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Sample records for caligus rogercresseyi copepoda

  1. In silico characterization of the peptidome of the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi (Crustacea, Copepoda).

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E

    2014-08-01

    Copepods of the order Siphonostomatoida are a major concern for commercial aquaculture as many farmed fish serve as hosts for these parasitic crustaceans. Caligus rogercresseyi, a member of the Siphonostomatoida, is a significant problem for salmonid aquaculture in the Southern Hemisphere, and as such, a search for methods for controlling infestations of it is ongoing. One possibility for biological control of this and other copepod ectoparasites is endocrine manipulation. However, little is known about the native endocrine signaling systems in these animals. As part of an ongoing effort to characterize crustacean ectoparasite peptidergic systems, the publicly accessible C. rogercresseyi transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) was mined for peptide-encoding transcripts. Using the identified TSA sequences, precursor proteins were deduced and their mature peptides predicted. Thirty-three peptide-encoding transcripts were identified within the Caligus TSA dataset, with the structures of 131 distinct peptides characterized from the deduced pre/preprohormones. The predicted peptides included isoforms of allatostatin A, allatostatin B, bursicon α, bursicon β, corazonin, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone, diuretic hormone 31, DXXRLamide, FLRFamide, FXGGXamide, GSEFLamide, insulin-like peptide (ILP), intocin, leucokinin, molt-inhibiting hormone, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F (NPF), orcokinin and tachykinin-related peptide. The predicted ILPs are of particular note as they are the first members of this peptide family identified from a copepod. Similarly, the predicted complement of four distinct NPFs is larger than that known from other crustaceans. Taken collectively, these data greatly expand the known C. rogercresseyi peptidome and provide a foundation for initiating studies of peptidergic control in this species.

  2. Transcriptome survey of the lipid metabolic pathways involved in energy production and ecdysteroid synthesis in the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi (Crustacea: Copepoda).

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Ana Teresa; Farlora, Rodolfo; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2014-10-01

    The goal of this study was to identify and analyze the lipid metabolic pathways involved in energy production and ecdysteroid synthesis in the ectoparasite copepod Caligus rogercresseyi. Massive transcriptome sequencing analysis was performed during the infectious copepodid larval stage, during the attached chalimus larval stage, and also in female and male adults. Thirty genes were selected for describing the pathways, and these were annotated for proteins or enzymes involved in lipid digestion, absorption, and transport; fatty acid degradation; the synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies; and steroid and ecdysteroid syntheses. Differential expression of these genes was analyzed by ontogenic stage and discussed considering each stage's feeding habits and energetic needs. Copepodids showed a low expression of fatty acid digestion genes, reflected by a non-feeding behavior, and the upregulation of genes involved in steroid biosynthesis, which was consistent with a pathway for cholesterol synthesis during ecdysis. The chalimus stage showed an upregulation of genes related to fatty acid digestion, absorption, and transport, as well as to fatty acid degradation and the synthesis of ketone bodies, therefore suggesting that lipids ingested from the mucus and skin of the host fish are metabolized as important sources of energy. Adult females also showed a pattern of high lipid metabolism for energy supply and mobilization in relation to reproduction and vitellogenesis. Adult females and males revealed different lipid metabolism patterns that reflected different energetic needs. This study reports for the first time the probable lipid metabolic pathways involved in the energy production and ecdysteroid synthesis of C. rogercresseyi.

  3. Novel gene isolated from Caligus rogercresseyi: a promising target for vaccine development against sea lice.

    PubMed

    Carpio, Yamila; Basabe, Liliana; Acosta, Jannel; Rodríguez, Alina; Mendoza, Adriana; Lisperger, Angélica; Zamorano, Eugenio; González, Margarita; Rivas, Mario; Contreras, Sergio; Haussmann, Denise; Figueroa, Jaime; Osorio, Verónica N; Asencio, Gladys; Mancilla, Jorge; Ritchie, Gordon; Borroto, Carlos; Estrada, Mario Pablo

    2011-03-24

    Sea lice (Copepoda, Caligidae) are the most widely distributed marine pathogens in the salmon industry in the last 30 years. Caligus rogercresseyi is the most important species affecting Chile's salmon industry. Vaccines against caligid copepods have the potential to be a cost-effective means of controlling the infestation and avoid many of the disadvantages of medicine treatments. However, research in the development of such vaccines has begun only recently and approaches used thus far have met with little or no success. In the present study, we characterized a novel gene (denoted as my32) from C. rogercresseyi which has the highest identity with the Lepeophtheirus salmonis gene akirin-2. To assess the function of the gene an RNA interference experiment was developed and a reduction in the number of ectoparasites on fish in the my32-dsRNA treated group was observed. The recombinant my32 protein was used in a vaccination-challenge trial to evaluate its ability to protect against sea lice infestations. A significant reduction in the number of parasites per fish was observed at 24 days post-challenge. These results, together with the delay observed in the development of parasites from the vaccinated group suggest that the major effect of immunization was on the second parasite generation. The results of these experiments suggest that the my32 protein may be a promising target for vaccine development to control sea lice infestations in fish.

  4. Prohibitin-2 gene reveals sex-related differences in the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi.

    PubMed

    Farlora, Rodolfo; Nuñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2015-06-10

    Prohibitins are evolutionarily conserved proteins present in multiple cellular compartments, and are involved in diverse cellular processes, including steroid hormone transcription and gametogenesis. In the present study, we report for the first time the characterization of the prohibitin-2 (Phb2) gene in the sea lice Caligus rogercresseyi. The CrPhb2 cDNA showed a total length of 1406 bp, which contained a predicted open reading frame (ORF) of 894 base pairs (bp) encoding for 298 amino acids. Multiple sequence alignments of prohibitin proteins from other arthropods revealed a high degree of amino acid sequence conservation. In silico Illumina read counts and RT-qPCR analyses showed a sex-dependent differential expression, with mRNA levels exhibiting a 1.7-fold (RT-qPCR) increase in adult females compared with adult males. A total of nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified, three were located in the 5' UTR of the Phb2 messenger and six in the ORF, but no mutations associated with sex were found. These results contribute to expand the present knowledge of the reproduction-related genes in C. rogercresseyi, and may be useful in future experiments aimed at controlling the impacts of sea lice in fish farming.

  5. Dispersal of Udonella australis (Monogenea: Udonellidae) between caligid copepods Caligus rogercresseyi and Lepeophtheirus mugiloidis on Chilean rock cod.

    PubMed

    Marin, Sandra L; Carvajal, Juan; George-Nascimento, Mario

    2007-04-01

    Udonella australis is a platyhelminth that lives on the surface of the ectoparasite copepods Caligus rogercresseyi and Lepeophtheirus mugiloidis, which coexist on the Chilean rock cod Eleginops maclovinus. The absence of a planktonic oncomiracidium stage in the life cycle of udonellids may limit their dispersal ability. However, the high prevalence and intensity of U. australis on C. rogercresseyi suggest they have developed dispersal strategies to compensate for the lack of a free-living larval stage. The goals of this study were to determine the main dispersal mechanisms of U. australis in 1 copepod species and to compare the dispersal ability of U. australis between 2 different copepod species. Chilean rock cods were infected with female (without udonellids) and male (with and without udonellids) C. rogercresseyi. Other fishes were also infected with this copepod (with U. australis) and with L. mugiloidis (without U. australis). The dispersal of udonellids among copepods occurs through both intraspecific and interspecific processes. The main dispersal mechanism appears to be copepod mating; contact between same-sex individuals is less important. Intraspecific dispersal seems to be more dependent on the number of udonellids per fish than on copepod abundance, as observed for interspecific dispersal.

  6. Uncovering iron regulation with species-specific transcriptome patterns in Atlantic and coho salmon during a Caligus rogercresseyi infestation.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Muñoz, V; Boltaña, S; Gallardo-Escárate, C

    2017-01-11

    Salmon species cultured in Chile evidence different levels of susceptibility to the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi. These differences have mainly been associated with specific immune responses. Moreover, iron regulation seems to be an important mechanism to confer immunity during the host infestation. This response called nutritional immunity has been described in bacterial infections, despite that no comprehensive studies involving in marine ectoparasites infestation have been reported. With this aim, we analysed the transcriptome profiles of Atlantic and coho salmon infected with C. rogercresseyi to evidence modulation of the iron metabolism as a proxy of nutritional immune responses. Whole transcriptome sequencing was performed in samples of skin and head kidney from Atlantic and coho salmon infected with sea lice. RNA-seq analyses revealed significant upregulation of transcripts in both salmon species at 7 and 14 dpi in skin and head kidney, respectively. However, iron regulation transcripts were differentially modulated, evidencing species-specific expression profiles. Genes related to heme degradation and iron transport such as hepcidin, transferrin and haptoglobin were primary upregulated in Atlantic salmon; meanwhile, in coho salmon, genes associated with heme biosynthesis were strongly transcribed. In summary, Atlantic salmon, which are more susceptible to infestation, presented molecular mechanisms to deplete cellular iron availability, suggesting putative mechanisms of nutritional immunity. In contrast, resistant coho salmon were less affected by sea lice, mainly activating pro-inflammatory mechanisms to cope with infestation.

  7. Stress response of Salmo salar (Linnaeus 1758) when heavily infested by Caligus rogercresseyi (Boxshall & Bravo 2000) copepodids.

    PubMed

    González, Margarita P; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Marín, Sandra L

    2016-02-01

    The year-round presence of ovigerous females of the parasite Caligus rogercresseyi in the fish farms of southern Chile results in a continuous source of the copepodid (infestive) stage of this louse. The short generation time in spring-summer could lead to high abundances of this copepodid, potentially leading to high infestation levels for fish. Knowing how heavy lice infestations affect Salmo salar can help determine how to time antiparasitic treatments so as to both minimize the treatment impact and reduce lice infestation levels for fish. This study aimed to describe the effects of high infestations of the copepodid stage of C. rogercresseyi on the physiology of S. salar. Two groups of S. salar were used: an infested group (75 copepodids per fish) and a control group (not infested). Sixty-five days after the first infestation, the infested fish group was re-infested at an infestation pressure of 200 copepodids per fish. Sampling was done prior to and following the second infestation, at 56 and 67 days (the latter 2 days following the second infestation). Several physiological variables were measured: cortisol (primary stress response) and glucose, proteins, amino acids, triglycerides, lactate, osmolality levels, and number and diameter of skin mucous cells (secondary stress responses). The plasma cortisol, glucose, and triglyceride levels were altered in the heavily infested fish, as was the diameter of skin mucous cells. These results suggest that heavy infestations of C. rogercresseyi lead to an acute stress response, metabolic reorganization, and increased mucus production in S. salar under heavy infestation conditions.

  8. Insights into the olfactory system of the ectoparasite Caligus rogercresseyi: molecular characterization and gene transcription analysis of novel ionotropic receptors.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Marambio, Jorge Pino; Wadsworth, Simon; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2014-10-01

    Although various elements of the olfactory system have been elucidated in insects, it remains practically unstudied in crustaceans at a molecular level. Among crustaceans, some species are classified as ectoparasites that impact the finfish aquaculture industry. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify and comprehend the signaling pathways used by these in host recognition. The present study, through RNA-seq and qPCR analyses, found novel transcripts involved in the olfactory system of Caligus rogercresseyi, in addition to the transcriptomic patterns expressed during different stages of salmon lice development. From a transcriptomic library generated by Illumina sequencing, contigs that annotated for ionotropic receptors and other genes implicated in the olfactory system were identified and extracted. Full length mRNA was obtained for the ionotropic glutamate receptor 25, which had 3923 bp, and for the glutamate receptor ionotropic kainate 2, which had 2737 bp. Furthermore, two other transcripts identified as glutamate receptor, ionotropic kainate 2-like were found. In silico analysis was performed for the transcription expression from different stages of development in C. rogercresseyi, and clusters according to RPKM values were constructed. Gene transcription data were validated through qPCR assays in ionotropic receptors, and showed an expression of glutamate receptor 25 associated with the copepodid stage whereas adults, especially male adults, were associated with the kainate 2 and kainate 2-like transcripts. Additionally, gene transcription analysis of the ionotropic receptors showed an overexpression in response to the presence of masking compounds and immunostimulant in salmon diets. This response correlated to a reduction in sea lice infection following in vivo challenge. Diets with masking compounds showed a decrease of lice infestation of up to 25%. This work contributes to the available knowledge on chemosensory systems in this ectoparasite, providing

  9. Transcriptome immunomodulation of in-feed additives in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar infested with sea lice Caligus rogercresseyi.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Gonçalves, Ana Teresa; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Pino-Marambio, Jorge; Wadsworth, Simon; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2015-11-01

    One of the most significant threats to the Chilean salmon aquaculture industry is the ectoparasitic sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi. To cope with sea lice infestations, functional diets have become an important component in strengthening the host immune response. The aim of this study was to evaluate molecular mechanisms activated through immunostimulation by in-feed plant-derived additives in Atlantic salmon infected with sea lice. Herein, a transcriptome-wide sequencing analysis was performed from skin and head kidney tissues, evidencing that the immune response genes were the most variable after the challenge, especially in the head kidney, while other genes involved in metabolism were highly expressed individuals fed with the immunostimulants. Interestingly, defensive enzymes such as Cytochrome p450 and serpins were down-regulated in infested individuals, especially in skin tissue. Additionally, MHC-I and MHC-II genes were differentially expressed after the incorporation of the in-feed additives, giving some cues about the protection mechanisms of plant-derived compound as immunostimulants for infested salmons. This is the first published study that evaluates the transcriptomic response of sea lice-infested Atlantic salmon fed with in-feed additives.

  10. Iron metabolism modulation in Atlantic salmon infested with the sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus rogercresseyi: A matter of nutritional immunity?

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2017-01-01

    Sea lice are copepodid ectoparasites that produce high economic losses and environmental issues, thus impacting the salmon aquaculture worldwide. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from Northern and Southern Hemispheres are primarily parasitized by Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus rogercresseyi, respectively. To cope L. salmonis infestation, studies suggest that Atlantic salmon can restrict iron availability as a mechanism of nutritional immunity. However, no molecular studies of iron regulation from salmonids infected with C. rogercresseyi have been reported. The aim of this study was to determine if there are differences in the regulation of iron metabolism in Atlantic salmon infested with L. salmonis or C. rogercresseyi. For comparisons, skin and head kidney were profiled using qPCR of 15 genes related to iron regulation in Atlantic salmons infected with each sea louse species in Norway and Chile, respectively. Prior to infestation, no significant differences were observed between fish group. However, genes involved in iron transport and Heme biosynthesis were highly upregulated in Atlantic salmon infested with L. salmonis. Interestingly, hepcidin and Heme oxygenase, a component of the Heme degradation pathway, were upregulated during C. rogercresseyi infestation. Oxidative stress related genes were also evaluated, showing higher transcription activity in the head kidney than in the skin of Atlantic salmon infested with L. salmonis. These comparative results suggest pathogen-specific responses in infected Atlantic salmon, where iron metabolism is primarily regulated during the infestation with L. salmonis than C. rogercresseyi. Feeding behavior, for instance haematophagy, of the infesting sea lice species in relation to iron modulation is discussed.

  11. Deltamethrin resistance in the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi (Boxhall and Bravo) in Chile: bioassay results and usage data for antiparasitic agents with references to Norwegian conditions.

    PubMed

    Helgesen, K O; Bravo, S; Sevatdal, S; Mendoza, J; Horsberg, T E

    2014-10-01

    The sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi is a major threat to Chilean salmonid farming. Pyrethroids have been used for anticaligus treatments since 2007, but have shown reduced effect, most likely due to resistance development. Pyrethroid resistance is also a known problem in Lepeophtheirus salmonis in the Northern Hemisphere. This study describes the development of deltamethrin resistance in C. rogercresseyi based on bioassays and usage data for pyrethroids in Chilean aquaculture. These results were compared to bioassays from L. salmonis from Norway and to Norwegian usage data. Available deltamethrin bioassay results from 2007 and 2008, as well as bioassays from Norway, were collected and remodelled. Bioassays were performed on field-collected sea lice in region X in Chile in 2012 and 2013. Bioassays from 2007 were performed prior to the introduction of pyrethroids to the Chilean market. Both the results from 2008 and 2012 showed an increased resistance. Increased pyrethroid resistance was also indicated by the increased use of pyrethroids in Chilean aquaculture compared with the production of salmonids. A similar trend was seen in the Norwegian usage data. The bioassay results from Chile from 2012 and 2013 also indicated a difference in the susceptibility to deltamethrin between male and female caligus.

  12. Stress response of Salmo salar (Linnaeus 1758) facing low abundance infestation of Caligus rogercresseyi (Boxshall & Bravo 2000), an object in the tank, and handling.

    PubMed

    González Gómez, M P; Marín Arribas, S L; Vargas-Chacoff, L

    2016-07-01

    This study looks at how low infestation loads of adult Caligus rogercresseyi and other stressors affect the physiology of Salmo salar. Experimental fish groups were with (infested) or without (control) exposure to the parasite. The parasite cohort was followed for 78 days post-infestation (dpi), and only adult lice were observed. Additional stressors were applied at 60 and 75 dpi. The analysis included measurements of fish physiology and weight. Low-level infestations by adult C. rogercresseyi for more than 50 dpi induced moderate stress in S. salar as well as a high energy demand and increased small skin mucous cells. Threshold lice loads were identified, and above those loads, a high stress response was observed. Additional stressors altered fish physiology, inducing downregulation of the cortisol response after the first stressor and upregulation after the second stressor, but infested fish responded more strongly. Parasitism by C. rogercresseyi is energetically demanding, affecting the primary and secondary responses (e.g. cortisol and glucose levels), as well as the tertiary response (fish weight).

  13. Evidence for the Induction of Key Components of the NOTCH Signaling Pathway via Deltamethrin and Azamethiphos Treatment in the Sea Louse Caligus rogercresseyi

    PubMed Central

    Boltaña, Sebastian; Chávez-Mardones, Jaqueline; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    The extensive use of organophosphates and pyrethroids in the aquaculture industry has negatively impacted parasite sensitivity to the delousing effects of these antiparasitics, especially among sea lice species. The NOTCH signaling pathway is a positive regulator of ABC transporter subfamily C expression and plays a key role in the generation and modulation of pesticide resistance. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind pesticide resistance, partly due to the lack of genomic and molecular information on the processes involved in the resistance mechanism of sea lice. Next-generation sequencing technologies provide an opportunity for rapid and cost-effective generation of genome-scale data. The present study, through RNA-seq analysis, determined that the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi (C. rogercresseyi) specifically responds to the delousing drugs azamethiphos and deltamethrin at the transcriptomic level by differentially activating mRNA of the NOTCH signaling pathway and of ABC genes. These results suggest that frequent antiparasitic application may increase the activity of inhibitory mRNA components, thereby promoting inhibitory NOTCH output and conditions for increased resistance to delousing drugs. Moreover, data analysis underscored that key functions of NOTCH/ABC components were regulated during distinct phases of the drug response, thus indicating resistance modifications in C. rogercresseyi resulting from the frequent use of organophosphates and pyrethroids. PMID:27187362

  14. Evidence for the Induction of Key Components of the NOTCH Signaling Pathway via Deltamethrin and Azamethiphos Treatment in the Sea Louse Caligus rogercresseyi.

    PubMed

    Boltaña, Sebastian; Chávez-Mardones, Jaqueline; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2016-05-12

    The extensive use of organophosphates and pyrethroids in the aquaculture industry has negatively impacted parasite sensitivity to the delousing effects of these antiparasitics, especially among sea lice species. The NOTCH signaling pathway is a positive regulator of ABC transporter subfamily C expression and plays a key role in the generation and modulation of pesticide resistance. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind pesticide resistance, partly due to the lack of genomic and molecular information on the processes involved in the resistance mechanism of sea lice. Next-generation sequencing technologies provide an opportunity for rapid and cost-effective generation of genome-scale data. The present study, through RNA-seq analysis, determined that the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi (C. rogercresseyi) specifically responds to the delousing drugs azamethiphos and deltamethrin at the transcriptomic level by differentially activating mRNA of the NOTCH signaling pathway and of ABC genes. These results suggest that frequent antiparasitic application may increase the activity of inhibitory mRNA components, thereby promoting inhibitory NOTCH output and conditions for increased resistance to delousing drugs. Moreover, data analysis underscored that key functions of NOTCH/ABC components were regulated during distinct phases of the drug response, thus indicating resistance modifications in C. rogercresseyi resulting from the frequent use of organophosphates and pyrethroids.

  15. Disease Resistance in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar): Coinfection of the Intracellular Bacterial Pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis and the Sea Louse Caligus rogercresseyi

    PubMed Central

    Lhorente, Jean Paul; Gallardo, José A.; Villanueva, Beatriz; Carabaño, María J.; Neira, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Background Naturally occurring coinfections of pathogens have been reported in salmonids, but their consequences on disease resistance are unclear. We hypothesized that 1) coinfection of Caligus rogercresseyi reduces the resistance of Atlantic salmon to Piscirickettsia salmonis; and 2) coinfection resistance is a heritable trait that does not correlate with resistance to a single infection. Methodology In total, 1,634 pedigreed Atlantic salmon were exposed to a single infection (SI) of P. salmonis (primary pathogen) or coinfection with C. rogercresseyi (secondary pathogen). Low and high level of coinfection were evaluated (LC = 44 copepodites per fish; HC = 88 copepodites per fish). Survival and quantitative genetic analyses were performed to determine the resistance to the single infection and coinfections. Main Findings C. rogercresseyi significantly increased the mortality in fish infected with P. salmonis (SI mortality = 251/545; LC mortality = 544/544 and HC mortality = 545/545). Heritability estimates for resistance to P. salmonis were similar and of medium magnitude in all treatments (h2SI = 0.23±0.07; h2LC = 0.17±0.08; h2HC = 0.24±0.07). A large and significant genetic correlation with regard to resistance was observed between coinfection treatments (rg LC-HC = 0.99±0.01) but not between the single and coinfection treatments (rg SI-LC = −0.14±0.33; rg SI-HC = 0.32±0.34). Conclusions/Significance C. rogercresseyi, as a secondary pathogen, reduces the resistance of Atlantic salmon to the pathogen P. salmonis. Resistance to coinfection of Piscirickettsia salmonis and Caligus rogercresseyi in Atlantic salmon is a heritable trait. The absence of a genetic correlation between resistance to a single infection and resistance to coinfection indicates that different genes control these processes. Coinfection of different pathogens and resistance to coinfection needs to be considered in future research on salmon

  16. Identification and Functional Expression of a Glutamate- and Avermectin-Gated Chloride Channel from Caligus rogercresseyi, a Southern Hemisphere Sea Louse Affecting Farmed Fish

    PubMed Central

    Niemeyer, María Isabel; Marabolí, Vanessa; González-Nilo, F. Danilo; Teulon, Jacques; Sepúlveda, Francisco V.; Cid, L. Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic sea lice represent a major sanitary threat to marine salmonid aquaculture, an industry accounting for 7% of world fish production. Caligus rogercresseyi is the principal sea louse species infesting farmed salmon and trout in the southern hemisphere. Most effective control of Caligus has been obtained with macrocyclic lactones (MLs) ivermectin and emamectin. These drugs target glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCl) and act as irreversible non-competitive agonists causing neuronal inhibition, paralysis and death of the parasite. Here we report the cloning of a full-length CrGluClα receptor from Caligus rogercresseyi. Expression in Xenopus oocytes and electrophysiological assays show that CrGluClα is activated by glutamate and mediates chloride currents blocked by the ligand-gated anion channel inhibitor picrotoxin. Both ivermectin and emamectin activate CrGluClα in the absence of glutamate. The effects are irreversible and occur with an EC50 value of around 200 nM, being cooperative (nH = 2) for ivermectin but not for emamectin. Using the three-dimensional structure of a GluClα from Caenorabditis elegans, the only available for any eukaryotic ligand-gated anion channel, we have constructed a homology model for CrGluClα. Docking and molecular dynamics calculations reveal the way in which ivermectin and emamectin interact with CrGluClα. Both drugs intercalate between transmembrane domains M1 and M3 of neighbouring subunits of a pentameric structure. The structure displays three H-bonds involved in this interaction, but despite similarity in structure only of two these are conserved from the C. elegans crystal binding site. Our data strongly suggest that CrGluClα is an important target for avermectins used in the treatment of sea louse infestation in farmed salmonids and open the way for ascertaining a possible mechanism of increasing resistance to MLs in aquaculture industry. Molecular modeling could help in the design of new, more efficient

  17. Transcriptome analysis of the couch potato (CPO) protein reveals an expression pattern associated with early development in the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi.

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Nuñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Chávez-Mardones, Jacqueline; Maldonado-Aguayo, Waleska

    2014-02-15

    The couch potato (CPO) protein is a key biomolecule involved in regulating diapause through the RNA-binding process of the peripheral and central nervous systems in insects and also recently discovered in a few crustacean species. As such, ectoparasitic copepods are interesting model species that have no evidence of developmental arrest. The present study is the first to report on the cloning of a putative CPO gene from the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi (CrCPO), as identified by high-throughput transcriptome sequencing. In addition, the transcription expression in larvae and adults was evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR. The CrCPO cDNA sequence showed 3261 base pairs (bp), consisting of 713bp of 5' UTR, 1741bp of 3' UTR, and an open reading frame of 807bp encoding for 268 amino acids. The highly conserved RNA binding regions RNP2 (LFVSGL) and RNP1 (SPVGFVTF), as well the dimerization site (LEF), were also found. Furthermore, eight single nucleotide polymorphisms located in the untranslated regions and one located in the coding region were detected. Gene transcription analysis revealed that CrCPO has ubiquitous expression across larval stages and in adult individuals, with the highest expression from nauplius to copepodid stages. The present study suggests a putative biological function of CrCPO associated with the development of the nervous system in salmon lice and contributes molecular evidence for candidate genes related to host-parasite interactions.

  18. Caligus sclerotinosus (Copepoda: Caligidae), a serious pest of cultured red seabream Pagrus major (Sparidae) in Korea.

    PubMed

    Venmathi Maran, B A; Oh, Sung-Yong; Soh, Ho Young; Choi, Hee Jung; Myoung, Jung-Goo

    2012-09-10

    Caligid copepods (Crustacea) known as sea lice are pests of cultured fish, causing serious diseases and economic losses in fish aquaculture worldwide. One species, Caligus sclerotinosus Roubal, Armitage & Rohde, 1983 (Caligidae), is considered a serious pest of the highly prized red seabream Pagrus major (Temminck and Schlegel, 1843) (Sparidae) cultured in Japan. Recently, in neighboring Korea, red seabream culture has intensified and almost replaced yellow tail culture. However, until now, there have been no reports on infection of this sea louse from red seabream in Korea. We surveyed 120 (20 fish per month) P. major from a sea ranched Tongyeong Marine Research Center aquaculture facility, Gyeongsangnamdo, Korea for six months in 2011 (June to November). We recorded severe infection by the sea louse C. sclerotinosus on the skin of P. major. Prevalence was 100%, mean intensity 7.06, maximum intensity 49, and minimum intensity 2. Adult females (624), males (219) and few chalimi (5) were observed and identified by their morphology. As an average of all our collections, less than 0.6% of individuals were chalimi. We suggest, therefore, that adults of C. sclerotinosus undergo ontogenetic host switching after their final moult. No infection of C. sclerotinosus was found on wild P. major collected from Tongyeong and Yeosu fish markets on the southern coast of Korea. Severe infection by this sea louse may cause secondary infections of the host. This copepod is already reported from Australia and Japan and hence, this is the first report from Korea. We expect this pest to have an impact on Korean red seabream fisheries equally serious to that being experienced in Japan.

  19. The discovery of the male of Caligus ligusticus Brian, 1906 (Copepoda: Caligidae) parasitic on the sand steenbras Lithognathus mormyrus (L.) in the eastern Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Demirkale, İbrahim; Özak, Argun Akif; Boxshall, Geoffrey Allan

    2015-05-01

    Caligus ligusticus Brian, 1906 (Copepoda: Caligidae), a species of parasitic copepod originally based on females collected from off Genova, Italy, is redescribed based on newly collected specimens of both sexes. The new material was collected from the inner opercular surface of the sand steenbras Lithognathus mormyrus (Linnaeus) caught in eastern Mediterranean waters off the Turkish coast. Inadequately described female structures from earlier descriptions are re-described and illustrated in detail and the male of C. ligusticus is described for the first time. Key diagnostic characters of C. ligusticus are highlighted by scanning electron microscopy observations. A comparative study of the newly collected specimens of C. ligusticus and material collected by A. Brian and stored in the collections of the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris, is also presented.

  20. A new species of Caligus (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida) from the plankton of the Caribbean coast of Venezuela with a key to species

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Camisotti, Humberto; Martín, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Abstract During a survey of the zooplankton community of Bahía Amuay, Venezuelan Caribbean, specimens of an undescribed species of Caligus Müller were collected. It resembles Caligus xystercus Cressey and Caligus ocyurus Cressey, both known only from the Caribbean Sea. The new species can be distinguished from these and other congeners by a combination of characters including the armature of legs 1 and 4, but mainly by its unique female genital complex. This is the first species of Caligus described from Venezuela. The species is described in full and a key to the species of the genus recorded in Venezuela is provided. PMID:22768004

  1. Caligus lini n.sp., a new caligid (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida) parasitic on the brilliant pomfret Eumegistus illustris Jordan & Jordan (Perciformes, Bramidae) of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ju-Shey; Cheng, Yu-Rong

    2016-02-10

    Caligus lini n.sp., a new species of caligid copepod parasitic on the gill rakers and caudal fin of the brilliant pomfret, Eumegistus illustris Jordan & Jordan (Perciformes, Bramidae), is described from fish caught off Tai-Dong, Taiwan. The new species differs from its congeners by its possession of the following, unique combination of features: (1) middle two elements at the tip of leg 1 simple (without accessory process), (2) innermost element shortest and smallest of the four terminal elements on leg 1, (3) leg 4 exopod with an armature formula of I,III, and (4) complex leg 5 represented by 2 seta-bearing processes, a simple anterior process tipped with 1 plumose seta and quadripartite posterior process carrying 3 setae (1 simple and 2 plumose). The new species differs from its closest congener, Caligus tylosuri (Rangnekar, 1956), in the structure of the middle two elements (simple without carrying accessory process) at the tip of leg 1 and a quadripartite (instead of tripartite) posterior process on leg 5.

  2. Epidemiological description of the sea lice (Caligus rogercresseyi) situation in southern Chile in August 2007.

    PubMed

    Hamilton-West, Christopher; Arriagada, Gabriel; Yatabe, Tadaishi; Valdés, Pablo; Hervé-Claude, Luis Pablo; Urcelay, Santiago

    2012-05-01

    Salmon sea lice represent one of the most important threats to salmon farming throughout the world. Results of private monitoring efforts have shown an increase in the number of positive cages and cage-level abundance of sea lice in southern Chile since 2004. As a consequence, the Chilean Fisheries Service implemented an Official Surveillance Program in the main salmon production area of southern Chile to assess the situation of sea lice in fish farms. Results showed that the prevalence of sea lice in the fish farms was 53.4%, ranging from 3.5% in Puerto Aysén to 100% in the Seno de Reloncaví zone. The average sea lice abundance was 11.8 per fish (Geometrical mean (GM)=8.61, 95% CI (2.1-6.9)). The highest levels were found in Seno de Reloncaví (GM=24.99, 95% CI (15.9-39.2)), Hornopirén (GM=14.7, 95% CI (10.4-20.8)) and Chiloé norte (GM=9.75, 95% CI (1-1.9)), and the lowest loads were observed in Puerto Aysén (GM=1.35, 95%CI (1-1.9)) and Puerto Cisnes (GM=1.67, 95%CI (1.1-2.6)). Salmo salar and Oncorhynchus mykiss had the highest abundance levels (GM=6.93, 95% CI (5.7-8.5), and (GM=5.55, 95% CI (3.6-8.5), respectively). O. kisutch showed lower levels (GM=1.34, 95% CI (1-1.7)), apparently being more resistant to infestation. Sea lice in farmed salmon are widely distributed in different zones of southern Chile, and are becoming a serious threat to this industry. Prevalence and abundance levels were found to be generally high, decreasing in southern zones.

  3. New records of sea lice (Copepoda: Caligidae) from marine fishes in Jaramijó, an area with potential for sea-cage aquaculture in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Morales-Serna, Francisco Neptali; Caña-Bozada, Víctor; Mera-Loor, Geormery; Loor-Andrade, Peggy; Fajer-Ávila, Emma J; Ho, Ju-Shey

    2015-02-20

    Farming of finfish in sea cages is gaining popularity worldwide. These systems are a suitable environment for the emergence, establishment and transmission of parasites or pathogens, such as sea lice (Copepoda: Caligidae), known to cause serious diseases and economic losses in finfish aquaculture worldwide. In coastal waters of Jaramijó, Ecuador, there are plans to culture spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) and longfin yellowtail (Seriola rivoliana); however, the information about the occurrence of sea lice on fish from this country is scarce. To address this problem, a parasitological survey of economically important fish caught by artisanal fishermen was conducted between June 2013 and May 2014. A total of 608 fish belonging to 66 species were examined. Sea lice were found on 23 fish species. The diversity of these parasites consisted of 22 species of Caligus and 5 species of Lepeophtheirus. Most sea lice species (66%) occurred in a single fish species only, with low infection levels. The most frequently encountered species were Caligus asperimanus Pearse, 1951, Caligus mutabilis Wilson, 1905 and Caligus rufimaculatus Wilson, 1905. Taxonomic remarks are presented for some of the species recorded during this survey. All but two sea lice records are new to Ecuador, considerably expanding the geographical range of some species.

  4. New records of Caligidae (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida) from the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Maran, Balu Alagar Venmathi; Cruz-Lacierda, Erlinda R; Ohtsuka, Susumu; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2016-10-11

    Parasitic copepods, especially sea lice (Caligidae) are causing economic problems in both aquaculture and to wild fishes around the world, but their study in at least some of the southeastern Asian countries, is still scanty. Here we provide new information on the distribution of 11 known species of parasitic copepods collected from 11 marine fish hosts from Iloilo, central part of the Philippines. Two species of the genus Anuretes Heller, 1865 and nine species of the genus Caligus Müller, 1785 were found to infest these hosts, i.e. Anuretes branchialis Rangnekar, 1953 from Platax orbicularis (Forsskål, 1775); A. plectorhynchi Yamaguti, 1936 from P. orbicularis and Plectorhinchus pictus (Tortonese, 1936); Caligus absens Ho, Lin et Chen, 2000 from Priacanthus macracanthus Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1829; C. asymmetricus Kabata, 1965 and C. coryphaenae (Steenstrup & Lütken, 1861) from Auxis thazard (Lacepède, 1800); C. bonito Wilson, 1905 from Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus, 1758; C. cordyla Pillai, 1963 from Megalaspis cordyla (Linnaeus, 1758); C. cornutus Heegaard, 1962 from Sphyraena jello Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1829; C. epinepheli Yamaguti, 1936 from Scomberoides commersonnianus Lacepède, 1801; C. kanagurta Pillai, 1961 from Decapterus kurroides Bleeker, 1855, D. macarellus (Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1833) and C. hippurus; and C. rotundigenitalis Yü, 1933 from Scatophagus argus (Linnaeus, 1766). Attachment sites included the gill filaments and the body surface. Prevalence and mean intensity of caligids are provided in addition to an update on the checklist of caligids of the Philippines. Although reports on caligids in the Philippines are few, the published records indicate that sea lice are widely distributed throughout the archipelago.

  5. Microcrustaceans (Branchipoda and Copepoda) of Wetland Impoundments on the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    DeBiase, Adrienne E; Taylor, Barbara E

    2005-09-21

    The United States Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina, contains an abundance of freshwater wetlands and impoundments. Four large impoundments, as well as several small, abandoned farm and mill ponds, and about 400 Carolina bays and other small, isolated depression wetland ponds are located within the 893 km2 area of the SRS. Crustaceans of the orders Branchiopoda and Copepoda are nearly ubiquitous in these water bodies. Although small in size, these organisms are often very abundant. They consequently play an important trophic role in freshwater food webs supporting fish, larval salamanders, larval insects, and numerous other animals, aquatic and terrestrial. This report provides an introduction to the free-living microcrustaceans of lentic water bodies on the SRS and a comprehensive list of species known to occur there. Occurrence patterns are summarized from three extensive survey studies, supplemented with other published and unpublished records. In lieu of a key, we provide a guide to taxonomic resources and notes on undescribed species. Taxa covered include the orders Cladocera, Anostraca, Laevicaudata, and Spinicaudata of the Subclass Branchiopoda and the Superorders Calanoida and Cyclopoida of Subclass Copepoda. Microcrustaceans of the Superorder Harpacticoida of the Subclass Copepoda and Subclass Ostracoda are also often present in lentic water bodies. They are excluded from this report because they have not received much study at the species level on the SRS.

  6. Screening of candidate genes encoding proteins expressed in pectoral fins of fugu Takifugu rubripes, in relation to habitat site of parasitic copepod Caligus fugu, using suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Tasumi, Satoshi; Norshida, Ismail; Boxshall, Geoffrey A; Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Yuzuru; Ohtsuka, Susumu

    2015-05-01

    Caligus fugu is a parasitic copepod specific to the tetraodontid genus Takifugu including the commercially important Takifugu rubripes. Despite the rapid accumulation of knowledge on other aspects of its biology, the host and settlement-site recognition mechanisms of this parasite are not yet well understood. Since the infective copepodid stage shows preferential site selection in attaching to the fins, we considered it likely that the copepodid recognizes chemical cues released or leaking from the fins, and/or transmembrane protein present on the fins. To isolate molecules potentially related to attachment site specificity, we applied suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) PCR by identifying genes expressed more highly in pectoral fins of T. rubripes than in the body surface skin. We sequenced plasmid DNA from 392 clones in a SSH library. The number of non-redundant sequences was 276, which included 135 sequences located on 117 annotated genes and 141 located in positions where no genes had been annotated. We characterized those annotated genes on the basis of gene ontology terms, and found that 46 of the identified genes encode secreted proteins, enzymes or membrane proteins. Among them nine showed higher expression in the pectoral fins than in the skin. These could be candidate genes for involvement in behavioral mechanisms related to the site specificity shown by the infective copepodids of C. fugu.

  7. Leaf litter copepods from a cloud forest mountain top in Honduras (Copepoda: Cyclopidae, Canthocamptidae).

    PubMed

    Fiers, Frank; Jocque, Merlijn

    2013-01-01

    Five different species of Copepoda were extracted from a leaf litter sample collected on the top (at 2000 m a.s.l.) of a cloud forested mountain in El Cusuco National Park, Honduras. Three of them, one Cyclopidae and two Canthocamptidae are new to science, and are described herein. Olmeccyclops hondo sp. nov. is the second representative thus far known of this New World genus. Moraria catracha sp. nov. and Moraria cusuca sp. nov. are the first formally described members of the genus occurring in Central America. The concept of a "Moraria-group" is considered to be an artificial grouping and is limited here to the genera Moraria and Morariopsis only. The distributional range of this group is essentially Holarctic, with the mountainous regions in Honduras, and probably in west Nicaragua, as the southernmost limits in the New World.

  8. Microcrustaceans (Branchiopoda and Copepoda) of Wetland Ponds and Impoundments on the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Adrienne E. DeBiase; Barbara E. Taylor

    2005-09-21

    The United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina, contains an abundance of freshwater wetlands and impoundments. Four large impoundments, as well as several small, abandoned farm and mill ponds, and about 400 Carolina bays and other small, isolated depression wetland ponds are located within the 893 km2 area of the SRS. Crustaceans of the orders Branchiopoda and Copepoda are nearly ubiquitous in these water bodies. Although small in size, these organisms are often very abundant. They consequently play an important trophic role in freshwater food webs supporting fish, larval salamanders, larval insects, and numerous other animals, aquatic and terrestrial. This report provides an introduction to the free-living microcrustaceans of lentic water bodies on the SRS and a comprehensive list of species known to occur there. Occurrence patterns are summarized from three extensive survey studies, supplemented with other published and unpublished records. In lieu of a key, we provide a guide to taxonomic resources and notes on undescribed species. Taxa covered include the orders Cladocera, Anostraca, Laevicaudata, and Spinicaudata of the Subclass Branchiopoda and the Superorders Calanoida and Cyclopoida of Subclass Copepoda. Microcrustaceans of the Superorder Harpacticoida of the Subclass Copepoda and Subclass Ostracoda are also often present in lentic water bodies. They are excluded from this report because they have not received much study at the species level on the SRS.

  9. Bioinformatic analyses of the publicly accessible crustacean expressed sequence tags (ESTs) reveal numerous novel neuropeptide-encoding precursor proteins, including ones from members of several little studied taxa.

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E; Durkin, Christopher S; Hartline, Niko; Ohno, Paul; Lenz, Petra H

    2010-05-15

    ESTs have been generated for many crustacean species, providing an invaluable resource for peptide discovery in members of this arthropod subphylum. Here, these data were mined for novel peptide-encoding transcripts, with the mature peptides encoded by them predicted using a combination of online peptide prediction programs and homology to known arthropod sequences. In total, 70 mature full-length/partial peptides representing members of 16 families/subfamilies were predicted, the vast majority being novel; the species from which the peptides were identified included members of the Branchiopoda (Daphnia carinata and Triops cancriformis), Maxillopoda (Caligus clemensi, Caligus rogercresseyi, Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Lernaeocera branchialis) and Malacostraca (Euphausia superba, Marsupenaeus japonicus, Penaeus monodon, Homarus americanus, Petrolisthes cinctipes, Callinectes sapidus and Portunus trituberculatus). Of particular note were the identifications of an intermediate between the insect adipokinetic hormones and crustacean red pigment concentrating hormone and a modified crustacean cardioactive peptide from the daphnid D. carinata; Arg(7)-corazonin was also deduced from this species, the first identification of a corazonin from a non-decapod crustacean. Our data also include the first reports of members of the calcitonin-like diuretic hormone, FMRFamide-related peptide (neuropeptide F subfamily) and orcokinin families from members of the Copepoda. Moreover, the prediction of a bursicon alpha from the euphausid E. superba represents the first peptide identified from any member of the basal eucaridean order Euphausiacea. In addition, large collections of insect eclosion hormone- and neuroparsin-like peptides were identified from a variety of species, greatly expanding the number of known members of these families in crustaceans.

  10. Survey of the metazoan ectoparasites of the European flounder Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758) along the north-central Portuguese coast.

    PubMed

    Cavaleiro, Francisca I; Santos, Maria J

    2007-10-01

    A survey was undertaken to identify metazoan ectoparasite species on the European flounder, Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758), in 4 different locations off the north-central Portuguese coast. Parasites of 7 different taxa were found: Caligus diaphanus, Caligus sp., and Lepeophtheirus pectoralis (Copepoda: Caligidae); Acanthochondria cornuta (Copepoda: Chondracanthidae); Holobomolochus confusus (Copepoda: Bomolochidae); Nerocila orbignyi (Isopoda: Cymotholdae); and praniza larvae (Isopoda: Gnathiidae). Lernaeocera branchialis, a common European flounder parasite in the North and Baltic Seas, was not observed among the surveyed fish. Caligus diaphanus, Caligus sp., and Nerocila orbignyi are new host records. The high prevalence and intensity values recorded for L. pectoralis and A. cornuta suggest that both parasite species are common to the European flounder along the north-central Portuguese coast. In contrast, infection levels with respect to the other parasite taxa were, in most cases, comparatively lower, thereby indicating that they only occur occasionally among flounders in the surveyed area.

  11. Site selection of Acanthochondria cornuta (Copepoda: Chondracanthidae) in Platichthys flesus (Teleostei: Pleuronectidae).

    PubMed

    Cavaleiro, F I; Santos, M J

    2011-07-01

    Acanthochondria cornuta (Copepoda: Chondracanthidae) (N=4841; prevalence: 80·0%; mean±s.d. [range] intensity: 28·8±24·0 [1-110] parasites) infected the branchial chambers of the European flounder, Platichthys flesus (L.), (N=210) according to an established spatial pattern. This was independent of host size. Higher intensities resulted, most frequently, in higher numbers of infection sites, probably due to increased intraspecific competition. Preferential infection of the ocular side was supported by the recorded abundance data and reflected, probably, the fish's bottom-dwelling behaviour. As the parasite develops from one stage into another, it seems to migrate towards different sites: the copepodites and pre-adult females occurred, mainly, in the holobranchs; the adults preferred the internal wall (non-gravid/post-gravid females; adult males) or the pseudobranchs (gravid females). The ventilating water current along with the blood supply are suggested as 2 major factors in determining parasite spatial distribution within the chamber. Parasite crowding in a restricted and narrow space of the posterior region of the internal wall was recorded frequently and resembled that previously reported for the plaice. Differences to other host-parasite systems previously studied should relate with the anatomy of the respiratory apparatus. Bigamous females are reported for the first time.

  12. Establishment of two invasive crustaceans (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) on the nearshore sands of Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horvath, Thomas G.; Whitman, Richard L.; Last, Laurel L.

    2001-01-01

    Benthic copepods (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) in the nearshore sediments of southern Lake Michigan appear to be dominated by two new invasive species. We report the first occurrence in North America of Schizopera borutzkyi Montschenko, a native to the Danube River delta, and Heteropsyllus nr. nunni, likely a new species that is morphologically similar to the marine species Heteropsyllus nunni and represents the first occurrence of this genus in freshwater. Schizopera borutzkyi is a euryhaline species occurring in shallow sands in its native habitat and in deeper sands (6-15 m) in southern Lake Michigan. Based on the absence of these species from previous studies, we suggest that they are recent introductions. Heteropsyllus nr. nunni dominated (55-100%) the harpacticoid abundance to depths of 9 m, but S. borutzkyi comprised 75% of the harpacticoid abundance at 15 m. Native harpacticoids were always greatly outnumbered by invasive harpacticoids in our samples, which suggests that the natives are being replaced rapidly or that the invasive species are finding unused resources. The ecological implications of these introductions are not known, but these invasions may represent continued 'invasional meltdown' in Lake Michigan.

  13. Phylogenetic Information Content of Copepoda Ribosomal DNA Repeat Units: ITS1 and ITS2 Impact

    PubMed Central

    Zagoskin, Maxim V.; Lazareva, Valentina I.; Grishanin, Andrey K.; Mukha, Dmitry V.

    2014-01-01

    The utility of various regions of the ribosomal repeat unit for phylogenetic analysis was examined in 16 species representing four families, nine genera, and two orders of the subclass Copepoda (Crustacea). Fragments approximately 2000 bp in length containing the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) 18S and 28S gene fragments, the 5.8S gene, and the internal transcribed spacer regions I and II (ITS1 and ITS2) were amplified and analyzed. The DAMBE (Data Analysis in Molecular Biology and Evolution) software was used to analyze the saturation of nucleotide substitutions; this test revealed the suitability of both the 28S gene fragment and the ITS1/ITS2 rDNA regions for the reconstruction of phylogenetic trees. Distance (minimum evolution) and probabilistic (maximum likelihood, Bayesian) analyses of the data revealed that the 28S rDNA and the ITS1 and ITS2 regions are informative markers for inferring phylogenetic relationships among families of copepods and within the Cyclopidae family and associated genera. Split-graph analysis of concatenated ITS1/ITS2 rDNA regions of cyclopoid copepods suggested that the Mesocyclops, Thermocyclops, and Macrocyclops genera share complex evolutionary relationships. This study revealed that the ITS1 and ITS2 regions potentially represent different phylogenetic signals. PMID:25215300

  14. Phylogenetic information content of Copepoda ribosomal DNA repeat units: ITS1 and ITS2 impact.

    PubMed

    Zagoskin, Maxim V; Lazareva, Valentina I; Grishanin, Andrey K; Mukha, Dmitry V

    2014-01-01

    The utility of various regions of the ribosomal repeat unit for phylogenetic analysis was examined in 16 species representing four families, nine genera, and two orders of the subclass Copepoda (Crustacea). Fragments approximately 2000 bp in length containing the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) 18S and 28S gene fragments, the 5.8S gene, and the internal transcribed spacer regions I and II (ITS1 and ITS2) were amplified and analyzed. The DAMBE (Data Analysis in Molecular Biology and Evolution) software was used to analyze the saturation of nucleotide substitutions; this test revealed the suitability of both the 28S gene fragment and the ITS1/ITS2 rDNA regions for the reconstruction of phylogenetic trees. Distance (minimum evolution) and probabilistic (maximum likelihood, Bayesian) analyses of the data revealed that the 28S rDNA and the ITS1 and ITS2 regions are informative markers for inferring phylogenetic relationships among families of copepods and within the Cyclopidae family and associated genera. Split-graph analysis of concatenated ITS1/ITS2 rDNA regions of cyclopoid copepods suggested that the Mesocyclops, Thermocyclops, and Macrocyclops genera share complex evolutionary relationships. This study revealed that the ITS1 and ITS2 regions potentially represent different phylogenetic signals.

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of Arctic Calanus hyperboreus (Copepoda, Calanoida) reveals characteristic patterns in calanoid mitochondrial genome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghee; Lim, Byung-Jin; Min, Gi-Sik; Choi, Han-Gu

    2013-05-10

    Copepoda is the most diverse and abundant group of crustaceans, but its phylogenetic relationships are ambiguous. Mitochondrial (mt) genomes are useful for studying evolutionary history, but only six complete Copepoda mt genomes have been made available and these have extremely rearranged genome structures. This study determined the mt genome of Calanus hyperboreus, making it the first reported Arctic copepod mt genome and the first complete mt genome of a calanoid copepod. The mt genome of C. hyperboreus is 17,910 bp in length and it contains the entire set of 37 mt genes, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, and 22 tRNAs. It has a very unusual gene structure, including the longest control region reported for a crustacean, a large tRNA gene cluster, and reversed GC skews in 11 out of 13 protein-coding genes (84.6%). Despite the unusual features, comparing this genome to published copepod genomes revealed retained pan-crustacean features, as well as a conserved calanoid-specific pattern. Our data provide a foundation for exploring the calanoid pattern and the mechanisms of mt gene rearrangement in the evolutionary history of the copepod mt genome.

  16. Taxonomic resolutions based on 18S rRNA genes: a case study of subclass copepoda.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shu; Xiong, Jie; Yu, Yuhe

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity studies are commonly conducted using 18S rRNA genes. In this study, we compared the inter-species divergence of variable regions (V1-9) within the copepod 18S rRNA gene, and tested their taxonomic resolutions at different taxonomic levels. Our results indicate that the 18S rRNA gene is a good molecular marker for the study of copepod biodiversity, and our conclusions are as follows: 1) 18S rRNA genes are highly conserved intra-species (intra-species similarities are close to 100%); and could aid in species-level analyses, but with some limitations; 2) nearly-whole-length sequences and some partial regions (around V2, V4, and V9) of the 18S rRNA gene can be used to discriminate between samples at both the family and order levels (with a success rate of about 80%); 3) compared with other regions, V9 has a higher resolution at the genus level (with an identification success rate of about 80%); and 4) V7 is most divergent in length, and would be a good candidate marker for the phylogenetic study of Acartia species. This study also evaluated the correlation between similarity thresholds and the accuracy of using nuclear 18S rRNA genes for the classification of organisms in the subclass Copepoda. We suggest that sample identification accuracy should be considered when a molecular sequence divergence threshold is used for taxonomic identification, and that the lowest similarity threshold should be determined based on a pre-designated level of acceptable accuracy.

  17. Diversity of the free-living marine and freshwater Copepoda (Crustacea) in Costa Rica: a review.

    PubMed

    Morales-Ramírez, Álvaro; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Corrales-Ugalde, Marco; Garrote, Octavio Esquivel

    2014-01-01

    The studies on marine copepods of Costa Rica started in the 1990's and focused on the largest coastal-estuarine systems in the country, particularly along the Pacific coast. Diversity is widely variable among these systems: 40 species have been recorded in the Culebra Bay influenced by upwelling, northern Pacific coast, only 12 in the Gulf of Nicoya estuarine system, and 38 in Golfo Dulce, an anoxic basin in the southern Pacific coast of the country. Freshwater environments of Costa Rica are known to harbor a moderate diversity of continental copepods (25 species), which includes 6 calanoids, 17 cyclopoids and only two harpacticoids. Of the +100 freshwater species recorded in Central America, six are known only from Costa Rica, and one appears to be endemic to this country. The freshwater copepod fauna of Costa Rica is clearly the best known in Central America. Overall, six of the 10 orders of Copepoda are reported from Costa Rica. A previous summary by 2001 of the free-living copepod diversity in the country included 80 marine species (67 pelagic, 13 benthic). By 2009, the number of marine species increased to 209: 164 from the Pacific (49% of the copepod fauna from the Eastern Tropical Pacific) and 45 from the Caribbean coast (8% of species known from the Caribbean Basin). Both the Caribbean and Pacific species lists are growing. Additional collections of copepods at Cocos Island, an oceanic island 530 km away of the Pacific coast, have revealed many new records, including five new marine species from Costa Rica. Currently, the known diversity of marine copepods of Costa Rica is still in development and represents up to 52.6% of the total marine microcrustaceans recorded in the country. Future sampling and taxonomic efforts in the marine habitats should emphasize oceanic environments including deep waters but also littoral communities. Several Costa Rican records of freshwater copepods are likely to represent undescribed species. Also, the biogeographic relevance

  18. Diversity of the free-living marine and freshwater Copepoda (Crustacea) in Costa Rica: a review

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Ramírez, Álvaro; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Corrales-Ugalde, Marco; Garrote, Octavio Esquivel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The studies on marine copepods of Costa Rica started in the 1990’s and focused on the largest coastal-estuarine systems in the country, particularly along the Pacific coast. Diversity is widely variable among these systems: 40 species have been recorded in the Culebra Bay influenced by upwelling, northern Pacific coast, only 12 in the Gulf of Nicoya estuarine system, and 38 in Golfo Dulce, an anoxic basin in the southern Pacific coast of the country. Freshwater environments of Costa Rica are known to harbor a moderate diversity of continental copepods (25 species), which includes 6 calanoids, 17 cyclopoids and only two harpacticoids. Of the +100 freshwater species recorded in Central America, six are known only from Costa Rica, and one appears to be endemic to this country. The freshwater copepod fauna of Costa Rica is clearly the best known in Central America. Overall, six of the 10 orders of Copepoda are reported from Costa Rica. A previous summary by 2001 of the free-living copepod diversity in the country included 80 marine species (67 pelagic, 13 benthic). By 2009, the number of marine species increased to 209: 164 from the Pacific (49% of the copepod fauna from the Eastern Tropical Pacific) and 45 from the Caribbean coast (8% of species known from the Caribbean Basin). Both the Caribbean and Pacific species lists are growing. Additional collections of copepods at Cocos Island, an oceanic island 530 km away of the Pacific coast, have revealed many new records, including five new marine species from Costa Rica. Currently, the known diversity of marine copepods of Costa Rica is still in development and represents up to 52.6% of the total marine microcrustaceans recorded in the country. Future sampling and taxonomic efforts in the marine habitats should emphasize oceanic environments including deep waters but also littoral communities. Several Costa Rican records of freshwater copepods are likely to represent undescribed species. Also, the

  19. Neuropeptide discovery in Eucyclops serrulatus (Crustacea, Copepoda): in silico prediction of the first peptidome for a member of the Cyclopoida.

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E

    2015-01-15

    Crustaceans of the subclass Copepoda are key components of essentially all aquatic ecosystems as they serve both as the primary consumers of phytoplankton and/or as major food sources for a wide variety of higher-level consumers. The dominant group of copepods in most freshwater ecosystems is the Cyclopoida; members of this order are routinely used as environmental indicators, and some predatory species are used for the biological control of disease-causing mosquitoes. Given their ecological and disease control importance, it is surprising that little is known about endocrine control in cyclopoids. Here, as part of an ongoing effort to identify and characterize the neurochemical signaling systems of members of the Copepoda, the extant transcriptome shotgun assembly for Eucyclops serrulatus, a member of the Cyclopoida, was mined for transcripts encoding putative peptide hormone-encoding transcripts. Via queries using known arthropod pre/preprohormone sequences, primarily ones from other copepod species, 36 E. serrulatus peptide-encoding transcripts were identified. The proteins deduced from these sequences allowed for the prediction of 160 unique mature neuropeptides, including the first copepod isoform of pigment dispersing hormone, as well as isoforms of adipokinetic hormone-corazonin-like peptide, allatostatin A, allatostatin B, allatostatin C, allatotropin, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone, diuretic hormone 31, DXXRLamide, FLRFamide, FXGGXamide, GSEFLamide, insulin-like peptide, intocin, leucokinin, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F and tachykinin-related peptide. These peptides are currently the only ones known from any member of the Cyclopoida, and as such, provide a new resource for investigating peptidergic signaling in this important copepod order.

  20. The complete mitogenome of the whale shark parasitic copepod Pandarus rhincodonicus norman, Newbound & Knott (Crustacea; Siphonostomatoida; Pandaridae)--a new gene order for the copepoda.

    PubMed

    Austin, Christopher M; Tan, Mun Hua; Lee, Yin Peng; Croft, Laurence J; Meekan, Mark G; Pierce, Simon J; Gan, Han Ming

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the parasitic copepod Pandarus rhincodonicus was obtained from a partial genome scan using the HiSeq sequencing system. The Pandarus rhincodonicus mitogenome has 14,480 base pairs (62% A+T content) made up of 12 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and a putative 384 bp non-coding AT-rich region. This Pandarus mitogenome sequence is the first for the family Pandaridae, the second for the order Siphonostomatoida and the sixth for the Copepoda.

  1. A new species of Anchistrotos Brian, 1906 (Copepoda: Cyclopoida: Taeniacanthidae) from the filamentous shrimpgoby Myersina filifer (Valenciennes) (Perciformes: Gobiidae) in Korean waters.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seong Yong; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Doo Nam

    2015-10-01

    A new species of Anchistrotos Brian, 1906 (Copepoda: Cyclopoida: Taeniacanthidae), parasitic in the branchial cavities of the filamentous shrimpgoby Myersina filifer (Valenciennes) (Perciformes: Gobiidae) from Korea is described. The new species is most closely related to A. tangi Venmathi Maran, Moon & Adday, 2014, but differs from it by the following combination of characters in the adult female: the U-shaped rostrum, the distal margin of the anal somite lacks patches of spinules, the proximal segment of the maxilliped is without seta, and the maxilliped claw is armed with long and small naked setae. This is the tenth species of the genus and a key is provided to distinguish all nominal species.

  2. Diversity and large-scale biogeography of Paramesochridae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) in South Atlantic Abyssal Plains and the deep Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheerardyn, Hendrik; Veit-Köhler, Gritta

    2009-10-01

    Multicorer samples for meiofaunal study were obtained within the framework of the international project CeDAMar, at 21 stations occupied during the DIVA and ANDEEP campaigns (2000, 2002 and 2005) to the southern Atlantic Ocean (Guinea, Angola and Cape Basins) and the Southern Ocean (Weddell and Scotia Seas), respectively. A total of 311 adult Paramesochridae Lang, 1944 (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) was extracted from 437 cores obtained during 83 deployments of the corer at depths between 1107 and 5655 m. All specimens were determined to species based on morphological characteristics. They belonged to 19 species and four genera ( Kliopsyllus Kunz, 1962, Leptopsyllus T. Scott, 1894, Paramesochra T. Scott, 1892 and Scottopsyllus Kunz, 1962). Eleven species were restricted to single regions, whereas the others showed a much wider distribution. For example, Kliopsyllus andeep Veit-Köhler, 2004 and Kliopsyllus diva Veit-Köhler, 2005, were both collected from Guinea, Angola and Weddell Abyssal Plains, and Kliopsyllus schminkei Veit-Köhler & Drewes, 2009 occurred in the three West-African basins. This study provides a first insight into the large-scale biogeography of deep-sea harpacticoids, represented by the Paramesochridae, and indicates that distribution ranges, at least in this family, may extend across South Atlantic and Southern Ocean Abyssal Plains.

  3. A new species of Wellsopsyllus (Copepoda, Harpacticoida, Paramesochridae) from the deep Southern Ocean and remarks on its biogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kottmann, Johanna; Kihara, Terue Cristina; Glatzel, Thomas; Veit-Köhler, Gritta

    2013-03-01

    The new deep-sea copepod species of the family Paramesochridae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) presented here was collected during the scientific ANtarctic benthic DEEP-sea biodiversity cruise II (ANDEEP II) to the Weddell Abyssal Plain and western Weddell Sea and the CROZet natural iron bloom and EXport experiment (CROZEX cruise) to the Crozet Isles in the Indian Ocean. The new species has been allocated to the subgenus Wellsopsyllus within the genus Wellsopsyllus Kunz, 1981, based on the 1-segmented endopods and 3-segmented exopods of swimming legs 2-4. Furthermore, the new species shows a 1-segmented exopod of the antenna. Wellsopsyllus ( W.) antarcticus sp. n. can be distinguished from its congeners by its small body size, the presence of two setae on the distal segment of the endopod of the first swimming leg, by the very small furcal rami, the extremely reduced endopods of second and third swimming legs, the reduced mandibular palp and maxillula, as well as by the size and armature of the fifth and sixth swimming legs in both sexes. Difficulties of the placement of the new species into a suitable genus show an insufficiency in the present family classification. In the future, a revision of the genus Wellsopsyllus is essential. With its presence in the western Weddell Sea and the Indian Ocean, the new species may have a wide distribution range. Furthermore, it is the first abyssal species of the genus Wellsopsyllus sampled outside of the Scotia Sea.

  4. EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT AND A QUANTITATIVE MODEL OF PROGRAMMED DNA ELIMINATION IN MESOCYCLOPS EDAX (S. A. FORBES, 1891) (COPEPODA: CYCLOPOIDA)

    PubMed Central

    Clower, Michelle K.; Holub, Ashton S.; Smith, Rebecca T.; Wyngaard, Grace A.

    2016-01-01

    The highly programmed fragmentation of chromosomes and elimination of large amounts of nuclear DNA from the presomatic cell lineages (i.e., chromatin diminution), occurs in the embryos of the freshwater zooplankton Mesocyclops edax (S. A. Forbes, 1891) (Crustacea: Copepoda). The somatic genome is reorganized and reduced to a size five times smaller even though the germline genome remains intact. We present the first comprehensive, quantitative model of DNA content throughout embryogenesis in a copepod that possesses embryonic DNA elimination. We used densitometric image analysis to measure the DNA content of polar bodies, germline and somatic nuclei, and excised DNA “droplets.” We report: 1) variable DNA contents of polar bodies, some of which do not contain the amount corresponding to the haploid germline genome size; 2) presence of pronuclei in newly laid embryo sacs; 3) gonomeric chromosomes in the second to fourth cleavage divisions and in the primordial germ cell and primordial endoderm cell during the fifth cleavage division; 4) timing of early embryonic cell stages, elimination of DNA, and divisions of the primordial germ cell and primordial endoderm cell at 22°C; and 5) persistence of a portion of the excised DNA “droplets” throughout embryogenesis. DNA elimination is a trait that spans multiple embryonic stages and a knowledge of the timing and variability of the associated cytological events with DNA elimination will promote the study of the molecular mechanisms involved in this trait. We propose the “genome yolk hypothesis” as a functional explanation for the persistence of the eliminated DNA that might serve as a resource during postdiminution cleavage divisions. PMID:27857452

  5. Description of Paeon asymboli n. sp. (Copepoda: Sphyriidae), parasitic on Asymbolus spp. (catsharks) and a new host record for P. australis Kabata, 1993.

    PubMed

    Turner, T B; Kyne, P M; Bennett, M B

    2003-11-01

    Paeon asymboli n. sp. (Copepoda: Sphyriidae) is described and illustrated from two female specimens taken from the gills of a grey spotted catshark Asymbolus analis (Ogilby) and an orange spotted catshark A. rubiginosus (Last, Gomon & Gledhill) (Scyliorhinidae) from off southeastern Queensland, Australia. The key features for identification are: a pear-shaped trunk, longer than it is wide, along with a cephalothorax characterised by two large ventral papillae, projecting laterally and supporting a number of secondary lobes; a single mid-line, sub-conical papilla located antero-dorsal to the ventral papillae; an anterior surface bearing two prominent stalked papillae; and an absence of posterolateral lobular processes. P. australis Kabata, 1993 is recorded for the first time from the eastern shovelnose ray Aptychotrema rostrata (Shaw & Nodder) (Rhinobatidae).

  6. Life-cycle of Choniomyzon inflatus Wakabayashi, Otake, Tanaka & Nagasawa, 2013 (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Nicothoidae) with the morphological descriptions of the nauplius, copepodid and adult male.

    PubMed

    Otake, Shusaku; Wakabayashi, Kaori; Tanaka, Yuji; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2016-02-01

    Choniomyzon inflatus Wakabayashi, Otake, Tanaka & Nagasawa, 2013 (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Nicothoidae), an associate of the scyllarid lobster Ibacus novemdentatus Gibbes, was found to pass through at least four developmental stages: nauplius, copepodid I (CI), copepodid II or later (CII+) and adult. Free-living nauplii were observed hatching from the ovisacs of adult females. CI was found on the body surface of both female and male hosts, whereas CII+ and adult were obtained from the female host's egg masses. The life-cycle of this copepod is presumed to be as follows: (i) nauplius develops into CI in the water column; (ii) infective CI settles on body surface of host; (iii) CI moults into the following stage, changing its microhabitat from host's body surface to egg masses; (iv) CII+ develops on egg masses of host until adult stage; and (v) adult female and male mate on the host's egg masses.

  7. Taeniacanthodes dojirii n. sp. (Copepoda: Poecilostomatoida: Taeniacanthidae), from Cortez electric rays (Narcine entemedor: Torpediniformes: Narcinidae) captured in the Gulf of California, and a phylogenetic analysis of and key to species of taeniacanthodes.

    PubMed

    Braswell, Jeffrey S; Benz, George W; Deets, Gregory B

    2002-02-01

    Taeniacanthodes dojirii n. sp. (Copepoda: Poecilostomatoida: Taeniacanthidae) is described from adult female specimens collected from the body surface of Cortez electric rays Narcine entemedor (Torpediniformes, Narcinidae), captured at several locations in the Gulf of California. Taeniacanthodes dojirii is distinguished from its congeners, as well as from other members of Taeniacanthidae, by possessing unimerous fifth legs. A cladistic analysis of the 3 known species of Taeniacanthodes resulted in a single most parsimonious tree (tree length = 18 steps, consistency index = 1) demonstrating that T. gracilis and T. haakeri, both parasites of benthic teleosts, are more closely related to each other than to the new species.

  8. A new species of Eurycletodes Sars, 1909 (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Argestidae) from the southern hemisphere including remarks on the phylogeny of the genus and its subgenera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, Lena

    2011-12-01

    This paper deals with taxonomy and phylogenetics of the genus Eurycletodes Sars, 1909 (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Argestidae). Samples, collected from the southeast Atlantic on board RV "Meteor" during the cruises DIVA-1 (M48/1) and DIVA-2 (M63/2), contain specimens of Eurycletodes. Eurycletodes is characterized as a monophylum by A1 segments III + IV fused, basal seta of md palp lost, exp of md palp reduced to 1 seta or completely lost. Similarly, the subgenera Eurycletodes (Eurycletodes) and Eurycletodes (Oligocletodes) are characterized as monophyletic by the loss of the inner seta on P1 exp2 (apomorphic to E. (E.)) and the absence of the inner seta on P5 endopodal lobe (apomorphic to E. (O.)). Eurycletodes profundus is renamed as E. (O.) profundus. Eurycletodes ephippiger is the only species of the genus without subgeneric designation. Eurycletodes (O.) diva sp. nov. is described. The new species differs from described species of the genus by a larger body size, P5 endopodal lobe only slightly protruding, last segment of A1 with 2 outer setae, furcal rami elongated between setae VII and IV. The occurrence of 2 specimens of Eurycletodes (O.) diva sp. nov. at 2 sites separated by the Walvis Ridge supports the hypothesis that geographic obstacles do not prevent harpacticoid copepods from spreading in the deep sea.

  9. The genus Hatschekia (Copepoda: Hatschekiidae) from pufferfishes (Tetraodontiformes: Tetraodontidae) off the Ryukyu Islands, Japan, with descriptions of four new species and a redescription of H. pholas.

    PubMed

    Uyeno, Daisuke; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2013-02-01

    Four new species of the genus Hatschekia Poche, 1902 (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Hatschekiidae) are described based on female specimens collected from pufferfishes (Tetraodontiformes: Tetraodontidae) caught in coastal waters off the Ryukyu Islands, Japan: H. longiabdominalis sp. n. on Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus), H. geniculata sp. n. on A. hispidus (type host) and A. stellatus (Bloch et Schneider), H. ellipsocorpa sp. n. on A. mappa (Lesson), and H. boonah sp. n. on A. nigropunctatus (Bloch et Schneider) (type host) and A. meleagris (Schneider). Hatschekia longiabdominalis sp. n. and H. boonah sp. n. differ from all other congeners by sharing an unusual, projected abdomen and a fusiform trunk with posterior lobes; these two species are differentiated from each other by the shape of the dorsal chitinous frame on the cephalothorax. Hatschekia geniculata sp. n. can be distinguished by the combination of the following morphological characters: a rhomboidal cephalothorax with a pair of lateral conical protrusions, a cylindrical trunk with posterior lobes and a bent abdomen with a dorsal protrusion. Hatschekia ellipsocorpa sp. n. resembles H. pholas (Wilson, 1906) but can be distinguished from the latter by the possession of one distal and one inner setae on the terminal endopodal segment of legs 1 and 2. Hatschekiapholas is also redescribed based on female specimens from the tetraodontid A. stellatus. At present, 44 nominal species of the genus have been reported from Japan, including four new species described in this paper; 38 of them have been described originally from Japan.

  10. Kliopsyllus andeep sp. n. (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) from the Antarctic deep sea—a copepod closely related to certain shallow-water species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veit-Köhler, Gritta

    2004-07-01

    The international scientific deep-sea cruise ANDEEP-2 (ANT XIX/4) to the Scotia Arc and the northern Weddell Sea in 2002 revealed a new species of the family Paramesochridae (Copepoda: Harpacticoida). Kliopsyllus andeep sp. n. can be distinguished from its congeners by characteristics such as a two-segmented endopod on the fourth leg and an additional seta on the endopod of the third leg. The most striking feature is its strong, flexed, chitinous thorns on the telson. Only three species in the family have such appendages, all of them interstitial, shallow-water species. Because the new species lacks the strong abdominal muscle observed by Kunz in Kliopsyllus furcavaricatus Kunz, 1974, it cannot spread its furcal rami using the thorns on the telson as antagonists the way the shallow-water species does. The furcal-rami spreading system, which is an adaptation to interstitial living, for K. andeep sp. n. is irrelevant, because the species has been collected from muddy sediments. Therefore, the abdominal muscle might have been lost during the species' evolution.

  11. A new species of deep-sea Tegastidae (Crustacea: Copepoda: Harpacticoida) from 9°50’N on the East Pacific Rise, with remarks on its ecology*

    PubMed Central

    GOLLNER, SABINE; IVANENKO, VIATCHESLAV N.; ARBIZU, PEDRO MARTINEZ

    2010-01-01

    Both male and female of the new deep-sea species Smacigastes barti sp. nov. (Tegastidae, Sars) are described in detail. Copepoda is one of the most diversified taxa at deep-sea hydrothermal vents, but only one species of the family Tegastidae has been described from this habitat and other deep-sea environments. Smacigastes barti is the second species of the genus Smacigastes Ivanenko & Defaye, 2004, and was found in artificial substrates deployed in the vicinity of and 0.5 m from tubeworm aggregations at the 9°50’N region on the East Pacific Rise at 2500 meters depth. The derived character states of the new species are the lack of coxal endites on the maxilla, and 2-segmented exopods of swimming legs 2 and 3, the latter being the result of the fusion of the 2 proximal segments. An identification key to all known genera of Tegastidae is provided. Interestingly, the distribution of S. barti showed that it does not tolerate elevated temperatures and/or the presence of hydrogen sulfide or oxygen fluctuations, although both species of this genus were found in deep-sea chemosynthetic environments. PMID:21151830

  12. Molecular Systematic of Three Species of Oithona (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) from the Atlantic Ocean: Comparative Analysis Using 28S rDNA

    PubMed Central

    Cepeda, Georgina D.; Blanco-Bercial, Leocadio; Bucklin, Ann; Berón, Corina M.; Viñas, María D.

    2012-01-01

    Species of Oithona (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) are highly abundant, ecologically important, and widely distributed throughout the world oceans. Although there are valid and detailed descriptions of the species, routine species identifications remain challenging due to their small size, subtle morphological diagnostic traits, and the description of geographic forms or varieties. This study examined three species of Oithona (O. similis, O. atlantica and O. nana) occurring in the Argentine sector of the South Atlantic Ocean based on DNA sequence variation of a 575 base-pair region of 28S rDNA, with comparative analysis of these species from other North and South Atlantic regions. DNA sequence variation clearly resolved and discriminated the species, and revealed low levels of intraspecific variation among North and South Atlantic populations of each species. The 28S rDNA region was thus shown to provide an accurate and reliable means of identifying the species throughout the sampled domain. Analysis of 28S rDNA variation for additional species collected throughout the global ocean will be useful to accurately characterize biogeographical distributions of the species and to examine phylogenetic relationships among them. PMID:22558245

  13. Molecular systematic of three species of Oithona (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) from the Atlantic Ocean: comparative analysis using 28S rDNA.

    PubMed

    Cepeda, Georgina D; Blanco-Bercial, Leocadio; Bucklin, Ann; Berón, Corina M; Viñas, María D

    2012-01-01

    Species of Oithona (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) are highly abundant, ecologically important, and widely distributed throughout the world oceans. Although there are valid and detailed descriptions of the species, routine species identifications remain challenging due to their small size, subtle morphological diagnostic traits, and the description of geographic forms or varieties. This study examined three species of Oithona (O. similis, O. atlantica and O. nana) occurring in the Argentine sector of the South Atlantic Ocean based on DNA sequence variation of a 575 base-pair region of 28S rDNA, with comparative analysis of these species from other North and South Atlantic regions. DNA sequence variation clearly resolved and discriminated the species, and revealed low levels of intraspecific variation among North and South Atlantic populations of each species. The 28S rDNA region was thus shown to provide an accurate and reliable means of identifying the species throughout the sampled domain. Analysis of 28S rDNA variation for additional species collected throughout the global ocean will be useful to accurately characterize biogeographical distributions of the species and to examine phylogenetic relationships among them.

  14. A new species of Pseudomacrochiron Reddiah, 1969 (Crustacea: Copepoda: Macrochironidae) associated with scyphistomae of the moon jellyfish Aurelia sp. (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) off Japan.

    PubMed

    Tang, Danny; Yasuda, Akira; Yamada, Satoshi; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2012-02-01

    A new species of the Macrochironidae Humes & Boxshall, 1996 (Copepoda: Cyclopoida), Pseudomacrochiron aureliae n. sp., is described based on adult specimens extracted from the gastrovacular cavity of the scyphistomae of Aurelia sp. (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) collected in the Seto Inland Sea and Ise Bay off the coast of Japan. The new species differs from its congeners by having the following combination of characters: a caudal ramus with a length to width ratio of 3.1; an accessory flagellum on caudal setae II, III and VI; three apical setae on the maxillule; only setae I and II on the maxillary basis; two short spines on the female maxilliped claw (endopod); an armature of III, I, 4 on the terminal exopodal segment of leg 3; an armature of I, II, 2 on the terminal endopodal segment of leg 3; an armature of II, I, 4 on the terminal exopodal segment of leg 4; and a short free exopodal segment of leg 5 (length to width ratio of 1.4) armed with a long seta and short spine. P. aureliae n. sp. is the first member of the genus reported from off Japan and from the scyphistomae of its scyphozoan host.

  15. A Review of the Aquatic Biological Resources of the Atlantic Coastal Area Off Virginia Beach, Virginia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    K K Penilia avirostris x Podon polyphemoides x COPEPODA Acartia clausi x A. tonsa x x Caligus chelifer x Centropages hamatus x x C. typicus x x C...Euconchoecia chierchine x .4 COPEPODA Acartia sp. x A. clausi X A. danae X 4A. tonsa X *Anomalocera sp. X A. ornata x X_ A. patersonil x Calanus...Eurytemora sp. x E. americana x Labidocera sp. x x L. aestiva x x Mecynocera clausi x Metridia lecens x xINannocalanus mi or x x Oithona sp. x x x

  16. Effect of temperature and salinity on egg hatching and description of the life cycle of Lernanthropus latis (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae) infecting barramundi, Lates calcarifer.

    PubMed

    Brazenor, Alexander K; Hutson, Kate S

    2013-10-01

    The parasite Lernanthropus latis (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae) is a major threat to the sustained mariculture of barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Perciformes: Latidae). We investigated the effect of water temperature and salinity on egg hatching success of L. latis and describe the life cycle for the first time. Wild and sea-caged L. calcarifer examined in tropical north Australia exhibited similar parasite prevalence (range: 80-100%) and mean parasite intensity (range: 3-6), whereas land-based maricultured fish were not infected. Hatching success and time to first and last hatch was determined for a range of water temperature (22, 30, 32 and 34°C) and salinity (0, 11, 22, 35 and 40‰) combinations representing current and predicted climate conditions. There was a significant interaction between water temperature and salinity on the hatching success of L. latis nauplii. Eggs hatched in all temperature treatments, with the greatest hatching success at 30°C and 32°C (98 and 92% success, respectively) in 35‰. Hatching did not occur at 0‰ and was severely reduced at 11‰ (1.6% success). Hatching began within 6h at all water temperatures with >95% of eggs hatched within 30h at 30, 32 and 34°C and within 60h at 22°C. Adult parasites differed from the original description by the presence of the parabasal flagellum, small setae on the legs and caudal rami and minor incongruences regarding morphological measurements. The life cycle of L. latis includes three free living stages and five parasitic stages. Although L. latis exhibits broad environmental tolerance, freshwater can be used as an effective management strategy to break the life cycle in aquaculture.

  17. A new species of Paramacrochiron (Copepoda: Cyclopoida: Macrochironidae) associated with the rhizostome medusa Rhopilema hispidum collected from the Gulf of Thailand, with a phylogenetic analysis of the family Macrochironidae.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Susumu; Boxshall, Geoffrey A; Srinui, Khwanruan

    2012-02-01

    Paramacrochiron thailandicum n. sp. (Copepoda: Cyclopoida: Macrochironidae) is described from the rhizostome medusa Rhopilema hispidum occurring in the Gulf of Thailand. The new species is distinguishable from other congeners mainly by detailed features of the fourth legs and the urosome in both sexes. Copepodid and adult stages of the genus Paramacrochiron seem to be host-specific to rhizostome medusae, but may spend periods free in the plankton or benthos during the absence of the host. A cladistic analysis shows that the Macrochironidae comprises two main lineages. Paramacrochiron is recovered as a monophyletic group, located on one lineage together with Pseudomacrochiron, which appears as a paraphyletic taxon with the limited character set used. The other main lineage comprises the genera Macrochiron and Sewellochiron, but the sole species of the latter genus, Sewellochiron fidens, is nested within Macrochiron. This analysis provides little support for maintaining Sewellochiron as a separate genus.

  18. Systematics of the Phyllognathopodidae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida): re-examination of Phyllognathopus viguieri (Maupas, 1892) and Parbatocamptus jochenmartensi Dumont and Maas, 1988, proposal of a new genus for hyllognathopus bassoti Rouch, 1972, and description of a new species of Phyllognathopus

    PubMed Central

    Galassi, Diana M. P.; Laurentiis, Paola De; Fiasca, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The family Phyllognathopodidae (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida) is heavily affected by the floating taxonomic status of the type-genus Phyllognathopus. A revision of the different character states displayed by members of the family is presented, and new phylogenetically informative characters are described, enlarging the analysis to the remaining genera of the family, Parbatocamptus and Allophyllognathopus. Phyllognathopus viguieri (Maupas, 1892) and Parbatocamptus jochenmartensi Dumont and Maas, 1988 are redescribed in detail, and Phyllognathopus inexspectatus sp. n. is described from ground water in Italy. The new genus Neophyllognathopus is established to accommodate Phyllognathopus bassoti Rouch, 1972,originally collected from Long Island (Papua - New Guinea), and subsequently recorded also from the Bantayan Island (Philippines), and from the Indian subcontinent. The new genus is presently monotypic and is easily defined by the unique construction and morphology of leg 5 in both male and female, of male leg 6, and by the peculiar ornamentation of male third and fourth urosomites. Biogeographical and ecological considerations are presented for members of the family. PMID:21852916

  19. Seasonality of metazoan ectoparasites in marine European flounder Platichthys flesus (Teleostei: Pleuronectidae).

    PubMed

    Cavaleiro, F I; Santos, M J

    2009-07-01

    Seasonal occurrence of metazoan ectoparasites is described for the first time in marine European flounder, Platichthys flesus (L.). The parasitofauna, in this study monitored during 1 year, was found to be similar to that previously recorded for flounder. Moreover, specimens of Caligus sp. Müller, 1785 and Lepeophtheirus pectoralis (Copepoda: Caligidae), Acanthochondria cornuta (Copepoda: Chondracanthidae), Holobomolochus confusus (Copepoda: Bomolochidae) and Nerocila orbignyi (Isopoda: Cymothoidae), and also, a praniza larva (Isopoda: Gnathiidae), were isolated. From these, L. pectoralis and A. cornuta were the dominant parasites in all samples of flounder, while Caligus sp., H. confusus, N. orbignyi and the gnathiid praniza seemed to infect the flounder only occasionally. As far as the seasonality of infections is concerned, it differed considerably from that described for estuarine environments. Indeed, both prevalence and abundance of L. pectoralis and A. cornuta reached significant peaks in the summer, whereas the literature identifies the autumn as the season of maximum infection on estuarine flounder. Thus, the former period seems more favourable for the occurrence of epizooties of L. pectoralis and A. cornuta in flounder culturing systems running on seawater and operated in the studied or similar environments.

  20. Expression analysis of the Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, TNFα1 and TNFα2 in response to parasites Pseudocycnus appendiculatus (Copepoda) and Didymosulcus katsuwonicola (Digenea).

    PubMed

    Pleić, Ivana Lepen; Bušelić, Ivana; Trumbić, Željka; Bočina, Ivana; Šprung, Matilda; Mladineo, Ivona

    2015-08-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines play an important role in teleost defence against numerous types of pathogens, therefore are often used as biomarkers during various infections. In order to evaluate Atlantic bluefin tuna IL-1β, TNFα1 and TNFα2 induction by PAMPs, we quantified their expression during in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood leukocytes by LPS and Poly I:C. Furthermore, their role in acute and chronic parasitic infection was examined during natural infection of Pseudocycnus appendiculatus (Copepoda) and Didymosulcus katsuwonicola (Digenea), as well as during leukocyte exposure to total protein extracts isolated from two parasite species. Induction of ABT IL-1β and TNFα2 by PAMPs and protein extracts from D. katsuwonicola and P. appendiculatus, as well as during natural infection with two parasites, suggests these cytokines play an important role in inflammation, being engaged in controlling parasite infections, in contrast to ABT TNFα1. Cellular innate response to the digenean D. katsuwonicola showed rather chronic character, resulting with parasite encapsulation in connective tissue. Mast cells, eosinophils, goblet cells, and occasional rodlet cells found at the site of infection, along with the induction of TNFα2, suggest the presence of a moderate inflammatory reaction that fails to seriously endanger digenean existence. In contrast, copepod P. appendiculatus, attached to the gill epithelium by clamping, caused direct tissue disruption with undergoing necrotic or apoptotic processes, and extensive proliferation of rodlet and goblet cells. Differential expression patterns of target cytokines in tissue surrounding two parasites and in vitro PBL model suggest that quality and quantity of tuna immune response is conditioned by parasite adaptive mechanisms and pathogenicity.

  1. Diversity of the Monstrilloida (Crustacea: Copepoda).

    PubMed

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Monstrilloid copepods are protelean parasites of different groups of marine benthic invertebrates. Only their first naupliar, preadult, and adult phases are planktonic. Monstrilloids are currently represented by more than 115 nominal species contained in four genera. Its taxonomic knowledge has been hampered by nomenclatural and descriptive problems derived from their peculiar ontogeny and poor definitions of taxa. One of the most important difficulties is that of matching males to females. The only reliable methods to link the sexes of a species are the confirmation of particular apomorphies shared by both sexes, finding both sexes in the same host or as a pre-copulatory male-female pair in the plankton, or by the use of molecular markers. A general overview of the morphology of the group and its life cycle is provided herein. Recently, upgraded descriptive standards have been established and the relevance of redescribing taxa based on type and museum specimens has been demonstrated. The rate of species description per decade has had several peaks between 1840 and 2010: (1971-1980, 1991-2000, 2001-2010), each related to the activity of a few researchers. An analysis of the world distribution of published records of the Monstrilloida revealed that the Northeast Atlantic is the best studied region (45% of all records), followed by the Northwestern Atlantic (17%); the least surveyed areas include regions of the southern hemisphere (less than 3%). The Northeast Atlantic region harbors the highest number of known species (32 nominal species), followed by the Caribbean Sea/Gulf of Mexico (24), the Mediterranean/Black Sea (19), Indonesia-Malaysia-Philippines region (17), Japanese waters (17), and the Brazil-Argentina area (16). Other than these generalized patterns, little can be concluded concerning the biogeography of the group. Many species records are doubtful or improbable, and purportedly cosmopolitan nominal species are being revealed as species complexes yet to be studied.

  2. Diversity of the Monstrilloida (Crustacea: Copepoda)

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Monstrilloid copepods are protelean parasites of different groups of marine benthic invertebrates. Only their first naupliar, preadult, and adult phases are planktonic. Monstrilloids are currently represented by more than 115 nominal species contained in four genera. Its taxonomic knowledge has been hampered by nomenclatural and descriptive problems derived from their peculiar ontogeny and poor definitions of taxa. One of the most important difficulties is that of matching males to females. The only reliable methods to link the sexes of a species are the confirmation of particular apomorphies shared by both sexes, finding both sexes in the same host or as a pre-copulatory male-female pair in the plankton, or by the use of molecular markers. A general overview of the morphology of the group and its life cycle is provided herein. Recently, upgraded descriptive standards have been established and the relevance of redescribing taxa based on type and museum specimens has been demonstrated. The rate of species description per decade has had several peaks between 1840 and 2010: (1971–1980, 1991–2000, 2001–2010), each related to the activity of a few researchers. An analysis of the world distribution of published records of the Monstrilloida revealed that the Northeast Atlantic is the best studied region (45% of all records), followed by the Northwestern Atlantic (17%); the least surveyed areas include regions of the southern hemisphere (less than 3%). The Northeast Atlantic region harbors the highest number of known species (32 nominal species), followed by the Caribbean Sea/Gulf of Mexico (24), the Mediterranean/Black Sea (19), Indonesia-Malaysia-Philippines region (17), Japanese waters (17), and the Brazil-Argentina area (16). Other than these generalized patterns, little can be concluded concerning the biogeography of the group. Many species records are doubtful or improbable, and purportedly cosmopolitan nominal species are being revealed as species complexes yet to be studied. PMID:21853055

  3. [Marine biodiversity of Costa Rica, the microcrustacea: Copepoda (Crustacea: Maxillopoda)].

    PubMed

    Morales-Ramírez, A

    2001-12-01

    This report is part of a series that summarizes the species and localities of Costa Rican marine taxa. A review of the literature on copepods, both pelagic and benthic for the Pacific and Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, includes eighty species. Sixty seven pelagic species have been found, distributed between sixteen calanoid, one cyclopoid, three harparticoid and four poecilostomatoid families. Moreover, thirteen benthonic species distributed into six families, all harparticoids, are reported. Among the pelagic families, Pontellidae has six species, while Paracalanidae and Eucalanidae had five each. Other families, like Calanidae, Pseudodiaptomidae and Acartiidae had four species and most families only one. Forty five species are reported only for the Pacific coast, thirteen for the Caribbean coast, only nine species occurred in both coasts; being a direct consequence of the more intensive research effort in the Pacific. Pelagic copepod biodiversity reflects different oceanographic conditions in both coasts. Typical estuarine species were found in the lower region of the Gulf of Nicoya, while a mixture of estuarine and oceanic species were found in Golfo Dulce. Diversity in the Caribbean, specially at the Cahuita coral reef is lower in comparison with the copepod diversity found in other regions in the Caribbean sea. This may be due to the high sediment resuspension rate characteristic of the Cahuita coral reef, which could affect the reproduction of many holozooplankters, specially copepods. Although sixty seven pelagic copepod species appears to be in low numbers, in terms of specific biodiversity it is as high when compared to numbers found in other tropical areas. Thirteen species are reported in the literature, all harparticoids. Five species, three sub-species and one genera were new to science. Balacopsylla is reported for the first time from a neotropical regions, while the genus Karllangia, represented by two coexisting species in the Caribbean coast, belong to a few circumtropical-subtropical genera. The most diverse family was Tetragonicipitidae. This is the first effort to summarize the available information about the biodiversity of marine copepods for Costa Rica's coasts.

  4. Phylogeny of the Paracalanidae Giesbrecht, 1888 (Crustacea: Copepoda: Calanoida).

    PubMed

    Cornils, Astrid; Blanco-Bercial, Leocadio

    2013-12-01

    The Paracalanidae are ecologically-important marine planktonic copepods that occur in the epipelagic zone in temperate and tropical waters. They are often the dominant taxon - in terms of biomass and abundance - in continental shelf regions. As primary consumers, they form a vital link in the pelagic food web between primary producers and higher trophic levels. Despite the ecological importance of the taxon, evolutionary and systematic relationships within the family remain largely unknown. A multigene phylogeny including 24 species, including representatives for all seven genera, was determined based on two nuclear genes, small-subunit (18S) ribosomal RNA and Histone 3 (H3) and one mitochondrial gene, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI). The molecular phylogeny was well supported by Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analysis; all genera were found to be monophyletic, except for Paracalanus, which was separated into two distinct clades: the Paracalanus aculeatus group and Paracalanus parvus group. The molecular phylogeny also confirmed previous findings that Mecynocera and Calocalanus are genera of the family Paracalanidae. For comparison, a morphological phylogeny was created for 35 paracalanid species based on 54 morphological characters derived from published descriptions. The morphological phylogeny did not resolve all genera as monophyletic and bootstrap support was not strong. Molecular and morphological phylogenies were not congruent in the positioning of Bestiolina and the Paracalanus species groups, possibly due to the lack of sufficient phylogenetically-informative morphological characters.

  5. Molecular effects of diethanolamine exposure on Calanus finmarchicus (Crustacea: Copepoda).

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Altin, Dag; Booth, Andy; Vang, Siv-Hege; Frenzel, Max; Sørheim, Kristin Rist; Brakstad, Odd Gunnar; Størseth, Trond R

    2010-08-15

    Alkanolamines are surface-active chemicals used in a wide range of industrial, agricultural and pharmaceutical applications and products. Of particular interest is the use of alkanolamines such as diethanolamine (DEA) in the removal of CO(2) from natural gas and for CO(2) capture following fossil fuel combustion. Despite this widespread use, relatively little is known about the ecotoxicological impacts of these compounds. In an attempt to assess the potential effects of alkanolamines in the marine environment, a key species in the North Atlantic, the planktonic copepod Calanus finmarchicus, was studied for molecular effects following sublethal exposure to DEA. DEA-induced alterations in transcriptome and metabolome profiling were assessed using a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) gene library method and high resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS NMR), respectively. Effects were observed on transcription of genes reportedly involved in lipid metabolism, antioxidant systems, metal binding, and amino acid and protein catabolism. These effects were accompanied by altered expression of fatty acid derivates, amino acids (threonine, methionine, glutamine, arginine, alanine and leucine) and cholines (choline, phosphocholine and glycerophosphocholine). Together, SSH and HR-MAS NMR offer complementary screening tools for the assessment of molecular responses of C. finmarchicus to DEA and can be used in the study of other chemicals and organisms. Concentration-response and time-response relationships between DEA exposure and single gene transcription were investigated using quantitative PCR. Specific relationships were found between DEA exposure and the transcription of genes involved in protein catabolism (ubiquitin-specific protease-7), metal ion homeostasis (ferritin) and defence against oxidative stress (gamma-glutamylcysteine synthase, glutathione synthase and Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase). At the lowest alkanolamine concentration used in these experiments, which corresponded to 0.5% of the LC(50) concentration, no transcriptional effects were observed, giving information regarding the lower molecular effect level. Finally, similar transcription patterns were observed for a number of different genes following exposure to DEA, which indicates analogous mechanisms of toxicity and response.

  6. Distant water sailors: parasitic Copepoda of the open ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J. B.

    1998-06-01

    Copepods represent one of the largest groups of ectoparasites of marine fish. They have been extensively studied in coastal waters where they have become major pests in aquaculture. However, there is very little information on the ecology of parasitic copepods of fishes in the open ocean. It is now recognised that oceanographic conditions determine the distribution and abundance of oceanic fish. The same conditions also influence the survival of both the individual parasitic copepod and its species.

  7. Northwestward range extension for Diacyclops harryi (Crustacea: Copepoda)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Janet W.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Bowen, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    A recent find of the groundwater-inhabiting copepod crustacean Diacyclops harryi extended the known range of this species far northwestward, to include northern Ohio and the drainage basin of the Laurentian Great Lakes. The species was previously collected in drainages of the Atlantic Slope from New York to North Carolina. Ostracodes tentatively identified as ?Nannocandona n. sp., and amphipods belonging to the subterranean species Bactrurus mucronatus were also found at the Ohio locality.

  8. Historical biogeography of the neotropical Diaptomidae (Crustacea: Copepoda)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Diaptomid copepods are prevalent throughout continental waters of the Neotropics, yet little is known about their biogeography. In this study we investigate the main biogeographical patterns among the neotropical freshwater diaptomid copepods using Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE) based on species records within ecoregions. In addition, we assess potential environmental correlates and limits for species richness. Results PAE was efficient in identifying general areas of endemism. Moreover, only ecoregion area showed a significant correlation with diaptomid species richness, although climatic factors were shown to provide possible upper limits to the species richness in a given ecoregion. Conclusion The main patterns of endemism in neotropical freshwater diaptomid copepods are highly congruent with other freshwater taxa, suggesting a strong historical signal in determining the distribution of the family in the Neotropics. PMID:25057279

  9. In the shadow: The emerging role of long non-coding RNAs in the immune response of Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Tarifeño-Saldivia, E; Valenzuela-Miranda, D; Gallardo-Escárate, C

    2017-03-31

    The genomic era has increased the research effort to uncover how the genome of an organism, and specifically the transcriptome, is modulated after interplaying with pathogenic microorganisms and ectoparasites. However, the ever-increasing accessibility of sequencing technology has also evidenced regulatory roles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) related to several biological processes including immune response. This study reports a high-confidence annotation and a comparative transcriptome analysis of lncRNAs from several tissues of Salmo salar infected with the most prevalent pathogens in the Chilean salmon aquaculture such as the infectious salmon anemia (ISA) virus, the intracellular bacterium Piscirickettsia salmonis and the ectoparasite copepod Caligus rogercresseyi. Our analyses showed that lncRNAs are widely modulated during infection. However, this modulation is pathogen-specific and highly correlated with immuno-related genes associated with innate immune response. These findings represent the first discovery for the widespread differential expression of lncRNAs in response to infections with different types of pathogens in Atlantic salmon, suggesting that lncRNAs are pivotal player during the fish immune response.

  10. A Comparison of Neutral and Immune Genetic Variation in Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar L. in Chilean Aquaculture Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Portnoy, David S.; Hollenbeck, Christopher M.; Vidal, R. Rodrigo; Gold, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic diversity was assessed in samples of cultured Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., obtained from facilities in Chile between 2005 and 2010, a period of time during which the infectious pathogens Infectious Salmon Anemia (ISA) virus, Caligus rogercresseyi (sea lice), and Piscirickettsia salmonis (salmon rickettsial syndrome) were common. Two panels of microsatellite markers were utilized: one with microsatellites with no known gene associations (neutral) and one featuring microsatellites linked to putative immune-related genes (immune-related). Allelic richness and gene diversity across samples were significantly greater in neutral loci as compared to immune-related loci. Both diversity measures were homogeneous among samples for immune-related loci and heterogeneous among samples for neutral loci. Immune-related loci were identified as FST outliers in pairwise comparisons of samples at a 10-fold higher frequency than neutral loci. These results indicate that neutral and immune-related portions of the Atlantic salmon genome may have differed in response to the gauntlet of pathogens and that monitoring of specific, well characterized immune-related loci as well as neutral loci in cultured species could be useful when disease control and prevention is a goal. PMID:24918941

  11. A comparison of neutral and immune genetic variation in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. in Chilean aquaculture facilities.

    PubMed

    Portnoy, David S; Hollenbeck, Christopher M; Vidal, R Rodrigo; Gold, John R

    2014-01-01

    Genetic diversity was assessed in samples of cultured Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., obtained from facilities in Chile between 2005 and 2010, a period of time during which the infectious pathogens Infectious Salmon Anemia (ISA) virus, Caligus rogercresseyi (sea lice), and Piscirickettsia salmonis (salmon rickettsial syndrome) were common. Two panels of microsatellite markers were utilized: one with microsatellites with no known gene associations (neutral) and one featuring microsatellites linked to putative immune-related genes (immune-related). Allelic richness and gene diversity across samples were significantly greater in neutral loci as compared to immune-related loci. Both diversity measures were homogeneous among samples for immune-related loci and heterogeneous among samples for neutral loci. Immune-related loci were identified as F(ST) outliers in pairwise comparisons of samples at a 10-fold higher frequency than neutral loci. These results indicate that neutral and immune-related portions of the Atlantic salmon genome may have differed in response to the gauntlet of pathogens and that monitoring of specific, well characterized immune-related loci as well as neutral loci in cultured species could be useful when disease control and prevention is a goal.

  12. Metazoan ectoparasites of Atlantic mackerel, Scomber scombrus (Teleostei: Scombridae): macro- and microhabitat distribution.

    PubMed

    Castro, Ricardo; Santos, Maria João

    2013-10-01

    Parasites are affected by the environment where their hosts live, having a specific distribution among their hosts and occupying a well-defined microhabitat. The present work aims to describe the metazoan ectoparasite fauna of Scomber scombrus, namely its distribution at the macro- and microhabitat levels. For that, fish from two different Portuguese regions, Matosinhos (n = 40) and Figueira da Foz (n = 39), were examined for macroectoparasites. S. scombrus of Matosinhos presented four different parasite species, whilst fish from Figueira da Foz presented five species. All parasites belonged to Monogenea, Copepoda, or Isopoda. The main differences between infection levels of fish from the two localities were found in Grubea cochlear (higher infection levels in Matosinhos) and Caligus pelamydis (where the highest values were found in Figueira da Foz). Regarding the microhabitat of the reported ectoparasites, it could be seen that every species has a very specific distribution within the host: G. cochlear and Kuhnia scombri have a preference for the inner medial areas of gills, Kuhnia sprostonae for the pseudobranchs, and C. pelamydis for the internal wall of opercula. The numerical and functional responses to interspecific competition were absent. These results support the idea that the parasite driving forces of community structure are the reinforcement of reproductive barriers and the enhancement of chances to mate.

  13. Factors influencing the long-term dynamics of larval sea lice density at east and west coast locations in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Harte, Anna J; Bowman, Alan S; Salama, Nabeil K G; Pert, Campbell C

    2017-03-21

    Sea lice (Copepoda: Caligidae) are marine copepods that parasitize finfish, and in cases of high infestation can result in severe epithelial damage and mortality. In Scotland, 2 species of sea louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus, pose a significant economic burden to the marine Atlantic salmon aquaculture industry and potentially impact wild salmonids. The purpose of this study was to determine how the density of pelagic sea lice is affected by external variables, in order to improve our understanding of sea lice dynamics. Long-term data from 2 sampling sites on the east and west coasts of Scotland were modelled independently in conjunction with environmental and anthropogenic variables. Statistical analysis identified that at the east coast site, the most influential factor affecting lice density was salinity. On the west coast, salinity, rainfall and farmed salmon production year were most influential. Molecular and morphological techniques also showed that the individuals recorded on the east coast were C. elongatus, a generalist copepod parasite, whereas only the salmonid-specific L. salmonis were found on the west. These results reiterate the role of environmental factors in influencing sea lice dynamics, and that salmonids are the primary hosts of sea lice on the west coast, but there could be non-salmonid host species as well as salmonid species influencing east coast sea lice densities.

  14. Consecutive emamectin benzoate and deltamethrin treatments affect the expressions and activities of detoxification enzymes in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Cárcamo, Juan Guillermo; Aguilar, Marcelo N; Carreño, Constanza F; Vera, Tamara; Arias-Darraz, Luis; Figueroa, Jaime E; Romero, Alex P; Alvarez, Marco; Yañez, Alejandro J

    2017-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) subjected to three consecutive, alternating treatments with emamectin benzoate (EMB) and deltamethrin (DM) during outbreaks of Caligus rogercresseyi in a farm located in southern Chile (Hornopiren, Chiloé), were studied to determine the effects of these treatments on the protein and enzymatic activity levels of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A), flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in different tissues. Consecutive and alternating EMB/DM treatments resulted in a 10-fold increase and 3-fold decrease of CYP1A protein levels in the intestine and gills, respectively. Notably, CYP1A activity levels decreased in most of the analyzed tissues. FMO protein and activity levels markedly increased in the kidney and the intestine. GST was up-regulated in all tissues, either as protein or enzyme activity. When comparing consecutive EMB/DM treatments against previous studies of EMB treatment alone, CYP1A activity levels were similarly diminished, except in muscle. Likewise, FMO activity levels were increased in most of the analyzed tissues, particularly in the muscle, kidney, and intestine. The increases observed for GST were essentially unchanged between consecutive EMB/DM and EMB only treatments. These results indicate that consecutive EMB/DM treatments in rainbow trout induce the expression and activity of FMO and GST enzymes and decrease CYP1A activity. These altered activities of detoxification enzymes could generate imbalances in metabolic processes, synthesis, degradation of hormones and complications associated with drug interactions. It is especially important when analyzing possible effects of consecutive antiparasitic treatments on withholding periods and salmon farming yields.

  15. Feeding behaviour of adult Centropages hamatus (Copepoda, Calanoida): Functional response and selective feeding experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saage, Andrea; Vadstein, Olav; Sommer, Ulrich

    2009-06-01

    The feeding behaviour of adults of the marine calanoid copepod Centropages hamatus was studied in laboratory experiments with ciliates and phytoplankton as food sources. The ingestion rate of algal (flagellates, diatoms) and ciliate prey (oligotrichs) as a function of prey concentration could be described by a Holling type III functional response, with close to zero ingestion rates at concentrations below 5 µg C l - 1 . In general, ingestion of ciliates was higher than ingestion of algae, and maximum feeding rates by adult males reached were half the feeding rates of adult females at prey concentrations exceeding 50 µg C l - 1 . When diatoms and ciliates were offered together C. hamatus (both sexes) fed exclusively on ciliates as long as they contributed with more than 5% to the mixture. This indicates the capability of active prey selection and switching between suspension feeding and ambush predation. Therefore, the feeding behaviour of adult C. hamatus can be characterised as omnivorous with a preference for larger motile prey. This implies a trophic level above two, if there is a sufficient abundance of protozoan food available.

  16. Cyclopidae (Crustacea, Copepoda) from the upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lansac-Tôha, F A; Velho, L F M; Higuti, J; Takahashi, E M

    2002-02-01

    Cyclopid copepods from samples of fauna associated with aquatic macrophytes and plancton obtained in lotic and lentic environments were obtained from the upper Paraná River floodplain (in the states of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil). Macrophytes were collected in homogeneous stands and washed. Plankton samples, taken from the water column surface and bottom, were obtained using a motor pump, with a 70 microns mesh plankton net for filtration. Twelve taxa of Cyclopidae were identified. Among them, Macrocyclops albidus albidus, Paracyclops chiltoni, Ectocyclops rubescens, Homocyclops ater, Eucyclops solitarius, Mesocyclops longisetus curvatus, Mesocyclops ogunnus, and Microcyclops finitimus were new finds for this floodplain. Eight species were recorded exclusively in aquatic macrophyte samples. Among these species, M. albidus albidus and M. finitimus presented greatest abundances. Only four species were recorded in plankton samples, and Thermocyclops minutus and Thermocyclops decipiens are limited to this type of habitat. Among these four species, T. minutus is the most abundant, especially in lentic habitats.

  17. Effect of diurnal temperature difference on lipid accumulation and development in Calanus sinicus (Copepoda: Calanoida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Konglin; Sun, Song

    2016-08-01

    Calanus sinicus, the dominant copepod in the Yellow Sea, develops a large oil sac in late spring to prepare for over-summering in the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM). The lipid accumulation mechanism for the initiation of over-summering is unknown. Here, we cultured C3 copepodites at four constant temperatures (10, 13, 16, and 19°C) and at three temperature regimes that mimicked the temperature variations experienced during diurnal vertical migration (10-13°C, 10-16°C, and 10-19°C) for 18 days to explore the effects of temperature differences on copepod development and lipid accumulation. C. sinicus stored more lipid at low than at high temperatures. A diurnal temperature difference (10-16°C and 10-19°C) promoted greater lipid accumulation (1.9-2.1 times) than a constant temperature of either 16°C or 19°C, by reducing the energy cost at colder temperatures and lengthening copepodite development. Thereafter, the lipid reserve supported gonad development after final molting. Only one male developed in these experiments. This highly female-skewed sex ratio may have been the result of the monotonous microalgae diet fed to the copepodites. This study provides the first evidence that diurnal temperature differences may promote lipid accumulation in C. sinicus, and provides a foundation for future investigations into the mechanisms involved in over-summering in the YSCWM.

  18. [Molecular-phylogenetic analysis of cyclopoids (Copepoda: Cyclopoida) from Lake Baikal and its water catchment basin].

    PubMed

    Maĭor, T Iu; Sheveleva, N G; Sukhanova, L V; Timoshkin, O A; Kiril'chik, S V

    2010-11-01

    Baikalian cyclopoids represent one of the richest endemic faunas of freshwater cyclopoid copepods. The genus Diacyclops Kiefer, 1927 is the most numerous by species number in the lake. In this work, molecular-phylogenetic analysis of 14 species and 1 sub-species from Lake Baikal and its water catchment basin is performed. The regions of mitochondrial cytochrom-oxydase I (COI) and of nuclear small-subunit 18S rRNA were used as evolution markers. In the obtained set of nucleotide sequences of COT gene, an effect of synonymous substitution saturation is revealed. Baikalian representatives of the genus Diacyclops form at phylogenetic schemes by two markers a monophyletic griup, it suggest their origin from a common ancestral form. Preliminary estimate of the age of this group is 20-25 My.

  19. Effects of formaldehyde preservation on biometrical characters, biomass and biochemical composition of Acartia clausi (Copepoda, Calanoida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapiris, K.; Miliou, H.; Moraitou-Apostolopoulou, M.

    1997-03-01

    The effects of formaldehyde preservation on biometrical characters, biomass and biochemical composition of the marine copepod Acartia clausi were studied using the relevant values of fresh unpreserved animals as reference. Acartia were collected in the southern parts of Saronicos Gulf in early May (16.5°C) and late June (21°C). Formalin was found to cause significant shrinkage of cephalothorax length, abdomen length and total length. The sex of individuals, as well as the temperature of seawater at the time of collection seem to influence dimensional losses. Females and animals collected at 16.5°C presented heavier losses. Dry weight is drastically reduced after formaldehyde preservation. Final losses are more severe for females and animals collected at 21°C. Two of the measured biochemical constituents, carbohydrates and neutral lipids, seem to be unaffected by formaldehyde. DNA and RNA although initially affected seem to be stabilized towards the end of the experimental period (30 days). The other biochemical parameters, viz proteins, total lipids and sugars, are profoundly affected by preservation.

  20. A model for studying isolation mechanisms in parasite populations: the genus Lepeophtheirus (Copepoda, Caligidae).

    PubMed

    De Meeus, T; Renaud, F; Gabrion, C

    1990-05-01

    In the Mediterranean, the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus thompsoni Baird, 1850 specifically infests turbot (Psetta maxima L., 1758), whereas L. europaensis Zeddam, Berrebi, Renaud, Raibaut, and Gabrion, 1988 infests brill (Scophthalmus rhombus L., 1758) and flounder (Platichthys flesus L., 1758). Experimental infestation of turbot by copepods from each of the three fish species showed an absence of any physiological incompatibility preventing natural development of the two parasite species, at least on one host species, i.e., the turbot. Moreover, interspecific hybrids were obtained experimentally, which implies that 1) there is no strict genetic barrier between the two species and 2) the natural prezygotic isolation results from a choice of the most favorable habitat. We discuss the origin and possible consequences of the presence, in the Mediterranean, of L. europaensis on brill and flounder, two hosts separated by their taxonomic status and ecobiology.

  1. Chromatin diminution in Copepoda (Crustacea): pattern, biological role and evolutionary aspects.

    PubMed

    Grishanin, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of research on chromatin diminution (CD) in copepods. The phenomenology, mechanisms and biological role of CD are discussed. A model of CD as an alternative means of regulating cell differentiation is presented. While the vast majority of eukaryotes inactivate genes that are no longer needed in development by heterochromatinization, copepods probably use CD for the same purpose. It is assumed that the copepods have exploited CD as a tool for adaptation to changing environmental conditions and as a mechanism for regulating the rate of evolutionary processes.

  2. Effects of naphthalene on gene transcription in Calanus finmarchicus (Crustacea: Copepoda).

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Altin, Dag; Vang, Siv-Hege; Nordtug, Trond; Olsen, Anders J

    2008-01-31

    The planktonic copepod Calanus finmarchicus is a key species in the Northern Atlantic food web; an oceanic area with extensive oil production. Naphthalene is one of the major constituents of produced water and water soluble fractions of petrogenic oils. This study investigates the effects on gene transcription of a short term exposure to naphthalene at levels well below LC(50) concentrations. This was done in order to establish a molecular basis of naphthalene toxicity in a species which has previously been subject only to very limited studies at the molecular level. Naphthalene exposure to C. finmarchicus was found to cause glutathione S-transferase (GST) induction, indicating lipid peroxidation as the major mode of naphthalene toxicity. There is no clear evidence that the putative cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP1A2 and CYP330A1 mRNAs are parts of a detoxification enzyme system. Instead, an observed decrease in CYP330A1 mRNA levels at the highest naphthalene exposure concentration may indicate an effect on ecdysteroidogenesis. Only the lowest naphthalene concentration lead to increased mRNA levels of antioxidants SOD and CAT, indicating no clear evidence for general cellular oxidative stress following exposure. Small and insignificant changes in the HSP-70, HSP-90 and ubiquitin mRNA levels indicate a small degree of protein damage owing to naphthalene exposure. The established culture of C. finmarchicus at the SINTEF/NTNU Sealab, and the use of gene transcription analyses provide excellent tools for improving the understanding of biochemical mechanisms involved in the defense against environmental impacts and the molecular modes of toxicity in this species.

  3. To Swim or Not to Swim: Potential Transmission of Balaenophilus manatorum (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) in Marine Turtles

    PubMed Central

    Tomás, Jesús; Crespo-Picazo, José Luis; García-Párraga, Daniel; Raga, Juan Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Species of Balaenophilus are the only harpacticoid copepods that exhibit a widespread, obligate association with vertebrates, i.e., B. unisetus with whales and B. manatorum with marine turtles and manatees. In the western Mediterranean, juveniles of the loggerhead sea turtle, Caretta caretta are the only available hosts for B. manatorum, which has been found occurring at high prevalence (>80%) on them. A key question is how these epibionts are transmitted from host to host. We investigated this issue based on experiments with live specimens of B. manatorum that were cultured with turtle skin. Specimens were obtained from head-started hatchlings of C. caretta from the western Mediterranean. Hatched nauplii crawled only on rough substrates and lacked the ability to swim. Only copepodites IV and V, and adults, were able to perform directional swimming. Legs 2, 3 and 4 played a major role in swimming and were only well-developed in these stages. Nauplii reared in wells with turtle skin readily fed on this item. Late copepodites and adults also fed on turtle skin but did not consume other potential food items such as fish skin, baleen plates or planktonic algae. Evidences suggest that the transmission of B. manatorum should rely on hosts’ bodily contacts and/or swimming of late developmental stages between spatially close hosts. The possibility of long-ranged dispersal is unlikely for two reasons. First, all developmental stages seem to depend on turtle skin as a food resource. Second, the average clutch size of ovigerous females was small (< 70 eggs) for free-living phases to successfully contact turtles that occur at very low densities (< 0.6 turtles·km−2) in the western Mediterranean. The high prevalence of B. manatorum in loggerhead turtles in this area raises the question whether these turtles have contacts, or tend to closely aggregate, more than is currently believed. PMID:28114412

  4. On the uncertainty beneath the name Oithona similis Claus, 1866 (Copepoda, Cyclopoida)

    PubMed Central

    Cepeda, Georgina D.; Sabatini, Marina E.; Scioscia, Cristina L.; Ramírez, Fernando C.; Viñas, María D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The marine cyclopoid Oithona similis sensu lato Claus, 1866, is considered to be one of the most abundant and ubiquitous copepods in the world. However, its minimal original diagnosis and the unclear connection with its (subjective) senior synonym Oithona helgolandica Claus, 1863, may have caused frequent misidentification of the species. Consequently, it seems possible that several closely related but distinct forms are being named Oithona similis or Oithona helgolandica without explicit and accurate discrimination. Here the current situation concerning the correct assignment of the two species is revised, the morphological characters commonly used to identify and distinguish each species are summarized, and the nomenclatural implications of indiscriminately using these names in current taxonomic and ecological practice is considered. It is not intended to upset a long-accepted name in its accustomed meaning but certainly the opposite. “In pursuit of the maximum stability compatible with taxonomic freedom” (International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature), we consider that reassessment of the diagnostic characters of Oithona similis sensu stricto cannot be postponed much longer. While a consensus on taxonomy and nomenclatural matters can be attained, we strongly recommend specifically reporting the authority upon which the identification of either Oithona similis s.l. or Oithona helgolandica s.l. has been accomplished. PMID:26865812

  5. Effects of salinity and temperature on the expression of enzymatic biomarkers in Eurytemora affinis (Calanoida, Copepoda).

    PubMed

    Cailleaud, K; Maillet, G; Budzinski, H; Souissi, S; Forget-Leray, J

    2007-08-01

    In order to establish effective enzymatic biomarkers that could provide in situ early warning of contaminant exposure in estuarine ecosystems, the potential effects of the principal abiotic factors (temperature and salinity) were investigated on common biomarkers, the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the glutathione S-transferase (GST) in Eurytemora affinis. Short term salinity stress effects simulated during an experimental tide indicated that enzymatic activities of this species are characterized by maximum expression related to an optimal salinity range (between 5 and 15 psu). Moreover, longer time exposure to various salinity tanks confirmed the effects of this factor on both AChE and GST activities. Therefore, optimal AChE activity was measured at 10 psu, while optimal GST activity was measured at 5 psu. Furthermore, significant effects of temperature were also recorded, particularly for AChE expression (slight effects were measured on GST expression) with an optimal condition at 11 degrees C. These experiments indicated a more pronounced effect of salinity over temperature especially on the AChE expression and confirmed the need to standardize sampling procedures in relation with environmental parameters for biomonitoring studies based on enzymatic analyses.

  6. Influence of three bacteria strains on the population dynamics of Tisbe holothuriae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guérin, J.-P.; Rieper-Kirchner, M.

    1991-12-01

    The influence of three bacteria strains (Helgo 21, NCMB 308 and NCMB 13) on the life cycle of Tisbe holothuriae Humes 1957 was investigated under constant experimental conditions (19 20°C and 38‰ S). For each of the first six experiments, females (F1), whose life history was followed, were obtained from a common mother (F0). Experiment no 7 was carried out with adult females (F2) obtained during exp. 4. Females were bred in 50-ml dishes and transferred to a fresh container as soon as they produced a new egg-sac. Offspring (F2: exp. 1 6; F3: exp. 7) from successive egg-layings were counted as soon as they moulted into adults. Larval mortality was estimated by enumeration of the adults issuing from a known number of nauplii that had been fed different bacteria strains. Some difficulties arose in obtaining adults with NCMB 13: it appeared to be necessary to provide this first generation with a small quantity of TetraMin (commercial fish food) in order to initiate reproduction and obtain a second generation. However, in exp. 4, F2 adult females fed NCMB 13 became ovigerous and fertile without needing TetraMin. This result is interpreted as denoting an indispensable period of adaptation to the diet, which probably requires important changes at the enzymatic level. One experiment was carried out with Helgo 21; another one with NCMB 308; two with NCMB 13 (with a unique additional meal of TetraMin to allow reproduction), two with NCMB 13 during larval development, then only tetraMin during adult stage, and one with NCMB 13 alone (with females issued from exp. 4). Data obtained regarding longevity, duration of reproduction period, number of egg-sacs and number of adult descendants show an important variability between bacteria strains. Lower results were almost always obtained with Helgo 21 and NCMB 308. An interesting result lies in the maximum number of egg-sacs: low with Helgo 21 and NCMB 308 (5), but very ample with NCMB 13 (11 in one experiment). In experiment 7, carried out with animals bearing a large coefficient of inbreeding (0.375), the results concerning the maximum number of egg-sacs are good (10) as are the mean number of descendants per female (294: the highest number of the seven experiments). These results indicate that genetic factors involved in the reduction of descendants in ageing laboratory cultures can be suppressed to a certain extent by nutritional factors. The poor results obtained with Helgo 21 and NCMB 308 alone must be considered with caution: after a period of adaptation with an alimentary complement, these strains could perhaps permit an interesting production of copepods.

  7. Redescription of Bradya typica Boeck, 1873 (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Ectinosomatidae) with the first description of the male

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifried, Sybille; Veit-Köhler, Gritta

    2010-03-01

    Bradya typica Boeck, 1873 is described from samples collected in the course of a colonisation experiment in Kongsfjorden, Spitsbergen (2003-2005). The male of B. typica, the type-species of the genus is described for the first time. B. typica can be distinguished from its congeners by its caudal rami (1.4 times longer than wide) and by its P5 (exopod longer than wide, inner terminal seta of exopod longest, inner seta of baseoendopod longer than outer one and surface seta rigid and curved). Variability within the species is rather small as only the length of some setae is slightly different. B. cladiofera Lang, 1965, B. congenera Sars, 1920, B. minutiseta Soyer, 1973 and B. pugiochaeta Arlt, 1983 are closely related to B. typica. Some details of the morphology, such as the body ornamentation and the longer hair-like pinnules on the spines of the swimming legs, are very difficult to observe even with maximum magnification. With certainty, B. typica is distributed near the Norwegian coast (Oslo Fjord to Trondheim Fjord), the Swedish coast (Skagerak to Öresund), around Spitsbergen and around the polar islands north of Grinnelland (Canadian Arctic Archipelago near Baffin Bay). Records of B. typica from the Kara Sea (near Novaya Zemlya), near Franz Joseph Land, Iceland, Greenland, the British Isles and from deep waters of the North Sea have to be confirmed.

  8. Morphological and molecular affinities of two East Asian species of Stenhelia (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida)

    PubMed Central

    Karanovic, Tomislav; Kim, Kichoon; Lee, Wonchoel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Definition of monophyletic supraspecific units in the harpacticoid subfamily Stenheliinae Brady, 1880 has been considered problematic and hindered by the lack of molecular or morphology based phylogenies, as well as by incomplete original descriptions of many species. Presence of a modified seta on the fifth leg endopod has been suggested recently as a synapomorphy of eight species comprising the redefined genus Stenhelia Boeck, 1865, although its presence was not known in S. pubescens Chislenko, 1978. We redescribe this species in detail here, based on our freshly collected topotypes from the Russian Far East. The other species redescribed in this paper was collected from the southern coast of South Korea and identified as the Chinese S. taiae Mu & Huys, 2002, which represents its second record ever and the first one in Korea. A fragment of the mtCOI gene was successfully PCR-amplified from two specimens of each species, which represents the first molecular data for this genus, and from additional 19 specimens belonging to six different species of other stenheliins from Korea and Russia. Reconstructed phylogenies confirm previously postulated monophyly of Stenhelia and polyphyly of the closely related genus Delavalia Brady, 1869. Average pairwise maximum likelihood distances between S. pubescens and S. taiae are only slightly above 10%, suggesting a very close relationship despite numerous newly discovered micro-morphological differences and despite macro-morphological similarities being probable plesiomorphies. PMID:24899857

  9. A new subspecies of Nitokra affinis Gurney, 1927 (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) from the Caribbean coast of Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Reinés, Juan M.; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Plankton samples from Laguna Navio Quebrado, La Guajira, northern Colombia, yielded male and female specimens of an harpacticoid copepod that was first identified as the widely distributed species Nitokra affinis Gurney, 1927 for which at least four subspecies have been described from different geographic areas. A more detailed examination of the Colombian specimens revealed that it differs from the other morphs so far considered as subspecies. The Colombian specimens differ from the other four known subspecies in the following aspects: (1) rostrum with long projection, (2) relatively long exopod of P1, almost as long as first endopodal segment, (3) endopodal and exopodal rami of P2 equally long, (4) a reduced number of endopodal setal elements of the male P5. It also differs from N. a. californica Lang in details of the ornamentation of the urosomites. Descriptions and illustrations of this new subspecies, the first one described from the Neotropical region, are presented together with a key to the five known subspecies of Nitokra affinis. As in many other cases of presumedly widespread species of harpacticoids, it is possible that N. affinis represents a species complex with more restricted distributional patterns, a notion that certainly deserves further study. PMID:24574850

  10. Reciprocal transfer study of north temperate and subtropical populations of Mesocyclops edax (Copepoda: Cyclopoida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyngaard, Grace A.

    1998-06-01

    The examination of local and geographically based life history variation is one approach to examine how different selective forces may have molded life histories. Michigan and Florida populations of the warm-water copepod Mesocyclops edax exhibit genetically based differences in maturation time, body size, clutch size, and egg volume as determined by common rearing experiments in the laboratory. Florida females mature more rapidly, yet achieve larger body sizes and clutch sizes relative to Michigan females. In an effort to relate the different life histories to the specific environments, in the present study I reared both populations in enclosures suspended in the Michigan and Florida lakes. Under the high temperature and food conditions of the Florida lake, the Michigan population retained the relatively longer female maturation times and smaller clutch sizes, providing further evidence that the Michigan population is genetically constrained to divert relatively less energy to reproduction than growth compared to the Florida population. The higher survivorship of the Florida population at temperatures above 31°C relative to the Michigan population suggests the Florida animals are better adapted to extreme, high temperatures. Under the low food conditions of the Michigan lake relative to the Florida lake, the Michigan females matured more rapidly and achieved the same body size as the Florida population, but the Michigan clutches were still smaller and had larger eggs. The relative performances of the Michigan and Florida females in the in situ enclosures provided additional support for the conclusion that the Michigan population is adapted to low food conditions and the Florida population to high food and high temperature conditions.

  11. Littoral microcrustacean (Cladocera and Copepoda) indicators of acidification in Canadian Shield lakes.

    PubMed

    Walseng, Bjørn; Yan, Norman D; Schartau, Ann Kristin

    2003-04-01

    We identify littoral microcrustacean indicators of acidification in 2 surveys of Canadian Shield lakes conducted 10 years apart. We found a total of 90 cladoceran and copepod species with richness increasing severalfold from acidic to nonacidic lakes. The fauna of the nonacidic lakes differed between the surveys. The 1987 survey employed activity traps, and caught more littoral taxa than the more recent, net-haul-based survey. Similar faunas were identified in the acidified lakes in both surveys, and several good indicator species were identified. For example, Acanthocycops vernalis was restricted to lakes with pH < 6. Sinobosmina sp. was very common but only in lakes with pH > 4.8. Tropocyclops extensus, Mesocyclops edax, and Sida crystallina were commonly found but only at pH > 5, and Chydorus faviformis only at pH > 5.9. These indicators showed promise in gauging the early stages of recovery from acidification in 3 lakes that were included in both surveys.

  12. A new species of Metacyclops from a hyporheic habitat in North Vietnam (Crustacea, Copepoda, Cyclopidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kołaczyński, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Metacyclops is described from hyporheic waters and small rock depression with leaf litter in North Vietnam, the Tam Đao Mountains). Metacyclops amicitiae sp. n. can be distinguished from its congeners by the unique combination of the following characters: 12-segmented antennule, distal segment of P4 endopodite bearing a single apical spine, and the surface ornamentation of the intercoxal sclerites in P1–P4 (pilose on the distal margin of P1-P4 and spinulose on the caudal surface of P4). The latter character separates the new Metacyclops from its closest relative, Metacyclops ryukyuensis, known only from the Ryukyu Islands (Ishigaki). The genus Metacyclops with the new species described herein is also for the first time recorded from Vietnam. An identification key is provided to the south and east Asian species of the genus. PMID:26445932

  13. Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States. Copepoda: Lernaeopodidae and Sphyriidae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Ju-Shey

    This report is part of a sub-series to aid biology students, biologists, biological oceanographers, and informed laymen in the identification and study of marine flora and fauna of the Northeastern United States. Contents of this report include: (1) Introduction; (2) Glossary; (3) Key to the marine lernaeopodoid copepods of the Northeastern United…

  14. The status of Limnocalanus macrurus (Copepoda: Calanoida: Centropagidae) in Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, Douglas D.; Gannon, John E.; Culver, David A.

    2004-01-01

    The calanoid copepod Limnocalanus macrurus showed large declines in abundance and a narrowing of spatial distribution with the onset of cultural eutrophication and increases in rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) abundances in Lake Erie in the mid 20th century. Since 1995, however, Limnocalanus macrurus appears to have repopulated in western Lake Erie to levels of abundance that have not been observed since the late 1930s. We hypothesize that phosphorus abatement and the subsequent decrease in low dissolved oxygen events have assisted this resurgence. However, Limnocalanus macrurusabundances have not increased in the central and eastern basins, even though water quality has improved there too. High densities of rainbow smelt and associated smelt predation pressure in the central and eastern basins may be responsible for the low numbers in these basins.

  15. Macrocyclops albidus (Copepoda: cyclopidae) for the Biocontrol of Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens in Italy.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, Rodolfo; Carrieri, Marco; Maccagnani, Bettina; Maini, Stefano; Bellini, Romeo

    2015-03-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the potential of Macrocyclops albidus as a biological control agent against the 1st and 2nd instars of Culex pipiens and Aedes albopictus. Under laboratory conditions of prey saturation (50 1st instars/copepod), an average of 58.98% of Cx. pipiens and 54.99% of Ae. albopictus larvae were killed by 1 copepod in 24 h. Trials run in big drums containing 200 liters of water showed that the M. albidus population, inoculated in April, efficiently controlled the mosquito population for the entire season. The predator was particularly effective against Ae. albopictus, as only 2 larvae of this species were found in the treated drums, compared to 814 larvae in untreated control drums throughout the study period. No difference was observed in the control efficacy between the 2 initial densities of copepods used. The reduction in Ae. albopictus density in the drums with 100 and 500 M. albidus with respect to the control drums was 99.90 ± 0.35% and 100.0 ± 0.0%, respectively. For Cx. pipiens, the reduction in density was 88.69 ± 13.51% and 84.65% in drums inoculated with 100 and 500 copepods, respectively. Macrocyclops albidus populations survived through the winter and continued to keep the mosquito population under control during the 2008 season. The M. albidus population developed very well both in drums placed in sunny and shaded areas and proved to be tolerant to both high (summer) and low (winter) temperatures. Trials performed on M. albidus survival in catch basins showed that after a few weeks, the copepod population dramatically decreased and subsequently disappeared. The main problem for copepod survival in catch basins seemed to be the low oxygen tension and accumulation of toxic substances, rather than copepods being flushed out in heavy rainfall episodes. During the period when copepods were present, they maintained the mosquito population under control; their partial disappearance from the catch basins, however, would require more recolonization intervention to maintain mosquito control during the season.

  16. A review of the biology of the parasitic copepod Lernaeocera branchialis (L., 1767) (Copepoda: Pennellidae).

    PubMed

    Brooker, Adam J; Shinn, Andrew P; Bron, James E

    2007-01-01

    This review concerns the parasitic marine copepod Lernaeocera branchialis (L., 1767) and provides an overview of current knowledge concerning its biology and host-parasite interactions. The large size and distinctive appearance of the metamorphosed adult female stage, coupled with the wide exploitation and commercial importance of its final gadoid hosts, means that this species has long been recognised in the scientific literature. The fact that the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L., is one of its key host species, and has itself had a major impact on the social and economic development of many countries bordering the North Atlantic for more than 10 centuries is also a factor in its widespread recognition. L. branchialis is recognised as a pathogen that could have major effects on the aquaculture industry and with gadoid (especially cod) farming expanding in several North Atlantic countries, there is considerable potential for this parasite to become a serious problem for commercial mariculture. The main subject areas covered are the parasite's taxonomy; the life history of the parasite including its life cycle, reproduction and host associations; parasite physiology; parasite seasonality and distribution; and the pathogenic effects of the parasite on its host.

  17. Genetic and morphological heterogeneity among populations of Eurytemora affinis (Crustacea: Copepoda: Temoridae) in European waters.

    PubMed

    Sukhikh, Natalia; Souissi, Anissa; Souissi, Sami; Winkler, Gesche; Castric, Vincent; Holl, Anne-Catherine; Alekseev, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of the systematics of the Eurytemora affinis complex developed at a fast pace over the last decades. Formerly considered as a complex of cryptic species, it is now believed to include three valid species: E. affinis, Eurytemora carolleeae, and Eurytemora caspica. American and European representatives have been studied in detail with respect to fine-scale geographic distribution, levels of genetic subdivision, evolutionary and demographic histories. Morphological components have been less explored. In this study, an analysis of the phylogeny and morphology of E. affinis was done, with a special focus on European populations. A total of 447 individuals of E. affinis from Europe were analyzed with genetic tools and 170 individuals according to morphological criteria. Common and new morphological and genetic features were analyzed. For this, we used ML and Bayesian methods to analyze the bar coding mt-DNA gene cytochrome c oxidase I subunit. Both genetic and morphological analyses showed high heterogeneities among the E. affinis populations from Europe. As a result, three local populations of E. affinis in Western Europe, including the European part of Russia, were established. Their genetic and morphological heterogeneity corresponded to the subspecies level.

  18. Identification of the molecular components of a Tigriopus californicus (Crustacea, Copepoda) circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Nesbit, Katherine T; Christie, Andrew E

    2014-12-01

    Copepods of the genus Tigriopus have been proposed as marine models for investigations of environmental perturbation. One rapidly increasing anthropogenic stressor for intertidal organisms is light pollution. Given the sensitivity of circadian rhythms to exogenous light, the genes/proteins of a Tigriopus circadian pacemaker represent a potential system for investigating the influences of artificial light sources on circadian behavior in an intertidal species. Here, the molecular components of a putative Tigriopus californicus circadian clock were identified using publicly accessible transcriptome data; the recently deduced circadian proteins of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus were used as a reference. Transcripts encoding homologs of all commonly recognized ancestral arthropod core clock proteins were identified (i.e. CLOCK, CRYPTOCHROME 2, CYCLE, PERIOD and TIMELESS), as were ones encoding proteins likely to modulate the core clock (i.e. CASEIN KINASE II, CLOCKWORK ORANGE, DOUBLETIME, PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 1, PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2A, SHAGGY, SUPERNUMERARY LIMBS and VRILLE) or to act as inputs to it (i.e. CRYPTOCHROME 1). PAR DOMAIN PROTEIN 1 was the only circadian-associated protein not identified in Tigriopus; it appears absent in Calanus too. These data represent just the third full set of molecular components for a crustacean circadian pacemaker (Daphnia pulex and C. finmarchicus previously), and only the second obtained from transcribed sequences (C. finmarchicus previously). Given Tigriopus' proposed status as a model for investigating the influences of anthropogenic stressors in the marine environment, these data provide the first suite of gene/protein targets for understanding how light pollution may influence circadian physiology and behavior in an intertidal organism.

  19. Prediction of the peptidomes of Tigriopus californicus and Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E

    2014-05-15

    Transcriptome mining is a powerful method for crustacean peptide discovery, especially when large sequence datasets are available and an appropriate reference is extant. Recently, a 206,041-sequence transcriptome for the copepod Calanus finmarchicus was mined for peptide-encoding transcripts, with ones for 17 families/subfamilies identified. Here, the deduced Calanus pre/preprohormones were used as templates for peptide discovery in the copepods Tigriopus californicus and Lepeophtheirus salmonis; large transcriptome shotgun assembly datasets are publicly accessible for both species. Sixty-five Tigriopus and 17 Lepeophtheirus transcripts, encompassing 22 and 13 distinct peptide families/subfamilies, respectively, were identified, with the structures of 161 and 70 unique mature peptides predicted from the deduced precursors. The identified peptides included members of the allatostatin A, allatostatin C, bursicon α, bursicon β, CAPA/periviscerokinin/pyrokinin, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone/ion transport peptide, diuretic hormone 31, FLRFamide, leucokinin, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F, orcokinin, and tachykinin-related peptide families, most of which possess novel structures, though isoforms from other copepods are known. Of particular note was the discovery of novel isoforms of adipokinetic hormone-corazonin-like peptide, allatotropin, corazonin, eclosion hormone and intocin, peptide families previously unidentified in copepods. In addition, Tigriopus precursors for two previously unknown peptide groups were discovered, one encoding GSEFLamides and the other DXXRLamides; precursors for the novel FXGGXamide family were identified from both Tigriopus and Lepeophtheirus. These data not only greatly expand the catalog of known copepod peptides, but also provide strong foundations for future functional studies of peptidergic signaling in members of this ecologically important crustacean subclass.

  20. Mesozooplankton distribution in the Spermonde Archipelago (Indonesia, Sulawesi) with special reference to the Calanoida (Copepoda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornils, Astrid; Schulz, Jan; Schmitt, Petra; Lanuru, Mahatma; Richter, Claudio; Schnack-Schiel, Sigrid B.

    2010-12-01

    In September 2005 the mesozooplankton distribution, taxonomic composition and community structure were studied on four cross-shelf and one coastal transects in the Spermonde Archipelago off Makassar (SW Sulawesi). A total of 47 higher taxonomic groups and 89 calanoid copepod species were identified. Copepods outnumbered the other mesozooplankton taxa with 29 to 69%, increasing in importance towards the offshore stations. Appendicularians ranked second (16-24%) followed at the offshore stations by chaetognaths (4.5%) and, at shelf and coastal stations by echinoderm pluteus larvae (11-15%). Within the calanoids, species of the family Paracalanidae, especially Paracalanus cf. parvus, were dominant at all stations. Other abundant families were Temoridae (6.5-17%), Acartiidae (7.2%) and Pontellidae (6.2%) at shelf and coastal stations while Clausocalanidae (8.7%) and Calanidae (6.7) were more abundant at offshore stations. To investigate the mesozooplankton distribution the 25 stations were grouped into 3 geographical zones based on their topographical and hydrographical differences (coastal, shelf and offshore zone). Some higher zooplankton taxa and about half of the calanoid species occurred only in one or two categories. In general the abundant taxa were spread throughout the Archipelago. To investigate their distribution the abundance data were subjected to a multivariate discriminant function analysis (MDFA). The results revealed that the composition of the mesozooplankton community changed from the coastal zone with a high abundance of meroplankton and neritic copepod species to an offshore community with a higher abundance of holoplanktonic organisms and oceanic copepod species.

  1. Early life history of Neocalanus plumchrus (Calanoida: Copepoda) in the western subarctic Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujioka, Hidefumi A.; Machida, Ryuji J.; Tsuda, Atsushi

    2015-09-01

    The life history of copepods during nauplius stages has rarely been studied, because of difficulties in identification. This study describes the development of an identification method that uses integrated microscopic analysis and real-time PCR based method to distinguish and estimate the abundance of pelagic calanoida nauplii, Neocalanus plumchrus, and to determine their phenology and ontogenetic vertical migration (OVM) in the Oyashio region. The overall approach of identification included: classify field samples of calanoida nauplii into six developmental stages by microscopic analysis, determining the Cq values from each representative nauplii by real-time PCR using specie specific probe and primer pair for N. plumchrus, calculating the |ΔCq| values from the standard curve, distinguish N. plumchrus nauplii by the criterion of |ΔCq| ⩽ 2, and calculate the abundance of N. plumchrus nauplii using results obtained from microscopic analysis and real-time PCR. Validation of the method showed that our real-time PCR based approach could identify N. plumchrus nauplii in field samples with as low as 9% of underestimation, the effect of which is negligibly low on the investigation. The results showed that early nauplius stages (first and second nauplius stages: N1 and N2, respectively) were observed during the period from October 2009 to May 2010. Spawning females were also observed during the same period, and these results confirm that the spawning period of N. plumchrus is at least 8 months long. N3 was the most dominant stage in October 2009, January, and March 2010, the distribution depth of N3 was between 500 m and 2000 m in October 2009 and their vertical distribution range was extended until April 2010. Late stages (N4-N6) were rarely observed during the period from October 2009 to March 2010, and they occurred abundantly from the surface layer (0-20 m) in April 2010. The dominance of N3 from October to March and the sudden occurrence of later stages in April indicate arrested development of N3 in the mesopelagic layer.

  2. Negligible effects of ocean acidification on Eurytemora affinis (Copepoda) offspring production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almén, Anna-Karin; Vehmaa, Anu; Brutemark, Andreas; Bach, Lennart; Lischka, Silke; Stuhr, Annegret; Furuhagen, Sara; Paul, Allanah; Bermúdez, J. Rafael; Riebesell, Ulf; Engström-Öst, Jonna

    2016-02-01

    Ocean acidification is caused by increasing amounts of carbon dioxide dissolving in the oceans leading to lower seawater pH. We studied the effects of lowered pH on the calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis during a mesocosm experiment conducted in a coastal area of the Baltic Sea. We measured copepod reproductive success as a function of pH, chlorophyll a concentration, diatom and dinoflagellate biomass, carbon to nitrogen (C : N) ratio of suspended particulate organic matter, as well as copepod fatty acid composition. The laboratory-based experiment was repeated four times during 4 consecutive weeks, with water and copepods sampled from pelagic mesocosms enriched with different CO2 concentrations. In addition, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of animals from the mesocosms was measured weekly to test whether the copepod's defence against oxidative stress was affected by pH. We found no effect of pH on offspring production. Phytoplankton biomass, as indicated by chlorophyll a concentration and dinoflagellate biomass, had a positive effect. The concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the females was reflected in the eggs and had a positive effect on offspring production, whereas monounsaturated fatty acids of the females were reflected in their eggs but had no significant effect. ORAC was not affected by pH. From these experiments we conclude that E. affinis seems robust against direct exposure to ocean acidification on a physiological level, for the variables covered in the study. E. affinis may not have faced acute pH stress in the treatments as the species naturally face large pH fluctuations.

  3. Negligible effects of ocean acidification on Eurytemora affinis (Copepoda) offspring production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almén, A.-K.; Vehmaa, A.; Brutemark, A.; Bach, L.; Lischka, S.; Stuhr, A.; Furuhagen, S.; Paul, A.; Bermúdez, R.; Riebesell, U.; Engström-Öst, J.

    2015-10-01

    Ocean acidification is caused by increasing amounts of carbon dioxide dissolving in the oceans leading to lower seawater pH. We studied the effects of lowered pH on the calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis during a mesocosm experiment conducted in a coastal area of the Baltic Sea. We measured copepod reproductive success as a function of pH, chlorophyll a concentration, diatom and dinoflagellate biomass, carbon to nitrogen (C : N) ratio of suspended particulate organic matter, as well as copepod fatty acid composition. The laboratory-based experiment was repeated four times during four consecutive weeks, with water and copepods sampled from pelagic mesocosms enriched with different CO2 concentrations. In addition, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of animals from the mesocosms was measured weekly to test whether the copepod's defence against oxidative stress was affected by pH. We found no effect of pH on offspring production. Phytoplankton biomass, as indicated by chlorophyll a concentration, had a strong positive effect. The concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the females were reflected in the eggs and had a positive effect on offspring production, whereas monounsaturated fatty acids of the females were reflected in their eggs but had no significant effect. ORAC was not affected by pH. From these experiments we conclude that E. affinis seems robust against direct exposure to ocean acidification on a physiological level, for the variables covered in the study. E. affinis may not have faced acute pH stress in the treatments as the species naturally face large pH fluctuations.

  4. A new species of Metacyclops Kiefer, 1927 (Copepoda, Cyclopidae, Cyclopinae) from the Chihuahuan desert, northern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Mercado-Salas, Nancy F.; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Maeda-Martínez, Alejandro M.; Silva-Briano, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the freshwater cyclopoid copepod genus Metacyclops Kiefer, 1927 is described from a single pond in northern Mexico, within the binational area known as the Chihuahuan Desert. This species belongs to a group of Metacyclops species with a 3443 spine formula of swimming legs. It is morphologically similar to Metacyclops lusitanus Lindberg, 1961 but differs from this and other congeners by having a unique combination of characters, including a caudal rami length/width proportion of 3.5–3.8, a innermost terminal seta slightly longer than the outermost terminal seta, intercoxal sclerites of legs 1-4 naked, a strong apical spine of the second endopodal segment of leg 1 and one row of 6-8 small spinules at the insertion of this spine. The finding of this species represents also the first record of the genus in Mexico and the third in North America, where only two other species, Metacyclops gracilis (Lilljeborg, 1853)and Metacyclops cushae Reid, 1991 have been hitherto reported. This is also the first continental record of a species of Metacyclops from an arid environment in the Americas. This species appears to be endemic to the Chihuahuan Desert, thus emphasizing the high endemicity of this area. PMID:23794845

  5. Euryphorus suarezi n. sp. (Copepoda: Caligidae) parasitic on an elasmobranch from the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Morales-Serna, Francisco Neptalí; Rodríguez-Santiago, María Amparo; Gómez, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the caligid genus Euryphorus Milne Edwards, 1840 contains two valid species. A new species, Euryphorus suarezi, is described based on adult females and males collected from the spotted eagle ray Aetobatus narinari (Euphrasen) (Elasmobranchii: Myliobatidae), captured off Campeche and Tabasco, Mexico (southern coast of the Gulf of Mexico). The new species is mainly distinguished from its congeners by the absence of dorsal plates, the presence of postantennal process, bifurcated maxillule, maxilliped with slender corpus, and leg 4 with 3-segmented endopod. Leg 6 is conspicuous in the male. Additional differences are described. This is the first record of a species of Euryphorus from an elasmobranch host, which may provide insight into the evolutionary relationships within the Caligidae.

  6. A new genus of Cletopsyllidae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) from Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Hyun Woo; Baguley, Jeffrey G.; Moon, Heejin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new genus and new species of the family Cletopsyllidae Huys & Willems, 1989 from deep-sea sediment in the Gulf of Mexico, are reported and fully described and illustrated. The new genus Pentacletopsyllus (type species: P. montagni sp. n.) can be distinguished from the four known genera of the family by antennule segmentation, length ratio of first and second endopodal segments of P1, and armature pattern on P5 exopod. It also differs from its sister genera by the rostrum being bifid at the tip, third segment of the female antennule having a smooth posterior margin, the baseoendopod of P5 with biarticulate outer setophore bearing basal seta, and female caudal rami without lobate expansion. A revised key to species of the family Cletopsyllidae Huys & Willems, 1989 is provided. PMID:24715778

  7. Effects of seven diets on the population dynamics of laboratory cultured Tisbe holothuriae Humes (Copepoda, Harpacticoida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miliou, H.; Moraïtou-Apostolopoulou, M.

    1991-09-01

    The harpacticoid copepod Tisbe holothuriae was collected from Saronicos Gulf (Greece) and reared under constant laboratory conditions. In order to study the effects of food on the population dynamics, seven diets were tested: the seaweed Ulva; five artificial compound feeds: the liquid Fryfood® (Waterlife), a powder of Mytilus, yeast, soya and Spirulina, respectively; and a mixed diet consisting of Ulva and Fryfood. The life cycle parameters (mortality, sex ratio, generation time, offspring production) were measured, and the demographic variables [mean generation time (T), net reproductive rate (Ro), and intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm)] were determined. As to their efficiency regarding population dynamics, the diets ranked as follows: (1) Ulva+Fryfood, (2), Ulva, (3) Fryfood, (4) Mytilus, (5) soya, (6) yeast, and (7) Spirulina. In this order they cause a progressive increase of both larval mortality and generation time, a progressive decrease of sex ratio, number of offspring per egg sac, number of egg sacs per female and, consequently, of Ro and rm. The observed differences between diets were most pronounced with respect to offspring production. Of the compound diets, those containing animal extracts were more efficient than those containing vegetable materials. Ulva plays an important role in the nutrition of T. holothuriae, favouring offspring production as well as larval survival, development and pigmentation. Ulva in combination with Fryfood led to a greater copepodid survival and offspring production. This mixed diet proved to be the most favourable for rearing the Greek population of t. holothuriae, resulting in an efficient intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm=0.304) of the population.

  8. Mating behaviour of Pseudodiaptomus annandalei (Copepoda Calanoida) with emphasis on rejection rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dur, G.; Souissi, S.; Schmitt, F. G.; Hwang, J. S.; Cheng, S. H.

    2009-04-01

    Mating behaviour has important consequences at both individual and population levels. Reproductive fitness is of paramount importance to sustain the success of planktonic copepod populations in aquatic environments. The calanoid copepod Pseudodiaptomus annandalei has one of the largest geographical ranges for Indo-Pacific Pseudodiaptomidae. It is also of great importance in fish culture pounds south of Taiwan. However, the mating behavior of this species has never been studied. Mating and predatory behaviour are conceptually the same. In both cases, the encounter and the interactions occur between two individuals with opposite characteristics: predator-prey for predation; male-female for mating. The mating behaviour may be defined as a sequence of encounter, pursuit, capture and copulation. Several observed behaviour suggest that both sexes asses and choose among available mates before the copulation. Pre-copulatory mate choice in copepods may manifest as mate guarding where males attached to CV females until their final moult, complicated pre-copulatory dance and escaping. During our preliminary observations, we notice that P. annandalei females escape by shaking, often violently, the males that have caught them. Consequently for such a species the act of mating may be visualized as a chain of six events (i.e. search, encounter, pursuit, capture, selective dance, copulation).Within this chain, encounter, capture and copulation are conditional events depending on the successful conclusion of their preceding events in the chain. In this study, we examined the different step in the mating behaviour of the scarcely studied sub-tropical copepod, Pseudodiaptomus annandalei, collected from the Danshuei estuary (North Taiwan). The individuals were observed using a 3D optical system to obtain simultaneous front and side views. Males, when placed in the water where females had previously swum in, showed significant increase of their swimming velocities. Additionally, their swimming trajectories are more convoluted, indicating that males explore larger volume of fluid to increase the probability to encounter a female. The mate finding behaviour appears to depend not only on chemical signal but also on hydromechanical signals. Some males exhibited shifts of direction when females were passing by. When male intercepted a chemical trail left by a female, they initiate tracking behaviour racing up the trail with increasing speed. Males pursued pheromone trails up to 24 sec old and 10 mm long. Most studies of mating behaviour have focused on detection and sometimes pursuit, but few have addressed the other components of successful mating, namely, capture and copulation. Moreover, mate choice issue has largely been ignored in regards to pelagic copepods. Consequently very few are known about the plasticity of rejection rates as a function of mate encounter rates. The second aim of this experiment is to describe the process used by female to select their mate and to fill the gap in the quantification of mating success. Once caught by a male, P. annandalei's females entered in intensive dance which sometimes lead to shake off the males suggesting a female mate choice. The three-dimensional trajectories described by the couple during this event were characterized by fast loops and intense jumps. Individual's access to mates may be affected by operational sex ratios, causing strong variation in mating success. We finally manipulated adult sex ratios of the brackish copepod P. annandalei, to examine the influence of population sex ratio on mating success of P. annandalei in a final set of experiment concluding the investigation. It should be notice that, to our knowledge, it the first quantification ever done before. The plasticity of rejection rate was therefore investigated as a function of sex-ratio and mate encounter rate. The encounter rate reached maximum value for balanced proportion of male and female and decreased as the sex ratio unbalanced. Higher value of success was nevertheless observed for a pro-male sex-ratio.

  9. Distribution of some calanoida (Crustacea: Copepoda) from the Yucatán Peninsula, Belize and Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Brandorff, Gerd-Oltmann

    2012-03-01

    Southern Mexico and Central America have many water bodies of different morphology and water chemistry with an interesting zooplankton fauna, originating from North or South America. A set of 63 samples, taken in 2005 and 2008, from water bodies of the Yucatan Peninsula karst, Belize and Guatemala, were studied for the content of calanoid copepods. Old and recent literature was used to determine animals to species level. Drawings were prepared with a microscope and a camera lucida. A total of 32 samples with totally six species contained calanoid copepods: one estuarine pseudodiaptomid and five freshwater diaptomids. Pseudodiaptomus marshi was found at different salinities. It is confirmed that the commonest diaptomids in the Yucatan Peninsula are Arctodiaptomus dorsalis and Mastigodiaptomus nesus. The former was also recorded from Lake Amatitlan. Mastigodiaptomus nesus is as widespread as A. dorsalis but it is absent from the Lake Peten area in Guatemala. Mastigodiaptomus reidae was found in two shallow habitats, these specimens differ from those from the type locality by having a set of peculiar large spine-like processes on the last thoracic and the urosome segments of the females. Leptodiaptomus siciloides was found only in Lake Ayarza with high salinity. Prionodiaptomus colombiensis occurred in the highlands of Guatemala in Lago de Güija and in the Peten area in Laguna Sacpuy. We contributed with our occurrence records to a better knowledge of the geographic distribution of some calanoid copepods. Morphological findings in some species are of value for taxonomic differentiation between species.

  10. A comparative analysis of the Harpacticoida (Copepoda) faunas from the northern and southern seas of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chertoprud, E. S.; Garlitska, L. A.

    2007-12-01

    Based on extensive voluminous literary data, a comparison of the Harpacticoida faunas of the Black Sea; the Sea of Azov; and the Caspian, Baltic, Barents, White, Kara, Laptev, and East Siberian seas, as well as of the Spitsbergen and Franz Josef Land areas, was performed. The degree of community and specificity of the faunas of different regions was estimated and the general patterns of the latitudinal variability in the species compositions were revealed. It is shown that the Harpacticoida faunas of geographically separated areas and even those isolated from each other such as those of the Black Sea, the Sea of Azov, and the Caspian Sea are rather similar; an hypothesis is put forward that this is caused by the common history of the seas’ formation. In contrast, the faunas of the Arctic seas (Barents, White, Kara, Laptev, and East Siberian), whose water areas are closely connected, are considerably different, being related to their different temperature conditions.

  11. Reproduction of Pseudocalanus newmani (Copepoda: Calanoida) is deleteriously affected by diatom blooms A field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halsband-Lenk, Claudia; Pierson, James J.; Leising, Andrew W.

    2005-11-01

    Copepod secondary production has traditionally been linked to the spring diatom bloom in temperate and high latitudes, but laboratory studies have recently challenged this view and have shown either reduced fecundity or viability of offspring when copepods were fed high concentrations of - mostly unialgal - diatoms. However, field evidence that diatoms affect copepod reproduction is still scarce. We analyzed the reproductive response of a common, small calanoid copepod of the boreal Pacific, Pseudocalanus newmani, to spring diatom blooms in Dabob Bay, a semi-enclosed fjord of Puget Sound, Washington, USA. Abundance patterns, egg production rates, egg hatching success, and naupliar viability of the egg-carrying copepod were examined between February and early May in the years 2002-2004. The population underwent strong variations in abundance during both years, with high abundance of all stages from February to mid-March, but dramatically decreasing individual numbers later in spring. A recovery to higher numbers occurred in July. While egg production rates were independent of chlorophyll concentrations, the reproductive success of P. newmani was negatively affected by certain phytoplankton bloom conditions. Hatching success and - more markedly - naupliar survival were reduced following peaks of Thalassiosira species that were producing anti-mitotic aldehydes, but were high during periods when phytoplankton blooms were more diverse or dominated by other prey taxa including diatoms. As a consequence, recruitment of the naupliar population was considerably affected by the Thalassiosira blooms. This study shows for the first time that the so-called diatom effect operates in nature when all prerequisites - (1) high concentration of aldehyde producers, (2) few prey alternatives, and (3) feeding of copepods on these algae - are given. However, the effect was transient in Dabob Bay and may be so in other pelagic ecosystems. It remains to discern the potential sources of mortality, such as toxicity, malnutrition, predation, and/or advection, that may have caused the strong decline of the Pseudocalanus population during April.

  12. A new species of Moraria (Crustacea: Copepoda: Harpacticoida) from the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Janet W.; Lesko, Lynn T.

    2003-01-01

    Moraria hudsoni n. sp. is described from Trails End Bay in Lake Michigan and Prentiss Bay in Lake Huron, Michigan, USA. The new species differs from its congeners in chaetotaxy, body ornamentation, and other characters. We review published records of members of Moraria from North and Central America; no species is known from South America. Species of this genus have been found in the mountains of southern Mexico, Guatemala, and Honduras, but none of these has been validly described. In North America, eight species have been recorded from Alaska, Canada, and the conterminous USA as far south as North Carolina. We report new geographical records of M. affinis from Virginia, and of both M. cristata and M. virginiana from Maryland and Virginia. We provide a tabular key to aid in identification of the named species of Moraria in North America.

  13. Evidence of cryptic and pseudocryptic speciation in the Paracalanus parvus species complex (Crustacea, Copepoda, Calanoida)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Many marine planktonic crustaceans such as copepods have been considered as widespread organisms. However, the growing evidence for cryptic and pseudo-cryptic speciation has emphasized the need of re-evaluating the status of copepod species complexes in molecular and morphological studies to get a clearer picture about pelagic marine species as evolutionary units and their distributions. This study analyses the molecular diversity of the ecologically important Paracalanus parvus species complex. Its seven currently recognized species are abundant and also often dominant in marine coastal regions worldwide from temperate to tropical oceans. Results COI and Cytochrome b sequences of 160 specimens of the Paracalanus parvus complex from all oceans were obtained. Furthermore, 42 COI sequences from GenBank were added for the genetic analyses. Thirteen distinct molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTU) and two single sequences were revealed with cladistic analyses (Maximum Likelihood, Bayesian Inference), of which seven were identical with results from species delimitation methods (barcode gaps, ABDG, GMYC, Rosenberg’s P(AB)). In total, 10 to 12 putative species were detected and could be placed in three categories: (1) temperate geographically isolated, (2) warm-temperate to tropical wider spread and (3) circumglobal warm-water species. Conclusions The present study provides evidence of cryptic or pseudocryptic speciation in the Paracalanus parvus complex. One major insight is that the species Paracalanus parvus s.s. is not panmictic, but may be restricted in its distribution to the northeastern Atlantic. PMID:24581044

  14. [Relationships between population characters of Undinula vulgaris (Copepoda) and environment in the East China Sea].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhaoli

    2006-01-01

    Based on the data of four seasonal oceanographic censuses in 1997 approximately 2000 in the East China Sea (23 degrees 30' approximately 33 degrees N, 118 degrees 30' approximately 128 degrees E), this paper discussed the relationships between the ecological characters of natural Undinula vulgaris population and its environment in the Sea, with the data of 1979 approximately 1980 compared. The results showed that there was a very clear seasonal change of the dominance, abundance, and occurrence frequency of U. vulgaris, i.e.,autumn (0.09, 556 ind x 100 m(-3), 93.69%) >summer (0.03, 86 ind x 100 m(-3), 68.49%) >winter (0.02, 42 ind x 100 m(-3), 53.85%) >spring (0.01, 16 ind x 100 m(-3), 34.35%). As a dominant species of pelagic copepods in the Sea, U. vulgaris showed its predominance mainly in autumn. The percentage of U. vulgaris in the total abundance of pelagic copepods was 2.31% in spring, 4.80% in summer, 3.80% in winter, and 9.90% in autumn, while its occurrence frequency was the highest in autumn and the lowest in winter. Comparing the results of this study with the data of 1979 approximately 1980, the importance of U. vulgaris in pelagic copepods in the Sea was decreased in spring, summer and autumn, but increased in winter, which might be related with the global warming in winter. The main environmental factors affecting U. vulgaris abundance were the bottom water factors that closely related with the warm current in the ocean. Because of its sensibility to low temperature and coastal water mass, U. vulgaris could be used as a good indicator of warm current, and, as a good food for fishes, this species plays an important role in marine fishing in the middle-south part of the East China Sea.

  15. A new species of Strongylacron (Copepoda, Harpacticoida, Cletodidae) from intertidal mudflats in the Korean peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Guk; Jung, Tae Won; Yoon, Seong Myeong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species, Strongylacron glabrum sp. n. is described from intertidal mudflats in the Korean peninsula. The new species is assigned to the monospecific genus Strongylacron Gee & Huys, 1996 in accordance with the generic morphological features of the rostrum, antennary exopod, and thoracic legs. However, Strongylacron glabrum sp. n. is clearly distinguished from the type species, Strongylacron buchholtzi (Boeck, 1873), by the naked anterior margin of rostrum, the elongate exopod and endopodal lobe of female P5 approximately 3.5 and 2.7 times as long as width, respectively, and the presence of 8–10 rod-like projections on prosomites. The genus Strongylacron is first recorded from Korean waters by the present study. PMID:27667951

  16. The Application of DNA Barcodes for the Identification of Marine Crustaceans from the North Sea and Adjacent Regions.

    PubMed

    Raupach, Michael J; Barco, Andrea; Steinke, Dirk; Beermann, Jan; Laakmann, Silke; Mohrbeck, Inga; Neumann, Hermann; Kihara, Terue C; Pointner, Karin; Radulovici, Adriana; Segelken-Voigt, Alexandra; Wesse, Christina; Knebelsberger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    During the last years DNA barcoding has become a popular method of choice for molecular specimen identification. Here we present a comprehensive DNA barcode library of various crustacean taxa found in the North Sea, one of the most extensively studied marine regions of the world. Our data set includes 1,332 barcodes covering 205 species, including taxa of the Amphipoda, Copepoda, Decapoda, Isopoda, Thecostraca, and others. This dataset represents the most extensive DNA barcode library of the Crustacea in terms of species number to date. By using the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD), unique BINs were identified for 198 (96.6%) of the analyzed species. Six species were characterized by two BINs (2.9%), and three BINs were found for the amphipod species Gammarus salinus Spooner, 1947 (0.4%). Intraspecific distances with values higher than 2.2% were revealed for 13 species (6.3%). Exceptionally high distances of up to 14.87% between two distinct but monophyletic clusters were found for the parasitic copepod Caligus elongatus Nordmann, 1832, supporting the results of previous studies that indicated the existence of an overlooked sea louse species. In contrast to these high distances, haplotype-sharing was observed for two decapod spider crab species, Macropodia parva Van Noort & Adema, 1985 and Macropodia rostrata (Linnaeus, 1761), underlining the need for a taxonomic revision of both species. Summarizing the results, our study confirms the application of DNA barcodes as highly effective identification system for the analyzed marine crustaceans of the North Sea and represents an important milestone for modern biodiversity assessment studies using barcode sequences.

  17. The Application of DNA Barcodes for the Identification of Marine Crustaceans from the North Sea and Adjacent Regions

    PubMed Central

    Raupach, Michael J.; Barco, Andrea; Steinke, Dirk; Beermann, Jan; Laakmann, Silke; Mohrbeck, Inga; Neumann, Hermann; Kihara, Terue C.; Pointner, Karin; Radulovici, Adriana; Segelken-Voigt, Alexandra; Wesse, Christina; Knebelsberger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    During the last years DNA barcoding has become a popular method of choice for molecular specimen identification. Here we present a comprehensive DNA barcode library of various crustacean taxa found in the North Sea, one of the most extensively studied marine regions of the world. Our data set includes 1,332 barcodes covering 205 species, including taxa of the Amphipoda, Copepoda, Decapoda, Isopoda, Thecostraca, and others. This dataset represents the most extensive DNA barcode library of the Crustacea in terms of species number to date. By using the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD), unique BINs were identified for 198 (96.6%) of the analyzed species. Six species were characterized by two BINs (2.9%), and three BINs were found for the amphipod species Gammarus salinus Spooner, 1947 (0.4%). Intraspecific distances with values higher than 2.2% were revealed for 13 species (6.3%). Exceptionally high distances of up to 14.87% between two distinct but monophyletic clusters were found for the parasitic copepod Caligus elongatus Nordmann, 1832, supporting the results of previous studies that indicated the existence of an overlooked sea louse species. In contrast to these high distances, haplotype-sharing was observed for two decapod spider crab species, Macropodia parva Van Noort & Adema, 1985 and Macropodia rostrata (Linnaeus, 1761), underlining the need for a taxonomic revision of both species. Summarizing the results, our study confirms the application of DNA barcodes as highly effective identification system for the analyzed marine crustaceans of the North Sea and represents an important milestone for modern biodiversity assessment studies using barcode sequences. PMID:26417993

  18. Risk factors perceived predictive of ISA spread in Chile: applications to decision support.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, L; Antognoli, M; Lara Fica, M; Ibarra, R; Mancilla, J; Sandoval Del Valle, O; Enriquez Sais, R; Perez, A; Aguilar, D; Madrid, E; Bustos, P; Clement, A; Godoy, M G; Johnson, C; Remmenga, M

    2014-11-01

    Aquaculture is anticipated to be a critical element in future solutions to global food shortage. However, diseases can impede industry efficiency and sustainability. Consequently, diseases can and have led to dramatic re-structuring in industry or regulatory practices. The emergence of infectious salmon anemia (ISA) in Chile is one such example. As in other countries, many mitigations were instituted universally, and many incurred considerable costs as they introduced a new layer of coordination of farming activities of marine sites within common geographic areas (termed 'neighborhoods' or 'barrios'). The aggregate response led to a strong reduction in ISA incidence and impact. However, the relative value of individual mitigations is less clear, especially where response policies were universally applied and retrospective analyses are missing 'controls' (i.e., areas where a mitigation was not applied). Further, re-focusing policies around disease prevention following resolution of an outbreak is important to renew sustainable production; though, again, field data to guide this shift in purpose are often lacking. Expert panels can offer timely decision support in the absence of empirical data. We convened a panel of fish health experts to weight risk factors predictive of ISA virus (ISAV) introduction or spread between Atlantic salmon barrios in Chile. Barrios, rather than sites, were the unit of interest because many of the new mitigations operate at this level and few available studies examine their efficacy. Panelists identified barrio processing plant biosecurity, fallowing strategies, adult live fish transfers, fish and site density, smolt quality, hydrographic connection with other neighborhoods, presence of sea lice (Caligus rogercresseyi), and harvest vessel biosecurity as factors with the greatest predictive strength for ISAV virulent genotype ('HPR-deleted') occurrence. Fewer factors were considered predictive of ISAV HPR0 genotype ('HPR0') occurrence

  19. Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) in Chilean Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture: emergence of low pathogenic ISAV-HPR0 and re-emergence of virulent ISAV-HPR∆: HPR3 and HPR14

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstact Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a serious disease of marine-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) caused by ISA virus (ISAV), which belongs to the genus Isavirus, family Orthomyxoviridae. ISA is caused by virulent ISAV strains with deletions in a highly polymorphic region (HPR) of the hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) protein (designated virulent ISAV-HPR∆). This study shows the historic dynamics of ISAV-HPR∆ and ISAV-HPR0 in Chile, the genetic relationship among ISAV-HPR0 reported worldwide and between ISAV-HPR0 and ISAV-HPR∆ in Chile, and reports the 2013 ISA outbreak in Chile. The first ISA outbreak in Chile occurred from mid-June 2007 to 2010 and involved the virulent ISAV-HPR7b, which was then replaced by a low pathogenic ISAV-HPR0 variant. We analyzed this variant in 66 laboratory-confirmed ISAV-HPR0 cases in Chile in comparison to virulent ISAV-HPR∆ that caused two new ISA outbreaks in April 2013. Multiple alignment and phylogenetic analysis of HE sequences from all ISAV-HPR0 viruses allowed us to identify three genomic clusters, which correlated with three residue patterns of ISAV-HPR0 (360PST362, 360PAN362 and 360PAT362) in HPR. The virus responsible for the 2013 ISAV-HPR∆ cases in Chile belonged to ISAV-HPR3 and ISAV-HPR14, and in phylogenetic analyses, both clustered with the ISAV-HPR0 found in Chile. The ISAV-HPR14 had the ISAV-HPR0 residue pattern 360PAT362, which is the only type of ISAV-HPR0 variant found in Chile. This suggested to us that the 2013 ISAV-HPR∆ re-emerged from ISAV-HPR0 that is enzootic in Chilean salmon aquaculture and were not new introductions of virulent ISAV-HPR∆ to Chile. The clinical presentations and diagnostic evidence of the 2013 ISA cases indicated a mixed infection of ISAV with the ectoparasite Caligus rogercresseyi and the bacterium Piscirickettsia salmonis, which underscores the need for active ISAV surveillance in areas where ISAV-HPR0 is enzootic, to ensure early detection and control of new ISA

  20. Four new species of Peniculisa Wilson, 1917 (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Pennellidae) parasitic on coastal marine fishes in Japanese waters.

    PubMed

    Uyeno, Daisuke; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2010-08-01

    Four new species of Peniculisa Wilson, 1917, are described from marine fishes caught in coastal waters of southwestern Japan. Peniculisa elongata n. sp., Peniculisa crassa n. sp., and Peniculisa uchinah n. sp. are distinguishable from Peniculisa furcata ( Krøyer, 1863 ), Peniculisa bellwoodi Boxshall, 1989 , and Peniculisa wilsoni Radhakrishnan, 1977 , in the lack of rami on legs 1 to 4, the lack of leg 5, and the possession of a trunk with prominent anterior shoulders. Peniculisa elongata n. sp. is separated from the remaining 2 known and 3 new congeners, Peniculisa bicaudata Shiino, 1956 , Peniculisa shiinoi Izawa, 1965 , P. crassa n. sp., Peniculisa ohirugi n. sp., and P. uchinah n. sp. by a pair of long, slender caudal processes, a compact cephalothorax, and its trunk with posteroventral lobes projecting posteriorly. Peniculisa crassa n. sp. can be discriminated from them by its pair of short, thick caudal processes, a comparatively large and thick cephalothorax in relation to its body, and its abdominal processes widest at base. Peniculisa uchinah n. sp. is distinguished from all other congeners by the possession of a pair of relatively long, slender, and proportionately long caudal processes, and a long abdominal process widest near the posterior end. Peniculisa ohirugi n. sp. is identified by a pair of long, divergent abdominal processes extending the tip of caudal rami, and by the location of leg 4 on the neck region.

  1. Selective oviposition by Aedes aegypti (Diptera: culicidae) in response to Mesocyclops longisetus (Copepoda: Cyclopoidea) under laboratory and field conditions.

    PubMed

    Torres-Estrada, J L; Rodríguez, M H; Cruz-López, L; Arredondo-Jimenez, J I

    2001-03-01

    The influence of predacious Mesocyclops longisetus Thiebaud on the selection of oviposition sites by prey Aedes aegypti (L.) was studied under laboratory and field conditions. In both cases, gravid Ae. aegypti females were significantly more attracted to ovitraps containing copepods or to ovitraps with water in which copepods were held previously than to distilled water. Monoterpene and sesquiterpene compounds including 3-carene, alpha-terpinene, alpha-copaene, alpha-longipinene, alpha-cedrene, and delta-cadinene were found in hexane extracts of copepods by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses. These compounds may be responsible for attracting gravid Ae. aegypti females and may increase the number of potential prey for the copepod.

  2. Phylogeography of Calanus helgolandicus and the Black Sea copepod Calanus euxinus, with notes on Pseudocalanus elongatus (Copepoda, Calanoida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unal, Ebru; Frost, Bruce W.; Armbrust, Virginia; Kideys, Ahmet E.

    2006-08-01

    Calanus helgolandicus is a widespread epipelagic copepod species whose geographical range extends from the temperate Atlantic Ocean to the northern Mediterranean Sea. Calanus euxinus, recently designated as a distinct species though closely related to C. helgolandicus, occurs in the Black Sea. Very subtle morphological differences distinguish the two species. Pseudocalanus elongatus has a similar geographic range including North Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea. In this study, population genetic variation of C. helgolandicus, C. euxinus and P. elongatus was investigated using DNA sequence variation of 540 base pair ( Calanus spp.) and 575 base pair ( P. elongatus) regions of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) gene. C. helgolandicus was collected from the English Channel, the Adriatic Sea, and C. euxinus was collected from various regions of the Black Sea. P. elongatus was collected from the English Channel and the Black Sea. Intraspecific differentiation in mtCOI was <1% for all species; mtCOI sequence variation between C. helgolandicus and C. euxinus was <0.5%. The absence of substantial genetic differentiation between C. helgolandicus and C. euxinus is particularly striking in comparison to other close species pairs in these genera. Statistically significant haplotype frequency differences were determined for different locations of the Black Sea, English Channel, and Adriatic Sea Calanus populations ( χ2=3.94, P<0.0001). The haplotype diversity was high for all species: C. euxinus ( h=0.92), C. helgolandicus ( h⩽0.80), P. elongatus ( h⩽0.60). No haplotype sharing was reported for different locations of P. elongatus, whereas the presence of haplotype sharing between C. helgolandicus and C. euxinus was remarkable. The size distribution in terms of prosome length measurements was found to be region-specific. The lack of phylogenetic differentiation between the Calanus species pair may suggest ancestral polymorphisms. The morphological and genetic similarities between C. euxinus and C. helgolandicus raise new questions about the status of C. euxinus as a different species.

  3. Fate of the Black Sea Acartia clausi and Acartia tonsa (Copepoda) penetrating into the Marmara Sea through the Bosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubareva, Elena; Svetlichny, Leonid; Kideys, Ahmet; Isinibilir, Melek

    2008-01-01

    In October 2005 spatial distribution of live and dead Acartia clausi and Acartia tonsa was studied in the Black and Marmara Seas and near the Marmara Sea inlet of the Bosphorus, in order to understand their fate upon transportation between two seas. The morphometric characteristics in both species from all studied areas, and the decreased abundance of A. clausi and A. tonsa from the Black Sea towards the Marmara Sea indicate that the Marmara Sea Acartia populations are formed by recruitment from the Black Sea. We observed mass mortality of A. clausi in the Marmara Sea near the Prince Islands. The majority of carcasses (66% of total A. clausi numbers in the Marmara Sea) were found in the salinity gradient layer. Laboratory experiments showed that during a gradual salinity increase (3.5-4 h) from 18.9 (salinity of the Marmara Sea surface layers) to 39.8 (Marmara Sea salinity at depths >25 m) Acartia clausi began to die at a salinity of 30 and that all copepods were dead at 39.8. In comparison with A. clausi, Acartia tonsa was more tolerant to short-term salinity increase. Despite the high salinity tolerance of A. tonsa however, the abundance of this species was estimated to be very low in the offshore Marmara Sea. Respiration rate and frequency of jumps in A. tonsa were 1.3-1.5 and 1.77 times higher, respectively, than those in A. clausi.

  4. A new species of Monocheres Stock (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida, Asterocheridae) from shallow waters off Florida, USA: an unexpected discovery

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The rare asterocherid copepod genus Monocheres, ectosymbionts of corals and sponges, contains only two species, one from Mauritius (Indian Ocean) and the other one from Brazil (western Atlantic). From the analysis of the digestive caecum contents of the benthic hesionid polychaete Hesione picta Müller, 1858, an adult female of an undescribed species of Monocheres was unexpectedly recovered; it is the third species of this rare asterocherid genus. The new species, Monocheres sergioi sp. n., has the distinctive reduction of the fifth leg as a process with a single seta. It differs from its two other congeners by several characters including the presence of an inner basipodal spine, the armature details of the third exopodal segment of leg 1, the shape of the cephalosome and pedigerous somites 3 and 4, and the ornamentation of the postero-lateral corners of the genital double-somite. The main synapomorphies include the presence of spinules along the posterior margin of the first leg coxal sclerite and the reduced, spiniform coxal seta on leg 4. The biology and feeding habits of the polychaete containing this specimen suggests that the copepod was ingested as an ectosymbiont from sponges or coral but it is also possible that it was consumed from an ophiurid echinoderm. This finding allows an expansion of the genus geographical distribution in the northwestern Atlantic. A key to the species of Monocheres is also provided. PMID:27551233

  5. A new species of Tigriopus (Copepoda, Harpacticoida, Harpacticidae) from Thailand with the description of its naupliar development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chullasorn, Supawadee; Ivanenko, Viatcheslav N.; Dahms, Hans-U.; Kangtia, Pawana; Yang, Wan-Xi

    2012-06-01

    Both genders of Tigriopus thailandensis sp. nov. are described from a laboratory stock raised from individuals collected from the seaweed Enteromorpha clathrata in Thailand (Bangsaen Beach, Chonburi Province). Tigriopus thailandensis sp. nov. shares with its closest relative T. japonicus Mori, 1932 two setae on the third exopodal segment of leg 4 while other congeners bear 3 inner setae . However, allobasis and exopod of antenna in both genders are much more slender and elongate than in T. japonicus. All six naupliar stages of T. thailandensis are described from the offspring of isolated females. In comparison with nauplii of T. japonicus, T. thailandensis nauplii are characterized by the following: a smaller body size throughout the naupliar phase; first antennular segment without seta, second antennular segment with only one small seta plus two longer setae; third antennular segment with additional spinules from naupliar stage II onwards; antenna bears three small spinules on the terminal exopodal segment; one additional seta on the anterior surface of the antennary basis, tubular endopod of antenna with one tiny seta midlength at naupliar stage III that increases in size; mandibular basis with several spinules on anterior surface; mandibular coxa with one spinulose seta that is smooth in T. japonicus.

  6. A new species of Pseudodiaptomus (Crustacea, Copepoda, Calanoida, Pseudodiaptomidae) from the Prasae River Estuary, Gulf of Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Srinui, Khwanruan; Nishida, Shuhei; Ohtsuka, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the calanoid copepod genus Pseudodiaptomus was collected from the Prasae River Estuary, Rayong Province, on the eastern coast of the Gulf of Thailand. This species is definitely assigned to the lobus species group sensu Walter (1986a). The female of the new species differs from other congeners in the elongate genital double-somite with a blunt process ventrally and the second urosomite about 2.54 times as long as wide. The male is also easily distinguished from other congeners by the structure of the right fifth leg. The present new species is a euryhaline species and occurred in brackish waters with salinity ranging from 0.7 to 23.3. Its breeding season may be from June to October, as indicated by the presence of egg-sacs. PMID:24146583

  7. New records of Ergasilus (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) in the Laurentian Great Lakes, including a lakewide review of records and host associations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Patrick L.; Bowen, Charles A.; Stedman, Ralph M.

    1994-01-01

    Ergasilus nerkae was found infecting ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) in lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior and threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and round whitefish (Prosopium cylindraceum) in Lake Huron. Based upon the literature and study of archived material, we propose that E. nerkae is enzootic to the Great Lakes and that ninespine stickleback are a preferred host in Lake Huron. Prevalence of E. nerkae on ninespine stickleback increased from 17% in June to 68% in September, but mean intensity remained light. Prevalence and mean intensity increased with host length. Ergasilus luciopercarum is also reported on lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) for the first time. Host-parasite records of Ergasilus spp. in North America are reviewed, biology and taxonomy are summarized, and a checklist of Great Lakes host-parasite-locality records is provided. At present, eight species of Ergasilus are known to infect 42 Great Lakes fish species.

  8. Expression of ecdysteroids and cytochrome P450 enzymes during lipid turnover and reproduction in Calanus finmarchicus (Crustacea: Copepoda).

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Altin, Dag; Hessen, Kristine M; Dahl, Ulrika; Breitholtz, Magnus; Nordtug, Trond; Olsen, Anders J

    2008-08-01

    The marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus is the most abundant zooplankton species in the northern regions of the Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea. Very little is known about molecular regulation of hormone metabolism, moulting and reproduction in copepods. To investigate these processes, we sampled adult male and female copepods (females at three distinct reproductive stages) and copepodites stage five (CV) from the culture at SINTEF/NTNU Sealab. Copepods were individually photographed, analyzed biometrically (body size, length and lipid storage size) and for ecdysteroid concentrations. In addition, we analyzed copepods for gene expression of three putative cytochrome P450 enzymes possibly involved in ecdysteroid regulation: CYP301A1, CYP305A1 and CYP330A1. The CV group exhibited the highest ecdysteroid concentrations and the largest lipid storage size, and a significant positive correlation was found between these parameters. Also, two of the P450 enzymes (CYP305A1 and CYP330A1) were more highly expressed at CV than at the adult stage, suggesting that these P450 enzymes are involved in ecdysteroid synthesis and lipid storage regulation. The expression of CYP330A1 was higher in newly moulted females than in females that had produced eggs. In addition, we observed that ecdysteroid concentrations were higher in females with large egg sacs, suggesting that ecdysteroids may be involved in egg maturation and reproduction. The CYP301A1 was more highly expressed in males and post-spawning females, and may be involved in ecdysteroid degradation since these groups also exhibited the lowest ecdysteroid concentrations.

  9. Taxonomic evaluation of eleven species of Microcyclops Claus, 1893 (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) and description of Microcyclops inarmatus sp. n. from America

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Martha Angélica; Cervantes-Martínez, Adrián

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Description and meristic analysis of eleven species of Microcyclops recorded in America were performed based on the examination of type specimens and fresh material. Microscopic analysis of oral appendages, such as the shape and armature of the distal coxal endite of the maxilla, the ornamentation on the caudal surface of the antenna, and the intercoxal sclerites and armament of the inner basis of all swimming appendages, were characteristics that allowed the differentiation between species. Among these species, our study confirmed the synonymy of Microcyclops diversus Kiefer, 1935 with Microcyclops ceibaensis (Marsh, 1919). The results of our observations showed that Microcyclops alius (Kiefer, 1935) is a junior synonym of Microcyclops dubitabilis Kiefer, 1934; the latter being confirmed as a valid species. Also, it is proposed that the records of Microcyclops rubellus (Lilljeborg, 1901) and Microcyclops varicans (Sars, 1863) in America should be revised as there are serious doubts about their distribution in America. The analysis suggested that Microcyclops anceps pauxensis Herbst, 1962 is distinct from Microcyclops anceps var. minor Dussart, 1984 and that both are likely different from Microcyclops anceps anceps (Richard, 1897). Finally a full morphological description of adult females of Microcyclops inarmatus sp. n. is presented. PMID:27551196

  10. A new species of Mastigodiaptomus Light, 1939 from Mexico, with notes of species diversity of the genus (Copepoda, Calanoida, Diaptomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Martha Angélica; Cervantes-Martínez, Adrián

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Mastigodiaptomus Light, 1939, named Mastigodiaptomus cuneatus sp. n. was found in a freshwater system in the City of Mazatlán, in the northern region of Mexico. Morphologically, the females of this new species are distinguishable from those of its congeners by the following combination of features: the right distal corner of the genital double-somite and second urosomite have a wedge-shaped projection, the fourth urosomite has no dorsal projection and its integument is smooth. The males are distinct by the following features: the right caudal ramus has a wedge-shaped structure at the disto-ventral inner corner; the basis of the right fifth leg has one triangular and one rounded projection at the distal and proximal margins, respectively, plus one hyaline membrane on the caudal surface close to the inner margin; the aculeus length is almost the width of the right second exopod (Exp2); and the frontal and caudal surfaces of the right Exp2 are smooth. Furthermore, the analysis of the COI gene of Mastigodiaptomus cuneatus sp. n. has revealed that Mastigodiaptomus albuquerquensis (Herrick, 1895) is its nearest congener, with 18.64% of genetic distance. A key for the identification of the known species of the genus is provided. PMID:28138275

  11. The effectiveness of Mesocyclops longisetus (Copepoda) for the control of container-inhabiting mosquitoes in residential environments.

    PubMed

    Soumare, M K F; Cilek, J E

    2011-12-01

    The cyclopoid crustacean Mesocyclops longisetus was evaluated for its predatory potential to reduce container-inhabiting mosquitoes in 5 suburban Florida backyards. Aedes albopictus, Ae. triseriatus, and Culex quinquefasciatus were the predominant species collected from containers. At an initial inoculation rate of approximately 120 copepods per container, M. longisetus populations eliminated resident mosquito larvae for a minimum of 14 wk in 30-liter plastic buckets and up to 29 wk in 0.4-liter ceramic flowerpots and 0.3-liter glass jars depending on species. Copepod populations generally peaked 13 wk after introduction (August) in ceramic flowerpots and glass jars and about 1 month later in tires, plastic buckets, and plastic flowerpots. At the time of peak abundance, average predator numbers ranged between 900 (glass jar) to >3000 (30-liter bucket) individuals per container. Although all mosquito species were eliminated from all containers sometime during the 35-wk study, M. longisetus appeared to preferably prey on Aedes larvae compared with Culex. Operationally, the use of M. longisetus as a tool for control of container-inhabiting mosquitoes in urban/suburban settings proved to be relatively inexpensive, required little labor for colony maintenance, was easily transported, and easily applied.

  12. A new species of the genus Tegastes (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Tegastidae) from hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Back, Jinwook; Huys, Rony; Lee, Wonchoel

    2010-08-01

    We describe a new species, Tegastes okinawaensis, from 583-711 meter-deep hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough, Japan. This species is clearly distinguishable from its congeners by four combined characters, namely 1) the last three abdominal somites are depressed inwardly towards the body, 2) there is sexual dimorphism in the number of setae of P3 and P4, 3) the male antennule is 9-segmented, with the 7th segment formed by incomplete fusion of two segments, and 4) the caudal rami are small with a distorted quadrangular shape. Additionally, the species is easily distinguishable from its congeners by the distal endopodal segment of P4, which is armed with six setae - this character has never been reported in previous descriptions of congeners. This report is the first of a species in the genus Tegastes living at ocean depths of greater than 580 m in the northwestern Pacific.

  13. A new species of Halicyclops (Copepoda, Cyclopoida, Cyclopidae) from a lagoon system of the Caribbean coast of Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Fuentes-Reinés, Juan M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Plankton samples obtained from the lagoon system Laguna Navío Quebrado, in northern Colombia, yielded male and female specimens of an undescribed cyclopoid copepod of the genus Halicyclops. The new species belongs to the highly diverse and widely distributed thermophilus-complex. It closely resembles Halicyclops clarkei Herbst, 1982 from Louisiana and Halicyclops bowmani Rocha & Iliffe, 1993 from Bermuda. These species share the same armature of P1-P4EXP3, with a 3443 spine formula and the terminal antennary segment with 5 setae. However, Halicyclops gaviriai sp. n. can be separated from both Halicyclops clarkei and Halicyclops bowmani by the morphology of the anal pseudoperculum, the proportions of the fourth antennulary segment, the length of the inner basipodal spine of P1, the P1EXP/inner basipodal spine inner length ratio and the length/width ratio of the caudal rami. This is the third species of Halicyclops recorded from Colombia and the first one described from this country. With the addition of Halicyclops gaviriai sp. n., the number of species of Halicyclops known from the Neotropics increases to 19. The regional diversity of the genus is probably underestimated. PMID:25561852

  14. A new culture system for in situ observation of the growth and development of Eucyclops serrulatus (Copepoda: Cyclopoida)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung-Hee; Chang, Cheon-Young

    2005-01-01

    A practical and convenient method of rearing Eucyclops serrulatus in a microculture environment is described. A complete life cycle of E. serrulatus was maintained in a narrow space on a microscope slide glass on which a cover glass of 22 x 40 mm in size was mounted at a height of 0.8 mm. The culture medium was constituted by bottled mineral water boiled with grains of Glycine max (soybean). Chilomonas paramecium, a free-living protozoan organism, was provided as live food. Growth of nauplii hatched from eggs to the first stage of copepodite took an average of 7.7 days, and the growth of copepodite 1 to the egg-bearing adult female took an average of 20.1 days in the microculture cell with an average life time of 44.7 days. Continuous passage of copepods was successfully maintained as long as sufficient medium and food were provided. The microculture method enables an in situ microscopic observation on the growth and developmental process of helminth larvae experimentally infected to copepods as well as of copepod itself. Furthermore, it does not require anesthetization and, therefore, minimize the amount of stress exposed to copepods during the handling process. PMID:16340303

  15. A new culture system for in situ observation of the growth and development of Eucyclops serrulatus (Copepoda: Cyclopoida).

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Hee; Chang, Cheon Young; Shin, Sung Shik

    2005-12-01

    A practical and convenient method of rearing Eucyclops serrulatus in a microculture environment is described. A complete life cycle of E. serrulatus was maintained in a narrow space on a microscope slide glass on which a cover glass of 22 x 40 mm in size was mounted at a height of 0.8 mm. The culture medium was constituted by bottled mineral water boiled with grains of Glycine max (soybean). Chilomonas paramecium, a free-living protozoan organism, was provided as live food. Growth of nauplii hatched from eggs to the first stage of copepodite took an average of 7.7 days, and the growth of copepodite 1 to the egg-bearing adult female took an average of 20.1 days in the microculture cell with an average life time of 44.7 days. Continuous passage of copepods was successfully maintained as long as sufficient medium and food were provided. The microculture method enables an in situ microscopic observation on the growth and developmental process of helminth larvae experimentally infected to copepods as well as of copepod itself. Furthermore, it does not require anesthetization and, therefore, minimize the amount of stress exposed to copepods during the handling process.

  16. A new genus of Asterocheridae (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida) ectoassociate of the ascidian Eudistoma vannamei Millar, 1977 (Polycitoridae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, Rodrigo; Bahia, Cristiano; Neves, Elizabeth

    2016-05-23

    Asterocheres Boeck, 1860 is the largest genus of the siphonostomatoid copepod family Asterocheridae, containing 63 valid species. The genus is known for its symbiotic relationships with many marine invertebrate taxa, especially sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, and echinoderms. Recent studies have restricted the diagnosis of this genus. Consequently, many species are now considered as species inquirendae. The present paper describes a new species living externally on the tunic of Eudistoma vannamei Millar, 1977, an endemic ascidian from Brazil. As the new species does not fit Asterocheres in the strict sense, a new genus is erected to accommodate it. Setacheres gen. nov. is characterized by its possession of two distal setae on the third endopodal segment of P3, thus differing from the distal seta and spine pattern that is deemed as diagnostic of Asterocheres. A revision and comparison of Asterocheres´ species inquirendae revealed eight species sharing the same generic characteristics and were thus reallocated as members of the new genus.

  17. Host-parasite relationships and geographic distribution of Salmincola corpulentus (Copepoda: Lernaeopodidae) on bloater (Coregonus hoyi) stocks in Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Charles A.; Stedman, Ralph M.

    1990-01-01

    Examination of the branchial cavities of 8347 adult bloaters (Coregonus hoyi) collected from seven locations in Lake Huron for parasitic copepods yielded only the lernaeopodid Salmincola corpulentus; its distribution was limited to bloaters collected in the southern two-thirds of the lake. The infections were highest off Au Sable Point and on Six Fathom Bank, where 12 and 22%, of the bloaters examined were infected, respectively. All copepods seen were sexually mature females. The dorsal anterior portion of the branchial rim was the preferred site of attachment. The prevalence of S. corpulentus increased with length of the bloaters, reaching a maximum of 40% in fish longer than 330 mm; none were seen in bloaters shorter than 182 mm. The mean intensity of S. corpulentus was unusually low (1.0–1.9) for a lernaeopodid copepod and the maximum number of copepods found on a single bloater was five. Prevalences of copepods differed significantly (P < 0.05) between bloaters collected at different geographic locations, suggesting that S. corpulentus may be of value in bloater stock determination.

  18. Histopathology of a mesoparasitic hatschekiid copepod in hospite: does Mihbaicola sakamakii (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Hatschekiidae) fast within the host fish tissue?

    PubMed

    Hirose, Euichi; Uyeno, Daisuke

    2014-08-01

    Mihbaicola sakamakii is a mesoparasitic copepod that infests the branchiostegal membranes of groupers (Perciformes: Serranidae). In this study, we observed M. sakamakii within host tissue. Histologically, copepods were found enclosed inside a pouch composed of the thickened epidermis of the host, tightly encased on all sides by the host epidermal pouch wall. There were no host blood cells or other food resources in the pouch lumen. Since the host epidermis was intact and continuous, even in the vicinity of the oral region of the parasite, the copepod would not have access to the host blood in this state. However, the stomach (ampullary part of the mid gut) was filled with granular components, the majority of which were crystalloids that likely originated from fish erythrocyte hemoglobin. We supposed that the parasite drinks blood exuded from the lesion in the fish caused by copepod entry into the host tissue. Invasion of the parasite may elicit immune responses in the host, but there were no traces on the copepod of any cellular immune reactions, such as encapsulation. The array of minute protuberances on the copepod cuticle surface may be involved in avoidance of cell adhesion. After the lesion has healed, the copepod is enclosed in a tough epidermal pouch, in which it gradually digests the contents of its stomach and continues egg production.

  19. Infestation of gill copepod Lernanthropus latis (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae) and its effect on cage-cultured Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer.

    PubMed

    Kua, B C; Noraziah, M R; Nik Rahimah, A R

    2012-09-01

    Twenty Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer from a floating cage in Bt. Tambun, Penang were examined for the presence of parasitic gill copepod, Lernanthropus latis. The prevalence of L. latis was 100% with the intensity of infection ranging from 1 to 18 parasites per host or 3.75 of mean intensity. Female parasites having oblong cephalothorax and egg-strings were seen mainly on the entire gill of examined Asian sea bass. The infected gill of Asian sea bass was pale and had eccessive mucus production. Under light and scanning electron microscopies (SEM), L. latis was seen grasping or holding tightly to the gill filament using their antenna, maxilla and maxilliped. These structures are characteristically prehensile and uncinate for the parasite to attach onto the host tissue. The damage was clearly seen under SEM as the hooked end of the antenna was embedded into the gill filament. The parasite also has the mandible which is styliform with eight teeth on the inner margin. The pathological effects such as erosion, haemorrhages, hyperplasia and necrosis along the secondary lamellae of gill filaments were seen and more severe at the attachment site. The combined actions of the antenna, maxilla and maxilliped together with the mandible resulted in extensive damage as L. latis attached and fed on the host tissues.

  20. New evidence for the involvement of Paracartia grani (Copepoda, Calanoida) in the life cycle of Marteilia refringens (Paramyxea).

    PubMed

    Boyer, S; Chollet, B; Bonnet, D; Arzul, I

    2013-12-01

    The dynamics of the protozoan parasite Marteilia refringens was studied in Thau lagoon, an important French shellfish site, for 1 year in three potential hosts: the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mytiliidae), the grooved carpet shell Ruditapes decussatus (Veneriidae) and the copepod Paracartia grani (Acartiidae). Parasite DNA was detected by PCR in R. decussatus. In situ hybridisation showed necrotic cells of M. refringens in the digestive epithelia of some R. decussatus suggesting the non-involvement of this species in the parasite life cycle. In contrast, the detection of M. refringens in mussels using PCR appeared bimodal with two peaks in spring and autumn. Histological observations of PCR-positive mussels revealed the presence of different parasite stages including mature sporangia in spring and autumn. These results suggest that the parasite has two cycles per year in the Thau lagoon and that mussels release parasites into the water column during these two periods. Moreover, PCR detection of the parasite in the copepodid stages of P. grani between June and November supports the hypothesis of the transmission of the parasite from mussels to copepods and conversely. In situ hybridisation performed on copepodites showed labeling in some sections. Unusual M. refringens cells were observed in the digestive tract and the gonad from the third copepodid stage, suggesting that the parasite could infect a copepod by ingestion and be released through the gonad. This hypothesis is supported by the PCR detection of parasite DNA in copepod eggs from PCR-positive females, which suggests that eggs could contribute to the parasite spreading in the water and could allow overwintering of M. refringens. Finally, in order to understand the interactions between mussels and copepods, mussel retention efficiency (number of copepods retained by a mussel) was measured for all P. grani developmental stages. Results showed that all copepod stages could contribute to the transmission of the parasite, especially eggs and nauplii which were retained by up to 90%.

  1. Systematic revision of the pennellid genus Creopelates Shiino, 1958 (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida) and the proposal of a new genus.

    PubMed

    Uyeno, Daisuke

    2015-01-07

    The parasitic copepod Creopelates floridus Shiino, 1958 (Siphonostomatoida: Pennellidae) is redescribed based on postmetamorphic adult females in the collection of the Imperial Majesty of Japan deposited in the National Museum of Nature and Science, Tsukuba (NSMT), Japan. Five new species of pennellid copepods are described based on postmetamorphic adult females from marine actinopterygian fishes newly collected in littoral waters of Japan and the Philippines, in the western North Pacific. The copepods and their hosts are as follows: Creopelates hosinoi n. sp. from Bryaninops yongei (Davis & Cohen) (Perciformes: Gobiidae); C. shirakawai n. sp. from Diancistrus fuscus (Fowler) (Ophidiiformes: Bythitidae); C. lubangenesis n. sp. from Gobiodon rivulatus (Rüppell) (Perciformes: Gobiidae); Nagasawanus akinohama n. gen. et n. sp. from Trimma grammistes (Tomiyama) (Perciformes: Gobiidae); N. snufkini n. gen. et n. sp. from T. tevegae Cohen & Davis. The total number of valid species contained in the genus Creopelates is now five. Nagasawanus n. gen. is distinguishable from other pennellid genera by the following features: antennary processes and cephalic lobes rounded without branched fringes, neck region without processes, maxilla with claw-like terminal segment lacking spinules. Keys to the genera of Pennellidae and to the species of Creopelates and Nagasawanus n. gen. are also provided.

  2. Occurrence of mitochondrial CO1 pseudogenes in Neocalanus plumchrus (Crustacea: Copepoda): Hybridization indicated by recombined nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ya-Ying

    2017-01-01

    A portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene was sequenced using both genomic DNA and complement DNA from three planktonic copepod Neocalanus species (N. cristatus, N. plumchrus, and N. flemingeri). Small but critical sequence differences in CO1 were observed between gDNA and cDNA from N. plumchrus. Furthermore, careful observation revealed the presence of recombination between sequences in gDNA from N. plumchrus. Moreover, a chimera of the N. cristatus and N. plumchrus sequences was obtained from N. plumchrus gDNA. The observed phenomena can be best explained by the preferential amplification of the nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes from gDNA of N. plumchrus. Two conclusions can be drawn from the observations. First, nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes are pervasive in N. plumchrus. Second, a mating between a female N. cristatus and a male N. plumchrus produced viable offspring, which further backcrossed to a N. plumchrus individual. These observations not only demonstrate intriguing mating behavior in these species, but also emphasize the importance of careful interpretation of species marker sequences amplified from gDNA. PMID:28231343

  3. Diel vertical behavior of Copepoda community (naupliar, copepodites and adults) at the boundary of a temperate estuary and coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, A. M. M.; Pardal, M. A.; Marques, S. C.; Mendes, S.; Fernández-Gómez, M. J.; Galindo-Villardón, M. P.; Azeiteiro, U. M.

    2012-02-01

    Despite a growing interest in diel vertical migration as a research topic, there are few studies in southern European marine coastal systems. This study determined the main structuring hydrological and physical factors at different temporal scales in copepod assemblage distribution patterns. Seasonal, tidal, lunar and diel vertical migrations accomplished by horizontal movements were examined on the main copepod fraction of the Mondego estuary, Portugal. Seasonal samples were conducted hourly at the mouth of the estuary, during diel cycles (25 h), both over neap and spring tides, at the bottom and surface, using a 63 μm and 335 μm mesh size nets. Simultaneously, four sites inside the estuary were sampled during flood tide to evaluate and compare copepods species' distribution along the estuary. Species life cycles were also categorized. Spring-spring tide best expresses the stable part of copepod-environment dynamics. Acartia tonsa and Oithona nana were distributed mainly at the bottom during ebb tides. A clear resident estuarine performance was noticeable in O. nana proving the estuarine preferences of the species. Neritic species showed preferences by saline waters, whereas the resident species were found mainly at estuarine areas. Copepodites stages showed a similar distribution pattern as estuarine species, avoiding leaving the estuary. In contrast nauplii and Oithona plumifera showed higher densities at surface flood tides. Indeed, vertical migrations accomplished by horizontal movements were mainly influenced by depth and tidal cycles, whereas day and night were not ecologically significant.

  4. Identification guide to some Diaptomid species (Crustacea, Copepoda, Calanoida, Diaptomidae) of “de la Plata” River Basin (South America)

    PubMed Central

    Perbiche-Neves, Gilmar; Boxshall, Geoffrey Allan; Previattelli, Daniel; Nogueira, Marcos Gomes; da Rocha, Carlos Eduardo Falavigna

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An identification guide is presented for species of calanoid copepod family Diaptomidae from “de la Plata” River Basin (Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay). It was based on material collected during the summer and winter of 2010 from 43 sites across the eastern part and the lower stretches of this basin, the second largest in South America and the fourth in the world. The guide contains identification keys and species diagnoses for males and females, richly supported by scanning electronic micrographs and/or line drawings of 19 species. It also includes some general remarks on the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of these species. The key was adjusted to be useful for these species only, with separate keys for each sex, and is the first for females of South America. One species classified herein as incertae sedis was not included in the analysis. At least ten other species have previously been recorded in the basin but were not present in our samples. This is the first attempt to compile comprehensive taxonomic information on this group of copepods in this region, and it is expected to become a useful tool for biologists and young taxonomists interested in the crustacean biota of the Neotropical region. PMID:25931959

  5. A new genus and species of cyclopoid (Crustacea, Copepoda, Cyclopinidae) from a coastal system in the Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Almeyda-Artigas, Roberto Javier

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new, monotypic genus of the interstitial marine cyclopoid copepod family Cyclopinidae G.O. Sars, 1913 is described from male and female specimens collected at Laguna de Términos, a large coastal lagoon system in the southern Gulf of Mexico. Mexiclopina campechana gen. et sp. n. cannot be adequately placed in any extant genus within the family. It differs from other cyclopinid genera in having a unique combination of characters including: 1) absence of modified brush-like seta on the mandibular exopod; 2) maxillule exopod with stout setal elements and brush-like setae absent; 3) basis of mandible with one seta; 4) presence of a modified seta on endopod of fourth leg; 5) fifth leg exopod unsegmented, armed with three elements in the female and five in the male; 6) intercoxal sclerite of first swimming leg with two medial spiniform processes on distal margin. The new genus is monotypic and appears to be most closely related to Cyclopina Claus, 1863 and Heptnerina Ivanenko & Defaye, 2004; the new species was compared with species of Cyclopina and it resembles Cyclopina americana Herbst, 1982 and Cyclopina caissara Lotufo, 1994. This is the second record of a species of Cyclopinidae in Mexico and the first in the Gulf of Mexico; the number of cyclopinid species recorded from the Americas is now 13. PMID:26668545

  6. A new genus and species of cyclopoid (Crustacea, Copepoda, Cyclopinidae) from a coastal system in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Almeyda-Artigas, Roberto Javier

    2015-01-01

    A new, monotypic genus of the interstitial marine cyclopoid copepod family Cyclopinidae G.O. Sars, 1913 is described from male and female specimens collected at Laguna de Términos, a large coastal lagoon system in the southern Gulf of Mexico. Mexiclopina campechana gen. et sp. n. cannot be adequately placed in any extant genus within the family. It differs from other cyclopinid genera in having a unique combination of characters including: 1) absence of modified brush-like seta on the mandibular exopod; 2) maxillule exopod with stout setal elements and brush-like setae absent; 3) basis of mandible with one seta; 4) presence of a modified seta on endopod of fourth leg; 5) fifth leg exopod unsegmented, armed with three elements in the female and five in the male; 6) intercoxal sclerite of first swimming leg with two medial spiniform processes on distal margin. The new genus is monotypic and appears to be most closely related to Cyclopina Claus, 1863 and Heptnerina Ivanenko & Defaye, 2004; the new species was compared with species of Cyclopina and it resembles Cyclopina americana Herbst, 1982 and Cyclopina caissara Lotufo, 1994. This is the second record of a species of Cyclopinidae in Mexico and the first in the Gulf of Mexico; the number of cyclopinid species recorded from the Americas is now 13.

  7. A new species of Prohatschekia Nunes-Ruivo, 1954 (Copepoda: Hatschekiidae) parasitic on Scorpaena elongata (Cadenat) off Algeria.

    PubMed

    Hamza, Fazia; Boxshall, Geoff; Kechemir-Issad, Nadia

    2007-06-01

    A new species of parasitic copepod, Prohatschekia mediterranea n. sp. (Siphonostomatoida: Hatschekiidae), is described from a scorpaenid fish, Scorpaena elongata, collected off Algeria. This is the seventh species of Prohatschekia Nunes-Ruivo, 1954 to be described and the first record of the genus from the Mediterranean Sea. The new species is most closely related to P. cremouxi Nunes-Ruivo, 1954, known from a congeneric host collected in Senegal. A key is provided to distinguish the new species from other members of the genus.

  8. Taxonomic evaluation of eleven species of Microcyclops Claus, 1893 (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) and description of Microcyclops inarmatus sp. n. from America.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Martha Angélica; Cervantes-Martínez, Adrián

    2016-01-01

    Description and meristic analysis of eleven species of Microcyclops recorded in America were performed based on the examination of type specimens and fresh material. Microscopic analysis of oral appendages, such as the shape and armature of the distal coxal endite of the maxilla, the ornamentation on the caudal surface of the antenna, and the intercoxal sclerites and armament of the inner basis of all swimming appendages, were characteristics that allowed the differentiation between species. Among these species, our study confirmed the synonymy of Microcyclops diversus Kiefer, 1935 with Microcyclops ceibaensis (Marsh, 1919). The results of our observations showed that Microcyclops alius (Kiefer, 1935) is a junior synonym of Microcyclops dubitabilis Kiefer, 1934; the latter being confirmed as a valid species. Also, it is proposed that the records of Microcyclops rubellus (Lilljeborg, 1901) and Microcyclops varicans (Sars, 1863) in America should be revised as there are serious doubts about their distribution in America. The analysis suggested that Microcyclops anceps pauxensis Herbst, 1962 is distinct from Microcyclops anceps var. minor Dussart, 1984 and that both are likely different from Microcyclops anceps anceps (Richard, 1897). Finally a full morphological description of adult females of Microcyclops inarmatus sp. n. is presented.

  9. Reconstruction of arietellid copepod phylogenetic relationship, with description of a new species of Sarsarietellus (Copepoda, Calanoida, Arietellidae) from Korean waters.

    PubMed

    Soh, Ho Young; Moon, Seong Yong; Ohtsuka, Susumu; Pae, Se Jin; Jeong, Hyeon Gyeong

    2013-11-01

    A new species of the genus Sarsarietellus from Korean waters, S. orientalis n. sp. is described based on both sexes. This is very closely related to S. suluensis Ohtsuka, Nishida and Machida, 2005 , but is readily distinguished by the following characteristics: in the female (1) narrow head; (2) nearly symmetrical posterior corners of last pedigerous somite, not extending beyond the genital double-somite; (3) antennary endopod slightly longer than the exopod; (4) nearly equal length of three outer spines and the terminal spine of the exopod of the fifth leg, except for the proximal third outer spine; and in the male the left fifth leg with two whip-like setae on the tip of the second exopodal segment not being rotated outside. Sarsarietellus orientalis is the fourth species of the genus Sarsarietellus, while the male of Sarsarietellus species is the first reported. The habitat colonization of arietellids is reconsidered.

  10. De Novo Assembly of a Transcriptome for Calanus finmarchicus (Crustacea, Copepoda) – The Dominant Zooplankter of the North Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, Petra H.; Roncalli, Vittoria; Hassett, R. Patrick; Wu, Le-Shin; Cieslak, Matthew C.; Hartline, Daniel K.; Christie, Andrew E.

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the impact of global warming on the food web of the North Atlantic will require difficult-to-obtain physiological data on a key copepod crustacean, Calanus finmarchicus. The de novo transcriptome presented here represents a new resource for acquiring such data. It was produced from multiplexed gene libraries using RNA collected from six developmental stages: embryo, early nauplius (NI-II), late nauplius (NV-VI), early copepodite (CI-II), late copepodite (CV) and adult (CVI) female. Over 400,000,000 paired-end reads (100 base-pairs long) were sequenced on an Illumina instrument, and assembled into 206,041 contigs using Trinity software. Coverage was estimated to be at least 65%. A reference transcriptome comprising 96,090 unique components (“comps”) was annotated using Blast2GO. 40% of the comps had significant blast hits. 11% of the comps were successfully annotated with gene ontology (GO) terms. Expression of many comps was found to be near zero in one or more developmental stages suggesting that 35 to 48% of the transcriptome is “silent” at any given life stage. Transcripts involved in lipid biosynthesis pathways, critical for the C. finmarchicus life cycle, were identified and their expression pattern during development was examined. Relative expression of three transcripts suggests wax ester biosynthesis in late copepodites, but triacylglyceride biosynthesis in adult females. Two of these transcripts may be involved in the preparatory phase of diapause. A key environmental challenge for C. finmarchicus is the seasonal exposure to the dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense with high concentrations of saxitoxins, neurotoxins that block voltage-gated sodium channels. Multiple contigs encoding putative voltage-gated sodium channels were identified. They appeared to be the result of both alternate splicing and gene duplication. This is the first report of multiple NaV1 genes in a protostome. These data provide new insights into the transcriptome and physiology of this environmentally important zooplankter. PMID:24586345

  11. [The family Pontellidae (Crustacea: Copepoda) in la Ventosa Bay, Oaxaca, México: systematies and basic ecology].

    PubMed

    Alvarez Silva, Carlos; Miranda Arce, María Guadalupe; De Lara-Isassi, Graciela

    2003-01-01

    A study on ecological records of planktonic copepods from The Ventosa Bay, Oaxaca, Mexico is presented. Five species were identified: Labidocera acuta, L. lubbockii, Pontella agassizi, P. tenuiremis and Pontellina plumata. The most abundant species was L. acuta and their copepodite stages conforming the 95.7% of Pontellids, followed by L. lubbockii 4.09%; other species were less than one percent. The reproductive success of L. acuta is probably favored by its resistance to the changes in temperature and salinity, because of it is an eurytherme and euryhaline organism. Total density of this family was between 18 and 472 copepods/100 m3 in 1987 and 1988. Nevertheless in 1992 and 1993 the density was between 490 to 123,030 copepods/100 m3. This copepod density increment could be related local phenomenon (upwelling) at the beginning and end of the year.

  12. Caligidae infestation in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer, Bloch 1790 cultured at different salinity in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Muhd-Faizul, H A H; Kua, B C; Leaw, Y Y

    2012-02-28

    The Asian seabass is euryhaline, therefore it is interesting to describe the infestation and survival of caligids at varying salinity on the host. In this study, two different brackish water culture systems with monoculture and polyculture practices were investigated for the occurrence of Caligus spp. on Lates calcarifer. Polyculture practices mainly consisted of snapper (Lutjanus spp.), grouper (Epinephelus spp.) and seabass (L. calcarifer), while the monoculture was stocked with only seabass. A total of 777 Caligus spp. specimens were isolated from the sampling in 2009, consisting of three species; Caligus chiastos, Caligus epidemicus and Caligus rotundigenitalis. In 2011, the total specimen was increased to 3110 and two additional species were found; Caligus punctatus and one unknown species (Caligus sp.). A 98.6% of the total examination was represented by C. epidemicus. Constant presence of C. epidemicus was observed throughout the study, regardless the differences in between culturing practices and systems. This species was able to survive within wide salinity range, from 5 to 28 ppt. The other isolated species (C. chiastos, C. punctatus, C. rotundigenitalis and Caligus sp.) were only found infesting in polyculture cages with the salinity ranging from 25 to 28 ppt. Despite accounts for less than 2% of the total specimens, these species may able to produce a challenge for L. calcarifer polyculture farming activity due to their capability for host switching. The present study revealed the potential risk for cross-species transmission in polyculture practices.

  13. Molecular profiles and pathogen-induced transcriptional responses of prawn B cell lymphoma-2 related ovarian killer protein (BOK).

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Mukesh Kumar; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Arockiaraj, Jesu

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we have reported a molecular characterization of the first B cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) related ovarian killer protein (BOK) from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr). BOK is a novel pro-apoptotic protein of the BCL-2 family that entails in mediating apoptosis to remove cancer cells. A cDNA sequence of MrBOK was identified from the prawn cDNA library and its full length was obtained by internal sequencing. The coding region of MrBOK yields a polypeptide of 291 amino acids. The analysis revealed that MrBOK contains a transmembrane helix at V(261)-L(283) and a putative BCL-2 family domain at V(144)-W(245). MrBOK also possessed four putative BCL-2 homology domains including BH1, BH2, BH3 and weak BH4. The BH3 contains 21 binding sites and among them five residues are highly conserved with the aligned BOK proteins. The homology analysis showed that MrBOK shared maximum similarity with the Caligus rogercresseyi BOK A. The topology of the phylogenetic tree was classified into nine sister groups which includes BOK, BAK, BAX, BAD, BCL-2, BCL-XL, NR13 and MCL members. The BOK protein group further sub-grouped into vertebrate and invertebrate BOK, wherein MrBOK located within insect monophyletic clad of invertebrate BOK. The secondary structural analysis showed that MrBOK contains 11 α-helices (52.2%) which are connected over random coils (47.7%). The 3D structure of MrBOK showed three central helices (α6, α7 and α8) which formed the core of the protein and are flanked on one side by α1, α2 and α3, and on the other side by α4, α5 and α11. MrBOK mRNA is expressed most abundantly (P < 0.05) in ovary compared to other tissues taken for analysis. Hence ovary was selected to study the possible roles of MrBOK mRNA regulation upon bacterial (Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio harveyi) and viral [white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and M. rosenbergii nodovirus] infection. During bacterial and viral infection, the highest MrBOK mRNA transcription was varied

  14. Redescription of two Pennellids (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida) from Korea with a key to species of Peniculus von Nordmann, 1832

    PubMed Central

    Maran, B. A. Venmathi; Moon, Seong Yong; Oh, Sung-Yong; Ho Young Soh; Myoung,  Jung-Goo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Redescriptions of two pennellid copepods, Peniculus minuticaudae Shiino, 1956 and Peniculus truncatus Shiino, 1956, are provided, based on postmetamorphic adult females collected from marine ranched fishes captured at Tongyeong marine living resources research & conservation center, Korea. Peniculus minuticaudae was collected from the soft fin rays of black scraper Thamnaconus modestus. It can be distinguished from the other two closely related congeners Peniculus ostraciontis Yamaguti, 1939 and Peniculus truncatus by having a well developed triangular-shaped abdomen; the abdomen is rudimentary in other two species. This is thefirst report of the occurrence of Peniculus minuticaudae in Korea. Peniculus truncatus was collected from the dorsal fin of Korean rockfish Sebastes schlegelii. It can be distinguished from Peniculus minuticaudae by the combination of a rudimentary abdomen, long neck and setae on leg 1 and from Peniculus ostraciontis by the long neck, slender trunk, and setae on leg 1. It is also shown that Peniculus truncatus captured from the same host in Korea was misidentified as Peniculus ostraciontis and hence, this is thesecond record of the occurrence of Peniculus truncatus in Korea. A key is provided for the 14 nominal species of Peniculus. PMID:23372416

  15. Temperature-induced changes in fatty acid dynamics of the intertidal grazer Platychelipus littoralis (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida): Insights from a short-term feeding experiment.

    PubMed

    Werbrouck, Eva; Van Gansbeke, Dirk; Vanreusel, Ann; Mensens, Christoph; De Troch, Marleen

    2016-04-01

    Dietary lipids, and in particular the essential fatty acids (EFA), EPA (20:5ω3) and DHA (22:6ω3), guarantee the well-being of animals and are recognized for their potential bottom-up control on animal populations. They are introduced in marine ecosystems through primary producers and when grazed upon, they are consumed, incorporated or modified by first-level consumers. As the availability of EFA in the ecosystem is affected by ambient temperature, the predicted rise in ocean temperature might alter the availability of these EFA at the basis of marine food webs. Despite the FA bioconversion capacity of certain benthic copepod species, their lipid (FA) response to varying temperatures is understudied. Therefore, the temperate, intertidal copepod Platychelipus littoralis was offered a mono and mixed diatom diet at 4, 15 °C (normal range) and at 24 °C (elevated temperature) to investigate the combined effects of temperature and resource availability on its FA content and composition. P. littoralis showed a flexible thermal acclimation response. Cold exposure increased the degree of FA unsaturation and the EPA%, and induced a shift towards shorter chain FA in the copepod's membranes. Furthermore, a mixed diet reduced the impact of heat stress on the copepod's membrane FA composition. Temperature affected the trophic transfer of EPA and DHA differently. While dietary resources could fully compensate for the temperature effects on total lipid and EPA content in the copepods, no such counterweigh was observed for the DHA dynamics. Heat stress lowered the DHA concentration in copepods regardless of the resources available and this implies negative effects for higher trophic levels.

  16. Control of aedes vectors of dengue in three provinces of Vietnam by use of Mesocyclops (Copepoda) and community-based methods validated by entomologic, clinical, and serological surveillance.

    PubMed

    Kay, Brian H; Nam, Vu Sinh; Tien, Tran Van; Yen, Nguyen Thi; Phong, Tran Vu; Diep, Vu Thi Bich; Ninh, Truong Uyen; Bektas, Ahmet; Aaskov, John G

    2002-01-01

    We describe remarkable success in controlling dengue vectors, Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse), in 6 communes with 11,675 households and 49,647 people in the northern provinces of Haiphong, Hung Yen, and Nam Dinh in Vietnam. The communes were selected for high-frequency use of large outdoor concrete tanks and wells. These were found to be the source of 49.6-98.4% of Ae. aegypti larvae, which were amenable to treatment with local Mesocyclops, mainly M. woutersi Van der Velde, M. aspericornis (Daday) and M. thermocyclopoides Harada. Knowledge, attitude, and practice surveys were performed to determine whether the communities viewed dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever as a serious health threat; to determine their knowledge of the etiology, attitudes, and practices regarding control methods including Mesocyclops; and to determine their receptivity to various information methods. On the basis of the knowledge, attitude, and practice data, the community-based dengue control program comprised a system of local leaders, health volunteer teachers, and schoolchildren, supported by health professionals. Recycling of discards for economic gain was enhanced, where appropriate, and this, plus 37 clean-up campaigns, removed small containers unsuitable for Mesocyclops treatment. A previously successful eradication at Phan Boi village (Hung Yen province) was extended to 7 other villages forming Di Su commune (1,750 households) in the current study. Complete control was also achieved in Nghia Hiep (Hung Yen province) and in Xuan Phong (Nam Dinh province); control efficacy was > or = 99.7% in the other 3 communes (Lac Vien in Haiphong, Nghia Dong, and Xuan Kien in Nam Dinh). Although tanks and wells were the key container types of Ae. aegypti productivity, discarded materials were the source of 51% of the standing crop of Ae. albopictus. Aedes albopictus larvae were eliminated from the 3 Nam Dinh communes, and 86-98% control was achieved in the other 3 communes. Variable dengue attack rates made the clinical and serological comparison of control and untreated communes problematic, but these data indicate that clinical surveillance by itself is inadequate to monitor dengue transmission.

  17. Lamproglena hepseti n. sp. (Copepoda: Lernaeidae), a gill parasite of the African pike Hepsetus odoe (Bloch) from the Okavango River and Delta, Botswana.

    PubMed

    van As, Liesl L; van As, Jo G

    2007-05-01

    During surveys of the biodiversity of fish parasites in the Okavango River and Delta, Botswana, specimens of Lamproglena von Nordmann, 1832 were found associated with the African pike Hepsetus odoe (Bloch). This Lamproglena species distinctly differs from all known species based on morphological features, in particular the cephalothorax and the maxilliped; it is described as L. hepseti n. sp. and is specific to its host, the African pike.

  18. A new species of Pseudopandarus Kirtisinghe, 1950 (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Pandaridae) from sharks of the genus Squalus L. in New Caledonian waters.

    PubMed

    Bernot, James P; Boxshall, Geoffrey A

    2017-02-01

    Both sexes of a new species of pandarid copepod are described from sharks of the genus Squalus L. (Squaliformes: Squalidae). Specimens of Pseudopandarus cairae n. sp. were collected from Squalus bucephalus Last, Séret & Pogonoski and S. melanurus Fourmanoir & Rivaton in New Caledonian waters, the first parasitic copepod to be described from either host species. This is the eighth nominal species of Pseudopandarus Kirtisinghe, 1950 and the first to be described from a shark of the order Squaliformes. Pseudopandarus cairae n. sp. is easily distinguished from P. australis Cressey & Simpfendorfer, 1988, P. longus (Gnanamuthu, 1951) Cressey, 1967, and P. pelagicus Rangnekar, 1977 in having the female genital complex concealed beneath an elongate dorsal genital shield with a trilobed posterior margin. It can be distinguished from P. gracilis Kirtisinghe, 1950 and P. scyllii Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959 by the armature of the leg 4 endopod and by the proportions of the dorsal genital shield. The new species is unique among known species of Pseudopandarus in its possession of only 1 setal element on the distal endopod segment of leg 4. In addition to describing the new species, the host associations of all species of Pseudopandarus are reviewed and observations are made regarding sexual dimorphism and mode of attachment. A key to the species considered valid is provided.

  19. Numerical and functional responses to the presence of a competitor--the case of Aggregata sp. (Apicomplexa: Aggregatidae) and Octopicola superba (Copepoda: Octopicolidae).

    PubMed

    Cavaleiro, F I; Santos, M J

    2014-02-01

    Evidence of interference competition between the eimeriorin coccidian Aggregata sp. and the octopicolid copepod Octopicola superba at the level of the gills of naturally infected Octopus vulgaris is evaluated. Numerical and functional responses are considered for analysis, and the fundamental and realized spatial niches (FSNs and RSNs) are measured as part of the study. While it was not possible to measure the FSN of Aggregata sp., the analysis of the infection levels of O. superba recorded for non-concomitantly and concomitantly infected hosts suggests that the gills and body skin constitute, respectively, the main and accessory sites of infection of the parasite. According to the evidence found, the gills function mainly as an accessory site of infection of Aggregata sp., in specimens in which the caecum and intestine are massively infected. Evidence for a negative interaction between Aggregata sp. and O. superba has been found while controlling for a potential confounding effect of host size. Furthermore, the presence of O. superba on gill lamellae appears to have been negatively affected by the presence of Aggregata sp., while this latter remained mostly undisturbed. The mean number of oocysts of Aggregata sp. in the gills was higher in spring and summer, which were also the seasons presenting the broadest RSN for O. superba.

  20. Phylogeny of freshwater parasitic copepods in the Ergasilidae (Copepoda: Poecilostomatoida) based on 18S and 28S rDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Song, Y; Wang, G T; Yao, W J; Gao, Q; Nie, P

    2008-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among the Ergasilidae genera are poorly understood. In this study, 14 species from four genera in the Ergasilidae including Sinergasilus, Ergasilus, Pseudergasilus, and Paraergasilus were collected in China, and their phylogenetic relationships were examined using neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference methods based on partial sequences of 18S and 28S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid, respectively. All the analyses suggest that the Sinergasilus and Paraergasilus are both monophyletic, but the Ergasilus is polyphyletic rather than monophyletic. Considering the relationships among the four genera, the phylogenetic analyses and subsequent hypothesis tests all suggest that Pseudergasilus clustered with some Ergasilus species may have a closer relationship with Sinergasilus rather than with Paraergasilus. It is proposed that the Sinergasilus and the Pseudergasilus species might have evolved from Ergasilus species.

  1. Vertical Migrations and Feeding Rhythms of Acartia clausi and Pseudodiaptomus hessei (Copepoda: Calanoida) in a Tropical Lagoon (Ebrié, Côte d'Ivoire)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouassi, E.; Pagano, M.; Saint-Jean, L.; Arfi, R.; Bouvy, M.

    2001-06-01

    Diel changes in vertical distribution and gut pigment contents of Acartia clausi and Pseudodiaptomus hessei were studied during several 24-h time series performed between 1993 and 1997 in four sites of the Ebrié Lagoon (Côte d'Ivoire). The sites differed by their morphology and their hydrological structure and by the vertical distribution of chlorophyll biomass. Both species showed classical diel vertical migrations (DVM). Copepodites and adult stages of P. hessei were almost benthic during the day and evenly distributed through the water column at night. The amplitude of DVM of A. clausi increased from copepodites I-III to adults. Copepodites and adults of A. clausi increased significantly their gut fluorescence at night, whereas those of P. hessei showed no clear diel feeding rhythm (DFR). These results suggest that A. clausi feed mostly at night on phytoplanktonic particles and P. hessei feed mostly on benthic algal particles during the day and on sestonic particles at night. No relationship was observed between DFR and DVM because both patterns occurred when food was either vertically homogeneous or vertically stratified. The daily average gut fluorescence of A. clausi increased with ambient chlorophyll concentration until around 12-15 μg l -1, whereas no relationship was found for P. hessei. The implication of these patterns on the adaptation capacities and the behaviour of the two species are discussed. The DVM of P. hessei should explain its rarity in the estuarine area. The comparison of our results with previous ones suggests an evolution of A. clausi DFR between 1981-1982 and 1996-1997, in relation to an intensification of eutrophication.

  2. Feeding of Acartia clausi and Pseudodiaptomus hessei (Copepoda: Calanoida) on natural particles in a tropical lagoon (Ebrié, Côte d'Ivoire)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, M.; Kouassi, E.; Saint-Jean, L.; Arfi, R.; Bouvy, M.

    2003-03-01

    Grazing of the copepods Acartia clausi and Pseudodiaptomus hessei on natural particles was studied from on board experiments during several 24 h time series performed between 1993 and 1997 in four sites of the Ebrié Lagoon (Côte d'Ivoire). Ingestion rates of both species increased linearly with food concentration until a concentration threshold (5.5×10 9 μm 3 l -1 for A. clausi and 5.2×10 9 mm 3 l -1 for P. hessei) beyond which the relation presented a plateau. Both species poorly selected the peak of available particles (range 3-6 mm equivalent spherical diameter, ESD) but A. clausi seek preferentially smaller particles (6-21 μm ESD) than P. hessei (9-33 μm ESD). When the proportion of the preferred particles in the food offered decreased, A. clausi extended its selectivity towards both smaller and larger particles whereas P. hessei extended its selectivity towards larger particles only. As a consequence of these patterns, the useful particle concentration (UPC) was higher for A. clausi than for P. hessei. In addition, the ratio of the UPC for the two species showed a positive relationship with the ratio of their respective biomass. The significance of these results for the adaptation capacities of the two species and for the ecosystem functioning are discussed. A. clausi which is more suited than P. hessei to exploit smaller particles (3-6 μm) which dominate the seston, has a food competitive advantage. The inadequacy between the seston food-size composition and the selective patterns of the two main zooplankton species of the Ebrié Lagoon explains that they could be food limited despite the high trophic level of the lagoon. It could also partly explain the low transfer efficiency between phytoplankton and zooplankton in this ecosystem.

  3. Ameiridae Boeck and Argestidae Por revisited, with establishment of Parameiropsidae, a new family of Harpacticoida (Crustacea, Copepoda) from deep-sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corgosinho, P. H. C.; Martínez Arbizu, P.

    2010-09-01

    Four new species of Parameiropsis are described from Angola and Guinea Basins and the Arctic Laptev Sea. The male of Parameiropsis poseidonicus sp. n. differs from that of P. neptuni sp. n. and P. senckenbergi sp. n. in antennule segmentation, length of the proximal aesthetasc, length of the outermost seta of the antennary endopod, degree of reduction of the mouthparts, relative length of the inner spine of the basis of thoracopod 1, shape of the furca and body length. The female of P. amphitriteae sp. n. differs from previously described females of other species in the smaller exopod and endpod of thoracopod 1, reduced armature of thoracopods 1-6, length of the outer setae of exopods and endopods of thoracopods 2-4, and mandible exopod weakly developed and fused to the basis. Parameiropsis is redefined by the following autapomorphies: presence of aesthetasc on 3rd segment of female antennule; antenna strong, with endopod curved upwardly, and shape of the outermost (strongly ornamented) spine; triangular labrum; elongated corpus mandibularis, gnathobasis very long; basis of mandibular palp unarmed; elongated maxillule, with long and flexible setae on praecoxal arthrite; basis of the maxilla with strongly modified claw. To discuss the phylogenetic position of Parameiropsis, we revaluated the subfamilies of Ameiridae (viz. Ameirinae and Stenocopiinae) and the family Argestidae. Anoplosomella and Malacopsyllus revealed to be not closely related to Ameiridae and are transferred to Argestidae, sharing with other members of this family the morphology of the mandible gnathobasis, armature of maxilla and armature and length of the first segment of the antennule. Argestoides prehensilis does not show any of the characters that we consider autapomorphic for Argestidae. Instead, it shows many characters in common with several Ameiridae species. Parameiropsis does not have any character that could justify its inclusion within Ameiridae or even within Podogennonta. It also cannot be included satisfactorily within Argestidae nor Exanechentera. Therefore, we here propose a new family for Parameiropsis, with unclear relationships within Harpacticoida. After these taxonomic rearrangements, Ameiridae and Argestidae are considered monophyletic based on certain maxilla characters that we consider autapomorphic for each group. A key to the identification of the known species of Parameiropsis is added at the end.

  4. An annotated list of parasites (Isopoda, Copepoda, Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda and Nematoda) collected in groupers (Serranidae, Epinephelinae) in New Caledonia emphasizes parasite biodiversity in coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Justine, Jean-Lou; Beveridge, Ian; Boxshall, Geoffrey A; Bray, Rod A; Moravec, Frantisek; Trilles, Jean-Paul; Whittington, Ian D

    2010-11-01

    Abstract: Over a 7-year period, parasites have been collected from 28 species of groupers (Serranidae, Epinephelinae) in the waters off New Caledonia. Host-parasite and parasite-host lists are provided, with a total of 337 host-parasite combinations, including 146 parasite identifications at the species level. Results are included for isopods (5 species), copepods (19), monogeneans (56), digeneans (28), cestodes (12), and nematodes (12). When results are restricted to those 14 fish species for which more than five specimens were examined and to parasites identified at the species level, 109 host-parasite combinations were recorded, with 63 different species, of which monogeneans account for half (32 species), and an average of 4.5 parasite species per fish species. Digenean records were compared for 16 fish species shared with the study of Cribb et al. (2002); based on a total of 90 parasite records identified at the species level, New Caledonia has 17 new records and only seven species were already known from other locations. We hypothesize that the present results represent only a small part of the actual biodiversity, and we predict a biodiversity of 10 different parasite species and 30 host-parasite combinations per serranid. A comparison with a study on Heron Island (Queensland, Australia) by Lester and Sewell (1989) was attempted: of the four species of fish in common and in a total of 91 host-parasite combinations, only six parasites identified at the species level were shared. This suggests strongly that insufficient sampling impairs proper biogeographical or ecological comparisons. Probably only 3% of the parasite species of coral reef fish are already known in New Caledonia.

  5. Two new stygobiotic species of Elaphoidella (Crustacea: Copepoda: Harpacticoida) with comments on geographical distribution and ecology of harpacticoids from caves in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Watiroyram, Santi; Brancelj, Anton; Sanoamuang, La-Orsri

    2015-02-16

    Elaphoidella thailandensis sp. nov. and E. jaesornensis sp. nov., collected during an investigation of cave-dwelling copepod fauna in the northern part of Thailand, are described and figured herein. The new species were collected from pools filled by percolating water from the unsaturated zone of a karstic aquifer in Phitsanulok and Lampang Provinces, respectively. Elaphoidella thailandensis, from Tham Khun cave, is distinguished from its congeners by the two-segmented endopod of pediger 1, the absence of endopod on pediger 4, and the setal formula 4, 5, 6 for the distal exopodal segment of pedigers 2-4. Elaphoidella jaesornensis, from Tham Phar Ngam cave, is distinguished from its most closely related species, E. namnaoensis Brancelj, Watiroyram & Sanoamuang, 2010, by the armature formula of the endopod of pedigers 2-5. The geographical distribution and ecology of Harpacticoida from Thai caves is also presented.

  6. Prediction of the protein components of a putative Calanus finmarchicus (Crustacea, Copepoda) circadian signaling system using a de novo assembled transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Andrew E.; Fontanilla, Tiana M.; Nesbit, Katherine T.; Lenz, Petra H.

    2013-01-01

    Diel vertical migration and seasonal diapause are critical life history events for the copepod Calanus finmarchicus. While much is known about these behaviors phenomenologically, little is known about their molecular underpinnings. Recent studies in insects suggest that some circadian genes/proteins also contribute to the establishment of seasonal diapause. Thus, it is possible that in Calanus these distinct timing regimes share some genetic components. To begin to address this possibility, we used the well-established Drosophila melanogaster circadian system as a reference for mining clock transcripts from a 200,000+ sequence Calanus transcriptome; the proteins encoded by the identified transcripts were also deduced and characterized. Sequences encoding homologs of the Drosophila core clock proteins CLOCK, CYCLE, PERIOD and TIMELESS were identified, as was one encoding CRYPTOCHROME 2, a core clock protein in ancestral insect systems, but absent in Drosophila. Calanus transcripts encoding proteins known to modulate the Drosophila core clock were also identified and characterized, e.g. CLOCKWORK ORANGE, DOUBLETIME, SHAGGY and VRILLE. Alignment and structural analyses of the deduced Calanus proteins with their Drosophila counterparts revealed extensive sequence conservation, particularly in functional domains. Interestingly, reverse BLAST analyses of these sequences against all arthropod proteins typically revealed non-Drosophila isoforms to be most similar to the Calanus queries. This, in combination with the presence of both CRYPTOCHROME 1 (a clock input pathway protein) and CRYPTOCHROME 2 in Calanus, suggests that the organization of the copepod circadian system is an ancestral one, more similar to that of insects like Danaus plexippus than to that of Drosophila. PMID:23727418

  7. Morphological aspects and histological effects of the attachment organ of Parabrachiella sp. (Copepoda: Lernaeopodidae) on the grey mullet, Mugil liza Valenciennes.

    PubMed

    Plaul, S E; Montes, M M; Barbeito, C G; Martorelli, S R

    2013-10-01

    The genus Parabrachiella Wilson, 1915 (Lernaeopodidae) is represented by copepods that are highly adapted to a parasitic way of life. In Argentina, only P. insidiosa var. lageniformis Heller, 1865, P. chevreuxii Van Beneden, 1891 and P. spinicephala Ringuelet, 1945 have been cited, but none of these have been reported on mugilids. Recently, other species of this genus were found attached to the nasal cavities of juvenile grey mullets, Mugil liza Valenciennes, from Samborombón bay, Buenos Aires province. In this study, the prevalence and mean intensity of the Parabrachiella sp. on grey mullet is investigated. In addition, the damage the parasite imposes on its hosts is examined through evaluation of histological sections and immunostaining for proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The morphology of the parasite's bulla is described from light and scanning electron micrographs.

  8. Response of abyssal Copepoda Harpacticoida (Crustacea) and other meiobenthos to an artificial disturbance and its bearing on future mining for polymetallic nodules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahnert, Ahmed; Schriever, Gerd

    Long-term effects of an anthropogenic physical disturbance on the Harpacticoida taxocene at a deep-sea site were investigated during the course of the disturbance and recolonization (DISCOL) experiment in a manganese nodule area in the southeastern Pacific. Nineteen harpacticoid copepod families were found, contributing 9-12% to the metazoan meiofauna of the experimental area (Nematoda 72-80%). Twelve families occurred in sufficient numbers to be considered representatively sampled. Dominant are the Ameiridae (17%) followed by Ectinosomatidae, Argestidae, Tisbidae, Neobradyidae, Diosaccidae, Paranannopidae, Paramesochridae, Canthocamptidae, Cletodidae, Thalestridae and Huntemanniidae. These families are mainly distributed at random. Basic data on developmental stage composition and sex ratio of total Harpacticoida as well as vertical distribution of harpacticoid families in the sediment column are provided. Within the overall aim of the experiment, which was to assess the ecological risks of future deep-sea manganese nodule mining, we conducted multivariate community analyses based on the familial composition of the Harpacticoida assemblages immediately before and after experimental impact as well as seven years later. We were not able to detect a community response at the family level immediately after impact. An identification of the Tisbidae to species, however, revealed initial disturbance effects. After seven years we found significant differences in the assemblage composition of the directly disturbed portions of the experimental area and the secondarily disturbed areas in between, which to some extent had received blanketing from sediment plumes created during the experimental disturbance. Best discriminating families for long-term effects are the Ameiridae, Argestidae and Thalestridae. Their potential value as indicator taxa for monitoring disturbances in the deep sea is discussed, including some considerations on a cost-effective design of such monitoring programs that would include the meiofaunal Harpacticoida.

  9. The effects of power station entrainment passage on three species of marine planktonic crustacean, Acartia tonsa (Copepoda), Crangon crangon (Decapoda) and Homarus gammarus (Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Bamber, Roger N; Seaby, Richard M H

    2004-05-01

    Experiments have been undertaken exposing larval common shrimp (Crangon crangon) and lobster (Homarus gammarus) and adult copepods (Acartia tonsa) to the key stresses of entrainment within power-station cooling-water systems. The apparatus has enabled the testing of mechanical, thermal, chlorine and realistic pressure effects both alone and in combination, the range of stressors spanning the standard conditions found within a temperate coastal direct-cooled power station. Mechanical stresses affected only lobster larvae, pressure changes affected only the Acartia adults. Residual chlorine caused significant mortality of Acartia and shrimp larvae, but had no effect on lobster larvae even at 1 ppm. The temperature increment significantly affected all three species, with a synergistic effect on chlorine sensitivity in the shrimp larvae, but only temperatures higher than would be experienced in a normally-operating power station affected the copepods. The majority of individuals of each species would survive passage through a power-station system under normal conditions. It is notable that, within the species tested, generalizations from the responses of one species to those of another are not valid.

  10. Three new species of Hatschekia Poche, 1902 (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Hatschekiidae) parasitic on Abalistes filamentosus (Pisces: Tetraodontiformes: Balistidae) from off Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Uyeno, Daisuke; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2009-11-01

    Three new species of the copepod genus Hatschekia Poche, 1902, H. lima n. sp., H. cylindrus n. sp. and H. sunaoi n. sp., are described from the gill filaments of a triggerfish, Abalistes filamentosus Matsuura & Yoshino, caught off the Ryukyu Islands, Okinawa, Japan. These new species share an unusual morphological character, i.e. four stout posterior spines on the intercoxal sclerites of legs 1 and 2. H. lima n. sp. differs from its congeners in having a robust inner lobe on the maxillule and leg 3 with a swollen basal lobe. H. cylindrus n. sp. is distinguishable from its congeners by having a cephalothorax fused to the trunk and a double-semicircular chitinous frame. H. sunaoi n. sp. is characterised by leg 3 with a swollen basal lobe and an oval cephalothorax.

  11. Barnard's Brachiella sp., Parabrachiella supplicans (Barnard, 1955) and Eubrachiella sublobulata (Barnard, 1955) (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Lernaeopodidae) deposited in the Iziko South African Museum.

    PubMed

    Lebepe, Modjadji C; Dippenaar, Susan M

    2016-01-04

    The family Lernaeopodidae Milne Edwards, is one of the largest families in Siphonostomatoida Thorell, with more than 260 valid species. Brachiella sp., Parabrachiella supplicans (Barnard) and Eubrachiella sublobulata (Barnard) collected from Table Bay by Barnard in 1955 off Liza ramada (Risso), Genypterus capensis (Smith) and Congiopodus torvus (Gronov) respectively, are re-examined. Brachiella sp. is identified as Parabrachiella mugilis (Kabata, Raibaut & Ben Hassine) and is synonymized with Parabrachiella exilis (Shiino) based on the general morphology of the female habitus, the type host and the attachment site on the host. Parabrachiella supplicans is redescribed and synonymized with Parabrachiella genypteri (Capart) also collected off G. capensis from Fort Rock Point, Namibia. Additionally, Eubrachiella sublobulata is redescribed and represents a different geographical range and host record for the genus Eubrachiella as species were previously reported from teleosts of Antarctic waters.

  12. The turbidity front as a habitat for Acartia tonsa (Copepoda) in the Río de la Plata, Argentina-Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derisio, Carla; Braverman, Mara; Gaitán, Esteban; Hozbor, Constanza; Ramírez, Fernando; Carreto, José; Botto, Florencia; Gagliardini, Domingo A.; Acha, E. Marcelo; Mianzan, Hermes

    2014-01-01

    Acartia tonsa is one of the most abundant copepod species in estuaries worldwide. In the Río de la Plata, its highest densities appear to occur in an area of low quality food (detritus): the turbidity front (TF). The objective of this study was to understand how trophic and oceanographic drivers contribute to the high densities of A. tonsa in the Río de la Plata TF. The patterns of spatial distribution and density of this species were analyzed in relation to oceanographic and biological attributes of the system. The egg production rate (EPR) in the TF was evaluated as a measure of fitness, and a stable isotope analysis indicated the possible sources of organic matter in the species' diet. This study confirmed that the highest observed densities of A. tonsa were mostly associated with the TF, where high suspended matter and low Chl-a occur. Immediately offshore from the TF, decreased copepod densities and the maximum Chl-a values were found. Females close to the estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM) had a lower EPR than those closer to the high Chl-a concentrations. Within the TF, A. tonsa apparently fed on detritus close to the ETM and phytoplankton close to the edge of the TF. The report includes a discussion of how retention processes, two layered flow and the life history strategy of A. tonsa could be contributing to the development of high densities (more than 10,000 ind m- 3) of this species in the inner estuarine zone, despite the poor quality of food available for development in that area. A. tonsa can live and prosper in areas with high turbidity and low chlorophyll concentrations. This trait exemplifies the plasticity of this species and helps explain why it is a key species in many worldwide estuaries.

  13. Infestation of Lernaeenicus seeri (Copepoda: Pennellidae) and Hirudinella ventricosa (Digenea: Hirudinellidae) on wahoo Acanthocybium solandri collected from Parangipettai, southeast coast of India.

    PubMed

    Raja, K; Venmathi Maran, B A; Gopalakrishnan, A; Saravanakumar, A; Vijayakumar, R; Sinduja, K

    2014-09-01

    A commercially important fish, wahoo Acanthocybium solandri (Cuvier, 1832) (Scombridae), was collected to study the infestation of parasites from Parangipettai landing center, Tamil Nadu, southeast coast of India for a period of one year from January to December 2011. A total of 644 fish were captured and screened for parasites. Off 644 fish, 270 were infested by a parasitic copepod Lernaeenicus seeri Kirtisinghe, 1934 (Siphonostomatoida: Pennellidae) on the body surface. It is a mesoparasite, since the head and neck are inserted and attached to the muscle by making a wound/hole on the body and the rest of the parasite body with the egg sacs hanging outside. Prevalence was recorded as 42.29% with mean and maximum intensity at 3.22 and 33, respectively. Seasonal study showed that the prevalence was highest (62.82 %) during postmonsoon. Simultaneously, some of the fish (n = 144) were internally observed for the presence of parasites and we found that 101 fish were infested with an endoparasite digenean Hirudinella ventricosa (Pallas, 1774) (Hirudinellidae) in the stomach. Prevalence was recorded as 70.9%, and mean intensity of 1.62 and maximum intensity of 3 were also noted. The overall percentage of both copepod and digenean infestation were recorded as 60.42%. The infestation was high in postmonsoon season for both parasites. This is the first record of L. seeri from Indian waters and the second record of occurrence worldwide. Significant interactions were observed between season and infestation of both parasites (P<0.05).

  14. Decline of Pseudodiaptomus hessei (Copepoda, Calanoida) in two water bodies located in the Senegal River hydrosystem (West Africa): Hypotheses and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Vera, Juana Mireya; Kâ, Samba; Cuoc, Corinne; Bouvy, Marc; Pagano, Marc

    2008-09-01

    Pseudodiaptomus hessei is a key species in many water bodies in the Senegal River hydrosystem but it became rare or completely disappeared from two ecosystems (Lake Guiers and Dakar Bango Reservoir; Senegal, West Africa) after major hydrological changes caused by human action, mainly impoundments on the river in 1985, and the opening of a new estuary mouth in 2003. Kâ et al. [Kâ, S., Pagano, M., Ba, N., Bouvy, M., Leboulanger, C., Arfi, R., Thiaw, O.T., Ndour, E.H.M., Corbin, D., Defaye, D., Cuoc, C., Kouassi, E., 2006. Zooplankton distribution related to environmental factors and phytoplankton in a shallow tropical lake (Lake Guiers, Senegal, West Africa). International Review of Hydrobiology 91(5), 389-405] put forward several hypotheses to explain the reasons for this decline: salinity and chemical changes in the water, predation by a cyclopid predator Mesocyclops ogunnus and/or the inhibiting effects of cyanobacteria and/or diatoms (allelopathy). This study assessed these hypotheses by studying the distribution of P. hessei in 13 stations (including the Dakar Bango reservoir and Lake Guiers) in relation to physical, chemical and biological (phyto- and zooplanktons) factors at each station. We produced a distribution pattern for this species in the Senegal River hydrosystem. Rank correlations and principal component analysis showed that P. hessei was not correlated with conductivity but was positively correlated with pH and alkalinity, suggesting chemical effects. The clear association with two filamentous cyanobacteria ( Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and Anabaena sp.) did not appear to support the hypothesis of cyanobacteria inhibition but blooming conditions were never encountered during the study. Negative correlation with diatoms (especially with Fragilaria sp.) suggested that aldehyde producing diatoms had a negative effect. Negative correlations with cyclopids such as Mesocyclops supported the hypothesis of cyclopid predation to explain the decline of P. hessei. This study proposes several lines of research for future studies to test these hypotheses.

  15. A new species of Ergasilus von Nordmann, 1832 (Copepoda: Cyclopoida) from the gills of a dasyatid ray, Himantura oxyrhyncha (Sauvage, 1878) from West Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Boxshall, Geoffrey A

    2016-10-11

    A new species of the cyclopoid copepod genus Ergasilus von Nordmann, 1832 is described based on material collected from the gills of an elasmobranch, Himantura oxyrhyncha (Sauvage, 1878), collected in the Java Sea off the coast of West Kalimantan, Indonesia. To justify the establishment of the new species, Ergasilus kimi sp. nov., detailed comparisons are made with the 28 congeneric species that share the combination of a 3-segmented leg 1 endopod and the presence of 2 setae on the free exopodal segment of leg 5. This is the fourth report of an Ergasilus species infecting an elasmobranch and it is concluded that each represents an independent colonization event of elasmobranchs as hosts.

  16. A new species of the rare endoparasitic copepod Entobius (Copepoda: Entobiidae) from Mexico with a key to the species of the genus.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Carrera-Parra, Luis F

    2012-09-01

    Abstract: In a study of the benthic polychaete fauna of the southern Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, several specimens of the terebellid polychaete Scionides reticulata (Ehlers) were found to host endoparasitic copepods that represent an undescribed species of the rare cyclopoid genus Entobius Dogiel, 1948. The new species, E. scionides sp. n., can be distinguished from its congeners by a combination of characters including a genital region without constrictions, three-segmented antennules, a reduced antenna with a blunt terminal process, reduced ornamentation of endopods of legs 1-4 and its relatively small size (2.3-2.7 mm). It is the smallest species of the genus. Comments on immature females are also provided, but males of this species remain unknown. It has a high prevalence (53%) in populations of the terebellid S. reticulata in the southern Gulf of Mexico, but it is absent from the Caribbean. This is the first occurrence of this copepod genus in the Americas. The finding of the new species of Entobius in S. reticulata confirms the strict specificity of most members of the genus and expands the host range of this copepod genus. A key for the identification of the species of Entobius is provided.

  17. Comparative evaluation of fecundity and survivorship of six copepod (Copepoda: Cyclopidae) species, in relation to selection of candidate biological control agents against Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Phong, Tran Vu; Tuno, Nobuko; Kawada, Hitoshi; Takagi, Masahiro

    2008-03-01

    The fecundity and survival of 6 copepod species were assessed under laboratory conditions in order to choose the best candidates to control the aquatic stages of dengue mosquitoes in the field. Females of all the 6 species (Mesocyclops aspericornis, Mesocyclops pehpeiensis, Mesocyclops woutersi, Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides, Mesocyclops ogunnus, and Megacyclops viridis) mated more than once. Multiple mating resulted in increased egg production. The reproductive ability and longevity varied among the species, and M. aspericornis had the highest values. The lowest values were observed in M. thermocyclopoides. Multiple mating of males of M. aspericornis was also observed. The paternal fecundity decreased with each additional mating. There was no difference in the paternal fecundity between the males that mated at low and high female frequencies. The sperm stored in the M. aspericornis females remained viable for 30 days after storage under moist conditions at 25 degrees C or 15 degrees C. This feature in M. aspericornis represents an additional positive factor indicating that this species is a good biological agent for controlling mosquito larvae, especially in domestic water containers that may dry intermittently.

  18. Descriptions of two new species of Rhizorhina Hansen, 1892 (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Nicothoidae) parasitic on tanaidacean crustaceans, with a note on their phylogenetic position.

    PubMed

    Kakui, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of nicothoid copepod are described. Rhizorhina ohtsukai n. sp. found on a leptocheliid (Leptochelia sp.) collected at depths of 151-136 m in the North Pacific Ocean is most similar to Rhizorhina aesthetes Boxshall & Harrison, 1988 but can be distinguished by the possession of a narrower body with a rounded anterior end, and in the position of the gonopores. Rhizorhina soyoae n. sp. found on an apseudid (Fageapseudes sp.) collected at depths of 1,595-1,557 m in East China Sea most closely resembles Rhizorhina tanaidaceae Gotto, 1984 but differs in having a narrower body with a rounded anterior end. Partial nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene were obtained from the two copepods in order to enable future barcoding. A phylogenetic reconstruction based on the 18S rRNA gene placed the copepods within the Siphonostomatoida Burmeister, 1835, with the nicothoid Choniosphaera maenadis (Bloch & Gallien, 1933), and separate from the Rhizorhina spp. clade, suggesting that the family Nicothoidae Dana, 1849 is not monophyletic. This is the third report of copepods parasitic on tanaidacean crustaceans.

  19. A new genus and family of copepods (Crustacea: Copepoda) parasitic on polychaetes of the genus Jasmineira Langerhans, 1880 (family Sabellidae) in the northeastern Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Boxshall, Geoff A; O'Reilly, Myles; Sikorski, Andrey; Summerfield, Rebecca

    2015-09-16

    A new genus and species of copepod, Jasmineiricola mackiei n. gen. et n. sp., parasitic on at least three species of the sabellid polychaete genus Jasmineira Langerhans, 1880 is described. The adult female is mesoparasitic, living with part of its body (the endosoma) embedded within the host and part (the ectosoma) protruding through the host's body wall. The endosoma consists of a well defined head region carried anteriorly on the trunk which has paired lateral lobes housing the ovaries. The head bears a rosette-like array of eight slender lobes, which are probably derived from the mouthparts. The only limbs present on the trunk are the subchelate maxillipeds positioned immediately posterior to the head. The ectosoma consists of a posterior genito-abdominal lobe bearing paired genital apertures. The male is unknown. The new genus cannot be placed in any of the five existing families of mesoparasitic copepods on polychaete hosts and is treated as the type of a new monotypic family, the Jasmineiricolidae. The new species occurs over a depth range from 19 to 279 m, and is widely distributed from UK coastal waters to Norwegian waters inside the Arctic Circle.

  20. A new genus of speleophriid copepod (Copepoda: Misophrioida) from a cenote in the Yucatan, Mexico with a phylogenetic analysis at the species level.

    PubMed

    Boxshall, Geoff A; Zylinski, Sarah; Jaume, Damià; Iliffe, Thomas M; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2014-06-23

    A new genus and species of speleophriid copepod, Mexicophria cenoticola gen. et sp. nov., is described based on material collected from a cenote in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. It is characterised by relatively reduced fifth legs that are located adjacent to the ventral midline in both sexes, by the possession of a bulbous swelling on the first antennulary segment in both sexes, and by the reduced setation of the swimming legs. The presence of just one inner margin seta on the second endopodal segment of legs 2 to 4 is a unique feature for the family. A phylogenetic analysis places the new genus on a basal lineage of the family together with its sister taxon, Boxshallia Huys, 1988, from Lanzarote in the Canary Islands, and recovers the existing genera as monophyletic units. The zoogeography is discussed at local, regional, ocean basin  and global scales.

  1. Prediction of the protein components of a putative Calanus finmarchicus (Crustacea, Copepoda) circadian signaling system using a de novo assembled transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E; Fontanilla, Tiana M; Nesbit, Katherine T; Lenz, Petra H

    2013-09-01

    Diel vertical migration and seasonal diapause are critical life history events for the copepod Calanus finmarchicus. While much is known about these behaviors phenomenologically, little is known about their molecular underpinnings. Recent studies in insects suggest that some circadian genes/proteins also contribute to the establishment of seasonal diapause. Thus, it is possible that in Calanus these distinct timing regimes share some genetic components. To begin to address this possibility, we used the well-established Drosophila melanogaster circadian system as a reference for mining clock transcripts from a 200,000+ sequence Calanus transcriptome; the proteins encoded by the identified transcripts were also deduced and characterized. Sequences encoding homologs of the Drosophila core clock proteins CLOCK, CYCLE, PERIOD and TIMELESS were identified, as was one encoding CRYPTOCHROME 2, a core clock protein in ancestral insect systems, but absent in Drosophila. Calanus transcripts encoding proteins known to modulate the Drosophila core clock were also identified and characterized, e.g. CLOCKWORK ORANGE, DOUBLETIME, SHAGGY and VRILLE. Alignment and structural analyses of the deduced Calanus proteins with their Drosophila counterparts revealed extensive sequence conservation, particularly in functional domains. Interestingly, reverse BLAST analyses of these sequences against all arthropod proteins typically revealed non-Drosophila isoforms to be most similar to the Calanus queries. This, in combination with the presence of both CRYPTOCHROME 1 (a clock input pathway protein) and CRYPTOCHROME 2 in Calanus, suggests that the organization of the copepod circadian system is an ancestral one, more similar to that of insects like Danaus plexippus than to that of Drosophila.

  2. Discovery of the male of the rare caligiform copepod Kabataia Kazachenko, Korotaeva & Kurochkin, 1972 (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida), with a reconsideration of its phylogenetic affinities.

    PubMed

    Hutson, Kate S; Boxshall, Geoffrey A

    2016-10-11

    We report the discovery of the male of the rare caligiform copepod Kabataia ostorhynchi Kazachenko, Korotaeva & Kurochkin, 1972 on the gills of the type-host Oplegnathus woodwardi (Waite, 1900) captured in the Southern Ocean, off Australia. Light and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the unusual body plan of Kabataia Kazachenko, Korotaeva & Kurochkin, 1972, where only the first pedigerous somite is incorporated into the cephalothorax and the second and third pedigerous somites are fused to form a double-somite, visible both dorsally and ventrally. The adult female carries paired dorsal plates originating from the second pedigerous somite within this double-somite. In the male the second and third pedigerous somites are free and paired dorsal plates are present on the former. Kabataia exhibits sexual dimorphism in an unusually wide range of limbs. Most remarkable is the tubular extension from the exit pore of the maxillary gland at the base of the maxilla which reaches beyond the anterior margin of the mouth tube; this is present in the male only. Kabataia exhibits a functional articulation between the first and second pedigerous somites and thus lacks the diagnostic apomorphy of the family Trebiidae (incorporation of both first and second pedigerous somites into the cephalothorax). We propose to transfer Kabataia to the Pandaridae, since it shares the key synapomorphies of this family. Furthermore, we propose to transfer Innaprokofevnas Kazachenko, 2001 to the Dissonidae, which leaves Trebius Krøyer, 1838 as the only genus within the Trebiidae. The correct spelling of Philorthragoriscus Horst, 1897 is noted.

  3. Mesozooplankton assemblage and first record of Paracartia grani Sars G.O., 1904 (Copepoda: Calanoida) in the Western harbour of Genova (Ligurian Sea).

    PubMed

    Pane, Luigi; Boccardo, Simona; Mariottini, Gian Luigi

    2005-01-01

    Harbours are characterized by high pollutant charge and by the occurrence of well adapted and resistant species. This paper reports the results of an annual plankton survey (May 1997-June 1998) carried out in the western harbour of Genova (Ligurian Sea) and in its mouth. Plankton samples were collected by horizontal trawls using a WP2 net. Copepods were the bulk of plankton in almost all samples. Eight copepod species were recognized: Paracalanus parvus and Acartia clausi were the most abundant. The first record of Paracartia grani in the harbour of Genova is here reported; this species, which is known to occur in polluted harbour waters of the Mediterranean Sea and was found in semi-confined Mediterranean and Atlantic coastal areas, was dominant during October 1997. Also Clausocalanus spp., Centropages typicus, Oithona helgolandica, Oithona nana, Farranula spp., Eurytemora spp., Isias clavipes and Lucicutia spp. were frequently sampled. Among other zooplankters, cladocerans, ostracods and tunicates occurred frequently, while cnidarians, mysids and chaetognaths showed low densities. These results show the occurrence of a well defined harbour plankton and point out the differences between harbour and neritic plankton of the Gulf of Genova.

  4. On some new species of Ancorabolidae Sars, 1909 from the Gulf of California: the genera Ceratonotus Sars, 1909, and Dendropsyllus Conroy-Dalton, 2003 (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida)

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Samuel; Díaz, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of two genera of the family Ancorabolidae, Ceratonotus elongatus sp. n. and Dendropsyllus californiensis sp. n., found at 1642 m and 1759 m depth, respectively, in the Southern Trough of Guaymas Basin, are described. Ceratonotus elongatus sp. n. was attributed to that genus by a series of character states of which the lack of dendroid dorsal processes on the P6-bearing somite and the presence of such processes on the first abdominal somite were definitive. This species was observed to be very close to Ceratonotus thistlei Conroy-Dalton, 2003 from the San Diego Trough, and can be separated by a number of traits of which the elongated sensilla-bearing dorsal tubercles on the second abdominal somite in the new species was definitive. Dendropsyllus californiensis sp. n. has been placed within that genus given the presence of four geniculate setae on P1EXP2 and one seta on P1ENP2, one inner seta on P3EXP3, and lack of inner armature on P4EXP3. Dendropsyllus californiensis sp. n. appears to be more closely related to Dendropsyllus thomasi Conroy-Dalton, 2003 and Dendropsyllus magellanicus (George & Schminke, 1998) on account of the spinulose nature of the basis of the maxilliped, the two-segmented P4ENP, and the fused condition of the P5 baseoendopod and exopod, and seems to be even more closely related to Dendropsyllus thomasi by the degree of development of the lateroventral processes of the cephalothorax. Dendropsyllus californiensis sp. n. can be separated from its congeners by the relative length of the first antennulary segment, relative length of the caudal rami, and by the armature formula of P3ENP2. PMID:28331408

  5. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations on early developmental stages of the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus Gunnerus (Copepoda: Calanoidae).

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Sindre Andre; Våge, Vegard Thorset; Olsen, Anders Johny; Hammer, Karen Marie; Altin, Dag

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification poses an ongoing threat to marine organisms, and early life stages are believed to be particularly sensitive. The boreal calanoid copepod Calanus finmarchicus seasonally dominates the standing stock of zooplankton in the northern North Sea and North Atlantic, and due to its size and abundance is considered an ecological key species linking energy from primary producers to higher trophic levels. To examine whether the early stages of C. finmarchicus are particularly vulnerable to elevated levels of CO2, eggs and nauplii were subjected to different levels of CO2-acidified seawater for 1 wk. The first experiment, with eggs as the starting point, revealed no marked effect on hatching success, but a significant reduction in nauplii survival during incubation at 8800 ppm CO2. In addition, a significant decrease in ontogenetic development rate during incubation at 8800 ppm CO2 was observed in this experiment. In the second experiment, where third-stage nauplii represented the starting point, no significant effects on ontogenetic development and survival following exposure to pCO2 ≥ 7700 ppm were observed. Data suggest that the two first nauplii stages, which are fed endogenously, may be more vulnerable and therefore likely to represent the "bottleneck" for this species in a more acidic ocean. However, the absence of significant effects in the most sensitive stages during exposure to 2800 ppm CO2, a level that is well above worst-case scenario predictions for year 2300 (approximately 2000 ppm CO2), suggests that this species may be generally robust to direct effects of ocean acidification.

  6. The abundance and distribution of Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae) on pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) salmon in coastal British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Jones, Simon R M; Hargreaves, N Brent

    2007-12-01

    In total, 23,750 specimens of the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, were collected from 3,907 juvenile pink and 3,941 chum salmon caught within the Broughton Archipelago during a 2-yr survey. The prevalence on pink salmon was significantly higher than on chum salmon in 2004 (62.3% and 58.6%, respectively) and in 2005 (26.4% and 23.1%, respectively). The mean abundance on chum salmon was significantly higher than on pink salmon in 2004 (7.0 +/- 0.3 and 2.8 +/- 0.2, respectively), whereas in 2005 the mean abundance did not differ between species (0.6 +/- 0.1 and 0.5 +/- 0.0, respectively). The mean intensity on chum salmon was significantly higher than on pink salmon in 2004 (12.0 +/- 0.4 and 4.5 +/- 0.2, respectively) and in 2005 (2.5 +/- 0.2 and 1.7 +/- 0.1, respectively). The prevalence, intensity, and abundance of L. salmonis were significantly higher on salmon belonging to both host species in 2004 compared with 2005. In both years, a majority of pink and chum salmon had 2 or fewer lice. In general, a decline in abundance of L. salmonis over the 3 collection periods in each year coincided with an increased percentage of motile developmental stages. The abundance was lowest on fish collected from zones in which the seawater surface salinity was also lowest. Seawater surface temperature was higher and salinity was lower in 2004 compared with 2005. The spatial and temporal trends in the abundance of L. salmonis in relation to host size, infestation rates, and seawater salinity and temperature, evident in both years, must be considered in future studies assessing the role of farmed salmon in the epizootiology of this parasite on juvenile salmon in this area.

  7. On Kiefer’s American Eucyclops (Copepoda, Eucyclopinae): redescriptions and comments on the historical records of E. delachauxi, E. prionophorus, E. bondi and E. leptacanthus

    PubMed Central

    Mercado-Salas, Nancy F.; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The freshwater copepod genus Eucyclops contains many supposedly cosmopolitan species whose taxonomic status is still under discussion; some of them represent species complexes. The problem is not exclusive to these widespread species; there are several American Eucyclops needing a taxonomic re-evaluation. Based on the examination of Friedrich Kiefer’s collection in Karlsruhe, Germany, the type specimens of four American species of Eucyclops (E. delachauxi (Kiefer, 1926), E. prionophorus Kiefer, 1931, E. bondi Kiefer, 1934, E. leptacanthus Kiefer, 1956) were re-examined and redescribed using upgraded descriptive standards. Kiefer’s translated descriptions and unpublished original drawings of these species are also presented. Characters like the ornamentation of the antennal basis, ornamentation of intercoxal sclerites of the swimming legs 1–4, length of basipodal seta of leg 1, ornamentation of caudal rami, the presence of aesthetascs and modified setae on the antennules in male, and the structure of the male sixth leg are compared herein to aid a more accurate separation of these American species. A revision of the American records of these species confirms that some are likely to refer to undescribed species. Overall, the diversity of the American Eucyclops appears to be underestimated and certainly deserves further study. PMID:24843261

  8. Three new species of Hatschekia Poche, 1902 (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Hatschekiidae) parasitic on boxfishes (Pisces: Tetraodontiformes: Aracanidae and Ostraciidae) in Japanese waters.

    PubMed

    Uyeno, Daisuke; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2010-02-01

    Three new species of Hatschekia Poche, 1902 are described from the gill filaments of three species of boxfishes captured off southern Japan: H. pseudostracii n. sp. on Kentrocapros aculeatus (Houttuyn) (Aracanidae); H. bibullae n. sp. on Lactoria diaphana (Bloch & Schneider) (Ostraciidae); and H. kuroshioensis n. sp. on Tetrosomus concatenates (Bloch) (Ostraciidae). Of the 93 currently valid species in the genus, these new species differ from the 87 species which lack four stout processes on the posterior margin of the intercoxal sclerites of legs 1 and 2. Those processes are present on the remaining six species and the three new species. Of these nine species, H. pseudostracii n. sp. is distinguished by having a T-shaped chitinous frame on the cephalothorax, the leg 1 exopod twice as long as the endopod and a small parabasal papilla. H. bibullae n. sp. can be differentiated by a combination of morphological features as follows: a well-developed, thumb-shaped parabasal papilla, the leg 1 exopod twice as long as the endopod and a trunk lacking posterior lobes. H. kuroshioensis n. sp. can be recognised by bearing a T-shaped chitinous frame on the cephalothorax, the leg 1 exopod is three times as long as the endopod and the trunk lacks posterior lobes.

  9. Species of Taeniacanthus Sumpf, 1871 (Crustacea: Copepoda: Taeniacanthidae) parasitic on boxfishes (Tetraodontiformes: Aracanidae and Ostraciidae) from the Indo-West Pacific region, with descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Tang, Danny; Uyeno, Daisuke; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2011-10-01

    Two new copepod species of the genus Taeniacanthus Sumpf, 1871 (Cyclopoida: Taeniacanthidae) are described from boxfishes (Aracanidae and Ostraciidae) caught in the Indo-West Pacific region: T. larsonae n. sp. from Ostracion nasus Bloch in the Arafura Sea and off Australia and Tetrosomus concatenatus (Bloch) off Japan; and T. thackerae n. sp. from O. immaculatus Temminck & Schlegel off Palau, O. rhinorhynchos Bleeker off Australia, Lactoria cornuta (Linnaeus) and Ostracion sp. off Japan, and Kentrocapros aculeatus (Houttuyn) in the East China Sea. T. larsonae n. sp. differs from its congeners by having several rows of spinules on the large pectinate process of the antenna and by differences in the shape of the sclerotised plates on the rostral area and structure of the maxilliped. T. thackerae n. sp. can be distinguished from its congeners by differences in the shape of the sclerotised plates on the rostral area, the structure of the maxilliped and ornamentation pattern of legs 1-4. Supplemental information for the female of Taeniacanthus ostracionis (Richiardi, 1870) and T. moa (Lewis, 1967), as well as the first description of the male of T. moa, are also provided based on new material collected from ostraciid hosts caught in the Arafura Sea and off Australia, Indonesia and Japan. The four taeniacanthid species reported from boxfishes exhibit variable levels of host-specificity and have broad geographical ranges within the Indo-West Pacific region.

  10. Comparative study on acute effects of water accommodated fractions of an artificially weathered crude oil on Calanus finmarchicus and Calanus glacialis (Crustacea: Copepoda).

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Altin, Dag; Rørvik, Siv F; Øverjordet, Ida Beathe; Olsen, Anders J; Nordtug, Trond

    2011-01-15

    Extrapolation of ecotoxicological data from temperate species for use in risk assessment in the polar environments may be difficult since polar organisms as a rule differ from temperate species in terms of life span length, developmental time, surface-to-volume ratios, metabolic rates, total energy usage and lipid content for energy storage. In the current work we performed a comparative study where two closely related and morphologically similar copepod species, Calanus finmarchicus (temperate-boreal) and Calanus glacialis (arctic), were exposed to water accommodated fractions (WAF) of oil in a series of parallel experiments. The two species, adapted to 10°C and 2°C, respectively, were compared on the basis of acute ecotoxicity (LC(50)) and the WAF-mediated induction of the gene encoding glutathione S-transferase (GST). In addition, an experiment was conducted in order to reveal relationships between lipid content and acute toxicity. LC(50) values differed between the two species, and the Arctic copepod appeared less sensitive than the temperate-boreal species. The lipid contents of the two species, measured biometrically, were comparable, and the relationships between lipid content and response (reduced survival) to acute WAF exposure followed the same trend: Lipid-rich copepods survived longer than lipid-poor copepods at the same exposure concentration. In terms of GST expression, both species showed concentration-dependent and exposure time-dependent trends. However, as for the acute toxicity data, the Arctic copepod appeared to respond slower and with a lower intensity. From the study it can be concluded that temperature and lipid content are important factors for assessing differences between temperate and Arctic species, and that a delayed response in organisms adapted to low temperatures needs to be corrected for when extrapolating toxicity data from species with other temperature optimums for use in Arctic environments.

  11. First record and redescription of Macandrewella cochinensis Gopalakrishnan, 1973 (Copepoda, Scolecitrichidae) from the Red Sea, with notes on swarm formation

    PubMed Central

    El-Sherbiny, Mohsen M.; Al-Aidaroos, Ali M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract During a study of the epipelagic zooplankton carried out near the fringing reef around Sharm El-Sheikh area, in the northern Red Sea, female and male specimens of the poorly known calanoid copepod Macandrewella cochinensis Gopalakrishnan, 1973 were collected. This is the first record of species occurrence in the Red Sea. Macandrewella cochinensis was previously known only from the offshore water of Cochin, south west of India. The Red Sea specimens are described in details herein to allow their comparison with the specimens from the type locality, because original description of M. cochinensis is incomplete and causes some taxonomic confusion. The most important characters that may have been overlooked in the original description are: shape of projections of the female distolateral prosomal borders, details of morphology of the asymmetrical female genital double-somite and presence of leg 5 in female. PMID:24194657

  12. Potential Use of Pyriproxyfen for Control of Aedes aegypti Diptera: Culicidae) in Iquitos, Peru

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-20

    Cladocera, Copepoda, Ostracoda, Odonata , Dystisci- dae, Hydrophilidae, Chironomidae, and Cerato- pogonidae). In a separate study, Schaefer and Miura...no residues in rice plants (5 ppb). Slight aberrations in Odonata adults andminor reproductive suppressionof cladocerans and ostracods were noted

  13. An annotated list of fish parasites (Isopoda, Copepoda, Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda, Nematoda) collected from Snappers and Bream (Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae, Caesionidae) in New Caledonia confirms high parasite biodiversity on coral reef fish

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Coral reefs are areas of maximum biodiversity, but the parasites of coral reef fishes, and especially their species richness, are not well known. Over an 8-year period, parasites were collected from 24 species of Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae and Caesionidae off New Caledonia, South Pacific. Results Host-parasite and parasite-host lists are provided, with a total of 207 host-parasite combinations and 58 parasite species identified at the species level, with 27 new host records. Results are presented for isopods, copepods, monogeneans, digeneans, cestodes and nematodes. When results are restricted to well-sampled reef fish species (sample size > 30), the number of host-parasite combinations is 20–25 per fish species, and the number of parasites identified at the species level is 9–13 per fish species. Lutjanids include reef-associated fish and deeper sea fish from the outer slopes of the coral reef: fish from both milieus were compared. Surprisingly, parasite biodiversity was higher in deeper sea fish than in reef fish (host-parasite combinations: 12.50 vs 10.13, number of species per fish 3.75 vs 3.00); however, we identified four biases which diminish the validity of this comparison. Finally, these results and previously published results allow us to propose a generalization of parasite biodiversity for four major families of reef-associated fishes (Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae, Serranidae and Lethrinidae): well-sampled fish have a mean of 20 host-parasite combinations per fish species, and the number of parasites identified at the species level is 10 per fish species. Conclusions Since all precautions have been taken to minimize taxon numbers, it is safe to affirm than the number of fish parasites is at least ten times the number of fish species in coral reefs, for species of similar size or larger than the species in the four families studied; this is a major improvement to our estimate of biodiversity in coral reefs. Our results suggest that extinction of a coral reef fish species would eventually result in the coextinction of at least ten species of parasites. PMID:22947621

  14. Taxonomy, ecology, and geographical distribution of the species of the genus Thermocyclops Kiefer, 1927 (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) in São Paulo State, Brazil, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Silva, W M; Matsumura-Tundisi, T

    2005-08-01

    The taxonomy and ecology of the cyclopoid copepod genus Thermocyclops were studied. Samples were collected in 207 water bodies located in the 22 hydrographic basins of São Paulo State, Brazil, including large reservoirs, small and shallow lakes, and ponds and rivers. The genus Thermocyclops inhabits mainly water bodies within a limnetic region. Four species were found, of which one is new: Thermocyclops iguapensis, which occurred in the reservoirs of the Ribeira do Iguape and Paraíba do Sul basins. The description of the new species and the geographical distribution of all four species in São Paulo State are presented. Thermocyclops decipiens was the most frequent species, occurring in 71% of the water bodies within a limnetic region. This species is characteristic of eutrophic environments where it can occur in great abundance, whereas Thermocyclops minutus is characteristic in oligotrophic systems. Thermocyclops inversus and Thermocyclops iguapensis n. sp. were not common but can occur together with Thermocyclops decipiens.

  15. New record and redescription of Calanopia thompsoni A. Scott, 1909 (Copepoda, Calanoida, Pontellidae) from the Red Sea, with notes on the taxonomic status of C. parathompsoni Gaudy, 1969 and a key to species

    PubMed Central

    Al-Aidaroos, Ali M.; Salama, Adnan J.; El-Sherbiny, Mohsen M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract During a plankton sampling programme around Al-Wajh area, Saudi Arabian coast of the northern Red Sea, a copepod Calanopia thompsoni A. Scott, 1909 (Calanoida: Pontellidae) was reported for the first time in the Red Sea. Both sexes are fully redescribed and compared to previous descriptions as well as the closely related species, Calanopia parathompsoni. The zoogeographical distribution of the species confirms that it is of Indo-Pacific origin. A dichotomous key for the identification of males and females of the species of Calanopia is included. PMID:26865813

  16. First report of the presence of Acartia bispinosa Carl, 1907 (Copepoda, Calanoida) in a semi-enclosed Bay (Sharm El-Maya), northern Red Sea with some notes on its seasonal variation in abundance and body size

    PubMed Central

    El-Sherbiny, Mohsen M.; Al-Aidaroos, Ali M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The calanoid copepod, Acartia bispinosa Carl, 1907, is reported for the first time in the Red Sea, where it is found to be an important copepod in the mesozooplankton community structure of the Sharm El-Maya Bay. Female and male are fully redescribed and illustrated of as the mouthparts of this species have never previously been described and figured. Acartia bispinosa was collected in the plankton samples throughout the year and showed two peaks of abundance, a pronounced one in April (4234 individuals m-3), and second smaller peak during November (1784 individuals m-3). The average total length of females varied between 1.32 and 1.53 mm at the end of June and January respectively. For males, the average total length fluctuated between 1.07 and 1.16 mm at end of June and March respectively. Temperature showed an inverse relationship with the body length (P > 0.001) and seemed to be one of the prime factors affecting the body length of both sexes. PMID:25349502

  17. A new species of Labidocera (Copepoda, Calanoida, Pontellidae) collected from Okinawa, southwestern Japan, with establishment of five Indo-West Pacific species groups in the L.detruncata species complex.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Takeshi; Ohtsuka, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    Labidocerachuraumi sp. n. is described from Okinawa, southwestern Japan. The female of the new species differs from other congeners in genital compound somite with right postero-lateral and left antero-lateral processes. The male is distinguished from other congeners by the structure of the fifth leg. This new species is assigned to a newly proposed species group, the Labidoceramadurae species group, within the Labidoceradetruncata species complex. In this species complex five Indo-West Pacific species groups are recognized (cervi, detruncata, gangetica, madurae, and pavo) and defined on the basis of difference in sexual dimorphism.

  18. New record and redescription of Calanopia thompsoni A. Scott, 1909 (Copepoda, Calanoida, Pontellidae) from the Red Sea, with notes on the taxonomic status of C. parathompsoni Gaudy, 1969 and a key to species.

    PubMed

    Al-Aidaroos, Ali M; Salama, Adnan J; El-Sherbiny, Mohsen M

    2016-01-01

    During a plankton sampling programme around Al-Wajh area, Saudi Arabian coast of the northern Red Sea, a copepod Calanopia thompsoni A. Scott, 1909 (Calanoida: Pontellidae) was reported for the first time in the Red Sea. Both sexes are fully redescribed and compared to previous descriptions as well as the closely related species, Calanopia parathompsoni. The zoogeographical distribution of the species confirms that it is of Indo-Pacific origin. A dichotomous key for the identification of males and females of the species of Calanopia is included.

  19. Stage-V copepodites of Calanus sinicus and Calanus jashnovi (Copepoda: Calanoida) in mesopelagic zone of Sagami Bay as identified with genetic markers, with special reference to their vertical distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonomura, Takumi; Machida, Ryuji J.; Nishida, Shuhei

    2008-04-01

    We applied genetic makers to identify Calanus species occurring in Sagami Bay, Japan, in order to investigate their vertical distribution in the upper 1000 m. First, interspecific genetic distances of three gene loci, mitochondrial small ribosomal RNA (srRNA), nuclear internal transcribed spacers 1 (ITS1) and 2 (ITS2), were estimated from morphologically distinguishable adult females of Calanus sinicus, Calanus jashnovi and Calanus pacificus that were collected from Sagami Bay, the Kuroshio Extension and the Oyashio region, respectively. The highest levels of interspecific genetic distance were observed in srRNA, followed by ITS1 and ITS2. The intraspecific genetic distances within C. sinicus were much lower than the interspecific genetic distances, indicating that DNA sequences in these loci are consistent with the morphological differences. This information was used as a criterion for species identification based on DNA sequence variation, and allowed us to identify the fifth copepodites (CVs) or younger stages of these species. Next, the vertical distribution of Calanus species was investigated in Sagami Bay in May 2006, on the basis of a stratified sampling in the upper 1000 m. By applying the genetic markers, 23 individuals comprising all copepodite stages were allocated into either C. sinicus or C. jashnovi, and the small- and large-sized CVs were identified as C. sinicus and C. jashnovi, respectively. The total abundance of C. sinicus was highest at 0-50 m and decreased with depth. On the contrary, CV individuals of C. sinicus were abundant not only in 0-50 m but also below 200 m with minimum occurrences in 150-200 m depth. C. jashnovi was much less abundant than C. sinicus and comprised of only CIV and CV which occurred in the upper 100 m and deeper than 50 m depths, respectively. The abundance of C. sinicus in the 1000-m water column of Sagami Bay was at a level comparable to that in shelf waters, suggesting the importance of off-shelf individuals in the biological production and organic transport in the respective areas.

  20. Seasonal variations of hydrophobic organic contaminant concentrations in the water-column of the Seine Estuary and their transfer to a planktonic species Eurytemora affinis (Calanoïda, copepoda). Part 1: PCBs and PAHs.

    PubMed

    Cailleaud, K; Forget-Leray, J; Souissi, S; Hilde, D; Lemenach, K; Budzinski, H

    2007-12-01

    Hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOC) (i.e. PAHs and PCBs) were measured in the water column and in Eurytemora affinis samples from the Seine Estuary collected from November 2002 to February 2005. Results showed seasonal variations of both total PCB and PAH levels in the suspended particulate matter (SPM) and in the copepods with maximum levels during winter times. PAH and PCB concentrations in the SPM ranged from 499 to 5819ngg(-1) and from 58 to 463ngg(-1), respectively. Phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo[b+j+k]fluoranthene (B[b+j+k]F) were the predominant PAH compounds in the water column, while CB 101, 118, 153 and 138 were the most abundant PCB congeners. PCBs and PAHs bioaccumulated by E. affinis (EA) varied between 383 and 1785ngg(-1) and 165-3866ngg(-1). CB101, 153, 138 and B[b+j+k] were, respectively, the major compounds of PCB and PAH fingerprints in EA. Thereby, the copepods could reach high accumulation factor (ACF) (91000 for PCBs and 17000 for PAHs). The principal component analyses of contaminant concentrations and environmental parameter datasets distinguished two groups of copepods. The winter time cluster, with high percentage of adult copepods, which bioaccumulated the highest PCB and PAH body-burdens, and the second cluster with juveniles showing the lowest HOC concentrations. Thus, PAH and PCB concentrations in EA exhibited significant correlations with the percentage of adults making up the samples.

  1. A new species of Leposphilus Hesse, 1866 (Copepoda: Philichthyidae) parasitic in the interorbital canals of the whitemouth croaker Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest) (Sciaenidae) off Brazil with an amended diagnosis of the genus.

    PubMed

    Paschoal, Fabiano; Nagasawa, Kazuya; Luque, José Luis

    2016-06-01

    A new species of the monotypic genus Leposphilus Hesse, 1866 (Cyclopoida: Philichthyidae), Leposphilus vogti n. sp., is described based on adult female and male specimens from the interorbital canals of Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest) (Sciaenidae) in Sepetiba Bay, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The new species differs from its only congener, L. labrei Hesse, 1866, by the following combination of characters in the adult female: a globular cephalosome, a two-segmented maxilla, and fourth abdominal somite fused to caudal ramus; and in the adult male: presence of maxilliped, leg 3 with five setae, and caudal rami tipped with six setae. In addition, an amendment of diagnosis of Leposphilus is provided based on the characters of the new species. Previous records of philichthyid copepods from actinopterygians in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans off the American continent are also given.

  2. Moving Cages Further Offshore: Effects on Southern Bluefin Tuna, T. maccoyii, Parasites, Health and Performance

    PubMed Central

    Kirchhoff, Nicole T.; Rough, Kirsty M.; Nowak, Barbara F.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of offshore aquaculture on SBT health (particularly parasitic infections and haematology) and performance were the main aim of this study. Two cohorts of ranched Southern Bluefin tuna (SBT) (Thunnus maccoyii) were monitored throughout the commercial season, one maintained in the traditional near shore tuna farming zone and one maintained further offshore. SBT maintained offshore had reduced mortality, increased condition index at week 6 post transfer, reduced blood fluke and sealice loads, and haematological variables such as haemoglobin or lysozyme equal to or exceeding near shore maintained fish. The offshore cohort had no Cardicola forsteri and a 5% prevalence of Caligus spp., compared to a prevalence of 85% for Cardicola forsteri and 55% prevalence for Caligus spp. near shore at 6 weeks post transfer. This study is the first of its kind to examine the effects of commercial offshore sites on farmed fish parasites, health and performance. PMID:21901129

  3. [Species composition and distribution characteristics of pelagic copepods in the Northern Sea of Fujian during withdraw of Zhe-Min coastal current].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Guo; Lin, Jing-Hong; Wang, Chun-Guang; Lin, Mao

    2012-06-01

    Based on oceanographic survey data in April 2009 in the north central Taiwan Strait, ecological characteristics such as species composition, individual density, dominant species and distribution were analyzed. The results were compared with the same area survey in spring 2007 for discuss the annual variety. The result shows that 48 pelagic copepods species have been recognized, and most of them belongs to Calanodia. The higher species number occurs in southern and eastern area. The average density of pelagic copepoda was 231.96 ind x m(-3). As to the horizontal distribution, the coast and northern areas are higher than those of eastern and southern areas of the density of pelagic copepods which are dependent on the dominant species Calanus sinicus and Euchaeta plana. The community structure of pelagic copepoda was same to the other survey result, which shows low biodiversity index with remarkable dominant species. Owing to the Zhe-Min coastal current effect, the higher density distribution is different in 2007 and 2009. As to the ecological character, all the copepoda in this paper belong to warm-water, warm-temperature and tropic oceanic groups. Warm-water and tropic oceanic groups are the dominant groups of the pelagic copepods composition. When it comes to density, warm-temperature group is the dominant. The relationship of species number, diversity index and abundance with the environment were also discussed in this paper. The result showed that the pelagic copepoda species number and diversity would increase with the temperature and salty increase.

  4. A new species of Copepoda Harpacticoida, Xylora calyptogenae spec. n., with a carnivorous life-style from a hydrothermally active submarine volcano in the New Ireland Fore-Arc system (Papua New Guinea) with notes on the systematics of the Donsiellinae Lang, 1948

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willen, Elke

    2006-12-01

    A new species of harpacticoid copepods, Xylora calyptogenae spec. n., from Edison Seamount, a hydrothermally active submarine volcano in the New Ireland Fore-Arc system (Papua New Guinea) is described. The new species belongs to the Donsiellinae Lang, 1944, a highly specialised taxon, the members of which have previously been encountered only in association with decaying wood and/or wood-boring isopods. A closer relationship of the Donsiellinae with the Pseudotachidiidae Lang, 1936, can be stated on the basis of characteristics concerning the setation and/or segmentation of A1, A2, Mxl, Mxp, the shape of the female P5, anal somite, sexual dimorphisms on P2 and P3 and missing caudal seta I. Within the Pseudotachidiidae, the Donsiellinae again can be well characterized, e.g. by the setation and segmentation of A2, Mxl, swimming-legs, the shape of P1, female P5, male P2, sexual dimorphism and male P5. The Donsiellinae share some apomorphies with the pseudotachidiid subtaxon Paranannopinae Por, 1986: setation/segmentation of Mx, P1, A1. X. calyptogenae spec. n. is more closely related to Xylora bathyalis Hicks 1988 living in the deep sea wood substrata in New Zealand waters. Some traits of the evolutionary history of the Donsiellinae become evident, probably starting from the more primitive deep sea taxa X .calyptogenae spec. n., which lives in the hydrothermal seafloor in the absence of decaying wood, and X. bathyalis, which is found in decaying wood but not necessarily associated with the wood-boring isopod Limnoria Leach, 1814, towards the more advanced genera such as Donsiella Stephensen, 1936, which invades shallow waters and, further, clings to Limnoria, forming a close and, for the copepod, probably obligatory association. The specialised mouthparts of X. calyptogenae spec. n. seem to facilitate the grabbing and fixing of larger and/or active food items. This is confirmed by the presence of a large prey organism, presumably a copepod, consumed either alive or dead, in the gut of one of the available specimens. This morphology of the mouthparts is also shared by the closely related X. bathyalis.

  5. Structural basis for the fast maturation of Arthropoda green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Evdokimov, Artem G; Pokross, Matthew E; Egorov, Nikolay S; Zaraisky, Andrey G; Yampolsky, Ilya V; Merzlyak, Ekaterina M; Shkoporov, Andrey N; Sander, Ian; Lukyanov, Konstantin A; Chudakov, Dmitriy M

    2006-10-01

    Since the cloning of Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (GFP) in 1992, a family of known GFP-like proteins has been growing rapidly. Today, it includes more than a hundred proteins with different spectral characteristics cloned from Cnidaria species. For some of these proteins, crystal structures have been solved, showing diversity in chromophore modifications and conformational states. However, we are still far from a complete understanding of the origin, functions and evolution of the GFP family. Novel proteins of the family were recently cloned from evolutionarily distant marine Copepoda species, phylum Arthropoda, demonstrating an extremely rapid generation of fluorescent signal. Here, we have generated a non-aggregating mutant of Copepoda fluorescent protein and solved its high-resolution crystal structure. It was found that the protein beta-barrel contains a pore, leading to the chromophore. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we showed that this feature is critical for the fast maturation of the chromophore.

  6. [Localization of crustaceans--fish parasites and nose capsules as the habitat of the genus Salmincola (Podoplea: Lernaeopodidae) mesoparasites].

    PubMed

    Pronin, N M; Burdukovskaia, T G

    2013-01-01

    Copepoda parasitica of Baikal fishes (16 species) is divided into 7 groups according to their localization: parasites of the gill apparatus, gill covers, gill and buccal cavities, nasal fossa, cutaneous covering, and fins. It was proposed to separate nasal fossa parasites as the special ecological group ofmesoparasites. Typical speciemens of the group include crustaceans Salmincola longimanus complex--parasites of grayling and cisco fishes consist of three species (S. longimanus, S. svetlanovi, S. lavaretus) and one subspecies (S. longimanus sibirica).

  7. Zooplankton Patterns in Relation to Physical Processes and Behavior

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    Sea Research 36:385-405. Haury, L.R. 1988. Vertical distribution of Pleuromanmma ( Copepoda , Metridinidae) across the eastern North Pacific Ocean...Hydrobiologia 167/168:335-342. Genin, A., L.R. Haury, and P. Greenblatt 1988. Interactions of migrating zooplankton with shallow topography: predation by... predation on the zooplankton b, sz-amount-associated predators . This work led to the continuing study of patchiness intensification aý ound both deep and

  8. Investigation of Processes and Factors Regulating the Generation, Maintenance and Breakdown of Bioluminescent Thin Layers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-30

    50 µm) particles (e.g. dinoflagellates ), which tend to have a very low signal to noise ratio, without reducing the detection of the larger...aspects of population dynamics as species-habitat associations and encounter probabilities between predators and prey. TRANSITIONS These data will...Fourth International conference on Copepoda , Bull. Plank. Soc. Jap., special volume: 217-225 Gifford DJ (1993) Protozoa in the diets of Neocalanus spp

  9. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest). Lingcod

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    Res. Board Can. Kabata, F. 1973. The species of 20(2):257-264. Lepeophiheirus ( Copepoda : Caligidae) from fishes in British Columbia. J. Fish. Res...AD-A224 839 Biological Report 82(11.119) TR EL-82-4 December 1989 OTC FiLE COPY Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of...1989 Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest) LINGCOD by William N

  10. The first data on the freshwater microcrustaceans of Shokalsky Island (Russian Arctic)

    PubMed Central

    Novichkova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Information on freshwater invertebrates of the Russian Arctic is very scarce, especially concerning insular biota. The species composition of microcrustaceans (Cladocera, Copepoda) of many arctic islands is still unknown and have never been explored. Here we report the results of the first investigation of the zooplankton of the Shokalsky Island (Yamalo­Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Russia). Information on freshwater invertebrates of the Russian Arctic is very scarce, especially concerning insular biota. The species composition of microcrustaceans (Cladocera, Copepoda) of many arctic islands is still unknown and have never been explored. Here we report the results of the first investigation of the zooplankton of the Shokalsky Island (Yamalo­Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Russia). New information The new records reported here are novel for the region and significantly expand the knowledge of the high­-latitude aquatic biota. We studied the species composition of Cladocera and Copepoda of 21 freshwater habitats located on the south­western part of Shokalsky Island. We found 15 species of microcrustaceans in total and all of them are reported for the first time here. Also, the obtained data expand the existing ranges of distribution of some species and report several new taxa for the whole Yamalo­Nenets region of Russia. PMID:28174508

  11. [Abundance and biomass of meiobenthos in Southern Yellow Sea in winter].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Zhi-nan; Huang, Yong; Hua, Er

    2007-02-01

    A two cruises investigation on the meiobenthos in the continental shelf of Southern Yellow Sea was made in January 2003 and January 2004. The results showed that the average abundance of meiobenthos was (954.20 +/- 269.47) ind x 10 cm(-2) and ( 1 186.12+/- 486.07) ind x 10 cm(-2), and the biomass was (954.38+/-403.93) microg x10 cm(-2) and (1 120.72+/-487.21 ) mg x 10 cm(-2) in January 2003 and January 2004, respectively, with no significant difference observed. A total of twenty meiobenthic groups were identified. Free-living marine nematodes was the most dominant group in abundance, with a relative dominance of 87% in 2003 and 90% in 2004, followed by benthic harpacticoids copepoda, polychaeta and kinorhyncha. In terms of biomass, the dominant groups were nematoda (34% -38%), polychaeta (25% -33%), ostracoda (9% -22%) and copepoda (8%). 96. 64% of the meiobenthos distributed in the top 0-5 cm of sediment, while 72. 48% of nematode and 89. 46% of copepoda were in the top 0-2 cm of the sediment. Meiobenthos biomass had significant correlation with the sand and silt contents of sediment and the content of Chl-a. The species composition and biodiversity analyses of six representative stations indicated that there were three meiobenthos communities in the study area, i. e. , inshore, cold waters mass, and transitional communities.

  12. First records of parasitic copepods (Crustacea, Siphonostomatoida) from marine fishes in Korea.

    PubMed

    Venmathi Maran, B A; Soh, H Y; Hwang, U W; Chang, C Y; Myoung, J G

    2015-06-01

    The knowledge of the biodiversity of parasitic copepods in South Korea is increasing. Interestingly we report here, some parasitic copepods considered as the first record of findings from Korea. Nine species of parasitic copepods (Siphonostomatoida) including six genera of three different families [Caligidae (7), Lernaeopodidae (1), Lernanthropidae (1)] were recovered from eight species of wild fishes in Korea: 1) Caligus hoplognathi Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959 (♀, ♂) from the body surface of barred knifejaw Oplegnathus fasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel); 2) Caligus lagocephali Pillai, 1961 (♀) from the gills of panther puffer Takifugu pardalis (Temminck & Schlegel); 3) Euryphorus brachypterus (Gerstaecker, 1853) (♀, ♂) from the opercular cavity of Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus); 4) Euryphorus nordmanni Milne Edwards, 1840 (♀, ♂) from the opercular cavity of common dolphin fish Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus; 5) Gloiopotes huttoni (Thomson) (♀, ♂) from the body surface of black marlin Istiompax indica (Cuvier); 6) Lepeophtheirus hapalogenyos Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959 (♀) from the gill filaments of O. fasciatus; 7) Lepeophtheirus sekii Yamaguti, 1936 (♀, ♂) from the body surface of red seabream Pagrus major (Temminck & Schlegel); 8) Brachiella thynni Cuvier, 1830 (♀) from the body surface of longfin tuna or albacore Thunnus alalunga (Bonnaterre); 9) Lernanthropinus sphyraenae (Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959) (♀) from the gill filaments of moon fish Mene maculata (Bloch & Schneider). Since the female was already reported in Korea, it is a new record for the male of C. hoplognathi. A checklist for the parasitic copepods of the family Caligidae, Lernaeopodidae and Lernanthropidae of Korea is provided.

  13. Trends in freshwater microcrustaceans studies in Brazil between 1990 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Silva, W M; Perbiche-Neves, G

    2016-12-01

    This study presents a review of scientiometric data about freshwater microcrustaceans (Copepoda, Ostracoda, Branchiopoda: Cladocera, Anostraca, Notostraca and Conchostraca) in Brazil from 1990-2014. This review is based on 179 papers published across four databases, using the following keywords in the search: microcrustaceans, Copepoda, Cyclopoida, Calanoida, Harpacticoida, Ergasilidae, Daphniidae, Moinidae, Cladocera, Ostracoda, Conchostraca, zooplankton, reservoir, river, ponds, reservoirs, wetlands, caves, lakes, limnology, ecology, aquatic, taxonomy, systematics, morphology and biogeography. No studies were identified that addressed freshwater microcrustaceans in four (Amapá, Roraima, Alagoas and Espírito Santo) of the 27 Brazilian Federative States. Forty-five percent of the included studies were concentrated within three of the most populous states (São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Paraná), which also have a long tradition of limnological study. The included studies mostly addressed reservoirs for hydropower generation (22%), multiple environments (22%), rivers (14%) and small artificial reservoirs (11%). Pools, ponds, small lakes, wetlands and phytothelma were not widely studied. Cladocera (48%) and Copepoda (48%) were the most studied groups. No studies were identified that addressed Notostraca, Anostraca or Conchostraca. The sharp increase in the number of published freshwater studies after 2000 is likely a result of increased internet facilities and the implementation of the Scielo platform. Ecology was most frequently the study focus (~50%), followed by taxonomy. Three journals (two Brazilian and one international) accounted for the publication of 44% of the Brazilian studies on microcrustaceans. We expect the frequency of studies employing newer technologies to increase in the coming years. Based on our findings, we propose that future studies should focus on the least well-studied states and should integrate biogeography and systematic approaches

  14. The InfThe Influence Of Subsample Size In A Study Of Freshwater Zooplantonluence Of Subsample Size In A Study Of Freshwater Zooplanton

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, James A.

    2005-08-15

    The influence of subsample size on counting precision and estimates of taxa richness is documented for a freshwater zooplankton biomonitoring program. Subsample variability was related to subsample size. The mean and median coefficient of variation for cladocera and copepoda were below 30% at counts of 50-100 individuals. Jaccard's similarity coefficient stabilized at counts of 100-150 individuals as did the total number of zooplankton taxa identified. These data suggest that counting more organisms in subsamples or more than one subsample per sample may do relatively little to better characterize samples.

  15. Occurrence of Ergasilus megaceros Wilson, 1916, in the sea lamprey and other fishes from North America.

    PubMed

    Muzzall, Patrick M; Hudson, Patrick L

    2004-02-01

    Ergasilus megaceros (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) was recovered from the nasal fossae (lamellae) of the olfactory sac in 1 (1.8%) of 56 sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus Linne, 1758, collected in May 2002 from the Cheboygan River, Michigan. Although the sea lamprey is a new host record for E. megaceros, this fish species may not be a preferred host because of its low prevalence. Ergasilus megaceros is the second ergasilid species reported from the sea lamprey in North America. This is the third report of an ergasilid species infecting the nasal fossae of fishes in North America, with E. rhinos being the only other species reported from this site.

  16. Common plankton of Twin Lakes, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberman, D.M.

    1983-02-01

    A series of studies is being performed to evaluate the effects of the Mt. Elbert Pumped-Storage Powerplant on the ecology of Twin Lakes. Twin Lakes are a pair of connected dimictic lakes, formed as the result of glacial action on alluvial deposits. This report presents a taxonomic species study of the common plankton collected since 1974 from Twin Lakes. A total of 11 zooplankters and 14 phytoplankters were identified from the limnetic zone of Twin Lakes and the associated Mt. Elbert Forebay. The four divisions of zooplankton included four species of Rotifera (rotifer), three species of Copepoda (copepod), three species of Cladocera (cladoceran), and one species of Mysidacea (opossum shrimp).

  17. [Parasitic metazoans of Stenella coeruleoalba (Cetacea: Delphinidae) stranded along the coast of Latium, 1985-1991].

    PubMed

    Cerioni, S; Mariniello, L

    1996-12-01

    The striped dolphin represents the most common species of cetacean stranded along the Italian coasts. A parasitological survey on 17 specimens of Stenella coerulecaiba stranded along coasts of Latium from 1985 to 1991, has been carried out. The morphological study enabled the identification of the following parasites. The sites are reported in brackets. DIGENEA: Campula rochebruni (liver), Campula palliata (liver), Pholeter gastrophilus (pyloric stomach). CESTODA: Tetrabothrium forsteri (intestine), Strobilocephalus triangularis (intestine), Monorygma grimaldii, larvae (abdominal cavity, mesentery, testes), Phyliobothrium delphini, larvae (subcutaneous fat). NEMATODA: Skrjabinalius sp. (lungs). COPEPODA: Pennella sp. (skin). ISOPODA: Ceratothoa parallela (mouth, stomach). AMPHIPODA: Syncyamus aequus (blowhole).

  18. Intraerythrocytic merogony in Haemogregarina koppiensis (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina: Haemogregarinidae).

    PubMed

    Smit, Nico J; Davies, Angela J

    2005-09-01

    During October 2003, a specimen of Amblyrhynchotes honckenii (Bloch, 1795) was captured at low tide, with a hand net, in a rock pool at Koppie Alleen, De Hoop Nature Reserve, South Africa. This fish was heavily parasitized by unidentified gnathiid praniza larvae, caligid copepods identified as Caligus tetrodontis Barnard, 1948, cymothoid isopods identified as Cinusa tetrodontis (Schioedte et Meinert, 1884), and the blood protozoan Haemogregarina koppiensis Smit et Davies, 2001. Giemsa-stained blood smears from this fish revealed new and unusual stages of merogony for H. koppiensis that included small, rounded, likely intraerythrocytic merozoites arranged in circles of eight around the host nucleus. Host cells appeared ghost-like and enlarged compared with normal erythrocytes. Identical merozoites, usually in clusters of up to 16, were also observed free of host cells. The pattern of merogony seen in H. koppiensis is unusual for a fish haemogregarine.

  19. Potential retention effect at fish farms boosts zooplankton abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Jover, D.; Toledo-Guedes, K.; Valero-Rodríguez, J. M.; Fernandez-Gonzalez, V.; Sanchez-Jerez, P.

    2016-11-01

    Coastal aquaculture activities influence wild macrofauna in natural environments due to the introduction of artificial structures, such as floating cages, that provide structural complexity in the pelagic system. This alters the abundance and distribution of the affected species and also their feeding behaviour and diet. Despite this, the effects of coastal aquaculture on zooplankton assemblages and the potential changes in their abundance and distribution remain largely unstudied. Traditional plankton sampling hauls between the farm mooring systems entail some practical difficulties. As an alternative, light traps were deployed at 2 farms in the SW Mediterranean during a whole warm season. Total zooplankton capture by traps at farms was higher than at control locations on every sampling night. It ranged from 3 to 10 times higher for the taxonomic groups: bivalvia, cladocera, cumacea, fish early-life-stages, gastropoda, polychaeta and tanaidacea; 10-20 times higher for amphipoda, chaetognatha, isopoda, mysidacea and ostracoda, and 22 times higher for copepoda and the crustacean juvenile stages zoea and megalopa. Permutational analysis showed significant differences for the most abundant zooplankton groups (copepoda, crustacean larvae, chaetognatha, cladocera, mysidacea and polychaeta). This marked incremental increase in zooplankton taxa at farms was consistent, irrespective of the changing environmental variables registered every night. Reasons for the greater abundance of zooplankton at farms are discussed, although results suggest a retention effect caused by cage structures rather than active attraction through physical or chemical cues.

  20. Carotenoid metabolic profiling and transcriptome-genome mining reveal functional equivalence among blue-pigmented copepods and appendicularia.

    PubMed

    Mojib, Nazia; Amad, Maan; Thimma, Manjula; Aldanondo, Naroa; Kumaran, Mande; Irigoien, Xabier

    2014-06-01

    The tropical oligotrophic oceanic areas are characterized by high water transparency and annual solar radiation. Under these conditions, a large number of phylogenetically diverse mesozooplankton species living in the surface waters (neuston) are found to be blue pigmented. In the present study, we focused on understanding the metabolic and genetic basis of the observed blue phenotype functional equivalence between the blue-pigmented organisms from the phylum Arthropoda, subclass Copepoda (Acartia fossae) and the phylum Chordata, class Appendicularia (Oikopleura dioica) in the Red Sea. Previous studies have shown that carotenoid-protein complexes are responsible for blue coloration in crustaceans. Therefore, we performed carotenoid metabolic profiling using both targeted and nontargeted (high-resolution mass spectrometry) approaches in four different blue-pigmented genera of copepods and one blue-pigmented species of appendicularia. Astaxanthin was found to be the principal carotenoid in all the species. The pathway analysis showed that all the species can synthesize astaxanthin from β-carotene, ingested from dietary sources, via 3-hydroxyechinenone, canthaxanthin, zeaxanthin, adonirubin or adonixanthin. Further, using de novo assembled transcriptome of blue A. fossae (subclass Copepoda), we identified highly expressed homologous β-carotene hydroxylase enzymes and putative carotenoid-binding proteins responsible for astaxanthin formation and the blue phenotype. In blue O. dioica (class Appendicularia), corresponding putative genes were identified from the reference genome. Collectively, our data provide molecular evidences for the bioconversion and accumulation of blue astaxanthin-protein complexes underpinning the observed ecological functional equivalence and adaptive convergence among neustonic mesozooplankton.

  1. The impact of water table drawdown and drying on subterranean aquatic fauna in in-vitro experiments.

    PubMed

    Stumpp, Christine; Hose, Grant C

    2013-01-01

    The abstraction of groundwater is a global phenomenon that directly threatens groundwater ecosystems. Despite the global significance of this issue, the impact of groundwater abstraction and the lowering of groundwater tables on biota is poorly known. The aim of this study is to determine the impacts of groundwater drawdown in unconfined aquifers on the distribution of fauna close to the water table, and the tolerance of groundwater fauna to sediment drying once water levels have declined. A series of column experiments were conducted to investigate the depth distribution of different stygofauna (Syncarida and Copepoda) under saturated conditions and after fast and slow water table declines. Further, the survival of stygofauna under conditions of reduced sediment water content was tested. The distribution and response of stygofauna to water drawdown was taxon specific, but with the common response of some fauna being stranded by water level decline. So too, the survival of stygofauna under different levels of sediment saturation was variable. Syncarida were better able to tolerate drying conditions than the Copepoda, but mortality of all groups increased with decreasing sediment water content. The results of this work provide new understanding of the response of fauna to water table drawdown. Such improved understanding is necessary for sustainable use of groundwater, and allows for targeted strategies to better manage groundwater abstraction and maintain groundwater biodiversity.

  2. Unexpectedly higher metazoan meiofauna abundances in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench compared to the adjacent abyssal plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Christina; Martínez Arbizu, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    We studied meiofauna standing stocks and community structure in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and its adjacent abyssal plains in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. In general, the Nematoda were dominant (93%) followed by the Copepoda (4%). Nematode abundances ranged from 87% to 96%; those of copepods from 2% to 7%. The most diverse deployment yielded 17 taxa: Acari, Amphipoda, Annelida, Bivalvia, Coelenterata, Copepoda, Cumacea, Gastrotricha, Isopoda, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, Nematoda, Ostracoda, Priapulida, Tanaidacea, Tantulocarida, and Tardigrada. Nauplii were also present. Generally, the trench slope and the southernmost deployments had the highest abundances (850-1392 individuals/cm2). The results of non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated that these deployments were similar to each other in meiofauna community structure. The southernmost deployments were located in a zone of higher particulate organic carbon (POC) flux (g Corg m-2 yr-1), whereas the trench slope should have low POC flux due to depth attenuation. Also, POC and abundance were significantly correlated in the abyssal plains. This correlation may explain the higher abundances at the southernmost deployments. Lateral transport was also assumed to explain high meiofauna abundances on the trench slope. Abundances were generally higher than expected from model results. ANOSIM revealed significant differences between the trench slope and the northern abyssal plains, between the central abyssal plains and the trench slope, between the trench slope and the southern abyssal plains, between the central and the southern abyssal plains, and between the central and northern deployments. The northern and southern abyssal plains did not differ significantly. In addition, a U-test revealed highly significant differences between the trench-slope and abyssal deployments. The taxa inhabited mostly the upper 0-3 cm of the sediment layer (Nematoda 80-90%; Copepoda 88-100%). The trench-slope and abyssal did not differ

  3. [Diet composition and transition of clearhead icefish(Protosalanx hyalocranius)in Lake Xingkai].

    PubMed

    Tang, Fu-Jiang; Liu, Wei; Wang, Ji-Long; Li, Zhe; Xie, Song-Guang

    2013-10-01

    Diet compositions of alien clearhead icefish(Protosalanx hyalocranius)in Lake Xingkai were investigated monthly from June 2010 through January 2011. Protosalanx hyalocranius preyed mainly on cladoceran, copepoda, shrimp, and larvae or juvenile fish. In June, P. Hyalocranius were smaller than 60 mm standard length(SL), and their diets were composed of zooplankton only. In July, fish began to appear infrequently in the diet of P. Hyalocranius larger than 60 mm SL, and by August fish was occurring in the diets of P. hyalocranius larger than 80 mm, 100 mm in September, and 120 mm in October and thereafter, respectively. The increase in the minimum SL of P. hyalocranius preying on fish within a given season reflects changes in resource availability, largely attributed to the corresponding increase in prey fish size as seasons progress. Protosalanx hyalocranius and Hemiculter sp. were the dominant prey fish in the diets of P. hyalocranius.

  4. Occurrence of Ergasilus megaceros Wilson, 1916, in the sea lamprey and other fishes from North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muzzall, Patrick M.; Hudson, Patrick L.

    2004-01-01

    Ergasilus megaceros (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) was recovered from the nasal fossae (lamellae) of the olfactory sac in 1 (1.8%) of 56 sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus Linne, 1758, collected in May 2002 from the Cheboygan River, Michigan. Although the sea lamprey is a new host record for E. megaceros, this fish species may not be a preferred host because of its low prevalence. Ergasilus megaceros is the second ergasilid species reported from the sea lamprey in North America. This is the third report of an ergasilid species infecting the nasal fossae of fishes in North America, with E. rhinos being the only other species reported from this site.

  5. Comparative experimental infection of the copepod Paracartia grani with Marteilia refringens and Marteilia maurini.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, N; Arzul, I; Chollet, B; Robert, M; Joly, J P; Furones, M D; Berthe, F C J

    2008-07-01

    Paracartia grani (Copepoda) has been identified as a potential intermediate host in the life cycle of Marteilia refringens, a paramyxean parasite infecting flat oysters. However, no intermediate host has yet been identified for Marteilia maurini that infects mussels. A better understanding of the life cycle of these two Marteilia types would clarify their taxonomic relationship and hypothesized co-specificity. For this purpose, experimental infections of copepods, P. grani, were performed using naturally infected flat oysters and mussels. Infection patterns were different depending whether copepods were infected from oysters or mussels. M. maurini did not proliferate in copepods while M. refringens rapidly proliferated in infected copepods. Previously unrecognized developmental stages of M. refringens were found during this study.

  6. Feeding ecology of waterfowl wintering on evaporation ponds in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Euliss, N.H.; Jarvis, R.L.; Gilmer, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    We examined the feeding ecology of Northern Pintails (Anas acuta), Northern Shovelers (A. clypeata), and Ruddy Ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis) wintering on drainwater evaporation ponds in California from 1982 through 1984. Pintails primarily consumed midges (Chironomidae) (39.3%) and widegeongrass (Ruppia maritima) nutlets (34.6%). Shovelers and Ruddy Ducks consumed 92.5% and 90.1% animal matter, respectively. Water boatmen (Corixidae) (51.6%), rotifers (Rotatoria) (20.4%), and copepods (Copepoda) (15.2%) were the most important Shoveler foods, and midges (49.7%) and water boatmen (36.0%) were the most important foods of Ruddy Ducks. All three species were opportunistic foragers, shifting their diets seasonally to the most abundant foods given their behavioral and morphological attributes.

  7. Zooplankton population in relation to physico-chemical parameters of Lal Diggi pond in Aligarh, India.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Uzma; Parveen, Saltanat; Abdel Mola, Hesham R; Kabir, Habeeba A; Ganai, Altaf H

    2012-11-01

    Physico-chemical parameters and zooplankton were assessed Lal Diggi pond from January to December, 2008. Four groups of zooplankton were recorded. Rotifera constituted the main dominant group in this pond contributing 44.89% of the total zooplankton population followed by Cladocera (30.41%), Copepoda (15.51%) and Ostracoda (4.68%). The highest density of zooplankton was recorded during January and February being 197 and 182 no l(-1) respectively, while the lowest density was recorded during May and June being 64 no l(-1) each could be due to the negative and significant value of correlation between zooplankton and water temperature (r = -0.700). These data is supported by similarity indices which recorded high values during January and February while the lowest values recorded during June and July.

  8. Pancrustacean phylogeny: hexapods are terrestrial crustaceans and maxillopods are not monophyletic.

    PubMed

    Regier, Jerome C; Shultz, Jeffrey W; Kambic, Robert E

    2005-02-22

    Recent molecular analyses indicate that crustaceans and hexapods form a clade (Pancrustacea or Tetraconata), but relationships among its constituent lineages, including monophyly of crustaceans, are controversial. Our phylogenetic analysis of three protein-coding nuclear genes from 62 arthropods and lobopods (Onychophora and Tardigrada) demonstrates that Hexapoda is most closely related to the crustaceans Branchiopoda (fairy shrimp, water fleas, etc.) and Cephalocarida + Remipedia, thereby making hexapods terrestrial crustaceans and the traditionally defined Crustacea paraphyletic. Additional findings are that Malacostraca (crabs, isopods, etc.) unites with Cirripedia (barnacles, etc.) and they, in turn, with Copepoda, making the traditional crustacean class Maxillopoda paraphyletic. Ostracoda (seed shrimp)--either all or a subgroup--is associated with Branchiura (fish lice) and likely to be basal to all other pancrustaceans. A Bayesian statistical (non-clock) estimate of divergence times suggests a Precambrian origin for Pancrustacea (600 Myr ago or more), which precedes the first unambiguous arthropod fossils by over 60 Myr.

  9. A new species of chondracanthid copepod parasitic in the pharynx of hagfishes (Myxiniformes: Myxinidae) from off Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Rong; Luo, Hao-Yuan; Dai, Chang-Feng; Shih, Hsiu-Hui

    2014-07-01

    A new species of Acanthochondria Oakley, 1927 (Copepoda, Poecilostomatoida, Chondracanthidae), parasitic in the pharynx of hagfishes Eptatretus burgeri (Girard), E. sheni (Kuo, Huang & Mok) and E. yangi (Teng), from off Taiwan is described and illustrated. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by having the neck region longer than wide (about 2-3 times as long as wide), the moderately long protopod of leg 2 (Type E), the endopod of leg 2 as large as exopod, the cephalosome wider than long, the armature formula of antennule (1, 1, 2, 2, 9), the relatively long trunk (6.7 mm) and egg-sacs (14.4 mm). This is the first record of a parasitic chondracanthid from hagfishes. The findings may provide insights into the phylogenetic relationships and interactions among chondracanthids, hagfishes and demersal fishes, but call for further molecular studies.

  10. Zooplankton Composition and Abundance as Indicators of Eutrophication in Two Small Man-made Lakes

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Azma Hanim; Adnan, Anis Amalina Mohd

    2016-01-01

    The distribution and abundance of zooplankton species of Harapan and Aman Lakes were investigated in relation to physical parameters and chlorophyll-a content. Both lakes were characterised by the occurrence of algal bloom problem. The composition of zooplankton was collected at monthly intervals from November 2013 to February 2014. The total number of taxa in Harapan and Aman Lakes were 23 and 27, respectively. Rotifera was the highest abundance group represent 64% of the total species recorded followed by Copepoda (29%) and Cladocera (7%). Three dominant zooplankton that been recorded in both the lakes are Brachionus forficula, Brachionus nilsoni, and Trichocerca sp. High abundance of these species indicates that the lakes are eutrophic water bodies. Overall, zooplankton species distribution and abundance in the study sites are influenced by various environmental factors such as water transparency and chlorophyll-a content. PMID:27965738

  11. Land Use and Hydrogeological Characteristics Influence Groundwater Invertebrate Communities.

    PubMed

    Tione, María Laura; Bedano, José Camilo; Blarasin, Mónica

    2016-08-01

    We examine the influence of land use and hydrogeological characteristics on the abundance, composition and structure of groundwater invertebrate communities in a loessic aquifer from Argentina. Seven wells, selected according to surrounding land use and hydrogeological characteristics, were sampled twice. Groundwater was characterized as sodium bicarbonate, bicarbonate sulfate or sulfate type. NO3(-) was detected in all samples. Land use in the area surrounding the well, unsaturated zone thickness and geochemical characteristics of groundwater influenced the abundance, composition and community structure of groundwater invertebrates. Copepoda, Oligochaeta, Cladocera, Ostracoda and Amphipoda were highly influenced by land use, particularly by point pollution sources that produced higher abundance and changes in taxonomic composition. The lowest invertebrate abundance was observed at the wells situated in areas with the thickest unsaturated zone. Groundwater salinity and geochemical type influenced the presence of certain species, particularly Stygonitocrella sp.

  12. Carnivory during Ontogeny of the Plagioscion squamosissimus: A Successful Non-Native Fish in a Lentic Environment of the Upper Paraná River Basin.

    PubMed

    Neves, Mayara Pereira; Delariva, Rosilene Luciana; Guimarães, Ana Tereza Bittencourt; Sanches, Paulo Vanderlei

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated feeding patterns and ontogenetic variations in a non-native fish species (Plagioscion squamosissimus) in an isolated lake in the Upper Paraná River floodplain. Quarterly samplings were performed from April 2005 to February 2006 using plankton nets to capture larvae, seining nets for juveniles, and gill nets and trammel for adults. Stomach contents (n = 378) were examined according to the volumetric method in which the volume of each food item was estimated using graduated test tubes or a glass counting plate. During early development (larval stage), P. squamosissimus consumed mainly Cladocera and Copepoda. Juveniles showed a more diverse diet, including shrimp (Macrobrachium amazonicum), fish, aquatic insects (Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera, Chironomidae and pupae of Diptera) and plants. It was notable the high proportion of cannibalism (23.3%) in this stage. Adults consumed predominantly shrimp and fish. The use of food resources varied significantly between development stages (ANOSIM; r = 0.458; p<0.005), showing changes in food preferences during ontogeny. The Similarity Percentage Analysis (SIMPER) indicated that Cladocera and Copepoda were responsible for the differences observed between the larval stages of pre-flexion, flexion and post-flexion. M. amazonicum and Chironomidae were responsible for the differences between juvenile and larval stages, while M. amazonicum and other fishes caused the differences between adults and other ontogenetic stages. These results are confirmed by the relationship between standard length and developmental periods (ANCOVA; r2 = 0.94; p<0.0001). In general, there were low values of trophic niche breadth. The essentially carnivorous habit from the early stages of P. squamosissimus and the predominant use of M. amazonicum by adults have important roles in feeding patterns of the species, suggesting a major contribution to its success and establishment, especially in lentic environments.

  13. Changes of concentrations and possibility of accumulation of bisphenol A and alkylphenols, depending on biomass and composition, in zooplankton of the Southern Baltic (Gulf of Gdansk).

    PubMed

    Staniszewska, Marta; Nehring, Iga; Mudrak-Cegiołka, Stella

    2016-06-01

    The focus of the present study was to find the relationship between concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP) and 4-nonylphenol (NP) in zooplankton and seasonal changes in the composition and biomass of particular zooplankton taxa in the Gulf of Gdansk (Southern Baltic) in the years 2011-2012. Assays of BPA, OP and NP in water and zooplankton samples were performed using the HPLC/FL system. High mean concentrations of the studied compounds, determined in spring (405.9 (BPA); 25.7 (OP); 111.2 (NP) ng g(-1) dw), can be linked to the high proportion of meroplankton in that season. Rotifera also had an influence on the rise in concentrations of the studied compounds but to a lesser degree, while the lowest concentrations (determined in summer) can be associated with the high participation of Copepoda and Cladocera in zooplankton biomass. It was also observed that juvenile forms can be more susceptible to accumulating endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). This is indicated by the positive correlation between BPA concentration in zooplankton and the proportion of Copepoda nauplii biomass in spring (r = 0.90; p < 0.05). In most cases, greater zooplankton biomass accumulated higher concentrations and loads of the studied compounds. With biomass growth (to 123.32 μg m(-3)), the bioconcentration factor also rose (to max 46.1·10(3)), demonstrating that unlike typical hydrophobic compounds the studied EDCs do not become "diluted" in zooplankton biomass. The highest BPA concentrations from all compounds may be connected with anthropogenic sources located in the coastal zone.

  14. Spatial and temporal variations in deep-sea meiofauna assemblages in the Marginal Ice Zone of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoste, Eveline; Vanhove, Sandra; Schewe, Ingo; Soltwedel, Thomas; Vanreusel, Ann

    2007-01-01

    In order to understand the response of the deep-sea meiobenthos to a highly varying, ice-edge-related input of phytodetritus, we investigated the abundance and composition of the meiobenthos at the arctic long-term deep-sea station HAUSGARTEN (79°N, 4°E) along a bathymetric transect (1200-5500 m water depth) over 5 consecutive years (from 2000 to 2004) in relation to changes in environmental conditions. Results showed high sediment-bound pigment concentrations (chlorophyll a and degradation products) ranging from 4.5 to 41.6 μg/cm 3, and coinciding high meiobenthic densities ranging from 149±3 to 3409±525 ind/10 cm 2. Nematodes dominated the metazoan meiofaunal communities at every depth and time (85-99% of total meiofauna abundance), followed by harpacticoid copepods (0-4.6% of total meiofauna abundance). The expected pattern of gradually decreasing meiobenthic densities with increasing water depth was not confirmed. Instead, the bathymetric transect could be subdivided into a shallow area with equally high nematode and copepod densities from 1000 to 2000 m water depth (means: 2259±157 Nematoda/10 cm 2, and 50±4 Copepoda/10 cm 2), and a deeper area from 3000 to 5500 m water depth with similar low nematode and copepod densities (means: 595±52 Nematoda/10 cm 2, and 11±2 Copepoda/10 cm 2). Depth-related investigations on the meiobenthos at the HAUSGARTEN site showed a significant correlation between meiobenthos densities, microbial exo-enzymatic activity (esterase turnover) and phytodetrital food availability (chlorophyll a and phaeophytines). In time-series investigations, our data showed inter-annual variations in meiofauna abundance. However, no consistent relationship between nematode and copepod densities, and measures for organic matter input were found.

  15. Meiobenthic gradients with special reference to Plathelminthes and Polychaeta in an estuarine salt marsh creek—a small-scale model for boreal tidal coasts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellwig-Armonies, Monika; Armonies, Werner

    1987-06-01

    Environmental conditions in salt marsh creeks are intermediate between the open tidal coast and estuaries. A large salt marsh creek at the island of Sylt (North Sea) was studied in order to test whether its fauna is more similar to that of the open tidal coast or to that of estuaries. Because of a sandy bar at the seaward opening, the tidal range is only 10 cm in the creek, and the water level never drops below the level of the sand bar. Zoobenthos in the sandy bottom and on the sandy shores was studied at both ends and in the middle of the creek. Polychaeta and Plathelminthes were determined to species level. On an average, 2115 metazoans were found below 10 cm2 of surface area. At the seaward end of the creek, abundance and taxonomic composition are similar to that of the adjoining Wadden area. Nematoda are the dominant taxon, followed by Copepoda, Plathelminthes and Oligochaeta. Taxonomic composition is different at the landward end. Plathelminthes and Nematoda are most abundant followed by Copepoda. Both Oligochaeta and Polychaeta are scarce at these newly eroded sites. Plathelminth abundance at the landward end of the creek is exceptionally high (770 935·10 cm-2). Contrary to what is generally found in estuaries, the species density of Plathelminthes shows a significant increase toward the land. The species composition of Polychaeta and Plathelminthes indicates that the sites below mean high tide level of the creek correspond to the adjacent eulittoral Wadden area while the fauna of the supralittoral sites of the creek is similar to the fauna of supralittoral tidal coasts. Typical sublittoral species did not occur in the salt marsh creek. Thus, salt marsh creeks may be regarded as a small-scale model for the tidal coast. In context with the results obtained, the definition of estuaries is discussed.

  16. Synoptic patterns of meiofaunal and macrofaunal abundances and specific composition in littoral sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armonies, Werner; Hellwig-Armonies, Monika

    1987-03-01

    During recent years, many investigations on small zoobenthos have been performed at the island of Sylt. As these studies were carried out sporadically over many years and as different extraction methods were used, comparisons of the results have been hampered. Therefore, in August/September 1986, 24 sites were sampled and evaluated using one quantitative method throughout. Sites range from mud to exposed sand and from the sublittoral to the supralittoral. Macrofauna and the taxa Plathelminthes, Polychaeta, and Oligochaeta are determined to species level. Macrofaunal (>0.5 mm) abundance is highest in mud and continuously decreases with increasing exposure to wave action. Meiofaunal (<0.5 mm) abundance is less variable. Nematoda dominate in mud and muddy sand, Copepoda in sheltered and exposed sand, other taxa only intermittently. Related to surface area, no correlation between macro-and meiofaunal abundance is apparent. Plathelminthes and Copepoda reach highest abundance per surface area in sand but their per volume density is higher in mud and muddy sand. Related to sediment volume instead of surface area, the meiofaunal abundance pattern is very similar to the macrofaunal pattern. The faunal composition changes gradually along the tidal gradient without general faunal boundaries. On an averange, the faunal similarity of neighbouring sites is highest in Oligochaeta and lowest in Plathelminthes. Presumably, Oligochaeta tolerate wider ranges of environmental factors. This may explain the low number of oligochaete species. On the other hand, Plathelminthes seem to adapt to relatively narrow ranges of factors and their species richness is highest. Because of macrofaunameiofauna interaction it is suggested that the meiofaunal assemblage will be least stable in mud and muddy sand, and most stable in exposed sand.

  17. Carnivory during Ontogeny of the Plagioscion squamosissimus: A Successful Non-Native Fish in a Lentic Environment of the Upper Paraná River Basin

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Mayara Pereira; Delariva, Rosilene Luciana; Guimarães, Ana Tereza Bittencourt; Sanches, Paulo Vanderlei

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated feeding patterns and ontogenetic variations in a non-native fish species (Plagioscion squamosissimus) in an isolated lake in the Upper Paraná River floodplain. Quarterly samplings were performed from April 2005 to February 2006 using plankton nets to capture larvae, seining nets for juveniles, and gill nets and trammel for adults. Stomach contents (n = 378) were examined according to the volumetric method in which the volume of each food item was estimated using graduated test tubes or a glass counting plate. During early development (larval stage), P. squamosissimus consumed mainly Cladocera and Copepoda. Juveniles showed a more diverse diet, including shrimp (Macrobrachium amazonicum), fish, aquatic insects (Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera, Chironomidae and pupae of Diptera) and plants. It was notable the high proportion of cannibalism (23.3%) in this stage. Adults consumed predominantly shrimp and fish. The use of food resources varied significantly between development stages (ANOSIM; r = 0.458; p<0.005), showing changes in food preferences during ontogeny. The Similarity Percentage Analysis (SIMPER) indicated that Cladocera and Copepoda were responsible for the differences observed between the larval stages of pre-flexion, flexion and post-flexion. M. amazonicum and Chironomidae were responsible for the differences between juvenile and larval stages, while M. amazonicum and other fishes caused the differences between adults and other ontogenetic stages. These results are confirmed by the relationship between standard length and developmental periods (ANCOVA; r2 = 0.94; p<0.0001). In general, there were low values of trophic niche breadth. The essentially carnivorous habit from the early stages of P. squamosissimus and the predominant use of M. amazonicum by adults have important roles in feeding patterns of the species, suggesting a major contribution to its success and establishment, especially in lentic environments. PMID:26524336

  18. [Abundance and biomass of meiobenthos in Lingdingyang Bay of Pearl River Estuary].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-huai; Gao, Yang; Fang, Hong-da

    2011-10-01

    An investigation was conducted on the meiobenthic abundance and biomass in the Lingdingyang Bay of Pearl River Estuary in July-August 2006 (summer), April 2007 (spring), and October 2007 (autumn). A total of 15 meiobenthic groups were recorded, including Nematoda, Copepoda, Polychaeta, Ostracoda, Kinorhyncha, Amphipoda, Cumacea, Tanaidacea, Gnathostomulida, Nemertea, Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Sipuncula, Echiura, and other unidentified taxa. The average abundance of the meiobenthos in spring, summer, and autumn was 272.1 +/- 281.9, 165.1 +/- 147.1 and 246. 4 +/- 369.3 ind 10 cm(-2), and Nematoda was the most dominant group in abundance, accounting for 86.8%, 83.5%, and 93.4% of the total, respectively, followed by Polychaeta, and benthic Copepoda. The meiobenthic abundance had an uneven vertical distribution. 54.1% of the meibenthos were in 0-2 cm sediments, 35.2% were in 2-5 cm sediments, and 10.8% were in 5-10 cm sediments. 87.4% of nematodes were distributed in 0-5 cm sediments. The average biomass of the meiobenthos in spring, summer, and autumn was 374.6 +/- 346.9, 274.1 +/- 352.2, and 270.8 +/- 396.0 microg 10 cm(-2), and Polychaeta was the most dominant group in biomass, accounting for 30.1%, 46.7% and 46.0%, respectively, followed by Nematoda (25.2%, 20.1%, and 34.0%), and Ostracoda (20.6%, 15.3%, and 14.8%). The horizontal distribution of the meiobenthos had a trend of increasing from north to south, and being higher at east than at west. The meiobenthic abundance and biomass had significant positive correlations with water depth.

  19. The lunule of caligid copepods: an evolutionarily novel structure.

    PubMed

    Kaji, Tomonari; Venmathi Maran, B A; Kondoh, Yuusuke; Ohtsuka, Susumu; Boxshall, Geoff A; Tsukagoshi, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Nearly half of the genera of the family Caligidae possess an evolutionarily novel structure called the "lunule" on the ventral surface of the frontal plate. Lunules are paired cup-like suckers that assist in securing attachment of the copepod parasite to its host. Although present in genera such as Caligus and Pseudocaligus, lunules are absent in other caligid genera such as Lepeophtheirus as well as in more primitive caligiforms such as members of the families Trebiidae and Dissonidae. We compared the morphology and development of the anterior margin of the frontal plates between two caligids, Pseudocaligus fugu and Lepeophtheirus sekii, and a more basal caligiform, Dissonus heronensis (a dissonid), using scanning electron, transmission electron, and laser confocal microscopes. Our observations suggest that the lunules originated as a modification of the marginal membranes of the ancestral frontal plates. We also demonstrated the presence of an anlagen cell population for the lunule and marginal membrane in the developing frontal plate. These primordial cells can be detected as early as the first stage of the chalimus phase. Based on these observations, an evolutionary scenario for the lunule is proposed based on cytological evidence. This case study enhances our understanding of "evolutionary novelty," which is a main focus of contemporary evolutionary developmental biology.

  20. Parasites and hepatic lesions among pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (Walbaum), during early seawater residence.

    PubMed

    Saksida, S M; Marty, G D; Jones, S R M; Manchester, H A; Diamond, C L; Bidulka, J; St-Hilaire, S

    2012-02-01

    Juvenile pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (Walbaum), in the Broughton Archipelago region of western Canada were surveyed over 2 years for sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus clemensi), gross and microscopic lesions and evidence of infections with viruses and bacteria. The 1071 fish examined had an approximate ocean residence time no longer than 3 months. A high prevalence of degenerative liver lesions, renal myxosporean parasites and a low prevalence of skin lesions and sea lice were observed. No indications of viral or bacterial diseases were detected in either year. The monthly prevalence of sea lice in 2007 (18-51%) was higher than in 2008 (1-26%), and the infestation density exceeded the lethal threshold in only two fish. Degenerative hepatic lesions and renal myxosporean parasites occurred in approximately 40% of the pink salmon examined in June of both years, and the peak monthly prevalence of hepatocellular hydropic degeneration was greater in 2007 (32%, in May) than in 2008 (12%, in June). Logistic regression analysis found skin lesions and hepatocellular hydropic degeneration significantly associated with sea lice. Most parasites and lesions occurred during both years, but the prevalence was often higher in 2007. Fish weight was 35% less in June 2007 than in June 2008, but condition factor was not different. Further research is required to monitor inter-annual variations and aetiology of the liver lesions and to assess their potential role on pink salmon survival.

  1. Notes on the husbandry and long-term transportation of Bull ray (Pteromylaeus bovinus) and Dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus and Coryphaena equiselis).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Nuno; Correia, João; Pinho, Rúben; Graça, José; Rodrigues, Filipe; Hirofumi, Morikawa

    2013-03-01

    Bull rays (Pteromylaeus bovinus) and Dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus and Coryphaena equiselis) were collected in Olhão (south of Portugal). These animals hosted multiple parasites, namely Caligus spp., and underwent a variety of treatments to remove them. Of all treatments tested, hydrogen peroxide showed the best results, although only concentrations above 100 ppm were effective in parasite removal. These high concentrations, however, proved to be highly toxic for the fish and led to the loss of some animals, especially those which had been handled before treatment. A total of 14 Bull rays were transported to Bolougne-Sur-Mer (France) by road and some animals were lost, which was attributed to excessive time in transit (>45 hr). In another transport, three Bull rays and 10 Dolphinfishes were moved to Stralsund (Germany) by road and air. The mechanical wounds suffered by one of the Bull rays during transport led to its death and, consequently, a deterioration of water quality in the tank containing two other conspecifics. This deterioration of water quality resulted in problems for the other two Bull rays, and one perished approximately 48 hr after arrival. The authors concluded that Dolphinfish can be transported with a low bioload for at least 27 hr, and Bull rays should not undergo transports longer than 35 hr. Special attention must be taken to injured animals, since this can lead to a decrease in water quality and consequently affect other animals in the same transport tank.

  2. How sea lice from salmon farms may cause wild salmonid declines in Europe and North America and be a threat to fishes elsewhere.

    PubMed

    Costello, Mark J

    2009-10-07

    Fishes farmed in sea pens may become infested by parasites from wild fishes and in turn become point sources for parasites. Sea lice, copepods of the family Caligidae, are the best-studied example of this risk. Sea lice are the most significant parasitic pathogen in salmon farming in Europe and the Americas, are estimated to cost the world industry euro300 million a year and may also be pathogenic to wild fishes under natural conditions. Epizootics, characteristically dominated by juvenile (copepodite and chalimus) stages, have repeatedly occurred on juvenile wild salmonids in areas where farms have sea lice infestations, but have not been recorded elsewhere. This paper synthesizes the literature, including modelling studies, to provide an understanding of how one species, the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, can infest wild salmonids from farm sources. Three-dimensional hydrographic models predicted the distribution of the planktonic salmon lice larvae best when they accounted for wind-driven surface currents and larval behaviour. Caligus species can also cause problems on farms and transfer from farms to wild fishes, and this genus is cosmopolitan. Sea lice thus threaten finfish farming worldwide, but with the possible exception of L. salmonis, their host relationships and transmission adaptations are unknown. The increasing evidence that lice from farms can be a significant cause of mortality on nearby wild fish populations provides an additional challenge to controlling lice on the farms and also raises conservation, economic and political issues about how to balance aquaculture and fisheries resource management.

  3. Metazoan parasites in the head region of the bullet tuna Auxis rochei (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) from the western Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Mele, S; Saber, S; Gómez-Vives, M J; Garippa, G; Alemany, F; Macías, D; Merella, P

    2015-11-01

    The head region of 72 bullet tuna Auxis rochei from the western Mediterranean Sea (south-east Spain and the Strait of Gibraltar) was examined for parasites. Seven metazoan species were found in the fish from south-east Spain: three monogeneans, two trematodes and two copepods, whereas only three species were isolated in the fish from the Strait of Gibraltar. A comparison of the levels of infection of the parasites according to fish size in south-east Spain showed that the prevalence of Didymozoon auxis and the mean abundance of Allopseudaxine macrova were higher in the larger hosts (range of fork length = 38-44 cm) than in the smaller ones (33-37 cm). A comparison of the parasite infections according to geographical region showed that the mean abundances of Nematobothriinae gen. sp. and Caligus bonito were higher in fish from south-east Spain than in those from the Strait of Gibraltar. A comparison of the parasite fauna of A. rochei from the Mediterranean Sea with the published data on Auxis spp. from the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans revealed the closest similarity between the Mediterranean A. rochei and the Atlantic A. thazard.

  4. Transmission dynamics of parasitic sea lice from farm to wild salmon.

    PubMed

    Krkosek, Martin; Lewis, Mark A; Volpe, John P

    2005-04-07

    Marine salmon farming has been correlated with parasitic sea lice infestations and concurrent declines of wild salmonids. Here, we report a quantitative analysis of how a single salmon farm altered the natural transmission dynamics of sea lice to juvenile Pacific salmon. We studied infections of sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus clemensi) on juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) as they passed an isolated salmon farm during their seaward migration down two long and narrow corridors. Our calculations suggest the infection pressure imposed by the farm was four orders of magnitude greater than ambient levels, resulting in a maximum infection pressure near the farm that was 73 times greater than ambient levels and exceeded ambient levels for 30 km along the two wild salmon migration corridors. The farm-produced cohort of lice parasitizing the wild juvenile hosts reached reproductive maturity and produced a second generation of lice that re-infected the juvenile salmon. This raises the infection pressure from the farm by an additional order of magnitude, with a composite infection pressure that exceeds ambient levels for 75 km of the two migration routes. Amplified sea lice infestations due to salmon farms are a potential limiting factor to wild salmonid conservation.

  5. How sea lice from salmon farms may cause wild salmonid declines in Europe and North America and be a threat to fishes elsewhere

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Fishes farmed in sea pens may become infested by parasites from wild fishes and in turn become point sources for parasites. Sea lice, copepods of the family Caligidae, are the best-studied example of this risk. Sea lice are the most significant parasitic pathogen in salmon farming in Europe and the Americas, are estimated to cost the world industry €300 million a year and may also be pathogenic to wild fishes under natural conditions. Epizootics, characteristically dominated by juvenile (copepodite and chalimus) stages, have repeatedly occurred on juvenile wild salmonids in areas where farms have sea lice infestations, but have not been recorded elsewhere. This paper synthesizes the literature, including modelling studies, to provide an understanding of how one species, the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, can infest wild salmonids from farm sources. Three-dimensional hydrographic models predicted the distribution of the planktonic salmon lice larvae best when they accounted for wind-driven surface currents and larval behaviour. Caligus species can also cause problems on farms and transfer from farms to wild fishes, and this genus is cosmopolitan. Sea lice thus threaten finfish farming worldwide, but with the possible exception of L. salmonis, their host relationships and transmission adaptations are unknown. The increasing evidence that lice from farms can be a significant cause of mortality on nearby wild fish populations provides an additional challenge to controlling lice on the farms and also raises conservation, economic and political issues about how to balance aquaculture and fisheries resource management. PMID:19586950

  6. Ecology of the Atlantic black skipjack Euthynnus alletteratus (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) in the western Mediterranean Sea inferred by parasitological analysis.

    PubMed

    Mele, Salvatore; Pennino, M Grazia; Piras, M Cristina; Macías, David; Gómez-Vives, M José; Alemany, Francisco; Montero, Francisco E; Garippa, Giovanni; Merella, Paolo

    2016-09-01

    Between 2008 and 2011, the head of 150 Euthynnus alletteratus (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) caught inshore off the southeastern Iberian coast (western Mediterranean Sea) were examined for parasites. Two monogeneans, four didymozoid trematodes and four copepods were found. Parasite abundance showed a positive relationship with the annual sea surface temperature, except for Pseudocycnus appendiculatus, but negative with the sea depth (Capsala manteri, Neonematobothrium cf. kawakawa and Caligus bonito). Prevalences and mean abundances differed significantly among sampling areas, except for C. manteri, Oesophagocystis sp. 2 and Ceratocolax euthynni, and sampling years (Melanocystis cf. kawakawa, N.cf. kawakawa, P. appendiculatus and Unicolax collateralis). Results indicate that the parasite abundances of E. alletteratus in the western Mediterranean Sea depend mainly on regional environmental variables, which can show interannual variations. The presence of pelagic parasites, i.e. didymozoids and P. appendiculatus, could indicate that E. alletteratus migrates between inshore and offshore pelagic domains. The different parasite faunas reported in E. alletteratus populations from the western Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea appear to point out the geographical host isolation. These results suggest that E. alletteratus inhabiting the western Mediterranean Sea performs inshore-offshore small-scale migrations, and not transoceanic migrations between the western Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea.

  7. Richness, infestation and specificity of spinturnicid mites (Acari: Spinturnicidae) on bats in southern Oaxaca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Colín-Martínez, Helisama; García-Estrada, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    Studies of mites on bats in the Mexican state Oaxaca are scarce. Our objective was therefore to evaluate the richness, infestation, and specificity of spinturnicid mites on bats in southern Oaxaca, Mexico. Bats were monthly captured from April 2010 to February 2011, in four sites using four mist-nets; also, we visited natural (crevices) and artificial roosts (tunnel). Of each bat we account the number of spinturnicid mites, considering the area of the body where they were collected. Mites were preserved in 70 % ethanol and later they were mounted on microscope slides in Hoyer's medium. We captured bats of 15 species, of which eight species were infested. We recorded seven spinturnicid mites: five of the genus Periglischrus, one of the genus Cameronieta, and one of the genus Mesoperiglischrus. Periglischrus caligus, P. iheringi, and Periglischrus sp. are new records on Artibeus lituratus, Glossophaga soricina, and G. commissarisi, respectively. More infested bat species were Artibeus jamaicensis (93.8 %), A. lituratus (88.9 %), G. commissarisi and Sturnira parvidens (both 66.7 %). Prevalence of A. jamaicensis and A. lituratus was significantly higher than most other bat species. Although prevalence percentage was high, mean and median intensity were low. Spinturnicid mites were recorded in particular areas of a bat's body; therefore, they could be an additional tool for the taxonomic identification of bats.

  8. Population dynamics of a dominant species (Pseudocalanus, Acartia and Temora) in the Gulf of Gdansk (southern Baltic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, L.; Janecki, M.; Lemieszek, A.; Jakacki, J.; Nowicki, A.

    2012-04-01

    1 - C3 and C4 - C5 and finally the adult stage - C6. The Baltic zooplankton is composed of microzooplankton, mezozooplankton and macroplankton with characteristic ichtyoplankton forms. The structure of mezozooplankton in the Gdansk Gulf mainly consisted of four taxa: copepoda, cladocera, rotatoria and meroplankton. The most important species in the Gdansk Gulf are copepoda: Acartia spp. (i.e. A. bifilosa, A. longiremis and A. tonsa), Temora longicornis, Pseudocalanus minutus elongatus and Centropages hamatus and cladocera: Bosmina coregoni maritime and Podon polyphemoides. Copepoda dominate numerically, while in the warm season Cladocera are subdominants. The study describes numerical simulations of the seasonal dynamics of Acartia spp., Temora longicornis and Pseudocalanus minutus elongatus in the southern Baltic Sea using a three-dimensional version of the coupled ecosystem-copepod model. In the case of the Baltic Sea, food concentration and temperature are the main factors controlling copepod development, and salinity is a masking factor. The surface water salinity of the southern Baltic is constant at 7-8 PSU. It is included in the present study. The simulated population dynamics were compared with observations at the Gulf of Gdansk. This work is supported by the Polish State Committee of Scientific Research [grant number: NN306 353239 and No. N N305 111636]. The partial support for this study was also provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBaltyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract no. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09. Calculations were done at the Academic Computer Center in Gdansk.

  9. The ice fauna in the shallow southwestern Beaufort Sea, Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Andrew G.

    1992-06-01

    Sympagic fauna were studied in seasonal fast ice adjacent to Narwhal Island during the spring of 1979 and 1980, with emphasis on the origin of the fauna and its relationship to contiguous pelagic and benthic communities. The results of five subprojects are reviewed and compared with recent literature. Within Stefansson Sound, inshore of Narwhal Island, total sympagic meiofaunal densities and species diversity were low. In March 1979, the dominant taxa were polychaete larvae and crustacean nauplii, while in May the dominant group was Nematoda. Total numerical densities were low, ranging from 4500 to 8000 per m 2. During the spring of 1980 large numbers of invertebrate fauna concentrated at the undersurface of seasonal sea ice on the inner western Beaufort Sea continental shelf, seaward of Narwhal Island. The sympagic meiofauna were comprised primarily of benthic harpacticoid and cyclopoid copepods, turbellarians, nematode worms, and polychaete worm larvae. Total meiofaunal densities increased from about 6000 per m 2 in April to about 482,000 per m 2 in June. All life stages of Cyclopina gracilis (Copepoda: Cyclopoida) were present in the ice. This species appeared to reproduce continuously from early April to early June during the study period. The Harpacticus sp. (Copepoda: Harpaticoida) population consisted of one cohort whose individuals grew in size from April to early June. The sympagic macrofauna consisted entirely of amphipod crustaceans, primarily comprised of benthic species. Population size structure of the amphipod Pseudalibrotus (= Onisimus) litoralis was bimodal and there was a lack of intermediate growth stages. These characteristics indicate that this species has a two-year life cycle in the Beaufort Sea. The highest growth rate for P. litoralis coincided with maximal ice algal production. P. litoralis fed largely on meiofaunal Crustacea and amphipod fragments in April, but its diet switched to ice algae during the height of the bloom in late May

  10. Zoo-heleoplankton structure in three artificial ponds of North-eastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Frutos, S M; Carnevali, R

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the abundance and species richness of zoo-heleoplankton bigger than 53 microm in an annual cycle under similar climate conditions in three artificial ponds, in order to observe the changes during an annual cycle. Samples were taken monthly from June 1993 to July 1994 in Corrientes, Argentina. The first pond (A) was covered an 80% by Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.), the second one (B) with bloom of Microcystis aeruginosa (Kurtzing) and the last one (C) with organic matter deposited in the bottom. The water was more acidic at pond A, and the water at pond B contained more dissolved oxygen concentration than the water at the other two ponds. The zoo-heleoplankton densities varied between 20-1728 ind.l(-1) at pond A, 42-4082 ind.l(-1) at pond B and 148-2447 ind.l(-1) at pond C. The maximum zoo-heleoplankton abundance was found in the pond with cyanobacteria bloom during Autumn 1994 and the minimum abundance was found in the one with a predominance of E. crassipes. The rank of species richness was pond A > pond B > pond C. Rotifera was the most abundant group in pond A whereas the larval stages of Copepoda were abundant in the other two ponds. Anuraeopsis navicula Rousselt 1910 was the dominant population in the pond with macrophytes prevalence. Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas 1776 and larval stage of Copepoda had variable proportions in the pond with cyanobacteria bloom. Thermocyclops decipiens (Kiefer 1929) was present during the annual cycle only in the pond with organic matter deposited in the bottom. The succession of taxa was observed in the pond with coverage of aquatic macrophytes and with cyanobacteria bloom. Differences in species richness and low similarity in zoo-heleoplankton between ponds were determined by differences in the quality of the water in relation to the presence of macrophytes, cyanobacteria, organic matter deposited in the bottom and fish predation. Multiple regression analysis (stepwise) revealed that

  11. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program, Part B; Limnology, Primary Production, and Zooplankton in Lake Roosevelt, Washington, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, John; Spotts, Jim; Underwood, Keith

    2002-11-01

    of 1.5 m (5 ft) when compared with a 4.6 m (15 ft) depth, and during the shorter incubation periods (two and four weeks). Mean zooplankton densities were greatest for Copepoda (88 %), then Daphnia spp. (10%) and other Cladocera (2.1%), while the zooplankton biomass assessment indicated Daphnia spp. had the greatest biomass (53.6%), then Copepoda (44.0%) and other Cladocera (2.5%). Mean overall zooplankton densities were the lowest observed since 1991. The cause was unclear, but may have been an artifact of human error. It seems unlikely that hydro-operations played a significant part in the reduction of zooplankton in light of the relatively friendly water year of 1998.

  12. Sea lice infestations on juvenile chum and pink salmon in the Broughton Archipelago, Canada, from 2003 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Patanasatienkul, Thitiwan; Sanchez, Javier; Rees, Erin E; Krkosek, Martin; Jones, Simon R M; Revie, Crawford W

    2013-07-22

    Juvenile pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and chum salmon O. keta were sampled by beach or purse seine to assess levels of sea lice infestation in the Knight Inlet and Broughton Archipelago regions of coastal British Columbia, Canada, during the months of March to July from 2003 to 2012. Beach seine data were analyzed for sea lice infestation that was described in terms of prevalence, abundance, intensity, and intensity per unit length. The median annual prevalence for chum was 30%, ranging from 14% (in 2008 and 2009) to 73% (in 2004), while for pink salmon, the median was 27% and ranged from 10% (in 2011) to 68% (in 2004). Annual abundance varied from 0.2 to 5 sea lice per fish with a median of 0.47 for chum and from 0.1 to 3 lice (median 0.42) for pink salmon. Annual infestation followed broadly similar trends for both chum and pink salmon. However, the abundance and intensity of Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus clemensi, the 2 main sea lice species of interest, were significantly greater on chum than on pink salmon in around half of the years studied. Logistic regression with random effect was used to model prevalence of sea lice infestation for the combined beach and purse seine data. The model suggested inter-annual variation as well as a spatial clustering effect on the prevalence of sea lice infestation in both chum and pink salmon. Fish length had an effect on prevalence, although the nature of this effect differed according to host species.

  13. Metazoan gill parasites of the Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus) (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) from the Mediterranean and their possible use as biological tags.

    PubMed

    Culurgioni, Jacopo; Mele, Salvatore; Merella, Paolo; Addis, Piero; Figus, Vincenza; Cau, Angelo; Karakulak, Firdes Saadet; Garippa, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    The gills of 63 specimens of the Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus) (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) from three localities of the Mediterranean (Sardinian, Tyrrhenian and Levantine Seas) were examined for metazoan parasites. The parasite fauna of T. thynnus from the Sea of Sardinia included 11 species: five didymozoid trematodes, three capsalid and one hexostomid monogeneans, and one caligid and one pseudocycnid copepods. Four didymozoids were found in fish from the Levantine Sea and only one didymozoid was recorded in fish from the Tyrrhenian Sea. Dividing the hosts into four size-groups (small, medium-sized, large and extra large), the pairwise comparison of prevalence and mean abundance of the new and literary data) showed differences according to host size. The differences in the composition of the parasitic faunas and in the prevalence of parasites, observed between the small tunas from the Tyrrhenian Sea and the medium-sized tunas from the Adriatic Sea, Levantine Sea and the North-East (NE) Atlantic Ocean, indicated that these groups form discrete units. The parasite fauna of the large tunas from the Sea of Sardinia is the richest among the bluefin tuna populations of the Mediterranean and the NE Atlantic, due to the presence of species not found elsewhere in bluefin tunas, such as Caligus coryphaenae Steenstrup et Lütken, 1861, Capsala magronum (Ishii, 1936) and C. paucispinosa (Mamaev, 1968). This fact and the prevalence of some parasites of this group (lower than those of medium-sized fish from the NE Atlantic and higher than the small and medium-sized tunas from the Mediterranean) suggest that the large-sized tuna group in the western Mediterranean is formed by Mediterranean resident tunas (poorly infected), and by tunas migrating from the Atlantic Ocean (heavily infected).

  14. Seasonality of parasitic copepods on bullseye puffer, Sphoeroides annulatus (Pisces: Tetraodontidae), from the northwestern coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Morales-Serna, Francisco Neptalí; Rubio-Godoy, Miguel; Gómez, Samuel

    2011-08-01

    Seasonal occurrence of parasitic copepods in wild bullseye puffer, Sphoeroides annulatus (Pisces: Tetraodontidae), was analyzed in conjunction with variation of biotic and abiotic factors. Eleven samples were taken between February 2007 and February 2008 in Santa María La Reforma lagoon (northwestern coast of México). In total, 337 fish was examined; 5 parasitic copepod species were observed, including Acantholochus zairae , Caligus serratus , Lepeophtheirus simplex , Pseudochondracanthus diceraus , and Parabrachiella sp. The most common species were L. simplex , P. diceraus, and C. serratus (overall prevalence, 59, 53, and 35%, respectively), which significantly varied in prevalence and mean intensity between sampling months. A seasonal pattern was only observed for L. simplex, with higher infection levels in the warmest month than in the coldest month. Statistical analyses indicated that the intensity of L. simplex was positively correlated with water temperature. There were no significant differences in prevalence and intensity of infection among female and male hosts. At the component community level, species richness ranged between 4 and 5 during most of the study period, and no seasonality was observed in the number of individuals, Shannon diversity index, evenness index, or the Berger-Parker dominance index. At the infracommunity level, 4 descriptors used (mean species richness, mean number of individuals, mean Brillouin's diversity index, and mean Berger-Parker index) varied significantly between sampling months, but no seasonality was observed, except for a slight increase in the number of individuals during the warmest month. A significant positive association was detected between number of individuals and water temperature and between host size and both species richness and number of individuals. This is the first account of the ecology of these 5 parasitic copepods. Although no significant association was detected between fish condition factor and the

  15. Influence of season and site location on European cultured sea bass parasites in Corsican fish farms using indicator species analysis (IndVal).

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Laetitia; Foata, Joséphine; Quilichini, Yann; Marchand, Bernard

    2016-02-01

    The parasites of 536 European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, were studied between January 2012 and December 2013 in six Corsican fish farms. The indicator value (IndVal) method, which combines measures of fidelity and specificity, has been used in this study. Because of its resilience to changes in abundance, IndVal is a particularly effective tool for ecological bioindicator. The IndVal method showed how season can influence the occurrence of parasite species in cultured sea bass and also identified parasites as bioindicators relative to fish farm location. The combination of specificity and fidelity highlighted several parasite species as significant indicators. A randomization test identified five parasite species as having a significant indicator value for season (the monogenean Diplectanum aequans; the copepods Lernanthropus kroyeri and Caligus minimus; the isopod Ceratothoa oestroides, and the myxosporidian Ceratomyxa labracis). If gills parasites are compared, they can be seen to be indicator species for two different seasons. The only Monogenea species D. aequans had fidelity and specificity more pronounced in winter, whereas both copepod species and the Isopoda revealed highest rates of infestation corresponding with an increase of water temperature. Four species have a significant indicator value for site location (D. aequans, L. kroyeri, C. minimus, and C. oestroides). The fact that the farm 6 was isolated on the east coast of Corsica may not have allowed the parasite to infect other farms. The presence of copepods on a single farm can also be explained according to salinity variations. Data for species composition and infection levels should help to improve the monitoring and management of parasitism in cultured sea bass populations.

  16. Three new records of copepods (Siphonostomatoida) parasitic on marine fishes of Iraq, including the relegation of two species of Lernanthropinus to Lernanthropinus temminckii (von Nordmann, 1864).

    PubMed

    Venmathi Maran, B A; Moon, Seong Yong; Adday, Thamir Katea; Khamees, Najim Rijab; Myoung, Jung-Goo

    2014-03-01

    Three parasitic copepods (Siphonostomatoida) belonging to three different genera were recovered from marine fishes of Iraq, and are listed here as new records. The sea lice Caligus epinepheli Yamaguti, 1936 (Caligidae) was collected from the Japanese threadfin bream, Nemipterus japonicus (Bloch). It had been frequently reported from teleost fishes around the world. The second record, comprising male and female, was another caligid, rarely caught from fishes - Hermilius longicornis Bassett-Smith, 1898, collected from the giant catfish, Netuma thalassina (Rüppell). This paper features the first description of the male of the latter species. The third record was the lernanthropid, Lernanthropinus temminckii (von Nordmann, 1864) (Lernanthropidae), redescribed based on the specimens collected from the greater lizard fish, Saurida tumbil (Bloch) (Synodontidae). In order to clarify its taxonomic status, our specimen was compared with the holotype of L. gibbosus (Pillai, 1964) from the collections of Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, and the syntypes of L. sauridae Do in Ho and Do, 1985 and L. temminckii from the collections of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C. We found similarities in the morphology of the body, mouthparts, and legs 1-4 in three above-mentioned species. The prominent feature, the setation pattern of legs 1 and 2 was similar in all the female specimens examined. In the light of this, we formally relegate L. gibbosus and L. sauridae to synonymy with L. temminckii. Another important similarity is that Lernanthropinus gibbosus, L. sauridae, and L. temminckii have exclusively been parasitic on lizardfishes (Synodontidae). The attachment site of all three copepods reported form Iraq were the gill filaments.

  17. DNA Barcoding of Metazoan Zooplankton Copepods from South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Shi Hyun; Kim, Sang Ki; Lee, Jin Hee; Lim, Young Jin; Lee, Jimin; Jun, Jumin; Kwak, Myounghai; Lee, Young-Sup; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Venmathi Maran, Balu Alagar; Chang, Cheon Young; Kim, Il-Hoi; Hwang, Ui Wook

    2016-01-01

    Copepods, small aquatic crustaceans, are the most abundant metazoan zooplankton and outnumber every other group of multicellular animals on earth. In spite of ecological and biological importance in aquatic environment, their morphological plasticity, originated from their various lifestyles and their incomparable capacity to adapt to a variety of environments, has made the identification of species challenging, even for expert taxonomists. Molecular approaches to species identification have allowed rapid detection, discrimination, and identification of cryptic or sibling species based on DNA sequence data. We examined sequence variation of a partial mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase I gene (COI) from 133 copepod individuals collected from the Korean Peninsula, in order to identify and discriminate 94 copepod species covering six copepod orders of Calanoida, Cyclopoida, Harpacticoida, Monstrilloida, Poecilostomatoida and Siphonostomatoida. The results showed that there exists a clear gap with ca. 20 fold difference between the averages of within-specific sequence divergence (2.42%) and that of between-specific sequence divergence (42.79%) in COI, suggesting the plausible utility of this gene in delimitating copepod species. The results showed, with the COI barcoding data among 94 copepod species, that a copepod species could be distinguished from the others very clearly, only with four exceptions as followings: Mesocyclops dissimilis–Mesocyclops pehpeiensis (0.26% K2P distance in percent) and Oithona davisae–Oithona similis (1.1%) in Cyclopoida, Ostrincola japonica–Pseudomyicola spinosus (1.5%) in Poecilostomatoida, and Hatschekia japonica–Caligus quadratus (5.2%) in Siphonostomatoida. Thus, it strongly indicated that COI may be a useful tool in identifying various copepod species and make an initial progress toward the construction of a comprehensive DNA barcode database for copepods inhabiting the Korean Peninsula. PMID:27383475

  18. Morphometric, molecular and ecological analyses of the parasites of the sharpsnout seabream Diplodus puntazzo Cetti (Sparidae) from the Spanish Mediterranean: implications for aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-García, N; Ahuir-Baraja, A E; Raga, J A; Montero, F E

    2015-03-01

    One of the fish species with the highest potential for aquaculture is the sharpsnout seabream, Diplodus puntazzo Cetti. Among other aspects, the development of new fish cultures requires studies of potential pathogens that may compromise survival of the fish in captivity. Moreover, both cultured and wild fish can act as sources or reservoirs of pathogens which may negatively affect other well-established cultures. We have studied the parasite fauna of the wild sharpsnout seabream, and monitored the survival of the parasites in culture conditions. The sharpsnout seabream was sampled from two different Spanish localities and examined for parasites. Additionally, 20 fish were maintained in captivity. Ten of them were examined for parasites after a period of 10 days and a further ten fish after another 10 days. All fish were parasitized with at least four species, with 19 parasite species being identified, seven of which were recorded for the first time in the sharpsnout seabream. These included Microcotyle sp., Magnibursatus bartolii, Steringotrema pagelli, Galactosomum sp., Cardiocephaloides longicollis, Caligus ligusticus and Gnathia vorax. We also report the first records of two parasite species in the wild sharpsnout seabream, the polyopisthocotylean monogeneans Atrispinum seminalis and Sparicotyle chrysophrii. Previously, these parasites had only been recorded in farmed sharpsnout seabream. Most parasites in the skin, gills and alimentary tract disappeared under the conditions of captivity, with the exception of the monogeneans of the genus Lamellodiscus. The information provided about the sharpsnout seabream parasite fauna will be useful to prevent possible problems in fish farms due to some parasite species. Many parasites of the sharpsnout seabream recorded in the present study are shared by the main fish species in Mediterranean aquaculture, the gilthead seabream, thus suggesting the possibility of cross-infections.

  19. Consumption of drugs for sea lice infestations in Norwegian fish farms: methods for assessment of treatment patterns and treatment rate.

    PubMed

    Grave, K; Horsberg, T E; Lunestad, B T; Litleskare, I

    2004-08-09

    Sea lice are a major problem in Norwegian fish farms; however, data on drug treatment patterns or treatment rates of sea lice infestations are not available. Such data are important for analysing resistance patterns against drugs used for such infestations. The main objective of the present study was to develop a method to estimate the treatment patterns and treatment rates for drugs used in the treatment against sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus) in farm salmonids by means of national sales statistics. Annual sales figures, as weight of active substances, were obtained from the drug wholesalers and the feed mills. The weight of active drug substances is not useful as a unit of measurement of drug use in an epidemiological context because it does not correct for dosage differences and number of repeat treatments. To correct for these factors, we introduced approved daily dose (ADD(farm fish)) and treatment course-doses(farm fish) kg(-1) live-weight fish. To express the drug treatment patterns, the biomass (in weight) of farm salmonids treated with 1 course of a drug were estimated. When measured as kg active substance, the quantities of drugs for the treatment of sea lice infestations declined by 98% during the study period (1989 to 2002) but this figure increased 5-fold when it was corrected for differences in dosage. To correct for amounts of farm salmonids liable to require treatment we estimated the annual treatment rate, defined as the number of treatments for sea lice infestations per biomass slaughtered Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The annual treatment rate increased gradually during the study period; however, it varied considerably (range 0.45 to 1.34, mean 0.90). Before 1995, organophosphates were the most frequently used drugs against sea lice; since then pyrethroids have become the dominating drug group.

  20. Population dynamics of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and its impact on the zooplankton in the coastal regions of the Black Sea of the Crimean coast in 2004-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finenko, G. A.; Abolmasova, G. I.; Romanova, Z. A.; Datsyk, N. A.; Anninskii, B. E.

    2013-02-01

    The abundance, biomasses, and population structure of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi were monitored in the coastal waters of the northern part of the Black Sea (Sevastopol Bay and the adjacent continental shelf regions) in 2004-2008. The abundance and species composition of the comb jelly's food in the sea were obtained along with experimental data on the digestion time. Based upon these data, the feeding intensity of the ctenophore in situ was estimated. This information was used to calculate the predatory impact of the comb jelly population on certain groups of forage organisms and the forage zooplankton community as a whole. The predatory impact of the M. leidyi population on the bivalve veligers was the highest (up to 90% of the abundance a day) compared to the Copepoda and Cladocera (30% and 40%, respectively). In the summers of 2004-2008, the daily consumption rates of the zooplankton by the ctenophore population in the shelf zone and in the bay were similar to each other: up to 15% and 12% of the abundance a day, respectively. The highest pressure of the ctenophore upon the zooplankton was observed in 2004 and 2008, when M. leidyi was especially abundant in the plankton for a long time.

  1. Taxonomy, distribution and prevalence of parasites of tigerfish, Hydrocynus vittatus (Castelnau, 1861) in the Sanyati basin, Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mabika, Nyasha; Barson, Maxwell; Van Dyk, Cobus; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè

    2016-09-01

    Parasites of the tigerfish (Hydrocynus vittatus) were investigated in the period October 2014 to July 2015 in the Sanyati Basin, Lake Kariba. The fish were collected using seine netting and also during the annual Kariba International Tiger Fishing Tournament. A total of 80 fish specimens (24 males and 56 females) were collected and were infected with the following seven parasite taxa: Monogenea (Annulotrema sp.1 from the gills and Annulotrema sp.2 from the skin), Nematoda (Contracaecum larvae), Cestoda (bothriocephalid, larval cyclophyllid), Copepoda (Lamproglena hemprichii), pentastomid, Myxosporea (Myxobolus sp.,) and unicellular ciliate parasites (Trichodina sp., Tetrahymena sp., and unidentified). Annulotrema sp. 1 was observed in all fish and had the highest prevalence, mean intensity and abundance. The fish organs infected were gills, skin, fin, body cavity, stomach, intestines, mesentery, liver, kidney, brain cavity and swim bladder. No parasites were observed in the muscle, eyes and blood. The distribution of the parasites was highest in the gills and lowest in the brain cavity and swimbladder. Bothriocephalids, pentastomes and Trichodina sp. were not observed in male fish. Sex was not related to the intensity of parasites. The results of the study showed that H. vittatus has a richer parasite community than other previous investigated alestids. Pentastomes, Myxobolus sp., Trichodina sp., Tetrahymena sp. and bothriocephalid cestodes are new records for H. vittatus in Zimbabwe.

  2. Comprehensive transcriptome study to develop molecular resources of the copepod Calanus sinicus for their potential ecological applications.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing; Sun, Fanyue; Yang, Zhi; Li, Hongjun

    2014-01-01

    Calanus sinicus Brodsky (Copepoda, Crustacea) is a dominant zooplanktonic species widely distributed in the margin seas of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. In this study, we utilized an RNA-Seq-based approach to develop molecular resources for C. sinicus. Adult samples were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. The sequencing data generated 69,751 contigs from 58.9 million filtered reads. The assembled contigs had an average length of 928.8 bp. Gene annotation allowed the identification of 43,417 unigene hits against the NCBI database. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway mapping analysis revealed various functional genes related to diverse biological functions and processes. Transcripts potentially involved in stress response and lipid metabolism were identified among these genes. Furthermore, 4,871 microsatellites and 110,137 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the C. sinicus transcriptome sequences. SNP validation by the melting temperature (T m )-shift method suggested that 16 primer pairs amplified target products and showed biallelic polymorphism among 30 individuals. The present work demonstrates the power of Illumina-based RNA-Seq for the rapid development of molecular resources in nonmodel species. The validated SNP set from our study is currently being utilized in an ongoing ecological analysis to support a future study of C. sinicus population genetics.

  3. The importance of uptake from food for the bioaccumulation of PCB and PBDE in the marine planktonic copepod Acartia clausi.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Kerstin; Tiselius, Peter

    2010-07-15

    The accumulation of (14)C-labelled PCB 31, PCB 101, PCB 153 and PBDE 99 was investigated at the two lowest trophic levels of the pelagic food web. Accumulation was measured in the small phytoplankter Thalassiosira weissflogii (Coscinodiscophyceae: Thalassiosirales) and in the neritic zooplankter Acartia clausi (Copepoda: Calanoida) exposed to the substance either only via water or through ingestion of contaminated T. weissflogii. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for all four compounds were significantly higher in A. clausi feeding on contaminated phytoplankton than in animals exposed only via water. The logBAF for the PCBs increased linearly with the octanol-water partitioning coefficients (logK(OW)) in both the algae and the copepods, but with steeper slopes for feeding than non-feeding animals. Reported values for K(OW) for PBDEs vary by almost an order of magnitude and it was therefore not meaningful to calculate a logBAF-logK(OW) ratio for PBDE 99. It is clear that the nutritional status of the zooplankton affects the uptake of the compounds and that the bioaccumulation cannot be modelled as a passive partitioning between the organisms and the surrounding water. Small copepods are typical of coastal waters and point sources (both temporal and spatial) may be the rule for HOC releases into the sea. Thus, the pathways shown in this study are important and realistic.

  4. Diurnal Changes of Zooplankton Community Reduction Rate at Lake Outlets and Related Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Czerniawski, Robert; Sługocki, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    The reduced zooplankton abundance at the outlet sections of lakes depends on the occurrence of preying fry. Therefore, light conditions can play a major role in the drift of zooplankton along river outlets. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of diurnal light conditions on the decline of zooplankton densities at lake outlets. Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) levels were measured to determine their effect on the rate of reduced zooplankton abundance. Cladocerans and copepods showed a significantly greater reduction in abundance than rotifers and nauplii. A significant positive relationship was observed between the PAR levels and the reduced abundance of Asplanchna sp., small cladocerans, large cladocerans and Copepoda at the lake outlets. Among the rotifers, small pelagic rotifers drifted the farthest at all hours of the day. Large crustaceans, especially the large cladocerans and copepodites and adult copepods, had the lowest chance of dispersing over a wide area. Our results indicate that light conditions play an important role in the reduction of zooplankton abundance at lake outlets and have an indirect influence on the downstream food web. PMID:27392017

  5. Evaluation of model predictions of the ecological effects of 4-nonylphenol -- before and after model refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Hanratty, M.P.; Liber, K.

    1994-12-31

    The Littoral Ecosystem Risk Assessment Model (LERAM) is a bioenergetic ecosystem effects model. It links single species toxicity data to a bioenergetic model of the trophic structure of an ecosystem in order to simulate community and ecosystem level effects of chemical stressors. LERAM was used in 1992 to simulate the ecological effects of diflubenzuron. When compared to the results from a littoral enclosure study, the model exaggerated the cascading of effects through the trophic levels of the littoral ecosystem. It was hypothesized that this could be corrected by making minor changes in the representation of the littoral food web. Two refinements of the model were therefore performed: (1) the plankton and macroinvertebrate model populations [eg., predatory Copepoda, herbivorous Insecta, green phytoplankton, etc.] were changed to better represent the habitat and feeding preferences of the endemic taxa; and (2) the method for modeling the microbial degradation of detritus (and the resulting nutrient remineralization) was changed from simulating bacterial populations to simulating bacterial function. Model predictions of the ecological effects of 4-nonylphenol were made before and after these refinements. Both sets of predictions were then compared to the results from a littoral enclosure study of the ecological effects of 4-nonylphenol. The changes in the LERAM predictions were then used to determine the success of the refinements, to guide. future research, and to further define LERAM`s domain of application.

  6. Determining Microeukaryotic Plankton Community around Xiamen Island, Southeast China, Using Illumina MiSeq and PCR-DGGE Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lingyu; Zhang, Wenjing; Liu, Lemian; Yang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Microeukaryotic plankton are important components of aquatic environments and play key roles in marine microbial food webs; however, little is known about their genetic diversity in subtropical offshore areas. Here we examined the community composition and genetic diversity of the microeukaryotic plankton in Xiamen offshore water by PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis), clone-based sequencing and Illumina based sequencing. The Illumina MiSeq sequencing revealed a much (approximately two orders of magnitude) higher species richness of the microeukaryotic community than DGGE, but there were no significant difference in species richness and diversity among the northern, eastern, southern or western stations based on both methods. In this study, Copepoda, Ciliophora, Chlorophyta, Dinophyceae, Cryptophyta and Bacillariophyta (diatoms) were the dominant groups even though diatoms were not detected by DGGE. Our Illumina based results indicated that two northern communities (sites N2 and N3) were significantly different from others in having more protozoa and fewer diatoms. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that both temperature and salinity were the significant environmental factors influencing dominant species communities, whereas the full microeukaryotic community appeared to be affected by a complex of environmental factors. Our results suggested that extensive sampling combined with more deep sequencing are needed to obtain the complete diversity of the microeukaryotic community, and different diversity patterns for both abundant and rare taxa may be important in evaluating the marine ecosystem health. PMID:26020532

  7. Marine netpen farming leads to infections with some unusual parasites.

    PubMed

    Kent, M L

    2000-03-01

    Marine netpen farming of salmonid fishes is a rapidly growing industry in several countries. With this relatively recent industry, new or unusual infections by parasitic pathogens have been observed. This is due to different hosts being reared in new geographic areas, or by indigenous species being reared in a different environmental condition, i.e. the marine netpen. Examples of the former include Kudoa thyrsites (Myxozoa) and Hemobaphes disphaerocephalus (Copepoda) infections in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) reared in the Pacific Northwest, Ceratothoa gaudichaudii (Isopoda) infections in Atlantic salmon reared in Chile, Neoparamoeba (=Paramoeba) sp. (Sacromastigophora) from salmonids reared in Tasmania, and Stephanostomum tenue (Digenea) infections in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared in Atlantic Canada. Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) reared in its native region, the Pacific Northwest, provides some examples of unusual or more severe infections than those normally seen in wild or freshwater reared chinook salmon. These include infections by Loma salmonae (Microsporidia), Gilguina squali (Cestoda) and the rosette agent, an undescribed fungus-like organism related to choanoflagellates. As the industry continues to expand, it is certain that more novel host-parasite relationships will be observed, providing challenges for fish farmers and parasitologists.

  8. Experimental infection of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) with marine Eubothrium sp. (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea): observations on the life cycle, aspects of development and growth of the parasite.

    PubMed

    Saksvik, M; Nylund, A; Nilsen, F; Hodneland, K

    2001-01-01

    The life cycle of marine Eubothrium sp. (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea), from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) was experimentally completed in one year and included only one intermediate host (Acartia tonsa Dana) (Copepoda: Calanoida). Adult cestodes were collected from farmed salmon, and ripe eggs released by the cestodes were fed to Acartia tonsa. Ingested eggs hatched in the gut and the larvae developed in the haemocoel of the copepod for 15 days at 16 degrees C. A total of 170 seawater-reared salmon were exposed to infected copepods and the total prevalence of Eubothrium sp. in the salmon after infection was 95.3%, with a mean intensity of 15.0 (range 1-87). The infected salmon were kept in the laboratory where the growth of the cestodes was studied for eleven months. Mean length of the cestodes increased with time, but a large variation among the cestodes was observed. Growth and maturation of the cestodes were dependent on host size and the number of worms present in the intestine. No evidence of mortality of Eubothrium sp. was observed during the experimental period.

  9. Response of aquatic invertebrates to ecological rehabilitation of Southeastern USA depressional wetlands.

    SciTech Connect

    Batzer, Donald P.; Taylor, Barbera E.

    2015-07-02

    Abstract We assessed aquatic invertebrate response to ecological rehabilitation treatment in 20 depression wetlands on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA. All wetlands had been ditched for 50+ years. Sixteen of the 20 wetlands received rehabilitation treatment, and four wetlands remained untreated as a control group. Treatment included logging of all trees, plugging drainage ditches, and planting wetland trees and grasses. Hydroperiods were consequently extended in most of the treatment wetlands. As part a larger study, we sampled macroinvertebrates and microcrustaceans during the pre-habilitation (1998–2000) and rehabilitation (2001–2003) phases. Our study spanned 2 years of high rainfall (1998 and 2003) and 4 years of low rainfall (1999–2002). Samples were collected bimonthly from any wetlands holding water. Macroinvertebrate assemblages in treatment wetlands in 2003 had changed from previous years (1998–2002) and compared to control wetlands (1998–2003), with abundances of Baetidae, Coenagrionidae, Dytiscidae, Chironomidae, and Chaoboridae driving variation. For microcrustaceans (Copepoda and Branchiopoda, including Cladocera, Anostraca and Laevicaudata), assemblage composition and species richness responded mainly to hydrologic conditions. Rehabilitation efforts in these wetlands induced diverse and abundant invertebrate communities to develop, but some responses appeared opportunistic; several taxa that benefitted were not typical residents of depressional wetlands in the region.

  10. Plankton pulses in a temperate coastal embayment during the Winter-Spring transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elosegui, A.; Pozo, J.; Orive, E.

    1987-06-01

    Hydrographical parameters, phytoplankton productivity and plankton composition were determined over a five-month period in the Bay of Plencia, a coastal area located in the mouth of the river Butron in Biscay, Basque Country. The water column was moderately mixed during most of the study period, which lasted from February to June 1985. Nutrient levels showed high temporal variability and were affected by both river runoff and seasonal biological processes. Nutrients were present most of the time in relatively high concentrations and most of them decreased in late spring. Phytoplankton size structure analysis showed that nanoplankton had the higher chlorophyll content and was responsible for most of the primary production. The phytoplankton showed changes in community composition resulting from the normal progression of the winter-spring conditions. Short-lived peaks of diatom concentration in the spring were followed by periods of low abundance, when maxima of Cladocera and Appendicularia occurred. Total zooplankton showed two peaks of abundance in mid-winter and mid-spring, respectively. Nauplii of Copepoda, juvenile stages of Calanoida and nauplii of Cirripedia were responsible for the two peaks, together with highly seasonal groups (Cladocera, Appendicularia and Cnidaria) in the spring maxima. Primary production seems to be driven by physical processes (temperature, short photoperiod and storms) in winter, whereas depletion of nutrients and grazing by zooplankton are responsible for phytoplankton minima between peaks of abundance in the growing season. Two temporal phases were apparent when the data were analysed by a principal component analysis.

  11. Mobile epifauna on Zostera marina, and infauna of its inflorescences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellwig-Armonies, Monika

    1988-06-01

    The faunal colonization of the leaves and inflorescences of intertidal Zostera marina L. and of the ambient water has been studied at the Island of Sylt (North Sea). The abundance of the snail Littorina littorea L. and the isopod Jaera albifrons Leach correlates significantly with leaf surface area. This is not the case with the abundance of meiofaunal Plathelminthes, Nematoda, Copepoda, and Polychaeta. However, they increase significantly with the numbers of generative shoots in the sampled seagrass bunches. Members of these taxa inhabit the Zostera inflorescences, and average abundance increases with the degree of decay of inflorescences. This temporary microhabitat presumably offers food and shelter. Copepods and ostracods dominate in the ambient water. Planktonic calanoid copepods correlate with the amount of sampled seawater, while Ostracoda correlate with the amount of resuspended detritus suggesting that they were resuspended themselves. The study shows that some meiofaunal taxa can rapidly exploit a short-lived habitat such as the Zostera inflorescences. Juvenile polychaetes use inflorescences as a nursery.

  12. Free-living plathelminthes in sheep-grazed and ungrazed supralittoral salt marshes of the North Sea: Abundance, biomass, and their significance in food chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armonies, W.

    The supralittoral salt marshes of the North Sea are marked by high halophyte primary productivity. The environmental factors are strongly fluctuating. Despite these features the metazoan meiofaunal abundance is equal to that found in other littoral habitats. On average 1250 marine metazoans are found per 10 cm 2 in ungrazed and 770 per 10 cm 2 in sheep-grazed supralittoral salt marshes. Nematoda dominate in numerical abundance, Oligochaeta in biomass. Plathelminthes account for 15% of marine metazoans in ungrazed and 5% in grazed salt marshes. Total plathelminth abundance increases with halophyte density, whereas the abundance of diatom-feeding Plathelminthes decreases. In ungrazed marshes on average 104 Plathelminthes are found per 10 cm 2, accounting for a biomass of 0.65 g DW·m -2. In sheep-grazed marshes the average abundance is only 32 individuals per 10 cm 2, accounting for a biomass of 0.1 g DW·m -2. Average individual weight is 3.2 μg DW or 2.5 μg AFDW. In grazed salt marshes, 30% of plathelminthes feed on diatoms, 66% are predators, and 4% feed on bacteria (gut analysis). In ungrazed salt marshes only 3% are diatom-feeders, and 90% are predators feeding on Nematoda, Copepoda, Oligochaeta, and smaller Plathelminthes. Presumably plathelminthes are top predators on the salt marsh meiofauna.

  13. A qualitative assessment of the influence of bioturbation in Lake Baikal sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Patrick; Boes, Xavier; Goddeeris, Boudewijn; Fagel, Nathalie

    2005-04-01

    The impact of bioturbation in Lake Baikal sediments, particularly on rhythmic layering and mixing, was assessed by studying the actual vertical distribution of benthic animals in continuous accumulation zones selected by seismic survey (Vydrino Shoulder, Posolskoe Bank, Continent Ridge). To assess the influence of the bioturbation, animals were extracted from short cores and identified at the relevant taxonomic level. The faunal distribution is examined in parallel with the bioturbation tracks observed in thin section. Oligochaeta, Nematoda, Ostracoda, Copepoda, Gammaridae, Chironomidae and Hydrachnidia were found inhabiting the sediment. Among them, only oligochaete worms were assumed to have a significant impact on sediment mixing because of their "conveyor belt" feeding. The other two most abundantly sampled groups, nematods and copepods, belong to the interstitial fauna that has no significant impact on the vertical displacement of sediment particles and do not ingest the sediment. The presence of a benthic fauna as deep as 15 cm in the sediment indicates that the possibility of sediment disturbance by invertebrate activity cannot be dismissed in Lake Baikal. The effect of biological mixing is more limited in the deepest stations because the number of potential bioturbators is reduced, qualitatively as well as quantitatively. Located in the abyssal zone, Continent and Vydrino (but outside turbidites) deep stations appear to be most promising sediment records for tracking climate signal at high resolution.

  14. Biodiversity of meiofauna in the intertidal khe nhan mudflat, can gio mangrove forest, vietnam with special emphasis on free living nematodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuan, Quang Ngo; Vanreusel, Ann; Thanh, Nguyen Vu; Smol, Nic

    2007-09-01

    The ecological aspect of meiofaunal communities in Can Gio mangrove forest, Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam has not been investigated before. The composition, distribution, density and biodiversity of meiofaunal communities were studied along an intertidal transect at the Khe Nhan mudflat. Each time, three replicate samples were collected in four stations along a transect following the water line from low tide level up to the mangrove forest edge. In total, 18 meiofaunal taxa were found with the dominant taxa belonging to Nematoda, Copepoda, Sarcomastigophora and Polychaeta. The densities of meiofauna ranged from 1156 inds/10 cm2 to 2082 inds/10 cm2. The increase in densities from the mangrove forest edge towards the low water line was significant. Along the mudflat transect, the biodiversity (expressed by different indices) was relatively high at different taxonomic levels but did not vary significantly along the mudflat except for taxa richness. Eighty nematode genera belonging to 24 families with Comesomatidae having the highest abundance 33.8 % were found. Theristus and Neochromadora decreased in densities from the lower water line towards the mangrove forest edge, while Paracomesoma and Hopperia are typical and more abundant at the middle of the mudflat. Halalaimus increased from high on the mudflat to the low water line.

  15. Meiofauna associated with a Pacific coral reef in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, Héctor M.; Obando, Vilma L.; Cortés, Jorge

    1987-10-01

    The meiofauna of two coral reef habitats at Isla del Naño, Costa Rica was studied over a one year period. The dominant groups were: Foraminifera (21.2%), Copepoda (19.7%), Nematoda (19.1%), Gastropoda (16.5%), Polychaeta (7.2%) and Bivalvia (6.6%). The highest diversity was found in coarse, heterogeneous sands with the highest percentage of carbonates. The meiofauna showed a high degree of horizontal aggregation, which is a characteristic pattern for macro- and meiofauna in sediments of variable composition. No vertical variation in distribution was evident, probably due to the deep location of the Redox Potential Discontinuity layer. The total densities of organisms found in this study (99 to 575 ind/10 cm2) are low compared with densities in similar non-reefal sands (7 to 6116), and from fine sediments (80 to 17 000), but are comparable to densities found in other reef areas (39 to 609.5 ind/10 cm2). This is the first report on meiofauna from the eastern Pacific, and the first time that foraminiferans are the dominant group.

  16. Seasonal variability of meiofauna, especially harpacticoid copepods, in Posidonia oceanica macrophytodetritus accumulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascart, Thibaud; Lepoint, Gilles; Deschoemaeker, Silke; Binard, Marc; Remy, François; De Troch, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was (1) to assess the diversity and density of meiofauna taxa, especially harpacticoid copepod species, present within accumulated seagrass macrophytodetritus on unvegetated sand patches and (2) to elucidate the community structure of detritus-associated harpacticoid copepods in relation to natural temporal variability of physico-chemical characteristics of accumulations. This was investigated in a Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile seagrass ecosystem in the northwest Mediterranean Sea (Bay of Calvi, Corsica, 42°35‧N, 8°43‧E) using a triplicate macrophytodetritus core field sampling in two contrasting sites over the four seasons of 2011. Meiofauna higher taxa consisted of 50% Copepoda, of which 87% belonged to the Harpacticoida order. Nematoda was the second most abundant taxa. The copepod community displayed a wide variety of morphologically similar and ecologically different species (i.e. mesopsammic, phytal, phytal-swimmers, planktonic and parasitic). The harpacticoid copepod community followed a strong seasonal pattern with highest abundances and species diversity in May-August, revealing a link with the leaf litter epiphyte primary production cycle. Aside from the important role in sheltering, housing and feeding potential of macrophytodetritus, a harpacticoid community BEST analysis demonstrated a positive correlation with habitat complexity and a negative correlation with water movements and P. oceanica leaf litter accumulation.

  17. Response of microcrustacean communities from the surface-groundwater interface to water contamination in urban river system of the Jarama basin (central Spain).

    PubMed

    Iepure, Sanda; Martinez-Hernandez, Virtudes; Herrera, Sonia; Rasines-Ladero, Ruben; de Bustamante, Irene

    2013-08-01

    In order to evaluate the water quality at the surface/groundwater interface (hyporheic zone), the pattern of microcrustacean assemblages in response to environmental stress caused by urban industrial contamination was studied in the Jarama River basin (central Spain) during high water discharges (March and April 2011). The clustering of biological variables and the concentration of urban contaminants in hyporheic waters showed that pristine hyporheic waters have moderate species diversity (two to seven species) and dominance of k strategist stygobites, whereas excessively contaminated sites are devoid by crustaceans. An intermediate level of disturbance in hyporheic waters is associated with a peak of species taxonomic diversity (four to nine species) and proliferation of r strategist more tolerant species. Typical species found in hyporheic zone, e.g., Paracyclops imminutus (Copepoda, Cyclopoida), Cryptocandona vavrai (Ostracoda) and Herpetocypris chevreuxi (Ostracoda), were good indicators of high concentrations of Cr, Mn, Ni, Cd, Pb and VOCs; whereas the stygobites do not show any significant correlation. The effectiveness of hyporheic crustaceans as efficient bioindicators for assessing the current ecological status of river ecosystems is emphasised.

  18. White spot syndrome virus epizootic in cultured Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Cheng, L; Lin, W-H; Wang, P-C; Tsai, M-A; Hsu, J-P; Chen, S-C

    2013-12-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused significant losses in shrimp farms worldwide. Between 2004 and 2006, Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) were collected from 220 farms in Taiwan to determine the prevalence and impact of WSSV infection on the shrimp farm industry. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis detected WSSV in shrimp from 26% of farms. Juvenile shrimp farms had the highest infection levels (38%; 19/50 farms) and brooder shrimp farms had the lowest (5%; one of 20 farms). The average extent of infection at each farm was as follows for WSSV-positive farms: post-larvae farms, 71%; juvenile farms, 61%; subadult farms, 62%; adult farms, 49%; and brooder farms, 40%. Characteristic white spots, hypertrophied nuclei and basophilic viral inclusion bodies were found in the epithelia of gills and tail fans, appendages, cephalothorax and hepatopancreas, and virions of WSSV were observed. Of shrimp that had WSSV lesions, 100% had lesions on the cephalothorax, 96% in gills and tail fans, 91% on appendages and 17% in the hepatopancreas. WSSV was also detected in copepoda and crustaceans from the shrimp farms. Sequence comparison using the pms146 gene fragment of WSSV showed that isolates from the farms had 99.7-100% nucleotide sequence identity with four strains in the GenBank database--China (AF332093), Taiwan (AF440570 and U50923) and Thailand (AF369029). This is the first broad study of WSSV infection in L. vannamei in Taiwan.

  19. Food of forage fishes in western Lake Erie, 1975-76

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muth, Kenneth M.; Busch, Wolf-Dieter N.

    1989-01-01

    In western Lake Erie in the summer and fall of 1975–1976, food eaten by seven forage fishes—emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides), spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius), trout-perch (Percopsis omiscomaycus), andyoung-of-the-year (YOY) of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), white bass (Morone chrysops), and freshwater drum (Aplodi-notus grunniens)—was divided among six major taxa: Cladocera, Copepoda, Diptera, Ostracoda, Amphipoda, and Algae. In addition, fish were eaten by YOY white bass, and Rotifera were consumed by YOY gizzard shad. Interspecies diet overlap indices, calculated to compare the food of the different species and to evaluate diet similarities, were usually highest for YOY white bass and YOY freshwater drum when compared with the other species and usually lowest between emerald shiners and all other forage fishes. Understanding the feeding interactions among fishes that could influence production at the forage-food level of the food web could provide insight into how cascading trophic interactions influence the production of piscivorous predators.

  20. The influence of water-level fluctuation on the drift of Simulium chutteri Lewis, 1965 (Diptera, Nematocera) in the Orange River, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Car, M

    1983-09-01

    In July 1982, the invertebrate drift at Marksdrift comprised 98, 7% Simulium chutteri; 0, 75% Chironomidae; 0, 3% Ephemeroptera; 0, 15% Copepoda, and 0, 1% Trichoptera. Simuliid eggs were found in only 6 out of 75 samples. A single water-level reduction of 57 cm (54%) resulted in a more than sixfold increase of S. chutteri larvae in the drift and a more than 50% decrease of 1st and 2nd instar larvae in the drift after the water had returned to its original level. Larvae found lying in pools after the water-level had dropped belonged mainly to instars 5-7, 70% of them showing symptoms of starvation after 3 days when the river had risen again. The drift of simuliid head capsules decreased when the larval drift increased, as fewer simuliid larvae moulted when they had been disturbed. The low drift of eggs and the presence of very few pupae and adults indicated that most of the S. chutteri population was in the larval stage and that July was therefore an ideal month for water-level manipulation. Its main effect was achieved by irritating larger larvae and thus preventing them from resettling.

  1. Effects of 4-nonylphenol on the biota in a littoral pond ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Liber, K.; Schmude, K.; O`Halloran, S.; Corry, T.; Gangl, J.; Stay, F.

    1994-12-31

    National water quality criteria for 4-nonylphenol, a surfactant precursor and metabolite, are currently being developed by the US EPA. Preliminary data from laboratory tests indicate that the criterion maximum concentration may be as low as 3--10 {mu}g/L; field data on biological effects are rare. The study presented here was designed to assess the effects of 4-nonylphenol on a natural aquatic community using a set of 18 littoral enclosures (average volume 33 m{sup 3}). The common occurrence of 4-nonylphenol in municipal and industrial discharges dictated the use of a ``chronic`` exposure scenario for this study. Test concentrations ranged from 3 to 300 {mu}g/L, with applications every 48 hours for a 20 day period. This ensured a 21-day ``chronic`` exposure period and allowed sediment concentration of 4-nonylphenol to steadily increase. Survival of juvenile bluegill sunfish was reduced at 300 {mu}g/L, but not at 100, {mu}g/L; no effects on growth were noted over the 68-day assessment period. Abundance of Cladocera and Copepoda were also reduced at 300 {mu}g/L, with recovery observed within 2--4 weeks after the last nonylphenol application. Benthic macroinvertebrates, including Chironomidae, Oligochaeta, and Mollusca, were affected at 100--300 {mu}g/L, with impacts persisting for several months. The slow recovery of benthic macroinvertebrates was partially attributed to their prolonged exposure to sediment associated nonylphenol residues.

  2. Food of young-of-the-year lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Presque Isle Harbor, Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swedberg, Donald V.; Peck, James W.

    1984-01-01

    The food habits of young lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were studied by examining the digestive tracts of 293 young-of-the-year collected in Presque Isle Harbor, Lake Superior. Lake trout in the 25 to 27-mm length range started to eat food organisms before all of their yolk material was absorbed. Organisms consumed by the 25 to 27-mm young-of-the-year included Chironomidae, Copepoda (Harpacticoida, Calanoida, Cyclopoida), and Cladocerea (Daphnia spp., Bosmina sp., Chydorus sp.). Chironomid pupae and chironomid larvae accounted for 74% and 5%, respectively, of the total volume of food eaten by the young lake trout in Presque Isle Harbor. Although copepods, cladocerans, and mysids were present in many stomachs, their contribution to the total volume of food was only 15%. Some lake trout in the 32 to 54-mm length range had consumed fry of sculpin (Cottus spp.) or rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), but the overall contribution of fish fry to the total volume of food was only 4% (frequency of occurrence, 10%). The lake trout in Presque Isle Harbor fed heavily on planktonic organisms, sparingly on benthic organisms, and were opportunistic feeders that appeared to prey on whatever forage organisms were available in the shallow nearshore waters.

  3. UV radiation and freshwater zooplankton: damage, protection and recovery.

    PubMed

    Rautio, Milla; Tartarotti, Barbara

    2010-12-01

    While many laboratory and field studies show that zooplankton are negatively affected when exposed to high intensities of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), most studies also indicate that zooplankton are well adapted to cope with large variations in their UVR exposure in the pelagic zone of lakes. The response mechanisms of zooplankton are diverse and efficient and may explain the success and richness of freshwater zooplankton in optically variable waters. While no single behavioural or physiological protection mechanism seems to be superior, and while several unexplained and contradictory patterns exist in zooplankton UVR ecology, recent increases in our understanding are consistent with UVR playing an important role for zooplankton. This review examines the variability in freshwater zooplankton responses to UVR, with a focus on crustacean zooplankton (Cladocera and Copepoda). We present an overview of UVR-induced damages, and the protection and recovery mechanisms freshwater zooplankton use when exposed to UVR. We review the current knowledge of UVR impact on freshwater zooplankton at species and community levels, and discuss briefly how global change over the last three decades has influenced the UVR milieu in lakes.

  4. Effects of habitat structure on the epifaunal community in Mussismilia corals: does coral morphology influence the richness and abundance of associated crustacean fauna?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, Marcos M.; Neves, Elizabeth; Johnsson, Rodrigo

    2015-06-01

    Coral habitat structures increase abundance and richness of organisms by providing niches, easy access to resources and refuge from predators. Corals harbor a great variety of animals; the variation in coral species morphology contributes to the heterogeneity and complexity of habitat types. In this report, we studied the richness and abundance of crustaceans (Decapoda, Copepoda, Peracarida and Ostracoda) associated with three species of Mussismilia exhibiting different growth morphologies, in two different coral reefs of the Bahia state (Caramuanas and Boipeba-Moreré, Brazil). Mussismilia hispida is a massive coral; M. braziliensis also has a massive growth pattern, but forms a crevice in the basal area of the corallum; M. harttii has a meandroid pattern. PERMANOVA analysis suggests significant differences in associated fauna richness among Mussismilia species, with higher values for M. harttii, followed by M. braziliensis and later by M. hispida. The same trend was observed for density, except that the comparison of M. braziliensis and M. hispida did not show differences. Redundancy and canonical correspondence analysis indicated that almost all of the crustacean species were more associated with the M. harttii colonies that formed a group clearly separated from colonies of M. braziliensis and M. hispida. We also found that the internal volume of interpolyp space, only present in M. harttii, was the most important factor influencing richness and abundance of all analyzed orders of crustaceans.

  5. Higher-level crustacean phylogeny: consensus and conflicting hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Jenner, Ronald A

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of current hypotheses of higher-level crustacean phylogeny in order to assist and help focus further research. It concentrates on hypotheses proposed or debated in the recent literature based on morphological, molecular and combined evidence phylogenetic analyses. It can be concluded that crustacean phylogeny remains essentially unresolved. Conflict is rife, irrespective of whether one compares different morphological studies, molecular studies, or both. Using the number of recently proposed alternative sister group hypotheses for each of the major tetraconatan taxa as a rough estimate of phylogenetic uncertainty, it can be concluded that the phylogenetic position of Malacostraca remains the most problematic, closely followed by Branchiopoda, Cephalocarida, Remipedia, Ostracoda, Branchiura, Copepoda and Hexapoda. Future progress will depend upon a broader taxon sampling in molecular analyses, and the further exploration of new molecular phylogenetic markers. However, the need for continued revision and expansion of morphological datasets remains undiminished given the conspicuous lack of agreement between molecules and morphology for positioning several taxa. In view of the unparalleled morphological diversity of Crustacea, and the likely nesting of Hexapoda somewhere within Crustacea, working out a detailed phylogeny of Tetraconata is a crucial step towards understanding arthropod body plan evolution.

  6. Relation between physico-chemical limnology and crustacean community in Wular Lake of Kashmir Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Shah, Javaid Ahmad; Pandit, Ashok K

    2013-10-01

    The present study scrutinizes the seasonal variation in the distribution of crustacean zooplankton in relation to physico-chemical liminology of Wular lake. Water samples were collected from five study sites during September 2010-August 2011. Remarkable spatial and temporal variations were observed among the different study sites. Among the parameters recorded water temperature showed positive correlation with pH (p<0.01) and orthophosphate (p<0.05).Transparency showed a significant negative correlation with total alkalinity (p<0.01), free carbon dioxide (p<0.01) and ammonical nitrogen (p<0.01). Crustacean zooplankton were collected by filtering 100 L lake water through a 30 microm nytal mesh and preserved in 4% formalin. A total of 42 taxa of crustacean were recorded, among them 23 species belonged to Cladocera, 16 to Copepoda and only 3 to Ostracoda. Species diversity and density depicted an abrupt up surge on the advent of warmer period (extending from March). Among the various sites a maximum of 40 species were recorded from a single biotope (site III) against the minimum of only 17 species being recorded from site I. Bray-Curtis cluster analysis showed close similarity (0.928-0.944%) between summer and autumn in terms of species diversity. Pearson correlation coefficient of the various physico-chemical parameters of water with crustacean zooplankton depicted that not only a single but multiple factors govern over the distribution and diversity of crustacean in the lake.

  7. The early development of the onychopod cladoceran Bythotrephes longimanus (Crustacea, Branchiopoda)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Within arthropods, several crustacean groups are unique in their early development due to their stereotyped cell division patterns and cell lineages. However, it is still unclear whether these cell division patterns are homologous between the various crustacean groups and whether they could indicate the ground pattern of Tetraconata (Crustacea and Hexapoda). In this study we describe the early development of the raptorial water flea Bythotrephes longimanus as a representative of the Cladocera within branchiopods. Results In B. longimanus the early cell lineage and the cell division pattern are stereotyped up to the fifth cell division cycle. As a morphological marker a nurse cell remnant (ncr) identifies the cell lineage of the smallest and division delayed blastomere up to the 16-cell stage. This marker might be indicative of the germ line. By combining histology, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and 4D microscopy, we reconstruct the early cell lineage and cell division pattern and follow transient formations of cell morphological structures in their temporal and spatial behavior up to gastrulation. Conclusions Correspondences to the early cleavage pattern of other Cladocera suggest that the described pattern can be assumed to be ancestral for either the entire Cladocera or for the majority of the Cladocera comprising Anomopoda, Ctenopoda and Onychopoda. The comparison to the cell division patterns of other crustacean groups such as Malacostraca, Ostracoda, and Copepoda reveals similarities that allow for a discussion of a common pattern for the crustacean groups and a ground pattern for the Tetraconata. PMID:24507018

  8. Determining Microeukaryotic Plankton Community around Xiamen Island, Southeast China, Using Illumina MiSeq and PCR-DGGE Techniques.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lingyu; Zhang, Wenjing; Liu, Lemian; Yang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Microeukaryotic plankton are important components of aquatic environments and play key roles in marine microbial food webs; however, little is known about their genetic diversity in subtropical offshore areas. Here we examined the community composition and genetic diversity of the microeukaryotic plankton in Xiamen offshore water by PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis), clone-based sequencing and Illumina based sequencing. The Illumina MiSeq sequencing revealed a much (approximately two orders of magnitude) higher species richness of the microeukaryotic community than DGGE, but there were no significant difference in species richness and diversity among the northern, eastern, southern or western stations based on both methods. In this study, Copepoda, Ciliophora, Chlorophyta, Dinophyceae, Cryptophyta and Bacillariophyta (diatoms) were the dominant groups even though diatoms were not detected by DGGE. Our Illumina based results indicated that two northern communities (sites N2 and N3) were significantly different from others in having more protozoa and fewer diatoms. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that both temperature and salinity were the significant environmental factors influencing dominant species communities, whereas the full microeukaryotic community appeared to be affected by a complex of environmental factors. Our results suggested that extensive sampling combined with more deep sequencing are needed to obtain the complete diversity of the microeukaryotic community, and different diversity patterns for both abundant and rare taxa may be important in evaluating the marine ecosystem health.

  9. Copepod reproductive strategies: life-history theory, phylogenetic pattern and invasion of inland waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hairston, Nelson G.; Bohonak, Andrew J.

    1998-06-01

    Life-history theory predicts that different reproductive strategies should evolve in environments that differ in resource availability, mortality, seasonality, and in spatial or temporal variation. Within a population, the predicted optimal strategy is driven by tradeoffs that are mediated by the environment in which the organisms live. At the same time, phylogenetic history may circumscribe natural selection by dictating the range of phenotypes upon which selection can act, or by limiting the range of environments encountered. Comparisons of life-history patterns in related organisms provide a powerful tool for understanding both the nature of selection on life-history characters and the diversity of life-history patterns observed in nature. Here, we explore reproductive strategies of the Copepoda, a well defined group with many phylogenetically independent transitions from free-living to parasitic life styles, from marine to inland waters, and from active development to diapause. Most species are iteroparous annuals, and most (with the exception of some parasitic taxa) develop through a relatively restricted range of life-history stages (nauplii and copepodids, or some modification thereof). Within these bounds, we suggest that there may be a causal relationship between the success of numerous copepod taxa in inland waters and the prevalence of either diapause or parasitism within these groups. We hypothesize that inland waters are more variable spatially and temporally than marine habitats, and accordingly, we interpret diapause and parasitism as mechanisms for coping with environmental variance.

  10. Meiobenthos assemblages in the mekong estuarine system with special focus on free-living marine nematodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quang, Ngo Xuan; Vanreusel, Ann; Smol, Nic; Chau, Nguyen Ngoc

    2010-12-01

    Meiobenthos assemblages in eight estuaries of the Mekong river system were investigated in August 2008 (from the Cua Tieu estuary to the Tran De estuary). In each estuary, one sampling station was established for meiobenthos sampling. Twelve major taxa of meiobenthos were recorded in this estuarine system, including Nematoda, Copepoda, Turbellaria, Polychaeta, Oligochaeta, Tardigrada, Bivalvia, Ostracoda, Amphipoda, Cumacea, Gastrotricha, Gastropoda, and Crustacean Nauplii larvae. The densities of the meiobenthos range from 581 to 3168 inds/10 cm2. Nematodes always occupy the highest numbers with a percentage ranging from 64-99%. There are 135 nematode genera recorded in this study with the following as dominant genera Desmodora, Leptolaimus, Halalaimus, Thalassomonhystera, Theristus, Daptonema, Rhynchonema, Parodontophora, and Oncholaimus. Although the biodiversity of the meiobenthos at higher taxa level is not high compared to other marine environments, the estimates of nematode biodiversity at the genus level indicates high values. The increase in number of genera with increasing sampling intensity illustrate that the diversity is underestimated and would have been higher if the authors had considered a larger number of individuals, more replicates per station, and more sampling stations.

  11. Zooplankton abundance, biovolume and size spectra at western boundary currents in the subtropical North Pacific during winter 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Luping; Li, Chaolun; Yang, Guang; Sun, Xiaoxia

    2016-03-01

    Horizontal changes in mesozooplankton abundance, biovolume and size spectra at western boundary currents in the subtropical North Pacific during winter 2012 were evaluated by ZooScan measurement on samples collected by net towing from 23 stations. Zooplankton abundance and biovolume ranged from 35.1 to 456.8 ind. m- 3 and 4.3 to 231.7 mm3 m- 3, respectively. Copepoda were the most dominant species, followed by Chaetognatha and Tunicata. According to the Bray-Curtis cluster analysis based on biovolume of zooplankton size classes of each taxonomic group at intervals of 1 (log2 mm3 ind.- 1) between - 6 and 12 and considering the effect of regional factors, zooplankton communities were classified into four groups, which basically coincided with the geographical patterns of different currents: the North Equatorial Current (NEC), the North Equatorial Counter Current (NECC), the Kuroshio Current (KC), and the Mindanao Eddy (ME), respectively. The largest and lowest biovolumes were observed in the NECC region and the NEC region, respectively, and both were dominated by the 0.3 to 1 mm equivalent spherical diameter (ESD) size class, while the ME region was dominant by the 1 to 2 mm ESD size class. The slopes of the normalized biovolume size spectra for each group were slightly lower than - 1 (range from - 0.85 to - 0.92), which indicates that zooplankton communities in the study area were characterized by low productivity and high energy transfer efficiency.

  12. Norwegian deep-water coral reefs: cultivation and molecular analysis of planktonic microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Sigmund; Lynch, Michael D J; Ray, Jessica L; Neufeld, Josh D; Hovland, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Deep-sea coral reefs do not receive sunlight and depend on plankton. Little is known about the plankton composition at such reefs, even though they constitute habitats for many invertebrates and fish. We investigated plankton communities from three reefs at 260-350 m depth at hydrocarbon fields off the mid-Norwegian coast using a combination of cultivation and small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene and transcript sequencing. Eight months incubations of a reef water sample with minimal medium, supplemented with carbon dioxide and gaseous alkanes at in situ-like conditions, enabled isolation of mostly Alphaproteobacteria (Sulfitobacter, Loktanella), Gammaproteobacteria (Colwellia) and Flavobacteria (Polaribacter). The relative abundance of isolates in the original sample ranged from ∼ 0.01% to 0.80%. Comparisons of bacterial SSU sequences from filtered plankton of reef and non-reef control samples indicated high abundance and metabolic activity of primarily Alphaproteobacteria (SAR11 Ia), Gammaproteobacteria (ARCTIC96BD-19), but also of Deltaproteobacteria (Nitrospina, SAR324). Eukaryote SSU sequences indicated metabolically active microalgae and animals, including codfish, at the reef sites. The plankton community composition varied between reefs and differed between DNA and RNA assessments. Over 5000 operational taxonomic units were detected, some indicators of reef sites (e.g. Flavobacteria, Cercozoa, Demospongiae) and some more active at reef sites (e.g. Gammaproteobacteria, Ciliophora, Copepoda).

  13. Temporal and spatial habitat preferences and biotic interactions between mosquito larvae and antagonistic crustaceans in the field.

    PubMed

    Kroeger, Iris; Liess, Matthias; Duquesne, Sabine

    2014-06-01

    Investigations on natural antagonists of mosquito larvae found that micro-crustaceans (e.g., Cladocera) control mosquito populations under experimental conditions. However, their relevance for mosquito control under field situations remains widely unclear because important information about habitat preferences and time of occurrence of crustaceans and mosquito larvae are still missing. In order to fill this knowledge gap, a field study was undertaken in different wetland areas of Saxony, Germany, in different habitats (i.e., grassland, forest, and reed-covered wetlands). We found negative interactions between larvae of Ae. vexans and predatory Cyclopoida (Crustacean: Copepoda), which both were dominant during the first two weeks of hydroperiod, at ponds located at grassland habitats. Larvae of Cx. pipiens were spatially associated with competing Cladocera, but they colonized ponds more rapidly. Populations of Cladocera established from the third week of hydroperiod and prevented Cx. pipiens colonization thereafter. Ostracoda were highly abundant during the whole hydroperiod, but their presence was restricted to habitats of reed-covered wetland at one geographical area. Mosquito larvae hardly occurred at those ponds. In general, we found that ponds at the reed-covered wetlands provided better conditions for the initial development of crustaceans and hence, mosquito larval colonization was strongly inhibited. Grassland habitat, in contrast, favored early development of mosquito larvae. This study showed that micro-crustaceans are relevant for mosquito management but their impact on mosquito larvae varies between species and depends on environmental conditions.

  14. Variability of invertebrate abundance in drinking water distribution systems in the Netherlands in relation to biostability and sediment volumes.

    PubMed

    van Lieverloo, J Hein M; Hoogenboezem, Wim; Veenendaal, Gerrit; van der Kooij, Dick

    2012-10-15

    A survey of invertebrates in drinking water from treatment works, internal taps and hydrants on mains was carried out by almost all water companies in the Netherlands from September 1993 to August 1995. Aquatic sow bugs (Asellidae, 1-12 mm) and oligochaeta worms (Oligochaeta, 1-100 mm), both known to have caused rare though embarrassing consumer complaints, were found to form 98% of the mean biomass in water flushed from mains. Their numbers in the mains water ranged up to 1500 (mean 37) Asellidae m(-3) and up to 9900 (mean 135) Oligochaeta m(-3). Smaller crustaceans (0.5-2 mm) dominated the numbers in water from mains. e.g. water fleas (Cladocera and Copepoda up to 14,000 m(-3)). Common invertebrates in treated water and in tap water were Rotifera (<1 mm) and nematode worms (Nematoda, <2 mm). No Asellidae, large Oligochaeta (>5 mm) or other large invertebrates were found in 1560 samples of 200 l treated water or tap water. Large variations in invertebrate abundance were found within and between distribution systems. Of the variability of mean biomass in mains per system, 55%, 60% and 63% could statistically be explained by differences in the Biofilm Formation Rate, non-particulate organic matter and the permanganate index of the treated water of the treatment works respectively. A similar correlation was found between mean invertebrate biomass and mean sediment volumes in the distribution systems (R(2) = 52%).

  15. Two new stygobiotic copepod species from the Tibesti area (Northern Chad) and a re-description of Pilocamptus schroederi (van Douwe, 1915).

    PubMed

    Brancelj, Anton

    2015-08-04

    Between 4th and 18th March 2014, an international group of biologists carried out a hydrobiological expedition to the Ounianga-Tibesti area of northern Chad (Africa). The Tibesti is a desert volcanic area, intersected by the beds of ancient rivers which were active in the Tertiary. In deep canyons there are small water bodies (gueltas/aguelmans), fed by rain and spring water. They are rich in zooplankton, benthos, and even fish, but their groundwater fauna has previously been unknown. Groundwater samples collected in the vicinity of one guelta contained Syncarida, Isopoda, and Copepoda. Among the latter, two new species were recognised, Haplocyclops (H.) henrii sp. nov. and Parastenocaris joi sp. nov., together with a third species, Pilocamptus schroederi (van Douwe, 1915), previously known only from the littoral zone and wet mosses of Lake Victoria. The Tibesti area is thus the third known location of P. schroederi. All these species have a Gondwanaland distribution and are probably relicts of the Tertiary fauna, formerly widespread in the Sahara. Together with descriptions of two new species, a detailed re-description of P. schroederi is presented, along with remarks on their ecology.

  16. Diet variability of forage fishes in the Northern California Current System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Andrew D.; Daly, Elizabeth A.; Brodeur, Richard D.

    2015-06-01

    As fisheries management shifts to an ecosystem-based approach, understanding energy pathways and trophic relationships in the Northern California Current (NCC) will become increasingly important for predictive modeling and understanding ecosystem response to changing ocean conditions. In the NCC, pelagic forage fishes are a critical link between seasonal and interannual variation in primary production and upper trophic groups. We compared diets among dominant forage fish (sardines, anchovies, herring, and smelts) in the NCC collected in May and June of 2011 and June 2012, and found high diet variability between and within species on seasonal and annual time scales, and also on decadal scales when compared to results of past studies conducted in the early 2000s. Copepoda were a large proportion by weight of several forage fish diets in 2011 and 2012, which differed from a preponderance of Euphausiidae found in previous studies, even though all years exhibited cool ocean conditions. We also examined diet overlap among these species and with co-occurring subyearling Chinook salmon and found that surf smelt diets overlapped more with subyearling Chinook diets than any other forage fish. Herring and sardine diets overlapped the most with each other in our interdecadal comparisons and some prey items were common to all forage fish diets. Forage fish that show plasticity in diet may be more adapted to ocean conditions of low productivity or anomalous prey fields. These findings highlight the variable and not well-understood connections between ocean conditions and energy pathways within the NCC.

  17. Lunar influence on prey availability, diet shifts and niche overlap between Engraulidae larvae in tropical mangrove creeks.

    PubMed

    Lima, A R A; Barletta, M

    2016-10-01

    The influence of the lunar cycle on prey availability, diet shifts and overlap between larval Anchovia clupeoides and Cetengraulis edentulus was evaluated in mangrove creeks of the Goiana Estuary. Copepod eggs were highly abundant in the first and last quarter, at the full moon and zoea of Ucides cordatus (Ocypodidae) in the new moon. The Engraulidae larvae fed on microcrustaceans, algae and early planktonic stages of benthic organisms. The relative importance of prey varied according to prey availability in all moon phases. Larval diets were more even in the full and new moons, when the relative importance of calanoid copepods and zoeae of U. cordatus as food items increased (index of relative importance, >80% IRI ). Mangrove creeks were very important feeding grounds for engraulid larvae during spring tides. Larval diets were more diverse in the first and last-quarter moon and included protozoeae of Caridean shrimp, larvae of Anomalocardia brasiliana (Veneridae), Isopoda, Gastropoda, ephippium of Daphnia sp. and nauplii of Cirripedia, Harpacticoidia and cyclopoid Copepoda. The last five items were not found in the creeks, suggesting feeding in the main channel. During neap tides, mangrove creeks were probably also used as refugia. These larvae are opportunistic and feed on highly available prey and both species feed on the same items, leading to high dietary overlap in all moon phases. The lunar cycle, which is related to the spring-neap tidal cycle, was the major driver of quantitative and qualitative changes in feeding of engraulid larvae on a short time scale.

  18. UV radiation and freshwater zooplankton: damage, protection and recovery

    PubMed Central

    Rautio, Milla; Tartarotti, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    While many laboratory and field studies show that zooplankton are negatively affected when exposed to high intensities of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), most studies also indicate that zooplankton are well adapted to cope with large variations in their UVR exposure in the pelagic zone of lakes. The response mechanisms of zooplankton are diverse and efficient and may explain the success and richness of freshwater zooplankton in optically variable waters. While no single behavioural or physiological protection mechanism seems to be superior, and while several unexplained and contradictory patterns exist in zooplankton UVR ecology, recent increases in our understanding are consistent with UVR playing an important role for zooplankton. This review examines the variability in freshwater zooplankton responses to UVR, with a focus on crustacean zooplankton (Cladocera and Copepoda). We present an overview of UVR-induced damages, and the protection and recovery mechanisms freshwater zooplankton use when exposed to UVR. We review the current knowledge of UVR impact on freshwater zooplankton at species and community levels, and discuss briefly how global change over the last three decades has influenced the UVR milieu in lakes. PMID:21516254

  19. The Abundance and Spatial Distribution of Soft Sediment Communities in Tanjung Bungah, Malaysia: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Darif, Nur Aqilah Muhamad; Samad, Nur Shakila Abdul; Salleh, Sazlina; Mohammad, Mahadi; Nordin, Noor Alia Ahmad; Javeed, Aysha Mariam Mohamed; Jonik, Michelle Glory G; Zainudin, Muhamad Hilal Mohd

    2016-01-01

    Benthic faunal communities are important components in the intertidal zones. The diversity and abundance of the benthic communities are subjected to different natural and anthropogenic disturbances. The study was conducted as one off sampling on 6th November 2013 (1) to investigate the abundance and distribution of soft sediment communities in relation to environmental variables and (2) investigate the changes of population structure and diversity using spatial scales of 1 m, 10 m, and 100 m. Results indicated a total of 110 individuals of macrobenthos consisting of 7 different groups (Annelida, Bivalvia, Crustacea, Gastropoda, Nematoda, Nemertea, Polychaeta) and 4 different groups of meiobenthos (Copepoda, Nematoda, Ostracoda, Polychaeta) consisting 920 individuals were recorded. Dissolved oxygen played the most significant role in affecting the distribution of soft sediment communities while ammonia concentrations only affected marcobenthic organisms. However, sediment grain size did not show significant correlation (p>0.05) on soft sediment communities. Hence, understanding how different properties of benthos respond to changes in environmental variables is crucial in determining how the impacts on the sediment are tolerated by the benthic organisms. PMID:27965743

  20. Sensitivity of hypogean and epigean freshwater copepods to agricultural pollutants.

    PubMed

    Di Lorenzo, T; Di Marzio, W D; Sáenz, M E; Baratti, M; Dedonno, A A; Iannucci, A; Cannicci, S; Messana, G; Galassi, D M P

    2014-03-01

    Widespread pollution from agriculture is one of the major causes of the poor freshwater quality currently observed across Europe. Several studies have addressed the direct impact of agricultural pollutants on freshwater biota by means of laboratory bioassays; however, as far as copepod crustaceans are concerned, the ecotoxicological research is scarce for freshwater species and almost nonexistent for the hypogean ones. In this study, we conducted a comparative analysis of the available literature data on the sensitivity of freshwater copepods to agricultural pollutants. We also assessed the acute and chronic sensitivity of a hypogean and an epigean species, both belonging to the Crustacea Copepoda Cyclopoida Cyclopidae, to two N-fertilizers (urea and ammonium nitrate) and two herbicides (ARIANE(TM) II from Dow AgroSciences LLC, and Imazamox), widely used for cereal agriculture in Europe. According to the literature review, freshwater copepods are sensitive to a range of pesticides and N-fertilizers. Ecotoxicological studies on hypogean species of copepods account only one study. There are no standardized protocols available for acute and chronic toxicity tests for freshwater copepods, making comparisons about sensitivity difficult. From our experiments, ionized ammonia proved to be more toxic than the herbicide Imazamox, in both short and chronic bioassays. Urea was the less toxic chemical for both species. The hypogean species was more sensitive than the epigean one to all chemicals. For both species and for all tested chemicals, acute lethality and chronic lethality were induced at concentrations higher than the law limits of good water body quality in Europe, except for ionized ammonia, which provoked the chronic lethality of the hypogean species at a lower concentration. The hazardous concentration (HC) of un-ionized ammonia for 5 % of freshwater copepods, obtained by a species sensitivity distribution, was 92 μg l(-1), significantly lower than the HC computed

  1. Ecological impact and environmental fate of perfluorooctane sulfonate on the zooplankton community in indoor microcosms.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Hans; Boudreau, Timothy M; Mabury, Scott A; Cheong, Woo-Jay; Solomon, Keith R

    2002-07-01

    There is presently a substantial amount of information being gathered concerning the environmental risk associated with the perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) compound. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) is requiring that more research be completed before making definitive decisions concerning the regulatory issues covered in the significant new use rule (18/10-2000) under the Toxic Substance Control Act. However, there are no risk assessment requirements under seminatural conditions in microcosms. The PFOS can enter, and has been found in, the aquatic environment through different pathways, including spills associated with use of fire-fighting foams containing PFOS, leaching from washing Scotchgard-treated clothes with the wastewater, leaching from various coatings, discharges as residual waste from fluorochemical production, or volatilization and transportation atmospherically. The biota is the sink of PFOS rather than the sediment or soil. The aim of this article is to determine a 35-d community no-observable-effect concentration (NOECcommunity) for freshwater zooplankton and the fate of PFOS during the course of study. The PFOS persisted in the water phase with only slight reductions over the study; only the decrease from 33.9 mg/L at day 1 to 29.8 mg/L at day 35 was significant. A 90 to 100% reduction (p < 0.01) of the total zooplankton population was found after one week of exposure to 30 mg PFOS/L and a similar reduction after two weeks at 10 mg PFOS/L. The Daphnia magna 21-d NOECsurvival of 12 mg/L has previously been found in a standard laboratory bioassay by 3M. The rank order of susceptibility for the test community was Copepoda > Cladocera > Rotifera, assuming all adverse direct effects.

  2. [The history of the exploration of the Diphyllobothrium latum life cycle].

    PubMed

    Guttowa, Alicja; Moskwa, Bozena

    2005-01-01

    Diphyllobothrium latum typically occur in the subarctic and temperature zones of the Eurasian Continent, however it is also observed in the Arctic Region and Australia. Raw fish meat and raw shell-fish containing plerocercoids is the main source of human infections. Humans are the principial final host of D. latum. Under primitive conditions human excrements with immature tapeworm eggs are deposited anywhere. After embrionic development which occurs in the water, the eggs are transformed into coracidia. Two intermediate hosts (cyclop and fish) are needed for further development. The free-swimming coracidium must enter the stomach of different species of Copepoda. After contact with the intestinal juice of the cyclop, the coracidium loses its ciliated envelope and the hooks become mobile. The metamorphosis of the oncosphere to the procercoid occurs. The discovery of the procercoid done by Janicki and Rosen in 1917 implied that the missing link in the cycle of the broad tapeworm had been found. The copepod including the procercoid is consumed by the second intermediate host. The larvae escape from the digestive tract of the fish and are transformed into a plerocercoid. The plerocercoids develop slowly in the fish, and they must reach a certain degree of maturity to be capable of infecting the final host. Today the life cycle of the tapeworm is well recognized and well illustrated in parasitological textbooks and websites. In this paper the history of the exploration of the D. latum life cycle is described. Additionally the main scientific researches carried out on life stages of the broad tapeworm have been reviewed.

  3. Feeding ecology of the early life-history stages of two dominant gobiid species in the headwaters of a warm-temperate estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasserman, Ryan J.

    2012-08-01

    The diet and population structure of larval and early juvenile Glossogobius callidus and Redigobius dewaali (Gobiidae) were examined from the headwater region of the permanently open Great Fish Estuary along the south-east coast of southern Africa. Stomach contents of five selected size classes were sorted and identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level for each goby species. Using % Index of Relative Importance values, ontogenic shifts and dietary breadth were determined for each species as was dietary overlap between species. Numerically, both gobiid species showed similar temporal and spatial trends. Seasonal differences in catches were evident, although no numerical differences across sampled sites were found. A large degree of dietary overlap was found between the two species. The zooplanktonic diet showed a greater degree of ontogenic shift in R. dewaali than G. callidus, although similar trends were found for both. In both goby species, Calanoid sp. (Copepoda) generally decreased in importance across size classes, being the most important in the smallest size class whilst Corophium sp. (Amphipoda) increased in importance across size classes, being the least important at the smallest size classes. For both G. callidus and R. dewaali, Insecta contributed significantly to at least one of the five size classes. The larger size classes showed the least dietary overlap and the highest niche breadth. In addition, as is the case in many gobiids worldwide, the larger size classes of both sampled gobiid species consumed a broader prey size range. In conclusion, dietary overlap was largely similar between the young gobiids, suggesting that either food resources are not limiting, or niche separation is attributed to differences in foraging strategies. Ontogenic dietary shifts were however present for both gobiids with regard to prey items and prey size, suggesting a greater degree of foraging niche separation in adults of the species.

  4. 'Direct PCR' optimization yields a rapid, cost-effective, nondestructive and efficient method for obtaining DNA barcodes without DNA extraction.

    PubMed

    Wong, Wing Hing; Tay, Ywee Chieh; Puniamoorthy, Jayanthi; Balke, Michael; Cranston, Peter S; Meier, Rudolf

    2014-11-01

    Macroinvertebrates that are collected in large numbers pose major problems in basic and applied biodiversity research: identification to species via morphology is often difficult, slow and/or expensive. DNA barcodes are an attractive alternative or complementary source of information. Unfortunately, obtaining DNA barcodes from specimens requires many steps and thus time and money. Here, we promote a short cut to DNA barcoding, that is, a nondestructive PCR method that skips DNA extraction ('direct PCR') and that can be used for a broad range of invertebrate taxa. We demonstrate how direct PCR can be optimized for the larvae and adults of nonbiting midges (Diptera: Chironomidae), a typical invertebrate group that is abundant, contains important bioindicator species, but is difficult to identify based on morphological features. After optimization, direct PCR yields high PCR success rates (>90%), preserves delicate morphological features (e.g. details of genitalia, and larval head capsules) while allowing for the recovery of genomic DNA. We also document that direct PCR can be successfully optimized for a wide range of other invertebrate taxa that need routine barcoding (flies: Culicidae, Drosophilidae, Dolichopodidae, Sepsidae; sea stars: Oreasteridae). Key for obtaining high PCR success rates is optimizing (i) tissue quantity, (ii) body part, (iii) primer pair and (iv) type of Taq polymerase. Unfortunately, not all invertebrates appear suitable because direct PCR has low success rates for other taxa that were tested (e.g. Coleoptera: Dytiscidae, Copepoda, Hymenoptera: Formicidae and Odonata). It appears that the technique is less successful for heavily sclerotized insects and/or those with many exocrine glands.

  5. Food and feeding habits of juvenile flounder Platichthys flesus (L.), abd turbot Scophthalmus maximus L. in the åland archipelago, northern Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aarnio, Katri; Bonsdorff, Erik; Rosenback, Nina

    1996-12-01

    The food choice of juvenile flounder ( Platichthys flesus) and turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus) was studied in the northern Baltic Sea during the years 1988, 1989, 1994 and 1995. The diet included organisms from 30 species/taxa in flounder (n = 306) and 10 species/taxa in turbot (n = 41). Flounder ⩽ 45 mm mainly consumed meiofauna (dominating taxon: Harpacticoida, Copepoda) and larger fish (46-101 mm) consumed macrofauna (dominating taxa: Oligochaeta, Amphipoda and Chironomidae). In terms of biomass, macrofauna dominated for all sizes of flounders, and meiofauna was important only for the smallest fish. A strong seasonal variation could be detected in the diet. In spring, macrofauna dominated for all size classes of fish (only fish > 30 mm were caught in spring), while in summer and autumn meiofauna dominated the diets for fish ⩽ 45 mm in size. Juvenile turbot (22-88 mm) consumed macrofauna and small fish. Turbot ⩽ 30 mm consumed mainly amphipods, while > 30 mm turbot consumed mysid shrimps, amphipods and fish. The ontogenetic shift from meio- to macrofauna-sized prey in flounders occurs at a larger fish size in the northern Baltic Sea than reported in other areas, possibly depending on the increased relative importance of meiofauna in the northern Baltic. The seasonal variation in the diet could be due to seasonally changing abundances in the zoobenthos, or for the small fish (1-group, spring), to switching from meio- to macrofauna in order to optimize their energy gain. The 0-group flounders consumed meiofauna for a long period, possibly due to a learning-process or simply due to easy availability of meiofauna. Turbot has a much larger mouth gap than flounders, thus allowing them to consume macrofauna from the beginning of their benthic life.

  6. Ecological impacts of fluridone and copper sulphate in catfish aquaculture ponds.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Annie P; Culver, David A; Lanno, Roman P; Voigt, Astrid

    2016-05-01

    Fluridone and copper sulphate are often used for controlling macrophytes and algae in aquaculture ponds. The present study examined the ecological effects of these chemicals on macrophyte, phytoplankton, and zooplankton biomass; plankton community structure; water quality parameters; and fish survival and yield in catfish culture ponds using a randomized complete block design. The estimated half-life of fluridone in the individual ponds ranged from 1.6 d to 10.8 d. Free copper ion activity in ponds treated with copper sulphate was dynamic, ranging from pCu of 7.7 to 8.9 after each application and decreasing to approximately 12 (1 × 10(-12)  M) within 1 wk after each application, approaching observed values in control ponds (pCu = 12.3-13.4). No difference in macrophyte biomass was observed among treatments. Fluridone and copper treatments elicited different responses within the phytoplankton community. Copper treatments reduced Cyanophyta biomass but increased biomass of more tolerant taxa among the Chlorophyta and Chrysophyta. Fluridone treatments reduced total phytoplankton biomass including Cyanophyta and increased the sensitivity of Chlorophyta and Chrysophyta to copper. Copper also affected zooplankton community composition as a result of direct toxic effects on sensitive zooplankton taxa (e.g., Cladocera), whereas Copepoda biomass in copper-treated ponds exceeded that in controls. Catfish survival and yield were not significantly different among treatments. The results of the present study suggest that fluridone and copper interact at realistic application rates, increasing the ability to control algae compared with treatments where they are applied alone.

  7. Fish parasites in the bathyal zone: The halosaur Halosauropsis macrochir (Günther, 1878) from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimpel, S.; Palm, H. W.; Busch, M. W.; Kellermanns, E.

    2008-01-01

    A total of 42 Halosauropsis macrochir from a single position on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) were collected for studies on parasites and feeding ecology. A total of 9 different parasite species were found, with most of them belonging to the Digenea (4 species) and Nematoda (3). The host specific Degeneria halosauri, (Digenea) and Cystidicolidae indet. (Nematoda) were the predominant species, reaching a prevalence of 100.0% and 57.1% with intensities of infection of 1-12 and 1-10, respectively. Less host specific parasites such as Gonocerca phycidis (Digenea) and Tetraphyllidea indet. (Cestoda) occurred at low rates of infection. The parasite fauna of this bathyal fish can be described as predominantly adult and host specific, with larval and less host specific components. A total of 16 different food groups were identified, most of them of benthic origin or associated with the benthopelagial. The predominant prey organisms belonged to the Crustacea (e.g., Copepoda, Gammaridea, Amphipoda and Isopoda), which serve as main parasite vectors for H. macrochir. This deep-sea fish seems to follow a general pattern of fish parasites in the deep sea, with most isolated parasites belonging to the digeneans, nematodes and a cestode. The parasite composition is caused by the narrow depth range of the species and the restricted distribution of the fish family Halosauridae. The species richness was found to be lower than other demersal fish from the deep sea and shallow waters, however, higher than those from deep-sea fish living in the pelagial.

  8. Microbial colonization of copepod body surfaces and chitin degradation in the sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, M.

    1995-03-01

    Next to cellulose, chitin (composed of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine sugar units) is the most frequently occurring biopolymer in nature. Among the most common sources of chitin in the marine environment are copepods and the casings of their fecal pellets. During the mineralization of chitin by microorganisms, which occurs chiefly by means of exoenzymes, nitrogen and carbon are returned to the nutrient cycle. In this study, the microbial colonization of the moults (exuviae), carcasses and fecal pellets of Tisbe holothuriae Humes (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) was examined in the laboratory. Results obtained with DAPI staining indicated that a succession of microorganisms from rodshaped bacteria and cocci to starlike aggregates took place, followed by the yeastlike fungus Aureobasidium pullulans (de Bary) Arnaud. No differences were noted between moults from various developmental stages, from nauplius to adult. The ventral sides and extremities of exuviae and carcasses were more rapidly colonized than other parts of the bodies. The casings of fecal pellets were frequently surrounded by bacteria with fimbriae or slime threads. In situ studies of chitin degradation (practical grade chitin from crustacean shells) with the mesh bag technique showed that about 90% of the original substance was lost after 3 months exposure in seawater at temperatures between 10 and 18°C. Chitinase activity was measured in the water at two stations near Helgoland, an island in the North Sea. A higher exoenzymatic activity was found in the rocky intertidal zone, compared to the Station Cable Buoy located between the main and Düne island. These values correspond to the higher bacteria numbers (cfu ml-1) found in the rocky intertidal: 10 to 100× greater than those found at the Cable Buoy Station.

  9. Strong Spatial Influence on Colonization Rates in a Pioneer Zooplankton Metacommunity

    PubMed Central

    Frisch, Dagmar; Cottenie, Karl; Badosa, Anna; Green, Andy J.

    2012-01-01

    The magnitude of community-wide dispersal is central to metacommunity models, yet dispersal is notoriously difficult to quantify in passive and cryptic dispersers such as many freshwater invertebrates. By overcoming the problem of quantifying dispersal rates, colonization rates into new habitats can provide a useful estimate of the magnitude of effective dispersal. Here we study the influence of spatial and local processes on colonization rates into new ponds that indicate differential dispersal limitation of major zooplankton taxa, with important implications for metacommunity dynamics. We identify regional and local factors that affect zooplankton colonization rates and spatial patterns in a large-scale experimental system. Our study differs from others in the unique setup of the experimental pond area by which we were able to test spatial and environmental variables at a large spatial scale. We quantified colonization rates separately for the Copepoda, Cladocera and Rotifera from samples collected over a period of 21 months in 48 newly constructed temporary ponds of 0.18–2.95 ha distributed in a restored wetland area of 2,700 ha in Doñana National Park, Southern Spain. Species richness upon initial sampling of new ponds was about one third of that in reference ponds, although the rate of detection of new species from thereon were not significantly different, probably owing to high turnover in the dynamic, temporary reference ponds. Environmental heterogeneity had no detectable effect on colonization rates in new ponds. In contrast, connectivity, space (based on latitude and longitude) and surface area were key determinants of colonization rates for copepods and cladocerans. This suggests dispersal limitation in cladocerans and copepods, but not in rotifers, possibly due to differences in propagule size and abundance. PMID:22792241

  10. The mitochondrial genomes of Amphiascoides atopus and Schizopera knabeni (Harpacticoida: Miraciidae) reveal similarities between the copepod orders Harpacticoida and Poecilostomatoida.

    PubMed

    Easton, Erin E; Darrow, Emily M; Spears, Trisha; Thistle, David

    2014-03-15

    Members of subclass Copepoda are abundant, diverse, and-as a result of their variety of ecological roles in marine and freshwater environments-important, but their phylogenetic interrelationships are unclear. Recent studies of arthropods have used gene arrangements in the mitochondrial (mt) genome to infer phylogenies, but for copepods, only seven complete mt genomes have been published. These data revealed several within-order and few among-order similarities. To increase the data available for comparisons, we sequenced the complete mt genome (13,831base pairs) of Amphiascoides atopus and 10,649base pairs of the mt genome of Schizopera knabeni (both in the family Miraciidae of the order Harpacticoida). Comparison of our data to those for Tigriopus japonicus (family Harpacticidae, order Harpacticoida) revealed similarities in gene arrangement among these three species that were consistent with those found within and among families of other copepod orders. Comparison of the mt genomes of our species with those known from other copepod orders revealed the arrangement of mt genes of our Harpacticoida species to be more similar to that of Sinergasilus polycolpus (order Poecilostomatoida) than to that of T. japonicus. The similarities between S. polycolpus and our species are the first to be noted across the boundaries of copepod orders and support the possibility that mt-gene arrangement might be used to infer copepod phylogenies. We also found that our two species had extremely truncated transfer RNAs and that gene overlaps occurred much more frequently than has been reported for other copepod mt genomes.

  11. Mining pollution and the diet of the purple-striped Gudgeon Mogurnda Mogurnda Richardson (Eleotridae) in the Finniss River, Northern Territory, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffree, R.A.; Williams, N.J.

    1980-01-01

    During the dry season of 1974, collections of the purple-striped Gudgeon Mogurnda Mogurnda were taken from the Finniss River of the Northern Territory; during the wet season, this river receives acidic and metallic pollutants from the formerly mined area of Rum Jungle. The fish consumed a great variety of foods, with high abundances of dytiscidae, chironomidae, ceratopogonidae, trichoptera, odonata, copepoda, decapoda, and pisces. For no food was there a significant regression against habitat descriptors in both of the zones; this emphasizes that pollution effects are more complex than simply depressing or raising the abundances of the dietary species. Five foods were more abundant in the diets of the polluted zone, and three in those of the unpolluted zone. The dietary abundances of two foods, both crustacean, increased in the polluted zone, compared to the unpolluted zone, through the dry season. Two categories of foods: (1) those obtaining oxygen directly from the atmosphere or via a film or bubble of air; and (2) the converse set (aquatic respirers), were contrasted for their usefulness in distinguishing between the zones, by both hierarchical agglomerative and discriminant function analyses. One collection from the polluted zone was reclassified as unpolluted on the basis of its grouping behaviour. The relevance for pollution studies of dietary analysis of euryphagous fish, rather than sampling aquatic fauna directly, is discussed in terms of food substitution, switching, strategies for abundance and recovery by the fauna, and possible effects of the pollutants on the fish as an intervening collector. Downstream patterns of abundance of the invertebrate fauna in this study are broadly similar to those of other studies in which such chemically diverse metals as Pb, Zn, and Cu are the pollutants, but there are differences for some faunal components.

  12. Indicator Properties of Baltic Zooplankton for Classification of Environmental Status within Marine Strategy Framework Directive

    PubMed Central

    Lehtiniemi, Maiju; Postel, Lutz; Rubene, Gunta; Amid, Callis; Lesutiene, Jurate; Uusitalo, Laura; Strake, Solvita; Demereckiene, Natalja

    2016-01-01

    The European Marine Strategy Framework Directive requires the EU Member States to estimate the level of anthropogenic impacts on their marine systems using 11 Descriptors. Assessing food web response to altered habitats is addressed by Descriptor 4 and its indicators, which are being developed for regional seas. However, the development of simple foodweb indicators able to assess the health of ecologically diverse, spatially variable and complex interactions is challenging. Zooplankton is a key element in marine foodwebs and thus comprise an important part of overall ecosystem health. Here, we review work on zooplankton indicator development using long-term data sets across the Baltic Sea and report the main findings. A suite of zooplankton community metrics were evaluated as putative ecological indicators that track community state in relation to Good Environmental Status (GES) criteria with regard to eutrophication and fish feeding conditions in the Baltic Sea. On the basis of an operational definition of GES, we propose mean body mass of zooplankton in the community in combination with zooplankton stock measured as either abundance or biomass to be applicable as an integrated indicator that could be used within the Descriptor 4 in the Baltic Sea. These metrics performed best in predicting zooplankton being in-GES when considering all datasets evaluated. However, some other metrics, such as copepod biomass, the contribution of copepods to the total zooplankton biomass or biomass-based Cladocera: Copepoda ratio, were equally reliable or even superior in certain basin-specific assessments. Our evaluation suggests that in several basins of the Baltic Sea, zooplankton communities currently appear to be out-of-GES, being comprised by smaller zooplankters and having lower total abundance or biomass compared to the communities during the reference conditions; however, the changes in the taxonomic structure underlying these trends vary widely across the sea basins due to

  13. Temporal and spatial distribution of the meiobenthic community in Daya Bay, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, L.; Li, H. X.; Yan, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Spatial and temporal biodiversity patterns of the meiobenthos were studied for the first time in Daya Bay, which is a tropical semi-enclosed basin located in the South China Sea. The abundance, biomass, and composition of the meiobenthos and the basic environmental factors in the bay were investigated. The following 19 taxonomic groups were represented in the meiofauna: Nematoda, Copepoda, Polychaeta, Oligochaeta, Kinorhyncha, Gastrotricha, Ostracoda, Bivalvia, Turbellaria, Nemertinea, Sipuncula, Hydroida, Amphipoda, Cumacea, Halacaroidea, Priapulida, Echinodermata, Tanaidacea, and Rotifera. Total abundance and biomass of the meiobenthos showed great spatial and temporal variation, with mean values of 993.57 ± 455.36 ind cm-2 and 690.51 ± 210.64 μg 10 cm-2, respectively. Nematodes constituted 95.60 % of the total abundance and thus had the greatest effect on meiofauna quantity and distribution, followed by copepods (1.55 %) and polychaetes (1.39 %). Meiobenthos abundance was significantly negatively correlated with water depth at stations (r=-0.747, P<0.05) and significantly negatively correlated with silt-clay content (r=-0.516, P<0.01) and medium diameter (r=-0.499, P<0.01) of the sediment. Similar results were found for correlations of biomass and abundance of nematodes with environmental parameters. Polychaete abundance was positively correlated with the bottom water temperature (r=0.456, P<0.01). Meiobenthos abundance differed significantly among seasons (P<0.05), although no significant difference among stations and the interaction of station × season was detected by two-way ANOVA. In terms of vertical distribution, most of the meiobenthos was found in the surface layer of sediment. This pattern was apparent for nematodes and copepods, but a vertical distribution pattern for polychaetes was not as obvious. Based on the biotic indices and analyses of their correlations and variance, the diversity of this community was likely to be influenced by

  14. The Bass Parasites of Oneida Lake, 80 Years Later.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Eric F; Whipps, Christopher M

    2015-10-01

    A survey of largemouth (Micropterus salmoides) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) parasite communities in Oneida Lake, New York, was conducted in the summer of 2012 and compared to an earlier survey conducted by Van Cleave and Mueller during the summers of 1929 to 1931. The component helminth communities between surveys were 31% similar in composition for largemouth and 28% similar for smallmouth bass. Between species, the component helminth communities were considerably more similar in the present survey (71%) than in the survey conducted by Van Cleave and Mueller (47%). Seven species reported by Van Cleave and Mueller were present in this survey and 21 species are new records for the bass of Oneida Lake. Van Cleave and Mueller did not report prevalence values for several taxa (Monogenea, Copepoda, Myxozoa, and a Trichodina sp.) that were important for separation of parasite infracommunities in species space for both bass species. These parasites represented 28% of all species found in the current survey and may be ecologically important. Several species of parasites exhibited differences in prevalence between surveys. Two species (Rhipidocotyle papillosa and Crepidostomum cornutum) were absent from this survey but were reported as common in the 1929-1931 survey and almost certainly represent extirpations that coincide with the loss of their native bivalve hosts from Oneida Lake. Other differences in the parasite communities may also be explained by the ecological disturbances in Oneida Lake over the past 81 yr. The changes in bass parasite communities between surveys emphasize the importance of recognizing the historical nature of parasite communities, especially in ecosystems with a history of large-scale changes. Most importantly our findings suggest that, similar to trends observed in free-living freshwater biotic communities, anthropogenic ecosystem disturbances may homogenize fish parasite communities.

  15. Strong spatial influence on colonization rates in a pioneer zooplankton metacommunity.

    PubMed

    Frisch, Dagmar; Cottenie, Karl; Badosa, Anna; Green, Andy J

    2012-01-01

    The magnitude of community-wide dispersal is central to metacommunity models, yet dispersal is notoriously difficult to quantify in passive and cryptic dispersers such as many freshwater invertebrates. By overcoming the problem of quantifying dispersal rates, colonization rates into new habitats can provide a useful estimate of the magnitude of effective dispersal. Here we study the influence of spatial and local processes on colonization rates into new ponds that indicate differential dispersal limitation of major zooplankton taxa, with important implications for metacommunity dynamics. We identify regional and local factors that affect zooplankton colonization rates and spatial patterns in a large-scale experimental system. Our study differs from others in the unique setup of the experimental pond area by which we were able to test spatial and environmental variables at a large spatial scale. We quantified colonization rates separately for the Copepoda, Cladocera and Rotifera from samples collected over a period of 21 months in 48 newly constructed temporary ponds of 0.18-2.95 ha distributed in a restored wetland area of 2,700 ha in Doñana National Park, Southern Spain. Species richness upon initial sampling of new ponds was about one third of that in reference ponds, although the rate of detection of new species from thereon were not significantly different, probably owing to high turnover in the dynamic, temporary reference ponds. Environmental heterogeneity had no detectable effect on colonization rates in new ponds. In contrast, connectivity, space (based on latitude and longitude) and surface area were key determinants of colonization rates for copepods and cladocerans. This suggests dispersal limitation in cladocerans and copepods, but not in rotifers, possibly due to differences in propagule size and abundance.

  16. Meiofauna abundance on the Gulf of Mexico continental shelf affected by hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murrell, Michael C.; Fleeger, John W.

    1989-12-01

    Meiofauna were sampled in shallow (8-13 m) continental shelf waters off the coast of Louisiana at three stations on 13 dates from June 1985 to August 1986. Total meiofauna abundances ranged from 525 to 3406 individuals per 10 cm 2 with a mean of 1810 individuals per 10 cm 2. Peak abundances occurred in late spring and early summer while seasonal lows occurred during late summer and winter. The three predominant taxa were Nematoda (91.8%), Copepoda (3.2%) and Kinorhyncha (2.5%). The meiobenthic copepod assemblage displayed low diversity and was dominated by three epibenthic species which together comprised 87% of the copepod fauna. Hypoxic conditions (dissolved oxygen <2mg l -1) developed seasonally on this shelf as a result of water column density stratification and eutrophication during late spring and summer. Abundances of all taxa declined during the summers of both years apparently in response to hypoxic conditions. Copepods were most dramatically affected, dropping from springtime peak abundances (several hundred per 10 cm 2) to virtually zero in a one-month period of time. Copepod density declines were spatially correlated with the onset of hypoxia, as inshore stations developed hypoxia later and underwent declines later. Densities remained low after the return of normal oxygen conditions, rising in the spring of the following year. The effect on nematodes and kinorhynchs was not as dramatic. A single collection of meiofauna from July 1983 in nearby normoxic Terrebonne Bay at similar water depths reveals a high density and diversity of copepods, further suggesting the sensitivity of copepods to hypoxia.

  17. Egg number-egg size: an important trade-off in parasite life history strategies.

    PubMed

    Cavaleiro, Francisca I; Santos, Maria J

    2014-03-01

    Parasites produce from just a few to many eggs of variable size, but our understanding of the factors driving variation in these two life history traits at the intraspecific level is still very fragmentary. This study evaluates the importance of performing multilevel analyses on egg number and egg size, while characterising parasite life history strategies. A total of 120 ovigerous females of Octopicola superba (Copepoda: Octopicolidae) (one sample (n=30) per season) were characterised with respect to different body dimensions (total length; genital somite length) and measures of reproductive effort (fecundity; mean egg diameter; total reproductive effort; mean egg sac length). While endoparasites are suggested to follow both an r- and K-strategy simultaneously, the evidence found in this and other studies suggests that environmental conditions force ectoparasites into one of the two alternatives. The positive and negative skewness of the distributions of fecundity and mean egg diameter, respectively, suggest that O. superba is mainly a K-strategist (i.e. produces a relatively small number of large, well provisioned eggs). Significant sample differences were recorded concomitantly for all body dimensions and measures of reproductive effort, while a general linear model detected a significant influence of season*parasite total length in both egg number and size. This evidence suggests adaptive phenotypic plasticity in body dimensions and size-mediated changes in egg production. Seasonal changes in partitioning of resources between egg number and size resulted in significant differences in egg sac length but not in total reproductive effort. Evidence for a trade-off between egg number and size was found while controlling for a potential confounding effect of parasite total length. However, this trade-off became apparent only at high fecundity levels, suggesting a state of physiological exhaustion.

  18. DNA barcoding of Arctic Ocean holozooplankton for species identification and recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucklin, Ann; Hopcroft, Russell R.; Kosobokova, Ksenia N.; Nigro, Lisa M.; Ortman, Brian D.; Jennings, Robert M.; Sweetman, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Zooplankton species diversity and distribution are important measures of environmental change in the Arctic Ocean, and may serve as 'rapid-responders' of climate-induced changes in this fragile ecosystem. The scarcity of taxonomists hampers detailed and up-to-date monitoring of these patterns for the rarer and more problematic species. DNA barcodes (short DNA sequences for species recognition and discovery) provide an alternative approach to accurate identification of known species, and can speed routine analysis of zooplankton samples. During 2004-2008, zooplankton samples were collected during cruises to the central Arctic Ocean and Chukchi Sea. A ˜700 base-pair region of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) gene was amplified and sequenced for 82 identified specimens of 41 species, including cnidarians (six hydrozoans, one scyphozoan), arthropod crustaceans (five amphipods, 24 copepods, one decapod, and one euphausiid); two chaetognaths; and one nemertean. Phylogenetic analysis used the Neighbor-Joining algorithm with Kimura-2-Parameter (K-2-P) distances, with 1000-fold bootstrapping. K-2-P genetic distances between individuals of the same species ranged from 0.0 to 0.2; genetic distances between species ranged widely from 0.1 to 0.7. The mtCOI gene tree showed monophyly (at 100% bootstrap value) for each of the 26 species for which more than one individual was analyzed. Of seven genera for which more than one species was analyzed, four were shown to be monophyletic; three genera were not resolved. At higher taxonomic levels, only the crustacean order Copepoda was resolved, with bootstrap value of 83%. The mtCOI barcodes accurately discriminated and identified known species of 10 taxonomic groups of Arctic Ocean holozooplankton. A comprehensive DNA barcode database for the estimated 300 described species of Arctic holozooplankton will allow rapid assessment of species diversity and distribution in this climate-vulnerable ocean ecosystem.

  19. Next Generation Sequencing Reveals the Hidden Diversity of Zooplankton Assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Harmer, Rachel A.; Somerfield, Paul J.; Atkinson, Angus

    2013-01-01

    Background Zooplankton play an important role in our oceans, in biogeochemical cycling and providing a food source for commercially important fish larvae. However, difficulties in correctly identifying zooplankton hinder our understanding of their roles in marine ecosystem functioning, and can prevent detection of long term changes in their community structure. The advent of massively parallel next generation sequencing technology allows DNA sequence data to be recovered directly from whole community samples. Here we assess the ability of such sequencing to quantify richness and diversity of a mixed zooplankton assemblage from a productive time series site in the Western English Channel. Methodology/Principle Findings Plankton net hauls (200 µm) were taken at the Western Channel Observatory station L4 in September 2010 and January 2011. These samples were analysed by microscopy and metagenetic analysis of the 18S nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene using the 454 pyrosequencing platform. Following quality control a total of 419,041 sequences were obtained for all samples. The sequences clustered into 205 operational taxonomic units using a 97% similarity cut-off. Allocation of taxonomy by comparison with the National Centre for Biotechnology Information database identified 135 OTUs to species level, 11 to genus level and 1 to order, <2.5% of sequences were classified as unknowns. By comparison a skilled microscopic analyst was able to routinely enumerate only 58 taxonomic groups. Conclusions Metagenetics reveals a previously hidden taxonomic richness, especially for Copepoda and hard-to-identify meroplankton such as Bivalvia, Gastropoda and Polychaeta. It also reveals rare species and parasites. We conclude that Next Generation Sequencing of 18S amplicons is a powerful tool for elucidating the true diversity and species richness of zooplankton communities. While this approach allows for broad diversity assessments of plankton it may become increasingly

  20. Sampling and quantifying invertebrates from drinking water distribution mains.

    PubMed

    van Lieverloo, J Hein M; Bosboom, Dick W; Bakker, Geo L; Brouwer, Anke J; Voogt, Remko; De Roos, Josje E M

    2004-03-01

    Water utilities in the Netherlands aim at controlling the multiplication of (micro-) organisms by distributing biologically stable water through biologically stable materials. Disinfectant residuals are absent or very low. To be able to assess invertebrate abundance, methods for sampling and quantifying these animals from distribution mains were optimised and evaluated. The presented method for collecting invertebrates consists of unidirectionally flushing a mains section with a flow rate of 1 ms(-1) and filtering the flushed water in two separate flows with 500 microm and 100 microm mesh plankton gauze filters. Removal efficiency from mains was evaluated in nine experiments by collecting the invertebrates removed from the mains section by intensive cleaning immediately subsequent to sampling. Of 12 taxa distinguished, all except case-building Chironomidae larvae (2%) and Oligochaeta (30%) were removed well (51-75%). Retention of invertebrates in 100 microm filters was evaluated by filtering 39 filtrates using 30 microm filters. Except for flexible and small invertebrates such as Turbellaria (13%), Nematoda (11%) and Copepoda larvae (24%), most taxa were well retained in the 100 microm filters (53-100%). During sample processing, the method for taking sub-samples with a 10 ml pipette from the suspension of samples with high sediment concentrations was found to perform well in 75% of the samples. During a 2-year national survey in the Netherlands and consecutive investigations, the method appeared to be very suitable to assess the abundance of most invertebrate taxa in drinking water distribution systems and to be practicable for relatively inexperienced sampling and lab technicians. Although the numbers of small, less abundant or sessile taxa were not accurately assessed using the method, these taxa probably should not be the primary focus of monitoring by water utilities, as consumer complaints are not likely to be caused by these invertebrates. The accuracy of

  1. Epibiotic macrofauna on common minke whales, Balaenoptera acutorostrata Lacépède, 1804, in Icelandic waters

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Whilst there is a body of scientific literature relating to the epibiotic macrofauna on large whales, there is little information on the cetaceans in Icelandic waters. Common minke whales, Balaenoptera acutorostrata Lacépède, 1804, are a common sighting between the months of April to November, however, the migration and distribution of the population in winter requires establishing. The present study provides baseline information on the species composition, geographic distribution and abundance of the epibiotic macrofauna on minke whales landed in Icelandic waters and comments on their acquisition. Methods The epibiotic macrofauna and skin lesions on 185 and 188 common minke whales respectively, landed in Icelandic waters between April to September 2003-2007 were determined. For each whale, the fluke and one lateral side was examined. Results A total of seven epibiotic species were found: the caligid copepod Caligus elongatus (prevalence (P) = 11.9%, mean intensity (M.I) = 95.5); the pennellid copepod Pennella balaenopterae (P = 10.3%, M.I = 1.6); the cyamid amphipod Cyamus balaenopterae (P = 6.5%, M.I = 37.0); the lepadid cirripedes Conchoderma virgatum (P = 0.5%, M.I = 4.0) and Conchoderma auritum (P = 0.5%, M.I = 1.0), the balanid cirriped Xenobalanus globicipitis (P = 1.6%, M.I = 5.3) and the sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus (P = 2.7%, M.I = 1.0). In addition, the hyperparasitic monogenean Udonella caligorum was found on C. elongatus (P = 6.6%) on 8 of the 22 whales infected with the copepod. No significant relationship was observed between parasite intensity and host body length for either C. balaenopterae or C. elongatus, while the proportion of infected hosts was higher in August-September than earlier in the summer for C. balaenopterae (χ2 = 13.69; p<0.01: d.f.=1) and C. elongatus (χ2 = 28.88; p<0.01: d.f.=1). Conclusions The higher prevalence of C. balaenopterae on male whales (χ2 = 5.08; p<0.05: d.f.=1), suggests possible different migration

  2. Comparison of laboratory single species and field population-level effects of the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin on freshwater invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Schroer, A F W; Belgers, J D M; Brock, T C M; Matser, A M; Maund, S J; Van den Brink, P J

    2004-04-01

    The toxicity of the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin to freshwater invertebrates has been investigated using data from short-term laboratory toxicity tests and in situ bioassays and population-level effects in field microcosms. In laboratory tests, patterns of toxicity were consistent with previous data on pyrethroids. The midge Chaoborus obscuripes was most sensitive (48- and 96-h EC50 = 2.8 ng/L). Other insect larvae (Hemiptera, Ephemeroptera) and macrocrustacea (Amphipoda, Isopoda) were also relatively sensitive, with 48- and 96-h EC50 values between 10 and 100 ng/L. Generally, microcrustacea (Cladocera, Copepoda) and larvae of certain insect groups (Odonata and Chironomidae) were less sensitive, with 48-h EC50 values higher than 100 ng/L. Mollusca and Plathelminthes were insensitive and were unaffected at concentrations at and above the water solubility (5 microg/L). Generally, the EC50 values based on initial population responses in field enclosures were similar to values derived from laboratory tests with the same taxa. Also, the corresponding fifth and tenth percentile hazard concentrations (HC5 and HC10) were similar (laboratory HC5 = 2.7 ng/L and field HC5 = 4.1 ng/L; laboratory and field HC10 = 5.1 ng/L), at least when based on the same sensitive taxonomic groups (insects and crustaceans) and when a similar concentration range was taken into account. In the three field enclosure experiments and at a treatment level of 10 ng/L, consistent effects were observed for only one population (Chaoborus obscuripes), with recovery taking place within 3 to 6 weeks. The laboratory HC5 (2.7 ng/L) and HC10 (5.1 ng/L) based on acute EC50 values of all aquatic arthropod taxa were both lower than this 10 ng/L, a concentration that might represent the "regulatory acceptable concentration." The HC5 and HC10 values in this study in The Netherlands (based on static laboratory tests with freshwater arthropods) were very similar to those derived from a previous study in

  3. Abyssal macrofauna of the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench area (Northwest Pacific) collected by means of a camera-epibenthic sledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, A.; Elsner, N. O.; Malyutina, M. V.; Brenke, N.; Golovan, O. A.; Lavrenteva, A. V.; Riehl, T.

    2015-01-01

    Abyssal macrofaunal composition of 21 epibenthic sledge hauls from twelve stations taken in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench (KKT) and at the adjacent abyssal plain, Northwest Pacific, is presented. Sampling with the fine meshed epibenthic sledge yielded higher abundances and species richness than was reported from previous expeditions from board of RV Vityaz. In total 84,651 invertebrates were sampled with RV Sonne between July and September of 2012 (31,854 invertebrates if standardised for 1000 m2 trawled distances) from 41 taxa of different taxonomic ranks (15 phyla, 28 classes, 7 orders) were sampled from a trawled area of 53,708 m² and have been analyzed. Few taxa were frequent and most taxa were rare in the samples, twelve taxa occurred with more than 1% frequency. Of these, the Polychaeta were most abundant followed by the benthic Copepoda and Isopoda. Total numbers of individuals varied between stations and were highest with 4238 individuals at station 2-10 close to the KKT in 4865 m depth and lowest with 374 individuals at station 6-11 in 5305 m depth. At this station also the lowest number of taxa occurred (18 taxa) while the highest number occurred with 31 taxa at station 3-9 in 4991 m depth. Numbers of individuals decreased with increasing depth between 4830 and 5780 m. Crustaceans of the superorder Peracarida were one of the dominating taxa with four orders occurring frequently in most samples. In total, Isopoda were most important and occurred with 59% of all peracarid orders sampled, followed by Amphipoda with 21%, Tanaidacea with 11%, Cumacea with 9%, and Mysidacea with <1%. The communities of the stations (and hauls) of the KKT abyssal area differ in terms of taxon composition from each other. A cluster analysis (nMDS) performed for all sampled stations revealed no clear pattern of community similarity between stations or hauls. All hauls close to the trench (2-9 and 2-10 close to the eastern slope of the KKT; and 3-9 and 4-3 at the western slope) were

  4. Comparison of physico-chemical parameters and zooplankton diversity in two perennial ponds at Aligarh, India.

    PubMed

    Parveen, Saltanat; Abdel Mola, Hesham R

    2013-07-01

    Investigations were carried out on the diversity of zooplankton in relation to physico-chemical parameters of two perennial ponds (Chautal Pond and Medical Pond) of Aligarh, India. Thirty nine species of holoplankton were identified belonging to copepoda (2 species), rotifera (28 species), cladocera (6 species) and protozoa (3 species). Other forms; like as meroplankton (insects) and tychoplankton (nematodes and ostracodes) were also recorded. Higher values of physico-chemical parameters and low zooplankton diversity were recorded in the Chautal Pond, whereas low values of physico-chemical parameters and high diversity were recorded in the Medical Pond. Ostracods considered to be the most dominant group in Medical Pond (32.16% of the total zooplankton) while Cladocerans are considered to be the most dominant group in Chautal Pond (38.83% of the total zooplankton). Rotifera contributed more in Medical Pond (16.42%) as compared to Chautal Pond (15.81%). Five species of Brachionus was recorded during study. Out of five, four Brachionus species were recorded in Chautal Pond while only two species were recorded in Medical pond. This indicates that Chautal Pond is more eutrophic than Medical pond. In addition, higher carbon dioxide values (37-105 mg l(-1)), low dissolved oxygen (0.7-3.3 mg I(-1)) and higher electrical conductivity values (1069-1691 mg l(-1)) were also indicative of eutrophic nature of Chautal Pond. Present study also revealed that total zooplankton species, species richness and diversity indices (Evenness, Shannon-Winner and Simpson) were comparatively higher in Medical pond. The rotifer species Philodina roseola (146 Org. l(-1)) and Monstyla closterocerca (109 Org. l(-1)) was dominated in Medical Pond while the rotifers Brachionus urceolaris (512 Org. l(-1)) and the cladocern species Ceriodaphnia cornuta (1540 Org. l(-1)) dominated in Chautal Pond during post-monsoon season. This might be due to the effect of rain water which played an important role in

  5. Zooplankton of West Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemiasa, John; Remanevy, Sitraka

    2014-05-01

    During six week survey (August - October 2009) in Western and Northern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. Zooplankton samples were collected with Hydrobios Multinet at all environmental stations ranging from 200 m depth to the surface. The Multinet was equipped with 5 nets for depth-stratified sampling. The nets were fitted with 180 µm mesh size and the water flow through the nets was measured. The Multinet was deployed and retrieved at a rate of ~ 1.5 m per second and was obliquely hauled. The five nets were triggered at the pre-selected depth intervals 0-25m, 25-50m, 50-80m, 80-120m and 120-200m. All samples were stored in marked bottles and preserved with buffered formaldehyde of 4% for further analysis. As results,the zooplankton abundance was influenced by physico-chemical factors. During the study period 34 Family of zooplankton were identified which are dominated by Copepoda (58,69%) followed by Radiolaria (12,06%), Appendicularia (6,47%), Sagitta (5,11%), Larvae (4,57%), Ostracoda (3,13%), pelagic Foraminifera (2,15%). Family of zooplankton with abundance <1% were also recorded, namely Salpidae (0,94%), Euphausiacea (0,44%), Tintinnidae (0,39%), Annélidae Polychètes (0,34%), Mysidacea (0,21%), Ptéropodae (0,13%). Highest number of zooplankton were found at the depth below the maximum of fluorescence during the day. Copepods distribution depends on site and depth. During this study, the number of identified species is always superior to 50 for all sampling sites. The findings of the present study will help to improve the scientific knowledge of the marine ecosystem of the west coast of Madagascar.

  6. Modern and fossilized biological communities from sediments of Bolshoy Harbei lake (Bolshezemelskaya tundra, Russia) and their response to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumanov, Oleg; Nazarova, Larisa; Fefilova, Elena; Baturina, Maria; Loskutova, Olga; Frolova, Larisa; Palagushkina, Olga

    2013-04-01

    High-altitude regions are subjected to the threats of global warming. During the last decade the depth of seasonal melting of permafrost in Northern Russia, significantly increased. Investigation of lake sediments from polar regions has an extreme importance for understanding of the modern environmental processes and their influence on northern ecosystems and biological diversity of these regions. Invertebrate communities are used for diagnostic of lake ecosystems because they have a great sensitivity to climatic changes (Andronnikova, 1996; Lazareva, 2008; O'Brien et al., 2005). The data can be used as well as a basis for inference models for reconstruction of the paleoclimatic conditions. Chironomid-based, Cladocera-based and diatom models have successfully been developed (Nazarova et al., 2008, 2011; Self et al., 2011) and can be used for precise paleotemperature reconstructions (Kienast et al., 2011). In summer 2012, we investigated complex of Kharbei lakes, located in the interfluve of Korotaiha and Bolshaya Rogovaya rivers in the east side of Bolshezemelskaya tundra, Russia (67°33'22″ N, 62°53'23″ E). Six different lakes were investigated using modern hydrobiological and palaeoecological methods. In total 9 cores were obtained, cut, dated and further investigated using sedimenthological, geochemical, and paleobiological methods. The standard hydrobiological methods have shown that the modern zooplankton communities did not change significantly during the last 40 years. Taxonomic composition and structure of planktonic communities didn't change, except for appearance of crustaceans Polyarthra euryptera and Daphnia cucullata. In planktonic communities of Bolshoy Harbei lake we revealed 39 species and forms of Rotifera, 19 - Cladocera and 11 - Copepoda. In zoobenthic communities we registered 24 taxonomical groups characteristic for large tundra lakes of the North East of Russia. Chironomids and Oligochaeta are dominant groups of invertebrates. 103 taxa of

  7. A “Rosetta Stone” for metazoan zooplankton: DNA barcode analysis of species diversity of the Sargasso Sea (Northwest Atlantic Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucklin, Ann; Ortman, Brian D.; Jennings, Robert M.; Nigro, Lisa M.; Sweetman, Christopher J.; Copley, Nancy J.; Sutton, Tracey; Wiebe, Peter H.

    2010-12-01

    Species diversity of the metazoan holozooplankton assemblage of the Sargasso Sea, Northwest Atlantic Ocean, was examined through coordinated morphological taxonomic identification of species and DNA sequencing of a ˜650 base-pair region of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) as a DNA barcode (i.e., short sequence for species recognition and discrimination). Zooplankton collections were made from the surface to 5,000 meters during April, 2006 on the R/V R.H. Brown. Samples were examined by a ship-board team of morphological taxonomists; DNA barcoding was carried out in both ship-board and land-based DNA sequencing laboratories. DNA barcodes were determined for a total of 297 individuals of 175 holozooplankton species in four phyla, including: Cnidaria (Hydromedusae, 4 species; Siphonophora, 47); Arthropoda (Amphipoda, 10; Copepoda, 34; Decapoda, 9; Euphausiacea, 10; Mysidacea, 1; Ostracoda, 27); and Mollusca (Cephalopoda, 8; Heteropoda, 6; Pteropoda, 15); and Chaetognatha (4). Thirty species of fish (Teleostei) were also barcoded. For all seven zooplankton groups for which sufficient data were available, Kimura-2-Parameter genetic distances were significantly lower between individuals of the same species (mean=0.0114; S.D. 0.0117) than between individuals of different species within the same group (mean=0.3166; S.D. 0.0378). This difference, known as the barcode gap, ensures that mtCOI sequences are reliable characters for species identification for the oceanic holozooplankton assemblage. In addition, DNA barcodes allow recognition of new or undescribed species, reveal cryptic species within known taxa, and inform phylogeographic and population genetic studies of geographic variation. The growing database of "gold standard" DNA barcodes serves as a Rosetta Stone for marine zooplankton, providing the key for decoding species diversity by linking species names, morphology, and DNA sequence variation. In light of the pivotal position of zooplankton in ocean

  8. Observing copepods through a genomic lens

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Copepods outnumber every other multicellular animal group. They are critical components of the world's freshwater and marine ecosystems, sensitive indicators of local and global climate change, key ecosystem service providers, parasites and predators of economically important aquatic animals and potential vectors of waterborne disease. Copepods sustain the world fisheries that nourish and support human populations. Although genomic tools have transformed many areas of biological and biomedical research, their power to elucidate aspects of the biology, behavior and ecology of copepods has only recently begun to be exploited. Discussion The extraordinary biological and ecological diversity of the subclass Copepoda provides both unique advantages for addressing key problems in aquatic systems and formidable challenges for developing a focused genomics strategy. This article provides an overview of genomic studies of copepods and discusses strategies for using genomics tools to address key questions at levels extending from individuals to ecosystems. Genomics can, for instance, help to decipher patterns of genome evolution such as those that occur during transitions from free living to symbiotic and parasitic lifestyles and can assist in the identification of genetic mechanisms and accompanying physiological changes associated with adaptation to new or physiologically challenging environments. The adaptive significance of the diversity in genome size and unique mechanisms of genome reorganization during development could similarly be explored. Genome-wide and EST studies of parasitic copepods of salmon and large EST studies of selected free-living copepods have demonstrated the potential utility of modern genomics approaches for the study of copepods and have generated resources such as EST libraries, shotgun genome sequences, BAC libraries, genome maps and inbred lines that will be invaluable in assisting further efforts to provide genomics tools for

  9. The life cycle of Anisakis simplex in the Norwegian Deep (northern North Sea).

    PubMed

    Klimpel, Sven; Palm, Harry W; Rückert, Sonja; Piatkowski, Uwe

    2004-09-01

    Copepoda (Calanus finmarchicus n = 1,722, Paraeuchaeta norvegica n = 1,955), Hyperiidae (n = 3,019), Euphausiacea (Meganyctiphanes norvegica n = 4,780), and the fishes Maurolicus muelleri (n = 500) and Pollachius virens (n = 33) were collected in the Norwegian Deep (northern North Sea) during summer 2001 to examine the importance of pelagic invertebrates and vertebrates as hosts of Anisakis simplex and their roles in the transfer of this nematode to its final hosts (Cetaceans). Third stage larvae (L3) of A. simplex were found in P. norvegica, M. muelleri and P. virens. The prevalence of A. simplex in dissected P. norvegica was 0.26%, with an intensity of 1. Prevalences in M. muelleri and P. virens were 49.6% and 100.0%, with mean intensities of 1.1-2.6 (total fish length >or=6.0-7.2) and 193.6, respectively. All specimens of C. finmarchicus and M. norvegica examined were free of anisakid nematode species and no other parasites were detected. P. norvegica, which harboured the third stage larvae, is the obligatory first intermediate host of A. simplex in the investigated area. Though there was no apparent development of larvae in M. muelleri, this fish can be considered as the obligatory second intermediate host of A. simplex in the Norwegian Deep. However, it is unlikely that the larva from P. norvegica can be successfully transmitted into the cetacean or pinniped final hosts, where they reach the adult stage. An additional growth phase and a second intermediate host is the next phase in the life cycle. Larger predators such as P. virens serve as paratenic hosts, accumulating the already infective stage from M. muelleri. The oceanic life cycle of A. simplex in the Norwegian Deep is very different in terms of hosts and proposed life cycle patterns of A. simplex from other regions, involving only a few intermediate hosts. In contrast to earlier suggestions, euphausiids have no importance at all for the successful transmission of A. simplex in the Norwegian Deep. This

  10. Determination and validation of an aquatic Maximum Acceptable Concentration-Environmental Quality Standard (MAC-EQS) value for the agricultural fungicide azoxystrobin.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Elsa Teresa; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo; Gante, Cristiano; Loureiro, João; Lopes, Isabel

    2017-02-01

    The main goal of the present study was to determine and validate an aquatic Maximum Acceptable Concentration-Environmental Quality Standard (MAC-EQS) value for the agricultural fungicide azoxystrobin (AZX). Assessment factors were applied to short-term toxicity data using the lowest EC50 and after the Species Sensitivity Distribution (SSD) method. Both ways of EQS generation were applied to a freshwater toxicity dataset for AZX based on available data, and to marine toxicity datasets for AZX and Ortiva(®) (a commercial formulation of AZX) obtained by the present study. A high interspecific variability in AZX sensitivity was observed in all datasets, being the copepoda Eudiaptomus graciloides (LC50,48h = 38 μg L(-1)) and the gastropod Gibbula umbilicalis (LC50,96h = 13 μg L(-1)) the most sensitive freshwater and marine species, respectively. MAC-EQS values derived using the lowest EC50 (≤0.38 μg L(-1)) were more protective than those derived using the SSD method (≤3.2 μg L(-1)). After comparing the MAC-EQS values estimated in the present study to the smallest AA-EQS available, which protect against the occurrence of prolonged exposure of AZX, the MAC-EQS values derived using the lowest EC50 were considered overprotective and a MAC-EQS of 1.8 μg L(-1) was validated and recommended for AZX for the water column. This value was derived from marine toxicity data, which highlights the importance of testing marine organisms. Moreover, Ortiva affects the most sensitive marine species to a greater extent than AZX, and marine species are more sensitive than freshwater species to AZX. A risk characterization ratio higher than one allowed to conclude that AZX might pose a high risk to the aquatic environment. Also, in a wider conclusion, before new pesticides are approved, we suggest to improve the Tier 1 prospective Ecological Risk Assessment by increasing the number of short-term data, and apply the SSD approach, in order to ensure the safety of

  11. Food-web structure and trophodynamics of mesopelagic-suprabenthic bathyal macrofauna of the Algerian Basin based on stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanelli, E.; Cartes, J. E.; Rumolo, P.; Sprovieri, M.

    2009-09-01

    The trophodynamics of mesopelagic (macrozooplankton/micronekton) and benthic boundary layer (suprabenthos=hyperbenthos) faunas from the Algerian Basin were characterized on a seasonal scale through stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic analyses of a total of 34 species and two broad taxa (Copepoda and Cumacea). This is the first study simultaneously focused on trophodynamics of deep-sea zooplankton and suprabenthos. Samples were collected southeast of Mallorca (Algerian Basin, Western Mediterranean), on the continental slope close to Cabrera Archipelago, at 650-780 m depths, ca. bi-monthly between August 2003 and June 2004. Mean δ 13C values of suprabenthos ranged from -21.1‰ ( Munnopsurus atlanticus) to -16.7‰ ( Cyclaspis longicaudata). Values of δ 15N ranged from 2.8‰ ( Lepechinella manco) to 9.9‰ (larvae of Gnathia sp.). The stable isotope ratios of suprabenthic fauna displayed a continuum of values, confirming a wide spectrum of feeding guilds (from filter feeders/surface deposit feeders to predators). According to the available information on diets for suprabenthic species, the highest annual mean δ 15N values were found for the hematophagous isopod Gnathia sp. parasite on fish (represented by Praniza larvae) and carnivorous amphipods (e.g. Rhachotropis spp., Nicippe tumida) consuming copepods, and the lowest δ 15N values were found for two cumaceans ( Cyclaspis longicaudata and Platysympus typicus) feeding on detritus. Assuming a 15N-enrichment factor of 2.5‰ and deposit feeders as baseline, we found three trophic levels in suprabenthic food webs. δ 13C ranges were particularly wide among deposit feeders (ranging from -21.8% to -17.3‰) and omnivores (from -20.5% to -18.8‰), suggesting exploitation of particulate organic matter (POM) of different characteristics. Our isotopic analyses revealed lower ranges of δ 13C and δ 15N for macrozooplankton/micronekton, compared with suprabenthos. δ 13C values of zooplankton taxa ranged from -21.1

  12. Effects of structural marsh management and salinity on invertebrate prey of waterbirds in marsh ponds during winter on the Gulf Coast Chenier Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolduc, F.; Afton, A.D.

    2003-01-01

    . Furthermore, as predicted, an a priori MANOVA contrast indicated that biomass of a single invertebrate class adapted to low salinity (Oligochaeta, 200 to 999 ??m) was greater in ponds of IF marshes than in those of IO and IM marshes. A canonical correspondence analysis indicated that variation in salinity and O2 penetration best explained differences among sites that maximized biomass of the common invertebrate classes. Salinity was positively correlated with the silt-clay fraction, O2, and O2 penetration, and negatively correlated with water depth, sediment hardness, carbon, and C:N. Nematoda, Foraminifera, and Copepoda generally were associated with UM marsh ponds and high salinity, whereas other invertebrate classes were distributed among impounded marsh ponds and associated with lower salinity. Our results suggest that SMM and salinity have relatively small effects on invertebrate prey of wintering waterbirds in marsh ponds because they affect biomass of Nematoda and Oligochaeta, and few waterbirds consume these invertebrates. ?? 2003, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  13. An Overview of Ecological Processes in the Rio de la Plata Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acha, M.; Mianzan, H.

    2005-05-01

    The Rio de la Plata, one of the most important estuarine environments in South America, is characterized by a salt-wedge regime. Large extension and shallow water depth make the estuary highly susceptible to atmospheric forcing. The estuary is a highly productive area, which sustain important artisanal and coastal fisheries in Uruguay and Argentina, mainly based on the whitemouth croaker, Micropogonias furnieri. The main goal of this paper is to summarize recent knowledge on this system, integrating physical, chemical and biological studies. This estuary is characterized by strong vertical salinity stratification, with marine waters (saltier and denser) penetrating deeper into the estuary along the bottom, while fresh waters advance ocean-ward on the surface, forming a salt wedge. The upstream reach of the salt wedge defines a bottom salinity fronts, whose location is controlled by the topography, a submerged shoal called Barra del Indio and at the opposite area, the convergence between the estuarine and marine waters define a surface salinity front. The convergence of water masses and the strong picnoclines at the head of the salt wedge produce the accumulation and retention of plankton, including the eggs of those fishes that concentrate here to spawn (e.g. Micropogonias furnieri and Brevoortia aurea) and even debris. High turbidity constrains here photosynthetic production and food chains are probably detritus based, supporting high densities of Acartia tonsa (Copepoda) and Neomysis americana (Mysid), both omnivorous species that complete its entire life-cycle within the estuary. In agreement, heterotophic microzooplankton is abundant. Moreover, high deposition of suspended matter support dense beds of the deposit feeding clams Mactra isabelleana. As soon as the water become less turbid, an extremely high chlorophyll signal is observed. The largest portion of the salt wedge regime (more than 200 km) is characterized by dense plankton aggregations below the