Sample records for california ground squirrel

  1. Disease Surveillance of California Ground Squirrels ( Spermophilus beecheyi ) in a Drive-through Zoo in Oregon, USA.

    PubMed

    Beest, Julia Ter; Cushing, Andrew; McClean, Modesto; Hsu, Wendy; Bildfell, Robert

    2017-07-01

    Rodents and other small wild mammals are often considered to be pests and vectors for disease in zoos that house small populations of valuable threatened and endangered animals. In 2005, three nonhuman primates at a drive-through zoo in Oregon, US, acquired tularemia from an unknown source. Due to an abundance of California ground squirrels ( Spermophilus beecheyi ) on zoo grounds, we instituted serosurveillance of this species from July through September 2008 to determine the prevalence of antibodies against pathogens considered to be potentially transmissible to collection animals. Serologic testing was performed for Francisella tularensis ; Leptospira interrogans serovars Canicola, Grippotyphosa, Hardjo, Icterohemorrhagiae, and Pomona; Toxoplasma gondii ; and Yersinia pestis . All squirrels were seronegative for Yersinia pestis (0%; 0/45) and Toxoplasma gondii (0%; 0/20); there was a prevalence of 2% (1/45) for Francisella tularensis antibodies and 57% (24/42) were positive for various Leptospira serovars. Although it remains unclear whether ground squirrels present a significant risk for transmission of disease to zoo animals, vaccination of high-risk zoo animals against leptospirosis warrants consideration. Beyond this, continued vigilance and persistence with various forms of pest control may reduce the likelihood of disease transmission from wildlife hosts to animals in human care.

  2. Ground Squirrel Shooting and Potential Lead Exposure in Breeding Avian Scavengers

    PubMed Central

    Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Wagner, Mason T.

    2016-01-01

    Recreational ground squirrel shooting is a popular activity throughout the western United States and serves as a tool for managing ground squirrel populations in agricultural regions. Belding’s ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi) are routinely shot in California, Nevada, and Oregon across habitats that overlap with breeding avian scavengers. Ground squirrels shot with lead (Pb)-based bullets may pose a risk to avian scavengers if they consume carcasses containing Pb fragments. To assess the potential risk to breeding avian scavengers we developed a model to estimate the number, mass, and distribution of Pb fragments in shot ground squirrels using radiographic images. Eighty percent of shot carcasses contained detectible Pb fragments with an average of 38.6 mg of Pb fragments. Seven percent of all carcasses contained Pb fragment masses exceeding a lethal dose for a model raptor nestling (e.g. American kestrel Falco sparverius). Bullet type did not influence the number of fragments in shot ground squirrels, but did influence the mass of fragments retained. Belding’s ground squirrels shot with .17 Super Mag and unknown ammunition types contained over 28 and 17 times more mass of Pb fragments than those shot with .22 solid and .22 hollow point bullets, respectively. Ground squirrel body mass was positively correlated with both the number and mass of Pb fragments in carcasses, increasing on average by 76% and 56% respectively across the range of carcass masses. Although the mass of Pb retained in ground squirrel carcasses was small relative to the original bullet mass, avian scavenger nestlings that frequently consume shot ground squirrels may be at risk for Pb-induced effects (e.g., physiology, growth, or survival). Using modeling efforts we found that if nestling golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), and Swainson’s hawks (B. swainsoni) consumed shot ground squirrels proportionately to the nestling’s mass, energy needs

  3. Ground squirrel shooting and potential lead exposure in breeding avian scavengers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Wagner, Mason T.

    2016-01-01

    Recreational ground squirrel shooting is a popular activity throughout the western United States and serves as a tool for managing ground squirrel populations in agricultural regions. Belding’s ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi) are routinely shot in California, Nevada, and Oregon across habitats that overlap with breeding avian scavengers. Ground squirrels shot with lead (Pb)-based bullets may pose a risk to avian scavengers if they consume carcasses containing Pb fragments. To assess the potential risk to breeding avian scavengers we developed a model to estimate the number, mass, and distribution of Pb fragments in shot ground squirrels using radiographic images. Eighty percent of shot carcasses contained detectible Pb fragments with an average of 38.6 mg of Pb fragments. Seven percent of all carcasses contained Pb fragment masses exceeding a lethal dose for a model raptor nestling (e.g. American kestrel Falco sparverius). Bullet type did not influence the number of fragments in shot ground squirrels, but did influence the mass of fragments retained. Belding’s ground squirrels shot with .17 Super Mag and unknown ammunition types contained over 28 and 17 times more mass of Pb fragments than those shot with .22 solid and .22 hollow point bullets, respectively. Ground squirrel body mass was positively correlated with both the number and mass of Pb fragments in carcasses, increasing on average by 76% and 56% respectively across the range of carcass masses. Although the mass of Pb retained in ground squirrel carcasses was small relative to the original bullet mass, avian scavenger nestlings that frequently consume shot ground squirrels may be at risk for Pb-induced effects (e.g., physiology, growth, or survival). Using modeling efforts we found that if nestling golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), and Swainson’s hawks (B. swainsoni) consumed shot ground squirrels proportionately to the nestling’s mass, energy needs

  4. Seasonal and among-site variation in the occurrence and abundance of fleas on California ground squirrels (Otospermophilus beecheyi).

    PubMed

    Hubbart, Jason A; Jachowski, David S; Eads, David A

    2011-06-01

    An improved understanding of the ecology of fleas on California ground squirrels, Otospermophilus beecheyi, is warranted given the role of fleas in the transmission, and perhaps persistence, of the plague-causing bacterium Yersinia pestis. We sampled O. beecheyi on a seasonal basis from three study sites, each representing a different land use type (preserve, pasture, and agriculture) in the San Joaquin Valley, CA. Overall, the abundance of fleas on squirrels was greatest in spring at the preserve site, in summer at the agriculture and pasture sites, and in winter at the pasture site. Hoplopsyllus anomalus, the species most frequently found on squirrels, was most abundant in spring at the preserve site and in summer at the agriculture and pasture sites. Oropsylla montana was most abundant in winter at the pasture site and on adult squirrels. Echidnophaga gallinacea was most abundant in fall on juvenile squirrels at the preserve site. All three flea species we encountered are known to be potential vectors of Y. pestis. Future efforts to predict flea species occurrence and abundance (and plague risk) at sites of concern should consider seasonal microclimatic conditions and the potential influence of human land use practices. © 2011 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  5. Ground squirrel tail-flag displays alter both predatory strike and ambush site selection behaviours of rattlesnakes.

    PubMed

    Barbour, Matthew A; Clark, Rulon W

    2012-09-22

    Many species approach, inspect and signal towards their predators. These behaviours are often interpreted as predator-deterrent signals--honest signals that indicate to a predator that continued hunting is likely to be futile. However, many of these putative predator-deterrent signals are given when no predator is present, and it remains unclear if and why such signals deter predators. We examined the effects of one such signal, the tail-flag display of California ground squirrels, which is frequently given both during and outside direct encounters with northern Pacific rattlesnakes. We video-recorded and quantified the ambush foraging responses of rattlesnakes to tail-flagging displays from ground squirrels. We found that tail-flagging deterred snakes from striking squirrels, most likely by advertising squirrel vigilance (i.e. readiness to dodge a snake strike). We also found that tail-flagging by adult squirrels increased the likelihood that snakes would leave their ambush site, apparently by elevating the vigilance of nearby squirrels which reduces the profitability of the ambush site. Our results provide some of the first empirical evidence of the mechanisms by which a prey display, although frequently given in the absence of a predator, may still deter predators during encounters.

  6. Populations and habitat relationships of Piute ground squirrels in southwest Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steenhof, Karen; Yensen, Eric; Kochert, Michael N.; Gage, K.

    2006-01-01

    Piute ground squirrels (Spermophilus mollis idahoensis) are normally above ground from late January until late June or early July in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area in southwestern Idaho. In 2002 they were rarely seen above ground after early May. Because of the ecological importance of ground squirrels for nesting raptors and other species, we sought to determine the reasons for their early disappearance. We sampled 12 sites from January 2003 through March 2003 to determine if a population crash had occurred in 2002. Tests indicated that Piute ground squirrels had not been exposed to plague within the past year. The presence of yearlings in the population indicated that squirrels reproduced in 2002 and that at least some yearlings survived the winter. Both yearling and adult squirrels appeared to be reproducing at or above normal rates in 2003. The most plausible explanation for the early disappearance of Piute ground squirrels in 2002 is that squirrels entered seasonal torpor early in response to a late spring drought. In addition, the breeding chronology of squirrels may have shifted during the past 2 decades in response to climate change and/or habitat alteration. Shrub habitats provide a more favorable and stable environment for squirrels than grass habitats. Squirrel abundance was higher on live-trapping grids with sagebrush than on grids dominated by grass, and squirrel masses were higher at sites dominated by shrubs and Sandberg bluegrass (Poa secunda). Densities in big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) were within the ranges reported for earlier years, but densities in grass were lower than previously reported. Low densities at grassland sites in 2003 support other findings that drought affects squirrels in altered grass communities more than those in native shrub habitats. Long-term shifts in ground squirrel breeding chronology may have implications for raptors that depend on them for food.

  7. Influence of habitat on behavior of Towndsend's ground squirrels (Spermophilus townsendii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharpe, Peter B.; Van Horne, Beatrice

    1998-01-01

    Trade-offs between foraging and predator avoidance may affect an animal's survival and reproduction. These trade-offs may be influenced by differences in vegetative cover, especially if foraging profitability and predation risk differ among habitats. We examined above-ground activity of Townsend's ground squirrels (Spermophilus townsendii) in four habitats in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area in southwestern Idaho to determine if behavior of ground squirrels varied among habitats, and we assessed factors that might affect perceived predation risk (i. e. predator detectability, predation pressure, population density). The proportion of time spent in vigilance by ground squirrels in winterfat (Krascheninnikovia lanata) and mosaic habitats of winterfat-sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) was more than twice that of ground squirrels in burned and unburned sagebrush habitats. We found no evidence for the 'many-eyes' hypothesis as an explanation for differences in vigilance among habitats. Instead, environmental heterogeneity, especially vegetation structure, likely influenced activity budgets of ground squirrels. Differences in vigilance may have been caused by differences in predator detectability and refuge availability, because ground squirrels in the winterfat and mosaic habitats also spent more time in upright vigilant postures than ground squirrels in burned-sagebrush or sagebrush habitats. Such postures may enhance predator detection in low-growing winterfat.

  8. Ground squirrel tail-flag displays alter both predatory strike and ambush site selection behaviours of rattlesnakes

    PubMed Central

    Barbour, Matthew A.; Clark, Rulon W.

    2012-01-01

    Many species approach, inspect and signal towards their predators. These behaviours are often interpreted as predator-deterrent signals—honest signals that indicate to a predator that continued hunting is likely to be futile. However, many of these putative predator-deterrent signals are given when no predator is present, and it remains unclear if and why such signals deter predators. We examined the effects of one such signal, the tail-flag display of California ground squirrels, which is frequently given both during and outside direct encounters with northern Pacific rattlesnakes. We video-recorded and quantified the ambush foraging responses of rattlesnakes to tail-flagging displays from ground squirrels. We found that tail-flagging deterred snakes from striking squirrels, most likely by advertising squirrel vigilance (i.e. readiness to dodge a snake strike). We also found that tail-flagging by adult squirrels increased the likelihood that snakes would leave their ambush site, apparently by elevating the vigilance of nearby squirrels which reduces the profitability of the ambush site. Our results provide some of the first empirical evidence of the mechanisms by which a prey display, although frequently given in the absence of a predator, may still deter predators during encounters. PMID:22787023

  9. Eye model for the ground squirrel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussman, Dafna; Chou, B. Ralph; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2011-11-01

    This paper presents an anatomically-correct eye model for the ground squirrel, a diurnal, highly-developed mammal with high visual acuity. This model can assist in understanding the relationship between ocular structural development and its corresponding function. The eye model is constructed based on anatomical measurements of thicknesses and indices of refraction of the various ocular media. The model then derives the gradient index distribution of the crystalline lens using a ray tracing method with a Monte Carlo optimization. Results indicate a diffraction-limited ocular behaviour, implying the visual acuity of the ground squirrel is more likely to be limited by photoreceptor density and diffraction effects, than by ocular geometry.

  10. Seasonal and post-trauma remodeling in cone-dominant ground squirrel retina

    PubMed Central

    Merriman, Dana K.; Sajdak, Benjamin S.; Li, Wei; Jones, Bryan W.

    2016-01-01

    With a photoreceptor mosaic containing ~85% cones, the ground squirrel is one of the richest known mammalian sources of these important retinal cells. It also has a visual ecology much like the human’s. While the ground squirrel retina is understandably prominent in the cone biochemistry, physiology, and circuitry literature, far less is known about the remodeling potential of its retinal pigment epithelium, neurons, macroglia, or microglia. This review aims to summarize the data from ground squirrel retina to this point in time, and to relate them to data from other brain areas where appropriate. We begin with a survey of the ground squirrel visual system, making comparisons with traditional rodent models and with human. Because this animal’s status as a hibernator often goes unnoticed in the vision literature, we then present a brief primer on hibernation biology. Next we review what is known about ground squirrel retinal remodeling concurrent with deep torpor and with rapid recovery upon re-warming. Notable here is rapidly-reversible, temperature-dependent structural plasticity of cone ribbon synapses, as well as pre- and post-synaptic plasticity throughout diverse brain regions. It is not yet clear if retinal cell types other than cones engage in torpor-associated synaptic remodeling. We end with the small but intriguing literature on the ground squirrel retina’s remodeling responses to insult by retinal detachment. Notable for widespread loss of (cone) photoreceptors, there is surprisingly little remodeling of the RPE or Müller cells. Microglial activation appears minimal, and remodeling of surviving second- and third-order neurons seems absent, but both require further study. In contrast, traumatic brain injury in the ground squirrel elicits typical macroglial and microglial responses. Overall, the data to date strongly suggest a heretofore unrecognized, natural checkpoint between retinal deafferentiation and RPE and Müller cell remodeling events. As

  11. Use of burrow entrances to indicate densities of Townsend's ground squirrels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Horne, Beatrice; Schooley, Robert L.; Knick, Steven T.; Olson, G.S.; Burnham, K.P.

    1997-01-01

    Counts of burrow entrances have been positively correlated with densities of semi-fossorial rodents and used as an index of densities. We evaluated their effectiveness in indexing densities of Townsend's ground squirrels (Spermophilus townsendii) in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area (SRBOPNCA), Idaho, by comparing burrow entrance densities to densities of ground squirrels estimated from livetrapping in 2 consecutive years over which squirrel populations declined by >75%. We did not detect a consistent relation between burrow entrance counts and ground squirrel density estimates within or among habitat types. Scatter plots indicated that burrow entrances had little predictive power at intermediate densities. Burrow entrance counts did not reflect the magnitude of a between-year density decline. Repeated counts of entrances late in the squirrels' active season varied in a manner that would be difficult to use for calibration of transects sampled only once during this period. Annual persistence of burrow entrances varied between habitats. Trained observers were inconsistent in assigning active-inactive status to entrances. We recommend that burrow entrance counts not be used as measures or indices of ground squirrel densities in shrubsteppe habitats, and that the method be verified thoroughly before being used in other habitats.

  12. Molecular Prerequisites for Diminished Cold Sensitivity in Ground Squirrels and Hamsters.

    PubMed

    Matos-Cruz, Vanessa; Schneider, Eve R; Mastrotto, Marco; Merriman, Dana K; Bagriantsev, Sviatoslav N; Gracheva, Elena O

    2017-12-19

    Thirteen-lined ground squirrels and Syrian hamsters are known for their ability to withstand cold during hibernation. We found that hibernators exhibit cold tolerance even in the active state. Imaging and electrophysiology of squirrel somatosensory neurons reveal a decrease in cold sensitivity of TRPM8-expressing cells. Characterization of squirrel and hamster TRPM8 showed that the channels are chemically activated but exhibit poor activation by cold. Cold sensitivity can be re-introduced into squirrel and hamster TRPM8 by transferring the transmembrane domain from the cold sensitive rat ortholog. The same can be achieved in squirrel TRPM8 by mutating only six amino acids. Reciprocal mutations suppress cold sensitivity of the rat ortholog, supporting functional significance of these residues. Our results suggest that ground squirrels and hamsters exhibit reduced cold sensitivity, partially due to modifications in the transmembrane domain of TRPM8. Our study reveals molecular adaptations that accompany cold tolerance in two species of mammalian hibernators. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Environmental effects of solar-thermal power systems. Systematic status of the Mojave ground squirrel, Spermophilus mohavensis (subgenus Xerospermophilus)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hafner, D.J.; Yates, T.L.

    1982-06-01

    The Mojave ground squirrel, Spermophilus mohavensis, is listed as a rare species by The California Fish and Game Commission. Its well-being has emerged as an environmental concern associated with deployment of solar thermal power systems in western parts of the Motave Desert. The more common round-tailed ground squirrel, Spermophilus tereticaudus, also occurs in the Mojave Desert, and this species closely resembles S. mohavensis. The systematic status of the sibling species was investigated using allozymic and chromosomal data. Karyotypically, the two species differ in diploid number while they share a level of genic similarity reported for other mammalian semispecies. Hybridization wasmore » detected only at a single disturbed site, while allelic introgression was confined to an estimated 60 km reach. The two taxa are retained as full biological species.« less

  14. Behavioural correlates of urbanisation in the Cape ground squirrel Xerus inauris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Tarryn; Rymer, Tasmin; Pillay, Neville

    2012-11-01

    Urbanisation critically threatens biodiversity because of habitat destruction and novel selection pressures. Some animals can respond to these challenges by modifying their behaviour, particularly anti-predator behaviour, allowing them to persist in heavily transformed urban areas. We investigated whether the anti-predator behaviour of the Cape ground squirrel Xerus inauris differed in three localities that differed in their level of urbanisation. According to the habituation hypothesis, we predicted that ground squirrels in urban areas would: (a) be less vigilant and forage more; (b) trade-off flight/vigilance in favour of foraging; and (c) have shorter flight initiation distances (FID) when approached by a human observer. Observations were made in winter and summer at each locality. As expected, ground squirrels in urbanised areas were less vigilant and had shorter FIDs but did not trade-off between foraging and vigilance. In contrast, a population in a non-urbanised locality showed greater levels of vigilance, FID and traded-off vigilance and foraging. A population in a peri-urban locality showed mixed responses. Our results indicate that Cape ground squirrels reduce their anti-predator behaviour in urban areas and demonstrate a flexible behavioural response to urbanisation.

  15. Behavioural correlates of urbanisation in the Cape ground squirrel Xerus inauris.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Tarryn; Rymer, Tasmin; Pillay, Neville

    2012-11-01

    Urbanisation critically threatens biodiversity because of habitat destruction and novel selection pressures. Some animals can respond to these challenges by modifying their behaviour, particularly anti-predator behaviour, allowing them to persist in heavily transformed urban areas. We investigated whether the anti-predator behaviour of the Cape ground squirrel Xerus inauris differed in three localities that differed in their level of urbanisation. According to the habituation hypothesis, we predicted that ground squirrels in urban areas would: (a) be less vigilant and forage more; (b) trade-off flight/vigilance in favour of foraging; and (c) have shorter flight initiation distances (FID) when approached by a human observer. Observations were made in winter and summer at each locality. As expected, ground squirrels in urbanised areas were less vigilant and had shorter FIDs but did not trade-off between foraging and vigilance. In contrast, a population in a non-urbanised locality showed greater levels of vigilance, FID and traded-off vigilance and foraging. A population in a peri-urban locality showed mixed responses. Our results indicate that Cape ground squirrels reduce their anti-predator behaviour in urban areas and demonstrate a flexible behavioural response to urbanisation.

  16. Early Wisconsinan (MIS 4) Arctic ground squirrel middens and a squirrel-eye-view of the mammoth-steppe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zazula, Grant D.; Froese, Duane G.; Elias, Scott A.; Kuzmina, Svetlana; Mathewes, Rolf W.

    2011-08-01

    Fossil arctic ground squirrel ( Spermophilus parryii) middens were recovered from ice-rich loess sediments in association with Sheep Creek-Klondike and Dominion Creek tephras (ca 80 ka) exposed in west-central Yukon. These middens provide plant and insect macrofossil evidence for a steppe-tundra ecosystem during the Early Wisconsinan (MIS 4) glacial interval. Midden plant and insect macrofossil data are compared with those previously published for Late Wisconsinan middens dating to ˜25-29 14C ka BP (MIS 3/2) from the region. Although multivariate statistical comparisons suggest differences between the relative abundances of plant macrofossils, the co-occurrence of steppe-tundra plants and insects (e.g., Elymus trachycaulus, Kobresia myosuroides, Artemisia frigida, Phlox hoodii, Connatichela artemisiae) provides evidence for successive reestablishment of the zonal steppe-tundra habitats during cold stages of the Late Pleistocene. Arctic ground squirrels were well adapted to the cold, arid climates, steppe-tundra vegetation and well-drained loessal soils that characterize cold stages of Late Pleistocene Beringia. These glacial conditions enabled arctic ground squirrel populations to expand their range to the interior regions of Alaska and Yukon, including the Klondike, where they are absent today. Arctic ground squirrels have endured numerous Quaternary climate oscillations by retracting populations to disjunct "interglacial refugia" during warm interglacial periods (e.g., south-facing steppe slopes, well-drained arctic and alpine tundra areas) and expanding their distribution across the mammoth-steppe biome during cold, arid glacial intervals.

  17. Environmental effects of solar-thermal-power systems. Systematic status of the Mojave ground squirrel, Spermophilus mohavensis (subgenus Xerospermophilus)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hafner, D.J.; Yates, T.L.

    1982-06-01

    The Mojave ground squirrel, Spermophilus mohavensis, is listed as a rare species by the California Fish and Game Commission. Its well-being has emerged as an environmental concern associated with deployment of solar thermal power systems in western parts of the Mojave Desert. The more common round-tailed ground squirrel, Spermophilus tereticaudus, also occurs in the Mojave Desert, and this species closely resembles S. mohavensis. In some areas it may be extremely difficult, on the basis of external characters, to identify the species present. The systematic status of the sibling species Spermophilus mohavensis and S. tereticaudus (subgenus Xerosphermophilus) was investigated throughout themore » range of the subgenus, based on allozymic and chromosomal data. Hybridization of the two species was detected only at a single disturbed site, while allelic introgression was confined to an estimated 60 km reach of the Mojave River wash. In the absence of an analysis of a zone of natural sympatry, the two taxa are retained as full biological species. The population of ground squirrels just east of Solar One, the 10 MWe pilot solar thermal power plant, is composed of individuals referable to S. tereticaudus based on both allozymic and chromosomal criteria.« less

  18. Forest habitat associations of the golden-mantled ground squirrel: Implications for fuels management

    Treesearch

    Katharine R. Shick; Dean E. Pearson; Leonard F. Ruggiero

    2006-01-01

    Golden-mantled ground squirrels are commonly associated with high-elevation habitats near or above upper timberline. This species also occurs in fire-adapted, low-elevation forests that are targeted for forest health restoration (FHR) treatments intended to remove encroaching understory trees and thin overstory trees. Hence, the golden-mantled ground squirrel...

  19. Will Arctic ground squirrels impede or accelerate climate-induced vegetation changes to the Arctic tundra?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, J.; Flower, C. E.; Brown, J.; Gonzalez-Meler, M. A.; Whelan, C.

    2014-12-01

    Considerable attention has been given to the climate feedbacks associated with predicted vegetation shifts in the Arctic tundra in response to global environmental change. However, little is known regarding the extent to which consumers can facilitate or respond to shrub expansion. Arctic ground squirrels, the largest and most northern ground squirrel, are abundant and widespread throughout the North American tundra. Their broad diet of seeds, flowers, herbage, bird's eggs and meat speaks to the need to breed, feed, and fatten in a span of some 12-16 weeks that separate their 8-9 month bouts of hibernation with the potential consequence to impact ecosystem dynamics. Therefore Arctic ground squirrels are a good candidate to evaluate whether consumers are mere responders (bottom-up effects) or drivers (top-down) of the observed and predicted vegetation changes. As a start towards this question, we measured the foraging intensity (giving-up densities) of Arctic ground squirrels in experimental food patches within which the squirrels experience diminishing returns as they seek the raisins and peanuts that we provided at the Toolik Lake field station in northern Alaska. If the squirrels show their highest feeding intensity in the shrubs, they may impede vegetation shifts by slowing the establishment and expansion of shrubs in the tundra. Conversely, if they show their lowest feeding intensity within shrub dominated areas, they may accelerate vegetation shifts. We found neither. Feeding intensity varied most among transects and times of day, and least along a tundra-to-shrub vegetation gradient. This suggests that the impacts of squirrels will be heterogeneous - in places responders and in others drivers. We should not be surprised then to see patches of accelerated and impeded vegetation changes in the tundra ecosystem. Some of these patterns may be predictable from the foraging behavior of Arctic ground squirrels.

  20. Temperature adaptation of active sodium-potassium transport and of passive permeability in erythrocytes of ground squirrels.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimzey, S. L.; Willis, J. S.

    1971-01-01

    Unidirectional active and passive fluxes of K-42 and Na-24 were measured in red blood cells of ground squirrels (hibernators) and guinea pigs (nonhibernators). As the temperature was lowered, ?active' (ouabain-sensitive) K influx and Na efflux were more considerably diminished in guinea pig cells than in those of ground squirrels. The fraction of total K influx which is ouabain-sensitive in red blood cells of ground squirrels was virtually constant at all temperatures, whereas it decreased abruptly in guinea pig cells as temperature was lowered.

  1. Home range, social behavior, and dominance relationships in the African unstriped ground squirrel, Xerus rutilus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, Thomas J.

    1976-01-01

    A field study of home range, social behavior, and dominance relationships in the African unstriped ground squirrel, Xerus rutilus, was conducted in semi-arid bushland near Kibwezi, Kenya. Ground squirrels lived alone or in small groups in isolated burrow systems and had broadly overlapping home ranges. They were neither territorial or colonial. Home ranges were estimated by visual observation of marked animals and those of males were considerably larger (mean=7.01 hectares (ha); n=4) than those of females (mean=1.37 ha; n-6). A continuum of agonistic behavior ranging from threat to combat is described, although actual combat was rarely observed. Sexual behavior includes a stereotypical tail display by adult males. Dominance relationships, based on 542 observed encounters between marked individuals, include a consistent male dominance over females and a fairly constant linear hierarchy among all individuals with shared home ranges. Similarities in the behavior of African ground squirrels and tree squirrels (Sciurus) are discussed.

  2. Implications of Hybridization, NUMTs, and Overlooked Diversity for DNA Barcoding of Eurasian Ground Squirrels

    PubMed Central

    Ermakov, Oleg A.; Simonov, Evgeniy; Surin, Vadim L.; Titov, Sergey V.; Brandler, Oleg V.; Ivanova, Natalia V.; Borisenko, Alex V.

    2015-01-01

    The utility of DNA Barcoding for species identification and discovery has catalyzed a concerted effort to build the global reference library; however, many animal groups of economical or conservational importance remain poorly represented. This study aims to contribute DNA barcode records for all ground squirrel species (Xerinae, Sciuridae, Rodentia) inhabiting Eurasia and to test efficiency of this approach for species discrimination. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene sequences were obtained for 97 individuals representing 16 ground squirrel species of which 12 were correctly identified. Taxonomic allocation of some specimens within four species was complicated by geographically restricted mtDNA introgression. Exclusion of individuals with introgressed mtDNA allowed reaching a 91.6% identification success rate. Significant COI divergence (3.5–4.4%) was observed within the most widespread ground squirrel species (Spermophilus erythrogenys, S. pygmaeus, S. suslicus, Urocitellus undulatus), suggesting the presence of cryptic species. A single putative NUMT (nuclear mitochondrial pseudogene) sequence was recovered during molecular analysis; mitochondrial COI from this sample was amplified following re-extraction of DNA. Our data show high discrimination ability of 100 bp COI fragments for Eurasian ground squirrels (84.3%) with no incorrect assessments, underscoring the potential utility of the existing reference librariy for the development of diagnostic ‘mini-barcodes’. PMID:25617768

  3. The ontogeny of kin-recognition mechanisms in Belding's ground squirrels.

    PubMed

    Mateo, Jill M

    2017-05-01

    Despite extensive research on the functions and mechanisms of kin recognition, little is known about developmental changes in the abilities mediating such recognition. Belding's ground squirrels, Urocitellus beldingi, use at least two mechanisms of kin recognition in nepotistic contexts: familiarity and phenotype matching. Because recognition templates develop from early associations with familiar kin (and/or with self), familiarity-based recognition should precede phenotype-matching recognition even though one template is thought to be used for both mechanisms. I used a cross-fostering design to produce individuals that differed in relatedness and familiarity. Two pups (one female and one male) were exchanged reciprocally between two litters within 48-h of birth. Every five days, from 15 to 30-d of age, young were exposed to bedding and oral-gland odors from their familiar foster mother and an unfamiliar unrelated female (familiarity test) and from their unfamiliar genetic mother and another unfamiliar unrelated female (phenotype-matching test). As expected, discrimination of odors based on familiarity was evident at all ages tested, whereas discrimination based on relatedness was not evident until 30-d. My results provide a first estimate for when phenotype-matching mechanisms are used by young Belding's ground squirrels, and thus when they can recognize unfamiliar kin such as older sisters or grandmothers. Belding's ground squirrels are the first species for which the development of the production, perception and action components is well understood. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Diet affects arctic ground squirrel gut microbial metatranscriptome independent of community structure

    PubMed Central

    Hatton, Jasmine J.; Stevenson, Timothy J.; Buck, C. Loren; Duddleston, Khrystyne N.

    2017-01-01

    Summary We examined the effect of diet on pre-hibernation fattening and the gut microbiota of captive arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii). We measured body composition across time and gut microbiota density, diversity, and function prior to and after five-weeks on control, high-fat, low-fat (18%, 40%, and 10% energy from fat, respectively), or restricted calorie (50% of control) diets. Squirrels fattened at the same rate and to the same degree on all diets. Additionally, we found no differences in gut microbiota diversity or short chain fatty acid production across time or with diet. Analysis of the gut microbial transcriptome indicated differences in community function among diet groups, but not across time, and revealed shifts in the relative contribution of function at a taxonomic level. Our results demonstrate that pre-hibernation fattening of arctic ground squirrels is robust to changes in diet and is accomplished by more than increased food intake. Although our analyses did not uncover a definitive link between host fattening and the gut microbiota, and suggest the squirrels may possess a gut microbial community structure that is unresponsive to dietary changes, studies manipulating diet earlier in the active season may yet uncover a relationship between host diet, fattening and gut microbiota. PMID:28251799

  5. Individual acoustic variation in Belding's ground squirrel alarm chirps in the High Sierra Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCowan, Brenda; Hooper, Stacie L.

    2002-03-01

    The acoustic structure of calls within call types can vary as function of individual identity, sex, and social group membership and is important in kin and social group recognition. Belding's ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi) produce alarm chirps that function in predator avoidance but little is known about the acoustic variability of these alarm chirps. The purpose of this preliminary study was to analyze the acoustic structure of alarm chirps with respect to individual differences (e.g., signature information) from eight Belding's ground squirrels from four different lakes in the High Sierra Nevada. Results demonstrate that alarm chirps are individually distinctive, and that acoustic similarity among individuals may correspond to genetic similarity and thus dispersal patterns in this species. These data suggest, on a preliminary basis, that the acoustic structure of calls might be used as a bioacoustic tool for tracking individuals, dispersal, and other population dynamics in Belding's ground squirrels, and perhaps other vocal species.

  6. The adaptive function of masturbation in a promiscuous African ground squirrel.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Jane M

    2010-09-28

    Studies of animal mating systems increasingly emphasize female multiple mating and cryptic sexual selection, particularly sperm competition. Males under intense sperm competition may manipulate sperm quantity and quality through masturbation, which could waste sperm and decrease fertility. I examined the factors influencing masturbation by male Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris) in light of a number of functional hypotheses. Observational data on a marked population of squirrels were collected in east-central Namibia using scan and all-occurrences sampling. Masturbation was far more frequent on days of female oestrus and mostly occurred after copulation. Masturbation rates were higher in dominant males, which copulate more, than in subordinates and increased with number of mates a female accepts. These results suggest that masturbation in this species was not a response to sperm competition nor a sexual outlet by subordinates that did not copulate. Instead masturbation could function as a form of genital grooming. Female Cape ground squirrels mate with up to 10 males in a 3-hr oestrus, and by masturbating after copulation males could reduce the chance of infection. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can profoundly affect fertility, and their consequences for mating strategies need to be examined more fully.

  7. Circadian rhythms of body temperature and locomotor activity in the antelope ground squirrel, Ammospermophilus leucurus.

    PubMed

    Refinetti, Roberto; Kenagy, G J

    2018-02-01

    We studied circadian rhythms of body temperature and locomotor activity in antelope ground squirrels (Ammospermophilus leucurus) under laboratory conditions of a 12L:12D light-dark cycle and in constant darkness. Antelope ground squirrels are diurnally active and, exceptionally among ground squirrels and other closely related members of the squirrel family in general, they do not hibernate. Daily oscillations in body temperature consisted of a rise in temperature during the daytime activity phase of the circadian cycle and a decrease in temperature during the nighttime rest phase. The body temperature rhythms were robust (71% of maximal strength) with a daily range of oscillation of 4.6°C, a daytime mean of 38.7°C, and a nighttime mean of 34.1°C (24-h overall mean 36.4°C). The body temperature rhythm persisted in continuous darkness with a free-running period of 24.2h. This pattern is similar to that of hibernating species of ground squirrels but with a wave form more similar to that of non-hibernating rodents. Daily oscillations in body temperature were correlated with individual bouts of activity, but daytime temperatures were higher than nighttime temperatures even when comparing short episodes of nocturnal activity that were as intense as diurnal activity. This suggests that although muscular thermogenesis associated with locomotor activity can modify the level of body temperature, the circadian rhythm of body temperature is not simply a consequence of the circadian rhythm of activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of drought and prolonged winter on Townsend's ground squirrel demography in shrubsteppe habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Horne, Beatrice; Olson, Gail S.; Schooley, Robert L.; Corn, Janelle G.; Burnham, Kenneth P.

    1997-01-01

    During a mark–recapture study of Townsend's ground squirrels (Spermophilus townsendii) on 20 sites in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area, Idaho, in 1991 through 1994, 4407 animals were marked in 17639 capture events. This study of differences in population dynamics of Townsend's ground squirrels among habitats spanned a drought near the extreme of the 130-yr record, followed by prolonged winter conditions.Townsend's ground squirrels have a short active season (≈4 mo) in which to reproduce and store fat for overwintering. Their food consists largely of succulent grasses and forbs in this dry shrubsteppe and grassland habitat. The drought in the latter half of the 1992 active season produced early drying of Sandberg's bluegrass (Poa secunda) and was associated with low adult and juvenile body masses prior to immergence into estivation/hibernation. The following prolonged winter was associated with late emergence of females in 1993. Early-season body masses of adults were low in 1993 relative to 1992, whereas percentage of body fat in males was relatively high. These weather patterns in spring 1992 and winter 1993 also resulted in reduced adult persistence through the ≈7-mo inactive period, especially for adult females, and near-zero persistence of >1200 juveniles. Consequently, densities of Townsend's ground squirrels across the 20 livetrap sites declined.The demographic effects of drought and prolonged winter lasted at least through the subsequent breeding season. Adult females that survived these weather extremes produced fewer emergent young per female than did adult females prior to the event. Prior to the drought/prolonged winter, yearling female body masses were higher than, or indistinguishable from, those of adults. Females produced in 1993 had lower body masses as yearlings than did adult females.Demographic response to the drought and prolonged winter varied with habitat; ground squirrels in sagebrush habitat showed less decline

  9. The Adaptive Function of Masturbation in a Promiscuous African Ground Squirrel

    PubMed Central

    Waterman, Jane M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies of animal mating systems increasingly emphasize female multiple mating and cryptic sexual selection, particularly sperm competition. Males under intense sperm competition may manipulate sperm quantity and quality through masturbation, which could waste sperm and decrease fertility. I examined the factors influencing masturbation by male Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris) in light of a number of functional hypotheses. Methodology Observational data on a marked population of squirrels were collected in east-central Namibia using scan and all-occurrences sampling. Findings Masturbation was far more frequent on days of female oestrus and mostly occurred after copulation. Masturbation rates were higher in dominant males, which copulate more, than in subordinates and increased with number of mates a female accepts. Conclusions These results suggest that masturbation in this species was not a response to sperm competition nor a sexual outlet by subordinates that did not copulate. Instead masturbation could function as a form of genital grooming. Female Cape ground squirrels mate with up to 10 males in a 3-hr oestrus, and by masturbating after copulation males could reduce the chance of infection. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can profoundly affect fertility, and their consequences for mating strategies need to be examined more fully. PMID:20927404

  10. Delayed effect of pinealectomy on hibernation of the golden-mantled ground squirrel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralph, C. L.; Harlow, H. J.; Phillips, J. A.

    1982-12-01

    Pinealectomy or radical sham pinealectomy were performed on adult golden-mantled ground squirrels, Spermophilus (=Citellus) lateralis, approximately 1 month prior to the date of normal winter emergence. The first hibernatory period and subsequent active season were not different in either of the operated groups from intact animals. However, although the initiation of the second hibernatory period was not affected in the pinealectomized animals, this group failed to show the progressive increase in the length of heterothermic bouts that is characteristic of normal hibernation. Also, terminal arousal occurred approximately 6 weeks earlier in the second year after pinealectomy. Male squirrels showed a corresponding time compression in their annual gonadal cycle, as was assessed by testicular state. These results suggest that the pineal gland of the golden-mantled ground squirrel is involved in the expression of the annual hibernatory cycle. In the absence of the pineal gland the adult of this species is unable to sustain the normal depth and duration of hibernation in the second over-wintering period following pinealectomy. We have carried out additional experiments with young, laboratory-born S. lateralis and with field-caught, adult S. richardsonii. The results of these studies also are described in this paper.

  11. Seasonal Patterns of Body Temperature Daily Rhythms in Group-Living Cape Ground Squirrels Xerus inauris

    PubMed Central

    Scantlebury, Michael; Danek-Gontard, Marine; Bateman, Philip W.; Bennett, Nigel C.; Manjerovic, Mary-Beth; Joubert, Kenneth E.; Waterman, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    Organisms respond to cyclical environmental conditions by entraining their endogenous biological rhythms. Such physiological responses are expected to be substantial for species inhabiting arid environments which incur large variations in daily and seasonal ambient temperature (Ta). We measured core body temperature (Tb) daily rhythms of Cape ground squirrels Xerus inauris inhabiting an area of Kalahari grassland for six months from the Austral winter through to the summer. Squirrels inhabited two different areas: an exposed flood plain and a nearby wooded, shady area, and occurred in different social group sizes, defined by the number of individuals that shared a sleeping burrow. Of a suite of environmental variables measured, maximal daily Ta provided the greatest explanatory power for mean Tb whereas sunrise had greatest power for Tb acrophase. There were significant changes in mean Tb and Tb acrophase over time with mean Tb increasing and Tb acrophase becoming earlier as the season progressed. Squirrels also emerged from their burrows earlier and returned to them later over the measurement period. Greater increases in Tb, sometimes in excess of 5°C, were noted during the first hour post emergence, after which Tb remained relatively constant. This is consistent with observations that squirrels entered their burrows during the day to ‘offload’ heat. In addition, greater Tb amplitude values were noted in individuals inhabiting the flood plain compared with the woodland suggesting that squirrels dealt with increased environmental variability by attempting to reduce their Ta-Tb gradient. Finally, there were significant effects of age and group size on Tb with a lower and less variable Tb in younger individuals and those from larger group sizes. These data indicate that Cape ground squirrels have a labile Tb which is sensitive to a number of abiotic and biotic factors and which enables them to be active in a harsh and variable environment. PMID:22558324

  12. Suspension of Mitotic Activity in Dentate Gyrus of the Hibernating Ground Squirrel

    PubMed Central

    Popov, Victor I.; Kraev, Igor V.; Ignat'ev, Dmitri A.; Stewart, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Neurogenesis occurs in the adult mammalian hippocampus, a region of the brain important for learning and memory. Hibernation in Siberian ground squirrels provides a natural model to study mitosis as the rapid fall in body temperature in 24 h (from 35-36°C to +4–6°C) permits accumulation of mitotic cells at different stages of the cell cycle. Histological methods used to study adult neurogenesis are limited largely to fixed tissue, and the mitotic state elucidated depends on the specific phase of mitosis at the time of day. However, using an immunohistochemical study of doublecortin (DCX) and BrdU-labelled neurons, we demonstrate that the dentate gyrus of the ground squirrel hippocampus contains a population of immature cells which appear to possess mitotic activity. Our data suggest that doublecortin-labelled immature cells exist in a mitotic state and may represent a renewable pool for generation of new neurons within the dentate gyrus. PMID:21773054

  13. Evidence for a single class of somatostatin receptors in ground squirrel cerebral cortex

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Krantic, S.; Petrovic, V.M.; Quirion, R.

    1989-01-01

    In the present study we characterized high-affinity somatostatin (SRIF) binding sites (Kd = 2.06 +/- 0.32 nM and Bmax = 295 +/- 28 fmol/mg protein) in cerebral cortex membrane preparations of European ground squirrel using /sup 125/I-(Tyr0-D-Trp8)-SRIF14 as a radioligand. The inhibition of radioligand specific binding by SRIF14, as well as by its agonists (SRIF28, Tyr0-D-Trp8-SRIF14, SMS 201 995) was complete and monophasic, thus revealing a single population of somatostatinergic binding sites. Radioautographic analysis of /sup 125/I-(Tyr0-D-Trp8)-SRIF14 labeled brain sections confirmed the results of our biochemical study. The homogeneity of SRIF binding sites in the ground squirrel neocortex was notmore » dependent on the animal's life-cycle phase.« less

  14. Purification and characterization of fructose bisphosphate aldolase from the ground squirrel, Spermophilus lateralis: enzyme role in mammalian hibernation.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Justin A; Storey, Kenneth B

    2002-12-15

    Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (F1,6P(2)) aldolase was purified to homogeneity from skeletal muscle of the golden-mantled ground squirrel, Spermophilus lateralis. Enzyme properties were examined at temperatures characteristic of euthermia (37 degrees C) and hibernation (5 degrees C); parallel studies assessed rabbit muscle aldolase for comparison. Kinetic properties of each enzyme were differentially affected by assay temperature. For example, the K(m) for F1,6P(2) of ground squirrel aldolase was 0.9+/-0.05 microM at 37 degrees C and 50% higher (1.45+/-0.04 microM) at 5 degrees C, whereas the K(m) of rabbit aldolase increased threefold over the same temperature range. The inhibitory effects of adenylates were similar at both temperatures for the ground squirrel enzyme, but inhibition by adenosine 5(')-diphosphate, adenosine 5(')-monophosphate, and inosine 5(')-monophosphate was substantially reduced at 5 degrees C for rabbit aldolase. Inhibition by inorganic phosphate increased at lower temperatures for both enzymes; for ground squirrel aldolase, the K(i) was 1.18+/-0.1mM at 37 degrees C and 0.23+/-0.05 mM at 5 degrees C. Inhibition of aldolase by inorganic phosphate could be one factor that helps to shut down glycolysis during hibernation. Thus, mammalian hibernators may exploit low-temperature characteristics of aldolase to benefit the metabolic needs of the hibernating state.

  15. Comparison of surface temperature in 13-lined ground squirrel (Spermophilus tridecimlineatus) and yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris) during arousal from hibernation.

    PubMed

    Phillips, P K; Heath, J E

    2004-08-01

    Surface temperatures (Ts) of eight 13-lined ground squirrels and seven yellow-bellied marmots were measured during arousal from hibernation using infrared thermography (IRT) and recorded on videotape. Animals aroused normally in 5 degrees C cold rooms. Body temperatures were recorded during arousal using both cheek pouch and interscapular temperature probes. Warming rate in arousal was exponential. Mean mass specific warming rates show the squirrels warm faster (69.76 degrees C/h/kg) than the marmots (4.49 degrees C/h/kg). Surface temperatures (Ts) for 11 regions were measured every few minutes during arousal. The smaller ground squirrel shows the ability to perfuse distal regions without compromising rise in deep body temperature (Tb). All squirrel Ts's remained low as Tb rose to 18 degrees C, at which point, eyes opened, squirrels became more active and all Ts's rose parallel to Tb. Marmot Ts remained low as Tb rose initially. Each marmot showed a plateau phase where Tb remained constant (mean Tb 20.3+/-1.0 degrees C, duration 9.4+/-4.1 min) during which time all Ts's rose, and then remained relatively constant as Tb again began to rise. An anterior to posterior Ts gradient was evident in the ground squirrel, both body and feet. This gradient was only evident in the feet of the marmots.

  16. DNA analysis of a 30,000-year-old Urocitellus glacialis from northeastern Siberia reveals phylogenetic relationships between ancient and present-day arctic ground squirrels

    PubMed Central

    Faerman, Marina; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila; Boaretto, Elisabetta; Boeskorov, Gennady G.; Dokuchaev, Nikolai E.; Ermakov, Oleg A.; Golenishchev, Fedor N.; Gubin, Stanislav V.; Mintz, Eugenia; Simonov, Evgeniy; Surin, Vadim L.; Titov, Sergei V.; Zanina, Oksana G.; Formozov, Nikolai A.

    2017-01-01

    In contrast to the abundant fossil record of arctic ground squirrels, Urocitellus parryii, from eastern Beringia, only a limited number of fossils is known from its western part. In 1946, unnamed GULAG prisoners discovered a nest with three mummified carcasses of arctic ground squirrels in the permafrost sediments of the El’ga river, Yakutia, Russia, that were later attributed to a new species, Citellus (Urocitellus) glacialis Vinogr. To verify this assignment and to explore phylogenetic relationships between ancient and present-day arctic ground squirrels, we performed 14C dating and ancient DNA analyses of one of the El’ga mummies and four contemporaneous fossils from Duvanny Yar, northeastern Yakutia. Phylogenetic reconstructions, based on complete cytochrome b gene sequences of five Late Pleistocene arctic ground squirrels and those of modern U. parryii from 21 locations across western Beringia, provided no support for earlier proposals that ancient arctic ground squirrels from Siberia constitute a distinct species. In fact, we observed genetic continuity of the glacialis mitochondrial DNA lineage in modern U. parryii of the Kamchatka peninsula. When viewed in a broader geographic perspective, our findings provide new insights into the genetic history of U. parryii in Late Pleistocene Beringia. PMID:28205612

  17. Effective population size and genetic structure of a Piute ground squirrel (Spermophilus mollis) population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Antolin, Michael F.; Van Horne, Beatrice; Berger, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    Piute ground squirrels (Spermophilus mollis) are distributed continuously in habitat dominated by native shrubs and perennial grasses in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area in Idaho, U.S.A. This habitat is being fragmented and replaced by exotic annual plants, changing it to a wildfire-dominated system that provides poor habitat for ground squirrels. To assess potential effects of this fragmentation on ground squirrel populations, we combined an estimate of effective population size (Ne) based upon a demographic study with a population genetic analysis. The study area included three subpopulations separated from each other by 8–13 km. The ratio of effective population size to census number (Ne/N) was 0.57. Combining Ne/N with dispersal distances from a radio-tracking study, we calculated that neighborhood size was 62.2 ha, which included between 204 and 480 individuals. Our population genetic analysis (based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and microsatellite markers) showed relatively low levels of genetic differentiation (Qpopulations 0.07–0.10) between subpopulations and no inbreeding within subpopulations (f = 0.0003). These estimates of population subdivision translate into an effective migration rate (Nem) of 2.3–3.3 per year, which represents a high level of gene flow. Invasion by exotics will reduce the overall productivity of the habitat, and will lead to isolation among subpopulations if favorable habitat patches become isolated.

  18. Seasonal patterns of body temperature daily rhythms in group-living Cape ground squirrels Xerus inauris.

    PubMed

    Scantlebury, Michael; Danek-Gontard, Marine; Bateman, Philip W; Bennett, Nigel C; Manjerovic, Mary Beth; Manjerovic, Mary-Beth; Joubert, Kenneth E; Waterman, Jane M

    2012-01-01

    Organisms respond to cyclical environmental conditions by entraining their endogenous biological rhythms. Such physiological responses are expected to be substantial for species inhabiting arid environments which incur large variations in daily and seasonal ambient temperature (T(a)). We measured core body temperature (T(b)) daily rhythms of Cape ground squirrels Xerus inauris inhabiting an area of Kalahari grassland for six months from the Austral winter through to the summer. Squirrels inhabited two different areas: an exposed flood plain and a nearby wooded, shady area, and occurred in different social group sizes, defined by the number of individuals that shared a sleeping burrow. Of a suite of environmental variables measured, maximal daily T(a) provided the greatest explanatory power for mean T(b) whereas sunrise had greatest power for T(b) acrophase. There were significant changes in mean T(b) and T(b) acrophase over time with mean T(b) increasing and T(b) acrophase becoming earlier as the season progressed. Squirrels also emerged from their burrows earlier and returned to them later over the measurement period. Greater increases in T(b), sometimes in excess of 5°C, were noted during the first hour post emergence, after which T(b) remained relatively constant. This is consistent with observations that squirrels entered their burrows during the day to 'offload' heat. In addition, greater T(b) amplitude values were noted in individuals inhabiting the flood plain compared with the woodland suggesting that squirrels dealt with increased environmental variability by attempting to reduce their T(a)-T(b) gradient. Finally, there were significant effects of age and group size on T(b) with a lower and less variable T(b) in younger individuals and those from larger group sizes. These data indicate that Cape ground squirrels have a labile T(b) which is sensitive to a number of abiotic and biotic factors and which enables them to be active in a harsh and variable

  19. Yellow-bellied marmot and golden-mantled ground squirrel responses to heterospecific alarm calls

    PubMed

    Shriner

    1998-03-01

    When two species have predators in common, animals might be able to obtain important information about predation risk from the alarm calls produced by the other species. The behavioural responses of adult yellow-bellied marmots, Marmota flaviventris, and golden-mantled ground squirrels, Spermophilus lateralis, to conspecific and heterospecific alarm calls were studied to determine whether interspecific call recognition occurs in sympatric species that rarely interact. In a crossed design, marmot and squirrel alarm calls were broadcast to individuals of both species, using the song of a sympatric bird as a control. Individuals of both species responded similarly to conspecific and heterospecific anti-predator calls, and distinguished both types of alarms from the bird song. These results indicate that both marmots and squirrels recognized not only their own species' anti-predator vocalizations, but also the alarm calls of another species, and that these vocalizations were discriminated from an equally loud non-threatening sound. These findings suggest that researchers ought to think broadly when considering the sources of information available to animals in their natural environment. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  20. Enhanced oxidative capacity of ground squirrel brain mitochondria during hibernation

    PubMed Central

    Ballinger, Mallory A.; Schwartz, Christine

    2017-01-01

    During hibernation, thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) regularly cycle between bouts of torpor and interbout arousal (IBA). Most of the brain is electrically quiescent during torpor but regains activity quickly upon arousal to IBA, resulting in extreme oscillations in energy demand during hibernation. We predicted increased functional capacity of brain mitochondria during hibernation compared with spring to accommodate the variable energy demands of hibernation. To address this hypothesis, we examined mitochondrial bioenergetics in the ground squirrel brain across three time points: spring (SP), torpor (TOR), and IBA. Respiration rates of isolated brain mitochondria through complex I of the electron transport chain were more than twofold higher in TOR and IBA than in SP (P < 0.05). We also found a 10% increase in membrane potential between hibernation and spring (P < 0.05), and that proton leak was lower in TOR and IBA than in SP. Finally, there was a 30% increase in calcium loading in SP brain mitochondria compared with TOR and IBA (P < 0.01). To analyze brain mitochondrial abundance between spring and hibernation, we measured the ratio of copy number in a mitochondrial gene (ND1) vs. a nuclear gene (B2M) in frozen cerebral cortex samples. No significant differences were observed in DNA copies between SP and IBA. These data show that brain mitochondrial bioenergetics are not static across the year and suggest that brain mitochondria function more effectively during the hibernation season, allowing for rapid production of energy to meet demand when extreme physiological changes are occurring. PMID:28077389

  1. Nest trees of northern flying squirrels in the Sierra Nevada

    Treesearch

    Marc D. Meyer; Douglas A. Kelt; Malcolm P. North

    2005-01-01

    We examined the nest-tree preferences of northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) in an old-growth, mixed-conifer and red fir (Abies magnifica) forest of the southern Sierra Nevada of California. We tracked 27 individuals to 122 nest trees during 3 summers. Flying squirrels selected nest trees that were larger in diameter and...

  2. The influence of changing seasonality and snow cover on arctic ground squirrel phenology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, B.; Sheriff, M.; Kenagy, J.; Buck, L.; Team Squirrel

    2011-12-01

    A warming climate in the Arctic may have asymmetrical effects on seasonality, depending on the timing and extent of snow cover. Warm autumns that delay the onset of persistent snow cover will lengthen growing seasons of some plants and, combined with continuing access to fallen seeds, berries, and leaves, extend feeding opportunities for ground foragers. Warming in spring should advance when the ground becomes snow free and the onset of plant productivity, leading overall to a longer growing season. However, if winter and spring precipitation increase, as is predicted in climate models, the amount and seasonal extent of snow pack will increase, which will delay melt and lead to delayed springs. Either of these scenarios may develop regionally, depending on local weather, snow, and wind. Since 1996, we have been investigating the timing of annual events in natural populations of arctic ground squirrels, Urocitellus parryii, living at two nearby sites (Toolik and Atigun, 68o38'N) in arctic Alaska that greatly differ in timing and duration of snow cover. Since arctic ground squirrels are highly dependent on snow free ground for foraging, we predicted that these environmental differences will have had major impacts on life histories and timing of annual events on the local populations. Precision in dates of the beginning and end of hibernation, use of heterothermy, and birth of young were determined by temperature-sensitive data loggers implanted into juvenile and adult animals of both sexes. Weather stations, snow cameras, and transects for plant phenology are in place at both locations, although record lengths differ. While across the past 15 years annual timing of hibernation and breeding has not shown significant trends at either site, the two populations have differed consistently in hibernation timing and length of active season, and they show a 13 day difference in average timing of reproduction. These results reveal a substantial flexibility of timing of the

  3. The Functional Organization and Cortical Connections of Motor Cortex in Squirrels

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Dylan F.; Padberg, Jeffrey; Zahner, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Despite extraordinary diversity in the rodent order, studies of motor cortex have been limited to only 2 species, rats and mice. Here, we examine the topographic organization of motor cortex in the Eastern gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) and cortical connections of motor cortex in the California ground squirrel (Spermophilus beecheyi). We distinguish a primary motor area, M1, based on intracortical microstimulation (ICMS), myeloarchitecture, and patterns of connectivity. A sensorimotor area between M1 and the primary somatosensory area, S1, was also distinguished based on connections, functional organization, and myeloarchitecture. We term this field 3a based on similarities with area 3a in nonrodent mammals. Movements are evoked with ICMS in both M1 and 3a in a roughly somatotopic pattern. Connections of 3a and M1 are distinct and suggest the presence of a third far rostral field, termed “F,” possibly involved in motor processing based on its connections. We hypothesize that 3a is homologous to the dysgranular zone (DZ) in S1 of rats and mice. Our results demonstrate that squirrels have both similar and unique features of M1 organization compared with those described in rats and mice, and that changes in 3a/DZ borders appear to have occurred in both lineages. PMID:22021916

  4. Cytoskeletal regulation dominates temperature-sensitive proteomic changes of hibernation in forebrain of 13-lined ground squirrels.

    PubMed

    Hindle, Allyson G; Martin, Sandra L

    2013-01-01

    13-lined ground squirrels, Ictidomys tridecemlineatus, are obligate hibernators that transition annually between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy - wherein they exploit episodic torpor bouts. Despite cerebral ischemia during torpor and rapid reperfusion during arousal, hibernator brains resist damage and the animals emerge neurologically intact each spring. We hypothesized that protein changes in the brain underlie winter neuroprotection. To identify candidate proteins, we applied a sensitive 2D gel electrophoresis method to quantify protein differences among forebrain extracts prepared from ground squirrels in two summer, four winter and fall transition states. Proteins that differed among groups were identified using LC-MS/MS. Only 84 protein spots varied significantly among the defined states of hibernation. Protein changes in the forebrain proteome fell largely into two reciprocal patterns with a strong body temperature dependence. The importance of body temperature was tested in animals from the fall; these fall animals use torpor sporadically with body temperatures mirroring ambient temperatures between 4 and 21°C as they navigate the transition between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy. Unlike cold-torpid fall ground squirrels, warm-torpid individuals strongly resembled the homeotherms, indicating that the changes observed in torpid hibernators are defined by body temperature, not torpor per se. Metabolic enzymes were largely unchanged despite varied metabolic activity across annual and torpor-arousal cycles. Instead, the majority of the observed changes were cytoskeletal proteins and their regulators. While cytoskeletal structural proteins tended to differ seasonally, i.e., between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy, their regulatory proteins were more strongly affected by body temperature. Changes in the abundance of various isoforms of the microtubule assembly and disassembly regulatory proteins dihydropyrimidinase

  5. Cytoskeletal Regulation Dominates Temperature-Sensitive Proteomic Changes of Hibernation in Forebrain of 13-Lined Ground Squirrels

    PubMed Central

    Hindle, Allyson G.; Martin, Sandra L.

    2013-01-01

    13-lined ground squirrels, Ictidomys tridecemlineatus, are obligate hibernators that transition annually between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy – wherein they exploit episodic torpor bouts. Despite cerebral ischemia during torpor and rapid reperfusion during arousal, hibernator brains resist damage and the animals emerge neurologically intact each spring. We hypothesized that protein changes in the brain underlie winter neuroprotection. To identify candidate proteins, we applied a sensitive 2D gel electrophoresis method to quantify protein differences among forebrain extracts prepared from ground squirrels in two summer, four winter and fall transition states. Proteins that differed among groups were identified using LC-MS/MS. Only 84 protein spots varied significantly among the defined states of hibernation. Protein changes in the forebrain proteome fell largely into two reciprocal patterns with a strong body temperature dependence. The importance of body temperature was tested in animals from the fall; these fall animals use torpor sporadically with body temperatures mirroring ambient temperatures between 4 and 21°C as they navigate the transition between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy. Unlike cold-torpid fall ground squirrels, warm-torpid individuals strongly resembled the homeotherms, indicating that the changes observed in torpid hibernators are defined by body temperature, not torpor per se. Metabolic enzymes were largely unchanged despite varied metabolic activity across annual and torpor-arousal cycles. Instead, the majority of the observed changes were cytoskeletal proteins and their regulators. While cytoskeletal structural proteins tended to differ seasonally, i.e., between summer homeothermy and winter heterothermy, their regulatory proteins were more strongly affected by body temperature. Changes in the abundance of various isoforms of the microtubule assembly and disassembly regulatory proteins dihydropyrimidinase

  6. Multilocus analyses indicate a mosaic distribution of hybrid populations in ground squirrels (genus Ictidomys)

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Cody W; Anwarali Khan, Faisal Ali; Stangl, Frederick B; Baker, Robert J; Bradley, Robert D

    2013-01-01

    DNA sequence data from mitochondrial cytochrome-b (Cytb) and Y-linked structural maintenance of chromosomes (SmcY) genes were combined with 478 nuclear loci obtained from amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) to assess the extent of hybridization and genetic spatial structure of populations in two hybridizing species of ground squirrel (Ictidomys parvidens and Ictidomys tridecemlineatus). Based on AFLP analyses of 134 individuals from 28 populations, 10 populations were identified that possessed hybrid individuals. Overall estimates of FST values revealed strong support for population structure in the Cytb data set; however, analyses of the SmcY gene and the AFLP data indicated ongoing gene flow between species. Pairwise FST comparisons of populations were not significant for the SmcY gene; although they were significant for the Cytb gene, indicating that these populations were structured and that gene flow was minimal. Therefore, gene flow between I. parvidens and I. tridecemlineatus appeared to be restricted to populations that exhibited hybridization. In addition, the fragmented nature of the geographic landscape suggested limited gene flow between populations. As a result, the distributional pattern of interspersed parental and hybrid populations were compatible with a mosaic hybrid zone model. Because ground squirrels display female philopatry and male-biased dispersal, the ecology of these species is compatible with this hypothesis. PMID:24340186

  7. The secret life of ground squirrels: accelerometry reveals sex-dependent plasticity in above-ground activity

    PubMed Central

    Wilsterman, Kathryn; Zhang, Victor; Moore, Jeanette; Barnes, Brian M.; Buck, C. Loren

    2016-01-01

    The sexes differ in how and when they allocate energy towards reproduction, but how this influences phenotypic plasticity in daily activity patterns is unclear. Here, we use collar-mounted light loggers and triaxial accelerometers to examine factors that affect time spent above ground and overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA), an index of activity-specific energy expenditure, across the active season of free-living, semi-fossorial arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii). We found high day-to-day variability in time spent above ground and ODBA with most of the variance explained by environmental conditions known to affect thermal exchange. In both years, females spent more time below ground compared with males during parturition and early lactation; however, this difference was fourfold larger in the second year, possibly, because females were in better body condition. Daily ODBA positively correlated with time spent above ground in both sexes, but females were more active per unit time above ground. Consequently, daily ODBA did not differ between the sexes when females were early in lactation, even though females were above ground three to six fewer hours each day. Further, on top of having the additional burden of milk production, ODBA data indicate females also had fragmented rest patterns and were more active during late lactation. Our results indicate that sex differences in reproductive requirements can have a substantial influence on activity patterns, but the size of this effect may be dependent on capital resources accrued during gestation. PMID:27703706

  8. Seasonal changes in enzymes of lipogenesis and triacylglycerol synthesis in the golden-mantled ground squirrel (Spermophilus lateralis).

    PubMed

    Wang, P; Walter, R D; Bhat, B G; Florant, G L; Coleman, R A

    1997-10-01

    In order to determine whether critical enzyme activities of glycerolipid synthesis change seasonally in the golden-mantled ground squirrel (Spermophilus lateralis), we collected summer and winter samples of liver, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and white adipose tissue (WAT). Compared with fatty acid synthase activity during hibernation, summer activities were 2.5- to 8-fold higher in adipose tissue and liver. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) activity was 2.6-fold higher in WAT during the summer, consistent with increased seasonal triacylglycerol storage, but the activity did not change in liver or BAT, suggesting that in these tissues, triacylglycerol synthesis is equally active in summer and winter. Lack of change in acyl-CoA synthetase in liver and BAT may reflect high synthetic rates for acyl-CoAs that are destined in the summer for glycerolipid synthesis and in the winter for beta-oxidation. Monoacylglycerol acyltransferase (MGAT) activity increased significantly in both liver and WAT during the summer but decreased in BAT. Although the changes were consistent with active year-round triacylglycerol synthesis, the higher summer MGAT activity observed in the squirrel liver and WAT suggest that MGATs function may not be limited to conserving essential fatty acids during physiological states of lipolysis. Seasonal changes observed in the ground squirrel were similar to those previously reported in the yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris), confirming that important adjustments occur in energy metabolism necessitated by long seasonal hibernation.

  9. Social conditioned place preference in the captive ground squirrel Ictidomys tridecemlineatus: Social reward as a natural phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Lahvis, Garet P.; Panksepp, Jules B.; Kennedy, Bruce C.; Wilson, Clarinda R.; Merriman, Dana K.

    2015-01-01

    Social behaviors of wild animals are often considered within an ultimate framework of adaptive benefits versus survival risks. By contrast, studies of laboratory animals more typically focus on affective aspects of behavioral decisions, whether a rodent derives a rewarding experience from social encounter and how this experience might be initiated and maintained by neural circuits. Artificial selection and inbreeding have rendered laboratory animals more affiliative and less aggressive than their wild conspecifics, leaving open the possibility that social reward is an artifact of domestication. We compared social behaviors of wild and captive population of juvenile 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus), the latter 2nd and 3rd generation descendents of wild individuals. At an age corresponding to emergence from the burrow, postnatal day 38, captive squirrels engaged in vigorous social approach and play; these juvenile behaviors declined significantly by postnatal day 56. Similarly, young wild squirrels expressed social proximity and play, affiliative interactions declined with summer’s progression and were replaced by agonistic chasing behaviors. Social conditioned place preference testing (conditioned postnatal days 40–50) indicated that adolescent squirrels derived a rewarding experience from social reunion. Our results support the contention that undomesticated rodents have the capacity for social reward and more generally suggest the possibility that positive affective experiences may support group cohesion and social cooperation in the wild. PMID:26147706

  10. Effects of low temperature on breathing pattern and ventilatory responses during hibernation in the golden-mantled ground squirrel.

    PubMed

    Webb, Cheryl L; Milsom, William K

    2017-07-01

    During entrance into hibernation in golden-mantled ground squirrels (Callospermophilus lateralis), ventilation decreases as metabolic rate and body temperature fall. Two patterns of respiration occur during deep hibernation. At 7 °C body temperature (T b ), a breathing pattern characterized by episodes of multiple breaths (20.6 ± 1.9 breaths/episode) separated by long apneas or nonventilatory periods (T nvp ) (mean = 11.1 ± 1.2 min) occurs, while at 4 °C T b , a pattern in which breaths are evenly distributed and separated by a relatively short T nvp (0.5 ± 0.05 min) occurs. Squirrels exhibiting each pattern have similar metabolic rates and levels of total ventilation (0.2 and 0.23 ml O 2 /hr/kg and 0.11 and 0.16 ml air/min/kg, respectively). Squirrels at 7 °C T b exhibit a significant hypoxic ventilatory response, while squirrels at 4 °C T b do not respond to hypoxia at any level of O 2 tested. Squirrels at both temperatures exhibit a significant hypercapnic ventilatory response, but the response is significantly reduced in the 4 °C T b squirrels. Carotid body denervation has little effect on the breathing patterns or on the hypercapnic ventilatory responses. It does reduce the magnitude and threshold for the hypoxic ventilatory response. Taken together the data suggest that (1) the fundamental rhythm generator remains functional at low temperatures; (2) the hypercapnic ventilatory response arises from central chemoreceptors that remain functional at very low temperatures; (3) the hypoxic ventilatory response arises from both carotid body and aortic chemoreceptors that are silenced at lower temperatures; and (4) there is a strong correlation between breathing pattern and chemosensitivity.

  11. Trait-specific processes of convergence and conservatism shape ecomorphological evolution in ground-dwelling squirrels.

    PubMed

    McLean, Bryan S; Helgen, Kristofer M; Goodwin, H Thomas; Cook, Joseph A

    2018-03-01

    Our understanding of mechanisms operating over deep timescales to shape phenotypic diversity often hinges on linking variation in one or few trait(s) to specific evolutionary processes. When distinct processes are capable of similar phenotypic signatures, however, identifying these drivers is difficult. We explored ecomorphological evolution across a radiation of ground-dwelling squirrels whose history includes convergence and constraint, two processes that can yield similar signatures of standing phenotypic diversity. Using four ecologically relevant trait datasets (body size, cranial, mandibular, and molariform tooth shape), we compared and contrasted variation, covariation, and disparity patterns in a new phylogenetic framework. Strong correlations existed between body size and two skull traits (allometry) and among skull traits themselves (integration). Inferred evolutionary modes were also concordant across traits (Ornstein-Uhlenbeck with two adaptive regimes). However, despite these broad similarities, we found divergent dynamics on the macroevolutionary landscape, with phenotypic disparity being differentially shaped by convergence and conservatism. Such among-trait heterogeneity in process (but not always pattern) reiterates the mosaic nature of morphological evolution, and suggests ground squirrel evolution is poorly captured by single process descriptors. Our results also highlight how use of single traits can bias macroevolutionary inference, affirming the importance of broader trait-bases in understanding phenotypic evolutionary dynamics. © 2018 The Author(s). Evolution © 2018 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. Fleas (Siphonaptera) infesting giant kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ingens) on the Elkhorn and Carrizo Plains, San Luis Obispo County, California.

    PubMed

    Tabor, S P; Williams, D F; Germano, D J; Thomas, R E

    1993-01-01

    The giant kangaroo rat, Dipodomys ingens (Merriam), has a limited distribution in the San Joaquin Valley, CA. Because of reductions in its geographic range, largely resulting from humans, the species was listed as an endangered species in 1980 by the California Fish and Game Commission. As part of a study of the community ecology of southern California endangered species, including D. ingens, we were able to make flea collections from the rats when they were trapped and marked for population studies. All but one of the fleas collected from the D. ingens in this study were Hoplopsyllus anomalus, a flea normally associated with ground squirrels (Sciuridae). It has been suggested that giant kangaroo rats fill the ground squirrel niche within their range. Our data indicate that this role includes a normal association with Hoplopsyllus anomalus.

  13. A Validation of Extraction Methods for Noninvasive Sampling of Glucocorticoids in Free-Living Ground Squirrels

    PubMed Central

    Mateo, Jill M.; Cavigelli, Sonia A.

    2008-01-01

    Fecal hormone assays provide a powerful tool for noninvasive monitoring of endocrine status in wild animals. In this study we validated a protocol for extracting and measuring glucocorticoids in free-living and captive Belding’s ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi). We first compared two commonly used extraction protocols to determine which performed better with commercially available antibodies. We next verified the preferred extraction method by correlating circulating and fecal glucocorticoid measures from a group of individuals over time. For this comparison, we used both a cortisol and a corticosterone antibody to determine which had greater affinity to the fecal metabolites. Cortisol was the primary circulating glucocorticoid, but both hormones were present in well above detectable concentrations in the blood, which does not occur in other sciurids. In addition, the cortisol antibody showed greater binding with the fecal extracts than did the corticosterone antibody. Finally, we used adrenocorticotropic hormone and dexamethasone challenges to demonstrate that changes in adrenal functioning are reflected in changing fecal corticoid levels. These results suggest that our extraction protocol provides a fast, reliable assay of stress hormones in free-living ground squirrels without the confounding influence of short-term rises in glucocorticoid concentrations caused by handling and restraint stress and that it can facilitate ecological and evolutionary studies of stress in wild species. PMID:16228945

  14. Age and seasonal differences in the synthesis and metabolism of testosterone by testicular tissue and pineal HIOMT activity of Uinta ground squirrels (Spermophilus armatus)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ellis, L.C.; Balph, D.F.

    Male Uinta ground squirrels (Spermophilus armatus) were sacrificed from a free-living population during the breeding season, which immediately followed emergence from hibernation; after the reproductive season; and just prior to aestivation/hibernation. HIOMT activity of the pineal gland was assayed and related to the ability of the gonads to synthesize and metabolize testosterone. Older squirrels had higher HIOMT activity than did the younger animals. The activity of this enzyme was lowest in squirrels during the breeding season. HIOMT activity increased after the breeding season to its highest level just before the squirrels enter aestivation/hibernation. At this time, testicular weight increased concomitantmore » with an apparent increase in HIOMT activity. Testicular size and weight were largest at the time of emergence of the animals from hibernation. Androgen synthesis was also greatest during the breeding season. As would be expected, both decreased rapidly thereafter. The testes formed little 17..cap alpha..,20..cap alpha..-dihydroxyprogesterone during or after the breeding season, contrary to what has been reported for rats and house sparrows. The older squirrels demonstrated a greater capacity for testosterone metabolism during the breeding season than did the younger animals.« less

  15. Changes in neuropeptide Y immunoreactivity and transcript levels in circadian system structures of the diurnal rodent, the thirteen-lined ground squirrel

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Luis; Lugo, Nidza

    2007-01-01

    The intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) and its neuropeptide Y (NPY) projection to the main circadian clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), have been the focus of extensive research conducted, for the most part, on nocturnal rodent species. However, a variety of anatomical and physiological differences between the circadian system of diurnal and nocturnal species have been reported. These differences led us to question whether the role of NPY in the circadian system of the diurnal ground squirrel differs from that in nocturnal rodents. We used semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry to analyze NPY content in SCN terminals of squirrels sacrificed at specific times of the day and compared the data to previous published results from the rat. Additionally, NPY mRNA was quantified using real-time PCR to determine if varying NPY-immunoreactivity (-ir) levels could be the result of changes in peptide transcription. Our results demonstrate that NPY-ir levels in the ground squirrel SCN peak during the middle of the night unlike what is observed in the rat. Cell counts of NPY-ir neurons in the IGL revealed a pattern of variation 6 hr out of phase compared to what was observed in the SCN. NPY mRNA levels showed only one sharp increase in the middle of the night, coinciding with increases in NPY-ir levels observed in the SCN. Differences in the pattern of fluctuation of NPY in the SCN between the rat and squirrel suggest that this peptide may serve distinct roles in the circadian system of diurnal and nocturnal species. Our data provide the first evidence of the relationship between transcript and peptide levels in the circadian system of a diurnal species. PMID:17109825

  16. Variegated Squirrel Bornavirus 1 in Squirrels, Germany and the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Schlottau, Kore; Jenckel, Maria; van den Brand, Judith; Fast, Christine; Herden, Christiane; Höper, Dirk; Homeier-Bachmann, Timo; Thielebein, Jens; Mensing, Niels; Diender, Bert; Hoffmann, Donata; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Mettenleiter, Thomas C.; Koopmans, Marion; Tappe, Dennis; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Reusken, Chantal B.E.M.; Hoffmann, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    We screened squirrels in Germany and the Netherlands for the novel zoonotic variegated squirrel bornavirus 1 (VSBV-1). The detection of VSBV-1 in 11 squirrels indicates a considerable risk for transmission to humans handling those animals. Therefore, squirrels in contact with humans should routinely be tested for VSBV-1. PMID:28221112

  17. Effects of changing ambient temperature on metabolic, heart, and ventilation rates during steady state hibernation in golden-mantled ground squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis).

    PubMed

    Zimmer, M B; Milsom, W K

    2001-01-01

    To determine whether metabolic rate is suppressed in a temperature-independent fashion in the golden-mantled ground squirrel during steady state hibernation, we measured body temperature and metabolic rate in ground squirrels during hibernation at different T(a)'s. In addition, we attempted to determine whether heart rate, ventilation rate, and breathing patterns changed as a function of body temperature or metabolic rate. We found that metabolic rate changed with T(a) as it was raised from 5 degrees to 14 degrees C, which supports the theory that different species sustain falls in metabolic rate during hibernation in different ways. Heart rate and breathing pattern also changed with changing T(a), while breathing frequency did not. That the total breathing frequency did not correlate closely with oxygen consumption or body temperature, while the breathing pattern did, raises important questions regarding the mechanisms controlling ventilation during hibernation.

  18. Ectoparasites and fitness of female Columbian ground squirrels

    PubMed Central

    Raveh, Shirley; Neuhaus, Peter; Dobson, F. Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Parasites play an important role in the evolution of host traits via natural selection, coevolution and sexually selected ornaments used in mate choice. These evolutionary scenarios assume fitness costs for hosts. To test this assumption, we conducted an ectoparasite removal experiment in free-living Columbian ground squirrels (Urocittelus columbianus) in four populations over three years. Adult females were randomly chosen to be either experimentally treated with anti-parasite treatments (spot-on solution and flea powder, N = 61) or a sham treatment (control, N = 44). We expected that experimental females would show better body condition, increased reproductive success and enhanced survival. Contrary to our expectations, body mass was not significantly different between treatments at mating, birth of litter or weaning of young. Further, neither number nor size of young at weaning differed significantly between the two treatments. Survival to the next spring for adult females and juveniles was not significantly different between experimental and control treatments. Finally, annual fitness was not affected by the treatments. We concluded that females and their offspring were able compensate for the presence of ectoparasites, suggesting little or no fitness costs of parasites for females in the different colonies and during the years of our experiments. PMID:25870399

  19. Complementary Network-Based Approaches for Exploring Genetic Structure and Functional Connectivity in Two Vulnerable, Endemic Ground Squirrels.

    PubMed

    Zero, Victoria H; Barocas, Adi; Jochimsen, Denim M; Pelletier, Agnès; Giroux-Bougard, Xavier; Trumbo, Daryl R; Castillo, Jessica A; Evans Mack, Diane; Linnell, Mark A; Pigg, Rachel M; Hoisington-Lopez, Jessica; Spear, Stephen F; Murphy, Melanie A; Waits, Lisette P

    2017-01-01

    The persistence of small populations is influenced by genetic structure and functional connectivity. We used two network-based approaches to understand the persistence of the northern Idaho ground squirrel ( Urocitellus brunneus) and the southern Idaho ground squirrel ( U. endemicus ), two congeners of conservation concern. These graph theoretic approaches are conventionally applied to social or transportation networks, but here are used to study population persistence and connectivity. Population graph analyses revealed that local extinction rapidly reduced connectivity for the southern species, while connectivity for the northern species could be maintained following local extinction. Results from gravity models complemented those of population graph analyses, and indicated that potential vegetation productivity and topography drove connectivity in the northern species. For the southern species, development (roads) and small-scale topography reduced connectivity, while greater potential vegetation productivity increased connectivity. Taken together, the results of the two network-based methods (population graph analyses and gravity models) suggest the need for increased conservation action for the southern species, and that management efforts have been effective at maintaining habitat quality throughout the current range of the northern species. To prevent further declines, we encourage the continuation of management efforts for the northern species, whereas conservation of the southern species requires active management and additional measures to curtail habitat fragmentation. Our combination of population graph analyses and gravity models can inform conservation strategies of other species exhibiting patchy distributions.

  20. A squirrel searches for food at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    An Eastern gray squirrel pauses in its daily search for food in the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. The Eastern gray squirrel is found in wooded, suburban, and urban areas statewide. It nests in tree hollows or leaf nests in treetops. It forages during the day, mainly early morning and late afternoon, both on the ground and in trees, living on a diet of acorns, nuts, fruits, berries, insects, and bird eggs. Food plants include cypress, buckeyes, elms, grapes, tulip trees, mulberries, and tupelo. It breeds in late winter or early spring and again in late spring or summer, bearing two to six young. The eastern gray squirrel chatters when disturbed. The 92,000-acre wildlife refuge is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles.

  1. Sexing the Sciuridae: a simple and accurate set of molecular methods to determine sex in tree squirrels, ground squirrels and marmots.

    PubMed

    Gorrell, Jamieson C; Boutin, Stan; Raveh, Shirley; Neuhaus, Peter; Côté, Steeve D; Coltman, David W

    2012-09-01

    We determined the sequence of the male-specific minor histocompatibility complex antigen (Smcy) from the Y chromosome of seven squirrel species (Sciuridae, Rodentia). Based on conserved regions inside the Smcy intron sequence, we designed PCR primers for sex determination in these species that can be co-amplified with nuclear loci as controls. PCR co-amplification yields two products for males and one for females that are easily visualized as bands by agarose gel electrophoresis. Our method provides simple and reliable sex determination across a wide range of squirrel species. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Green tree frog (Hyla cinerea) and ground squirrel (Xerospermophilus spilosoma) mortality attributed to inland brevetoxin transportation at Padre Island National Seashore, Texas, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buttke, Danielle E.; Walker, Alicia; Huang, I-Shuo; Flewelling, Leanne; Lankton, Julia S.; Ballmann, Anne E.; Clapp, Travis; Lindsay, James; Zimba, Paul V.

    2018-01-01

    On 16 September 2015, a red tide (Karenia brevis) bloom impacted coastal areas of Padre Island National Seashore Park. Two days later and about 0.9 km inland, 30–40 adult green tree frogs (Hyla cinerea) were found dead after displaying tremors, weakness, labored breathing, and other signs of neurologic impairment. A rainstorm, accompanied by high winds, rough surf, and high tides, which could have aerosolized brevetoxin, occurred on the morning of the mortality event. Frog carcasses were healthy but contained significant brevetoxin in tissues. Tissue brevetoxin was also found in two dead or dying spotted ground squirrels (Xerospermophilus spilosoma) and a coyote (Canis latrans). Rainwater collected from the location of the mortality event contained brevetoxin. Mortality of green tree frog and ground squirrel mortality has not been previously attributed to brevetoxin exposure and such mortality suggested that inland toxin transport, possibly through aerosols, rainfall, or insects, may have important implications for coastal species.

  3. Demography of a population collapse: the Northern Idaho ground squirrel (Spermophilus brunneus brunneus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherman, P.W.; Runge, M.C.

    2002-01-01

    We studied the demography of a population of Northern Idaho ground squirrels (Spermophilus brunneus brunneus) in Adams Co., Idaho. The population was completely censused yearly from 1987 to 1999, during which time it declined from 272 to 10 animals. The finite population growth rate, based on a Leslie matrix model of average life-history parameters, was only 0.72 (i.e., significantly <1.0). Growth rate was more sensitive to proportional changes in juvenile female survival than to any other single life-history parameter. Comparisons with self-sustaining populations of closely related ground squirrel species revealed that juvenile survival and breeding rates of yearling females were anomalously low. We believe that the ultimate cause of the population's collapse was inadequacy of food resources, particularly seeds, due to drying of the habitat and changes in plant species composition, likely the result of fire suppression and grazing. No 'rescue' by immigration occurred, probably because S. b. brunneus seldom disperse long distances and fire suppression has allowed conifers to encroach on inhabited meadows, shrinking them and closing dispersal routes. The proximate cause of the population's collapse was mortality of older breeding females, which reduced the mean age of breeders. Younger females had lower average pregnancy rates and litter sizes. To place our results in context we developed a new, general classification of anthropogenic population declines, based on whether they are caused by changes in the means of the life-history parameters (blatant disturbances), their variances (inappropriate variations), or the correlations among them (evolutionary traps). Many S. b. brunneus populations have disappeared in recent years, apparently due to blatant disturbances, especially loss of habitat and changes in food-plant composition, resulting in inadequate prehibernation nutrition and starvation overwinter. In addition, our study population may have been caught in an

  4. Seasonal proteomic changes reveal molecular adaptations to preserve and replenish liver proteins during ground squirrel hibernation

    PubMed Central

    Epperson, L. Elaine; Rose, James C.; Carey, Hannah V.

    2010-01-01

    Hibernators are unique among mammals in their ability to survive extended periods of time with core body temperatures near freezing and with dramatically reduced heart, respiratory, and metabolic rates in a state known as torpor. To gain insight into the molecular events underlying this remarkable physiological phenotype, we applied a proteomic screening approach to identify liver proteins that differ between the summer active (SA) and the entrance (Ent) phase of winter hibernation in 13-lined ground squirrels. The relative abundance of 1,600 protein spots separated on two-dimensional gels was quantitatively determined using fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis, and 74 unique proteins exhibiting significant differences between the two states were identified using liquid chromatography followed by tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Proteins elevated in Ent hibernators included liver fatty acid-binding protein, fatty acid transporter, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase, which support the known metabolic fuel switch to lipid and ketone body utilization in winter. Several proteins involved in protein stability and protein folding were also elevated in the Ent phase, consistent with previous findings. In contrast to transcript screening results, there was a surprising increase in the abundance of proteins involved in protein synthesis during Ent hibernation, including several initiation and elongation factors. This finding, coupled with decreased abundance of numerous proteins involved in amino acid and nitrogen metabolism, supports the intriguing hypothesis that the mechanism of protein preservation and resynthesis is used by hibernating ground squirrels to help avoid nitrogen toxicity and ensure preservation of essential amino acids throughout the long winter fast. PMID:19923364

  5. Stable isotope analysis of CO2 in breath indicates metabolic fuel shifts in torpid arctic ground squirrels.

    PubMed

    Lee, Trixie N; Richter, Melanie M; Williams, Cory T; Tøien, Øivind; Barnes, Brian M; O'Brien, Diane M; Buck, C Loren

    2017-07-01

    Stable carbon isotope ratios (δ 13 C) in breath show promise as an indicator of immediate metabolic fuel utilization in animals because tissue lipids have a lower δ 13 C value than carbohydrates and proteins. Metabolic fuel consumption is often estimated using the respiratory exchange ratio (RER), which has lipid and carbohydrate boundaries, but does not differentiate between protein and mixed fuel catabolism at intermediate values. Because lipids have relatively low δ 13 C values, measurements of stable carbon isotopes in breath may help distinguish between catabolism of protein and mixed fuel that includes lipid. We measured breath δ 13 C and RER concurrently in arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii) during steady-state torpor at ambient temperatures from -2 to -26°C. As predicted, we found a correlation between RER and breath δ 13 C values; however, the range of RER in this study did not reach intermediate levels to allow further resolution of metabolic substrate use with the addition of breath δ 13 C measurements. These data suggest that breath δ 13 C values are 1.1‰ lower than lipid tissue during pure lipid metabolism. From RER, we determined that arctic ground squirrels rely on nonlipid fuel sources for a significant portion of energy during torpor (up to 37%). The shift toward nonlipid fuel sources may be influenced by adiposity of the animals in addition to thermal challenge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Complementary Network-Based Approaches for Exploring Genetic Structure and Functional Connectivity in Two Vulnerable, Endemic Ground Squirrels

    PubMed Central

    Zero, Victoria H.; Barocas, Adi; Jochimsen, Denim M.; Pelletier, Agnès; Giroux-Bougard, Xavier; Trumbo, Daryl R.; Castillo, Jessica A.; Evans Mack, Diane; Linnell, Mark A.; Pigg, Rachel M.; Hoisington-Lopez, Jessica; Spear, Stephen F.; Murphy, Melanie A.; Waits, Lisette P.

    2017-01-01

    The persistence of small populations is influenced by genetic structure and functional connectivity. We used two network-based approaches to understand the persistence of the northern Idaho ground squirrel (Urocitellus brunneus) and the southern Idaho ground squirrel (U. endemicus), two congeners of conservation concern. These graph theoretic approaches are conventionally applied to social or transportation networks, but here are used to study population persistence and connectivity. Population graph analyses revealed that local extinction rapidly reduced connectivity for the southern species, while connectivity for the northern species could be maintained following local extinction. Results from gravity models complemented those of population graph analyses, and indicated that potential vegetation productivity and topography drove connectivity in the northern species. For the southern species, development (roads) and small-scale topography reduced connectivity, while greater potential vegetation productivity increased connectivity. Taken together, the results of the two network-based methods (population graph analyses and gravity models) suggest the need for increased conservation action for the southern species, and that management efforts have been effective at maintaining habitat quality throughout the current range of the northern species. To prevent further declines, we encourage the continuation of management efforts for the northern species, whereas conservation of the southern species requires active management and additional measures to curtail habitat fragmentation. Our combination of population graph analyses and gravity models can inform conservation strategies of other species exhibiting patchy distributions. PMID:28659969

  7. Arctic ground squirrels of the mammoth-steppe: paleoecology of Late Pleistocene middens (˜24 000 29 450 14C yr BP), Yukon Territory, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zazula, Grant D.; Froese, Duane G.; Elias, Scott A.; Kuzmina, Svetlana; Mathewes, Rolf W.

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents paleoecological analyses of 48 fossil arctic ground squirrel ( Spermophilus parryii) middens (nests and caches) recovered from ice-rich loess sediments in the Klondike region of west-central Yukon Territory. AMS radiocarbon dates and stratigraphic association of middens with Dawson tephra (˜25 300 14C yr BP), indicate these paleoecological data reflect the onset of glacial conditions of early Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2 and terminal MIS 3 (˜24 000-29 450 14C yr BP). Plant macrofossils include at least 60 plant taxa, including diverse graminoids ( Poa, Elymus trachycaulus, Kobresia myosuroides), steppe forbs ( Penstemon gormanii, Anemone patens var. multifida, Plantago cf. canescens), tundra forbs ( Draba spp., Bistorta vivipara), dwarf shrubs ( Salix cf. arctica, S. cf. polaris), sage ( Artemisia frigida) and rare trees ( Picea mariana). Many of these taxa identified in the middens represent the first recorded fossils for these plants in Eastern Beringia and add to our knowledge of the floristic composition of Pleistocene vegetation and biogeography in this region. Fossil beetles include typical members of the Eastern Beringian steppe-tundra fauna ( Lepidophorus lineaticollis and Connatichela artemisiae) and others suggesting predominantly dry, open habitats. Cache forage selection is suggested by some plant taxa which were particularly frequent and abundant in the middens ( Bistorta vivipara, Kobresia myosuroides, Ranunculus spp., Potentilla, Erysimum cf. cheiranthoides, Poa, Carex and Draba). Factors such as proximity of vegetation to burrows and abundance of fruits and seeds per plant were probably important in cache selection. Glacial conditions enabled arctic ground squirrels to form widespread and dense populations in regions such as the Klondike in which they are rare or absent at present. This fossil midden record supports previous hypotheses that suggest arctic ground squirrels evolved in and are well-adapted to the open, steppe

  8. Influence of trap modifications and environmental predictors on capture success of southern flying squirrels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacques, Christopher N.; Zweep, James S.; Scheihing, Mary E.; Rechkemmer, Will T.; Jenkins, Sean E.; Klaver, Robert W.; Dubay, Shelli A.

    2017-01-01

    Sherman traps are the most commonly used live traps in studies of small mammals and have been successfully used in the capture of arboreal species such as the southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans). However, southern flying squirrels spend proportionately less time foraging on the ground, which necessitates above-ground trapping methods and modifications of capture protocols. Further, quantitative estimates of the factors affecting capture success of flying squirrel populations have focused solely on effects of trapping methodologies. We developed and evaluated the efficacy of a portable Sherman trap design for capturing southern flying squirrels during 2015–2016 at the Alice L. Kibbe Field Station, Illinois, USA. Additionally, we used logistic regression to quantify potential effects of time-dependent (e.g., weather) and time-independent (e.g., habitat, extrinsic) factors on capture success of southern flying squirrels. We recorded 165 capture events (119 F, 44 M, 2 unknown) using our modified Sherman trap design. Probability of capture success decreased 0.10/1° C increase in daily maximum temperature and by 0.09/unit increase (km/hr) in wind speed. Conversely, probability of capture success increased by 1.2/1° C increase in daily minimum temperature. The probability of capturing flying squirrels was negatively associated with trap orientation. When tree-mounted traps are required, our modified trap design is a safe, efficient, and cost-effective method of capturing animals when moderate weather (temp and wind speed) conditions prevail. Further, we believe that strategic placement of traps (e.g., northeast side of tree) and quantitative information on site-specific (e.g., trap location) characteristics (e.g., topographical features, slope, aspect, climatologic factors) could increase southern flying squirrel capture success. © 2017 The Wildlife Society.

  9. Daily Activity and Nest Occupation Patterns of Fox Squirrels (Sciurus niger) throughout the Year.

    PubMed

    Wassmer, Thomas; Refinetti, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated the general activity and nest occupation patterns of fox squirrels in a natural setting using temperature-sensitive data loggers that measure activity as changes in the microenvironment of the animal. Data were obtained from 25 distinct preparations, upon 14 unique squirrels, totaling 1385 recording days. The animals were clearly diurnal, with a predominantly unimodal activity pattern, although individual squirrels occasionally exhibited bimodal patterns, particularly in the spring and summer. Even during the short days of winter (9 hours of light), the squirrels typically left the nest after dawn and returned before dusk, spending only about 7 hours out of the nest each day. Although the duration of the daily active phase did not change with the seasons, the squirrels exited the nest earlier in the day when the days became longer in the summer and exited the nest later in the day when the days became shorter in the winter, thus tracking dawn along the seasons. During the few hours spent outside the nest each day, fox squirrels seemed to spend most of the time sitting or lying. These findings suggest that fox squirrels may have adopted a slow life history strategy that involves long periods of rest on trees and short periods of ground activity each day.

  10. Ultrasonic Vocalizations Emitted by Flying Squirrels

    PubMed Central

    Murrant, Meghan N.; Bowman, Jeff; Garroway, Colin J.; Prinzen, Brian; Mayberry, Heather; Faure, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Anecdotal reports of ultrasound use by flying squirrels have existed for decades, yet there has been little detailed analysis of their vocalizations. Here we demonstrate that two species of flying squirrel emit ultrasonic vocalizations. We recorded vocalizations from northern (Glaucomys sabrinus) and southern (G. volans) flying squirrels calling in both the laboratory and at a field site in central Ontario, Canada. We demonstrate that flying squirrels produce ultrasonic emissions through recorded bursts of broadband noise and time-frequency structured frequency modulated (FM) vocalizations, some of which were purely ultrasonic. Squirrels emitted three types of ultrasonic calls in laboratory recordings and one type in the field. The variety of signals that were recorded suggest that flying squirrels may use ultrasonic vocalizations to transfer information. Thus, vocalizations may be an important, although still poorly understood, aspect of flying squirrel social biology. PMID:24009728

  11. Stress in biological invasions: Introduced invasive grey squirrels increase physiological stress in native Eurasian red squirrels.

    PubMed

    Santicchia, Francesca; Dantzer, Ben; van Kesteren, Freya; Palme, Rupert; Martinoli, Adriano; Ferrari, Nicola; Wauters, Lucas Armand

    2018-05-23

    Invasive alien species can cause extinction of native species through processes including predation, interspecific competition for resources or disease-mediated competition. Increases in stress hormones in vertebrates may be associated with these processes and contribute to the decline in survival or reproduction of the native species. Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) have gone extinct across much of the British Isles and parts of Northern Italy following the introduction of North American invasive grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis). We extracted glucocorticoid metabolites from faecal samples to measure whether the presence of the invasive species causes an increase in physiological stress in individuals of the native species. We show that native red squirrels in seven sites where they co-occurred with invasive grey squirrels had glucocorticoid concentrations that were three times higher than those in five sites without the invasive species. Moreover, in a longitudinal study, stress hormones in native red squirrels increased after colonisation by grey squirrels. When we experimentally reduced the abundance of the invasive grey squirrels, the concentration of faecal glucocorticoid metabolites in co-occurring red squirrels decreased significantly between pre- and postremoval periods. Hence, we found that the invasive species acts as a stressor which significantly increases the concentrations of glucocorticoids in the native species. Given that sustained elevations in glucocorticoids could reduce body growth and reproductive rate, our results are consistent with previous studies where the co-occurrence of the invasive grey squirrel was associated with smaller size and lower reproductive output in red squirrels. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2018 British Ecological Society.

  12. Fungi in the diets of northern flying squirrels and lodgepole chipmunks in the Sierra Nevada

    Treesearch

    Marc D. Meyer; Malcolm P. North; Douglas A. Kelt

    2005-01-01

    The diets of a fungal specialist, northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus (Shaw, 1801)), and a dietary generalist, lodgepole chipmunk (Neotamias speciosus (Merriam, 1890)), were examined in the old-growth, mixed-conifer forest at the Teakettle Experimental Forest in California's southern Sierra Nevada. Spores of fungi...

  13. The major histocompatibility complex of tassel-eared squirrels. II. Genetic diversity associated with Abert squirrels.

    PubMed

    Wettstein, P J; States, J S

    1986-01-01

    The extent of polymorphism and the rate of divergence of class I and class II sequences mapping to the mammalian major histocompatibility complex (MHC) have been the subject of experimentation and speculation. To provide further insight into the evolution of the MHC we have initiated the analysis of two geographically isolated subspecies of tassel-eared squirrels. In the preceding communication we described the number and polymorphism of TSLA class I and class II sequences in Kaibab squirrels (S. aberti kaibabensis), which live north of the Grand Canyon. In this report we present a parallel analysis of Abert squirrels (S. aberti aberti), which live south of the Grand Canyon in northern Arizona. Genomic DNA from 12 Abert squirrels was digested with restriction enzymes, electrophoresed, blotted, and hybridized with DR alpha, DR beta, DQ alpha, DQ beta, and HLA-B7 probes. The results of these hybridizations were remarkably similar to those obtained in Kaibab squirrels. The majority of class I and class II bands were identical in size and number, suggesting that Abert and Kaibab squirrels have not significantly diverged in the TSLA complex despite their geographical separation. Relative polymorphism of class II sequences was similar to that observed with Kaibab squirrels: beta sequences exhibited higher polymorphism than alpha sequences. As in Kaibab squirrels, a number of alpha and beta sequences were apparently carried on the same fragments. In comparison to class II beta sequences, there was limited polymorphism in class I sequences, although a diverse number of class I genotypes were observed. Attempts to identify segregating TSLA haplotypes were futile in that the only families of sequences with concordant distributions were DQ alpha and DQ beta. These observations and those obtained with Kaibab squirrels suggest that the present-day TSLA haplotypes of both subspecies are derived from a limited number of common, progenitor haplotypes through repeated intra

  14. Effects of hibernation on bone marrow transcriptome in thirteen-lined ground squirrels.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Scott T; Sell, Shawn S; Fahrenkrog, Molly; Wilkinson, Kory; Howard, David R; Bergen, Hannah; Cruz, Estefania; Cash, Steve E; Andrews, Matthew T; Hampton, Marshall

    2016-07-01

    Mammalian hibernators adapt to prolonged periods of immobility, hypometabolism, hypothermia, and oxidative stress, each capable of reducing bone marrow activity. In this study bone marrow transcriptomes were compared among thirteen-lined ground squirrels collected in July, winter torpor, and winter interbout arousal (IBA). The results were consistent with a suppression of acquired immune responses, and a shift to innate immune responses during hibernation through higher complement expression. Consistent with the increase in adipocytes found in bone marrow of hibernators, expression of genes associated with white adipose tissue are higher during hibernation. Genes that should strengthen the bone by increasing extracellular matrix were higher during hibernation, especially the collagen genes. Finally, expression of heat shock proteins were lower, and cold-response genes were higher, during hibernation. No differential expression of hematopoietic genes involved in erythrocyte or megakaryocyte production was observed. This global view of the changes in the bone marrow transcriptome over both short term (torpor vs. IBA) and long term (torpor vs. July) hypothermia can explain several observations made about circulating blood cells and the structure and strength of the bone during hibernation. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Expression profiling and structural characterization of microRNAs in adipose tissues of hibernating ground squirrels.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Wei; Biggar, Kyle K; Storey, Kenneth B

    2014-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that are important in regulating metabolic stress. In this study, we determined the expression and structural characteristics of 20 miRNAs in brown (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) during torpor in thirteen-lined ground squirrels. Using a modified stem-loop technique, we found that during torpor, expression of six miRNAs including let-7a, let-7b, miR-107, miR-150, miR-222 and miR-31 was significantly downregulated in WAT (P<0.05), which was 16%-54% of euthermic non-torpid control squirrels, whereas expression of three miRNAs including miR-143, miR-200a and miR-519d was found to be upregulated by 1.32-2.34-fold. Similarly, expression of more miRNAs was downregulated in BAT during torpor. We detected reduced expression of 6 miRNAs including miR-103a, miR-107, miR-125b, miR-21, miR-221 and miR-31 (48%-70% of control), while only expression of miR-138 was significantly upregulated (2.91±0.8-fold of the control, P<0.05). Interestingly, miRNAs found to be downregulated in WAT during torpor were similar to those dysregulated in obese humans for increased adipogenesis, whereas miRNAs with altered expression in BAT during torpor were linked to mitochondrial β-oxidation. miRPath target prediction analysis showed that miRNAs downregulated in both WAT and BAT were associated with the regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, while the miRNAs upregulated in WAT were linked to transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling. Compared to mouse sequences, no unique nucleotide substitutions within the stem-loop region were discovered for the associated pre-miRNAs for the miRNAs used in this study, suggesting no structure-influenced changes in pre-miRNA processing efficiency in the squirrel. As well, the expression of miRNA processing enzyme Dicer remained unchanged in both tissues during torpor. Overall, our findings suggest that changes of miRNA expression in adipose tissues may be linked to distinct

  16. Within-individual correlations reveal link between a behavioral syndrome, condition and cortisol in free-ranging Belding's ground squirrels

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Katherine C.; Mateo, Jill. M.

    2014-01-01

    Animals often exhibit consistent individual differences in behavior (i.e. animal personality) and correlations between behaviors (i.e. behavioral syndromes), yet the causes of those patterns of behavioral variation remain insufficiently understood. Many authors hypothesize that state-dependent behavior produces animal personality and behavioral syndromes. However, empirical studies assessing patterns of covariation among behavioral traits and state variables have produced mixed results. New statistical methods that partition correlations into between-individual and residual within-individual correlations offer an opportunity to more sufficiently quantify relationships among behaviors and state variables to assess hypotheses of animal personality and behavioral syndromes. In a population of wild Belding's ground squirrels (Urocitellus beldingi) we repeatedly measured activity, exploration, and response to restraint behaviors alongside glucocorticoids and nutritional condition. We used multivariate mixed models to determine whether between-individual or within-individual correlations drive phenotypic relationships among traits. Squirrels had consistent individual differences for all five traits. At the between-individual level, activity and exploration were positively correlated whereas both traits negatively correlated with response to restraint, demonstrating a behavioral syndrome. At the within-individual level, condition negatively correlated with cortisol, activity and exploration. Importantly, this indicates that although behavior is state-dependent, which may play a role in animal personality and behavioral syndromes, feedback mechanisms between condition and behavior appear not to produce consistent individual differences in behavior and correlations between them. PMID:25598565

  17. Northern flying squirrel mycophagy and truffle production in fir forests in northeastern California

    Treesearch

    J.R. Waters; K.S. McKelvey; C.J. Zabel; D.L. Luoma

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we summarize the results of four studies in which we either examined the feeding habits of the northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus), a mycophagous (consuming fungi) small mammal, or compared the abundance of truffles (sporocarps of hypogeous mycorrhizal fungi) among different types of fir (Abies) forest....

  18. Androgen resistance in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.).

    PubMed

    Gross, Katherine L; Westberry, Jenne M; Hubler, Tina R; Sadosky, Patti W; Singh, Ravinder J; Taylor, Robert L; Scammell, Jonathan G

    2008-08-01

    The goal of this study was to understand the basis for high androgen levels in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.). Mass spectrometry was used to analyze serum testosterone, androstenedione, and dihydrotestosterone of male squirrel monkeys during the nonbreeding (n = 7) and breeding (n = 10) seasons. All hormone levels were elevated compared with those of humans, even during the nonbreeding season; the highest levels occurred during the breeding season. The ratio of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone in squirrel monkeys is high during the breeding season compared to man. Squirrel monkeys may have high testosterone to compensate for inefficient metabolism to dihydrotestosterone. We also investigated whether squirrel monkeys have high androgens to compensate for low-activity androgen receptors (AR). The response to dihydrotestosterone in squirrel monkey cells transfected with AR and AR-responsive reporter plasmids was 4-fold, compared with 28-fold in human cells. This result was not due to overexpression of cellular FKBP51, which causes glucocorticoid and progestin resistance in squirrel monkeys, because overexpression of FKBP51 had no effect on dihydrotestosterone-stimulated reporter activity in a human fibroblast cell line. To test whether the inherently low levels of FKBP52 in squirrel monkeys contribute to androgen insensitivity, squirrel monkey cells were transfected with an AR expression plasmid, an AR-responsive reporter plasmid, and a plasmid expressing FKBP52. Expression of FKBP52 decreased the EC50 or increased the maximal response to dihydrotestosterone. Therefore, the high androgen levels in squirrel monkeys likely compensate for their relatively low 5 alpha-reductase activity during the breeding season and AR insensitivity resulting from low cellular levels of FKBP52.

  19. Stochastic population dynamics of a montane ground-dwelling squirrel.

    PubMed

    Hostetler, Jeffrey A; Kneip, Eva; Van Vuren, Dirk H; Oli, Madan K

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the causes and consequences of population fluctuations is a central goal of ecology. We used demographic data from a long-term (1990-2008) study and matrix population models to investigate factors and processes influencing the dynamics and persistence of a golden-mantled ground squirrel (Callospermophilus lateralis) population, inhabiting a dynamic subalpine habitat in Colorado, USA. The overall deterministic population growth rate λ was 0.94±SE 0.05 but it varied widely over time, ranging from 0.45±0.09 in 2006 to 1.50±0.12 in 2003, and was below replacement (λ<1) for 9 out of 18 years. The stochastic population growth rate λ(s) was 0.92, suggesting a declining population; however, the 95% CI on λ(s) included 1.0 (0.52-1.60). Stochastic elasticity analysis showed that survival of adult females, followed by survival of juvenile females and litter size, were potentially the most influential vital rates; analysis of life table response experiments revealed that the same three life history variables made the largest contributions to year-to year changes in λ. Population viability analysis revealed that, when the influences of density dependence and immigration were not considered, the population had a high (close to 1.0 in 50 years) probability of extinction. However, probability of extinction declined to as low as zero when density dependence and immigration were considered. Destabilizing effects of stochastic forces were counteracted by regulating effects of density dependence and rescue effects of immigration, which allowed our study population to bounce back from low densities and prevented extinction. These results suggest that dynamics and persistence of our study population are determined synergistically by density-dependence, stochastic forces, and immigration.

  20. Stochastic Population Dynamics of a Montane Ground-Dwelling Squirrel

    PubMed Central

    Hostetler, Jeffrey A.; Kneip, Eva; Van Vuren, Dirk H.; Oli, Madan K.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the causes and consequences of population fluctuations is a central goal of ecology. We used demographic data from a long-term (1990–2008) study and matrix population models to investigate factors and processes influencing the dynamics and persistence of a golden-mantled ground squirrel (Callospermophilus lateralis) population, inhabiting a dynamic subalpine habitat in Colorado, USA. The overall deterministic population growth rate λ was 0.94±SE 0.05 but it varied widely over time, ranging from 0.45±0.09 in 2006 to 1.50±0.12 in 2003, and was below replacement (λ<1) for 9 out of 18 years. The stochastic population growth rate λs was 0.92, suggesting a declining population; however, the 95% CI on λs included 1.0 (0.52–1.60). Stochastic elasticity analysis showed that survival of adult females, followed by survival of juvenile females and litter size, were potentially the most influential vital rates; analysis of life table response experiments revealed that the same three life history variables made the largest contributions to year-to year changes in λ. Population viability analysis revealed that, when the influences of density dependence and immigration were not considered, the population had a high (close to 1.0 in 50 years) probability of extinction. However, probability of extinction declined to as low as zero when density dependence and immigration were considered. Destabilizing effects of stochastic forces were counteracted by regulating effects of density dependence and rescue effects of immigration, which allowed our study population to bounce back from low densities and prevented extinction. These results suggest that dynamics and persistence of our study population are determined synergistically by density-dependence, stochastic forces, and immigration. PMID:22479616

  1. Ground water in the San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kunkel, Fred; Hofman, Walter

    1966-01-01

    Ladies and gentlemen, it is a pleasure to be invited to attend this Irrigation Institute conference and to describe the Geological Survey's program of ground-water studies in the San Joaquin Valley. The U.S. Geological Survey has been making water-resources studies in cooperation with the State of California and other agencies in California for more than 70 years. Three of the earliest Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers--numbers 17, 18, and 19--published in 1898 and 1899, describe "Irrigation near Bakersfield," "Irrigation near Fresno," and "Irrigation near Merced." However, the first Survey report on ground-water occurrence in the San Joaquin Valley was "Ground Water in the San Joaquin Valley," by Mendenhall and others. The fieldwork was done from 1905 to 1910, and the report was published in 1916 as U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 398.The current series of ground-water studies in the San Joaquin Valley was begun in 1952 as part of the California Department of Water Resources-U.S. Geological Survey cooperative water-resources program. The first report of this series is Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1469, "Ground-Water Conditions and Storage Capacity in the San Joaquin Valley." Other reports are Water-Supply Paper 1618, "Use of Ground-Water Reservoirs for Storage of Surface Water in the San Joaquin Valley;" Water-Supply Paper 1656, "Geology and Ground-Water Features of the Edison-Maricopa Area;" Water-Supply Paper 1360-G, "Ground- Water Conditions in the Mendota-Huron Area;" Water-Supply Paper 1457, "Ground-Water Conditions in the Avenal-McKittrick Area;" and an open-file report, "Geology, Hydrology, and Quality of Water in the Terra Bella-Lost Hills Area."In addition to the preceding published reports, ground-water studies currently are being made of the Kern Fan area, the Hanford- Visalia area, the Fresno area, the Merced area, and of the clays of Tulare Lake. Also, detailed studies of both shallow and deep subsidence in the southern part of

  2. Ground Water Atlas of the United States: Segment 1, California, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Planert, Michael; Williams, John S.

    1995-01-01

    California and Nevada compose Segment 1 of the Ground Water Atlas of the United States. Segment 1 is a region of pronounced physiographic and climatic contrasts. From the Cascade Mountains and the Sierra Nevada of northern California, where precipitation is abundant, to the Great Basin in Nevada and the deserts of southern California, which have the most arid environments in the United States, few regions exhibit such a diversity of topography or environment. Since the discovery of gold in the mid-1800's, California has experienced a population, industrial, and agricultural boom unrivaled by that of any other State. Water needs in California are very large, and the State leads the United States in agricultural and municipal water use. The demand for water exceeds the natural water supply in many agricultural and nearly all urban areas. As a result, water is impounded by reservoirs in areas of surplus and transported to areas of scarcity by an extensive network of aqueducts. Unlike California, which has a relative abundance of water, development in Nevada has been limited by a scarcity of recoverable freshwater. The Truckee, the Carson, the Walker, the Humboldt, and the Colorado Rivers are the only perennial streams of significance in the State. The individual basin-fill aquifers, which together compose the largest known ground-water reserves, receive little annual recharge and are easily depleted. Nevada is sparsely populated, except for the Las Vegas, the Reno-Sparks, and the Carson City areas, which rely heavily on imported water for public supplies. Although important to the economy of Nevada, agriculture has not been developed to the same degree as in California due, in large part, to a scarcity of water. Some additional ground-water development might be possible in Nevada through prudent management of the basin-fill aquifers and increased utilization of ground water in the little-developed carbonate-rock aquifers that underlie the eastern one-half of the State

  3. Differential regulation of glomerular and interstitial endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression in the kidney of hibernating ground squirrel.

    PubMed

    Sandovici, Maria; Henning, Robert H; Hut, Roelof A; Strijkstra, Arjen M; Epema, Anne H; van Goor, Harry; Deelman, Leo E

    2004-09-01

    Hibernating animals transiently reduce renal function during their hypothermic periods (torpor), while completely restoring it during their periodical rewarming to euthermia (arousal). Moreover, structural integrity of the kidney is preserved throughout the hibernation. Nitric oxide (NO) generated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is a crucial vasodilatory mediator and a protective factor in the kidney. We investigated renal NOS expression in hibernating European ground squirrels after 1 day and 7 days of torpor (torpor short, TS, and torpor long, TL, respectively), at 1.5 and at 10 h of rewarming (arousal short, AS, and arousal long, AL, respectively), and in continuously euthermic animals after hibernation (EU). For that purpose, we performed NOS activity assay, immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR analysis. Immunohistochemistry revealed a decreased glomerular eNOS expression in hibernating animals (TS, TL, AS, and AL) compared to non-hibernating animals (EU, p < 0.05), whereas no difference was found in the expression of interstitial eNOS. Expression of iNOS and nNOS did not differ between all groups. The reduced glomerular eNOS was associated with a significantly lower eNOS mRNA levels and NOS activity of whole kidney during torpor and arousal (TS, TL, AS, and AL) compared to EU. In all methods used, torpid and aroused squirrels did not differ. These results demonstrate differential regulation of eNOS in glomeruli and interstitium of hibernating animals, which is unaffected during arousal. The differential regulation of eNOS may serve to reduce ultrafiltration without jeopardizing tubular structures during hibernation.

  4. Squirrel Foraging Preferences: Gone Nuts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Randi A.

    2007-01-01

    This field exercise examines the feeding preferences of Gray Squirrels ("Sciurus carolinensis"). Students present squirrels with a variety of food types in a cafeteria-style arrangement in order to test hypotheses about foraging preferences. This exercise, which is appropriate for introductory biology, ecology, and animal behavior classes, is…

  5. Space-to-Ground: California Wildfires: 12/08/2017

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-07

    Orbital ATK's Cygnus left the station carrying a record amount, and astronauts got a harrowing view of the California wildfires. NASA's Space to Ground is your weekly update on what's happening aboard the International Space Station.

  6. Multiple detection of zoonotic variegated squirrel bornavirus 1 RNA in different squirrel species suggests a possible unknown origin for the virus.

    PubMed

    Schlottau, Kore; Hoffmann, Bernd; Homeier-Bachmann, Timo; Fast, Christine; Ulrich, Rainer G; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Donata

    2017-09-01

    The recently discovered variegated squirrel bornavirus 1 (VSBV-1) caused the death of three squirrel breeders in Germany. Subsequent first screening of squirrels with in vivo collected swab samples and a VSBV-1-specific RT-qPCR revealed not only variegated squirrel infections (Sciurus variegatoides), but also Prevost's squirrels (Callosciurus prevostii) as positive for VSBV-1 genome. In this study, 328 squirrels were tested using the established RT-qPCR assays. In 16 individual animals VSBV-1 RNA could be detected; 15 individuals were from small breedings and zoological gardens in Germany, with the remaining individual being from a zoological garden in Croatia. Positive animals belonged to the species C. prevostii, C. finlaysonii, and Tamiops swinhoei within the subfamily Callosciurinae and Sciurus granatensis within the subfamily Sciurinae. Repeated non-invasive oral swab sampling in one holding indicated positive animals months after a first negative result. Besides the oral swabs, VSBV-1 was also detected in fecal (pool) samples allowing the future monitoring of squirrel holdings based on RT-qPCR investigation of such samples. The detection in zoological gardens emphasizes the need for further investigations into the transmission route to humans in order to develop rational public health measures for prevention of transmission. Finally, the detection of several closely related VSBV-1 sequences in squirrels from different subfamilies raises questions as to the origin of the virus.

  7. Biodiversity threats from outside to inside: effects of alien grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) on helminth community of native red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Romeo, Claudia; Ferrari, Nicola; Lanfranchi, Paolo; Saino, Nicola; Santicchia, Francesca; Martinoli, Adriano; Wauters, Lucas A

    2015-07-01

    Biological invasions are among the major causes of biodiversity loss worldwide, and parasites carried or acquired by invaders may represent an added threat to native species. We compared gastrointestinal helminth communities of native Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) in the presence and absence of introduced Eastern grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) to detect alterations induced by the alien species. In particular, we investigated whether spillover of a North American nematode Strongyloides robustus occurs and whether prevalence of a local parasite Trypanoxyuris sciuri in red squirrels is affected by grey squirrel presence. The probability of being infected by both parasites was significantly higher in areas co-inhabited by the alien species, where 61 % of examined red squirrels (n = 49) were infected by S. robustus and 90 % by T. sciuri. Conversely, in red-only areas, the two parasites infected only 5 and 70 % of individuals (n = 60). Overall, our findings support the hypothesis that red squirrels acquire S. robustus via spillover from the alien congener and suggest that invaders' presence may also indirectly affect infection by local parasites through mechanisms diverse than spill-back and linked to the increased competitive pressure to which red squirrels are subjected. These results indicate that the impact of grey squirrel on red squirrels may have been underestimated and highlight the importance of investigating variation in macroparasite communities of native species threatened by alien competitors.

  8. Spatial analysis of plague in California: niche modeling predictions of the current distribution and potential response to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Ashley C; Salkeld, Daniel J; Fritz, Curtis L; Tucker, James R; Gong, Peng

    2009-01-01

    Background Plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis, is a public and wildlife health concern in California and the western United States. This study explores the spatial characteristics of positive plague samples in California and tests Maxent, a machine-learning method that can be used to develop niche-based models from presence-only data, for mapping the potential distribution of plague foci. Maxent models were constructed using geocoded seroprevalence data from surveillance of California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) as case points and Worldclim bioclimatic data as predictor variables, and compared and validated using area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) statistics. Additionally, model results were compared to locations of positive and negative coyote (Canis latrans) samples, in order to determine the correlation between Maxent model predictions and areas of plague risk as determined via wild carnivore surveillance. Results Models of plague activity in California ground squirrels, based on recent climate conditions, accurately identified case locations (AUC of 0.913 to 0.948) and were significantly correlated with coyote samples. The final models were used to identify potential plague risk areas based on an ensemble of six future climate scenarios. These models suggest that by 2050, climate conditions may reduce plague risk in the southern parts of California and increase risk along the northern coast and Sierras. Conclusion Because different modeling approaches can yield substantially different results, care should be taken when interpreting future model predictions. Nonetheless, niche modeling can be a useful tool for exploring and mapping the potential response of plague activity to climate change. The final models in this study were used to identify potential plague risk areas based on an ensemble of six future climate scenarios, which can help public managers decide where to allocate surveillance resources. In addition, Maxent

  9. Gray squirrels reproduce in a 2-acre enclosure

    Treesearch

    H. Reed Sanderson; Larry A. Berry

    1973-01-01

    A 2-acre enclosure was built in a 40-year-old hardwood stand, and 5 to 19 gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) were confined in it during 3 years. Reproductive behavior of the squirrels was the same at all population densities, but densities above 12 may have reduced productivity. For 10 to 12 squirrels, behavior was about normal and productivity...

  10. Hoarding patterns in the southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Clemmer, S.M.

    1984-05-01

    Southern flying squirrels, Glaucomys volans, were individually offered two size classes of pecans in a 1:1 ratio to establish preference. All but one squirrel preferred small pecans. As relative abundance of preferred food diminished to 0.10, squirrels switched preference. Absolute abundance of either food did not affect caching levels. A difficulty-of-retrieval experiment did not result in switching of preference. No effect of sex on hoarding was exhibited. There was an inverse correlation between individual storing effort and caching levels of the same squirrels tested as pairs, with individual non-storers showing increases in numbers of pecans stored. Animals that were activemore » storers as individuals showed decreases when paired. Total number stored did not decrease significantly when squirrels were offered previously marked pecans. When offered own-marked and other-marked pecans, squirrels did not discriminate. 43 references, 3 figures, 6 tables.« less

  11. Framework for a ground-water quality monitoring and assessment program for California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belitz, Kenneth; Dubrovsky, Neil M.; Burow, Karen; Jurgens, Bryant C.; John, Tyler

    2003-01-01

    The State of California uses more ground water than any other State in the Nation. With a population of over 30 million people, an agricultural economy based on intensive irrigation, large urban industrial areas, and naturally elevated concentrations of some trace elements, there is a wide range of contaminant sources that have the potential to contaminate ground water and limit its beneficial uses. In response to the many-and different-potential sources of ground-water contamination, the State of California has evolved an extensive set of rules and programs to protect ground-water quality, and agencies to implement the rules and programs. These programs have in common a focus on compliance with regulations governing chemical use and (or) ground-water quality. Although appropriate for, and successful at, their specific missions, these programs do not at present provide a comprehensive view of ground-water quality in the State of California. In October 2001, The California Assembly passed a bill, AB 599, establishing the Ground-Water- Quality Monitoring Act of 2001.' The goal of AB 599 is to improve Statewide comprehensive ground-water monitoring and increase availability of information about ground-water quality to the public. AB 599 requires the State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), in collaboration with an interagency task force (ITF) and a public advisory committee (PAC), to develop a plan for a comprehensive ground-water monitoring program. AB 599 specifies that the comprehensive program should be capable of assessing each ground-water basin in the State through direct and other statistically reliable sampling approaches, and that the program should integrate existing monitoring programs and design new program elements, as necessary. AB 599 also stresses the importance of prioritizing ground-water basins that provide drinking water. The United States Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the SWRCB, and in coordination with the ITF and PAC, has

  12. Six years of aerial and ground monitoring surveys for sudden oak death in California

    Treesearch

    Lisa Bell; Jeff Mai; Zachary Heath; Erik Haunreiter; Lisa M. Fischer

    2008-01-01

    Aerial surveys have been conducted since 2001 to map recent hardwood mortality and consequently target ground visits for detection of Phytophthora ramorum, the pathogen that causes sudden oak death (SOD). Each year the aerial and ground surveys monitored much of California?s forests at risk for SOD resulting in new maps of hardwood mortality,...

  13. Spatial clustering of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato within populations of Allen's chipmunks and dusky-footed woodrats in northwestern California

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Richard N.; Fedorova, Natalia; Girard, Yvette A.; Higley, Mark; Clueit, Bernadette; Lane, Robert S.

    2018-01-01

    The ecology of Lyme borreliosis is complex in northwestern California, with several potential reservoir hosts, tick vectors, and genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. The primary objective of this study was to determine the fine-scale spatial distribution of different genospecies in four rodent species, the California ground squirrel (Otospermophilus beecheyi), northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus), dusky-footed woodrat (Neotoma fuscipes), and Allen’s chipmunk (Neotamias senex). Rodents were live-trapped between June 2004 and May 2005 at the Hoopa Valley Tribal Reservation (HVTR) in Humboldt County, California. Ear-punch biopsies obtained from each rodent were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing analysis. The programs ArcGIS and SaTScan were used to examine the spatial distribution of genospecies. Multinomial log-linear models were used to model habitat and host-specific characteristics and their effect on the presence of each borrelial genospecies. The Akaike information criterion (AICc) was used to compare models and determine model fit. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto was primarily associated with chipmunks and B. bissettiae largely with woodrats. The top model included the variables “host species”, “month”, and “elevation” (weight = 0.84). Spatial clustering of B. bissettiae was detected in the northwestern section of the HVTR, whereas B. burgdorferi sensu stricto was clustered in the southeastern section. We conclude that the spatial distribution of these borreliae are driven at least in part by host species, time-of-year, and elevation. PMID:29634745

  14. Spatial clustering of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato within populations of Allen's chipmunks and dusky-footed woodrats in northwestern California.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Gregory M; Brown, Richard N; Fedorova, Natalia; Girard, Yvette A; Higley, Mark; Clueit, Bernadette; Lane, Robert S

    2018-01-01

    The ecology of Lyme borreliosis is complex in northwestern California, with several potential reservoir hosts, tick vectors, and genospecies of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. The primary objective of this study was to determine the fine-scale spatial distribution of different genospecies in four rodent species, the California ground squirrel (Otospermophilus beecheyi), northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus), dusky-footed woodrat (Neotoma fuscipes), and Allen's chipmunk (Neotamias senex). Rodents were live-trapped between June 2004 and May 2005 at the Hoopa Valley Tribal Reservation (HVTR) in Humboldt County, California. Ear-punch biopsies obtained from each rodent were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing analysis. The programs ArcGIS and SaTScan were used to examine the spatial distribution of genospecies. Multinomial log-linear models were used to model habitat and host-specific characteristics and their effect on the presence of each borrelial genospecies. The Akaike information criterion (AICc) was used to compare models and determine model fit. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto was primarily associated with chipmunks and B. bissettiae largely with woodrats. The top model included the variables "host species", "month", and "elevation" (weight = 0.84). Spatial clustering of B. bissettiae was detected in the northwestern section of the HVTR, whereas B. burgdorferi sensu stricto was clustered in the southeastern section. We conclude that the spatial distribution of these borreliae are driven at least in part by host species, time-of-year, and elevation.

  15. Seasonal use of red-cockaded woodpecker cavities by southern flying squirrels.

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Loeb, Susan C; Ruth, Deanna L

    2004-12-31

    Loeb, Susan C., and Deanna L. Ruth. 2004. Seasonal use of red-cockaded woodpecker cavities by southern flying squirrels. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 8. Cavities, Cavity Trees, and Cavity Communities. Pp 501-502. Abstract: Southern flying squirrels can significantly impact red-cockaded woodpecker reproductive success (Laves and Loeb 1999). Thus exclusion or removal of flying squirrels from red-cockaded woodpecker cavities and clusters may be warranted in small woodpecker populations (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2003). However, development of effective and efficient protocolsmore » for southern flying squirrel control requires an understanding of the seasonal dynamics of southern flying squirrel cavity use. Most studies of southern flying squirrel use of red-cockaded woodpecker cavities have been conducted during spring (e.g., Harlow and Lennartz 1983, Rudolph et al. 1990a, Loeb 1993) and no studies have examined the effects of long term flying squirrel control on subsequent cavity use. The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) whether flying squirrel use of red-cockaded woodpecker cavities varies with season or cavity type, and (2) the long term effect of continuous squirrel removal.« less

  16. Parasites of the Abert's squirrel (Sciurus aberti) and red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) of New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Patrick, M J; Wilson, W D

    1995-04-01

    Between 1989 and 1991, 29 Abert squirrels (Sciurus aberti) and 45 red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) were collected in New Mexico and examined for parasites. Of 29 S. aberti examined, 86.2% (25/29) were infected with at least 1 parasite species. Helminths were found in 62.1% (18/29) of S. aberti; 37.9% (11/29) were infected with fleas and 37.9% (11/29) with the coccidian Eimeria tamiasciuri. Among T. hudsonicus, 82.5% of the squirrels examined were infected with at least 1 parasite. Helminths were found in 57.8% (26/45) of T. hudsonicus; 22.2% (10/45) were infected with fleas and 26.7% (12/45) with Eimeria tamiasciuri. Citellinema quadrivittati was found in squirrels of both species; 55.2% (16/29) of S. aberti were infected, with 57.8% (26/45) of T. hudsonicus carrying the parasite. Enterobius sciuri was only found in S. aberti with 17.2% (5/29) carrying the infection. One cestode, Hymenolepis sp., was found only in T. hudsonicus with 6.7% (3/45) carrying the infection. Four species of flea were found on squirrels of both species. Ceratophyllus vison was found on 6.9% (2/29) of S. aberti and 6.7% (3/45) of T. hudsonicus examined. Opisodasys robustus was found on 6.9% (2/29) of S. aberti and 8.8% (4/45) of T. hudsonicus examined. Orchopeas caedens caedens was found on 3.4% (1/29) of S. aberti and 6.7% (3/45) of T. hudsonicus examined. Orchopeas neotomae was found on 10.3% (3/29) of S. aberti and 6.7% (3/45) of T. hudsonicus examined. Two species of flea were only found on T. hudsonicus; Orchopeas leucopus was found on 2.2% (1/45) and Oropsylla idahoensis was found on 2.2% (1/45) of the T. hudsonicus examined.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Low-cost functional plasticity of TRPV1 supports heat tolerance in squirrels and camels.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Willem J; Schneider, Eve R; Merriman, Dana K; Bagriantsev, Sviatoslav N; Gracheva, Elena O

    2016-10-04

    The ability to sense heat is crucial for survival. Increased heat tolerance may prove beneficial by conferring the ability to inhabit otherwise prohibitive ecological niches. This phenomenon is widespread and is found in both large and small animals. For example, ground squirrels and camels can tolerate temperatures more than 40 °C better than many other mammalian species, yet a molecular mechanism subserving this ability is unclear. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a polymodal ion channel involved in the detection of noxious thermal and chemical stimuli by primary afferents of the somatosensory system. Here, we show that thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) and Bactrian camels (Camelus ferus) express TRPV1 orthologs with dramatically reduced temperature sensitivity. The loss of sensitivity is restricted to temperature and does not affect capsaicin or acid responses, thereby maintaining a role for TRPV1 as a detector of noxious chemical cues. We show that heat sensitivity can be reengineered in both TRPV1 orthologs by a single amino acid substitution in the N-terminal ankyrin-repeat domain. Conversely, reciprocal mutations suppress heat sensitivity of rat TRPV1, supporting functional conservation of the residues. Our studies suggest that squirrels and camels co-opt a common molecular strategy to adapt to hot environments by suppressing the efficiency of TRPV1-mediated heat detection at the level of somatosensory neurons. Such adaptation is possible because of the remarkable functional flexibility of the TRPV1 molecule, which can undergo profound tuning at the minimal cost of a single amino acid change.

  18. Low-cost functional plasticity of TRPV1 supports heat tolerance in squirrels and camels

    PubMed Central

    Laursen, Willem J.; Merriman, Dana K.; Bagriantsev, Sviatoslav N.; Gracheva, Elena O.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to sense heat is crucial for survival. Increased heat tolerance may prove beneficial by conferring the ability to inhabit otherwise prohibitive ecological niches. This phenomenon is widespread and is found in both large and small animals. For example, ground squirrels and camels can tolerate temperatures more than 40 °C better than many other mammalian species, yet a molecular mechanism subserving this ability is unclear. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a polymodal ion channel involved in the detection of noxious thermal and chemical stimuli by primary afferents of the somatosensory system. Here, we show that thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) and Bactrian camels (Camelus ferus) express TRPV1 orthologs with dramatically reduced temperature sensitivity. The loss of sensitivity is restricted to temperature and does not affect capsaicin or acid responses, thereby maintaining a role for TRPV1 as a detector of noxious chemical cues. We show that heat sensitivity can be reengineered in both TRPV1 orthologs by a single amino acid substitution in the N-terminal ankyrin-repeat domain. Conversely, reciprocal mutations suppress heat sensitivity of rat TRPV1, supporting functional conservation of the residues. Our studies suggest that squirrels and camels co-opt a common molecular strategy to adapt to hot environments by suppressing the efficiency of TRPV1-mediated heat detection at the level of somatosensory neurons. Such adaptation is possible because of the remarkable functional flexibility of the TRPV1 molecule, which can undergo profound tuning at the minimal cost of a single amino acid change. PMID:27638213

  19. Tissue-specific expression of squirrel monkey chorionic gonadotropin

    PubMed Central

    Vasauskas, Audrey A.; Hubler, Tina R.; Boston, Lori; Scammell, Jonathan G.

    2010-01-01

    Pituitary gonadotropins LH and FSH play central roles in reproductive function. In Old World primates, LH stimulates ovulation in females and testosterone production in males. Recent studies have found that squirrel monkeys and other New World primates lack expression of LH in the pituitary. Instead, chorionic gonadotropin (CG), which is normally only expressed in the placenta of Old World primates, is the active luteotropic pituitary hormone in these animals. The goal of this study was to investigate the tissue-specific regulation of squirrel monkey CG. We isolated the squirrel monkey CGβ gene and promoter from genomic DNA from squirrel monkey B-lymphoblasts and compared the promoter sequence to that of the common marmoset, another New World primate, and human CGβ and LHβ. Using reporter gene assays, we found that a squirrel monkey CGβ promoter fragment (−1898/+9) is active in both mouse pituitary LβT2 and human placenta JEG3 cells, but not in rat adrenal PC12 cells. Furthermore, within this construct separate cis-elements are responsible for pituitary- and placenta-specific expression. Pituitary-specific expression is governed by Egr-1 binding sites in the proximal 250 bp of the promoter, whereas placenta-specific expression is controlled by AP-2 sites further upstream. Thus, selective expression of the squirrel monkey CGβ promoter in pituitary and placental cells is governed by distinct cis-elements that exhibit homology with human LHβ and marmoset CGβ promoters, respectively. PMID:21130091

  20. Tissue-specific expression of squirrel monkey chorionic gonadotropin.

    PubMed

    Vasauskas, Audrey A; Hubler, Tina R; Boston, Lori; Scammell, Jonathan G

    2011-02-01

    Pituitary gonadotropins LH and FSH play central roles in reproductive function. In Old World primates, LH stimulates ovulation in females and testosterone production in males. Recent studies have found that squirrel monkeys and other New World primates lack expression of LH in the pituitary. Instead, chorionic gonadotropin (CG), which is normally only expressed in the placenta of Old World primates, is the active luteotropic pituitary hormone in these animals. The goal of this study was to investigate the tissue-specific regulation of squirrel monkey CG. We isolated the squirrel monkey CGβ gene and promoter from genomic DNA from squirrel monkey B-lymphoblasts and compared the promoter sequence to that of the common marmoset, another New World primate, and human and rhesus macaque CGβ and LHβ. Using reporter gene assays, we found that a squirrel monkey CGβ promoter fragment (-1898/+9) is active in both mouse pituitary LβT2 and human placenta JEG3 cells, but not in rat adrenal PC12 cells. Furthermore, within this construct separate cis-elements are responsible for pituitary- and placenta-specific expression. Pituitary-specific expression is governed by Egr-1 binding sites in the proximal 250 bp of the promoter, whereas placenta-specific expression is controlled by AP-2 sites further upstream. Thus, selective expression of the squirrel monkey CGβ promoter in pituitary and placental cells is governed by distinct cis-elements that exhibit homology with human LHβ and marmoset CGβ promoters, respectively. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Squirrels cannot live by truffles alone: a closer look at a northwest keystone complex.

    Treesearch

    Sally Duncan

    2004-01-01

    Tree squirrels in the Pacific Northwest are part of a keystone complex that includes ectomycorrhizal fungi, Douglas-fir, and spotted owls. All three squirrel species—the northern flying squirrel, the Douglas' squirrel, and the Townsend’s squirrel—consume truffles produced by fungal partners of important tree species. The squirrels then spread the spores of these...

  2. Two models of the sound-signal frequency dependence on the animal body size as exemplified by the ground squirrels of Eurasia (mammalia, rodentia).

    PubMed

    Nikol'skii, A A

    2017-11-01

    Dependence of the sound-signal frequency on the animal body length was studied in 14 ground squirrel species (genus Spermophilus) of Eurasia. Regression analysis of the total sample yielded a low determination coefficient (R 2 = 26%), because the total sample proved to be heterogeneous in terms of signal frequency within the dimension classes of animals. When the total sample was divided into two groups according to signal frequency, two statistically significant models (regression equations) were obtained in which signal frequency depended on the body size at high determination coefficients (R 2 = 73 and 94% versus 26% for the total sample). Thus, the problem of correlation between animal body size and the frequency of their vocal signals does not have a unique solution.

  3. The occurrence of hepatozoon in the gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Price, D.L.

    1955-01-01

    Hepatozoon sciuri (Coles, 1914) is reported from gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) in Washington, D.C. and Maryland. Blood smears stained with Giemsa's stain revealed a parasitemia in 16 to 71% of the squirrels examined. A technique for laking the red cells and concentrating the white cells in blood samples demonstrated this protozoon to be present in every squirrel so tested.

  4. Monitoring interactions between red-cockaded woodpeckers and southern flying squirrels.

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Risch, Thomas S; Loeb, Susan C

    2004-12-31

    Risch, Thomas S., and Susan C. Loeb. 2004. Monitoring interactions between red-cockaded woodpeckers and southern flying squirrels. In: Red-cockaded woodpecker; Road to Recovery. Proceedings of the 4th Red-cockaded woodpecker Symposium. Ralph Costa and Susan J. Daniels, eds. Savannah, Georgia. January, 2003. Chapter 8. Cavities, Cavity Trees, and Cavity Communities. Pp 504-505. Abstract: Although several studies have suggested that southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) may have a significant negative impact on red-cockades woodpeckers (Picoides borealsi) (Loeb and Hooper 1997, Laves and Loeb 1999), the nature of the interactions between the species remains unclear. Particularly lacking are data that address if southernmore » flying squirrels directly usurp red-cockaded woodpecker s from cavities, or simply occupy cavities previously abandoned by red-cockaded woodpeckers. Ridley et al. (1997) observed the displacement of a red-cockaded woodpecker by a southern flying squirrel that was released after being captured. Observations of nocturnal displacements of red-cockaded woodpeckers by flying squirrels, however, are lacking. Due to the difficulty of observing interspecific interactions, determining the mechanisims by which flying squirrels impact red-cockaded woodpeckers is problematic.« less

  5. Ground water in the Redding Basin, Shasta and Tehama counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierce, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    An appraisal of ground-water conditions in the Redding Basin was made by the U.S. Geological Survey and the California Department of Water Resources during 1979 and 1980. The basin covers about 510 square miles in the northern part of the Central Valley of California. Ground water in the basin is obtained principally from wells tapping continental deposits of Tertiary and/or Quaternary age. These deposits are arranged in a synclinal structure that trends and plunges southward. Recharge to the basin is from subsurface inflow; infiltration of precipitation and excess irrigation water; and percolation of certain reaches of streams and creeks. Ground-water movement is generally from the periphery of the basin towards the Sacramento River. Hydrographs for the period 1956 to 1970 show only a slight water-level decline and virtually no change between 1970 and 1979. The total estimated pumpage for 1976 was 82,000 acre-feet. Estimated usable storage capacity for the basin is about 5.5 million acre-feet. Chemical quality of ground water is rated good to excellent. Water type is a magnesium-calcium bicarbonate in character. The underlying Chico Formation contains saline marine water which is of poor quality. (USGS)

  6. Response of northern flying squirrels to supplementary dens.

    Treesearch

    A.B. Carey

    2002-01-01

    The northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) is a keystone species in Pacific Northwest conifer forests, consuming and disseminating spores of ectomycorrhizal fungi essential to Pinaceae and preyed upon by different vertebrate predators. Increasing the numbers of flying squirrels has been suggested as part of a strategy to increase the...

  7. Measuring ground movement in geothermal areas of Imperial Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofgren, B. E.

    1974-01-01

    Significant ground movement may accompany the extraction of large quantities of fluids from the subsurface. In Imperial Valley, California, one of the potential hazards of geothermal development is the threat of both subsidence and horizontal movement of the land surface. Regional and local survey nets are being monitored to detect and measure possible ground movement caused by future geothermal developments. Precise measurement of surface and subsurface changes will be required to differentiate man-induced changes from natural processes in this tectonically active region.

  8. Increase in cardiac myosin heavy-chain (MyHC) alpha protein isoform in hibernating ground squirrels, with echocardiographic visualization of ventricular wall hypertrophy and prolonged contraction

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, O. Lynne; Rourke, Bryan C.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Deep hibernators such as golden-mantled ground squirrels (Callospermophilus lateralis) have multiple challenges to cardiac function during low temperature torpor and subsequent arousals. As heart rates fall from over 300 beats min−1 to less than 10, chamber dilation and reduced cardiac output could lead to congestive myopathy. We performed echocardiography on a cohort of individuals prior to and after several months of hibernation. The left ventricular chamber exhibited eccentric and concentric hypertrophy during hibernation and thus calculated ventricular mass was ~30% greater. Ventricular ejection fraction was mildly reduced during hibernation but stroke volumes were greater due to the eccentric hypertrophy and dramatically increased diastolic filling volumes. Globally, the systolic phase in hibernation was ~9.5 times longer, and the diastolic phase was 28× longer. Left atrial ejection generally was not observed during hibernation. Atrial ejection returned weakly during early arousal. Strain echocardiography assessed the velocity and total movement distance of contraction and relaxation for regional ventricular segments in active and early arousal states. Myocardial systolic strain during early arousal was significantly greater than the active state, indicating greater total contractile movement. This mirrored the increased ventricular ejection fraction noted with early arousal. However, strain rates were slower during early arousal than during the active period, particularly systolic strain, which was 33% of active, compared with the rate of diastolic strain, which was 67% of active. As heart rate rose during the arousal period, myocardial velocities and strain rates also increased; this was matched closely by cardiac output. Curiously, though heart rates were only 26% of active heart rates during early arousal, the cardiac output was nearly 40% of the active state, suggesting an efficient pumping system. We further analyzed proportions of cardiac

  9. Metabolism of lithocholic and chenodeoxycholic acids in the squirrel monkey

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Suzuki, H.; Hamada, M.; Kato, F.

    1985-09-01

    Metabolism of lithocholic acid (LCA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) was studied in the squirrel monkey to clarify the mechanism of the lack of toxicity of CDCA in this animal. Radioactive LCA was administered to squirrel monkeys with biliary fistula. Most radioactivity was excreted in the bile in the form of unsulfated lithocholyltaurine. The squirrel monkey thus differs from humans and chimpanzees, which efficiently sulfate LCA, and is similar to the rhesus monkey and baboon in that LCA is poorly sulfated. When labeled CDCA was orally administered to squirrel monkeys, less than 20% of the dosed radioactivity was recovered as LCAmore » and its further metabolites in feces over 3 days, indicating that bacterial metabolism of CDCA into LCA is strikingly less than in other animals and in humans. It therefore appears that LCA, known as a hepatotoxic secondary bile acid, is not accumulated in the squirrel monkey, not because of its rapid turnover through sulfation, but because of the low order of its production.« less

  10. Demography of northern flying squirrels informs ecosystem management of western interior forests.

    Treesearch

    John F. Lehmkuhl; Keith D. Kistler; James S. Begley; John. Boulanger

    2006-01-01

    We studied northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) demography in the eastern Washington Cascade Range to test hypotheses about regional and local abundance patterns and to inform managers of the possible effects of fire and fuels management on flying squirrels. We quantified habitat characteristics and squirrel density, population trends, and...

  11. Texas ratsnake predation on southern flying squirrels in red-cockaded woodpecker cavities

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard R. Schaefer; Josh B. Pierce; Dan Saenz; Richard N. Conner

    2009-01-01

    Elaphe spp. (ratsnakes) are frequent predators on cavity-nesting birds and other vertebrates, including Glaucomys volans (Southern Flying Squirrels). They are known predators of Picoides borealis (Red-cockaded Woodpeckers), especially during the nestling phase. Picoides borealis cavities are frequently occupied by Southern Flying Squirrels, often several squirrels per...

  12. Dens of northern flying squirrels in the Pacific Northwest.

    Treesearch

    A.B. Carey; T.M. Wilson; C.C. Maguire; B.L. Biswell

    1997-01-01

    Silvicultural prescriptions to enhance northern flying squirrel (Glaucoinys sabrinus) habitat have been suggested as an aid for recovery of the threatened northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina). Flying squirrels are hypothesized to be limited by den sites (cavities in trees) and by food (truffles). However, no...

  13. Using the Ground Squirrel (Marmota bobak) as an Animal Model to Assess Monkeypox Drug Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Sergeev, A A; Kabanov, A S; Bulychev, L E; Sergeev, A A; Pyankov, O V; Bodnev, S A; Galahova, D O; Zamedyanskaya, A S; Titova, K A; Glotova, T I; Taranov, O S; Omigov, V V; Shishkina, L N; Agafonov, A P; Sergeev, A N

    2017-02-01

    In experiments to study the sensitivity of ground squirrels (Marmota bobak) to monkeypox virus (MPXV) at intranasal challenge, expressed pox-like clinical symptoms (hyperthermia, lymphadenitis, skin rash all over the body and mucous membranes and others) were observed 7-9 days post-infection. The 50% infective dose (ID 50 ) of MPXV for these marmots determined by the presence of clinical signs of the disease was 2.2 log 10 PFU. Some diseased marmots (about 40%) died 13-22 days post-infection, and the mortality rate was weakly dependent on MPXV infective dose. Lungs with trachea were primary target organs of marmots challenged intranasally (with ~30 ID 50 ). The pathogen got to secondary target organs of the animals mainly via the lymphatic way (with replication in bifurcation lymph nodes). Lungs with trachea, nasal mucosa and skin were the organs where the maximum MPXV amounts accumulated in these animals. Evidences of the pathogen presence and replication were revealed in these and subcutaneously infected marmots in the traditional primary target cells for MPXV (macrophages and respiratory tract epitheliocytes), as well as in some other cells (endotheliocytes, plasmocytes, fibroblasts, reticular and smooth muscle cells). Our use of this animal species to assess the antiviral efficacy of some drugs demonstrated the agreement of the obtained results with those described in scientific literature, which opens up the prospects of using marmots as animal models for monkeypox to develop therapeutic and preventive anti-smallpox drugs. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Seroepidemiological survey of pathogenic Yersinia in breeding squirrel monkeys in Japan.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Taketoshi; Une, Yumi; Lee, Ken-ichi; Nakamura, Shin-ichi; Taniguchi, Takahide; Hayashidani, Hideki

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the prevalence of antibodies to pathogenic Yersinia in breeding squirrel monkeys, the serum samples of 252 squirrel monkeys from 9 zoological gardens in Japan were tested by ELISA using plasmid-encoded Yersinia outer membrane protein (Yops) as the antigen. The cutoff value was calculated by using the serum samples of the squirrel monkeys from Suriname, where no prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia have been reported. According to the cutoff value, 164 of 252 (65.1%) squirrel monkeys were considered positive against pathogenic Yersinia. These positive monkeys belonged to 8 of the 9 zoological gardens, and the percentage of the seropositive monkeys ranged from 22.2 to 89.4%. Furthermore, in one zoological garden, the positive rate of the squirrel monkeys which were over 1 year old (95.7%) was significantly higher than those which were under 1 year old (23.3%). These results suggested that pathogenic Yersinia is highly prevalent among breeding monkeys in Japan.

  15. Modeling the effects of fire severity and spatial complexity on Small Mammals in Yosemite National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, Susan L.; Van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; Miles, A. Keith; Kelt, Douglas A.; Lutz, James A.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of fire severity and related spatial and vegetative parameters on small mammal populations in 2 yr- to 15 yr-old burns in Yosemite National Park, California, USA. We also developed habitat models that would predict small mammal responses to fires of differing severity. We hypothesized that fire severity would influence the abundances of small mammals through changes in vegetation composition, structure, and spatial habitat complexity. Deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus) abundance responded negatively to fire severity, and brush mouse (P. boylii) abundance increased with increasing oak tree (Quercus spp.) cover. Chipmunk (Neotamias spp.) abundance was best predicted through a combination of a negative response to oak tree cover and a positive response to spatial habitat complexity. California ground squirrel (Spermophilus beecheyi) abundance increased with increasing spatial habitat complexity. Our results suggest that fire severity, with subsequent changes in vegetation structure and habitat spatial complexity, can influence small mammal abundance patterns.

  16. Probabilistic Modeling for Risk Assessment of California Ground Water Contamination by Pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, M.; Troiano, J.; Spurlock, F.

    2007-12-01

    The California Department of Pesticide Regulation (DPR) is responsible for the registration of pesticides in California. DPR's Environmental Monitoring Branch evaluates the potential for pesticide active ingredients to move to ground water under legal agricultural use conditions. Previous evaluations were primarily based on threshold values for specific persistence and mobility properties of pesticides as prescribed in the California Pesticide Contamination Prevention Act of 1985. Two limitations identified with that process were the univariate nature where interactions of the properties were not accounted for, and the inability to accommodate multiple values of a physical-chemical property. We addressed these limitations by developing a probabilistic modeling method based on prediction of potential well water concentrations. A mechanistic pesticide transport model, LEACHM, is used to simulate sorption, degradation and transport of a candidate pesticide through the root zone. A second empirical model component then simulates pesticide degradation and transport through the vadose zone to a receiving ground water aquifer. Finally, degradation during transport in the aquifer to the well screen is included in calculating final potential well concentrations. Using Monte Carlo techniques, numerous LEACHM simulations are conducted using random samples of the organic carbon normalized soil adsorption coefficients (Koc) and soil dissipation half-life values derived from terrestrial field dissipation (TFD) studies. Koc and TFD values are obtained from gamma distributions fitted to pooled data from agricultural-use pesticides detected in California ground water: atrazine, simazine, diuron, bromacil, hexazinone, and norflurazon. The distribution of predicted well water concentrations for these pesticides is in good agreement with concentrations measured in domestic wells in coarse, leaching vulnerable soils of Fresno and Tulure Counties. The leaching potential of a new

  17. Avian nestling predation by endangered Mount Graham red squirrel

    Treesearch

    Claire A. Zugmeyer; John L. Koprowski

    2007-01-01

    Studies using artificial nests or remote cameras have documented avian predation by red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Although several direct observations of avian predation events are known in the northern range of the red squirrel distribution, no accounts have been reported in the southern portion. We observed predation upon a hermit thrush...

  18. Evidence for West Nile virus spillover into the squirrel population in Atlanta, Georgia.

    PubMed

    Bisanzio, Donal; McMillan, Joseph R; Barreto, Josafá Gonçalves; Blitvich, Bradley J; Mead, Daniel G; O'Connor, Josh; Kitron, Uriel

    2015-05-01

    In the United States, spillover of West Nile virus (WNV) into wild mammal populations has been reported since the introduction of the virus into the New World in 1999. Eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) exhibit a high seroprevalence for WNV in urban settings where high virus circulation and human spillover have been reported. In Atlanta, Georgia, human cases of WNV are uncommon despite high infection rates in birds and mosquitoes. In this study, we evaluated WNV exposure of eastern gray squirrels in a WNV hot spot in Atlanta. Gray squirrels were live-trapped in Grant Park, Atlanta, during July-October, 2012, and a census was conducted to estimate squirrel density in the study site. Sera from trapped animals were tested for circulating virus-by-virus isolation in cell culture and for WNV-specific antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and plaque reduction neutralization test. Mosquitoes were collected at the same location and tested for virus isolation. Among the 69 collected squirrels, 25 (36.2%) tested positive for WNV antibodies, although none were viremic. Seroprevalence was lower in juveniles (18.8%) than in adults (37.5%), but this difference was not statistically significant. Gender and squirrel density had no effect on seroprevalence. Seasonality of squirrel seroprevalence and of mosquito infection were significantly associated, both peaking in August. No difference in squirrel exposure was detected across the collection sites. We report a high degree of WNV exposure in squirrels in Grant Park that was correlated with seasonality of mosquito infection. The detection of antibodies in juveniles suggests that circulation of WNV in the surveyed population is ongoing. Eastern gray squirrels may be suitable indicators for virus amplification and for risk of human spillover on a local scale in urban settings.

  19. Squirrel Damage to Pines

    Treesearch

    USDA Forest Service

    1981-01-01

    Flagging (dead branch tips) on jack pine and red pine may be caused by insects, diseases, or mechanical damage. In the Lake States, flagging is often the result of mechanical damage, sometimes girdling, caused when the cones are torn off by red squirrels.

  20. Tularemia without lesions in grey tree squirrels: A diagnostic challenge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fifteen cases of Francisella tularenesis infection (tularemia) were identified in western grey (Sciurus griseus) and eastern grey (Sciurus carolinesis) squirrels submitted to the Washington Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory between 2008 and 2011. All of the squirrels originated in Washington stat...

  1. Object permanence in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).

    PubMed

    de Blois, S T; Novak, M A; Bond, M

    1998-06-01

    The authors tested orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) and squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) on object permanence tasks. In Experiment 1, orangutans solved all visible displacements and most invisible displacements except those involving movements into 2 boxes successively. In Experiment 2, performance of orangutans on double invisible displacements and control displacements (assessing simple strategies) was compared. Orangutans did not use the simple strategy of selecting the box visited last by the experimenter. Instead, poorer performance on double invisible displacements may have been related to increased memory requirements. In Experiment 3, squirrel monkeys were tested using the procedure of Experiment 1. Squirrel monkeys solved visible but did not comprehend invisible displacements. Results suggest that orangutans but not squirrel monkeys possess Stage 6 object permanence capabilities.

  2. Ground water level, Water storage, Soil moisture, Precipitation Variability Using Multi Satellite Data during 2003-2016 Associated with California Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J. W.; Singh, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    The agricultural market of California is a multi-billion-dollar industry, however in the recent years, the state is facing severe drought. It is important to have a deeper understanding of how the agriculture is affected by the amount of rainfall as well as the ground conditions in California. We have considered 5 regions (each 2 degree by 2 degree) covering whole of California. Multi satellite (MODIS Terra, GRACE, GLDAS) data through NASA Giovanni portal were used to study long period variability 2003 - 2016 of ground water level and storage, soil moisture, root zone moisture level, precipitation and normalized vegetation index (NDVI) in these 5 regions. Our detailed analysis of these parameters show a strong correlation between the NDVI and some of these parameters. NDVI represents greenness showing strong drought conditions during the period 2011-2016 due to poor rainfall and recharge of ground water in the mid and southern parts of California. Effect of ground water level and underground storage will be also discussed on the frequency of earthquakes in five regions of California. The mid and southern parts of California show increasing frequency of small earthquakes during drought periods.

  3. Epizootiology and pathologic findings associated with a newly described adenovirus in the red squirrel, Sciurus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Jiménez, David; Graham, David; Couper, David; Benkö, Maria; Schöniger, Sandra; Gurnell, John; Sainsbury, Anthony W

    2011-04-01

    An infectious disease caused by Squirrelpox virus has contributed to the decline of red squirrels, Sciurus vulgaris, in the British Isles. Because of the heightened disease surveillance activity in red squirrels, adenovirus infection with associated mortality has been detected. Adenoviral disease is described in other rodent species usually associated with stressors. Here we 1) describe the pathologic findings in red squirrels found dead with adenoviral infection and gastrointestinal disease, and 2) investigate the epizootiology of the disease through pathologic investigation, scanning surveillance, and virologic studies. Ten red squirrels involved in conservation studies were diagnosed with adenoviral infection by electron microscopy or PCR. All squirrels exhibited diarrhea and small intestinal inflammation or hemorrhage was evident in seven cases. Lesions indicative of splenic lymphocytolysis were observed in one squirrel and leukocytic hepatitis in another. No adenovirus was detected in grey squirrels, Sciurus carolinensis, inhabiting the same forest area, but previous serologic studies showed that grey squirrels cannot be discounted as a reservoir of the virus. Scanning surveillance showed that 12% of 493 red squirrels had diarrheal disease and two of 13 free-living red squirrels with diarrheal disease had adenovirus infection. Adenoviral disease in declining free-living wild red squirrel populations in the British Isles occurs at a detectable frequency and its impact on the conservation of this species deserves further attention.

  4. Indicators of red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudonicus) abundance in the whitebark pine zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, D.J.; Reinhart, Daniel P.

    1996-01-01

    We investigated occupied squirrel middens and squirrel sightings and vocalizations as indicators of red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) abundance in the high-elevation whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) zone. Data were collected 1984-1989 from line transects located on 2 study sites in the Yellowstone ecosystem. We evaluated the performance of each measure on the basis of precision and biological considerations. We concluded that, of the 3 measures, active middens were the best indicator of red squirrel abundance. We also observed that the density of active middens dropped by 48%-66% between 1987 and 1989, following a severe drought and extensive wildfires that burned one of the study sites during 1988.

  5. Fox squirrels (Sciurus niger) develop West Nile virus viremias sufficient for infecting select mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Platt, Kenneth B; Tucker, Brad J; Halbur, Patrick G; Blitvich, Bradley J; Fabiosa, Flor G; Mullin, Kathleen; Parikh, Grishma R; Kitikoon, Pravina; Bartholomay, Lyric C; Rowley, Wayne A

    2008-04-01

    The West Nile virus (WNV) viremia and shedding profiles of 11 adult fox squirrels (Sciurus niger) infected by needle inoculation or mosquito bite were characterized. Daily mean titers (95% confidence intervals) for all squirrels on days 1 through 6 postexposure (p.e.) were: 10(1.7 (1.32.1)), 10(4.4 (4.04.8)), 10(5.3 (5.05.6)), 10(4.4 (3.94.9)), 10(2.7 (2.03.4)), and 10(1.1 (0.52.1)) plaque-forming units (PFU)/mL. The highest WNV serum titers of individual squirrels infected by needle inoculation or mosquito bite ranged from 10(4.5) to 10(6.1) and from 10(5.1) to 10(5.3) PFU/mL, respectively. Nine (82%) squirrels, including all 4 squirrels infected by mosquito bite, had WNV serum titers > or =10(5.1) PFU/mL that persisted on average for 1.6 +/- 0.3 days. Infection and dissemination rates of Culex pipiens (L.) that fed on squirrels with serum titers of 10(4.4 +/- 0.1) PFU/mL were 56% and 13%, respectively. Both of these rates increased to over 80% when fed on squirrels with a mean WNV titer of 10(5.5 +/- 0.1) PFU/mL. Infection and dissemination also occurred in Aedes triseriatus (Say) but at a much lower rate. WNV was isolated from the oral and rectal cavities of all squirrels and from urine that was opportunistically collected from 5 squirrels. The largest quantity of WNV recovered from swabs of the oral cavity and urine was 10(3.1) PFU. The longest periods after exposure that WNV was isolated from the oral cavity and urine from a squirrel were 22 and 17 days p.e., respectively. WNV RNA was also detected in kidney tissue in 1 squirrel 29 days p.e., suggesting that fox squirrels can be persistently infected. Collectively these observations provide further evidence that squirrels can contribute to the natural history and epidemiology of WNV, especially in peridomestic environments.

  6. 234U/238U as a ground-water tracer, SW Nevada-SE California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, K. R.; Peterman, Z.E.; Simmons, K.R.; Gutentag, E.D.

    1993-01-01

    The 234U/238U ratio of uranium in oxidizing ground waters is potentially an excellent ground-water tracer because of its high solubility and insensitivity to chemical reactions. Moreover, recent advances in analytical capability have made possible very precise uranium-isotopic analyses on modest (approx.100 ml) amounts of normal ground water. Preliminary results on waters from SW Nevada/Se California indicate two main mixing trends, but in detail indicate significant complexity requiring three or more main components.

  7. Responses of squirrel monkeys to their experimentally modified mobbing calls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtel, Claudia; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

    2003-05-01

    Previous acoustic analyses suggested emotion-correlated changes in the acoustic structure of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) vocalizations. Specifically, calls given in aversive contexts were characterized by an upward shift in frequencies, often accompanied by an increase in amplitude. In order to test whether changes in frequencies or amplitude are indeed relevant for conspecific listeners, playback experiments were conducted in which either frequencies or amplitude of mobbing calls were modified. Latency and first orienting response were measured in playback experiments with six adult squirrel monkeys. After broadcasting yaps with increased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a longer orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding control stimuli. Furthermore, after broadcasting yaps with decreased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a shorter orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding manipulated calls with higher frequencies or amplitude. These results suggest that changes in frequencies or amplitude were perceived by squirrel monkeys, indicating that the relationship between call structure and the underlying affective state of the caller agreed with the listener's assessment of the calls. However, a simultaneous increase in frequencies and amplitude did not lead to an enhanced response, compared to each single parameter. Thus, from the receiver's perspective, both call parameters may mutually replace each other.

  8. Daily and seasonal activity patterns in the eastern gray squirrel

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bland, M.E.

    1977-03-01

    The daily and seasonal activity patterns of the eastern gray squirrel were investigated between July 1, 1971 and September 16, 1972. Seasonal variations existed in the amount of time per day squirrels were active, the time of onset and cessation of activity, and the size of home range. Squirrels were most active in the fall and spring and least active in the winter. Two peaks in activity (morning and evening) with a mid-day resting period were characteristic of the summer activity pattern. During the winter one brief period of activity occurred during the warm mid-day hours. In the fall themore » time of onset of activity was consistent and occurred 20 to 30 minutes before sunrise. Cessation of activity was also regular and took place 20 to 30 minutes after sunset. Times of onset and cessation of activity were irregular during the winter and summer with onset usually occurring after sunrise and cessation before sunset. Home range size was smallest in winter and largest in late spring and late summer. Male and female range sizes were similar in fall and winter but in the spring and summer ranges of males exceeded those of females. During winter one night nest location was used per given two week period and daytime activity was restricted to the area around the den site. In spring, summer, and fall each squirrel used between two and three nest locations per two week period and squirrels traveled considerable distance from the den site. Hardwood and cedar forests were heavily utilized by the squirrels with approximately 53 percent of the locations occurring in hardwood forests and 38 percent in cedar forests. Correlations between the amount of time per day squirrels were active and various abiotic and biotic factors were made. Snow cover and/or extremely cold temperatures during the winter and early spring curtailed movement, and rainy weather in summer decreased activity. The availability of acorns in the autumn and the appearance of food in the spring increased

  9. Demonstration of line transect methodologies to estimate urban gray squirrel density

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hein, E.W.

    1997-11-01

    Because studies estimating density of gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) have been labor intensive and costly, I demonstrate the use of line transect surveys to estimate gray squirrel density and determine the costs of conducting surveys to achieve precise estimates. Density estimates are based on four transacts that were surveyed five times from 30 June to 9 July 1994. Using the program DISTANCE, I estimated there were 4.7 (95% Cl = 1.86-11.92) gray squirrels/ha on the Clemson University campus. Eleven additional surveys would have decreased the percent coefficient of variation from 30% to 20% and would have cost approximately $114. Estimatingmore » urban gray squirrel density using line transect surveys is cost effective and can provide unbiased estimates of density, provided that none of the assumptions of distance sampling theory are violated.« less

  10. California Wild Summer 2003 - Rafflesia

    Science.gov Websites

    -tipped warts—the anthers—which exuded slimy pollen. In female flowers, which are much rarer, tiny the wound. Other scientists think that tree shrews or ground squirrels gnaw the columns of dead female female, seeds in the remnant of the central column are now available for dispersal. Although long

  11. Monitoring interactions between red-cockaded woodpeckers and southern flying squirrels

    Treesearch

    Thomas S. Risch; Susan C. Loeb

    2004-01-01

    Although several studies have suggested that southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) may have a signif- icant negative impact on red-cockaded woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) (Loeb and Hooper 1997, Laves and Loeb 1999), the nature of the interactions between the species remains unclear. Particularly lacking are data that address if southern flying squirrels...

  12. The potential role of strongyloides robustus on parasite-mediated competition between two species of flying squirrels (Glaucomys).

    PubMed

    Krichbaum, Kristle; Mahan, Carolyn G; Steele, Michael A; Turner, Gregory; Hudson, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    There is growing evidence that populations of the northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) are declining in the eastern United States, perhaps due to competition with the southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans). Potential causes include parasite-mediated or apparent competition from the shared intestinal nematode, Strongyloides robustus, which has been shown to detrimentally affect the northern flying squirrel but not the southern flying squirrel. To investigate this hypothesis, we conducted a preliminary study on the parasite community of both flying squirrel species from sites in Pennsylvania where the two species occur sympatrically and where G. sabrinus is now considered endangered at the state level. We compared these parasite communities with those from northern flying squirrels from northern New York where the southern flying squirrel is absent. We found eight species of gastrointestinal parasites (Pterygodermatites peromysci, Lemuricola sciuri, Syphacia thompsoni, Syphacia spp., Capillaria spp., Citellinema bifurcatum, Strogyloides robustus, and an unidentifiable cestode species) in both species of flying squirrels examined for our study. The parasite-mediated competition hypothesis was partially supported. For example, in Pennsylvania, S. robustus was overdispersed in southern flying squirrels, such that a small proportion of the hosts carried a large proportion of the worm population. In addition, we found S. robustus to be present in northern flying squirrels when the species were sympatric, but not where southern flying squirrels were absent in New York. However, there was no association between S. robustus and the body condition of flying squirrels. We detected a potential parasite community interaction, as S. robustus abundance was positively associated with P. peromysci.

  13. Status and habitat relationships of northern flying squirrels on Mount Desert Island, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connell, A.F.; Servello, F.; Higgins, J.; Halteman, W.

    2001-01-01

    Northern (Glaucomys sabrinus) and southern (G. volans) flying squirrels occur in Maine, but there is uncertainty about range overlap in southcentral Maine where the southern flying squirrel reaches its geographic range limit. We surveyed flying squirrels on Mount Desert Island (MDI), located along the central Maine coast, to update the current status and distribution of these species. We captured only northern flying squirrels, and populations (> 2 individuals) were located in two conifer stands and one mixed conifer-hardwood stand. All three stands were located in relatively older forests, outside a large area burned in a 1947 fire. Tree diameters were similar between trap stations with and without captures, under-story density was low overall, and there was a trend of higher seedling density at capture locations. Low understory density may allow squirrels more effective gliding movements between trees, which may enhance predator avoidance. Although the southern flying squirrel was reported from MDI numerous times during the 20th century, no voucher specimens exist, and species identification and localities have been poorly documented. Future surveys on MDI should consider collection of voucher specimens to validate subsequent survey efforts and effectively document changes in local biodiversity.

  14. Movements of northern flying squirrels in different-aged forest stands of western Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, K.J.; Anthony, R.G.

    1999-01-01

    In western Oregon, northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) are the primary prey species for northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina), an old-growth associated species. To assess differences between old-growth and second-growth habitat, we livetrapped and radiotagged 39 northern flying squirrels to estimate their home range sizes and describe movements in 2 old-growth and 2 second-growth conifer forest stands in the Cascade Mountains of central Oregon. Sampling periods were summer and fall of 1991-92. Home range sizes averaged 4.9 ha and did not differ (P > 0.30) between the 2 stand types. Male northern flying squirrels had larger (P ??? 0.03) mean home ranges (5.9 ?? 0.8 ha; ?? ?? SE; n = 20) than females (3.9 ?? 0.4 ha; n = 19). Northern flying squirrel movement distances between successive, noncorrelated telemetry locations averaged 71 m (n = 1,090). No correlation was found between distances moved and stand type or sex. Northern flying squirrel's home range sizes, movements, and densities were similar between the 2 stand types. We suggest abundance and movements of northern flying squirrels are not influencing the preferential selection of oldgrowth forests by northern spotted owls.

  15. Current status of the western gray squirrel population in the Puget Trough, Washington.

    Treesearch

    R. Bayrakci; A.B. Carey; T.M. Wilson

    2001-01-01

    The Puget Trough population of Washington’s state-threatened western gray squirrel is centered in Oregon white oak ecotones adjacent to conifer forests and prairies on the Fort Lewis Military Reservation. Our goal was to determine the current status of western gray squirrels in this region. In 1998, we found five western gray squirrels in 538 hours of foot surveys in...

  16. FLOTAC for diagnosis of endo-parasites in pet squirrels in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    d'Ovidio, D; Rinaldi, L; Ianniello, D; Donnelly, T M; Pepe, P; Capasso, M; Cringoli, G

    2014-02-24

    The present study investigated the occurrence of endoparasites in pet squirrels in southern Italy. Fresh fecal samples were collected from 50 asymptomatic pet squirrels belonging to five different species (Callosciurus finlaysonii, n=6, C. prevosti, n=6; Tamias striatus, n=26, T. sibiricus, n=10; Sciurus carolinensis, n=2) housed both in pet shops and/or in private residences. All fecal samples were processed using the FLOTAC pellet technique to identify and count helminth eggs/larvae and protozoan cysts/oocysts. In addition, to detect Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. the samples were analyzed by the Remel Xpect(®) immunoassay. Helminth eggs were detected in 9 out of 50 squirrels. Specifically, eggs of Dicrocoelium dendriticum were found in 5 squirrels (C. finlaysonii, n=2; C. prevosti, n=2; T. striatus, n=1); eggs of the pinworm Syphacia spp. in 3 squirrels (C. prevosti, n=2; T. striatus, n=1); and eggs of gastrointestinal nematoda (Nippostrongylus-like) were found in 1 subject (C. prevosti). Finally, two squirrels (C. prevosti) had multiple parasitic infections with D. dendriticum and Capillaria hepatica, and with D. dendriticum and Strongyloides spp., respectively. None of the samples were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. or Giardia spp. or any other protozoa (e.g. Eimeria). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a D. dendriticum natural infection in pet rodents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Renal response to seven days of lower body positive pressure in the squirrel monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Churchill, Susanne; Pollock, David M.; Natale, Mary Ellen; Moore-Ede, Martin C.

    1987-01-01

    As a ground-based model for weightlessness, the response of the chair-trained squirrel monkey to lower body positive pressure (LBPP) was evaluated in a length of study similar to a typical Space Shuttle mission (7 days). Results were compared to time control experiments that included chair-sitting without exposure to LBPP. Chronic exposure to LBPP results in an acute diuretic and natriuretic response independent of changes in plasma aldosterone concentrations and produces a chronic reduction in fluid volume lasting the duration in the stimulus.

  18. A guide for using the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blainey, Joan B.; Faunt, Claudia C.; Hill, Mary C.

    2006-01-01

    This report is a guide for executing numerical simulations with the transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California using the U.S. Geological Survey modular finite-difference ground-water flow model, MODFLOW-2000. Model inputs, including observations of hydraulic head, discharge, and boundary flows, are summarized. Modification of the DVRFS transient ground-water model is discussed for two common uses of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system model: predictive pumping scenarios that extend beyond the end of the model simulation period (1998), and model simulations with only steady-state conditions.

  19. Yield from an intensively hunted population of eastern fox squirrels

    Treesearch

    James S. Jordan; James S. Jordan

    1971-01-01

    Rates at which Eastern fox squirrels (Sciurus niger) are exploited in areas open to public hunting may be useful guides for designing fall hunting seasons that are biologically defensible. However, there is a question whether the harvest of fox squirrels by public hunting will even occasionally be great enough to challenge the limit allowed by the best designed...

  20. Predation risk landscape modifies flying and red squirrel nest site occupancy independently of habitat amount

    PubMed Central

    Korpimäki, Erkki; Villers, Alexandre; Selonen, Vesa

    2018-01-01

    Habitat choice often entails trade-offs between food availability and predation risk. Understanding the distribution of individuals in space thus requires that both habitat characteristics and predation risk are considered simultaneously. Here, we studied the nest box use of two arboreal squirrels who share preferred habitat with their main predators. Nocturnal Ural owls (Strix uralensis) decreased occurrence of night-active flying squirrels (Pteromys volans) and diurnal goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) that of day-active red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris). Unexpectedly, the amount of preferred habitat had no effect on nest box use, but, surprisingly, both squirrel species seemed to benefit from close proximity to agricultural fields and red squirrels to urban areas. We found no evidence of trade-off between settling in a high-quality habitat and avoiding predators. However, the amount of poor-quality young pine forests was lower in occupied sites where goshawks were present, possibly indicating habitat specific predation on red squirrels. The results suggest that erecting nest boxes for Ural owls should be avoided in the vicinity of flying squirrel territories in order to conserve the near threatened flying squirrels. Our results also suggest that flying squirrels do not always need continuous old forests, and hence the currently insufficient conservation practices could be improved with reasonable increases in the areas left untouched around their nests. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of taking into account both habitat requirements and predation risk as well as their interactive effects when modeling the occupancy of threatened animal species and planning their conservation. PMID:29596438

  1. Fire, red squirrels, whitebark pine, and Yellowstone grizzly bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Podruzny, Shannon; Reinhart, Daniel P.; Mattson, David J.

    1999-01-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) habitats are important to Yellowstone grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) as refugia and sources of food. Ecological relationships between whitebark pine, red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), and grizzly bear use of pine seeds on Mt. Washburn in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, were examined during 1984-86. Following large-scale fires in 1988, we repeated the study in 1995-97 to examine the effects of fire on availability of whitebark pine seed in red squirrel middens and on bear use of middens. Half of the total length of the original line transects burned. We found no red squirrel middens in burned areas. Post-fire linear-abundance (no./km) of active squirrel middens that were pooled from burned and unburned areas decreased 27% compared to pre-fire abundance, but increased in unburned portions of some habitat types. Mean size of active middens decreased 54% post-fire. Use of pine seeds by bears (linear abundance of excavated middens) in pooled burned and unburned habitats decreased by 64%, likely due to the combined effects of reduced midden availability and smaller midden size. We discourage any further large-scale losses of seed producing trees from management-prescribed fires or timber harvesting until the effects of fire on ecological relationships in the whitebark pine zone are better understood.

  2. Direct comparison of (+/-) 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ("ecstasy") disposition and metabolism in squirrel monkeys and humans.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Melanie; Kolbrich, Erin A; Peters, Frank T; Maurer, Hans H; McCann, Una D; Huestis, Marilyn A; Ricaurte, George A

    2009-06-01

    The present study compared the disposition and metabolism of the recreational drug (+/-) 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") in squirrel monkeys and humans because the squirrel monkey has been extensively studied for MDMA neurotoxicity. A newly developed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric procedure for simultaneous measurement of MDMA, 3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine, and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine was employed. In both humans and squirrel monkeys, a within-subject design permitted testing of different doses in the same subjects. Humans and squirrel monkeys were found to metabolize MDMA in similar, but not identical, pathways and proportions. In particular, amounts of 3,4-dihydroxymethamphetamine (after conjugate cleavage) and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine were similar in the 2 species, but formation of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine was greater in squirrel monkeys than in humans. Both species demonstrated nonlinear MDMA pharmacokinetics at comparable plasma MDMA concentrations (125-150 ng/mL and above). The elimination half-life of MDMA was considerably shorter in squirrel monkeys than in humans (2-3 versus 6-9 hours). In both species, there was substantial individual variability. These results suggest that the squirrel monkey may be a useful model for predicting outcomes of MDMA exposure in humans, although this will also depend on the degree to which MDMA pharmacodynamics in the squirrel monkey parallels that in humans.

  3. Seasonal use of red-cockaded woodpecker cavities by southern flying squirrels

    Treesearch

    Susan C. Loeb; Deanna L. Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) can significantly impact red-cockaded woodpecker reproductive success (Laves and Loeb 1999). Thus, exclusion or removal of flying squirrels from red-cockaded woodpecker cavities and clusters may be warranted in small woodpecker populations (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service 2003). However, development of...

  4. Proteomic analysis reveals the distinct energy and protein metabolism characteristics involved in myofiber type conversion and resistance of atrophy in the extensor digitorum longus muscle of hibernating Daurian ground squirrels.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hui; Jiang, Shanfeng; Ma, Xiufeng; Peng, Xin; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Zhe; Xu, Shenhui; Wang, Huiping; Gao, Yunfang

    2018-06-01

    Previous hibernation studies demonstrated that such a natural model of skeletal muscle disuse causes limited muscle atrophy and a significant fast-to-slow fiber type shift. However, the underlying mechanism as defined in a large-scale analysis remains unclarified. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) based quantitative analysis were used to examine proteomic changes in the fast extensor digitorum longus muscles (EDL) of Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus). Although the wet weights and fiber cross-sectional area of the EDL muscle showed no significant decrease, the percentage of slow type fiber was 61% greater (P < 0.01) in the hibernation group. Proteomics analysis identified 264 proteins that were significantly changed (ratio < 0.83 or >1.2-fold and P < 0.05) in the hibernation group, of which 23 proteins were categorized into energy production and conversion and translation and 22 proteins were categorized into ribosomal structure and biogenesis. Along with the validation by western blot, MAPKAP kinase 2, ATP5D, ACADSB, calcineurin, CSTB and EIF2S were up-regulated in the hibernation group, whereas PDK4, COX II and EIF3C were down-regulated in the hibernation group. MAPKAP kinase 2 and PDK4 were associated with glycolysis, COX II and ATP5D were associated with oxidative phosphorylation, ACADSB was associated with fatty acid metabolism, calcineurin and CSTB were associated with catabolism, and EIF2S and EIF3C were associated with anabolism. Moreover, the total proteolysis rate of EDL in the hibernation group was significantly inhibited compared with that in the pre-hibernation group. These distinct energy and protein metabolism characteristics may be involved in myofiber type conversion and resistance to atrophy in the EDL of hibernating Daurian ground squirrels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Kleptoparasitic behavior and species richness at Mt. Graham red squirrel middens

    Treesearch

    Andrew J. Edelman; John L. Koprowski; Jennifer L. Edelman

    2005-01-01

    We used remote photography to assess the frequency of inter- and intra-specific kleptoparasitism and species richness at Mt. Graham red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis) middens. Remote cameras and conifer cones were placed at occupied and unoccupied middens, and random sites. Species richness of small mammals was higher at red squirrel...

  6. The Autopsy of Squirrel Doe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Timothy T.; Watson, Jason

    2005-01-01

    Introductory biology laboratory experiences frequently rely on preserved chordates for anatomical study. Unfortunately, these preserved organisms rarely reflect the appearance of a living creature. Since community colleges are generally prohibited the use of live chordates, this paper describes the autopsy of a "road kill" squirrel to facilitate…

  7. Red-cockaded woodpecker cavity tree resin avoidance by southern flying squirrels

    Treesearch

    Richard R. Schaefer; Daniel Saenz

    1998-01-01

    While examining red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavity contents in eastern Texas, the authors observed cavity tree resin avoidance by southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans). The tree surface around an active red-cockaded woodpecker cavity is coated with sticky resin which flows from resin wells created by the woodpecker. The southern flying squirrel...

  8. Maturation and reproduction of northern flying squirrels in Pacific Northwest forests.

    Treesearch

    Lisa J. Villa; Andrew B. Carey; Todd M. Wilson; Karma E. Glos

    1999-01-01

    Northern flying squirrels are the primary prey of northern spotted owls and are important dispersers of fungal spores in Pacific Northwest forests. Despite the importance of these squirrels in forest ecosystems, information is lacking on life history and methods for determining age and reproductive condition. In the laboratory, we measured epiphyseal notch, femur...

  9. Short-term responses of red squirrels to prescribed burning in the interior Pacific Northwest, USA

    Treesearch

    Robin E. Russell; John F. Lehmkuhl; Stephen T. Buckland; Victoria A. Saab

    2010-01-01

    We quantified changes in density of red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) in response to prescribed fire in mixed coniferous forests of Idaho and Washington, USA, using a Before-After-Control-Impact design. We found no evidence that low-severity prescribed fires affected density of red squirrels; we estimated the change in red squirrel densities...

  10. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southern Sacramento Valley, California, 2005 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Bennett, George L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 2,100 square-mile Southern Sacramento Valley study unit (SSACV) was investigated from March to June 2005 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. This study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SSACV, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 83 wells in Placer, Sacramento, Solano, Sutter, and Yolo Counties. Sixty-seven of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area. Sixteen of the wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths. Four additional samples were collected at one of the wells to evaluate water-quality changes with depth. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of man-made organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and wastewater-indicator constituents), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, matrix spikes

  11. Relative roles of grey squirrels, supplementary feeding, and habitat in shaping urban bird assemblages.

    PubMed

    Bonnington, Colin; Gaston, Kevin J; Evans, Karl L

    2014-01-01

    Non-native species are frequently considered to influence urban assemblages. The grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis is one such species that is widespread in the UK and is starting to spread across Europe; it predates birds' nests and can compete with birds for supplementary food. Using distance sampling across the urbanisation intensity gradient in Sheffield (UK) we test whether urban grey squirrels influence avian species richness and density through nest predation and competition for supplementary food sources. We also assess how urban bird assemblages respond to supplementary feeding. We find that grey squirrels slightly reduced the abundance of breeding bird species most sensitive to squirrel nest predation by reducing the beneficial impact of woodland cover. There was no evidence that grey squirrel presence altered relationships between supplementary feeding and avian assemblage structure. This may be because, somewhat surprisingly, supplementary feeding was not associated with the richness or density of wintering bird assemblages. These associations were positive during the summer, supporting advocacy to feed birds during the breeding season and not just winter, but explanatory capacity was limited. The amount of green space and its quality, assessed as canopy cover, had a stronger influence on avian species richness and population size than the presence of grey squirrels and supplementary feeding stations. Urban bird populations are thus more likely to benefit from investment in improving the availability of high quality habitats than controlling squirrel populations or increased investment in supplementary feeding.

  12. Relative Roles of Grey Squirrels, Supplementary Feeding, and Habitat in Shaping Urban Bird Assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Bonnington, Colin; Gaston, Kevin J.; Evans, Karl L.

    2014-01-01

    Non-native species are frequently considered to influence urban assemblages. The grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis is one such species that is widespread in the UK and is starting to spread across Europe; it predates birds’ nests and can compete with birds for supplementary food. Using distance sampling across the urbanisation intensity gradient in Sheffield (UK) we test whether urban grey squirrels influence avian species richness and density through nest predation and competition for supplementary food sources. We also assess how urban bird assemblages respond to supplementary feeding. We find that grey squirrels slightly reduced the abundance of breeding bird species most sensitive to squirrel nest predation by reducing the beneficial impact of woodland cover. There was no evidence that grey squirrel presence altered relationships between supplementary feeding and avian assemblage structure. This may be because, somewhat surprisingly, supplementary feeding was not associated with the richness or density of wintering bird assemblages. These associations were positive during the summer, supporting advocacy to feed birds during the breeding season and not just winter, but explanatory capacity was limited. The amount of green space and its quality, assessed as canopy cover, had a stronger influence on avian species richness and population size than the presence of grey squirrels and supplementary feeding stations. Urban bird populations are thus more likely to benefit from investment in improving the availability of high quality habitats than controlling squirrel populations or increased investment in supplementary feeding. PMID:25338062

  13. Immediate or lagged responses of a red squirrel population to pulsed resources.

    PubMed

    Selonen, Vesa; Varjonen, Rauno; Korpimäki, Erkki

    2015-02-01

    According to producer-consumer models, consumers should follow pulsed resources with a time lag. This view has been challenged by studies demonstrating that individuals may anticipate future resource pulses by increasing reproduction just before the pulse. We studied population fluctuations and reproduction in European red squirrels, Sciurus vulgaris, in relation to seed masting of the main food resource (the Norway spruce) in boreal coniferous forests between 1979 and 2013. Red squirrels are pre-dispersal seed predators, and previous studies have shown that they can anticipate the coming seed mast. We did not find any indication that anticipation of masting (year t ) increased red squirrel reproduction in the preceding spring to early summer. Instead, the reproductive output of the squirrels was highest in the spring following the mast, indicating that the population had to be at its largest size in the autumn after the mast (year(t+1)), when lots of subadults were around. However, we surmised, based on snow tracks and squirrel nest data, that the population crashed during the following winter (year(t+1)). These data reflected the adult population during winter, which peaked at the same time as the resource pulse. We can therefore conclude that the time lag between the resource pulse and the attainment of the peak number of squirrels was less than one year, and that the resource crash affected more juveniles and subadults than adults. The population increase overlapped with the occurrence of masting, but there was also a lagged response, supporting the classical view of producer-consumer models.

  14. Influence of thinning of Douglas-fir forests on population parameters and diet of northern flying squirrels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomez, D.M.; Anthony, R.G.; Hayes, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the effects of thinning young (35- to 45-yr-old) Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) forests on density, survival, body mass, movements, and diets of northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) in the northern coast range of Oregon. We used a repeated measures, randomized block design with 3 treatments (control, moderate thinning, and heavy thinning) and 4 replicates to study diets and population characteristics from 1994-1997. Densities of flying squirrels were variable in space and time, but they were positively correlated to biomass and frequency of fungal sporocarps, suggesting they were responding to food resources rather than forest structure. Fungal sporocarps comprised a major portion of the squirrel's diet, and other vegetative material made up the remainder of the diet. Several fungal genera including Gautieria, Geopora, Hymenogaster, Hysterangium, Melanogaster, and Rhizopogon were found more frequently in diets than on the trapping grids and therefore appeared to be selected by the squirrels. Flying squirrel movements were negatively correlated with the frequency of occurrence of fungal sporocarps at trap stations, suggesting that squirrels traveled greater distances to find fungal sporocarps where these food items were more sparsely distributed. We hypothesized that flying squirrel densities would be relatively low in these young, structurally simple forests; however, densities on some of the grids were >1.5 squirrels/ha, which was comparable to densities described for the species in late-successional forests. Our results indicated that commercial thinning did not have measurable short-term effects on density, survival, or body mass of flying squirrels.

  15. Multiplex PCR assay discriminates rabbit, rat and squirrel meat in food chain.

    PubMed

    Ahamad, Mohammad Nasir Uddin; Ali, Md Eaqub; Hossain, M A Motalib; Asing, Asing; Sultana, Sharmin; Jahurul, M H A

    2017-12-01

    Rabbit meat is receiving increasing attention because it contains a high level of proteins with relatively little fat. On the other hand, squirrel meat is served in upper-class meals in certain countries, so is sold at higher prices. The other side of the coin is rat meat, which has family ties with rabbit and squirrel but poses substantial threats to public health because it is a potential carrier of several zoonotic organisms. Recently, rat meat was mislabelled and sold as lamb after chemical modification. Thus, the chances of rabbit and squirrel meat substitution by rat meat cannot be ruled out. For the first time, a multiplex PCR assay was developed in Malaysia for the discriminatory identification of rat, rabbit and squirrel in the food chain. Rabbit (123 bp), rat (108 bp) and squirrel (243 bp) targets were amplified from ATP6 and cytb genes, along with a eukaryotic internal control (141bp). The products were sequenced and cross-tested against 22 species. A total of 81 reference samples and 72 meatball specimens were screened to validate the assay. Analyte stability was evaluated through boiling, autoclaving and micro-oven cooking. The tested lower limits of detection were 0.01 ng DNA for pure meat and 0.1% for meatballs.

  16. Fox Squirrels Match Food Assessment and Cache Effort to Value and Scarcity

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Mikel M.; Nicholas, Molly; Petrie, Daniel J.; Jacobs, Lucia F.

    2014-01-01

    Scatter hoarders must allocate time to assess items for caching, and to carry and bury each cache. Such decisions should be driven by economic variables, such as the value of the individual food items, the scarcity of these items, competition for food items and risk of pilferage by conspecifics. The fox squirrel, an obligate scatter-hoarder, assesses cacheable food items using two overt movements, head flicks and paw manipulations. These behaviors allow an examination of squirrel decision processes when storing food for winter survival. We measured wild squirrels' time allocations and frequencies of assessment and investment behaviors during periods of food scarcity (summer) and abundance (fall), giving the squirrels a series of 15 items (alternating five hazelnuts and five peanuts). Assessment and investment per cache increased when resource value was higher (hazelnuts) or resources were scarcer (summer), but decreased as scarcity declined (end of sessions). This is the first study to show that assessment behaviors change in response to factors that indicate daily and seasonal resource abundance, and that these factors may interact in complex ways to affect food storing decisions. Food-storing tree squirrels may be a useful and important model species to understand the complex economic decisions made under natural conditions. PMID:24671221

  17. Management and conservation of tree squirrels: the importance of endemism, species richness, and forest condition

    Treesearch

    John L. Koprowski

    2005-01-01

    Tree squirrels are excellent indicators of forest health yet the taxon is understudied. Most tree squirrels in the Holarctic Region are imperiled with some level of legal protection. The Madrean Archipelago is the epicenter for tree squirrel diversity in North America with 5 endemic species and 2 introduced species. Most species of the region are poorly studied in...

  18. Mapping ground cover using hyperspectral remote sensing after the 2003 Simi and Old wildfires in southern California

    Treesearch

    Sarah A. Lewis; Leigh B. Lentile; Andrew T. Hudak; Peter R. Robichaud; Penelope Morgan; Michael J. Bobbitt

    2007-01-01

    Wildfire effects on the ground surface are indicative of the potential for post-fire watershed erosion response. Areas with remaining organic ground cover will likely experience less erosion than areas of complete ground cover combustion or exposed mineral soil. The Simi and Old fires burned ~67,000 ha in southern California in 2003. Burn severity indices calculated...

  19. Effectiveness of flying squirrel excluder devices on red-cockaded woodpecker cavities

    Treesearch

    Susan C. Loeb

    1996-01-01

    The author tested the effectiveness of squirrel excluder devices (SQED?s) in deterring southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) from using artificial red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavities by placing them on approximately one-half of the cavities in 14 inactive recruitment clusters on the Savannah River Site, SC. SQED?s consisted of 2 pieces of 35.5-...

  20. Macroparasite fauna of alien grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis): composition, variability and implications for native species.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Claudia; Wauters, Lucas A; Ferrari, Nicola; Lanfranchi, Paolo; Martinoli, Adriano; Pisanu, Benoît; Preatoni, Damiano G; Saino, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Introduced hosts populations may benefit of an "enemy release" through impoverishment of parasite communities made of both few imported species and few acquired local ones. Moreover, closely related competing native hosts can be affected by acquiring introduced taxa (spillover) and by increased transmission risk of native parasites (spillback). We determined the macroparasite fauna of invasive grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) in Italy to detect any diversity loss, introduction of novel parasites or acquisition of local ones, and analysed variation in parasite burdens to identify factors that may increase transmission risk for native red squirrels (S. vulgaris). Based on 277 grey squirrels sampled from 7 populations characterised by different time scales in introduction events, we identified 7 gastro-intestinal helminths and 4 parasite arthropods. Parasite richness is lower than in grey squirrel's native range and independent from introduction time lags. The most common parasites are Nearctic nematodes Strongyloides robustus (prevalence: 56.6%) and Trichostrongylus calcaratus (6.5%), red squirrel flea Ceratophyllus sciurorum (26.0%) and Holarctic sucking louse Neohaematopinus sciuri (17.7%). All other parasites are European or cosmopolitan species with prevalence below 5%. S. robustus abundance is positively affected by host density and body mass, C. sciurorum abundance increases with host density and varies with seasons. Overall, we show that grey squirrels in Italy may benefit of an enemy release, and both spillback and spillover processes towards native red squirrels may occur.

  1. Mandible shape and dwarfism in squirrels (Mammalia, Rodentia): interaction of allometry and adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hautier, Lionel; Fabre, Pierre-Henri; Michaux, Jacques

    2009-06-01

    Squirrels include several independent lineages of dwarf forms distributed into two ecological groups: the dwarf tree and flying squirrels. The mandible of dwarf tree squirrels share a highly reduced coronoid process and a condylar process drawn backwards. Dwarf flying squirrels on the other hand, have an elongated coronoid process and a well-differentiated condylar process. To interpret such a difference, Elliptic Fourier Transform was used to evaluate how mandible shape varies with dwarfism in sciurids. The results obtained show that this clear-cut difference cannot be explained by a simple allometric relationship in relation with size decrease. We concluded that the retention of anteriorly positioned eye sockets, in relation with distance estimation, allowed the conservation of a well-differentiated coronoid process in all flying species, despite the trend towards its reduction observed among sciurids as their size decreases.

  2. Impacts of late Quaternary environmental change on the long-tailed ground squirrel (Urocitellus undulatus) in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    McLean, Bryan S; Nyamsuren, Batsaikhan; Tchabovsky, Andrey; Cook, Joseph A

    2018-03-08

    Impacts of Quaternary environmental changes on mammal faunas of central Asia remain poorly understood due to a lack of geographically comprehensive phylogeographic sampling for most species. To help address this knowledge gap, we conducted the most extensive molecular analysis to date of the long-tailed ground squirrel (Urocitellus undulatus Pallas 1778) in Mongolia, a country that comprises the southern core of this species' range. Drawing on material from recent collaborative field expeditions, we genotyped 128 individuals at 2 mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and cytochrome oxidase I; 1 797 bp total). Phylogenetic inference supports the existence of two deeply divergent infraspecific lineages (corresponding to subspecies U. u. undulatus and U. u. eversmanni), a result in agreement with previous molecular investigations but discordant with patterns of range-wide craniometric and external phenotypic variation. In the widespread western eversmanni lineage, we recovered geographically-associated clades from the: (a) Khangai, (b) Mongolian Altai, and (c) Govi Altai mountain ranges. Phylogeographic structure in U. u. eversmanni is consistent with an isolation-by-distance model; however, genetic distances are significantly lower than among subspecies, and intra-clade relationships are largely unresolved. The latter patterns, as well as the relatively higher nucleotide polymorphism of populations from the Great Lakes Depression of northwestern Mongolia, suggest a history of range shifts into these lowland areas in response to Pleistocene glaciation and environmental change, followed by upslope movements and mitochondrial lineage sorting with Holocene aridification. Our study illuminates possible historical mechanisms responsible for U. undulatus genetic structure and contributes to a framework for ongoing exploration of mammalian response to past and present climate change in central Asia.

  3. A quantitative genetic analysis of hibernation emergence date in a wild population of Columbian ground squirrels.

    PubMed

    Lane, J E; Kruuk, L E B; Charmantier, A; Murie, J O; Coltman, D W; Buoro, M; Raveh, S; Dobson, F S

    2011-09-01

    The life history schedules of wild organisms have long attracted scientific interest, and, in light of ongoing climate change, an understanding of their genetic and environmental underpinnings is increasingly becoming of applied concern. We used a multi-generation pedigree and detailed phenotypic records, spanning 18 years, to estimate the quantitative genetic influences on the timing of hibernation emergence in a wild population of Columbian ground squirrels (Urocitellus columbianus). Emergence date was significantly heritable [h(2) = 0.22 ± 0.05 (in females) and 0.34 ± 0.14 (in males)], and there was a positive genetic correlation (r(G) = 0.76 ± 0.22) between male and female emergence dates. In adult females, the heritabilities of body mass at emergence and oestrous date were h(2) = 0.23 ± 0.09 and h(2) = 0.18 ± 0.12, respectively. The date of hibernation emergence has been hypothesized to have evolved so as to synchronize subsequent reproduction with upcoming peaks in vegetation abundance. In support of this hypothesis, although levels of phenotypic variance in emergence date were higher than oestrous date, there was a highly significant genetic correlation between the two (r(G) = 0.98 ± 0.01). Hibernation is a prominent feature in the annual cycle of many small mammals, but our understanding of its influences lags behind that for phenological traits in many other taxa. Our results provide the first insight into its quantitative genetic influences and thus help contribute to a more general understanding of its evolutionary significance. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2011 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  4. A brain MRI atlas of the common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yurui; Schilling, Kurt G.; Khare, Shweta P.; Panda, Swetasudha; Choe, Ann S.; Stepniewska, Iwona; Li, Xia; Ding, Zhoahua; Anderson, Adam; Landman, Bennett A.

    2014-03-01

    The common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus, is a New World monkey with functional and microstructural organization of central nervous system similar to that of humans. It is one of the most commonly used South American primates in biomedical research. Unlike its Old World macaque cousins, no digital atlases have described the organization of the squirrel monkey brain. Here, we present a multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) atlas constructed from the brain of an adult female squirrel monkey. In vivo MRI acquisitions include high resolution T2 structural imaging and low resolution diffusion tensor imaging. Ex vivo MRI acquisitions include high resolution T2 structural imaging and high resolution diffusion tensor imaging. Cortical regions were manually annotated on the co-registered volumes based on published histological sections.

  5. Opportunistic predation by a broad-winged hawk on a southern flying squirrel

    Treesearch

    Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer

    1995-01-01

    Broad-winged Hawks (Buteo platypterus) take a wide variety of prey, including numerous small mammal species (Rusch and Doerr 1972; Fitch 1974; Mosher and Matray 1974; Rosenfield et al. 1984; and Toland 1986). Flying squirrels (Glaucomys spp.) are probably not regular prey of diurnal raptors due to the squirrel's nocturnal...

  6. Ground-water modeling of the Death Valley Region, Nevada and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belcher, W.R.; Faunt, C.C.; Sweetkind, D.S.; Blainey, J.B.; San Juan, C. A.; Laczniak, R.J.; Hill, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    The Death Valley regional ground-water flow system (DVRFS) of southern Nevada and eastern California covers an area of about 100,000 square kilometers and contains very complex geology and hydrology. Using a computer model to represent the complex system, the U.S. Geological Survey simulated ground-water flow in the Death Valley region for use with U.S. Department of Energy projects in southern Nevada. The model was created to help address contaminant cleanup activities associated with the underground nuclear testing conducted from 1951 to 1992 at the Nevada Test Site and to support the licensing process for the proposed geologic repository for high-level nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.

  7. Lipid emulsion enhances cardiac performance after ischemia-reperfusion in isolated hearts from summer-active arctic ground squirrels.

    PubMed

    Salzman, Michele M; Cheng, Qunli; Deklotz, Richard J; Dulai, Gurpreet K; Douglas, Hunter F; Dikalova, Anna E; Weihrauch, Dorothee; Barnes, Brian M; Riess, Matthias L

    2017-07-01

    Hibernating mammals, like the arctic ground squirrel (AGS), exhibit robust resistance to myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury. Regulated preference for lipid over glucose to fuel metabolism may play an important role. We tested whether providing lipid in an emulsion protects hearts from summer-active AGS better than hearts from Brown Norway (BN) rats against normothermic IR injury. Langendorff-prepared AGS and BN rat hearts were perfused with Krebs solution containing 7.5 mM glucose with or without 1% Intralipid™. After stabilization and cardioplegia, hearts underwent 45-min global ischemia and 60-min reperfusion. Coronary flow, isovolumetric left ventricular pressure, and mitochondrial redox state were measured continuously; infarct size was measured at the end of the experiment. Glucose-only AGS hearts functioned significantly better on reperfusion than BN rat hearts. Intralipid™ administration resulted in additional functional improvement in AGS compared to glucose-only and BN rat hearts. Infarct size was not different among groups. Even under non-hibernating conditions, AGS hearts performed better after IR than the best-protected rat strain. This, however, appears to strongly depend on metabolic fuel: Intralipid™ led to a significant improvement in return of function in AGS, but not in BN rat hearts, suggesting that year-round endogenous mechanisms are involved in myocardial lipid utilization that contributes to improved cardiac performance, independent of the metabolic rate decrease during hibernation. Comparative lipid analysis revealed four candidates as possible cardioprotective lipid groups. The improved function in Intralipid™-perfused AGS hearts also challenges the current paradigm that increased glucose and decreased lipid metabolism are favorable during myocardial IR.

  8. Metabolic changes associated with the long winter fast dominate the liver proteome in 13-lined ground squirrels

    PubMed Central

    Hindle, Allyson G.; Grabek, Katharine R.; Epperson, L. Elaine; Karimpour-Fard, Anis

    2014-01-01

    Small-bodied hibernators partition the year between active homeothermy and hibernating heterothermy accompanied by fasting. To define molecular events underlying hibernation that are both dependent and independent of fasting, we analyzed the liver proteome among two active and four hibernation states in 13-lined ground squirrels. We also examined fall animals transitioning between fed homeothermy and fasting heterothermy. Significantly enriched pathways differing between activity and hibernation were biased toward metabolic enzymes, concordant with the fuel shifts accompanying fasting physiology. Although metabolic reprogramming to support fasting dominated these data, arousing (rewarming) animals had the most distinct proteome among the hibernation states. Instead of a dominant metabolic enzyme signature, torpor-arousal cycles featured differences in plasma proteins and intracellular membrane traffic and its regulation. Phosphorylated NSFL1C, a membrane regulator, exhibited this torpor-arousal cycle pattern; its role in autophagosome formation may promote utilization of local substrates upon metabolic reactivation in arousal. Fall animals transitioning to hibernation lagged in their proteomic adjustment, indicating that the liver is more responsive than preparatory to the metabolic reprogramming of hibernation. Specifically, torpor use had little impact on the fall liver proteome, consistent with a dominant role of nutritional status. In contrast to our prediction of reprogramming the transition between activity and hibernation by gene expression and then within-hibernation transitions by posttranslational modification (PTM), we found extremely limited evidence of reversible PTMs within torpor-arousal cycles. Rather, acetylation contributed to seasonal differences, being highest in winter (specifically in torpor), consistent with fasting physiology and decreased abundance of the mitochondrial deacetylase, SIRT3. PMID:24642758

  9. Macroparasite Fauna of Alien Grey Squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis): Composition, Variability and Implications for Native Species

    PubMed Central

    Romeo, Claudia; Wauters, Lucas A.; Ferrari, Nicola; Lanfranchi, Paolo; Martinoli, Adriano; Pisanu, Benoît; Preatoni, Damiano G.; Saino, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Introduced hosts populations may benefit of an "enemy release" through impoverishment of parasite communities made of both few imported species and few acquired local ones. Moreover, closely related competing native hosts can be affected by acquiring introduced taxa (spillover) and by increased transmission risk of native parasites (spillback). We determined the macroparasite fauna of invasive grey squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) in Italy to detect any diversity loss, introduction of novel parasites or acquisition of local ones, and analysed variation in parasite burdens to identify factors that may increase transmission risk for native red squirrels (S. vulgaris). Based on 277 grey squirrels sampled from 7 populations characterised by different time scales in introduction events, we identified 7 gastro-intestinal helminths and 4 parasite arthropods. Parasite richness is lower than in grey squirrel's native range and independent from introduction time lags. The most common parasites are Nearctic nematodes Strongyloides robustus (prevalence: 56.6%) and Trichostrongylus calcaratus (6.5%), red squirrel flea Ceratophyllus sciurorum (26.0%) and Holarctic sucking louse Neohaematopinus sciuri (17.7%). All other parasites are European or cosmopolitan species with prevalence below 5%. S. robustus abundance is positively affected by host density and body mass, C. sciurorum abundance increases with host density and varies with seasons. Overall, we show that grey squirrels in Italy may benefit of an enemy release, and both spillback and spillover processes towards native red squirrels may occur. PMID:24505348

  10. Regulation and distribution of squirrel monkey chorionic gonadotropin and secretogranin II in the pituitary.

    PubMed

    Vasauskas, Audrey A; Hubler, Tina R; Mahanic, Christina; Gibson, Susan; Kahn, Andrea G; Scammell, Jonathan G

    2011-02-01

    Secretogranin II (SgII) is a member of the granin family of proteins found in neuroendocrine and endocrine cells. The expression and storage of SgII in the pituitary gland of Old World primates and rodents have been linked with those of luteinizing hormone (LH). However, New World primates including squirrel monkeys do not express LH in the pituitary gland, but rather CG is expressed. If CG takes on the luteotropic role of LH in New World primates, SgII may be associated with the expression and storage of CG in the pituitary gland. The goal of this study was to evaluate the regulation and distribution of CG and SgII in the squirrel monkey. A DNA fragment containing approximately 750 bp of squirrel monkey SgII promoter was isolated from genomic DNA and found to contain a cyclic-AMP response element that is also present in the human SgII promoter and important for GnRH responsiveness. The squirrel monkey and human SgII promoters were similarly activated by GnRH in luciferase reporter gene assays in LβT2 cells. Double immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated close association of SgII and CG in gonadotrophs of squirrel monkey pituitary gland. These results suggest that CG and SgII have a similar intercellular distribution and are coregulated in squirrel monkey pituitary gland. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Regulation and distribution of squirrel monkey chorionic gonadotropin and secretogranin II in the pituitary

    PubMed Central

    Vasauskas, Audrey A.; Hubler, Tina R.; Mahanic, Christina; Gibson, Susan; Kahn, Andrea G.; Scammell, Jonathan G.

    2011-01-01

    Secretogranin II (SgII) is a member of the granin family of proteins found in neuroendocrine and endocrine cells. The expression and storage of SgII in the pituitary gland of Old World primates and rodents have been linked with those of luteinizing hormone (LH). However, New World primates including squirrel monkeys do not express LH in the pituitary gland, but rather CG is expressed. If CG takes on the luteotropic role of LH in New World primates, SgII may be associated with the expression and storage of CG in the pituitary gland. The goal of this study was to evaluate the regulation and distribution of CG and SgII in the squirrel monkey. A DNA fragment containing approximately 750 bp of squirrel monkey SgII promoter was isolated from genomic DNA and found to contain a cyclic AMP response element that is also present in the human SgII promoter and important for GnRH responsiveness. The squirrel monkey and human SgII promoters were similarly activated by GnRH in luciferase reporter gene assays in LβT2 cells. Double immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated close association of SgII and CG in gonadotrophs of squirrel monkey pituitary gland. These results suggest that CG and SgII have a similar intercellular distribution and are coregulated in squirrel monkey pituitary gland. PMID:21095191

  12. Evidence of autumn breeding in red squirrels, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, in western Montana

    Treesearch

    Dean E. Pearson

    2000-01-01

    Red Squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) routinely breed biannually in eastern North America, but normally breed once annually in western North America. However, a postpartum estrus resulting in two breeding seasons per year has been documented within the maritime region of British Columbia. I present two accounts of Red Squirrel behavior suggestive of autumn...

  13. TriNet "ShakeMaps": Rapid generation of peak ground motion and intensity maps for earthquakes in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wald, D.J.; Quitoriano, V.; Heaton, T.H.; Kanamori, H.; Scrivner, C.W.; Worden, C.B.

    1999-01-01

    Rapid (3-5 minutes) generation of maps of instrumental ground-motion and shaking intensity is accomplished through advances in real-time seismographic data acquisition combined with newly developed relationships between recorded ground-motion parameters and expected shaking intensity values. Estimation of shaking over the entire regional extent of southern California is obtained by the spatial interpolation of the measured ground motions with geologically based frequency and amplitude-dependent site corrections. Production of the maps is automatic, triggered by any significant earthquake in southern California. Maps are now made available within several minutes of the earthquake for public and scientific consumption via the World Wide Web; they will be made available with dedicated communications for emergency response agencies and critical users.

  14. Ground winds and winds aloft for Edwards AFB, California (1978 revision)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. L.; Brown, S. C.

    1978-01-01

    Ground level runway wind statistics for the Edwards AFB, California area are presented. Crosswind, headwind, tailwind, and headwind reversal percentage frequencies are given with respect to month and hour for the two major Edwards AFB runways. Also presented are Edwards AFB bivariate normal wind statistics for a 90 degree flight azimuth for altitudes 0 through 27 km. Wind probability distributions and statistics for any rotation of axes can be computed from the five given parameters.

  15. Striatal dopamine D2/3 receptor regulation by stress inoculation in squirrel monkeys.

    PubMed

    Lee, Alex G; Nechvatal, Jordan M; Shen, Bin; Buckmaster, Christine L; Levy, Michael J; Chin, Frederick T; Schatzberg, Alan F; Lyons, David M

    2016-06-01

    Intermittent mildly stressful situations provide opportunities to learn, practice, and improve coping in a process called stress inoculation. Stress inoculation also enhances cognitive control and response inhibition of impulsive motivated behavior. Cognitive control and motivation have been linked to striatal dopamine D2 and/or D3 receptors (DRD2/3) in rodents, monkeys, and humans. Here, we study squirrel monkeys randomized early in life to stress inoculation with or without maternal companionship and a no-stress control treatment condition. Striatal DRD2/3 availability in adulthood was measured in vivo by [ 11 C]raclopride binding using positron emission tomography (PET). DRD2/3 availability was greater in caudate and putamen compared to ventral striatum as reported in PET studies of humans and other non-human primates. DRD2/3 availability in ventral striatum was also consistently greater in stress inoculated squirrel monkeys compared to no-stress controls. Squirrel monkeys exposed to stress inoculation in the presence of their mother did not differ from squirrel monkeys exposed to stress inoculation without maternal companionship. Similar effects in different social contexts extend the generality of our findings and together suggest that stress inoculation increases striatal DRD2/3 availability as a correlate of cognitive control in squirrel monkeys.

  16. Green foliage losses from ponderosa pines induced by Abert squirrels and snowstorms: A comparison. [Sciurus aberti; Pinus pondersosa

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Allred, W.S.; Gaud, W.S.

    1993-01-01

    Abert squirrels (Sciurus aberti) are obligate herbivores on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa). The inner bark of pine shoots is considered one of the predominant food resources obtained by foraging squirrels. As squirrels forage for this resource they induce green needle losses from chosen feed trees. Amounts of induced green needle losses appear to vary according to the availability of alternative foods and squirrel population densities. Weather also induces green needle losses to ponderosa pines. Results of this study indicate that, at least in some years, heavy snowstorms can induce greater amounts of green needle losses than squirrels. Squirrel herbivory wasmore » not indicated as a factor in any tree mortality. However, losses due to snowstorms are more severe since they may cause the actual depletion of trees in the forest because of the tree mortality they inflict.« less

  17. Habitat and Landscape Correlates of Southern Flying Squirrel Use of Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Clusters

    Treesearch

    Susan C. Loeb; Shawna L. Reid; Donald J. Lipscomb

    2012-01-01

    Southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) can have significant negative impacts on redcockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) reproductive success and group size. Although direct control of southern flying squirrels may be necessary in small red-cockaded woodpecker populations (

  18. The effects of gypsy moth infestation on gray squirrel habitat and populations

    Treesearch

    David E. Samuel; Rob Silvester

    1991-01-01

    The overall objective of this project was to determine the effects of defoliation on gray squirrel habitat. We will evaluate the existing Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) Model for gray squirrels on the University Forest and determine the effects of thinning on HSI values computed for thinned and unthinned stands. Habitat variables used in the U. S. Fish and Wildlife...

  19. Microwave radiometric studies and ground truth measurements of the NASA/USGS Southern California test site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgerton, A. T.; Trexler, D. T.; Sakamoto, S.; Jenkins, J. E.

    1969-01-01

    The field measurement program conducted at the NASA/USGS Southern California Test Site is discussed. Ground truth data and multifrequency microwave brightness data were acquired by a mobile field laboratory operating in conjunction with airborne instruments. The ground based investigations were performed at a number of locales representing a variety of terrains including open desert, cultivated fields, barren fields, portions of the San Andreas Fault Zone, and the Salton Sea. The measurements acquired ground truth data and microwave brightness data at wavelengths of 0.8 cm, 2.2 cm, and 21 cm.

  20. Causes of mortality and pathological lesions observed post-mortem in red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) in Great Britain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The red squirrel population in Great Britain has declined dramatically in recent decades, principally due to squirrelpox. Concern exists that red squirrels may become extinct nationally and, as there has been limited research in to diseases other than squirrelpox, this study aimed to identify additional causes of mortality. Results Post-mortem examinations on 163 red squirrels found dead on Isle of Wight (IoW) England, in Scotland and at other locations in Great Britain showed that 41.7% (n = 68) were killed by road traffic and 9.2% (n = 15) by predators, principally domestic cats and dogs. The overall male/female ratio was 1.08/1. Fleas were recorded on 34.9% of IoW squirrels and on 43.8% of Scottish squirrels but sucking lice and ixodid ticks were only seen on Scottish squirrels. Bacterial infections were significant, particularly in association with respiratory disease (n = 16); two squirrels died of Bordetella bronchiseptica bronchopneumonia. Cases of fatal exudative dermatitis (n = 5) associated with a lukM-positive clone of Staphylococcus aureus occurred only on the IoW. Toxoplasmosis (n = 12) was also confined to IoW where it was responsible for almost one tenth (9.5%) of all deaths. Hepatozoonosis was common, especially in IoW squirrels, but was not considered a primary cause of mortality. Hepatic capillariasis affected four IoW squirrels and one from Scotland. Fungal infections included oral candidiasis, adiaspiromycosis and pulmonary phaeohyphomycosis. Neoplastic conditions diagnosed were: pulmonary carcinoma, gastric spindle cell tumour, renal papillary adenoma and trichoepithelioma. Epidermal hyperplasia of unknown aetiology was seen in squirrels showing crusty lesions of the ear pinnae on IoW (n = 3) and Brownsea Island (n = 1), associated in two cases with cutaneous wart-like growths. Miscellaneous diagnoses included chylothorax, electrocution, intussusception, suspected cholecalciferol rodenticide poisoning and

  1. Squirrel Monkey Requirements for Chronic Acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, Charles A.

    1996-01-01

    This study examined: (1) the ability of a small non-human primate to tolerate chronic centrifugation on a centrifuge with a radius of 0.9 m, and (2) the influence of centrifuge radius on the response of primates to hyperdynamic fields. Eight adult male squirrel monkeys were exposed to 1.5 g via centrifugation at two different radii (0.9 m and 3.0 m). Body temperature, activity, feeding and drinking were monitored. These primates did tolerate and adapt to 1.5G via centrifugation on either radius centrifuge. The results show, however, that centrifuge radius does have an effect on the responses of the primate to the hyperdynamic environment. Adaptation to the hyperdynamic environment occurred more quickly on the larger centrifuge. This study demonstrates that a small, non-human primate model, such as the squirrel monkey, could be used on a 0.9 m radius centrifuge such as is being considered by the NASA Space Station Program.

  2. Equivalence Between Squirrel Cage and Sheet Rotor Induction Motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Ankita; Singh, S. K.; Srivastava, R. K.

    2016-06-01

    Due to topological changes in dual stator induction motor and high cost of its fabrication, it is convenient to replace the squirrel cage rotor with a composite sheet rotor. For an experimental machine, the inner and outer stator stampings are normally available whereas the procurement of rotor stampings is quite cumbersome and is not always cost effective. In this paper, the equivalence between sheet/solid rotor induction motor and squirrel cage induction motor has been investigated using layer theory of electrical machines, so as to enable one to utilize sheet/solid rotor in dual port experimental machines.

  3. Differential Estimates of Southern Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys volans) Population Structure Based on Capture Method.

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Laves, Kevin S.; Loeb, Susan C.

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT.—It is commonly assumed that population estimates derived from trapping small mammals are accurate and unbiased or that estimates derived from different capture methods are comparable. We captured southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) using two methods to study their effect on red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis) reproductive success. Southern flying squirrels were captured at and removed from 30 red-cockaded woodpecker cluster sites during March to July 1994 and 1995 using Sherman traps placed in a grid encompassing a red-cockaded woodpecker nest tree and by hand from red-cockaded woodpecker cavities. Totals of 195 (1994) and 190 (1995) red-cockaded woodpecker cavities were examinedmore » at least three times each year. Trappability of southern flying squirrels in Sherman traps was significantly greater in 1995 (1.18%; 22,384 trap nights) than in 1994 (0.42%; 20,384 trap nights), and capture rate of southern flying squirrels in cavities was significantly greater in 1994 (22.7%; 502 cavity inspections) than in 1995 (10.8%; 555 cavity inspections). However, more southern flying squirrels were captured per cavity inspection than per Sherman trap night in both years. Male southern flying squirrels were more likely to be captured from cavities than in Sherman traps in 1994, but not in 1995. Both male and female juveniles were more likely to be captured in cavities than in traps in both years. In 1994 males in reproductive condition were more likely to be captured in cavities than in traps and in 1995 we captured significantly more reproductive females in cavities than in traps. Our data suggest that population estimates based solely on one trapping method may not represent true population size or structure of southern flying squirrels.« less

  4. Inaccessibility of reinforcement increases persistence and signaling behavior in the fox squirrel (Sciurus niger).

    PubMed

    Delgado, Mikel M; Jacobs, Lucia F

    2016-05-01

    Under natural conditions, wild animals encounter situations where previously rewarded actions do not lead to reinforcement. In the laboratory, a surprising omission of reinforcement induces behavioral and emotional responses described as frustration. Frustration can lead to aggressive behaviors and to the persistence of noneffective responses, but it may also lead to new behavioral responses to a problem, a potential adaptation. We assessed the responses to inaccessible reinforcement in free-ranging fox squirrels (Sciurus niger). We trained squirrels to open a box to obtain food reinforcement, a piece of walnut. After 9 training trials, squirrels were tested in 1 of 4 conditions: a control condition with the expected reward, an alternative reinforcement (a piece of dried corn), an empty box, or a locked box. We measured the presence of signals suggesting arousal (e.g., tail flags and tail twitches) and found that squirrels performed fewer of these behaviors in the control condition and increased certain behaviors (tail flags, biting box) in the locked box condition, compared to other experimental conditions. When faced with nonreinforcement, that is, frustration, squirrels increased the number of interactions with the apparatus and spent more time interacting with the apparatus. This study of frustration responses in a free-ranging animal extends the conclusions of captive studies to the field and demonstrates that fox squirrels show short-term negatively valenced responses to the inaccessibility, omission, and change of reinforcement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Characterization of Monkeypox virus infection in African rope squirrels (Funisciurus sp.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Falendysz, Elizabeth; Lopera, Juan G.; Doty, Jeffrey B.; Nakazawa, Yoshinori J.; Crill, Colleen; Lorenzsonn, Faye; Kalemba, Lem's N.; Ronderos, Monica; Meija, Andres; Malekani, Jean M.; Karem, Kevin L.; Caroll, Darrin; Osorio, Jorge E.; Rocke, Tonie E.

    2017-01-01

    Monkeypox (MPX) is a zoonotic disease endemic in Central and West Africa and is caused by Monkeypox virus (MPXV), the most virulent Orthopoxvirus affecting humans since the eradication of Variola virus (VARV). Many aspects of the MPXV transmission cycle, including the natural host of the virus, remain unknown. African rope squirrels (Funisciurus spp.) are considered potential reservoirs of MPXV, as serosurveillance data in Central Africa has confirmed the circulation of the virus in these rodent species [1,2]. In order to understand the tissue tropism and clinical signs associated with infection with MPXV in these species, wild-caught rope squirrels were experimentally infected via intranasal and intradermal exposure with a recombinant MPXV strain from Central Africa engineered to express the luciferase gene. After infection, we monitored viral replication and shedding via in vivo bioluminescent imaging, viral culture and real time PCR. MPXV infection in African rope squirrels caused mortality and moderate to severe morbidity, with clinical signs including pox lesions in the skin, eyes, mouth and nose, dyspnea, and profuse nasal discharge. Both intranasal and intradermal exposures induced high levels of viremia, fast systemic spread, and long periods of viral shedding. Shedding and luminescence peaked at day 6 post infection and was still detectable after 15 days. Interestingly, one sentinel animal, housed in the same room but in a separate cage, also developed severe MPX disease and was euthanized. This study indicates that MPXV causes significant pathology in African rope squirrels and infected rope squirrels shed large quantities of virus, supporting their role as a potential source of MPXV transmission to humans and other animals in endemic MPX regions.

  6. Characterization of Monkeypox virus infection in African rope squirrels (Funisciurus sp.).

    PubMed

    Falendysz, Elizabeth A; Lopera, Juan G; Doty, Jeffrey B; Nakazawa, Yoshinori; Crill, Colleen; Lorenzsonn, Faye; Kalemba, Lem's N; Ronderos, Monica D; Mejia, Andres; Malekani, Jean M; Karem, Kevin; Carroll, Darin S; Osorio, Jorge E; Rocke, Tonie E

    2017-08-01

    Monkeypox (MPX) is a zoonotic disease endemic in Central and West Africa and is caused by Monkeypox virus (MPXV), the most virulent Orthopoxvirus affecting humans since the eradication of Variola virus (VARV). Many aspects of the MPXV transmission cycle, including the natural host of the virus, remain unknown. African rope squirrels (Funisciurus spp.) are considered potential reservoirs of MPXV, as serosurveillance data in Central Africa has confirmed the circulation of the virus in these rodent species [1,2]. In order to understand the tissue tropism and clinical signs associated with infection with MPXV in these species, wild-caught rope squirrels were experimentally infected via intranasal and intradermal exposure with a recombinant MPXV strain from Central Africa engineered to express the luciferase gene. After infection, we monitored viral replication and shedding via in vivo bioluminescent imaging, viral culture and real time PCR. MPXV infection in African rope squirrels caused mortality and moderate to severe morbidity, with clinical signs including pox lesions in the skin, eyes, mouth and nose, dyspnea, and profuse nasal discharge. Both intranasal and intradermal exposures induced high levels of viremia, fast systemic spread, and long periods of viral shedding. Shedding and luminescence peaked at day 6 post infection and was still detectable after 15 days. Interestingly, one sentinel animal, housed in the same room but in a separate cage, also developed severe MPX disease and was euthanized. This study indicates that MPXV causes significant pathology in African rope squirrels and infected rope squirrels shed large quantities of virus, supporting their role as a potential source of MPXV transmission to humans and other animals in endemic MPX regions.

  7. Increased production of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 in the kidney microsomes of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.).

    PubMed

    Sadosky, Patti W; Scammell, Jonathan G

    2008-04-01

    In squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.), cortisol circulates at levels much higher than those seen in man and other Old World primates, but squirrel monkeys exhibit no physiologic signs of the mineralocorticoid effects of cortisol. These observations suggest that squirrel monkeys have mechanisms for protection of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) from these high levels of cortisol. We previously showed that the serum cortisol to cortisone ratio in these animals is low relative to that in human serum, suggesting that production of the MR protective enzyme, 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11beta-HSD2), is increased in squirrel monkeys. Here, we directly evaluate whether increased production of 11beta-HSD2, which inactivates cortisol to cortisone, is a mechanism for protection of MR. In vitro assays showed that 11beta-HSD2 activity in squirrel monkey kidney microsomes was 3 to 7 times higher than that seen in kidney microsomes from pig or rabbit. 11beta-HSD2 protein detected by Western blot analysis was 4 to 9 times greater in squirrel monkey microsomes than in pig or rabbit microsomes. Comparison of the effect of expression of either human or squirrel monkey 11beta-HSD2 on MR transactivation activity showed similar inhibition of MR response to cortisol by both enzymes, indicating that the intrinsic activities of the human and squirrel monkey enzymes are similar. These findings suggest that one mechanism by which squirrel monkeys protect the MR from activation by high cortisol levels in the kidney is by upregulation of 11beta-HSD2 activity through increased production of the enzyme.

  8. Demographic and behavioral responses of southern flying squirrels to experimental logging in Arkansas

    Treesearch

    James F. Taulman; Kimberly G. Smith; Ronald E. Thill

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated responses of populations of southern flying squirrels to a range of experimental even-aged and uneven-aged timber-harvest practices along a gradient of increasing disturbance intensity. The goals were to determine whether measurable demographic parameters of squirrels in experimental forests would change after logging; whether a disturbance...

  9. Locomotor performance and cost of transport in the northern flying squirrel Glaucomys sabrinus.

    Treesearch

    John S. Scheibe; Winston P. Smith; Jill Bassham; Dawn Magness

    2006-01-01

    We assess locomotor performance by northern flying squirrels Glartcontys sabrinus Shaw, 1801 and test the hypothesis that gliding locomotion is energetically cheaper than quadrupedal locomotion. We measured 168 glides by 82 northern flying squirrels in Alaska. Mean glide distances varied from 12.46 m to 14.39 m, with a maximum observed glide...

  10. A Purkinje shift in the spectral sensitivity of grey squirrels

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Priscilla H.

    1966-01-01

    1. The light-adapted spectral sensitivity of the grey squirrel has been determined by an automated training method at a level about 6 log units above the squirrel's absolute threshold. 2. The maximum sensitivity is near 555 nm, under light-adapted conditions, compared with the dark-adapted maximum near 500 nm found by a similar method. 3. Neither the light-adapted nor the dark-adapted behavioural threshold agrees with electrophysiological findings using single flash techniques, but there is agreement with e.r.g. results obtained with sinusoidal stimuli. PMID:5972118

  11. Macroparasite community of the Eurasian red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris): poor species richness and diversity.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Claudia; Pisanu, Benoît; Ferrari, Nicola; Basset, Franck; Tillon, Laurent; Wauters, Lucas A; Martinoli, Adriano; Saino, Nicola; Chapuis, Jean-Louis

    2013-10-01

    The Eurasian red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) is the only naturally occurring tree squirrel throughout its range. We aim at improving current knowledge on its macroparasite fauna, expecting that it will have a poor parasite diversity because in species that have no sympatric congeners parasite richness should be lower than in hosts sharing their range with several closely related species, where host-switching events and lateral transmission are promoted. We examined gastro-intestinal helminth and ectoparasite communities (excluding mites) of, respectively, 147 and 311 red squirrel roadkills collected in four biogeographic regions in Italy and France. As expected, the macroparasite fauna was poor: we found five species of nematodes and some unidentified cestodes, three fleas, two sucking lice and two hard ticks. The helminth community was dominated by a single species, the oxyurid Trypanoxyuris (Rodentoxyuris) sciuri (prevalence, 87%; mean abundance, 373 ± 65 worms/host). Its abundance varied among seasons and biogeographic regions and increased with body mass in male hosts while decreased in females. The most prevalent ectoparasites were the flea Ceratophyllus (Monopsyllus) sciurorum (28%), whose presence was affected by season, and the generalist tick Ixodes (Ixodes) ricinus that was found only in France (34%). All the other helminths and arthropod species were rare, with prevalence below 10%. However, the first record of Strongyloides robustus, a common nematode of North American Eastern grey squirrels (S. carolinensis), in two red squirrels living in areas where this alien species co-inhabits, deserves further attention, since low parasite richness could result in native red squirrels being particularly vulnerable to parasite spillover.

  12. Losses to single-family housing from ground motions in the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wesson, R.L.; Perkins, D.M.; Leyendecker, E.V.; Roth, R.J.; Petersen, M.D.

    2004-01-01

    The distributions of insured losses to single-family housing following the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake for 234 ZIP codes can be satisfactorily modeled with gamma distributions. Regressions of the parameters in the gamma distribution on estimates of ground motion, derived from ShakeMap estimates or from interpolated observations, provide a basis for developing curves of conditional probability of loss given a ground motion. Comparison of the resulting estimates of aggregate loss with the actual aggregate loss gives satisfactory agreement for several different ground-motion parameters. Estimates of loss based on a deterministic spatial model of the earthquake ground motion, using standard attenuation relationships and NEHRP soil factors, give satisfactory results for some ground-motion parameters if the input ground motions are increased about one and one-half standard deviations above the median, reflecting the fact that the ground motions for the Northridge earthquake tended to be higher than the median ground motion for other earthquakes with similar magnitude. The results give promise for making estimates of insured losses to a similar building stock under future earthquake loading. ?? 2004, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  13. Cluster of sylvatic epidemic typhus cases associated with flying squirrels, 2004-2006.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Alice S; Swerdlow, David L; Dato, Virginia M; Anderson, Alicia D; Moodie, Claire E; Marriott, Chandra; Amman, Brian; Hennessey, Morgan; Fox, Perry; Green, Douglas B; Pegg, Eric; Nicholson, William L; Eremeeva, Marina E; Dasch, Gregory A

    2009-07-01

    In February 2006, a diagnosis of sylvatic epidemic typhus in a counselor at a wilderness camp in Pennsylvania prompted a retrospective investigation. From January 2004 through January 2006, 3 more cases were identified. All had been counselors at the camp and had experienced febrile illness with myalgia, chills, and sweats; 2 had been hospitalized. All patients had slept in the same cabin and reported having seen and heard flying squirrels inside the wall adjacent to their bed. Serum from each patient had evidence of infection with Rickettsia prowazekii. Analysis of blood and tissue from 14 southern flying squirrels trapped in the woodlands around the cabin indicated that 71% were infected with R. prowazekii. Education and control measures to exclude flying squirrels from housing are essential to reduce the likelihood of sylvatic epidemic typhus.

  14. Evaluation of nonpotable ground water in the desert area of southeastern California for powerplant cooling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinemann, Anne C.

    1989-01-01

    Powerplant siting is dependent upon many factors; in southern California the prevailing physical constraint is water availability. Increasing land-use and other environmental concerns preclude further sites along the coast. A review of available hydrologic data was made of 142 ground-water basins in the southeast California desert area to ascertain if any could be feasible sources of nonpotable powerplant cooling water. Feasibility implies the capacity to sustain a typical 1,000-megawatt electrical-power generating plant for 30 years with an ample supply of ground water for cooling. Of the 142 basins reviewed, 5 met or exceeded established hydrologic criteria for supplying the water demands of a typical powerplant. These basins are: (1) middle Amargosa valley, (2) Soda Lake valley, (3) Caves Canyon valley, (4) Chuckwalla Valley, and (5) Calzona-Vidal Valley. Geohydrologic evaluations of these five basins assessed the occurrence and suitability of ground water and effects of long-term pumping. An additional six basins met or exceeded hydrologic criteria, with qualifications, for providing powerplant cooling water. The remaining 131 basins either did not meet the criteria, or available data were insufficient to determine if the basins would meet the criteria.

  15. Perceived damage and areas of needed research for wildlife pests of California agriculture.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Roger A; Salmon, Terrell P; Schmidt, Robert H; Timm, Robert M

    2014-06-01

    Many wildlife species cause extensive damage to a variety of agricultural commodities in California, with estimates of damage in the hundreds of millions annually. Given the limited availability of resources to solve all human-wildlife conflicts, we should focus management efforts on issues that provide the greatest benefit to agricultural commodities in California. This survey provides quantitative data on research needs to better guide future efforts in developing more effective, practical and appropriate methods for managing these species. We found that ground squirrels, pocket gophers, birds, wild pigs, coyotes and voles were the most common agricultural wildlife pest species in California. The damage caused by these species could be quite high, but varied by agricultural commodity. For most species, common forms of damage included loss of crop production and direct death of the plant, although livestock depredation was the greatest concern for coyotes. Control methods used most frequently and those deemed most effective varied by pest species, although greater advancements in control methods were listed as a top research priority for all species. Collectively, the use of toxicants, biocontrol and trapping were the most preferred methods for control, but this varied by species. In general, integrated pest management practices were used to control wildlife pests, with a special preference for those approaches that were efficacious and quick and inexpensive to apply. This information and survey design should be useful in establishing research and management priorities for wildlife pest species in California and other similar regions. © 2013 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Modelling recolonization of second-growth forest stands by the north american red squirrel Tamiasciurus hudsonicus.

    PubMed

    Nyquist, B; Tyson, R; Larsen, K

    2007-05-01

    In this paper, we present a model for source-sink population dynamics where the locations of source and sink habitats change over time. We do this in the context of the population dynamics of the North American red squirrel, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, within a forest environment subject to harvesting and regrowth. Harvested patches of forest are initially sinks, then eventually become source habitat again as the forest regrows. At the same time, each harvested patch is gradually recolonized by squirrels from other forest patches. We are interested in the interaction of forest harvesting dynamics with squirrel population dynamics. This depends on the harvesting schedule, and on the choices squirrels make when deciding whether to settle in a mature forest patch or in a recently harvested patch. We find that the time it takes for a second-growth forest patch to be recolonized at the mature forest level is longer than the time required for the habitat quality to be restored to the mature forest level. We also notice that recolonization pressure decreases squirrel populations in neighbouring patches. The connectivity between forest patches and the cutting schedule used also affect the time course of recolonization and steady-state population levels.

  17. Cup tool use by squirrel monkeys.

    PubMed

    Buckmaster, Christine L; Hyde, Shellie A; Parker, Karen J; Lyons, David M

    2015-12-01

    Captive-born male and female squirrel monkeys spontaneously 'invented' a cup tool use technique to Contain (i.e., hold and control) food they reduced into fragments for consumption and to Contain water collected from a valve to drink. Food cup use was observed more frequently than water cup use. Observations indicate that 68% (n = 39/57) of monkeys in this population used a cup (a plastic slip cap) to Contain food, and a subset of these monkeys, 10% (n = 4/39), also used a cup to Contain water. Cup use was optional and did not replace, but supplemented, the hand/arm-to-mouth eating and direct valve drinking exhibited by all members of the population. Strategies monkeys used to bring food and cups together for food processing activity at preferred upper-level perching areas, in the arboreal-like environment in which they lived, provides evidence that monkeys may plan food processing activity with the cups. Specifically, prior to cup use monkeys obtained a cup first before food, or obtained food and a cup from the floor simultaneously, before transporting both items to upper-level perching areas. After food processing activity with cups monkeys rarely dropped the cups and more often placed the cups onto perching. Monkeys subsequently returned to use cups that they previously placed on perching after food processing activity. The latter behavior is consistent with the possibility that monkeys may keep cups at preferred perching sites for future food processing activity and merits experimental investigation. Reports of spontaneous tool use by squirrel monkeys are rare and this is the first report of population-level tool use. These findings offer insights into the cognitive abilities of squirrel monkeys and provide a new context for behavior studies with this genus and for comparative studies with other primates. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Stereological assessment of normal Persian squirrels (Sciurus anomalus) kidney.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Mohsen; Goodarzi, Nader; Tavafi, Majid

    2017-03-01

    The functions of the mammalian kidney are closely related to its structure. This suggests that renal function can be completely characterized by accurate knowledge of its quantitative morphological features. The aim of this study was to investigate the histomorphometric features of the kidney using design-based and unbiased stereological methods in the Persian squirrel (Sciurus anomalus), which is the only representative of the Sciuridae family in the Middle East. The left kidneys of five animals were examined. Total volume of the kidney, cortex, and medulla were determined to be 960.75 ± 87.4, 754.31 ± 77.09 and 206.1 ± 16.89 mm 3 , respectively. The glomerular number was 32844.03 ± 1069.19, and the total glomerular volume was estimated to be 36.7 ± 1.45 mm 3 . The volume and length of the proximal convoluted tubule were estimated at 585.67 ± 60.7 mm 3 and 328.8 ± 14.8 m, respectively, with both values being greater than those reported in the rat kidney. The volume and length of the distal convoluted tubule were calculated at 122.34 ± 7.38 mm 3 and 234.4 ± 17.45 m, respectively, which are also greater than those reported in the rat kidney. Despite the comparable body weight, the total number and mean individual volume of glomeruli in the Persian squirrel kidney were greater than those in the rat kidney. Overall, the stereological variables of the kidneys elucidated in this study are exclusive to the Persian squirrel. Our findings, together with future renal physiological data, will contribute to a better understanding of the renal structure-function relationship in the Persian squirrel.

  19. No safety in the trees: Local and species-level adaptation of an arboreal squirrel to the venom of sympatric rattlesnakes.

    PubMed

    Pomento, Abby M; Perry, Blair W; Denton, Robert D; Gibbs, H Lisle; Holding, Matthew L

    2016-08-01

    Within some species, squirrels respond to variable selection from venomous snake predators by showing population-level variation in resistance, while between species, some rattlesnakes possess venom that is more effective at overcoming venom resistance in different species of squirrels. A functional evaluation of resistance variation to venom within and between species of squirrels and snakes can link resistance variation to its evolutionary causes across these different evolutionary scales. To do this, we compared the effectiveness of squirrel sera in inhibiting rattlesnake (Crotalus spp.) venom metalloproteinase activity between populations and between species to test for a response to local variation in selection from a single rattlesnake predator and for specialization of two resistant squirrel species to each of their distinct sympatric snake predators. We found that Timber Rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) venom inhibition by Eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) is higher at a site where the rattlesnakes are present, which suggests selection may maintain venom resistance in populations separated by short distances. Next, we performed a reciprocal cross of venoms and sera from two rattlesnake and two squirrel species. This showed that squirrel resistance is lower when tested against venom from allopatric compared to sympatric rattlesnake species, demonstrating that squirrel inhibitors are specialized to sympatric venom and suggesting a tradeoff in terms of specialization to the venom of a specific species of rattlesnake predator. This pattern can be explained if inhibitors must recognize venom proteins and resistance evolution tracks venom evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ecology of northern flying squirrels: implications for ecosystem management in the Pacific Northwest, USA.

    Treesearch

    Andrew B. Carey

    2002-01-01

    Northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) in the USA Pacific Northwest are keystone species that disseminate the spores of ectomycorrhizal fungi symbiotic with Pinaceae and that are preyed upon by a variety of vertebrate predators. Substantial research has shown that these squirrels tend to be most abundant in naturally regenerated forests...

  1. The Loma Prieta, California, Earthquake of October 17, 1989: Strong Ground Motion and Ground Failure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coordinated by Holzer, Thomas L.

    1992-01-01

    Professional Paper 1551 describes the effects at the land surface caused by the Loma Prieta earthquake. These effects: include the pattern and characteristics of strong ground shaking, liquefaction of both floodplain deposits along the Pajaro and Salinas Rivers in the Monterey Bay region and sandy artificial fills along the margins of San Francisco Bay, landslides in the epicentral region, and increased stream flow. Some significant findings and their impacts were: * Strong shaking that was amplified by a factor of about two by soft soils caused damage at up to 100 kilometers (60 miles) from the epicenter. * Instrumental recordings of the ground shaking have been used to improve how building codes consider site amplification effects from soft soils. * Liquefaction at 134 locations caused $99.2 million of the total earthquake loss of $5.9 billion. Liquefaction of floodplain deposits and sandy artificial fills was similar in nature to that which occurred in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and indicated that many areas remain susceptible to liquefaction damage in the San Francisco and Monterey Bay regions. * Landslides caused $30 million in earthquake losses, damaging at least 200 residences. Many landslides showed evidence of movement in previous earthquakes. * Recognition of the similarities between liquefaction and landslides in 1906 and 1989 and research in intervening years that established methodologies to map liquefaction and landslide hazards prompted the California legislature to pass in 1990 the Seismic Hazards Mapping Act that required the California Geological Survey to delineate regulatory zones of areas potentially susceptible to these hazards. * The earthquake caused the flow of many streams in the epicentral region to increase. Effects were noted up to 88 km from the epicenter. * Post-earthquake studies of the Marina District of San Francisco provide perhaps the most comprehensive case history of earthquake effects at a specific site developed for

  2. A meta-analysis of forest age and structure effects on northern flying squirrel densities

    Treesearch

    Gillian L. Holloway; Winston P. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Research on the impact of clearcut logging and partial harvesting practices on northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) has shown inconsistent and contrary results, limiting the use of this species as a management indicator species. Much of this variability in study results is due to the labor intensive nature of studying flying squirrels,...

  3. [Squirrel monkey--an ideal primate (correction of prmate) model of space physiology].

    PubMed

    Matsunami, K

    1997-06-01

    Investigation of the vestibulo-ocular system of the squirrel monkey was reviewed in consideration of space motion sickness (SMS), or which is recently more often termed as space adaptation syndrome (SAS). Since the first launching of the space satellite, Sputnik [correction of Sputonik] in October 1957, many experiments were carried out in biological and medical fields. A various kind of creatures were used as experimental models from protozoa to human beings. Rats and monkeys are most favorite animals, particularly the non-human primate seems to be the one, because of its phylogenetic relatives akin to the human beings. Chimpanzees, rhesus monkeys, pig tailed-monkeys, red-faced monkeys and squirrel monkeys have been used mostly in American space experiments. Russian used rhesus monkeys. Among these, however, the squirrel monkey has an advantage of the small size of the body, ranging from 600- l000g in adult. This small size as a primate is very advantageous in experiments conducted in a narrow room of the space satellite or shuttle because of its space-saving. The squirrel monkey has another advantage to rear easily as is demonstrated to keep it as a pet. Accordingly, this petit animal provides us a good animal model in biological and medical experiments in space craft. The size of the brain of the squirrel monkey is extraordinary large relative to the body size, which is even superior to that of the human beings. This is partly owed to enlargement of the occipito-temporal cortices, which are forced to well develop for processing a huge amount of audio-visual information indispensable to the arboreal habitant to survive in tropical forest. The vestibular system of the squirrel monkey seems to be the most superior as well, when judged from it relative size of the vestibular nuclear complex. Balancing on swinging twigs or jumping from tree to tree developed the capability of this equilibrium system. Fernandez, Goldberg and his collaborators used the squirrel monkey

  4. Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene sequence variation and melanism in the gray (Sciurus carolinensis), fox (Sciurus niger), and red (Sciurus vulgaris) squirrel.

    PubMed

    McRobie, Helen R; King, Linda M; Fanutti, Cristina; Coussons, Peter J; Moncrief, Nancy D; Thomas, Alison P M

    2014-01-01

    Sequence variations in the melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene are associated with melanism in many different species of mammals, birds, and reptiles. The gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), found in the British Isles, was introduced from North America in the late 19th century. Melanism in the British gray squirrel is associated with a 24-bp deletion in the MC1R. To investigate the origin of this mutation, we sequenced the MC1R of 95 individuals including 44 melanic gray squirrels from both the British Isles and North America. Melanic gray squirrels of both populations had the same 24-bp deletion associated with melanism. Given the significant deletion associated with melanism in the gray squirrel, we sequenced the MC1R of both wild-type and melanic fox squirrels (Sciurus niger) (9 individuals) and red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) (39 individuals). Unlike the gray squirrel, no association between sequence variation in the MC1R and melanism was found in these 2 species. We conclude that the melanic gray squirrel found in the British Isles originated from one or more introductions of melanic gray squirrels from North America. We also conclude that variations in the MC1R are not associated with melanism in the fox and red squirrels.

  5. The nicotinic receptor blocker hexamethonium alters neuronal responses to glutamate in the medial septal area of the brain of the ground squirrel in vitro.

    PubMed

    Karavaev, E N; Popova, I Yu; Kichigina, V F

    2008-03-01

    Despite extensive interest in studies of the medial septal area, the nature of the interactions of its various neurochemical systems remains largely unclear. The aim of the present work was to clarify the role of nicotinic receptors in mediating the interaction of the glutamatergic and cholinergic systems in this structure. Extracellular recording of neuron activity in living slices of ground squirrel brain was used to study the influences of L-glutamate (1 microM) during application of the nicotinic receptor blocker hexamethonium (1 mM). The responses of septal neurons to glutamate depended on the type of their initial activity and the presence of pacemaker properties. This study is the first to show that glutamate increases the frequency of volleys in rhythmic neurons in the septum. Hexamethonium induced changes in neuron activity similar to the influences of glutamate. After prior application of hexamethonium, the responses of neurons to glutamate changed: activatory responses were masked and inhibitory responses were enhanced. Cholinergic modulation of the responses of septal neurons to glutamate were shown to occur, as did modulation of the strength of the oscillatory properties of the septal network by nicotinic receptors.

  6. Proteomic Profiling Reveals Adaptive Responses to Surgical Myocardial Ischemia Reperfusion in Hibernating Arctic Ground Squirrels Compared to Rats

    PubMed Central

    Quinones, Quintin J.; Zhang, Zhiquan; Ma, Qing; Smith, Michael P.; Soderblom, Erik; Moseley, M. Arthur; Bain, James; Newgard, Christopher B.; Muehlbauer, Michael J.; Hirschey, Matthew; Drew, Kelly L.; Barnes, Brian M.; Podgoreanu, Mihai V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hibernation is an adaptation to extreme environments known to provide organ protection against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. An unbiased systems approach was utilized to investigate hibernation-induced changes characteristic of the hibernator cardioprotective phenotype, by comparing the myocardial proteome of winter hibernating arctic ground squirrels (HIB AGS), summer active (SA) AGS, and rats subjected to I/R, and further correlating with targeted metabolic changes. Methods In a well-defined rodent model of I/R by deep hypothermic circulatory arrest followed by 3h or 24h of reperfusion or sham, myocardial protein abundance in AGS (HIB, SA) and rats (n=4-5/group) was quantified by label-free proteomics (n=4-5/group), and correlated with metabolic changes. Results Compared to rats, HIB AGS displayed markedly reduced plasma levels of Troponin I, myocardial apoptosis, and left ventricular contractile dysfunction. Of the 1,320 rat and 1,478 AGS proteins identified, 545 were differentially expressed between HIB AGS and rat hearts (47% upregulated, 53% downregulated). Gene ontology analysis revealed downregulation in HIB AGS hearts of most proteins involved in mitochondrial energy transduction, including electron transport chain complexes, acetyl CoA biosynthesis, Krebs cycle, glycolysis and ketogenesis. Conversely, fatty acid oxidation enzymes and Sirtuin-3 were upregulated in HIB AGS, with preserved peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-α activity and reduced tissue levels of acylcarnitines and ceramides following I/R. Conclusions Natural cardioprotective adaptations in hibernators involve extensive metabolic remodeling, featuring increased expression of fatty acid metabolic proteins and reduced levels of toxic lipid metabolites. Robust upregulation of Sirtuin-3 suggests that post-translational modifications may underlie organ protection in hibernating mammals. PMID:27187119

  7. Correlates of vulnerability in Chiricahua fox squirrels

    Treesearch

    Bret S. Pasch; John L. Koprowski

    2005-01-01

    Chiricahua fox squirrels (Sciurus nayaritensis chiricahuae) are endemic to the Chiricahua Mountains of southeastern Arizona. A paucity of natural history information and uncertain conservation status served as impetus for us to initiate a descriptive ecological study of the species. We examined reproductive and population ecology of Chiricahua fox...

  8. Does repeated human intrusion alter use of wildland sites by red squirrels? Multiyear experimental evidence

    Treesearch

    Kevin J. Gutzwiller; Samuel K. Riffell

    2008-01-01

    Intrusion by humans into wildlife habitat during recreational activities has become a worldwide conservation concern. Low levels of intrusion, which occur frequently in many wildlands, could influence use of sites by red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) and have important ramifications for conservation. Red squirrels can influence forest...

  9. Spontaneous Cholelithiasis in a Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus)

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, Mia T.; Wachtman, Lynn M.; Marini, Robert P.; Bakthavatchalu, Vasu; Fox, James G.

    2016-01-01

    A mature female squirrel monkey was noted during routine semiannual examinations to have moderate progressive weight loss. Serum chemistry panels revealed marked increases in hepatic enzyme, bilirubin, and bile salt concentrations and hypoalbuminemia. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed echogenic, shadowing debris in the gallbladder, consistent with cholelithiasis. At necropsy, marked thickening and distension of the gallbladder, cystic duct, and common bile duct was noted, and more than 50 irregularly shaped, black gallstones were removed from the biliary tract. Gallbladder tissue, bile, and gallstones cultured positive for Escherichia coli and Proteus spp., suggesting a brown-pigment gallstone type secondary to a bacterial nidus. Histopathology revealed severe chronic–active diffuse cholecystitis and severe chronic-active hepatic degeneration and necrosis with severe cholestasis. To our knowledge, this report is the first description of spontaneous choleilthiasis in a squirrel monkey. PMID:26884412

  10. Cluster of Sylvatic Epidemic Typhus Cases Associated with Flying Squirrels, 2004–2006

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Alice S.; Swerdlow, David L.; Dato, Virginia M.; Anderson, Alicia D.; Moodie, Claire E.; Marriott, Chandra; Amman, Brian; Hennessey, Morgan; Fox, Perry; Green, Douglas B.; Pegg, Eric; Nicholson, William L.; Eremeeva, Marina E.

    2009-01-01

    In February 2006, a diagnosis of sylvatic epidemic typhus in a counselor at a wilderness camp in Pennsylvania prompted a retrospective investigation. From January 2004 through January 2006, 3 more cases were identified. All had been counselors at the camp and had experienced febrile illness with myalgia, chills, and sweats; 2 had been hospitalized. All patients had slept in the same cabin and reported having seen and heard flying squirrels inside the wall adjacent to their bed. Serum from each patient had evidence of infection with Rickettsia prowazekii. Analysis of blood and tissue from 14 southern flying squirrels trapped in the woodlands around the cabin indicated that 71% were infected with R. prowazekii. Education and control measures to exclude flying squirrels from housing are essential to reduce the likelihood of sylvatic epidemic typhus. PMID:19624912

  11. Ground water/surface water responses to global climate simulations, Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin, Ventura, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, R.T.; Dettinger, M.D.

    2005-01-01

    Climate variations can play an important, if not always crucial, role in successful conjunctive management of ground water and surface water resources. This will require accurate accounting of the links between variations in climate, recharge, and withdrawal from the resource systems, accurate projection or predictions of the climate variations, and accurate simulation of the responses of the resource systems. To assess linkages and predictability of climate influences on conjunctive management, global climate model (GCM) simulated precipitation rates were used to estimate inflows and outflows from a regional ground water model (RGWM) of the coastal aquifers of the Santa ClaraCalleguas Basin at Ventura, California, for 1950 to 1993. Interannual to interdecadal time scales of the El Nin??o Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) climate variations are imparted to simulated precipitation variations in the Southern California area and are realistically imparted to the simulated ground water level variations through the climate-driven recharge (and discharge) variations. For example, the simulated average ground water level response at a key observation well in the basin to ENSO variations of tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures is 1.2 m/??C, compared to 0.9 m/??C in observations. This close agreement shows that the GCM-RGWM combination can translate global scale climate variations into realistic local ground water responses. Probability distributions of simulated ground water level excursions above a local water level threshold for potential seawater intrusion compare well to the corresponding distributions from observations and historical RGWM simulations, demonstrating the combination's potential usefulness for water management and planning. Thus the GCM-RGWM combination could be used for planning purposes and - when the GCM forecast skills are adequate - for near term predictions.

  12. Laboratory evaluation of anticoagulant-treated baits for control of the northern palm squirrel, Funambulus pennanti Wroughton.

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, R. P.; Prakash, I.

    1980-01-01

    Individually caged northern palm squirrels, Funambulus pennanti, were fed with bait containing 0.025% warfarin or fumarin, 0.0075% chlorophacinone or 0.005% brodifacoum for a fixed number of days varying from 1 to 14. Brodifacoum (WBA 8119) was found most toxic since 66% and 70% of the animals died after one and two days' feeding respectively. Chlorophacinone killed 70% of the squirrels after three days' feeding. Squirrels were relatively tolerant to warfarin and fumarin since the mortality after a period of 14 days' feeding was only 58% and 75% respectively. PMID:7462592

  13. Laboratory evaluation of anticoagulant-treated baits for control of the northern palm squirrel, Funambulus pennanti Wroughton.

    PubMed

    Mathur, R P; Prakash, I

    1980-12-01

    Individually caged northern palm squirrels, Funambulus pennanti, were fed with bait containing 0.025% warfarin or fumarin, 0.0075% chlorophacinone or 0.005% brodifacoum for a fixed number of days varying from 1 to 14. Brodifacoum (WBA 8119) was found most toxic since 66% and 70% of the animals died after one and two days' feeding respectively. Chlorophacinone killed 70% of the squirrels after three days' feeding. Squirrels were relatively tolerant to warfarin and fumarin since the mortality after a period of 14 days' feeding was only 58% and 75% respectively.

  14. Motion Sickness-Induced Food Aversions in the Squirrel Monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, M. Aaron; Brizzee, Kenneth R.

    1979-01-01

    Conditioned aversions to colored, flavored water were established in Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) by following consumption with 90 min of simultaneous rotational and vertical stimulation. The experimental group (N= 13) drank significantly less of the green, almond-flavored test solution than did the control group (N=14) during three post-treatment preference testing days. Individual differences were noted in that two experimental monkeys readily drank the test solution after rotational stimulation. Only two of the experimental monkeys showed emesis during rotation, yet 10 monkeys in this group developed an aversion. These results suggest that: (1) motion sickness can be readily induced in Squirrel monkeys with simultaneous rotational and vertical stimulation, and (2) that conditioned food aversions are achieved in the absence of emesis in this species.

  15. Eye-head coordination during optokinetic stimulation in squirrel monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubo, T.; Igarashi, M.; Jensen, D. W.; Homick, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Head and eye movements in the yaw plane were recorded during and after optokinetic stimulation in squirrel monkeys. 1) Phasic or tonic head deviations to the side of the ocular quick phase occurred in 94% of total recordings (n = 50) during the perstimulus period, and in 75% of recordings (n = 49) during the poststimulus period. Magnitude of mean head deviation was significantly different between perstimulus and poststimulus periods. 2) Head nystagmus associated with eye nystagmus was consistently observed in seven of nine squirrel monkeys during optokinetic stimulation. Squirrel monkeys are thereby less prone to display head nystagmus than either guinea pigs, pigeons or chickens. 3) Slow phase speeds of coupled head and eye nystagmus were subjected to statistical analysis. A highly significant negative correlation was found between slow phase head and eye speeds. The correlation coefficient was - 0.81 at 60 degrees / sec stimulus (n = 119) and -0.72 at 100 degrees / sec stimulus (n = 131). The gaze speed, calculated by summing the head and eye speeds, was 59.1 plus or minus 6.8 / sec at 60 degrees / sec and 92.2 plus or minus 11.4 at 100 degrees / sec stimulus. There was no significant difference between the gaze speed in a free head condition and the eye speed when the head was fixed.

  16. Thinning of young Douglas-fir forests decreases density of northern flying squirrels in the Oregon Cascades

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, Tom; Hagar, Joan C.; McComb, Brenda C.

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale commercial thinning of young forests in the Pacific Northwest is currently promoted on public lands to accelerate the development of late-seral forest structure for the benefit of wildlife species such as northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) and their prey, including the northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus). Attempts to measure the impact of commercial thinning on northern flying squirrels have mostly addressed short-term effects (2–5 years post-thinning) and the few published studies of longer-term results have been contradictory. We measured densities of northern flying squirrels 11–13 years after thinning of young (55–65 years) Douglas-fir forest stands in the Cascade Range of Oregon, as part of the Young Stand Thinning & Diversity Study. The study includes four replicate blocks, each consisting of an unthinned control stand and one stand each of the following thinning treatments: Heavy Thin; Light Thin; and Light Thin with Gaps. Thinning decreased density of northern flying squirrels, and squirrel densities were significantly lower in heavily thinned stands than in more lightly thinned stands. Regression analysis revealed a strong positive relationship of flying squirrel density with density of large (>30 cm diameter) standing dead trees and a negative relationship with percent cover of low understory shrubs. Maintaining sufficient area and connectivity of dense, closed canopy forest is recommended as a strategy to assure that long-term goals of promoting late-seral structure do not conflict with short-term habitat requirements of this important species.

  17. Nest tree use by the endangered Virginia northern flying squirrel in the central Appalachian Mountains

    Treesearch

    Jennifer M. Menzel; W. Mark Ford; John W. Edwards; Michael A. Menzel

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about nest tree use of the endangered Virginia northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus). Because nesting sites could be a limiting factor, it is important to understand the denning ecology to further manage and protect this subspecies. We compared characteristics of nest trees used by Virginia northern flying squirrels...

  18. Pro-inflammatory AGE-RAGE signaling is activated during arousal from hibernation in ground squirrel adipose.

    PubMed

    Logan, Samantha M; Storey, Kenneth B

    2018-01-01

    Inflammation is generally suppressed during hibernation, but select tissues (e.g. lung) have been shown to activate both antioxidant and pro-inflammatory pathways, particularly during arousal from torpor when breathing rates increase and oxidative metabolism fueling the rewarming process produces more reactive oxygen species. Brown and white adipose tissues are now understood to be major hubs for the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses, yet how these potentially damaging processes are regulated by fat tissues during hibernation has hardly been studied. The advanced glycation end-product receptor (RAGE) can induce pro-inflammatory responses when bound by AGEs (which are glycated and oxidized proteins, lipids, or nucleic acids) or damage associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs, which are released from dying cells). Since gene expression and protein synthesis are largely suppressed during torpor, increases in AGE-RAGE pathway proteins relative to a euthermic control could suggest some role for these pro-inflammatory mediators during hibernation. This study determined how the pro-inflammatory AGE-RAGE signaling pathway is regulated at six major time points of the torpor-arousal cycle in brown and white adipose from a model hibernator, Ictidomys tridecemlineatus . Immunoblotting, RT-qPCR, and a competitive ELISA were used to assess the relative gene expression and protein levels of key regulators of the AGE-RAGE pathway during a hibernation bout. The results of this study revealed that RAGE is upregulated as animals arouse from torpor in both types of fat, but AGE and DAMP levels either remain unchanged or decrease. Downstream of the AGE-RAGE cascade, nfat5 was more highly expressed during arousal in brown adipose. An increase in RAGE protein levels and elevated mRNA levels of the downstream transcription factor nfat5 during arousal suggest the pro-inflammatory response is upregulated in adipose tissue of the hibernating ground squirrel. It is unlikely

  19. Acute fatal toxoplasmosis in squirrels (Sciurus carolensis) with bradyzoites in visceral tissues.

    PubMed

    Dubey, J P; Hodgin, E C; Hamir, A N

    2006-06-01

    Acute toxoplasmosis was diagnosed in 3 gray squirrels (Sciurus carolensis) from Louisiana and Pennsylvania. The predominant lesion was multifocal necrosis in several organs, especially of the lymph nodes. Numerous Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites were seen in lesions, and the diagnosis was confirmed immunohistochemically by reaction with polyclonal T. gondii-specific antibodies. Tissue cysts were seen in several organs, including lung alveoli. The presence of tissue cysts in alveoli of pet squirrels maybe of public health concern if tissue cysts excreted in nasal secretions are swallowed by children.

  20. Evolving Communicative Complexity: Insight from Rodents and Beyond

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Group size in animal societies: the potential role of social and ecological limitations in the group-living fish , Paragobiodon xanthosomus. Ethology... Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA 2Human Research and Engineering Directorate, Perceptual Sciences...evolve is an active question in behavioural ecology . Sciurid rodents (ground squirrels, prairie dogs and marmots) provide an excellent model system for

  1. Comparison of ground-water flow model particle-tracking results and isotopic data in the Mojave River ground-water basin, southern California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izbicki, John A.; Stamos, Christina L.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Martin, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Flow-path and time-of-travel results for the Mojave River ground-water basin, southern California, calculated using the ground-water flow model MODFLOW and particle-tracking model MODPATH were similar to flow path and time-of-travel interpretations derived from delta-deuterium and carbon-14 data. Model and isotopic data both show short flow paths and young ground-water ages throughout the floodplain aquifer along most the Mojave River. Longer flow paths and older ground-water ages as great as 10,000 years before present were measured and simulated in the floodplain aquifer near the Mojave Valley. Model and isotopic data also show movement of water between the floodplain and regional aquifer and subsequent discharge of water from the river to dry lakes in some areas. It was not possible to simulate the isotopic composition of ground-water in the regional aquifer away from the front of the San Gabriel and San Bernardino Mountains - because recharge in these areas does not occur under the present-day climatic conditions used for calibration of the model.

  2. Seasonal, spatial, and maternal effects on gut microbiome in wild red squirrels.

    PubMed

    Ren, Tiantian; Boutin, Stan; Humphries, Murray M; Dantzer, Ben; Gorrell, Jamieson C; Coltman, David W; McAdam, Andrew G; Wu, Martin

    2017-12-21

    Our understanding of gut microbiota has been limited primarily to findings from human and laboratory animals, but what shapes the gut microbiota in nature remains largely unknown. To fill this gap, we conducted a comprehensive study of gut microbiota of a well-studied North American red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) population. Red squirrels are territorial, solitary, and live in a highly seasonal environment and therefore represent a very attractive system to study factors that drive the temporal and spatial dynamics of gut microbiota. For the first time, this study revealed significant spatial patterns of gut microbiota within a host population, suggesting limited dispersal could play a role in shaping and maintaining the structure of gut microbial communities. We also found a remarkable seasonal rhythm in red squirrel's gut microbial composition manifested by a tradeoff between relative abundance of two genera Oscillospira and Corpococcus and clearly associated with seasonal variation in diet availability. Our results show that in nature, environmental factors exert a much stronger influence on gut microbiota than host-associated factors including age and sex. Despite strong environmental effects, we found clear evidence of individuality and maternal effects, but host genetics did not seem to be a significant driver of the gut microbial communities in red squirrels. Taken together, the results of this study emphasize the importance of external ecological factors rather than host attributes in driving temporal and spatial patterns of gut microbiota in natural environment.

  3. School Crime Handbook. Summary of California Penal and Civil Laws Pertaining to Crimes Committed against Persons or Property on School Grounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento.

    This handbook was prepared to ensure that, as required by section 626.1 of the California Penal Code in 1984, "students, parents, and all school officials and employees have access to a concise, easily understandable summary of California penal and civil law pertaining to crimes committed against persons or property on school grounds."…

  4. Smoked aluminum track stations record flying squirrel occurrence

    Treesearch

    Martin G. Raphael; Cathy A. Taylor; Reginald H. Barrett

    1986-01-01

    Smoked aluminum track stations are a useful technique for studying patterns of abundance and distribution of northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus). They are easily transported to remote field sites, allow permanent preservation of tracks, and yield frequency-of-occurrence information. A study in Douglas-fir (Pseseudotsuga menziesii...

  5. Pattern of maternal circulating CRH in laboratory-housed squirrel and owl monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Power, ML; Williams, LE; Gibson, SV; Schulkin, J; Helfers, J; Zorrilla, EP

    2010-01-01

    The anthropoid primate placenta appears to be unique in producing corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). Placental CRH is involved in an endocrine circuit key to the production of estrogens during pregnancy. CRH induces cortisol production by the maternal and fetal adrenal glands, leading to further placental CRH production. CRH also stimulates the fetal adrenal glands to produce dehydroepiandrostendione sulfate (DHEAS) which the placenta converts into estrogens. There are at least two patterns of maternal circulating CRH across gestation among anthropoids. Monkeys examined to date (Papio and Callithrix) have an early-to-mid gestational peak of circulating CRH, followed by a steady decline to a plateau level, with a possible rise near parturition. In contrast, humans and great apes have an exponential rise in circulating CRH peaking at parturition. To further document and compare patterns of maternal circulating CRH in anthropoid primates, we collected monthly blood samples on 14 squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis) and 10 owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae) during pregnancy. CRH immunoreactivity was measured from extracted plasma by solid-phase RIA. Both squirrel and owl monkeys displayed a mid-gestational peak in circulating CRH: days 45–65 of the 152-day gestation for squirrel monkeys (mean±SEM CRH = 2694±276 pg/ml) and days 60–80 of the 133-day gestation for owl monkeys (9871±974 pg/ml). In squirrel monkeys, circulating CRH declined to 36% of mean peak value by two weeks before parturition and then appeared to increase; the best model for circulating CRH over gestation in squirrel monkeys was a cubic function, similar to previous results for baboons and marmosets. In owl monkeys, circulating CRH appeared to plateau with no subsequent significant decline approaching parturition, although a cubic function was the best fit. This study provides additional evidence for a mid-gestational peak of maternal circulating CRH in ancestral anthropoids that has been lost

  6. Ecological scale and forest development: squirrels, dietary fungi, and vascular plants in managed and unmanaged forests.

    Treesearch

    A.B. Carey; J. Kershner; B. Biswell; L.S. Dominguez de Toledo

    1999-01-01

    Understanding ecological processes and their spatial scales is key to managing ecosystems for biodiversity, especially for species associated with late-seral forest. We focused on 2 species of squirrel (Sciuridae: northern flying squirrel, Glaucomys sabrinus, and Townsend's chipmunk, Tamias townsendii) in a crosssectional survey of managed and natural stands in...

  7. Home Range, Habitat Selection, and Population Dynamics of Southern Flying Squirrels in Managed Forests in Arkansas

    Treesearch

    James F. Taulman; Kimberly G. Smith

    2004-01-01

    Abstract After experimental harvests on 18 mature pine-hardwood stands in 6 replicated groups, flying squirrels changed from uniform pre-harvest patterns of nest box use to concentrating on protected greenbelt (GB) areas on harvested stands. Squirrel densities declined on all harvested stands as densities increased on three control stands. Fifty...

  8. Spatial organization of northern flying squirrels, Glaucomys sabrinus: Territoriality in females?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, J.R.; Vuren, D.H.V.; Kelt, D.A.; Johnson, M.L.

    2011-01-01

    We determined home-range overlap among northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) to assess their spatial organization. We found extensive home-range overlap among females, and though this overlap could reflect social behavior, we found no evidence of attraction among females, with only one instance of den sharing. Instead, our results suggest that females share foraging areas but may be territorial in portions of the home range, especially around den trees and during young-rearing. Home-range overlap could also result from, the extrinsic effect of forest fragmentation due to timber harvest, which might impede dispersal and force squirrels to cluster on remaining fragments of suitable habitat.

  9. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Kern County Subbasin Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Pimentel, Isabel; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,000 square-mile Kern County Subbasin study unit (KERN) was investigated from January to March, 2006, as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Kern County Subbasin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw (untreated) ground-water quality within KERN, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 50 wells within the San Joaquin Valley portion of Kern County. Forty-seven of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide a statistical representation of the ground-water resources within the study unit. Three additional wells were sampled to aid in the evaluation of changes in water chemistry along regional ground-water flow paths. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of man-made organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides, and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon) and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and laboratory matrix spikes) were collected and analyzed at approximately 10 percent of

  10. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Middle Sacramento Valley Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, Stephen J.; Fram, Miranda S.; Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,340 square mile Middle Sacramento Valley study unit (MSACV) was investigated from June through September, 2006, as part of the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Middle Sacramento Valley study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within MSACV, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 108 wells in Butte, Colusa, Glenn, Sutter, Tehama, Yolo, and Yuba Counties. Seventy-one wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells), 15 wells were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths (flow-path wells), and 22 were shallow monitoring wells selected to assess the effects of rice agriculture, a major land use in the study unit, on ground-water chemistry (RICE wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], gasoline oxygenates and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks

  11. An outbreak of toxoplasmosis in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hanseul; Eo, Kyung-Yeon; Gumber, Sanjeev; Hong, Jung Joo; Kim, C-Yoon; Lee, Hyun-Ho; Jung, Young-Mok; Kim, Jin; Whang, Gyu-Whan; Lee, Ji-Min; Yeo, Yong-Gu; Ryu, Bokyeong; Ryu, Ji-Sook; Lee, Seul-Kee; Kim, Ukjin; Kang, Sin-Geun; Park, Jae-Hak

    2018-04-30

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is an intracellular protozoan parasite that can infect warm-blooded animals including humans. New World monkeys, such as squirrel monkeys, are more susceptible to T. gondii than Old World monkeys, often developing fatal disease. In this study, seven of thirteen dead squirrel monkeys at Seoul Grand Park were tested to find the cause of sudden death. The main histopathological findings included interstitial pneumonia, necrotizing hepatitis, and splenitis. Periodic acid-Schiff staining of liver, spleen, and lung revealed cyst structures consistent with bradyzoites. Amplification of the B1 gene was detected in the liver or spleen of all monkeys. Additionally, a restriction fragment length polymorphism assay and phylogenetic analysis of the GRA6 amplicon revealed a consistent clustering with the type II strain of T. gondii. This study is the first report of T. gondii infection of squirrel monkeys in Korea, and the first report of type II T. gondii based on GRA6 analysis in Korea. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A summary of ground-water pumpage in the Central Valley, California, 1961-77

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diamond, Jonathan; Williamson, A.K.

    1983-01-01

    In the Central Valley of California, a great agricultural economy has been developed in a semiarid environment. This economy is supported by imported surface water and 9 to 15 million acre-feet per year of ground water. Estimates of ground-water pumpage computed from power consumption have been compiled and summarized. Under ideal conditions, the accuracy of the methods used is about 3 percent. This level of accuracy is not sustained over the entire study area. When pumpage for the entire area is mapped, the estimates seem to be consistent areally and through time. A multiple linear-regression model was used to synthesize data for the years 1961 through 1977, when power data were not available. The model used a relation between ground-water pumpage and climatic indexes to develop a full suite of pumpage data to be used as input to a digital ground-water model, one of the products of the Central Valley Aquifer Project. Statistical analysis of well-perforation data from drillers ' logs and water-temperature data was used to determine the percentage of pumpage that was withdrawn from each of two horizontal layers. (USGS)

  13. USGS California Water Science Center water programs in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shulters, Michael V.

    2005-01-01

    California is threatened by many natural hazards—fire, floods, landslides, earthquakes. The State is also threatened by longer-term problems, such as hydrologic effects of climate change, and human-induced problems, such as overuse of ground water and degradation of water quality. The threats and problems are intensified by increases in population, which has risen to nearly 36.8 million. For the USGS California Water Science Center, providing scientific information to help address hazards, threats, and hydrologic issues is a top priority. To meet the demands of a growing California, USGS scientific investigations are helping State and local governments improve emergency management, optimize resources, collect contaminant-source and -mobility information, and improve surface- and ground-water quality. USGS hydrologic studies and data collection throughout the State give water managers quantifiable and detailed scientific information that can be used to plan for development and to protect and more efficiently manage resources. The USGS, in cooperation with state, local, and tribal agencies, operates more than 500 instrument stations, which monitor streamflow, ground-water levels, and surface- and ground-water constituents to help protect water supplies and predict the threats of natural hazards. The following are some of the programs implemented by the USGS, in cooperation with other agencies, to obtain and analyze information needed to preserve California's environment and resources.

  14. ANAEROBIC DEGRADATION OF MTBE TO TBA IN GROUND WATER AT GASOLINE SPILL SITES IN ORANGE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) has not been used as a fuel oxygenate in Orange County, California, the concentrations of TBA in ground water at gasoline spill sites are high compared to the concentrations of the conventional fuel oxygenate Methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE). In t...

  15. A comparison of habitat use and demography of red squirrels at the southern edge of their range

    Treesearch

    Katherine M. Leonard; John L. Koprowski

    2009-01-01

    Populations at the edge of their geographic range may demonstrate different population dynamics from central populations. Endangered Mt. Graham red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis), endemic to southeastern Arizona, represent the southernmost red squirrel population and are found at lower densities than conspecifics in the center of the...

  16. Atypical den use of Carolina Northern Flying Squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus) in the southern Appalachian Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diggins, Corinne A.; Kelly, Christine A.; Ford, W. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus (Carolina Northern Flying Squirrel) is a federally endangered subspecies that occurs in high elevation forests of the southern Appalachian Mountains. Denning sites may be a limiting factor for this subspecies in areas where cavity trees are not abundant or where interspecific competition from other tree squirrels occurs. This shortage can result in use of unusual denning sites, such as subterranean dens. Herein, we report atypical denning habits of radio-collared Carolina Northern Flying Squirrels in southwestern Virginia and western North Carolina from 2008 to 2011 and 2014. Increased knowledge of denning habitats may be beneficial for conservation and habitat management of this subspecies, particularly in sub-optimal or degraded habitats.

  17. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley Basins, California, 2005 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,000-square-mile Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley study unit was investigated from July through October 2005 as part of the California Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program. The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 94 public-supply wells and 3 monitoring wells in Monterey, Santa Cruz, and San Luis Obispo Counties. Ninety-one of the public-supply wells sampled were selected to provide a spatially distributed, randomized monitoring network for statistical representation of the study area. Six wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry: three wells along a ground-water flow path were sampled to evaluate lateral changes, and three wells at discrete depths from land surface were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry with depth from land surface. The ground-water samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides, pesticide degradates, nutrients, major and minor ions, trace elements, radioactivity, microbial indicators, and dissolved noble gases (the last in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory). Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, helium-4, and the isotopic composition of oxygen and hydrogen) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. In total, 270 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated for this study. This study did not attempt to evaluate the quality of water delivered to consumers; after withdrawal from the ground, water typically is treated, disinfected, and (or) blended with other waters to maintain water quality. In addition, regulatory thresholds apply to treated water that is served to the consumer, not to raw ground water. In this study, only six constituents, alpha radioactivity, N

  18. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin Study Unit, 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 860 square-mile Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit (CLAB) was investigated from June to November of 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Coastal Los Angeles Basin study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within CLAB, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 69 wells in Los Angeles and Orange Counties. Fifty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (?grid wells?). Fourteen additional wells were selected to evaluate changes in ground-water chemistry or to gain a greater understanding of the ground-water quality within a specific portion of the Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit ('understanding wells'). Ground-water samples were analyzed for: a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gasoline oxygenates and their degradates, pesticides, polar pesticides, and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicators]; constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)]; inorganic constituents that can occur naturally [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements]; radioactive constituents [gross-alpha and gross-beta radiation, radium isotopes, and radon-222]; and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [stable isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen, and activities of tritium and carbon-14

  19. Stable isotopes and volatile organic compounds along seven ground-water flow paths in divergent and convergent flow systems, southern California, 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milby Dawson, Barbara J.; Belitz, Kenneth; Land, Michael; Danskin, Wesley R.

    2003-01-01

    Ground water is a major source of drinking water in southern California. In an effort to understand factors influencing the susceptibility of ground water tapped by public supply wells, the U.S. Geological Survey has undertaken studies in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board. The vertical and lateral distribution of stable isotopes (deuterium and oxygen-18) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) were examined along seven ground-water flow paths in three urban ground-water basins in southern California: Central Basin in Los Angeles County, Main Basin in Orange County, and Bunker Hill Basin in San Bernardino County. Forty-seven monitoring wells and 100 public supply wells were sampled. The results of this study suggest that the direction of flow and perhaps the degree of confinement in an aquifer system are important controls on the distribution of VOCs. Ground-water flow in the Central and Main Basins in the southern California coastal plain is characterized as radially divergent, with ground-water flow directions moving outward from focused areas of recharge in the unconfined part of the aquifer system toward dispersed areas of discharge in the more confined part. In these basins, there is a volume of water containing VOCs that extends out into a volume of water containing no VOCs. This pattern suggests that radially divergent flow systems disperse VOCs in distal areas. The overall pattern also suggests that ground water in the pressure area is generally insulated from compounds introduced at land surface. These two factors?dispersion of VOCs due to divergence of flow and insulation from land-surface inputs?suggest that the susceptibility of public supply wells to surface contamination decreases with distance in radially divergent, well confined ground-water flow system. In the inland Bunker Hill Basin, ground-water flow is characterized as radially convergent; ground-water flow directions move inward from dispersed recharge areas in

  20. Ectoparasites of a population of urban gray squirrels in northern Florida.

    PubMed

    Wilson, N A; Telford, S R; Forrester, D J

    1991-05-01

    Ectoparasites infesting a population of urban gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin) in northern Florida were collected monthly during 1974. Eleven species were identified: one flea (Orchopeas howardi (Baker], three suckling lice (Enderleinellus longiceps Kellogg & Ferris, Hoplopleura sciuricola Ferris, and Neohaematopinus sciuri Jancke), one tick (Dermacentor variabilis Say), two mesostigmatid (gamasid) mites (Androlaelaps casalis (Berlese) and A. fahrenholzi (Berlese], and four chiggers (Eutrombicula alfreddugesi (Oudemans), E. splendens (Ewing), Leptotrombidium peromysci Vercammen-Grandjean & Langston, and Parasecia gurneyi (Ewing]. The flea and three suckling lice represent core species of ectoparasites for the gray squirrel; the remainder are probably satellite species. Only E. longiceps varied significantly in prevalence or intensity of infestation among host age groups; subadult squirrels had higher intensities than adults. Peak prevalence of O. howardi occurred in January and attained maximum intensity in March, whereas both prevalance and intensity were minimum in August. Prevalence of H. sciuricola was maximum in November and remained at similar levels through June. It then declined significantly to its minimum in September-October. Intensity of infestation, however, was greatest in August, September, and January. Maximum prevalence of N. sciuri occurred from January to March and was minimum in September; intensity of infestation reached maxima in January, June, and August.

  1. Simulations of Ground Motion in Southern California based upon the Spectral-Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tromp, J.; Komatitsch, D.; Liu, Q.

    2003-12-01

    We use the spectral-element method to simulate ground motion generated by recent well-recorded small earthquakes in Southern California. Simulations are performed using a new sedimentary basin model that is constrained by hundreds of petroleum industry well logs and more than twenty thousand kilometers of seismic reflection profiles. The numerical simulations account for 3D variations of seismic wave speeds and density, topography and bathymetry, and attenuation. Simulations for several small recent events demonstrate that the combination of a detailed sedimentary basin model and an accurate numerical technique facilitates the simulation of ground motion at periods of 2 seconds and longer inside the Los Angeles basin and 6 seconds and longer elsewhere. Peak ground displacement, velocity and acceleration maps illustrate that significant amplification occurs in the basin. Centroid-Moment Tensor mechanisms are obtained based upon Pnl and surface waveforms and numerically calculated 3D Frechet derivatives. We use a combination of waveform and waveform-envelope misfit criteria, and facilitate pure double-couple or zero-trace moment-tensor inversions.

  2. Effects of new forest management strategies on squirrel populations.

    Treesearch

    Andrew B. Carey

    2000-01-01

    Two strategies for managing forests for multiple values have achieved prominence in debates in the Pacific Northwest: (1) legacy retention with passive management and long rotations, and (2) intensive management for timber with commercial thinnings and long rotations. Northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus), Townsend's chipmunks (

  3. Multi-sensor Integration of Space and Ground Observations of Pre-earthquake Anomalies Associated with M6.0, August 24, 2014 Napa, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Tramutoli, Valerio; Pulinets, Sergey; Liu, Tiger; Filizzola, Carolina; Genzano, Nicola; Lisi, Mariano; Petrov, Leonid; Kafatos, Menas

    2015-04-01

    We integrate multiple space-born and ground sensors for monitoring pre-earthquake geophysical anomalies that can provide significant early notification for earthquakes higher than M5.5 worldwide. The latest M6.0 event of August 24, 2014 in South Napa, California generated pre-earthquake signatures during our outgoing tests for California, and an experimental warning was documented about 17 days in advance. We process in controlled environment different satellite and ground data for California (and several other test areas) by using: a) data from the NPOES sensors recording OLR (Outgoing Longwave Radiation) in the infrared; b) 2/GNSS, FORMOSAT (GPS/TEC); c) Earth Observing System assimilation models from NASA; d) ground-based gas observations and meteorological data; e) TIR (Thermal Infrared) data from geostationary satellite (GOES). On Aug 4th, we detected (prospectively) a large anomaly of OLR transient field at the TOA over Northern California. The location was shifted in the northeast direction about 150 km from the Aug 23rd epicentral area. Compared to the reference field of August 2004 to 2014 the hotspot anomaly was the largest energy flux anomaly over the entire continental United States at this time. Based on the temporal and spatial estimates of the anomaly, on August 4th we issued an internal warning for a M5.5+ earthquake in Northern California within the next 1-4 weeks. TIR retrospective analysis showed significant (spatially extended and temporally persistent) sequences of TIR anomalies starting August 1st just in the future epicenter area and approximately in the same area affected by OLR anomalies in the following days. GPS/TEC retrospective analysis based on GIM and TGIM products show anomalies TEC variations 1-3 days, over region north form the Napa earthquake epicenter. The calculated index of atmospheric chemical potential based on the NASA numerical Assimilation weather model GEOS5 indicates for abnormal variations near the epicentral area days

  4. Geology, ground-water hydrology, geochemistry, and ground-water simulation of the Beaumont and Banning Storage Units, San Gorgonio Pass area, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rewis, Diane L.; Christensen, Allen H.; Matti, Jonathan; Hevesi, Joseph A.; Nishikawa, Tracy; Martin, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Ground water has been the only source of potable water supply for residential, industrial, and agricultural users in the Beaumont and Banning storage units of the San Gorgonio Pass area, Riverside County, California. Ground-water levels in the Beaumont area have declined as much as 100 feet between the early 1920s and early 2000s, and numerous natural springs have stopped flowing. In 1961, the San Gorgonio Pass Water Agency (SGPWA) entered into a contract with the California State Department of Water Resources to receive 17,300 acre-feet per year of water to be delivered by the California State Water Project (SWP) to supplement natural recharge. Currently (2005), a pipeline is delivering SWP water into the area, and the SGPWA is artificially recharging the ground-water system using recharge ponds located along Little San Gorgonio Creek in Cherry Valley with the SWP water. In addition to artificial recharge, SGPWA is considering the direct delivery of SWP water for the irrigation of local golf courses and for agricultural supply in lieu of ground-water pumpage. To better understand the potential hydrologic effects of different water-management alternatives on ground-water levels and movement in the Beaumont and Banning storage units, existing geohydrologic and geochemical data were compiled, new data from a basin-wide ground-water level and water-quality monitoring network were collected, monitoring wells were installed near the Little San Gorgonio Creek recharge ponds, geohydrologic and geochemical analyses were completed, and a ground-water flow simulation model was developed. The San Gorgonio Pass area was divided into several storage units on the basis of mapped or inferred faults. This study addresses primarily the Beaumont and Banning storage units. The geologic units in the study area were generalized into crystalline basement rocks and sedimentary deposits. The younger sedimentary deposits and the surficial deposits are the main water-bearing deposits in the

  5. Anophthalmia in a Wild Eastern Gray Squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis).

    PubMed

    Rothenburger, Jamie L; Hartnett, Elizabeth A; James, Fiona M K; Grahn, Bruce H

    2017-10-01

    We describe bilateral true anophthalmia in a juvenile female eastern gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) with histologic confirmation that orbital contents lacked ocular tissues. Additionally, the optic chiasm of the brain was absent and axon density in the optic tract adjacent to the lateral geniculate nucleus was reduced.

  6. Effect of environmental enrichment devices on behaviors of single- and group-housed squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spring, S. E.; Clifford, J. O.; Tomko, D. L.

    1997-01-01

    Squirrel monkeys display an interest in novel places, habituate to new situations, and spend most of their daily activity in the wild in large groups engaging in feeding behaviors over a broad area. Captivity limits these behaviors and consequently may disrupt normal social organizations. In captivity, squirrel monkeys may exhibit stereotypical behaviors that are believed to indicate decreased psychologic well-being. When a monkey's behavior can be made to approach that seen in the wild, and stereotypical behaviors are minimal, it is assumed that psychologic well-being is adequate. Environmental enrichment devices have been used to address the Animal Welfare Act requirement that psychologic well-being of captive nonhuman primates be considered. The purpose of the study reported here was to examine whether various environmental enrichment devices improve the psychologic well-being of captive squirrel monkeys. In the study, we used behavioral observation to quantify the effectiveness of several environmental enrichment devices for reducing stereotypical behaviors in squirrel monkeys housed alone or in groups. Analysis of our results revealed that the environmental enrichment devices did not affect the expression of normal or stereotypical behaviors, but that the type of housing did.

  7. Phenotype and Age Differences in Blood Gas Characteristics, Electrolytes, Hemoglobin, Plasma Glucose and Cortisol in Female Squirrel Monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brizzee, K. R.; Ordy, J. M.; Dunlap, W. P.; Kendrick, R.; Wengenack, T. M.

    1988-01-01

    Due to its small size, lower cost, tractable nature, successful breeding in captivity and its status near the middle of the primate phylogenetic scale, the squirrel monkey has become an attractive primate model for basic and biomedical research. Although the squirrel monkey now is being used more extensively in many laboratories with diverse interests, only fragmentary reports have been published regarding basic physiological characteristics, or baseline blood reference values of different phenotypes, particularly blood gases, hematology and serum chemical constituents. It is becoming recognized increasingly that these baseline blood reference values are important not only in the care and maintenance of the squirrel monkey, but are critical for assessing normal physiological status, as well as the effects of various experimental treatments. The purpose of this study was to compare differences in blood gases, electrolytes, hematology, blood glucose and cortisol among young and old Bolivian (Roman type) and Colombian (Gothic type) phenotypes of the squirrel monkey.

  8. Catenotaenia dendritica (Cestoda: Catenotaeniidae) and Three Ectoparasite Species in the Red Squirrel, Sciurus vulgaris, from Cheongju, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Seongjun; Lee, Dongmin; Park, Hansol; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Lee, Youngsun; Na, Ki-Jeong; Lee, In-Yong; Eom, Keeseon S.

    2016-01-01

    Parasites are recorded from the red squirrel, Sciurus vulgaris, from Cheongju, the Republic of Korea. A total of 5 road-killed squirrels were thoroughly examined for internal and external parasites from November 2011 to May 2014. Total 4 parasite species, including 1 tapeworm and 3 ectoparasite species were recovered. They were morphologically identified as Catenotaenia dendritica (Cestoda: Catenotaeniidae), Hirstionyssus sciurinus, Leptotrombidium pallidum, and Ceratophyllus (Monopsyllus) indages. Among them, C. dendritica and H. sciurinus are recorded for the first time in the Korean parasite fauna. In addition, the possibility that the red squirrel could act as a reservoir host for a zoonotic disease like tsutsugamushi disease with L. pallidum as its vector has been raised. PMID:27658604

  9. Catenotaenia dendritica (Cestoda: Catenotaeniidae) and Three Ectoparasite Species in the Red Squirrel, Sciurus vulgaris, from Cheongju, Korea.

    PubMed

    Choe, Seongjun; Lee, Dongmin; Park, Hansol; Jeon, Hyeong-Kyu; Lee, Youngsun; Na, Ki-Jeong; Lee, In-Yong; Eom, Keeseon S

    2016-08-01

    Parasites are recorded from the red squirrel, Sciurus vulgaris, from Cheongju, the Republic of Korea. A total of 5 road-killed squirrels were thoroughly examined for internal and external parasites from November 2011 to May 2014. Total 4 parasite species, including 1 tapeworm and 3 ectoparasite species were recovered. They were morphologically identified as Catenotaenia dendritica (Cestoda: Catenotaeniidae), Hirstionyssus sciurinus, Leptotrombidium pallidum, and Ceratophyllus (Monopsyllus) indages. Among them, C. dendritica and H. sciurinus are recorded for the first time in the Korean parasite fauna. In addition, the possibility that the red squirrel could act as a reservoir host for a zoonotic disease like tsutsugamushi disease with L. pallidum as its vector has been raised.

  10. 2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Light tower, view west towards Squirrel Island, south and east sides - Ram Island Light Station, Ram Island, south of Ocean Point & just north of Fisherman Island, marking south side of Fisherman Island Passage, Ocean Point, Lincoln County, ME

  11. Perfect polydactylism in hind feet of a gray squirrel

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Dunaway, P.B.

    1969-01-01

    An adult gray squirrel from an isolated natural population had seven toes and nine plantar tubercles on each hind foot. The extra digits were articulated with supernumerary cuneiforms and appeared to have been functional. Polydactylism in wild adult rodents is probably a rare anomaly. 6 references, 2 figures.

  12. Simulation of ground-water flow and land subsidence in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leighton, David A.; Phillips, Steven P.

    2003-01-01

    Antelope Valley, California, is a topographically closed basin in the western part of the Mojave Desert, about 50 miles northeast of Los Angeles. The Antelope Valley ground-water basin is about 940 square miles and is separated from the northern part of Antelope Valley by faults and low-lying hills. Prior to 1972, ground water provided more than 90 percent of the total water supply in the valley; since 1972, it has provided between 50 and 90 percent. Most ground-water pumping in the valley occurs in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin, which includes the rapidly growing cities of Lancaster and Palmdale. Ground-water-level declines of more than 200 feet in some parts of the ground-water basin have resulted in an increase in pumping lifts, reduced well efficiency, and land subsidence of more than 6 feet in some areas. Future urban growth and limits on the supply of imported water may continue to increase reliance on ground water. To better understand the ground-water flow system and to develop a tool to aid in effectively managing the water resources, a numerical model of ground-water flow and land subsidence in the Antelope Valley ground-water basin was developed using old and new geohydrologic information. The ground-water flow system consists of three aquifers: the upper, middle, and lower aquifers. The aquifers, which were identified on the basis of the hydrologic properties, age, and depth of the unconsolidated deposits, consist of gravel, sand, silt, and clay alluvial deposits and clay and silty clay lacustrine deposits. Prior to ground-water development in the valley, recharge was primarily the infiltration of runoff from the surrounding mountains. Ground water flowed from the recharge areas to discharge areas around the playas where it discharged either from the aquifer system as evapotranspiration or from springs. Partial barriers to horizontal ground-water flow, such as faults, have been identified in the ground-water basin. Water-level declines owing to

  13. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southeast San Joaquin Valley, 2005-2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Carmen A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 3,800 square-mile Southeast San Joaquin Valley study unit (SESJ) was investigated from October 2005 through February 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The SESJ study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SESJ, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 99 wells in Fresno, Tulare, and Kings Counties, 83 of which were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 16 of which were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths or across alluvial fans (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, and pharmaceutical compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately 10 percent of the wells, and the results

  14. Tracing ground-water movement by using the stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen, upper Penitencia Creek alluvial fan, Santa Clara Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muir, K.S.; Coplen, Tyler B.

    1981-01-01

    Starting in 1965 the Santa Clara Valley Water District began importing about i00,000 acre-feet per year of northern California water. About one-half of this water was used to artificially recharge the Upper Penitencia Creek alluvial fan in Santa Clara Valley. In order to determine the relative amounts of local ground water and recharged imported water being pumped from the wells, stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen were used to trace the movement of the imported water in the alluvial fan. To trace the movement of imported water in the Upper Penitencia Creek alluvial fan, well samples were selected to give areal and depth coverage for the whole fan. The stable isotopes of oxygen-16, oxygen-18, and deuterium were measured in the water samples of imported water and from the wells and streams in the Santa Clara Valley. The d18oand dD compositions of the local runoff were about -6.00 o/oo (parts per thousand) and -40 o/oo, respectively; the average compositions for the local native ground-water samples were about -6.1 o/oo and -41 o/oo, respectively; and the average compositions of the imported water samples were -10.2 o/oo and -74 o/oo, respectively. (The oxygen isotopic composition of water samples is reported relative to Standard Mean Ocean Water, in parts per thousand.) The difference between local ground water and recharged imported water was about 4.1 o/oo in d18o and 33 o/oo in dL. The isotopic data indicate dilution of northern California water with local ground water in a downgradient direction. Two wells contain approximately 74 percent northern California water, six wells more than 50 percent. Data indicate that there may be a correlation between the percentage of northern California water and the depth or length of perforated intervals in wells.

  15. Conditioned taste aversion and motion sickness in cats and squirrel monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert A.; Corcoran, Meryl Lee; Brizzee, Kenneth R.

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between vomiting and conditioned taste aversion was studied in intact cats and squirrel monkeys and in cats and squirrel monkeys in which the area postrema was ablated by thermal cautery. In cats conditioned 7-12 months after ablation of the area postrema, three successive treatments with xylazine failed to produce either vomiting or conditioned taste aversion to a novel fluid. Intact cats, however, vomited and formed a conditioned aversion. In squirrel monkeys conditioned 6 months after ablation of the area postrema, three treatments with lithium chloride failed to produce conditioned taste aversion. Intact monkeys did condition with these treatments. Neither intact nor ablated monkeys vomited or evidenced other signs of illness when injected with lithium chloride. When the same ablated cats and monkeys were exposed to a form of motion that produced vomiting prior to surgery, conditioned taste aversion can be produced after ablation of the area postrema. The utility of conditioned taste aversion as a measure of subemetic motion sickness is discussed by examining agreement and disagreement between identifications of motion sickness by conditioned taste aversion and vomiting. It is suggested that a convincing demonstration of the utility of conditioned taste aversion as a measure of nausea requires the identification of physiological correlates of nausea, and caution should be exercised when attempting to interpret conditioned taste aversion as a measure of nausea.

  16. Ground-water resources in the lower Milliken--Sarco--Tulucay Creeks area, southeastern Napa County, California, 2000-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrar, Christopher D.; Metzger, Loren F.

    2003-01-01

    -water extraction produced three large pumping depressions in the northern and east-central parts of the area. The general decline in ground-water levels is a result of increases in ground-water pumpage and possibly changes in infiltration capacity caused by changes in land use. Ground-water-level declines during 1960-2002 are evident in the records for 9 of 10 key monitoring wells. In five of these wells, water levels dropped by greater than 20 feet since the 1980s. The largest water-level declines have occurred since the mid 1970s, corresponding with a period of accelerated well construction and ground-water extraction. Analysis of samples from 15 wells indicates that the chemical quality of ground water in the study generally is acceptable. However, arsenic concentrations in samples from five wells exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency primary drinking-water standard of 10 micrograms per liter, and iron concentrations in samples from five wells exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the California Department of Health Services secondary drinking-water standard of 300 micrograms per liter. Water from 12 of 15 wells sampled contained concentrations of manganese that exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the California Department of Health Services secondary drinking-water standard of 50 micrograms per liter. Two wells produced water that had boron in excess of the California Department of Health Services action level of 1 milligram per liter. Stable isotope, chlorofluorocarbon, and tritium data indicate that ground water in the area is a mixture of waters that recharged the aquifer system at different times. The presence of chlorofluorocarbons and tritium in water from the study area is evidence that modern recharge (post 1950) does take place. Water-temperature logs indicate that ground-water temperatures throughout the study area exceed 30?C at depths in excess of 600 feet. Further, water at

  17. Induced dynamic nonlinear ground response at Gamer Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Z.; Bodin, P.; Langston, C.A.; Pearce, F.; Gomberg, J.; Johnson, P.A.; Menq, F.-Y.; Brackman, T.

    2008-01-01

    We present results from a prototype experiment in which we actively induce, observe, and quantify in situ nonlinear sediment response in the near surface. This experiment was part of a suite of experiments conducted during August 2004 in Garner Valley, California, using a large mobile shaker truck from the Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) facility. We deployed a dense accelerometer array within meters of the mobile shaker truck to replicate a controlled, laboratory-style soil dynamics experiment in order to observe wave-amplitude-dependent sediment properties. Ground motion exceeding 1g acceleration was produced near the shaker truck. The wave field was dominated by Rayleigh surface waves and ground motions were strong enough to produce observable nonlinear changes in wave velocity. We found that as the force load of the shaker increased, the Rayleigh-wave phase velocity decreased by as much as ???30% at the highest frequencies used (up to 30 Hz). Phase velocity dispersion curves were inverted for S-wave velocity as a function of depth using a simple isotropic elastic model to estimate the depth dependence of changes to the velocity structure. The greatest change in velocity occurred nearest the surface, within the upper 4 m. These estimated S-wave velocity values were used with estimates of surface strain to compare with laboratory-based shear modulus reduction measurements from the same site. Our results suggest that it may be possible to characterize nonlinear soil properties in situ using a noninvasive field technique.

  18. Predictive habitat models derived from nest-box occupancy for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel in the southern Appalachians

    Treesearch

    W. Mark Ford; Andrew M. Evans; Richard H. Odom; Jane L. Rodrigue; Christine A. Kelly; Nicole Abaid; Corinne A. Diggins; Douglas Newcomb

    2015-01-01

    In the southern Appalachians, artificial nest-boxes are used to survey for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel (CNFS; Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus), a disjunct subspecies associated with high elevation (>1385 m) forests. Using environmental parameters diagnostic of squirrel habitat, we created 35 a priori occupancy...

  19. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Central Sierra Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferrari, Matthew J.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 950 square kilometer (370 square mile) Central Sierra study unit (CENSIE) was investigated in May 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Assessment project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Ground-Water Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). This study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw ground water used for drinking-water supplies within CENSIE, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of ground-water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from thirty wells in Madera County. Twenty-seven of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and three were selected to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). Ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], gasoline oxygenates and degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates), constituents of special interest (N-nitrosodimethylamine, perchlorate, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane), naturally occurring inorganic constituents [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon], and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the sources and ages of the sampled ground water. In total, over 250 constituents and water-quality indicators were investigated. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately one-sixth of the wells, and

  20. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Coachella Valley Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldrath, Dara A.; Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 820 square-mile Coachella Valley Study Unit (COA) was investigated during February and March 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground water used for public-water supplies within the Coachella Valley, and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of ground-water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 35 wells in Riverside County. Nineteen of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Sixteen additional wells were sampled to evaluate changes in water chemistry along selected ground-water flow paths, examine land use effects on ground-water quality, and to collect water-quality data in areas where little exists. These wells were referred to as 'understanding wells'. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (uranium, tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and boron), and dissolved noble gases (the last in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled

  1. How Well the Early 2017 California Atmospheric River Precipitation Events Were Captured by Satellite Products and Ground-based Radars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Y. B.; Behrangi, A.; Chen, H.; Lambrigtsen, B.

    2017-12-01

    In January and February of 2017, California experienced multiple heavy storms that caused serious destruction of facilities and economic loss, although it also helped to reduce water storage deficit due to prolonged drought in previous years. These extreme precipitation events were mainly associated with Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) and brought about 174 km3 of water to California according to ground observations. This paper evaluates the performance of six commonly used satellite-based precipitation products (IMERG, 3B42RT, PERSIANN, CCS, CMORPH, and GSMaP), as well as ground-based radar products (Radar-only and Radar-lgc) in capturing the ARs precipitation rate and distribution. It is found that precipitation maps from all products present heavy precipitation in January and February, with more consistent observations over ocean than land. Though large uncertainties exist in quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) over land, the ensemble mean of different remote sensing precipitation products over California is consistent with gauge measurements. Among the six satellite-based products, IMERG correlates the best with gauge observations both in the detection and quantification of precipitation, but it is not the best product in terms of root mean square error (RMSE) or bias. Compared to satellite products, ground weather radar shows better precipitation detectability and estimation skill. However, neither radar nor satellite QPE products have good performances in quantifying the peak precipitation intensity during the extreme events, suggesting that further advancement in quantification of extremely intense precipitation associated with AR in the Western United States is needed.

  2. Impact of Striped-Squirrel Nectar-Robbing Behaviour on Gender Fitness in Alpinia roxburghii Sweet (Zingiberaceae).

    PubMed

    Deng, Xiaobao; Mohandass, Dharmalingam; Katabuchi, Masatoshi; Hughes, Alice C; Roubik, David W

    2015-01-01

    Nectar-robbing has the potential to strongly affect male and female reproductive fitness of plants. One example of nectar theft is that shown by striped-squirrels (Tamiops swinhoei) on a number of ginger species, including Alpinia roxburghii and A. kwangsiensis (Zingiberaceae). In this study, we used a fluorescent dye as a pollen analogue, and measured fruit and seed output, to test the effect of squirrel nectar-robbing on A. roxburghii reproductive fitness. Pollen transfer between robbed and unrobbed flowers was assessed by comparing 60 randomly established plots containing robbed and unrobbed flowers. The frequency of squirrel robbing visits and broken styles were recorded from a number of flowers for five consecutive days. Two bee species (Bombus eximius and Apis cerana), were the primary pollinators, and their visitation frequency was recorded for six consecutive days. The results showed that fluorescent powder from unrobbed flowers was dispersed further, and to a greater number of flowers than that placed on robbed flowers. Additionally, robbing flowers caused significant damage to reproductive organs, resulting in lower fruit and seed sets in robbed than in unrobbed flowers and influencing both male and female fitness. The frequency of the primary pollinator visits (B. eximius) was significantly higher for unrobbed plants than for robbed plants. The present study clearly shows the negative impact of squirrel robbing on A. roxburghii male reproductive fitness and neutral impact on female reproductive fitness.

  3. Adjustments in metabolic heat production by squirrel monkeys exposed to microwaves

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Adair, E.R.; Adams, B.W.

    1982-04-01

    The basic fact that microwave exposure can lower metabolic heat production has been previously demonstrated for the mouse by Ho and Edwards (1977) and for the rat by Phillips et al. (1975). The general conclusion drawn from both studies was that the metabolic reduction produced by microwave exposure was dose dependent. The present study extends the investigation into the effects of microwave exposure on metabolic heat production to a primate, the squirrel monkey. When squirrel monkeys are restrained in cool environments, body temperature is regulated by an increase in metabolic heat production. The results of the current study demonstrate thatmore » either brief or prolonged whole-body exposure to a microwave field will cause a reduction of this elevated heat production by an amount directly related to the microwave energy absorbed.« less

  4. Ground-water/surface-water responses to global climate simulations, Santa Clara-Calleguas basin, Ventura County, California, 1950-93

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, Randall T.; Dettinger, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    Climate variations can play an important, if not always crucial, role in successful conjunctive management of ground water and surface water resources. This will require accurate accounting of the links between variations in climate, recharge, and withdrawal from the resource systems, accurate projection or predictions of the climate variations, and accurate simulation of the responses of the resource systems. To assess linkages and predictability of climate influences on conjunctive management, global climate model (GCM) simulated precipitation rates were used to estimate inflows and outflows from a regional ground water model (RGWM) of the coastal aquifers of the Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin at Ventura, California, for 1950 to 1993. Interannual to interdecadal time scales of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) climate variations are imparted to simulated precipitation variations in the Southern California area and are realistically imparted to the simulated ground water level variations through the climate-driven recharge (and discharge) variations. For example, the simulated average ground water level response at a key observation well in the basin to ENSO variations of tropical Pacific sea surface temperatures is 1.2 m/°C, compared to 0.9 m/°C in observations. This close agreement shows that the GCM-RGWM combination can translate global scale climate variations into realistic local ground water responses. Probability distributions of simulated ground water level excursions above a local water level threshold for potential seawater intrusion compare well to the corresponding distributions from observations and historical RGWM simulations, demonstrating the combination's potential usefulness for water management and planning. Thus the GCM-RGWM combination could be used for planning purposes and — when the GCM forecast skills are adequate — for near term predictions.

  5. Habitat associations of hypogeous fungi in the Southern Appalachians: implications for the endangered northern flying squirrel (Glaycomys sabrinus coloratus)

    Treesearch

    Susan C. Loeb; Frank H. Tainter; Efren Cázares

    2000-01-01

    Sporocarps of hypogeous mycorrhizal fungi (truffles) are the major food of northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus). The two subspecies of northern flying squirrels that occur in the southern Appalachians, G. s. coloratus and G. s. fuscus, are endangered species which are primarily found in the ecotone...

  6. Biology and management of the western gray squirrel and Oregon white oak woodlands: with emphasis on the Puget Trough.

    Treesearch

    L.A. Ryan; A.B. Carey

    1995-01-01

    The western gray squirrel (Sciurus griseus Ord, 1818) has been accorded "threatened species" status by the state of Washington. populations are small, scattered, and declining primarily due to the loss and fragmentation of suitable habitat. Western gray squirrels are closely associated with Oregon white oak (Quercus garryana...

  7. Regional Water Table (1998) and Ground-Water-Level Changes in the Mojave River, and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Gregory A.; Pimentel, M. Isabel

    2000-01-01

    The Mojave River and the Morongo ground-water basins are in the southwestern part of the Mojave Desert in southern California. Ground water from these basins supplies a major part of the water requirements for the region. The rapid and continuous population growth in this area has resulted in ever-increasing demands on local ground-water resources. The continuing collection and interpretation of ground-water data helps local water districts, military bases, and private citizens gain a better understanding of the ground-water systems and, consequently, water availability. During 1998 the U.S. Geological Survey and other agencies made approximately 2,370 water-level measurements in the Mojave River and the Morongo ground-water basins. These data document recent conditions and changes in ground-water levels. A water-level contour map was drawn using data from 450 wells, providing coverage for most of both basins. Twenty-three hydrographs show long-term (as much as 70 years) water-level trends throughout the basins. To help show effects of late seasonal recharge along the Mojave River, 14 short-term (13 years) hydrographs were created. A water-level change map was compiled to enable comparison of 1996 and 1998 water levels. The Mojave River and the Morongo ground-water basins had little change in water levels between 1996 and 1998 - with the exception of the areas of the Yucca Valley affected by artificial recharge. Other water-level changes were localized and reflected pumping or measurements made before seasonal recharge. Three areas of perched ground water were identified: El Mirage Lake (dry), Adelanto, and Lucerne Valley.

  8. Mapping and monitoring Mount Graham red squirrel habitat with Lidar and Landsat imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatten, James R.

    2014-01-01

    The Mount Graham red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis) is an endemic subspecies located in the Pinaleño Mountains of southeast Arizona. Living in a conifer forest on a sky-island surrounded by desert, the Mount Graham red squirrel is one of the rarest mammals in North America. Over the last two decades, drought, insect infestations, and fire destroyed much of its habitat. A federal recovery team is working on a plan to recover the squirrel and detailed information is necessary on its habitat requirements and population dynamics. Toward that goal I developed and compared three probabilistic models of Mount Graham red squirrel habitat with a geographic information system and logistic regression. Each model contained the same topographic variables (slope, aspect, elevation), but the Landsat model contained a greenness variable (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) extracted from Landsat, the Lidar model contained three forest-inventory variables extracted from lidar, while the Hybrid model contained Landsat and lidar variables. The Hybrid model produced the best habitat classification accuracy, followed by the Landsat and Lidar models, respectively. Landsat-derived forest greenness was the best predictor of habitat, followed by topographic (elevation, slope, aspect) and lidar (tree height, canopy bulk density, and live basal area) variables, respectively. The Landsat model's probabilities were significantly correlated with all 12 lidar variables, indicating its utility for habitat mapping. While the Hybrid model produced the best classification results, only the Landsat model was suitable for creating a habitat time series or habitat–population function between 1986 and 2013. The techniques I highlight should prove valuable in the development of Landsat- or lidar-based habitat models range wide.

  9. Coping with pregnancy after 9months in the dark: Post-hibernation buffering of high maternal stress in arctic ground squirrels.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Phoebe D; Boonstra, Rudy

    2016-06-01

    Pregnancy and lactation are key times in the life of female mammals when energetic resources must be brought to bear to produce and nurture offspring. Changes in glucocorticoid (GC) levels are central to this objective, due to their roles in modulating development and physiology and in mediating energetic tradeoffs. We examined GC changes over reproduction in a species living in a harsh seasonal environment: the arctic ground squirrel (Urocitellus parryii). Females become pregnant immediately after emerging from a ∼9month hibernation, and then must begin this pregnancy during an additional month of freezing temperatures and limited food availability. We measured plasma levels of total cortisol, corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), and free cortisol in unstressed females at three stages: not-visibly pregnant, visibly pregnant, and lactating. Total cortisol levels were similar in all stages, but CBG levels increased 4-fold from the not-visibly pregnant stage to visibly pregnant and lactating stage. As a result, the free cortisol fraction declined from 51% of total cortisol when females were not-visibly pregnant to only 5% when they were visibly pregnant (remaining low and stable throughout pregnancy) and 10% when they were lactating. This pattern is markedly different from that seen in other mammals, where 10% or less of GCs are free and these tend to increase during gestation. We postulate that the high free cortisol just prior to visible pregnancy is a seasonal adaptation relating either to the pronounced physiological changes the female must undergo after emerging from hibernation and immediately getting pregnant, or to the mobilization of body reserves for energy to permit pregnancy, or both. Thereafter, high CBG levels may shield the developing offspring from the negative effects of cortisol overexposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Squirrel Cage Type Electric Motor Rotor Assembly.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-09-05

    cage motor, but also provides efficiencies approaching those of permanent magnet motors . With the above and other objects in view, as will...and active motor life relative to known permanent magnet motors . Referring to FIG. 4, there is illustrated an alternative embodiment in which...part the.known advantages of a squirrel cage motor, and further provides improved efficiencies approaching those of permanent magnet motors . It is to

  11. A Grounded Approach to Citizenship Education: Local Interplays between Government Institutions, Adult Schools, and Community Events in Sacramento, California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loring, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    Following a grounded, bottom-up approach to language policy (Blommaert 2009; Canagarajah 2005; McCarty, 2011; Ramanathan, 2005), this paper investigates available resources and discourses of citizenship in Sacramento, California to those situated within the citizenship infrastructure. It analyzes how the discursive framing of local and national…

  12. Differences in trapping mortality rates of northern flying squirrels

    Treesearch

    D.K. Rosenberg; R.G. Anthony

    1993-01-01

    We described trapping mortality rates of northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) populations in western Oregon, U.S.A., and evaluated the effects of sex, age, body mass, and number of times an individual was recaptured on these rates. Although the overall trapping mortality rates were relatively low (7%) during 16-21 day trapping sessions, we...

  13. Arctic ground squirrel (Spermophilus parryii) hippocampal neurons tolerate prolonged oxygen– glucose deprivation and maintain baseline ERK1/2 and JNK activation despite drastic ATP loss

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Sherri L; Ross, Austin P; Zhao, Huiwen W; Kristenson, Heidi J; Zhan, Xinhua; Rasley, Brian T; Bickler, Philip E; Drew, Kelly L

    2009-01-01

    Oxygen–glucose deprivation (OGD) initiates a cascade of intracellular responses that culminates in cell death in sensitive species. Neurons from Arctic ground squirrels (AGS), a hibernating species, tolerate OGD in vitro and global ischemia in vivo independent of temperature or torpor. Regulation of energy stores and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways can regulate neuronal survival. We used acute hippocampal slices to investigate the role of ATP stores and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) MAPKs in promoting survival. Acute hippocampal slices from AGS tolerated 30 mins of OGD and showed a small but significant increase in cell death with 2 h OGD at 37°C. This tolerance is independent of hibernation state or season. Neurons from AGS survive OGD despite rapid ATP depletion by 3 mins in interbout euthermic AGS and 10 mins in hibernating AGS. Oxygen–glucose deprivation does not induce JNK activation in AGS and baseline ERK1/2 and JNK activation is maintained even after drastic depletion of ATP. Surprisingly, inhibition of ERK1/2 or JNK during OGD had no effect on survival, whereas inhibition of JNK increased cell death during normoxia. Thus, protective mechanisms promoting tolerance to OGD by AGS are downstream from ATP loss and are independent of hibernation state or season. PMID:18398417

  14. Tail function during arboreal quadrupedalism in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis) and tamarins (Saguinus oedipus).

    PubMed

    Young, Jesse W; Russo, Gabrielle A; Fellmann, Connie D; Thatikunta, Meena A; Chadwell, Brad A

    2015-10-01

    The need to maintain stability on narrow branches is often presented as a major selective force shaping primate morphology, with adaptations to facilitate grasping receiving particular attention. The functional importance of a long and mobile tail for maintaining arboreal stability has been comparatively understudied. Tails can facilitate arboreal balance by acting as either static counterbalances or dynamic inertial appendages able to modulate whole-body angular momentum. We investigate associations between tail use and inferred grasping ability in two closely related cebid platyrrhines-cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) and black-capped squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis). Using high-speed videography of captive monkeys moving on 3.2 cm diameter poles, we specifically test the hypothesis that squirrel monkeys (characterized by grasping extremities with long digits) will be less dependent on the tail for balance than tamarins (characterized by claw-like nails, short digits, and a reduced hallux). Tamarins have relatively longer tails than squirrel monkeys, move their tails through greater angular amplitudes, at higher angular velocities, and with greater angular accelerations, suggesting dynamic use of tail to regulate whole-body angular momentum. By contrast, squirrel monkeys generally hold their tails in a comparatively stationary posture and at more depressed angles, suggesting a static counterbalancing mechanism. This study, the first empirical test of functional tradeoffs between grasping ability and tail use in arboreal primates, suggests a critical role for the tail in maintaining stability during arboreal quadrupedalism. Our findings have the potential to inform our functional understanding of tail loss during primate evolution. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Autoshaping and automaintenance of a key-press response in squirrel monkeys.

    PubMed

    Gamzu, E; Schwam, E

    1974-03-01

    Following exposure for a minimum of 500 to 600 trials, three of four naive squirrel monkeys eventually pressed a response key, illumination of which always preceded delivery of a food pellet. Three other naive monkeys did not press the key when the pellets were delivered randomly with respect to key illumination. Despite some similarities to autoshaping using pigeons, the data indicate many points of difference when squirrel monkeys are used as subjects. Although key-food pairings were shown to be important in the acquisition of the key-press response, they were ineffective in maintaining the response when either a negative response-reinforcer dependency was introduced, or when there was no scheduled response-reinforcer dependency (fixed trial). Not all demonstrations of autoshaping can be considered to be under the control of those processes that are primarily responsible for the phenomena obtained in pigeons.

  16. Impact of Striped-Squirrel Nectar-Robbing Behaviour on Gender Fitness in Alpinia roxburghii Sweet (Zingiberaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xiaobao; Mohandass, Dharmalingam; Katabuchi, Masatoshi; Hughes, Alice C.; Roubik, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Nectar-robbing has the potential to strongly affect male and female reproductive fitness of plants. One example of nectar theft is that shown by striped-squirrels (Tamiops swinhoei) on a number of ginger species, including Alpinia roxburghii and A. kwangsiensis (Zingiberaceae). In this study, we used a fluorescent dye as a pollen analogue, and measured fruit and seed output, to test the effect of squirrel nectar-robbing on A. roxburghii reproductive fitness. Pollen transfer between robbed and unrobbed flowers was assessed by comparing 60 randomly established plots containing robbed and unrobbed flowers. The frequency of squirrel robbing visits and broken styles were recorded from a number of flowers for five consecutive days. Two bee species (Bombus eximius and Apis cerana), were the primary pollinators, and their visitation frequency was recorded for six consecutive days. The results showed that fluorescent powder from unrobbed flowers was dispersed further, and to a greater number of flowers than that placed on robbed flowers. Additionally, robbing flowers caused significant damage to reproductive organs, resulting in lower fruit and seed sets in robbed than in unrobbed flowers and influencing both male and female fitness. The frequency of the primary pollinator visits (B. eximius) was significantly higher for unrobbed plants than for robbed plants. The present study clearly shows the negative impact of squirrel robbing on A. roxburghii male reproductive fitness and neutral impact on female reproductive fitness. PMID:26689684

  17. Simultaneous measurement of brain tissue oxygen partial pressure, temperature, and global oxygen consumption during hibernation, arousal, and euthermy in non-sedated and non-anesthetized Arctic ground squirrels.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yilong; Wu, Shufen

    2008-09-30

    This study reports an online temperature correction method for determining tissue oxygen partial pressure P(tO2) in the striatum and a novel simultaneous measurement of brain P(tO2) and temperature (T(brain)) in conjunction with global oxygen consumption V(O2) in non-sedated and non-anesthetized freely moving Arctic ground squirrels (AGS, Spermophilus parryii). This method fills an important research gap-the lack of a suitable method for physiologic studies of tissue P(O2) in hibernating or other cool-blooded species. P(tO2) in AGS brain during euthermy (21.22+/-2.06 mmHg) is significantly higher (P=0.016) than during hibernation (13.21+/-0.46 mmHg) suggests brain oxygenation in the striatum is normoxic during euthermy and hypoxic during hibernation. These results in P(tO2) are different from blood oxygen partial pressure P(aO2) in AGS, which are significantly lower during euthermy than during hibernation and are actually hypoxic during euthermy and normoxic during hibernation in our previous study. This intriguing difference between the P(O2) of brain tissue and blood during these two physiological states suggests that regional mechanisms in the brain play a role in maintaining tissue oxygenation and protect against hypoxia during hibernation.

  18. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Southern Sierra Study Unit, 2006 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,800 square-mile Southern Sierra study unit (SOSA) was investigated in June 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Southern Sierra study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SOSA, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from fifty wells in Kern and Tulare Counties. Thirty-five of the wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area, and fifteen were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry along ground-water flow paths. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and wastewater-indicator compounds], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)], naturally occurring inorganic constituents [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water], and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, and samples for matrix spikes) were collected for approximately one-eighth of the wells, and the results for these samples were used to evaluate the quality of the data for the ground-water samples. Assessment of the

  19. Severely insect-damaged forest: A temporary trap for red squirrels?

    Treesearch

    Claire A. Zugmeyer; John L. Koprowski

    2009-01-01

    Recent insect infestations in the spruce-fir forest in the Pinalenno Mountains of southeastern Arizona provided an opportunity to document response to severe forest disturbance and existence of an ecological trap for an endemic montane isolate, the endangered Mt. Graham red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis). From September 2003 to...

  20. Conservatism and Adaptability during Squirrel Radiation: What Is Mandible Shape Telling Us?

    PubMed Central

    Casanovas-Vilar, Isaac; van Dam, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Both functional adaptation and phylogeny shape the morphology of taxa within clades. Herein we explore these two factors in an integrated way by analyzing shape and size variation in the mandible of extant squirrels using landmark-based geometric morphometrics in combination with a comparative phylogenetic analysis. Dietary specialization and locomotion were found to be reliable predictors of mandible shape, with the prediction by locomotion probably reflecting the underlying diet. In addition a weak but significant allometric effect could be demonstrated. Our results found a strong phylogenetic signal in the family as a whole as well as in the main clades, which is in agreement with the general notion of squirrels being a conservative group. This fact does not preclude functional explanations for mandible shape, but rather indicates that ancient adaptations kept a prominent role, with most genera having diverged little from their ancestral clade morphologies. Nevertheless, certain groups have evolved conspicuous adaptations that allow them to specialize on unique dietary resources. Such adaptations mostly occurred in the Callosciurinae and probably reflect their radiation into the numerous ecological niches of the tropical and subtropical forests of Southeastern Asia. Our dietary reconstruction for the oldest known fossil squirrels (Eocene, 36 million years ago) show a specialization on nuts and seeds, implying that the development from protrogomorphous to sciuromorphous skulls was not necessarily related to a change in diet. PMID:23593456

  1. Investigation of anti-motion sickness drugs in the squirrel monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheung, B. S.; Money, K. E.; Kohl, R. L.; Kinter, L. B.

    1992-01-01

    Early attempts to develop an animal model for anti-motion sickness drugs, using dogs and cats; were unsuccessful. Dogs did not show a beneficial effect of scopolamine (probably the best single anti-motion sickness drug for humans thus far) and the findings in cats were not definitive. The authors have developed an animal model using the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) of the Bolivian phenotype. Unrestrained monkeys in a small lucite cage were tested in an apparatus that induces motion sickness by combining vertical oscillation and horizontal rotation in a visually unrestricted laboratory environment. Signs of motion sickness were scored using a rating scale. Ten susceptible monkeys (weighing 800-1000 g) were given a total of five tests each, to establish the baseline susceptibility level. Based on the anticholinergic activity of scopolamine, the sensitivity of squirrel monkey to scopolamine was investigated, and the appropriate dose of scopolamine for this species was determined. Then various anti-motion sickness preparations were administered in subsequent tests: 100 ug scopolamine per monkey; 140 ug dexedrine; 50 ug scopolamine plus 70 ug dexedrine; 100 ug scopolamine plus 140 ug dexedrine; 3 mg promethazine; 3 mg promethazine plus 3 mg ephedrine. All these preparations were significantly effective in preventing motion sickness in the monkeys. Ephedrine, by itself, which is marginally effective in humans, was ineffective in the monkeys at the doses tried (0.3-6.0 mg). The squirrel monkey appears to be a good animal model for antimotion sickness drugs. Peripherally acting antihistamines such as astemizole and terfenadine were found to be ineffective, whereas flunarizine, and an arginine vasopressin V1 antagonist, showed significant activity in preventing motion sickness.

  2. Ground-water quality in the southeastern Sacramento Valley aquifer, California, 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milby Dawson, Barbara J.

    2001-01-01

    In 1996, the U.S. Geological Survey sampled 29 domestic wells and 2 monitoring wells in the southeastern Sacramento Valley as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. This area, designated as the NAWQA Sacramento subunit study area, was chosen because it had the largest amount of ground-water use in the Sacramento River Basin. The Sacramento subunit study area is about 4,400 square kilometers and includes intense agricultural and urban development. The wells sampled ranged from 14.9 to 79.2 meters deep. Ground-water samples from 31 wells were analyzed for 6 field measurements, 14 inorganic constituents, 6 nutrient constituents, organic carbon, 86 pesticides, 87 volatile organic compounds, tritium (hydrogen-3), radon-222, deuterium (hydrogen-2), and oxygen-18. Nitrate levels were lower than the 2000 drinking-water standards in all but one well, but many detections were in the range that indicated an effect by human activities on ground-water quality. Radon was detected in all wells, and was measured at levels above the proposed Federal 2000 maximum contaminant level in 90 percent of the wells. Five pesticides and one pesticide degradation product were detected in ground-water samples and concentrations were below 2000 drinking-water standards. All pesticides detected during this study have been used in the Sacramento Valley. Thirteen volatile organic compounds were detected in ground water. One detection of trichloroethene was above Federal 2000 drinking-water standards, and another, tetrachloromethane, was above California 1997 drinking-water standards; both occurred in a well that had eight volatile organic compound detections and is near a known source of ground-water contamination. Pesticides and volatile organic compounds were detected in agricultural and urban areas; both pesticides and volatile organic compounds were detected at a higher frequency in urban wells. Ground-water chemistry indicates that natural

  3. Regional water table (2000) and ground-water-level changes in the Mojave River and the Morongo ground-water basins, southwestern Mojave Desert, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Gregory A.

    2003-01-01

    The Mojave River and Morongo ground-water basins are in the southwestern part of the Mojave Desert in southern California. Ground water from these basins supplies a major part of the water requirements for the region. The continuous population growth in this area has resulted in ever-increasing demands on local ground-water resources. The collection and interpretation of ground-water data helps local water districts, military bases, and private citizens gain a better understanding of the ground-water systems, and consequently, water availability. During 2000, the U. S. Geological Survey and other agencies made approximately 2,500 water-level measurements in the Mojave River and the Morongo ground-water basins. These data document recent conditions and, when compared with previous data, changes in ground-water levels. A water-level contour map was drawn using data from about 500 wells, providing coverage for most of the basins. Twenty-nine hydrographs show long-term (up to 70 years) water-level conditions throughout the basins, and 13 short-term (1996 to 2000) hydrographs show the effects of recharge and discharge along the Mojave River. In addition, a water-level-change map was compiled to compare 1998 and 2000 water-levels throughout the basins. In the Mojave River ground-water basins, water-level data showed little change from 1998 to 2000, with the exception of areas along the Mojave River. Water levels along the Mojave River were typically in decline or unchanged, with exceptions near the Hodge and the Lenwood outlet, where water levels rose in response to artificial recharge. The Morongo ground-water basin had virtually no change in water levels from 1998 to 2000, with the exception of Yucca Valley, where artificial recharge and ground-water withdrawal continues.

  4. Selected Ground-Water Data for Yucca Mountain Region, Southern Nevada and Eastern California, January-December 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Locke, Glenn L.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, collected, compiled, and summarized hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region of southern Nevada and eastern California. These data were collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during activities to determine the potential suitability or development of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data collected from January through December 2005 are provided for ground-water levels at 35 boreholes and 1 fissure (Devils Hole), ground-water discharge at 5 springs, ground-water levels and discharge at 1 flowing borehole, and total reported ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert. Ground-water level, discharge, and withdrawal data collected by other agencies, or as part of other programs, are provided. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven boreholes in Jackass Flats is presented for 1992-2005 to indicate potential effects of ground-water withdrawals associated with U.S. Department of Energy activities near Yucca Mountain. The statistical summary includes the annual number of measurements; maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes; and average deviation of measured water-level altitudes compared to the 1992-93 baseline period. At seven boreholes in Jackass Flats, median water levels for 2005 were slightly higher (0.4-2.7 feet) than the median water levels for 1992-93.

  5. Autoshaping and automaintenance of a key-press response in squirrel monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Gamzu, Elkan; Schwam, Elias

    1974-01-01

    Following exposure for a minimum of 500 to 600 trials, three of four naive squirrel monkeys eventually pressed a response key, illumination of which always preceded delivery of a food pellet. Three other naive monkeys did not press the key when the pellets were delivered randomly with respect to key illumination. Despite some similarities to autoshaping using pigeons, the data indicate many points of difference when squirrel monkeys are used as subjects. Although key-food pairings were shown to be important in the acquisition of the key-press response, they were ineffective in maintaining the response when either a negative response-reinforcer dependency was introduced, or when there was no scheduled response-reinforcer dependency (fixed trial). Not all demonstrations of autoshaping can be considered to be under the control of those processes that are primarily responsible for the phenomena obtained in pigeons. PMID:16811749

  6. On the use of the squirrel monkey in behavorial and pharmacological experiments

    PubMed Central

    Kelleher, Roger T.; Gill, Charles A.; Riddle, William C.; Cook, Leonard

    1963-01-01

    We have found the squirrel monkey to be a useful experimental subject for behavioral and pharmacological experiments. This note presents techniques used for housing, feeding, handling, and administering drugs to these small primates. PMID:14031746

  7. Metagenomic analysis reveals a functional signature for biomass degradation by cecal microbiota in the leaf-eating flying squirrel (Petaurista alborufus lena)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Animals co-evolve with their gut microbiota; the latter can perform complex metabolic reactions that cannot be done independently by the host. Although the importance of gut microbiota has been well demonstrated, there is a paucity of research regarding its role in foliage-foraging mammals with a specialized digestive system. Results In this study, a 16S rRNA gene survey and metagenomic sequencing were used to characterize genetic diversity and functional capability of cecal microbiota of the folivorous flying squirrel (Petaurista alborufus lena). Phylogenetic compositions of the cecal microbiota derived from 3 flying squirrels were dominated by Firmicutes. Based on end-sequences of fosmid clones from 1 flying squirrel, we inferred that microbial metabolism greatly contributed to intestinal functions, including degradation of carbohydrates, metabolism of proteins, and synthesis of vitamins. Moreover, 33 polysaccharide-degrading enzymes and 2 large genomic fragments containing a series of carbohydrate-associated genes were identified. Conclusions Cecal microbiota of the leaf-eating flying squirrel have great metabolic potential for converting diverse plant materials into absorbable nutrients. The present study should serve as the basis for future investigations, using metagenomic approaches to elucidate the intricate mechanisms and interactions between host and gut microbiota of the flying squirrel digestive system, as well as other mammals with similar adaptations. PMID:22963241

  8. Metagenomic analysis reveals a functional signature for biomass degradation by cecal microbiota in the leaf-eating flying squirrel (Petaurista alborufus lena).

    PubMed

    Lu, Hsiao-Pei; Wang, Yu-bin; Huang, Shiao-Wei; Lin, Chung-Yen; Wu, Martin; Hsieh, Chih-hao; Yu, Hon-Tsen

    2012-09-10

    Animals co-evolve with their gut microbiota; the latter can perform complex metabolic reactions that cannot be done independently by the host. Although the importance of gut microbiota has been well demonstrated, there is a paucity of research regarding its role in foliage-foraging mammals with a specialized digestive system. In this study, a 16S rRNA gene survey and metagenomic sequencing were used to characterize genetic diversity and functional capability of cecal microbiota of the folivorous flying squirrel (Petaurista alborufus lena). Phylogenetic compositions of the cecal microbiota derived from 3 flying squirrels were dominated by Firmicutes. Based on end-sequences of fosmid clones from 1 flying squirrel, we inferred that microbial metabolism greatly contributed to intestinal functions, including degradation of carbohydrates, metabolism of proteins, and synthesis of vitamins. Moreover, 33 polysaccharide-degrading enzymes and 2 large genomic fragments containing a series of carbohydrate-associated genes were identified. Cecal microbiota of the leaf-eating flying squirrel have great metabolic potential for converting diverse plant materials into absorbable nutrients. The present study should serve as the basis for future investigations, using metagenomic approaches to elucidate the intricate mechanisms and interactions between host and gut microbiota of the flying squirrel digestive system, as well as other mammals with similar adaptations.

  9. Direct effects of fire on endangered Mount Graham red squirrels

    Treesearch

    John L. Koprowski; Katherine M. Leonard; Claire A. Zugmeyer; Julia L. Jolley

    2006-01-01

    Direct mortality of forest wildlife due to fire is rarely documented. In June and July 2004, the Nuttall Complex Fire burned 11,898 ha in the Pinaleno Mountains, southeastern Arizona. Portions of these mountains serve as the only habitat of endangered Mount Graham red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis). Survival of radio-collared red...

  10. Design of a ground-water-quality monitoring network for the Salinas River basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Showalter, P.K.; Akers, J.P.; Swain, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    A regional ground-water quality monitoring network for the entire Salinas River drainage basin was designed to meet the needs of the California State Water Resources Control Board. The project included phase 1--identifying monitoring networks that exist in the region; phase 2--collecting information about the wells in each network; and phase 3--studying the factors--such as geology, land use, hydrology, and geohydrology--that influence the ground-water quality, and designing a regional network. This report is the major product of phase 3. Based on the authors ' understanding of the ground-water-quality monitoring system and input from local offices, an ideal network was designed. The proposed network includes 317 wells and 8 stream-gaging stations. Because limited funds are available to implement the monitoring network, the proposed network is designed to correspond to the ideal network insofar as practicable, and is composed mainly of 214 wells that are already being monitored by a local agency. In areas where network wells are not available, arrangements will be made to add wells to local networks. The data collected by this network will be used to assess the ground-water quality of the entire Salinas River drainage basin. After 2 years of data are collected, the network will be evaluated to test whether it is meeting the network objectives. Subsequent network evaluations will be done very 5 years. (USGS)

  11. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Santa Clara River Valley Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montrella, Joseph; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 460-square-mile Santa Clara River Valley study unit (SCRV) was investigated from April to June 2007 as part of the statewide Priority Basin project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of the quality of raw ground water used for public water supplies within SCRV, and to facilitate a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Fifty-seven ground-water samples were collected from 53 wells in Ventura and Los Angeles Counties. Forty-two wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells). Eleven wells (understanding wells) were selected to further evaluate water chemistry in particular parts of the study area, and four depth-dependent ground-water samples were collected from one of the eleven understanding wells to help understand the relation between water chemistry and depth. The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, potential wastewater-indicator compounds, and pharmaceutical compounds), a constituent of special interest (perchlorate), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial constituents. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-13, carbon-14 [abundance], stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water, stable isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate, chlorine-37, and bromine-81), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source

  12. Polyamines in the lateral vestibular nuclei of the squirrel monkey and their potential role in vestibular compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henley, C.; Igarashi, M.

    1993-01-01

    Polyamine synthesis increases in response to injurious stimuli including axotomy and denervation. Reduced eye nystagmus and head-deviation have been observed in unilateral labyrinthectomized (UL) guinea pigs treated with an inhibitor of polyamine synthesis, alpha-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO). We quantified polyamines in the lateral vestibular nuclei (LVN) of control and UL squirrel monkeys during the phase of vestibular compensation (VC) and performed an experiment to determine if DFMO reduces nystagmus previously observed in the guinea pig. Polyamines were detected in the LVN of control and UL squirrel monkeys. Putrescine and spermidine increased in the ipsilateral LVN 3 days after UL with no change in the contralateral LVN. No left-right differences were noted in the 5-day post-UL monkey. DFMO reduced nystagmus in a UL squirrel monkey. These findings suggest that polyamines are important in vestibular function and may contribute to nystagmus observed in VC.

  13. 33 CFR 110.215 - Anaheim Bay Harbor, California; U.S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California; Naval...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California; Naval Explosives Anchorage. 110.215 Section 110... REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.215 Anaheim Bay Harbor, California; U.S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach... permission from the Commanding Officer, Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California. This officer will...

  14. 33 CFR 110.215 - Anaheim Bay Harbor, California; U.S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California; Naval...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California; Naval Explosives Anchorage. 110.215 Section 110... REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.215 Anaheim Bay Harbor, California; U.S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach... permission from the Commanding Officer, Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California. This officer will...

  15. 33 CFR 110.215 - Anaheim Bay Harbor, California; U.S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California; Naval...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California; Naval Explosives Anchorage. 110.215 Section 110... REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.215 Anaheim Bay Harbor, California; U.S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach... permission from the Commanding Officer, Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California. This officer will...

  16. 33 CFR 110.215 - Anaheim Bay Harbor, California; U.S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California; Naval...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California; Naval Explosives Anchorage. 110.215 Section 110... REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.215 Anaheim Bay Harbor, California; U.S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach... permission from the Commanding Officer, Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California. This officer will...

  17. 33 CFR 110.215 - Anaheim Bay Harbor, California; U.S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California; Naval...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California; Naval Explosives Anchorage. 110.215 Section 110... REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.215 Anaheim Bay Harbor, California; U.S. Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach... permission from the Commanding Officer, Naval Weapons Station, Seal Beach, California. This officer will...

  18. Reproducibility and Variation of Diffusion Measures in the Squirrel Monkey Brain, In Vivo and Ex Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, Kurt; Gao, Yurui; Stepniewska, Iwona; Choe, Ann S; Landman, Bennett A; Anderson, Adam W

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Animal models are needed to better understand the relationship between diffusion MRI (dMRI) and the underlying tissue microstructure. One promising model for validation studies is the common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus. This study aims to determine (1) the reproducibility of in vivo diffusion measures both within and between subjects; (2) the agreement between in vivo and ex vivo data acquired from the same specimen and (3) normal diffusion values and their variation across brain regions. Methods Data were acquired from three healthy squirrel monkeys, each imaged twice in vivo and once ex vivo. Reproducibility of fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and principal eigenvector (PEV) was assessed, and normal values were determined both in vivo and ex vivo. Results The calculated coefficients of variation (CVs) for both intra-subject and inter-subject MD were below 10% (low variability) while FA had a wider range of CVs, 2–14% intra-subject (moderate variability), and 3–31% inter-subject (high variability). MD in ex vivo tissue was lower than in vivo (30%–50% decrease), while FA values increased in all regions (30–39% increase). The mode of angular differences between in vivo and ex vivo PEVs was 12 degrees. Conclusion This study characterizes the diffusion properties of the squirrel monkey brain and serves as the groundwork for using the squirrel monkey, both in vivo and ex vivo, as a model for diffusion MRI studies. PMID:27587226

  19. Validation of DTI Tractography-Based Measures of Primary Motor Area Connectivity in the Squirrel Monkey Brain

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yurui; Choe, Ann S.; Stepniewska, Iwona; Li, Xia; Avison, Malcolm J.; Anderson, Adam W.

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography provides noninvasive measures of structural cortico-cortical connectivity of the brain. However, the agreement between DTI-tractography-based measures and histological ‘ground truth’ has not been quantified. In this study, we reconstructed the 3D density distribution maps (DDM) of fibers labeled with an anatomical tracer, biotinylated dextran amine (BDA), as well as DTI tractography-derived streamlines connecting the primary motor (M1) cortex to other cortical regions in the squirrel monkey brain. We evaluated the agreement in M1-cortical connectivity between the fibers labeled in the brain tissue and DTI streamlines on a regional and voxel-by-voxel basis. We found that DTI tractography is capable of providing inter-regional connectivity comparable to the neuroanatomical connectivity, but is less reliable measuring voxel-to-voxel variations within regions. PMID:24098365

  20. Potential for nest site competition between native and exotic tree squirrels

    Treesearch

    Andrew J. Edelman; John L. Koprowski; Sadie R. Bertelsen

    2009-01-01

    In communities where strong interspecific competition between native species is lacking, exotic and native species often exhibit intense resource competition resulting in decline of native populations. We examined the potential for interspecific competition for nest sites between co-occurring native Mt. Graham red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis...

  1. Potential for using the Upper Coachella Valley ground-water basin, California, for storage of artificially recharged water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mallory, Michael J.; Swain, Lindsay A.; Tyley, Stephen J.

    1980-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary evaluation of the geohydrologic factors affecting storage of water by artificial recharge in the upper Coachella Valley, Calif. The ground-water basin of the upper Coachella Valley seems to be geologically suitable for large-scale artificial recharge. A minimum of 900 ,000 acre-feet of water could probably be stored in the basin without raising basinwide water levels above those that existed in 1945. Preliminary tests indicate that a long-term artificial recharge rate of 5 feet per day may be feasible for spreading grounds in the basin if such factors as sediment and bacterial clogging can be controlled. The California Department of Water Resources, through the Future Water Supply Program, is investigating the use of ground-water basins for storage of State Water Project water in order to help meet maximum annual entitlements to water project contractors. (USGS)

  2. Ground-Water Quality Data in the San Francisco Bay Study Unit, 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ray, Mary C.; Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 620-square-mile San Francisco Bay study unit (SFBAY) was investigated from April through June 2007 as part of the Priority Basin project of the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples in SFBAY were collected from 79 wells in San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Alameda, and Contra Costa Counties. Forty-three of the wells sampled were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Thirty-six wells were sampled to aid in evaluation of specific water-quality issues (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOC], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate and N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, trace elements, chloride and bromide isotopes, and uranium and strontium isotopes), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14 isotopes, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, boron, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases (noble gases were analyzed in collaboration with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blank samples

  3. Estimated ground-water discharge by evapotranspiration from Death Valley, California, 1997-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeMeo, Guy A.; Laczniak, Randell J.; Boyd, Robert A.; Smith, J. LaRue; Nylund, Walter E.

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service and Inyo County, Calif., collected field data from 1997 through 2001 to accurately estimate the amount of annual ground-water discharge by evapotranspiration (ET) from the floor of Death Valley, California. Multispectral satellite-imagery and National Wetlands Inventory data are used to delineate evaporative ground-water discharge areas on the Death Valley floor. These areas are divided into five general units where ground-water discharge from ET is considered to be significant. Based upon similarities in soil type, soil moisture, vegetation type, and vegetation density; the ET units are salt-encrusted playa (21,287 acres), bare-soil playa (75,922 acres), low-density vegetation (6,625 acres), moderate-density vegetation (5,019 acres), and high-density vegetation (1,522 acres). Annual ET was computed for ET units with micrometeorological data which were continuously measured at six instrumented sites. Total ET was determined at sites that were chosen for their soil- and vegetated-surface conditions, which include salt-encrusted playa (extensive salt encrustation) 0.17 feet per year, bare-soil playa (silt and salt encrustation) 0.21 feet per year, pickleweed (pickleweed plants, low-density vegetation) 0.60 feet per year, Eagle Borax (arrowweed plants and salt grass, moderate-density vegetation) 1.99 feet per year, Mesquite Flat (mesquite trees, high-density vegetation) 2.86 feet per year, and Mesquite Flat mixed grasses (mixed meadow grasses, high-density vegetation) 3.90 feet per year. Precipitation, flooding, and ground-water discharge satisfy ET demand in Death Valley. Ground-water discharge is estimated by deducting local precipitation and flooding from cumulative ET estimates. Discharge rates from ET units were not estimated directly because the range of vegetation units far exceeded the five specific vegetation units that were measured. The rate of annual ground-water discharge by ET for

  4. Isolation and amino acid sequences of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciurea) insulin and glucagon

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yu, Jinghua; Eng, J.; Yalow, R.S.

    1990-12-01

    It was reported two decades ago that insulin was not detectable in the glucose-stimulated state in Saimiri sciurea, the New World squirrel monkey, by a radioimmunoassay system developed with guinea pig anti-pork insulin antibody and labeled park insulin. With the same system, reasonable levels were observed in rhesus monkeys and chimpanzees. This suggested that New World monkeys, like the New World hystricomorph rodents such as the guinea pig and the coypu, might have insulins whose sequences differ markedly from those of Old World mammals. In this report the authors describe the purification and amino acid sequences of squirrel monkey insulinmore » and glucagon. They demonstrate that the substitutions at B29, B27, A2, A4, and A17 of squirrel monkey insulin are identical with those previously found in another New World primate, the owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus). The immunologic cross-reactivity of this insulin in their immunoassay system is only a few percent of that of human insulin. It appears that the peptides of the New World monkeys have diverged less from those of the Old World mammals than have those of the New World hystricomorph rodents. The striking improvements in peptide purification and sequencing have the potential for adding new information concerning the evolutionary divergence of species.« less

  5. Effects of forest management on truffle abundance and squirrel diets.

    Treesearch

    A.B. Carey; W. Colgan; J.M. Trappe; R. Molina

    2002-01-01

    Thinning and retention of biological legacies (large live, dead, and fallen trees and their associated biota) during clearcutting are two practices to promote development of late-seral attributes in second-growth forests. We evaluated the effects of these practices on production of truffles and use of truffles as food by northern flying squirrels and Townsend’s...

  6. Sensorless speed detection of squirrel-cage induction machines using stator neutral point voltage harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovic, Goran; Kilic, Tomislav; Terzic, Bozo

    2009-04-01

    In this paper a sensorless speed detection method of induction squirrel-cage machines is presented. This method is based on frequency determination of the stator neutral point voltage primary slot harmonic, which is dependent on rotor speed. In order to prove method in steady state and dynamic conditions the simulation and experimental study was carried out. For theoretical investigation the mathematical model of squirrel cage induction machines, which takes into consideration actual geometry and windings layout, is used. Speed-related harmonics that arise from rotor slotting are analyzed using digital signal processing and DFT algorithm with Hanning window. The performance of the method is demonstrated over a wide range of load conditions.

  7. Ground-water discharge determined from estimates of evapotranspiration, Death Valley regional flow system, Nevada and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laczniak, Randell J.; Smith, J. LaRue; Elliott, Peggy E.; DeMeo, Guy A.; Chatigny, Melissa A.; Roemer, Gaius J.

    2001-01-01

    The Death Valley regional flow system (DVRFS) is one of the larger ground-water flow systems in the southwestern United States and includes much of southern Nevada and the Death Valley region of eastern California. Centrally located within the ground-water flow system is the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS, a large tract covering about 1,375 square miles, historically has been used for testing nuclear devices and currently is being studied as a potential repository for the long-term storage of high-level nuclear waste generated in the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy, as mandated by Federal and State regulators, is evaluating the risk associated with contaminants that have been or may be introduced into the subsurface as a consequence of any past or future activities at the NTS. Because subsurface contaminants can be transported away from the NTS by ground water, components of the ground-water budget are of great interest. One such component is regional ground-water discharge. Most of the ground water leaving the DVRFS is limited to local areas where geologic and hydrologic conditions force ground water upward toward the surface to discharge at springs and seeps. Available estimates of ground-water discharge are based primarily on early work done as part of regional reconnaissance studies. These early efforts covered large, geologically complex areas and often applied substantially different techniques to estimate ground-water discharge. This report describes the results of a study that provides more consistent, accurate, and scientifically defensible measures of regional ground-water losses from each of the major discharge areas of the DVRFS. Estimates of ground-water discharge presented in this report are based on a rigorous quantification of local evapotranspiration (ET). The study identifies areas of ongoing ground-water ET, delineates different ET areas based on similarities in vegetation and soil-moisture conditions, and determines an ET rate for

  8. Glide performance and aerodynamics of non-equilibrium glides in northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus)

    PubMed Central

    Bahlman, Joseph W.; Swartz, Sharon M.; Riskin, Daniel K.; Breuer, Kenneth S.

    2013-01-01

    Gliding is an efficient form of travel found in every major group of terrestrial vertebrates. Gliding is often modelled in equilibrium, where aerodynamic forces exactly balance body weight resulting in constant velocity. Although the equilibrium model is relevant for long-distance gliding, such as soaring by birds, it may not be realistic for shorter distances between trees. To understand the aerodynamics of inter-tree gliding, we used direct observation and mathematical modelling. We used videography (60–125 fps) to track and reconstruct the three-dimensional trajectories of northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) in nature. From their trajectories, we calculated velocities, aerodynamic forces and force coefficients. We determined that flying squirrels do not glide at equilibrium, and instead demonstrate continuously changing velocities, forces and force coefficients, and generate more lift than needed to balance body weight. We compared observed glide performance with mathematical simulations that use constant force coefficients, a characteristic of equilibrium glides. Simulations with varying force coefficients, such as those of live squirrels, demonstrated better whole-glide performance compared with the theoretical equilibrium state. Using results from both the observed glides and the simulation, we describe the mechanics and execution of inter-tree glides, and then discuss how gliding behaviour may relate to the evolution of flapping flight. PMID:23256188

  9. Glide performance and aerodynamics of non-equilibrium glides in northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus).

    PubMed

    Bahlman, Joseph W; Swartz, Sharon M; Riskin, Daniel K; Breuer, Kenneth S

    2013-03-06

    Gliding is an efficient form of travel found in every major group of terrestrial vertebrates. Gliding is often modelled in equilibrium, where aerodynamic forces exactly balance body weight resulting in constant velocity. Although the equilibrium model is relevant for long-distance gliding, such as soaring by birds, it may not be realistic for shorter distances between trees. To understand the aerodynamics of inter-tree gliding, we used direct observation and mathematical modelling. We used videography (60-125 fps) to track and reconstruct the three-dimensional trajectories of northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus) in nature. From their trajectories, we calculated velocities, aerodynamic forces and force coefficients. We determined that flying squirrels do not glide at equilibrium, and instead demonstrate continuously changing velocities, forces and force coefficients, and generate more lift than needed to balance body weight. We compared observed glide performance with mathematical simulations that use constant force coefficients, a characteristic of equilibrium glides. Simulations with varying force coefficients, such as those of live squirrels, demonstrated better whole-glide performance compared with the theoretical equilibrium state. Using results from both the observed glides and the simulation, we describe the mechanics and execution of inter-tree glides, and then discuss how gliding behaviour may relate to the evolution of flapping flight.

  10. Effects of ground-water chemistry and flow on quality of drainflow in the western San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fio, John L.; Leighton, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Chemical and geohydrologic data were used to assess the effects of regional ground-water flow on the quality of on-farm drainflows in a part of the western San Joaquin Valley, California. Shallow ground water beneath farm fields has been enriched in stable isotopes and salts by partial evaporation from the shallow water table and is being displaced by irrigation, drainage, and regional ground-water flow. Ground-water flow is primarily downward in the study area but can flow upward in some down- slope areas. Transitional areas exist between the downward and upward flow zones, where ground water can move substantial horizontal distances (0.3 to 3.6 kilometers) and can require 10 to 90 years to reach the downslope drainage systems. Simulation of ground-water flow to drainage systems indicates that regional ground water contributes to about 11 percent of annual drainflow. Selenium concentrations in ground water and drainwater are affected by geologic source materials, partial evaporation from a shallow water table, drainage-system, and regional ground-water flow. Temporal variability in drainflow quality is affected in part by the distribution of chemical constituents in ground water and the flow paths to the drainage systems. The mass flux of selenium in drainflows, or load, generally is proportional to flow, and reductions in drainflow quantity should reduce selenium loads over the short-term. Uncertain changes in the distribution of ground-water quality make future changes in drainflow quality difficult to quantify.

  11. Excavation of red squirrel middens by grizzly bears in the whitebark pine zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, D.J.; Reinhart, Daniel P.

    1997-01-01

    Whitebark pine seeds Pinus albicaulis are an important food of grizzly Ursus arctos horribilis bears wherever whitebark pine is abundant in the contiguous United States of America; availability of seeds affects the distribution of bears, and the level of conflict between bears and humans. Almost all of the seeds consumed by bears are excavated from middens where red squirrels Tamiasciurus hudsonicus have cached whitebark pine cones.Relationships among the occupancy of middens by squirrels, the excavation of middens by bears, and site features were investigated in this study. Data were collected from radio-marked bears and from middens located from line transects on two study sites in the Yellowstone ecosystem.Densities of active middens were positively related to lodgepole pine Pinus contorta basal area and negatively related to steepness of slope.The probability that a midden was occupied by a squirrel (i.e. active) was positively related to lodgepole pine basal area in the surrounding stand, size of the midden and size of the whitebark pine cone crop, and negatively related to elevation and to bear excavation during the previous 2-12 months.The probability that a midden had been excavated by a bear during the previous 12 months was positively related to size of the midden, and to whitebark pine basal area and cone crop, and negatively related to nearness of roads and town sites.The influence of midden size on bear use was attributable to a positive relationship with the number of excavated cones. The positive association between bear excavations and whitebark pine basal area or cone crops was attributable to availability of pine seeds.Grizzly bears would benefit from the minimization of roads and other human facilities in the whitebark pine zone and from increases in the availability of whitebark pine seeds, potentially achieved by increasing the numbers of cone-producing whitebark pine trees, especially in lower elevations of the whitebark pine zone where red

  12. Effects of near-UV radiation on the protein of the grey squirrel lens.

    PubMed

    Zigman, S; Paxhia, T; Waldron, W

    1988-06-01

    In vivo exposure of grey squirrels to 40W BLB illumination resulted in alterations in the state of the lens crystallins, mainly in the outer layer of the lens. HPLC revealed an increase of the void volume or crosslinked crystallins and an increase in peptides with molecular weights lower than 20,000 d. In vitro exposure of squirrel lens aqueous extracts to Woods lamp radiation (predominantly 365 nm) led to similar but more exaggerated changes as viewed by high performance liquid chromatography. When viewed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), soluble protein crosslinking was also observed. The near-UV absorbing chromophores of low molecular weight present in the lens served as photosensitizers that enhanced the protein changes. Sodium azide inhibited the changes, indicating a role for singlet oxygen in the crosslinking.

  13. Experimental manipulation of spatial heterogeneity in Douglas-fir forests: effects on squirrels.

    Treesearch

    A.B. Carey

    2001-01-01

    Squirrel communities simultaneously composed of abundant populations of Glaucomys, Tamias, and Tamiasciurus are: (1) a result of high production of seeds and fruiting bodies by forest plants and fungi and complexity of ecosystem structure, composition, and function; (2) indicative of high carrying capacity...

  14. Acorn Caching in Tree Squirrels: Teaching Hypothesis Testing in the Park

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEuen, Amy B.; Steele, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    We developed an exercise for a university-level ecology class that teaches hypothesis testing by examining acorn preferences and caching behavior of tree squirrels (Sciurus spp.). This exercise is easily modified to teach concepts of behavioral ecology for earlier grades, particularly high school, and provides students with a theoretical basis for…

  15. Den use and selection by northern flying squirrels in fragmented landscapes

    Treesearch

    Sanjay Pyare; Winston P. Smith; Colin S. Shanley

    2010-01-01

    We studied den use and den-habitat selection by the Prince of Wales Island flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus griseifrons) at multiple spatial scales in fragmented temperate rain-forest habitats because of the role dens play in the distribution, reproduction, and population density of this endemic subspecies. We observed differences in spatial...

  16. Ground-water quality data in the north San Francisco Bay hydrologic provinces, California, 2004: Results from the California Ground-water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Belitz, Kenneth; Dawson, Barbara J.

    2006-01-01

    compounds that may be indicative of the prescence of waste-water were detected in ground-water samples. Twenty-six percent of the randomized wells sampled for waste-water indicators had at least one detection. Isophorone was the most frequently detected in 6 of the 84 randomized wells. Bisphenol-A, caffeine, and indole each were detected in 3 of the 84 randomized wells. Major and minor ions and dissolved solids (DS) samples were collected at 33 public-supply wells; 3 samples had DS concentrations above the secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL) of 500 mg/L. Ground-water samples from 32 public-supply wells were analyzed for trace elements. Arsenic concentrations above the MCL of 10 μg/L were measured at 4 public-supply wells, boron concentrations above the detection level for the purpose of reporting (DLR) of 100 μg/L were measured at 19 wells. Iron concentrations above the SMCL of 300 μg/L were measured at 7 wells, a lead concentration above the California notification level (NL) of 15 μg/L at one well, and manganese concentrations above the SMCL of 50 μg/L were measured at 17 wells. Vanadium concentrations above the DLR of 3 μg/L were measured at 9 public-supply wells; and chromium(VI) concentrations above the DLR of 1 μg/L were measured at 48 public-supply wells. Major and minor ions and dissolved solids (DS) samples were collected at 33 public-supply wells; 3 samples had DS concentrations above the secondary maximum contaminant level (SMCL) of 500 mg/L. Ground-water samples from 32 public-supply wells were analyzed for trace elements. Arsenic concentrations above the MCL of 10 μg/L were measured at 4 public-supply wells, boron concentrations above the detection level for the purpose of reporting (DLR) of 100 μg/L were measured at 19 wells. Iron concentrations above the SMCL of 300 μg/L were measured at 7 wells, a lead concentration above the California notification level (NL) of 15 μg/L at one well, and manganese concentrations above the SMCL of 50

  17. Evolutionary Transformation of the Palmaris Longus Muscle in Flying Squirrels (Pteromyini: Sciuridae): An Anatomical Consideration of the Origin of the Uniquely Specialized Styliform Cartilage.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Tomokazu; Thorington, Richard W; Bohaska, Paula W; Sato, Fumi

    2017-02-01

    A long-standing issue in squirrel evolution and development is the origin of the styliform cartilage of flying squirrels, which extends laterally from the carpus to support the gliding membrane (patagium). Because the styliform cartilage is one of the uniquely specialized structures permitting gliding locomotion, the knowledge of its origin and surrounding transformation is key for understanding their aerodynamic evolution. The developmental study that would definitely answer this question would be difficult due to the rarity of embryological material. Instead, anatomical examinations have suggested two major hypotheses on the homology of the styliform cartilage: the pisiform bone of other mammals, or an additional carpal structure, such as the ulnar sesamoid of some of the other mammals or the hypothenar cartilage of the non-gliding squirrels. To test these hypotheses, a detailed examination of the anatomy of the carpus of gliding and non-gliding squirrels, and the colugo were undertaken. Based on physical and virtual dissections of the carpus, this study showed that both the pisiform bone and styliform cartilage were present in flying squirrels. This finding is further supported by demonstration that a "true Palmaris longus," with innervation typical for this muscle, inserts on the styliform cartilage. Taken together, our osteological, muscular, and neurological results suggest that the styliform cartilage was transformed in flying squirrels from an initially superficial and ulnar-derived anlagen into its current form. Anat Rec, 300:340-352, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Ground-water hydrology and water quality of Irwin Basin at Fort Irwin National Training Center, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, Jill N.; Londquist, Clark J.

    1997-01-01

    Geohydrologic data were collected from Irwin Basin at Fort Irwin National Training Center in the Mojave Desert of southern California by the U.S. Geological Survey during 199296 to deter mine the quantity and quality of ground water available in this basin. In addition to data collected from existing wells and test holes, 17 monitoring sites were constructed in Irwin Basin to provide data on subsurface geology, ground-water levels, and ground-water quality. Eleven of these sites were multiple-well monitoring sites that were constructed to provide depth-dependent geohydrologic data in the aquifer system. The aquifer system of Irwin Basin, defined on the basis of hydrologic data collected from wells in Irwin Basin, consists of an upper and a lower aquifer. A 1994 water-table contour map shows that a cone of depression beneath Irwin Basin well field has developed as a result of ground-water development. Water-quality samples collected from Irwin Basin wells to determine potential sources of ground-water degradation indicate that water in three areas in the basin contains high nitrate and dissolved-solids concentrations. The stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen indicate that present-day precipitation is not a major source of recharge in this basin. Tritium and carbon-14 data indicate that most of the basin was recharged before 1953 and that this water may be more than 14,000 years old.

  19. Selected Ground-Water Data for Yucca Mountain Region, Southern Nevada and Eastern California, January-December 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    La Camera, Richard J.; Locke, Glenn L.; Habte, Aron M.; Darnell, Jon G.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Repository Development, collects, compiles, and summarizes hydrologic data in the Yucca Mountain region of southern Nevada and eastern California. These data are collected to allow assessments of ground-water resources during activities to determine the potential suitability or development of Yucca Mountain for storing high-level nuclear waste. Data on ground-water levels at 35 boreholes and 1 fissure (Devils Hole), ground-water discharge at 5 springs, both ground-water levels and discharge at 1 flowing borehole, and total reported ground-water withdrawals within Crater Flat, Jackass Flats, Mercury Valley, and the Amargosa Desert are tabulated from January through December 2004. Also tabulated are ground-water levels, discharges, and withdrawals collected by other agencies (or collected as part of other programs) and data revised from those previously published at monitoring sites. Historical data on water levels, discharges, and withdrawals are presented graphically to indicate variations through time. A statistical summary of ground-water levels at seven boreholes in Jackass Flats is presented for the period 1992-2004 to indicate potential effects of ground-water withdrawals associated with U.S. Department of Energy activities near Yucca Mountain. The statistical summary includes the annual number of measurements, maximum, minimum, and median water-level altitudes, and average deviation of measured water-level altitudes compared to the 1992-93 baseline period. At six boreholes in Jackass Flats, median water levels for 2004 were slightly higher (0.3-2.7 feet) than their median water levels for 1992-93. At one borehole in Jackass Flats, median water level for 2004 equaled the median water level for 1992-93.

  20. Modeling and Demonstrating Regenerative Braking of a Squirrel Cage Induction Motor with Various Deceleration Rates Using V by F Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    DEMONSTRATING REGENERATIVE BRAKING OF A SQUIRREL CAGE INDUCTION MOTOR WITH VARIOUS DECELERATION RATES USING V BY F CONTROL by Billy J. Nytko...Regenerative Braking of a Squirrel Cage Induction Motor with Various Deceleration Rates Using V by F Control 6. AUTHOR(S) Billy J. Nytko 5. FUNDING...Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) to model regenerative braking to support energy conservation technologies and to improve the efficiencies within the

  1. Ground-Water Hydrology of the Upper Klamath Basin, Oregon and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannett, Marshall W.; Lite, Kenneth E.; La Marche, Jonathan L.; Fisher, Bruce J.; Polette, Danial J.

    2007-01-01

    The upper Klamath Basin spans the California-Oregon border from the flank of the Cascade Range eastward to the Basin and Range Province, and encompasses the Klamath River drainage basin above Iron Gate Dam. Most of the basin is semiarid, but the Cascade Range and uplands in the interior and eastern parts of the basin receive on average more than 30 inches of precipitation per year. The basin has several perennial streams with mean annual discharges of hundreds of cubic feet per second, and the Klamath River at Iron Gate Dam, which represents drainage from the entire upper basin, has a mean annual discharge of about 2,100 cubic feet per second. The basin once contained three large lakes: Upper and Lower Klamath Lakes and Tule Lake, each of which covered areas of 100 to 150 square miles, including extensive marginal wetlands. Lower Klamath Lake and Tule Lake have been mostly drained, and the former lake beds are now cultivated. Upper Klamath Lake remains, and is an important source of irrigation water. Much of the wetland surrounding Upper Klamath Lake has been diked and drained, although efforts are underway to restore large areas. Upper Klamath Lake and the remaining parts of Lower Klamath and Tule Lakes provide important wildlife habitat, and parts of each are included in the Klamath Basin National Wildlife Refuges Complex. The upper Klamath Basin has a substantial regional ground-water flow system. The late Tertiary to Quaternary volcanic rocks that underlie the region are generally permeable, with transmissivity estimates ranging from 1,000 to 100,000 feet squared per day, and compose a system of variously interconnected aquifers. Interbedded with the volcanic rocks are late Tertiary sedimentary rocks composed primarily of fine-grained lake sediments and basin-filling deposits. These sedimentary deposits have generally low permeability, are not good aquifers, and probably restrict ground-water movement in some areas. The regional ground-water system is underlain

  2. Simulation of ground-water/surface-water flow in the Santa Clara-Calleguas ground-water basin, Ventura County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, Randall T.; Martin, Peter; Koczot, Kathryn M.

    2003-01-01

    Ground water is the main source of water in the Santa Clara-Calleguas ground-water basin that covers about 310 square miles in Ventura County, California. A steady increase in the demand for surface- and ground-water resources since the late 1800s has resulted in streamflow depletion and ground-water overdraft. This steady increase in water use has resulted in seawater intrusion, inter-aquifer flow, land subsidence, and ground-water contamination. The Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin consists of multiple aquifers that are grouped into upper- and lower-aquifer systems. The upper-aquifer system includes the Shallow, Oxnard, and Mugu aquifers. The lower-aquifer system includes the upper and lower Hueneme, Fox Canyon, and Grimes Canyon aquifers. The layered aquifer systems are each bounded below by regional unconformities that are overlain by extensive basal coarse-grained layers that are the major pathways for ground-water production from wells and related seawater intrusion. The aquifer systems are bounded below and along mountain fronts by consolidated bedrock that forms a relatively impermeable boundary to ground-water flow. Numerous faults act as additional exterior and interior boundaries to ground-water flow. The aquifer systems extend offshore where they crop out along the edge of the submarine shelf and within the coastal submarine canyons. Submarine canyons have dissected these regional aquifers, providing a hydraulic connection to the ocean through the submarine outcrops of the aquifer systems. Coastal landward flow (seawater intrusion) occurs within both the upper- and lower-aquifer systems. A numerical ground-water flow model of the Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to better define the geohydrologic framework of the regional ground-water flow system and to help analyze the major problems affecting water-resources management of a typical coastal aquifer system. Construction of the Santa Clara-Calleguas Basin model required

  3. Influence of experimental history on nicotine self-administration in squirrel monkeys.

    PubMed

    Desai, Rajeev I; Sullivan, Katherine A; Kohut, Stephen J; Bergman, Jack

    2016-06-01

    Methods for establishing robust long-term self-administration of intravenous (i.v.) nicotine, the primary psychoactive agent in tobacco, are not well-established in laboratory animals. Here, we examine the use of a fading procedure to establish robust and consistent i.v. nicotine self-administration under second-order schedule conditions in squirrel monkeys. First, self-administration behavior was developed in two groups of male squirrel monkeys using a second-order fixed-interval 5-min schedule with fixed-ratio 5 units (FI 5-min (FR5: S)). Comparable performances were maintained by i.v. cocaine (0.032 mg/kg/injection (inj); group A, n = 3) and the combination of food delivery (20-30 % condensed milk) and 0.01 mg/kg/inj i.v. nicotine (group B, n = 3). Subsequently, the concentration of condensed milk was gradually reduced to zero in the second group and self-administration behavior was maintained by i.v. nicotine alone. Next, self-administration of a range of doses of i.v. nicotine (0.001-0.032 mg/kg/inj) and, in additional experiments, the minor tobacco alkaloid anatabine (0.01-0.18 mg/kg/inj) was studied in both groups. Results show that nicotine and anatabine had reinforcing effects in both groups. However, optimal doses of nicotine and anatabine maintained significantly higher rates of i.v. self-administration behavior in subjects trained with the fading procedure than in subjects provided with a history of cocaine-maintained responding. These results illustrate conditions under which robust i.v. nicotine self-administration can be established in squirrel monkeys and the influence of prior experimental history in the expression of reinforcing effects of nicotine and anatabine.

  4. Mapping of enkephalins and adrenocorticotropic hormone in the squirrel monkey brainstem.

    PubMed

    Duque-Díaz, Ewing; Díaz-Cabiale, Zaida; Narváez, José Angel; Coveñas, Rafael

    2017-03-01

    An immunocytochemical technique has been used to study for the first time the distribution of fibers and cell bodies containing leucine-enkephalin (leu-enk), methionine-enkephalin (met-enk) or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in the whole brainstem of the squirrel monkey Saimiri sciureus. Cell bodies containing leu-enk or met-enk were found in the superior colliculus and the formatio reticularis tegmenti mesencephali, respectively. No immunoreactive cell bodies containing ACTH were observed. Leu-enk-immunoreactive fibers were observed in 40 brainstem nuclei/tracts/regions, fibers containing met-enk were found in 38 brainstem nuclei/tracts/regions and fibers containing ACTH were found in 26 nuclei/tracts/regions. In the latter case, the density of immunoreactive fibers was always low. A high/moderate density of leu-enk- or met-enk-immunoreactive fibers were found in 18 and 16 brainstem nuclei/tracts/regions, respectively. The distribution of immunoreactive fibers containing leu-enk or met-enk was quite similar, with both leu-enk and met-enk observed in 82.5 % of the squirrel monkey brainstem nuclei/tracts/regions. This relationship is less marked for met-enk and ACTH (60.5 %) and even lower for leu-enk and ACTH (52.5 %). In 42.5 % of the nuclei/tracts/regions of the squirrel monkey brainstem (colliculus superior, substantia grisea centralis, nucleus interpeduncularis, nucleus tractus spinalis nervi trigemini, nucleus tractus solitarii, nucleus parabrachialis, formatio reticularis, substantia nigra), we observed fibers containing all three neuropeptides. The widespread distribution reported here suggests that enkephalins and ACTH can be involved in several physiological functions. The distribution of the immunoreactive fibers reported here is quite similar to that previously reported for enkephalins and ACTH in Macaca species and humans.

  5. Effect of Environmental Enrichment on Singly- and Group-Housed Squirrel Monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spring, Sarah E.; Clifford, James O.; Tomko, David L.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    Nonhuman primates display an interest in novel places, habituate to new situations, and spend most of their daily activity in the wild in large groups engaging in feeding behaviors. Captivity changes these behaviors, and disrupts normal social hierarchies. In captivity, animals may exhibit stereotypical behaviors which are thought to indicate decreased psychological well-being (PWB). If an animal's behaviors can be made to approach those seen in the wild, and stereotypical behaviors are minimal it is assumed that PWB is adequate. Environmental enrichment (EE) devices have been used to address the Animal Welfare Act's requirement that the PWB of captive nonhuman primates be considered. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether various EE devices improve the PWB of captive squirrel monkeys. The present study used behavioral observation to quantify the effectiveness of several EE devices in reducing stereotypical behaviors in squirrel monkeys housed singly or in groups. Results showed that the EE devices used did not affect the expression of normal or stereotypical behaviors, but that the type of housing did.

  6. Molecular Cloning of Pituitary Glycoprotein α-Subunit and Follicle Stimulating Hormone and Chorionic Gonadotropin β-Subunits from New World Squirrel Monkey and Owl Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Scammell, Jonathan G.; Funkhouser, Jane D.; Moyer, Felricia S.; Gibson, Susan V.; Willis, Donna L.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize the gonadotropins expressed in pituitary glands of the New World squirrel monkey (Saimiri sp.) and owl monkey (Aotus sp.). The various subunits were amplified from total RNA from squirrel monkey and owl monkey pituitary glands by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and the deduced amino acid sequences compared to those of other species. Mature squirrel monkey and owl monkey glycoprotein hormone α-polypeptides (96 amino acids in length) were determined to be 80% homologous to the human sequence. The sequences of mature β subunits of follicle stimulating hormone (FSHβ) from squirrel monkey and owl monkey (111 amino acids in length) are 92% homologous to human FSHβ. New World primate glycoprotein hormone α-polypeptides and FSHβ subunits showed conservation of all cysteine residues and consensus N-linked glycosylation sites. Attempts to amplify the β-subunit of luteinizing hormone from squirrel monkey and owl monkey pituitary glands were unsuccessful. Rather, the β-subunit of chorionic gonadotropin (CG) was amplified from pituitaries of both New World primates. Squirrel monkey and owl monkey CGβ are 143 and 144 amino acids in length and 77% homologous with human CGβ. The greatest divergence is in the C terminus, where all four sites for O-linked glycosylation in human CGβ, responsible for delayed metabolic clearance, are predicted to be absent in New World primate CGβs. It is likely that CG secreted from pituitary of New World primates exhibits a relatively short half-life compared to human CG. PMID:17897645

  7. Molecular cloning of pituitary glycoprotein alpha-subunit and follicle stimulating hormone and chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunits from New World squirrel monkey and owl monkey.

    PubMed

    Scammell, Jonathan G; Funkhouser, Jane D; Moyer, Felricia S; Gibson, Susan V; Willis, Donna L

    2008-02-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize the gonadotropins expressed in pituitary glands of the New World squirrel monkey (Saimiri sp.) and owl monkey (Aotus sp.). The various subunits were amplified from total RNA from squirrel monkey and owl monkey pituitary glands by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and the deduced amino acid sequences compared to those of other species. Mature squirrel monkey and owl monkey glycoprotein hormone alpha-polypeptides (96 amino acids in length) were determined to be 80% homologous to the human sequence. The sequences of mature beta subunits of follicle stimulating hormone (FSHbeta) from squirrel monkey and owl monkey (111 amino acids in length) are 92% homologous to human FSHbeta. New World primate glycoprotein hormone alpha-polypeptides and FSHbeta subunits showed conservation of all cysteine residues and consensus N-linked glycosylation sites. Attempts to amplify the beta-subunit of luteinizing hormone from squirrel monkey and owl monkey pituitary glands were unsuccessful. Rather, the beta-subunit of chorionic gonadotropin (CG) was amplified from pituitaries of both New World primates. Squirrel monkey and owl monkey CGbeta are 143 and 144 amino acids in length and 77% homologous with human CGbeta. The greatest divergence is in the C terminus, where all four sites for O-linked glycosylation in human CGbeta, responsible for delayed metabolic clearance, are predicted to be absent in New World primate CGbetas. It is likely that CG secreted from pituitary of New World primates exhibits a relatively short half-life compared to human CG.

  8. Live Site Demonstration Munitions Response Program Site UXO 01 at Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center (MCAGCC) Twentynine Palms, California

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    ground surface (bgs) and is composed of crystalline igneous and metamorphic rocks . The ranges are located on Cajon soils (Jacobs Engineering Group...Twentynine Palms, California ESTCP Project MR-201229 NOVEMBER 2015 Steve Stacy ARCADIS- US , Inc. Distribution Statement A REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE...geophysical classification (AGC) technologies for Munitions Response (MR). This demonstration was designed to evaluate the use of AGC methodology

  9. Integrating archaeology and ancient DNA analysis to address invasive species colonization in the Gulf of Alaska.

    PubMed

    West, Catherine; Hofman, Courtney A; Ebbert, Steve; Martin, John; Shirazi, Sabrina; Dunning, Samantha; Maldonado, Jesus E

    2017-10-01

    The intentional and unintentional movement of plants and animals by humans has transformed ecosystems and landscapes globally. Assessing when and how a species was introduced are central to managing these transformed landscapes, particularly in island environments. In the Gulf of Alaska, there is considerable interest in the history of mammal introductions and rehabilitating Gulf of Alaska island environments by eradicating mammals classified as invasive species. The Arctic ground squirrel (Urocitellus parryii) is of concern because it affects vegetation and seabirds on Gulf of Alaska islands. This animal is assumed to have been introduced by historic settlers; however, ground squirrel remains in the prehistoric archaeological record of Chirikof Island, Alaska, challenge this timeline and suggest they colonized the islands long ago. We used 3 lines of evidence to address this problem: direct radiocarbon dating of archaeological squirrel remains; evidence of prehistoric human use of squirrels; and ancient DNA analysis of dated squirrel remains. Chirikof squirrels dated to at least 2000 years ago, and cut marks on squirrel bones suggested prehistoric use by people. Ancient squirrels also shared a mitochondrial haplotype with modern Chirikof squirrels. These results suggest that squirrels have been on Chirikof longer than previously assumed and that the current population of squirrels is closely related to the ancient population. Thus, it appears ground squirrels are not a recent, human-mediated introduction and may have colonized the island via a natural dispersal event or an ancient human translocation. © 2016 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. Adaptive Management of Land Subsidence and Ground Fissuring in the Chino Groundwater Basin, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, A.; Rolfe, T.; Wildermuth, M.; Kavounas, P.

    2014-12-01

    The Chino Basin, located in southern California, is a large alluvial groundwater basin with storage in excess of five million acre-feet. The basin has a long history of groundwater development for various uses dating back to the early 1900s. As a result, piezometric heads declined basin-wide during the past century - in some areas by more than 200 feet. Declines of this magnitude typically cause irreversible aquifer-system compaction, which in turn results in subsidence at the ground surface. In portions of Chino Basin, land subsidence has been differential and accompanied by ground fissuring, which damaged existing infrastructure and poses concerns for new and existing development.Chino Basin Watermaster, the agency responsible for groundwater basin management, has recognized that land subsidence and ground fissuring should be minimized to the extent possible. At the same time, Watermaster is implementing aggressive groundwater-supply programs that include controlled overdraft and the possibility of causing head declines in areas prone to subsidence and fissuring. The groundwater-supply programs must also address the subsidence and fissuring phenomena.From 2001 to 2005, Watermaster conducted a technical investigation to characterize the extent, rate, and mechanisms of subsidence and fissuring. The investigation employed InSAR and ground-level surveying of benchmarks to monitor ground-surface deformation, and borehole extensometers and piezometric monitoring to establish the relationships between groundwater production, piezometric levels, and aquifer-system deformation. Based on the results of the investigation, Watermaster developed: (i) subsidence-management criteria for the areas experiencing acute subsidence and fissuring, and (ii) an adaptive management program to minimize the potential for future subsidence and fissuring across the entire Chino Basin. The science-based program includes ongoing monitoring, which now includes sophisticated fissure

  11. Late winter and early spring home range and habitat use of the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel in western North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ford, W. Mark; Kelly, Christine A.; Rodrigue, Jane L.; Odom, Richard H.; Newcomb, Douglas; Gilley, L. Michelle; Diggins, Corinne A.

    2014-01-01

    The Carolina northern flying squirrel Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus is an endangered subspecies that is restricted to high elevation forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Owing to rugged terrain and nocturnal habits, the subspecies’ natural history, home range characteristics and habitat preferences are poorly known. We radio-tracked 3 female and 2 male Carolina northern flying squirrels during late winter through spring 2012 in the Pisgah National Forest, North Carolina, USA. Tracked squirrels used 13 yellow birch Betula alleghaniensis and 9 red spruce Picea rubens as diurnal dens. Ten of the yellow birch dens were in cavities, whereas the remainders were dreys. Conversely, 8 of the red spruce dens were dreys and one was in a cavity. Mean (±SE) female 95 and 50% adaptive kernel home ranges were 6.50 ± 2.19 and 0.93 ± 0.33 ha, respectively, whereas the corresponding values for males were 12.6 ± 0.9 and 1.45 ± 0.1 ha, respectively. Squirrels used red spruce stands with canopies >20 m more than expected based on availability at the landscape and home range scales. Results should be interpreted cautiously because of small sample sizes and seasonal observations; however, they provide evidence that although northern hardwoods such as yellow birch are an important den habitat component, mature red spruce-dominated habitats with complex structure provide foraging habitats and are also den habitat. Our findings support efforts to improve the structural condition of extant red spruce forests and/or increase red spruce acreage to potentially benefit Carolina northern flying squirrels.

  12. California GAMA program: ground-water quality data in the San Diego drainages hydrogeologic province, California, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth; Burton, Carmen A.

    2005-01-01

    Because of concerns over ground-water quality, the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, has implemented the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. A primary objective of the program is to provide a current assessment of ground-water quality in areas where public supply wells are an important source of drinking water. The San Diego GAMA study unit was the first region of the state where an assessment of ground-water quality was implemented under the GAMA program. The San Diego GAMA study unit covers the entire San Diego Drainages hydrogeologic province, and is broken down into four distinct hydrogeologic study areas: the Temecula Valley study area, the Warner Valley study area, the Alluvial Basins study area, and the Hard Rock study area. A total of 58 ground-water samples were collected from public supply wells in the San Diego GAMA study unit: 19 wells were sampled in the Temecula Valley study area, 9 in the Warner Valley study area, 17 in the Alluvial Basins study area, and 13 in the Hard Rock study area. Over 350 chemical and microbial constituents and water-quality indicators were analyzed for in this study. However, only select wells were measured for all constituents and water-quality indicators. Results of analyses were calculated as detection frequencies by constituent classification and by individual constituents for the entire San Diego GAMA study unit and for the individual study areas. Additionally, concentrations of constituents that are routinely monitored were compared to maximum contaminant levels (MCL) and secondary maximum contaminant levels (SMCL). Concentrations of constituents classified as 'unregulated chemicals for which monitoring is required' (UCMR) were compared to the 'detection level for the purposes of reporting' (DLR). Eighteen of the 88 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and gasoline oxygenates

  13. Liquefaction and other ground failures in Imperial County, California, from the April 4, 2010, El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCrink, Timothy P.; Pridmore, Cynthia L.; Tinsley, John C.; Sickler, Robert R.; Brandenberg, Scott J.; Stewart, Jonathan P.

    2011-01-01

    The Colorado River Delta region of southern Imperial Valley, California, and Mexicali Valley, Baja California, is a tectonically dynamic area characterized by numerous active faults and frequent large seismic events. Significant earthquakes that have been accompanied by surface fault rupture and/or soil liquefaction occurred in this region in 1892 (M7.1), 1915 (M6.3; M7.1), 1930 (M5.7), 1940 (M6.9), 1950 (M5.4), 1957 (M5.2), 1968 (6.5), 1979 (6.4), 1980 (M6.1), 1981 (M5.8), and 1987 (M6.2; M6.8). Following this trend, the M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake of April 4, 2010, ruptured approximately 120 kilometers along several known faults in Baja California. Liquefaction caused by the M7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake was widespread throughout the southern Imperial Valley but concentrated in the southwest corner of the valley, southwest of the city centers of Calexico and El Centro where ground motions were highest. Although there are few strong motion recordings in the very western part of the area, the recordings that do exist indicate that ground motions were on the order of 0.3 to 0.6g where the majority of liquefaction occurrences were found. More distant liquefaction occurrences, at Fites Road southwest of Brawley and along Rosita Canal northwest of Holtville were triggered where ground motions were about 0.2 g. Damage to roads was associated mainly with liquefaction of sandy river deposits beneath bridge approach fills, and in some cases liquefaction within the fills. Liquefaction damage to canal and drain levees was not always accompanied by vented sand, but the nature of the damage leads the authors to infer that liquefaction was involved in the majority of observed cases. Liquefaction-related damage to several public facilities - Calexico Waste Water Treatment Plant, Fig Lagoon levee system, and Sunbeam Lake Dam in particular - appears to be extensive. The cost to repair these facilities to prevent future liquefaction damage will likely be prohibitive. As

  14. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Central Eastside San Joaquin Basin 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landon, Matthew K.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,695-square-mile Central Eastside study unit (CESJO) was investigated from March through June 2006 as part of the Statewide Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Statewide Basin Assessment project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within CESJO, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 78 wells in Merced and Stanislaus Counties. Fifty-eight of the 78 wells were selected using a randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Twenty of the wells were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry along selected lateral or vertical ground-water flow paths in the aquifer (flow-path wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), gasoline oxygenates and their degradates, pesticides and pesticide degradates], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)], inorganic constituents that can occur naturally [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, carbon-14, and uranium isotopes and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon], and dissolved noble and other gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, samples for matrix spikes) were collected

  15. Assessment of shallow ground-water quality in recently urbanized areas of Sacramento, California, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence for anthropogenic impact on shallow ground-water quality beneath recently developed urban areas of Sacramento, California, has been observed in the sampling results from 19 monitoring wells in 1998. Eight volatile organic compounds (VOCs), four pesticides, and one pesticide transformation product were detected in low concentrations, and nitrate, as nitrogen, was detected in elevated concentrations; all of these concentrations were below National and State primary and secondary maximum contaminant levels. VOC results from this study are more consistent with the results from urban areas nationwide than from agricultural areas in the Central Valley, indicating that shallow ground-water quality has been impacted by urbanization. VOCs detected may be attributed to either the chlorination of drinking water, such as trichloromethane (chloroform) detected in 16 samples, or to the use of gasoline additives, such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), detected in 2 samples. Pesticides detected may be attributed to use on household lawns and gardens and rights-of-way, such as atrazine detected in three samples, or to past agricultural practices, and potentially to ground-water/surface-water interactions, such as bentazon detected in one sample from a well adjacent to the Sacramento River and downstream from where bentazon historically was used on rice. Concentrations of nitrate may be attributed to natural sources, animal waste, old septic tanks, and fertilizers used on lawns and gardens or previously used on agricultural crops. Seven sample concentrations of nitrate, as nitrogen, exceeded 3.0 milligrams per liter, a level that may indicate impact from human activities. Ground-water recharge from rainfall or surface-water runoff also may contribute to the concentrations of VOCs and pesticides observed in ground water. Most VOCs and pesticides detected in ground-water samples also were detected in air and surface-water samples collected at sites within or adjacent to the

  16. Segregating the Effects of Seed Traits and Common Ancestry of Hardwood Trees on Eastern Gray Squirrel Foraging Decisions.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Mekala; Willoughby, Janna R; Lichti, Nathanael I; Steele, Michael A; Swihart, Robert K

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of specific seed traits in scatter-hoarded tree species often has been attributed to granivore foraging behavior. However, the degree to which foraging investments and seed traits correlate with phylogenetic relationships among trees remains unexplored. We presented seeds of 23 different hardwood tree species (families Betulaceae, Fagaceae, Juglandaceae) to eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), and measured the time and distance travelled by squirrels that consumed or cached each seed. We estimated 11 physical and chemical seed traits for each species, and the phylogenetic relationships between the 23 hardwood trees. Variance partitioning revealed that considerable variation in foraging investment was attributable to seed traits alone (27-73%), and combined effects of seed traits and phylogeny of hardwood trees (5-55%). A phylogenetic PCA (pPCA) on seed traits and tree phylogeny resulted in 2 "global" axes of traits that were phylogenetically autocorrelated at the family and genus level and a third "local" axis in which traits were not phylogenetically autocorrelated. Collectively, these axes explained 30-76% of the variation in squirrel foraging investments. The first global pPCA axis, which produced large scores for seed species with thin shells, low lipid and high carbohydrate content, was negatively related to time to consume and cache seeds and travel distance to cache. The second global pPCA axis, which produced large scores for seeds with high protein, low tannin and low dormancy levels, was an important predictor of consumption time only. The local pPCA axis primarily reflected kernel mass. Although it explained only 12% of the variation in trait space and was not autocorrelated among phylogenetic clades, the local axis was related to all four squirrel foraging investments. Squirrel foraging behaviors are influenced by a combination of phylogenetically conserved and more evolutionarily labile seed traits that is consistent with a weak

  17. Hydraulic and mechanical properties affecting ground-water flow and aquifer-system compaction, San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sneed, Michelle

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes hydraulic and mechanical properties affecting ground-water flow and aquifer-system compaction in the San Joaquin Valley, a broad alluviated intermontane structural trough that constitutes the southern two-thirds of the Central Valley of California. These values will be used to constrain a coupled ground-water flow and aquifer-system compaction model of the western San Joaquin Valley called WESTSIM. A main objective of the WESTSIM model is to evaluate potential future land subsidence that might occur under conditions in which deliveries of imported surface water for agricultural use are reduced and ground-water pumping is increased. Storage values generally are components of the total aquifer-system storage and include inelastic and elastic skeletal storage values of the aquifers and the aquitards that primarily govern the potential amount of land subsidence. Vertical hydraulic conductivity values generally are for discrete thicknesses of sediments, usually aquitards, that primarily govern the rate of land subsidence. The data were compiled from published sources and include results of aquifer tests, stress-strain analyses of borehole extensometer observations, laboratory consolidation tests, and calibrated models of aquifer-system compaction.

  18. Regional nitrate and pesticide trends in ground water in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burow, K.R.; Shelton, James L.; Dubrovsky, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    Protection of ground water for present and future use requires monitoring and understanding of the mechanisms controlling long-term quality of ground water. In this study, spatial and temporal trends in concentrations of nitrate and pesticides in ground water in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, California, were evaluated to determine the long-term effects of agricultural and urban development on regional ground-water quality. Trends in concentrations of nitrate, the nematocide 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, and the herbicide simazine during the last two decades are generally consistent with known nitrogen fertilizer and pesticide use and with the position of the well networks in the regional ground-water flow system. Concentrations of nitrate and pesticides are higher in the shallow part of the aquifer system where domestic wells are typically screened, whereas concentrations are lower in the deep part of the aquifer system where public-supply wells are typically screened. Attenuation processes do not seem to significantly affect concentrations. Historical data indicate that concentrations of nitrate have increased since the 1950s in the shallow and deep parts of the aquifer system. Concentrations of nitrate and detection of pesticides in the deep part of the aquifer system will likely increase as the proportion of highly affected water contributed to these wells increases with time. Because of the time of travel between the water table and the deep part of the aquifer system, current concentrations in public-supply wells likely reflect the effects of 40- to 50-yr-old management practices. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  19. An Experimental Test of Competition among Mice, Chipmunks, and Squirrels in Deciduous Forest Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, Jesse L.; Duerr, Shannon; Keesing, Felicia; Killilea, Mary; Vuong, Holly; Ostfeld, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed hardwood forests of the northeast United States support a guild of granivorous/omnivorous rodents including gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus), and white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus). These species coincide geographically, co-occur locally, and consume similar food resources. Despite their idiosyncratic responses to landscape and patch variables, patch occupancy models suggest that competition may influence their respective distributions and abundances, and accordingly their influence on the rest of the forest community. Experimental studies, however, are wanting. We present the result of a large-scale experiment in which we removed white-footed mice or gray squirrels from small, isolated forest fragments in Dutchess County, New York, and added these mammals to other fragments in order to alter the abundance of these two species. We then used mark–recapture analyses to quantify the population-level and individual-level effects on resident mice, squirrels, and chipmunks. Overall, we found little evidence of competition. There were essentially no within-season numerical responses to changes in the abundance of putative competitors. Moreover, while individual-level responses (apparent survival and capture probability) did vary with competitor densities in some models, these effects were often better explained by site-specific parameters and were restricted to few of the 19 sites we studied. With only weak or nonexistent competition among these three common rodent species, we expect their patterns of habitat occupancy and population dynamics to be largely independent of one another. PMID:23824654

  20. Use of the feed additive sodium hexametaphosphate to prevent dental calculus in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.).

    PubMed

    Brady, A G; Williams, L E; Haught, D; Abee, C R

    2000-03-01

    Dental calculus and associated periodontal disease are serious clinical problems in captive squirrel monkeys. Calculus begins to appear as early as 2 years of age, with subsequent development of periodontal disease, dental abscessation, tooth loss and other sequelae. When used as a feed additive, sodium hexametaphosphate (HMP) retards the growth of calculus on previously cleaned teeth in rhesus monkeys, lemurs, and other species. We wanted to determine whether HMP would reduce dental calculus in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.) whose teeth had not been pre-cleaned. The study animals were divided into two groups. One received a standard diet; the other received an identical diet containing the HMP additive at a concentration effective in other primate and non-primate species that had received dental cleaning prior to treatment with HMP. Teeth were graded for extent of calculus formation at the start of the study and at 3 and 6 months during HMP treatment. We compared the results from the two groups both by total score per animal and according to tooth type (e.g., incisors versus incisors in test and control groups). At the end of 6 months, dental calculus did not differ significantly between the experimental groups. Therefore, we conclude that HMP is ineffective in squirrel monkeys with preexisting dental calculus.

  1. More California-poppy in stubble field than in old field

    Treesearch

    Raymond D. Ratliff; Stanley E. Westfall; Richard W. Robarts

    1972-01-01

    The density and flowering of California-poppy (Eschscholzia californica var. peninsularis Green), amount of bare ground, and occurrence of other plants were studied in an old field and a stubble field near Madera, California. The stubble field had more poppy plants per unit of area, more plants flowering, and more bare ground than...

  2. Whitebark pine, grizzly bears, and red squirrels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattson, David J.; Kendall, Katherine C.; Reinhart, Daniel P.; Tomback, Diana F.; Arno, Stephen F.; Keane, Robert E.

    2001-01-01

    Appropriately enough, much of this book is devoted to discussing management challenges and techniques. However, the impetus for action—the desire to save whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) - necessarily arises from the extent to which we cherish it for its beauty and its connections with other things that we value. Whitebark pine is at the hub of a fascinating web of relationships. It is the stuff of great stories (cf. Quammen 1994). One of the more interesting of these stories pertains to the dependence of certain grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) populations on its seeds, and the role that red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) play as an agent of transfer between tree and bear.

  3. Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1987. Volume 5. Ground-water Data for California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamb, C.E.; Fogelman, R.P.; Grillo, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1987 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 5 contains water levels for 786 observation wells and water-quality data for 168 observation wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  4. Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1986. Volume 5. Ground-Water Data for California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamb, C.E.; Keeter, G.L.; Grillo, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1986 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 5 contains water levels for 765 observation wells and water-quality data for 174 observation wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  5. Social Behavior in Interacting Squirrel Monkeys with Differential Nutritional and Environmental Histories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Patricia F.

    This paper reports an observational study of the effects of handling on the social behavior of squirrel monkeys who received a protein deficient diet. After birth, experimental animals received a low-protein diet for a 6-week period. A subgroup of these animals were handled between 3 and 12 weeks of age. All of the animals interacted (in four…

  6. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Owens and Indian Wells Valleys Study Unit, 2006: Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, Jill N.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,630 square-mile Owens and Indian Wells Valleys study unit (OWENS) was investigated in September-December 2006 as part of the Priority Basin Project of Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Owens and Indian Wells Valleys study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within OWENS study unit, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 74 wells in Inyo, Kern, Mono, and San Bernardino Counties. Fifty-three of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and 21 wells were selected to evaluate changes in water chemistry in areas of interest (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater- indicator compounds], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and 1,2,3- trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP)], naturally occurring inorganic constituents [nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements], radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes [tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water], and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. This study evaluated the quality of raw ground water in the aquifer in the OWENS study unit and did not attempt to evaluate the quality of treated water

  7. Characterization of the SIRT family of NAD+-dependent protein deacetylases in the context of a mammalian model of hibernation, the thirteen-lined ground squirrel.

    PubMed

    Rouble, Andrew N; Storey, Kenneth B

    2015-10-01

    Hibernating mammals employ strong metabolic rate depression to survive the winter, thereby avoiding the high energy costs of maintaining a euthermic lifestyle in the face of low seasonal temperatures and limited food resources. Characteristics of this natural torpor include a significant reduction in body temperature, a shift to a lipid-based metabolism, global suppression of ATP-expensive activities, and the upregulation of selected genes that mediate biochemical reorganization and cytoprotection. Sirtuin (SIRT) proteins, an evolutionarily conserved family of NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases, have been shown to play important roles in the post-translational regulation of many metabolic and cytoprotective processes, suggesting a potential function for these enzymes in the control of hibernation. To assess this possibility, protein levels of the seven mammalian SIRTs (SIRT1, SIRT2, SIRT3, SIRT4, SIRT5, SIRT6 and SIRT7), total SIRT activity, and the acetylation status of two downstream SIRT targets (SOD2K68 and NF-κB p65K310) were measured in skeletal muscle, liver, brown adipose and white adipose tissues of the hibernating thirteen-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) over the course of the torpor-arousal cycle. The analysis revealed tissue-specific responses of different SIRTs at various points throughout hibernation, including a potentially interesting correlation between increased levels of SIRT3 protein, heightened total SIRT activity, and decreased acetylation of SIRT3 downstream target SOD2K68 in skeletal muscle during late torpor. These results provide evidence to suggest a possible role for the SIRT family of protein deacetylases in the regulation of the metabolic and cellular protective pathways that mediate the process of mammalian hibernation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ground-Water Quality Data in the San Fernando-San Gabriel Study Unit, 2005 - Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 460 square mile San Fernando-San Gabriel study unit (SFSG) was investigated between May and July 2005 as part of the Priority Basin Assessment Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin Assessment Project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The San Fernando-San Gabriel study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within SFSG, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 52 wells in Los Angeles County. Thirty-five of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study area (grid wells), and seventeen wells were selected to aid in the evaluation of specific water-quality issues or changes in water chemistry along a historic ground-water flow path (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of synthetic organic constituents [volatile organic compounds (VOCs), pesticides and pesticide degradates], constituents of special interest [perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), 1,2,3-trichloropropane (1,2,3-TCP), and 1,4-dioxane], naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, and carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon), and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify the source and age of the sampled ground water. Quality-control samples (blanks, replicates, samples for matrix spikes) were collected at approximately one-fifth (11 of 52) of the wells, and the results for these

  9. Dissecting the mechanisms of squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis) social learning

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, AN; Williams, LE; Brosnan, SF

    2013-01-01

    Although the social learning abilities of monkeys have been well documented, this research has only focused on a few species. Furthermore, of those that also incorporated dissections of social learning mechanisms, the majority studied either capuchins (Cebus apella) or marmosets (Callithrix jacchus). To gain a broader understanding of how monkeys gain new skills, we tested squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis) which have never been studied in tests of social learning mechanisms. To determine whether S. boliviensis can socially learn, we ran “open diffusion” tests with monkeys housed in two social groups (N = 23). Over the course of 10 20-min sessions, the monkeys in each group observed a trained group member retrieving a mealworm from a bidirectional task (the “Slide-box”). Two thirds (67%) of these monkeys both learned how to operate the Slide-box and they also moved the door significantly more times in the direction modeled by the trained demonstrator than the alternative direction. To tease apart the underlying social learning mechanisms we ran a series of three control conditions with 35 squirrel monkeys that had no previous experience with the Slide-box. The first replicated the experimental open diffusion sessions but without the inclusion of a trained model, the second was a no-information control with dyads of monkeys, and the third was a ‘ghost’ display shown to individual monkeys. The first two controls tested for the importance of social support (mere presence effect) and the ghost display showed the affordances of the task to the monkeys. The monkeys showed a certain level of success in the group control (54% of subjects solved the task on one or more occasions) and paired controls (28% were successful) but none were successful in the ghost control. We propose that the squirrel monkeys’ learning, observed in the experimental open diffusion tests, can be best described by a combination of social learning mechanisms in concert; in this

  10. Food Avoidance Learning in Squirrel Monkeys and Common Marmosets

    PubMed Central

    Laska, Matthias; Metzker, Karin

    1998-01-01

    Using a conditioned food avoidance learning paradigm, six squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) and six common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) were tested for their ability to (1) reliably form associations between visual or olfactory cues of a potential food and its palatability and (2) remember such associations over prolonged periods of time. We found (1) that at the group level both species showed one-trial learning with the visual cues color and shape, whereas only the marmosets were able to do so with the olfactory cue, (2) that all individuals from both species learned to reliably avoid the unpalatable food items within 10 trials, (3) a tendency in both species for quicker acquisition of the association with the visual cues compared with the olfactory cue, (4) a tendency for quicker acquisition and higher reliability of the aversion by the marmosets compared with the squirrel monkeys, and (5) that all individuals from both species were able to reliably remember the significance of the visual cues, color and shape, even after 4 months, whereas only the marmosets showed retention of the significance of the olfactory cues for up to 4 weeks. Furthermore, the results suggest that in both species tested, illness is not a necessary prerequisite for food avoidance learning but that the presumably innate rejection responses toward highly concentrated but nontoxic bitter and sour tastants are sufficient to induce robust learning and retention. PMID:10454364

  11. Sylvatic typhus associated with flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) in New York State, United States.

    PubMed

    Prusinski, Melissa A; White, Jennifer L; Wong, Susan J; Conlon, Maureen A; Egan, Christina; Kelly-Cirino, Cassandra D; Laniewicz, Brian R; Backenson, P Bryon; Nicholson, William L; Eremeeva, Marina E; Karpathy, Sandor E; Dasch, Gregory A; White, Dennis J

    2014-04-01

    Sylvatic typhus is an infrequent, potentially life-threatening emerging zoonotic disease. In January of 2009, the New York State Department of Health was notified of a familial cluster of two suspected cases. Due to the paucity of typhus cases in New York, epidemiologic and environmental investigations were conducted to establish rickettsial etiology and determine potential sources of infection. Patients presented with symptoms consistent with typhus, and serologic testing of each patient confirmed infection with typhus group rickettsiae. Serologic analysis of blood obtained from southern flying squirrels (Glaucomys volans) captured from the attic crawlspace above an enclosed front porch of the cases' residence indicated evidence of infection with Rickettsia prowazekii, with 100% seroprevalence (n=11). Both patients reported spending significant time on the porch and hearing animal activity above the ceiling prior to onset of illness, implicating these flying squirrels as the likely source of infection.

  12. Water Resources Data for California, Water Year 1988. Volume 5. Ground-Water Data for California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamb, C.E.; Fogelman, R.P.; Grillo, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1988 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water-quality in wells. Volume 5 contains water levels for 980 observation wells and water-quality data for 239 observation monitoring wells. These data represent that part of the National water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  13. Red-cockaded woodpecker nesting success, forest structure, and southern flying squirrels in Texas

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Daniel Saenz; Richard R. Schaefer

    1996-01-01

    For several decades general opinion has suggested that southern flying squirrels (Gluucomys volans) have a negative effect on Red-cockaded Woodpeckers (Picoides borealis) through competition for cavities and egg/nestling predation. Complete removal of hardwood trees from Red-cockaded Woodpecker cavity tree clusters has occurred on some forests because southern flying...

  14. Observations of northern flying squirrel feeding behavior: use of non-truffle food items.

    Treesearch

    D.R. Thysell; L.J. Villa; A.B. Carey

    1997-01-01

    In the Pacific Northwest, the northern flying squirrel, Glaucomys sabrinus, sumes sporocarps of a wide variety of hypogeous mycorrhizal fungi(truffles). Numerous other foods are also consumed but are not well characterized by fecal pellet analysis either because they are more fully digested (seeds, nuts, fruits, vegetation) or because of the...

  15. Antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus sp. isolated from the vaginal environment of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.) bred ex situ.

    PubMed

    Donato, Anna C J; Penna, Bruno; Consalter, Angélica; Carvalho, Daniela D; Lilenbaum, Walter; Ferreira, Ana M R

    2017-06-01

    Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.) have been widely used as animal models; however, the occurrence of Staphylococcus sp in their vaginal microbiota remains to be described. Samples were collected from 175 adult squirrel monkeys to isolate Staphylococcus sp and to test for susceptibility to a panel of nine antimicrobial agents. Isolates with characteristics of the genus Staphylococcus were detected in 95 of 175 samples. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) were the most common (95.8%, 91/95) isolates. Resistance to antibiotics was observed in 47.3% (45/95) of isolates. Resistance to tetracycline was observed in 28.5% (26/91), chloramphenicol in 15.4% (14/91), and methicillin in 13.2% (12/91) of CoNS. Coagulase-positive staphylococci were resistant to tetracycline, erythromycin, and methicillin. The presence of Staphylococcus sp in vaginal samples obtained from squirrel monkeys suggests that these animals were in a carrier state. Furthermore, isolating strains resistant to methicillin reinforces the biosafety care of a colony. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Evaluation of immunocontraception as a publicly acceptable form of vertebrate pest species control: the introduced grey squirrel in Britain as an example.

    PubMed

    Lurz, Peter W W; Shirley, Mark D F; Shirley, Mark D F; Rushton, Steve P

    2002-09-01

    We sent out a targeted questionnaire to organizations and private individuals across the UK that have expressed an interest in squirrel management and conservation. Respondents were asked to evaluate shooting, trapping, poisoning and immunocontraception (IMC), according to their perceived efficacy, cost efficiency, and whether they were considered to be humane. The majority of both professionals and enthusiasts indicated support for grey squirrel control to help conserve red squirrels and to reduce economic damage to timber crops. Respondents\\' comparative evaluations of current forms of control showed that trapping is the most acceptable method. When IMC is compared with the other methods, it was considered to be more humane and acceptable. In contrast, poisoning was seen as humane or acceptable by the fewest respondents. Furthermore, poisoning elicited the greatest difference in opinion between the professional and enthusiast groups. This difference (34\\%) may be interpreted partly as concern over the type of death that results from poisoning and partly as due to the possibility of poisoning nontarget species. Our findings indicate a need for more public information regarding secondary poisoning hazards to other species and their predators. Interest and concern about squirrel control correlated with the overlap between contemporary areas of distribution of the two species. It is these areas where consultation and education programs about control methods should be targeted. This research indicates that there would be support for grey squirrel control using IMC from both lay and professional interest groups. It demonstrates the existence of a sound basis for constructive dialog that can lead to the design and implementation of acceptable and efficient control strategies.

  17. Evaluation of Immunocontraception as a Publicly Acceptable Form of Vertebrate Pest Species Control: The Introduced Grey Squirrel in Britain as an Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Julian J. F.; Lurz, Peter W. W.; Shirley, Mark D. F.; Rushton, Steve P.

    2002-09-01

    We sent out a targeted questionnaire to organizations and private individuals across the UK that have expressed an interest in squirrel management and conservation. Respondents were asked to evaluate shooting, trapping, poisoning and immunocontraception (IMC), according to their perceived efficacy, cost efficiency, and whether they were considered to be humane. The majority of both professionals and enthusiasts indicated support for grey squirrel control to help conserve red squirrels and to reduce economic damage to timber crops. Respondents' comparative evaluations of current forms of control showed that trapping is the most acceptable method. When IMC is compared with the other methods, it was considered to be more humane and acceptable. In contrast, poisoning was seen as humane or acceptable by the fewest respondents. Furthermore, poisoning elicited the greatest difference in opinion between the professional and enthusiast groups. This difference (34%) may be interpreted partly as concern over the type of death that results from poisoning and partly as due to the possibility of poisoning nontarget species. Our findings indicate a need for more public information regarding secondary poisoning hazards to other species and their predators. Interest and concern about squirrel control correlated with the overlap between contemporary areas of distribution of the two species. It is these areas where consultation and education programs about control methods should be targeted. This research indicates that there would be support for grey squirrel control using IMC from both lay and professional interest groups. It demonstrates the existence of a sound basis for constructive dialog that can lead to the design and implementation of acceptable and efficient control strategies.

  18. Possible effects of drilling operations in Section 6D, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2, Kern County, California on the endangered San Joaquin kit fox, blunt-nosed leopard lizard, and other sensitive species

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    O'Farrell, T.P.; Kato, T.

    1982-12-01

    Getty Oil Company requested permission from the US Department of Energy to drill 10 petroleum wells and one water disposal well in Section 6D, Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2, Kern County, California, which is thought to provide habitat for the endangered San Joaquin kit fox and blunt-nosed leopard lizard, and two sensitive species: the giant kangaroo rat and San Joaquin antelope ground squirrel. The objective of this study was to assess the possible impacts of development drilling on these species and their essential habitats. Most of the proposed wells will be located on or near existing well pads; therefore, onlymore » 2 hectares of potential habitat will be disturbed. Although 21 kit fox dens were found, none were closer than 10 m from proposed well pads, and most were more than 40 m away. No evidence of either the blunt-nosed leopard lizard or giant kangaroo rat was gathered. Ten San Joaquin antelope ground squirrels were observed. Although 2 hectares of habitat will be disturbed, there is no evidence to indicate that any of the species has burrows that will be lost during landclearing. Loss of vegetation may have some small, unknown impacts on food supplies for species preyed upon by kit fox and blunt-nosed leopard lizards, but the disturbed vegetation represents a small fraction of the food supplies available in the surrounding habitat. Because the project poses few threats to individuals of the endangered or sensitive species surveyed, it was concluded that completion of the drilling is unlikely to jeopardize the continued existence of any of the species or their essential habitats if: (1) present kit fox dens are protected during construction activities, (2) topsoil removed during land-levelling is used to reclaim past disturbances of the habitat, and (3) artificial kit fox dens are installed to compensate for the possible loss of denning sites.« less

  19. Microhabitat selection of the Virginia Northern Flying Squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus Miller) in the central Appalachians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diggins, Corinne A.; Ford, W. Mark

    2017-01-01

    Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus (Virginia Northern Flying Squirrel; VNFS) is a rare Sciurid that occurrs in the Allegheny Mountains of eastern West Virginia and northwest Virginia. Previous work on this subspecies has confirmed close associations with Picea rubens (Red Spruce) at the landscape and stand levels in the region. However, ongoing Red Spruce restoration actions using canopy-gap creation to release single or small groups of trees requires a better understanding of within-stand habitat selection of VNFS to assess potential short- and medium-term impacts. To address these questions, we conducted a microhabitat study using radio-collared squirrels in montane conifer and mixed conifer—hardwood stands. We used points obtained from telemetry surveys and randomly generated points within each squirrel's home range to compare microhabitat variables for 13 individuals. We found that VNFS preferentially selected plots with conifer-dominant overstories and deep organic-soil horizons. VNFS avoided plots with dense Red Spruce regeneration in the understory in stands with hardwood-dominated overstories—the types of areas targeted for Red Spruce restoration. We also opportunistically searched for hypogeal fungi at telemetry points and found 3 species of Elaphomyces during our surveys. Our results indicate that microhabitat selection is associated with Red Spruce-dominant forests. Efforts to restore Red Spruce where hardwoods dominate in the central Appalachians may improve the connectivity and extent of habitat of VNFS.

  20. Effects of large-scale wildfire on ground foraging ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matsuda, Tritia; Turschak, Greta; Brehme, Cheryl; Rochester, Carlton; Mitrovich, Milan; Fisher, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the effect of broad-scale wildfire on ground foraging ants within southern California. In October and November of 2003, two wildfires burned large portions of the wildlands within San Diego County. Between January 2005 and September 2006, we surveyed 63 plots across four sites to measure the effect of the fires on the ant assemblages present in four vegetation types: 1) coastal sage scrub, 2) chaparral, 3) grassland, and 4) woodland riparian. Thirty-six of the 63 plots were sampled before the fires between March 2001 and June 2003. Mixed model regression analyses, accounting for the burn history of each plot and our pre- and postfire sampling efforts, revealed that fire had a negative effect on ant species diversity. Multivariate analyses showed that ant community structure varied significantly among the four vegetation types, and only the ant assemblage associated with coastal sage scrub exhibited a significant difference between burned and unburned samples. The most notable change detected at the individual species level involved Messor andrei (Mayr), which increased from <1% of prefire coastal sage scrub ant samples to 32.1% in burned plots postfire. We theorize that M. andrei responded to the increase of bare ground and postfire seed production, leading to an increase in the detection rate for this species. Collectively, our results suggest that wildfires can have short-term impacts on the diversity and community structure of ground foraging ants in coastal sage scrub. We discuss these findings in relation to management implications and directions for future research.

  1. Effects of restricted feeding schedules on circadian organization in squirrel monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boulos, Z.; Frim, D. M.; Dewey, L. K.; Moore-Ede, M. C.

    1989-01-01

    Free running circadian rhythms of motor activity, food-motivated lever-pressing, and either drinking (N = 7) or body temperature (N = 3) were recorded from 10 squirrel monkeys maintained in constant illumination with unlimited access to food. Food availability was then restricted to a single unsignaled 3-hour interval each day. The feeding schedule failed to entrain the activity rhythms of 8 monkeys, which continued to free-run. Drinking was almost completely synchronized by the schedule, while body temperature showed a feeding-induced rise superimposed on a free-running rhythm. Nonreinforced lever-pressing showed both a free-running component and a 24-hour component that anticipated the time of feeding. At the termination of the schedule, all recorded variables showed free-running rhythms, but in 3 animals the initial phase of the postschedule rhythms was advanced by several hours, suggesting relative coordination. Of the remaining 2 animals, one exhibited stable entrainment of all 3 recorded rhythms, while the other appeared to entrain temporarily to the feeding schedule. These results indicate that restricted feeding schedules are only a weak zeitgeber for the circadian pacemaker generating free-running rhythms in the squirrel monkey. Such schedules, however, may entrain a separate circadian system responsible for the timing of food-anticipatory changes in behavior and physiology.

  2. Vestibular afferent responses to linear accelerations in the alert squirrel monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somps, Christopher J.; Schor, Robert H.; Tomko, David L.

    1994-01-01

    The spontaneous activity of 40 otolith afferents and 44 canal afferents was recorded in 4 alert, intact squirrel monkeys. Polarization vectors and response properties of otolith afferents were determined during static re-orientations relative to gravity and during Earth-horizontal, sinusoidal, linear oscillations. Canal afferents were tested for sensitivity to linear accelerations. For regular otolith afferents, a significant correlation between upright discharge rate and sensitivity to dynamic acceleration in the horizontal plane was observed. This correlation was not present in irregular units. The sensitivity of otolith afferents to both static tilts and dynamic linear acceleration was much greater in irregularly discharging units than in regularly discharging units. The spontaneous activity and static and dynamic response properties of regularly discharging otolith afferents were similar to those reported in barbiturate-anesthetized squirrel monkeys. Irregular afferents also had similar dynamic response properties when compared to anesthetized monkeys. However, this sample of irregular afferents in alert animals had higher resting discharge rates and greater sensitivity to static tilts. The majority of otolith polarization vectors were oriented near the horizontal in the plane of the utricular maculae; however, directions of maximum sensitivity were different during dynamic and static testing. Canal afferents were not sensitive to static tilts or linear oscillations of the head.

  3. Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing located at National Archives, San Bruno, California (Navy # 121-A-23). PW Minsy Building 121 record ground floor plan; N.D. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Central Power Plant, California Avenue, norhtwest corner of California Avenue & Seventh Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  4. Mt. Graham red squirrel use of forest habitat: Historical, present, and future perspectives

    Treesearch

    Christopher D. O’Connor; John L. Koprowski; Ann M. Lynch; Donald A. Falk

    2014-01-01

    Geographically isolated populations of endangered species such as the Mount Graham red squirrel (MGRS) (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis) are particularly sensitive to fluctuations in habitat quality and extent. In recent decades a series of insect outbreaks and high-severity fires degraded the sole MGRS habitat in the Pinaleño Mountains of southeast Arizona, and...

  5. Distribution and habitat of the western gray squirrel (Sciurus griseus) on Fort Lewis, Washington.

    Treesearch

    L.A. Ryan; A.B. Carey

    1995-01-01

    Sciurus griseus has been accorded a "threatened" status by the Washington Department of Wildlife. Our objectives were to determine the distribution, abundance, and factors limiting the abundance of Sciurus griseus on Fort Lewis. Between June 1992 and August 1993 we conducted walking surveys for squirrels in 169 oak-...

  6. Home range, den selection and habitat use of Carolina northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diggins, Corinne A.; Silvis, Alexander; Kelly, Christine A.; Ford, W. Mark

    2017-01-01

    Context: Understanding habitat selection is important for determining conservation and management strategies for endangered species. The Carolina northern flying squirrel (CNFS; Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus) is an endangered subspecies found in the high-elevation montane forests of the southern Appalachians, USA. The primary use of nest boxes to monitor CNFS has provided biased information on habitat use for this subspecies, as nest boxes are typically placed in suitable denning habitat.Aims: We conducted a radio-telemetry study on CNFS to determine home range, den site selection and habitat use at multiple spatial scales.Methods: We radio-collared 21 CNFS in 2012 and 2014–15. We tracked squirrels to diurnal den sites and during night-time activity.Key results: The MCP (minimum convex polygon) home range at 95% for males was 5.2 ± 1.2 ha and for females was 4.0 ± 0.7. The BRB (biased random bridge) home range at 95% for males was 10.8 ± 3.8 ha and for females was 8.3 ± 2.1. Den site (n = 81) selection occurred more frequently in montane conifer dominate forests (81.4%) vs northern hardwood forests or conifer–northern hardwood forests (9.9% and 8.7%, respectively). We assessed habitat selection using Euclidean distance-based analysis at the 2nd order and 3rd order scale. We found that squirrels were non-randomly selecting for habitat at both 2nd and 3rd order scales.Conclusions: At both spatial scales, CNFS preferentially selected for montane conifer forests more than expected based on availability on the landscape. Squirrels selected neither for nor against northern hardwood forests, regardless of availability on the landscape. Additionally, CNFS denned in montane conifer forests more than other habitat types.Implications: Our results highlight the importance of montane conifer to CNFS in the southern Appalachians. Management and restoration activities that increase the quality, connectivity and extent of this naturally rare forest type may be

  7. Performance and Economic Modeling of Horizontally Drilled Ground-Source Heat Pumps in Select California Climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiryadinata, Steven

    Service life modeling was performed to gage the viability of unitary 3.5 kWt, ground-source terminal heat pumps (GTHP) employing horizontal directionally drilled geothermal heat exchangers (GHX) over air-source terminal heat pumps (PTHP) in hotels and motels and residential apartment building sectors in California's coastal and inland climates. Results suggest the GTHP can reduce hourly peak demand for the utility by 7%-25% compared to PTHP, depending on the climate and building type. The annual energy savings, which range from -1% to 5%, are highly dependent on the GTHP pump energy use relative to the energy savings attributed to the difference in ground and air temperatures (DeltaT). In mild climates with small ?T, the pump energy use may overcome any advantage to utilizing a GHX. The majority of total levelized cost savings - ranging from 0.18/ft2 to 0.3/ft 2 - are due to reduced maintenance and lifetime capital cost normally associated with geothermal heat pump systems. Without these reductions (not validated for the GTHP system studied), the GTHP technology does not appear to offer significant advantages over PTHP in the climate zones studied here. The GTHP levelized cost was most sensitive to variations in installed cost and in some cases, energy use (influenced by climate zone choice), which together highlights the importance of climate selection for installation, and the need for larger market penetration of ground-source systems in order to bring down installed costs as the technology matures.

  8. Robot Deception and Squirrel Behavior: A Case Study in Bio-inspired Robotics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    employed by doctors/ nurses among others. It is important to focus on this aspect when we consider a robot’s deceptive capabilities in human- robot ... Robot Deception and Squirrel Behavior: A Case Study in Bio-inspired Robotics Jaeeun Shim and Ronald C. Arkin Mobile Robot ...Abstract A common behavior in animals and human beings is deception. Deceptive behavior in robotics is potentially beneficial in several domains

  9. Activity patterns of American martens, fishers, snowshoe hares, and red squirrels in westcentral Montana

    Treesearch

    Kerry R. Foresman; Dean Pearson

    1999-01-01

    We investigated winter activity patterns of American Martens, Martes americana, Snowshoe Hares, Lepus americanus, and Red Squirrels, Tamiasciurus hudsonicus, in westcentral Montana between November 1994 and March 1995 using dual-sensor remote cameras. One hundred percent of Snowshoe Hare (n = 25) observations occurred at night while Martens (n = 85) exhibited...

  10. Differential estimates of southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans) population structure based on capture method

    Treesearch

    Kevin S. Laves; Susan C. Loeb

    2005-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that population estimates derived from trapping small mammals are accurate and unbiased or that estimates derived from different capture methods are comparable. We captured southern flying squirrels (Glaucmrtys volam) using two methods to study their effect on red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides bumah) reproductive success. Southern flying...

  11. Electrofriction method of manufacturing squirrel cage rotors

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hsu, John S.

    2005-04-12

    A method of making a squirrel cage rotor of copper material for use in AC or DC motors, includes forming a core with longitudinal slots, inserting bars of conductive material in the slots, with ends extending out of opposite ends of the core, and joining the end rings to the bars, wherein the conductive material of either the end rings or the bars is copper. Various methods of joining the end rings to the bars are disclosed including electrofriction welding, current pulse welding and brazing, transient liquid phase joining and casting. Pressure is also applied to the end rings tomore » improve contact and reduce areas of small or uneven contact between the bar ends and the end rings. Rotors made with such methods are also disclosed.« less

  12. On-line diagnosis of defaults on squirrel cage motors using FEM

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bentounsi, A.; Nicolas, A.

    1998-09-01

    In industry, the predictive maintenance has become a strategic concept. Economic interest of on-line diagnosis of faults in electric machines gave rise to various researches in that field. This paper proposes a local approach to tackle the problem of breaking bars and end-rings of squirrel cage in induction machines based mainly on the signature of the local variables, such as the normal flux density. This allows a finer analysis, by use of a finite element based simulation.

  13. Prairie dogs increase fitness by killing interspecific competitors

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    Interspecific competition commonly selects for divergence in ecology, morphology or physiology, but direct observation of interspecific competition under natural conditions is difficult. Herbivorous white-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys leucurus) employ an unusual strategy to reduce interspecific competition: they kill, but do not consume, herbivorous Wyoming ground squirrels (Urocitellus elegans) encountered in the prairie dog territories. Results from a 6-year study in Colorado, USA, revealed that interspecific killing of ground squirrels by prairie dogs was common, involving 47 different killers; 19 prairie dogs were serial killers in the same or consecutive years, and 30% of female prairie dogs killed at least one ground squirrel over their lifetimes. Females that killed ground squirrels had significantly higher annual and lifetime fitness than non-killers, probably because of decreased interspecific competition for vegetation. Our results document the first case of interspecific killing of competing individuals unrelated to predation (IK) among herbivorous mammals in the wild, and show that IK enhances fitness for animals living under natural conditions. PMID:27009223

  14. Hydraulic-property estimates for use with a transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belcher, Wayne R.; Elliott, Peggy E.; Geldon, Arthur L.

    2001-01-01

    The Death Valley regional ground-water flow system encompasses an area of about 43,500 square kilometers in southeastern California and southern Nevada, between latitudes 35? and 38?15' north and longitudes 115? and 117?45' west. The study area is underlain by Quaternary to Tertiary basin-fill sediments and mafic-lava flows; Tertiary volcanic, volcaniclastic, and sedimentary rocks; Tertiary to Jurassic granitic rocks; Triassic to Middle Proterozoic carbonate and clastic sedimentary rocks; and Early Proterozoic igneous and metamorphic rocks. The rock assemblage in the Death Valley region is extensively faulted as a result of several episodes of tectonic activity. This study is comprised of published and unpublished estimates of transmissivity, hydraulic conductivity, storage coefficient, and anisotropy ratios for hydrogeologic units within the Death Valley region study area. Hydrogeologic units previously proposed for the Death Valley regional transient ground-water flow model were recognized for the purpose of studying the distribution of hydraulic properties. Analyses of regression and covariance were used to assess if a relation existed between hydraulic conductivity and depth for most hydrogeologic units. Those analyses showed a weak, quantitatively indeterminate, relation between hydraulic conductivity and depth.

  15. Ecological correlates of flying squirrel microhabitat use and density in temperate rainforests of southeastern Alaska

    Treesearch

    Winston P. Smith; Scott M. Gende; Jeffrey V. Nichols

    2004-01-01

    We studied habitat relations of the Prince of Wales flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus griseifrons), an endemic of the temperate, coniferous rainforest of southeastern Alaska, because of concerns over population viability from extensive clear-cut logging in the region. We used stepwise logistic regression to examine relationships between...

  16. Expanded home ranges in a peripheral population: Space use by endangered Mt. Graham red squirrels

    Treesearch

    John L. Koprowski; Sarah R. B. King; Melissa J. Merrick

    2008-01-01

    Peripheral populations are often of increased conservation value; however, knowledge of the ecological and evolutionary consequences of a peripheral location is poor. Spatial dynamics are often interpreted as strategies to maximize access to fitness-limiting resources. Red squirrels Tamiasciurus hudsonicus are territorial in western portions of their...

  17. Hibernating squirrel muscle activates the endurance exercise pathway despite prolonged immobilization

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ran; Andres-Mateos, Eva; Mejias, Rebeca; MacDonald, Elizabeth M.; Leinwand, Leslie A.; Merriman, Dana K.; Fink, Rainer H. A.; Cohn, Ronald D.

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is a very common clinical challenge in many disuse conditions. Maintenance of muscle mass is crucial to combat debilitating functional consequences evoked from these clinical conditions. In contrast, hibernation represents a physiological state in which there is natural protection against disuse atrophy despite prolonged periods of immobilization and lack of nutrient intake. Even though peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α) is a central mediator in muscle remodeling pathways, its role in the preservation of skeletal muscle mass during hibernation remains unclear. Since PGC-1α regulates muscle fiber type formation and mitochondrial biogenesis, we analyzed muscles of 13-lined ground squirrels. We find that animals in torpor exhibit a shift to slow-twitch Type I muscle fibers. This switch is accompanied by activation of the PGC-1α-mediated endurance exercise pathway. In addition, we observe increased antioxidant capacity without evidence of oxidative stress, a marked decline in apoptotic susceptibility, and enhanced mitochondrial abundance and metabolism. These results show that activation of the endurance exercise pathway can be achieved in vivo despite prolonged periods of immobilization, and therefore might be an important mechanism for skeletal muscle preservation during hibernation. This PGC-1α regulated pathway may be a potential therapeutic target promoting skeletal muscle homeostasis and oxidative balance to prevent muscle loss in a variety of inherited and acquired neuromuscular disease conditions. PMID:23333568

  18. Effects of southern flying squirrels Glaucomys volans on red-cockaded woodpecker Picoides borealis reproductive success

    Treesearch

    Kevin S. Laves; Susan C. Loeb

    1999-01-01

    Anecdotal data gathered from many populations suggest that southern flying squirrel (SFS, Glaucomys volans) use of the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker's (RCW, Picoides borealis) nest and roost cavities may negatively affect RCW populations. The authors conducted a controlled experiment to determine the effects of SFS’s on...

  19. The squirrel monkey as a candidate for space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brizzee, K. R.; Ordy, J. M.; Kaack, B.

    1977-01-01

    Because of its size and other unique diurnal-primate characteristics, the squirrel monkey is used in: (1) actual bioflight missions, (2) in laboratory tests designed to clarify the risks to man during launch and recovery as well as in hazardous spaceflight environments; and (3) in the acquisition of data on unknown risks encountered in long duration space exploration. Pertinent data concerning samiri sciureus as described in published and unpublished reports are summarized. Topics include: taxonomy, ethology, life history, sensory-learning-motor capabilities in primate perspective, anatomy and physiology (including homeostatic adaptation to stress), susceptibility to environmental hazards, reproduction, care and clinical management, and previous use in aerospace biomedical research.

  20. Integrating histology and MRI in the first digital brain of common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Peizhen; Parvathaneni, Prasanna; Schilling, Kurt G.; Gao, Yurui; Janve, Vaibhav; Anderson, Adam; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-03-01

    This effort is a continuation of development of a digital brain atlas of the common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus, a New World monkey with functional and microstructural organization of central nervous system similar to that of humans. Here, we present the integration of histology with multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) atlas constructed from the brain of an adult female squirrel monkey. The central concept of this work is to use block face photography to establish an intermediate common space in coordinate system which preserves the high resolution in-plane resolution of histology while enabling 3-D correspondence with MRI. In vivo MRI acquisitions include high resolution T2 structural imaging (300 μm isotropic) and low resolution diffusion tensor imaging (600 um isotropic). Ex vivo MRI acquisitions include high resolution T2 structural imaging and high resolution diffusion tensor imaging (both 300 μm isotropic). Cortical regions were manually annotated on the co-registered volumes based on published histological sections in-plane. We describe mapping of histology and MRI based data of the common squirrel monkey and construction of a viewing tool that enable online viewing of these datasets. The previously descried atlas MRI is used for its deformation to provide accurate conformation to the MRI, thus adding information at the histological level to the MRI volume. This paper presents the mapping of single 2D image slice in block face as a proof of concept and this can be extended to map the atlas space in 3D coordinate system as part of the future work and can be loaded to an XNAT system for further use.

  1. Ground-water-level monitoring, basin boundaries, and potentiometric surfaces of the aquifer system at Edwards Air Force Base, California, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rewis, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    A ground-water-level monitoring program was implemented at Edwards Air Force Base, California, from January through December 1992 to monitor spatial and temporal changes in poten-tiometric surfaces that largely are affected by ground-water pumping. Potentiometric-surface maps are needed to determine the correlation between declining ground- water levels and the distribution of land subsidence. The monitoring program focused on areas of the base where pumping has occurred, especially near Rogers Lake, and involved three phases of data collection: (1) well canvassing and selection, (2) geodetic surveys, and (3) monthly ground-water-level measurements. Construction and historical water- level data were compiled for 118 wells and pi-ezometers on or near the base, and monthly ground-water-level measurements were made in 82 wells and piezometers on the base. The compiled water-level data were used in conjunction with previously collected geologic data to identify three types of no-flow boundaries in the aquifer system: structural boundaries, a principal-aquifer boundary, and ground-water divides. Heads were computed from ground-water-level measurements and land-surface altitudes and then were used to map seasonal potentiometric surfaces for the principal and deep aquifers underlying the base. Pumping has created a regional depression in the potentiometric surface of the deep aquifer in the South Track, South Base, and Branch Park well-field area. A 15-foot decline in the potentiometric surface from April to September 1992 and 20- to 30-foot drawdowns in the three production wells in the South Track well field caused locally unconfined conditions in the deep aquifer.

  2. Virtual endocast of the early Oligocene Cedromus wilsoni (Cedromurinae) and brain evolution in squirrels.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, Ornella C; Amador-Mughal, Farrah; Silcox, Mary T

    2017-01-01

    Extant squirrels exhibit extensive variation in brain size and shape, but published endocranial data for living squirrels are limited, and no study has ever examined brain evolution in Sciuridae from the perspective of the fossil record to understand how this diversity emerged. We describe the first virtual endocast for a fossil sciurid, Cedromus wilsoni, which is known from a complete cranium from Wyoming (Orellan, Oligocene), and make comparisons to a diverse sample of virtual endocasts for living sciurids (N = 20). The virtual endocasts were obtained from high-resolution X-ray micro-computed tomography data. Comparisons were also made with endocasts of extinct ischyromyid rodents, the most primitive rodents known from an endocranial record, which provide the opportunity to study the neuroanatomical changes occurring near the base of Sciuridae. The encephalization quotient of C. wilsoni is higher than that of Ischyromys typus from the same epoch, and falls within the range of modern terrestrial squirrel variation, but below the range of extant scansorial, arboreal and gliding sciurids when using cheek-tooth area for the estimation of body mass. In a principal components analysis, the shape of the endocast of C. wilsoni is found to be intermediate between that of primitive fossil taxa and the modern sample. Cedromus wilsoni has a more expanded neocortical surface area, especially the caudal region of the cerebrum, compared with ischyromyid rodents. Furthermore, C. wilsoni had proportionally larger paraflocculi and a more complex cerebellar morphology compared with ischyromyid rodents. These neurological differences may be associated with improvements in vision, although it is worth noting that the size of the parts of the brain most directly involved with vision [the rostral (superior) colliculi and the primary visual cortex] cannot be directly assessed on endocasts. The changes observed could also relate to balance and limb coordination. Ultimately, the

  3. 36 CFR 242.25 - Subsistence taking of fish, wildlife, and shellfish: general regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., mountain goat, moose, musk ox, Dall sheep, wolf, and wolverine. Bow means a longbow, recurve bow, or... (land) otter, red squirrel, flying squirrel, ground squirrel, marmot, wolf, or wolverine. Fyke net means...) Utilization of fish, wildlife, or shellfish. (1) You may not use wildlife as food for a dog or furbearer, or...

  4. 36 CFR 242.25 - Subsistence taking of fish, wildlife, and shellfish: general regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., mountain goat, moose, musk ox, Dall sheep, wolf, and wolverine. Bow means a longbow, recurve bow, or... (land) otter, red squirrel, flying squirrel, ground squirrel, marmot, wolf, or wolverine. Fyke net means...) Utilization of fish, wildlife, or shellfish. (1) You may not use wildlife as food for a dog or furbearer, or...

  5. 36 CFR 242.25 - Subsistence taking of fish, wildlife, and shellfish: general regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., mountain goat, moose, musk ox, Dall sheep, wolf, and wolverine. Bow means a longbow, recurve bow, or... (land) otter, red squirrel, flying squirrel, ground squirrel, marmot, wolf, or wolverine. Fyke net means...) Utilization of fish, wildlife, or shellfish. (1) You may not use wildlife as food for a dog or furbearer, or...

  6. Prairie dogs increase fitness by killing interspecific competitors.

    PubMed

    Hoogland, John L; Brown, Charles R

    2016-03-30

    Interspecific competition commonly selects for divergence in ecology, morphology or physiology, but direct observation of interspecific competition under natural conditions is difficult. Herbivorous white-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys leucurus) employ an unusual strategy to reduce interspecific competition: they kill, but do not consume, herbivorous Wyoming ground squirrels (Urocitellus elegans) encountered in the prairie dog territories. Results from a 6-year study in Colorado, USA, revealed that interspecific killing of ground squirrels by prairie dogs was common, involving 47 different killers; 19 prairie dogs were serial killers in the same or consecutive years, and 30% of female prairie dogs killed at least one ground squirrel over their lifetimes. Females that killed ground squirrels had significantly higher annual and lifetime fitness than non-killers, probably because of decreased interspecific competition for vegetation. Our results document the first case of interspecific killing of competing individuals unrelated to predation (IK) among herbivorous mammals in the wild, and show that IK enhances fitness for animals living under natural conditions. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Can the circadian system of a diurnal and a nocturnal rodent entrain to ultraviolet light?

    PubMed

    Hut, R A; Scheper, A; Daan, S

    2000-01-01

    Spectral measurements of sunlight throughout the day show close correspondence between the timing of above ground activity of the European ground squirrel and the presence of ultraviolet light in the solar spectrum. However, in a standard entrainment experiment ground squirrels show no entrainment to ultraviolet light, while Syrian hamsters do entrain under the same protocol. Presented transmittance spectra for lenses, corneas, and vitreous bodies may explain the different results of the entrainment experiment. We found ultraviolet light transmittance in the colourless hamster lens (50% cut-off at 341 nm), but not in the yellow ground squirrel lens (50% cut-off around 493 nm). Ultraviolet sensitivity in the ground squirrels based upon possible fluorescence mechanisms was not evident. Possible functions of ultraviolet lens filters in diurnal mammals are discussed, and compared with nocturnal mammals and diurnal birds. Species of the latter two groups lack ultraviolet filtering properties of their lenses and their circadian system is known to respond to ultraviolet light, a feature that does not necessarily has to depend on ultraviolet photoreceptors. Although the circadian system of several species responds to ultraviolet light, we argue that the role of ultraviolet light as a natural Zeitgeber is probably limited.

  8. Living on the edge: Space use of Eurasian red squirrels in marginal high-elevation habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, Claudia; Wauters, Lucas A.; Preatoni, Damiano; Tosi, Guido; Martinoli, Adriano

    2010-11-01

    In marginal habitats located at the edge of a species' range, environmental conditions are frequently extreme and individuals may be subject to different selective pressures compared to central populations. These so-called edge or marginal populations tend to have lower densities and reproductive rates than populations located in more suitable habitats, but little is known about local adaptations in spacing behavior. We studied space use and social organization in a population of Eurasian red squirrels ( Sciurus vulgaris) in a high-elevation marginal habitat of dwarf mountain pine ( Pinus mugo) and compared it with spacing patterns in high-quality Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) forest at lower-elevation. Home ranges and core areas were larger in the marginal habitat. In both habitats, males used larger home ranges than females, but sex differences in core area size were significant only in the edge population. Patterns of core area overlap were similar in both habitats with intra-sexual territoriality among adult females and higher degrees of inter-sexual overlap, typical for the species throughout its range. However, low densities in the edge population resulted in higher female by males overlap in spring-summer, suggesting males increased home ranges and core areas during mating season to augment access to estrus females. Thus, in the marginal habitat, with low food abundance and low population densities, linked with extreme winter conditions, squirrels, especially males, used large home ranges. Finally, squirrels responded more strongly to variation in food availability (inverse relation between home range size and seed abundance), and even to fluctuations in density (inverse relation between core area size and density of animals of the same sex), in the marginal than in the high-quality habitat, suggesting high behavioral plasticity to respond to the ecological constraints in marginal habitats.

  9. The use of GIS and modelling approaches in squirrel population management and conservation: A review

    Treesearch

    P. W. W. Lurz; J. L. Koprowski; D. J. A. Wood

    2008-01-01

    We review modelling approaches in relation to three key areas of sciurid ecology: management, disease risk assessments and conservation. Models enable us to explore different scenarios to develop effective management and conservation strategies. They may also assist in identifying and targeting research needs for tree and flying squirrels. However, there is a need to...

  10. 2002 Water-Table Contours of the Mojave River and the Morongo Ground-Water Basins, San Bernardino County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, G.A.; Stamos, C.L.; Predmore, S.K.

    2004-01-01

    The Mojave River and Morongo ground-water basins are in the southwestern part of the Mojave Desert in southern California. Ground water from these basins supplies a major part of the water requirements for the region. The continuous population growth in this area has resulted in ever-increasing demands on local ground-water resources. The collection and interpretation of ground-water data helps local water districts, military bases, and private citizens gain a better understanding of the ground-water flow systems, and consequently, water availability. During 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey and other agencies made approximately 2,500 water-level measurements in the Mojave River and Morongo ground-water basins. These data document recent conditions and, when compared with previous data, changes in ground-water levels. A water-level contour map was drawn using data from about 660 wells, providing coverage for most of the basins. Twenty-eight hydrographs show long-term (up to 70 years) water-level conditions throughout the basins, and 9 short-term (1997 to 2002) hydrographs show the effects of recharge and discharge along the Mojave River. In addition, a water-level-change map was compiled to compare 2000 and 2002 water levels throughout the basins. In the Mojave River ground-water basin, about 66 percent of the wells had water-level declines of 0.5 ft or more since 2000 and about 27 percent of the wells had water-level declines greater than 5 ft. The only area that had water-level increases greater than 5 ft that were not attributed to fluctuations in nearby pumpage was in the Harper Lake (dry) area where there has been a significant reduction in pumpage during the last decade. In the Morongo ground-water basin, about 36 percent of the wells had water-level declines of 0.5 ft or more and about 10 percent of the wells had water-level declines greater than 5 ft. Water-level increases greater than 5 ft were measured only in the Warren subbasin, where artificial

  11. Thinning of young Douglas-fir forests decreases density of northern flying squirrels in the Oregon Cascades

    Treesearch

    T. Manning; J.C. Hagar; B.C. McComb

    2011-01-01

    Large-scale commercial thinning of young forests in the Pacific Northwest is currently promoted on public lands to accelerate the development of late-seral forest structure for the benefit of wildlife species such as northern spotted owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) and their prey, including the northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys...

  12. Brill-Zinsser disease in a patient following infection with sylvatic epidemic typhus associated with flying squirrels.

    PubMed

    McQuiston, Jennifer H; Knights, Edwin B; Demartino, Peter J; Paparello, Scott F; Nicholson, William L; Singleton, Joseph; Brown, Catherine M; Massung, Robert F; Urbanowski, Joseph C

    2010-09-15

    Recrudescent Rickettsia prowazekii infection, also known as Brill-Zinsser disease, can manifest decades after untreated primary infection but is rare in contemporary settings. We report the first known case of Brill-Zinsser disease in a patient originally infected with a zoonotic strain of R. prowazekii acquired from flying squirrels.

  13. Mapping and monitoring Mt. Graham Red Squirrel habitat with GIS and thematic mapper imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatten, James R.; Koprowski, John L.; Sanderson, H. Reed; Koprowski, John L.

    2009-01-01

    To estimate the Mt. Graham red squirrel (MGRS) population, personnel visit a proportion of middens each year to determine their occupancy (Snow in this vol.). The method results in very tight confidence intervals (high precision), but the accuracy of the population estimate is dependent upon knowing where all the middens are located. I hypothesized that there might be areas outside the survey boundary that contained Mt. Graham red squirrel middens, but the ruggedness of the Pinaleno Mountains made mountain-wide surveys difficult. Therefore, I started exploring development of a spatially explicit (geographic information system [GIS]-based) habitat model in 1998 that could identify MGRS habitat remotely with satellite imagery and a GIS. A GIS-based model would also allow us to assess changes in MGRS habitat between two time periods because Landsat passes over the same location every 16 days, imaging the earth in 185 km swaths (Aronoff 1989). Specifically, the objectives of this analysis were to (1) develop a pattern recognition model for MGRS habitat, (2) map potential (predicted/modeled) MGRS habitat, (3) identify changes in potential MGRS habitat between 1993 and 2003, and (4) evaluate the current location of the MGRS survey boundary.

  14. The VALiDATe29 MRI Based Multi-Channel Atlas of the Squirrel Monkey Brain.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Kurt G; Gao, Yurui; Stepniewska, Iwona; Wu, Tung-Lin; Wang, Feng; Landman, Bennett A; Gore, John C; Chen, Li Min; Anderson, Adam W

    2017-10-01

    We describe the development of the first digital atlas of the normal squirrel monkey brain and present the resulting product, VALiDATe29. The VALiDATe29 atlas is based on multiple types of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast acquired on 29 squirrel monkeys, and is created using unbiased, nonlinear registration techniques, resulting in a population-averaged stereotaxic coordinate system. The atlas consists of multiple anatomical templates (proton density, T1, and T2* weighted), diffusion MRI templates (fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity), and ex vivo templates (fractional anisotropy and a structural MRI). In addition, the templates are combined with histologically defined cortical labels, and diffusion tractography defined white matter labels. The combination of intensity templates and image segmentations make this atlas suitable for the fundamental atlas applications of spatial normalization and label propagation. Together, this atlas facilitates 3D anatomical localization and region of interest delineation, and enables comparisons of experimental data across different subjects or across different experimental conditions. This article describes the atlas creation and its contents, and demonstrates the use of the VALiDATe29 atlas in typical applications. The atlas is freely available to the scientific community.

  15. Effect of prenatal ionizing radiation on the visual cortex and hippocampus of newborn squirrel monkeys. [/sup 60/Co

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Brizzee, K.R.; Ordy, J.M.; Kaack, M.B.

    1980-09-01

    Five squirrel monkeys were exposed to 200 rads whole-body ionizing irradiation (/sup 60/Co) at 0.4 rads per second on approximately the seventy-fifth day of gestation, and six squirrel monkeys were sham-irradiated. The mean cortical depth and the mean number of neurons per mm/sup 3/ in the visual cortex was less in irradiated animals than in controls, but the differences were not statistically significant. The mean number of glial cells in this cortical region was significantly lower in the irradiated animals. In the hippocampus, the depth of the stratum oriens and the combined depth of the strata radiatum, lacunosum, and molecularemore » were significantly less in irradiated than in control animals. Canonical correlations provided statistical evidence for greater radiation vulnerability of the hippocampus compared to motor and visual areas of the cerebral cortex.« less

  16. Ground-Water Quality Data in the Upper Santa Ana Watershed Study Unit, November 2006-March 2007: Results from the California GAMA Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kent, Robert; Belitz, Kenneth

    2009-01-01

    Ground-water quality in the approximately 1,000-square-mile Upper Santa Ana Watershed study unit (USAW) was investigated from November 2006 through March 2007 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The GAMA Priority Basin project was developed in response to the Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001, and is being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB). The Upper Santa Ana Watershed study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of raw ground-water quality within USAW, as well as a statistically consistent basis for comparing water quality throughout California. Samples were collected from 99 wells in Riverside and San Bernardino Counties. Ninety of the wells were selected using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Nine wells were selected to provide additional understanding of specific water-quality issues identified within the basin (understanding wells). The ground-water samples were analyzed for a large number of organic constituents (volatile organic compounds [VOCs], pesticides and pesticide degradates, pharmaceutical compounds, and potential wastewater-indicator compounds), constituents of special interest (perchlorate, N-nitrosodimethylamine [NDMA], 1,4-dioxane, and 1,2,3-trichloropropane [1,2,3-TCP]), naturally occurring inorganic constituents (nutrients, major and minor ions, and trace elements), radioactive constituents, and microbial indicators. Naturally occurring isotopes (tritium, carbon-14, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water) and dissolved noble gases also were measured to help identify sources and ages of the sampled ground water. Dissolved gases, and isotopes of nitrogen gas and of dissolved nitrate also were measured in order to investigate the sources and occurrence of

  17. Effects of sulfate aerosols upon cardiopulmonary function in squirrel monkeys (final report). (Second year final report: effects of nitrate and /or sulfate aerosols upon cardiopulmonary function)

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Greenberg, H.L.; Avol, E.L.; Bailey, R.M.

    1977-06-24

    Squirrel monkeys were exposed to nominal concentrations of 2.5 mg/cu m of the following generated aerosols: zinc ammonium sulfate at both low (40%) and high (85%) nominal relative humidities, histamine diphosphate at low relative humidity, and ammonium bisulfate at low relative humidity. There were few statistically significant changes in oscillatory resistance, however, several trends toward increased resistance were present. Additional studies were performed using two different aerosol nebulizers to produce histamine diphosphate particles in two distinct size distributions, an order of magnitude different in size. These results, supported by data collected during sulfur dioxide exposures of squirrel monkeys, are usedmore » to discuss the suitability of Saimiri sciureus as a sensitive indicator species and oscillatory resistance as a valuable measurement of proximal airway changes. Development of the esophageal balloon technique as a means of measuring compliance and resistance in the unanesthetized squirrel monkey is discussed.« less

  18. California Report Card 2011: Setting the Agenda for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mindnich, Jessica; Kennedy, Brian; Schutjer-Mance, Kristi

    2010-01-01

    This year's "Report Card" breaks new ground by providing "The Children's Agenda", which details the top ten high-priority, high-impact actions California policymakers should take to reverse the declining status of children. It's clear any sound plan to revitalize the state must prioritize children's development. California's history backs this up,…

  19. Effects of GABA[subscript A] Modulators on the Repeated Acquisition of Response Sequences in Squirrel Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Una C.; Winsauer, Peter J.; Stevenson, Michael W.; Moerschbaecher, Joseph M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of positive and negative GABA[subscript A] modulators under three different baselines of repeated acquisition in squirrel monkeys in which the monkeys acquired a three-response sequence on three keys under a second-order fixed-ratio (FR) schedule of food reinforcement. In two of these baselines, the…

  20. The northern flying squirrel as an indicator species of temperate rain forest: test of an hypothesis.

    Treesearch

    Winston P. Smith; Scott M. Gende; Jeffrey V. Nichols

    2005-01-01

    Management indicator species (MIS) often are selected because their life history and demographics are thought to reflect a suite of ecosystem conditions that are too difficult or costly to measure directly. The northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) has been proposed as an MIS of temperate rain forest of southeastern Alaska based on previous...

  1. Environmental synchronizers of squirrel monkey circadian rhythms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, F. M.; Fuller, C. A.; Moore-Ede, M. C.

    1977-01-01

    Various temporal signals in the environment were tested to determine if they could synchronize the circadian timing system of the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). The influence of cycles of light and dark, eating and fasting, water availability and deprivation, warm and cool temperature, sound and quiet, and social interaction and isolation on the drinking and activity rhythms of unrestrained monkeys was examined. In the absence of other time cues, 24-hr cycles of each of these potential synchronizers were applied for up to 3 wk, and the periods of the monkey's circadian rhythms were examined. Only light-dark cycles and cycles of food availability were shown to be entraining agents, since they were effective in determining the period and phase of the rhythmic variables. In the presence of each of the other environmental cycles, the monkey's circadian rhythms exhibited free-running periods which were significantly different from 24 hr with all possible phase relationships between the rhythms and the environmental cycles being examined.

  2. Purification and properties of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) corticosteroid binding globulins

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kuhn, R.W.; Weber, C.V.; Siiteri, P.K.

    1988-04-05

    Corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), a serum glycoprotein which binds glucocorticoids and progestins with high affinity, is widely distributed throughout the animal world. Although its charge and size characteristics have largely been conserved across species, the authors found the behavior of CBG in squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) serum during fractionation by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or Sephadex chromatography was consistent with a molecule about twice the size of that found in most species. To more fully understand the basis for this difference, they purified the protein by sequential affinity and DEAE-Sepharose chromatographies. The final product was obtained in greater than 60% yieldmore » and was found to migrate as a single homogeneous band when examined by electrophoresis. The steroid binding specificity of the purified protein was identical with that of the protein in the starting serum. In contrast to the single protein band observed following electrophoresis under normal conditions, separations in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) resolved the pure protein into two bands: one at 54,000 daltons and one at 57,000 daltons. Unlike other species, squirrel monkey CBG exists as a dimer in its native state. Antibodies were generated against the purified material and tested for cross-reactivity against the sera from other species by both radioimmunodiffusion and radioimmunoassay techniques. Only serum from titi monkeys was observed to cross-react when examined by radioimmunoassay. Taken together, the results suggest that New World monkey CBG's are distinct from those of other species in both size and immunologic characteristics.« less

  3. Ground access to airport study

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-08-24

    The Ground Access to Airport Study for the California Department of Transportation (Department), hereinafter referred to as Caltrans, began in July 2000. The Study's primary purpose was to assist Caltrans in identifying needs and provide tools to imp...

  4. Late winter home range and habitat use of the Virginia northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus)

    Treesearch

    W. Mark Ford; Kely N. Mertz; Jennifer M. Menzel; Kenneth K. Sturm

    2007-01-01

    We radio-tracked two male and one female Virginia northern flying squirrels (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus) in the Allegheny Mountains of West Virginia at Snowshoe Mountain Resort, in winter 2003 and Canaan Valley National Wildlife Refuge in winter 2004, respectively, to document winter home range and habitat use in or near ski areas. Male home range...

  5. Simulation of Ground-Water Flow in the Irwin Basin Aquifer System, Fort Irwin National Training Center, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, Jill N.

    2003-01-01

    Ground-water pumping in the Irwin Basin at Fort Irwin National Training Center, California resulted in water-level declines of about 30 feet from 1941 to 1996. Since 1992, artificial recharge from wastewater-effluent infiltration and irrigation-return flow has stabilized water levels, but there is concern that future water demands associated with expansion of the base may cause a resumption of water-level declines. To address these concerns, a ground-water flow model of the Irwin Basin was developed to help better understand the aquifer system, assess the long-term availability and quality of ground water, and evaluate ground-water conditions owing to current pumping and to plan for future water needs at the base. Historical data show that ground-water-level declines in the Irwin Basin between 1941 and 1996, caused the formation of a pumping depression near the pumped wells, and that recharge from the wastewater-treatment facility and disposal area caused the formation of a recharge mound. There have been two periods of water-level recovery in the Irwin Basin since the development of ground water in this basin; these periods coincide with a period of decreased pumpage from the basin and a period of increased recharge of water imported from the Bicycle Basin beginning in 1967 and from the Langford Basin beginning in 1992. Since 1992, artificial recharge has exceeded pumpage in the Irwin Basin and has stabilized water-level declines. A two-layer ground-water flow model was developed to help better understand the aquifer system, assess the long-term availability and quality of ground water, and evaluate ground-water conditions owing to current pumping and to plan for future water needs at the base. Boundary conditions, hydraulic conductivity, altitude of the bottom of the layers, vertical conductance, storage coefficient, recharge, and discharge were determined using existing geohydrologic data. Rates and distribution of recharge and discharge were determined from

  6. Recovery of the vomiting reflex following area postrema ablation in squirrel monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elfar, S.; Brizzee, Kenneth R.; Fox, Robert A.; Corcoran, Meryl Lee; Daunton, Nancy G.; Coleman, J.

    1991-01-01

    The role of the area postrema (AP) in motion-induced emesis was re-assessed recently in several different species. In a few of these studies, the role of the AP in motion-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) was also addressed. The purpose was to extend this comparative study to the squirrel monkey, to evaluate further the role of AP in vomiting, and to investigate the dynamics of the recovery process. The AP was ablated bilaterally in 7 motion-susceptible squirrel monkeys which previously had been characterized in terms of their responses to various motion sickness-inducing stimuli. After recovery from surgery all animals were tested at 30-day intervals for a period of 11 months to determine the effects of AP ablations on susceptibility to the same sickness-inducing conditions. In addition, the effectiveness of motion in preducing CTA was evaluated. All pre-ablation motion tests involved stimulation for 30 min., while post-lesion tests were 60 min., in duration. All animals showed significant increases in latencies to vomiting after AP ablations. However, the latencies tended to decrease with time after ablation. All but one animal vomited on at least one of the 10 motion tests occurring after ablation of AP. In addition, CTA was produced by motion used in the conditioning sessions. These results suggest that structures other than AP, and processes other that those mediated through AP, may play an important role in motion-induced emesis.

  7. Subsurface structure of the East Bay Plain ground-water basin: San Francisco Bay to the Hayward fault, Alameda County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Catchings, R.D.; Borchers, J.W.; Goldman, M.R.; Gandhok, G.; Ponce, D.A.; Steedman, C.E.

    2006-01-01

    The area of California between the San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, Santa Clara Valley, and the Diablo Ranges (East Bay Hills), commonly referred to as the 'East Bay', contains the East Bay Plain and Niles Cone ground-water basins. The area has a population of 1.46 million (2003 US Census), largely distributed among several cities, including Alameda, Berkeley, Fremont, Hayward, Newark, Oakland, San Leandro, San Lorenzo, and Union City. Major known tectonic structures in the East Bay area include the Hayward Fault and the Diablo Range to the east and a relatively deep sedimentary basin known as the San Leandro Basin beneath the eastern part of the bay. Known active faults, such as the Hayward, Calaveras, and San Andreas pose significant earthquake hazards to the region, and these and related faults also affect ground-water flow in the San Francisco Bay area. Because most of the valley comprising the San Francisco Bay area is covered by Holocene alluvium or water at the surface, our knowledge of the existence and locations of such faults, their potential hazards, and their effects on ground-water flow within the alluvial basins is incomplete. To better understand the subsurface stratigraphy and structures and their effects on ground-water and earthquake hazards, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD), acquired a series of high-resolution seismic reflection and refraction profiles across the East Bay Plain near San Leandro in June 2002. In this report, we present results of the seismic imaging investigations, with emphasis on ground water.

  8. A habitat model for the Virginia northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus) in the central Appalachian Mountains

    Treesearch

    J.M. Menzel; W.M. Ford; J.W. Edwards; L.J. Ceperley; L.J. Ceperley

    2006-01-01

    The Virginia northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus) is an endangered sciurid that occurs in the Allegheny Mountains of Virginia and West Virginia. Despite its status, few of its ecological requirements have been synthesized for landscape-level predictive distributions to facilitate habitat delineation efforts. Using logistic regression, we developed a GIS...

  9. Habitat characteristics of the endangered Virginia northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus) in the central Appalachian mountains

    Treesearch

    W. Mark Ford; Steven L. Stephenson; Jennifer M. Menzel; Dawn R. Black; John W. Edwards

    2004-01-01

    We compared 11 ecological variables thought to be important for assessing the habitat of the endangered Virginia northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus) at 11 occupied and 9 unoccupied sires within northern hardwood-montane conifer forests in the central Appalachians of West Virginia. Forest stands at sites occupied by G. s....

  10. Outbreak of pasteurellosis in captive Bolivian squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis)

    PubMed Central

    YOSHINO, Mizuki; SASAKI, Jun; KURAMOCHI, Konomi; IKEZAWA, Mitsutaka; MUKAIZAWA, Natsuko; GORYO, Masanobu

    2017-01-01

    In September 2012, five Bolivian squirrel monkeys housed in a zoological park died within sequential several days without obvious clinical signs. In a necrospy, one monkey presented swelling of the kidney with multifocal white nodules in the parenchyma, and other two had pulmonary congestion. Histopathologically, multifocal bacterial colonies of gram-negative coccobacillus were found in the sinusoid of the liver in all monkeys examined (Nos.1−4). Additionally, purulent pyelonephritis, pneumonia and disseminated small bacterial colonies in blood vessels were observed. Immunohistochemically, the bacterial colonies from two monkeys were positive for P. multocida capsular serotype D. Based on these findings, these monkeys were diagnosed as septicemia caused by acute P. multocida infection. PMID:28190821

  11. Outbreak of pasteurellosis in captive Bolivian squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis).

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Mizuki; Sasaki, Jun; Kuramochi, Konomi; Ikezawa, Mitsutaka; Mukaizawa, Natsuko; Goryo, Masanobu

    2017-03-23

    In September 2012, five Bolivian squirrel monkeys housed in a zoological park died within sequential several days without obvious clinical signs. In a necrospy, one monkey presented swelling of the kidney with multifocal white nodules in the parenchyma, and other two had pulmonary congestion. Histopathologically, multifocal bacterial colonies of gram-negative coccobacillus were found in the sinusoid of the liver in all monkeys examined (Nos.1-4). Additionally, purulent pyelonephritis, pneumonia and disseminated small bacterial colonies in blood vessels were observed. Immunohistochemically, the bacterial colonies from two monkeys were positive for P. multocida capsular serotype D. Based on these findings, these monkeys were diagnosed as septicemia caused by acute P. multocida infection.

  12. California GAMA Program: Ground-Water Quality Data in the Northern San Joaquin Basin Study Unit, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, George L.; Belitz, Kenneth; Milby Dawson, Barbara J.

    2006-01-01

    Growing concern over the closure of public-supply wells because of ground-water contamination has led the State Water Board to establish the Ground-Water Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. With the aid of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the program goals are to enhance understanding and provide a current assessment of ground-water quality in areas where ground water is an important source of drinking water. The Northern San Joaquin Basin GAMA study unit covers an area of approximately 2,079 square miles (mi2) across four hydrologic study areas in the San Joaquin Valley. The four study areas are the California Department of Water Resources (CADWR) defined Tracy subbasin, the CADWR-defined Eastern San Joaquin subbasin, the CADWR-defined Cosumnes subbasin, and the sedimentologically distinct USGS-defined Uplands study area, which includes portions of both the Cosumnes and Eastern San Joaquin subbasins. Seventy ground-water samples were collected from 64 public-supply, irrigation, domestic, and monitoring wells within the Northern San Joaquin Basin GAMA study unit. Thirty-two of these samples were collected in the Eastern San Joaquin Basin study area, 17 in the Tracy Basin study area, 10 in the Cosumnes Basin study area, and 11 in the Uplands Basin study area. Of the 32 samples collected in the Eastern San Joaquin Basin, 6 were collected using a depth-dependent sampling pump. This pump allows for the collection of samples from discrete depths within the pumping well. Two wells were chosen for depth-dependent sampling and three samples were collected at varying depths within each well. Over 350 water-quality field parameters, chemical constituents, and microbial constituents were analyzed and are reported as concentrations and as detection frequencies, by compound classification as well as for individual constituents, for the Northern San Joaquin Basin study unit as a whole and for each individual study area

  13. Susceptibility of the squirrel monkey to different motion conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Robert A.; Daunton, Nancy G.; Coleman, J.

    1991-01-01

    The exact stimulus eliciting vomiting in animal studies of motion sickness is difficult to specify because the vestibular stimulation produced by many motion conditions is confounded by voluntary movements with animals. This is an important problem because experiments with animal models of motion sickness can provide useful information about antimotion sickness drugs or the role of neural mechanisms, only when animals are exposed to the same motion stimuli in each experimental session. A series of tests were conducted to determine the susceptibility of 15 adult squirrel monkeys to motion sickness in freely moving and restrained test conditions. Canal stimulation was varied by exposing the monkey in freely moving conditions to varying degrees of angular velocity (60, 90, 120, 150 deg/sec), and in restrained conditions to one angular velocity (150 deg/sec) and to cross-coupling effects of whole-body roll movements during rotation. Otolith stimulation was investigated by using sinusoidal vertical linear acceleration during free movement conditions, and off-vertical rotation and earth-horizontal (BBQ) rotation while restrained. The percentage of freely moving animal vomiting during vertical axis rotation was 27, 93, 86, and 92 for the angular velocities of 60, 90, 120, and 150 deg/sec respectively. None of the monkeys vomited during vertical axis rotation or cross-coupled rotation when restrained. Otolith stimulation appears to be a less provocative stimulus for the squirrel monkey as the percentage of animals vomiting were 13, 0, and 7 for the conditions of free movement during oscillation, restraint during off-vertical, and BBQ rotation respectively. Motion sickness to the point of vomiting occurred regularly only in conditions where self-motion was possible. Such effects could occur because voluntary movement during motion augments vestibular effects by producing self-inflicted cross-coupling, but the failure to elicit vomiting with experimenter-coupling cross

  14. An investigation of ground-water recharge by injection in the Palo Alto Baylands, California : hydraulic and chemical interactions; final report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamlin, S.N.

    1985-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Santa Clara Valley Water District, has completed a study of ground-water recharge by injection in the Palo Alto baylands along San Francisco Bay, California. Selected wells within the Water District 's injection-extraction network were monitored to determine hydraulic and chemical interactions affecting well-field operation. The well field was installed to prevent and eliminate saline contamination in the local shallow aquifer system. The primary focus of this study is on factors that affect injection efficiency, specifically well and aquifer clogging. Mixing and break-through curves for major chemical constituents indicate ion exchange, adsorption, and dissolution reactions. Freshwater breakthrough was detected in water-level data, which reflected fluid-density change as well as head buildup. Dissolution of calcium carbonate caused by dilution of saline ground water probably accounts for an apparent increase in specific capacity possibly related to improved aquifer permeability. Adsorption evidently removed trace elements during passage of injected water through the aquifer. In terms of hydraulic and chemical compatibility, the well field is a viable system for ground-water recharge. Aquifer heterogeneity and operational constraints reduce the efficiency of the system. Efficiency may be maximized by careful attention to extraction distribution and quantity and to injection distribution, quantity, and water quality. (USGS)

  15. Test of the prey-base hypothesis to explain use of red squirrel midden sites by American martens

    Treesearch

    Dean E. Pearson; Leonard F. Ruggiero

    2001-01-01

    We tested the prey-base hypothesis to determine whether selection of red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) midden sites (cone caches) by American martens (Martes americana) for resting and denning could be attributed to greater abundance of small-mammal prey. Five years of livetrapping at 180 sampling stations in 2 drainages showed that small mammals,...

  16. FECAL PROGESTERONE METABOLITES IN POSTPARTUM SIBERIAN FLYING SQUIRRELS.

    PubMed

    Shimamoto, Tatsuki; Suzuki, Kei K; Hamada, Mizuho; Furukawa, Ryuji; Matsui, Motozumi; Yanagawa, Hisashi

    2018-03-01

    The Siberian flying squirrel ( Pteromys volans) produces up to two litters a year. To deliver second litters in breeding season, P. volans may have a postpartum estrus similarly to that of a variety of small mammals. If this were the case, females would have periods of elevated progesterone levels because of the formation of corpora lutea (CL) after postpartum ovulation. To test this hypothesis, fecal progesterone metabolite dynamics was investigated during lactation in this species using an enzyme immunoassay. In five of the six lactating females, periods of high fecal progesterone metabolite concentration were observed, and, furthermore, progesterone secretion patterns were periodic. Therefore, the source of progesterone during lactation could be arising CL from postpartum ovulation, indicating that ovarian activity was reinitiated after parturition and the CL that formed began secreting progesterone. This study thus showed that P. volans likely has the physiologic potential to mate during lactation.

  17. Ground water in the Thousand Oaks area, Ventura County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, James J.

    1980-01-01

    The ground-water basin beneath the city of Thousand Oaks, Calif. , corresponds closely in area with the surface-water drainage basin of Conejo Valley. Before World War II there was little ground-water development. After World War II, urban development put a stress on the ground-water basin; many wells were drilled and water levels in wells were drawn down as much as 300 feet in places. Beginning in 1963, imported water replaced domestic and municipal ground-water systems, and water levels rapidly recovered to predevelopment levels or nearly so. Most of the ground water in the Thousand Oaks area is stored in fractured basalt of the middle Miocene Conejo Volcanics. Depending on the degree of occurrence of open fractures and cavities in the basalt, recoverable ground water in the upper 300 to 500 feet of aquifer is estimated to be between 400,000 and 600,000 acre-feet. The yield of water from wells in the area ranges from 17 to 1,080 gallons per minute. Most of the ground-water in the eastern part of the valley is high insulfate and has a dissolved-solids concentration greater than 1,000 milligrams per liter. In the western part of the valley the ground-water is mostly of a bicarbonate type, and the dissolved-solids concentration is less than 800 milligrams per liter. In most areas of Conejo Valley, ground-water is a viable resource for irrigation of public lands and recreation areas. (USGS)

  18. Phylogeny of mitochondrial DNA clones in tassel-eared squirrels Sciurus aberti.

    PubMed

    Wettstein, P J; Lager, P; Jin, L; States, J; Lamb, T; Chakraborty, R

    1994-12-01

    The tassel-eared squirrel, Sciurus aberti, includes six subspecies which occupy restrictive and apparently identical habitats in Ponderosa pine forests in the south-western United States and Mexico; the strict habitat requirement of this species is based on dietary requirements which are only fulfilled in these forests. To examine evolutionary relationships among certain subspecies of S. aberti, we obtained estimates of nucleotide diversity within subspecies as well as nucleotide divergence between subspecies using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis. Restriction site polymorphisms were identified in samples of the four US subspecies: S. a. aberti (Abert), S. a. kaibabensis (Kaibab), S. a. ferreus (Ferreus), and S. a. chuscensis (Chuska) Fourteen mtDNA clones were resolved that were, with one exception, uniquely subspecific. Dendrograms constructed by neighbour-joining and maximum parsimony methods revealed two major assemblages: (1) an Abert/Kaibab group; and (2) a Ferreus/Chuska group. The Abert vs. Ferreus clones exhibited the greatest net nucleotide divergence, with a lineage separation estimate approximating 572,000 years ago assuming a nucleotide substitution rate of 7.15 x 10(-9)/year/site. Five out of ten Chuska squirrels shared a clone with one Abert sample; the relative sizes of these two populations and their respective ranges as well as their close proximity support the proposal for relatively recent intermixing of Abert and Chuska populations resulting in what appears to be Abert-->Chuska migration. Nucleotide diversity within subspecies ranked as Kaibab < Ferreus < Abert < Chuska; the relatively high diversity for the Chuska sample is based on the apparent introgression of Abert mtDNA. The relative diversity exhibited by Kaibab, Ferreus and Aberti samples corresponds to the range size of the respective subspecies.

  19. Nitrate and pesticides in ground water in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, California : occurrence and trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burow, Karen R.; Stork, Sylvia V.; Dubrovsky, N.M.

    1998-01-01

    The occurrence of nitrate and pesticides in ground water in California's eastern San Joaquin Valley may be greatly influenced by the long history of intensive farming and irrigation and the generally permeable sediments. This study, which is part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program, was done to assess the quality of the ground water and to do a preliminary evaluation of the temporal trends in nitrate and pesticides in the alluvial fans of the eastern San Joaquin Valley. Ground-water samples were collected from 30 domestic wells in 1995 (each well was sampled once during 1995). The results of the analyses of these samples were related to various physical and chemical factors in an attempt to understand the processes that control the occurrence and the concentrations of nitrate and pesticides. A preliminary evaluation of the temporal trends in the occurrence and the concentration of nitrate and pesticides was done by comparing the results of the analyses of the 1995 ground-water samples with the results of the analyses of the samples collected in 1986-87 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey Regional Aquifer-System Analysis Program. Nitrate concentrations (dissolved nitrate plus nitrite, as nitrogen) in ground water sampled in 1995 ranged from less than 0.05 to 34 milligrams per liter, with a median concentration of 4.6 milligrams per liter. Nitrate concentrations exceeded the maximum contaminant level of 10 milligrams per liter (as nitrogen) in 5 of the 30 ground-water samples (17 percent), whereas 12 of the 30 samples (40 percent) had nitrate concentrations less than 3.0 milligrams per liter. The high nitrate concentrations were associated with recently recharged, well-oxygenated ground water that has been affected by agriculture (indicated by the positive correlations between nitrate, dissolved-oxygen, tritium, and specific conductance). Twelve pesticides were detected in 21 of the 30 ground-water samples (70 percent) in 1995

  20. Ground-water resources and water-supply alternatives in the Wawona area of Yosemite National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borchers, J.W.

    1996-01-01

    Planning efforts to implement the 1980 General Management Plan, which recommends relocating park administrative facilities and employee housing from Yosemite Valley in Yosemite National Park, California, have focused on the availability of water at potential relocation sites within the park. Ground-water resources and water-supply alternatives in the Wawona area, one of several potential relocation sites, were evaluated between June 1991 and October 1993. Ground water flowing from Biledo Spring near the headwaters of Rainier Creek, about 5 miles southeast of Wawona, is probably the most reliable source of good quality ground water for Wawona. A dilute calcium bicarbonate ground water flows from the spring at about 250 gallons per minute. No Giardia was detected in a water sample collected from Biledo Spring in July 1992. The concentration of dissolved 222radon at Biledo Spring was 420 picoCuries per liter, exceeding the primary drinking-water standard of 300 picoCuries per liter proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This concentration, however, was considerably lower than the concentrations of dissolved 222radon measured in ground water at Wawona. The median value for 15 wells sampled at Wawona was 4,500 picoCuries per liter. Water- quality samples from 45 wells indicate that ground water in the South Fork Merced River valley at Wawona is segregated vertically. Shallow wells produce a dilute calcium sodium bicarbonate water that results from chemical dissolution of minerals as water flows through fractured granitic rock from hillside recharge areas toward the valley floor. Tritium concentrations indicate that ground water in the shallow wells originated as precipitation after the 1960's when testing of atmospheric nuclear devices stopped. Ground water from the deep flowing wells in the valley floor is older sodium calcium chloride water. This older water probably originated either as precipitation during a climatically cooler period or as

  1. Water Resources Data, California, Water Year 1989. Volume 5. Ground-Water Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamb, C.E.; Johnson, J.A.; Fogelman, R.P.; Grillo, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    Water resources data for the 1989 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality in weils. Volume 5 contains water levels for 1,037 observation wells and water-quality data for 254 monitoring wells. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperatine State and Federal agencies in California.

  2. Diet and food availability: implications for foraging and dispersal of Prince of Wales northern flying squirrels across managed landscapes

    Treesearch

    Elizabeth A. Flaherty; Merav Ben-David; Winston P. Smith

    2010-01-01

    Where dispersal is energetically expensive, feeding and food availability can influence dispersal success. The endemic Prince of Wales northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus griseifrons) inhabits a landscape mosaic of old-growth, second-growth, and clearcut stands, with the latter two representing energetically expensive habitats. We...

  3. Area occupancy and detection probabilities of the Virginia northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus) using nest-box surveys

    Treesearch

    W. Mark Ford; Kurtis R. Moseley; Craig W. Stihler; John W. Edwards

    2010-01-01

    Concomitant with the delisting of the endangered Virginia northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus) in 2008, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service mandated a 10-year post-delisting monitoring effort to ensure that subspecies population and distribution stability will persist following a changed regulatory status. Although criticized for the...

  4. The occurrence and status of candidate species listed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1, Kern County, California

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    The distribution and status of four plant and nine animal species being considered by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) for protection under the Endangered Species Act and one animal species recently listed in the Act as endangered was determined for the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPR-1 and 2). Hoover's woolly-star (Eriastrum hooveri), a Category 2 plant species, was located at 28 sites on NPR-1. The California jewelflower (Caulanthus californicus), Kern mallow (Eremalche kernensis), and San Joaquin woolly-threads (Lembertia congdonii) were not observed. Of these, the Kern mallow is most likely to occur based on habitat utilization andmore » autecology. No evidence was gathered that suggests the Buena Vista Lake shrew (Sorex ornatus relictus) was present on either of the Reserves. Nelson's antelope ground squirrel (Ammospermophilus nelsoni) and the short-nosed kangaroo rat (Dipodomys nitratoides brevinasus) are both Category 2 mammals that were relatively abundant on NPR-1 and 2. The San Joaquin pocket mouse (Perognathus inornatus) was also captured on NPR-1 and 2, but was less numerous. The Tipton kangaroo rat (Dipodomys nitratoides nitratoides), a recently listed endangered species, was found in Section 23S of NPR-1 and Section 18H of NPR-2. No evidence was found that Morrison's blister beetle (Lytta morrisoni), Moestan blister beetle (Lytta moesta), Hopping's blister beetle (Lytta hoppingi), and the Molestan blister beetle (Lytta molesta) exist on either of the Reserves. Similarly, a survey conducted for the striped-skinned snail (Helminthoglypta callistoderma) found no evidence that the snail exists on either of the Reserves. No additional surveys for candidate species that were undetected are needed unless new evidence is collected that suggests the species are or may be present. 17 figs., 7 tabs.« less

  5. The California Cooperative Remote Sensing Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hlavka, Christine A.; Sheffner, Edwin J.

    1988-01-01

    The USDA, the California Department of Water Resources (CDWR), the Remote Sensing Research Program of the University of California (UCB) and NASA have completed a 4-yr cooperative project on the use of remote sensing in monitoring California agriculture. This report is a summary of the project and the final report of NASA's contribution to it. The cooperators developed procedures that combined the use of LANDSAT Multispectral Scanner imagery and digital data with good ground survey data for area estimation and mapping of the major crops in California. An inventory of the Central Valley was conducted as an operational test of the procedures. The satellite and survey data were acquired by USDA and UCB and processed by CDWR and NASA. The inventory was completed on schedule, thus demonstrating the plausibility of the approach, although further development of the data processing system is necessary before it can be used efficiently in an operational environment.

  6. Lithologic and ground-water data for monitoring sites in the Mojave River and Warren Valley basins, San Bernardino County, California, 1992-1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huff, Julia A.; Clark, Dennis A.; Martin, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Lithologic and ground-water data were collected at 85 monitoring sites constructed in the Mojave Water Agency Management area in San Bernardino County, California, as part of a series of cooperative studies between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Mojave Water Agency. The data are being used to evaluate and address water-supply and water-quality issues. This report presents a compilation of the data collected at these sites from 1992 through 1998, including location and design of the monitoring sites, lithologic data, geophysical logs, ground-water-level measurements, and water-quality analyses.One to five small (generally 2-inch) diameter wells were installed at each of the 85 monitoring sites to collect depth-dependent hydrologic data. Lithologic logs were compiled from descriptions of drill cuttings collected at each site and from observations recorded during the drilling of the borehole. Generalized stratigraphic columns were compiled by grouping similar lithologic units. Geophysical logs provide information on the character of the lithologic units and on the presence of ground water and the chemical characteristics of that water. Water-level and water-quality data were collected periodically from the sites during 1992 through 1998.

  7. Preliminary report on geology and ground water of the Pajaro Valley area, Santa Cruz and Monterey counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muir, K.S.

    1972-01-01

    The Pajaro Valley area, California, covering about 120 square miles, extends from the southern part of Santa Cruz County to several miles south of the county line into Monterey County. It borders the Pacific Ocean on the west and the Santa Cruz Mountains on the east. The city of Watsonville is the largest center of population. Deposits that range in age from Pliocene to Holocene make up the ground-water reservoir. These include, from oldest to youngest, the Purisima Formation, Aromas Red Sands of Allen (1946), terrace deposits, alluvium, and dune sand. These deposits underlie an area of about 80 square miles and have a maximum thickness of about 4,000 feet. The alluvium yields most of the water pumped from wells in the area. Pre-Pliocene rocks underlie and form the boundaries of the ground-water reservoir. These rocks contain ground water in fractures and in sandstone beds. However, they are not an important source of ground water. There is close continuity between the geology of the Pajaro Valley area and that of the Soquel-Aptos area, which is contiguous on the north. Ground water in the Pajaro Valley area is derived from three sources: (1) Precipitation within the Pajaro Valley area that reaches the ground-water body by direct infiltration or by seepage from streams, (2) seepage from the Pajaro River as it crosses the Pajaro Valley carrying runoff which originates upstream from the valley, and (3) precipitation in the Soquel-Aptos area that infiltrates and then moves southeastward at depth into the Pajaro Valley area. Ground water in most wells in the Pajaro Valley area occurs under confined (artesian) conditions; the only exception is ground water in the upper, near-surface part of the alluvium and that in the dune sand. It moves south from the north part of the area and southwest away from the San Andreas fault toward and out under Monterey Bay. In the south part of the area, ground-water movement is almost due west. The San Andreas fault probably is the only

  8. Predictive habitat models derived from nest-box occupancy for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel in the southern Appalachians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ford, W. Mark; Evans, A.M.; Odom, Richard H.; Rodrigue, Jane L.; Kelly, C.A.; Abaid, Nicole; Diggins, Corinne A.; Newcomb, Doug

    2016-01-01

    In the southern Appalachians, artificial nest-boxes are used to survey for the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel (CNFS; Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus), a disjunct subspecies associated with high elevation (>1385 m) forests. Using environmental parameters diagnostic of squirrel habitat, we created 35 a priori occupancy models in the program PRESENCE for boxes surveyed in western North Carolina, 1996-2011. Our best approximating model showed CNFS denning associated with sheltered landforms and montane conifers, primarily red spruce Picea rubens. As sheltering decreased, decreasing distance to conifers was important. Area with a high probability (>0.5) of occupancy was distributed over 18662 ha of habitat, mostly across 10 mountain ranges. Because nest-box surveys underrepresented areas >1750 m and CNFS forage in conifers, we combined areas of high occupancy with conifer GIS coverages to create an additional distribution model of likely habitat. Regionally, above 1385 m, we determined that 31795 ha could be occupied by CNFS. Known occupied patches ranged from

  9. Using dynamic N-mixture models to test cavity limitation on northern flying squirrel demographic parameters using experimental nest box supplementation.

    PubMed

    Priol, Pauline; Mazerolle, Marc J; Imbeau, Louis; Drapeau, Pierre; Trudeau, Caroline; Ramière, Jessica

    2014-06-01

    Dynamic N-mixture models have been recently developed to estimate demographic parameters of unmarked individuals while accounting for imperfect detection. We propose an application of the Dail and Madsen (2011: Biometrics, 67, 577-587) dynamic N-mixture model in a manipulative experiment using a before-after control-impact design (BACI). Specifically, we tested the hypothesis of cavity limitation of a cavity specialist species, the northern flying squirrel, using nest box supplementation on half of 56 trapping sites. Our main purpose was to evaluate the impact of an increase in cavity availability on flying squirrel population dynamics in deciduous stands in northwestern Québec with the dynamic N-mixture model. We compared abundance estimates from this recent approach with those from classic capture-mark-recapture models and generalized linear models. We compared apparent survival estimates with those from Cormack-Jolly-Seber (CJS) models. Average recruitment rate was 6 individuals per site after 4 years. Nevertheless, we found no effect of cavity supplementation on apparent survival and recruitment rates of flying squirrels. Contrary to our expectations, initial abundance was not affected by conifer basal area (food availability) and was negatively affected by snag basal area (cavity availability). Northern flying squirrel population dynamics are not influenced by cavity availability at our deciduous sites. Consequently, we suggest that this species should not be considered an indicator of old forest attributes in our study area, especially in view of apparent wide population fluctuations across years. Abundance estimates from N-mixture models were similar to those from capture-mark-recapture models, although the latter had greater precision. Generalized linear mixed models produced lower abundance estimates, but revealed the same relationship between abundance and snag basal area. Apparent survival estimates from N-mixture models were higher and less precise

  10. Evaluation of the Source and Transport of High Nitrate Concentrations in Ground Water, Warren Subbasin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nishikawa, Tracy; Densmore, Jill N.; Martin, Peter; Matti, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    Ground water historically has been the sole source of water supply for the Town of Yucca Valley in the Warren subbasin of the Morongo ground-water basin, California. An imbalance between ground-water recharge and pumpage caused ground-water levels in the subbasin to decline by as much as 300 feet from the late 1940s through 1994. In response, the local water district, Hi-Desert Water District, instituted an artificial recharge program in February 1995 using imported surface water to replenish the ground water. The artificial recharge program resulted in water-level recoveries of as much as 250 feet in the vicinity of the recharge ponds between February 1995 and December 2001; however, nitrate concentrations in some wells also increased from a background concentration of 10 milligrams per liter to more than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 44 milligrams per liter (10 milligrams per liter as nitrogen). The objectives of this study were to: (1) evaluate the sources of the high-nitrate concentrations that occurred after the start of the artificial-recharge program, (2) develop a ground-water flow and solute-transport model to better understand the source and transport of nitrates in the aquifer system, and (3) utilize the calibrated models to evaluate the possible effect of a proposed conjunctive-use project. These objectives were accomplished by collecting water-level and water-quality data for the subbasin and assessing changes that have occurred since artificial recharge began. Collected data were used to calibrate the ground-water flow and solute-transport models. Data collected for this study indicate that the areal extent of the water-bearing deposits is much smaller (about 5.5 square miles versus 19 square miles) than that of the subbasin. These water-bearing deposits are referred to in this report as the Warren ground-water basin. Faults separate the ground-water basin into five hydrogeologic units: the west

  11. Monitoring ground-surface heating during expansion of the Casa Diablo production well field at Mammoth Lakes, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergfeld, D.; Vaughan, R. Greg; Evans, William C.; Olsen, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Long Valley hydrothermal system supports geothermal power production from 3 binary plants (Casa Diablo) near the town of Mammoth Lakes, California. Development and growth of thermal ground at sites west of Casa Diablo have created concerns over planned expansion of a new well field and the associated increases in geothermal fluid production. To ensure that all areas of ground heating are identified prior to new geothermal development, we obtained high-resolution aerial thermal infrared imagery across the region. The imagery covers the existing and proposed well fields and part of the town of Mammoth Lakes. Imagery results from a predawn flight on Oct. 9, 2014 readily identified the Shady Rest thermal area (SRST), one of two large areas of ground heating west of Casa Diablo, as well as other known thermal areas smaller in size. Maximum surface temperatures at 3 thermal areas were 26–28 °C. Numerous small areas with ground temperatures >16 °C were also identified and slated for field investigations in summer 2015. Some thermal anomalies in the town of Mammoth Lakes clearly reflect human activity.Previously established projects to monitor impacts from geothermal power production include yearly surveys of soil temperatures and diffuse CO2 emissions at SRST, and less regular surveys to collect samples from fumaroles and gas vents across the region. Soil temperatures at 20 cm depth at SRST are well correlated with diffuse CO2 flux, and both parameters show little variation during the 2011–14 field surveys. Maximum temperatures were between 55–67 °C and associated CO2 discharge was around 12–18 tonnes per day. The carbon isotope composition of CO2 is fairly uniform across the area ranging between –3.7 to –4.4 ‰. The gas composition of the Shady Rest fumarole however has varied with time, and H2S concentrations in the gas have been increasing since 2009.

  12. Evaluation of increases in dissolved solids in ground water, Stovepipe Wells Hotel, Death Valley National Monument, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buono, Anthony; Packard, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    Increases in dissolved solids have been monitored in two observation wells near Stovepipe Wells Hotel, Death Valley National Monument, California. One of the hotel 's supply wells delivers water to a reverse-osmosis treatment plant that produces the area 's potable water supply. Should water with increased dissolved solids reach the supply well, the costs of production of potable water will increase. The reverse-osmosis plant supply well is located about 0.4 mile south of one of the wells where increases have been monitored, and 0.8 mile southwest of the well where the most significant increases have been monitored. The direction of local ground-water movement is eastward, which reduces the probability of the supply well being affected. Honey mesquite, a phreatophyte located about 1.5 miles downgradient from the well where the most significant increases have been monitored, might be adversely affected should water with increased dissolved solids extend that far. Available data and data collected during this investigation do not indicate the source of the dissolved-solids increases. Continued ground-water-quality monitoring of existing wells and the installation of additional wells for water-quality monitoring would be necessary before the area affected by the increases, and the source and direction of movement of the water with increased dissolved solids, can be determined. (USGS)

  13. Model uncertainties of the 2002 update of California seismic hazard maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cao, T.; Petersen, M.D.; Frankel, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    In this article we present and explore the source and ground-motion model uncertainty and parametric sensitivity for the 2002 update of the California probabilistic seismic hazard maps. Our approach is to implement a Monte Carlo simulation that allows for independent sampling from fault to fault in each simulation. The source-distance dependent characteristics of the uncertainty maps of seismic hazard are explained by the fundamental uncertainty patterns from four basic test cases, in which the uncertainties from one-fault and two-fault systems are studied in detail. The California coefficient of variation (COV, ratio of the standard deviation to the mean) map for peak ground acceleration (10% of exceedance in 50 years) shows lower values (0.1-0.15) along the San Andreas fault system and other class A faults than along class B faults (0.2-0.3). High COV values (0.4-0.6) are found around the Garlock, Anacapa-Dume, and Palos Verdes faults in southern California and around the Maacama fault and Cascadia subduction zone in northern California.

  14. Seismically induced rock slope failures resulting from topographic amplification of strong ground motions: The case of Pacoima Canyon, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, S.A.; Murphy, W.; Jibson, R.W.; Petley, D.N.

    2005-01-01

    The 1994 Northridge earthquake (Mw = 6.7) triggered extensive rock slope failures in Pacoima Canyon, immediately north of Los Angeles, California. Pacoima Canyon is a narrow and steep canyon incised in gneissic and granitic rocks. Peak accelerations of nearly 1.6 g were recorded at a ridge that forms the left abutment of Pacoima Dam; peak accelerations at the bottom of the canyon were less than 0.5 g, suggesting the occurrence of topographic amplification. Topographic effects have been previously suggested to explain similarly high ground motions at the site during the 1971 (Mw = 6.7) San Fernando earthquake. Furthermore, high landslide concentrations observed in the area have been attributed to unusually strong ground motions rather than higher susceptibility to sliding compared with nearby zones. We conducted field investigations and slope stability back-analyses to confirm the impact of topographic amplification on the triggering of landslides during the 1994 earthquake. Our results suggest that the observed extensive rock sliding and falling would have not been possible under unamplified seismic conditions, which would have generated a significantly lower number of areas affected by landslides. In contrast, modelling slope stability using amplified ground shaking predicts slope failure distributions matching what occurred in 1994. This observation confirms a significant role for topographic amplification on the triggering of landslides at the site, and emphasises the need to select carefully the inputs for seismic slope stability analyses. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Background and stimulus-induced patterns of high metabolic activity in the visual cortex (area 17) of the squirrel and macaque monkey

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Humphrey, A.L.; Hendrickson, A.E.

    1983-02-01

    The authors have used 2-deoxy-D-(/sup 14/C)glucose (2-DG) autoradiography and cytochrome oxidase histochemistry to examine background and stimulus-induced patterns of metabolic activity in monkey striate cortex. In squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) that binocularly or monocularly viewed diffuse white light or binocularly viewed bars of many orientations and spatial frequencies, 2-DG consumption was not uniform across the cortex but consisted of regularly spaced radial zones of high uptake. The cytochrome oxidase stain in these animals also revealed patches of high metabolism which coincided with the 2-DG patches. Squirrel monkeys binocularly viewing vertical stripes showed parallel bands of increased 2-DG uptake in themore » cortex, while the cytochrome label in these animals remained patchy. In macaque (Macaca nemestrina) monkeys, binocular stimulation with many orientations and spatial frequencies produced radial zones of high 2-DG uptake. When viewed tangentially, these zones formed a dots-in-rows pattern with a spacing of 350 X 500 microns; cytochrome oxidase staining produced an identical pattern. Macaca differed from Saimiri in that monocular stimulation labeled alternate rows. These results indicate that there are radial zones of high background metabolism across squirrel and macaque monkey striate cortex. In Saimiri these zones do not appear to be related to an eye dominance system, while in Macaca they do. The presence of these zones of high metabolism may complicate the interpretation of 2-DG autoradiographs that result from specific visual stimuli.« less

  16. Ground-Water Reconnaissance at Pinnacles National Monument, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evenson, R.E.

    1962-01-01

    Ground-water supplies at Pinnacles National Monument have been obtained from springs that occur in fractures and along bedding planes of volcanic flows and deposits, and from springs discharged from perched water in a sedimentary fanglomerate formation. The spring-water yield is barely adequate to supply existing camp facilities, and therefore a supplemental water supply is necessary before existing campgrounds can be expanded. This supplemental water can be supplied by good-quality ground water obtained from shallow wells drilled in the alluvium of Chalone Creek. The yield of properly constructed wells in this area should exceed 10 gallons per minute.

  17. Eradicating the grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis from urban areas: an innovative decision-making approach based on lessons learnt in Italy.

    PubMed

    La Morgia, Valentina; Paoloni, Daniele; Genovesi, Piero

    2017-02-01

    Eradication of invasive alien species supports the recovery of native biodiversity. A new European Union Regulation introduces obligations to eradicate the most harmful invasive species. However, eradications of charismatic mammals may encounter strong opposition. Considering the case study of the eastern grey squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin, 1788) in central Italy, we developed a structured decision-making technique based on a Bayesian decision network model and explicitly considering the plurality of environmental values of invasive species management to reduce potential social conflicts. The model identified priority areas for management activities. These areas corresponded to the core of the grey squirrel range, but they also included peripheral zones, where rapid eradication is fundamental to prevent the spread of squirrels. However, when the model was expanded to integrate the attitude of citizens towards the project, the intervention strategy slightly changed. In some areas, the citizens' support was limited, and this resulted in a reduced overall utility of intervention. The suggested approach extends the scientific basis for management decisions, evaluated in terms of technical efficiency, feasibility and social impact. Here, the Bayesian decision network model analysed the potential technical and social consequences of management actions, and it responded to the need for transparency in the decision-making process, but it can easily be extended to consider further issues that are common in many mammal eradication programmes. Owing to its flexibility and comprehensiveness, it provides an innovative example of how to plan rapid eradication or control activities, as required by the new EU Regulation. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Nectin-4 Interactions Govern Measles Virus Virulence in a New Model of Pathogenesis, the Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus).

    PubMed

    Delpeut, Sébastien; Sawatsky, Bevan; Wong, Xiao-Xiang; Frenzke, Marie; Cattaneo, Roberto; von Messling, Veronika

    2017-06-01

    In addition to humans, only certain nonhuman primates are naturally susceptible to measles virus (MeV) infection. Disease severity is species dependent, ranging from mild to moderate for macaques to severe and even lethal for certain New World monkey species. To investigate if squirrel monkeys ( Saimiri sciureus ), which are reported to develop a course of disease similar to humans, may be better suited than macaques for the identification of virulence determinants or the evaluation of therapeutics, we infected them with a green fluorescent protein-expressing MeV. Compared to cynomolgus macaques ( Macaca fascicularis ) infected with the same virus, the squirrel monkeys developed more-severe immunosuppression, higher viral load, and a broader range of clinical signs typical for measles. In contrast, infection with an MeV unable to interact with the epithelial receptor nectin-4, while causing immunosuppression, resulted in only a mild and transient rash and a short-lived elevation of the body temperature. Similar titers of the wild-type and nectin-4-blind MeV were detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and lymph node homogenates, but only the wild-type virus was found in tracheal lavage fluids and urine. Thus, our study demonstrates the importance of MeV interactions with nectin-4 for clinical disease in the new and better-performing S. sciureus model of measles pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE The characterization of mechanisms underlying measles virus clinical disease has been hampered by the lack of an animal model that reproduces the course of disease seen in human patients. Here, we report that infection of squirrel monkeys ( Saimiri sciureus ) fulfills these requirements. Comparative infection with wild-type and epithelial cell receptor-blind viruses demonstrated the importance of epithelial cell infection for clinical disease, highlighting the spread to epithelia as an attractive target for therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2017 American Society for

  19. The influence of habitat, prey abundance, sex, and breeding success on the ranging behavior of Prairie Falcons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marzluff, J.M.; Kimsey, Bryan A.; Schueck, Linda S.; McFadzen, Mary E.; Vekasy, M.S.; Bednarz, James C.

    1997-01-01

    We studied the ranging behavior and habitat selection of radio-tagged Prairie Falcons (Falco mexicanus) during the breeding season in southwestern Idaho. The distribution and numbers of Townsend's ground squirrels (Spermophilus townsendii), the primary prey of Prairie Falcons in our study area, varied in response to drought during the study period. Prairie Falcons ranged over large areas (ca. 300 km2) and increased their foraging ranges in response to declining ground squirrels. Reptiles and birds were preyed upon most frequently when squirrels were rare. Males and females differed little in their use of space. Successful pairs ranged over smaller areas than non-nesters and unsuccessful pairs. Falcons nesting near habitat most suitable for ground squirrels ranged over smaller areas than those nesting farther from such habitat. Home ranges contained significantly more winterfat (Ceratoides lanata) and native perennial grasses (especially Poa secunda), and significantly less salt desert shrubs and exotic annual grasses than expected based on availability. Salt desert shrubs were found less than expected, based on availability in core areas within home ranges. Selection for winterfat and bluegrass in core areas was contingent upon selection at the larger scale of the home range; falcons with home ranges containing more winterfat and bluegrass than expected based on availability were less selective in their placement of core areas with respect to these habitats. We believe salient features of Prairie Falcon home ranges result largely from patchy distribution of landscape features associated with different densities and availabilities of Townsend's ground squirrels.

  20. Irrigated lands assessment for water management: Technique test. [California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wall, S. L.; Brown, C. E.; Eriksson, M.; Grigg, C. A.; Thomas, R. W.; Colwell, R. N.; Estes, J. E.; Tinney, L. R.; Baggett, J. O.; Sawyer, G.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure for estimating irrigated land using full frame LANDSAT imagery was demonstrated. Relatively inexpensive interpretation of multidate LANDSAT photographic enlargements was used to produce a map of irrigated land in California. The LANDSAT and ground maps were then linked by regression equations to enable precise estimation of irrigated land area by county, basin, and statewide. Land irrigated at least once in California in 1979 was estimated to be 9.86 million acres, with an expected error of less than 1.75% at the 99% level of confidence. To achieve the same level of error with a ground-only sample would have required 3 to 5 times as many ground sample units statewide. A procedure for relatively inexpensive computer classification of LANDSAT digital data to irrigated land categories was also developed. This procedure is based on ratios of MSS band 7 and 5, and gave good results for several counties in the Central Valley.

  1. Analog model study of the ground-water basin of the Upper Coachella Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tyley, Stephen J.

    1974-01-01

    An analog model of the ground-water basin of the upper Coachella Valley was constructed to determine the effects of imported water on ground-water levels. The model was considered verified when the ground-water levels generated by the model approximated the historical change in water levels of the ground-water basin caused by man's activities for the period 1986-67. The ground-water basin was almost unaffected by man's activities until about 1945 when ground-water development caused the water levels to begin to decline. The Palm Springs area has had the largest water-level decline, 75 feet since 1986, because of large pumpage, reduced natural inflow from the San Gorgonio Pass area, and diversions of natural inflows at Snow and Falls Creeks and Chino Canyon starting in 1945. The San Gorgonio Pass inflow had been reduced from about 18,000 acre-feet in 1986 to about 9,000 acre-feet by 1967 because of increased ground-water pumpage in the San Gorgonio Pass area, dewatering of the San Gorgonio Pass area that took place when the tunnel for the Metropolitan Water District of Southern California was drilled, and diversions of surface inflow at Snow and Falls Creeks. In addition, 1944-64 was a period of below-normal precipitation which, in part, contributed to the declines in water levels in the Coachella Valley. The Desert Hot Springs, Garnet Hill, and Mission Creek subbasins have had relatively little development; consequently, the water-level declines have been small, ranging from 5 to 15 feet since 1986. In the Point Happy area a decline of about 2 feet per year continued until 1949 when delivery of Colorado River water to the lower valley through the Coachella Canal was initiated. Since 1949 the water levels in the Point Happy area have been rising and by 1967 were above their 1986 levels. The Whitewater River subbasin includes the largest aquifer in the basin, having sustained ground-water pumpage of about 740,000 acre-feet from 1986 to 1967, and will probably

  2. Ultrastructural Analysis of the Cristae Ampullares in the Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus)*

    PubMed Central

    Lysakowski, Anna; Goldberg, Jay M.

    2008-01-01

    Type I hair cells outnumber type II hair cells (HCs) in squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) cristae by a nearly 3:1 ratio. Associated with this type I HC preponderance, calyx fibers make up a much larger fraction of the afferent innervation than in rodents (Fernández et al., 1995). To study how this affected synaptic architecture, we used disector methods to estimate various features associated with type I and type II HCs in central (CZ) and peripheral (PZ) zones of monkey cristae. Each type I HC makes, on average, 5–10 ribbon synapses with the inner face of a calyx ending. Inner-face synapses outnumber those on calyx outer faces by a 40:1 ratio. Expressed per afferent, there are, on average, 15 inner-face ribbon synapses, 0.38 outer-face ribbons and 2.6 efferent boutons on calyx-bearing endings. Calyceal invaginations per type I HC range from 19 in CZ to 3 in PZ. For type II HCs, there are many more ribbons and afferent boutons in PZ than in CZ, whereas efferent innervation is relatively uniform throughout the neuroepithelium. Despite outer-face ribbons being more numerous in chinchilla than in squirrel monkey, afferent discharge properties are similar (Lysakowski et al., 1995), reinforcing the importance of inner-face ribbons in synaptic transmission. Comparisons across mammalian species suggest the prevalence of type I HCs is a primate characteristic, rather than an arboreal lifestyle adaptation. Unlike cristae, type II HCs predominate in monkey maculae. Differences in hair-cell counts may reflect the stimulus magnitudes handled by semicircular canals and otolith organs. PMID:18729176

  3. Regional Water Table (2002) and Water-Level Changes in the Mojave River and Morongo Ground-Water Basins, Southwestern Mojave Desert, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Gregory A.; Stamos, Christina L.; Predmore, Steven K.

    2004-01-01

    The Mojave River and Morongo ground-water basins are in the southwestern part of the Mojave Desert in southern California. Ground water from these basins supplies a major part of the water requirements for the region. The continuous population growth in this area has resulted in ever-increasing demands on local ground-water resources. The collection and interpretation of ground-water data helps local water districts, military bases, and private citizens gain a better understanding of the ground-water flow systems, and consequently, water availability. During 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey and other agencies made approximately 2,500 water-level measurements in the Mojave River and Morongo ground-water basins. These data document recent conditions and, when compared with previous data, changes in ground-water levels. A water-level contour map was drawn using data from about 600 wells, providing coverage for most of the basins. Twenty-eight hydrographs show long-term (up to 70 years) water-level conditions throughout the basins, and 9 short-term (1997 to 2002) hydrographs show the effects of recharge and discharge along the Mojave River. In addition, a water-level-change map was compiled to compare 2000 and 2002 water levels throughout the basins. In the Mojave River ground-water basin, about 66 percent of the wells had water-level declines of 0.5 ft or more since 2000 and about 27 percent of the wells had water-level declines greater than 5 ft. The only area that had water-level increases greater than 5 ft that were not attributed to fluctuations in nearby pumpage was in the Harper Lake (dry) area where there has been a significant reduction in pumpage during the last decade. In the Morongo ground-water basin, about 36 percent of the wells had water-level declines of 0.5 ft or more and about 10 percent of the wells had water-level declines greater than 5 ft. Water-level increases greater than 5 ft were measured only in the Warren subbasin, where artificial

  4. Pesticides in Surface and Ground Water of the San Joaquin-Tulare Basins, California: Analysis of Available Data, 1966 Through 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Domagalski, Joseph L.

    1997-01-01

    Available pesticide data (1966-92) for surface and ground water were analyzed for the San Joaquin-Tulare Basins, California, one of 60 large hydrologic systems being studied as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. Most of the pesticide data were for the San Joaquin Valley, one of the most intensively farmed and irrigated areas of the United States. Data were obtained from the Storage and Retrieval data base of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the water-quality data base of the U.S. Geological Survey, and from data files of State agencies. Pesticides detected in surface water include organochlorine pesticides, organophosphate pesticides, carbamate pesticides, and triazine herbicides. Pesticides detected in ground water include triazine and other organonitrogen herbicides and soil fumi gants. Surface-water data indicate seasonal patterns for the detection of organophosphate and carbamate pesticides, which are attributed to their use on almond orchards and alfafa fields. Organochlorine pesticides were detected primarily in river-bed sediments. Concentrations detected in bed sediments of the San Joaquin River near Vernalis are among the highest of any major river system in the United States. Patterns and timing of pesticide use indicate that pesticides might be present in surface-water systems during most months of a year. The most commonly detected pesticide in ground water is the soil fumigant, dibromochloropropane. Dibromochloropropane, used primarily on vineyards and orchards, was detected in ground water near the city of Fresno. Triazine and other organonitrogen herbicides were detected near vineyards and orchards in the same general locations as the detections of dibromochloropropane. Pesticides were detected in ground water of the east side of the valley floor, where the soils are sandy or coarsegrained, and water-soluble pesticides with long environmental half-lives were used. In contrast, fewer

  5. 75 FR 22063 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-day Finding on a Petition to List the Mohave...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... squirrel was found to consume leaves of annual and perennial plants, their fruits and seeds, fungi, and... mechanisms; or (e) Other natural or manmade factors affecting its continued existence. (4) Information on... affect the conservation of the Mohave ground squirrel. (6) Information on the population status of...

  6. Research to More Effectively Manage Critical Ground-Water Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nickles, James

    2008-01-01

    As the regional management agency for two of the most heavily used ground-water basins in California, the Water Replenishment District of Southern California (WRD) plays a vital role in sheparding the water resources of southern Los Angeles County. WRD is using the results of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies to help more effectively manage the Central and West Coast basins in the most efficient, cost-effective way. In partnership with WRD, the USGS is using the latest research tools to study the geohydrology and geochemistry of the two basins. USGS scientists are: *Drilling and collecting detailed data from over 40 multiple-well monitoring sites, *Conducting regional geohydrologic and geochemical analyses, *Developing and applying a computer simulation model of regional ground-water flow. USGS science is providing a more detailed understanding of ground-water flow and quality. This research has enabled WRD to more effectively manage the basins. It has helped the District improve the efficiency of its spreading ponds and barrier injection wells, which replenish the aquifers and control seawater intrusion into the ground-water system.

  7. Experimental infection of nontarget species of rodents and birds with Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Januszewski, M.C.; Olsen, S.C.; McLean, R.G.; Clark, L.; Rhyan, Jack C.

    2001-01-01

    The Brucella abortus vaccine strain RB51 (SRB51) is being considered for use in the management of bnucellosis in wild bison (Bison bison) and elk (Cervus elaphus) populations in the Greater Yellowstone Area (USA). Evaluation of the vaccines safety in non-target species was considered necessary prior to field use. Between June 1998 and December 1999, ground squirrels (Spermophilus richardsonii, n = 21), deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus, n = 14), prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster, n = 21), and ravens (Corvus corax, n = 13) were orally inoculated with SRB51 or physiologic saline. Oral and rectal swabs and blood samples were collected for bacteriologic evaluation. Rodents were necropsied at 8 to 10 wk and 12 to 21 wk post inoculation (PI), and ravens at 7 and 11 wk PI. Spleen, liver and reproductive tissues were collected for bacteriologic and histopathologic evaluation. No differences in clinical signs, appetite, weight loss or gain, or activity were observed between saline- and SRB51-inoculated animals in all four species. Oral and rectal swabs from all species were negative throughout the study. In tissues obtained from SRB51-inoculated animals, the organism was isolated from six of seven (86%) ground squirrels, one of six (17%) deer mice, none of seven voles, and one of five (20%) ravens necropsied at 8, 8, 10, and 7 wk PI, respectively. Tissues from four of seven (57%) SRB51-inoculated ground squirrels were culture positive for the organism 12 wk PI; SRB51 was not recovered from deer mice, voles. or ravens necropsied 12, 21, or 11 wk, respectively, PI. SRB51 was not recovered from saline-inoculated ground squirrels, deer mice, or voles at any time but was recovered from one saline-inoculated raven at necropsy, 7 wk PI, likely attributable to contact with SRB51-inoculated ravens in an adjacent aviary room. Spleen was time primary tissue site of colonization in ground squirrels, followed by the liver and reproductive organs. The results indicate oral exposure to

  8. Comparative evaluation of power factor impovement techniques for squirrel cage induction motors

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Spee, R.; Wallace, A.K.

    1992-04-01

    This paper describes the results obtained from a series of tests of relatively simple methods of improving the power factor of squirrel-cage induction motors. The methods, which are evaluated under controlled laboratory conditions for a 10-hp, high-efficiency motor, include terminal voltage reduction; terminal static capacitors; and a floating'' winding with static capacitors. The test results are compared with equivalent circuit model predictions that are then used to identify optimum conditions for each of the power factor improvement techniques compared with the basic induction motor. Finally, the relative economic value, and the implications of component failures, of the three methods aremore » discussed.« less

  9. Motion sickness elicited by passive rotation in squirrel monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daunton, Nancy G.; Fox, Robert A.

    1991-01-01

    Current theory and recent evidence suggest that motion sickness occurs under conditions of sensory input in which the normal motor programs for producing eye, head, and body movements are not functionally effective, i.e. under conditions in which there are difficulties in maintaining posture and controlling eye movements. Conditions involving conflicting or inconsistent visual-vestibular (VV) stimulation should thus result in greater sickness rates since the existing motor programs do not produce effective control of eye-head-body movements under such conditions. It is felt that the relationship of postural control to motion sickness is an important one and one often overlooked. The results are reported which showed that when postural requirements were minimized by fully restraining squirrel monkeys during hypogravity parabolic flight, no animals became motion sick, but over 80 percent of the same 11 animals became sick if they were unrestrained and maintained control of their posture.

  10. Reconnaissance investigation of ground-water supply for Dora Belle Campground, Shaver Lake, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, G.H.

    1957-01-01

    At the request of the United States Forest Service, the Ground Water Branch of the United Stated Geological Survey made a reconnaissance of the geologic features and water resources of the Dora Belle Campground in Sierra National Forest on the shore of Shaver Lake, Fresno County, California. Basically, the water-supply problem at Dora Belle Campground is that the present supply obtained from a spring is not adequate to meet the present summer demand, and is of poor quality. Plans call for a considerable increase in camping facilities.. This, it is imperative that the present supply be augmented or, preferably, be replaced entirely. the Forest Service estimated the future peak demand to be about 25,00 gallons per day. On October 28, 1957, the writer examined the are in the company of C. H. Fankboner, Assistant Forest Engineer, Sierra National Forest, and Ben Dix, Construction and Maintenance Foreman, Pine Ridge District. Field work, done on October 28th and 29th, consisted of a brief geologic reconnaissance to determine the rock types and geologic structure, and a hydrologic reconnaissance consisting of a partial inventory of water walls and springs in the vicinity of the campground. A spring box near the western edge of Bell Diamond Meadow was pumped out with a Forest Service pump truck to determine its rate of recovery and potential production.

  11. Home range use and survival of southern flying squirrels in fragmented forest landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jacques, Christopher N.; Zweep, James S.; Jenkins, Sean E.; Klaver, Robert W.

    2017-01-01

    We studied home range use, spatial activity patterns, and annual survival of southern flying squirrels (SFS; Glaucomys volans) across fragmented landscapes of west-central Illinois. We calculated seasonal home range sizes and annual survival from 67 animals (36 males, 31 females) captured during 2014–2016. Home range and core area sizes were similar (P ≥ 0.46) among males and females across summer (April–September) and winter (October–March) seasons. Average distance between consecutive animal locations did not vary by sex, season, or year. Similarly, cumulative distance between consecutive locations did not vary by sex, season, or year and ranged from 1,189 to 1,661 m between summer and winter seasons. Mean annual composite home range and core area sizes were 10.39 and 1.25 ha, respectively; estimated home ranges (10.3 ha) of females are the largest documented for this species. We documented 8 deaths, all attributed to predation, the majority (63%) of which occurred during winter; annual survival was 71%. Our results underscore effects of habitat productivity on seasonal home range dynamics and space use patterns of SFS in fragmented landscapes. SFS may compensate for reduced availability of overstory mast-producing trees that characterize unproductive habitats and low-density populations by exhibiting similar movement patterns and use of available habitat by both sexes throughout the year. Winter communal nesting appears to be influenced by availability of cavity trees, thereby confirming the importance of standing snags in contributing essential habitat to flying squirrel populations in fragmented forests.

  12. A study of ground motion attenuation in the Southern Great Basin, Nevada-California, using several techniques for estimates of Qs , log A 0, and coda Q

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, A. M.; Harmsen, S. C.; Herrmann, R. B.; Meremonte, M. E.

    1987-04-01

    As a first step in the assessment of the earthquake hazard in the southern Great Basin of Nevada-California, this study evaluates the attenuation of peak vertical ground motions using a number of different regression models applied to unfiltered and band-pass-filtered ground motion data. These data are concentrated in the distance range 10-250 km. The regression models include parameters to account for geometric spreading, anelastic attenuation with a power law frequency dependence, source size, and station site effects. We find that the data are most consistent with an essentially frequency-independent Q and a geometric spreading coefficient less than 1.0. Regressions are also performed on vertical component peak amplitudes reexpressed as pseudo-Wood-Anderson peak amplitude estimates (PWA), permitting comparison with earlier work that used Wood-Anderson (WA) data from California. Both of these results show that Q values in this region are high relative to California, having values in the range 700-900 over the frequency band 1-10 Hz. Comparison of ML magnitudes from stations BRK and PAS for earthquakes in the southern Great Basin shows that these two stations report magnitudes with differences that are distance dependent. This bias suggests that the Richter log A0 curve appropriate to California is too steep for earthquakes occurring in southern Nevada, a result implicitly supporting our finding that Q values are higher than those in California. The PWA attenuation functions derived from our data also indicate that local magnitudes reported by California observatories for earthquakes in this region may be overestimated by as much as 0.8 magnitude units in some cases. Both of these results will have an effect on the assessment of the earthquake hazard in this region. The robustness of our regression technique to extract the correct geometric spreading coefficient n and anelastic attenuation Q is tested by applying the technique to simulated data computed with given

  13. A stochastic estimate of ground motion at Oceano, California, for the M 6.5 22 December 2003 San Simeon earthquake, derived from aftershock recordings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Di, Alessandro C.; Boatwright, J.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey deployed a digital seismic station in Oceano, California, in February 2004, to investigate the cause of damage and liquefaction from the 22 December 2003 M 6.5 San Simeon earthquake. This station recorded 11 M > 2.8 aftershocks in almost 8 weeks. We analyze these recordings, together with recordings of the mainshock and the same aftershocks obtained from nearby stations in Park Hill and San Luis Obispo, to estimate the mainshock ground motion in Oceano. We estimate the Fourier amplitude spectrum using generalized spectral ratio analysis. We test a set of aftershocks as Green's functions by comparing simulated and recorded acceleration amplitude spectra for the mainshock at San Luis Obispo and Park Hill. We convolve the aftershock accelerograms with a stochastic operator to simulate the duration and phase of the mainshock accelerograms. This approximation allows us to extend the range of aftershocks that can be used as Green's functions to events nearly three magnitude units smaller than the mainshock. Our realizations for the mainshock accelerogram at Oceano yield peak ground accelerations distributed as 28% ?? 4%g. We interpret these realizations as upper bounds for the actual ground motion, because our analysis assumes a linear response, whereas the presence of liquefaction indicates that the ground behaved nonlinearly in Oceano.

  14. Nitrogen Isotope Evidence for a Shift in Eastern Beringian Nitrogen Cycle after the Terminal Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahmasebi, F.; Longstaffe, F. J.; Zazula, G.

    2016-12-01

    The loess deposits of eastern Beringia, a region in North America between 60° and 70°N latitude and bounded by Chukchi Sea to the west and the Mackenzie River to the east, are a magnificent repository of Late Pleistocene megafauna fossils. The stable carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions of these fossils are measured to determine the paleodiet of these animals, and hence the paleoenvironment of this ecosystem during the Quaternary. For this approach to be most successful, however, requires consideration of possible changes in nutrient cycling and hence the carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of vegetation in this ecosystem. To test for such a shift following the terminal Pleistocene, we analyzed the stable carbon and nitrogen isotope compositions of modern plants and bone collagen of Arctic ground squirrels from Yukon Territory, and fossil plants and bones recovered from Late Pleistocene fossil Arctic ground squirrel nests. The data for modern samples provided a measure of the isotopic fractionation between ground squirrel bone collagen and their diet. The over-wintering isotopic effect of decay on typical forage grasses was also measured to evaluate its role in determining fossil plant isotopic compositions. The grasses showed only a minor change ( 0-1 ‰) in carbon isotope composition, but a major change ( 2-10 ‰) in nitrogen isotope composition over the 317-day experiment. Based on the modern carbon isotope fractionation between ground squirrel bone collagen and their diet, the modern vegetation carbon isotopic baseline provides a suitable proxy for the Late Pleistocene of eastern Beringia, after accounting for the Suess effect. However, the predicted nitrogen isotope composition of vegetation comprising the diet of fossil ground squirrels remains 2.5 ‰ higher than modern grasslands in this area, even after accounting for possible N-15 enrichment during decay. This result suggests a change in N cycling in this region since the Late Pleistocene.

  15. Introduction to IEEE 841-1994, IEEE standard for petroleum and chemical industry: Severe duty totally enclosed fan-cooled (TEFC) squirrel cage induction motors -- up to and including 500 hp

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Doughty, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    IEEE 841, Recommended Practice for Chemical Industry Severe Duty Squirrel-Cage Induction Motors--600 V and Below, first issued in 1986, has been significantly revised and reissued as a Standard. The scope has been increased to include severe duty TEFC squirrel-cage induction motors with antifriction bearings in sizes up to and including 500 horsepower. Motor rated voltages of 2,300 V and 4,000 V have been added. Changes to the standard are reviewed in detail. Requirements are identified that improve motor reliability and increase motor life.

  16. Effect of physical exercise prelabyrinthectomy on locomotor balance compensation in the squirrel monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Igarashi, M.; Ohashi, K.; Yoshihara, T.; MacDonald, S.

    1989-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of physical exercise, during a prepathology state, on locomotor balance compensation after subsequent unilateral labyrinthectomy in squirrel monkeys. An experimental group underwent 3 hr. of daily running exercise on a treadmill for 3 mo. prior to the surgery, whereas a control group was not exercised. Postoperatively, the locomotor balance function of both groups was tested for 3 mo. There was no significant difference in gait deviation counts in the acute phase of compensation. However, in the chronic compensation maintenance phase, the number of gait deviation counts was fewer in the exercise group, which showed significantly better performance stability.

  17. Diet and food availability of the Virginia northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus): implications for dispersal in a fragmented forest

    Treesearch

    Stephanie E. Trapp; Winston P. Smith; Elizabeth A. Flaherty

    2017-01-01

    A history of timber harvest in West Virginia has reduced red spruce (Picea rubens) forests to < 10% of their historic range and resulted in considerable habitat fragmentation for wildlife species associated with these forests. The Virginia northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus) has been described as a red...

  18. Adaptation to low body temperature influences pulmonary surfactant composition thereby increasing fluidity while maintaining appropriately ordered membrane structure and surface activity.

    PubMed

    Suri, Lakshmi N M; McCaig, Lynda; Picardi, Maria V; Ospina, Olga L; Veldhuizen, Ruud A W; Staples, James F; Possmayer, Fred; Yao, Li-Juan; Perez-Gil, Jesus; Orgeig, Sandra

    2012-07-01

    The interfacial surface tension of the lung is regulated by phospholipid-rich pulmonary surfactant films. Small changes in temperature affect surfactant structure and function in vitro. We compared the compositional, thermodynamic and functional properties of surfactant from hibernating and summer-active 13-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) with porcine surfactant to understand structure-function relationships in surfactant membranes and films. Hibernating squirrels had more surfactant large aggregates with more fluid monounsaturated molecular species than summer-active animals. The latter had more unsaturated species than porcine surfactant. Cold-adapted surfactant membranes displayed gel-to-fluid transitions at lower phase transition temperatures with reduced enthalpy. Both hibernating and summer-active squirrel surfactants exhibited lower enthalpy than porcine surfactant. LAURDAN fluorescence and DPH anisotropy revealed that surfactant bilayers from both groups of squirrels possessed similar ordered phase characteristics at low temperatures. While ground squirrel surfactants functioned well during dynamic cycling at 3, 25, and 37 degrees C, porcine surfactant demonstrated poorer activity at 3 degrees C but was superior at 37 degrees C. Consequently the surfactant composition of ground squirrels confers a greater thermal flexibility relative to homeothermic mammals, while retaining tight lipid packing at low body temperatures. This may represent the most critical feature contributing to sustained stability of the respiratory interface at low lung volumes. Thus, while less effective than porcine surfactant at 37 degrees C, summer-active surfactant functions adequately at both 37 degrees C and 3 degrees C allowing these animals to enter hibernation. Here further compositional alterations occur which improve function at low temperatures by maintaining adequate stability at low lung volumes and when temperature increases during arousal from

  19. Analysis of the mechanical stresses on a squirrel cage induction motor by the finite element method

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Jun, C.H.; Nicolas, A.

    1999-05-01

    The mechanical deformations and stresses have been analyzed by the Finite Element Method (FEM) in 3 dimensions on the rotor bars of a small squirrel cage induction motor. The authors considered the magnetic forces and the centrifugal forces as sources which provoked the deformations and stresses on the rotor bars. The mechanical calculations have been performed after doing the electromagnetic Finite Element modeling on the motor in steady states with various slip conditions.

  20. Susceptibility of cat and squirrel monkey to motion sickness induced by visual stimulation: Correlation with susceptibility to vestibular stimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daunton, N. G.; Fox, R. A.; Crampton, G. H.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments in which the susceptibility of both cats and squirrel monkeys to motion sickness induced by visual stimulation are documented. In addition, it is shown that in both species those individual subjects most highly susceptible to sickness induced by passive motion are also those most likely to become motion sick from visual (optokinetic) stimulation alone.

  1. Remediation of ground water containing volatile organic compounds and tritium

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Shukla, S.N.; Folsom, E.N.

    1994-03-01

    The Trailer 5475 (T-5475) East Taxi Strip Area at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, California was used as a taxi strip by the US Navy to taxi airplanes to the runway from 1942 to 1947. Solvents were used in some unpaved areas adjacent to the East Taxi Strip for cleaning airplanes. From 1953 through 1976, the area was used to store and treat liquid waste. From 1962 to 1976 ponds were constructed and used for evaporation of liquid waste. As a result, the ground water in this area contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and tritium. The ground water inmore » this area is also known to contain hexavalent chromium that is probably naturally occurring. Therefore, LLNL has proposed ``pump-and-treat`` technology above grade in a completely closed loop system. The facility will be designed to remove the VOCs and hexavalent chromium, if any, from the ground water, and the treated ground water containing tritium will be reinjected where it will decay naturally in the subsurface. Ground water containing tritium will be reinjected into areas with equal or higher tritium concentrations to comply with California regulations.« less

  2. Preliminary Investigation into the Water Usage from Fracking in Drought Ridden California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lew, S.; Wu, M.

    2014-12-01

    Hydraulic fracking is a common method used to obtain natural gas as well as oil from the ground. The process begins with drilling the ground, which is then followed by thousands of gallons of fluid being pumped into the ground to break the shale rock and release natural gas. The job requires thousands of gallons of water, and chemicals are added to the water, often making it unusable for other purposes. The amount of water being used for fracking in California has been recently brought to attention because the state is currently facing a drought. Currently California is experiencing the worst drought since the 1920's. In the time frame of 2013-2014 California rainfall has been 50% below the average with 2013 being the driest year. The lack of rain is attributed to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation which occurs every 20-30 years and causes the Pacific Ocean to cool, leading to less rain because storms are diverted to the north. As a result of the drought, food prices are expected to rise and farmers are pumping 75% of their water need from reserved aquifers.

  3. California Water Resources Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-01-01

    does not remain on the ground below 4,000 feet. The zone of heavy snowfall is from 7,000 to 8,000 feet. Melting of the normally deep snowpack in these...advanced cargoCaiornia has abundant water, metal , nonmetallic min- handling schniques indicate that major improvements erals, fuel and forestry resources...conceived by the De - California includes improvement and maintenance of bris Commission as a result of studies directed by all major coastal harbors in

  4. Dust Storm in Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Along historic Route 66, just southeast of the little town of Amboy, California, lies a dried-up lake. Dry lakebeds are good sources of two things: salt and dust. In this image, the now-parched Bristol Lake offers up both. On April 12, 2007, dust storms menaced the area around Amboy. To the northwest, near Newberry Springs, California, dust hampered visibility and led to a multi-car collision on Interstate 40, killing two people and injuring several others. The same day, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of a dust storm in the dry remains of Bristol Lake. Many small dust clouds boil up from the ground surface, casting their shadows to the northwest. A bright white cloud floating over the dust also throws its shadow onto the ground below. East of the dust storm are salt works that stand out from the surrounding landscape thanks to their straight lines and sharp angles. Dark ground surfaces alternate with mined white salt in a network of stripes. When lakes evaporate, chemicals that had been dissolved in the water stay behind, making dry lake beds an ideal place to find heavy concentrations of minerals, including salt. Besides the salt works, something else appears in stark contrast to this arid place. Lush green fields of irrigated crops appear in the east. Besides their color, their orderly arrangement reveals their human-made origin.

  5. Static air-gap eccentricity fault diagnosis using rotor slot harmonics in line neutral voltage of three-phase squirrel cage induction motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oumaamar, Mohamed El Kamel; Maouche, Yassine; Boucherma, Mohamed; Khezzar, Abdelmalek

    2017-02-01

    The mixed eccentricity fault detection in a squirrel cage induction motor has been thoroughly investigated. However, a few papers have been related to pure static eccentricity fault and the authors focused on the RSH harmonics presented in stator current. The main objective of this paper is to present an alternative method based on the analysis of line neutral voltage taking place between the supply and the stator neutrals in order to detect air-gap static eccentricity, and to highlight the classification of all RSH harmonics in line neutral voltage. The model of squirrel cage induction machine relies on the rotor geometry and winding layout. Such developed model is used to analyze the impact of the pure static air-gap eccentricity by predicting the related frequencies in the line neutral voltage spectrum. The results show that the line neutral voltage spectrum are more sensitive to the air-gap static eccentricity fault compared to stator current one. The theoretical analysis and simulated results are confirmed by experiments.

  6. Accumulation of trace elements used in semiconductor industry in Formosan squirrel, as a bio-indicator of their exposure, living in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yoshinari; Watanabe, Izumi; Oshida, Tatsuo; Chen, Yen-Jean; Lin, Liang-Kong; Wang, Yu-Huang; Yang, Kouh-Cheng; Kuno, Katsuji

    2007-07-01

    Concentrations of 17 trace elements were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in Formosan squirrels (Callosciurus erythraeus) of Taiwan and Japan to document trace element pollution in Taiwan. High concentrations of elements used to produce semiconductors - Ga, As, Cd, In and Tl - were found in animals captured in Miaoli County, which is the nearest site to Hsinchu City, a chief city of Taiwan's semiconductor industry. Significant correlations between Ga, As, In and Tl were found in the kidney, liver, lung and muscle tissues of Taiwanese squirrels. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated that Ga, As, In and Tl were of the same clade, indicating that Ga, As, In and Tl were discharged from an identical origin. Molar ratios of Ga/As concentration in lungs of animals captured in Miaoli resembled those of animals after intratracheal administration of particulate gallium arsenide (GaAs). This result might indicate that the higher concentrations of Ga and As in the specimens in Miaoli resulted from atmospheric exposure to GaAs.

  7. Fourteen years of forage monitoring on the California Central Coast shows tremendous variation

    Treesearch

    Royce Larsen; Karl Striby; Marc Horney

    2015-01-01

    To better understand forage production (above ground biomass) and precipitation patterns in the Central Coast region of California, the first in a growing network of primary production monitoring sites were established in 2001. The California Central Coast has a Mediterranean climate with cool, moist winters and hot, dry summers, and is dominated by annual grasslands...

  8. Death Valley regional ground-water flow system, Nevada and California -- hydrogeologic framework and transient ground-water flow model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belcher, Wayne R.

    2004-01-01

    A numerical three-dimensional (3D) transient ground-water flow model of the Death Valley region was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the U.S. Department of Energy programs at the Nevada Test Site and at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Decades of study of aspects of the ground-water flow system and previous less extensive ground-water flow models were incorporated and reevaluated together with new data to provide greater detail for the complex, digital model. A 3D digital hydrogeologic framework model (HFM) was developed from digital elevation models, geologic maps, borehole information, geologic and hydrogeologic cross sections, and other 3D models to represent the geometry of the hydrogeologic units (HGUs). Structural features, such as faults and fractures, that affect ground-water flow also were added. The HFM represents Precambrian and Paleozoic crystalline and sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, Mesozoic to Cenozoic intrusive rocks, Cenozoic volcanic tuffs and lavas, and late Cenozoic sedimentary deposits of the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System (DVRFS) region in 27 HGUs. Information from a series of investigations was compiled to conceptualize and quantify hydrologic components of the ground-water flow system within the DVRFS model domain and to provide hydraulic-property and head-observation data used in the calibration of the transient-flow model. These studies reevaluated natural ground-water discharge occurring through evapotranspiration and spring flow; the history of ground-water pumping from 1913 through 1998; ground-water recharge simulated as net infiltration; model boundary inflows and outflows based on regional hydraulic gradients and water budgets of surrounding areas; hydraulic conductivity and its relation to depth; and water levels appropriate for regional simulation of prepumped and pumped conditions within the DVRFS model domain. Simulation results appropriate for the regional extent and scale of the model were

  9. Tracing reclaimed water in the Menifee, Winchester, and Perris-South ground-water subbasins, Riverside County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaehler, Charles A.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    As a component in the management of water resources in the Menifee, Winchester, and Perris-South subbasins in Riverside County, California, ponds are operated by the Eastern Municipal Water District for the temporary storage of reclaimed water that is produced by several regional water-reclamation facilities. A primary goal of this study was to evaluate the potential for using various ground-water constituents or characteristics as tracers of reclaimed water that has infiltrated from the storage ponds into the ground water in the three subbasins. A secondary goal was to estimate the degree to which the infiltrated reclaimed water has mixed with the native ground water. The evaluation of potential tracers and the estimation of mixing focused on data from wells located relatively close to the ponds. The most useful constituents and characteristics for evaluation of the fate and mixing of reclaimed water in the Menifee, Winchester, and Perris-South subbasins are major-ion composition, stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen, ultraviolet absorbance (UV-A), chloride concentration, and boron/chloride ratio plotted against chloride concentration. Emphasis in this study was placed on evaluating the utility of UV-A as a tracer and boron/chloride ratios in estimating the fraction of reclaimed water in ground water. In the Menifee subbasin, major-ion data, stable isotopes, chloride, UV-A, and boron/chloride ratio are all useful in identifying reclaimed water, and the results based on these indicators are consistent with each other. The results suggest that values of UV-A greater than or equal to 0.007 indicate the presence of reclaimed water in the Menifee subbasin. Ground-water samples with UV-A greater than 0.007 are estimated to consist of about 75 to 100 percent reclaimed water, on the basis of chloride-mixing calculations and boron/chloride-versus-chloride mixing calculations. In the Winchester subbasin, results based on the same factors used in the Menifee subbasin are

  10. Low-Cost Ground Sensor Network for Intrusion Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. LOW- COST GROUND...Gurminder Singh THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK i REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for this...

  11. A 3D high resolution ex vivo white matter atlas of the common squirrel monkey (saimiri sciureus) based on diffusion tensor imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yurui; Parvathaneni, Prasanna; Schilling, Kurt G.; Wang, Feng; Stepniewska, Iwona; Xu, Zhoubing; Choe, Ann S.; Ding, Zhaohua; Gore, John C.; Chen, Li min; Landman, Bennett A.; Anderson, Adam W.

    2016-03-01

    Modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain atlases are high quality 3-D volumes with specific structures labeled in the volume. Atlases are essential in providing a common space for interpretation of results across studies, for anatomical education, and providing quantitative image-based navigation. Extensive work has been devoted to atlas construction for humans, macaque, and several non-primate species (e.g., rat). One notable gap in the literature is the common squirrel monkey - for which the primary published atlases date from the 1960's. The common squirrel monkey has been used extensively as surrogate for humans in biomedical studies, given its anatomical neuro-system similarities and practical considerations. This work describes the continued development of a multi-modal MRI atlas for the common squirrel monkey, for which a structural imaging space and gray matter parcels have been previously constructed. This study adds white matter tracts to the atlas. The new atlas includes 49 white matter (WM) tracts, defined using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in three animals and combines these data to define the anatomical locations of these tracks in a standardized coordinate system compatible with previous development. An anatomist reviewed the resulting tracts and the inter-animal reproducibility (i.e., the Dice index of each WM parcel across animals in common space) was assessed. The Dice indices range from 0.05 to 0.80 due to differences of local registration quality and the variation of WM tract position across individuals. However, the combined WM labels from the 3 animals represent the general locations of WM parcels, adding basic connectivity information to the atlas.

  12. A 3D high resolution ex vivo white matter atlas of the common squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) based on diffusion tensor imaging.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yurui; Parvathaneni, Prasanna; Schilling, Kurt G; Wang, Feng; Stepniewska, Iwona; Xu, Zhoubing; Choe, Ann S; Ding, Zhaohua; Gore, John C; Chen, Li Min; Landman, Bennett A; Anderson, Adam W

    2016-02-27

    Modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain atlases are high quality 3-D volumes with specific structures labeled in the volume. Atlases are essential in providing a common space for interpretation of results across studies, for anatomical education, and providing quantitative image-based navigation. Extensive work has been devoted to atlas construction for humans, macaque, and several non-primate species (e.g., rat). One notable gap in the literature is the common squirrel monkey - for which the primary published atlases date from the 1960's. The common squirrel monkey has been used extensively as surrogate for humans in biomedical studies, given its anatomical neuro-system similarities and practical considerations. This work describes the continued development of a multi-modal MRI atlas for the common squirrel monkey, for which a structural imaging space and gray matter parcels have been previously constructed. This study adds white matter tracts to the atlas. The new atlas includes 49 white matter (WM) tracts, defined using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in three animals and combines these data to define the anatomical locations of these tracks in a standardized coordinate system compatible with previous development. An anatomist reviewed the resulting tracts and the inter-animal reproducibility (i.e., the Dice index of each WM parcel across animals in common space) was assessed. The Dice indices range from 0.05 to 0.80 due to differences of local registration quality and the variation of WM tract position across individuals. However, the combined WM labels from the 3 animals represent the general locations of WM parcels, adding basic connectivity information to the atlas.

  13. Late winter and early spring home range and habitat use of the endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel in western North Carolina

    Treesearch

    W. Mark Ford; Christine A. Kelly; Jane L. Rodrigue; Richard H. Odom; Douglas Newcomb; L. Michelle Gilley; Corrine A. Diggins

    2014-01-01

    The Carolina northern flying squirrel Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus is an endangered subspecies that is restricted to high elevation forests in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Owing to rugged terrain and nocturnal habits, the subspecies' natural history, home range characteristics and habitat preferences are poorly known. We radio-tracked 3...

  14. Uncertainties in Earthquake Loss Analysis: A Case Study From Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdyiar, M.; Guin, J.

    2005-12-01

    Probabilistic earthquake hazard and loss analyses play important roles in many areas of risk management, including earthquake related public policy and insurance ratemaking. Rigorous loss estimation for portfolios of properties is difficult since there are various types of uncertainties in all aspects of modeling and analysis. It is the objective of this study to investigate the sensitivity of earthquake loss estimation to uncertainties in regional seismicity, earthquake source parameters, ground motions, and sites' spatial correlation on typical property portfolios in Southern California. Southern California is an attractive region for such a study because it has a large population concentration exposed to significant levels of seismic hazard. During the last decade, there have been several comprehensive studies of most regional faults and seismogenic sources. There have also been detailed studies on regional ground motion attenuations and regional and local site responses to ground motions. This information has been used by engineering seismologists to conduct regional seismic hazard and risk analysis on a routine basis. However, one of the more difficult tasks in such studies is the proper incorporation of uncertainties in the analysis. From the hazard side, there are uncertainties in the magnitudes, rates and mechanisms of the seismic sources and local site conditions and ground motion site amplifications. From the vulnerability side, there are considerable uncertainties in estimating the state of damage of buildings under different earthquake ground motions. From an analytical side, there are challenges in capturing the spatial correlation of ground motions and building damage, and integrating thousands of loss distribution curves with different degrees of correlation. In this paper we propose to address some of these issues by conducting loss analyses of a typical small portfolio in southern California, taking into consideration various source and ground

  15. 8. Photocopy of drawing (from California State Library) 'Drawn from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopy of drawing (from California State Library) 'Drawn from Nature by Hugo Hochholzer,' ca. 1860s 'VIEW OF BENICIA ARSENAL GROUNDS LOOKING S.E.' - Benicia Arsenal, Benicia Industrial Park, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  16. Comparison of survey techniques on detection of northern flying squirrels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diggins, Corinne A.; Gilley, L. Michelle; Kelly, Christine A.; Ford, W. Mark

    2016-01-01

    The ability to detect a species is central to the success of monitoring for conservation and management purposes, especially if the species is rare or endangered. Traditional methods, such as live capture, can be labor-intensive, invasive, and produce low detection rates. Technological advances and new approaches provide opportunities to more effectively survey for species both in terms of accuracy and efficiency than previous methods. We conducted a pilot comparison study of a traditional technique (live-trapping) and 2 novel noninvasive techniques (camera-trapping and ultrasonic acoustic surveys) on detection rates of the federally endangered Carolina northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus coloratus) in occupied habitat within the Roan Mountain Highlands of North Carolina, USA. In 2015, we established 3 5 × 5 live-trapping grids (6.5 ha) with 4 camera traps and 4 acoustic detectors systematically embedded in each grid. All 3 techniques were used simultaneously during 2 4-day survey periods. We compared techniques by assessing probability of detection (POD), latency to detection (LTD; i.e., no. of survey nights until initial detection), and survey effort. Acoustics had the greatest POD (0.37 ± 0.06 SE), followed by camera traps (0.30 ± 0.06) and live traps (0.01 ± 0.005). Acoustics had a lower LTD than camera traps (P = 0.017), where average LTD was 1.5 nights for acoustics and 3.25 nights for camera traps. Total field effort was greatest with live traps (111.9 hr) followed by acoustics (8.4 hr) and camera traps (9.6 hr), although processing and examination for data of noninvasive techniques made overall effort similar among the 3 methods. This pilot study demonstrated that both noninvasive methods were better rapid-assessment detection techniques for flying squirrels than live traps. However, determining seasonal effects between survey techniques and further development of protocols for both noninvasive techniques is

  17. Ground-water quality in the Santa Ana Watershed, California : overview and data summary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamlin, Scott N.; Belitz, Kenneth; Kraja, Sarah; Dawson, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    Water-quality samples were collected from 207 wells in the Santa Ana Basin in the Coastal Range Province of southern California to assess the occurrence and distribution of dissolved constituents in ground water as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. These wells were sampled during eight studies from 1999 to 2001 that were designed to sample the used water resource at different scales: (1) three studies characterized water quality at a regional scale; (2) two studies focused on spatial and temporal variations in water quality along flow paths; (3) a land-use study focused on evaluation of water quality in shallow ground water; and (4) two studies assessed aquifer susceptibility to contamination. The Santa Ana Basin is divided into the Coastal Basin, the Inland Basin, and the San Jacinto Basin. The Coastal Basin includes a relatively small unconfined recharge area and a relatively large confined area where ground-water pumping is the primary source of discharge. Land use is almost entirely urban. The Inland Basin is predominantly unconfined and land use is urban and agricultural. The San Jacinto Basin is largely unconfined and land use is mostly agricultural. Water-quality data discussed in this report are compared with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) drinking-water standards, both primary and secondary. Most exceedances of maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) occurred in the shallow, coastal monitoring wells that tap ground water not used for water supply. Water from several irrigation wells in the Inland and San Jacinto basins exceeded the 10 mg/L (milligrams per liter) MCL for nitrate. Water from some wells exceeded secondary MCLs for manganese (50 ?g/L [micrograms per liter]) and iron (300 ?g/L) and (or) proposed MCLs for arsenic (10 ?g/L) and uranium (30 ?g/L). Of the 94 production wells sampled for trace elements, 3 irrigation wells in the Coastal Basin produced water that exceeded the secondary MCL

  18. Regional water table (2004) and water-level changes in the Mojave River and Morongo ground-water basins, Southwestern Mojave Desert, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stamos, Christina L.; Huff, Julia A.; Predmore, Steven K.; Clark, Dennis A.

    2004-01-01

    The Mojave River and Morongo ground-water basins are in the southwestern part of the Mojave Desert in southern California. Ground water from these basins supplies a major part of the water requirements for the region. The continuous population growth in this area has resulted in ever-increasing demands on local ground-water resources. The collection and interpretation of ground-water data helps local water districts, military bases, and private citizens gain a better understanding of the ground-water flow systems, and consequently, water availability. During March and April 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey and other agencies made almost 900 water-level measurements in about 740 wells in the Mojave River and Morongo ground-water basins. These data document recent conditions and, when compared with historical data, changes in ground-water levels. A water-level contour map was drawn using data from 500 wells, providing coverage for most of the basins. In addition, 26 long-term (as much as 74 years) hydrographs were constructed which show water-level conditions throughout the basins, 9 short-term (1992 to 2004) hydrographs were constructed which show the effects of recharge and discharge along the Mojave River, and a water-level-change map was compiled to compare 2002 and 2004 water levels throughout the basins. The water-level change data show that in the Mojave River ground-water basin, more than one half (102) of the wells had water-level declines of 0.5 ft or more and almost one fifth (32) of the wells had declines greater than 5 ft. between 2002 and 2004. The water-level change data also show that about one tenth (17) of the wells compared in the Mojave River ground-water basin had water level increases of 0.5 ft or more. Most of the water-level increases were the result of stormflow in the Mojave River during March 2004, which resulted in recharge to wells in the floodplain aquifer mainly along the river in the Alto subarea and the Transition zone, and along the

  19. Early adaptation to altered gravitational environments in the squirrel monkey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The feeding behavior of two squirrel monkeys flown in Spacelab 3 is compared to that of six monkeys exposed to 1.5 G through centrifugation. The monkeys in the centrifugation study were housed unrestrained in cages, maintained at 25 C + or - 1 C, exposed to a 12:12 light/dark cycle, and had unrestrained access to food and water. The Spacelab monkeys were maintained at 26 C, exposed to a 12:12 light/dark cycle and had unlimited food and water. It is observed that the centrifuge rats displayed a change in feeding behavior for 4 days prior to resuming a normal pattern; one Spacelab monkey exhibited a 6 day depression before recover to control levels, and the feeding pattern of the second monkey was not influenced by the environment. It is noted that the effect of an altered dynamic environment is variable on the feeding behavior of individual monkeys.

  20. Estimating the effects of harmonic voltage fluctuations on the temperature rise of squirrel-cage motors

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Emanuel, A.E.

    1991-03-01

    This article presents a preliminary analysis of the effect of randomly varying harmonic voltages on the temperature rise of squirrel-cage motors. The stochastic process of random variations of harmonic voltages is defined by means of simple statistics (mean, standard deviation, type of distribution). Computational models based on a first-order approximation of the motor losses and on the Monte Carlo method yield results which prove that equipment with large thermal time-constant is capable of withstanding for a short period of time larger distortions than THD = 5%.

  1. Availability of groundwater data for California, water year 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ray, Mary; Orlando, Patricia v.P.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Federal, State, and local agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the groundwater resources of California each water year (October 1-September 30). These data constitute a valuable database for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. This Fact Sheet serves as an index to groundwater data for Water Year 2010. It contains a map of California showing the number of wells (by county) with available water-level or water-quality data for Water Year 2010 (fig. 1) and instructions for obtaining this and other groundwater information contained in the databases of the U.S. Geological Survey, California Water Science Center. From 1985 to 1993, data were published in the annual report "Water Resources Data for California, Volume 5. Ground-Water Data"; prior to 1985, the data were published in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Papers.

  2. Data logging of body temperatures provides precise information on phenology of reproductive events in a free-living arctic hibernator

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, C.T.; Sheriff, M.J.; Schmutz, J.A.; Kohl, F.; Toien, O.; Buck, C.L.; Barnes, B.M.

    2011-01-01

    Precise measures of phenology are critical to understanding how animals organize their annual cycles and how individuals and populations respond to climate-induced changes in physical and ecological stressors. We show that patterns of core body temperature (T b) can be used to precisely determine the timing of key seasonal events including hibernation, mating and parturition, and immergence and emergence from the hibernacula in free-living arctic ground squirrels (Urocitellus parryii). Using temperature loggers that recorded T b every 20 min for up to 18 months, we monitored core T b from three females that subsequently gave birth in captivity and from 66 female and 57 male ground squirrels free-living in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range Alaska. In addition, dates of emergence from hibernation were visually confirmed for four free-living male squirrels. Average T b in captive females decreased by 0.5–1.0°C during gestation and abruptly increased by 1–1.5°C on the day of parturition. In free-living females, similar shifts in T b were observed in 78% (n = 9) of yearlings and 94% (n = 31) of adults; females without the shift are assumed not to have given birth. Three of four ground squirrels for which dates of emergence from hibernation were visually confirmed did not exhibit obvious diurnal rhythms in T b until they first emerged onto the surface when T b patterns became diurnal. In free-living males undergoing reproductive maturation, this pre-emergence euthermic interval averaged 20.4 days (n = 56). T b-loggers represent a cost-effective and logistically feasible method to precisely investigate the phenology of reproduction and hibernation in ground squirrels.

  3. Environmental Assessment for Education Center Buckley Air Force Base, Colorado

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    Fraxinus pennsylvanica), honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos), Colorado blue spruce (Picea pungens), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), Siberian elm...thirteen-lined ground squirrel (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus), fox squirrel (Sciurus niger), deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus), and prairie vole...Unlikely; occurs on eastern plains of Colorado in areas of native prairie. No observations at Buckley AFB. Preble’s meadow jumping mouse Zapus

  4. Home range and habitat use of the Vulnerable Virginia northern flying squirrel Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus in the Central Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Treesearch

    Jennifer M. Menzel; W. Mark Ford; John W. Edwards; Tamara M. Terry

    2006-01-01

    The Virginia northern flying squirrel Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus is a Vulnerable sciurid that has experienced a 90% reduction of suitable high elevation boreal montane forest habitat over the last century in the central Appalachians of West Virginia and Virginia, USA. Using radiotelemetry and GIs analyses we examined the species' home range size...

  5. Is there room for all of us? Renewable energy and Xerospermophilus mohavensis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Inman, Richard D.; Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Leitner, Philip; Matocq, Marjorie D.; Weisberg, Peter J.; Dilts, Tomas E.; Vandergast, Amy G.

    2013-01-01

    Mohave ground squirrels Xerospermophilus mohavensis Merriam are small ground-dwelling rodents that have a highly restricted range in the northwest Mojave Desert, California, USA. Their small natural range is further reduced by habitat loss from agriculture, urban development, military training and recreational activities. Development of wind and solar resources for renewable energy has the potential to further reduce existing habitat. We used maximum entropy habitat models with observation data to describe current potential habitat in the context of future renewable energy development in the region. While 16% of historic habitat has been impacted by, or lost to, urbanization at present, an additional 10% may be affected by renewable energy development in the near future. Our models show that X. mohavensis habitat suitability is higher in areas slated for renewable energy development than in surrounding areas. We provide habitat maps that can be used to develop sampling designs, evaluate conservation corridors and inform development planning in the region.

  6. A 3D high resolution ex vivo white matter atlas of the common squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) based on diffusion tensor imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yurui; Parvathaneni, Prasanna; Schilling, Kurt G.; Wang, Feng; Stepniewska, Iwona; Xu, Zhoubing; Choe, Ann S.; Ding, Zhaohua; Gore, John C.; Chen, Li Min; Landman, Bennett A.; Anderson, Adam W.

    2016-01-01

    Modern magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain atlases are high quality 3-D volumes with specific structures labeled in the volume. Atlases are essential in providing a common space for interpretation of results across studies, for anatomical education, and providing quantitative image-based navigation. Extensive work has been devoted to atlas construction for humans, macaque, and several non-primate species (e.g., rat). One notable gap in the literature is the common squirrel monkey – for which the primary published atlases date from the 1960’s. The common squirrel monkey has been used extensively as surrogate for humans in biomedical studies, given its anatomical neuro-system similarities and practical considerations. This work describes the continued development of a multi-modal MRI atlas for the common squirrel monkey, for which a structural imaging space and gray matter parcels have been previously constructed. This study adds white matter tracts to the atlas. The new atlas includes 49 white matter (WM) tracts, defined using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in three animals and combines these data to define the anatomical locations of these tracks in a standardized coordinate system compatible with previous development. An anatomist reviewed the resulting tracts and the inter-animal reproducibility (i.e., the Dice index of each WM parcel across animals in common space) was assessed. The Dice indices range from 0.05 to 0.80 due to differences of local registration quality and the variation of WM tract position across individuals. However, the combined WM labels from the 3 animals represent the general locations of WM parcels, adding basic connectivity information to the atlas. PMID:27064328

  7. WHITTIER NARROWS, CALIFORNIA EARTHQUAKE OF OCTOBER 1, 1987-PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF STRONG GROUND MOTION RECORDS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brady, A.G.; Etheredge, E.C.; Porcella, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    More than 250 strong-motion accelerograph stations were triggered by the Whittier Narrows, California earthquake of 1 October 1987. Considering the number of multichannel structural stations in the area of strong shaking, this set of records is one of the more significant in history. Three networks, operated by the U. S. Geological Survey, the California Division of Mines and Geology, and the University of Southern California produced the majority of the records. The excellent performance of the instruments in these and the smaller arrays is attributable to the quality of the maintenance programs. Readiness for a magnitude 8 event is directly related to these maintenance programs. Prior to computer analysis of the analog film records, a number of important structural resonant modes can be identified, and frequencies and simple mode shapes have been scaled.

  8. Using field data to assess model predictions of surface and ground fuel consumption by wildfire in coniferous forests of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lydersen, Jamie M.; Collins, Brandon M.; Ewell, Carol M.; Reiner, Alicia L.; Fites, Jo Ann; Dow, Christopher B.; Gonzalez, Patrick; Saah, David S.; Battles, John J.

    2014-03-01

    Inventories of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from wildfire provide essential information to the state of California, USA, and other governments that have enacted emission reductions. Wildfires can release a substantial amount of GHGs and other compounds to the atmosphere, so recent increases in fire activity may be increasing GHG emissions. Quantifying wildfire emissions however can be difficult due to inherent variability in fuel loads and consumption and a lack of field data of fuel consumption by wildfire. We compare a unique set of fuel data collected immediately before and after six wildfires in coniferous forests of California to fuel consumption predictions of the first-order fire effects model (FOFEM), based on two different available fuel characterizations. We found strong regional differences in the performance of different fuel characterizations, with FOFEM overestimating the fuel consumption to a greater extent in the Klamath Mountains than in the Sierra Nevada. Inaccurate fuel load inputs caused the largest differences between predicted and observed fuel consumption. Fuel classifications tended to overestimate duff load and underestimate litter load, leading to differences in predicted emissions for some pollutants. When considering total ground and surface fuels, modeled consumption was fairly accurate on average, although the range of error in estimates of plot level consumption was very large. These results highlight the importance of fuel load input to the accuracy of modeled fuel consumption and GHG emissions from wildfires in coniferous forests.

  9. Background and stimulus-induced patterns of high metabolic activity in the visual cortex (area 17) of the squirrel and macaque monkey

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Humphrey, A.L.; Hendrickson, A.E.

    1983-02-01

    We have used 2-deoxy-D-(/sup 14/C)glucose (2-DG) autoradiography and cytochrome oxidase histochemistry to examine background and stimulus-induced patterns of metabolic activity in monkey striate cortex. In