulse intervals (IPIs), have been suggested as a tool to distinguish populations. Fin whale songs were analyzed from data collected from 2000-2012 in Southern California and from 2004-2010 in the Gulf of California using autonomous acoustic recorders. IPIs were measured for each identifiable song sequence during two random days of each month with recordings. Four distinct song types were identified: long doublet, short doublet, long triplet, and short triplet. Long and short doublets were the dominant songs in Southern California, while long and short triplets were dominant in the Gulf of California. An abrupt change in song type occurred in both areas during the monitoring period. We argue that each song type is unique to a population and these changes represent a shift in the primary population in the monitoring area. Occasional temporal and spatial song overlap indicated some exchange or visitation among populations. Fin whales appear to synchronize and gradually modify song rhythm over long time scales. A better understanding of the evolutionary and ecological importance of songs to fin whale populations is needed.

  17. Phylogeography of the California mountain kingsnake, Lampropeltis zonata (Colubridae).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Robles, J A; Denardo, D F; Staub, R E

    1999-11-01

    The phylogeography of the California mountain kingsnake, Lampropeltis zonata, was studied using mitochondrial DNA sequences from specimens belonging to the seven recognized subspecies and collected throughout the range of the species. Maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods identified a basal split within L. zonata that corresponds to southern and northern segments of its distribution. The southern clade is composed of populations from southern California (USA) and northern Baja California, Mexico. The northern clade is divided into two subclades, a 'coastal' subclade, consisting of populations from the central coast of California and the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains of eastern California, and a 'northeastern' subclade, mainly comprised of populations north of the San Francisco Bay and from the majority of the Sierra Nevada. We suggest that past inland seaways in southwestern California and the embayment of central California constituted barriers to gene flow that resulted in the two deepest divergences within L. zonata. Throughout its evolutionary history, the northern clade apparently has undergone instances of range contraction, isolation, differentiation, and then expansion and secondary contact. Examination of colour pattern variation in 321 living and preserved specimens indicated that the two main colour pattern characters used to define the subspecies of L. zonata are so variable that they cannot be reliably used to differentiate taxonomic units within this complex, which calls into question the recognition of seven geographical races of this snake.

  18. Stereo Pair, Pasadena, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-03-10

    This stereoscopic image pair is a perspective view that shows the western part of the city of Pasadena, California, looking north toward the San Gabriel Mountains. Portions of the cities of Altadena and La Canada Flintridge are also shown.

  19. California Tribal Gasoline Permits

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is proposing a draft general permit under the Clean Air Act Federal Indian Country Minor NSR program for gasoline dispensing facilities, such as gas stations, located in Indian country within the geographical boundaries of California.

  20. California Clean Tech

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The California Clean Air Technology Initiative is a partnership to develop clean air technologies for the San Joaquin Valley and South Coast Air Basins through collaborative projects in technology research, development, demonstration, and deployment.

  1. California Transportation Plan 2025.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-04-01

    The California Transportation Plan 2025 (CTP) offers a blueprint for meeting : the States future mobility needs. The CTP is a long-range transportation : policy plan that explores the social, economic, and technological trends : and demographic ch...

  2. California: Diamond Valley

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... article title:  Watching the Creation of Southern California's Largest Reservoir     ... Valley Lake is designed to provide protection against drought and a six-month emergency supply in the event of earthquake damage to a ...

  3. Southern California Edison PDF

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Southern California Edison report describes an evaluation of SCE’s Retail Appliance Recycling Program (Retail ARP) trial that was initiated in late October 2010 and completed in September of 2011.

  4. Trends in California's Water Footprint, 1992-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooley, H.; Fulton, J.

    2015-12-01

    Water and other natural resource uses are increasingly affected by globalized trade and consumption patterns. We examine how California's water footprint has changed over two decades (1992 to 2012). Four findings emerge: first, California's water footprint (WF) has grown faster than population, indicating an increased per-capita WF; second, while California's WF is primarily associated with food products, energy products are becoming more important; third, the state's internal water resources are increasingly used for products consumed outside of the state; and fourth, external water resources have provided for all of California's expanded WF and are predominately "green water," or non-managed water sources. In light of climate change and mounting pressures on water resources, California policymaking must examine these trends in order to mitigate water-related risk.

  5. Earthquake education in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacCabe, M. P.

    1980-01-01

    In a survey of community response to the earthquake threat in southern California, Ralph Turner and his colleagues in the Department of Sociology at the University of California, Los Angeles, found that the public very definitely wants to be educated about the kinds of problems and hazards they can expect during and after a damaging earthquake; and they also want to know how they can prepare themselves to minimize their vulnerability. Decisionmakers, too, are recognizing this new wave of public concern. 

  6. Gulf of California, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Sunglint on the water's surface reveals the complex pattern of currents in the Gulf of California in the vicinity of Tiburon and Angel de la Guarda Islands (29.0N, 113.0W). Mexico's state of Sonora and the Sonora Desert is on the mainland and the state of Baja California consists of the entire peninsula. The Pacific Ocean is under the coastal cloud cover on the Baja peninsula.

  7. Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    An interesting view down the axis of Baja California, Mexico (26.5N, 113.0W). At the center of the Scene is Laguna Ojo de Liebre (Bay of Whales) which is a breeding area for the Pacific Grey Whale. The Sea of Cortez, also known as the Gulf of California, is to the left and the Pacific Ocean is to the right.

  8. Diversity of great gray owl nest sites and nesting habitats in California

    Treesearch

    Joanna X. Wu; Rodney B. Siegel; Helen L. Loffland; Morgan W. Tingley; Sarah L. Stock; Kevin N. Roberts; John J. Keane; Joseph R. Medley; Roy Bridgman; Chris Stermer

    2015-01-01

    The great gray owl (Strix nebulosa) is listed by the state of California as endangered, with a population estimate of fewer than 300 individuals in the state. Nest-site availability has been suggested as a limiting factor for population growth in California, but information on nest types and nesting habitat has been based on a small number of nests...

  9. A Priority for California's Future: Science for Students. Summary Report. Strengthening Science Education in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents findings of a study that examined Californians' views on science education. The findings are based on telephone interviews with 1,004 adults conducted April 7-22, 2010. Cell phone and Spanish language interviews were included to provide more complete coverage of California's population. In order to enhance understanding of the…

  10. Economic regulation of ambulance services in California.

    PubMed

    Narad, R A

    1997-01-01

    This study was intended to identify economic regulatory programs used by California counties (including ambulance franchising and rate setting), to inventory their foci and application, and to identify differences around the state. By studying the variety of programs used in one state, this study establishes a framework for evaluation of state and local regulatory programs elsewhere. This study surveyed all California local EMS agencies (LEMSAs); these are California's equivalent of regional EMS organizations. The survey achieved a 100% response rate, and all data involve population parameters obviating the need for inferential statistics. Seventy-three percent of California counties use economic regulations. Large-population counties and those that operate their own LEMSAs are more likely to use economic regulations than are small counties and those that participate in multicounty EMS agencies. Despite a preference for competition in the authorizing statute, most franchises were granted without competition to existing providers. The majority of franchises in the state were granted to public services. Most ambulance rate setting occurs outside of a competitive process. Economic regulations that were intended to provide a structured marketplace are often being used to protect existing providers, particularly public services, from competition. The growing interest by fire departments in entering the market for emergency ambulance service, along with the existing bias toward them in granting of franchises, does not bode well for use of the competitive process. The growth of managed care may change or eliminate the need for economic regulations but, if they are to continue, more state oversight should be considered.

  11. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of San Francisco, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cochrane, Guy R.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Greene, H. Gary; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Endris, Charles A.; Manson, Michael W.; Sliter, Ray W.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Watt, Janet Tilden; Ross, Stephanie L.; Bruns, Terry R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    Circulation over the continental shelf in the Offshore of San Francisco map area is dominated by the southward-flowing California Current, an eastern limb of the North Pacific Gyre that flows from Oregon to Baja California. At its midpoint offshore of central California, the California Current transports subarctic surface waters southeastward, about 150 to 1,300 km from shore. Seasonal northwesterly winds that are, in part, responsible for the California Current, generate coastal upwelling. Ocean temperatures offshore of central California have increased over the past 50 years, driving an ecosystem shift from the productive subarctic regime towards a depopulated subtropical environment.

  12. California's minimum-nurse-staffing legislation and nurses' wages.

    PubMed

    Mark, Barbara; Harless, David W; Spetz, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, California became the first state to implement minimum-nurse-staffing ratios in acute care hospitals. We examined the wages of registered nurses (RNs) before and after the legislation was enacted. Using four data sets-the National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses, the Current Population Survey, the National Compensation Survey, and the Occupational Employment Statistics Survey-we found that from 2000 through 2006, RNs in California metropolitan areas experienced real wage growth as much as twelve percentage points higher than the growth in the wages of nurses employed in metropolitan areas outside of California.

  13. 17. Photocopy of photograph (from California State Library, Sacramento, California, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of photograph (from California State Library, Sacramento, California, c. 1890) EXTERIOR, REAR VIEW OF MISSION, C. 1890 - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

  14. 21. Photocopy of photograph (from California State Library, Sacramento, California, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Photocopy of photograph (from California State Library, Sacramento, California, c. 1903) EXTERIOR, SOUTH FRONT & WEST SIDE OF MISSION IN RUINOUS STATE BEFORE RESTORATION, C. 1903 - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

  15. 23. Photocopy of photograph (from California State Library, Sacramento, California, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Photocopy of photograph (from California State Library, Sacramento, California, C. 1909) EXTERIOR, VIEW OF SOUTH FRONT OF CONVENTO IN RUINS, C. 1909 - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

  16. Fires Rage Near Malibu, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    According to the NBCnews.com, Southern California firefighters were battling a growing, brush-fueled wildfire early Friday that had reached the beach in Ventura County and was pushing toward the upscale city of Malibu, officials said. Dubbed the Springs Fire, this "monster" of a wildfire has been made worse by howling Santa Ana winds and unusually dry vegetation. As of 2 am local time in California on Friday the 3rd, it was within "seven or eight miles" of Malibu, Ventura County Fire Department spokesman Bill Nash said. Weather conditions are not cooperating in the containment of this fire. The Weather Channel has predicted dry winds from offshore that will bring gusts of 40 to 50 miles per hour to the Southern California region on Friday the 3rd which could easily spread the fire. A complication to the winds is the extremely dry plant life left from a season in which only about five inches of rain fell in the area. The Springs Fire grew to 10,000 acres and was ten percent contained as of early Friday morning, according to the California Department of Forestry and Fire Prevention. Evacuations took place Thursday, and as of Friday morning 15 homes had been damaged. More than 2,000 homes and 100 commercial properties were under threat from the fire and those numbers could grow with weather conditions today (May 3). Currently the fire is burning in a rural area outside of Malibu, but it doesn't have to go very far to get to some expensive homes and more populated areas. It's current direction has it burning down the mountainside toward Malibu. Firefighters expect to receive help from tankers and helicopters in the air Friday morning, according to a release from the Ventura County Fire Department. The cause of the fire remained under investigation Friday. There had been no lightning or other natural fire-starting phenomenon in the area when the blaze began, Nash said. This natural-color satellite image was collected by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer

  17. The Story of California = La Historia de California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartel, Nick

    "The Story of California" is a history and geography of the state of California, intended for classroom use by limited-English-proficient, native Spanish-speaking students in California's urban middle schools. The book is designed with the left page in English and the right page in Spanish to facilitate student transition into…

  18. An age differential of migrants in coastal California

    Treesearch

    C. John Ralph

    1971-01-01

    While the age distribution and species composition of North American avian breeding populations is reasonably well known, comparable information is generally not available on migrating populations. Capture data taken at the Point Reyes Bird Observatory on the coast at Bolinas, 23 km NW of San Francisco, and at other stations in California have provided information on...

  19. Transit performance measures in California.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-04-01

    This research is the result of a California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) request to assess the most commonly : available transit performance measures in California. Caltrans wanted to understand performance measures and data used by : Metr...

  20. Microsatellite analysis of medfly bioinfestations in California.

    PubMed

    Bonizzoni, M; Zheng, L; Guglielmino, C R; Haymer, D S; Gasperi, G; Gomulski, L M; Malacrida, A R

    2001-10-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, is a destructive agricultural pest with a long history of invasion success. This pest has been affecting different regions of the United States for the past 30 years, but a number of studies of medfly bioinfestations has focused on the situation in California. Although some progress has been made in terms of establishing the origin of infestations, the overall status of this pest in this area remains controversial. Specifically, do flies captured over the years represent independent infestations or the persistence of a resident population? We present an effort to answer this question based on the use of multilocus genotyping. Ten microsatellite loci were used to analyse 109 medflies captured in several infestations within California between 1992 and 1998. Using these same markers, 242 medflies from regions of the world having 'established' populations of this pest including Hawaii, Guatemala, El Salvador, Ecuador, Brazil, Argentina and Peru, were also analysed. Although phylogenetic analysis, amova analysis, the IMMANC assignment test and geneclass exclusion test analysis suggest that some of the medflies captured in California are derived from independent invasion events, analysis of specimens from the Los Angeles basin provides support for the hypothesis that an endemic population, probably derived from Guatemala, has been established.

  1. Landsat View: Ontario, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Thirty-five miles due east of downtown Los Angeles lies the city of Ontario, California. In 1881 two Canadian brothers established the town, naming it after their native city. By 1891 Ontario, Calif., was incorporated as a city. The farming-based economy (olives, citrus, dairy) of the city helped it grow to 20,000 by the 1960s. Subsequently, warehousing and freight trafficking took over as the major industry and the city’s population was over 160,000 by 2010. The L.A./Ontario International Airport is now America’s 15th busiest cargo airport. In these natural color Landsat 5 images, the massive growth of the city between 1985 and 2010 can be seen. The airport, found in the southwest portion of the images, added a number of runways and large warehousing structures now dominate the once rural areas surrounding the airport. In these images vegetation is green and brown and urban structures are bright white and gray. (Note there is a large dry riverbed in the northeast corner that is also bright white, but its nonlinear appearance sets it apart visually). ---- NASA and the U.S. Department of the Interior through the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) jointly manage Landsat, and the USGS preserves a 40-year archive of Landsat images that is freely available over the Internet. The next Landsat satellite, now known as the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) and later to be called Landsat 8, is scheduled for launch in 2013. In honor of Landsat’s 40th anniversary in July 2012, the USGS released the LandsatLook viewer – a quick, simple way to go forward and backward in time, pulling images of anywhere in the world out of the Landsat archive. NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission

  2. California energy flow in 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, I. Y.; Briggs, C. K.

    1991-02-01

    California's energy use showed a modest increase (2.2 percent) in 1989 over 1988 which was in keeping with the steady increase in population that the state has experienced annually during the decade. All end-use sectors (residential, commercial, industrial, transportation, etc.) contributed to the growth. The larger demand was met by increased imports of all major fuels. Only electrical imports remained close to 1988 levels, in part due to increased output from Diablo Canyon nuclear plant whose performance exceeded expectations. California's per capita energy consumption has traditionally been below the national average due to the relatively benign climate associated with its centers of population. The largest single use for energy in the state was for transportation, which overtook industrial usage in the 60's. Use of highway fuels continued to grow and reached all time highs in 1989. Highway congestion, a major problem and concern in the state, is anticipated to grow as the number of licensed drivers increases; in 1989 the increase was 3.4 percent. Output from the The Geysers Geothermal fields, the largest in the world, continued to falter as the steam output fell. Nonetheless new resources at the Coso Geothermal Resource Area and at the Wendel Geothermal field came on line during the year, and other geothermal areas were under active development. Novel sources of renewable energy (solar, wind, etc.) grew; however, collectively they made only a small contribution to the overall energy supply. Cogenerated electricity sold to the utilities by small power producers inexplicably fell in 1989 although estimates of the total capacity available rose. Energy flow diagrams illustrate energy sources and energy consumption.

  3. California County Data Book, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Now, Oakland, CA.

    This data book examines statewide trends in the well-being of California's children. California is the only state where the majority of the children (56%) come from African-American, Latino, Asian, and Native American families. The report begins with summary tables of general state facts, including: (1) California's children under 18; (2)…

  4. California Indian Food and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This learning kit begins with a glossary of terms to help students learn about California Indians and their food. The kit explains that California Indians were the first people to live in the area now known as California, and that these tribes differed in the languages they spoke, the regions they lived in, and the foods that they ate. It explains…

  5. An extirpated lineage of a threatened frog species resurfaces in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Backlin, Adam R.; Richmond, Jonathan Q.; Gallegos, Elizabeth; Christensen, Clinton K.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2017-01-01

    Southern California has experienced widespread amphibian declines since the 1960s. One species, the Vulnerable California red-legged frog Rana draytonii, is now considered to be extirpated from most of southern California. In February 2017 a population of R. draytonii was discovered in the southern foothills of the San Bernardino Mountains of Riverside County, California, near the edge of the species’ historical distribution. This population belongs to an mtDNA lineage that was presumed to be extirpated within the USA but is still extant in Baja California, Mexico. This discovery increases the potential for future, evolutionarily informed translocations within the southern portion of this species’ range in California.

  6. California's Districts of Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronholz, June

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the results of a California state law established in 2010 that created "Districts of Choice." The District of Choice law was meant to encourage districts to compete for students by offering innovative programs and this-school-fits-my-child options that parents wanted. This designation meant that children from any…

  7. Oak management in California

    Treesearch

    Plumb. Timothy R.; Philip M. McDonald

    1981-01-01

    Native oak species grow on 15 to 20 million acres (6 to 8 million ha) of California land, and have an estimated net volume of about 3 billion ft3 (85 million m3). This resource, valuable not only for traditional wood products, but also for wildlife habitat, watershed protection, and recreational-esthetic values, is not...

  8. California's Perfect Storm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, David

    2010-01-01

    The United States today faces an economic crisis worse than any since the Great Depression of the 1930s. Nowhere is it sharper than in the nation's schools. Last year, California saw a perfect storm of protest in virtually every part of its education system. K-12 teachers built coalitions with parents and students to fight for their jobs and their…

  9. California Nitrogen Index

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The California N Index User Manual is designed to help you become accustomed to the software environment in which the N Index runs. This manual will use an example scenario to demonstrate how to use the N Index to assess nitrogen losses. The objective of this theoretical example is to guide you towa...

  10. Profiles of California vegetation

    Treesearch

    William B. Critchfield

    1971-01-01

    This publication brings together 57 elevational profiles illustrating the dominant vegetation of much of the Sierra Nevada, southern Coast Ranges, and montane southern California as it existed in the 1930's. The profiles were drawn by Michael N. Dobrotin for the U.S. Forest Service's Vegetation Type Map survey, which mapped nearly half of the State's...

  11. Sabotaging the California Dream

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piland, William E.

    2004-01-01

    Higher education, the California dream for well over 2 million undergraduate students, is turning into a nightmare. The Golden State's promise of unparalleled access to community colleges and universities is fast becoming a tarnished relic of the past. And this state of affairs is occurring at a time when the demand for higher education has never…

  12. Mono Lake, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-10-01

    STS068-150-020 (30 September-11 October 1994) --- An exceptionally clear, high-contrast view of the desert basins east and south of Mono Lake, California. Light clouds dot the mountain ranges; the clouds were transparent to radar beams from the Space Radar Laboratory 2 (SRL-2) payload.

  13. Curriculum Challenges in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Louise

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a longitudinal study that examined the extent and types of challenges to curriculum in California school districts. A survey of school districts conducted in 1990 yielded 421 usable responses. The second survey, sent in 1991, elicited 379 responses, a 37.5 percent response rate. Findings indicate that the number…

  14. NREL + Southern California Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Berdahl, Sonja E

    2017-10-09

    NREL and Southern California Gas Company are evaluating a new 'power-to-gas' approach - one that produces methane through a biological pathway and uses the expansive natural gas infrastructure to store it. This approach has the potential to change how the power industry approaches renewable generation and energy storage.

  15. Women of California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Harry

    This publication points out the achievements of women who contributed to the development and history of California from the 16th century, when the Spanish Conquistadores moved westward into the San Francisco Bay area, to the gold rush of 1848, and during the following period when women helped stabilize society on the rugged frontier. Women not…

  16. California's Future: Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Hans

    2015-01-01

    California's higher education system is not keeping up with the changing economy. Projections suggest that the state's economy will continue to need more highly educated workers. In 2025, if current trends persist, 41 percent of jobs will require at least a bachelor's degree and 36 percent will require some college education short of a bachelor's…

  17. California's Water Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheatley, Judy; Sudman, Rita Schmidt, Ed.

    This packet of instructional materials is designed to give social science students in grades 6-9 a first-hand experience in working out solutions to real-life problems involving the management of California's water. Students work in groups on one of three problems presented in the packet: (1) the management of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta that…

  18. California Library Laws, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Paul G., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "California Library Laws 2008" is a selective guide to state laws and related materials that most directly affect the everyday operations of public libraries and organizations that work with public libraries. It is intended as a convenient reference, not as a replacement for the annotated codes or for legal advice. The guide is organized…

  19. California Library Laws, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Paul G., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    California Library Laws 2009 is a selective guide to state laws and related materials that most directly affect the everyday operations of public libraries and organizations that work with public libraries. It is intended as a convenient reference, not as a replacement for the annotated codes or for legal advice. The guide is organized as follows.…

  20. California oaks: a bibliography

    Treesearch

    James R. Griffin; Philip M. McDonald; Pamela C. Muick

    1987-01-01

    Among natural resource professionals, California oaks continue to attract considerable attention. This report provides a comprehensive bibliography of the extensive but scattered oak literature. The 768 references are organized into two systems: (a) a topical outline, in which references are displayed under key word headings and subheadings, and author-date entries...

  1. California's forest industry, 1976.

    Treesearch

    Bruce A. Hiserote; James O. Howard

    1978-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a 100-percent canvas of the primary forest products industry in California for 1976. Tabular presentation includes characteristics of the industry log consumption and disposition of mill residues. Accompanying the tables is a descriptive analysis of conditions and trends in the industry.

  2. California Budget Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallinson, Daniel J.

    2018-01-01

    The California Budget Challenge produced by Next10 provides a useful and intuitive tool for instructors to introduce students to public budgeting. Students will reason through a series of budgeting decisions using information provided on the fiscal and practical implications of their choices. The Challenge is updated with each budget cycle, so it…

  3. Environmental Assessment: San Antonio Creek Restoration at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-08

    than larger populations because their low abundance renders them susceptible to inbreeding, loss of genetic variation, high variability in age and...master’s thesis, University of California, Santa Barbara. Grant, C. 1978a. Chumash: Introduction. In California, edited by Robert F. Heizer , pp. 505...Eastern Coastal Chumash. In California, edited by Robert F. Heizer , pp. 509–519. Handbook of North American Indians, vol. 8, William C. Sturtevant

  4. Contraceptive use and risk of unintended pregnancy in California.

    PubMed

    Foster, Diana G; Bley, Julia; Mikanda, John; Induni, Marta; Arons, Abigail; Baumrind, Nikki; Darney, Philip D; Stewart, Felicia

    2004-07-01

    California is home to more than one out of eight American women of reproductive age. Because California has a large, diverse and growing population, national statistics do not necessarily describe the reproductive health of California women. This article presents risk for pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections among women in California based on the California Women's Health Survey. Over 8900 women of reproductive age who participated in this survey between 1998 and 2001 provide estimates of access to care and use of family-planning methods in the state. We find that 49% of the female population aged 18-44 in California is at risk of unintended pregnancy. Nine percent (9%) of women at risk of an unintended pregnancy are not using any method of contraception, primarily for method-related reasons, such as a concern about side effects or a dislike of available contraceptive methods. Among women at risk for unintended pregnancy, we find disparities by race/ethnicity and education in use of contraceptive methods.

  5. The future of family practice training in California.

    PubMed Central

    Midtling, J. E.; Barnett, P. G.; Blossom, H. J.; Burnett, W. H.

    1990-01-01

    Although the number of physicians in California has doubled since 1963, the number of family and general practice physicians has declined. The ratio of office-based primary care physicians to population has also decreased. Graduate medical education is funded largely from patient care revenues, but the low rate of reimbursement for ambulatory care makes training in primary care specialties especially dependent on public support. Medicare, the Veterans Administration, and the University of California provide more than $325 million a year in support of graduate medical education in California. Federal and state grant programs provide $5 million a year for family physician training in the state, but appropriations to these programs have been reduced in real terms. California family practice residencies are disproportionately located at county hospitals, where funding shortfalls make them especially vulnerable to cuts in grant programs. Additional resources will be needed if more family physicians are to be trained. Images PMID:2333709

  6. California State Waters Map Series—Offshore of Monterey, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Watt, Janet T.; Davenport, Clifton W.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Sliter, Ray W.; Maier, Katherine L.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-08-18

    swells from the northwest throughout the year. Wave heights range from 2 to 10 m, the larger swells occurring from October to May. During El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events, winter storms track farther south than they do in normal (non-ENSO) years, thereby impacting the map area more frequently and with waves of larger heights.Benthic species observed in the map area are natives of the cold-temperate biogeographic zone that is called either the “Oregonian province” or the “northern California ecoregion.” This biogeographic province is maintained by the long-term stability of the southward-flowing California Current, the eastern limb of the North Pacific subtropical gyre that flows from southern British Columbia to Baja California.Biological productivity resulting from coastal upwelling supports populations of Sooty Shearwater, Western Gull, Common Murre, Cassin’s Auklet, and many other less populous bird species. An observable recovery of Humpback and Blue Whales has occurred in the area; both species are dependent on coastal upwelling to provide nutrients. The large extent of exposed inner shelf bedrock supports large forests of “bull kelp,” which is well adapted for high-wave-energy environments. The kelp beds are well-known habitat for the population of southern sea otters. Common fish species found in the kelp beds and rocky reefs include lingcod and various species of rockfish and greenling.

  7. Effect of firewood harvesting on birds in a California oak-pine woodland

    Treesearch

    Paul A. Aigner; William M. Block; Michael L. Morrison

    1998-01-01

    Despite a history of oak clearing and thinning in California, little is known about the effects of firewood harvesting on wildlife in oak woodlands. We studied the effect of firewood harvesting on population trends of birds during the breeding season in an oak-pine woodland in the foothills of the northern Sierra Nevada, California. During fall-winter of 1993-94, total...

  8. Southern California Socioeconomic Assessment: Sociodemographic Conditions, Projections, and Quality of Life Indices

    Treesearch

    Rachel Struglia; Patricia l. Winter; Andrea Meyer

    2003-01-01

    This report summarizes findings from the regional and county socioeconomic assessment conducted for southern California. The 26-county region extends from San Diego to the San Francisco Bay Area. A majority of the state’s population resides within this region, which surrounds the four southern California National Forests (Angeles, Cleveland, Los Padres, and San...

  9. "P" Is for Poison: Update on Pesticide Use in California Schools. CPR Series Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olle, Teresa M.

    This report reveals school pesticide use, pest management decision-making notification, and record keeping in California school systems. All 13 of the most populous school districts that responded to the survey reported using 1 or more of 42 particularly hazardous cancer-causing pesticides. The majority of California schools have failed to adopt…

  10. Comparison of PCR-Based Assays for the Characterization of Cattle Fecal Pollution in California

    EPA Science Inventory

    The state of California has mandated the production of a guidance document on the application of microbial source tracking methods for recreational water quality management. California contains the fifth highest population of cattle in the United States, making the inclusion of ...

  11. New introduction in California: the redhaired pine bark beetle, Hylurgus ligniperda Fabricius

    Treesearch

    Deguang Liu; Michael J. Bohne; Jana C. Lee; Mary Louise Flint; Richard L. Penrose; Steven J. Seybold

    2007-01-01

    An overwintering North American population of the redhaired pine bark beetle (RPBB) was first discovered in November 2000 in Rochester, New York. In July 2003 it was also detected at two locations in Los Angeles County, California near heavily urbanized areas where exotic pines of Mediterranean origin are favored landscape trees. California and New York currently have...

  12. The Chemehuevi Indians of Southern California. Malki Museum Brochure No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Ronald Dean; Miller, Peggy Jeanne

    The only local tribe to migrate into California during recorded history, the Chemehuevi Indians had one of the largest tribal areas in California, though their population probably never exceeded 800. Today most live on the Colorado River Reservation, where they share membership with the Colorado River tribes. First mentioned in a priest's report…

  13. Mental Health Workforce Change through Social Work Education: A California Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Gwen; Morris, Meghan Brenna; Sirojudin, Sirojudin

    2013-01-01

    The 2004 California Mental Health Services Act requires large-scale system change in the public mental health system through a shift to recovery-oriented services for diverse populations. This article describes an innovative strategy for workforce recruitment and retention to create and sustain these systemic changes. The California Social Work…

  14. 78 FR 77447 - California Wind Energy Association, First Solar, Inc. v. California Independent System Operator...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... Energy Association, First Solar, Inc. v. California Independent System Operator Corporation, Southern...), California Wind Energy Association and First Solar, Inc. (collectively, Complainants) filed a formal complaint against the California Independent System Operator Corporation (CAISO) and Southern California...

  15. California Groundwater Units

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Tyler D.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The California Groundwater Units dataset classifies and delineates areas within the State of California into one of three groundwater-based polygon units: (1) those areas previously defined as alluvial groundwater basins or subbasins, (2) highland areas that are adjacent to and topographically upgradient of groundwater basins, and (3) highland areas not associated with a groundwater basin, only a hydrogeologic province. In total, 938 Groundwater Units are represented. The Groundwater Units dataset relates existing groundwater basins with their newly delineated highland areas which can be used in subsequent hydrologic studies. The methods used to delineate groundwater-basin-associated highland areas are similar to those used to delineate a contributing area (such as for a lake or water body); the difference is that highland areas are constrained to the immediately surrounding upslope (upstream) area. Upslope basins have their own delineated highland. A geoprocessing tool was created to facilitate delineation of highland areas for groundwater basins and subbasins and is available for download.

  16. Leading causes of mortality of Asian Indians in California.

    PubMed

    Palaniappan, Latha; Mukherjea, Arnab; Holland, Ariel; Ivey, Susan L

    2010-01-01

    Asian Indians had one of the highest population growth rates in California between 1990 and 2000. However, few studies have examined common causes of death in this ethnic group in California. We examined leading causes of mortality in Asian Indians in California and analyzed differences across age and sex. Linear interpolation of 1990 and 2000 US Census data were used to calculate population sizes. California mortality data were examined to determine total number of Asian Indian deaths, and analyzed to determine causes of death across age (25-44, 45-64, > or = 65) and sex subgroups. International Classification of Diseases, 9th and 10th revision codes were used to aggregate causes of mortality into disease categories of cardiovascular diseases, cancers, diabetes, traumas/accidents/suicides, infections, and other conditions. Cardiovascular diseases were the leading cause of death for both sexes. Cancers were the second leading cause of death for both sexes. Diabetes and traumas/accidents/suicides were the next most common cause of mortality for females and males respectively. However, differences were found between age groupings across the sexes. This analysis confirms leading causes of death found in other densely-populated Asian Indian regions. It also sheds light on emerging conditions in this population in California. Although contributors to causes of mortality are discussed, more research is needed to understand the unique biological and socio-cultural determinants of disease in Asian Indians. Translation of this research into intervention strategies will reduce the burden of these diseases in this rapidly-growing population in California and the United States.

  17. California Water Resources Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    does not remain on the ground below 4,000 feet. The zone of heavy snowfall is from 7,000 to 8,000 feet. Melting of the normally deep snowpack in these...advanced cargoCaiornia has abundant water, metal , nonmetallic min- handling schniques indicate that major improvements erals, fuel and forestry resources...conceived by the De - California includes improvement and maintenance of bris Commission as a result of studies directed by all major coastal harbors in

  18. Remagne California margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagstrum, J.T.; Sedlock, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data for two sections of Cretaceous forearc strata with different structural attitudes on Santa Margarita and Magdalena Islands in Baja California Sur, Mexico, indicate that these rocks have been remagnetized, probably during the late Cenozoic. The in situ paleomagnetic directions, however, are similar to data from other Cretaceous rocks on peninsular California with unexpectedly shallow inclinations and easterly declinations. These data have been interpreted as indicating either northward tectonic transport (10??15?? of latitude) and clockwise rotation (>20??) or compaction shallowing of magnetic inclinations in sedimentary rocks combined with southwestward tilting of plutonic rocks. The available paleomagnetic data for Cretaceous forearc strata in southern and Baja California can be divided into three groups: (1) sections with normal-polarity magnetizations that fail fold tests and are remagnetized, (2) sections with normal-polarity magnetizations with no or inconclusive fold tests that may or may not be remagnetized, and (3) sections with both normaland reversed-polarity intervals where pervasive remagnetization has not occurred. Other rocks of the Mesozoic Great Valley Group, Coast Range ophiolite, and Franciscan Complex in California also have secondary magnetizations with directions similar to younger geomagnetic field directions. Although these widespread remagnetizations could have variable local causes, we propose regional burial and uplift, related to changes in subduction parameters, as a possible explanation. Two episodes of remagnetization are apparent: one in the Late Cretaceous and a second in the late Cenozoic. On the other hand, the unremagnetized and apparently reliable data from sedimentary and plutonic rocks on the Baja Peninsula consistently indicate northward translation (14???? 3??) and clockwise rotation (29???? 8??) with respect to North America since the Late Cretaceous. Copyright 1998 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Aseismic uplift in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castle, Robert O.; Elliot, Michael R.; Gilmore, Thomas D.; Mark, Robert K.; Newman, Evelyn B.; Tinsley, John C.; Jackson, D.D.; Lee, W.B.; Liu, C.-C.

    1981-01-01

    We disagree with several of the arguments cited by Jackson et al. in support of their view that "the inference of wide-spread aseismic uplift in southern California is not justified" (1). Specifically, the striking correlation shown in figure 1 of Jackson et al. (1) is an artifact of the construction, the rod calibration data are atypical, the cited regression techniques are of doubtful value, and the geologically and geodetically determined uplift rates are inappropriately compared.

  20. SUGARLOAF ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Robert E.; Campbell, Harry W.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and geophysical investigations and a survey of mines, quarries, and prospects the Sugarloaf Roadless Area, California, has little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral or energy resources. Units of carbonate rock and graphitic schist have demonstrated resources of magnesian marble and graphite. Sand, gravel, and construction stone other than carbonate rock are present in the roadless area, but similar or better quality materials are abundant and more accessible outside the area.

  1. What next for California

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, P.

    The effect of Governor Jerry Brown on the solar industry in California is reviewed. It is pointed out that currently there are 7000 solar businesses; before Gov. Brown's administration there were virtually none. The effect of Gov. Brown's administration on the use of solar and renewable energy sources, as well as energy conservation are reviewed. Specific topics include: (1) political action; (2) business sense; (3) increased competition; (4) marketing; and (5) consumer protection. (MJJ)

  2. Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Sunglint on the surface of the Sea of Cortez near the island of Tiburon (28.5 N, 112.5W) reveals intricate patterns of internal waves under the placid surface. Mexico's state of Sonora and the Sonora Desert is on the mainland and the state of Baja California consists of the entire peninsula. The large bay on the Pacific side of Baja is Laguna Ojo de Libre (Bay of Whales) which is a breeding area for the Pacific Grey Whales.

  3. California's potential volcanic hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jorgenson, P.

    1989-01-01

    This is a summary of "Potential Hazards from Future Volcanic Eruptions in California' (USGS Bulletin No. 1847: price $4.75). The chief areas of danger are Lassen Peak, Mount Shasta and Medicine Lake Highland in the north; Clear Lake, Mono Lake and Long Valley in the centre; and Owen's River-Death Valley, Amboy Crater and the Saltan Butter in the south of the State. -A.Scarth

  4. Medical marijuana: California update.

    PubMed

    James, J S

    1996-08-23

    The Cannabis Buyers' Club in San Francisco remains closed after it was raided by the office of California Attorney General Dan Lungren. Many individuals with serious illnesses such as AIDS and cancer are without safe access to medical marijuana to relieve the symptoms of their diseases. The need for access to medicinal marijuana, the return of the confiscated confidential medical records held at the buyers' club, and the passage of California Proposition 215 in the November election, which allows for the legitimate use of marijuana for medical purposes are of immediate concern. Since the raid, the Cannabis Buyers' Club has denied charges that it sold marijuana to teenagers, saying the drug was sold to a teen's mother, an undercover narcotics officer. However, the club admitted to sales to non-medical individuals who used fraudulent documents in order to obtain the drug and acknowledges the need to tighten procedures. Individuals may be able to obtain marijuana at other buyers' clubs if they have documentation of a medical need. While literature on the medical use of marijuana is lacking, the Federal government continues to block any efforts toward medical research on this issue. A list of other cannabis buyers' clubs in California is included, as well as a list of organizations working for Proposition 215.

  5. Needed: Sy(STEM)ic Response. How California's Public Colleges and Universities Are Key to Strengthening the Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) and Health Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Daniel; Shorette, Rob

    2016-01-01

    California is at a crossroads in terms of STEM and health workforce development. On the one hand, California has more available entry-level STEM jobs than any other state in the country and a steadily growing health workforce, giving large segments of its population access to stable careers. On the other hand, California's public colleges and…

  6. Ecoregions of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffith, Glenn E.; Omernik, James M.; Smith, David W.; Cook, Terry D.; Tallyn, Ed; Moseley, Kendra; Johnson, Colleen B.

    2016-02-23

    Ecoregions denote areas of general similarity in ecosystems and in the type, quality, and quantity of environmental resources. They are designed to serve as a spatial framework for the research, assessment, management, and monitoring of ecosystems and ecosystem components. By recognizing the spatial differences in the capacities and potentials of ecosystems, ecoregions stratify the environment by its probable response to disturbance (Bryce and others, 1999). These general purpose regions are critical for structuring and implementing ecosystem management strategies across Federal agencies, State agencies, and nongovernment organizations that are responsible for different types of resources in the same geographical areas (Omernik and others, 2000).The approach used to compile this map is based on the premise that ecological regions are hierarchical and can be identified through the analysis of the spatial patterns and the composition of biotic and abiotic phenomena that affect or reflect differences in ecosystem quality and integrity (Wiken, 1986; Omernik, 1987, 1995). These phenomena include geology, physiography, vegetation, climate, soils, land use, wildlife, and hydrology. The relative importance of each characteristic varies from one ecological region to another regardless of the hierarchical level. A Roman numeral hierarchical scheme has been adopted for different levels of ecological regions. Level I is the coarsest level, dividing North America into 15 ecological regions. Level II divides the continent into 50 regions (Commission for Environmental Cooperation Working Group, 1997, map revised 2006). At level III, the continental United States contains 105 ecoregions and the conterminous United States has 85 ecoregions (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2013). Level IV, depicted here for California, is a further refinement of level III ecoregions. Explanations of the methods used to define these ecoregions are given in Omernik (1995), Omernik and others

  7. Growth of Accountable Care Organizations in California: Number, Characteristics, and State Regulation.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Brent D; Pegany, Vishaal; Keolanui, Beth; Scheffler, Richard M

    2015-08-01

    Accountable care organizations (ACOs) result in physician organizations' and hospitals' receiving risk-based payments tied to costs, health care quality, and patient outcomes. This article (1) describes California ACOs within Medicare, the commercial market, and Medi-Cal and the safety net; (2) discusses how ACOs are regulated by the California Department of Managed Health Care and the California Department of Insurance; and (3) analyzes the increase of ACOs in California using data from Cattaneo and Stroud. While ACOs in California are well established within Medicare and the commercial market, they are still emerging within Medi-Cal and the safety net. Notwithstanding, the state has not enacted a law or issued a regulation specific to ACOs; they are regulated under existing statutes and regulations. From August 2012 to February 2014, the number of lives covered by ACOs increased from 514,100 to 915,285, representing 2.4 percent of California's population, including 10.6 percent of California's Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries and 2.3 percent of California's commercially insured lives. By emphasizing health care quality and patient outcomes, ACOs have the potential to build and improve on California's delegated model. If recent trends continue, ACOs will have a greater influence on health care delivery and financial risk sharing in California. Copyright © 2015 by Duke University Press.

  8. Staggering successes amid controversy in California water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Water in California has always been important and controversial, and it probably always will be. California has a large, growing economy and population in a semi-arid climate. But California's aridity, hydrologic variability, and water controversies have not precluded considerable economic successes. The successes of California's water system have stemmed from the decentralization of water management with historically punctuated periods of more centralized strategic decision-making. Decentralized management has allowed California's water users to efficiently explore incremental solutions to water problems, ranging from early local development of water systems (such as Hetch Hetchy, Owens Valley, and numerous local irrigation projects) to more contemporary efforts at water conservation, water markets, wastewater reuse, and conjunctive use of surface and groundwater. In the cacophony of local and stakeholder interests, strategic decisions have been more difficult, and consequently occur less frequently. California state water projects and Sacramento Valley flood control are examples where decades of effort, crises, floods and droughts were needed to mobilize local interests to agree to major strategic decisions. Currently, the state is faced with making strategic environmental and water management decisions regarding its deteriorating Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. Not surprisingly, human uncertainties and physical and fiscal non-stationarities dominate this process.

  9. California travel trends and demographics study

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2002-12-01

    In collaboration with its regional and citizen planning partners, the California Department of Transportation is currently developing a long-term, multimodal transportation plan for the state of California. The California Travel Trends and Demographi...

  10. Radioactive deposits in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, George W.; Lovering, Tom G.

    1954-01-01

    Reconnaissance examination by Government geologists of many areas, mine properties, and prospects in California during the period between 1948 and 1953 has confirmed the presence of radioactive materials in place at more than 40 localities. Abnormal radioactivity at these localities is due to concentrations of primary and secondary uranium minerals, to radon gas, radium (?), and to thorium minerals. Of the known occurrences only three were thought to contain uranium oxide (uranitite or pitchblende), 4 contained uranium-bearing columbate, tantalate, or titanate minerals, 12 contained secondary uranium minerals, such as autunite, carnotite, and torbernite, one contained radon gas, 7 contained thorium minerals, and, at the remaining 16 localities, the source of the anomalous radiation was not positively determined. The occurrences in which uranium oxide has been tentatively identified include the Rathgeb mine (Calaveras County), the Yerih group of claims (San Bernardino County), and the Rainbow claim (Madera County). Occurrences of secondary uranium minerals are largely confined to the arid desert regions of south-eastern California including deposits in San Bernardino, Kern, Inyo, and Imperial Counties. Uranium-bearing columbate, tantalate, or titanate minerals have been reported from pegmatite and granitic rock in southeastern and eastern California. Thorium minerals have been found in vein deposits in eastern San Bernardino County and from pegmatites and granitic rocks in various parts of southeastern California; placer concentrations of thorium minerals are known from nearly all areas in the State that are underlain, in part, by plutonic crystalline rocks. The primary uranium minerals occur principally as minute accessory crystals in pegmatite or granitic rock, or with base-metal sulfide minerals in veins. Thorium minerals also occur as accessory crystals in pegmatite or granitic rock, in placer deposits derived from such rock, and, at Mountain Pass, in veins

  11. SPATIALLY AUTOCORRELATED DEMOGRAPHY AND INTERPOND MIGRATION IN THE CALIFORNIA TIGER SALAMANDER (AMBYSTOME CALIFORNIENSE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated the metapopulation structure of the California tiger salamander (Ambystoma californiense) using a combination of indirect and direct methods to evaluate two key requirements of modern metapopulation models: 1) that patches support somewhat independent populations ...

  12. Wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, and Idaho: Some recovery strategies that just might work

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary goal of the Salmon 2100 Project is to identify salmon recovery options that have a high probability of maintaining biologically significant, sustainable populations of wild salmon in California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia. The Project doe...

  13. Gay and Lesbian Partnership: Evidence from California

    PubMed Central

    CARPENTER, CHRISTOPHER; GATES, GARY J.

    2008-01-01

    Much recent research on sexual minorities has used couples-based samples, which—by construction—provide no information on nonpartnered individuals. We present the first systematic empirical analysis of partnership and cohabitation among self-identified gay men and lesbians using two independent, large, population-wwbased data sources from California. These data indicate that 37%–46% of gay men and 51%–62% of lesbians aged 18–59 are in cohabiting partnerships (compared with 62% of heterosexual individuals in coresidential unions at comparable ages). Unlike previous research, we find that white and highly educated gay men and lesbians are more likely to be partnered, and we confirm that same-sex cohabiting partners in our data have demographic characteristics that are similar to California same-sex couples from Census 2000. We also present the first detailed analysis of officially registered domestic partnerships in California. We find that almost half of partnered lesbians are officially registered with the local or state government, while less than a quarter of partnered gay men are officially registered. We conclude with implications of our findings for couples-based research on gay men and lesbians, as well as recommendations for survey data collection. PMID:18939662

  14. California Space Grant Consortium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmatka, John; Berger, Wolfgang; Wiskerchen, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    The organizational and administrative structure of the CaSGC has the Consortium Headquarters Office (Principal Investigator - Dr. John Kosmatka, California Statewide Director - Dr. Michael Wiskerchen) at UC San Diego. Each affiliate member institution has a campus director and an scholarship/fellowship selection committee. Each affiliate campus director also serves on the CaSGC Advisory Council and coordinates CMIS data collection and submission. The CaSGC strives to maintain a balance between expanded affiliate membership and continued high quality in targeted program areas of aerospace research, education, workforce development, and public outreach. Associate members are encouraged to participate on a project-by-project basis that meets the needs of California and the goals and objectives of the CaSGC. Associate members have responsibilities relating only to the CaSGC projects they are directly engaged in. Each year, as part of the CaSGC Improvement Plan, the CaSGC Advisory Council evaluates the performance of the affiliate and associate membership in terms of contributions to the CaSGC Strategic Plan, These CaSGC membership evaluations provide a constructive means for elevating productive members and removing non-performing members. This Program Improvement and Results (PIR) report will document CaSGC program improvement results and impacts that directly respond to the specific needs of California in the area of aerospace-related education and human capital development and the Congressional mandate to "increase the understanding, assessment, development and utilization of space resources by promoting a strong education base, responsive research and training activities, and broad and prompt dissemination of knowledge and technology".

  15. California quake assessed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuethrich, Bernice

    On January 17, at 4:31 A.M., a 6.6 magnitude earthquake hit the Los Angeles area, crippling much of the local infrastructure and claiming 51 lives. Members of the Southern California Earthquake Network, a consortium of scientists at universities and the United States Geological Survey (USGS), entered a controlled crisis mode. Network scientists, including David Wald, Susan Hough, Kerry Sieh, and a half dozen others went into the field to gather information on the earthquake, which apparently ruptured an unmapped fault.

  16. Blackhawk Landslide, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-09-30

    The Blackhawk landslide, Lucerne Valley, California, is a lobe of marble breccia, 10 to 30 m thick, 3 km wide, and nearly 8 km long. Geologic evidence shows that the rockslide came down the gently inclined slope as a nearly monolithic sheet moving more than 100 km per hour. The accepted hypothesis is that the slide was lubricated by a layer of compressed air. At least two earlier similar but smaller rockslides have occurred in the area. The south-looking perspective view image was acquired on September 22, 2014, and is located at 34.4 degrees north, 116.7 degrees west. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21008

  17. Lake Shasta, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-06-17

    This image from NASA Terra spacecraft shows Shasta Lake in northern California, which has an area of 12,000 ha, making it the state largest reservoir. Impacts of the continuing drought in the western US is evident in the two ASTER images acquired 9 years apart. The images were acquired September 9, 2005 and September 2, 2014. They cover an area of 27.6 x 40.4 km, and are located at 40.6 degrees north, 122.4 degrees west. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19492

  18. Coal supply for California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yancik, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    The potential sources and qualities of coals available for major utility and industrial consumers in California are examined and analyzed with respect to those factors that would affect the reliability of supplies. Other considerations, such as the requirements and assurances needed by the coal producers to enter into long-term contracts and dedicate large reserves of coal to these contracts are also discussed. Present and potential future mining contraints on coal mine operators are identified and analyzed with respect to their effect on availability of supply.

  19. California's geothermal resource potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leibowitz, L. P.

    1978-01-01

    According to a U.S. Geological Survey estimate, recoverable hydrothermal energy in California may amount to 19,000 MW of electric power for a 30-year period. At present, a geothermal installation in the Geysers region of the state provides 502 MWe of capacity; an additional 1500 MWe of electric generating capacity is scheduled to be in operation in geothermal fields by 1985. In addition to hydrothermal energy sources, hot-igneous and conduction-dominated resources are under investigation for possible development. Land-use conflicts, environmental concerns and lack of risk capital may limit this development.

  20. Accountability for Alternative Schools in California. Continuous Improvement Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Velasco, Jorge Ruiz; Gonzales, Daisy

    2017-01-01

    California's alternative education options for youth vulnerable to dropping out of school have been established at different historical points and for different student age and target populations. For purposes of this brief, "alternative school" is defined as belonging to one of six legislatively authorized types of public (non-charter)…

  1. Spotted owl roost and nest site selection in northwestern California

    Treesearch

    J.A. Blakesley; A.B. Franklin; R.J. Gutierrez

    1992-01-01

    We directly observed roost and nest site selection in a population of northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) in northwestern California during 1985-89. Because of potential biases caused by use of radio telemetry in previous studies, we examined habitat use relative to habitat availability at a level not previously reported for spotted...

  2. Military maneuvers and biodiversity: strange arrangements in southern California.

    Treesearch

    Sally Duncan

    1998-01-01

    How can we maintain biodiversity as human population levels continue to increase at a rapid rate? This issue of Science Findings focuses on southern California, one of the richest areas of biodiversity in the country, and home of 1.5 million people. Pacific Northwest Research scientist Ross Kiester, in conjunction with a cooperative research agreement with Harvard...

  3. The spotted owl in southern and central coastal California

    Treesearch

    R.J. Gutiérrez; Douglas J. Tempel; M. Zachariah Peery

    2017-01-01

    Spotted owl populations found in southern and central coastal California have received much less attention than those inhabiting the Sierra Nevada because of economic (effect of habitat conservation measures on timber harvest) and social issues (community stability and desire for naturally functioning ecosystems). Yet there has been continued concern over the...

  4. 77 FR 14349 - Availability of Report: California Eelgrass Mitigation Policy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ... eelgrass management and protection. The CEMP will supersede the Southern California Eelgrass Mitigation... (Duarte 2002, Lotze et al. 2006, Orth et al. 2006). While both natural and human-induced mechanisms have contributed to these losses, impacts from human population expansion and associated pollution and upland...

  5. California Report Card '09: Setting the Agenda for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Now, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Despite economic and social challenges facing California, Children Now advocates that the foundation of state vitality and well-being is a healthy, educated and skilled population, and urges efficient investments in children. State leadership is called upon to: (1) Ensure every child has affordable health insurance coverage; (2) Invest earlier in…

  6. Habitat use by mountain quail in Northern California

    Treesearch

    Leonard A. Brennan; R. J. Gutierrez

    1987-01-01

    We studied habitat use by Mountain Quail (Oreortyx pictus) at four sites in northern California. Vegetative cover types (macrohabitats) were used in proportion to availability. Significant microhabitat variables which distinguished used from available microhabitat structure included proximity to water and tall, dense shrubs. Mountain Quail population...

  7. Fire effects on California chaparral systems: an overview

    Treesearch

    S.C. Barro; S.G. Conard

    1991-01-01

    Chaparral is a shrubby, sclerophyllous vegetation type that is common in middle elevations throughout much of California. It occupies 3.4 Mha throughout the state in some of the steepest terrain and adjacent to some of the most populated urban areas. Although chaparral has little direct commodity value, it does have great value in slope stabilization, watershed cover,...

  8. The California spotted owl: current state of knowledge

    Treesearch

    R.J. Gutiérrez; Patricia N. Manley; Peter A. Stine

    2017-01-01

    This conservation assessment represents a comprehensive review by scientists of the current scientific knowledge about the ecology, habitat use, population dynamics, and current threats to the viability of the California spotted owl (Strix occidentalis). It is based primarily on peer-reviewed published information with an emphasis on new scientific...

  9. Microbicide preference among young women in California.

    PubMed

    Holt, Bethany Young; Morwitz, Vicki G; Ngo, Long; Harrison, Polly F; Whaley, Kevin J; Pettifor, Audrey; Nguyen, Anh-Hoa

    2006-04-01

    Microbicides for HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention are still in development. Microbicide acceptability studies have thus focused on soliciting input from individuals about hypothetical products using traditional epidemiological and behavioral research methodologies. Here, we integrate a well-established market research method, conjoint analysis, with more traditional epidemiological and behavioral research to examine potential users' preferences for different microbicide formulations. Focus group discussions (n = 67) were held with a diverse population of young men and women (aged 18-32 years) from Northern California. Then, young women participated in structured surveys (n = 321) that included a conjoint study, a methodology not yet used in microbicide acceptability. The main outcome measures were intentions for different microbicide formulations, inferred preferences for microbicide characteristics, and self-reported risk factors for HIV, other STIs, and pregnancy. Risk of STIs and unwanted pregnancies is a concern within this population. Participants' responses suggest that the ideal microbicide would (1) offer protection from pregnancy, HIV, STIs, and vaginal infections, (2) offer as much protection as condoms, (3) allow insertion up to 8 hours prior to sexual activity, (4) be available over the counter (OTC), (5) be inserted with an applicator, and (6) have only slight leakage not requiring a panty liner. The average predicted purchase probability for this ideal microbicide was 69%. Our findings help illustrate microbicide product preferences and demand among young women in California, and the methodological approach should lend itself to other populations as well as during clinical trials when understanding product use and nonuse is critical.

  10. Interdistrict Enrollment. California Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

    California community colleges inherit their statutes on interdistrict enrollment from those in force for California elementary and secondary schools. Prior to 1978, statutory restrictions on students enrolling in a college outside the district in which they lived were tied to the method of funding. A 1978 change in funding methodology, followed by…

  11. California's Future: K-12 Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Laura; Gao, Niu; Warren, Paul

    2015-01-01

    California educates more than six million children in its K-12 public schools. More than half of these children are economically disadvantaged, and almost a quarter are not native English speakers (compared to less than one in ten nationwide). California is working to address these challenges, in part by adopting a new, simplified school finance…

  12. Experts Question California's Algebra Edict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2008-01-01

    Business leaders from important sectors of the American economy have been urging schools to set higher standards in math and science--and California officials, in mandating that 8th graders be tested in introductory algebra, have responded with one of the highest such standards in the land. Still, many California educators and school…

  13. Gene conservation in California's forests

    Treesearch

    Constance I. Millar

    1986-01-01

    The University of California's Wildland Resources Center has established a new program of forest gene conservation to ensure that California's rich and diverse forests maintain their vigor and productivity in the face of human activities. At an international level, conservation biologists recognize the importance not only of protecting rare species from...

  14. Southern California Daily Energy Report

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    EIA has updated its Southern California Daily Energy Report to provide additional information on key energy market indicators for the winter season. The dashboard includes information that EIA regularly compiles about energy operations and the management of natural gas and electricity systems in Southern California in the aftermath of a leak at the Aliso Canyon natural gas storage facility outside of Los Angeles

  15. Conditions of Children in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Policy Analysis for California Education, Berkeley, CA.

    Although many California children are growing up in circumstances favoring school performance, many others are inhibited by poor health, poverty, low-quality child care, and other factors external to schools. This report assembles a set of indicators depicting California children's quality of life. Data are included on physical and mental health,…

  16. California's New School Finance Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindman, Erick L.

    Following a touch-and-go struggle in the California legislature, a school finance reform law, known as the Property Tax Relief Act of 1972, was passed. The contents of this act were affected in part by the California Supreme Court decision--Serrano vs Priest. The new law includes boosts in foundation programs, expressed in dollar amounts per pupil…

  17. The paleohistory of California oaks

    Treesearch

    Scott Mensing

    2015-01-01

    Oak woodlands are a fixture of California geography, yet as recently as 10,000 years ago oaks were only a minor element in the landscape. The first fossil evidence for California's oaks is in the early Miocene (~20 million years ago) when oaks were present across the west, intermixed with deciduous trees typical of eastern North America. As climate became drier,...

  18. California's New School Funding Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weston, Margaret

    2011-01-01

    Spurred by a deep recession and large budget shortfalls, the California Legislature in 2009 enacted what was arguably the largest change to California's school finance system in decades--relaxing spending restrictions on more than 40 categorical programs through 2012-13, extended later to 2014-15. Categorical funding, which gives school districts…

  19. Transfer from California Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Arthur M.

    This article focuses on the transfer of students from California community colleges to four-year colleges and universities. Following a brief introduction to laws and procedures specified upon the inception of community colleges in California in 1910, and a recognition of the difficulty in student transfer throughout the history of higher…

  20. Persian walnut breeding in California

    Treesearch

    Charles A. Leslie; Gale H. McGranahan

    2004-01-01

    For over 50 years the University of California Davis Walnut Breeding Program has worked to address the needs of California walnut growers by identifying genetic approaches to problems and developing improved cultivars. The breeding program is a cooperative endeavor that draws on the efforts and resources of university researchers and facilities, USDA germplasm programs...

  1. A Pleistocene Clone of Palmer's Oak Persisting in Southern California

    PubMed Central

    May, Michael R.; Provance, Mitchell C.; Sanders, Andrew C.; Ellstrand, Norman C.; Ross-Ibarra, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Background The distribution of Palmer's oak (Quercus palmeri Engelm.) includes numerous isolated populations that are presumably relicts of a formerly larger range that has contracted due to spreading aridity following the end of the Pleistocene. Principal Findings We investigated a recently discovered disjunct population of Palmer's oak in the Jurupa Mountains of Riverside County, California. Patterns of allozyme polymorphism, morphological homogeneity, widespread fruit abortion, and evidence of fire resprouting all strongly support the hypothesis that the population is a single clone. The size of the clone and estimates of annual growth from multiple populations lead us to conclude that the clone is in excess of 13,000 years old. Conclusions The ancient age of the clone implies it originated during the Pleistocene and is a relict of a vanished vegetation community. Range contraction after climate change best explains the modern disjunct distribution of Q. palmeri and perhaps other plants in California. PMID:20041136

  2. Status of the California Red-legged Frog (Rana draytonii) in the State of Baja California, México

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peralta-Garcia, Anny; Hellingsworth, Bradford D.; Richmond, Jonathan Q.; Valdez-Villavicencio, Jorge H.; Ruiz-Campos, Gorgonio; Fisher, Robert N.; Cruz-Hernandez, Pedro; Galina-Tessaro, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The California Red-legged Frog (Rana draytonii) is a threatened species in the United States that has undergone population declines, especially in southern California. Due to the lack of information on the status of Mexican populations, we surveyed for the presence of R. draytonii in Baja California and assessed possible threats to population persistence. Our study area extended from the U.S.-Mexican border to the southern end of the distribution of the species in the Sierra San Pedro Mártir. We found R. draytonii at six of 15 historical sites, none at five proxy sites (i.e., alternative sites chosen because the historical record lacked precise locality data), and four at 24 additional sites. The 10 occupied sites are within three watersheds in the Sierra San Pedro Mártir (two sites at Arroyo San Rafael, two sites at Arroyo San Telmo, and six sites at Arroyo Santo Domingo). We did not detect R. draytonii at 60% of historical sites, including the highest elevation site at La Encantada and multiple low-elevation coastal drainages, suggesting the species has declined in Baja California. The threats we noted most frequently were presence of exotic aquatic animal species, water diversion, and cattle grazing. Management of remaining populations and local education is needed to prevent further declines.

  3. Fires in Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    In what seemed like the blink of an eye, wildfires ignited in the paper-dry, drought-stricken vegetation of Southern California over the weekend of October 20, 2007, and exploded into massive infernos that forced hundreds of thousands of people to evacuate their communities. Driven by Santa Ana winds, fires grew thousands of acres in just one to two days. The fires sped down from the mountains into the outskirts of coastal cities, including San Diego. Dozens of homes have burned to the ground, and at least one person has died, according to local news reports. Several of the fires were burning completely out of control as of October 22. This image of the fires in California was captured at 1:55 p.m. U.S. Pacific Daylight Time on October 22, 2007. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are outlined in red. Thick streamers of smoke unfurl over the Pacific Ocean. The brownish plumes are clouds of dust. Fires northwest of Los Angeles seemed calmer at the time of this image than they were the previous day.

  4. Biomass resources in California

    SciTech Connect

    Tiangco, V.M.; Sethi, P.S.

    1993-12-31

    The biomass resources in California which have potential for energy conversion were assessed and characterized through the project funded by the California Energy Commission and the US Department of Energy`s Western Regional Biomass Energy Program (WRBEP). The results indicate that there is an abundance of biomass resources as yet untouched by the industry due to technical, economic, and environmental problems, and other barriers. These biomass resources include residues from field and seed crops, fruit and nut crops, vegetable crops, and nursery crops; food processing wastes; forest slash; energy crops; lumber mill waste; urban wood waste; urban yard waste; livestock manure;more » and chaparral. The estimated total potential of these biomass resource is approximately 47 million bone dry tons (BDT), which is equivalent to 780 billion MJ (740 trillion Btu). About 7 million BDT (132 billion MJ or 124 trillion Btu) of biomass residue was used for generating electricity by 66 direct combustion facilities with gross capacity of about 800 MW. This tonnage accounts for only about 15% of the total biomass resource potential identified in this study. The barriers interfering with the biomass utilization both in the on-site harvesting, collection, storage, handling, transportation, and conversion to energy are identified. The question whether these barriers present significant impact to biomass {open_quotes}availability{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}sustainability{close_quotes} remains to be answered.« less

  5. Chromium carcinogenicity: California strategies.

    PubMed

    Alexeeff, G V; Satin, K; Painter, P; Zeise, L; Popejoy, C; Murchison, G

    1989-10-01

    Hexavalent chromium was identified by California as a toxic air contaminant (TAC) in January 1986. The California Department of Health Services (CDHS) concurred with the findings of the International Agency for Research on Cancer that there is sufficient evidence to demonstrate the carcinogenicity of chromium in both animals and humans. CDHS did not find any compelling evidence demonstrating the existence of a threshold with respect to chromium carcinogenesis. Experimental data was judged inadequate to assess potential human reproductive risks from ambient exposures. Other health effects were not expected to occur at ambient levels. The theoretically increased lifetime carcinogenic risk from a continuous lifetime exposure to hexavalent chromium fell within the range 12-146 cancer cases per nanogram hexavalent chromium per cubic meter of air per million people exposed, depending on the potency estimate used. The primary sources found to contribute significantly to the risk of exposure were chrome platers, chromic acid anodizing facilities and cooling towers utilizing hexavalent chromium as a corrosion inhibitor. Evaluation of genotoxicity data, animal studies and epidemiological studies indicates that further consideration should be given to the potential carcinogenicity of hexavalent chromium via the oral route.

  6. Multiple introductions of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, into California

    PubMed Central

    Gloria-Soria, Andrea; Evans, Benjamin R.; Kramer, Vicki; Bolling, Bethany G.; Tabachnick, Walter J.; Powell, Jeffrey R.

    2017-01-01

    The yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti inhabits much of the tropical and subtropical world and is a primary vector of dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses. Breeding populations of A. aegypti were first reported in California (CA) in 2013. Initial genetic analyses using 12 microsatellites on collections from Northern CA in 2013 indicated the South Central US region as the likely source of the introduction. We expanded genetic analyses of CA A. aegypti by: (a) examining additional Northern CA samples and including samples from Southern CA, (b) including more southern US populations for comparison, and (c) genotyping a subset of samples at 15,698 SNPs. Major results are: (1) Northern and Southern CA populations are distinct. (2) Northern populations are more genetically diverse than Southern CA populations. (3) Northern and Southern CA groups were likely founded by two independent introductions which came from the South Central US and Southwest US/northern Mexico regions respectively. (4) Our genetic data suggest that the founding events giving rise to the Northern CA and Southern CA populations likely occurred before the populations were first recognized in 2013 and 2014, respectively. (5) A Northern CA population analyzed at multiple time-points (two years apart) is genetically stable, consistent with permanent in situ breeding. These results expand previous work on the origin of California A. aegypti with the novel finding that this species entered California on multiple occasions, likely some years before its initial detection. This work has implications for mosquito surveillance and vector control activities not only in California but also in other regions where the distribution of this invasive mosquito is expanding. PMID:28796789

  7. Multiple introductions of the dengue vector, Aedes aegypti, into California.

    PubMed

    Pless, Evlyn; Gloria-Soria, Andrea; Evans, Benjamin R; Kramer, Vicki; Bolling, Bethany G; Tabachnick, Walter J; Powell, Jeffrey R

    2017-08-01

    The yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti inhabits much of the tropical and subtropical world and is a primary vector of dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses. Breeding populations of A. aegypti were first reported in California (CA) in 2013. Initial genetic analyses using 12 microsatellites on collections from Northern CA in 2013 indicated the South Central US region as the likely source of the introduction. We expanded genetic analyses of CA A. aegypti by: (a) examining additional Northern CA samples and including samples from Southern CA, (b) including more southern US populations for comparison, and (c) genotyping a subset of samples at 15,698 SNPs. Major results are: (1) Northern and Southern CA populations are distinct. (2) Northern populations are more genetically diverse than Southern CA populations. (3) Northern and Southern CA groups were likely founded by two independent introductions which came from the South Central US and Southwest US/northern Mexico regions respectively. (4) Our genetic data suggest that the founding events giving rise to the Northern CA and Southern CA populations likely occurred before the populations were first recognized in 2013 and 2014, respectively. (5) A Northern CA population analyzed at multiple time-points (two years apart) is genetically stable, consistent with permanent in situ breeding. These results expand previous work on the origin of California A. aegypti with the novel finding that this species entered California on multiple occasions, likely some years before its initial detection. This work has implications for mosquito surveillance and vector control activities not only in California but also in other regions where the distribution of this invasive mosquito is expanding.

  8. California State Waters Map Series: offshore of Santa Barbara, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Greene, H. Gary; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Endris, Charles A.; Seitz, Gordon G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Gutierrez, Carlos I.; Wong, Florence L.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; Draut, Amy E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Conrad, James E.; Cochran, Susan A.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochran, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California’s State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Offshore of Santa Barbara map area lies within the central Santa Barbara Channel region of the Southern California Bight. This geologically complex region forms a major biogeographic transition zone, separating the cold-temperate Oregonian province north of Point Conception from the warm-temperate California province to the south. The map area is in the southern part of the Western Transverse Ranges geologic province, which is north of the California Continental Borderland. Significant clockwise rotation—at least 90°—since the early Miocene has been proposed for the Western Transverse Ranges province, and geodetic studies indicate that the region is presently undergoing north-south shortening. Uplift rates (as much as 2.2 mm/yr) that are based on studies of onland marine terraces provide further evidence of significant shortening. The city of Santa Barbara, the main coastal population center in the map area, is part of a contiguous urban area that extends from Carpinteria to Goleta. This urban area was developed on the coalescing alluvial surfaces, uplifted marine terraces, and low hills that lie south of the east-west-trending Santa Ynez Mountains. Several beaches line the actively

  9. Fundraising Practices of the University of California, the California State University, and California Private Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karsevar, Kent J.

    2012-01-01

    Factors such as a declining tax revenues and an underperforming economy have been justifying the need for additional external private funding to meet the increasing needs of a growing California higher education system and ethnically diverse student body. The purpose of this study was to examine ways in which California private higher education…

  10. Changes across a decade in size, growth, and body condition of western pond turtle (Actinemys marmorata) populations on free-flowing and regulated forks of the Trinity River in Northwest California.

    Treesearch

    Donald Ashton; James Bettaso; Hart Welsh

    2015-01-01

    Water diversions can disrupt flows and alter thermal regimes changing seasonal patterns that signal the onset of life-history functions of native organisms and compromise the fitness of their populations. We compared size, growth, relative mass, volumetric body condition, and reproductive status of Western Pond Turtles (Actinemys marmorata) across...

  11. Hayward Fault, California Interferogram

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image of California's Hayward fault is an interferogram created using a pair of images taken by Synthetic Aperture Radar(SAR) combined to measure changes in the surface that may have occurred between the time the two images were taken.

    The images were collected by the European Space Agency's Remote Sensing satellites ERS-1 and ERS-2 in June 1992 and September 1997 over the central San Francisco Bay in California.

    The radar image data are shown as a gray-scale image, with the interferometric measurements that show the changes rendered in color. Only the urbanized area could be mapped with these data. The color changes from orange tones to blue tones across the Hayward fault (marked by a thin red line) show about 2-3centimeters (0.8-1.1 inches) of gradual displacement or movement of the southwest side of the fault. The block west of the fault moved horizontally toward the northwest during the 63 months between the acquisition of the two SAR images. This fault movement is called a seismic creep because the fault moved slowly without generating an earthquake.

    Scientists are using the SAR interferometry along with other data collected on the ground to monitor this fault motion in an attempt to estimate the probability of earthquake on the Hayward fault, which last had a major earthquake of magnitude 7 in 1868. This analysis indicates that the northern part of the Hayward fault is creeping all the way from the surface to a depth of 12 kilometers (7.5 miles). This suggests that the potential for a large earthquake on the northern Hayward fault might be less than previously thought. The blue area to the west (lower left) of the fault near the center of the image seemed to move upward relative to the yellow and orange areas nearby by about 2 centimeters (0.8 inches). The cause of this apparent motion is not yet confirmed, but the rise of groundwater levels during the time between the images may have caused the reversal of a small portion of the subsidence that

  12. PYRAMID ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, Augustus K.; Scott, Douglas F.

    1984-01-01

    A geologic and mineral survey was conducted in the Pyramid Roadless Area, California. The area contains mineral showings, but no mineral-resource potential was identified during our studies. Three granodiorite samples on the west side of the roadless area contained weakly anomalous concentrations of uranium. Two samples of roof-pendant rocks, one metasedimentary rock and one metavolcanic rock, contain low concentrations of copper, and of copper and molybdenum, respectively. Although none was identified, the geologic terrane is permissive for mineral occurrences and large-scale, detailed geologic mapping of the areas of metasedimentary and metavolcanic roof pendants in the Pyramid Roadless Area could define a mineral-resource potential for tungsten and precious metals.

  13. Death Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an image of Death Valley, California, centered at 36.629 degrees north latitude, 117.069 degrees west longitude. The image shows Furnace Creek alluvial fan and Furnace Creek Ranch at the far right, and the sand dunes near Stove Pipe Wells at the center. The dark fork-shaped feature between Furnace Creek fan and the dunes is a smooth flood-plain which encloses Cottonball Basin. The bright dots near the center of the image are corner refectors that have been set-up to calibrate the radar as the Shuttle passes overhead with the SIR-C/X-SAR system. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43883.

  14. Salton Sea, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-23

    The Salton Sea in south California was created in 1905 when spring flooding on the Colorado River breached a canal. For 18 months the entire volume of the river rushed into the Salton Trough, creating a lake 32 km wide and 72 km long. In the 1950s, resorts sprang up along the shores. However, shrinking of the lake and increased salinity led to the abandonment of the resorts. The two images show the shrinking lake on May 31, 1984 (Landsat) and June 14, 2015 (ASTER). The images cover an area of 37.5 x 27 km, and are located at 33.2 degrees north, 115.7 degrees west. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19786

  15. Mono Lake, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-24

    In eastern California, along the western edge of the Great Basin, sits Mono Lake. This is a salty remnant of a wetter era. Estimates are that the lake existed for at least 760,000 years. Now surrounded by mountain ranges, however, Mono Lake has no outlet; water entering the lake can only evaporate away, so Mono Lake is saltier than the ocean. South of the lake appear some of the geologic features known as Mono Craters. Geologists estimate that the Mono Craters last erupted about 650 years ago. The image was acquired July 7, 2016, covers an area of 22.6 by 34 km, and is located at 37.9 degrees north, 119 degrees west. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21518

  16. Southern California Disasters II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Heather; Todoroff, Amber L.; LeBoeuf, Madeline A.

    2015-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service (USFS) has multiple programs in place which primarily utilize Landsat imagery to produce burn severity indices for aiding wildfire damage assessment and mitigation. These indices provide widely-used wildfire damage assessment tools to decision makers. When the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) is launched in 2022, the sensor's hyperspectral resolution will support new methods for assessing natural disaster impacts on ecosystems, including wildfire damage to forests. This project used simulated HyspIRI data to study three southern California fires: Aspen, French, and King. Burn severity indices were calculated from the data and the results were quantitatively compared to the comparable USFS products currently in use. The final results from this project illustrate how HyspIRI data may be used in the future to enhance assessment of fire-damaged areas and provide additional monitoring tools for decision support to the USFS and other land management agencies.

  17. Sierra Nevada, California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-09-30

    STS068-267-097 (30 September-11 October 1994) --- An extensive view eastward from the irrigated San Joaquin Valley in the foreground, across the Sierra Nevada (living up to its name in early October), into the desert of eastern California and Nevada (which has no snow, despite the name). Mono Lake is just visible at the left edge of the frame; Owens Valley extends southward to Owens Lake, the next valley is Panamint Valley, and then Death Valley. Las Vegas and Lake Mead are visible at the upper right of the frame. The Space Radar Laboratory 2 (SRL-2) obtained extensive, multiple-pass data from many test sites within the region displayed, including Mammoth Mountain ski area south of Mono Lake, and in Death Valley.

  18. Northern California Fires

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-10-31

    The October fires in Northern California were some of the most destructive in the state's history. The burned area on the right side of the image is the ATLAS fire, that burned east of Napa; the fire consumed 51,000 acres and destroyed almost 500 structures. The burned area on the left is part of the Nuns fire that burned between Sonoma and Napa; it consumed 110,000 acres, and destroyed almost 7,000 structures. The images were acquired September 7, 2016 and October 28, 2017, cover an area of 34.5 by 39 kilometers, and are located near 38.3 degrees north, 122.3 degrees east. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22019

  19. Climate Change, Public Health, and Policy: A California Case Study.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Chandrakala; Smith, Jason A

    2018-04-01

    Anthropogenic activity will bring immediate changes and disruptions to the global climate with accompanying health implications. Although policymakers and public health advocates are beginning to acknowledge the health implications of climate change, current policy approaches are lagging behind. We proposed that 4 key policy principles are critical to successful policymaking in this arena: mainstreaming, linking mitigation and adaptation policy, applying population perspectives, and coordination. We explored California's progress in addressing the public health challenges of climate change in the San Joaquin Valley as an example. We discussed issues of mental health and climate change, and used the San Joaquin Valley of California as an example to explore policy approaches to health issues and climate change. The California experience is instructive for other jurisdictions.

  20. Geospatial Analysis of Oil and Gas Wells in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riqueros, N. S.; Kang, M.; Jackson, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    California currently ranks third in oil production by U.S. state and more than 200,000 wells have been drilled in the state. Oil and gas wells provide a potential pathway for subsurface migration, leading to groundwater contamination and emissions of methane and other fluids to the atmosphere. Here we compile available public databases on oil and gas wells from the California Department of Conservation's Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources, the U.S. Geological Survey, and other state and federal sources. We perform geospatial analysis at the county and field levels to characterize depths, producing formations, spud/completion/abandonment dates, land cover, population, and land ownership of active, idle, buried, abandoned, and plugged wells in California. The compiled database is designed to serve as a quantitative platform for developing field-based groundwater and air emission monitoring plans.

  1. California cooperative oceanic fisheries investigations. Reports volume 37, January 1--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Olfe, J.

    1996-10-01

    Scientists from the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG), the Southwest Fisheries Science Center of the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego (UCSD), have collaborated for 46 years in the longest-running large-scale study ever undertaken in the ocean. This study was begun in order to understand the causes of changes in population, over time, of commercially important fishes in California`s coastal waters. When the study began, the Pacific sardine was by far the most significant species of economic concern to the State of California. Because its population changes weremore » thought to be caused by a diversity of atmospheric, oceanic, and biological variables, a wide array of measurements in the California Current region were begun and have been continued to this day. This long time series of data allows not only a better understanding of the flux of fish populations, but also lays the foundation for understanding interdecadal and secular change in the seas. This document contains papers from symposium of the 1995 CalCOFI Conference related to interdecadal changes in the ecology of the California current.« less

  2. California's Vulnerability to Volcanic Hazards: What's at Risk?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangan, M.; Wood, N. J.; Dinitz, L.

    2015-12-01

    California is a leader in comprehensive planning for devastating earthquakes, landslides, floods, and tsunamis. Far less attention, however, has focused on the potentially devastating impact of volcanic eruptions, despite the fact that they occur in the State about as frequently as the largest earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault Zone. At least 10 eruptions have occurred in the past 1,000 years—most recently in northern California (Lassen Peak 1914 to 1917)—and future volcanic eruptions are inevitable. The likelihood of renewed volcanism in California is about one in a few hundred to one in a few thousand annually. Eight young volcanoes, ranked as Moderate to Very High Threat [1] are dispersed throughout the State. Partially molten rock (magma) resides beneath at least seven of these—Medicine Lake Volcano, Mount Shasta, Lassen Volcanic Center, Clear Lake Volcanic Field, Long Valley Volcanic Region, Coso Volcanic Field, and Salton Buttes— causing earthquakes, toxic gas emissions, hydrothermal activity, and (or) ground deformation. Understanding the hazards and identifying what is at risk are the first steps in building community resilience to volcanic disasters. This study, prepared in collaboration with the State of California Governor's Office of Emergency Management and the California Geological Survey, provides a broad perspective on the State's exposure to volcano hazards by integrating mapped volcano hazard zones with geospatial data on at-risk populations, infrastructure, and resources. The study reveals that ~ 16 million acres fall within California's volcano hazard zones, along with ~ 190 thousand permanent and 22 million transitory populations. Additionally, far-field disruption to key water delivery systems, agriculture, utilities, and air traffic is likely. Further site- and sector-specific analyses will lead to improved hazard mitigation efforts and more effective disaster response and recovery. [1] "Volcanic Threat and Monitoring Capabilities

  3. Characterization of California Central Coast Aquifers using Pneumatic Slug Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aurelius, S.; Platt, D.; Whetsler, B.; Malama, B.

    2017-12-01

    The recent prolonged drought in California, where about 75% of the population depends to some extent ongroundwater, has led to increased stresses on the state's groundwater resources due to reduced recharge andincreased abstraction to supplement dwindling surface water supplies for irrigation and other urban uses.These factors have conspired to cause historic lows in groundwater levels, lost aquifer storage capacity dueincreased potential for land subsidence, and degraded water quality in coastal aquifers faced with increasedrates of seawater intrusion. Groundwater accounts for about a third of the total water uses in California,with some coastal communities being 100% dependent on groundwater. Irrigation accounts for over 60%of all state groundwater withdrawals in California. In light of this, the state of California recently passedthe Sustainable Groundwater Management Act (SGMA) aimed at bringing the State's groundwater basinsinto sustainable regimes of abstraction, recharge and storage. Groundwater ow models are critical to thesuccessful implementation of the SGMA legislation. However, the usefulness of the models is severely limitedby a lack of detailed knowledge of aquifer properties at spatial scales that allow for accurate projections tobe made about groundwater basin sustainability by resource managers. We report here the results of highresolution pneumatic slug tests performed in two shallow aquifers in San Luis Obispo County on the CaliforniaCentral Coast to obtain detailed information about aquifer properties, including permeability and storage,and their spatial variability.

  4. Promoting Health and Behavioral Health Equity in California.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Meenoo; Lupi, Monica Valdes; Miller, Wm Jahmal; Nolfo, Tamu

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral health disparities are not usually considered part of the same system of health disparities. However, the California Department of Public Health focused its health equity strategies on reducing behavioral health disparities through its California Statewide Plan to Promote Health and Mental Health Equity. This statewide plan was developed through a community-wide stakeholder engagement and outreach process. In addition, the California Reducing Disparities Project is a prevention and early intervention effort to reduce mental health disparities in underserved populations. This strategic plan represents the voice of several racial/ethnic communities, such as African American, Asian and Pacific Islander, Latino, Native American, as well as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer and questioning communities in California, through 5 strategic planning workgroups. The workgroups were composed of a broad range of stakeholders, including community leaders, mental health care providers, consumer and family members, individuals with lived experience, and academia. This case example highlights the various efforts of California's Office of Health Equity in eliminating behavioral health disparities and promoting mental health equity, as well as discusses the unique statutory and regulatory role of the Office of Health Equity's deputy director.

  5. Sexing California gulls using morphometrics and discriminant function analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herring, Garth; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2010-01-01

    A discriminant function analysis (DFA) model was developed with DNA sex verification so that external morphology could be used to sex 203 adult California Gulls (Larus californicus) in San Francisco Bay (SFB). The best model was 97% accurate and included head-to-bill length, culmen depth at the gonys, and wing length. Using an iterative process, the model was simplified to a single measurement (head-to-bill length) that still assigned sex correctly 94% of the time. A previous California Gull sex determination model developed for a population in Wyoming was then assessed by fitting SFB California Gull measurement data to the Wyoming model; this new model failed to converge on the same measurements as those originally used by the Wyoming model. Results from the SFB discriminant function model were compared to the Wyoming model results (by using SFB data with the Wyoming model); the SFB model was 7% more accurate for SFB California gulls. The simplified DFA model (head-to-bill length only) provided highly accurate results (94%) and minimized the measurements and time required to accurately sex California Gulls.

  6. Choice of electricity provider in California after deregulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keanini, Rasa Ilze

    Surveys often ask consumers how much they are willing to pay for certain goods and services, without requiring the consumer to actually pay for the good or service. Such surveys, termed stated preference studies, find that consumers value renewable electricity. This result is in contrast to actual experiences in recently deregulated electricity markets in several states, including California. When given the opportunity to choose in California, only one to two percent of the population opted for renewable electricity products. This dissertation used data from residential customers who chose an alternative electricity product in California's deregulated electricity market to determine the value placed on the renewable attribute of electricity products. This dissertation begins by taking a historical look at the electricity market of the nation and specifically California. From 1998 through 2001, California's electricity market was deregulated to include retail competition. This dissertation used data from electric service providers to reveal the factors influencing residential customer's choice of electricity product. Discrete choice models were used to determine the factors influencing electricity product choice. The results indicated that both price and renewable content had an effect on choice of product. Additionally, a more complicated model jointly estimating the discrete choice of electricity product with the continuous choice of electricity consumption (kWh) was specified and estimated.

  7. Southern California Earthquake Center Geologic Vertical Motion Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemi, Nathan A.; Oskin, Michael; Rockwell, Thomas K.

    2008-07-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Center Geologic Vertical Motion Database (VMDB) integrates disparate sources of geologic uplift and subsidence data at 104- to 106-year time scales into a single resource for investigations of crustal deformation in southern California. Over 1800 vertical deformation rate data points in southern California and northern Baja California populate the database. Four mature data sets are now represented: marine terraces, incised river terraces, thermochronologic ages, and stratigraphic surfaces. An innovative architecture and interface of the VMDB exposes distinct data sets and reference frames, permitting user exploration of this complex data set and allowing user control over the assumptions applied to convert geologic and geochronologic information into absolute uplift rates. Online exploration and download tools are available through all common web browsers, allowing the distribution of vertical motion results as HTML tables, tab-delimited GIS-compatible text files, or via a map interface through the Google Maps™ web service. The VMDB represents a mature product for research of fault activity and elastic deformation of southern California.

  8. Increasing climate whiplash in 21st century California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swain, D. L.; Langenbrunner, B.; Neelin, J. D.; Hall, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Temperate "Mediterranean" climate regimes across the globe are particularly susceptible to wide swings between drought and flood—of which California's rapid transition from record multi-year dryness between 2012-2016 to extreme wetness during 2016-2017 provides a dramatic example. The wide-ranging human and environmental impacts of this recent "climate whiplash" event in a highly-populated, economically critical, and biodiverse region highlight the importance of understanding weather and climate extremes at both ends of the hydroclimatic spectrum. Previous studies have examined the potential contribution of anthropogenic warming to recent California extremes, but findings to date have been mixed and primarily drought-focused. Here, we use specific historical California flood and drought events as thresholds for quantifying long-term changes in precipitation extremes using a large ensemble of multi-decadal climate model simulations (CESM-LENS). We find that greenhouse gas emissions are already responsible for a detectable increase in both wet and dry extremes across portions of California, and that increasing 21st century "climate whiplash" will likely yield large increases in the frequency of both rapid "dry-to-wet" transitions and severe flood events over a wide range of timescales. This projected intensification of California's hydrological cycle would seriously challenge the region's existing water storage, conveyance, and flood control infrastructure—even absent large changes in mean precipitation.

  9. California PATH : 1997 annual report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-01-01

    The California Partners for Advanced Transit and Highways Program (PATH) has been leading the way in ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems) research since PATHs founding in 1986, before the term ITS or its predecessor IVHS (Intelligent Vehicle H...

  10. The California Fuel Tax Swap

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2016-05-01

    In early 2010, California faced another of its seemingly routine budget crises, this time mostly the result of outstanding debt due on state general obligation (GO) highway and rail bonds.2 For several years, the Legislature had been diverting ...

  11. California PATH : 1996 annual report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1996-01-01

    The California Partners for Advanced Transit and Highways Program (PATH ) has been leading the way in ITS (Intelligent Transportation Systems) research since PATH's founding in 1986, before the term ITS or its predecessor IVHS (Intelligent Vehicle Hi...

  12. Suicide Prevention Hotlines in California

    PubMed Central

    Ramchand, Rajeev; Jaycox, Lisa H.; Ebener, Patricia A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This article evaluates the landscape in which suicide prevention hotlines operate, focusing on California but with nationwide implications, and provides recommendations to ensure that callers at risk of suicide seek and receive the help they need. PMID:28845360

  13. Menkhib and the California Nebula

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-07

    This infrared image from NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer features one of the bright stars in the constellation Perseus, named Menkhib, along with a large star forming cloud commonly called the California Nebula.

  14. Burn Scars Across Southern California

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-11-26

    Brush fires consumed nearly 750,000 acres across Southern California between October 21 and November 18, 2003. Burn scars and vegetation changes wrought by the fires are illustrated in these false-color images from NASA Terra spacecraft.

  15. The Effects of California's Paid Family Leave Program on Mothers' Leave-Taking and Subsequent Labor Market Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossin-Slater, Maya; Ruhm, Christopher J.; Waldfogel, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This analysis uses March Current Population Survey data from 1999 to 2010 and a differences-in-differences approach to examine how California's first in the nation paid family leave (PFL) program affected leave-taking by mothers following childbirth, as well as subsequent labor market outcomes. We obtain robust evidence that the California program…

  16. Puerto Ricans in California: A Staff Report of the Western Regional Office, United States Commission on Civil Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montez, Philip; Pilla, Thomas V.

    This study was undertaken to provide insight into the circumstances of California's Puerto Ricans who are only now surfacing as a distinct Latino bloc within the State's larger Hispanic population. Research methods consisted of a demographic analysis of Puerto Ricans in California and interviews with community representatives and public officials…

  17. California's county hospitals and the University of California graduate medical education system. Current issues and future directions.

    PubMed

    Jameson, W J; Pierce, K; Martin, D K

    1998-05-01

    California's county hospitals train 45% of the state's graduate medical residents, including 33% of residents in the University of California system. This paper describes the interrelationships of California's county hospitals and the University of California (UC) graduate medical education (GME) programs, highlighting key challenges facing both systems. The mission of California's county health care systems is to serve all who need health care services regardless of ability to pay. Locating UC GME programs in county hospitals helps serve the public missions of both institutions. Such partnerships enhance the GME experience of UC residents, provide key primary care training opportunities, and ensure continued health care access for indigent and uninsured populations. Only through affiliation with university training programs have county hospitals been able to run the cost-effective, quality programs that constitute an acceptable safety net for the poor. Financial stress, however, has led county hospitals and UC's GME programs to advocate for reform in both GME financing and indigent care funding. County hospitals must participate in constructing strategies for GME reform to assure that GME funding mechanisms provide for equitable compensation of county hospitals' essential role. Joint advocacy will also be essential in achieving significant indigent care policy reform.

  18. Oligocene tectonics and sedimentation, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nilsen, T.H.

    1984-01-01

    During the Oligocene epoch, California was marked by extensive nonmarine sedimentation, in contrast to its pre-Oligocene and post-Oligocene depositional history. The Oligocene continental deposits are especially widespread in southern California and fill a number of small and generally partly restricted basins. Fluvial facies in many basins prograded over previously deposited lower Tertiary turbidites. Volcanism, from widespread centers, was associated with the nonmarine sedimentation. However, some basins remained marine and a few contain Oligocene turbidites and pelagic sediments deposited at bathyal depths. The Oligocene redbeds of California do not form a post-orogenic molasse sequence comparable to the Old Red Sandstone or Alpine molasse. They are synorogenic and record local uplift of basins and surrounding source areas. Late Cretaceous to contemporary orogenesis in California has been generally characterized by the formation of small restricted basins of variable depth adjacent to small upland areas in response to strike-slip faulting. Deposition of Oligocene redbeds was associated with climatic change from warm and humid to cold and semiarid, and a global lowering of sea level. Oligocene tectonism occurred during the transition from subduction of the Farallon Plate to initiation of the modern San Andreas transform system. However, the major influence that caused uplift, formation of fault-bounded basins, and extensive redbed deposition, especially in southern California, was the approach of the Pacific-Farallon spreading ridge to the western margin of California. ?? 1984.

  19. Fire risk in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Seth Howard

    Fire is an integral part of ecosystems in the western United States. Decades of fire suppression have led to (unnaturally) large accumulations of fuel in some forest communities, such as the lower elevation forests of the Sierra Nevada. Urban sprawl into fire prone chaparral vegetation in southern California has put human lives at risk and the decreased fire return intervals have put the vegetation community at risk of type conversion. This research examines the factors affecting fire risk in two of the dominant landscapes in the state of California, chaparral and inland coniferous forests. Live fuel moisture (LFM) is important for fire ignition, spread rate, and intensity in chaparral. LFM maps were generated for Los Angeles County by developing and then inverting robust cross-validated regression equations from time series field data and vegetation indices (VIs) and phenological metrics from MODIS data. Fire fuels, including understory fuels which are not visible to remote sensing instruments, were mapped in Yosemite National Park using the random forests decision tree algorithm and climatic, topographic, remotely sensed, and fire history variables. Combining the disparate data sources served to improve classification accuracies. The models were inverted to produce maps of fuel models and fuel amounts, and these showed that fire fuel amounts are highest in the low elevation forests that have been most affected by fire suppression impacting the natural fire regime. Wildland fires in chaparral commonly burn in late summer or fall when LFM is near its annual low, however, the Jesusita Fire burned in early May of 2009, when LFM was still relatively high. The HFire fire spread model was used to simulate the growth of the Jesusita Fire using LFM maps derived from imagery acquired at the time of the fire and imagery acquired in late August to determine how much different the fire would have been if it had occurred later in the year. Simulated fires were 1.5 times larger

  20. A nitrogen mass balance for California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liptzin, D.; Dahlgren, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    Human activities have greatly altered the global nitrogen cycle and these changes are apparent in water quality, air quality, ecosystem and human health. However, the relative magnitude of the sources of new reactive nitrogen and the fate of this nitrogen is not well established. Further, the biogeochemical aspects of the nitrogen cycle are often studied in isolation from the economic and social implications of all the transformations of nitrogen. The California Nitrogen Assessment is an interdisciplinary project whose aim is evaluating the current state of nitrogen science, practice, and policy in the state of California. Because of the close proximity of large population centers, highly productive and diverse agricultural lands and significant acreage of undeveloped land, California is a particularly interesting place for this analysis. One component of this assessment is developing a mass balance of nitrogen as well as identifying gaps in knowledge and quantifying uncertainty. The main inputs of new reactive nitrogen to the state are 1) synthetic nitrogen fertilizer, 2) biological nitrogen fixation, and 3) atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Permanent losses of nitrogen include 1) gaseous losses (N2, N2O, NHx, NOy), 2) riverine discharge, 3) wastewater discharge to the ocean, and 4) net groundwater recharge. A final term is the balance of food, feed, and fiber to support the human and animal populations. The largest input of new reactive nitrogen to California is nitrogen fertilizer, but both nitrogen fixation and atmospheric deposition contribute significantly. Non-fertilizer uses, such as the production of nylon and polyurethane, constitutes about 5% of the synthetic N synthesized production. The total nitrogen fixation in California is roughly equivalent on the 400,000 ha of alfalfa and the approximately 40 million ha of natural lands. In addition, even with highly productive agricultural lands, the large population of livestock, in particular dairy cows