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Sample records for caligus rogercresseyi copepoda

  1. In silico characterization of the peptidome of the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi (Crustacea, Copepoda).

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E

    2014-08-01

    Copepods of the order Siphonostomatoida are a major concern for commercial aquaculture as many farmed fish serve as hosts for these parasitic crustaceans. Caligus rogercresseyi, a member of the Siphonostomatoida, is a significant problem for salmonid aquaculture in the Southern Hemisphere, and as such, a search for methods for controlling infestations of it is ongoing. One possibility for biological control of this and other copepod ectoparasites is endocrine manipulation. However, little is known about the native endocrine signaling systems in these animals. As part of an ongoing effort to characterize crustacean ectoparasite peptidergic systems, the publicly accessible C. rogercresseyi transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) was mined for peptide-encoding transcripts. Using the identified TSA sequences, precursor proteins were deduced and their mature peptides predicted. Thirty-three peptide-encoding transcripts were identified within the Caligus TSA dataset, with the structures of 131 distinct peptides characterized from the deduced pre/preprohormones. The predicted peptides included isoforms of allatostatin A, allatostatin B, bursicon α, bursicon β, corazonin, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone, diuretic hormone 31, DXXRLamide, FLRFamide, FXGGXamide, GSEFLamide, insulin-like peptide (ILP), intocin, leucokinin, molt-inhibiting hormone, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F (NPF), orcokinin and tachykinin-related peptide. The predicted ILPs are of particular note as they are the first members of this peptide family identified from a copepod. Similarly, the predicted complement of four distinct NPFs is larger than that known from other crustaceans. Taken collectively, these data greatly expand the known C. rogercresseyi peptidome and provide a foundation for initiating studies of peptidergic control in this species.

  2. Transcriptome survey of the lipid metabolic pathways involved in energy production and ecdysteroid synthesis in the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi (Crustacea: Copepoda).

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Ana Teresa; Farlora, Rodolfo; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2014-10-01

    The goal of this study was to identify and analyze the lipid metabolic pathways involved in energy production and ecdysteroid synthesis in the ectoparasite copepod Caligus rogercresseyi. Massive transcriptome sequencing analysis was performed during the infectious copepodid larval stage, during the attached chalimus larval stage, and also in female and male adults. Thirty genes were selected for describing the pathways, and these were annotated for proteins or enzymes involved in lipid digestion, absorption, and transport; fatty acid degradation; the synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies; and steroid and ecdysteroid syntheses. Differential expression of these genes was analyzed by ontogenic stage and discussed considering each stage's feeding habits and energetic needs. Copepodids showed a low expression of fatty acid digestion genes, reflected by a non-feeding behavior, and the upregulation of genes involved in steroid biosynthesis, which was consistent with a pathway for cholesterol synthesis during ecdysis. The chalimus stage showed an upregulation of genes related to fatty acid digestion, absorption, and transport, as well as to fatty acid degradation and the synthesis of ketone bodies, therefore suggesting that lipids ingested from the mucus and skin of the host fish are metabolized as important sources of energy. Adult females also showed a pattern of high lipid metabolism for energy supply and mobilization in relation to reproduction and vitellogenesis. Adult females and males revealed different lipid metabolism patterns that reflected different energetic needs. This study reports for the first time the probable lipid metabolic pathways involved in the energy production and ecdysteroid synthesis of C. rogercresseyi. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Novel gene isolated from Caligus rogercresseyi: a promising target for vaccine development against sea lice.

    PubMed

    Carpio, Yamila; Basabe, Liliana; Acosta, Jannel; Rodríguez, Alina; Mendoza, Adriana; Lisperger, Angélica; Zamorano, Eugenio; González, Margarita; Rivas, Mario; Contreras, Sergio; Haussmann, Denise; Figueroa, Jaime; Osorio, Verónica N; Asencio, Gladys; Mancilla, Jorge; Ritchie, Gordon; Borroto, Carlos; Estrada, Mario Pablo

    2011-03-24

    Sea lice (Copepoda, Caligidae) are the most widely distributed marine pathogens in the salmon industry in the last 30 years. Caligus rogercresseyi is the most important species affecting Chile's salmon industry. Vaccines against caligid copepods have the potential to be a cost-effective means of controlling the infestation and avoid many of the disadvantages of medicine treatments. However, research in the development of such vaccines has begun only recently and approaches used thus far have met with little or no success. In the present study, we characterized a novel gene (denoted as my32) from C. rogercresseyi which has the highest identity with the Lepeophtheirus salmonis gene akirin-2. To assess the function of the gene an RNA interference experiment was developed and a reduction in the number of ectoparasites on fish in the my32-dsRNA treated group was observed. The recombinant my32 protein was used in a vaccination-challenge trial to evaluate its ability to protect against sea lice infestations. A significant reduction in the number of parasites per fish was observed at 24 days post-challenge. These results, together with the delay observed in the development of parasites from the vaccinated group suggest that the major effect of immunization was on the second parasite generation. The results of these experiments suggest that the my32 protein may be a promising target for vaccine development to control sea lice infestations in fish.

  4. Transcriptomic insights on the ABC transporter gene family in the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Sturm, Armin; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2015-04-09

    ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein family encode for membrane proteins involved in the transport of various biomolecules through the cellular membrane. These proteins have been identified in all taxa and present important physiological functions, including the process of insecticide detoxification in arthropods. For that reason the ectoparasite Caligus rogercresseyi represents a model species for understanding the molecular underpinnings involved in insecticide drug resistance. llumina sequencing was performed using sea lice exposed to 2 and 3 ppb of deltamethrin and azamethiphos. Contigs obtained from de novo assembly were annotated by Blastx. RNA-Seq analysis was performed and validated by qPCR analysis. From the transcriptome database of C. rogercresseyi, 57 putative members of ABC protein sequences were identified and phylogenetically classified into the eight subfamilies described for ABC transporters in arthropods. Transcriptomic profiles for ABC proteins subfamilies were evaluated throughout C. rogercresseyi development. Moreover, RNA-Seq analysis was performed for adult male and female salmon lice exposed to the delousing drugs azamethiphos and deltamethrin. High transcript levels of the ABCB and ABCC subfamilies were evidenced. Furthermore, SNPs mining was carried out for the ABC proteins sequences, revealing pivotal genomic information. The present study gives a comprehensive transcriptome analysis of ABC proteins from C. rogercresseyi, providing relevant information about transporter roles during ontogeny and in relation to delousing drug responses in salmon lice. This genomic information represents a valuable tool for pest management in the Chilean salmon aquaculture industry.

  5. Prohibitin-2 gene reveals sex-related differences in the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi.

    PubMed

    Farlora, Rodolfo; Nuñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2015-06-10

    Prohibitins are evolutionarily conserved proteins present in multiple cellular compartments, and are involved in diverse cellular processes, including steroid hormone transcription and gametogenesis. In the present study, we report for the first time the characterization of the prohibitin-2 (Phb2) gene in the sea lice Caligus rogercresseyi. The CrPhb2 cDNA showed a total length of 1406 bp, which contained a predicted open reading frame (ORF) of 894 base pairs (bp) encoding for 298 amino acids. Multiple sequence alignments of prohibitin proteins from other arthropods revealed a high degree of amino acid sequence conservation. In silico Illumina read counts and RT-qPCR analyses showed a sex-dependent differential expression, with mRNA levels exhibiting a 1.7-fold (RT-qPCR) increase in adult females compared with adult males. A total of nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified, three were located in the 5' UTR of the Phb2 messenger and six in the ORF, but no mutations associated with sex were found. These results contribute to expand the present knowledge of the reproduction-related genes in C. rogercresseyi, and may be useful in future experiments aimed at controlling the impacts of sea lice in fish farming. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Transcriptome mining: Multigene panel to test delousing drug response in the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Muñoz, V; Gallardo-Escárate, C

    2016-02-01

    Controlling infestations of copepodid ectoparasites in the salmon industry is increasingly problematic given higher instances of drug resistance or loss of sensitivity. Despite the importance of this issue, the molecular mechanisms and genes implicated in resistance/susceptibility are only scarcely understood. The objective of the present study was to identify and evaluate the expression levels of candidate genes associated with delousing drug response in the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi. From RNA-seq data obtained for adult male and female sea lice, 62.48 M reads were assembled in 70,349 high-quality contigs. BLASTX analysis against UniprotKB/Swiss-Prot and the ESTs available for crustaceans in the NCBI database identified 870 transcripts previously related to genes associated with delousing drug response. Furthermore, 14 candidate genes were validated through RT-qPCR and were evaluated with deltamethrin and azamethiphos bioassays. The results evidenced an overregulation of genes involved in ion transport in salmon lice treated with deltamethrin, while those treated with azamethiphos evidenced an overregulation of genes such as cytochrome P450, Carboxylesterase, and acetylcholine receptors. The present study provides a multigene panel to test delousing drug response to pyrethroids and organophosphates in a highly prevalent pathogen of the Chilean salmon industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dispersal of Udonella australis (Monogenea: Udonellidae) between caligid copepods Caligus rogercresseyi and Lepeophtheirus mugiloidis on Chilean rock cod.

    PubMed

    Marin, Sandra L; Carvajal, Juan; George-Nascimento, Mario

    2007-04-01

    Udonella australis is a platyhelminth that lives on the surface of the ectoparasite copepods Caligus rogercresseyi and Lepeophtheirus mugiloidis, which coexist on the Chilean rock cod Eleginops maclovinus. The absence of a planktonic oncomiracidium stage in the life cycle of udonellids may limit their dispersal ability. However, the high prevalence and intensity of U. australis on C. rogercresseyi suggest they have developed dispersal strategies to compensate for the lack of a free-living larval stage. The goals of this study were to determine the main dispersal mechanisms of U. australis in 1 copepod species and to compare the dispersal ability of U. australis between 2 different copepod species. Chilean rock cods were infected with female (without udonellids) and male (with and without udonellids) C. rogercresseyi. Other fishes were also infected with this copepod (with U. australis) and with L. mugiloidis (without U. australis). The dispersal of udonellids among copepods occurs through both intraspecific and interspecific processes. The main dispersal mechanism appears to be copepod mating; contact between same-sex individuals is less important. Intraspecific dispersal seems to be more dependent on the number of udonellids per fish than on copepod abundance, as observed for interspecific dispersal.

  8. Uncovering iron regulation with species-specific transcriptome patterns in Atlantic and coho salmon during a Caligus rogercresseyi infestation.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Muñoz, V; Boltaña, S; Gallardo-Escárate, C

    2017-01-11

    Salmon species cultured in Chile evidence different levels of susceptibility to the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi. These differences have mainly been associated with specific immune responses. Moreover, iron regulation seems to be an important mechanism to confer immunity during the host infestation. This response called nutritional immunity has been described in bacterial infections, despite that no comprehensive studies involving in marine ectoparasites infestation have been reported. With this aim, we analysed the transcriptome profiles of Atlantic and coho salmon infected with C. rogercresseyi to evidence modulation of the iron metabolism as a proxy of nutritional immune responses. Whole transcriptome sequencing was performed in samples of skin and head kidney from Atlantic and coho salmon infected with sea lice. RNA-seq analyses revealed significant upregulation of transcripts in both salmon species at 7 and 14 dpi in skin and head kidney, respectively. However, iron regulation transcripts were differentially modulated, evidencing species-specific expression profiles. Genes related to heme degradation and iron transport such as hepcidin, transferrin and haptoglobin were primary upregulated in Atlantic salmon; meanwhile, in coho salmon, genes associated with heme biosynthesis were strongly transcribed. In summary, Atlantic salmon, which are more susceptible to infestation, presented molecular mechanisms to deplete cellular iron availability, suggesting putative mechanisms of nutritional immunity. In contrast, resistant coho salmon were less affected by sea lice, mainly activating pro-inflammatory mechanisms to cope with infestation.

  9. Insights into the olfactory system of the ectoparasite Caligus rogercresseyi: molecular characterization and gene transcription analysis of novel ionotropic receptors.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Marambio, Jorge Pino; Wadsworth, Simon; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2014-10-01

    Although various elements of the olfactory system have been elucidated in insects, it remains practically unstudied in crustaceans at a molecular level. Among crustaceans, some species are classified as ectoparasites that impact the finfish aquaculture industry. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify and comprehend the signaling pathways used by these in host recognition. The present study, through RNA-seq and qPCR analyses, found novel transcripts involved in the olfactory system of Caligus rogercresseyi, in addition to the transcriptomic patterns expressed during different stages of salmon lice development. From a transcriptomic library generated by Illumina sequencing, contigs that annotated for ionotropic receptors and other genes implicated in the olfactory system were identified and extracted. Full length mRNA was obtained for the ionotropic glutamate receptor 25, which had 3923 bp, and for the glutamate receptor ionotropic kainate 2, which had 2737 bp. Furthermore, two other transcripts identified as glutamate receptor, ionotropic kainate 2-like were found. In silico analysis was performed for the transcription expression from different stages of development in C. rogercresseyi, and clusters according to RPKM values were constructed. Gene transcription data were validated through qPCR assays in ionotropic receptors, and showed an expression of glutamate receptor 25 associated with the copepodid stage whereas adults, especially male adults, were associated with the kainate 2 and kainate 2-like transcripts. Additionally, gene transcription analysis of the ionotropic receptors showed an overexpression in response to the presence of masking compounds and immunostimulant in salmon diets. This response correlated to a reduction in sea lice infection following in vivo challenge. Diets with masking compounds showed a decrease of lice infestation of up to 25%. This work contributes to the available knowledge on chemosensory systems in this ectoparasite, providing

  10. Stress response of Salmo salar (Linnaeus 1758) when heavily infested by Caligus rogercresseyi (Boxshall & Bravo 2000) copepodids.

    PubMed

    González, Margarita P; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Marín, Sandra L

    2016-02-01

    The year-round presence of ovigerous females of the parasite Caligus rogercresseyi in the fish farms of southern Chile results in a continuous source of the copepodid (infestive) stage of this louse. The short generation time in spring-summer could lead to high abundances of this copepodid, potentially leading to high infestation levels for fish. Knowing how heavy lice infestations affect Salmo salar can help determine how to time antiparasitic treatments so as to both minimize the treatment impact and reduce lice infestation levels for fish. This study aimed to describe the effects of high infestations of the copepodid stage of C. rogercresseyi on the physiology of S. salar. Two groups of S. salar were used: an infested group (75 copepodids per fish) and a control group (not infested). Sixty-five days after the first infestation, the infested fish group was re-infested at an infestation pressure of 200 copepodids per fish. Sampling was done prior to and following the second infestation, at 56 and 67 days (the latter 2 days following the second infestation). Several physiological variables were measured: cortisol (primary stress response) and glucose, proteins, amino acids, triglycerides, lactate, osmolality levels, and number and diameter of skin mucous cells (secondary stress responses). The plasma cortisol, glucose, and triglyceride levels were altered in the heavily infested fish, as was the diameter of skin mucous cells. These results suggest that heavy infestations of C. rogercresseyi lead to an acute stress response, metabolic reorganization, and increased mucus production in S. salar under heavy infestation conditions.

  11. Aquaporin family genes exhibit developmentally-regulated and host-dependent transcription patterns in the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi.

    PubMed

    Farlora, Rodolfo; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Chávez-Mardones, Jacqueline; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2016-07-01

    Aquaporins are small integral membrane proteins that function as pore channels for the transport of water and other small solutes across the cell membrane. Considering the important roles of these proteins in several biological processes, including host-parasite interactions, there has been increased research on aquaporin proteins recently. The present study expands on the knowledge of aquaporin family genes in parasitic copepods, examining diversity and expression during the ontogeny of the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi. Furthermore, aquaporin expression was evaluated during the early infestation of Atlantic (Salmo salar) and Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Deep transcriptome sequencing data revealed eight full length and two partial open reading frames belonging to the aquaporin protein family. Clustering analyses with identified Caligidae sequences revealed three major clades of aquaglyceroporins (Cr-Glp), classical aquaporin channels (Cr-Bib and Cr-PripL), and unorthodox aquaporins (Cr-Aqp12-like). In silico analysis revealed differential expression of aquaporin genes between developmental stages and between sexes. Male-biased expression of Cr-Glp1_v1 and female-biased expression of Cr-Bib were further confirmed in adults by RT-qPCR. Additionally, gene expressions were measured for seven aquaporins during the early infestation stage. The majority of aquaporin genes showed significant differential transcription expressions between sea lice parasitizing different hosts, with Atlantic salmon sea lice exhibiting overall reduced expression as compared to Coho salmon. The observed differences in the regulation of aquaporin genes may reveal osmoregulatory adaptations associated with nutrient ingestion and metabolite waste export, exposing complex host-parasite relationships in C. rogercresseyi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Transcriptome immunomodulation of in-feed additives in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar infested with sea lice Caligus rogercresseyi.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Gonçalves, Ana Teresa; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Pino-Marambio, Jorge; Wadsworth, Simon; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2015-11-01

    One of the most significant threats to the Chilean salmon aquaculture industry is the ectoparasitic sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi. To cope with sea lice infestations, functional diets have become an important component in strengthening the host immune response. The aim of this study was to evaluate molecular mechanisms activated through immunostimulation by in-feed plant-derived additives in Atlantic salmon infected with sea lice. Herein, a transcriptome-wide sequencing analysis was performed from skin and head kidney tissues, evidencing that the immune response genes were the most variable after the challenge, especially in the head kidney, while other genes involved in metabolism were highly expressed individuals fed with the immunostimulants. Interestingly, defensive enzymes such as Cytochrome p450 and serpins were down-regulated in infested individuals, especially in skin tissue. Additionally, MHC-I and MHC-II genes were differentially expressed after the incorporation of the in-feed additives, giving some cues about the protection mechanisms of plant-derived compound as immunostimulants for infested salmons. This is the first published study that evaluates the transcriptomic response of sea lice-infested Atlantic salmon fed with in-feed additives.

  13. Iron metabolism modulation in Atlantic salmon infested with the sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus rogercresseyi: A matter of nutritional immunity?

    PubMed

    Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2017-01-01

    Sea lice are copepodid ectoparasites that produce high economic losses and environmental issues, thus impacting the salmon aquaculture worldwide. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from Northern and Southern Hemispheres are primarily parasitized by Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus rogercresseyi, respectively. To cope L. salmonis infestation, studies suggest that Atlantic salmon can restrict iron availability as a mechanism of nutritional immunity. However, no molecular studies of iron regulation from salmonids infected with C. rogercresseyi have been reported. The aim of this study was to determine if there are differences in the regulation of iron metabolism in Atlantic salmon infested with L. salmonis or C. rogercresseyi. For comparisons, skin and head kidney were profiled using qPCR of 15 genes related to iron regulation in Atlantic salmons infected with each sea louse species in Norway and Chile, respectively. Prior to infestation, no significant differences were observed between fish group. However, genes involved in iron transport and Heme biosynthesis were highly upregulated in Atlantic salmon infested with L. salmonis. Interestingly, hepcidin and Heme oxygenase, a component of the Heme degradation pathway, were upregulated during C. rogercresseyi infestation. Oxidative stress related genes were also evaluated, showing higher transcription activity in the head kidney than in the skin of Atlantic salmon infested with L. salmonis. These comparative results suggest pathogen-specific responses in infected Atlantic salmon, where iron metabolism is primarily regulated during the infestation with L. salmonis than C. rogercresseyi. Feeding behavior, for instance haematophagy, of the infesting sea lice species in relation to iron modulation is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Deltamethrin resistance in the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi (Boxhall and Bravo) in Chile: bioassay results and usage data for antiparasitic agents with references to Norwegian conditions.

    PubMed

    Helgesen, K O; Bravo, S; Sevatdal, S; Mendoza, J; Horsberg, T E

    2014-10-01

    The sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi is a major threat to Chilean salmonid farming. Pyrethroids have been used for anticaligus treatments since 2007, but have shown reduced effect, most likely due to resistance development. Pyrethroid resistance is also a known problem in Lepeophtheirus salmonis in the Northern Hemisphere. This study describes the development of deltamethrin resistance in C. rogercresseyi based on bioassays and usage data for pyrethroids in Chilean aquaculture. These results were compared to bioassays from L. salmonis from Norway and to Norwegian usage data. Available deltamethrin bioassay results from 2007 and 2008, as well as bioassays from Norway, were collected and remodelled. Bioassays were performed on field-collected sea lice in region X in Chile in 2012 and 2013. Bioassays from 2007 were performed prior to the introduction of pyrethroids to the Chilean market. Both the results from 2008 and 2012 showed an increased resistance. Increased pyrethroid resistance was also indicated by the increased use of pyrethroids in Chilean aquaculture compared with the production of salmonids. A similar trend was seen in the Norwegian usage data. The bioassay results from Chile from 2012 and 2013 also indicated a difference in the susceptibility to deltamethrin between male and female caligus. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Evidence for the Induction of Key Components of the NOTCH Signaling Pathway via Deltamethrin and Azamethiphos Treatment in the Sea Louse Caligus rogercresseyi

    PubMed Central

    Boltaña, Sebastian; Chávez-Mardones, Jaqueline; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    The extensive use of organophosphates and pyrethroids in the aquaculture industry has negatively impacted parasite sensitivity to the delousing effects of these antiparasitics, especially among sea lice species. The NOTCH signaling pathway is a positive regulator of ABC transporter subfamily C expression and plays a key role in the generation and modulation of pesticide resistance. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind pesticide resistance, partly due to the lack of genomic and molecular information on the processes involved in the resistance mechanism of sea lice. Next-generation sequencing technologies provide an opportunity for rapid and cost-effective generation of genome-scale data. The present study, through RNA-seq analysis, determined that the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi (C. rogercresseyi) specifically responds to the delousing drugs azamethiphos and deltamethrin at the transcriptomic level by differentially activating mRNA of the NOTCH signaling pathway and of ABC genes. These results suggest that frequent antiparasitic application may increase the activity of inhibitory mRNA components, thereby promoting inhibitory NOTCH output and conditions for increased resistance to delousing drugs. Moreover, data analysis underscored that key functions of NOTCH/ABC components were regulated during distinct phases of the drug response, thus indicating resistance modifications in C. rogercresseyi resulting from the frequent use of organophosphates and pyrethroids. PMID:27187362

  16. Stress response of Salmo salar (Linnaeus 1758) facing low abundance infestation of Caligus rogercresseyi (Boxshall & Bravo 2000), an object in the tank, and handling.

    PubMed

    González Gómez, M P; Marín Arribas, S L; Vargas-Chacoff, L

    2016-07-01

    This study looks at how low infestation loads of adult Caligus rogercresseyi and other stressors affect the physiology of Salmo salar. Experimental fish groups were with (infested) or without (control) exposure to the parasite. The parasite cohort was followed for 78 days post-infestation (dpi), and only adult lice were observed. Additional stressors were applied at 60 and 75 dpi. The analysis included measurements of fish physiology and weight. Low-level infestations by adult C. rogercresseyi for more than 50 dpi induced moderate stress in S. salar as well as a high energy demand and increased small skin mucous cells. Threshold lice loads were identified, and above those loads, a high stress response was observed. Additional stressors altered fish physiology, inducing downregulation of the cortisol response after the first stressor and upregulation after the second stressor, but infested fish responded more strongly. Parasitism by C. rogercresseyi is energetically demanding, affecting the primary and secondary responses (e.g. cortisol and glucose levels), as well as the tertiary response (fish weight).

  17. Evidence for the Induction of Key Components of the NOTCH Signaling Pathway via Deltamethrin and Azamethiphos Treatment in the Sea Louse Caligus rogercresseyi.

    PubMed

    Boltaña, Sebastian; Chávez-Mardones, Jaqueline; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2016-05-12

    The extensive use of organophosphates and pyrethroids in the aquaculture industry has negatively impacted parasite sensitivity to the delousing effects of these antiparasitics, especially among sea lice species. The NOTCH signaling pathway is a positive regulator of ABC transporter subfamily C expression and plays a key role in the generation and modulation of pesticide resistance. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms behind pesticide resistance, partly due to the lack of genomic and molecular information on the processes involved in the resistance mechanism of sea lice. Next-generation sequencing technologies provide an opportunity for rapid and cost-effective generation of genome-scale data. The present study, through RNA-seq analysis, determined that the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi (C. rogercresseyi) specifically responds to the delousing drugs azamethiphos and deltamethrin at the transcriptomic level by differentially activating mRNA of the NOTCH signaling pathway and of ABC genes. These results suggest that frequent antiparasitic application may increase the activity of inhibitory mRNA components, thereby promoting inhibitory NOTCH output and conditions for increased resistance to delousing drugs. Moreover, data analysis underscored that key functions of NOTCH/ABC components were regulated during distinct phases of the drug response, thus indicating resistance modifications in C. rogercresseyi resulting from the frequent use of organophosphates and pyrethroids.

  18. Disease resistance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): coinfection of the intracellular bacterial pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis and the sea louse Caligus rogercresseyi.

    PubMed

    Lhorente, Jean Paul; Gallardo, José A; Villanueva, Beatriz; Carabaño, María J; Neira, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Naturally occurring coinfections of pathogens have been reported in salmonids, but their consequences on disease resistance are unclear. We hypothesized that 1) coinfection of Caligus rogercresseyi reduces the resistance of Atlantic salmon to Piscirickettsia salmonis; and 2) coinfection resistance is a heritable trait that does not correlate with resistance to a single infection. In total, 1,634 pedigreed Atlantic salmon were exposed to a single infection (SI) of P. salmonis (primary pathogen) or coinfection with C. rogercresseyi (secondary pathogen). Low and high level of coinfection were evaluated (LC = 44 copepodites per fish; HC = 88 copepodites per fish). Survival and quantitative genetic analyses were performed to determine the resistance to the single infection and coinfections. C. rogercresseyi significantly increased the mortality in fish infected with P. salmonis (SI mortality = 251/545; LC mortality = 544/544 and HC mortality = 545/545). Heritability estimates for resistance to P. salmonis were similar and of medium magnitude in all treatments (h2SI = 0.23 ± 0.07; h2LC = 0.17 ± 0.08; h2HC = 0.24 ± 0.07). A large and significant genetic correlation with regard to resistance was observed between coinfection treatments (rg LC-HC = 0.99 ± 0.01) but not between the single and coinfection treatments (rg SI-LC = -0.14 ± 0.33; rg SI-HC = 0.32 ± 0.34). C. rogercresseyi, as a secondary pathogen, reduces the resistance of Atlantic salmon to the pathogen P. salmonis. Resistance to coinfection of Piscirickettsia salmonis and Caligus rogercresseyi in Atlantic salmon is a heritable trait. The absence of a genetic correlation between resistance to a single infection and resistance to coinfection indicates that different genes control these processes. Coinfection of different pathogens and resistance to coinfection needs to be considered in future research on salmon farming, selective breeding and conservation.

  19. Disease Resistance in Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar): Coinfection of the Intracellular Bacterial Pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis and the Sea Louse Caligus rogercresseyi

    PubMed Central

    Lhorente, Jean Paul; Gallardo, José A.; Villanueva, Beatriz; Carabaño, María J.; Neira, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Background Naturally occurring coinfections of pathogens have been reported in salmonids, but their consequences on disease resistance are unclear. We hypothesized that 1) coinfection of Caligus rogercresseyi reduces the resistance of Atlantic salmon to Piscirickettsia salmonis; and 2) coinfection resistance is a heritable trait that does not correlate with resistance to a single infection. Methodology In total, 1,634 pedigreed Atlantic salmon were exposed to a single infection (SI) of P. salmonis (primary pathogen) or coinfection with C. rogercresseyi (secondary pathogen). Low and high level of coinfection were evaluated (LC = 44 copepodites per fish; HC = 88 copepodites per fish). Survival and quantitative genetic analyses were performed to determine the resistance to the single infection and coinfections. Main Findings C. rogercresseyi significantly increased the mortality in fish infected with P. salmonis (SI mortality = 251/545; LC mortality = 544/544 and HC mortality = 545/545). Heritability estimates for resistance to P. salmonis were similar and of medium magnitude in all treatments (h2SI = 0.23±0.07; h2LC = 0.17±0.08; h2HC = 0.24±0.07). A large and significant genetic correlation with regard to resistance was observed between coinfection treatments (rg LC-HC = 0.99±0.01) but not between the single and coinfection treatments (rg SI-LC = −0.14±0.33; rg SI-HC = 0.32±0.34). Conclusions/Significance C. rogercresseyi, as a secondary pathogen, reduces the resistance of Atlantic salmon to the pathogen P. salmonis. Resistance to coinfection of Piscirickettsia salmonis and Caligus rogercresseyi in Atlantic salmon is a heritable trait. The absence of a genetic correlation between resistance to a single infection and resistance to coinfection indicates that different genes control these processes. Coinfection of different pathogens and resistance to coinfection needs to be considered in future research on salmon

  20. Identification and functional expression of a glutamate- and avermectin-gated chloride channel from Caligus rogercresseyi, a southern Hemisphere sea louse affecting farmed fish.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, Isabel; Andrini, Olga; Niemeyer, María Isabel; Marabolí, Vanessa; González-Nilo, F Danilo; Teulon, Jacques; Sepúlveda, Francisco V; Cid, L Pablo

    2014-09-01

    Parasitic sea lice represent a major sanitary threat to marine salmonid aquaculture, an industry accounting for 7% of world fish production. Caligus rogercresseyi is the principal sea louse species infesting farmed salmon and trout in the southern hemisphere. Most effective control of Caligus has been obtained with macrocyclic lactones (MLs) ivermectin and emamectin. These drugs target glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCl) and act as irreversible non-competitive agonists causing neuronal inhibition, paralysis and death of the parasite. Here we report the cloning of a full-length CrGluClα receptor from Caligus rogercresseyi. Expression in Xenopus oocytes and electrophysiological assays show that CrGluClα is activated by glutamate and mediates chloride currents blocked by the ligand-gated anion channel inhibitor picrotoxin. Both ivermectin and emamectin activate CrGluClα in the absence of glutamate. The effects are irreversible and occur with an EC(50) value of around 200 nM, being cooperative (n(H) = 2) for ivermectin but not for emamectin. Using the three-dimensional structure of a GluClα from Caenorabditis elegans, the only available for any eukaryotic ligand-gated anion channel, we have constructed a homology model for CrGluClα. Docking and molecular dynamics calculations reveal the way in which ivermectin and emamectin interact with CrGluClα. Both drugs intercalate between transmembrane domains M1 and M3 of neighbouring subunits of a pentameric structure. The structure displays three H-bonds involved in this interaction, but despite similarity in structure only of two these are conserved from the C. elegans crystal binding site. Our data strongly suggest that CrGluClα is an important target for avermectins used in the treatment of sea louse infestation in farmed salmonids and open the way for ascertaining a possible mechanism of increasing resistance to MLs in aquaculture industry. Molecular modeling could help in the design of new, more efficient

  1. Identification and Functional Expression of a Glutamate- and Avermectin-Gated Chloride Channel from Caligus rogercresseyi, a Southern Hemisphere Sea Louse Affecting Farmed Fish

    PubMed Central

    Niemeyer, María Isabel; Marabolí, Vanessa; González-Nilo, F. Danilo; Teulon, Jacques; Sepúlveda, Francisco V.; Cid, L. Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic sea lice represent a major sanitary threat to marine salmonid aquaculture, an industry accounting for 7% of world fish production. Caligus rogercresseyi is the principal sea louse species infesting farmed salmon and trout in the southern hemisphere. Most effective control of Caligus has been obtained with macrocyclic lactones (MLs) ivermectin and emamectin. These drugs target glutamate-gated chloride channels (GluCl) and act as irreversible non-competitive agonists causing neuronal inhibition, paralysis and death of the parasite. Here we report the cloning of a full-length CrGluClα receptor from Caligus rogercresseyi. Expression in Xenopus oocytes and electrophysiological assays show that CrGluClα is activated by glutamate and mediates chloride currents blocked by the ligand-gated anion channel inhibitor picrotoxin. Both ivermectin and emamectin activate CrGluClα in the absence of glutamate. The effects are irreversible and occur with an EC50 value of around 200 nM, being cooperative (nH = 2) for ivermectin but not for emamectin. Using the three-dimensional structure of a GluClα from Caenorabditis elegans, the only available for any eukaryotic ligand-gated anion channel, we have constructed a homology model for CrGluClα. Docking and molecular dynamics calculations reveal the way in which ivermectin and emamectin interact with CrGluClα. Both drugs intercalate between transmembrane domains M1 and M3 of neighbouring subunits of a pentameric structure. The structure displays three H-bonds involved in this interaction, but despite similarity in structure only of two these are conserved from the C. elegans crystal binding site. Our data strongly suggest that CrGluClα is an important target for avermectins used in the treatment of sea louse infestation in farmed salmonids and open the way for ascertaining a possible mechanism of increasing resistance to MLs in aquaculture industry. Molecular modeling could help in the design of new, more efficient

  2. Next-Generation Transcriptome Profiling of the Salmon Louse Caligus rogercresseyi Exposed to Deltamethrin (AlphaMax™): Discovery of Relevant Genes and Sex-Related Differences.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Mardones, Jacqueline; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2015-12-01

    Sea lice are one of the main parasites affecting the salmon aquaculture industry, causing significant economic losses worldwide. Increased resistance to traditional chemical treatments has created the need to find alternative control methods. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify the transcriptome response of the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi to the delousing drug deltamethrin (AlphaMax™). Through bioassays with different concentrations of deltamethrin, adult salmon lice transcriptomes were sequenced from cDNA libraries in the MiSeq Illumina platform. A total of 78 million reads for females and males were assembled in 30,212 and 38,536 contigs, respectively. De novo assembly yielded 86,878 high-quality contigs and, based on published data, it was possible to annotate and identify relevant genes involved in several biological processes. RNA-seq analysis in conjunction with heatmap hierarchical clustering evidenced that pyrethroids modify the ectoparasitic transcriptome in adults, affecting molecular processes associated with the nervous system, cuticle formation, oxidative stress, reproduction, and metabolism, among others. Furthermore, sex-related transcriptome differences were evidenced. Specifically, 534 and 1033 exclusive transcripts were identified for males and females, respectively, and 154 were shared between sexes. For males, estradiol 17-beta-dehydrogenase, sphingolipid delta4-desaturase DES1, ketosamine-3-kinase, and arylsulfatase A, among others, were discovered, while for females, vitellogenin 1, glycoprotein G, transaldolase, and nitric oxide synthase were among those identified. The shared transcripts included annotations for tropomyosin, γ-crystallin A, glutamate receptor-metabotropic, glutathione S-transferase, and carboxipeptidase B. The present study reveals that deltamethrin generates a complex transcriptome response in C. rogercresseyi, thus providing valuable genomic information for developing new delousing drugs.

  3. Transcriptome analysis of the couch potato (CPO) protein reveals an expression pattern associated with early development in the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi.

    PubMed

    Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Nuñez-Acuña, Gustavo; Chávez-Mardones, Jacqueline; Maldonado-Aguayo, Waleska

    2014-02-15

    The couch potato (CPO) protein is a key biomolecule involved in regulating diapause through the RNA-binding process of the peripheral and central nervous systems in insects and also recently discovered in a few crustacean species. As such, ectoparasitic copepods are interesting model species that have no evidence of developmental arrest. The present study is the first to report on the cloning of a putative CPO gene from the salmon louse Caligus rogercresseyi (CrCPO), as identified by high-throughput transcriptome sequencing. In addition, the transcription expression in larvae and adults was evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR. The CrCPO cDNA sequence showed 3261 base pairs (bp), consisting of 713bp of 5' UTR, 1741bp of 3' UTR, and an open reading frame of 807bp encoding for 268 amino acids. The highly conserved RNA binding regions RNP2 (LFVSGL) and RNP1 (SPVGFVTF), as well the dimerization site (LEF), were also found. Furthermore, eight single nucleotide polymorphisms located in the untranslated regions and one located in the coding region were detected. Gene transcription analysis revealed that CrCPO has ubiquitous expression across larval stages and in adult individuals, with the highest expression from nauplius to copepodid stages. The present study suggests a putative biological function of CrCPO associated with the development of the nervous system in salmon lice and contributes molecular evidence for candidate genes related to host-parasite interactions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The caligid life cycle: new evidence from Lepeophtheirus elegans reconciles the cycles of Caligus and Lepeophtheirus (Copepoda: Caligidae).

    PubMed

    Maran, Balu Alagar Venmathi; Moon, Seong Yong; Ohtsuka, Susumu; Oh, Sung-Yong; Soh, Ho Young; Myoung, Jung-Goo; Iglikowska, Anna; Boxshall, Geoffrey Allan

    2013-01-01

    The developmental stages of the sea louse Lepeophtheirus elegans (Copepoda: Caligidae) are described from material collected from marine ranched Korean rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii. In L. elegans, setal number on the proximal segment of the antennule increases from 3 in the copepodid to 27 in the adult. Using the number of setae as a stage marker supports the inference that the post-naupliar phase of the life cycle comprises six stages: copepodid, chalimus I, chalimus II, pre-adult I, pre-adult II, and the adult. We observed variation in body length in both of the chalimus stages which we consider represents an early expression of sexual size dimorphism. We interpret the larger specimens of chalimus I as putative females, and the smaller as putative males; similarly with chalimus II, larger specimens are putative females and the smaller are males. Two patterns of life cycle are currently recognized within the Caligidae but the evidence presented here reconciles the two. We conclude that the typical caligid life cycle comprises only eight stages: two naupliar, one copepodid, and four chalimus stages preceding the adult in Caligus, but with the four chalimus stages represented by two chalimus and two pre-adult stages in Lepeophtheirus. This is a profound change with significant implications for the aquaculture industry, given that lice monitoring protocols include counts of chalimus stages and use temperature to predict when they will moult into the more pathogenic, mobile pre-adults. Lice management strategies must be tailored to the precise life cycle of the parasite. © B. Venmathi Maran et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2013.

  5. The caligid life cycle: new evidence from Lepeophtheirus elegans reconciles the cycles of Caligus and Lepeophtheirus (Copepoda: Caligidae)

    PubMed Central

    Venmathi Maran, Balu Alagar; Moon, Seong Yong; Ohtsuka, Susumu; Oh, Sung-Yong; Soh, Ho Young; Myoung, Jung-Goo; Iglikowska, Anna; Boxshall, Geoffrey Allan

    2013-01-01

    The developmental stages of the sea louse Lepeophtheirus elegans (Copepoda: Caligidae) are described from material collected from marine ranched Korean rockfish, Sebastes schlegelii. In L. elegans, setal number on the proximal segment of the antennule increases from 3 in the copepodid to 27 in the adult. Using the number of setae as a stage marker supports the inference that the post-naupliar phase of the life cycle comprises six stages: copepodid, chalimus I, chalimus II, pre-adult I, pre-adult II, and the adult. We observed variation in body length in both of the chalimus stages which we consider represents an early expression of sexual size dimorphism. We interpret the larger specimens of chalimus I as putative females, and the smaller as putative males; similarly with chalimus II, larger specimens are putative females and the smaller are males. Two patterns of life cycle are currently recognized within the Caligidae but the evidence presented here reconciles the two. We conclude that the typical caligid life cycle comprises only eight stages: two naupliar, one copepodid, and four chalimus stages preceding the adult in Caligus, but with the four chalimus stages represented by two chalimus and two pre-adult stages in Lepeophtheirus. This is a profound change with significant implications for the aquaculture industry, given that lice monitoring protocols include counts of chalimus stages and use temperature to predict when they will moult into the more pathogenic, mobile pre-adults. Lice management strategies must be tailored to the precise life cycle of the parasite. PMID:23647664

  6. Caligus sclerotinosus (Copepoda: Caligidae), a serious pest of cultured red seabream Pagrus major (Sparidae) in Korea.

    PubMed

    Venmathi Maran, B A; Oh, Sung-Yong; Soh, Ho Young; Choi, Hee Jung; Myoung, Jung-Goo

    2012-09-10

    Caligid copepods (Crustacea) known as sea lice are pests of cultured fish, causing serious diseases and economic losses in fish aquaculture worldwide. One species, Caligus sclerotinosus Roubal, Armitage & Rohde, 1983 (Caligidae), is considered a serious pest of the highly prized red seabream Pagrus major (Temminck and Schlegel, 1843) (Sparidae) cultured in Japan. Recently, in neighboring Korea, red seabream culture has intensified and almost replaced yellow tail culture. However, until now, there have been no reports on infection of this sea louse from red seabream in Korea. We surveyed 120 (20 fish per month) P. major from a sea ranched Tongyeong Marine Research Center aquaculture facility, Gyeongsangnamdo, Korea for six months in 2011 (June to November). We recorded severe infection by the sea louse C. sclerotinosus on the skin of P. major. Prevalence was 100%, mean intensity 7.06, maximum intensity 49, and minimum intensity 2. Adult females (624), males (219) and few chalimi (5) were observed and identified by their morphology. As an average of all our collections, less than 0.6% of individuals were chalimi. We suggest, therefore, that adults of C. sclerotinosus undergo ontogenetic host switching after their final moult. No infection of C. sclerotinosus was found on wild P. major collected from Tongyeong and Yeosu fish markets on the southern coast of Korea. Severe infection by this sea louse may cause secondary infections of the host. This copepod is already reported from Australia and Japan and hence, this is the first report from Korea. We expect this pest to have an impact on Korean red seabream fisheries equally serious to that being experienced in Japan.

  7. The discovery of the male of Caligus ligusticus Brian, 1906 (Copepoda: Caligidae) parasitic on the sand steenbras Lithognathus mormyrus (L.) in the eastern Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Demirkale, İbrahim; Özak, Argun Akif; Boxshall, Geoffrey Allan

    2015-05-01

    Caligus ligusticus Brian, 1906 (Copepoda: Caligidae), a species of parasitic copepod originally based on females collected from off Genova, Italy, is redescribed based on newly collected specimens of both sexes. The new material was collected from the inner opercular surface of the sand steenbras Lithognathus mormyrus (Linnaeus) caught in eastern Mediterranean waters off the Turkish coast. Inadequately described female structures from earlier descriptions are re-described and illustrated in detail and the male of C. ligusticus is described for the first time. Key diagnostic characters of C. ligusticus are highlighted by scanning electron microscopy observations. A comparative study of the newly collected specimens of C. ligusticus and material collected by A. Brian and stored in the collections of the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris, is also presented.

  8. Response of Caligus rogercresseyi (Boxshall & Bravo, 2000) to treatment with Hydrogen Peroxide: Recovery of parasites, fish infestation and egg viability under experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Marín, S L; González, M P; Madariaga, S T; Mancilla, M; Mancilla, J

    2017-09-17

    Hydrogen peroxide (HP) is used to remove C. rogercresseyi from fish but little is known about its effect on this species. This study determined EC50 and concentration immobilizing 100% of specimens, capacity of parasites exposed to HP to recover and infest fish, and effect on survival into the copepodid stage. EC50 and concentration immobilizing 100% of specimens were estimated by exposing parasites for 20 min to 11 concentrations and evaluating effect at 1 and 24 h post-exposure. Capacity to recover and infest fish, and survival into copepodid were evaluated by exposing parasites and eggs to HP for 20 min. Recovery and fish infestation were evaluated at 25 and 24 h post-exposure, respectively. Eggs were grown until control reached the copepodid stage and survival calculated. EC50 was 709.8 ppm.100% immobilization was obtained at 825 ppm. Male and female recover 0.5 and 1 h post-exposure, respectively. Percentage of parasites exposed and not exposed to HP that were recovered on fish was not significantly different. Survival to copepodid was lower in those exposed to HP. HP effect is greater on copepodids, but 100% of the mobile stages are immobilized under 825 ppm causing detachment from fish and potentially driven away, reducing infestation risk. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A new species of Caligus Müller, 1785 (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Caligidae) from coral reef plankton in the Mexican Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Gasca, Rebeca

    2016-10-11

    During a survey of the zooplankton community of a protected reef system on the southern coast of the Mexican Caribbean, many female and male specimens of an undescribed species of Caligus Müller, 1785 were collected. The new species closely resembles C. wilsoni Delamare Deboutteville & Nunez-Ruivo, 1958 and C. belones (Krøyer, 1863) and has affinities with C. balistae Steenstrup & Lütken, 1861 and C. longipedis Bassett-Smith, 1898, all known from the Caribbean Sea and adjacent waters of the north-western Atlantic Ocean. Caligus ilhoikimi sp. nov., is described in full and illustrations of both sexes are also provided. The new species differs from C. wilsoni and C. belones in several features, including the shape of the sternal furca, the shape and proportions of the genital complex and abdomen, the lack of accessory processes on the distal elements of leg 1 exopod, and the presence of a lateral spine on the third exopodal segment of leg 2. This is the seventh species of Caligus known from waters of the Atlantic seaboard of Mexico and the 32nd species of the genus recorded in Mexican waters. The specimens were caught with a plankton light trap. The unusually high number of individuals captured and the fact that the sample was monospecific (i.e. only adults of this caligid species were collected) suggests that it is a chiefly planktonic form. This is a mode of life recently revealed as being more common among caligids than previously thought.

  10. Caligus fajerae n. sp. (Copepoda: Caligidae) parasitic on the Pacific sierra Scomberomurus sierra Jordan & Starks (Actinopterygii: Scombridae) in the Pacific Ocean off Mexico.

    PubMed

    Morales-Serna, Francisco Neptalí; Oceguera-Figueroa, Alejandro; Tang, Danny

    2017-09-11

    A new species of parasitic copepod, Caligus fajerae n. sp. (Caligidae), is described from Scomberomorus sierra Jordan & Starks (Scombridae) caught off the northwestern coast of Mexico. The new species morphologically resembles Caligus cybii Bassett-Smith, 1898, Caligus kanagurta Pillai, 1961, Caligus pelamydis Krøyer, 1863 and Caligus robustus Bassett-Smith, 1898, all of which have been reported from scombrid hosts. Caligus fajerae n. sp. differs from these species by having spinules on the abdomen and caudal ramus, two processes on the proximal antennulary segment, fine striations on the claw of the antenna and maxilliped, a stouter and more recurved maxillulary dentiform process, shorter tines on the sternal furca, two additional patches of spinules on the distal endopodal segment of leg 2, a sclerotised lobe on the anteromedian surface of the leg 3 protopod and serrations on both margins of the first exopodal spine of leg 3. Analysis of the DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene for Caligus fajerae n. sp. and 28 congeners, including C. pelamydis and C. robustus, showed that the new species grouped with Caligus belones Krøyer, 1863 (with 20% divergence), a species known to occur predominantly on needlefishes. Caligus fajerae n. sp. is the fifth species of Caligus reported from S. sierra. An updated host-parasite list for Caligus spp. on scombrids is provided.

  11. A new species of Caligus (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida) from the plankton of the Caribbean coast of Venezuela with a key to species

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Camisotti, Humberto; Martín, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Abstract During a survey of the zooplankton community of Bahía Amuay, Venezuelan Caribbean, specimens of an undescribed species of Caligus Müller were collected. It resembles Caligus xystercus Cressey and Caligus ocyurus Cressey, both known only from the Caribbean Sea. The new species can be distinguished from these and other congeners by a combination of characters including the armature of legs 1 and 4, but mainly by its unique female genital complex. This is the first species of Caligus described from Venezuela. The species is described in full and a key to the species of the genus recorded in Venezuela is provided. PMID:22768004

  12. The discovery of Caligus macrurus Heller, 1865 (Copepoda: Caligidae) in the Mediterranean Sea, and the recognition of Sciaenophilus van Beneden, 1852 as a junior synonym of Caligus Müller, 1785.

    PubMed

    Özak, Argun Akif; Yanar, Alper; Boxshall, Geoffrey Allan

    2017-01-01

    The siphonostomatoid parasitic copepod Caligus macrurus Heller, 1865 is redescribed based on new material collected from the gill filaments and pharynx of tripletail Lobotes surinamensis Bloch (Lobotidae) caught in Iskenderun Bay, Turkey. Key diagnostic characters and newly observed taxonomic features are reported, supported by light and scanning electron microscopy observations. This is the first report of C. macrurus from Mediterranean waters. Caligus macrurus is also recognised as conspecific with the better known Caligus bennetti Causey, 1953, found on the same host, which becomes a junior subjective synonym of C. macrurus. Caligus O.F. Müller, 1785 and Sciaenophilus van Beneden, 1852 have both been treated as valid genera within the family Caligidae although numerous doubts have been expressed over the validity of the latter. The morphological evidence does not support generic level distinction and we recommend the transfer of all species currently placed in Sciaenophilus into Caligus as C. tenuis (van Beneden, 1852), C. pharaonis von Nordmann, 1832, C. nibeae Shen, 1957 and C. macrurus.

  13. Caligus lini n.sp., a new caligid (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida) parasitic on the brilliant pomfret Eumegistus illustris Jordan & Jordan (Perciformes, Bramidae) of Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ju-Shey; Cheng, Yu-Rong

    2016-02-10

    Caligus lini n.sp., a new species of caligid copepod parasitic on the gill rakers and caudal fin of the brilliant pomfret, Eumegistus illustris Jordan & Jordan (Perciformes, Bramidae), is described from fish caught off Tai-Dong, Taiwan. The new species differs from its congeners by its possession of the following, unique combination of features: (1) middle two elements at the tip of leg 1 simple (without accessory process), (2) innermost element shortest and smallest of the four terminal elements on leg 1, (3) leg 4 exopod with an armature formula of I,III, and (4) complex leg 5 represented by 2 seta-bearing processes, a simple anterior process tipped with 1 plumose seta and quadripartite posterior process carrying 3 setae (1 simple and 2 plumose). The new species differs from its closest congener, Caligus tylosuri (Rangnekar, 1956), in the structure of the middle two elements (simple without carrying accessory process) at the tip of leg 1 and a quadripartite (instead of tripartite) posterior process on leg 5.

  14. Epidemiological description of the sea lice (Caligus rogercresseyi) situation in southern Chile in August 2007.

    PubMed

    Hamilton-West, Christopher; Arriagada, Gabriel; Yatabe, Tadaishi; Valdés, Pablo; Hervé-Claude, Luis Pablo; Urcelay, Santiago

    2012-05-01

    Salmon sea lice represent one of the most important threats to salmon farming throughout the world. Results of private monitoring efforts have shown an increase in the number of positive cages and cage-level abundance of sea lice in southern Chile since 2004. As a consequence, the Chilean Fisheries Service implemented an Official Surveillance Program in the main salmon production area of southern Chile to assess the situation of sea lice in fish farms. Results showed that the prevalence of sea lice in the fish farms was 53.4%, ranging from 3.5% in Puerto Aysén to 100% in the Seno de Reloncaví zone. The average sea lice abundance was 11.8 per fish (Geometrical mean (GM)=8.61, 95% CI (2.1-6.9)). The highest levels were found in Seno de Reloncaví (GM=24.99, 95% CI (15.9-39.2)), Hornopirén (GM=14.7, 95% CI (10.4-20.8)) and Chiloé norte (GM=9.75, 95% CI (1-1.9)), and the lowest loads were observed in Puerto Aysén (GM=1.35, 95%CI (1-1.9)) and Puerto Cisnes (GM=1.67, 95%CI (1.1-2.6)). Salmo salar and Oncorhynchus mykiss had the highest abundance levels (GM=6.93, 95% CI (5.7-8.5), and (GM=5.55, 95% CI (3.6-8.5), respectively). O. kisutch showed lower levels (GM=1.34, 95% CI (1-1.7)), apparently being more resistant to infestation. Sea lice in farmed salmon are widely distributed in different zones of southern Chile, and are becoming a serious threat to this industry. Prevalence and abundance levels were found to be generally high, decreasing in southern zones.

  15. New records of sea lice (Copepoda: Caligidae) from marine fishes in Jaramijó, an area with potential for sea-cage aquaculture in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Morales-Serna, Francisco Neptali; Caña-Bozada, Víctor; Mera-Loor, Geormery; Loor-Andrade, Peggy; Fajer-Ávila, Emma J; Ho, Ju-Shey

    2015-02-20

    Farming of finfish in sea cages is gaining popularity worldwide. These systems are a suitable environment for the emergence, establishment and transmission of parasites or pathogens, such as sea lice (Copepoda: Caligidae), known to cause serious diseases and economic losses in finfish aquaculture worldwide. In coastal waters of Jaramijó, Ecuador, there are plans to culture spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus) and longfin yellowtail (Seriola rivoliana); however, the information about the occurrence of sea lice on fish from this country is scarce. To address this problem, a parasitological survey of economically important fish caught by artisanal fishermen was conducted between June 2013 and May 2014. A total of 608 fish belonging to 66 species were examined. Sea lice were found on 23 fish species. The diversity of these parasites consisted of 22 species of Caligus and 5 species of Lepeophtheirus. Most sea lice species (66%) occurred in a single fish species only, with low infection levels. The most frequently encountered species were Caligus asperimanus Pearse, 1951, Caligus mutabilis Wilson, 1905 and Caligus rufimaculatus Wilson, 1905. Taxonomic remarks are presented for some of the species recorded during this survey. All but two sea lice records are new to Ecuador, considerably expanding the geographical range of some species.

  16. New records of parasitic copepods (Crustacea, Copepoda) from marine fishes in the Argentinean Sea.

    PubMed

    Paula, Cantatore Delfina María; Elizabeth, Braicovich Paola; Julia, Alarcos Ana; Laura, Lanfranchi Ana; Alejandra, Rossin María; Gustavo, Vales Damián; Tomás, Timi Juan

    2012-03-01

    Increasing knowledge of the biodiversity of parasitic copepods in the Argentinean Sea will provide a baseline against which changes in the distribution of marine biota can be detected. We provide new information on the distribution of 13 known species of parasitic copepods gathered from 11 species of marine fishes from Argentinean Sea, including 7 new host records and 9 new locality records. These species are: Bomolochus globiceps (Vervoort et Ramírez, 1968) and Nothobomolochus cresseyi Timi et Sardella, 1997 (Bomolochidae Sumpf, 1871); Brasilochondria riograndensis Thatcher et Pereira, 2004 (Chondracanthidae Milne Edwards, 1840); Taeniacanthus lagocephali Pearse, 1952 (Taeniacanthidae Wilson, 1911); Caligus rogercresseyi Boxshall et Bravo, 2000 and Metacaligus uruguayensis (Thomsen, 1949) (Caligidae Burmeister, 1835); Hatschekia conifera Yamaguti, 1939 (Hatschekiidae Kabata, 1979); Clavellotis pagri (Krøyer, 1863), Clavella adunca (Strøm, 1762), Clavella bowmani Kabata, 1963 and Parabrachiella amphipacifica Ho, 1982 (Lernaeopodidae Milne Edwards, 1840), and Lernanthropus leidyi Wilson, 1922 and Lernanthropus caudatus Wilson, 1922 (Lernanthropidae Kabata, 1979). A list of host species lacking parasitic copepods, for which large samples were investigated by the authors, is also provided in order to compare in future surveys.

  17. Fauna of Cladocera and Copepoda from Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (China).

    PubMed

    Chertoprud, Elena S; Sinev, Artem Y; Dimante-Deimantovica, Inta

    2017-05-03

    This study evaluates the species composition of Cladocera and Copepoda in the five lakes of the Bogda-Shan Mountain range and in the floodplain of the Tarim and Konchedarya rivers located in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China (Xinjiang). We collected seven species of Cladocera and six species of Copepoda. Seven species were identified as new for Xinjiang fauna, and two species (Cyclops cf. herberti Einsle, 1996, and Eucyclops roseus Ishida, 1997) were first records for China. Herein, we characterize the distribution ranges for the detected species and provide taxonomic remarks. The total species list for water bodies in Xinjiang compiled from original data and available literature includes 56 species of Cladocera and 33 species of Copepoda. We also discuss the biogeographical structure of Cladocera and Copepoda faunas in Xinjiang.

  18. Complete mitochondrial genome of Lernaea cyprinacea (Copepoda: Cyclopoida).

    PubMed

    Su, Ying-Bing; Wang, Li-Xia; Kong, Sheng-Chao; Chen, Lu; Fang, Rui

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Lernaea cyprinacea is 14,656 bp in size, containing 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes, two rRNA genes (12S and 16S), as well as two non-coding regions (NCRs, the control regions). The genome organization, nucleotide composition and codon usage do not differ significantly from other Copepodas. The complete mitogenome sequence information of L. cyprinacea provides useful data for further studies on phylogenetics, stock evaluation and conservation genetics.

  19. New records of Caligidae (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida) from the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Maran, Balu Alagar Venmathi; Cruz-Lacierda, Erlinda R; Ohtsuka, Susumu; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2016-10-11

    Parasitic copepods, especially sea lice (Caligidae) are causing economic problems in both aquaculture and to wild fishes around the world, but their study in at least some of the southeastern Asian countries, is still scanty. Here we provide new information on the distribution of 11 known species of parasitic copepods collected from 11 marine fish hosts from Iloilo, central part of the Philippines. Two species of the genus Anuretes Heller, 1865 and nine species of the genus Caligus Müller, 1785 were found to infest these hosts, i.e. Anuretes branchialis Rangnekar, 1953 from Platax orbicularis (Forsskål, 1775); A. plectorhynchi Yamaguti, 1936 from P. orbicularis and Plectorhinchus pictus (Tortonese, 1936); Caligus absens Ho, Lin et Chen, 2000 from Priacanthus macracanthus Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1829; C. asymmetricus Kabata, 1965 and C. coryphaenae (Steenstrup & Lütken, 1861) from Auxis thazard (Lacepède, 1800); C. bonito Wilson, 1905 from Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus, 1758; C. cordyla Pillai, 1963 from Megalaspis cordyla (Linnaeus, 1758); C. cornutus Heegaard, 1962 from Sphyraena jello Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1829; C. epinepheli Yamaguti, 1936 from Scomberoides commersonnianus Lacepède, 1801; C. kanagurta Pillai, 1961 from Decapterus kurroides Bleeker, 1855, D. macarellus (Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1833) and C. hippurus; and C. rotundigenitalis Yü, 1933 from Scatophagus argus (Linnaeus, 1766). Attachment sites included the gill filaments and the body surface. Prevalence and mean intensity of caligids are provided in addition to an update on the checklist of caligids of the Philippines. Although reports on caligids in the Philippines are few, the published records indicate that sea lice are widely distributed throughout the archipelago.

  20. Molecular Phylogeny and Revision of Copepod Orders (Crustacea: Copepoda).

    PubMed

    Khodami, Sahar; McArthur, J Vaun; Blanco-Bercial, Leocadio; Martinez Arbizu, Pedro

    2017-08-22

    For the first time, the phylogenetic relationships between representatives of all 10 copepod orders have been investigated using 28S and 18S rRNA, Histone H3 protein and COI mtDNA. The monophyly of Copepoda (including Platycopioida Fosshagen, 1985) is demonstrated for the first time using molecular data. Maxillopoda is rejected, as it is a polyphyletic group. The monophyly of the major subgroups of Copepoda, including Progymnoplea Lang, 1948 (=Platycopioida); Neocopepoda Huys and Boxshall, 1991; Gymnoplea Giesbrecht, 1892 (=Calanoida Sars, 1903); and Podoplea Giesbrecht, 1892, are supported in this study. Seven copepod orders are monophyletic, including Platycopioida, Calanoida, Misophrioida Gurney, 1933; Monstrilloida Sars, 1901; Siphonostomatoida Burmeister, 1834; Gelyelloida Huys, 1988; and Mormonilloida Boxshall, 1979. Misophrioida (=Propodoplea Lang, 1948) is the most basal Podoplean order. The order Cyclopoida Burmeister, 1835, is paraphyletic and now encompasses Poecilostomatoida Thorell, 1859, as a sister to the family Schminkepinellidae Martinez Arbizu, 2006. Within Harpacticoida Sars, 1903, both sections, Polyarthra Lang, 1948, and Oligoarthra Lang, 1948, are monophyletic, but not sister groups. The order Canuelloida is proposed while maintaining the order Harpacticoida s. str. (Oligoarthra). Cyclopoida, Harpacticoida and Cyclopinidae are redefined, while Canuelloida ordo. nov., Smirnovipinidae fam. nov. and Cyclopicinidae fam. nov are proposed as new taxa.

  1. On the occurrence of caligids (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida) in the marine plankton: a review and checklist.

    PubMed

    Maran, Balu Alagar Venmathi; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Ohtsuka, Susumu; Soh, Ho Young; Hwang, Ui Wook

    2016-10-11

    Members of the copepod genus Caligus Müller, 1785 (Siphonostomatoida: Caligidae) are commonly referred to as sea lice. Virtually all of the more than 450 species utilize marine fishes as hosts, however, an increasing number of records from marine plankton samples shows that at least some species reside in the water column during their adult phase. Members of three different genera, Caligus, Lepeophtheirus von Nordmann, 1832, and Metacaligus Thomsen, 1949 have been reported from plankton samples off eastern Asia and in the north-western Atlantic. Thirteen species have so far been consistently reported from the plankton only with no information on their hosts. Here we review the various hypotheses previously proposed to explain the presence of caligids in the water column, i.e. accidental occurrence, behavioral detachment from the host during mate location, and host-switching. The discovery of adults of two species of Caligus with no other developmental stages on their teleost hosts, suggests an ontogenetic host-switching after the final molt since both species also occurred in plankton samples. A checklist of all caligid records from the marine plankton, including known host data, is presented.

  2. Phylogenomic analysis of Copepoda (Arthropoda, Crustacea) reveals unexpected similarities with earlier proposed morphological phylogenies.

    PubMed

    Eyun, Seong-Il

    2017-01-19

    Copepods play a critical role in marine ecosystems but have been poorly investigated in phylogenetic studies. Morphological evidence supports the monophyly of copepods, whereas interordinal relationships continue to be debated. In particular, the phylogenetic position of the order Harpacticoida is still ambiguous and inconsistent among studies. Until now, a small number of molecular studies have been done using only a limited number or even partial genes and thus there is so far no consensus at the order-level. This study attempted to resolve phylogenetic relationships among and within four major copepod orders including Harpacticoida and the phylogenetic position of Copepoda among five other crustacean groups (Anostraca, Cladocera, Sessilia, Amphipoda, and Decapoda) using 24 nuclear protein-coding genes. Phylogenomics has confirmed the monophyly of Copepoda and Podoplea. However, this study reveals surprising differences with the majority of the copepod phylogenies and unexpected similarities with postembryonic characters and earlier proposed morphological phylogenies; More precisely, Cyclopoida is more closely related to Siphonostomatoida than to Harpacticoida which is likely the most basally-branching group of Podoplea. Divergence time estimation suggests that the origin of Harpacticoida can be traced back to the Devonian, corresponding well with recently discovered fossil evidence. Copepoda has a close affinity to the clade of Malacostraca and Thecostraca but not to Branchiopoda. This result supports the hypothesis of the newly proposed clades, Communostraca, Multicrustacea, and Allotriocarida but further challenges the validity of Hexanauplia and Vericrustacea. The first phylogenomic study of Copepoda provides new insights into taxonomic relationships and represents a valuable resource that improves our understanding of copepod evolution and their wide range of ecological adaptations.

  3. Microcrustaceans (Branchipoda and Copepoda) of Wetland Impoundments on the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    DeBiase, Adrienne E; Taylor, Barbara E

    2005-09-21

    The United States Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina, contains an abundance of freshwater wetlands and impoundments. Four large impoundments, as well as several small, abandoned farm and mill ponds, and about 400 Carolina bays and other small, isolated depression wetland ponds are located within the 893 km2 area of the SRS. Crustaceans of the orders Branchiopoda and Copepoda are nearly ubiquitous in these water bodies. Although small in size, these organisms are often very abundant. They consequently play an important trophic role in freshwater food webs supporting fish, larval salamanders, larval insects, and numerous other animals, aquatic and terrestrial. This report provides an introduction to the free-living microcrustaceans of lentic water bodies on the SRS and a comprehensive list of species known to occur there. Occurrence patterns are summarized from three extensive survey studies, supplemented with other published and unpublished records. In lieu of a key, we provide a guide to taxonomic resources and notes on undescribed species. Taxa covered include the orders Cladocera, Anostraca, Laevicaudata, and Spinicaudata of the Subclass Branchiopoda and the Superorders Calanoida and Cyclopoida of Subclass Copepoda. Microcrustaceans of the Superorder Harpacticoida of the Subclass Copepoda and Subclass Ostracoda are also often present in lentic water bodies. They are excluded from this report because they have not received much study at the species level on the SRS.

  4. Spatial distribution and secondary production of Copepoda in a tropical reservoir: Barra Bonita, SP, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos-Wisniewski, M J; Rocha, O

    2007-05-01

    The present paper aims to describe the spatial distribution of zooplankton copepods, their biomass and instantaneous secondary production, in Barra Bonita, a large eutrophic, polymitic reservoir (22 degrees 29' S and 48 degrees 34' W) on the Tietê River, of the Paraná basin. Sampling was carried out during two seasons: dry winter and rainy summer. Species composition, age structure and numerical density of each copepod species population were analyzed at 25 sampling stations. Secondary production was calculated for Copepoda, the dominant group in zooplankton communities, taking Calanoida and Cyclopoida separately. Copepoda represented the largest portion of the total zooplankton biomass, the dominant species being Notodiaptomus iheringi among the Calanoida and Mesocyclops ogunnus and Thermocyclops decipiens among the Cyclopoida. The production of Copepoda was higher during the rainy summer (23.61 mgDW.m(-3).d(-1) in January 1995) than during the dry winter season (14 mgDW.m(-3).d(-1) in August 1995), following the general pattern of abundance for the whole zooplankton community. Among the copepods, Cyclopoida production was higher than that of Calanoida, a pattern commonly observed for tropical lakes and reservoirs. Barra Bonita copepods are very productive, but there was a great degree of spatial heterogeneity, related to the physical and chemical conditions, particularly the level of nutrients and also to phytoplankton biomass.

  5. An evaluation of the duration of efficacy of emamectin benzoate in the control of Caligus curtus Müller infestations in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L.

    PubMed

    Hamre, L A; Lunestad, B T; Hannisdal, R; Samuelsen, O B

    2011-06-01

    The duration of efficacy of emamectin benzoate in the control of Caligus curtus infestations in Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L., was studied following an administration of 50 μg kg⁻¹ for seven consecutive days. No lice were found on medicated fish when challenged 1 week (challenge 1) or 5 weeks (challenge 2) following termination of medication, whereas the mean abundance of lice among the unmedicated fish was 17.9 and 19.3 lice per fish in challenge 1 and 2, respectively. Muscle concentrations of 19.5 ± 8.2 ng g⁻¹ and 3.4 ± 0.9 ng g⁻¹, respectively, and skin concentrations of 23.1 ± 10.8 and 4.2 ± 1.0 ng g⁻¹, respectively, were found 27 and 55 days following the termination of medication. Tissue concentrations and the duration of efficacy indicate a dosing regime for emamectin in cod, similar to the regime used for Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Screening of candidate genes encoding proteins expressed in pectoral fins of fugu Takifugu rubripes, in relation to habitat site of parasitic copepod Caligus fugu, using suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Tasumi, Satoshi; Norshida, Ismail; Boxshall, Geoffrey A; Kikuchi, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Yuzuru; Ohtsuka, Susumu

    2015-05-01

    Caligus fugu is a parasitic copepod specific to the tetraodontid genus Takifugu including the commercially important Takifugu rubripes. Despite the rapid accumulation of knowledge on other aspects of its biology, the host and settlement-site recognition mechanisms of this parasite are not yet well understood. Since the infective copepodid stage shows preferential site selection in attaching to the fins, we considered it likely that the copepodid recognizes chemical cues released or leaking from the fins, and/or transmembrane protein present on the fins. To isolate molecules potentially related to attachment site specificity, we applied suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) PCR by identifying genes expressed more highly in pectoral fins of T. rubripes than in the body surface skin. We sequenced plasmid DNA from 392 clones in a SSH library. The number of non-redundant sequences was 276, which included 135 sequences located on 117 annotated genes and 141 located in positions where no genes had been annotated. We characterized those annotated genes on the basis of gene ontology terms, and found that 46 of the identified genes encode secreted proteins, enzymes or membrane proteins. Among them nine showed higher expression in the pectoral fins than in the skin. These could be candidate genes for involvement in behavioral mechanisms related to the site specificity shown by the infective copepodids of C. fugu.

  7. Akirins in sea lice: first steps towards a deeper understanding.

    PubMed

    Carpio, Yamila; García, Claudia; Pons, Tirso; Haussmann, Denise; Rodríguez-Ramos, Tania; Basabe, Liliana; Acosta, Jannel; Estrada, Mario Pablo

    2013-10-01

    Sea lice (Copepoda, Caligidae) are the most widely distributed marine pathogens in the salmon industry. Vaccination could be an environmentally friendly alternative for sea lice control; however, research on the development of such vaccines is still at an early stage of development. Recent results have suggested that subolesin/akirin/my32 are good candidate antigens for the control of arthropod infestations, including sea lice, but background knowledge about these genes in crustaceans is limited. Herein, we characterize the my32 gene/protein from two important sea lice species, Caligus rogercresseyi and Lepeophtheirus salmonis, based on cDNA sequence isolation, phylogenetic relationships, three dimensional structure prediction and expression analysis. The results show that these genes/proteins have the main characteristics of akirins from invertebrates. In addition, immunization with purified recombinant my32 from L. salmonis elicited a specific antibody response in mice and fish. These results provide an improvement to our current knowledge about my32 proteins and their potential use as vaccine candidates against sea lice in fish. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Metazoan parasite communities of rock cod Eleginops maclovinus along southern Chilean coast and their use as biological tags at a local spatial scale.

    PubMed

    Henriquez, V P; Gonzalez, M T; Licandeo, R; Carvajal, J

    2011-12-01

    The composition of the metazoan parasite fauna of the rock cod Eleginops maclovinus from three locations in southern Chile was compared to assess the local spatial variation of the community component of their parasitic faunas. A total of 13 108 metazoan parasites (5267 endoparasites and 7841 ectoparasites) belonging to 34 taxa were collected from 268 specimens of E. maclovinus between October 2008 and March 2009. The populations and community quantitative descriptors were estimated. Altogether, 97.4% of the fish were infected with at least one parasite taxon. The most prevalent species were Hypoechinorhynchus magellanicus (Acanthocephala), Caligus rogercresseyi, Lepeophtheirus mugiloides, Clavella adunca (Copepoda) and Similascarophis sp. (Nematoda). Five species are new records for this host: Argulus araucanus, Hirudinea gen. sp1., Hirudinea gen. sp2., Benedenia sp. and Camallanidae gen. sp. A linear discriminant analysis (LDA) showed that the metazoan parasite fauna of E. maclovinus varied qualitatively and quantitatively among three locations, with 89.7% of fish being correctly assigned to their respective locations. This suggested that parasites could be a reliable tool to discriminate individual fish from geographically close locations. There was a weak relationship between the parasite fauna and fish size and there were no accumulations of parasites in the host over time, which could be associated with ontogenetic changes of diet associated with habitat use. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  9. Bioinformatic analyses of the publicly accessible crustacean expressed sequence tags (ESTs) reveal numerous novel neuropeptide-encoding precursor proteins, including ones from members of several little studied taxa.

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E; Durkin, Christopher S; Hartline, Niko; Ohno, Paul; Lenz, Petra H

    2010-05-15

    ESTs have been generated for many crustacean species, providing an invaluable resource for peptide discovery in members of this arthropod subphylum. Here, these data were mined for novel peptide-encoding transcripts, with the mature peptides encoded by them predicted using a combination of online peptide prediction programs and homology to known arthropod sequences. In total, 70 mature full-length/partial peptides representing members of 16 families/subfamilies were predicted, the vast majority being novel; the species from which the peptides were identified included members of the Branchiopoda (Daphnia carinata and Triops cancriformis), Maxillopoda (Caligus clemensi, Caligus rogercresseyi, Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Lernaeocera branchialis) and Malacostraca (Euphausia superba, Marsupenaeus japonicus, Penaeus monodon, Homarus americanus, Petrolisthes cinctipes, Callinectes sapidus and Portunus trituberculatus). Of particular note were the identifications of an intermediate between the insect adipokinetic hormones and crustacean red pigment concentrating hormone and a modified crustacean cardioactive peptide from the daphnid D. carinata; Arg(7)-corazonin was also deduced from this species, the first identification of a corazonin from a non-decapod crustacean. Our data also include the first reports of members of the calcitonin-like diuretic hormone, FMRFamide-related peptide (neuropeptide F subfamily) and orcokinin families from members of the Copepoda. Moreover, the prediction of a bursicon alpha from the euphausid E. superba represents the first peptide identified from any member of the basal eucaridean order Euphausiacea. In addition, large collections of insect eclosion hormone- and neuroparsin-like peptides were identified from a variety of species, greatly expanding the number of known members of these families in crustaceans.

  10. Survey of the metazoan ectoparasites of the European flounder Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758) along the north-central Portuguese coast.

    PubMed

    Cavaleiro, Francisca I; Santos, Maria J

    2007-10-01

    A survey was undertaken to identify metazoan ectoparasite species on the European flounder, Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758), in 4 different locations off the north-central Portuguese coast. Parasites of 7 different taxa were found: Caligus diaphanus, Caligus sp., and Lepeophtheirus pectoralis (Copepoda: Caligidae); Acanthochondria cornuta (Copepoda: Chondracanthidae); Holobomolochus confusus (Copepoda: Bomolochidae); Nerocila orbignyi (Isopoda: Cymotholdae); and praniza larvae (Isopoda: Gnathiidae). Lernaeocera branchialis, a common European flounder parasite in the North and Baltic Seas, was not observed among the surveyed fish. Caligus diaphanus, Caligus sp., and Nerocila orbignyi are new host records. The high prevalence and intensity values recorded for L. pectoralis and A. cornuta suggest that both parasite species are common to the European flounder along the north-central Portuguese coast. In contrast, infection levels with respect to the other parasite taxa were, in most cases, comparatively lower, thereby indicating that they only occur occasionally among flounders in the surveyed area.

  11. Leaf litter copepods from a cloud forest mountain top in Honduras (Copepoda: Cyclopidae, Canthocamptidae).

    PubMed

    Fiers, Frank; Jocque, Merlijn

    2013-01-01

    Five different species of Copepoda were extracted from a leaf litter sample collected on the top (at 2000 m a.s.l.) of a cloud forested mountain in El Cusuco National Park, Honduras. Three of them, one Cyclopidae and two Canthocamptidae are new to science, and are described herein. Olmeccyclops hondo sp. nov. is the second representative thus far known of this New World genus. Moraria catracha sp. nov. and Moraria cusuca sp. nov. are the first formally described members of the genus occurring in Central America. The concept of a "Moraria-group" is considered to be an artificial grouping and is limited here to the genera Moraria and Morariopsis only. The distributional range of this group is essentially Holarctic, with the mountainous regions in Honduras, and probably in west Nicaragua, as the southernmost limits in the New World.

  12. Microcrustaceans (Branchiopoda and Copepoda) of Wetland Ponds and Impoundments on the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Adrienne E. DeBiase; Barbara E. Taylor

    2005-09-21

    The United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, Allendale, and Barnwell Counties, South Carolina, contains an abundance of freshwater wetlands and impoundments. Four large impoundments, as well as several small, abandoned farm and mill ponds, and about 400 Carolina bays and other small, isolated depression wetland ponds are located within the 893 km2 area of the SRS. Crustaceans of the orders Branchiopoda and Copepoda are nearly ubiquitous in these water bodies. Although small in size, these organisms are often very abundant. They consequently play an important trophic role in freshwater food webs supporting fish, larval salamanders, larval insects, and numerous other animals, aquatic and terrestrial. This report provides an introduction to the free-living microcrustaceans of lentic water bodies on the SRS and a comprehensive list of species known to occur there. Occurrence patterns are summarized from three extensive survey studies, supplemented with other published and unpublished records. In lieu of a key, we provide a guide to taxonomic resources and notes on undescribed species. Taxa covered include the orders Cladocera, Anostraca, Laevicaudata, and Spinicaudata of the Subclass Branchiopoda and the Superorders Calanoida and Cyclopoida of Subclass Copepoda. Microcrustaceans of the Superorder Harpacticoida of the Subclass Copepoda and Subclass Ostracoda are also often present in lentic water bodies. They are excluded from this report because they have not received much study at the species level on the SRS.

  13. Space-time cluster analysis of sea lice infestation (Caligus clemensi and Lepeophtheirus salmonis) on wild juvenile Pacific salmon in the Broughton Archipelago of Canada.

    PubMed

    Patanasatienkul, Thitiwan; Sanchez, Javier; Rees, Erin E; Pfeiffer, Dirk; Revie, Crawford W

    2015-06-15

    Sea lice infestation levels on wild chum and pink salmon in the Broughton Archipelago region are known to vary spatially and temporally; however, the locations of areas associated with a high infestation level had not been investigated yet. In the present study, the multivariate spatial scan statistic based on a Poisson model was used to assess spatial clustering of elevated sea lice (Caligus clemensi and Lepeophtheirus salmonis) infestation levels on wild chum and pink salmon sampled between March and July of 2004 to 2012 in the Broughton Archipelago and Knight Inlet regions of British Columbia, Canada. Three covariates, seine type (beach and purse seining), fish size, and year effect, were used to provide adjustment within the analyses. The analyses were carried out across the five months/datasets and between two fish species to assess the consistency of the identified clusters. Sea lice stages were explored separately for the early life stages (non-motile) and the late life stages of sea lice (motile). Spatial patterns in fish migration were also explored using monthly plots showing the average number of each fish species captured per sampling site. The results revealed three clusters for non-motile C. clemensi, two clusters for non-motile L. salmonis, and one cluster for the motile stage in each of the sea lice species. In general, the location and timing of clusters detected for both fish species were similar. Early in the season, the clusters of elevated sea lice infestation levels on wild fish are detected in areas closer to the rivers, with decreasing relative risks as the season progresses. Clusters were detected further from the estuaries later in the season, accompanied by increasing relative risks. In addition, the plots for fish migration exhibit similar patterns for both fish species in that, as expected, the juveniles move from the rivers toward the open ocean as the season progresses The identification of space-time clustering of infestation on wild

  14. Site selection of Acanthochondria cornuta (Copepoda: Chondracanthidae) in Platichthys flesus (Teleostei: Pleuronectidae).

    PubMed

    Cavaleiro, F I; Santos, M J

    2011-07-01

    Acanthochondria cornuta (Copepoda: Chondracanthidae) (N=4841; prevalence: 80·0%; mean±s.d. [range] intensity: 28·8±24·0 [1-110] parasites) infected the branchial chambers of the European flounder, Platichthys flesus (L.), (N=210) according to an established spatial pattern. This was independent of host size. Higher intensities resulted, most frequently, in higher numbers of infection sites, probably due to increased intraspecific competition. Preferential infection of the ocular side was supported by the recorded abundance data and reflected, probably, the fish's bottom-dwelling behaviour. As the parasite develops from one stage into another, it seems to migrate towards different sites: the copepodites and pre-adult females occurred, mainly, in the holobranchs; the adults preferred the internal wall (non-gravid/post-gravid females; adult males) or the pseudobranchs (gravid females). The ventilating water current along with the blood supply are suggested as 2 major factors in determining parasite spatial distribution within the chamber. Parasite crowding in a restricted and narrow space of the posterior region of the internal wall was recorded frequently and resembled that previously reported for the plaice. Differences to other host-parasite systems previously studied should relate with the anatomy of the respiratory apparatus. Bigamous females are reported for the first time.

  15. Phylogenetic information content of Copepoda ribosomal DNA repeat units: ITS1 and ITS2 impact.

    PubMed

    Zagoskin, Maxim V; Lazareva, Valentina I; Grishanin, Andrey K; Mukha, Dmitry V

    2014-01-01

    The utility of various regions of the ribosomal repeat unit for phylogenetic analysis was examined in 16 species representing four families, nine genera, and two orders of the subclass Copepoda (Crustacea). Fragments approximately 2000 bp in length containing the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) 18S and 28S gene fragments, the 5.8S gene, and the internal transcribed spacer regions I and II (ITS1 and ITS2) were amplified and analyzed. The DAMBE (Data Analysis in Molecular Biology and Evolution) software was used to analyze the saturation of nucleotide substitutions; this test revealed the suitability of both the 28S gene fragment and the ITS1/ITS2 rDNA regions for the reconstruction of phylogenetic trees. Distance (minimum evolution) and probabilistic (maximum likelihood, Bayesian) analyses of the data revealed that the 28S rDNA and the ITS1 and ITS2 regions are informative markers for inferring phylogenetic relationships among families of copepods and within the Cyclopidae family and associated genera. Split-graph analysis of concatenated ITS1/ITS2 rDNA regions of cyclopoid copepods suggested that the Mesocyclops, Thermocyclops, and Macrocyclops genera share complex evolutionary relationships. This study revealed that the ITS1 and ITS2 regions potentially represent different phylogenetic signals.

  16. Phylogenetic Information Content of Copepoda Ribosomal DNA Repeat Units: ITS1 and ITS2 Impact

    PubMed Central

    Zagoskin, Maxim V.; Lazareva, Valentina I.; Grishanin, Andrey K.; Mukha, Dmitry V.

    2014-01-01

    The utility of various regions of the ribosomal repeat unit for phylogenetic analysis was examined in 16 species representing four families, nine genera, and two orders of the subclass Copepoda (Crustacea). Fragments approximately 2000 bp in length containing the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) 18S and 28S gene fragments, the 5.8S gene, and the internal transcribed spacer regions I and II (ITS1 and ITS2) were amplified and analyzed. The DAMBE (Data Analysis in Molecular Biology and Evolution) software was used to analyze the saturation of nucleotide substitutions; this test revealed the suitability of both the 28S gene fragment and the ITS1/ITS2 rDNA regions for the reconstruction of phylogenetic trees. Distance (minimum evolution) and probabilistic (maximum likelihood, Bayesian) analyses of the data revealed that the 28S rDNA and the ITS1 and ITS2 regions are informative markers for inferring phylogenetic relationships among families of copepods and within the Cyclopidae family and associated genera. Split-graph analysis of concatenated ITS1/ITS2 rDNA regions of cyclopoid copepods suggested that the Mesocyclops, Thermocyclops, and Macrocyclops genera share complex evolutionary relationships. This study revealed that the ITS1 and ITS2 regions potentially represent different phylogenetic signals. PMID:25215300

  17. Establishment of two invasive crustaceans (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) on the nearshore sands of Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Horvath, Thomas G.; Whitman, Richard L.; Last, Laurel L.

    2001-01-01

    Benthic copepods (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) in the nearshore sediments of southern Lake Michigan appear to be dominated by two new invasive species. We report the first occurrence in North America of Schizopera borutzkyi Montschenko, a native to the Danube River delta, and Heteropsyllus nr. nunni, likely a new species that is morphologically similar to the marine species Heteropsyllus nunni and represents the first occurrence of this genus in freshwater. Schizopera borutzkyi is a euryhaline species occurring in shallow sands in its native habitat and in deeper sands (6-15 m) in southern Lake Michigan. Based on the absence of these species from previous studies, we suggest that they are recent introductions. Heteropsyllus nr. nunni dominated (55-100%) the harpacticoid abundance to depths of 9 m, but S. borutzkyi comprised 75% of the harpacticoid abundance at 15 m. Native harpacticoids were always greatly outnumbered by invasive harpacticoids in our samples, which suggests that the natives are being replaced rapidly or that the invasive species are finding unused resources. The ecological implications of these introductions are not known, but these invasions may represent continued 'invasional meltdown' in Lake Michigan.

  18. The complete mitochondrial genome of Arctic Calanus hyperboreus (Copepoda, Calanoida) reveals characteristic patterns in calanoid mitochondrial genome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghee; Lim, Byung-Jin; Min, Gi-Sik; Choi, Han-Gu

    2013-05-10

    Copepoda is the most diverse and abundant group of crustaceans, but its phylogenetic relationships are ambiguous. Mitochondrial (mt) genomes are useful for studying evolutionary history, but only six complete Copepoda mt genomes have been made available and these have extremely rearranged genome structures. This study determined the mt genome of Calanus hyperboreus, making it the first reported Arctic copepod mt genome and the first complete mt genome of a calanoid copepod. The mt genome of C. hyperboreus is 17,910 bp in length and it contains the entire set of 37 mt genes, including 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, and 22 tRNAs. It has a very unusual gene structure, including the longest control region reported for a crustacean, a large tRNA gene cluster, and reversed GC skews in 11 out of 13 protein-coding genes (84.6%). Despite the unusual features, comparing this genome to published copepod genomes revealed retained pan-crustacean features, as well as a conserved calanoid-specific pattern. Our data provide a foundation for exploring the calanoid pattern and the mechanisms of mt gene rearrangement in the evolutionary history of the copepod mt genome.

  19. Taxonomic resolutions based on 18S rRNA genes: a case study of subclass copepoda.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shu; Xiong, Jie; Yu, Yuhe

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity studies are commonly conducted using 18S rRNA genes. In this study, we compared the inter-species divergence of variable regions (V1-9) within the copepod 18S rRNA gene, and tested their taxonomic resolutions at different taxonomic levels. Our results indicate that the 18S rRNA gene is a good molecular marker for the study of copepod biodiversity, and our conclusions are as follows: 1) 18S rRNA genes are highly conserved intra-species (intra-species similarities are close to 100%); and could aid in species-level analyses, but with some limitations; 2) nearly-whole-length sequences and some partial regions (around V2, V4, and V9) of the 18S rRNA gene can be used to discriminate between samples at both the family and order levels (with a success rate of about 80%); 3) compared with other regions, V9 has a higher resolution at the genus level (with an identification success rate of about 80%); and 4) V7 is most divergent in length, and would be a good candidate marker for the phylogenetic study of Acartia species. This study also evaluated the correlation between similarity thresholds and the accuracy of using nuclear 18S rRNA genes for the classification of organisms in the subclass Copepoda. We suggest that sample identification accuracy should be considered when a molecular sequence divergence threshold is used for taxonomic identification, and that the lowest similarity threshold should be determined based on a pre-designated level of acceptable accuracy.

  20. Morphometric variability of Arctodiaptomus salinus (Copepoda) in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region.

    PubMed

    Anufriieva, Elena V; Shadrin, Nickolai V

    2015-11-18

    Inter-species variability in morphological traits creates a need to know the range of variability of characteristics in the species for taxonomic and ecological tasks. Copepoda Arctodiaptomus salinus, which inhabits water bodies across Eurasia and North Africa, plays a dominant role in plankton of different water bodies-from fresh to hypersaline. This work assesses the intra- and inter-population morphometric variability of A. salinus in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region and discusses some observed regularities. The variability of linear body parameters and proportions was studied. The impacts of salinity, temperature, and population density on morphological characteristics and their variability can manifest themselves in different ways at the intra- and inter-population levels. A significant effect of salinity, pH and temperature on the body proportions was not found. Their intra-population variability is dependent on temperature and salinity. Sexual dimorphism of A. salinus manifests in different linear parameters, proportions, and their variability. There were no effects of temperature, pH and salinity on the female/male parameter ratio. There were significant differences in the body proportions of males and females in different populations. The influence of temperature, salinity, and population density can be attributed to 80%-90% of intra-population variability of A. salinus. However, these factors can explain less than 40% of inter-population differences. Significant differences in the body proportions of males and females from different populations may suggest that some local populations of A. salinus in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region are in the initial stages of differentiation.

  1. Morphometric variability of Arctodiaptomus salinus (Copepoda) in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region

    PubMed Central

    ANUFRIIEVA, Elena V.; SHADRIN, Nickolai V.

    2015-01-01

    Inter-species variability in morphological traits creates a need to know the range of variability of characteristics in the species for taxonomic and ecological tasks. Copepoda Arctodiaptomus salinus, which inhabits water bodies across Eurasia and North Africa, plays a dominant role in plankton of different water bodies-from fresh to hypersaline. This work assesses the intra- and inter-population morphometric variability of A. salinus in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region and discusses some observed regularities. The variability of linear body parameters and proportions was studied. The impacts of salinity, temperature, and population density on morphological characteristics and their variability can manifest themselves in different ways at the intra- and inter-population levels. A significant effect of salinity, pH and temperature on the body proportions was not found. Their intra-population variability is dependent on temperature and salinity. Sexual dimorphism of A. salinus manifests in different linear parameters, proportions, and their variability. There were no effects of temperature, pH and salinity on the female/male parameter ratio. There were significant differences in the body proportions of males and females in different populations. The influence of temperature, salinity, and population density can be attributed to 80%-90% of intra-population variability of A. salinus. However, these factors can explain less than 40% of inter-population differences. Significant differences in the body proportions of males and females from different populations may suggest that some local populations of A. salinus in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region are in the initial stages of differentiation. PMID:26646569

  2. Taxonomic Resolutions Based on 18S rRNA Genes: A Case Study of Subclass Copepoda

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shu; Xiong, Jie; Yu, Yuhe

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity studies are commonly conducted using 18S rRNA genes. In this study, we compared the inter-species divergence of variable regions (V1–9) within the copepod 18S rRNA gene, and tested their taxonomic resolutions at different taxonomic levels. Our results indicate that the 18S rRNA gene is a good molecular marker for the study of copepod biodiversity, and our conclusions are as follows: 1) 18S rRNA genes are highly conserved intra-species (intra-species similarities are close to 100%); and could aid in species-level analyses, but with some limitations; 2) nearly-whole-length sequences and some partial regions (around V2, V4, and V9) of the 18S rRNA gene can be used to discriminate between samples at both the family and order levels (with a success rate of about 80%); 3) compared with other regions, V9 has a higher resolution at the genus level (with an identification success rate of about 80%); and 4) V7 is most divergent in length, and would be a good candidate marker for the phylogenetic study of Acartia species. This study also evaluated the correlation between similarity thresholds and the accuracy of using nuclear 18S rRNA genes for the classification of organisms in the subclass Copepoda. We suggest that sample identification accuracy should be considered when a molecular sequence divergence threshold is used for taxonomic identification, and that the lowest similarity threshold should be determined based on a pre-designated level of acceptable accuracy. PMID:26107258

  3. A new species of Centropages (Copepoda: Calanoida: Centropagidae) from the central Red Sea based on morphological and molecular evidence.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbiny, Mohsen M; Al-Aidaroos, Ali M

    2015-01-20

    Centropages mohamedi sp. nov. (Copepoda: Calanoida) is described from specimens collected in zooplankton samples off Obhur Creek on the Saudi Arabian coast of the central Red Sea. The new species is most closely related to C. orsinii Giesbrecht, 1889, a species described from the Red Sea and widely distributed in the neritic waters of the Indo-West Pacific region. The new species is mainly distinguished by the female genital double somite, male antennules, male leg 4, and leg 5 of both sexes. DNA sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit one (mtCOI) of the two species differ by 20.8%, supporting their morphology-based identification as distinct species. 

  4. The first chondracanthid (Copepoda: Cyclopoida) reported from cultured finfish, with a revised key to the species of Chondracanthus.

    PubMed

    Tang, Danny; Andrews, Melanie; Cobcroft, Jennifer M

    2007-08-01

    A new species of the Chondracanthidae (Copepoda: Cyclopoida), Chondracanthus goldsmidi, is described based on material collected from the nasobranchial region of striped trumpeter (Latris lineata [Forster]) cultured at the Tasmanian Aqua-culture and Fisheries Institute, Marine Research Laboratories, Australia. This represents the first report of a chondracanthid copepod infecting cultured finfish and the first metazoan parasite from cultured striped trumpeter. Chondracanthus goldsmidi n. sp. can be distinguished from its female congeners by the absence of lateral processes on the head and the presence of 3 pairs of lateral trunk outgrowths, 3 middorsal body outgrowths (of which the first 2 are rounded), a small and subcylindrical antennule, and unornamented legs 1 and 2. A revised key to the 39 valid species of Chondracanthus is provided.

  5. Neuropeptide discovery in Eucyclops serrulatus (Crustacea, Copepoda): in silico prediction of the first peptidome for a member of the Cyclopoida.

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E

    2015-01-15

    Crustaceans of the subclass Copepoda are key components of essentially all aquatic ecosystems as they serve both as the primary consumers of phytoplankton and/or as major food sources for a wide variety of higher-level consumers. The dominant group of copepods in most freshwater ecosystems is the Cyclopoida; members of this order are routinely used as environmental indicators, and some predatory species are used for the biological control of disease-causing mosquitoes. Given their ecological and disease control importance, it is surprising that little is known about endocrine control in cyclopoids. Here, as part of an ongoing effort to identify and characterize the neurochemical signaling systems of members of the Copepoda, the extant transcriptome shotgun assembly for Eucyclops serrulatus, a member of the Cyclopoida, was mined for transcripts encoding putative peptide hormone-encoding transcripts. Via queries using known arthropod pre/preprohormone sequences, primarily ones from other copepod species, 36 E. serrulatus peptide-encoding transcripts were identified. The proteins deduced from these sequences allowed for the prediction of 160 unique mature neuropeptides, including the first copepod isoform of pigment dispersing hormone, as well as isoforms of adipokinetic hormone-corazonin-like peptide, allatostatin A, allatostatin B, allatostatin C, allatotropin, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone, diuretic hormone 31, DXXRLamide, FLRFamide, FXGGXamide, GSEFLamide, insulin-like peptide, intocin, leucokinin, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F and tachykinin-related peptide. These peptides are currently the only ones known from any member of the Cyclopoida, and as such, provide a new resource for investigating peptidergic signaling in this important copepod order.

  6. Diversity of the free-living marine and freshwater Copepoda (Crustacea) in Costa Rica: a review.

    PubMed

    Morales-Ramírez, Álvaro; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Corrales-Ugalde, Marco; Garrote, Octavio Esquivel

    2014-01-01

    The studies on marine copepods of Costa Rica started in the 1990's and focused on the largest coastal-estuarine systems in the country, particularly along the Pacific coast. Diversity is widely variable among these systems: 40 species have been recorded in the Culebra Bay influenced by upwelling, northern Pacific coast, only 12 in the Gulf of Nicoya estuarine system, and 38 in Golfo Dulce, an anoxic basin in the southern Pacific coast of the country. Freshwater environments of Costa Rica are known to harbor a moderate diversity of continental copepods (25 species), which includes 6 calanoids, 17 cyclopoids and only two harpacticoids. Of the +100 freshwater species recorded in Central America, six are known only from Costa Rica, and one appears to be endemic to this country. The freshwater copepod fauna of Costa Rica is clearly the best known in Central America. Overall, six of the 10 orders of Copepoda are reported from Costa Rica. A previous summary by 2001 of the free-living copepod diversity in the country included 80 marine species (67 pelagic, 13 benthic). By 2009, the number of marine species increased to 209: 164 from the Pacific (49% of the copepod fauna from the Eastern Tropical Pacific) and 45 from the Caribbean coast (8% of species known from the Caribbean Basin). Both the Caribbean and Pacific species lists are growing. Additional collections of copepods at Cocos Island, an oceanic island 530 km away of the Pacific coast, have revealed many new records, including five new marine species from Costa Rica. Currently, the known diversity of marine copepods of Costa Rica is still in development and represents up to 52.6% of the total marine microcrustaceans recorded in the country. Future sampling and taxonomic efforts in the marine habitats should emphasize oceanic environments including deep waters but also littoral communities. Several Costa Rican records of freshwater copepods are likely to represent undescribed species. Also, the biogeographic relevance

  7. Diversity of the free-living marine and freshwater Copepoda (Crustacea) in Costa Rica: a review

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Ramírez, Álvaro; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Corrales-Ugalde, Marco; Garrote, Octavio Esquivel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The studies on marine copepods of Costa Rica started in the 1990’s and focused on the largest coastal-estuarine systems in the country, particularly along the Pacific coast. Diversity is widely variable among these systems: 40 species have been recorded in the Culebra Bay influenced by upwelling, northern Pacific coast, only 12 in the Gulf of Nicoya estuarine system, and 38 in Golfo Dulce, an anoxic basin in the southern Pacific coast of the country. Freshwater environments of Costa Rica are known to harbor a moderate diversity of continental copepods (25 species), which includes 6 calanoids, 17 cyclopoids and only two harpacticoids. Of the +100 freshwater species recorded in Central America, six are known only from Costa Rica, and one appears to be endemic to this country. The freshwater copepod fauna of Costa Rica is clearly the best known in Central America. Overall, six of the 10 orders of Copepoda are reported from Costa Rica. A previous summary by 2001 of the free-living copepod diversity in the country included 80 marine species (67 pelagic, 13 benthic). By 2009, the number of marine species increased to 209: 164 from the Pacific (49% of the copepod fauna from the Eastern Tropical Pacific) and 45 from the Caribbean coast (8% of species known from the Caribbean Basin). Both the Caribbean and Pacific species lists are growing. Additional collections of copepods at Cocos Island, an oceanic island 530 km away of the Pacific coast, have revealed many new records, including five new marine species from Costa Rica. Currently, the known diversity of marine copepods of Costa Rica is still in development and represents up to 52.6% of the total marine microcrustaceans recorded in the country. Future sampling and taxonomic efforts in the marine habitats should emphasize oceanic environments including deep waters but also littoral communities. Several Costa Rican records of freshwater copepods are likely to represent undescribed species. Also, the

  8. Desmozoon lepeophtherii n. gen., n. sp., (Microsporidia: Enterocytozoonidae) infecting the salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background A microsporidian was previously reported to infect the crustacean parasite, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837) (Copepoda, Caligidae), on farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in Scotland. The microsporidian was shown to be a novel species with a molecular phylogenetic relationship to Nucleospora (Enterocytozoonidae), but the original report did not assign it to a genus or species. Further studies examined the development of the microsporidian in L. salmonis using electron microscopy and re-evaluated the molecular findings using new sequence data available for the group. Here we report a full description for the microsporidian and assign it to a new genus and species. Results The microsporidian infects subcuticular cells that lie on the innermost region of the epidermal tissue layer beneath the cuticle and along the internal haemocoelic divisions. The mature spores are sub-spherical with a single nucleus and an isofilar polar filament with 5-8 turns in a double coil. The entire development is in direct contact with the host cell cytoplasm and is polysporous. During early merogony, a diplokaryotic nuclear arrangement exists which is absent throughout the rest of the developmental cycle. Large merogonial plasmodia form which divide to form single uninucleate sporonts. Sporogonial plasmodia were not observed; instead, binucleate sporonts divide to form two sporoblasts. Prior to final division, there is a precocious development of the polar filament extrusion apparatus which is associated with large electron lucent inclusions (ELIs). Analyses of DNA sequences reveal that the microsporidian is robustly supported in a clade with other members of the Enterocytozoonidae and confirms a close phylogenetic relationship with Nucleospora. Conclusion The ultrastructural findings of the precocious development of the polar filament and the presence of ELIs are consistent with those of the Enterocytozoonidae. However, the confirmed presence of an early

  9. A new species of Anchistrotos Brian, 1906 (Copepoda: Cyclopoida: Taeniacanthidae) from the filamentous shrimpgoby Myersina filifer (Valenciennes) (Perciformes: Gobiidae) in Korean waters.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seong Yong; Lee, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Doo Nam

    2015-10-01

    A new species of Anchistrotos Brian, 1906 (Copepoda: Cyclopoida: Taeniacanthidae), parasitic in the branchial cavities of the filamentous shrimpgoby Myersina filifer (Valenciennes) (Perciformes: Gobiidae) from Korea is described. The new species is most closely related to A. tangi Venmathi Maran, Moon & Adday, 2014, but differs from it by the following combination of characters in the adult female: the U-shaped rostrum, the distal margin of the anal somite lacks patches of spinules, the proximal segment of the maxilliped is without seta, and the maxilliped claw is armed with long and small naked setae. This is the tenth species of the genus and a key is provided to distinguish all nominal species.

  10. The complete mitogenome of the whale shark parasitic copepod Pandarus rhincodonicus norman, Newbound & Knott (Crustacea; Siphonostomatoida; Pandaridae)--a new gene order for the copepoda.

    PubMed

    Austin, Christopher M; Tan, Mun Hua; Lee, Yin Peng; Croft, Laurence J; Meekan, Mark G; Pierce, Simon J; Gan, Han Ming

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the parasitic copepod Pandarus rhincodonicus was obtained from a partial genome scan using the HiSeq sequencing system. The Pandarus rhincodonicus mitogenome has 14,480 base pairs (62% A+T content) made up of 12 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs, and a putative 384 bp non-coding AT-rich region. This Pandarus mitogenome sequence is the first for the family Pandaridae, the second for the order Siphonostomatoida and the sixth for the Copepoda.

  11. Diversity and large-scale biogeography of Paramesochridae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) in South Atlantic Abyssal Plains and the deep Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gheerardyn, Hendrik; Veit-Köhler, Gritta

    2009-10-01

    Multicorer samples for meiofaunal study were obtained within the framework of the international project CeDAMar, at 21 stations occupied during the DIVA and ANDEEP campaigns (2000, 2002 and 2005) to the southern Atlantic Ocean (Guinea, Angola and Cape Basins) and the Southern Ocean (Weddell and Scotia Seas), respectively. A total of 311 adult Paramesochridae Lang, 1944 (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) was extracted from 437 cores obtained during 83 deployments of the corer at depths between 1107 and 5655 m. All specimens were determined to species based on morphological characteristics. They belonged to 19 species and four genera ( Kliopsyllus Kunz, 1962, Leptopsyllus T. Scott, 1894, Paramesochra T. Scott, 1892 and Scottopsyllus Kunz, 1962). Eleven species were restricted to single regions, whereas the others showed a much wider distribution. For example, Kliopsyllus andeep Veit-Köhler, 2004 and Kliopsyllus diva Veit-Köhler, 2005, were both collected from Guinea, Angola and Weddell Abyssal Plains, and Kliopsyllus schminkei Veit-Köhler & Drewes, 2009 occurred in the three West-African basins. This study provides a first insight into the large-scale biogeography of deep-sea harpacticoids, represented by the Paramesochridae, and indicates that distribution ranges, at least in this family, may extend across South Atlantic and Southern Ocean Abyssal Plains.

  12. A new species of Wellsopsyllus (Copepoda, Harpacticoida, Paramesochridae) from the deep Southern Ocean and remarks on its biogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kottmann, Johanna; Kihara, Terue Cristina; Glatzel, Thomas; Veit-Köhler, Gritta

    2013-03-01

    The new deep-sea copepod species of the family Paramesochridae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) presented here was collected during the scientific ANtarctic benthic DEEP-sea biodiversity cruise II (ANDEEP II) to the Weddell Abyssal Plain and western Weddell Sea and the CROZet natural iron bloom and EXport experiment (CROZEX cruise) to the Crozet Isles in the Indian Ocean. The new species has been allocated to the subgenus Wellsopsyllus within the genus Wellsopsyllus Kunz, 1981, based on the 1-segmented endopods and 3-segmented exopods of swimming legs 2-4. Furthermore, the new species shows a 1-segmented exopod of the antenna. Wellsopsyllus ( W.) antarcticus sp. n. can be distinguished from its congeners by its small body size, the presence of two setae on the distal segment of the endopod of the first swimming leg, by the very small furcal rami, the extremely reduced endopods of second and third swimming legs, the reduced mandibular palp and maxillula, as well as by the size and armature of the fifth and sixth swimming legs in both sexes. Difficulties of the placement of the new species into a suitable genus show an insufficiency in the present family classification. In the future, a revision of the genus Wellsopsyllus is essential. With its presence in the western Weddell Sea and the Indian Ocean, the new species may have a wide distribution range. Furthermore, it is the first abyssal species of the genus Wellsopsyllus sampled outside of the Scotia Sea.

  13. Barcode-based species delimitation in the marine realm: a test using Hexanauplia (Multicrustacea: Thecostraca and Copepoda).

    PubMed

    Young, Robert G; Abbott, Cathryn L; Therriault, Thomas W; Adamowicz, Sarah J

    2017-02-01

    DNA barcoding has been used successfully for identifying specimens belonging to marine planktonic groups. However, the ability to delineate species within taxonomically diverse and widely distributed marine groups, such as the Copepoda and Thecostraca, remains largely untested. We investigate whether a cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI-5P) global pairwise sequence divergence threshold exists between intraspecific and interspecific divergences in the copepods plus the thecostracans (barnacles and allies). Using publicly accessible sequence data, we applied a graphical method to determine an optimal threshold value. With these thresholds, and using a newly generated planktonic marine data set, we quantify the degree of concordance using a bidirectional analysis and discuss different analytical methods for sequence-based species delimitation (e.g., BIN, ABGD, jMOTU, UPARSE, Mothur, PTP, and GMYC). Our results support a COI-5P threshold between 2.1% and 2.6% p-distance across methods for these crustacean taxa, yielding molecular groupings largely concordant with traditional, morphologically defined species. The adoption of internal methods for clustering verification enables rapid biodiversity studies and the exploration of unknown faunas using DNA barcoding. The approaches taken here for concordance assessment also provide a more quantitative comparison of clustering results (as contrasted with "success/failure" of barcoding), and we recommend their further consideration for barcoding studies.

  14. The genus Lernaeenicus Lesueur (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida, Pennellidae) in India: a checklist with notes on its taxonomy and ecology.

    PubMed

    Raja, Kuzhanthaivel; Saravanakumar, Ayyapan; Gopalakrishnan, Ayyaru; Vijayakumar, Ramalingam; Hwang, Ui Wook; Maran, Balu Alagar Venmathi

    2016-10-11

    Members of the pennellid genus Lernaeenicus Lesueur, 1824 (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida) have frequently been recorded from commercially important fishes collected along the coasts of India. Marine fish hosts from landing centres at Nagapattinam and Parangipettai Tamil Nadu, southeast coast of India, were examined for parasitic copepods between January 2011 and December 2013. A total of nine species including three unidentified species of Lernaeenicus were recorded: (1) L. alatus Rangnekar, 1962 from the Indo-Pacific king mackerel Scomberomorus guttatus (Bloch & Schneider, 1801), (2) L. anchoviellae Sebastian & George, 1964 from the golden trevally Gnathanodon speciosus (Forsskål, 1775), (3) L. hemirhamphi Kirtisinghe, 1932 from the blue-barred halfbeak Hemiramphus far (Forsskål, 1775), Lutke's halfbeak H. lutkei Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1847a and the ribbon halfbeak Euleptorhamphus viridis (van Hasselt, 1823b), (4) L. polynemi Bassett-Smith, 1898 from the fourfinger threadfin Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Shaw, 1804), (5) L. seeri Kirtisinghe, 1934 from the wahoo Acanthocybium solandri (Cuvier in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1832), (6) L. stromatei Gnanamuthu, 1953 from the black pomfret Parastromateus niger (Bloch, 1795), (7) Lernaeenicus sp. 1 from the Indian anchovy Stolephorus indicus (van Hasselt, 1823a) and the rainbow sardine Dussumieria acuta Valenciennes in Cuvier & Valenciennes, 1847b, (8) Lernaeenicus sp. 2 from the goldspot mullet Chelon parsia (Hamilton, 1822), and (9) Lernaeenicus sp. 3 from the flathead grey mullet Mugil cephalus Linnaeus, 1758. Four pennellid species (L. hemirhamphi, L. polynemi, L. seeri and L. stromatei) were studied for their seasonal occurrence including prevalence and mean intensity, both of which were high in postmonsoon (2011) and low in premonsoon (2013) seasons. A checklist is provided for the Indian species of Lernaeenicus.

  15. EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT AND A QUANTITATIVE MODEL OF PROGRAMMED DNA ELIMINATION IN MESOCYCLOPS EDAX (S. A. FORBES, 1891) (COPEPODA: CYCLOPOIDA).

    PubMed

    Clower, Michelle K; Holub, Ashton S; Smith, Rebecca T; Wyngaard, Grace A

    2016-01-01

    The highly programmed fragmentation of chromosomes and elimination of large amounts of nuclear DNA from the presomatic cell lineages (i.e., chromatin diminution), occurs in the embryos of the freshwater zooplankton Mesocyclops edax (S. A. Forbes, 1891) (Crustacea: Copepoda). The somatic genome is reorganized and reduced to a size five times smaller even though the germline genome remains intact. We present the first comprehensive, quantitative model of DNA content throughout embryogenesis in a copepod that possesses embryonic DNA elimination. We used densitometric image analysis to measure the DNA content of polar bodies, germline and somatic nuclei, and excised DNA "droplets." We report: 1) variable DNA contents of polar bodies, some of which do not contain the amount corresponding to the haploid germline genome size; 2) presence of pronuclei in newly laid embryo sacs; 3) gonomeric chromosomes in the second to fourth cleavage divisions and in the primordial germ cell and primordial endoderm cell during the fifth cleavage division; 4) timing of early embryonic cell stages, elimination of DNA, and divisions of the primordial germ cell and primordial endoderm cell at 22°C; and 5) persistence of a portion of the excised DNA "droplets" throughout embryogenesis. DNA elimination is a trait that spans multiple embryonic stages and a knowledge of the timing and variability of the associated cytological events with DNA elimination will promote the study of the molecular mechanisms involved in this trait. We propose the "genome yolk hypothesis" as a functional explanation for the persistence of the eliminated DNA that might serve as a resource during postdiminution cleavage divisions.

  16. Advances in Taxonomy, Ecology, and Biogeography of Dirivultidae (Copepoda) Associated with Chemosynthetic Environments in the Deep Sea

    PubMed Central

    Gollner, Sabine; Ivanenko, Viatcheslav N.; Arbizu, Pedro Martínez; Bright, Monika

    2010-01-01

    Background Copepoda is one of the most prominent higher taxa with almost 80 described species at deep-sea hydrothermal vents. The unique copepod family Dirivultidae with currently 50 described species is the most species rich invertebrate family at hydrothermal vents. Methodology/Principal Findings We reviewed the literature of Dirivultidae and provide a complete key to species, and map geographical and habitat specific distribution. In addition we discuss the ecology and origin of this family. Conclusions/Significance Dirivultidae are only present at deep-sea hydrothermal vents and along the axial summit trough of midocean ridges, with the exception of Dirivultus dentaneus found associated with Lamellibrachia species at 1125 m depth off southern California. To our current knowledge Dirivultidae are unknown from shallow-water vents, seeps, whale falls, and wood falls. They are a prominent part of all communities at vents and in certain habitat types (like sulfide chimneys colonized by pompei worms) they are the most abundant animals. They are free-living on hard substrate, mostly found in aggregations of various foundation species (e.g. alvinellids, vestimentiferans, and bivalves). Most dirivultid species colonize more than one habitat type. Dirivultids have a world-wide distribution, but most genera and species are endemic to a single biogeographic region. Their origin is unclear yet, but immigration from other deep-sea chemosynthetic habitats (stepping stone hypothesis) or from the deep-sea sediments seems unlikely, since Dirivultidae are unknown from these environments. Dirivultidae is the most species rich family and thus can be considered the most successful taxon at deep-sea vents. PMID:20838422

  17. Multi-Gene Analysis Reveals a Lack of Genetic Divergence between Calanus agulhensis and C. sinicus (Copepoda; Calanoida)

    PubMed Central

    Kozol, Robert; Blanco-Bercial, Leocadio; Bucklin, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The discrimination and taxonomic identification of marine species continues to pose a challenge despite the growing number of diagnostic metrics and approaches. This study examined the genetic relationship between two sibling species of the genus Calanus (Crustacea; Copepoda; Calanidae), C. agulhensis and C. sinicus, using a multi-gene analysis. DNA sequences were determined for portions of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (mtCOI); nuclear citrate synthase (CS), and large subunit (28S) rRNA genes for specimens collected from the Sea of Japan and North East (NE) Pacific Ocean for C. sinicus and from the Benguela Current and Agulhas Bank, off South Africa, for C. agulhensis. For mtCOI, C. sinicus and C. agulhensis showed similar levels of haplotype diversity (Hd = 0.695 and 0.660, respectively) and nucleotide diversity (π = 0.003 and 0.002, respectively). Pairwise FST distances for mtCOI were significant only between C. agulhensis collected from the Agulhas and two C. sinicus populations: the Sea of Japan (FST = 0.152, p<0.01) and NE Pacific (FST = 0.228, p<0.005). Between the species, FST distances were low for both mtCOI (FST = 0.083, p = 0.003) and CS (FST = 0.050, p = 0.021). Large subunit (28S) rRNA showed no variation between the species. Our results provide evidence of the lack of genetic distinction of C. sinicus and C. agulhensis, raise questions of whether C. agulhensis warrants status as a distinct species, and indicate the clear need for more intensive and extensive ecological and genetic analysis. PMID:23118849

  18. EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT AND A QUANTITATIVE MODEL OF PROGRAMMED DNA ELIMINATION IN MESOCYCLOPS EDAX (S. A. FORBES, 1891) (COPEPODA: CYCLOPOIDA)

    PubMed Central

    Clower, Michelle K.; Holub, Ashton S.; Smith, Rebecca T.; Wyngaard, Grace A.

    2016-01-01

    The highly programmed fragmentation of chromosomes and elimination of large amounts of nuclear DNA from the presomatic cell lineages (i.e., chromatin diminution), occurs in the embryos of the freshwater zooplankton Mesocyclops edax (S. A. Forbes, 1891) (Crustacea: Copepoda). The somatic genome is reorganized and reduced to a size five times smaller even though the germline genome remains intact. We present the first comprehensive, quantitative model of DNA content throughout embryogenesis in a copepod that possesses embryonic DNA elimination. We used densitometric image analysis to measure the DNA content of polar bodies, germline and somatic nuclei, and excised DNA “droplets.” We report: 1) variable DNA contents of polar bodies, some of which do not contain the amount corresponding to the haploid germline genome size; 2) presence of pronuclei in newly laid embryo sacs; 3) gonomeric chromosomes in the second to fourth cleavage divisions and in the primordial germ cell and primordial endoderm cell during the fifth cleavage division; 4) timing of early embryonic cell stages, elimination of DNA, and divisions of the primordial germ cell and primordial endoderm cell at 22°C; and 5) persistence of a portion of the excised DNA “droplets” throughout embryogenesis. DNA elimination is a trait that spans multiple embryonic stages and a knowledge of the timing and variability of the associated cytological events with DNA elimination will promote the study of the molecular mechanisms involved in this trait. We propose the “genome yolk hypothesis” as a functional explanation for the persistence of the eliminated DNA that might serve as a resource during postdiminution cleavage divisions. PMID:27857452

  19. Life-cycle of Choniomyzon inflatus Wakabayashi, Otake, Tanaka & Nagasawa, 2013 (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Nicothoidae) with the morphological descriptions of the nauplius, copepodid and adult male.

    PubMed

    Otake, Shusaku; Wakabayashi, Kaori; Tanaka, Yuji; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2016-02-01

    Choniomyzon inflatus Wakabayashi, Otake, Tanaka & Nagasawa, 2013 (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Nicothoidae), an associate of the scyllarid lobster Ibacus novemdentatus Gibbes, was found to pass through at least four developmental stages: nauplius, copepodid I (CI), copepodid II or later (CII+) and adult. Free-living nauplii were observed hatching from the ovisacs of adult females. CI was found on the body surface of both female and male hosts, whereas CII+ and adult were obtained from the female host's egg masses. The life-cycle of this copepod is presumed to be as follows: (i) nauplius develops into CI in the water column; (ii) infective CI settles on body surface of host; (iii) CI moults into the following stage, changing its microhabitat from host's body surface to egg masses; (iv) CII+ develops on egg masses of host until adult stage; and (v) adult female and male mate on the host's egg masses.

  20. Description of Paeon asymboli n. sp. (Copepoda: Sphyriidae), parasitic on Asymbolus spp. (catsharks) and a new host record for P. australis Kabata, 1993.

    PubMed

    Turner, T B; Kyne, P M; Bennett, M B

    2003-11-01

    Paeon asymboli n. sp. (Copepoda: Sphyriidae) is described and illustrated from two female specimens taken from the gills of a grey spotted catshark Asymbolus analis (Ogilby) and an orange spotted catshark A. rubiginosus (Last, Gomon & Gledhill) (Scyliorhinidae) from off southeastern Queensland, Australia. The key features for identification are: a pear-shaped trunk, longer than it is wide, along with a cephalothorax characterised by two large ventral papillae, projecting laterally and supporting a number of secondary lobes; a single mid-line, sub-conical papilla located antero-dorsal to the ventral papillae; an anterior surface bearing two prominent stalked papillae; and an absence of posterolateral lobular processes. P. australis Kabata, 1993 is recorded for the first time from the eastern shovelnose ray Aptychotrema rostrata (Shaw & Nodder) (Rhinobatidae).

  1. A new species of Heterochondria (Copepoda: Chondracanthidae) parasitic on many-banded sole, Zebrias fasciatus (Pleuronectiformes: Soleidae) from Korea, with a key to the species of the genus.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seong Yong; Soh, Ho Young

    2013-09-01

    A new species of Chondracanthidae (Copepoda: Cyclopoida), Heterochondria orientalis sp. n., is described based on specimens of both sexes collected from the gill rakers and the inner side of the operculum of the many-banded sole, Zebrias fasciatus (Basilewsky), from the Yellow Sea, Korea. The new species resembles most closely H. zebriae (Ho, Kim et Kuman, 2000), but can be distinguished from this species and other congeners by the shape of the trunk and length of the antenna, the number of teeth on the mandible and the terminal process of the maxilla, and the structure of the male antennule and maxilliped. Heterochondria orientalis is the first copepod species reported from Z. fasciatus and the first heterochondrid species reported from sole fishes in the Northwest Pacific. A key to distinguish all 10 nominal species of the genus is provided.

  2. Distribution of Kroeyerina elongata (Kroyeriidae: Siphonostomatoida, Copepoda) in the olfactory sacs of the blue shark, Prionace glauca.

    PubMed

    McElwain, Andrew; Kohl, Joshua W; Bojkovic, Jade; Benz, George W

    2010-10-01

    The infection pattern of Kroeyerina elongata (Kroyeriidae, Copepoda) in the olfactory sacs of the blue shark, Prionace glauca, was investigated using 4,722 copepods from 54 olfactory sacs. Copepod prevalence and mean intensity of infection per olfactory sac were 94.0 and 91.1%, respectively, and the most intensely infected olfactory sac and shark hosted 218 and 409 copepods, respectively. There were significant linear relationships between the number of female and total copepods per left olfactory sac and shark fork length as well as between the numbers of female, male, and total copepods per shark and mean olfactory sac width and cumulative olfactory sac width. Female copepods typically outnumbered males within olfactory sacs (mean intensity  =  65.7 and 26.3, respectively), and no statistical differences were detected between the numbers of copepods inhabiting the left and right olfactory sacs. Copepods were not evenly distributed within olfactory sacs. Typically, female copepods occupied olfactory chambers located centrally along the length of the olfactory sac, while males infected lateral olfactory chambers nearest the naris. The orientation of most copepods (84.6%) suggested positive rheotaxis relative to the path of water through the olfactory sac. Within olfactory chambers, most mature females (68.2%) infected the first third of the peripheral excurrent channel and the adjacent fringe of olfactory lamellae, while most males (91.7%) infected the olfactory lamellae, and the 4 larval females collected were attached within the lamellar field and grasped by males. Based on the observed infection patterns and the pattern of water flow throughout the olfactory sac, a hypothesis regarding the life cycle of K. elongata is advanced wherein infective copepodids are swept into the olfactory sac from the surrounding sea and initially colonize the olfactory lamellae. Copepodids feed and mature among the olfactory lamellae, and adult males search for mates and

  3. Taeniacanthodes dojirii n. sp. (Copepoda: Poecilostomatoida: Taeniacanthidae), from Cortez electric rays (Narcine entemedor: Torpediniformes: Narcinidae) captured in the Gulf of California, and a phylogenetic analysis of and key to species of taeniacanthodes.

    PubMed

    Braswell, Jeffrey S; Benz, George W; Deets, Gregory B

    2002-02-01

    Taeniacanthodes dojirii n. sp. (Copepoda: Poecilostomatoida: Taeniacanthidae) is described from adult female specimens collected from the body surface of Cortez electric rays Narcine entemedor (Torpediniformes, Narcinidae), captured at several locations in the Gulf of California. Taeniacanthodes dojirii is distinguished from its congeners, as well as from other members of Taeniacanthidae, by possessing unimerous fifth legs. A cladistic analysis of the 3 known species of Taeniacanthodes resulted in a single most parsimonious tree (tree length = 18 steps, consistency index = 1) demonstrating that T. gracilis and T. haakeri, both parasites of benthic teleosts, are more closely related to each other than to the new species.

  4. A new species of Pseudomacrochiron Reddiah, 1969 (Crustacea: Copepoda: Macrochironidae) associated with scyphistomae of the moon jellyfish Aurelia sp. (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) off Japan.

    PubMed

    Tang, Danny; Yasuda, Akira; Yamada, Satoshi; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2012-02-01

    A new species of the Macrochironidae Humes & Boxshall, 1996 (Copepoda: Cyclopoida), Pseudomacrochiron aureliae n. sp., is described based on adult specimens extracted from the gastrovacular cavity of the scyphistomae of Aurelia sp. (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) collected in the Seto Inland Sea and Ise Bay off the coast of Japan. The new species differs from its congeners by having the following combination of characters: a caudal ramus with a length to width ratio of 3.1; an accessory flagellum on caudal setae II, III and VI; three apical setae on the maxillule; only setae I and II on the maxillary basis; two short spines on the female maxilliped claw (endopod); an armature of III, I, 4 on the terminal exopodal segment of leg 3; an armature of I, II, 2 on the terminal endopodal segment of leg 3; an armature of II, I, 4 on the terminal exopodal segment of leg 4; and a short free exopodal segment of leg 5 (length to width ratio of 1.4) armed with a long seta and short spine. P. aureliae n. sp. is the first member of the genus reported from off Japan and from the scyphistomae of its scyphozoan host.

  5. Kliopsyllus andeep sp. n. (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) from the Antarctic deep sea—a copepod closely related to certain shallow-water species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veit-Köhler, Gritta

    2004-07-01

    The international scientific deep-sea cruise ANDEEP-2 (ANT XIX/4) to the Scotia Arc and the northern Weddell Sea in 2002 revealed a new species of the family Paramesochridae (Copepoda: Harpacticoida). Kliopsyllus andeep sp. n. can be distinguished from its congeners by characteristics such as a two-segmented endopod on the fourth leg and an additional seta on the endopod of the third leg. The most striking feature is its strong, flexed, chitinous thorns on the telson. Only three species in the family have such appendages, all of them interstitial, shallow-water species. Because the new species lacks the strong abdominal muscle observed by Kunz in Kliopsyllus furcavaricatus Kunz, 1974, it cannot spread its furcal rami using the thorns on the telson as antagonists the way the shallow-water species does. The furcal-rami spreading system, which is an adaptation to interstitial living, for K. andeep sp. n. is irrelevant, because the species has been collected from muddy sediments. Therefore, the abdominal muscle might have been lost during the species' evolution.

  6. A new species of deep-sea Tegastidae (Crustacea: Copepoda: Harpacticoida) from 9°50’N on the East Pacific Rise, with remarks on its ecology*

    PubMed Central

    GOLLNER, SABINE; IVANENKO, VIATCHESLAV N.; ARBIZU, PEDRO MARTINEZ

    2010-01-01

    Both male and female of the new deep-sea species Smacigastes barti sp. nov. (Tegastidae, Sars) are described in detail. Copepoda is one of the most diversified taxa at deep-sea hydrothermal vents, but only one species of the family Tegastidae has been described from this habitat and other deep-sea environments. Smacigastes barti is the second species of the genus Smacigastes Ivanenko & Defaye, 2004, and was found in artificial substrates deployed in the vicinity of and 0.5 m from tubeworm aggregations at the 9°50’N region on the East Pacific Rise at 2500 meters depth. The derived character states of the new species are the lack of coxal endites on the maxilla, and 2-segmented exopods of swimming legs 2 and 3, the latter being the result of the fusion of the 2 proximal segments. An identification key to all known genera of Tegastidae is provided. Interestingly, the distribution of S. barti showed that it does not tolerate elevated temperatures and/or the presence of hydrogen sulfide or oxygen fluctuations, although both species of this genus were found in deep-sea chemosynthetic environments. PMID:21151830

  7. A new species of Eurycletodes Sars, 1909 (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Argestidae) from the southern hemisphere including remarks on the phylogeny of the genus and its subgenera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, Lena

    2011-12-01

    This paper deals with taxonomy and phylogenetics of the genus Eurycletodes Sars, 1909 (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Argestidae). Samples, collected from the southeast Atlantic on board RV "Meteor" during the cruises DIVA-1 (M48/1) and DIVA-2 (M63/2), contain specimens of Eurycletodes. Eurycletodes is characterized as a monophylum by A1 segments III + IV fused, basal seta of md palp lost, exp of md palp reduced to 1 seta or completely lost. Similarly, the subgenera Eurycletodes (Eurycletodes) and Eurycletodes (Oligocletodes) are characterized as monophyletic by the loss of the inner seta on P1 exp2 (apomorphic to E. (E.)) and the absence of the inner seta on P5 endopodal lobe (apomorphic to E. (O.)). Eurycletodes profundus is renamed as E. (O.) profundus. Eurycletodes ephippiger is the only species of the genus without subgeneric designation. Eurycletodes (O.) diva sp. nov. is described. The new species differs from described species of the genus by a larger body size, P5 endopodal lobe only slightly protruding, last segment of A1 with 2 outer setae, furcal rami elongated between setae VII and IV. The occurrence of 2 specimens of Eurycletodes (O.) diva sp. nov. at 2 sites separated by the Walvis Ridge supports the hypothesis that geographic obstacles do not prevent harpacticoid copepods from spreading in the deep sea.

  8. The genus Hatschekia (Copepoda: Hatschekiidae) from pufferfishes (Tetraodontiformes: Tetraodontidae) off the Ryukyu Islands, Japan, with descriptions of four new species and a redescription of H. pholas.

    PubMed

    Uyeno, Daisuke; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2013-02-01

    Four new species of the genus Hatschekia Poche, 1902 (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Hatschekiidae) are described based on female specimens collected from pufferfishes (Tetraodontiformes: Tetraodontidae) caught in coastal waters off the Ryukyu Islands, Japan: H. longiabdominalis sp. n. on Arothron hispidus (Linnaeus), H. geniculata sp. n. on A. hispidus (type host) and A. stellatus (Bloch et Schneider), H. ellipsocorpa sp. n. on A. mappa (Lesson), and H. boonah sp. n. on A. nigropunctatus (Bloch et Schneider) (type host) and A. meleagris (Schneider). Hatschekia longiabdominalis sp. n. and H. boonah sp. n. differ from all other congeners by sharing an unusual, projected abdomen and a fusiform trunk with posterior lobes; these two species are differentiated from each other by the shape of the dorsal chitinous frame on the cephalothorax. Hatschekia geniculata sp. n. can be distinguished by the combination of the following morphological characters: a rhomboidal cephalothorax with a pair of lateral conical protrusions, a cylindrical trunk with posterior lobes and a bent abdomen with a dorsal protrusion. Hatschekia ellipsocorpa sp. n. resembles H. pholas (Wilson, 1906) but can be distinguished from the latter by the possession of one distal and one inner setae on the terminal endopodal segment of legs 1 and 2. Hatschekiapholas is also redescribed based on female specimens from the tetraodontid A. stellatus. At present, 44 nominal species of the genus have been reported from Japan, including four new species described in this paper; 38 of them have been described originally from Japan.

  9. Molecular Systematic of Three Species of Oithona (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) from the Atlantic Ocean: Comparative Analysis Using 28S rDNA

    PubMed Central

    Cepeda, Georgina D.; Blanco-Bercial, Leocadio; Bucklin, Ann; Berón, Corina M.; Viñas, María D.

    2012-01-01

    Species of Oithona (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) are highly abundant, ecologically important, and widely distributed throughout the world oceans. Although there are valid and detailed descriptions of the species, routine species identifications remain challenging due to their small size, subtle morphological diagnostic traits, and the description of geographic forms or varieties. This study examined three species of Oithona (O. similis, O. atlantica and O. nana) occurring in the Argentine sector of the South Atlantic Ocean based on DNA sequence variation of a 575 base-pair region of 28S rDNA, with comparative analysis of these species from other North and South Atlantic regions. DNA sequence variation clearly resolved and discriminated the species, and revealed low levels of intraspecific variation among North and South Atlantic populations of each species. The 28S rDNA region was thus shown to provide an accurate and reliable means of identifying the species throughout the sampled domain. Analysis of 28S rDNA variation for additional species collected throughout the global ocean will be useful to accurately characterize biogeographical distributions of the species and to examine phylogenetic relationships among them. PMID:22558245

  10. Molecular systematic of three species of Oithona (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) from the Atlantic Ocean: comparative analysis using 28S rDNA.

    PubMed

    Cepeda, Georgina D; Blanco-Bercial, Leocadio; Bucklin, Ann; Berón, Corina M; Viñas, María D

    2012-01-01

    Species of Oithona (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) are highly abundant, ecologically important, and widely distributed throughout the world oceans. Although there are valid and detailed descriptions of the species, routine species identifications remain challenging due to their small size, subtle morphological diagnostic traits, and the description of geographic forms or varieties. This study examined three species of Oithona (O. similis, O. atlantica and O. nana) occurring in the Argentine sector of the South Atlantic Ocean based on DNA sequence variation of a 575 base-pair region of 28S rDNA, with comparative analysis of these species from other North and South Atlantic regions. DNA sequence variation clearly resolved and discriminated the species, and revealed low levels of intraspecific variation among North and South Atlantic populations of each species. The 28S rDNA region was thus shown to provide an accurate and reliable means of identifying the species throughout the sampled domain. Analysis of 28S rDNA variation for additional species collected throughout the global ocean will be useful to accurately characterize biogeographical distributions of the species and to examine phylogenetic relationships among them.

  11. A new species of Taeniacanthus (Copepoda: Taeniacanthidae) parasitic on two pufferfish species, Marilyna meraukensis and M. darwinii (Teleostei: Tetraodontidae), from Australia.

    PubMed

    Tang, Danny

    2011-09-01

    A new species of Taeniacanthidae (Copepoda, Cyclopoida), Taeniacanthus kiemae sp. n., is described based on adult female and male specimens collected from the branchial cavity wall of Marilyna meraukensis (de Beaufort) and M. darwinii (Castelnau) (Teleostei, Tetraodontidae) caught in Australian waters. The new species differs from its congeners by having the following combination of characters in the adult female: (1) maxilla armed with a stout terminal process and two small elements; (2) multiple rows of spinules on the large pectinate process of the antenna; (3) an extremely long and thin maxilliped claw; (4) second exopodal segment of leg 1 with eight setae; (5) third exopodal segment of leg 3 with three spines and four setae; (6) third exopodal segment of leg 4 with three spines and two setae; and (7) each spine on the free exopodal segment of leg 5 with a subterminal flagellum. Taeniacanthus kiemae is the second copepod species reported from M. meraukensis and M. darwinii and the first taeniacanthid species reported from pufferfishes in Australia.

  12. Characterization of a monophylum Echinocletodes, its exclusion from Ancorabolinae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida), and displacement of E. bodini and E. walvisi to Cletodes, including the description of two new species.

    PubMed

    George, Kai Horst; Müller, Florian

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of two new species of Harpacticoida (Crustacea, Copepoda), Echinocletodes voightae sp. nov. (Ancorabolidae Sars, 1909) and Cletodes meyerorum sp. nov. (Cletodidae T. Scott, 1905 sensu Por, 1986), permitted a phylogenetic re-examination of the genus Echinocletodes Lang, 1936, whose membership in Ancorabolidae has been increasingly queried in the past decade. Echinocletodes voightae was discovered in wood-falls in the Gorda Ridge (Northeast Pacific Ocean). It resembles the type species E. armatus T. Scott, 1903, sharing with it seven synapomorphies. In contrast, the other two species in the genus, E. bodini Dinet, 1974 and E. walvisi Dinet, 1974, were originally collected in the deep Angola Basin (SE Atlantic), and do not exhibit any of these synapomorphies. In fact they correspond more closely with Cletodes meyerorum, which is undoubtedly Cletodes Brady, 1972, due to the presence of two apomorphies of that genus. Consequently, both E. bodini and E. walvisi are moved from Echinocletodes to Cletodes. A revision of ancorabolid apomorphies showed ambiguities, being absent from some Ancorabolidae but present in other non-ancorabolid taxa (like e.g. Cletodes). Ancorabolidae were, therefore, considered to be a paraphyletic group that requires extensive re-evaluation, additionally including at least the Cletodidae and Laophontidae T. Scott, 1905. Similarly when comparing Echinocletodes with the two ancorabolid subfamilies, Ancorabolinae Sars, 1909 and Laophontodinae Lang, 1944, it was revealed that many species are apparently distributed chaotically over several supraspecific taxa (at least Ancorabolidae and Cletodidae) instead of forming monophyla.

  13. Redescription of Tripaphylus musteli (van Beneden, 1851) (Copepoda: Sphyriidae) and the relegation of Paeon Wilson, 1919 to synonymy with Tripaphylus Richiardi in Anonymous, 1878.

    PubMed

    Benz, George W; Boxshall, Geoffrey A

    2017-07-01

    Tripaphylus musteli (van Beneden, 1851) (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida, Sphyriidae) is redescribed from an adult female collected from the branchial chamber of a starry smooth-hound, Mustelus asterias Cloquet (Carcharhiniformes, Triakidae), captured in the English Channel off Portland, UK. The new account of T. musteli is the first based on a complete adult female and highlighted the lack of a robust distinction separating Tripaphylus Richiardi, in Anonymous, 1878 and Paeon Wilson, 1919 prompting us to relegate Paeon to a junior subjective synonym of Tripaphylus. In the light of this synonymy the eight former species of Paeon are transferred to Tripaphylus as follows: T. ferox (Wilson, 1919) new combination, T. elongatus (Wilson, 1932) new combination, T. vassierei (Delamare Deboutteville & Nuñes-Ruivo, 1954) new combination, T. lobatus (Kirtisinghe, 1964) new combination, T. asymboli (Turner, Kyne & Bennett, 2003) new combination, T. versicolor (Wilson, 1919) new combination, T. australis (Kabata, 1993) new combination, and T. triakis (Castro Romero, 2001) new combination. Comparisons between terminology used in this report and that in the literature indicate that all transformed adult females of Tripaphylus probably possess a full complement of cephalic appendages and maxillipeds. All limbs, with the exception of the maxillae share a general morphological similarity to the corresponding appendages of conspecific males. The maxilla of the transformed adult female of Tripaphylus is a small digitiform protuberance associated with a swelling in some species.

  14. A Review of the Aquatic Biological Resources of the Atlantic Coastal Area Off Virginia Beach, Virginia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    K K Penilia avirostris x Podon polyphemoides x COPEPODA Acartia clausi x A. tonsa x x Caligus chelifer x Centropages hamatus x x C. typicus x x C...Euconchoecia chierchine x .4 COPEPODA Acartia sp. x A. clausi X A. danae X 4A. tonsa X *Anomalocera sp. X A. ornata x X_ A. patersonil x Calanus...Eurytemora sp. x E. americana x Labidocera sp. x x L. aestiva x x Mecynocera clausi x Metridia lecens x xINannocalanus mi or x x Oithona sp. x x x

  15. Effect of temperature and salinity on egg hatching and description of the life cycle of Lernanthropus latis (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae) infecting barramundi, Lates calcarifer.

    PubMed

    Brazenor, Alexander K; Hutson, Kate S

    2013-10-01

    The parasite Lernanthropus latis (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae) is a major threat to the sustained mariculture of barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Perciformes: Latidae). We investigated the effect of water temperature and salinity on egg hatching success of L. latis and describe the life cycle for the first time. Wild and sea-caged L. calcarifer examined in tropical north Australia exhibited similar parasite prevalence (range: 80-100%) and mean parasite intensity (range: 3-6), whereas land-based maricultured fish were not infected. Hatching success and time to first and last hatch was determined for a range of water temperature (22, 30, 32 and 34°C) and salinity (0, 11, 22, 35 and 40‰) combinations representing current and predicted climate conditions. There was a significant interaction between water temperature and salinity on the hatching success of L. latis nauplii. Eggs hatched in all temperature treatments, with the greatest hatching success at 30°C and 32°C (98 and 92% success, respectively) in 35‰. Hatching did not occur at 0‰ and was severely reduced at 11‰ (1.6% success). Hatching began within 6h at all water temperatures with >95% of eggs hatched within 30h at 30, 32 and 34°C and within 60h at 22°C. Adult parasites differed from the original description by the presence of the parabasal flagellum, small setae on the legs and caudal rami and minor incongruences regarding morphological measurements. The life cycle of L. latis includes three free living stages and five parasitic stages. Although L. latis exhibits broad environmental tolerance, freshwater can be used as an effective management strategy to break the life cycle in aquaculture.

  16. A new species of Paramacrochiron (Copepoda: Cyclopoida: Macrochironidae) associated with the rhizostome medusa Rhopilema hispidum collected from the Gulf of Thailand, with a phylogenetic analysis of the family Macrochironidae.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Susumu; Boxshall, Geoffrey A; Srinui, Khwanruan

    2012-02-01

    Paramacrochiron thailandicum n. sp. (Copepoda: Cyclopoida: Macrochironidae) is described from the rhizostome medusa Rhopilema hispidum occurring in the Gulf of Thailand. The new species is distinguishable from other congeners mainly by detailed features of the fourth legs and the urosome in both sexes. Copepodid and adult stages of the genus Paramacrochiron seem to be host-specific to rhizostome medusae, but may spend periods free in the plankton or benthos during the absence of the host. A cladistic analysis shows that the Macrochironidae comprises two main lineages. Paramacrochiron is recovered as a monophyletic group, located on one lineage together with Pseudomacrochiron, which appears as a paraphyletic taxon with the limited character set used. The other main lineage comprises the genera Macrochiron and Sewellochiron, but the sole species of the latter genus, Sewellochiron fidens, is nested within Macrochiron. This analysis provides little support for maintaining Sewellochiron as a separate genus.

  17. Systematics of the Phyllognathopodidae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida): re-examination of Phyllognathopus viguieri (Maupas, 1892) and Parbatocamptus jochenmartensi Dumont and Maas, 1988, proposal of a new genus for hyllognathopus bassoti Rouch, 1972, and description of a new species of Phyllognathopus

    PubMed Central

    Galassi, Diana M. P.; Laurentiis, Paola De; Fiasca, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The family Phyllognathopodidae (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida) is heavily affected by the floating taxonomic status of the type-genus Phyllognathopus. A revision of the different character states displayed by members of the family is presented, and new phylogenetically informative characters are described, enlarging the analysis to the remaining genera of the family, Parbatocamptus and Allophyllognathopus. Phyllognathopus viguieri (Maupas, 1892) and Parbatocamptus jochenmartensi Dumont and Maas, 1988 are redescribed in detail, and Phyllognathopus inexspectatus sp. n. is described from ground water in Italy. The new genus Neophyllognathopus is established to accommodate Phyllognathopus bassoti Rouch, 1972,originally collected from Long Island (Papua - New Guinea), and subsequently recorded also from the Bantayan Island (Philippines), and from the Indian subcontinent. The new genus is presently monotypic and is easily defined by the unique construction and morphology of leg 5 in both male and female, of male leg 6, and by the peculiar ornamentation of male third and fourth urosomites. Biogeographical and ecological considerations are presented for members of the family. PMID:21852916

  18. Seasonality of metazoan ectoparasites in marine European flounder Platichthys flesus (Teleostei: Pleuronectidae).

    PubMed

    Cavaleiro, F I; Santos, M J

    2009-07-01

    Seasonal occurrence of metazoan ectoparasites is described for the first time in marine European flounder, Platichthys flesus (L.). The parasitofauna, in this study monitored during 1 year, was found to be similar to that previously recorded for flounder. Moreover, specimens of Caligus sp. Müller, 1785 and Lepeophtheirus pectoralis (Copepoda: Caligidae), Acanthochondria cornuta (Copepoda: Chondracanthidae), Holobomolochus confusus (Copepoda: Bomolochidae) and Nerocila orbignyi (Isopoda: Cymothoidae), and also, a praniza larva (Isopoda: Gnathiidae), were isolated. From these, L. pectoralis and A. cornuta were the dominant parasites in all samples of flounder, while Caligus sp., H. confusus, N. orbignyi and the gnathiid praniza seemed to infect the flounder only occasionally. As far as the seasonality of infections is concerned, it differed considerably from that described for estuarine environments. Indeed, both prevalence and abundance of L. pectoralis and A. cornuta reached significant peaks in the summer, whereas the literature identifies the autumn as the season of maximum infection on estuarine flounder. Thus, the former period seems more favourable for the occurrence of epizooties of L. pectoralis and A. cornuta in flounder culturing systems running on seawater and operated in the studied or similar environments.

  19. Expression analysis of the Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, TNFα1 and TNFα2 in response to parasites Pseudocycnus appendiculatus (Copepoda) and Didymosulcus katsuwonicola (Digenea).

    PubMed

    Pleić, Ivana Lepen; Bušelić, Ivana; Trumbić, Željka; Bočina, Ivana; Šprung, Matilda; Mladineo, Ivona

    2015-08-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines play an important role in teleost defence against numerous types of pathogens, therefore are often used as biomarkers during various infections. In order to evaluate Atlantic bluefin tuna IL-1β, TNFα1 and TNFα2 induction by PAMPs, we quantified their expression during in vitro stimulation of peripheral blood leukocytes by LPS and Poly I:C. Furthermore, their role in acute and chronic parasitic infection was examined during natural infection of Pseudocycnus appendiculatus (Copepoda) and Didymosulcus katsuwonicola (Digenea), as well as during leukocyte exposure to total protein extracts isolated from two parasite species. Induction of ABT IL-1β and TNFα2 by PAMPs and protein extracts from D. katsuwonicola and P. appendiculatus, as well as during natural infection with two parasites, suggests these cytokines play an important role in inflammation, being engaged in controlling parasite infections, in contrast to ABT TNFα1. Cellular innate response to the digenean D. katsuwonicola showed rather chronic character, resulting with parasite encapsulation in connective tissue. Mast cells, eosinophils, goblet cells, and occasional rodlet cells found at the site of infection, along with the induction of TNFα2, suggest the presence of a moderate inflammatory reaction that fails to seriously endanger digenean existence. In contrast, copepod P. appendiculatus, attached to the gill epithelium by clamping, caused direct tissue disruption with undergoing necrotic or apoptotic processes, and extensive proliferation of rodlet and goblet cells. Differential expression patterns of target cytokines in tissue surrounding two parasites and in vitro PBL model suggest that quality and quantity of tuna immune response is conditioned by parasite adaptive mechanisms and pathogenicity.

  20. Selected parasitosis in cultured and wild fish.

    PubMed

    Guo, F C; Woo, P T K

    2009-08-07

    While intensive aquaculture has and will continue to supply the ever growing population with highly nutritious protein, it also comes with problems which include more frequent outbreaks of diseases in fish farms and transmission of diseases between farmed and wild fish. We have selected four Phyla of economically important fish parasites for our present discussion-a haemoflagellate (Cryptobia salmositica), a microsporidian, (Loma salmonae), a monogenean (Gyrodactylus salaries) and two copepods (Lepeophtheirus salmonis, Caligus rogercresseyi). This review consists of two parts with a brief description of each parasite and its biology related to transmission, followed by discussions on epizootic outbreaks in both wild and farmed fish, interactions between wild and farmed fish, and disease prevention and control.

  1. Genomic resources for sea lice: analysis of ESTs and mitochondrial genomes.

    PubMed

    Yasuike, Motoshige; Leong, Jong; Jantzen, Stuart G; von Schalburg, Kristian R; Nilsen, Frank; Jones, Simon R M; Koop, Ben F

    2012-04-01

    Sea lice are common parasites of both farmed and wild salmon. Salmon farming constitutes an important economic market in North America, South America, and Northern Europe. Infections with sea lice can result in significant production losses. A compilation of genomic information on different genera of sea lice is an important resource for understanding their biology as well as for the study of population genetics and control strategies. We report on over 150,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from five different species (Pacific Lepeophtheirus salmonis (49,672 new ESTs in addition to 14,994 previously reported ESTs), Atlantic L. salmonis (57,349 ESTs), Caligus clemensi (14,821 ESTs), Caligus rogercresseyi (32,135 ESTs), and Lernaeocera branchialis (16,441 ESTs)). For each species, ESTs were assembled into complete or partial genes and annotated by comparisons to known proteins in public databases. In addition, whole mitochondrial (mt) genome sequences of C. clemensi (13,440 bp) and C. rogercresseyi (13,468 bp) were determined and compared to L. salmonis. Both nuclear and mtDNA genes show very high levels of sequence divergence between these ectoparastic copepods suggesting that the different species of sea lice have been in existence for 37-113 million years and that parasitic association with salmonids is also quite ancient. Our ESTs and mtDNA data provide a novel resource for the study of sea louse biology, population genetics, and control strategies. This genomic information provides the material basis for the development of a 38K sea louse microarray that can be used in conjunction with our existing 44K salmon microarray to study host-parasite interactions at the molecular level. This report represents the largest genomic resource for any copepod species to date.

  2. Diversity of the Monstrilloida (Crustacea: Copepoda)

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Monstrilloid copepods are protelean parasites of different groups of marine benthic invertebrates. Only their first naupliar, preadult, and adult phases are planktonic. Monstrilloids are currently represented by more than 115 nominal species contained in four genera. Its taxonomic knowledge has been hampered by nomenclatural and descriptive problems derived from their peculiar ontogeny and poor definitions of taxa. One of the most important difficulties is that of matching males to females. The only reliable methods to link the sexes of a species are the confirmation of particular apomorphies shared by both sexes, finding both sexes in the same host or as a pre-copulatory male-female pair in the plankton, or by the use of molecular markers. A general overview of the morphology of the group and its life cycle is provided herein. Recently, upgraded descriptive standards have been established and the relevance of redescribing taxa based on type and museum specimens has been demonstrated. The rate of species description per decade has had several peaks between 1840 and 2010: (1971–1980, 1991–2000, 2001–2010), each related to the activity of a few researchers. An analysis of the world distribution of published records of the Monstrilloida revealed that the Northeast Atlantic is the best studied region (45% of all records), followed by the Northwestern Atlantic (17%); the least surveyed areas include regions of the southern hemisphere (less than 3%). The Northeast Atlantic region harbors the highest number of known species (32 nominal species), followed by the Caribbean Sea/Gulf of Mexico (24), the Mediterranean/Black Sea (19), Indonesia-Malaysia-Philippines region (17), Japanese waters (17), and the Brazil-Argentina area (16). Other than these generalized patterns, little can be concluded concerning the biogeography of the group. Many species records are doubtful or improbable, and purportedly cosmopolitan nominal species are being revealed as species complexes yet to be studied. PMID:21853055

  3. Diversity of the Monstrilloida (Crustacea: Copepoda).

    PubMed

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Monstrilloid copepods are protelean parasites of different groups of marine benthic invertebrates. Only their first naupliar, preadult, and adult phases are planktonic. Monstrilloids are currently represented by more than 115 nominal species contained in four genera. Its taxonomic knowledge has been hampered by nomenclatural and descriptive problems derived from their peculiar ontogeny and poor definitions of taxa. One of the most important difficulties is that of matching males to females. The only reliable methods to link the sexes of a species are the confirmation of particular apomorphies shared by both sexes, finding both sexes in the same host or as a pre-copulatory male-female pair in the plankton, or by the use of molecular markers. A general overview of the morphology of the group and its life cycle is provided herein. Recently, upgraded descriptive standards have been established and the relevance of redescribing taxa based on type and museum specimens has been demonstrated. The rate of species description per decade has had several peaks between 1840 and 2010: (1971-1980, 1991-2000, 2001-2010), each related to the activity of a few researchers. An analysis of the world distribution of published records of the Monstrilloida revealed that the Northeast Atlantic is the best studied region (45% of all records), followed by the Northwestern Atlantic (17%); the least surveyed areas include regions of the southern hemisphere (less than 3%). The Northeast Atlantic region harbors the highest number of known species (32 nominal species), followed by the Caribbean Sea/Gulf of Mexico (24), the Mediterranean/Black Sea (19), Indonesia-Malaysia-Philippines region (17), Japanese waters (17), and the Brazil-Argentina area (16). Other than these generalized patterns, little can be concluded concerning the biogeography of the group. Many species records are doubtful or improbable, and purportedly cosmopolitan nominal species are being revealed as species complexes yet to be studied.

  4. Zur Biologie von Paramphiascella fulvofasciata (Copepoda, Harpacticoida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahms, Hans-Uwe

    1986-09-01

    The benthic harpacticoid copepod Paramphiascella fulvofasciata Rosenfield & Coull was collected from holdfasts of Laminaria hyperborea from a subtidal area of Helgoland (North Sea). All developmental stages of P. fulvofasciata are raptorial feeders. The feeding of the nauplii is advanced by a marginal setule-crest of the labrum which prevents food-particles from being swept away. The oral appendages of the copepodites circumscribe a frustal space ventral to the mouth which facilitates uptake of food-particles. The nauplii are not able to swim and perform stalking movements with their antennal endopodites. Good swimming ability as well as digging-in-behaviour and negative phototaxis of the copepodites indicate epi- as well as inbenthic mode of life. Several life-cycle characters are described. Precopula lasts ca. one day. The mean egg-number is 27, and mean egg-diameter is 87 × 75 µm. The number of nauplii per egg (double)-sac amounts to 25 30. Developmental time at 19°C is 6 9 days (nauplii) and 20 24 days (copepodites). The whole developmental period lasts 28 days. The maximal lifespan in the laboratory is 193 days. Sex-ratio is almost balanced. Females produce egg-sacs more than 3.5 times during their life period. Seasonal effects on reproductive activity have not been detected in laboratory cultures.

  5. [Taxonomic structure of Orthomyxoviridae: current views and immediate prospects].

    PubMed

    Shchelkanov, M Iu; Fediakina, I T; Proshina, E S; L'vov, D N; Ponomarenko, R A; Chumakov, V M; Burtseva, E I; Galkina, I V; L'vov, D K

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of taxonomic structure of Orthomyxoviridae was undertaken in view of its anticipated evolution. Four concepts of circulation of influenza A viruses in the biosphere are discussed, viz. anthrponose, zooanthroponose, metastrongilose, and protozoan. All of them may be considered in the framework of the general zooantroponose concept. Influenza B and C viruses can not be regarded as strictly anthroponose. Comparative molecular-genetic analysis of the genus Thogotovirus provides a basis for the designation of Thogoto and Batken-Dhori as independent geni. It is speculated that t he proof of transmission of Isaviruses by copepods Caligus elongates and Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Crustacea: Copepoda) may open up a new line of developments in arborvirology since crustacean vectors of viruses have never been described before.

  6. A comparison of neutral and immune genetic variation in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. in Chilean aquaculture facilities.

    PubMed

    Portnoy, David S; Hollenbeck, Christopher M; Vidal, R Rodrigo; Gold, John R

    2014-01-01

    Genetic diversity was assessed in samples of cultured Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., obtained from facilities in Chile between 2005 and 2010, a period of time during which the infectious pathogens Infectious Salmon Anemia (ISA) virus, Caligus rogercresseyi (sea lice), and Piscirickettsia salmonis (salmon rickettsial syndrome) were common. Two panels of microsatellite markers were utilized: one with microsatellites with no known gene associations (neutral) and one featuring microsatellites linked to putative immune-related genes (immune-related). Allelic richness and gene diversity across samples were significantly greater in neutral loci as compared to immune-related loci. Both diversity measures were homogeneous among samples for immune-related loci and heterogeneous among samples for neutral loci. Immune-related loci were identified as F(ST) outliers in pairwise comparisons of samples at a 10-fold higher frequency than neutral loci. These results indicate that neutral and immune-related portions of the Atlantic salmon genome may have differed in response to the gauntlet of pathogens and that monitoring of specific, well characterized immune-related loci as well as neutral loci in cultured species could be useful when disease control and prevention is a goal.

  7. A Comparison of Neutral and Immune Genetic Variation in Atlantic Salmon, Salmo salar L. in Chilean Aquaculture Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Portnoy, David S.; Hollenbeck, Christopher M.; Vidal, R. Rodrigo; Gold, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic diversity was assessed in samples of cultured Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., obtained from facilities in Chile between 2005 and 2010, a period of time during which the infectious pathogens Infectious Salmon Anemia (ISA) virus, Caligus rogercresseyi (sea lice), and Piscirickettsia salmonis (salmon rickettsial syndrome) were common. Two panels of microsatellite markers were utilized: one with microsatellites with no known gene associations (neutral) and one featuring microsatellites linked to putative immune-related genes (immune-related). Allelic richness and gene diversity across samples were significantly greater in neutral loci as compared to immune-related loci. Both diversity measures were homogeneous among samples for immune-related loci and heterogeneous among samples for neutral loci. Immune-related loci were identified as FST outliers in pairwise comparisons of samples at a 10-fold higher frequency than neutral loci. These results indicate that neutral and immune-related portions of the Atlantic salmon genome may have differed in response to the gauntlet of pathogens and that monitoring of specific, well characterized immune-related loci as well as neutral loci in cultured species could be useful when disease control and prevention is a goal. PMID:24918941

  8. In the shadow: The emerging role of long non-coding RNAs in the immune response of Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Tarifeño-Saldivia, E; Valenzuela-Miranda, D; Gallardo-Escárate, C

    2017-03-31

    The genomic era has increased the research effort to uncover how the genome of an organism, and specifically the transcriptome, is modulated after interplaying with pathogenic microorganisms and ectoparasites. However, the ever-increasing accessibility of sequencing technology has also evidenced regulatory roles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) related to several biological processes including immune response. This study reports a high-confidence annotation and a comparative transcriptome analysis of lncRNAs from several tissues of Salmo salar infected with the most prevalent pathogens in the Chilean salmon aquaculture such as the infectious salmon anemia (ISA) virus, the intracellular bacterium Piscirickettsia salmonis and the ectoparasite copepod Caligus rogercresseyi. Our analyses showed that lncRNAs are widely modulated during infection. However, this modulation is pathogen-specific and highly correlated with immuno-related genes associated with innate immune response. These findings represent the first discovery for the widespread differential expression of lncRNAs in response to infections with different types of pathogens in Atlantic salmon, suggesting that lncRNAs are pivotal player during the fish immune response.

  9. Northwestward range extension for Diacyclops harryi (Crustacea: Copepoda)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Janet W.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Bowen, Charles A.

    2002-01-01

    A recent find of the groundwater-inhabiting copepod crustacean Diacyclops harryi extended the known range of this species far northwestward, to include northern Ohio and the drainage basin of the Laurentian Great Lakes. The species was previously collected in drainages of the Atlantic Slope from New York to North Carolina. Ostracodes tentatively identified as ?Nannocandona n. sp., and amphipods belonging to the subterranean species Bactrurus mucronatus were also found at the Ohio locality.

  10. A revision of the family Dissonidae Kurtz, 1924 (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida).

    PubMed

    Boxshall, Geoff A; Lin, Ching-Long; Ho, Ju-Shey; Ohtsuka, Susumu; Venmathi Maran, B A; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2008-06-01

    Two new species of the parasitic copepod genus Dissonus Wilson, 1906 are described: D. excavatus n. sp. from the gills of a labrid, Bodianus perditio, and a lutjanid, Macolor niger, collected off New Caledonia and Taiwan, and D. inaequalis n. sp. from a hemiscylliid elasmobranch, Chiloscyllium punctatum, collected off Sarawak (Malaysia) and the Philippines. Material of D. heronensis Kabata, 1966 is described from a balistid host, Pseudobalistes fuscus, off New Caledonia, and this constitutes a new host record for this parasite. D. manteri Kabata, 1966 was collected from four serranid host species off New Caledonia and from one of the same hosts off Taiwan. Two of the hosts from New Caledonia, Plectropomus laevis and Epinephelus cyanopodus, represent new host records. D. pastinum Deets & Dojiri, 1990 was recognised as a new synonym of D. nudiventris Kabata, 1966, so the total number of valid species is now twelve. Material from museum collections of D. nudiventris, D. similis Kabata, 1966 and D. spinifer Wilson, 1906 was re-examined and provided new information which is utilised in a key to all valid species of Dissonus.

  11. Molecular effects of diethanolamine exposure on Calanus finmarchicus (Crustacea: Copepoda).

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Altin, Dag; Booth, Andy; Vang, Siv-Hege; Frenzel, Max; Sørheim, Kristin Rist; Brakstad, Odd Gunnar; Størseth, Trond R

    2010-08-15

    Alkanolamines are surface-active chemicals used in a wide range of industrial, agricultural and pharmaceutical applications and products. Of particular interest is the use of alkanolamines such as diethanolamine (DEA) in the removal of CO(2) from natural gas and for CO(2) capture following fossil fuel combustion. Despite this widespread use, relatively little is known about the ecotoxicological impacts of these compounds. In an attempt to assess the potential effects of alkanolamines in the marine environment, a key species in the North Atlantic, the planktonic copepod Calanus finmarchicus, was studied for molecular effects following sublethal exposure to DEA. DEA-induced alterations in transcriptome and metabolome profiling were assessed using a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) gene library method and high resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS NMR), respectively. Effects were observed on transcription of genes reportedly involved in lipid metabolism, antioxidant systems, metal binding, and amino acid and protein catabolism. These effects were accompanied by altered expression of fatty acid derivates, amino acids (threonine, methionine, glutamine, arginine, alanine and leucine) and cholines (choline, phosphocholine and glycerophosphocholine). Together, SSH and HR-MAS NMR offer complementary screening tools for the assessment of molecular responses of C. finmarchicus to DEA and can be used in the study of other chemicals and organisms. Concentration-response and time-response relationships between DEA exposure and single gene transcription were investigated using quantitative PCR. Specific relationships were found between DEA exposure and the transcription of genes involved in protein catabolism (ubiquitin-specific protease-7), metal ion homeostasis (ferritin) and defence against oxidative stress (gamma-glutamylcysteine synthase, glutathione synthase and Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase). At the lowest alkanolamine concentration used in these experiments, which corresponded to 0.5% of the LC(50) concentration, no transcriptional effects were observed, giving information regarding the lower molecular effect level. Finally, similar transcription patterns were observed for a number of different genes following exposure to DEA, which indicates analogous mechanisms of toxicity and response. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Distant water sailors: parasitic Copepoda of the open ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J. B.

    1998-06-01

    Copepods represent one of the largest groups of ectoparasites of marine fish. They have been extensively studied in coastal waters where they have become major pests in aquaculture. However, there is very little information on the ecology of parasitic copepods of fishes in the open ocean. It is now recognised that oceanographic conditions determine the distribution and abundance of oceanic fish. The same conditions also influence the survival of both the individual parasitic copepod and its species.

  13. Historical biogeography of the neotropical Diaptomidae (Crustacea: Copepoda)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Diaptomid copepods are prevalent throughout continental waters of the Neotropics, yet little is known about their biogeography. In this study we investigate the main biogeographical patterns among the neotropical freshwater diaptomid copepods using Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE) based on species records within ecoregions. In addition, we assess potential environmental correlates and limits for species richness. Results PAE was efficient in identifying general areas of endemism. Moreover, only ecoregion area showed a significant correlation with diaptomid species richness, although climatic factors were shown to provide possible upper limits to the species richness in a given ecoregion. Conclusion The main patterns of endemism in neotropical freshwater diaptomid copepods are highly congruent with other freshwater taxa, suggesting a strong historical signal in determining the distribution of the family in the Neotropics. PMID:25057279

  14. Laboratory evaluation of Brazilian Mesocyclops (Copepoda: Cyclopidae) for mosquito control.

    PubMed

    Kay, B H; Cabral, C P; Sleigh, A C; Brown, M D; Ribeiro, Z M; Vasconcelos, A W

    1992-07-01

    In laboratory tests, four different strains of Mesocyclops aspericornis (Daday) collected in or near Fortaleza, Brazil, showed potential as biological control agents of Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquito larvae but were not as effective against Anopheles or Culex. In contrast, the larger M. longisetus (Thiebaud), collected at Fortaleza, killed 100% of Ae. aegypti and Anopheles farauti (Laveran) (No. 1) at larval densities of 200/liter and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) at 25/liter. In cage simulations with Ae. aegypti and Mesocyclops, both copepod species eliminated all immatures in earthenware pots by week 3. Owing to the lack of replacement, all Ae. aegypti adults subsequently died by week 8 or 9. Although both M. longisetus and M. aspericornis showed maximum reproductive potential at 25 degrees C, breeding occurred from 20 to 35 degrees C. Based on these laboratory evaluations, M. longisetus has been selected for field trials in rural villages in Ceará to control Ae. aegypti.

  15. Phylogeny of the Paracalanidae Giesbrecht, 1888 (Crustacea: Copepoda: Calanoida).

    PubMed

    Cornils, Astrid; Blanco-Bercial, Leocadio

    2013-12-01

    The Paracalanidae are ecologically-important marine planktonic copepods that occur in the epipelagic zone in temperate and tropical waters. They are often the dominant taxon - in terms of biomass and abundance - in continental shelf regions. As primary consumers, they form a vital link in the pelagic food web between primary producers and higher trophic levels. Despite the ecological importance of the taxon, evolutionary and systematic relationships within the family remain largely unknown. A multigene phylogeny including 24 species, including representatives for all seven genera, was determined based on two nuclear genes, small-subunit (18S) ribosomal RNA and Histone 3 (H3) and one mitochondrial gene, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI). The molecular phylogeny was well supported by Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analysis; all genera were found to be monophyletic, except for Paracalanus, which was separated into two distinct clades: the Paracalanus aculeatus group and Paracalanus parvus group. The molecular phylogeny also confirmed previous findings that Mecynocera and Calocalanus are genera of the family Paracalanidae. For comparison, a morphological phylogeny was created for 35 paracalanid species based on 54 morphological characters derived from published descriptions. The morphological phylogeny did not resolve all genera as monophyletic and bootstrap support was not strong. Molecular and morphological phylogenies were not congruent in the positioning of Bestiolina and the Paracalanus species groups, possibly due to the lack of sufficient phylogenetically-informative morphological characters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Two new species of Parastenocarididae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) from India.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Yenumula Ranga; Totakura, Venkateswara Rao; Shaik, Shabuddin

    2016-01-14

    To date, 20 species of Parastenocarididae are known from the Indian subcontinent. This paper gives the description of two more new species from the coastal deltaic belt of the Rivers Krishna and Godavari in the Andhra Pradesh state of the southeastern Indian peninsula. They are: Parastenocaris enckelli n. sp. from a hyporheic habitat, and Dussartstenocaris bisetosa n. sp. from a farm bore. Parastenocaris enckelli belongs to the brevipes-group of the genus Parastenocaris Kessler, 1913 sensu Lang 1948 and Reid 1995, and is characterized by the following features: the male leg 4 basal complex consists of a large chitinized plate, with two digitiform hyaline structures at its proximal outer corner of the anterior surface, and one smooth, moderately strong, claw-like spine at the inner distal corner of basis; the endopod of the same leg is membranous, with bulbous proximal part having a diagonal row of three spinules, and its distal part is drawn out into smooth pointed structure; and the male leg 3 ancestral proximal segment is subproximally dilated, elongate, with ladle-shaped apophysis, which is slightly longer than the spiniform thumb. Parastenocaris enckelli is closely related to the Indian P. edakkal Totakura, Ranga Reddy & Shaik, 2014, and the Sri Lankan P. brincki Enckell, 1970. To accommodate Dussartstenocaris bisetosa in the monotypic Western Australian genus Dussartstenocaris Karanovic & Cooper, 2011, three of the original generic criteria are amended. D. bisetosa is chiefly characterized by the complex exopodal thumb on the male leg 3, the caudal ramus having only two lateral setae located slightly anterior to its midlength together with the distally inserted dorsal seta, and also the presence of a short spiniform process at the inner distal corner of leg 5 in both sexes. Dussartstenocaris bisetosa differs from D. idioxenos Karanovic & Cooper, 2011, by its shorter caudal rami, distinctly ornamented anal somite, two long modified spinules on the male leg 4 coxa, and rather small fifth legs with only two setae each in both sexes and smooth inner margins. This is the first report of the genus Dussartstenocaris from the Indian subcontinent. Brief biogeographic notes are also given for the two new species.

  17. The Australian Monstrilloida (Crustacea: Copepoda) II. Cymbasoma Thompson, 1888.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Mckinnon, A David

    2016-04-08

    Monstrilloid copepods collected during the past two decades from zooplankton surveys in reef and coastal areas of Australia were analyzed. A first contribution included the taxonomic analysis of three genera of the Monstrilloida, Monstrillopsis Sars, 1921, Maemonstrilla Grygier & Ohtsuka, 2008, and the newly described Australomonstrillopsis Suárez-Morales & McKinnon, 2014. In this document a taxonomic analysis of the species belonging to the genus Cymbasoma Thompson, 1888 is provided. A total of 28 species were found, most of them being undescribed. Seventeen species were described based on females only and eight on male specimens while three species were described from both sexes. Males of Australian species of Cymbasoma are distinguished by details of the genital complex, body size and proportions, ornamentation and processes of the cephalic region, number of caudal setae, and the characteristic structure or ornamentation of the genital lappets. Two main groups of males were distinguished on the basis of the number of caudal setae (3 or 4). As for the females, 20 of the 25 new species of Cymbasoma have fifth legs with an unarmed inner lobe and three setae on the outer lobe; one of these species (C. jinigudira sp. nov.) belongs to the C. longispinosum species-group (sensu Üstün et al. 2014). Another group, consisting of five species, has only two setae on the outer (exopodal) lobe. There were no Australian species of Cymbasoma with a single lobe. A species group, named after C. agoense, is proposed to include species sharing a globose body and a female fifth leg with a large endopodal lobe and an outer (exopodal) lobe with two setae. The females of the new species of Cymbasoma from Australia can be distinguished from their known congeners by unique combinations of characters including the type of body ornamentation, body size and shape, antennule armature and proportions, the presence of distinctive features of the legs 1-4, the presence/absence of processes on the genital compound somite, and the presence/absence of a constriction of the anal somite. We report the occurrence of two previously described species, C. agoense Sekiguchi, 1982 from Japan and C. bali Desai & Krishnaswamy, 1962 from India in Australian waters. Considering the addition of the 25 new species here described, the number of nominal species of the genus is now 66. A key to the Australian species of Cymbasoma (males and females) and a map showing their occurrence in Australia are also provided.

  18. Desiccation Resistance in Tigriopus californicus(Copepoda, Harpacticoida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powlik, James J.; Lewis, Alan G.

    1996-10-01

    In field populations and controlled laboratory microcosms, the supralittoral copepod Tigriopus californicusdemonstrated the ability to recover populations from evaporated splashpools. The response to either seawater or rainwater introduction occurred mainly within 24 h, regardless of copepod abundance or substrate material (mixed sediment or dried samples of the alga Enteromorpha compressa). As a proportion of available individuals, the response was quite consistent over all life-history stages. However, egg-carrying females andadult males showed the greatest net increase in individual numbers due to their abundance in source (dried) materials. Enteromorpha compressatreatments hydrated with seawater yielded significantly greater re-animation ( P<0·05), suggesting a response to food resources rather than moisture or salinity alone. Overall, 10·7±8·5% (mean±SD) of individuals were re-animated following hydration. While a slight percentage, the tremendous density of individuals trapped in dried splashpools probably still yields sufficient numbers of effective intra-pool recolonization. Such a response may be more practical for population endurance in ephemeral supralittoral habitats than reliance on environmental influences (waves, precipitation or transport on coincident invertebrates) or the deposition of encysted eggs.

  19. [Marine biodiversity of Costa Rica, the microcrustacea: Copepoda (Crustacea: Maxillopoda)].

    PubMed

    Morales-Ramírez, A

    2001-12-01

    This report is part of a series that summarizes the species and localities of Costa Rican marine taxa. A review of the literature on copepods, both pelagic and benthic for the Pacific and Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, includes eighty species. Sixty seven pelagic species have been found, distributed between sixteen calanoid, one cyclopoid, three harparticoid and four poecilostomatoid families. Moreover, thirteen benthonic species distributed into six families, all harparticoids, are reported. Among the pelagic families, Pontellidae has six species, while Paracalanidae and Eucalanidae had five each. Other families, like Calanidae, Pseudodiaptomidae and Acartiidae had four species and most families only one. Forty five species are reported only for the Pacific coast, thirteen for the Caribbean coast, only nine species occurred in both coasts; being a direct consequence of the more intensive research effort in the Pacific. Pelagic copepod biodiversity reflects different oceanographic conditions in both coasts. Typical estuarine species were found in the lower region of the Gulf of Nicoya, while a mixture of estuarine and oceanic species were found in Golfo Dulce. Diversity in the Caribbean, specially at the Cahuita coral reef is lower in comparison with the copepod diversity found in other regions in the Caribbean sea. This may be due to the high sediment resuspension rate characteristic of the Cahuita coral reef, which could affect the reproduction of many holozooplankters, specially copepods. Although sixty seven pelagic copepod species appears to be in low numbers, in terms of specific biodiversity it is as high when compared to numbers found in other tropical areas. Thirteen species are reported in the literature, all harparticoids. Five species, three sub-species and one genera were new to science. Balacopsylla is reported for the first time from a neotropical regions, while the genus Karllangia, represented by two coexisting species in the Caribbean coast, belong to a few circumtropical-subtropical genera. The most diverse family was Tetragonicipitidae. This is the first effort to summarize the available information about the biodiversity of marine copepods for Costa Rica's coasts.

  20. Risk assessment for parasites in cultures of Diplodus puntazzo (Sparidae) in the Western Mediterranean: prospects of cross infection with Sparus aurata.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-García, Neus; Raga, Juan Antonio; Montero, Francisco E

    2014-08-29

    The sharpsnout seabream Diplodus puntazzo is of interest in Mediterranean fish farming. Disease is an important problem because parasites can spread quickly in culture conditions and fish often develop high parasite burdens. Here we assess the risk that documented parasites pose to the sustainability of D. puntazzo farming. This study specifically considers metazoan and protist parasites recorded from wild and farmed D. puntazzo in scientific literature. Risk assessment studies involve the identification, characterization and qualitative quantification of the risk in question (parasitoses in this case) and the probability of establishment. We considered the parasite species which may be difficult to manage as a priority for research into potential management strategies. Those parasites which could be transmitted from cultures of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) were also included in this study. Four groups of parasites represented a risk to D. puntazzo farming, ranging from moderate to high: Ciliophora, Myxozoa, Monogenea and Copepoda. Three parasite species were considered high risk to D. puntazzo cultures: Amyloodinium sp., Cryptocaryon sp. and Enteromyxum leei. These species were responsible for high mortalities in cultures of these and other fish species. In addition Sparicotyle chrysophrii, Caligus ligusticus and Gnathia vorax entail a moderate risk to D. puntazzo Mediterranean farms. No important episodes have been related to caligids and isopods in Mediterranean sparids, nevertheless they should be properly managed to prevent future problems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Parasites of fingerling herring Clupea harengus L.: ecology and fine morphology.

    PubMed

    Rahimian, Hassan

    2007-06-01

    The parasite fauna of young-of-the-year herring Clupea harengus L., off Gullmarsfjord and Brofjorden, west coast of Sweden, was studied between May and October for 4 years, from 1994 to 1997. Fifteen species of parasites were found: two Protozoa - Trichodina sp. and Ceratomyxa auerbachi; one species of uncertain affinity - Ichthyophonus hoferi; two Monogenea - Gyrodactylus harengi and Pseudanthocotyloides heterocotyle; five Digenea - Cryptocotyle lingua metacercariae, Cercaria pythionike metacercariae, Hemiurus luehei, Lecithaster confusus and Pseudobacciger harengulae; three Cestoda plerocercoids - Bothriocephalus sp., an acrobothriid and a tetraphyllid; one Nematoda - Hysterothylacium aduncum larva; and one Copepoda - Caligus elongatus. The number of species found in this study represents more than one-sixth of all parasites reported in herring worldwide and all parasites were acquired locally. The parasite fauna of herring from the west coast of Sweden is compared with that of herring from the Baltic Sea and other areas of the north-east Atlantic. The prevalence and intensity of parasites are presented and discussed. Morphological descriptions are based on both light and scanning electron microscopy and new features are described. Possible applications of this new information about the parasite fauna, in different areas of fisheries and fish biology studies, are discussed.

  2. Metazoan ectoparasites of Atlantic mackerel, Scomber scombrus (Teleostei: Scombridae): macro- and microhabitat distribution.

    PubMed

    Castro, Ricardo; Santos, Maria João

    2013-10-01

    Parasites are affected by the environment where their hosts live, having a specific distribution among their hosts and occupying a well-defined microhabitat. The present work aims to describe the metazoan ectoparasite fauna of Scomber scombrus, namely its distribution at the macro- and microhabitat levels. For that, fish from two different Portuguese regions, Matosinhos (n = 40) and Figueira da Foz (n = 39), were examined for macroectoparasites. S. scombrus of Matosinhos presented four different parasite species, whilst fish from Figueira da Foz presented five species. All parasites belonged to Monogenea, Copepoda, or Isopoda. The main differences between infection levels of fish from the two localities were found in Grubea cochlear (higher infection levels in Matosinhos) and Caligus pelamydis (where the highest values were found in Figueira da Foz). Regarding the microhabitat of the reported ectoparasites, it could be seen that every species has a very specific distribution within the host: G. cochlear and Kuhnia scombri have a preference for the inner medial areas of gills, Kuhnia sprostonae for the pseudobranchs, and C. pelamydis for the internal wall of opercula. The numerical and functional responses to interspecific competition were absent. These results support the idea that the parasite driving forces of community structure are the reinforcement of reproductive barriers and the enhancement of chances to mate.

  3. Factors influencing the long-term dynamics of larval sea lice density at east and west coast locations in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Harte, Anna J; Bowman, Alan S; Salama, Nabeil K G; Pert, Campbell C

    2017-03-21

    Sea lice (Copepoda: Caligidae) are marine copepods that parasitize finfish, and in cases of high infestation can result in severe epithelial damage and mortality. In Scotland, 2 species of sea louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus, pose a significant economic burden to the marine Atlantic salmon aquaculture industry and potentially impact wild salmonids. The purpose of this study was to determine how the density of pelagic sea lice is affected by external variables, in order to improve our understanding of sea lice dynamics. Long-term data from 2 sampling sites on the east and west coasts of Scotland were modelled independently in conjunction with environmental and anthropogenic variables. Statistical analysis identified that at the east coast site, the most influential factor affecting lice density was salinity. On the west coast, salinity, rainfall and farmed salmon production year were most influential. Molecular and morphological techniques also showed that the individuals recorded on the east coast were C. elongatus, a generalist copepod parasite, whereas only the salmonid-specific L. salmonis were found on the west. These results reiterate the role of environmental factors in influencing sea lice dynamics, and that salmonids are the primary hosts of sea lice on the west coast, but there could be non-salmonid host species as well as salmonid species influencing east coast sea lice densities.

  4. Consecutive emamectin benzoate and deltamethrin treatments affect the expressions and activities of detoxification enzymes in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Cárcamo, Juan Guillermo; Aguilar, Marcelo N; Carreño, Constanza F; Vera, Tamara; Arias-Darraz, Luis; Figueroa, Jaime E; Romero, Alex P; Alvarez, Marco; Yañez, Alejandro J

    2017-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) subjected to three consecutive, alternating treatments with emamectin benzoate (EMB) and deltamethrin (DM) during outbreaks of Caligus rogercresseyi in a farm located in southern Chile (Hornopiren, Chiloé), were studied to determine the effects of these treatments on the protein and enzymatic activity levels of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A), flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in different tissues. Consecutive and alternating EMB/DM treatments resulted in a 10-fold increase and 3-fold decrease of CYP1A protein levels in the intestine and gills, respectively. Notably, CYP1A activity levels decreased in most of the analyzed tissues. FMO protein and activity levels markedly increased in the kidney and the intestine. GST was up-regulated in all tissues, either as protein or enzyme activity. When comparing consecutive EMB/DM treatments against previous studies of EMB treatment alone, CYP1A activity levels were similarly diminished, except in muscle. Likewise, FMO activity levels were increased in most of the analyzed tissues, particularly in the muscle, kidney, and intestine. The increases observed for GST were essentially unchanged between consecutive EMB/DM and EMB only treatments. These results indicate that consecutive EMB/DM treatments in rainbow trout induce the expression and activity of FMO and GST enzymes and decrease CYP1A activity. These altered activities of detoxification enzymes could generate imbalances in metabolic processes, synthesis, degradation of hormones and complications associated with drug interactions. It is especially important when analyzing possible effects of consecutive antiparasitic treatments on withholding periods and salmon farming yields.

  5. The effects of the harmful alga Heterosigma akashiwo on cultures of Schmackeria inopinus (Copepoda, Calanoida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Juan; Yang, Guipeng; Tian, Jiyuan

    2010-10-01

    Harmful effects of red tide dinoflagellates on copepods have gained particular attention in recent years. In this study, monocultures and mixed cultures of the harmful alga Heterosigma akashiwo and the non-harmful alga Isochrysis galbana were utilized as diets to investigate the ingestion, reproduction and recruitment of the copepod Schmackeria inopinus. When compared with a monoculture of I. galbana, a sole diet H. akashiwo apparently inhibited ingestion rates, proportions of gravid female (PGFs), egg production rates (EPRs), gross growth efficiencies (GGEs) and recruitment of S. inopinus. We found that the harmful effects of H. akashiwo on the abundance of S. inopinus were concentration- and time-dependent. S. inopinus exhibited significantly reduced ingestion rates, EPRs and GGEs when they were fed on food mixtures of H. akashiwo (0-75% of I. galbana) in comparison with the control diet (100% of I. galbana). The data on ingestion rates and EPRs in the diet mixtures suggest that H. akashiwo is toxic to S. inopinus, which might be attributable to the glycocalyx structures in the H. akashiwo cell surface. The results in this study indicate that a bloom of H. akashiwo could cause significant stress to S. inopinus.

  6. Feeding behaviour of adult Centropages hamatus (Copepoda, Calanoida): Functional response and selective feeding experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saage, Andrea; Vadstein, Olav; Sommer, Ulrich

    2009-06-01

    The feeding behaviour of adults of the marine calanoid copepod Centropages hamatus was studied in laboratory experiments with ciliates and phytoplankton as food sources. The ingestion rate of algal (flagellates, diatoms) and ciliate prey (oligotrichs) as a function of prey concentration could be described by a Holling type III functional response, with close to zero ingestion rates at concentrations below 5 µg C l - 1 . In general, ingestion of ciliates was higher than ingestion of algae, and maximum feeding rates by adult males reached were half the feeding rates of adult females at prey concentrations exceeding 50 µg C l - 1 . When diatoms and ciliates were offered together C. hamatus (both sexes) fed exclusively on ciliates as long as they contributed with more than 5% to the mixture. This indicates the capability of active prey selection and switching between suspension feeding and ambush predation. Therefore, the feeding behaviour of adult C. hamatus can be characterised as omnivorous with a preference for larger motile prey. This implies a trophic level above two, if there is a sufficient abundance of protozoan food available.

  7. A comparative analysis of the Harpacticoida (Copepoda) faunas from the northern and southern seas of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chertoprud, E. S.; Garlitska, L. A.

    2007-12-01

    Based on extensive voluminous literary data, a comparison of the Harpacticoida faunas of the Black Sea; the Sea of Azov; and the Caspian, Baltic, Barents, White, Kara, Laptev, and East Siberian seas, as well as of the Spitsbergen and Franz Josef Land areas, was performed. The degree of community and specificity of the faunas of different regions was estimated and the general patterns of the latitudinal variability in the species compositions were revealed. It is shown that the Harpacticoida faunas of geographically separated areas and even those isolated from each other such as those of the Black Sea, the Sea of Azov, and the Caspian Sea are rather similar; an hypothesis is put forward that this is caused by the common history of the seas’ formation. In contrast, the faunas of the Arctic seas (Barents, White, Kara, Laptev, and East Siberian), whose water areas are closely connected, are considerably different, being related to their different temperature conditions.

  8. Negligible effects of ocean acidification on Eurytemora affinis (Copepoda) offspring production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almén, A.-K.; Vehmaa, A.; Brutemark, A.; Bach, L.; Lischka, S.; Stuhr, A.; Furuhagen, S.; Paul, A.; Bermúdez, R.; Riebesell, U.; Engström-Öst, J.

    2015-10-01

    Ocean acidification is caused by increasing amounts of carbon dioxide dissolving in the oceans leading to lower seawater pH. We studied the effects of lowered pH on the calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis during a mesocosm experiment conducted in a coastal area of the Baltic Sea. We measured copepod reproductive success as a function of pH, chlorophyll a concentration, diatom and dinoflagellate biomass, carbon to nitrogen (C : N) ratio of suspended particulate organic matter, as well as copepod fatty acid composition. The laboratory-based experiment was repeated four times during four consecutive weeks, with water and copepods sampled from pelagic mesocosms enriched with different CO2 concentrations. In addition, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of animals from the mesocosms was measured weekly to test whether the copepod's defence against oxidative stress was affected by pH. We found no effect of pH on offspring production. Phytoplankton biomass, as indicated by chlorophyll a concentration, had a strong positive effect. The concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the females were reflected in the eggs and had a positive effect on offspring production, whereas monounsaturated fatty acids of the females were reflected in their eggs but had no significant effect. ORAC was not affected by pH. From these experiments we conclude that E. affinis seems robust against direct exposure to ocean acidification on a physiological level, for the variables covered in the study. E. affinis may not have faced acute pH stress in the treatments as the species naturally face large pH fluctuations.

  9. A new species of Strongylacron (Copepoda, Harpacticoida, Cletodidae) from intertidal mudflats in the Korean peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Guk; Jung, Tae Won; Yoon, Seong Myeong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species, Strongylacron glabrum sp. n. is described from intertidal mudflats in the Korean peninsula. The new species is assigned to the monospecific genus Strongylacron Gee & Huys, 1996 in accordance with the generic morphological features of the rostrum, antennary exopod, and thoracic legs. However, Strongylacron glabrum sp. n. is clearly distinguished from the type species, Strongylacron buchholtzi (Boeck, 1873), by the naked anterior margin of rostrum, the elongate exopod and endopodal lobe of female P5 approximately 3.5 and 2.7 times as long as width, respectively, and the presence of 8–10 rod-like projections on prosomites. The genus Strongylacron is first recorded from Korean waters by the present study. PMID:27667951

  10. Mating behaviour of Pseudodiaptomus annandalei (Copepoda, Calanoida) in calm and turbulent waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. H.; Dahms, H. U.; Cheng, S. H.; Souissi, S.; Schmitt, F. G.; Kumar, R.; Hwang, J. S.

    2009-04-01

    Behavioral observations of male copepods reveal that they commonly follow female copepods' footprints to find their mates. Female generated environmental signals are primarily of hydromechanical or chemical quality. The intensity of hydromechanical or chemical signals is affected by the hydrodynamic conditions which in turn may modulate a copepod's ability to sense signals in their search for mates in the aquatic environment. We studied the patterns and efficiency of the copepod Pseudodiaptomus annandalei to mate at still and turbulent water conditions during day and night and in different shape and volume experimental containers. The ability of courtship in P. annandalei was recorded to be a negative function of hydromechanical disturbances as the successful mating was observed in still water only. Under turbulent condition males were not able to track a female properly. We records in the present study that both, sequential and simultaneous taxi mechanisms are used by the male P. annandalei to follow either hydromechanic or chemical signals. Our results further reveal that males follow a signal more accurately characterized as a trail. The ability of P. annandalei males to track a three-dimensional trail appears unique, and possibly depends on the persistence of fluid-borne hydromechanical or chemical signals created in low Reynolds number hydrodynamic regimes. Keywords: Mating behavior, Turbulence, Flow, Hydrodynamic conditions

  11. Prediction of the peptidomes of Tigriopus californicus and Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E

    2014-05-15

    Transcriptome mining is a powerful method for crustacean peptide discovery, especially when large sequence datasets are available and an appropriate reference is extant. Recently, a 206,041-sequence transcriptome for the copepod Calanus finmarchicus was mined for peptide-encoding transcripts, with ones for 17 families/subfamilies identified. Here, the deduced Calanus pre/preprohormones were used as templates for peptide discovery in the copepods Tigriopus californicus and Lepeophtheirus salmonis; large transcriptome shotgun assembly datasets are publicly accessible for both species. Sixty-five Tigriopus and 17 Lepeophtheirus transcripts, encompassing 22 and 13 distinct peptide families/subfamilies, respectively, were identified, with the structures of 161 and 70 unique mature peptides predicted from the deduced precursors. The identified peptides included members of the allatostatin A, allatostatin C, bursicon α, bursicon β, CAPA/periviscerokinin/pyrokinin, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone/ion transport peptide, diuretic hormone 31, FLRFamide, leucokinin, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F, orcokinin, and tachykinin-related peptide families, most of which possess novel structures, though isoforms from other copepods are known. Of particular note was the discovery of novel isoforms of adipokinetic hormone-corazonin-like peptide, allatotropin, corazonin, eclosion hormone and intocin, peptide families previously unidentified in copepods. In addition, Tigriopus precursors for two previously unknown peptide groups were discovered, one encoding GSEFLamides and the other DXXRLamides; precursors for the novel FXGGXamide family were identified from both Tigriopus and Lepeophtheirus. These data not only greatly expand the catalog of known copepod peptides, but also provide strong foundations for future functional studies of peptidergic signaling in members of this ecologically important crustacean subclass.

  12. Distribution of some calanoida (Crustacea: Copepoda) from the Yucatán Peninsula, Belize and Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Brandorff, Gerd-Oltmann

    2012-03-01

    Southern Mexico and Central America have many water bodies of different morphology and water chemistry with an interesting zooplankton fauna, originating from North or South America. A set of 63 samples, taken in 2005 and 2008, from water bodies of the Yucatan Peninsula karst, Belize and Guatemala, were studied for the content of calanoid copepods. Old and recent literature was used to determine animals to species level. Drawings were prepared with a microscope and a camera lucida. A total of 32 samples with totally six species contained calanoid copepods: one estuarine pseudodiaptomid and five freshwater diaptomids. Pseudodiaptomus marshi was found at different salinities. It is confirmed that the commonest diaptomids in the Yucatan Peninsula are Arctodiaptomus dorsalis and Mastigodiaptomus nesus. The former was also recorded from Lake Amatitlan. Mastigodiaptomus nesus is as widespread as A. dorsalis but it is absent from the Lake Peten area in Guatemala. Mastigodiaptomus reidae was found in two shallow habitats, these specimens differ from those from the type locality by having a set of peculiar large spine-like processes on the last thoracic and the urosome segments of the females. Leptodiaptomus siciloides was found only in Lake Ayarza with high salinity. Prionodiaptomus colombiensis occurred in the highlands of Guatemala in Lago de Güija and in the Peten area in Laguna Sacpuy. We contributed with our occurrence records to a better knowledge of the geographic distribution of some calanoid copepods. Morphological findings in some species are of value for taxonomic differentiation between species.

  13. A new subspecies of Nitokra affinis Gurney, 1927 (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) from the Caribbean coast of Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes-Reinés, Juan M.; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Plankton samples from Laguna Navio Quebrado, La Guajira, northern Colombia, yielded male and female specimens of an harpacticoid copepod that was first identified as the widely distributed species Nitokra affinis Gurney, 1927 for which at least four subspecies have been described from different geographic areas. A more detailed examination of the Colombian specimens revealed that it differs from the other morphs so far considered as subspecies. The Colombian specimens differ from the other four known subspecies in the following aspects: (1) rostrum with long projection, (2) relatively long exopod of P1, almost as long as first endopodal segment, (3) endopodal and exopodal rami of P2 equally long, (4) a reduced number of endopodal setal elements of the male P5. It also differs from N. a. californica Lang in details of the ornamentation of the urosomites. Descriptions and illustrations of this new subspecies, the first one described from the Neotropical region, are presented together with a key to the five known subspecies of Nitokra affinis. As in many other cases of presumedly widespread species of harpacticoids, it is possible that N. affinis represents a species complex with more restricted distributional patterns, a notion that certainly deserves further study. PMID:24574850

  14. [Relationships between population characters of Undinula vulgaris (Copepoda) and environment in the East China Sea].

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhaoli

    2006-01-01

    Based on the data of four seasonal oceanographic censuses in 1997 approximately 2000 in the East China Sea (23 degrees 30' approximately 33 degrees N, 118 degrees 30' approximately 128 degrees E), this paper discussed the relationships between the ecological characters of natural Undinula vulgaris population and its environment in the Sea, with the data of 1979 approximately 1980 compared. The results showed that there was a very clear seasonal change of the dominance, abundance, and occurrence frequency of U. vulgaris, i.e.,autumn (0.09, 556 ind x 100 m(-3), 93.69%) >summer (0.03, 86 ind x 100 m(-3), 68.49%) >winter (0.02, 42 ind x 100 m(-3), 53.85%) >spring (0.01, 16 ind x 100 m(-3), 34.35%). As a dominant species of pelagic copepods in the Sea, U. vulgaris showed its predominance mainly in autumn. The percentage of U. vulgaris in the total abundance of pelagic copepods was 2.31% in spring, 4.80% in summer, 3.80% in winter, and 9.90% in autumn, while its occurrence frequency was the highest in autumn and the lowest in winter. Comparing the results of this study with the data of 1979 approximately 1980, the importance of U. vulgaris in pelagic copepods in the Sea was decreased in spring, summer and autumn, but increased in winter, which might be related with the global warming in winter. The main environmental factors affecting U. vulgaris abundance were the bottom water factors that closely related with the warm current in the ocean. Because of its sensibility to low temperature and coastal water mass, U. vulgaris could be used as a good indicator of warm current, and, as a good food for fishes, this species plays an important role in marine fishing in the middle-south part of the East China Sea.

  15. Redescription of Bradya typica Boeck, 1873 (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Ectinosomatidae) with the first description of the male

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifried, Sybille; Veit-Köhler, Gritta

    2010-03-01

    Bradya typica Boeck, 1873 is described from samples collected in the course of a colonisation experiment in Kongsfjorden, Spitsbergen (2003-2005). The male of B. typica, the type-species of the genus is described for the first time. B. typica can be distinguished from its congeners by its caudal rami (1.4 times longer than wide) and by its P5 (exopod longer than wide, inner terminal seta of exopod longest, inner seta of baseoendopod longer than outer one and surface seta rigid and curved). Variability within the species is rather small as only the length of some setae is slightly different. B. cladiofera Lang, 1965, B. congenera Sars, 1920, B. minutiseta Soyer, 1973 and B. pugiochaeta Arlt, 1983 are closely related to B. typica. Some details of the morphology, such as the body ornamentation and the longer hair-like pinnules on the spines of the swimming legs, are very difficult to observe even with maximum magnification. With certainty, B. typica is distributed near the Norwegian coast (Oslo Fjord to Trondheim Fjord), the Swedish coast (Skagerak to Öresund), around Spitsbergen and around the polar islands north of Grinnelland (Canadian Arctic Archipelago near Baffin Bay). Records of B. typica from the Kara Sea (near Novaya Zemlya), near Franz Joseph Land, Iceland, Greenland, the British Isles and from deep waters of the North Sea have to be confirmed.

  16. [Infestation of lower crustaceans (Copepoda, Cladocera) with microsporidians (Microsporidia) in Western Siberia].

    PubMed

    Lukyantsev, V V; Simakova, A V

    2014-01-01

    The search for intermediate hosts of microsporidians of bloodsucking mosquitoes of the family Culicidae with complicated two-host developmental cycles in Western Siberia resulted in revealing of 19 microsporidian species in crustaceans. Crustacean microsporidians are represented as by specialized parasites of crustacean, being or being not related to microsporidians parasitizing mosquitoes, and by parasites of mosquitoes having only a part of their complicate life cycle in crustaceans. Sequencing of ssrDNA of microsporidins from copepods had demonstrated that Acanthocyclops venustus Norman et Scott can be an intermediate host of Amblyospora rugosa Simakova et Pankova, 2005 .from mosquitoes Oc. cataphylla Dyar., and Acantocyclops reductus (Chappuis) can be an intermediate host of Trichoctosporea pygopellita Larsson, 1994, a parasite of the mosquito Oc. excrucians (Walker). According to their fine structure, microsporidians from Daphnia Muller belong to the genera Bervaldia Larsson, 1981 and Agglomerata Larrson et Yan, 1988. The infestation rate in natural population of crustaceans was low, constituting about 2%. The maximal infestation rate was observed in temporary reservoirs since late April till early May.

  17. Euryphorus suarezi n. sp. (Copepoda: Caligidae) parasitic on an elasmobranch from the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Morales-Serna, Francisco Neptalí; Rodríguez-Santiago, María Amparo; Gómez, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the caligid genus Euryphorus Milne Edwards, 1840 contains two valid species. A new species, Euryphorus suarezi, is described based on adult females and males collected from the spotted eagle ray Aetobatus narinari (Euphrasen) (Elasmobranchii: Myliobatidae), captured off Campeche and Tabasco, Mexico (southern coast of the Gulf of Mexico). The new species is mainly distinguished from its congeners by the absence of dorsal plates, the presence of postantennal process, bifurcated maxillule, maxilliped with slender corpus, and leg 4 with 3-segmented endopod. Leg 6 is conspicuous in the male. Additional differences are described. This is the first record of a species of Euryphorus from an elasmobranch host, which may provide insight into the evolutionary relationships within the Caligidae.

  18. Mating behaviour of Pseudodiaptomus annandalei (Copepoda Calanoida) with emphasis on rejection rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dur, G.; Souissi, S.; Schmitt, F. G.; Hwang, J. S.; Cheng, S. H.

    2009-04-01

    Mating behaviour has important consequences at both individual and population levels. Reproductive fitness is of paramount importance to sustain the success of planktonic copepod populations in aquatic environments. The calanoid copepod Pseudodiaptomus annandalei has one of the largest geographical ranges for Indo-Pacific Pseudodiaptomidae. It is also of great importance in fish culture pounds south of Taiwan. However, the mating behavior of this species has never been studied. Mating and predatory behaviour are conceptually the same. In both cases, the encounter and the interactions occur between two individuals with opposite characteristics: predator-prey for predation; male-female for mating. The mating behaviour may be defined as a sequence of encounter, pursuit, capture and copulation. Several observed behaviour suggest that both sexes asses and choose among available mates before the copulation. Pre-copulatory mate choice in copepods may manifest as mate guarding where males attached to CV females until their final moult, complicated pre-copulatory dance and escaping. During our preliminary observations, we notice that P. annandalei females escape by shaking, often violently, the males that have caught them. Consequently for such a species the act of mating may be visualized as a chain of six events (i.e. search, encounter, pursuit, capture, selective dance, copulation).Within this chain, encounter, capture and copulation are conditional events depending on the successful conclusion of their preceding events in the chain. In this study, we examined the different step in the mating behaviour of the scarcely studied sub-tropical copepod, Pseudodiaptomus annandalei, collected from the Danshuei estuary (North Taiwan). The individuals were observed using a 3D optical system to obtain simultaneous front and side views. Males, when placed in the water where females had previously swum in, showed significant increase of their swimming velocities. Additionally, their swimming trajectories are more convoluted, indicating that males explore larger volume of fluid to increase the probability to encounter a female. The mate finding behaviour appears to depend not only on chemical signal but also on hydromechanical signals. Some males exhibited shifts of direction when females were passing by. When male intercepted a chemical trail left by a female, they initiate tracking behaviour racing up the trail with increasing speed. Males pursued pheromone trails up to 24 sec old and 10 mm long. Most studies of mating behaviour have focused on detection and sometimes pursuit, but few have addressed the other components of successful mating, namely, capture and copulation. Moreover, mate choice issue has largely been ignored in regards to pelagic copepods. Consequently very few are known about the plasticity of rejection rates as a function of mate encounter rates. The second aim of this experiment is to describe the process used by female to select their mate and to fill the gap in the quantification of mating success. Once caught by a male, P. annandalei's females entered in intensive dance which sometimes lead to shake off the males suggesting a female mate choice. The three-dimensional trajectories described by the couple during this event were characterized by fast loops and intense jumps. Individual's access to mates may be affected by operational sex ratios, causing strong variation in mating success. We finally manipulated adult sex ratios of the brackish copepod P. annandalei, to examine the influence of population sex ratio on mating success of P. annandalei in a final set of experiment concluding the investigation. It should be notice that, to our knowledge, it the first quantification ever done before. The plasticity of rejection rate was therefore investigated as a function of sex-ratio and mate encounter rate. The encounter rate reached maximum value for balanced proportion of male and female and decreased as the sex ratio unbalanced. Higher value of success was nevertheless observed for a pro-male sex-ratio.

  19. A new species of Peltidium Philippi, 1839 (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida) from the Pacific coast of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Jarquín-González, Jani

    2013-01-01

    Abstract During the analysis of phytal meiobenthic samples collected from a rocky-sandy beach in the state of Nayarit, in the Mexican Pacific, several specimens of harpacticoid copepods were obtained and taxonomically examined. These specimens were found to represent an undescribed species of the peltidiid genus Peltidium Philippi, 1839. The new species, Peltidium nayarit sp. n. is described herein. It resembles Peltidium nichollsi Geddes and Peltidium lerneri Geddes from Bahamas but also the widespread Peltidium speciosum Thompson & Scott and Peltidium purpureum Philippi. The new species from the Mexican Pacific differs from its known congeners by its possession of a unique combination of characters, including a modified pectinate seta on the antennary exopod, three terminal setae on the second endopodal segment of leg 1, third exopodal segment of leg 1 with three elements, inner terminal claw twice as long as outer claw, female fifth leg with 5 exopodal setae, exopodal setae I-III stout, spinulose and seta IV being as long as seta V. This is the second species of the family known to be distributed in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and in Mexico. Pending additional data, the distribution of this species appears to be restricted to this area of the Mexican Pacific. PMID:24003319

  20. Evidence of cryptic and pseudocryptic speciation in the Paracalanus parvus species complex (Crustacea, Copepoda, Calanoida)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Many marine planktonic crustaceans such as copepods have been considered as widespread organisms. However, the growing evidence for cryptic and pseudo-cryptic speciation has emphasized the need of re-evaluating the status of copepod species complexes in molecular and morphological studies to get a clearer picture about pelagic marine species as evolutionary units and their distributions. This study analyses the molecular diversity of the ecologically important Paracalanus parvus species complex. Its seven currently recognized species are abundant and also often dominant in marine coastal regions worldwide from temperate to tropical oceans. Results COI and Cytochrome b sequences of 160 specimens of the Paracalanus parvus complex from all oceans were obtained. Furthermore, 42 COI sequences from GenBank were added for the genetic analyses. Thirteen distinct molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTU) and two single sequences were revealed with cladistic analyses (Maximum Likelihood, Bayesian Inference), of which seven were identical with results from species delimitation methods (barcode gaps, ABDG, GMYC, Rosenberg’s P(AB)). In total, 10 to 12 putative species were detected and could be placed in three categories: (1) temperate geographically isolated, (2) warm-temperate to tropical wider spread and (3) circumglobal warm-water species. Conclusions The present study provides evidence of cryptic or pseudocryptic speciation in the Paracalanus parvus complex. One major insight is that the species Paracalanus parvus s.s. is not panmictic, but may be restricted in its distribution to the northeastern Atlantic. PMID:24581044

  1. A new species of Moraria (Crustacea: Copepoda: Harpacticoida) from the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Janet W.; Lesko, Lynn T.

    2003-01-01

    Moraria hudsoni n. sp. is described from Trails End Bay in Lake Michigan and Prentiss Bay in Lake Huron, Michigan, USA. The new species differs from its congeners in chaetotaxy, body ornamentation, and other characters. We review published records of members of Moraria from North and Central America; no species is known from South America. Species of this genus have been found in the mountains of southern Mexico, Guatemala, and Honduras, but none of these has been validly described. In North America, eight species have been recorded from Alaska, Canada, and the conterminous USA as far south as North Carolina. We report new geographical records of M. affinis from Virginia, and of both M. cristata and M. virginiana from Maryland and Virginia. We provide a tabular key to aid in identification of the named species of Moraria in North America.

  2. Reproduction of Pseudocalanus newmani (Copepoda: Calanoida) is deleteriously affected by diatom blooms A field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halsband-Lenk, Claudia; Pierson, James J.; Leising, Andrew W.

    2005-11-01

    Copepod secondary production has traditionally been linked to the spring diatom bloom in temperate and high latitudes, but laboratory studies have recently challenged this view and have shown either reduced fecundity or viability of offspring when copepods were fed high concentrations of - mostly unialgal - diatoms. However, field evidence that diatoms affect copepod reproduction is still scarce. We analyzed the reproductive response of a common, small calanoid copepod of the boreal Pacific, Pseudocalanus newmani, to spring diatom blooms in Dabob Bay, a semi-enclosed fjord of Puget Sound, Washington, USA. Abundance patterns, egg production rates, egg hatching success, and naupliar viability of the egg-carrying copepod were examined between February and early May in the years 2002-2004. The population underwent strong variations in abundance during both years, with high abundance of all stages from February to mid-March, but dramatically decreasing individual numbers later in spring. A recovery to higher numbers occurred in July. While egg production rates were independent of chlorophyll concentrations, the reproductive success of P. newmani was negatively affected by certain phytoplankton bloom conditions. Hatching success and - more markedly - naupliar survival were reduced following peaks of Thalassiosira species that were producing anti-mitotic aldehydes, but were high during periods when phytoplankton blooms were more diverse or dominated by other prey taxa including diatoms. As a consequence, recruitment of the naupliar population was considerably affected by the Thalassiosira blooms. This study shows for the first time that the so-called diatom effect operates in nature when all prerequisites - (1) high concentration of aldehyde producers, (2) few prey alternatives, and (3) feeding of copepods on these algae - are given. However, the effect was transient in Dabob Bay and may be so in other pelagic ecosystems. It remains to discern the potential sources of mortality, such as toxicity, malnutrition, predation, and/or advection, that may have caused the strong decline of the Pseudocalanus population during April.

  3. On the uncertainty beneath the name Oithona similis Claus, 1866 (Copepoda, Cyclopoida)

    PubMed Central

    Cepeda, Georgina D.; Sabatini, Marina E.; Scioscia, Cristina L.; Ramírez, Fernando C.; Viñas, María D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The marine cyclopoid Oithona similis sensu lato Claus, 1866, is considered to be one of the most abundant and ubiquitous copepods in the world. However, its minimal original diagnosis and the unclear connection with its (subjective) senior synonym Oithona helgolandica Claus, 1863, may have caused frequent misidentification of the species. Consequently, it seems possible that several closely related but distinct forms are being named Oithona similis or Oithona helgolandica without explicit and accurate discrimination. Here the current situation concerning the correct assignment of the two species is revised, the morphological characters commonly used to identify and distinguish each species are summarized, and the nomenclatural implications of indiscriminately using these names in current taxonomic and ecological practice is considered. It is not intended to upset a long-accepted name in its accustomed meaning but certainly the opposite. “In pursuit of the maximum stability compatible with taxonomic freedom” (International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature), we consider that reassessment of the diagnostic characters of Oithona similis sensu stricto cannot be postponed much longer. While a consensus on taxonomy and nomenclatural matters can be attained, we strongly recommend specifically reporting the authority upon which the identification of either Oithona similis s.l. or Oithona helgolandica s.l. has been accomplished. PMID:26865812

  4. Instar growth and molt increments in Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae) chalimus larvae.

    PubMed

    Eichner, Christiane; Hamre, Lars Are; Nilsen, Frank

    2015-02-01

    The salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) is an ectoparasitic copepod causing severe problems to the fish farming industry and to wild salmonids. Morphologically, all stages in the life cycle of L. salmonis have been described in detail based on successive samples from host populations. However, the rate of development differs between males and females as well as between individuals. It has therefore been difficult to observe development within stages, and this has led to a longstanding misinterpretation of the number of chalimus stages. Here samples of chalimi obtained for 12 consecutive days were observed daily in incubators. Chalimus 1 was able to molt in incubators only when fully grown and close to molting, whereas chalimus 2 was able to molt at about 60% of total instar growth. Total length instar growth was about 35% in both chalimus 1 and chalimus 2 and about equal among males and females; the cephalothorax increased by about 12% and the posterior body by about 80%. Instar growth was probably the main factor that led to the former belief that L. salmonis had four chalimus stages. Relative total length increase at molting was at the same order of magnitude as instar growth, but total length of females increased significantly more than that of males at molting. Consequently, a sexual size dimorphism was established upon molting to chalimus 2 and males were about 10% smaller than females. While growth by molting was mainly caused by cephalothorax increase, instar growth was mainly due to increase of the posterior body. The cephalothorax/total length ratio decreased from beginning to end of the instar phase suggesting that it may be used as an instar age marker. Male and female chalimus 2 can almost uniquely be identified by cephalothorax length. Chalimus 1 lasted between 5 and 6 days for males and between 6 and 7 days for females at 10°C. Chalimus 2 males lasted between 6 and 7 days and females between 7 and 8 days. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States. Copepoda: Lernaeopodidae and Sphyriidae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Ju-Shey

    This report is part of a sub-series to aid biology students, biologists, biological oceanographers, and informed laymen in the identification and study of marine flora and fauna of the Northeastern United States. Contents of this report include: (1) Introduction; (2) Glossary; (3) Key to the marine lernaeopodoid copepods of the Northeastern United…

  6. The status of Limnocalanus macrurus (Copepoda: Calanoida: Centropagidae) in Lake Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, Douglas D.; Gannon, John E.; Culver, David A.

    2004-01-01

    The calanoid copepod Limnocalanus macrurus showed large declines in abundance and a narrowing of spatial distribution with the onset of cultural eutrophication and increases in rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) abundances in Lake Erie in the mid 20th century. Since 1995, however, Limnocalanus macrurus appears to have repopulated in western Lake Erie to levels of abundance that have not been observed since the late 1930s. We hypothesize that phosphorus abatement and the subsequent decrease in low dissolved oxygen events have assisted this resurgence. However, Limnocalanus macrurusabundances have not increased in the central and eastern basins, even though water quality has improved there too. High densities of rainbow smelt and associated smelt predation pressure in the central and eastern basins may be responsible for the low numbers in these basins.

  7. Macrocyclops albidus (Copepoda: cyclopidae) for the Biocontrol of Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens in Italy.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, Rodolfo; Carrieri, Marco; Maccagnani, Bettina; Maini, Stefano; Bellini, Romeo

    2015-03-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the potential of Macrocyclops albidus as a biological control agent against the 1st and 2nd instars of Culex pipiens and Aedes albopictus. Under laboratory conditions of prey saturation (50 1st instars/copepod), an average of 58.98% of Cx. pipiens and 54.99% of Ae. albopictus larvae were killed by 1 copepod in 24 h. Trials run in big drums containing 200 liters of water showed that the M. albidus population, inoculated in April, efficiently controlled the mosquito population for the entire season. The predator was particularly effective against Ae. albopictus, as only 2 larvae of this species were found in the treated drums, compared to 814 larvae in untreated control drums throughout the study period. No difference was observed in the control efficacy between the 2 initial densities of copepods used. The reduction in Ae. albopictus density in the drums with 100 and 500 M. albidus with respect to the control drums was 99.90 ± 0.35% and 100.0 ± 0.0%, respectively. For Cx. pipiens, the reduction in density was 88.69 ± 13.51% and 84.65% in drums inoculated with 100 and 500 copepods, respectively. Macrocyclops albidus populations survived through the winter and continued to keep the mosquito population under control during the 2008 season. The M. albidus population developed very well both in drums placed in sunny and shaded areas and proved to be tolerant to both high (summer) and low (winter) temperatures. Trials performed on M. albidus survival in catch basins showed that after a few weeks, the copepod population dramatically decreased and subsequently disappeared. The main problem for copepod survival in catch basins seemed to be the low oxygen tension and accumulation of toxic substances, rather than copepods being flushed out in heavy rainfall episodes. During the period when copepods were present, they maintained the mosquito population under control; their partial disappearance from the catch basins, however, would require more recolonization intervention to maintain mosquito control during the season.

  8. A review of the biology of the parasitic copepod Lernaeocera branchialis (L., 1767) (Copepoda: Pennellidae).

    PubMed

    Brooker, Adam J; Shinn, Andrew P; Bron, James E

    2007-01-01

    This review concerns the parasitic marine copepod Lernaeocera branchialis (L., 1767) and provides an overview of current knowledge concerning its biology and host-parasite interactions. The large size and distinctive appearance of the metamorphosed adult female stage, coupled with the wide exploitation and commercial importance of its final gadoid hosts, means that this species has long been recognised in the scientific literature. The fact that the Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua L., is one of its key host species, and has itself had a major impact on the social and economic development of many countries bordering the North Atlantic for more than 10 centuries is also a factor in its widespread recognition. L. branchialis is recognised as a pathogen that could have major effects on the aquaculture industry and with gadoid (especially cod) farming expanding in several North Atlantic countries, there is considerable potential for this parasite to become a serious problem for commercial mariculture. The main subject areas covered are the parasite's taxonomy; the life history of the parasite including its life cycle, reproduction and host associations; parasite physiology; parasite seasonality and distribution; and the pathogenic effects of the parasite on its host.

  9. Genetic and morphological heterogeneity among populations of Eurytemora affinis (Crustacea: Copepoda: Temoridae) in European waters.

    PubMed

    Sukhikh, Natalia; Souissi, Anissa; Souissi, Sami; Winkler, Gesche; Castric, Vincent; Holl, Anne-Catherine; Alekseev, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of the systematics of the Eurytemora affinis complex developed at a fast pace over the last decades. Formerly considered as a complex of cryptic species, it is now believed to include three valid species: E. affinis, Eurytemora carolleeae, and Eurytemora caspica. American and European representatives have been studied in detail with respect to fine-scale geographic distribution, levels of genetic subdivision, evolutionary and demographic histories. Morphological components have been less explored. In this study, an analysis of the phylogeny and morphology of E. affinis was done, with a special focus on European populations. A total of 447 individuals of E. affinis from Europe were analyzed with genetic tools and 170 individuals according to morphological criteria. Common and new morphological and genetic features were analyzed. For this, we used ML and Bayesian methods to analyze the bar coding mt-DNA gene cytochrome c oxidase I subunit. Both genetic and morphological analyses showed high heterogeneities among the E. affinis populations from Europe. As a result, three local populations of E. affinis in Western Europe, including the European part of Russia, were established. Their genetic and morphological heterogeneity corresponded to the subspecies level.

  10. Identification of the molecular components of a Tigriopus californicus (Crustacea, Copepoda) circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Nesbit, Katherine T; Christie, Andrew E

    2014-12-01

    Copepods of the genus Tigriopus have been proposed as marine models for investigations of environmental perturbation. One rapidly increasing anthropogenic stressor for intertidal organisms is light pollution. Given the sensitivity of circadian rhythms to exogenous light, the genes/proteins of a Tigriopus circadian pacemaker represent a potential system for investigating the influences of artificial light sources on circadian behavior in an intertidal species. Here, the molecular components of a putative Tigriopus californicus circadian clock were identified using publicly accessible transcriptome data; the recently deduced circadian proteins of the copepod Calanus finmarchicus were used as a reference. Transcripts encoding homologs of all commonly recognized ancestral arthropod core clock proteins were identified (i.e. CLOCK, CRYPTOCHROME 2, CYCLE, PERIOD and TIMELESS), as were ones encoding proteins likely to modulate the core clock (i.e. CASEIN KINASE II, CLOCKWORK ORANGE, DOUBLETIME, PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 1, PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2A, SHAGGY, SUPERNUMERARY LIMBS and VRILLE) or to act as inputs to it (i.e. CRYPTOCHROME 1). PAR DOMAIN PROTEIN 1 was the only circadian-associated protein not identified in Tigriopus; it appears absent in Calanus too. These data represent just the third full set of molecular components for a crustacean circadian pacemaker (Daphnia pulex and C. finmarchicus previously), and only the second obtained from transcribed sequences (C. finmarchicus previously). Given Tigriopus' proposed status as a model for investigating the influences of anthropogenic stressors in the marine environment, these data provide the first suite of gene/protein targets for understanding how light pollution may influence circadian physiology and behavior in an intertidal organism.

  11. Effect of diurnal temperature difference on lipid accumulation and development in Calanus sinicus (Copepoda: Calanoida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Konglin; Sun, Song

    2017-07-01

    Calanus sinicus, the dominant copepod in the Yellow Sea, develops a large oil sac in late spring to prepare for over-summering in the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM). The lipid accumulation mechanism for the initiation of over-summering is unknown. Here, we cultured C3 copepodites at four constant temperatures (10, 13, 16, and 19°C) and at three temperature regimes that mimicked the temperature variations experienced during diurnal vertical migration (10-13°C, 10-16°C, and 10-19°C) for 18 days to explore the effects of temperature differences on copepod development and lipid accumulation. C. sinicus stored more lipid at low than at high temperatures. A diurnal temperature difference (10-16°C and 10-19°C) promoted greater lipid accumulation (1.9-2.1 times) than a constant temperature of either 16°C or 19°C, by reducing the energy cost at colder temperatures and lengthening copepodite development. Thereafter, the lipid reserve supported gonad development after final molting. Only one male developed in these experiments. This highly female-skewed sex ratio may have been the result of the monotonous microalgae diet fed to the copepodites. This study provides the first evidence that diurnal temperature differences may promote lipid accumulation in C. sinicus, and provides a foundation for future investigations into the mechanisms involved in over-summering in the YSCWM.

  12. A new species of Metacyclops from a hyporheic habitat in North Vietnam (Crustacea, Copepoda, Cyclopidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kołaczyński, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Metacyclops is described from hyporheic waters and small rock depression with leaf litter in North Vietnam, the Tam Đao Mountains). Metacyclops amicitiae sp. n. can be distinguished from its congeners by the unique combination of the following characters: 12-segmented antennule, distal segment of P4 endopodite bearing a single apical spine, and the surface ornamentation of the intercoxal sclerites in P1–P4 (pilose on the distal margin of P1-P4 and spinulose on the caudal surface of P4). The latter character separates the new Metacyclops from its closest relative, Metacyclops ryukyuensis, known only from the Ryukyu Islands (Ishigaki). The genus Metacyclops with the new species described herein is also for the first time recorded from Vietnam. An identification key is provided to the south and east Asian species of the genus. PMID:26445932

  13. To Swim or Not to Swim: Potential Transmission of Balaenophilus manatorum (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) in Marine Turtles

    PubMed Central

    Tomás, Jesús; Crespo-Picazo, José Luis; García-Párraga, Daniel; Raga, Juan Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Species of Balaenophilus are the only harpacticoid copepods that exhibit a widespread, obligate association with vertebrates, i.e., B. unisetus with whales and B. manatorum with marine turtles and manatees. In the western Mediterranean, juveniles of the loggerhead sea turtle, Caretta caretta are the only available hosts for B. manatorum, which has been found occurring at high prevalence (>80%) on them. A key question is how these epibionts are transmitted from host to host. We investigated this issue based on experiments with live specimens of B. manatorum that were cultured with turtle skin. Specimens were obtained from head-started hatchlings of C. caretta from the western Mediterranean. Hatched nauplii crawled only on rough substrates and lacked the ability to swim. Only copepodites IV and V, and adults, were able to perform directional swimming. Legs 2, 3 and 4 played a major role in swimming and were only well-developed in these stages. Nauplii reared in wells with turtle skin readily fed on this item. Late copepodites and adults also fed on turtle skin but did not consume other potential food items such as fish skin, baleen plates or planktonic algae. Evidences suggest that the transmission of B. manatorum should rely on hosts’ bodily contacts and/or swimming of late developmental stages between spatially close hosts. The possibility of long-ranged dispersal is unlikely for two reasons. First, all developmental stages seem to depend on turtle skin as a food resource. Second, the average clutch size of ovigerous females was small (< 70 eggs) for free-living phases to successfully contact turtles that occur at very low densities (< 0.6 turtles·km−2) in the western Mediterranean. The high prevalence of B. manatorum in loggerhead turtles in this area raises the question whether these turtles have contacts, or tend to closely aggregate, more than is currently believed. PMID:28114412

  14. Mesozooplankton distribution in the Spermonde Archipelago (Indonesia, Sulawesi) with special reference to the Calanoida (Copepoda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornils, Astrid; Schulz, Jan; Schmitt, Petra; Lanuru, Mahatma; Richter, Claudio; Schnack-Schiel, Sigrid B.

    2010-12-01

    In September 2005 the mesozooplankton distribution, taxonomic composition and community structure were studied on four cross-shelf and one coastal transects in the Spermonde Archipelago off Makassar (SW Sulawesi). A total of 47 higher taxonomic groups and 89 calanoid copepod species were identified. Copepods outnumbered the other mesozooplankton taxa with 29 to 69%, increasing in importance towards the offshore stations. Appendicularians ranked second (16-24%) followed at the offshore stations by chaetognaths (4.5%) and, at shelf and coastal stations by echinoderm pluteus larvae (11-15%). Within the calanoids, species of the family Paracalanidae, especially Paracalanus cf. parvus, were dominant at all stations. Other abundant families were Temoridae (6.5-17%), Acartiidae (7.2%) and Pontellidae (6.2%) at shelf and coastal stations while Clausocalanidae (8.7%) and Calanidae (6.7) were more abundant at offshore stations. To investigate the mesozooplankton distribution the 25 stations were grouped into 3 geographical zones based on their topographical and hydrographical differences (coastal, shelf and offshore zone). Some higher zooplankton taxa and about half of the calanoid species occurred only in one or two categories. In general the abundant taxa were spread throughout the Archipelago. To investigate their distribution the abundance data were subjected to a multivariate discriminant function analysis (MDFA). The results revealed that the composition of the mesozooplankton community changed from the coastal zone with a high abundance of meroplankton and neritic copepod species to an offshore community with a higher abundance of holoplanktonic organisms and oceanic copepod species.

  15. Effects of salinity and temperature on the expression of enzymatic biomarkers in Eurytemora affinis (Calanoida, Copepoda).

    PubMed

    Cailleaud, K; Maillet, G; Budzinski, H; Souissi, S; Forget-Leray, J

    2007-08-01

    In order to establish effective enzymatic biomarkers that could provide in situ early warning of contaminant exposure in estuarine ecosystems, the potential effects of the principal abiotic factors (temperature and salinity) were investigated on common biomarkers, the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the glutathione S-transferase (GST) in Eurytemora affinis. Short term salinity stress effects simulated during an experimental tide indicated that enzymatic activities of this species are characterized by maximum expression related to an optimal salinity range (between 5 and 15 psu). Moreover, longer time exposure to various salinity tanks confirmed the effects of this factor on both AChE and GST activities. Therefore, optimal AChE activity was measured at 10 psu, while optimal GST activity was measured at 5 psu. Furthermore, significant effects of temperature were also recorded, particularly for AChE expression (slight effects were measured on GST expression) with an optimal condition at 11 degrees C. These experiments indicated a more pronounced effect of salinity over temperature especially on the AChE expression and confirmed the need to standardize sampling procedures in relation with environmental parameters for biomonitoring studies based on enzymatic analyses.

  16. Effects of naphthalene on gene transcription in Calanus finmarchicus (Crustacea: Copepoda).

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Altin, Dag; Vang, Siv-Hege; Nordtug, Trond; Olsen, Anders J

    2008-01-31

    The planktonic copepod Calanus finmarchicus is a key species in the Northern Atlantic food web; an oceanic area with extensive oil production. Naphthalene is one of the major constituents of produced water and water soluble fractions of petrogenic oils. This study investigates the effects on gene transcription of a short term exposure to naphthalene at levels well below LC(50) concentrations. This was done in order to establish a molecular basis of naphthalene toxicity in a species which has previously been subject only to very limited studies at the molecular level. Naphthalene exposure to C. finmarchicus was found to cause glutathione S-transferase (GST) induction, indicating lipid peroxidation as the major mode of naphthalene toxicity. There is no clear evidence that the putative cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP1A2 and CYP330A1 mRNAs are parts of a detoxification enzyme system. Instead, an observed decrease in CYP330A1 mRNA levels at the highest naphthalene exposure concentration may indicate an effect on ecdysteroidogenesis. Only the lowest naphthalene concentration lead to increased mRNA levels of antioxidants SOD and CAT, indicating no clear evidence for general cellular oxidative stress following exposure. Small and insignificant changes in the HSP-70, HSP-90 and ubiquitin mRNA levels indicate a small degree of protein damage owing to naphthalene exposure. The established culture of C. finmarchicus at the SINTEF/NTNU Sealab, and the use of gene transcription analyses provide excellent tools for improving the understanding of biochemical mechanisms involved in the defense against environmental impacts and the molecular modes of toxicity in this species.

  17. Effects of seven diets on the population dynamics of laboratory cultured Tisbe holothuriae Humes (Copepoda, Harpacticoida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miliou, H.; Moraïtou-Apostolopoulou, M.

    1991-09-01

    The harpacticoid copepod Tisbe holothuriae was collected from Saronicos Gulf (Greece) and reared under constant laboratory conditions. In order to study the effects of food on the population dynamics, seven diets were tested: the seaweed Ulva; five artificial compound feeds: the liquid Fryfood® (Waterlife), a powder of Mytilus, yeast, soya and Spirulina, respectively; and a mixed diet consisting of Ulva and Fryfood. The life cycle parameters (mortality, sex ratio, generation time, offspring production) were measured, and the demographic variables [mean generation time (T), net reproductive rate (Ro), and intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm)] were determined. As to their efficiency regarding population dynamics, the diets ranked as follows: (1) Ulva+Fryfood, (2), Ulva, (3) Fryfood, (4) Mytilus, (5) soya, (6) yeast, and (7) Spirulina. In this order they cause a progressive increase of both larval mortality and generation time, a progressive decrease of sex ratio, number of offspring per egg sac, number of egg sacs per female and, consequently, of Ro and rm. The observed differences between diets were most pronounced with respect to offspring production. Of the compound diets, those containing animal extracts were more efficient than those containing vegetable materials. Ulva plays an important role in the nutrition of T. holothuriae, favouring offspring production as well as larval survival, development and pigmentation. Ulva in combination with Fryfood led to a greater copepodid survival and offspring production. This mixed diet proved to be the most favourable for rearing the Greek population of t. holothuriae, resulting in an efficient intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm=0.304) of the population.

  18. Infestation and pathological alterations by Ergasilus sarsi (Copepoda) on the Tanganyika Killifish from Africa.

    PubMed

    Kilian, Esmari; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè

    2013-12-01

    A total of 204 Ergasilus sarsi, a copepod, were collected from Tanganyika Killifish Lamprichthys tanganicanus in Lake Tanganyika during March 2010. The prevalence was 86.40%, the mean intensity was 7.56, and the mean abundance was 6.38. Only 27 of the fish were infested, and the highest infestation on one fish was 29. Proliferation of mucus cells and lamellar fusion occurred. Haemorrhage due to blood vessel compression was noted. This is the first record of E. sarsi from Tanganyika Killifish. This study is also the first to provide a description of the pathological alterations caused by E. sarsi.

  19. A new species of Metacyclops Kiefer, 1927 (Copepoda, Cyclopidae, Cyclopinae) from the Chihuahuan desert, northern Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Mercado-Salas, Nancy F.; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Maeda-Martínez, Alejandro M.; Silva-Briano, Marcelo

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the freshwater cyclopoid copepod genus Metacyclops Kiefer, 1927 is described from a single pond in northern Mexico, within the binational area known as the Chihuahuan Desert. This species belongs to a group of Metacyclops species with a 3443 spine formula of swimming legs. It is morphologically similar to Metacyclops lusitanus Lindberg, 1961 but differs from this and other congeners by having a unique combination of characters, including a caudal rami length/width proportion of 3.5–3.8, a innermost terminal seta slightly longer than the outermost terminal seta, intercoxal sclerites of legs 1-4 naked, a strong apical spine of the second endopodal segment of leg 1 and one row of 6-8 small spinules at the insertion of this spine. The finding of this species represents also the first record of the genus in Mexico and the third in North America, where only two other species, Metacyclops gracilis (Lilljeborg, 1853)and Metacyclops cushae Reid, 1991 have been hitherto reported. This is also the first continental record of a species of Metacyclops from an arid environment in the Americas. This species appears to be endemic to the Chihuahuan Desert, thus emphasizing the high endemicity of this area. PMID:23794845

  20. A new genus of Cletopsyllidae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) from Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Hyun Woo; Baguley, Jeffrey G.; Moon, Heejin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new genus and new species of the family Cletopsyllidae Huys & Willems, 1989 from deep-sea sediment in the Gulf of Mexico, are reported and fully described and illustrated. The new genus Pentacletopsyllus (type species: P. montagni sp. n.) can be distinguished from the four known genera of the family by antennule segmentation, length ratio of first and second endopodal segments of P1, and armature pattern on P5 exopod. It also differs from its sister genera by the rostrum being bifid at the tip, third segment of the female antennule having a smooth posterior margin, the baseoendopod of P5 with biarticulate outer setophore bearing basal seta, and female caudal rami without lobate expansion. A revised key to species of the family Cletopsyllidae Huys & Willems, 1989 is provided. PMID:24715778

  1. Effects of formaldehyde preservation on biometrical characters, biomass and biochemical composition of Acartia clausi (Copepoda, Calanoida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapiris, K.; Miliou, H.; Moraitou-Apostolopoulou, M.

    1997-03-01

    The effects of formaldehyde preservation on biometrical characters, biomass and biochemical composition of the marine copepod Acartia clausi were studied using the relevant values of fresh unpreserved animals as reference. Acartia were collected in the southern parts of Saronicos Gulf in early May (16.5°C) and late June (21°C). Formalin was found to cause significant shrinkage of cephalothorax length, abdomen length and total length. The sex of individuals, as well as the temperature of seawater at the time of collection seem to influence dimensional losses. Females and animals collected at 16.5°C presented heavier losses. Dry weight is drastically reduced after formaldehyde preservation. Final losses are more severe for females and animals collected at 21°C. Two of the measured biochemical constituents, carbohydrates and neutral lipids, seem to be unaffected by formaldehyde. DNA and RNA although initially affected seem to be stabilized towards the end of the experimental period (30 days). The other biochemical parameters, viz proteins, total lipids and sugars, are profoundly affected by preservation.

  2. A model for studying isolation mechanisms in parasite populations: the genus Lepeophtheirus (Copepoda, Caligidae).

    PubMed

    De Meeus, T; Renaud, F; Gabrion, C

    1990-05-01

    In the Mediterranean, the parasitic copepod Lepeophtheirus thompsoni Baird, 1850 specifically infests turbot (Psetta maxima L., 1758), whereas L. europaensis Zeddam, Berrebi, Renaud, Raibaut, and Gabrion, 1988 infests brill (Scophthalmus rhombus L., 1758) and flounder (Platichthys flesus L., 1758). Experimental infestation of turbot by copepods from each of the three fish species showed an absence of any physiological incompatibility preventing natural development of the two parasite species, at least on one host species, i.e., the turbot. Moreover, interspecific hybrids were obtained experimentally, which implies that 1) there is no strict genetic barrier between the two species and 2) the natural prezygotic isolation results from a choice of the most favorable habitat. We discuss the origin and possible consequences of the presence, in the Mediterranean, of L. europaensis on brill and flounder, two hosts separated by their taxonomic status and ecobiology.

  3. Native Argentinean cyclopoids (Crustacea: Copepoda) as predators of Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Tranchida, María C; Micieli, María V; Maciá, Arnaldo; García, Juan J

    2009-12-01

    Copepods from La Plata, Argentina were investigated to characterize the local community of larvivorous copepods inhabiting mosquito breeding sites and to identify new predator species of the mosquitoes which occur in artificial containers, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens. Diversity of larvivorous cyclopoids was highest in permanent pools. Predation by sex and age, selectivity on mosquito species, and daily predation rate during five days were studied for Acanthocyclops robustus, Diacyclops uruguayensis, Macrocyclops albidus and Mesocyclops longisetus. Female copepods presented the highest predatory capacity. No predatory preference for mosquito species was found. According to overall predation potential, copepods were ranked as follows: D. uruguayensis < A. robustus < M. albidus < M. longisetus. Copepod tolerance to desiccation and capacity to survive in water from artificial containers were also evaluated. D. uruguayensis and A. robustus survived under dry conditions, but D. uruguayensis showed lower survival in water from cemetery flower vases. M. albidus did not survive under dry conditions and did not tolerate water extracted from artificial containers. M. longisetus survival was not severely reduced after desiccation or breeding in water from flower vases. The Neotropical cyclopoids D. uruguayensis and A. robustus can be considered good candidates and merit further research as biological control agents for mosquitoes.

  4. Natural control of larval Anopheles albimanus (Diptera: Culicidae) by the predator Mesocyclops (Copepoda: Cyclopoida).

    PubMed

    Marten, G G; Astaiza, R; Suárez, M F; Monje, C; Reid, J W

    1989-11-01

    Forty-two ground water sites on the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of Colombia were sampled quantitatively with a plankton net to assess the abundance of mosquito larvae and associated fauna. Many of the sites contained substantial numbers of Anopheles albimanus Wiedemann larvae, but the larvae were virtually absent wherever there were large populations of the copepods Mesocyclops venezolanus, M. longisetus, or M. aspericornis. Mesocyclops were observed to prey readily upon first-instar An. albimanus larvae in the laboratory, but smaller genera of cyclopoid copepods did not kill An. albimanus larvae. We conclude that Mesocyclops may prove useful for biological control of Anopheles.

  5. Elimination of Aedes albopictus from tire piles by introducing Macrocyclops albidus (Copepoda, Cyclopidae).

    PubMed

    Marten, G G

    1990-12-01

    The copepod Macrocyclops albidus is an unusually promising new form of biological control for mosquito larvae. When introduced to two isolated tire piles, M. albidus eliminated all Aedes albopictus larvae from both piles within 2 months. Adult Ae. albopictus around the tire piles disappeared within another month. Complete suppression of Ae. albopictus larvae was still in effect in all treated tires a year later.

  6. Laboratory evaluation of the biocontrol potential of Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides (Copepoda: Cyclopidae) against mosquito larvae.

    PubMed

    Mittal, P K; Dhiman, R C; Adak, T; Sharma, V P

    1997-12-01

    Biocontrol potential of Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides against first instar larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus was studied under laboratory conditions. It was found that M. thermocyclopoides had the highest predation efficacy against Ae. aegypti followed by An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus. There was a significant reduction in the predation efficacy of M. thermocyclopoides against Cx. quinquefasciatus in the presence of alternate food (p < 0.01). The cage simulation trial indicated that M. themocyclopoides has the potential to control Ae. aegypti breeding effectively in a container type of habitat.

  7. Elimination of dengue by community programs using Mesocyclops(Copepoda) against Aedes aegypti in central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Vu, Sinh Nam; Nguyen, Thi Yen; Tran, Vu Phong; Truong, Uyen Ninh; Le, Quyen Mai; Le, Viet Lo; Le, Trung Nghia; Bektas, Ahmet; Briscombe, Alistair; Aaskov, John G; Ryan, Peter A; Kay, Brian H

    2005-01-01

    From September 2000 to June 2003, a community-based program for dengue control using local predacious copepods of the genus Mesocyclops was conducted in three rural communes in the central Vietnam provinces of Quang Nam, Quang Ngai, and Khanh Hoa. Post-project, three subsequent entomologic surveys were conducted until March 2004. The number of households and residents in the communes were 5,913 and 27,167, respectively, and dengue notification rates for these communes from 1996 were as high as 2,418.5 per 100,000 persons. Following knowledge, attitude, and practice evaluations, surveys of water storage containers indicated that Mesocyclops spp. already occurred in 3-17% and that large tanks up to 2,000 liters, 130-300-liter jars, wells, and some 220-liter metal drums were the most productive habitats for Aedes aegypti. With technical support, the programs were driven by communal management committees, health collaborators, schoolteachers, and pupils. From quantitative estimates of the standing crop of third and fourth instars from 100 households, Ae. aegypti were reduced by approximately 90% by year 1, 92.3-98.6% by year 2, and Ae. aegypti immature forms had been eliminated from two of three communes by June 2003. Similarly, from resting adult collections from 100 households, densities were reduced to 0-1 per commune. By March 2004, two communes with no larvae had small numbers but the third was negative; one adult was collected in each of two communes while one became negative. Absolute estimates of third and fourth instars at the three intervention communes and one left untreated had significant correlations (P = 0.009-< 0.001) with numbers of adults aspirated from inside houses on each of 15 survey periods. By year 1, the incidence of dengue disease in the treated communes was reduced by 76.7% compared with non-intervention communes within the same districts, and no dengue was evident in 2002 and 2003, compared with 112.8 and 14.4 cases per 100,000 at district level. Since we had similar success in northern Vietnam from 1998 to 2000, this study demonstrates that this control model is broadly acceptable and achievable at community level but vigilance is required post-project to prevent reinfestation.

  8. [Macrocyclops albidus (Copepoda: Cyclopidae): a new alternative for the control of mosquito larvae in Cuba].

    PubMed

    Suárez Delgado, Silvia; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Jinnay; Menéndez Díaz, Zulema; Montada Dorta, Domingo; García Avila, Israel; Marquetti Fernández, María del Carmen

    2005-01-01

    The cyclopoid copepod Macrocyclops albidus was evaluated as a biological control agent of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae, culicides that frequently live in containers of domestic use in urban zones. The experiments were made under controlled laboratory conditions. Plastic containers with 5 L of dechlorinated water and 3 g of dry leaves were used. 2 densities of copepods and 3 combinations of larvae densities were added. 5 replicas were made. The count of the suviving larvae and the recovered copepods was made 6 days after the beginning of the experiment. It was observed a marked reduction of the larval population of mosquitoes in all the treatments with copepods. It was stressed their preference for the Ae. aegypti larvae that was not affected by the presence of Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The copepods showed a high survival in all the assayed variants. It was over 100% when they were added in the lowest density.

  9. Ionotropic receptors signal host recognition in the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis, Copepoda)

    PubMed Central

    Grotmol, Sindre; Nilsen, Frank

    2017-01-01

    A remarkable feature of many parasites is a high degree of host specificity but the mechanisms behind are poorly understood. A major challenge for parasites is to identify and infect a suitable host. Many species show a high degree of host specificity, being able to survive only on one or a few related host species. To facilitate transmission, parasite’s behavior and reproduction has been fine tuned to maximize the likelihood of infection of a suitable host. For some species chemical cues that trigger or attract the parasite in question have been identified but how metazoan parasites themselves receive these signals remains unknown. In the present study we show that ionotropic receptors (IRs) in the salmon louse are likely responsible for identification of a specific host. By using RNAi to knock down the expression level of different co-receptors, a significant change of infectivity and settlement of lice larvae was achieved on Atlantic salmon. More remarkably, knock down of the IRs changed the host specificity of the salmon louse and lice larvae settled at a significant rate on host that the wild type lice rejected within minutes. To our knowledge, this has never before been demonstrated for any metazoan parasite. Our results show that the parasites are able to identify the host quickly upon settlement, settle and initiate the parasitic life style if they are on the right host. This novel discovery opens up for utilizing the host recognition system for future parasite control. PMID:28582411

  10. Influence of three bacteria strains on the population dynamics of Tisbe holothuriae (Copepoda, Harpacticoida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guérin, J.-P.; Rieper-Kirchner, M.

    1991-12-01

    The influence of three bacteria strains (Helgo 21, NCMB 308 and NCMB 13) on the life cycle of Tisbe holothuriae Humes 1957 was investigated under constant experimental conditions (19 20°C and 38‰ S). For each of the first six experiments, females (F1), whose life history was followed, were obtained from a common mother (F0). Experiment no 7 was carried out with adult females (F2) obtained during exp. 4. Females were bred in 50-ml dishes and transferred to a fresh container as soon as they produced a new egg-sac. Offspring (F2: exp. 1 6; F3: exp. 7) from successive egg-layings were counted as soon as they moulted into adults. Larval mortality was estimated by enumeration of the adults issuing from a known number of nauplii that had been fed different bacteria strains. Some difficulties arose in obtaining adults with NCMB 13: it appeared to be necessary to provide this first generation with a small quantity of TetraMin (commercial fish food) in order to initiate reproduction and obtain a second generation. However, in exp. 4, F2 adult females fed NCMB 13 became ovigerous and fertile without needing TetraMin. This result is interpreted as denoting an indispensable period of adaptation to the diet, which probably requires important changes at the enzymatic level. One experiment was carried out with Helgo 21; another one with NCMB 308; two with NCMB 13 (with a unique additional meal of TetraMin to allow reproduction), two with NCMB 13 during larval development, then only tetraMin during adult stage, and one with NCMB 13 alone (with females issued from exp. 4). Data obtained regarding longevity, duration of reproduction period, number of egg-sacs and number of adult descendants show an important variability between bacteria strains. Lower results were almost always obtained with Helgo 21 and NCMB 308. An interesting result lies in the maximum number of egg-sacs: low with Helgo 21 and NCMB 308 (5), but very ample with NCMB 13 (11 in one experiment). In experiment 7, carried out with animals bearing a large coefficient of inbreeding (0.375), the results concerning the maximum number of egg-sacs are good (10) as are the mean number of descendants per female (294: the highest number of the seven experiments). These results indicate that genetic factors involved in the reduction of descendants in ageing laboratory cultures can be suppressed to a certain extent by nutritional factors. The poor results obtained with Helgo 21 and NCMB 308 alone must be considered with caution: after a period of adaptation with an alimentary complement, these strains could perhaps permit an interesting production of copepods.

  11. Morphological and molecular affinities of two East Asian species of Stenhelia (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida)

    PubMed Central

    Karanovic, Tomislav; Kim, Kichoon; Lee, Wonchoel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Definition of monophyletic supraspecific units in the harpacticoid subfamily Stenheliinae Brady, 1880 has been considered problematic and hindered by the lack of molecular or morphology based phylogenies, as well as by incomplete original descriptions of many species. Presence of a modified seta on the fifth leg endopod has been suggested recently as a synapomorphy of eight species comprising the redefined genus Stenhelia Boeck, 1865, although its presence was not known in S. pubescens Chislenko, 1978. We redescribe this species in detail here, based on our freshly collected topotypes from the Russian Far East. The other species redescribed in this paper was collected from the southern coast of South Korea and identified as the Chinese S. taiae Mu & Huys, 2002, which represents its second record ever and the first one in Korea. A fragment of the mtCOI gene was successfully PCR-amplified from two specimens of each species, which represents the first molecular data for this genus, and from additional 19 specimens belonging to six different species of other stenheliins from Korea and Russia. Reconstructed phylogenies confirm previously postulated monophyly of Stenhelia and polyphyly of the closely related genus Delavalia Brady, 1869. Average pairwise maximum likelihood distances between S. pubescens and S. taiae are only slightly above 10%, suggesting a very close relationship despite numerous newly discovered micro-morphological differences and despite macro-morphological similarities being probable plesiomorphies. PMID:24899857

  12. Reciprocal transfer study of north temperate and subtropical populations of Mesocyclops edax (Copepoda: Cyclopoida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyngaard, Grace A.

    1998-06-01

    The examination of local and geographically based life history variation is one approach to examine how different selective forces may have molded life histories. Michigan and Florida populations of the warm-water copepod Mesocyclops edax exhibit genetically based differences in maturation time, body size, clutch size, and egg volume as determined by common rearing experiments in the laboratory. Florida females mature more rapidly, yet achieve larger body sizes and clutch sizes relative to Michigan females. In an effort to relate the different life histories to the specific environments, in the present study I reared both populations in enclosures suspended in the Michigan and Florida lakes. Under the high temperature and food conditions of the Florida lake, the Michigan population retained the relatively longer female maturation times and smaller clutch sizes, providing further evidence that the Michigan population is genetically constrained to divert relatively less energy to reproduction than growth compared to the Florida population. The higher survivorship of the Florida population at temperatures above 31°C relative to the Michigan population suggests the Florida animals are better adapted to extreme, high temperatures. Under the low food conditions of the Michigan lake relative to the Florida lake, the Michigan females matured more rapidly and achieved the same body size as the Florida population, but the Michigan clutches were still smaller and had larger eggs. The relative performances of the Michigan and Florida females in the in situ enclosures provided additional support for the conclusion that the Michigan population is adapted to low food conditions and the Florida population to high food and high temperature conditions.

  13. Littoral microcrustacean (Cladocera and Copepoda) indicators of acidification in Canadian Shield lakes.

    PubMed

    Walseng, Bjørn; Yan, Norman D; Schartau, Ann Kristin

    2003-04-01

    We identify littoral microcrustacean indicators of acidification in 2 surveys of Canadian Shield lakes conducted 10 years apart. We found a total of 90 cladoceran and copepod species with richness increasing severalfold from acidic to nonacidic lakes. The fauna of the nonacidic lakes differed between the surveys. The 1987 survey employed activity traps, and caught more littoral taxa than the more recent, net-haul-based survey. Similar faunas were identified in the acidified lakes in both surveys, and several good indicator species were identified. For example, Acanthocycops vernalis was restricted to lakes with pH < 6. Sinobosmina sp. was very common but only in lakes with pH > 4.8. Tropocyclops extensus, Mesocyclops edax, and Sida crystallina were commonly found but only at pH > 5, and Chydorus faviformis only at pH > 5.9. These indicators showed promise in gauging the early stages of recovery from acidification in 3 lakes that were included in both surveys.

  14. Negligible effects of ocean acidification on Eurytemora affinis (Copepoda) offspring production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almén, Anna-Karin; Vehmaa, Anu; Brutemark, Andreas; Bach, Lennart; Lischka, Silke; Stuhr, Annegret; Furuhagen, Sara; Paul, Allanah; Bermúdez, J. Rafael; Riebesell, Ulf; Engström-Öst, Jonna

    2016-02-01

    Ocean acidification is caused by increasing amounts of carbon dioxide dissolving in the oceans leading to lower seawater pH. We studied the effects of lowered pH on the calanoid copepod Eurytemora affinis during a mesocosm experiment conducted in a coastal area of the Baltic Sea. We measured copepod reproductive success as a function of pH, chlorophyll a concentration, diatom and dinoflagellate biomass, carbon to nitrogen (C : N) ratio of suspended particulate organic matter, as well as copepod fatty acid composition. The laboratory-based experiment was repeated four times during 4 consecutive weeks, with water and copepods sampled from pelagic mesocosms enriched with different CO2 concentrations. In addition, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of animals from the mesocosms was measured weekly to test whether the copepod's defence against oxidative stress was affected by pH. We found no effect of pH on offspring production. Phytoplankton biomass, as indicated by chlorophyll a concentration and dinoflagellate biomass, had a positive effect. The concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the females was reflected in the eggs and had a positive effect on offspring production, whereas monounsaturated fatty acids of the females were reflected in their eggs but had no significant effect. ORAC was not affected by pH. From these experiments we conclude that E. affinis seems robust against direct exposure to ocean acidification on a physiological level, for the variables covered in the study. E. affinis may not have faced acute pH stress in the treatments as the species naturally face large pH fluctuations.

  15. Early life history of Neocalanus plumchrus (Calanoida: Copepoda) in the western subarctic Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujioka, Hidefumi A.; Machida, Ryuji J.; Tsuda, Atsushi

    2015-09-01

    The life history of copepods during nauplius stages has rarely been studied, because of difficulties in identification. This study describes the development of an identification method that uses integrated microscopic analysis and real-time PCR based method to distinguish and estimate the abundance of pelagic calanoida nauplii, Neocalanus plumchrus, and to determine their phenology and ontogenetic vertical migration (OVM) in the Oyashio region. The overall approach of identification included: classify field samples of calanoida nauplii into six developmental stages by microscopic analysis, determining the Cq values from each representative nauplii by real-time PCR using specie specific probe and primer pair for N. plumchrus, calculating the |ΔCq| values from the standard curve, distinguish N. plumchrus nauplii by the criterion of |ΔCq| ⩽ 2, and calculate the abundance of N. plumchrus nauplii using results obtained from microscopic analysis and real-time PCR. Validation of the method showed that our real-time PCR based approach could identify N. plumchrus nauplii in field samples with as low as 9% of underestimation, the effect of which is negligibly low on the investigation. The results showed that early nauplius stages (first and second nauplius stages: N1 and N2, respectively) were observed during the period from October 2009 to May 2010. Spawning females were also observed during the same period, and these results confirm that the spawning period of N. plumchrus is at least 8 months long. N3 was the most dominant stage in October 2009, January, and March 2010, the distribution depth of N3 was between 500 m and 2000 m in October 2009 and their vertical distribution range was extended until April 2010. Late stages (N4-N6) were rarely observed during the period from October 2009 to March 2010, and they occurred abundantly from the surface layer (0-20 m) in April 2010. The dominance of N3 from October to March and the sudden occurrence of later stages in April indicate arrested development of N3 in the mesopelagic layer.

  16. Daily fecundity of Temora longicornis (Copepoda calanoida) in the Oosterschelde estuary (SW Netherlands)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Rijswijk, P.; Bakker, C.; Vink, M.

    Daily fecundity of Temora longicornis in the Oosterschelde was estimated in 1986 and 1987 after 24 h incubation of female copepods collected in the estuary. Daily egg production fluctuated between 3 and 25 eggs per female. Egg production rates increased with temperature in the range of 3 to 15°C when algal food was present in excess. Limiting food conditions were found at the end of the phytoplankton spring bloom and occasionally in summer at concentrations of ⩽2 μg chlorophyll·dm -3. When chlorophyll maxima were found, predominantly consisting of Phaeocystis, daily fecundity of Temora was suppressed. It could increase, however, in Phaeocystis blooms mixed with diatoms ( Rhizosolenia delicatula). Standing stocks of eggs in the springs of 1986 and 1987 were calculated on the basis of the established temperature/fecundity relation and compared with observed numbers, both in the years 1986 and 1987 (estuary provided with a storm-surge barrier in the mouth) and in the years 1983 and 1984 (open estuary). Smaller differences between observed and calculated egg numbers in 1986 and 1987 could be ascribed to possible errors in calculated egg development time and to the different age structure of females in the course of time. Much larger differences were found between the years 1986-1987 and 1983-1984. These are discussed in relation to the following phenomena: sinking of eggs, cannibalism, predation, food quantity and availability, density-dependent effects, hydrodynamical changes of the estuary. Arguments are given for density-dependent factors being responsible for the strongly reduced egg numbers in 1984.

  17. Chromatin diminution in Copepoda (Crustacea): pattern, biological role and evolutionary aspects.

    PubMed

    Grishanin, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of research on chromatin diminution (CD) in copepods. The phenomenology, mechanisms and biological role of CD are discussed. A model of CD as an alternative means of regulating cell differentiation is presented. While the vast majority of eukaryotes inactivate genes that are no longer needed in development by heterochromatinization, copepods probably use CD for the same purpose. It is assumed that the copepods have exploited CD as a tool for adaptation to changing environmental conditions and as a mechanism for regulating the rate of evolutionary processes.

  18. Effect of diurnal temperature difference on lipid accumulation and development in Calanus sinicus (Copepoda: Calanoida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Konglin; Sun, Song

    2016-08-01

    Calanus sinicus, the dominant copepod in the Yellow Sea, develops a large oil sac in late spring to prepare for over-summering in the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (YSCWM). The lipid accumulation mechanism for the initiation of over-summering is unknown. Here, we cultured C3 copepodites at four constant temperatures (10, 13, 16, and 19°C) and at three temperature regimes that mimicked the temperature variations experienced during diurnal vertical migration (10-13°C, 10-16°C, and 10-19°C) for 18 days to explore the effects of temperature differences on copepod development and lipid accumulation. C. sinicus stored more lipid at low than at high temperatures. A diurnal temperature difference (10-16°C and 10-19°C) promoted greater lipid accumulation (1.9-2.1 times) than a constant temperature of either 16°C or 19°C, by reducing the energy cost at colder temperatures and lengthening copepodite development. Thereafter, the lipid reserve supported gonad development after final molting. Only one male developed in these experiments. This highly female-skewed sex ratio may have been the result of the monotonous microalgae diet fed to the copepodites. This study provides the first evidence that diurnal temperature differences may promote lipid accumulation in C. sinicus, and provides a foundation for future investigations into the mechanisms involved in over-summering in the YSCWM.

  19. Cyclopidae (Crustacea, Copepoda) from the upper Paraná River floodplain, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lansac-Tôha, F A; Velho, L F M; Higuti, J; Takahashi, E M

    2002-02-01

    Cyclopid copepods from samples of fauna associated with aquatic macrophytes and plancton obtained in lotic and lentic environments were obtained from the upper Paraná River floodplain (in the states of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil). Macrophytes were collected in homogeneous stands and washed. Plankton samples, taken from the water column surface and bottom, were obtained using a motor pump, with a 70 microns mesh plankton net for filtration. Twelve taxa of Cyclopidae were identified. Among them, Macrocyclops albidus albidus, Paracyclops chiltoni, Ectocyclops rubescens, Homocyclops ater, Eucyclops solitarius, Mesocyclops longisetus curvatus, Mesocyclops ogunnus, and Microcyclops finitimus were new finds for this floodplain. Eight species were recorded exclusively in aquatic macrophyte samples. Among these species, M. albidus albidus and M. finitimus presented greatest abundances. Only four species were recorded in plankton samples, and Thermocyclops minutus and Thermocyclops decipiens are limited to this type of habitat. Among these four species, T. minutus is the most abundant, especially in lentic habitats.

  20. A new species of Notodiaptomus from the Amazon basin (Crustacea, Copepoda, Calanoida, Diaptomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Previattelli, Daniel; Perbiche-Neves, Gilmar; da Rocha, Carlos E. F.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A new Diaptomidae species is presented from the Neotropical region. It was found in two Amazonian lakes, Ressaca and Arapujá, both in Pará State, Brazil. The lakes are 400 km apart and threatened by the building of reservoirs for hydropower generation and pollution by human settlements. The new species resembles N. paraensis Dussart & Robertson, 1984, but it can be distinguished from this species and other congeners in having a special process on the fifth leg basis of the male, by the place of insertion of lateral spine in the last segment of right P5 of male, the shape and relationship between length and width of segments of male and female P5 exopodite 2 with stout inner process bearing short setules and outer small spine, exopodite 3, with two terminal setae, outer smaller; endopodite 1-segmented with one subterminal seta and oblique comb of spinules, the presence of a line of dorsal spinules at the distal margin of thoracic somites in both sexes. A brief comparison with other Notodiaptomus species is presented in the discussion. PMID:28769694

  1. Living across an estuarine transition zone: ecophysiological response of the cryptic species complex, Eurytemora affinis (Copepoda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrol, J.; Tremblay, R.; Winkler, G.

    2016-02-01

    The St. Lawrence estuarine transition zone includes the interface between the freshwater and the brackish. The euryhaline and dominant copepod Eurytemora affinis occurs throughout the entire transition zone, but E. affinis is a sibling species complex with two morphologically similar but genetically distinct clades. The Atlantic and the North-Atlantic clades show differences in their distribution pattern across the fresh and brackish water interface. We hypothesized that niche separation occurs between the two clades based on their feeding capacity and/or ecophysiological performance potential resulting in spatial segregation of the two clades. To test this hypothesis we 1) characterized food sources and physiological condition of the copepods in each habitat and 2) performed "in situ" reciprocal transplant experiments between habitats. To quantify the ecophysiological condition of both copepods clades, we determined their fatty acids composition and concentration, their mortality rate and reproduction efficiency. Results showed similar food composition between habitat, but suggest different feeding behaviour for each clade. The Atlantic clade showed similar results in the transplant experiment between both habitats whereas the North-Atlantic clade showed high mortality in the freshwater habitat. Despite the fact that total fatty acid content did not change significantly during the transplantation, the North-Atlantic clade showed a strong decrease of their reproduction rate in the freshwater habitat, suggesting a trade-off between survival and reproduction in order to maximize available energy for survival. Thus the Atlantic clade had a larger performance range across the interface compared to the North-Atlantic clade which was much more limited to its brackish water habitat. The Atlantic clade can be considered as a generalist whereas the North-Atlantic clade acts as specialist.

  2. Chromatin diminution in Copepoda (Crustacea): pattern, biological role and evolutionary aspects

    PubMed Central

    Grishanin, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article provides an overview of research on chromatin diminution (CD) in copepods. The phenomenology, mechanisms and biological role of CD are discussed. A model of CD as an alternative means of regulating cell differentiation is presented. While the vast majority of eukaryotes inactivate genes that are no longer needed in development by heterochromatinization, copepods probably use CD for the same purpose. It is assumed that the copepods have exploited CD as a tool for adaptation to changing environmental conditions and as a mechanism for regulating the rate of evolutionary processes. PMID:24744830

  3. Two new species of the genus Monstrillopsis Sars, 1921 (Copepoda: Monstrilloida: Monstrillidae) from South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jimin; Kim, Dongsung; Chang, Cheon Young

    2016-10-11

    Monstrilloid copepods of the genus Monstrillopsis Sars, 1921 are recorded from Korea, as well as from the northwestern Pacific, for the first time. Specimens were obtained using a light trap set overnight at piers or seawalls in small harbors. Males of two new species were found and are described herein with remarks on their affinities and detailed drawings and SEM photographs of their morphological features. Monstrillopsis longilobata sp. nov. is allied to M. chathamensis Suárez-Morales & Morales-Ramírez, 2009 and M. sarsi Isaac, 1974 in having the character combination of a long, claw-like apical spinous process on the male antennule and elongate genital lappets. It differs from them in having conspicuous transverse striations on the dorsal surface of the cephalothorax and extremely long male genital lappets, which extend far beyond the anterior margins of the caudal rami. Monstrillopsis coreensis sp. nov. also has a claw-like apical spinous process of the male antennule and conspicuous transverse striations on the dorsal surface of the cephalothorax, but it differs from M. longilobata in having a much longer and stronger apical spine of the antennule and a relatively shorter and undulating genital apparatus.

  4. Predation on Mosquito Larvae by Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides (Copepoda: Cyclopoida) in the Presence of Alternate Prey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ram; Ramakrishna Rao, T.

    2003-11-01

    The cyclopoid copepod Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides, a dominant invertebrate predator in many shallow ponds and temporary water bodies in northern India, feeds on cladocerans, rotifers, ciliates and when present, on mosquito larvae also. We studied in the laboratory the prey consumption rates of the copepod on first and fourth instar larvae of two species of mosquito (Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus) in relation to their density. We also studied its prey selectivity with mosquito larvae in the presence of an alternate prey (the cladocerans-either Moina macrocopa or Ceriodaphnia cornuta) in different proportions. With either mosquito species, the copepod actively selected Instar-I larvae, avoiding the Instar-IV larvae, and with either instar, selected Anopheles stephensi over Culex quinquefasciatus. When prey choice included the cladoceran as an alternate prey, the copepod selected the cladoceran only when the other prey was Instar-IV mosquito larvae. Our results point to the potential and promise of M. thermocyclopoides as a biological agent for controlling larval populations of vectorially important mosquito species.

  5. New morphological characters useful for the taxonomy of the genus Microcyclops (Copepoda, Cyclopoida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Rocha, Carlos Eduardo Falavigna

    1998-06-01

    Traditionally, Microcyclops species have been defined according to differences in a few morphological characters of antennule segmentation, swimming legs 1 and 4, caudal rami, and mainly leg 5. Moreover, these characters have been very often referred to as variable. In five species of Microcyclops from Brazil, namely M. alius, M. anceps anceps, M. ceibaensis, M. finitimus, and M. mediasetosus, new or rarely mentioned structures were found to be useful in separating the species, such as the border ornamentation of the prosomal somites, the shape and ornamentation of the terminal spine on the endopod of leg 1, the presence and number of integumental pores on the terminal endopodal segment of leg 1, and details in the ornamentation of the middle caudal setae. Since no intraspecific variation has been observed in these features, it is proposed to consider them in future descriptions of Microcyclops species in order to have better characterized taxa.

  6. First record of Lernaea cyprinacea (Copepoda: Cyclopoida) on the allis shad.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bote, José Luis

    2005-01-01

    In summer 2002, allis shad infected with Lernaea cyprinacea (L.) were detected in the Guadiana River, southwestern Spain. This is the first documented report ofL. cyprinacea parasitizing allis shad in its natural range.

  7. A new species of Enterognathus (Copepoda, Cyclopoida, Enterognathidae) collected from the Seto Inland Sea, western Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuka, Susumu; Shimomura, Michitaka; Kitazawa, Kota

    2012-01-01

    A new species of the endoparasitic copepod Enterognathus (Cyclopoida, Enterognathidae) is described from a crinoid host in the Seto Inland Sea, western Japan. This is a third species of the genus and its first occurrence in the Pacific Ocean. The new species is distinguished from two previously known congeners by the morphology of the body somites, caudal rami, antennae and legs. Crinoid parasites belonging to Enterognathus and the closely related genus Parenterognathus have a broad distribution from the northeastern Atlantic through the Red Sea to the West Pacific.

  8. A new species of Anchistrotos (Copepoda: Taeniacanthidae) from hilsa shad, Tenualosa ilisha (Actinopterygii: Clupeidae), off Iraq.

    PubMed

    Maran, Venmathi B A; Moon, Seong Yong; Adday, Thamir Katea

    2014-10-01

    A new species of parasitic copepod Anchistrotos tangi sp. n. (Cyclopoida: Taeniacanthidae) is described based on adult female specimens collected from the gills of hilsa shad, Tenualosa ilisha (Hamilton, 1822) (Actinopterygii: Clupeidae) captured off Iraq. The new species differs from its congeners by having the following combination of characters in the adult female: 1) the rostral area sclerotised; 2) the presence of row of spinules on the proximal and distal margins of the anal somite; 3) the maxilliped claw with 2 long whip-like setae just crossing the distal edge of claw with serrated terminal margin; and 4) the leg 5 ornamented with patched spinules distally. This is the ninth nominal species of Anchistrotos Brian, 1906.

  9. [Molecular-phylogenetic analysis of cyclopoids (Copepoda: Cyclopoida) from Lake Baikal and its water catchment basin].

    PubMed

    Maĭor, T Iu; Sheveleva, N G; Sukhanova, L V; Timoshkin, O A; Kiril'chik, S V

    2010-11-01

    Baikalian cyclopoids represent one of the richest endemic faunas of freshwater cyclopoid copepods. The genus Diacyclops Kiefer, 1927 is the most numerous by species number in the lake. In this work, molecular-phylogenetic analysis of 14 species and 1 sub-species from Lake Baikal and its water catchment basin is performed. The regions of mitochondrial cytochrom-oxydase I (COI) and of nuclear small-subunit 18S rRNA were used as evolution markers. In the obtained set of nucleotide sequences of COT gene, an effect of synonymous substitution saturation is revealed. Baikalian representatives of the genus Diacyclops form at phylogenetic schemes by two markers a monophyletic griup, it suggest their origin from a common ancestral form. Preliminary estimate of the age of this group is 20-25 My.

  10. Exocrine glands of Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae): Distribution, developmental appearance, and site of secretion.

    PubMed

    Øvergård, Aina-Cathrine; Hamre, Lars A; Harasimczuk, Ewa; Dalvin, Sussie; Nilsen, Frank; Grotmol, Sindre

    2016-12-01

    Exocrine glands of blood-feeding parasitic copepods are believed to be important in host immune response modulation and inhibition of host blood coagulation, but also in the production of substances for integument lubrication and antifouling. In this study, we aimed to characterize the distribution of different types of salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) exocrine glands and their site of secretion. The developmental appearance of each gland type was mapped and genes specifically expressed by glands were identified. Three types of tegumental (teg 1-3) glands and one labial gland type were found. The first glands to appear during development were teg 1 and teg 2 glands. They have ducts extending both dorsally and ventrally suggested to be important in lubricating the integument. Teg 1 glands were found to express two astacin metallopeptidases and a gene with fibronectin II domains, while teg 2 glands express a heme peroxidase. The labial glands were first identified in planktonic copepodids, with reservoirs that allows for storage of glandular products. The last gland type to appear during development was named teg 3 and was not seen before the preadult I stage when the lice become more virulent. Teg 3 glands have ducts ending ventrally at the host-parasite contact area, and may secrete substances important for the salmon lice virulence. Salmon lice teg 3 and labial glands are thus likely to be especially important in the host-parasite interaction. Proteins secreted from the salmon louse glands to its salmonid host skin or blood represents a potential interface where the host immune system can meet and elicit effective responses to sea lice antigens. The present study thus represents a fundamental basis for further functional studies and identification of possible vaccine candidates. J. Morphol. 277:1616-1630, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Diversity and distribution of the free-living freshwater Cyclopoida (Copepoda: Crustacea) in the Neotropics.

    PubMed

    Silva, W M

    2008-11-01

    Cyclopoida species from the Neotropics are listed and their distributions are commented. The results showed 148 species in the Neotropics, where 83 species were recorded in the northern region (above upon Equator) and 110 species in the southern region (below the Equator). Species richness and endemism are related more to the number of specialists than to environmental complexity. New researcher should be made on to the Copepod taxonomy and the and new skills utilized to solve the main questions on the true distributions and Cyclopoida diversity patterns in the Neotropics.

  12. Two new species of ochridacyclops (Kiefer, 1937) (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) from Kenya and Nepal.

    PubMed

    Tomikawa, Ko; Ito, Tomiko; Minakawa, Noboru; Mawatari, Shunsuke F

    2005-04-01

    Two species of cyclopoid copepods, Ochridacyclops kenyaensis sp. nov. and O. nepalensis sp. nov. are described as the first records of this genus from Kenya and Nepal, respectively. Ochridacyclops kenyaensis can easily be distinguished from its congeners by having a rounded and blunt distal end of the outer terminal seta (IV) on the caudal rami, and by the inner terminal spine being about equal in length to the outer terminal spine on the endopod of leg 4. Ochridacyclops nepalensis can easily be distinguished from other members of the genus by having two spines on exopodal segment 3 of leg 1, and by the proportions of the caudal rami, which are 3.4 times longer than wide.

  13. A new species of Enterognathus (Copepoda, Cyclopoida, Enterognathidae) collected from the Seto Inland Sea, western Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ohtsuka, Susumu; Shimomura, Michitaka; Kitazawa, Kota

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the endoparasitic copepod Enterognathus (Cyclopoida, Enterognathidae) is described from a crinoid host in the Seto Inland Sea, western Japan. This is a third species of the genus and its first occurrence in the Pacific Ocean. The new species is distinguished from two previously known congeners by the morphology of the body somites, caudal rami, antennae and legs. Crinoid parasites belonging to Enterognathus and the closely related genus Parenterognathus have a broad distribution from the northeastern Atlantic through the Red Sea to the West Pacific. PMID:22539902

  14. Eight new species of ascidicolous copepods from the eastern coast of Korea (Crustacea, Copepoda, Cyclopoida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Il-Hoi; Moon, Seong Yong

    2011-03-01

    Eight new species of copepods associated with shallow-water ascidians are described from the eastern coast of Korea. They are Ascidicola secundus n. sp. from a Pyura sp., Enteropsis nudus n. sp. from Pyura sacciformis (Drasche), Mycophilus capillatus n. sp. from a compound ascidian, Bonnierilla yangpoensis n. sp. from Phallusia cf. nigra Savigny, Janstockia truncata n. sp. from Chelyosoma siboja Oka, Pholeterides pilosa n. sp. from a compound ascidian, Pachypygus spinosus n. sp. from a solitary ascidian, and Paranotodelphys unguifer n. sp. from Ascidia samea Oka.

  15. The Buproridae Thorell, 1859, a family of ascidicolous copepods (Copepoda: Cyclopoida).

    PubMed

    Marchenkov, Andrey; Boxshall, Geoff A

    2002-11-01

    The adult female of Buprorus loveni Thorell, 1859, a cyclopoid copepod inhabiting the branchial cavities of solitary ascidians, is redescribed in detail from new material collected in Scandinavian waters and from the southern part of the North Atlantic off Mauritania. The antennal segmentation pattern exhibited by all seven subfamilies of the family Ascidicolidae Thorell, 1860 is compared. The segmentation of the Buprorinae is different from that of all other subfamilies within the ascidicolid series. It is concluded that the antenna of Buprorus is not an appropriate model for interpreting the segmentation of other ascidicolids because the Buprorinae is the only subfamily in which the first and second endopodal segments are primitively fused and the third is distinct. The Buproridae Thorell, 1859 is here treated as a separate family within the Cyclopoida.

  16. Three new species of Enterocola van Beneden, 1860 (Crustacea: Copepoda: Cyclopoida) from ascidian hosts.

    PubMed

    Marchenkov, Andrey; Boxshall, Geoff A

    2005-07-01

    Three new species of Enterocola are described: E. dicaudatus n. sp., from the ascidian host Polysyncraton rostrum Monniot & Monniot collected in Tanzania, E. monnioti n. sp., from the ascidian host Polyclinum constellatum Savigny collected in Bahrain, and E. parapterophorus n. sp., from the ascidian host Didemnum granulatum Tokioka taken in Djibouti. In all three species, the mandibles are interpreted as being represented by a pair of setulose seta-like elements that are largely concealed beneath similar paired setulose structures, the labral palps, carried on the labrum. The paired elements interpreted as mandibles are transversely orientated and lie in a groove, the anterior margin of which forms a defined ridge ornamented with spinules.

  17. Three species of Ditrichocorycaeus (Copepoda, Cyclopoida, Corycaeidae) from Korean waters, with new identification parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wi, Jin Hee; Kim, Dae Hwan; Soh, Ho Young

    2013-12-01

    Three species of Ditrichocorycaeus [ D. dahli (Tanaka, 1957), D. lubbocki (Giesbrecht, 1981), and D. subtilis (Dahl, 1912)] are first redescribed from southern area of Jeju Island, Korea. Morphological details such as mouthparts, ornamentation of genital double-somite, spine lengths of legs, and proportional lengths of caudal setae, are provided as new identification keys separating each species within Ditrichocorycaeus and/or each genus within Corycaeidae. In particular, the number and location of each segment on the body and antenna are re-examined and precisely defined. Also, few valid morphological characters of this genus distinguishing it from other genera are newly proposed as follows: 1) prosomes of both sexes are five-segmented; 2) basis of maxilliped with relatively longer proximal seta than in other genera.

  18. A new species of Ergasilus (Copepoda:Cyclopoida:Ergasilidae) from coastal fishes of the Mexican Pacific.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Santana-Piñeros, Ana María

    2008-09-01

    A new species of the cyclopoid copepod genus Ergasilus von Nordmann, 1832 is described based on adult female specimens removed from the gills of the yellow snapper Lutjanus argentiventris (Peters) and the yellowfin snook Centropomus robalito Jordan et Gilbert from a Pacific coastal system of Mexico. The new species Ergasilus davidi sp. n. has a combination of characters that includes a two-segmented first leg endopod, a three-segmented fourth leg endopod, and the presence of a single seta on the first antennular segment. These characters are shared with 14 other congeners known mainly from Brazil and North America. It differs from these other species in the armature and ornamentation of legs 1 and 4, the shape of the body, and the structure and ornamentation of the antennae. Additional characters include a maxillar basis armed with blunt teeth, distally bent maxillular setae, and naked margins of first exopodal segments of legs 2-4. Previous regional records of Ergasilus sp. from both fish species are probably assignable to E. davidi. The prevalence and intensity of infection was estimated for both teleost species and agrees to previous data. Based on other records of the genus from several other teleost species in the surveyed area and adjacent zones of the Eastern Pacific, it is presumed that the new species could have a wider range of hosts. The new species represents the first Ergasilus described from Mexican waters of the Pacific. Overall, the genus remains poorly known in Central America and Mexico.

  19. Four new Schizopera (Copepoda, Harpacticoida) from marine interstitial habitats in Korea.

    PubMed

    Karanovic, Tomislav; Cho, Joo-Lae

    2016-05-20

    With more than 100 valid species, the predominantly marine genus Schizopera Sars, 1905 has a near global distribution. The genus is also relatively successful in invading estuarine and freshwater ecosystems. In Korea only two widely distributed estuarine species have been recorded previously: S. clandestina (Klie, 1924) and S. neglecta Akatova, 1935. Four rare new species discovered in marine interstitial habitats are reported herein. Schizopera daejinensis sp. nov. and S. yeonghaensis sp. nov. are described after a single female and one specimen of each sex respectively. These two species were found living simpatrically in Daejin beach, near Yeong Hae city, on the East Coast of Korea. The minute S. gangneungensis sp. nov. is described after three females from a beach in Gangneung city, also on the East Coast of Korea. Schizopera sindoensis sp. nov. is described after one female and five males from a tiny beach on Jeju Island, on the South Coast of Korea. Our detailed survey of Korean beaches and the absence of any of these species in other localities suggest them to be either short range endemics or anthropogenic relics. We discuss the need for further study and protection of these neglected habitats, and the role they might play in harbouring disproportionate levels of diversity. A variety of phenotypic features for comparative descriptions of the four new species were used, including all cuticular organs (sensilla and pores) on the somites. These minute and underutilized structures provide as much resolution on the species level as traditionally used characters do, with an added bonus of an almost complete lack of sexual dimorphism. This might provide useful directions for future pairing of opposite sexes in these and other copepods, especially in cases of sympatric congeners or missing sexes.

  20. On the uncertainty beneath the name Oithona similis Claus, 1866 (Copepoda, Cyclopoida).

    PubMed

    Cepeda, Georgina D; Sabatini, Marina E; Scioscia, Cristina L; Ramírez, Fernando C; Viñas, María D

    2016-01-01

    The marine cyclopoid Oithona similis sensu lato Claus, 1866, is considered to be one of the most abundant and ubiquitous copepods in the world. However, its minimal original diagnosis and the unclear connection with its (subjective) senior synonym Oithona helgolandica Claus, 1863, may have caused frequent misidentification of the species. Consequently, it seems possible that several closely related but distinct forms are being named Oithona similis or Oithona helgolandica without explicit and accurate discrimination. Here the current situation concerning the correct assignment of the two species is revised, the morphological characters commonly used to identify and distinguish each species are summarized, and the nomenclatural implications of indiscriminately using these names in current taxonomic and ecological practice is considered. It is not intended to upset a long-accepted name in its accustomed meaning but certainly the opposite. "In pursuit of the maximum stability compatible with taxonomic freedom" (International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature), we consider that reassessment of the diagnostic characters of Oithona similis sensu stricto cannot be postponed much longer. While a consensus on taxonomy and nomenclatural matters can be attained, we strongly recommend specifically reporting the authority upon which the identification of either Oithona similis s.l. or Oithona helgolandica s.l. has been accomplished.

  1. Molecular phylogeny of Oncaeidae (Copepoda) using nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS rDNA)

    PubMed Central

    Di Capua, Iole; Maffucci, Fulvio; Pannone, Raimondo; Mazzocchi, Maria Grazia

    2017-01-01

    Copepods belonging to the Oncaeidae family are commonly and abundantly found in marine zooplankton. In the Mediterranean Sea, forty-seven oncaeid species occur, of which eleven in the Gulf of Naples. In this Gulf, several Oncaea species were morphologically analysed and described at the end of the XIX century by W. Giesbrecht. In the same area, oncaeids are being investigated over seasonal and inter-annual scales at the long-term coastal station LTER-MC. In the present work, we identified six oncaeid species using the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacers (ITS rDNA) and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (mtCOI). Phylogenetic analyses based on these two genomic regions validated the sisterhood of the genera Triconia and the Oncaea sensu stricto. ITS1 and ITS2 phylogenies produced incongruent results about the position of Oncaea curta, calling for further investigations on this species. We also characterised the ITS2 region by secondary structure predictions and found that all the sequences analysed presented the distinct eukaryotic hallmarks. A Compensatory Base Change search corroborated the close relationship between O. venusta and O. curta and between O. media and O. venusta already identified by ITS phylogenies. The present results, which stem from the integration of molecular and morphological taxonomy, represent an encouraging step towards an improved knowledge of copepod biodiversity: The two complementary approaches, when applied to long-term copepod monitoring, will also help to better understanding their genetic variations and ecological niches of co-occurring species. PMID:28441395

  2. Temporal fluctuation and reproduction of Thermocyclops decipiens (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) in an eutrophic lake of central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Padovesi-Fonseca, Claudia; de Mendonça-Galvão, Luciana; Rocha, Diogo Libânio Pereira

    2002-03-01

    Lake Paranoá is an eutrophic reservoir situated in the urban region of Brasília. This study was carried out in a fixed collection station located in the Riacho Fundo branch of the reservoir. Zooplankton samples were collected at intervals of 3-5 d at 9:00 a.m. during two months in the dry and rainy seasons for two years (dry-1996, rainy-1997, dry-1997 and rainy-1998), using a 64 microns-mesh plankton net. The most predominant species was Thermocyclops decipiens (about 50% of the total zooplankton community), which during the whole period had a high reproductive rate. The highest densities were found in the dry-1996 season (1700 ind/l for nauplii), and also fluctuated widely overtime. Nauplii stages dominated during the four periods, comprising 50-75% of the total population density. Ovigerous females peaked in the dry-1996 and rainy-1997 seasons, with 20-30% of the total females. The largest peak in egg production occurred during the dry-1996 season, and the total egg production was 2.0 x 10(3) eggs/l. Mesocyclops longisetus is a first record for Lake Paranoá. The ecological factors that determine the success of T. decipiens in eutrophic systems are related to omnivorous feeding habits and prey-predator interactions.

  3. [DNA contents in nuclei of Cyclops kolensis and C. insignis (Crustacea, Copepoda)].

    PubMed

    Semeshin, V F; Omel'ianchuk, L V; Alekseeva, A L; Ivankina, E A; Sheveleva, N G; Zhimulev, I F

    2011-01-01

    Chromatin diminution (CD) in two Cyclopoida species, Cyclops kolensis and C. insignis, was studied by static digital Feulgen cytophotometry. DNA content (pg/cell) was evaluated by standard curves builded up using blood cells of five organisms with known DNA content, which ranged from 1.25 to 14.70 pg. According to data obtained, diploid genome of C. kolensis has about 40 pg DNA before CD and 1.8-2.0 pg DNA after CD. These values are similar for both Moscow and Baikal populations of C. kolensis and 6-10 times exceed estimates made earlier (Grishanin, 2008), Our data confirm that CD in C. kolensis is 94-96% of DNA. In mitotic dividing cells of C. insignis, DNA content was about 7.5 pg both in early and late embryos, and CD was not revealed for this species. The data obtained show that, among Cyclopoida studied, the genome of C. kolensis before CD has a maximum content of DNA.

  4. Three species of Agetus (Copepoda, Cyclopoida, Corycaeidae) new to Korean taxa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wi, Jin Hee; Kim, Dae Hwan; Soh, Ho Young

    2013-12-01

    The genus Agetus (Cyclopoida, Corycaeidae) has so far been identified by insufficient taxonomic information due to lack of morphological details such as mouthparts, spine lengths of each leg, ornamentation on surface of second urosomal somite. These features are considered as important morphological characteristics in classifying small cyclopoid copepods through taxonomic studies. In this study, some distinct and minute morphological characteristics are used to separate each species within Agetus, with the first redescription of A. typicus, A. flaccus, and A. limbatus from Korean waters. All three species are carefully well redescribed and comparisons with past records from other localities are provided. The zoogeographical distribution has also been summarized.

  5. Marine Flora and Fauna of the Northeastern United States. Copepoda: Lernaeopodidae and Sphyriidae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Ju-Shey

    This report is part of a sub-series to aid biology students, biologists, biological oceanographers, and informed laymen in the identification and study of marine flora and fauna of the Northeastern United States. Contents of this report include: (1) Introduction; (2) Glossary; (3) Key to the marine lernaeopodoid copepods of the Northeastern United…

  6. Infestation and Pathological Alterations by Ergasilus sarsi (Copepoda) on the Tanganyika Killifish from Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kilian, Esmari; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè

    2013-01-01

    A total of 204 Ergasilus sarsi, a copepod, were collected from Tanganyika Killifish Lamprichthys tanganicanus in Lake Tanganyika during March 2010. The prevalence was 86.40%, the mean intensity was 7.56, and the mean abundance was 6.38. Only 27 of the fish were infested, and the highest infestation on one fish was 29. Proliferation of mucus cells and lamellar fusion occurred. Haemorrhage due to blood vessel compression was noted. This is the first record of E. sarsi from Tanganyika Killifish. This study is also the first to provide a description of the pathological alterations caused by E. sarsi. PMID:24341764

  7. Transcriptomics of coping strategies in free-swimming Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda) larvae responding to abiotic stress

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Ben J G; Jantzen, Stuart G; Yasuike, Motoshige; Sanderson, Dan S; Koop, Ben F; Jones, Simon R M

    2012-01-01

    The salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis is a marine ectoparasite of wild and farmed salmon in the Northern Hemisphere. Infections of farmed salmon are of economic and ecological concern. Nauplius and copepodid salmon lice larvae are free-swimming and disperse in the water column until they encounter a host. In this study, we characterized the sublethal stress responses of L. salmonis copepodid larvae by applying a 38K oligonucleotide microarray to profile transcriptomes following 24 h exposures to suboptimal salinity (30–10 parts per thousand (‰)) or temperature (16–4 °C) environments. Hyposalinity exposure resulted in large-scale gene expression changes relative to those elicited by a thermal gradient. Subsequently, transcriptome responses to a more finely resolved salinity gradient between 30 ‰ and 25 ‰ were profiled. Minimal changes occurred at 29 ‰ or 28 ‰, a threshold of response was identified at 27 ‰, and the largest response was at 25 ‰. Differentially expressed genes were clustered by pattern of expression, and clusters were characterized by functional enrichment analysis. Results indicate larval copepods adopt two distinct coping strategies in response to short-term hyposaline stress: a primary response using molecular chaperones and catabolic processes at 27 ‰; and a secondary response up-regulating ion pumps, transporters, a different suite of chaperones and apoptosis-related transcripts at 26 ‰ and 25 ‰. The results further our understanding of the tolerances of L. salmonis copepodids to salinity and temperature gradients and may assist in the development of salmon louse management strategies. PMID:23094868

  8. The Salmon Louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae) Life Cycle Has Only Two Chalimus Stages

    PubMed Central

    Dalvin, Sussie T.; Bron, James E.; Nilsen, Frank; Boxshall, Geoff; Skern-Mauritzen, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    Each year the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirussalmonis Krøyer, 1838) causes multi-million dollar commercial losses to the salmon farming industry world-wide, and strict lice control regimes have been put in place to reduce the release of salmon louse larvae from aquaculture facilities into the environment. For half a century, the Lepeophtheirus life cycle has been regarded as the only copepod life cycle including 8 post-nauplius instars as confirmed in four different species, including L. salmonis. Here we prove that the accepted life cycle of the salmon louse is wrong. By observations of chalimus larvae molting in incubators and by morphometric cluster analysis, we show that there are only two chalimus instars: chalimus 1 (comprising the former chalimus I and II stages which are not separated by a molt) and chalimus 2 (the former chalimus III and IV stages which are not separated by a molt). Consequently the salmon louse life cycle has only six post-nauplius instars, as in other genera of caligid sea lice and copepods in general. These findings are of fundamental importance in experimental studies as well as for interpretation of salmon louse biology and for control and management of this economically important parasite. PMID:24069203

  9. A new genus (Copepoda, Harpacticoida, Laophontidae) from Jeju Island of Korea

    PubMed Central

    Back, Jinwook; Lee, Wonchoel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A survey on the harpacticoid copepods from an intertidal zone in Hyeopjae sandy beach, Jeju Island, Korea, resulted in the discovery of an unusual laophontid, Jejulaophonte hyeopjaeensis sp. n., which cannot be placed in any extant genus within the family. To accommodate the species, a new genus of the family Laophontidae T. Scott, 1905 is proposed and fully described here. The new species is closely related to the lineage of the five primitive genera, Carraroenia McCormack, 2006, Coullia Hamond, 1973, Hemilaophonte Jakubisiak 1933, Psammoplatypus Lee & Huys, 1999, and Robustunguis Fiers, 1992 (the CCHPR-lineage) by the reduced P2 endopod, ovate shape of the female P5 exopod and sexual dimorphism in the P3 endopod. However, it displays discrepancies from the species of the CCHPR-lineage in the presence of an inner seta on P3 and P4 exp-2, four setae on P4 enp-2, and an inner seta on P3 and P4 enp-2 in the female. Furthermore, no other species within the family Laophontidae has three setae on P2 exp-3 and a seta on P2 enp-2 at the same time. The new species has sexual dimorphism in the antennule, genital segmentation and the legs from P2 to P5. The terminal seta on the second endopodal segment of P2 in the male is longer than that in the female. The endopod of P3 is 3-segmented and displays a short inner apophysis on the second segment in the male. The outer setae on the exopod of P3 and P4 are distinctly thicker and stronger in the male than in the female. Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (mtCOI) sequencing of the new species has been realized in order to be used in future phylogenetic analysis. PMID:25349513

  10. A new protocol for ecotoxicological assessment of seawater using nauplii of Tisbe biminiensis (Copepoda:Harpacticoida).

    PubMed

    Lavorante, Beatriz R B O; Oliveira, Deloar D; Costa, Bruno V M; Souza-Santos, Lília P

    2013-09-01

    Copepods are largely used in toxicity tests. The nauplii of these organisms are more sensitive to contaminants than the adult stage. The aim of the present study was to test a protocol for the use of nauplii of the copepod Tisbe biminiensis in the ecotoxicological assessment of seawater. The sensitivity of these organisms to zinc sulphate (ZnSO4·7H2O) was also determined. The following conditions were established for the protocol based on the best development of nauplii to copepodites: 72-h duration, the microalga Chaetocerus gracilis at 2.5×10(5)cellsmL(-1) as feed and incubation temperature of 28°C. In the zinc sulphate sensitivity tests, EC50-72 h and LC50/72 h were 3.25±0.59 mg L(-1) and 3.46±0.72 mg L(-1), respectively, as estimated by the final number of copepodites and total number of live animals in relation to the mean number of inoculated nauplii. The estimated NOEC was 2.0 mg L(-1). The test developed is fast and not labour intensive. T. biminiensis nauplii exhibit sensitivity to zinc sulphate similar to that of other species of copepods employed in water toxicity tests, demonstrating the usefulness of these organisms in ecotoxicological studies involving samples of environmental seawater. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Application of DNA Barcodes for the Identification of Marine Crustaceans from the North Sea and Adjacent Regions

    PubMed Central

    Raupach, Michael J.; Barco, Andrea; Steinke, Dirk; Beermann, Jan; Laakmann, Silke; Mohrbeck, Inga; Neumann, Hermann; Kihara, Terue C.; Pointner, Karin; Radulovici, Adriana; Segelken-Voigt, Alexandra; Wesse, Christina; Knebelsberger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    During the last years DNA barcoding has become a popular method of choice for molecular specimen identification. Here we present a comprehensive DNA barcode library of various crustacean taxa found in the North Sea, one of the most extensively studied marine regions of the world. Our data set includes 1,332 barcodes covering 205 species, including taxa of the Amphipoda, Copepoda, Decapoda, Isopoda, Thecostraca, and others. This dataset represents the most extensive DNA barcode library of the Crustacea in terms of species number to date. By using the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD), unique BINs were identified for 198 (96.6%) of the analyzed species. Six species were characterized by two BINs (2.9%), and three BINs were found for the amphipod species Gammarus salinus Spooner, 1947 (0.4%). Intraspecific distances with values higher than 2.2% were revealed for 13 species (6.3%). Exceptionally high distances of up to 14.87% between two distinct but monophyletic clusters were found for the parasitic copepod Caligus elongatus Nordmann, 1832, supporting the results of previous studies that indicated the existence of an overlooked sea louse species. In contrast to these high distances, haplotype-sharing was observed for two decapod spider crab species, Macropodia parva Van Noort & Adema, 1985 and Macropodia rostrata (Linnaeus, 1761), underlining the need for a taxonomic revision of both species. Summarizing the results, our study confirms the application of DNA barcodes as highly effective identification system for the analyzed marine crustaceans of the North Sea and represents an important milestone for modern biodiversity assessment studies using barcode sequences. PMID:26417993

  12. The Application of DNA Barcodes for the Identification of Marine Crustaceans from the North Sea and Adjacent Regions.

    PubMed

    Raupach, Michael J; Barco, Andrea; Steinke, Dirk; Beermann, Jan; Laakmann, Silke; Mohrbeck, Inga; Neumann, Hermann; Kihara, Terue C; Pointner, Karin; Radulovici, Adriana; Segelken-Voigt, Alexandra; Wesse, Christina; Knebelsberger, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    During the last years DNA barcoding has become a popular method of choice for molecular specimen identification. Here we present a comprehensive DNA barcode library of various crustacean taxa found in the North Sea, one of the most extensively studied marine regions of the world. Our data set includes 1,332 barcodes covering 205 species, including taxa of the Amphipoda, Copepoda, Decapoda, Isopoda, Thecostraca, and others. This dataset represents the most extensive DNA barcode library of the Crustacea in terms of species number to date. By using the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD), unique BINs were identified for 198 (96.6%) of the analyzed species. Six species were characterized by two BINs (2.9%), and three BINs were found for the amphipod species Gammarus salinus Spooner, 1947 (0.4%). Intraspecific distances with values higher than 2.2% were revealed for 13 species (6.3%). Exceptionally high distances of up to 14.87% between two distinct but monophyletic clusters were found for the parasitic copepod Caligus elongatus Nordmann, 1832, supporting the results of previous studies that indicated the existence of an overlooked sea louse species. In contrast to these high distances, haplotype-sharing was observed for two decapod spider crab species, Macropodia parva Van Noort & Adema, 1985 and Macropodia rostrata (Linnaeus, 1761), underlining the need for a taxonomic revision of both species. Summarizing the results, our study confirms the application of DNA barcodes as highly effective identification system for the analyzed marine crustaceans of the North Sea and represents an important milestone for modern biodiversity assessment studies using barcode sequences.

  13. Infectious salmon anaemia virus (ISAV) in Chilean Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) aquaculture: emergence of low pathogenic ISAV-HPR0 and re-emergence of virulent ISAV-HPR∆: HPR3 and HPR14

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstact Infectious salmon anaemia (ISA) is a serious disease of marine-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) caused by ISA virus (ISAV), which belongs to the genus Isavirus, family Orthomyxoviridae. ISA is caused by virulent ISAV strains with deletions in a highly polymorphic region (HPR) of the hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) protein (designated virulent ISAV-HPR∆). This study shows the historic dynamics of ISAV-HPR∆ and ISAV-HPR0 in Chile, the genetic relationship among ISAV-HPR0 reported worldwide and between ISAV-HPR0 and ISAV-HPR∆ in Chile, and reports the 2013 ISA outbreak in Chile. The first ISA outbreak in Chile occurred from mid-June 2007 to 2010 and involved the virulent ISAV-HPR7b, which was then replaced by a low pathogenic ISAV-HPR0 variant. We analyzed this variant in 66 laboratory-confirmed ISAV-HPR0 cases in Chile in comparison to virulent ISAV-HPR∆ that caused two new ISA outbreaks in April 2013. Multiple alignment and phylogenetic analysis of HE sequences from all ISAV-HPR0 viruses allowed us to identify three genomic clusters, which correlated with three residue patterns of ISAV-HPR0 (360PST362, 360PAN362 and 360PAT362) in HPR. The virus responsible for the 2013 ISAV-HPR∆ cases in Chile belonged to ISAV-HPR3 and ISAV-HPR14, and in phylogenetic analyses, both clustered with the ISAV-HPR0 found in Chile. The ISAV-HPR14 had the ISAV-HPR0 residue pattern 360PAT362, which is the only type of ISAV-HPR0 variant found in Chile. This suggested to us that the 2013 ISAV-HPR∆ re-emerged from ISAV-HPR0 that is enzootic in Chilean salmon aquaculture and were not new introductions of virulent ISAV-HPR∆ to Chile. The clinical presentations and diagnostic evidence of the 2013 ISA cases indicated a mixed infection of ISAV with the ectoparasite Caligus rogercresseyi and the bacterium Piscirickettsia salmonis, which underscores the need for active ISAV surveillance in areas where ISAV-HPR0 is enzootic, to ensure early detection and control of new ISA

  14. Risk factors perceived predictive of ISA spread in Chile: applications to decision support.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, L; Antognoli, M; Lara Fica, M; Ibarra, R; Mancilla, J; Sandoval Del Valle, O; Enriquez Sais, R; Perez, A; Aguilar, D; Madrid, E; Bustos, P; Clement, A; Godoy, M G; Johnson, C; Remmenga, M

    2014-11-01

    Aquaculture is anticipated to be a critical element in future solutions to global food shortage. However, diseases can impede industry efficiency and sustainability. Consequently, diseases can and have led to dramatic re-structuring in industry or regulatory practices. The emergence of infectious salmon anemia (ISA) in Chile is one such example. As in other countries, many mitigations were instituted universally, and many incurred considerable costs as they introduced a new layer of coordination of farming activities of marine sites within common geographic areas (termed 'neighborhoods' or 'barrios'). The aggregate response led to a strong reduction in ISA incidence and impact. However, the relative value of individual mitigations is less clear, especially where response policies were universally applied and retrospective analyses are missing 'controls' (i.e., areas where a mitigation was not applied). Further, re-focusing policies around disease prevention following resolution of an outbreak is important to renew sustainable production; though, again, field data to guide this shift in purpose are often lacking. Expert panels can offer timely decision support in the absence of empirical data. We convened a panel of fish health experts to weight risk factors predictive of ISA virus (ISAV) introduction or spread between Atlantic salmon barrios in Chile. Barrios, rather than sites, were the unit of interest because many of the new mitigations operate at this level and few available studies examine their efficacy. Panelists identified barrio processing plant biosecurity, fallowing strategies, adult live fish transfers, fish and site density, smolt quality, hydrographic connection with other neighborhoods, presence of sea lice (Caligus rogercresseyi), and harvest vessel biosecurity as factors with the greatest predictive strength for ISAV virulent genotype ('HPR-deleted') occurrence. Fewer factors were considered predictive of ISAV HPR0 genotype ('HPR0') occurrence

  15. Selective oviposition by Aedes aegypti (Diptera: culicidae) in response to Mesocyclops longisetus (Copepoda: Cyclopoidea) under laboratory and field conditions.

    PubMed

    Torres-Estrada, J L; Rodríguez, M H; Cruz-López, L; Arredondo-Jimenez, J I

    2001-03-01

    The influence of predacious Mesocyclops longisetus Thiebaud on the selection of oviposition sites by prey Aedes aegypti (L.) was studied under laboratory and field conditions. In both cases, gravid Ae. aegypti females were significantly more attracted to ovitraps containing copepods or to ovitraps with water in which copepods were held previously than to distilled water. Monoterpene and sesquiterpene compounds including 3-carene, alpha-terpinene, alpha-copaene, alpha-longipinene, alpha-cedrene, and delta-cadinene were found in hexane extracts of copepods by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses. These compounds may be responsible for attracting gravid Ae. aegypti females and may increase the number of potential prey for the copepod.

  16. Four new species of Peniculisa Wilson, 1917 (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Pennellidae) parasitic on coastal marine fishes in Japanese waters.

    PubMed

    Uyeno, Daisuke; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2010-08-01

    Four new species of Peniculisa Wilson, 1917, are described from marine fishes caught in coastal waters of southwestern Japan. Peniculisa elongata n. sp., Peniculisa crassa n. sp., and Peniculisa uchinah n. sp. are distinguishable from Peniculisa furcata ( Krøyer, 1863 ), Peniculisa bellwoodi Boxshall, 1989 , and Peniculisa wilsoni Radhakrishnan, 1977 , in the lack of rami on legs 1 to 4, the lack of leg 5, and the possession of a trunk with prominent anterior shoulders. Peniculisa elongata n. sp. is separated from the remaining 2 known and 3 new congeners, Peniculisa bicaudata Shiino, 1956 , Peniculisa shiinoi Izawa, 1965 , P. crassa n. sp., Peniculisa ohirugi n. sp., and P. uchinah n. sp. by a pair of long, slender caudal processes, a compact cephalothorax, and its trunk with posteroventral lobes projecting posteriorly. Peniculisa crassa n. sp. can be discriminated from them by its pair of short, thick caudal processes, a comparatively large and thick cephalothorax in relation to its body, and its abdominal processes widest at base. Peniculisa uchinah n. sp. is distinguished from all other congeners by the possession of a pair of relatively long, slender, and proportionately long caudal processes, and a long abdominal process widest near the posterior end. Peniculisa ohirugi n. sp. is identified by a pair of long, divergent abdominal processes extending the tip of caudal rami, and by the location of leg 4 on the neck region.

  17. Distribution of Hatschekia pagellibogneravei (Copepoda: Hatschekiidae) on the gills of Pagellus bogaraveo (Teleostei: Sparidae) from Madeira, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Hermida, Margarida; Cruz, Cristina; Saraiva, Aurélia

    2012-06-01

    A population of the gill parasite Hatschekia pagellibogneravei (Hesse, 1878) was studied on one of its sparid fish hosts, the blackspot seabream, Pagellus bogaraveo (Brünnich), off the coast of Madeira Island, Portugal, northeast Atlantic. Very high infection levels of this copepod were detected, with no significant seasonal differences. Abundance was negatively correlated with fish size. There were significant differences in the distribution of this copepod among the gill arches of the host, which seem to be best explained by differences in water flow within the gill habitat.

  18. A new genus and species of cyclopoid (Crustacea, Copepoda, Cyclopinidae) from a coastal system in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Almeyda-Artigas, Roberto Javier

    2015-01-01

    A new, monotypic genus of the interstitial marine cyclopoid copepod family Cyclopinidae G.O. Sars, 1913 is described from male and female specimens collected at Laguna de Términos, a large coastal lagoon system in the southern Gulf of Mexico. Mexiclopina campechana gen. et sp. n. cannot be adequately placed in any extant genus within the family. It differs from other cyclopinid genera in having a unique combination of characters including: 1) absence of modified brush-like seta on the mandibular exopod; 2) maxillule exopod with stout setal elements and brush-like setae absent; 3) basis of mandible with one seta; 4) presence of a modified seta on endopod of fourth leg; 5) fifth leg exopod unsegmented, armed with three elements in the female and five in the male; 6) intercoxal sclerite of first swimming leg with two medial spiniform processes on distal margin. The new genus is monotypic and appears to be most closely related to Cyclopina Claus, 1863 and Heptnerina Ivanenko & Defaye, 2004; the new species was compared with species of Cyclopina and it resembles Cyclopina americana Herbst, 1982 and Cyclopina caissara Lotufo, 1994. This is the second record of a species of Cyclopinidae in Mexico and the first in the Gulf of Mexico; the number of cyclopinid species recorded from the Americas is now 13.

  19. A new species of Monocheres Stock (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida, Asterocheridae) from shallow waters off Florida, USA: an unexpected discovery.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    The rare asterocherid copepod genus Monocheres, ectosymbionts of corals and sponges, contains only two species, one from Mauritius (Indian Ocean) and the other one from Brazil (western Atlantic). From the analysis of the digestive caecum contents of the benthic hesionid polychaete Hesione picta Müller, 1858, an adult female of an undescribed species of Monocheres was unexpectedly recovered; it is the third species of this rare asterocherid genus. The new species, Monocheres sergioi sp. n., has the distinctive reduction of the fifth leg as a process with a single seta. It differs from its two other congeners by several characters including the presence of an inner basipodal spine, the armature details of the third exopodal segment of leg 1, the shape of the cephalosome and pedigerous somites 3 and 4, and the ornamentation of the postero-lateral corners of the genital double-somite. The main synapomorphies include the presence of spinules along the posterior margin of the first leg coxal sclerite and the reduced, spiniform coxal seta on leg 4. The biology and feeding habits of the polychaete containing this specimen suggests that the copepod was ingested as an ectosymbiont from sponges or coral but it is also possible that it was consumed from an ophiurid echinoderm. This finding allows an expansion of the genus geographical distribution in the northwestern Atlantic. A key to the species of Monocheres is also provided.

  20. Taxonomic evaluation of eleven species of Microcyclops Claus, 1893 (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) and description of Microcyclops inarmatus sp. n. from America.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Martha Angélica; Cervantes-Martínez, Adrián

    2016-01-01

    Description and meristic analysis of eleven species of Microcyclops recorded in America were performed based on the examination of type specimens and fresh material. Microscopic analysis of oral appendages, such as the shape and armature of the distal coxal endite of the maxilla, the ornamentation on the caudal surface of the antenna, and the intercoxal sclerites and armament of the inner basis of all swimming appendages, were characteristics that allowed the differentiation between species. Among these species, our study confirmed the synonymy of Microcyclops diversus Kiefer, 1935 with Microcyclops ceibaensis (Marsh, 1919). The results of our observations showed that Microcyclops alius (Kiefer, 1935) is a junior synonym of Microcyclops dubitabilis Kiefer, 1934; the latter being confirmed as a valid species. Also, it is proposed that the records of Microcyclops rubellus (Lilljeborg, 1901) and Microcyclops varicans (Sars, 1863) in America should be revised as there are serious doubts about their distribution in America. The analysis suggested that Microcyclops anceps pauxensis Herbst, 1962 is distinct from Microcyclops anceps var. minor Dussart, 1984 and that both are likely different from Microcyclops anceps anceps (Richard, 1897). Finally a full morphological description of adult females of Microcyclops inarmatus sp. n. is presented.

  1. Reconstruction of arietellid copepod phylogenetic relationship, with description of a new species of Sarsarietellus (Copepoda, Calanoida, Arietellidae) from Korean waters.

    PubMed

    Soh, Ho Young; Moon, Seong Yong; Ohtsuka, Susumu; Pae, Se Jin; Jeong, Hyeon Gyeong

    2013-11-01

    A new species of the genus Sarsarietellus from Korean waters, S. orientalis n. sp. is described based on both sexes. This is very closely related to S. suluensis Ohtsuka, Nishida and Machida, 2005 , but is readily distinguished by the following characteristics: in the female (1) narrow head; (2) nearly symmetrical posterior corners of last pedigerous somite, not extending beyond the genital double-somite; (3) antennary endopod slightly longer than the exopod; (4) nearly equal length of three outer spines and the terminal spine of the exopod of the fifth leg, except for the proximal third outer spine; and in the male the left fifth leg with two whip-like setae on the tip of the second exopodal segment not being rotated outside. Sarsarietellus orientalis is the fourth species of the genus Sarsarietellus, while the male of Sarsarietellus species is the first reported. The habitat colonization of arietellids is reconsidered.

  2. A new culture system for in situ observation of the growth and development of Eucyclops serrulatus (Copepoda: Cyclopoida).

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Hee; Chang, Cheon Young; Shin, Sung Shik

    2005-12-01

    A practical and convenient method of rearing Eucyclops serrulatus in a microculture environment is described. A complete life cycle of E. serrulatus was maintained in a narrow space on a microscope slide glass on which a cover glass of 22 x 40 mm in size was mounted at a height of 0.8 mm. The culture medium was constituted by bottled mineral water boiled with grains of Glycine max (soybean). Chilomonas paramecium, a free-living protozoan organism, was provided as live food. Growth of nauplii hatched from eggs to the first stage of copepodite took an average of 7.7 days, and the growth of copepodite 1 to the egg-bearing adult female took an average of 20.1 days in the microculture cell with an average life time of 44.7 days. Continuous passage of copepods was successfully maintained as long as sufficient medium and food were provided. The microculture method enables an in situ microscopic observation on the growth and developmental process of helminth larvae experimentally infected to copepods as well as of copepod itself. Furthermore, it does not require anesthetization and, therefore, minimize the amount of stress exposed to copepods during the handling process.

  3. Postembryonic stages of Nucellicola holmanae Lamb et al., 1996 (copepoda, poecilostomatoida), an endoparasite of the dog whelk Nucella lapillus (gastropoda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, E. J.; Boxshall, G. A.; Mill, P. J.; Grahame, J.

    1998-06-01

    The external morphology of the first three larval stages of Nucellicola holmanae is described. These stages were cultured from eggs found with the adults in the viscera of dog whelks collected from Robin Hood's Bay, North Yorkshire. The nauplius develops within the whelk. It moults to a metanauplius which is released as a free-swimming stage. The metanauplius moults to a free copepodid stage which exhibits a combination of characters typical of the first, second and third copepodid stages of other poecilostomatoid copepods. The infective copepodid stage which locates and penetrates the host is visible through the integument of this free-swimming copepodid.

  4. A new species of Monocheres Stock (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida, Asterocheridae) from shallow waters off Florida, USA: an unexpected discovery

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The rare asterocherid copepod genus Monocheres, ectosymbionts of corals and sponges, contains only two species, one from Mauritius (Indian Ocean) and the other one from Brazil (western Atlantic). From the analysis of the digestive caecum contents of the benthic hesionid polychaete Hesione picta Müller, 1858, an adult female of an undescribed species of Monocheres was unexpectedly recovered; it is the third species of this rare asterocherid genus. The new species, Monocheres sergioi sp. n., has the distinctive reduction of the fifth leg as a process with a single seta. It differs from its two other congeners by several characters including the presence of an inner basipodal spine, the armature details of the third exopodal segment of leg 1, the shape of the cephalosome and pedigerous somites 3 and 4, and the ornamentation of the postero-lateral corners of the genital double-somite. The main synapomorphies include the presence of spinules along the posterior margin of the first leg coxal sclerite and the reduced, spiniform coxal seta on leg 4. The biology and feeding habits of the polychaete containing this specimen suggests that the copepod was ingested as an ectosymbiont from sponges or coral but it is also possible that it was consumed from an ophiurid echinoderm. This finding allows an expansion of the genus geographical distribution in the northwestern Atlantic. A key to the species of Monocheres is also provided. PMID:27551233

  5. A new species of Prohatschekia Nunes-Ruivo, 1954 (Copepoda: Hatschekiidae) parasitic on Scorpaena elongata (Cadenat) off Algeria.

    PubMed

    Hamza, Fazia; Boxshall, Geoff; Kechemir-Issad, Nadia

    2007-06-01

    A new species of parasitic copepod, Prohatschekia mediterranea n. sp. (Siphonostomatoida: Hatschekiidae), is described from a scorpaenid fish, Scorpaena elongata, collected off Algeria. This is the seventh species of Prohatschekia Nunes-Ruivo, 1954 to be described and the first record of the genus from the Mediterranean Sea. The new species is most closely related to P. cremouxi Nunes-Ruivo, 1954, known from a congeneric host collected in Senegal. A key is provided to distinguish the new species from other members of the genus.

  6. Identification guide to some Diaptomid species (Crustacea, Copepoda, Calanoida, Diaptomidae) of “de la Plata” River Basin (South America)

    PubMed Central

    Perbiche-Neves, Gilmar; Boxshall, Geoffrey Allan; Previattelli, Daniel; Nogueira, Marcos Gomes; da Rocha, Carlos Eduardo Falavigna

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An identification guide is presented for species of calanoid copepod family Diaptomidae from “de la Plata” River Basin (Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay). It was based on material collected during the summer and winter of 2010 from 43 sites across the eastern part and the lower stretches of this basin, the second largest in South America and the fourth in the world. The guide contains identification keys and species diagnoses for males and females, richly supported by scanning electronic micrographs and/or line drawings of 19 species. It also includes some general remarks on the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of these species. The key was adjusted to be useful for these species only, with separate keys for each sex, and is the first for females of South America. One species classified herein as incertae sedis was not included in the analysis. At least ten other species have previously been recorded in the basin but were not present in our samples. This is the first attempt to compile comprehensive taxonomic information on this group of copepods in this region, and it is expected to become a useful tool for biologists and young taxonomists interested in the crustacean biota of the Neotropical region. PMID:25931959

  7. A new genus of Asterocheridae (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida) ectoassociate of the ascidian Eudistoma vannamei Millar, 1977 (Polycitoridae) from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Johnsson, Rodrigo; Bahia, Cristiano; Neves, Elizabeth

    2016-05-23

    Asterocheres Boeck, 1860 is the largest genus of the siphonostomatoid copepod family Asterocheridae, containing 63 valid species. The genus is known for its symbiotic relationships with many marine invertebrate taxa, especially sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, and echinoderms. Recent studies have restricted the diagnosis of this genus. Consequently, many species are now considered as species inquirendae. The present paper describes a new species living externally on the tunic of Eudistoma vannamei Millar, 1977, an endemic ascidian from Brazil. As the new species does not fit Asterocheres in the strict sense, a new genus is erected to accommodate it. Setacheres gen. nov. is characterized by its possession of two distal setae on the third endopodal segment of P3, thus differing from the distal seta and spine pattern that is deemed as diagnostic of Asterocheres. A revision and comparison of Asterocheres´ species inquirendae revealed eight species sharing the same generic characteristics and were thus reallocated as members of the new genus.

  8. Host-parasite relationships and geographic distribution of Salmincola corpulentus (Copepoda: Lernaeopodidae) on bloater (Coregonus hoyi) stocks in Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Charles A.; Stedman, Ralph M.

    1990-01-01

    Examination of the branchial cavities of 8347 adult bloaters (Coregonus hoyi) collected from seven locations in Lake Huron for parasitic copepods yielded only the lernaeopodid Salmincola corpulentus; its distribution was limited to bloaters collected in the southern two-thirds of the lake. The infections were highest off Au Sable Point and on Six Fathom Bank, where 12 and 22%, of the bloaters examined were infected, respectively. All copepods seen were sexually mature females. The dorsal anterior portion of the branchial rim was the preferred site of attachment. The prevalence of S. corpulentus increased with length of the bloaters, reaching a maximum of 40% in fish longer than 330 mm; none were seen in bloaters shorter than 182 mm. The mean intensity of S. corpulentus was unusually low (1.0–1.9) for a lernaeopodid copepod and the maximum number of copepods found on a single bloater was five. Prevalences of copepods differed significantly (P < 0.05) between bloaters collected at different geographic locations, suggesting that S. corpulentus may be of value in bloater stock determination.

  9. Histopathology of a mesoparasitic hatschekiid copepod in hospite: does Mihbaicola sakamakii (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Hatschekiidae) fast within the host fish tissue?

    PubMed

    Hirose, Euichi; Uyeno, Daisuke

    2014-08-01

    Mihbaicola sakamakii is a mesoparasitic copepod that infests the branchiostegal membranes of groupers (Perciformes: Serranidae). In this study, we observed M. sakamakii within host tissue. Histologically, copepods were found enclosed inside a pouch composed of the thickened epidermis of the host, tightly encased on all sides by the host epidermal pouch wall. There were no host blood cells or other food resources in the pouch lumen. Since the host epidermis was intact and continuous, even in the vicinity of the oral region of the parasite, the copepod would not have access to the host blood in this state. However, the stomach (ampullary part of the mid gut) was filled with granular components, the majority of which were crystalloids that likely originated from fish erythrocyte hemoglobin. We supposed that the parasite drinks blood exuded from the lesion in the fish caused by copepod entry into the host tissue. Invasion of the parasite may elicit immune responses in the host, but there were no traces on the copepod of any cellular immune reactions, such as encapsulation. The array of minute protuberances on the copepod cuticle surface may be involved in avoidance of cell adhesion. After the lesion has healed, the copepod is enclosed in a tough epidermal pouch, in which it gradually digests the contents of its stomach and continues egg production.

  10. Infestation of gill copepod Lernanthropus latis (Copepoda: Lernanthropidae) and its effect on cage-cultured Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer.

    PubMed

    Kua, B C; Noraziah, M R; Nik Rahimah, A R

    2012-09-01

    Twenty Asian sea bass Lates calcarifer from a floating cage in Bt. Tambun, Penang were examined for the presence of parasitic gill copepod, Lernanthropus latis. The prevalence of L. latis was 100% with the intensity of infection ranging from 1 to 18 parasites per host or 3.75 of mean intensity. Female parasites having oblong cephalothorax and egg-strings were seen mainly on the entire gill of examined Asian sea bass. The infected gill of Asian sea bass was pale and had eccessive mucus production. Under light and scanning electron microscopies (SEM), L. latis was seen grasping or holding tightly to the gill filament using their antenna, maxilla and maxilliped. These structures are characteristically prehensile and uncinate for the parasite to attach onto the host tissue. The damage was clearly seen under SEM as the hooked end of the antenna was embedded into the gill filament. The parasite also has the mandible which is styliform with eight teeth on the inner margin. The pathological effects such as erosion, haemorrhages, hyperplasia and necrosis along the secondary lamellae of gill filaments were seen and more severe at the attachment site. The combined actions of the antenna, maxilla and maxilliped together with the mandible resulted in extensive damage as L. latis attached and fed on the host tissues.

  11. New evidence for the involvement of Paracartia grani (Copepoda, Calanoida) in the life cycle of Marteilia refringens (Paramyxea).

    PubMed

    Boyer, S; Chollet, B; Bonnet, D; Arzul, I

    2013-12-01

    The dynamics of the protozoan parasite Marteilia refringens was studied in Thau lagoon, an important French shellfish site, for 1 year in three potential hosts: the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mytiliidae), the grooved carpet shell Ruditapes decussatus (Veneriidae) and the copepod Paracartia grani (Acartiidae). Parasite DNA was detected by PCR in R. decussatus. In situ hybridisation showed necrotic cells of M. refringens in the digestive epithelia of some R. decussatus suggesting the non-involvement of this species in the parasite life cycle. In contrast, the detection of M. refringens in mussels using PCR appeared bimodal with two peaks in spring and autumn. Histological observations of PCR-positive mussels revealed the presence of different parasite stages including mature sporangia in spring and autumn. These results suggest that the parasite has two cycles per year in the Thau lagoon and that mussels release parasites into the water column during these two periods. Moreover, PCR detection of the parasite in the copepodid stages of P. grani between June and November supports the hypothesis of the transmission of the parasite from mussels to copepods and conversely. In situ hybridisation performed on copepodites showed labeling in some sections. Unusual M. refringens cells were observed in the digestive tract and the gonad from the third copepodid stage, suggesting that the parasite could infect a copepod by ingestion and be released through the gonad. This hypothesis is supported by the PCR detection of parasite DNA in copepod eggs from PCR-positive females, which suggests that eggs could contribute to the parasite spreading in the water and could allow overwintering of M. refringens. Finally, in order to understand the interactions between mussels and copepods, mussel retention efficiency (number of copepods retained by a mussel) was measured for all P. grani developmental stages. Results showed that all copepod stages could contribute to the transmission of the parasite, especially eggs and nauplii which were retained by up to 90%.

  12. Systematic revision of the pennellid genus Creopelates Shiino, 1958 (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida) and the proposal of a new genus.

    PubMed

    Uyeno, Daisuke

    2015-01-07

    The parasitic copepod Creopelates floridus Shiino, 1958 (Siphonostomatoida: Pennellidae) is redescribed based on postmetamorphic adult females in the collection of the Imperial Majesty of Japan deposited in the National Museum of Nature and Science, Tsukuba (NSMT), Japan. Five new species of pennellid copepods are described based on postmetamorphic adult females from marine actinopterygian fishes newly collected in littoral waters of Japan and the Philippines, in the western North Pacific. The copepods and their hosts are as follows: Creopelates hosinoi n. sp. from Bryaninops yongei (Davis & Cohen) (Perciformes: Gobiidae); C. shirakawai n. sp. from Diancistrus fuscus (Fowler) (Ophidiiformes: Bythitidae); C. lubangenesis n. sp. from Gobiodon rivulatus (Rüppell) (Perciformes: Gobiidae); Nagasawanus akinohama n. gen. et n. sp. from Trimma grammistes (Tomiyama) (Perciformes: Gobiidae); N. snufkini n. gen. et n. sp. from T. tevegae Cohen & Davis. The total number of valid species contained in the genus Creopelates is now five. Nagasawanus n. gen. is distinguishable from other pennellid genera by the following features: antennary processes and cephalic lobes rounded without branched fringes, neck region without processes, maxilla with claw-like terminal segment lacking spinules. Keys to the genera of Pennellidae and to the species of Creopelates and Nagasawanus n. gen. are also provided.

  13. A new genus and species of cyclopoid (Crustacea, Copepoda, Cyclopinidae) from a coastal system in the Gulf of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Almeyda-Artigas, Roberto Javier

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new, monotypic genus of the interstitial marine cyclopoid copepod family Cyclopinidae G.O. Sars, 1913 is described from male and female specimens collected at Laguna de Términos, a large coastal lagoon system in the southern Gulf of Mexico. Mexiclopina campechana gen. et sp. n. cannot be adequately placed in any extant genus within the family. It differs from other cyclopinid genera in having a unique combination of characters including: 1) absence of modified brush-like seta on the mandibular exopod; 2) maxillule exopod with stout setal elements and brush-like setae absent; 3) basis of mandible with one seta; 4) presence of a modified seta on endopod of fourth leg; 5) fifth leg exopod unsegmented, armed with three elements in the female and five in the male; 6) intercoxal sclerite of first swimming leg with two medial spiniform processes on distal margin. The new genus is monotypic and appears to be most closely related to Cyclopina Claus, 1863 and Heptnerina Ivanenko & Defaye, 2004; the new species was compared with species of Cyclopina and it resembles Cyclopina americana Herbst, 1982 and Cyclopina caissara Lotufo, 1994. This is the second record of a species of Cyclopinidae in Mexico and the first in the Gulf of Mexico; the number of cyclopinid species recorded from the Americas is now 13. PMID:26668545

  14. New records of Ergasilus (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) in the Laurentian Great Lakes, including a lakewide review of records and host associations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Patrick L.; Bowen, Charles A.; Stedman, Ralph M.

    1994-01-01

    Ergasilus nerkae was found infecting ninespine stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) in lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior and threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and round whitefish (Prosopium cylindraceum) in Lake Huron. Based upon the literature and study of archived material, we propose that E. nerkae is enzootic to the Great Lakes and that ninespine stickleback are a preferred host in Lake Huron. Prevalence of E. nerkae on ninespine stickleback increased from 17% in June to 68% in September, but mean intensity remained light. Prevalence and mean intensity increased with host length. Ergasilus luciopercarum is also reported on lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) for the first time. Host-parasite records of Ergasilus spp. in North America are reviewed, biology and taxonomy are summarized, and a checklist of Great Lakes host-parasite-locality records is provided. At present, eight species of Ergasilus are known to infect 42 Great Lakes fish species.

  15. Expression of ecdysteroids and cytochrome P450 enzymes during lipid turnover and reproduction in Calanus finmarchicus (Crustacea: Copepoda).

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Altin, Dag; Hessen, Kristine M; Dahl, Ulrika; Breitholtz, Magnus; Nordtug, Trond; Olsen, Anders J

    2008-08-01

    The marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus is the most abundant zooplankton species in the northern regions of the Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea. Very little is known about molecular regulation of hormone metabolism, moulting and reproduction in copepods. To investigate these processes, we sampled adult male and female copepods (females at three distinct reproductive stages) and copepodites stage five (CV) from the culture at SINTEF/NTNU Sealab. Copepods were individually photographed, analyzed biometrically (body size, length and lipid storage size) and for ecdysteroid concentrations. In addition, we analyzed copepods for gene expression of three putative cytochrome P450 enzymes possibly involved in ecdysteroid regulation: CYP301A1, CYP305A1 and CYP330A1. The CV group exhibited the highest ecdysteroid concentrations and the largest lipid storage size, and a significant positive correlation was found between these parameters. Also, two of the P450 enzymes (CYP305A1 and CYP330A1) were more highly expressed at CV than at the adult stage, suggesting that these P450 enzymes are involved in ecdysteroid synthesis and lipid storage regulation. The expression of CYP330A1 was higher in newly moulted females than in females that had produced eggs. In addition, we observed that ecdysteroid concentrations were higher in females with large egg sacs, suggesting that ecdysteroids may be involved in egg maturation and reproduction. The CYP301A1 was more highly expressed in males and post-spawning females, and may be involved in ecdysteroid degradation since these groups also exhibited the lowest ecdysteroid concentrations.

  16. Size and distribution of Pandarus satyrus (Copepoda: Pandaridae) on the blue shark Prionace glauca (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae) in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rojas, J R; Rodríguez Solano, O; Morales-Ramírez, A

    2001-03-01

    A total of 80 specimens of Pandarus satyrus, a cosmopolitan ectoparasitic copepod, were taken from fishery catches of blue sharks (Prionace glauca) in the Eastern Pacific coast of Costa Rica. All specimens were found in the dorsal surface of pectoral fins (8-30 per shark). Longer specimens were most abundant.

  17. Phylogeography of Calanus helgolandicus and the Black Sea copepod Calanus euxinus, with notes on Pseudocalanus elongatus (Copepoda, Calanoida)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unal, Ebru; Frost, Bruce W.; Armbrust, Virginia; Kideys, Ahmet E.

    2006-08-01

    Calanus helgolandicus is a widespread epipelagic copepod species whose geographical range extends from the temperate Atlantic Ocean to the northern Mediterranean Sea. Calanus euxinus, recently designated as a distinct species though closely related to C. helgolandicus, occurs in the Black Sea. Very subtle morphological differences distinguish the two species. Pseudocalanus elongatus has a similar geographic range including North Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and the Black Sea. In this study, population genetic variation of C. helgolandicus, C. euxinus and P. elongatus was investigated using DNA sequence variation of 540 base pair ( Calanus spp.) and 575 base pair ( P. elongatus) regions of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (mtCOI) gene. C. helgolandicus was collected from the English Channel, the Adriatic Sea, and C. euxinus was collected from various regions of the Black Sea. P. elongatus was collected from the English Channel and the Black Sea. Intraspecific differentiation in mtCOI was <1% for all species; mtCOI sequence variation between C. helgolandicus and C. euxinus was <0.5%. The absence of substantial genetic differentiation between C. helgolandicus and C. euxinus is particularly striking in comparison to other close species pairs in these genera. Statistically significant haplotype frequency differences were determined for different locations of the Black Sea, English Channel, and Adriatic Sea Calanus populations ( χ2=3.94, P<0.0001). The haplotype diversity was high for all species: C. euxinus ( h=0.92), C. helgolandicus ( h⩽0.80), P. elongatus ( h⩽0.60). No haplotype sharing was reported for different locations of P. elongatus, whereas the presence of haplotype sharing between C. helgolandicus and C. euxinus was remarkable. The size distribution in terms of prosome length measurements was found to be region-specific. The lack of phylogenetic differentiation between the Calanus species pair may suggest ancestral polymorphisms. The morphological and genetic similarities between C. euxinus and C. helgolandicus raise new questions about the status of C. euxinus as a different species.

  18. Fate of the Black Sea Acartia clausi and Acartia tonsa (Copepoda) penetrating into the Marmara Sea through the Bosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubareva, Elena; Svetlichny, Leonid; Kideys, Ahmet; Isinibilir, Melek

    2008-01-01

    In October 2005 spatial distribution of live and dead Acartia clausi and Acartia tonsa was studied in the Black and Marmara Seas and near the Marmara Sea inlet of the Bosphorus, in order to understand their fate upon transportation between two seas. The morphometric characteristics in both species from all studied areas, and the decreased abundance of A. clausi and A. tonsa from the Black Sea towards the Marmara Sea indicate that the Marmara Sea Acartia populations are formed by recruitment from the Black Sea. We observed mass mortality of A. clausi in the Marmara Sea near the Prince Islands. The majority of carcasses (66% of total A. clausi numbers in the Marmara Sea) were found in the salinity gradient layer. Laboratory experiments showed that during a gradual salinity increase (3.5-4 h) from 18.9 (salinity of the Marmara Sea surface layers) to 39.8 (Marmara Sea salinity at depths >25 m) Acartia clausi began to die at a salinity of 30 and that all copepods were dead at 39.8. In comparison with A. clausi, Acartia tonsa was more tolerant to short-term salinity increase. Despite the high salinity tolerance of A. tonsa however, the abundance of this species was estimated to be very low in the offshore Marmara Sea. Respiration rate and frequency of jumps in A. tonsa were 1.3-1.5 and 1.77 times higher, respectively, than those in A. clausi.

  19. Taxonomic evaluation of eleven species of Microcyclops Claus, 1893 (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) and description of Microcyclops inarmatus sp. n. from America

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Martha Angélica; Cervantes-Martínez, Adrián

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Description and meristic analysis of eleven species of Microcyclops recorded in America were performed based on the examination of type specimens and fresh material. Microscopic analysis of oral appendages, such as the shape and armature of the distal coxal endite of the maxilla, the ornamentation on the caudal surface of the antenna, and the intercoxal sclerites and armament of the inner basis of all swimming appendages, were characteristics that allowed the differentiation between species. Among these species, our study confirmed the synonymy of Microcyclops diversus Kiefer, 1935 with Microcyclops ceibaensis (Marsh, 1919). The results of our observations showed that Microcyclops alius (Kiefer, 1935) is a junior synonym of Microcyclops dubitabilis Kiefer, 1934; the latter being confirmed as a valid species. Also, it is proposed that the records of Microcyclops rubellus (Lilljeborg, 1901) and Microcyclops varicans (Sars, 1863) in America should be revised as there are serious doubts about their distribution in America. The analysis suggested that Microcyclops anceps pauxensis Herbst, 1962 is distinct from Microcyclops anceps var. minor Dussart, 1984 and that both are likely different from Microcyclops anceps anceps (Richard, 1897). Finally a full morphological description of adult females of Microcyclops inarmatus sp. n. is presented. PMID:27551196

  20. Survey of cyclopids (Crustacea, Copepoda) in Brazil and preliminary screening of their potential as dengue vector predators.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, L U; de Andrade, C F

    1997-06-01

    Cyclopid copepods are known to be good mosquito controllers, specially as regards the larvae of the dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The objective of the study was to survey the local copepod fauna and search for new strains of M. longisetus var. longisetus, comparing the potential of the samples found with the current strain ML-01 against Ae. albopictus larvae, under laboratory conditions. Eleven bodies of water in Campinas, SP, Brazil, were screened for copepods by collecting 1.5 l of water from each of then. The predatory potential of adults copepods was evaluated over 24 h, in the laboratory, for groups of 5 individuals preying upon 30 first instar Ae. albopictus larvae. The following cyclopid species were found: Metacyclops mendocinus, Tropocyclops prasinus, Eucyclops sp, Eucyclops serrulatus, Eucyclops solitarius, Eucyclops ensifer, Macrocyclops albidus var. albidus and Mesocyclops longisetus var. longisetus. The predatory potential of these copepods ranged from nil to 97.3%. A sample collected in the field containing only M. longisetus var. longisetus showed the best control efficiency with no significant difference from a three-year old laboratory culture (ML-01) of the same species evaluated for comparison. The sample with few M. albidus var. albidus was ranked in second place showing an average 25.9% efficiency. The use of copepods in trap tires as dengue vector controllers is discussed.

  1. National progress in dengue vector control in Vietnam: survey for Mesocyclops (Copepoda), Micronecta (Corixidae), and fish as biological control agents.

    PubMed

    Nam, V S; Yen, N T; Holynska, M; Reid, J W; Kay, B H

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the process of expanding a successful dengue control program in 3 provinces in northern Vietnam into a national one and demonstrates the presence of a rich, low-cost resource that could have similar applicability to other countries in the region. The cornerstone of the preventive strategy is larval control of Aedes aegypti (L.), the major vector, using predators such as copepods, Mesocyclops spp., aided by the corixid bug Micronecta quadristrigata Bredd, and fish in large water storage containers. From 1989 to 1998, 9 species of Mesocyclops (M. woutersi Van de Velde, M. aspericornis (Daday), M. ruttneri Kiefer, M. thermocyclopoides Harada, M. affinis Van de Velde, M. ogunnus Onabamiro, M. yenae Holynska, M. cf. pehpeiensis Hu, and M. dissimilis Defaye and Kawabata) were found in natural and artificial habitats in 26 provinces throughout Vietnam. The predatory capacities of 6 of these were evaluated in the laboratory. This indicated that daily consumption/killing averaged between 16 and 41 Ae. aegypti larvae per copepod. From detailed evaluations in 9 provinces, Mesocyclops spp. were surprisingly common in 8,413 artificial containers (concrete tanks, wells, ornamental ponds and in the south, large jars). Because of existing practices for washing and water transfer from ponds and lakes in Ha Tay and Ha Bac, Mesocyclops spp. already occurred in 60-100% of the water storage containers. When the relationship between the presence or absence of Mesocyclops and Aedes larvae in 5,111 containers was analyzed by the chi-square test, their distributions were significantly related, indicating control (odds ratio = 0.56). When 3,426 containers that did not contain Mesocyclops or fish were analyzed in relation to the distribution of Aedes larvae, those with Micronecta also had significantly less Aedes (odds ratio = 0.43). Therefore, this study demonstrates that there is an abundance of local Mesocyclops spp. in Vietnam that can be incorporated into specifically designed community-based control programs aided by Micronecta and fish.

  2. The effectiveness of Mesocyclops longisetus (Copepoda) for the control of container-inhabiting mosquitoes in residential environments.

    PubMed

    Soumare, M K F; Cilek, J E

    2011-12-01

    The cyclopoid crustacean Mesocyclops longisetus was evaluated for its predatory potential to reduce container-inhabiting mosquitoes in 5 suburban Florida backyards. Aedes albopictus, Ae. triseriatus, and Culex quinquefasciatus were the predominant species collected from containers. At an initial inoculation rate of approximately 120 copepods per container, M. longisetus populations eliminated resident mosquito larvae for a minimum of 14 wk in 30-liter plastic buckets and up to 29 wk in 0.4-liter ceramic flowerpots and 0.3-liter glass jars depending on species. Copepod populations generally peaked 13 wk after introduction (August) in ceramic flowerpots and glass jars and about 1 month later in tires, plastic buckets, and plastic flowerpots. At the time of peak abundance, average predator numbers ranged between 900 (glass jar) to >3000 (30-liter bucket) individuals per container. Although all mosquito species were eliminated from all containers sometime during the 35-wk study, M. longisetus appeared to preferably prey on Aedes larvae compared with Culex. Operationally, the use of M. longisetus as a tool for control of container-inhabiting mosquitoes in urban/suburban settings proved to be relatively inexpensive, required little labor for colony maintenance, was easily transported, and easily applied.

  3. Field evaluation of Mesocyclops longisetus (Copepoda: Cyclopoidea) for the control of larval Aedes aegypti (Diptera Culicidae) in northeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Gorrochotegui-Escalante, N; Fernandez-Salas, I; Gomez-Dantes, H

    1998-09-01

    Field trials of the predacious copepod Mesocyclops longisetus Thiubaud were conducted in northeastern Mexico to determine the effectiveness of this species to control larval Aedes aegypti (L.) populations and to survive and reproduce in nature. Groups of 200, 50, and 50 ovigerous M. longisetus females were inoculated into 200-liter metal drums, discarded tires, and cemetery flower vases, respectively, which are 3 of the more important Aedes breeding sites in this area. Larvae were sampled at 15-d intervals, and total surviving cyclops were collected at the end of the study, 120 d later. Community participation was solicited through a simple training program on copepod rescue before drum cleaning and facilitated by the addition of a drum marker to remind residents of copepod presence. Results showed good cooperation and after 4 mo all peridomestic drums, still supported variable numbers of cyclopoids. Average of larvae reduction was 37.5% for drums, 67.5% for flower vases, and 40.9% for tires. This study shows difficulties of using cyclopoids for tires and vases in areas where prolonged dry seasons desiccated these habitats and reduced copepod survival.

  4. Integrated management of waste tire mosquitoes utilizing Mesocyclops longisetus (Copepoda: Cyclopidae), Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis, Bacillus sphaericus, and methoprene.

    PubMed

    Tietze, N S; Hester, P G; Shaffer, K R; Prescott, S J; Schreiber, E T

    1994-09-01

    This study evaluated the compatibility and efficacy of using a predatory copepod, Mesocyclops longisetus in concert with 3 "biorational" compounds for mosquito control in waste tires. The toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (B.t.i), Bacillus sphaericus, and methoprene to Mesocyclops longisetus was assessed in the laboratory using concentrations 10 times the maximum labeled or suggested rate and based on a water depth of 7.6 cm. Microbials were tested using mature copepods exposed for durations of 24, 48, and 72 h. Methoprene bioassays consisted of individually exposing newly hatched copepods (i.e., nauplius larvae) and monitoring their development to maturity. The toxicity tests indicated B.t.i., B. sphaericus, and methoprene were not deleterious to copepods at concentrations exceeding those expected in the field. Copepods exposed to methoprene matured normally, and when mated, 50% developed egg sacs. A 5-month field test, integrating the copepod and B.t.i., B. sphaericus, and methoprene provided better mosquito reduction together than either copepods or control agents alone. When copepods were combined with B.t.i. or methoprene, overall reduction of 3rd- and 4th-instar larvae during the 5-month interval was equal to or greater than 90%. Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis alone temporarily produced a high degree of larval reduction (up to 100%), however reapplications were necessary to maintain that level of control. Of all the treatments, B. sphaericus alone produced the lowest degree of mosquito suppression due to lack of toxicity to Aedes albopictus, the predominant species during the study. It is recommended that mosquito control managers consider integrating M. longisetus and B.t.i. or methoprene against mosquitoes in waste tires.

  5. Evaluation of Mesocyclops annulatus (Copepoda: Cyclopoidea) as a control agent of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Marti, Gerardo A; Micieli, Maria V; Scorsetti, Ana C; Liljesthröm, Gerardo

    2004-08-01

    We evaluated the potential of Mesocyclops annulatus as a control agent of Aedes aegypti in La Plata city (Argentina). Mosquito larval survivorship due to predation by these copepods was estimated at weekly intervals during the oviposition period of A. aegypti. Mean weekly A. aegypti larval survivorship in cylindrical plastic containers (12 cm height and 11 cm diameter) with copepods was significantly lower than in control containers. Furthermore, weekly larval survival was negatively correlated with M. annulatus adult density, and approximately 23 adult copepods/container would be a threshold density over which the weekly mosquito larval survivorship approached zero. The copepods were able to persist in all containers during approximately 100 days (in three of them until the end of the experiment: 155 days) without the resource represented by A. aegypti larvae. The predation and persistence observed suggest that M. annulatus is a potential control agent to be considered in biological control programs.

  6. Effects of Mesocyclops longisetus (Copepoda:Cyclopidae) on mosquitoes that inhabit tires: influence of litter type, quality, and quantity.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, E T; Hallmon, C F; Eskridge, K M; Marten, G G

    1996-12-01

    A 59-week study was conducted to evaluate the impact of adult Mesocyclops longisetus populations on larval mosquito species inhabiting tires. Greater than 90% reduction of number of 1st and 2nd instars was recorded by 4 wk with 90% reduction of number of 3rd and 4th instars after 7 wk. Reduced control was noted with the onset of cooler winter water temperature. Overall. a 52% reduction in the number of 1st and 2nd instars was achieved, and a 57% reduction was noted in number of 3rd- and 4th-instar mosquito larvae. Cooler temperatures resulted in a decline of adult Mesocyclops, which resulted in reduced larval control. Significantly greater numbers of Mesocyclops adults were collected in tires with either new litter or heavy amounts of litter regardless of litter type. Lastly, litter type, either oak leaves or pine needles, did not influence mosquito reduction or abundance of Mesocyclops populations.

  7. A new species of the genus Tegastes (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Tegastidae) from hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough.

    PubMed

    Back, Jinwook; Huys, Rony; Lee, Wonchoel

    2010-08-01

    We describe a new species, Tegastes okinawaensis, from 583-711 meter-deep hydrothermal vents in the Okinawa Trough, Japan. This species is clearly distinguishable from its congeners by four combined characters, namely 1) the last three abdominal somites are depressed inwardly towards the body, 2) there is sexual dimorphism in the number of setae of P3 and P4, 3) the male antennule is 9-segmented, with the 7th segment formed by incomplete fusion of two segments, and 4) the caudal rami are small with a distorted quadrangular shape. Additionally, the species is easily distinguishable from its congeners by the distal endopodal segment of P4, which is armed with six setae - this character has never been reported in previous descriptions of congeners. This report is the first of a species in the genus Tegastes living at ocean depths of greater than 580 m in the northwestern Pacific.

  8. Overlooked cryptic endemism in copepods: systematics and natural history of the calanoid subgenus Occidodiaptomus Borutzky 1991 (Copepoda, Calanoida, Diaptomidae).

    PubMed

    Marrone, Federico; Lo Brutto, Sabrina; Hundsdoerfer, Anna K; Arculeo, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Our comprehension of the phylogeny and diversity of most inland-water crustaceans is currently hampered by their pronounced morphological bradytely, which contributed to the affirmation of the "Cosmopolitanism Paradigm" of freshwater taxa. However, growing evidence of the existence of cryptic diversity and molecular regionalism is available for calanoid copepods, thus stressing the need for careful morphological and molecular studies in order to soundly investigate the systematics, diversity and distribution patterns of the group. Diaptomid copepods were here chosen as model taxa, and the morphological and molecular diversity of the species belonging to the west-Mediterranean diaptomid subgenus Occidodiaptomus were investigated with the aim of comparing the patterns of morphological and molecular evolution in freshwater copepods. Three species currently lumped under the binomen Hemidiaptomus (Occidodiaptomus) ingens and two highly divergent clades within H. (O.) roubaui were distinguished, thus showing an apparent discordance between the molecular distances recorded and Occidodiaptomus morphological homogeneity, and highlighting a noteworthy decoupling between the morphological and molecular diversity in the subgenus. Current Occidodiaptomus diversity pattern is ascribed to a combined effect of ancient vicariance and recent dispersal events. It is stressed that the lack of sound calibration points for the molecular clock makes it difficult to soundly temporally frame the diversification events of interest in the taxon studied, and thus to asses the role of morphological bradytely and of accelerated molecular evolutionary rates in shaping the current diversity of the group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A new species of Halicyclops (Copepoda, Cyclopoida, Cyclopidae) from a lagoon system of the Caribbean coast of Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Fuentes-Reinés, Juan M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Plankton samples obtained from the lagoon system Laguna Navío Quebrado, in northern Colombia, yielded male and female specimens of an undescribed cyclopoid copepod of the genus Halicyclops. The new species belongs to the highly diverse and widely distributed thermophilus-complex. It closely resembles Halicyclops clarkei Herbst, 1982 from Louisiana and Halicyclops bowmani Rocha & Iliffe, 1993 from Bermuda. These species share the same armature of P1-P4EXP3, with a 3443 spine formula and the terminal antennary segment with 5 setae. However, Halicyclops gaviriai sp. n. can be separated from both Halicyclops clarkei and Halicyclops bowmani by the morphology of the anal pseudoperculum, the proportions of the fourth antennulary segment, the length of the inner basipodal spine of P1, the P1EXP/inner basipodal spine inner length ratio and the length/width ratio of the caudal rami. This is the third species of Halicyclops recorded from Colombia and the first one described from this country. With the addition of Halicyclops gaviriai sp. n., the number of species of Halicyclops known from the Neotropics increases to 19. The regional diversity of the genus is probably underestimated. PMID:25561852

  10. A new species of Mastigodiaptomus Light, 1939 from Mexico, with notes of species diversity of the genus (Copepoda, Calanoida, Diaptomidae)

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Martha Angélica; Cervantes-Martínez, Adrián

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Mastigodiaptomus Light, 1939, named Mastigodiaptomus cuneatus sp. n. was found in a freshwater system in the City of Mazatlán, in the northern region of Mexico. Morphologically, the females of this new species are distinguishable from those of its congeners by the following combination of features: the right distal corner of the genital double-somite and second urosomite have a wedge-shaped projection, the fourth urosomite has no dorsal projection and its integument is smooth. The males are distinct by the following features: the right caudal ramus has a wedge-shaped structure at the disto-ventral inner corner; the basis of the right fifth leg has one triangular and one rounded projection at the distal and proximal margins, respectively, plus one hyaline membrane on the caudal surface close to the inner margin; the aculeus length is almost the width of the right second exopod (Exp2); and the frontal and caudal surfaces of the right Exp2 are smooth. Furthermore, the analysis of the COI gene of Mastigodiaptomus cuneatus sp. n. has revealed that Mastigodiaptomus albuquerquensis (Herrick, 1895) is its nearest congener, with 18.64% of genetic distance. A key for the identification of the known species of the genus is provided. PMID:28138275

  11. Occurrence of mitochondrial CO1 pseudogenes in Neocalanus plumchrus (Crustacea: Copepoda): Hybridization indicated by recombined nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ya-Ying

    2017-01-01

    A portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene was sequenced using both genomic DNA and complement DNA from three planktonic copepod Neocalanus species (N. cristatus, N. plumchrus, and N. flemingeri). Small but critical sequence differences in CO1 were observed between gDNA and cDNA from N. plumchrus. Furthermore, careful observation revealed the presence of recombination between sequences in gDNA from N. plumchrus. Moreover, a chimera of the N. cristatus and N. plumchrus sequences was obtained from N. plumchrus gDNA. The observed phenomena can be best explained by the preferential amplification of the nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes from gDNA of N. plumchrus. Two conclusions can be drawn from the observations. First, nuclear mitochondrial pseudogenes are pervasive in N. plumchrus. Second, a mating between a female N. cristatus and a male N. plumchrus produced viable offspring, which further backcrossed to a N. plumchrus individual. These observations not only demonstrate intriguing mating behavior in these species, but also emphasize the importance of careful interpretation of species marker sequences amplified from gDNA. PMID:28231343

  12. Diel vertical behavior of Copepoda community (naupliar, copepodites and adults) at the boundary of a temperate estuary and coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, A. M. M.; Pardal, M. A.; Marques, S. C.; Mendes, S.; Fernández-Gómez, M. J.; Galindo-Villardón, M. P.; Azeiteiro, U. M.

    2012-02-01

    Despite a growing interest in diel vertical migration as a research topic, there are few studies in southern European marine coastal systems. This study determined the main structuring hydrological and physical factors at different temporal scales in copepod assemblage distribution patterns. Seasonal, tidal, lunar and diel vertical migrations accomplished by horizontal movements were examined on the main copepod fraction of the Mondego estuary, Portugal. Seasonal samples were conducted hourly at the mouth of the estuary, during diel cycles (25 h), both over neap and spring tides, at the bottom and surface, using a 63 μm and 335 μm mesh size nets. Simultaneously, four sites inside the estuary were sampled during flood tide to evaluate and compare copepods species' distribution along the estuary. Species life cycles were also categorized. Spring-spring tide best expresses the stable part of copepod-environment dynamics. Acartia tonsa and Oithona nana were distributed mainly at the bottom during ebb tides. A clear resident estuarine performance was noticeable in O. nana proving the estuarine preferences of the species. Neritic species showed preferences by saline waters, whereas the resident species were found mainly at estuarine areas. Copepodites stages showed a similar distribution pattern as estuarine species, avoiding leaving the estuary. In contrast nauplii and Oithona plumifera showed higher densities at surface flood tides. Indeed, vertical migrations accomplished by horizontal movements were mainly influenced by depth and tidal cycles, whereas day and night were not ecologically significant.

  13. A new species of Pseudodiaptomus (Crustacea, Copepoda, Calanoida, Pseudodiaptomidae) from the Prasae River Estuary, Gulf of Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Srinui, Khwanruan; Nishida, Shuhei; Ohtsuka, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the calanoid copepod genus Pseudodiaptomus was collected from the Prasae River Estuary, Rayong Province, on the eastern coast of the Gulf of Thailand. This species is definitely assigned to the lobus species group sensu Walter (1986a). The female of the new species differs from other congeners in the elongate genital double-somite with a blunt process ventrally and the second urosomite about 2.54 times as long as wide. The male is also easily distinguished from other congeners by the structure of the right fifth leg. The present new species is a euryhaline species and occurred in brackish waters with salinity ranging from 0.7 to 23.3. Its breeding season may be from June to October, as indicated by the presence of egg-sacs. PMID:24146583

  14. A case of persisting massive infection of Scomberomorus commerson, a commercially exploited scombrid fish, with Cybicola armatus (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Pseudocycnidae).

    PubMed

    Helna, Ameri Kottarathil; Sudha, Kappalli; Aneesh, Panakkool Thamban; Piasecki, Wojciech; Anilkumar, Gopinathan

    2016-12-01

    During an extensive survey of fish parasites along the Malabar coast of India we observed exceptionally high or even massive infection of the narrow-barred Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus commerson (Scombridae), with parasitic copepods Cybicola armatus. Such infection has not hitherto been reported. The copepods occurred on the gills of its host and the infection persisted for many years (the survey lasted from January 2010 to July 2014). The overall prevalence was very high (95%); out of a total of 981 fish studied, 933 were infected, and the maximum intensity reached 42. The highest rate of infection (prevalence 99.2%) was observed in medium sized fish (36.0-79.9 cm). We found this parasite only on S. commerson even though we examined 81 fish species, including five of the family Scombridae. Interestingly, the parasite exhibits strict site specificity and microhabitat preference. A significant proportion of them was seen attached to pseudobranchs rather than to main gill arches. Significantly, the body size of the parasite was positively correlated with that of the host fish. Our SEM micrographs contributed new facts to this copepod's morphology by illustrating for the first time the ventral part of its cephalothorax, illustrating the nature of attachment, and by finding a new structure - a premaxillary pad. We demonstrated the haematophagous nature of C. armatus by finding and documenting the host's blood cells in the parasite's intestine.

  15. Pseudanthessius tortuosus Stock, 1967 (Copepoda: Cyclopoida) from the amphinomid polychaete Hermodice carunculata (Pallas) in the western Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Yáñez-Rivera, Beatriz; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2008-03-01

    The copepod order Cyclopoida contains mainly forms that have been found as symbionts of different vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. One of these groups is the family Pseudanthessiidae, found mainly on echinoderms but very rarely on polychaetes. In this contribution, we report and confirm the occurrence of the pseudanthessiid copepod Pseudanthessius tortuosus Stock, 1967 as a symbiont of the benthic amphinomid polychaete Hermodice carunculata (Pallas) in the western Caribbean. These specimens showed subtle morphological but important size differences with respect to the specimens from the type-locality in the eastern Caribbean. Data are provided on the sex-ratio, the distribution of the copepods on the polychaete body and the finding of pairs in amplexus. The position of the copepods on the body, mainly on the dorsal branchiae, rather than on the lateral ones, allows them to avoid the friction related to the displacement mechanism of the polychaete, involving the lateral branchiae. This is the first record of the species and the symbiotic association in the western Caribbean and in Mexican waters. It is also recorded herein for the first time in the US Virgin Islands, near the type-locality. Hitherto, P. tortuosus has not been recorded since its original description forty years ago. This finding supports the hypothesis that this copepod is associated to H. carunculata throughout the entire Caribbean Basin, but its relation with other amphinomids remains unconfirmed.

  16. A new species of Halicyclops (Copepoda, Cyclopoida, Cyclopidae) from a lagoon system of the Caribbean coast of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Fuentes-Reinés, Juan M

    2014-01-01

    Plankton samples obtained from the lagoon system Laguna Navío Quebrado, in northern Colombia, yielded male and female specimens of an undescribed cyclopoid copepod of the genus Halicyclops. The new species belongs to the highly diverse and widely distributed thermophilus-complex. It closely resembles Halicyclopsclarkei Herbst, 1982 from Louisiana and Halicyclopsbowmani Rocha & Iliffe, 1993 from Bermuda. These species share the same armature of P1-P4EXP3, with a 3443 spine formula and the terminal antennary segment with 5 setae. However, Halicyclopsgaviriai sp. n. can be separated from both Halicyclopsclarkei and Halicyclopsbowmani by the morphology of the anal pseudoperculum, the proportions of the fourth antennulary segment, the length of the inner basipodal spine of P1, the P1EXP/inner basipodal spine inner length ratio and the length/width ratio of the caudal rami. This is the third species of Halicyclops recorded from Colombia and the first one described from this country. With the addition of Halicyclopsgaviriai sp. n., the number of species of Halicyclops known from the Neotropics increases to 19. The regional diversity of the genus is probably underestimated.

  17. A new species of Hamaticolax Ho & Lin, 2006 (Copepoda: Bomolochidae) from deep water macrourids in the Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Pérez-I-García, David; Carrassón, Maite; Boxshall, Geoffrey Allan

    2017-02-01

    Hamaticolax resupinus n. sp. is described from specimens collected from the gill cavities of Coelorinchus mediterraneus Iwamoto & Ungaro and Coryphaenoides mediterraneus (Giglioli) (Gadiformes: Macrouridae) caught in the Western Mediterranean Sea at depths between 1,236 and 1,626 m. Hamaticolax resupinus n. sp. closely resembles H. maleus Oldewage, 1994, but differs from the latter by its smaller body size and in having a genital double-somite in the female that is markedly wider than the free abdominal somites and has strongly convex lateral margins. The new species is only the second bomolochid found on a macrourid host and is the first from depths in excess of 1,200 m. Hamaticolax resupinus n. sp. also represents the first parasitic copepod recorded from Coe. mediterraneus and only the third one from Cor. mediterraneus worldwide.

  18. Two new species of the deep-sea genus Parameiropsis (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) from the eastern central Pacific.

    PubMed

    Cho, Dae Hyun; Wi, Jin Hee; Suh, Hae-Lip

    2016-07-01

    Two new species of Parameiropsis are herein described that were identified from the Korean Deep Ocean Study (KODOS) in the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone, located in the eastern central Pacific. Parameiropsis kodosensis n. sp. is similar to P. magnus Itô, 1983 in two key respects: the presence of a distal seta on the syncoxa of the maxilliped, and the general features of its swimming legs. However, P. kodosensis can be differentiated from P. magnus by a higher length-to-width ratio of the caudal ramus (2.5:1 and 1:1 respectively), the setal number on the exp-3 of P1, and the exp and benp of P5 are separated in P. kodosensis, while they are fused in P. magnus. Parameiropsis tetraspinosa n. sp. resembles P. peruanus Becker, 1974 in the absence of a fused seta in the outermost spine on the endopod of antenna and the general features of the swimming legs. However, P. tetraspinosa can be distinguished from P. peruanus by a higher length-to-width ratio of the caudal ramus (3.9:1 and 2.3:1 respectively), the presence of a distal seta on the syncoxa of the maxilliped, and by its medially fused P5. In this study full descriptions and a comparison with previously described species are provided. Additionally, a key to females of Parameiropsis species is given.

  19. A new species of Zosime (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Zosimeidae) from shallow subtidal habitats in Korea, with notes on the genus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Guk; Jung, Tae Won; Yoon, Seong Myeong

    2016-07-06

    Zosime destituta sp. nov. is described from shallow subtidal habitats in the southern sea of Korea. The new species is similar to Z. valida Sars, 1919, but differs from it primarily by the lack of an inner seta on the third endopodal segment of the fourth swimming leg. Based on morphological comparison of female character states, the genus Zosime can be subdivided into three provisional groups, anneae-, incrassata-, and typica-group. These groups are distinguished from each other by differences in the antennule, antennary exopod, mandibular rami, armature of swimming legs, fifth leg, and caudal rami. In addition, Zosime incrassata bathybia Bodin, 1968 is removed from its synonymy with Z. incrassata Sars, 1910 and upgraded to species level. An amended key to all known species of Zosime Boeck, 1873 is given, along with a table of all major characters. The present study is the first report of the family Zosimeidae Seifried, 2003 from Korean waters.

  20. Complementary description of Ergasilus arthrosis Roberts, 1969 (Copepoda: Poecilostomatoida: Ergasilidae), a new parasite of cichlid teleosts in southeast Mexico.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-García, María Isabel; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    During a parasitological survey of the ichthyofauna of Lake Catemaco, a freshwater system in the Mexican State of Veracruz, the widespread copepod Ergasilus arthrosis Roberts, 1969 was recovered from two cichlid teleosts, Mayaheros urophthalmus (Günther) and Oreochromis sp. This is the first confirmed record of this copepod species outside of the United States and from Mexico; its finding as a parasite of cichlids represents an expansion of the known host range for this copepod. The local prevalence and intensity of infection of E. arthrosis was highest in M. urophthalmus. The infection prevalence of E. arthrosis on M. urophthalmus (60%) was higher than that known for other ergasilids on cichlids. Ergasilus arthrosis can be distinguished from its closest congener E. lizae Krøyer, 1863 by the morphometry of the antennary segments, the ventral ornamentation of the thoracic sclerites and by details of the antennulary setation, but also by its habitat and host preferences. Taxonomic illustrations and morphological details of the specimens examined are also provided together with comments on the variability of this species.

  1. Diel changes in vertical overlap between Cyclops strenuus (Copepoda; Cyclopoida) and its prey in oligotrophic Lake Toya, Hokkaido, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Wataru; Ban, Syuhei

    1998-06-01

    The vertical distribution of Cyclops strenuus and its prey, and the gut contents of C. strenuus were investigated at 3 h intervals over 24 h periods in the pelagic area of oligotrophic Lake Toya in May, August and October 1992. C. strenuus showed slight diel vertical migration (DVM) in May, but did not migrate and was always distributed below 15 m in August and October, the thermally stratified period. This suggests that the DVM is strongly influenced by the development of the thermocline, which the copepod may not be able to cross. Gut content analyses revealed that in Lake Toya it is omnivorous, and that the dominant prey are cladocerans and Filinia longiseta. The number of prey remains in the gut varied with time, and the diel changes did not follow changes in prey density that take the vertical overlap between predator and prey into account. We argue that very low prey density associated with the oligotrophic nature of the lake would mask the relationship between prey density and the number of prey in the gut of the predator.

  2. A new culture system for in situ observation of the growth and development of Eucyclops serrulatus (Copepoda: Cyclopoida)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung-Hee; Chang, Cheon-Young

    2005-01-01

    A practical and convenient method of rearing Eucyclops serrulatus in a microculture environment is described. A complete life cycle of E. serrulatus was maintained in a narrow space on a microscope slide glass on which a cover glass of 22 x 40 mm in size was mounted at a height of 0.8 mm. The culture medium was constituted by bottled mineral water boiled with grains of Glycine max (soybean). Chilomonas paramecium, a free-living protozoan organism, was provided as live food. Growth of nauplii hatched from eggs to the first stage of copepodite took an average of 7.7 days, and the growth of copepodite 1 to the egg-bearing adult female took an average of 20.1 days in the microculture cell with an average life time of 44.7 days. Continuous passage of copepods was successfully maintained as long as sufficient medium and food were provided. The microculture method enables an in situ microscopic observation on the growth and developmental process of helminth larvae experimentally infected to copepods as well as of copepod itself. Furthermore, it does not require anesthetization and, therefore, minimize the amount of stress exposed to copepods during the handling process. PMID:16340303

  3. A New Acanthocyclops Kiefer, 1927 (Copepoda: Cyclopoida) from Central Mexico with Comments on the Distributionof the Genus in Middle America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercado, Nancy; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Silva-Briano, M.

    2006-05-01

    A new species of Acanthocyclops Kiefer is described from central Mexico. It differs from its congeners by a combination of characters including mainly: 11-13 antennular segments, a spine formula of 3444 and modified setae on legs 2-4. The presence of a compound distal antennular segment is aberrant within the Cyclopoida. The new species seems to be related to Nearctic forms of the vernalis -robustus clade. Ancestors of this lineage probably reached central Mexico as a result of glaciation events and the new species is a remain of stranded postglacial populations; some of these forms were succesful in colonizing tropical lands. A key for the identification of the species of Acanthocyclops recorded in Mexico is included.

  4. Giselinidae fam. nov., a new monophyletic group of cyclopoid copepods (Copepoda, Crustacea) from the Atlantic deep sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez Arbizu, Pedro

    2000-12-01

    Four new species of Cyclopoida from deep-sea waters are described and placed in two new genera: Giselina gen. n. and Sensogiselina gen. n. The new genera and species belong to a new monophyletic group within the cyclopinid cyclopoids. A new name, Giselinidae, is proposed for this monophylum. The new family is characterised by the combination of the following characters: (1) tergite of leg 1 fused to cephalosome dorsally, but incompletely fused laterally, (2) absence of aesthetascs on ancestral antennulary segments XVI, XXI and XXV, (3) absence of antennary exopodal setae, (4) presence of only three spines on distal exopodal segment of leg 1, (5) absence of inner setae on first endopodal segments of legs 1-4, (6) outer terminal and distal inner elements of distal endopodal segment of leg 4 transformed into spines, (7) distal outer element of leg 5 exopod transformed into a spine, (8) leg 6 with only one seta, and (9) furcal setae I and III located on dorsal margin.

  5. [Cytophotometric determination of genome size in two species of Cyclops Lake Baikal (Crustacea: Copepoda: Cyclopoina) in ontogenetic development].

    PubMed

    Ivankina, E A; Alekseeva, A L; Omel'ianchuk, L V; Pal'chikova, I G; sheveleva, N G; Kiril'chik, S V; Zhimulev, I F

    2013-01-01

    Genome size of Cyclops in cells at early stages of cleavage (up to the 5th division) and in somatic cells were estimated by a static digital Feulgen cytophotometry in order to study the quantitative changes in DNA content during chromatin diminution. Our realization of the cytophotometric method was approbeted on five different digital-imaging systems in blood cells of four vertebrate species. In all cases, we observed a direct correlation of the obtained and known from the literature data on the genome size and a high reproducibility, which allows to use these systems in future work. We also optimized the conditions for DNA hydrolysis of both blood smears, and for two species of Cyclops from the Moscow population, as 30 min in 5 N HCl at 24 degrees C. Here we first revealed chromatin diminution in two endemic Baikal species of Cyclopoida: Acanthocyclops incolotaenia and Diacyclops galbinus estimated the extent ofchromatin diminution in Diacyclops galbinus as 95.5-96.2 %. Cytometric analysis of the third species, Mesocyclops leuckarti, did not reveal obvious chromatin diminution. We also optimized the conditions for DNA hydrolysis of both blood smear preparations, and for two species of copepods from the Moscow population, as 30 min in 5N HCl at 24 degrees C.

  6. A new genus and species of mesoparasitic ergasilid (Copepoda: Cyclopoida) from brackish water pufferfishes collected in northern Australian waters.

    PubMed

    Tang, Danny; Kalman, Julianne E

    2008-02-01

    A new mesoparasitic ergasilid copepod, Majalincola buthi n. g., n. sp., is described based on material collected from the gills of Marilyna darwinii (Castelnau) and M. meraukensis (de Beaufort) (Tetraodontidae) captured in brackish waters in northern Australia. The new genus is characterised by the presence in the fully-transformed adult female of: four tagmata (antennary, neck, postantennary cephalothoracic region and trunk region); a 5-segmented antennule; a trimerous leg 1 endopod; and a free exopod segment armed with two setae on the fifth leg. The establishment of the new genus is supported by the results of a cladistic analysis of Majalincola and members of its sister taxon.

  7. The reproductive effort of Lepeophtheirus pectoralis (Copepoda: Caligidae): insights into the egg production strategy of parasitic copepods.

    PubMed

    Frade, D G; Santos, M J; Cavaleiro, F I

    2016-01-01

    The reproductive effort of Lepeophtheirus pectoralis (Müller O. F., 1776), a caligid copepod, which is commonly found infecting the European flounder, Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758), is studied in detail for the first time. Seasonal variation in body dimensions and reproductive effort are analysed. Data for 120 ovigerous females, 30 from each season of the year, were considered in the analyses. Females were larger and produced a larger number of smaller eggs in winter, than during the summer. The relationship between egg number and egg size is similar to that recorded for other copepods exploiting fish hosts. Much of the recorded variation was also similar to that reported for a copepod parasitic on an invertebrate host, which suggests the possibility of a general trend in copepod reproduction. Overall, our results provide further support for the hypothesis that there is an alternation of summer and winter generations.

  8. Complete life cycle of a pennellid Peniculus minuticaudae Shiino, 1956 (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida) infecting cultured threadsail filefish, Stephanolepis cirrhifer

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Norshida; Ohtsuka, Susumu; Venmathi Maran, Balu Alagar; Tasumi, Satoshi; Zaleha, Kassim; Yamashita, Hirofumi

    2013-01-01

    The complete life cycle of a pennellid copepod Peniculus minuticaudae Shiino, 1956 is proposed based on the discovery of all post-embryonic stages together with the post-metamorphic adult females infecting the fins of threadsail filefish Stephanolepis cirrhifer (Monacanthidae) cultured in a fish farm at Ehime Prefecture, Japan. The hatching stage was the infective copepodid. The life cycle of P. minuticaudae consists of six stages separated by moults: the copepodid, four chalimi and adult. In this study, the adult males were observed frequently in precopulatory amplexus with various stages of females however, copulation occurs only between adults. Fertilized pre-metamorphic adult females carrying spermatophores may detach from the host and settle again before undergoing massive differential growth into the post-metamorphic adult female. Comparison of the life cycle of P. minuticaudae has been made with three known pennellids: Lernaeocera branchialis (Linnaeus, 1767), Cardiodectes medusaeus (Wilson, 1908) and Lernaeenicus sprattae (Sowerby, 1806). Among the compared species, P. minuticaudae is the first ectoparasitic pennellid to be discovered to complete its life cycle on a single host without any change in infection site preferences between infective copepodid and fertilized pre-metamorphic female. PMID:24165196

  9. Cymbasoma bowmani sp. nov., a new monstrilloid (Copepoda: Monstrilloida) from a Caribbean reef, with notes on species variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez-Morales, E.; Gasca, R.

    1998-06-01

    Cymbasoma bowmani sp. nov. is described from three adult females collected in a reef lagoon on the southeast coast of the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. The new species is very closely related to C. reticulatum Giesbrecht, but can be distinguished by the lack of cuticular reticulation in the cephalothorax and antennules, the relatively shorter antennules and cephalothorax, and the relatively longer urosome. A certain degree of variation was recognized between the specimens, this kind of variation having been previously detected only on larger geographical scales. Cymbasoma bowmani is the fifth species of this genus recorded in the Northwestern Atlantic.

  10. [The family Pontellidae (Crustacea: Copepoda) in la Ventosa Bay, Oaxaca, México: systematies and basic ecology].

    PubMed

    Alvarez Silva, Carlos; Miranda Arce, María Guadalupe; De Lara-Isassi, Graciela

    2003-01-01

    A study on ecological records of planktonic copepods from The Ventosa Bay, Oaxaca, Mexico is presented. Five species were identified: Labidocera acuta, L. lubbockii, Pontella agassizi, P. tenuiremis and Pontellina plumata. The most abundant species was L. acuta and their copepodite stages conforming the 95.7% of Pontellids, followed by L. lubbockii 4.09%; other species were less than one percent. The reproductive success of L. acuta is probably favored by its resistance to the changes in temperature and salinity, because of it is an eurytherme and euryhaline organism. Total density of this family was between 18 and 472 copepods/100 m3 in 1987 and 1988. Nevertheless in 1992 and 1993 the density was between 490 to 123,030 copepods/100 m3. This copepod density increment could be related local phenomenon (upwelling) at the beginning and end of the year.

  11. De Novo Assembly of a Transcriptome for Calanus finmarchicus (Crustacea, Copepoda) – The Dominant Zooplankter of the North Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, Petra H.; Roncalli, Vittoria; Hassett, R. Patrick; Wu, Le-Shin; Cieslak, Matthew C.; Hartline, Daniel K.; Christie, Andrew E.

    2014-01-01

    Assessing the impact of global warming on the food web of the North Atlantic will require difficult-to-obtain physiological data on a key copepod crustacean, Calanus finmarchicus. The de novo transcriptome presented here represents a new resource for acquiring such data. It was produced from multiplexed gene libraries using RNA collected from six developmental stages: embryo, early nauplius (NI-II), late nauplius (NV-VI), early copepodite (CI-II), late copepodite (CV) and adult (CVI) female. Over 400,000,000 paired-end reads (100 base-pairs long) were sequenced on an Illumina instrument, and assembled into 206,041 contigs using Trinity software. Coverage was estimated to be at least 65%. A reference transcriptome comprising 96,090 unique components (“comps”) was annotated using Blast2GO. 40% of the comps had significant blast hits. 11% of the comps were successfully annotated with gene ontology (GO) terms. Expression of many comps was found to be near zero in one or more developmental stages suggesting that 35 to 48% of the transcriptome is “silent” at any given life stage. Transcripts involved in lipid biosynthesis pathways, critical for the C. finmarchicus life cycle, were identified and their expression pattern during development was examined. Relative expression of three transcripts suggests wax ester biosynthesis in late copepodites, but triacylglyceride biosynthesis in adult females. Two of these transcripts may be involved in the preparatory phase of diapause. A key environmental challenge for C. finmarchicus is the seasonal exposure to the dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense with high concentrations of saxitoxins, neurotoxins that block voltage-gated sodium channels. Multiple contigs encoding putative voltage-gated sodium channels were identified. They appeared to be the result of both alternate splicing and gene duplication. This is the first report of multiple NaV1 genes in a protostome. These data provide new insights into the transcriptome and physiology of this environmentally important zooplankter. PMID:24586345

  12. A review of the Taeniacanthus balistae species group (Crustacea: Copepoda: Taeniacanthidae), with descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Tang, Danny; Uyeno, Daisuke; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2016-10-11

    The Taeniacanthus balistae species group is characterized by two displaced elements on an outwardly curved and elongated terminal exopodal segment of leg 4. Members of this group parasitize tetraodontiform fishes. The group is reviewed herein based on both new material collected from tetraodontiform fishes and re-examination of voucher specimens housed at the Smithsonian Institution, U.S.A. Five species are considered valid in this group, including two new species described here, Taeniacanthus dojirii sp. nov. from diodontid hosts collected from the Indo-West Pacific and Taeniacanthus ryukyuensis sp. nov. from balistid hosts collected from the Ryukyu Islands, Japan. Taeniacanthus dojirii sp. nov. differs from other members of the group by having in the female stout spines on the terminal endopodal segment of legs 2 to 4 and on the exopod of leg 5, as well as highly reduced setae on the last two exopodal segments of leg 4. Taeniacanthus ryukyuensis sp. nov. differs from other members of the group by having in the female 16-18 incomplete rows of spinules on the anal somite, minute teeth on the straight terminal claw of the maxilliped and well-developed spinulated flanges on the rami of legs 2 to 4. Supplemental morphological observations, as well as new host and locality records for Taenicanthus balistae (Claus, 1864) and Taeniacanthus similis Dojiri & Cressey, 1987, are also provided.

  13. Caligidae infestation in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer, Bloch 1790 cultured at different salinity in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Muhd-Faizul, H A H; Kua, B C; Leaw, Y Y

    2012-02-28

    The Asian seabass is euryhaline, therefore it is interesting to describe the infestation and survival of caligids at varying salinity on the host. In this study, two different brackish water culture systems with monoculture and polyculture practices were investigated for the occurrence of Caligus spp. on Lates calcarifer. Polyculture practices mainly consisted of snapper (Lutjanus spp.), grouper (Epinephelus spp.) and seabass (L. calcarifer), while the monoculture was stocked with only seabass. A total of 777 Caligus spp. specimens were isolated from the sampling in 2009, consisting of three species; Caligus chiastos, Caligus epidemicus and Caligus rotundigenitalis. In 2011, the total specimen was increased to 3110 and two additional species were found; Caligus punctatus and one unknown species (Caligus sp.). A 98.6% of the total examination was represented by C. epidemicus. Constant presence of C. epidemicus was observed throughout the study, regardless the differences in between culturing practices and systems. This species was able to survive within wide salinity range, from 5 to 28 ppt. The other isolated species (C. chiastos, C. punctatus, C. rotundigenitalis and Caligus sp.) were only found infesting in polyculture cages with the salinity ranging from 25 to 28 ppt. Despite accounts for less than 2% of the total specimens, these species may able to produce a challenge for L. calcarifer polyculture farming activity due to their capability for host switching. The present study revealed the potential risk for cross-species transmission in polyculture practices.

  14. Molecular profiles and pathogen-induced transcriptional responses of prawn B cell lymphoma-2 related ovarian killer protein (BOK).

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Mukesh Kumar; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Arockiaraj, Jesu

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we have reported a molecular characterization of the first B cell lymphoma-2 (BCL-2) related ovarian killer protein (BOK) from freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii (Mr). BOK is a novel pro-apoptotic protein of the BCL-2 family that entails in mediating apoptosis to remove cancer cells. A cDNA sequence of MrBOK was identified from the prawn cDNA library and its full length was obtained by internal sequencing. The coding region of MrBOK yields a polypeptide of 291 amino acids. The analysis revealed that MrBOK contains a transmembrane helix at V(261)-L(283) and a putative BCL-2 family domain at V(144)-W(245). MrBOK also possessed four putative BCL-2 homology domains including BH1, BH2, BH3 and weak BH4. The BH3 contains 21 binding sites and among them five residues are highly conserved with the aligned BOK proteins. The homology analysis showed that MrBOK shared maximum similarity with the Caligus rogercresseyi BOK A. The topology of the phylogenetic tree was classified into nine sister groups which includes BOK, BAK, BAX, BAD, BCL-2, BCL-XL, NR13 and MCL members. The BOK protein group further sub-grouped into vertebrate and invertebrate BOK, wherein MrBOK located within insect monophyletic clad of invertebrate BOK. The secondary structural analysis showed that MrBOK contains 11 α-helices (52.2%) which are connected over random coils (47.7%). The 3D structure of MrBOK showed three central helices (α6, α7 and α8) which formed the core of the protein and are flanked on one side by α1, α2 and α3, and on the other side by α4, α5 and α11. MrBOK mRNA is expressed most abundantly (P < 0.05) in ovary compared to other tissues taken for analysis. Hence ovary was selected to study the possible roles of MrBOK mRNA regulation upon bacterial (Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio harveyi) and viral [white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and M. rosenbergii nodovirus] infection. During bacterial and viral infection, the highest MrBOK mRNA transcription was varied

  15. Infestation of Lernaeenicus seeri (Copepoda: Pennellidae) and Hirudinella ventricosa (Digenea: Hirudinellidae) on wahoo Acanthocybium solandri collected from Parangipettai, southeast coast of India.

    PubMed

    Raja, K; Venmathi Maran, B A; Gopalakrishnan, A; Saravanakumar, A; Vijayakumar, R; Sinduja, K

    2014-09-01

    A commercially important fish, wahoo Acanthocybium solandri (Cuvier, 1832) (Scombridae), was collected to study the infestation of parasites from Parangipettai landing center, Tamil Nadu, southeast coast of India for a period of one year from January to December 2011. A total of 644 fish were captured and screened for parasites. Off 644 fish, 270 were infested by a parasitic copepod Lernaeenicus seeri Kirtisinghe, 1934 (Siphonostomatoida: Pennellidae) on the body surface. It is a mesoparasite, since the head and neck are inserted and attached to the muscle by making a wound/hole on the body and the rest of the parasite body with the egg sacs hanging outside. Prevalence was recorded as 42.29% with mean and maximum intensity at 3.22 and 33, respectively. Seasonal study showed that the prevalence was highest (62.82 %) during postmonsoon. Simultaneously, some of the fish (n = 144) were internally observed for the presence of parasites and we found that 101 fish were infested with an endoparasite digenean Hirudinella ventricosa (Pallas, 1774) (Hirudinellidae) in the stomach. Prevalence was recorded as 70.9%, and mean intensity of 1.62 and maximum intensity of 3 were also noted. The overall percentage of both copepod and digenean infestation were recorded as 60.42%. The infestation was high in postmonsoon season for both parasites. This is the first record of L. seeri from Indian waters and the second record of occurrence worldwide. Significant interactions were observed between season and infestation of both parasites (P<0.05).

  16. The abundance and distribution of Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Copepoda: Caligidae) on pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chum (O. keta) salmon in coastal British Columbia.

    PubMed

    Jones, Simon R M; Hargreaves, N Brent

    2007-12-01

    In total, 23,750 specimens of the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, were collected from 3,907 juvenile pink and 3,941 chum salmon caught within the Broughton Archipelago during a 2-yr survey. The prevalence on pink salmon was significantly higher than on chum salmon in 2004 (62.3% and 58.6%, respectively) and in 2005 (26.4% and 23.1%, respectively). The mean abundance on chum salmon was significantly higher than on pink salmon in 2004 (7.0 +/- 0.3 and 2.8 +/- 0.2, respectively), whereas in 2005 the mean abundance did not differ between species (0.6 +/- 0.1 and 0.5 +/- 0.0, respectively). The mean intensity on chum salmon was significantly higher than on pink salmon in 2004 (12.0 +/- 0.4 and 4.5 +/- 0.2, respectively) and in 2005 (2.5 +/- 0.2 and 1.7 +/- 0.1, respectively). The prevalence, intensity, and abundance of L. salmonis were significantly higher on salmon belonging to both host species in 2004 compared with 2005. In both years, a majority of pink and chum salmon had 2 or fewer lice. In general, a decline in abundance of L. salmonis over the 3 collection periods in each year coincided with an increased percentage of motile developmental stages. The abundance was lowest on fish collected from zones in which the seawater surface salinity was also lowest. Seawater surface temperature was higher and salinity was lower in 2004 compared with 2005. The spatial and temporal trends in the abundance of L. salmonis in relation to host size, infestation rates, and seawater salinity and temperature, evident in both years, must be considered in future studies assessing the role of farmed salmon in the epizootiology of this parasite on juvenile salmon in this area.

  17. Redescription of two Pennellids (Copepoda, Siphonostomatoida) from Korea with a key to species of Peniculus von Nordmann, 1832

    PubMed Central

    Maran, B. A. Venmathi; Moon, Seong Yong; Oh, Sung-Yong; Ho Young Soh; Myoung,  Jung-Goo

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Redescriptions of two pennellid copepods, Peniculus minuticaudae Shiino, 1956 and Peniculus truncatus Shiino, 1956, are provided, based on postmetamorphic adult females collected from marine ranched fishes captured at Tongyeong marine living resources research & conservation center, Korea. Peniculus minuticaudae was collected from the soft fin rays of black scraper Thamnaconus modestus. It can be distinguished from the other two closely related congeners Peniculus ostraciontis Yamaguti, 1939 and Peniculus truncatus by having a well developed triangular-shaped abdomen; the abdomen is rudimentary in other two species. This is thefirst report of the occurrence of Peniculus minuticaudae in Korea. Peniculus truncatus was collected from the dorsal fin of Korean rockfish Sebastes schlegelii. It can be distinguished from Peniculus minuticaudae by the combination of a rudimentary abdomen, long neck and setae on leg 1 and from Peniculus ostraciontis by the long neck, slender trunk, and setae on leg 1. It is also shown that Peniculus truncatus captured from the same host in Korea was misidentified as Peniculus ostraciontis and hence, this is thesecond record of the occurrence of Peniculus truncatus in Korea. A key is provided for the 14 nominal species of Peniculus. PMID:23372416

  18. Temperature-induced changes in fatty acid dynamics of the intertidal grazer Platychelipus littoralis (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida): Insights from a short-term feeding experiment.

    PubMed

    Werbrouck, Eva; Van Gansbeke, Dirk; Vanreusel, Ann; Mensens, Christoph; De Troch, Marleen

    2016-04-01

    Dietary lipids, and in particular the essential fatty acids (EFA), EPA (20:5ω3) and DHA (22:6ω3), guarantee the well-being of animals and are recognized for their potential bottom-up control on animal populations. They are introduced in marine ecosystems through primary producers and when grazed upon, they are consumed, incorporated or modified by first-level consumers. As the availability of EFA in the ecosystem is affected by ambient temperature, the predicted rise in ocean temperature might alter the availability of these EFA at the basis of marine food webs. Despite the FA bioconversion capacity of certain benthic copepod species, their lipid (FA) response to varying temperatures is understudied. Therefore, the temperate, intertidal copepod Platychelipus littoralis was offered a mono and mixed diatom diet at 4, 15 °C (normal range) and at 24 °C (elevated temperature) to investigate the combined effects of temperature and resource availability on its FA content and composition. P. littoralis showed a flexible thermal acclimation response. Cold exposure increased the degree of FA unsaturation and the EPA%, and induced a shift towards shorter chain FA in the copepod's membranes. Furthermore, a mixed diet reduced the impact of heat stress on the copepod's membrane FA composition. Temperature affected the trophic transfer of EPA and DHA differently. While dietary resources could fully compensate for the temperature effects on total lipid and EPA content in the copepods, no such counterweigh was observed for the DHA dynamics. Heat stress lowered the DHA concentration in copepods regardless of the resources available and this implies negative effects for higher trophic levels.

  19. An annotated list of parasites (Isopoda, Copepoda, Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda and Nematoda) collected in groupers (Serranidae, Epinephelinae) in New Caledonia emphasizes parasite biodiversity in coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Justine, Jean-Lou; Beveridge, Ian; Boxshall, Geoffrey A; Bray, Rod A; Moravec, Frantisek; Trilles, Jean-Paul; Whittington, Ian D

    2010-11-01

    Abstract: Over a 7-year period, parasites have been collected from 28 species of groupers (Serranidae, Epinephelinae) in the waters off New Caledonia. Host-parasite and parasite-host lists are provided, with a total of 337 host-parasite combinations, including 146 parasite identifications at the species level. Results are included for isopods (5 species), copepods (19), monogeneans (56), digeneans (28), cestodes (12), and nematodes (12). When results are restricted to those 14 fish species for which more than five specimens were examined and to parasites identified at the species level, 109 host-parasite combinations were recorded, with 63 different species, of which monogeneans account for half (32 species), and an average of 4.5 parasite species per fish species. Digenean records were compared for 16 fish species shared with the study of Cribb et al. (2002); based on a total of 90 parasite records identified at the species level, New Caledonia has 17 new records and only seven species were already known from other locations. We hypothesize that the present results represent only a small part of the actual biodiversity, and we predict a biodiversity of 10 different parasite species and 30 host-parasite combinations per serranid. A comparison with a study on Heron Island (Queensland, Australia) by Lester and Sewell (1989) was attempted: of the four species of fish in common and in a total of 91 host-parasite combinations, only six parasites identified at the species level were shared. This suggests strongly that insufficient sampling impairs proper biogeographical or ecological comparisons. Probably only 3% of the parasite species of coral reef fish are already known in New Caledonia.

  20. A new anchialine Stephos Scott from the Yucatan Peninsula with notes on the biogeography and diversity of the genus (Copepoda, Calanoida, Stephidae).

    PubMed

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Martha A; Cervantes-Martínez, Adrián; Iliffe, Thomas M

    2017-01-01

    Surveys of the anchialine crustacean fauna of the Yucatan Peninsula (YP), Mexico, have revealed the occurrence of calanoid copepods. The genus Stephos Scott, 1892, belonging to the family Stephidae is among the most frequent and widely distributed groups in anchialine caves but has not been hitherto recorded from the YP. Recent collections from an anchialine cave in an island off the northern coast of the YP yielded many specimens of a new species of Stephos. The new taxon, S. fernandoisp. n., is described here based on male and female specimens. The new species is clearly distinguished from its congeners by the following characters: male left fifth leg with three terminal lamellae plus subdistal process, right leg with distal row of peg-like elements; female fifth leg with single long, acute apical process; genital double-somite with two rows each of 4 long spinules adjacent to operculum; legs 2-4 with articulated setae. The diversity of the genus shows regional differences; the Australia-Western Pacific region is the most diverse (eleven species), followed by the Mediterranean (seven species) and the Northeastern Atlantic (six species); only four species are known from the Northwestern Tropical Atlantic (NWTA). The morphology of the female fifth leg was examined to explore possible biogeographic trends in the genus; patterns suggest multiple colonization events in the highly diverse regions and a relatively recent radiation in the NWTA, characterized by anchialine forms. The introduction of stephid copepods in the region may be a relatively recent event derived from colonization of benthopelagic ancestral forms and subsequent invasion onto cave habitats. The new species appears to be linked to the strictly anchialine Miostephos.

  1. A new anchialine Stephos Scott from the Yucatan Peninsula with notes on the biogeography and diversity of the genus (Copepoda, Calanoida, Stephidae)

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Martha A.; Cervantes-Martínez, Adrián; Iliffe, Thomas M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Surveys of the anchialine crustacean fauna of the Yucatan Peninsula (YP), Mexico, have revealed the occurrence of calanoid copepods. The genus Stephos Scott, 1892, belonging to the family Stephidae is among the most frequent and widely distributed groups in anchialine caves but has not been hitherto recorded from the YP. Recent collections from an anchialine cave in an island off the northern coast of the YP yielded many specimens of a new species of Stephos. The new taxon, S. fernandoi sp. n., is described here based on male and female specimens. The new species is clearly distinguished from its congeners by the following characters: male left fifth leg with three terminal lamellae plus subdistal process, right leg with distal row of peg-like elements; female fifth leg with single long, acute apical process; genital double-somite with two rows each of 4 long spinules adjacent to operculum; legs 2-4 with articulated setae. The diversity of the genus shows regional differences; the Australia-Western Pacific region is the most diverse (eleven species), followed by the Mediterranean (seven species) and the Northeastern Atlantic (six species); only four species are known from the Northwestern Tropical Atlantic (NWTA). The morphology of the female fifth leg was examined to explore possible biogeographic trends in the genus; patterns suggest multiple colonization events in the highly diverse regions and a relatively recent radiation in the NWTA, characterized by anchialine forms. The introduction of stephid copepods in the region may be a relatively recent event derived from colonization of benthopelagic ancestral forms and subsequent invasion onto cave habitats. The new species appears to be linked to the strictly anchialine Miostephos. PMID:28769658

  2. A new species of Ergasilus Nordmann, 1832 (Copepoda: Cyclopoida: Ergasilidae) from Bryconops giacopinii Fernández-Yépez (Characidae) in the Vichada River Basin, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Muriel-Hoyos, Felipe; Santana-Piñeros, Ana María; Cruz-Quintana, Yanis; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2015-11-01

    A new copepod species, Ergasilus curticrus n. sp. is described based on 14 female specimens collected from the gills of the characid teleost Bryconops giacopinii Fernández-Yépez, captured in the Vichada River Basin in Colombia. The new species has a unique combination of characters including: (i) 2-segmented endopods in legs 1 and 4; (ii) a semi-pinnate, falciform seta on the terminal segment of the first leg exopod; (iii) a 1-segmented fourth leg exopod; (iv) a reduced fifth leg with a single seta; and (v) a circular structure fused to a groove near the lateral margins of the second pedigerous tergite. Only two other known congeners have a 1-segmented leg 4 exopod, E. coatiarus Araujo & Varella, 1998 and E. iheringi Tidd, 1942. Among other characters, they differ from the new species by the lack of a semi-pinnate, falciform seta on the terminal exopodal segment of leg 1 and in the structure and armature of the fifth leg. The prevalence of E. curticrus n. sp. was 13.6% and its mean abundance was 0.4 specimens per host. This is the first new species of Ergasilus Nordmann, 1832 described from the Orinoco River Basin.

  3. Spatial and temporal distribution in density and biomass of two Pseudodiaptomus species (Copepoda: Calanoida) in the Caeté river estuary (Amazon region--North of Brazil).

    PubMed

    Magalhães, A; Costa, R M; Liang, T H; Pereira, L C C; Ribeiro, M J S

    2006-05-01

    Spatial and temporal density and biomass distribution of the planktonic copepods Pseudodiaptomus richardi and P. acutus along a salinity gradient were investigated in the Caeté River Estuary (North-Brazil) in June and December, 1998 (dry season) and in February and May, 1999 (rainy season). Copepod biomass was estimated using regression parameters based on the relation of dry weight and body length (prosome) of adult organisms. The Caeté River Estuary was characterized by high spatial and temporal variations in salinity (0.8-37.2). Exponential length-weight relationships were observed for both Pseudodiaptomus species. Density and biomass values oscillated between 0.28-46.18 ind. m-3 and 0.0022-0.3507 mg DW. m-3 for P. richardi; and between 0.01-17.02 ind. m-3 and 0.0005-0.7181 mg DW. m-3 for P. acutus. The results showed that the contribution of P. richardi for the secondary production in the Caeté River Estuary is more important in the limnetic zone than in other zones where euhaline-polyhaline regimes were predominant. However, it was not possible to observe a clear pattern of spatial and temporal distribution for P. acutus.

  4. Three new species of Hatschekia Poche, 1902 (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Hatschekiidae) parasitic on boxfishes (Pisces: Tetraodontiformes: Aracanidae and Ostraciidae) in Japanese waters.

    PubMed

    Uyeno, Daisuke; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2010-02-01

    Three new species of Hatschekia Poche, 1902 are described from the gill filaments of three species of boxfishes captured off southern Japan: H. pseudostracii n. sp. on Kentrocapros aculeatus (Houttuyn) (Aracanidae); H. bibullae n. sp. on Lactoria diaphana (Bloch & Schneider) (Ostraciidae); and H. kuroshioensis n. sp. on Tetrosomus concatenates (Bloch) (Ostraciidae). Of the 93 currently valid species in the genus, these new species differ from the 87 species which lack four stout processes on the posterior margin of the intercoxal sclerites of legs 1 and 2. Those processes are present on the remaining six species and the three new species. Of these nine species, H. pseudostracii n. sp. is distinguished by having a T-shaped chitinous frame on the cephalothorax, the leg 1 exopod twice as long as the endopod and a small parabasal papilla. H. bibullae n. sp. can be differentiated by a combination of morphological features as follows: a well-developed, thumb-shaped parabasal papilla, the leg 1 exopod twice as long as the endopod and a trunk lacking posterior lobes. H. kuroshioensis n. sp. can be recognised by bearing a T-shaped chitinous frame on the cephalothorax, the leg 1 exopod is three times as long as the endopod and the trunk lacks posterior lobes.

  5. Species of Taeniacanthus Sumpf, 1871 (Crustacea: Copepoda: Taeniacanthidae) parasitic on boxfishes (Tetraodontiformes: Aracanidae and Ostraciidae) from the Indo-West Pacific region, with descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Tang, Danny; Uyeno, Daisuke; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2011-10-01

    Two new copepod species of the genus Taeniacanthus Sumpf, 1871 (Cyclopoida: Taeniacanthidae) are described from boxfishes (Aracanidae and Ostraciidae) caught in the Indo-West Pacific region: T. larsonae n. sp. from Ostracion nasus Bloch in the Arafura Sea and off Australia and Tetrosomus concatenatus (Bloch) off Japan; and T. thackerae n. sp. from O. immaculatus Temminck & Schlegel off Palau, O. rhinorhynchos Bleeker off Australia, Lactoria cornuta (Linnaeus) and Ostracion sp. off Japan, and Kentrocapros aculeatus (Houttuyn) in the East China Sea. T. larsonae n. sp. differs from its congeners by having several rows of spinules on the large pectinate process of the antenna and by differences in the shape of the sclerotised plates on the rostral area and structure of the maxilliped. T. thackerae n. sp. can be distinguished from its congeners by differences in the shape of the sclerotised plates on the rostral area, the structure of the maxilliped and ornamentation pattern of legs 1-4. Supplemental information for the female of Taeniacanthus ostracionis (Richiardi, 1870) and T. moa (Lewis, 1967), as well as the first description of the male of T. moa, are also provided based on new material collected from ostraciid hosts caught in the Arafura Sea and off Australia, Indonesia and Japan. The four taeniacanthid species reported from boxfishes exhibit variable levels of host-specificity and have broad geographical ranges within the Indo-West Pacific region.

  6. First record and redescription of Macandrewella cochinensis Gopalakrishnan, 1973 (Copepoda, Scolecitrichidae) from the Red Sea, with notes on swarm formation.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbiny, Mohsen M; Al-Aidaroos, Ali M

    2013-01-01

    During a study of the epipelagic zooplankton carried out near the fringing reef around Sharm El-Sheikh area, in the northern Red Sea, female and male specimens of the poorly known calanoid copepod Macandrewella cochinensis Gopalakrishnan, 1973 were collected. This is the first record of species occurrence in the Red Sea. Macandrewella cochinensis was previously known only from the offshore water of Cochin, south west of India. The Red Sea specimens are described in details herein to allow their comparison with the specimens from the type locality, because original description of M. cochinensis is incomplete and causes some taxonomic confusion. The most important characters that may have been overlooked in the original description are: shape of projections of the female distolateral prosomal borders, details of morphology of the asymmetrical female genital double-somite and presence of leg 5 in female.

  7. Lamproglena hepseti n. sp. (Copepoda: Lernaeidae), a gill parasite of the African pike Hepsetus odoe (Bloch) from the Okavango River and Delta, Botswana.

    PubMed

    van As, Liesl L; van As, Jo G

    2007-05-01

    During surveys of the biodiversity of fish parasites in the Okavango River and Delta, Botswana, specimens of Lamproglena von Nordmann, 1832 were found associated with the African pike Hepsetus odoe (Bloch). This Lamproglena species distinctly differs from all known species based on morphological features, in particular the cephalothorax and the maxilliped; it is described as L. hepseti n. sp. and is specific to its host, the African pike.

  8. On Kiefer’s American Eucyclops (Copepoda, Eucyclopinae): redescriptions and comments on the historical records of E. delachauxi, E. prionophorus, E. bondi and E. leptacanthus

    PubMed Central

    Mercado-Salas, Nancy F.; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The freshwater copepod genus Eucyclops contains many supposedly cosmopolitan species whose taxonomic status is still under discussion; some of them represent species complexes. The problem is not exclusive to these widespread species; there are several American Eucyclops needing a taxonomic re-evaluation. Based on the examination of Friedrich Kiefer’s collection in Karlsruhe, Germany, the type specimens of four American species of Eucyclops (E. delachauxi (Kiefer, 1926), E. prionophorus Kiefer, 1931, E. bondi Kiefer, 1934, E. leptacanthus Kiefer, 1956) were re-examined and redescribed using upgraded descriptive standards. Kiefer’s translated descriptions and unpublished original drawings of these species are also presented. Characters like the ornamentation of the antennal basis, ornamentation of intercoxal sclerites of the swimming legs 1–4, length of basipodal seta of leg 1, ornamentation of caudal rami, the presence of aesthetascs and modified setae on the antennules in male, and the structure of the male sixth leg are compared herein to aid a more accurate separation of these American species. A revision of the American records of these species confirms that some are likely to refer to undescribed species. Overall, the diversity of the American Eucyclops appears to be underestimated and certainly deserves further study. PMID:24843261

  9. The turbidity front as a habitat for Acartia tonsa (Copepoda) in the Río de la Plata, Argentina-Uruguay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derisio, Carla; Braverman, Mara; Gaitán, Esteban; Hozbor, Constanza; Ramírez, Fernando; Carreto, José; Botto, Florencia; Gagliardini, Domingo A.; Acha, E. Marcelo; Mianzan, Hermes

    2014-01-01

    Acartia tonsa is one of the most abundant copepod species in estuaries worldwide. In the Río de la Plata, its highest densities appear to occur in an area of low quality food (detritus): the turbidity front (TF). The objective of this study was to understand how trophic and oceanographic drivers contribute to the high densities of A. tonsa in the Río de la Plata TF. The patterns of spatial distribution and density of this species were analyzed in relation to oceanographic and biological attributes of the system. The egg production rate (EPR) in the TF was evaluated as a measure of fitness, and a stable isotope analysis indicated the possible sources of organic matter in the species' diet. This study confirmed that the highest observed densities of A. tonsa were mostly associated with the TF, where high suspended matter and low Chl-a occur. Immediately offshore from the TF, decreased copepod densities and the maximum Chl-a values were found. Females close to the estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM) had a lower EPR than those closer to the high Chl-a concentrations. Within the TF, A. tonsa apparently fed on detritus close to the ETM and phytoplankton close to the edge of the TF. The report includes a discussion of how retention processes, two layered flow and the life history strategy of A. tonsa could be contributing to the development of high densities (more than 10,000 ind m- 3) of this species in the inner estuarine zone, despite the poor quality of food available for development in that area. A. tonsa can live and prosper in areas with high turbidity and low chlorophyll concentrations. This trait exemplifies the plasticity of this species and helps explain why it is a key species in many worldwide estuaries.

  10. A new species of Ergasilus von Nordmann, 1832 (Copepoda: Cyclopoida) from the gills of a dasyatid ray, Himantura oxyrhyncha (Sauvage, 1878) from West Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Boxshall, Geoffrey A

    2016-10-11

    A new species of the cyclopoid copepod genus Ergasilus von Nordmann, 1832 is described based on material collected from the gills of an elasmobranch, Himantura oxyrhyncha (Sauvage, 1878), collected in the Java Sea off the coast of West Kalimantan, Indonesia. To justify the establishment of the new species, Ergasilus kimi sp. nov., detailed comparisons are made with the 28 congeneric species that share the combination of a 3-segmented leg 1 endopod and the presence of 2 setae on the free exopodal segment of leg 5. This is the fourth report of an Ergasilus species infecting an elasmobranch and it is concluded that each represents an independent colonization event of elasmobranchs as hosts.

  11. A new species of the rare endoparasitic copepod Entobius (Copepoda: Entobiidae) from Mexico with a key to the species of the genus.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Carrera-Parra, Luis F

    2012-09-01

    Abstract: In a study of the benthic polychaete fauna of the southern Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, several specimens of the terebellid polychaete Scionides reticulata (Ehlers) were found to host endoparasitic copepods that represent an undescribed species of the rare cyclopoid genus Entobius Dogiel, 1948. The new species, E. scionides sp. n., can be distinguished from its congeners by a combination of characters including a genital region without constrictions, three-segmented antennules, a reduced antenna with a blunt terminal process, reduced ornamentation of endopods of legs 1-4 and its relatively small size (2.3-2.7 mm). It is the smallest species of the genus. Comments on immature females are also provided, but males of this species remain unknown. It has a high prevalence (53%) in populations of the terebellid S. reticulata in the southern Gulf of Mexico, but it is absent from the Caribbean. This is the first occurrence of this copepod genus in the Americas. The finding of the new species of Entobius in S. reticulata confirms the strict specificity of most members of the genus and expands the host range of this copepod genus. A key for the identification of the species of Entobius is provided.

  12. Comparative evaluation of fecundity and survivorship of six copepod (Copepoda: Cyclopidae) species, in relation to selection of candidate biological control agents against Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Phong, Tran Vu; Tuno, Nobuko; Kawada, Hitoshi; Takagi, Masahiro

    2008-03-01

    The fecundity and survival of 6 copepod species were assessed under laboratory conditions in order to choose the best candidates to control the aquatic stages of dengue mosquitoes in the field. Females of all the 6 species (Mesocyclops aspericornis, Mesocyclops pehpeiensis, Mesocyclops woutersi, Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides, Mesocyclops ogunnus, and Megacyclops viridis) mated more than once. Multiple mating resulted in increased egg production. The reproductive ability and longevity varied among the species, and M. aspericornis had the highest values. The lowest values were observed in M. thermocyclopoides. Multiple mating of males of M. aspericornis was also observed. The paternal fecundity decreased with each additional mating. There was no difference in the paternal fecundity between the males that mated at low and high female frequencies. The sperm stored in the M. aspericornis females remained viable for 30 days after storage under moist conditions at 25 degrees C or 15 degrees C. This feature in M. aspericornis represents an additional positive factor indicating that this species is a good biological agent for controlling mosquito larvae, especially in domestic water containers that may dry intermittently.

  13. Descriptions of two new species of Rhizorhina Hansen, 1892 (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Nicothoidae) parasitic on tanaidacean crustaceans, with a note on their phylogenetic position.

    PubMed

    Kakui, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of nicothoid copepod are described. Rhizorhina ohtsukai n. sp. found on a leptocheliid (Leptochelia sp.) collected at depths of 151-136 m in the North Pacific Ocean is most similar to Rhizorhina aesthetes Boxshall & Harrison, 1988 but can be distinguished by the possession of a narrower body with a rounded anterior end, and in the position of the gonopores. Rhizorhina soyoae n. sp. found on an apseudid (Fageapseudes sp.) collected at depths of 1,595-1,557 m in East China Sea most closely resembles Rhizorhina tanaidaceae Gotto, 1984 but differs in having a narrower body with a rounded anterior end. Partial nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene were obtained from the two copepods in order to enable future barcoding. A phylogenetic reconstruction based on the 18S rRNA gene placed the copepods within the Siphonostomatoida Burmeister, 1835, with the nicothoid Choniosphaera maenadis (Bloch & Gallien, 1933), and separate from the Rhizorhina spp. clade, suggesting that the family Nicothoidae Dana, 1849 is not monophyletic. This is the third report of copepods parasitic on tanaidacean crustaceans.

  14. A new genus and family of copepods (Crustacea: Copepoda) parasitic on polychaetes of the genus Jasmineira Langerhans, 1880 (family Sabellidae) in the northeastern Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Boxshall, Geoff A; O'Reilly, Myles; Sikorski, Andrey; Summerfield, Rebecca

    2015-09-16

    A new genus and species of copepod, Jasmineiricola mackiei n. gen. et n. sp., parasitic on at least three species of the sabellid polychaete genus Jasmineira Langerhans, 1880 is described. The adult female is mesoparasitic, living with part of its body (the endosoma) embedded within the host and part (the ectosoma) protruding through the host's body wall. The endosoma consists of a well defined head region carried anteriorly on the trunk which has paired lateral lobes housing the ovaries. The head bears a rosette-like array of eight slender lobes, which are probably derived from the mouthparts. The only limbs present on the trunk are the subchelate maxillipeds positioned immediately posterior to the head. The ectosoma consists of a posterior genito-abdominal lobe bearing paired genital apertures. The male is unknown. The new genus cannot be placed in any of the five existing families of mesoparasitic copepods on polychaete hosts and is treated as the type of a new monotypic family, the Jasmineiricolidae. The new species occurs over a depth range from 19 to 279 m, and is widely distributed from UK coastal waters to Norwegian waters inside the Arctic Circle.

  15. A new genus of speleophriid copepod (Copepoda: Misophrioida) from a cenote in the Yucatan, Mexico with a phylogenetic analysis at the species level.

    PubMed

    Boxshall, Geoff A; Zylinski, Sarah; Jaume, Damià; Iliffe, Thomas M; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo

    2014-06-23

    A new genus and species of speleophriid copepod, Mexicophria cenoticola gen. et sp. nov., is described based on material collected from a cenote in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. It is characterised by relatively reduced fifth legs that are located adjacent to the ventral midline in both sexes, by the possession of a bulbous swelling on the first antennulary segment in both sexes, and by the reduced setation of the swimming legs. The presence of just one inner margin seta on the second endopodal segment of legs 2 to 4 is a unique feature for the family. A phylogenetic analysis places the new genus on a basal lineage of the family together with its sister taxon, Boxshallia Huys, 1988, from Lanzarote in the Canary Islands, and recovers the existing genera as monophyletic units. The zoogeography is discussed at local, regional, ocean basin  and global scales.

  16. Prediction of the protein components of a putative Calanus finmarchicus (Crustacea, Copepoda) circadian signaling system using a de novo assembled transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E; Fontanilla, Tiana M; Nesbit, Katherine T; Lenz, Petra H

    2013-09-01

    Diel vertical migration and seasonal diapause are critical life history events for the copepod Calanus finmarchicus. While much is known about these behaviors phenomenologically, little is known about their molecular underpinnings. Recent studies in insects suggest that some circadian genes/proteins also contribute to the establishment of seasonal diapause. Thus, it is possible that in Calanus these distinct timing regimes share some genetic components. To begin to address this possibility, we used the well-established Drosophila melanogaster circadian system as a reference for mining clock transcripts from a 200,000+ sequence Calanus transcriptome; the proteins encoded by the identified transcripts were also deduced and characterized. Sequences encoding homologs of the Drosophila core clock proteins CLOCK, CYCLE, PERIOD and TIMELESS were identified, as was one encoding CRYPTOCHROME 2, a core clock protein in ancestral insect systems, but absent in Drosophila. Calanus transcripts encoding proteins known to modulate the Drosophila core clock were also identified and characterized, e.g. CLOCKWORK ORANGE, DOUBLETIME, SHAGGY and VRILLE. Alignment and structural analyses of the deduced Calanus proteins with their Drosophila counterparts revealed extensive sequence conservation, particularly in functional domains. Interestingly, reverse BLAST analyses of these sequences against all arthropod proteins typically revealed non-Drosophila isoforms to be most similar to the Calanus queries. This, in combination with the presence of both CRYPTOCHROME 1 (a clock input pathway protein) and CRYPTOCHROME 2 in Calanus, suggests that the organization of the copepod circadian system is an ancestral one, more similar to that of insects like Danaus plexippus than to that of Drosophila.

  17. Discovery of the male of the rare caligiform copepod Kabataia Kazachenko, Korotaeva & Kurochkin, 1972 (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida), with a reconsideration of its phylogenetic affinities.

    PubMed

    Hutson, Kate S; Boxshall, Geoffrey A

    2016-10-11

    We report the discovery of the male of the rare caligiform copepod Kabataia ostorhynchi Kazachenko, Korotaeva & Kurochkin, 1972 on the gills of the type-host Oplegnathus woodwardi (Waite, 1900) captured in the Southern Ocean, off Australia. Light and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the unusual body plan of Kabataia Kazachenko, Korotaeva & Kurochkin, 1972, where only the first pedigerous somite is incorporated into the cephalothorax and the second and third pedigerous somites are fused to form a double-somite, visible both dorsally and ventrally. The adult female carries paired dorsal plates originating from the second pedigerous somite within this double-somite. In the male the second and third pedigerous somites are free and paired dorsal plates are present on the former. Kabataia exhibits sexual dimorphism in an unusually wide range of limbs. Most remarkable is the tubular extension from the exit pore of the maxillary gland at the base of the maxilla which reaches beyond the anterior margin of the mouth tube; this is present in the male only. Kabataia exhibits a functional articulation between the first and second pedigerous somites and thus lacks the diagnostic apomorphy of the family Trebiidae (incorporation of both first and second pedigerous somites into the cephalothorax). We propose to transfer Kabataia to the Pandaridae, since it shares the key synapomorphies of this family. Furthermore, we propose to transfer Innaprokofevnas Kazachenko, 2001 to the Dissonidae, which leaves Trebius Krøyer, 1838 as the only genus within the Trebiidae. The correct spelling of Philorthragoriscus Horst, 1897 is noted.

  18. Decline of Pseudodiaptomus hessei (Copepoda, Calanoida) in two water bodies located in the Senegal River hydrosystem (West Africa): Hypotheses and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Vera, Juana Mireya; Kâ, Samba; Cuoc, Corinne; Bouvy, Marc; Pagano, Marc

    2008-09-01

    Pseudodiaptomus hessei is a key species in many water bodies in the Senegal River hydrosystem but it became rare or completely disappeared from two ecosystems (Lake Guiers and Dakar Bango Reservoir; Senegal, West Africa) after major hydrological changes caused by human action, mainly impoundments on the river in 1985, and the opening of a new estuary mouth in 2003. Kâ et al. [Kâ, S., Pagano, M., Ba, N., Bouvy, M., Leboulanger, C., Arfi, R., Thiaw, O.T., Ndour, E.H.M., Corbin, D., Defaye, D., Cuoc, C., Kouassi, E., 2006. Zooplankton distribution related to environmental factors and phytoplankton in a shallow tropical lake (Lake Guiers, Senegal, West Africa). International Review of Hydrobiology 91(5), 389-405] put forward several hypotheses to explain the reasons for this decline: salinity and chemical changes in the water, predation by a cyclopid predator Mesocyclops ogunnus and/or the inhibiting effects of cyanobacteria and/or diatoms (allelopathy). This study assessed these hypotheses by studying the distribution of P. hessei in 13 stations (including the Dakar Bango reservoir and Lake Guiers) in relation to physical, chemical and biological (phyto- and zooplanktons) factors at each station. We produced a distribution pattern for this species in the Senegal River hydrosystem. Rank correlations and principal component analysis showed that P. hessei was not correlated with conductivity but was positively correlated with pH and alkalinity, suggesting chemical effects. The clear association with two filamentous cyanobacteria ( Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and Anabaena sp.) did not appear to support the hypothesis of cyanobacteria inhibition but blooming conditions were never encountered during the study. Negative correlation with diatoms (especially with Fragilaria sp.) suggested that aldehyde producing diatoms had a negative effect. Negative correlations with cyclopids such as Mesocyclops supported the hypothesis of cyclopid predation to explain the decline of P. hessei. This study proposes several lines of research for future studies to test these hypotheses.

  19. Response of abyssal Copepoda Harpacticoida (Crustacea) and other meiobenthos to an artificial disturbance and its bearing on future mining for polymetallic nodules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahnert, Ahmed; Schriever, Gerd

    Long-term effects of an anthropogenic physical disturbance on the Harpacticoida taxocene at a deep-sea site were investigated during the course of the disturbance and recolonization (DISCOL) experiment in a manganese nodule area in the southeastern Pacific. Nineteen harpacticoid copepod families were found, contributing 9-12% to the metazoan meiofauna of the experimental area (Nematoda 72-80%). Twelve families occurred in sufficient numbers to be considered representatively sampled. Dominant are the Ameiridae (17%) followed by Ectinosomatidae, Argestidae, Tisbidae, Neobradyidae, Diosaccidae, Paranannopidae, Paramesochridae, Canthocamptidae, Cletodidae, Thalestridae and Huntemanniidae. These families are mainly distributed at random. Basic data on developmental stage composition and sex ratio of total Harpacticoida as well as vertical distribution of harpacticoid families in the sediment column are provided. Within the overall aim of the experiment, which was to assess the ecological risks of future deep-sea manganese nodule mining, we conducted multivariate community analyses based on the familial composition of the Harpacticoida assemblages immediately before and after experimental impact as well as seven years later. We were not able to detect a community response at the family level immediately after impact. An identification of the Tisbidae to species, however, revealed initial disturbance effects. After seven years we found significant differences in the assemblage composition of the directly disturbed portions of the experimental area and the secondarily disturbed areas in between, which to some extent had received blanketing from sediment plumes created during the experimental disturbance. Best discriminating families for long-term effects are the Ameiridae, Argestidae and Thalestridae. Their potential value as indicator taxa for monitoring disturbances in the deep sea is discussed, including some considerations on a cost-effective design of such monitoring programs that would include the meiofaunal Harpacticoida.

  20. Prediction of the protein components of a putative Calanus finmarchicus (Crustacea, Copepoda) circadian signaling system using a de novo assembled transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Christie, Andrew E.; Fontanilla, Tiana M.; Nesbit, Katherine T.; Lenz, Petra H.

    2013-01-01

    Diel vertical migration and seasonal diapause are critical life history events for the copepod Calanus finmarchicus. While much is known about these behaviors phenomenologically, little is known about their molecular underpinnings. Recent studies in insects suggest that some circadian genes/proteins also contribute to the establishment of seasonal diapause. Thus, it is possible that in Calanus these distinct timing regimes share some genetic components. To begin to address this possibility, we used the well-established Drosophila melanogaster circadian system as a reference for mining clock transcripts from a 200,000+ sequence Calanus transcriptome; the proteins encoded by the identified transcripts were also deduced and characterized. Sequences encoding homologs of the Drosophila core clock proteins CLOCK, CYCLE, PERIOD and TIMELESS were identified, as was one encoding CRYPTOCHROME 2, a core clock protein in ancestral insect systems, but absent in Drosophila. Calanus transcripts encoding proteins known to modulate the Drosophila core clock were also identified and characterized, e.g. CLOCKWORK ORANGE, DOUBLETIME, SHAGGY and VRILLE. Alignment and structural analyses of the deduced Calanus proteins with their Drosophila counterparts revealed extensive sequence conservation, particularly in functional domains. Interestingly, reverse BLAST analyses of these sequences against all arthropod proteins typically revealed non-Drosophila isoforms to be most similar to the Calanus queries. This, in combination with the presence of both CRYPTOCHROME 1 (a clock input pathway protein) and CRYPTOCHROME 2 in Calanus, suggests that the organization of the copepod circadian system is an ancestral one, more similar to that of insects like Danaus plexippus than to that of Drosophila. PMID:23727418

  1. Feeding of Acartia clausi and Pseudodiaptomus hessei (Copepoda: Calanoida) on natural particles in a tropical lagoon (Ebrié, Côte d'Ivoire)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagano, M.; Kouassi, E.; Saint-Jean, L.; Arfi, R.; Bouvy, M.

    2003-03-01

    Grazing of the copepods Acartia clausi and Pseudodiaptomus hessei on natural particles was studied from on board experiments during several 24 h time series performed between 1993 and 1997 in four sites of the Ebrié Lagoon (Côte d'Ivoire). Ingestion rates of both species increased linearly with food concentration until a concentration threshold (5.5×10 9 μm 3 l -1 for A. clausi and 5.2×10 9 mm 3 l -1 for P. hessei) beyond which the relation presented a plateau. Both species poorly selected the peak of available particles (range 3-6 mm equivalent spherical diameter, ESD) but A. clausi seek preferentially smaller particles (6-21 μm ESD) than P. hessei (9-33 μm ESD). When the proportion of the preferred particles in the food offered decreased, A. clausi extended its selectivity towards both smaller and larger particles whereas P. hessei extended its selectivity towards larger particles only. As a consequence of these patterns, the useful particle concentration (UPC) was higher for A. clausi than for P. hessei. In addition, the ratio of the UPC for the two species showed a positive relationship with the ratio of their respective biomass. The significance of these results for the adaptation capacities of the two species and for the ecosystem functioning are discussed. A. clausi which is more suited than P. hessei to exploit smaller particles (3-6 μm) which dominate the seston, has a food competitive advantage. The inadequacy between the seston food-size composition and the selective patterns of the two main zooplankton species of the Ebrié Lagoon explains that they could be food limited despite the high trophic level of the lagoon. It could also partly explain the low transfer efficiency between phytoplankton and zooplankton in this ecosystem.

  2. Effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations on early developmental stages of the marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus Gunnerus (Copepoda: Calanoidae).

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Sindre Andre; Våge, Vegard Thorset; Olsen, Anders Johny; Hammer, Karen Marie; Altin, Dag

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification poses an ongoing threat to marine organisms, and early life stages are believed to be particularly sensitive. The boreal calanoid copepod Calanus finmarchicus seasonally dominates the standing stock of zooplankton in the northern North Sea and North Atlantic, and due to its size and abundance is considered an ecological key species linking energy from primary producers to higher trophic levels. To examine whether the early stages of C. finmarchicus are particularly vulnerable to elevated levels of CO2, eggs and nauplii were subjected to different levels of CO2-acidified seawater for 1 wk. The first experiment, with eggs as the starting point, revealed no marked effect on hatching success, but a significant reduction in nauplii survival during incubation at 8800 ppm CO2. In addition, a significant decrease in ontogenetic development rate during incubation at 8800 ppm CO2 was observed in this experiment. In the second experiment, where third-stage nauplii represented the starting point, no significant effects on ontogenetic development and survival following exposure to pCO2 ≥ 7700 ppm were observed. Data suggest that the two first nauplii stages, which are fed endogenously, may be more vulnerable and therefore likely to represent the "bottleneck" for this species in a more acidic ocean. However, the absence of significant effects in the most sensitive stages during exposure to 2800 ppm CO2, a level that is well above worst-case scenario predictions for year 2300 (approximately 2000 ppm CO2), suggests that this species may be generally robust to direct effects of ocean acidification.

  3. Vertical Migrations and Feeding Rhythms of Acartia clausi and Pseudodiaptomus hessei (Copepoda: Calanoida) in a Tropical Lagoon (Ebrié, Côte d'Ivoire)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouassi, E.; Pagano, M.; Saint-Jean, L.; Arfi, R.; Bouvy, M.

    2001-06-01

    Diel changes in vertical distribution and gut pigment contents of Acartia clausi and Pseudodiaptomus hessei were studied during several 24-h time series performed between 1993 and 1997 in four sites of the Ebrié Lagoon (Côte d'Ivoire). The sites differed by their morphology and their hydrological structure and by the vertical distribution of chlorophyll biomass. Both species showed classical diel vertical migrations (DVM). Copepodites and adult stages of P. hessei were almost benthic during the day and evenly distributed through the water column at night. The amplitude of DVM of A. clausi increased from copepodites I-III to adults. Copepodites and adults of A. clausi increased significantly their gut fluorescence at night, whereas those of P. hessei showed no clear diel feeding rhythm (DFR). These results suggest that A. clausi feed mostly at night on phytoplanktonic particles and P. hessei feed mostly on benthic algal particles during the day and on sestonic particles at night. No relationship was observed between DFR and DVM because both patterns occurred when food was either vertically homogeneous or vertically stratified. The daily average gut fluorescence of A. clausi increased with ambient chlorophyll concentration until around 12-15 μg l -1, whereas no relationship was found for P. hessei. The implication of these patterns on the adaptation capacities and the behaviour of the two species are discussed. The DVM of P. hessei should explain its rarity in the estuarine area. The comparison of our results with previous ones suggests an evolution of A. clausi DFR between 1981-1982 and 1996-1997, in relation to an intensification of eutrophication.

  4. Peptidergic signaling in Calanus finmarchicus (Crustacea, Copepoda): in silico identification of putative peptide hormones and their receptors using a de novo assembled transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E; Roncalli, Vittoria; Wu, Le-Shin; Ganote, Carrie L; Doak, Thomas; Lenz, Petra H

    2013-06-15

    The copepod Calanus finmarchicus is the most abundant zooplankton species in the North Atlantic. While the life history of this crustacean is well studied, little is known about its peptidergic signaling systems despite the fact that these pathways are undoubtedly important components of its physiological/behavioral control systems. Here we have generated and used a de novo assembled transcriptome for C. finmarchicus (206,041 sequences in total) to identify peptide precursor proteins and receptors. Using known protein queries, 34 transcripts encoding peptide preprohormones and 18 encoding peptide receptors were identified. Using a combination of online software programs and homology to known arthropod isoforms, 148 mature peptides were predicted from the deduced precursors, including members of the allatostatin-A, allatostatin-B, allatostatin-C, bursicon, crustacean cardioactive peptide (CCAP), crustacean hyperglycemic hormone, diuretic hormone 31 (DH31), diuretic hormone 44 (DH44), FMRFamide-like peptide (myosuppressin, neuropeptide F [NPF] and extended FL/IRFamide subfamilies), leucokinin, neuroparsin, orcokinin, orcomyotropin, periviscerokinin, RYamide and tachykinin-related peptide (TRP) families. The identified receptors included ones for allatostatin-A, allatostatin-C, bursicon, CCAP, DH31, DH44, ecdysis-triggering hormone, NPF, short NPF, FMRFamide, insulin-like peptide, leucokinin, periviscerokinin, pigment dispersing hormone, and TRP. Developmental profiling of the identified transcripts in embryos, early nauplii, late nauplii, early copepodites, late copepodites, and adult females was also undertaken, with all showing the highest expression levels in the naupliar and copepodite stages. Collectively, these data radically expand the catalog of known C. finmarchicus peptidergic signaling proteins and provide a foundation for experiments directed at understanding the physiological roles served by them in this species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Laboratory and field studies of Macrocyclops albidus (Crustacea: Copepoda) for biological control of mosquitoes in artificial containers in a subtropical environment.

    PubMed

    Rey, Jorge R; O'Connell, Sheila; Suárez, Silvia; Menéndez, Zulema; Lounibos, L Philip; Byer, Gracie

    2004-06-01

    The cyclopoid copepod Macrocyclops albidus (Jurine) was tested as a potential biological control agent of mosquitoes in laboratory microcosms, in controlled field conditions, and in a 22-mo field experiment using discarded tires. The predator was highly efficient in controlling mosquitoes in all three settings, reaching close to 90% reduction in larval survival under field conditions and exceeding the recommended predation rates for effective mosquito control in laboratory experiments. The predator was most effective on 1-4-d-old larvae. Alternate food and habitat structure significantly influenced the predation rates on mosquito larvae. Once established, the copepod was able to maintain reproducing populations in the field for the duration of the experiments. However, the predator failed to establish populations at four of the experimental field sites. Two of the failures can be attributed to characteristics of the individual tires, such as leaching chemicals, whereas the other two were probably due to site-specific factors. This copepod species is a promising candidate for control of mosquito larvae because it is a widespread and highly effective predator that is capable of establishing and maintaining populations under a wide variety of field conditions. Additionally, M. albidus is relatively easy to culture, maintain, and deliver to the target areas.

  6. Diversity of insulin-like peptide signaling system proteins in Calanus finmarchicus (Crustacea; Copepoda) - Possible contributors to seasonal pre-adult diapause.

    PubMed

    Christie, Andrew E; Roncalli, Vittoria; Lenz, Petra H

    2016-09-15

    Calanus finmarchicus, an abundant calanoid copepod in the North Atlantic Ocean, is both a major grazer on phytoplankton and an important forage species for invertebrate and vertebrate predators. One component of the life history of C. finmarchicus is the overwintering dormancy of sub-adults, a feature key for the annual recruitment of this species in early spring. While little is known about the control of dormancy in C. finmarchicus, one hypothesis is that it is an insect-like diapause, where the endocrine system is a key regulator. One group of hormones implicated in the control of insect diapause is the insulin-like peptides (ILPs). Here, C. finmarchicus transcriptomic data were used to predict ILP signaling pathway proteins. Four ILP precursors were identified, each possessing a distinct A- and B-chain peptide; these peptides are predicted to form bioactive heterodimers via inter-chain disulfide bridging. Two ILP receptors, which likely represent splice variants of a common gene, were identified. Three insulin-degrading enzymes were also discovered, as were proteins encoding the transcription factor FOXO, a downstream target of ILP that has been implicated in the regulation of insect diapause, and insulin receptor substrate, a protein putatively linking the ILP receptor and FOXO. RNA-Seq data suggest that some C. finmarchicus insulin pathway transcripts are differentially expressed across development. As in insects, the ILP signaling system may be involved in controlling C. finmarchicus' organism-environment interactions (e.g., regulation of seasonal sub-adult diapause), a hypothesis that can now be investigated using these data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Functional characterisation of the maternal yolk-associated protein (LsYAP) utilising systemic RNA interference in the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) (Crustacea: Copepoda).

    PubMed

    Dalvin, Sussie; Frost, Petter; Biering, Eirik; Hamre, Lars A; Eichner, Christiane; Krossøy, Bjørn; Nilsen, Frank

    2009-11-01

    The salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) is an important pathogen in salmon aquaculture and a serious threat to wild populations of salmon. Knowledge of its basic biological processes such as reproduction is crucial for the control of this parasite and can facilitate development of a vaccine. Here, a novel yolk-associated protein, LsYAP, was characterised. Quantitative PCR and in situ analysis demonstrated that transcription of LsYAP takes place in the subcuticular tissue of adult females in the reproductive phase. LsYAP protein is transported and deposited in the developing eggs in the genital segment, where further processing takes place. The sequence characteristics, histological localisation and transcript regulation suggest that LsYAP is a yolk-associated protein. In addition, the use of RNA interference is, to our knowledge, demonstrated for the first time in a copepod. Treatment of adult females with double-stranded RNA led to lethality and deformations of offspring only. This result confirms that the LsYAP protein is produced in adult females but is utilised by the offspring.

  8. Laboratory evaluation of Acanthocyclops vernalis and Diacyclops bicuspidatus thomasi (Copepoda: Cyclopidae) as predators of Aedes canadensis and Ae. stimulans (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Andreadis, T G; Gere, M A

    1992-11-01

    Predatory effectiveness of two vernal-pool copepods, Acanthocyclops vernalis (Fischer) and Diacyclops bicuspidatus thomasi (Forbes), was assessed against cohabiting larvae of Aedes canadensis (Theobold) and Aedes stimulans (Walker) in laboratory bioassays. D. b. thomasi did not exhibit predatory behavior toward first instars, even when both organisms were confined in 35-mm wells for 7 d and alternative food sources were not available. A. vernalis did feed on early instars, but its effectiveness was significantly influenced by the presence of alternate food, the size of the container, and the size and age of the larval prey. Results strongly suggest that in a comparatively unrestricted natural vernal-pool habitat where an abundance of other food sources are available, neither copepod species plays a major role in reducing larval mosquito populations.

  9. Release of Mesocyclops aspericornis (Copepoda) for control of larval Aedes polynesiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) in land crab burrows on an atoll of French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Lardeux, F; Rivière, F; Séchan, Y; Kay, B H

    1992-07-01

    On Tereia Island, Rangiroa Atoll, 14,321 land crab burrows were treated with the copepod Mesocyclops aspericornis from January to June 1986, to control larvae of Aedes polynesiensis marks. In October 1987, the entire island of Tereia was retreated (17,300 burrows), and the neighboring island, Voisin, was left untreated as a control. From 5 to 15 mo after treatment, burrows with M. aspericornis contained an average of 2 Ae. polynesiensis immatures compared with 97 immatures from untreated burrows. Long-term larval control was successful in low-lying areas where burrows remained wet or were reflooded. Although there may have been other contributing factors, the major reason for lack of persistence of M. aspericornis in burrows over the entire island appeared to be poor resistance to desiccation. From all treated burrows in October 1987, M. aspericornis subsequently was found in 89.5, 39.1, and 24.1% of burrows sampled 5, 8, and 15 mo after treatment, respectively. The broad-scale results for Tereia indicated that there was no reduction of adult biting indices when compared with Voisin. Mark-release experiments on four occasions indicated that Ae. polynesiensis had a limited flight range and that the probability for interisland movement was low.

  10. Scanning electron microscopy of damage caused by Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides (Copepoda: Cyclopoidea) on larvae of the Dengue fever vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Schaper, Stefan; Hernández-Chavarría, Francisco

    2006-09-01

    Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne viral disease, whose main biological vector is Aedes aegypti. This mosquito colonizes tropical areas where the disease is endemic. The most obvious action against dengue is attacking its vector. Biological control appears to be an alternative approach, using natural enemies of the mosquitoes, such as predatory copepods. Thus, the morphological study of the damage caused by copepods is important to understand its predatory capacity. Twenty-five A. aegypti larvae were exposed to the copepod Mesocyclops thermocyclopoides and the damage caused by the copepods was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. The larvae showed damage mainly at the anal segment, the siphon and the abdomen; only three attacks to the head were observed. The size of the siphon might be of importance in determining whether or not a copepod will attack a mosquito larva.

  11. Point source inoculation of mesocyclops (Copepoda: Cyclopidae) gives widespread control of Ochlerotatus and Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) immatures in service manholes and pits in north Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Kay, B H; Lyons, S A; Holt, J S; Holynska, M; Russell, B M

    2002-05-01

    This study details the novel application of predacious copepods, genus Mesocyclops, for control of Ochlerotatus tremulus (Theobald) group and Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquito larvae in subterranean habitats in north Queensland, Australia. During June 1997, 50 Mesocyclops sp. 1 were inoculated into one service manhole in South Townsville. Wet season rainfall and flooding in both 1998 and 2000 was responsible for the dispersal of copepods via the underground pipe system to 29 of 35 manholes over an area of 1.33 km2. Significant reductions in Aedes and Ochlerotatus larvae ensued. In these habitats, Mesocyclops and Metacyclops were able to survive dry periods, when substrate moisture content ranged from 13.8 to 79.9%. At the semiarid inland towns of Hughenden and Richmond, cracking clay soil prevents drainage of water from shallow service pits where Oc. tremulus immatures numbered from 292-18,460 per pit. Introduction of Mesocyclops copepods into these sites during May 1999 resulted in 100% control of Oc. tremulus for 18 mo. One uninoculated pit subsequently became positive for Mesocyclops with resultant control of mosquito larvae.

  12. Three new species of Hatschekia Poche, 1902 (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Hatschekiidae) parasitic on Abalistes filamentosus (Pisces: Tetraodontiformes: Balistidae) from off Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Uyeno, Daisuke; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2009-11-01

    Three new species of the copepod genus Hatschekia Poche, 1902, H. lima n. sp., H. cylindrus n. sp. and H. sunaoi n. sp., are described from the gill filaments of a triggerfish, Abalistes filamentosus Matsuura & Yoshino, caught off the Ryukyu Islands, Okinawa, Japan. These new species share an unusual morphological character, i.e. four stout posterior spines on the intercoxal sclerites of legs 1 and 2. H. lima n. sp. differs from its congeners in having a robust inner lobe on the maxillule and leg 3 with a swollen basal lobe. H. cylindrus n. sp. is distinguishable from its congeners by having a cephalothorax fused to the trunk and a double-semicircular chitinous frame. H. sunaoi n. sp. is characterised by leg 3 with a swollen basal lobe and an oval cephalothorax.

  13. Control of aedes vectors of dengue in three provinces of Vietnam by use of Mesocyclops (Copepoda) and community-based methods validated by entomologic, clinical, and serological surveillance.

    PubMed

    Kay, Brian H; Nam, Vu Sinh; Tien, Tran Van; Yen, Nguyen Thi; Phong, Tran Vu; Diep, Vu Thi Bich; Ninh, Truong Uyen; Bektas, Ahmet; Aaskov, John G

    2002-01-01

    We describe remarkable success in controlling dengue vectors, Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse), in 6 communes with 11,675 households and 49,647 people in the northern provinces of Haiphong, Hung Yen, and Nam Dinh in Vietnam. The communes were selected for high-frequency use of large outdoor concrete tanks and wells. These were found to be the source of 49.6-98.4% of Ae. aegypti larvae, which were amenable to treatment with local Mesocyclops, mainly M. woutersi Van der Velde, M. aspericornis (Daday) and M. thermocyclopoides Harada. Knowledge, attitude, and practice surveys were performed to determine whether the communities viewed dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever as a serious health threat; to determine their knowledge of the etiology, attitudes, and practices regarding control methods including Mesocyclops; and to determine their receptivity to various information methods. On the basis of the knowledge, attitude, and practice data, the community-based dengue control program comprised a system of local leaders, health volunteer teachers, and schoolchildren, supported by health professionals. Recycling of discards for economic gain was enhanced, where appropriate, and this, plus 37 clean-up campaigns, removed small containers unsuitable for Mesocyclops treatment. A previously successful eradication at Phan Boi village (Hung Yen province) was extended to 7 other villages forming Di Su commune (1,750 households) in the current study. Complete control was also achieved in Nghia Hiep (Hung Yen province) and in Xuan Phong (Nam Dinh province); control efficacy was > or = 99.7% in the other 3 communes (Lac Vien in Haiphong, Nghia Dong, and Xuan Kien in Nam Dinh). Although tanks and wells were the key container types of Ae. aegypti productivity, discarded materials were the source of 51% of the standing crop of Ae. albopictus. Aedes albopictus larvae were eliminated from the 3 Nam Dinh communes, and 86-98% control was achieved in the other 3 communes. Variable dengue attack rates made the clinical and serological comparison of control and untreated communes problematic, but these data indicate that clinical surveillance by itself is inadequate to monitor dengue transmission.

  14. On Tetragonicipitidae (Crustacea, Copepoda) from the Channel of São Sebastiao, Brazil, with description of their nauplii and two new species of Phyllopodopsyllus.

    PubMed

    Björnberg, Tagea; Kihara, Terue C

    2013-01-01

    Phyllopodopsyllus iuanamai sp. nov. and Phyllopodopsylluspseudokunzi sp. nov. are described from specimens collected in the Channel of Sao Sebastiao (State of Sao Paulo, Brazil). The nauplii of P. iuanamai, P. pseudokunzi, P aegypticus Nicholls, 1944 are described, additional information is given on nauplii and morphology of the adult P. setouchiensis Kitazima, 1981, and on the nauplius of Laophontella horrida (Por, 1964). These represent first records of P. aegypticus and L. horrida in Brazilian waters.

  15. Two new stygobiotic species of Elaphoidella (Crustacea: Copepoda: Harpacticoida) with comments on geographical distribution and ecology of harpacticoids from caves in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Watiroyram, Santi; Brancelj, Anton; Sanoamuang, La-Orsri

    2015-02-16

    Elaphoidella thailandensis sp. nov. and E. jaesornensis sp. nov., collected during an investigation of cave-dwelling copepod fauna in the northern part of Thailand, are described and figured herein. The new species were collected from pools filled by percolating water from the unsaturated zone of a karstic aquifer in Phitsanulok and Lampang Provinces, respectively. Elaphoidella thailandensis, from Tham Khun cave, is distinguished from its congeners by the two-segmented endopod of pediger 1, the absence of endopod on pediger 4, and the setal formula 4, 5, 6 for the distal exopodal segment of pedigers 2-4. Elaphoidella jaesornensis, from Tham Phar Ngam cave, is distinguished from its most closely related species, E. namnaoensis Brancelj, Watiroyram & Sanoamuang, 2010, by the armature formula of the endopod of pedigers 2-5. The geographical distribution and ecology of Harpacticoida from Thai caves is also presented.

  16. Mesozooplankton assemblage and first record of Paracartia grani Sars G.O., 1904 (Copepoda: Calanoida) in the Western harbour of Genova (Ligurian Sea).

    PubMed

    Pane, Luigi; Boccardo, Simona; Mariottini, Gian Luigi

    2005-01-01

    Harbours are characterized by high pollutant charge and by the occurrence of well adapted and resistant species. This paper reports the results of an annual plankton survey (May 1997-June 1998) carried out in the western harbour of Genova (Ligurian Sea) and in its mouth. Plankton samples were collected by horizontal trawls using a WP2 net. Copepods were the bulk of plankton in almost all samples. Eight copepod species were recognized: Paracalanus parvus and Acartia clausi were the most abundant. The first record of Paracartia grani in the harbour of Genova is here reported; this species, which is known to occur in polluted harbour waters of the Mediterranean Sea and was found in semi-confined Mediterranean and Atlantic coastal areas, was dominant during October 1997. Also Clausocalanus spp., Centropages typicus, Oithona helgolandica, Oithona nana, Farranula spp., Eurytemora spp., Isias clavipes and Lucicutia spp. were frequently sampled. Among other zooplankters, cladocerans, ostracods and tunicates occurred frequently, while cnidarians, mysids and chaetognaths showed low densities. These results show the occurrence of a well defined harbour plankton and point out the differences between harbour and neritic plankton of the Gulf of Genova.

  17. A novel microhabitat for parasitic copepods: a new genus of Ergasilidae (Copepoda: Cyclopoida) from the urinary bladder of a freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Rosim, Daniele F; Boxshall, Geoff A; Ceccarelli, Paulo S

    2013-08-01

    An endoparasitic copepod is reported from the urinary bladder of a fish for the first time. Endoparasitic copepods on fish hosts are extremely rare and the impact of colonization of this novel microhabitat on the biology of the parasite is discussed. This curious association was reported from two different host families of Neotropical freshwater fishes, Erythrinidae and Cichlidae, collected from the Cristalino River, a tributary of the Araguaia River, in Brazil. The copepod is fully described using light and scanning electron microscopy. Urogasilus brasiliensis n. g., n. sp. represents a new genus and species of the family Ergasilidae and can be distinguished from other genera by its unique tagmosis, in which the fourth and fifth pedigerous somites and the genital double-somite are all fused to form an elongate trunk. The anal somite is the only free abdominal somite present. The pattern of leg segmentation is also unique, with legs 1 to 3 each having a 2-segmented endopod and leg 4 reduced to a single seta. The discovery of ovigerous female ergasilids in the urinary bladder of a fish is novel and this discovery represents a good model for further studies on the adaptations to an endoparasitic lifestyle. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Concordance between molecular and morphology-based phylogenies of Korean Enhydrosoma (Copepoda: Harpacticoida: Cletodidae) highlights important synapomorphies and homoplasies in this genus globally.

    PubMed

    Karanovic, Tomislav; Kim, Kichoon; Lee, Wonchoel

    2015-07-28

    Three new species of Enhydrosoma Boeck, 1873 are described from Korea, all found in muddy sediments in the sublittoral zone. They also all have a bifurcate rostrum, just like the type species of this genus, E. curticauda Boeck, 1872, and one recently described Korean representative, E. coreana Kim, Trebukova, Lee & Karanovic, 2014. These five species share a number of other morphological features, and mostly differ in details of integumental relief, caudal rami shape, and ornamentation of the male antennula. We aim to compare molecular and morphology-based phylogenies obtained for four Korean species of Enhydrosoma and two other members of the family Cletodidae: Geehydrosoma intermedia (Chislenko, 1978) from Korea and Russia and Stylicletodes sp. from Korea. Similar studies in other animal groups have helped to reevaluate the suitability of morphological characters for reconstructing phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic revisions, and the genus Enhydrosoma is considered to be polyphyletic and in urgent need of revision. We use partial sequences of the mtCOI gene for our molecular phylogeny and 32 non-additive characters for our morphology-based phylogeny. High congruence between all cladograms suggests that reconstructing phylogenetic relationships in this group of harpacticoids may be straight-forward, but highlights as homoplastic some morphological characters previously considered important for defining supraspecific taxa in this family. On the other hand, some characters previously overlooked in species descriptions show a significant phylogenetic signal. Even though there is no doubt about the monophyly of the Korean Enhydrosoma, their high average pairwise maximum likelihood distances suggest only a remote relationship, and explain their sympatry and/or parapatry. Weak bootstrap support for our basal nodes in molecular phylogenies shows limitations of a single-gene approach, and probably cannot be resolved without a wider taxon and character sampling. Wider taxon sampling will also be necessary to improve bootstrap values of basal nodes in morphology-based cladograms.

  19. Colobomatus kimi sp. nov. (Copepoda: Philichthyidae) parasitic in the dwarf goatfish Upeneus parvus Poey, 1852 (Perciformes: Mullidae) in the South Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Paschoal, Fabiano; Pereira, Aldenice N; Luque, José Luis

    2016-10-11

    A new species of copepod, Colobomatus kimi sp. nov., belonging to the cyclopoid family Philichthyidae Vogt, 1877, is proposed based on female specimens collected from the pores of the cephalic sensory system of the dwarf goatfish, Upeneus parvus Poey from the southeastern Brazilian coastal zone. The new species can be distinguished from its closest congeners by the unique combination of characters displayed by the female, including the forked caudal rami, the position of the midventral cephalic process shorter in relation to the lateral cephalic processes, and the presence of paired genital processes. The new species is the first member of Colobomatus Hesse, 1873 found to parasitize mullids of the genus Upeneus.

  20. A new notodelphyid copepod, Paranotodelphys illgi n. sp. (Copepoda: Cyclopoida), parasitic in the ascidian Corynascidia herdmani Ritter in the North Pacific.

    PubMed

    Marchenkov, Andrey; Boxshall, Geoff A

    2003-01-01

    A new species of the Notodelphyidae belonging to Paranotodelphys Schellenberg, 1922 is described from both sexes. The new species, Paranotodelphys illgi, can be distinguished from its congeners by the combination of its 10-segmented female antennule, the bisetose fifth legs and the extreme elongation of the caudal rami of the female, which are more than 10 times longer than wide and 4.4 times longer than the anal somite. The male has non-geniculate antennules. The new species was collected at a depth of 508m in the North Pacific Ocean, from the ascidian Corynascidia herdmani Ritter.

  1. Barnard's Brachiella sp., Parabrachiella supplicans (Barnard, 1955) and Eubrachiella sublobulata (Barnard, 1955) (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Lernaeopodidae) deposited in the Iziko South African Museum.

    PubMed

    Lebepe, Modjadji C; Dippenaar, Susan M

    2016-01-04

    The family Lernaeopodidae Milne Edwards, is one of the largest families in Siphonostomatoida Thorell, with more than 260 valid species. Brachiella sp., Parabrachiella supplicans (Barnard) and Eubrachiella sublobulata (Barnard) collected from Table Bay by Barnard in 1955 off Liza ramada (Risso), Genypterus capensis (Smith) and Congiopodus torvus (Gronov) respectively, are re-examined. Brachiella sp. is identified as Parabrachiella mugilis (Kabata, Raibaut & Ben Hassine) and is synonymized with Parabrachiella exilis (Shiino) based on the general morphology of the female habitus, the type host and the attachment site on the host. Parabrachiella supplicans is redescribed and synonymized with Parabrachiella genypteri (Capart) also collected off G. capensis from Fort Rock Point, Namibia. Additionally, Eubrachiella sublobulata is redescribed and represents a different geographical range and host record for the genus Eubrachiella as species were previously reported from teleosts of Antarctic waters.

  2. Global phylogeography of Oithona similis s.l. (Crustacea, Copepoda, Oithonidae) - A cosmopolitan plankton species or a complex of cryptic lineages?

    PubMed

    Cornils, Astrid; Wend-Heckmann, Britta; Held, Christoph

    2017-02-01

    Traditionally, many small-sized copepod species are considered to be widespread, bipolar or cosmopolitan. However, these large-scale distribution patterns need to be re-examined in view of increasing evidence of cryptic and pseudo-cryptic speciation in pelagic copepods. Here, we present a phylogeographic study of Oithona similis s.l. populations from the Arctic Ocean, the Southern Ocean and its northern boundaries, the North Atlantic and the Mediterrranean Sea. O. similis s.l. is considered as one of the most abundant species in temperate to polar oceans and acts as an important link in the trophic network between the microbial loop and higher trophic levels such as fish larvae. Two gene fragments were analysed: the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI), and the nuclear ribosomal 28 S genetic marker. Seven distinct, geographically delimitated, mitochondrial lineages could be identified, with divergences among the lineages ranging from 8 to 24%, thus representing most likely cryptic or pseudocryptic species within O. similis s.l. Four lineages were identified within or close to the borders of the Southern Ocean, one lineage in the Arctic Ocean and two lineages in the temperate Northern hemisphere. Surprisingly the Arctic lineage was more closely related to lineages from the Southern hemisphere than to the other lineages from the Northern hemisphere, suggesting that geographic proximity is a rather poor predictor of how closely related the clades are on a genetic level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Exotic "Gill Lice" Species (Copepoda: Lernaeopodidae: Salmincola SPP.) Infect Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in the Southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Carlos F; Rash, Jacob M; Besler, Doug A; Roberts, Jackson R; Warren, Micah B; Arias, Cova R; Bullard, Stephen A

    2017-08-01

    Salmincola californiensis infected 25 of 31 (prevalence 0.8; intensity 2-35 [mean 6.6 ± standard deviation 7.7; n = 25]) rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, from a private trout farm connected to the Watauga River, North Carolina. Salmincola edwardsii infected all of 9 (1.0; 2-43 [9.3 ± 13.0; 9]) brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, from Big Norton Prong, a tributary of the Little Tennessee River, North Carolina. Both lernaeopodids are well-known salmonid pathogens, but neither is native to, nor has been previously taxonomically confirmed from, the southeastern United States. Herein, we (1) use light and scanning electron microscopy to identify and provide supplemental morphological observations of these lernaeopodids, (2) furnish complementary molecular sequence data from the 28S rDNA (28S), and (3) document the pathological effects of gill infections. We identified and differentiated these lernaeopodids by the second antenna (exopod tip with large [S. californiensis] vs. slender [S. edwardsii] spines; endopod terminal segment with subequal ventral processes shorter than [S. californiensis] vs. longer than or equal to [S. edwardsii] dorsal hook), maxilliped palp (length typically ≤1/3 [S. californiensis] vs. 1/3-1/2 [S. edwardsii] subchela length exclusive of claw), and bulla (sub-circular and concave on manubrium's side [S. californiensis] vs. non-stellate [S. edwardsii]). Analysis of the 28S rDNA sequences confirmed our taxonomic assignments as demonstrated by 100% sequence similarity among the sympatric, morphologically-conspecific isolates. Histopathology revealed focal gill epithelial hyperplasia, obstruction of interlamellar water channels, lamellar fusion, and crypting of gill filaments. High intensity infections by either lernaeopodid are surveillance-worthy because they are potentially pathogenic to trout in the southeastern United States.

  4. Sabelliphilidae (Copepoda: Cyclopoida) associated with the tube anemone Pachycerianthus maua (Carlgren) and the horseshoe worm Phoronis australis Haswell off New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Hoi; Huys, Rony

    2012-09-01

    Examination of washings of the ceriantharian Pachycerianthus maua (Carlgren) and its phoronid symbiont Phoronis australis Haswell in New Caledonian waters revealed two species of symbiotic copepods belonging to the family Sabelliphilidae (Cyclopoida). Phoronicola spinulatus Boxshall & Humes, 1988, the only other copepod known to be associated with a phoronid and originally described from Hong Kong, was found on both the lophophore of Phoronis australis and the tentacular crown of Pachycerianthus maua. Both sexes of Phoronicola spinulatus are redescribed based on the New Caledonian material and re-examination of the type-material revealed some observational errors in the original description. Myxomolgus hoi n. sp. was exclusively found on the ceriantharian host and appears most closely related to its only known Pacific congener, M. invulgus Kim, 2001, in lacking the strong spines on antennulary segments 1-2, the presence of closely set, fine teeth along the convex margin of the mandibular blade, and the absence of a proximal bulbous protrusion along the inner margin of leg 5 exopod. Differences between both species are found in the rostrum, antennule, antenna, maxillule, leg 4, caudal rami and body size. The relatively low number of specimens of P. spinulatus recovered from washings of the lophophores (and its presence on Pachycerianthus maua) suggests that its real host is a ceriantharian rather than a phoronid. It is conceivable that both Phoronicola spinulatus and M. hoi n. sp. live and feed on/inside the mucilaginous ceriantharian tube rather than on the lophophore or tentacular crown of their respective hosts.

  5. Evolution of the bomolochiform superfamily complex (Copepoda: Cyclopoida): new insights from ssrDNA and morphology, and origin of Umazuracolids from polychaete-infesting ancestors rejected.

    PubMed

    Huys, Rony; Fatih, Farrah; Ohtsuka, Susumu; Llewellyn-Hughes, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Poecilostome cyclopoids are among the most morphologically diverse copepods, having established symbiotic relationships with teleosts, elasmobranchs and invertebrate hosts belonging to no fewer than 14 marine phyla. Many parasitic lineages display radically divergent body plans and on that basis have traditionally been placed at higher taxonomic rank than they deserve. The most recent example is the monotypic family Umazuracolidae, established for a derived fish parasite with bomolochiform affinities. Phylogenetic analysis of complete ssrDNA (18S) sequences of 44 species belonging to 21 families of cyclopoid copepods shows that there is no support for the familial distinctiveness of the Umazuracolidae. Both maximum parsimony tree reconstruction and Bayesian inference, operating under the GTR+I+Γ model of nucleotide substitution, unambiguously placed Umazuracola elongatus in the Taeniacanthidae within the predominantly fish parasitic bomolochiform complex, refuting the original suggestion of a shared most recent common ancestry with polychaete symbionts. The phylogenies also revealed that the bomolochiform families and the Clausidiidae (and allies) form a monophyletic group, the clausidiiform complex, with high nodal support under both methods. Bayesian inference suggested a diphyletic origin of the "Poecilostomatoida" with the clausidiiform family-group holding a basal position while the traditional cyclopoid families form a monophyletic group in apposition to a second poecilostomatoid clade; however, maximum parsimony results were equivocal, depending on outgroup selection. Scrutiny of the morphological characters diagnosing the monotypic families Tegobomolochidae and Tuccidae demonstrated that they merely represent derived lineages within more inclusive taxa, the former being related to a group of nostril-inhabiting genera within the Bomolochidae, the latter forming the sistergroup of Taeniacanthodes within the Taeniacanthidae. The taeniacanthid genus Makrostrotos occupies a position at the base of the bomolochiform complex and is fixed as the type of a new family, Makrostrotidae. Although both morphological and molecular evidence hint that the Bomolochidae is nested within a paraphyletic Taeniacanthidae, the status quo of maintaining both families is favoured here pending additional molecular data. The bomolochiform complex, comprising the Bomolochidae, Taeniacanthidae, Telsidae and Makrostrotidae, is attributed superfamilial rank as the Bomolochoidea. A recent controversial phylogenetic analysis of the poecilostomatoid families is shown to be flawed, being based on a dataset containing imperfect or misleading information, and characters whose states were wrongly assessed. Copyright © 2011 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The notodelphyid genus Doroixys Kerschner, 1879 (Crustacea: Copepoda: Cyclopoida), with the description of a new species from the Russian far east.

    PubMed

    Marchenkov, Andrey; Boxshall, Geoff A

    2004-07-01

    Doroixys simplex n. sp. is described from material collected from a tunicate of the genus Ciona, collected on the North Pacific coast of Russia. This is the fourth species of the genus and the first for which the male has been found. The new species differs from congeners most noticeably in the absence of posterolateral processes from the rear margin of the dorsal cephalic shield. A key to species is provided.

  7. A new species of Pseudopandarus Kirtisinghe, 1950 (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Pandaridae) from sharks of the genus Squalus L. in New Caledonian waters.

    PubMed

    Bernot, James P; Boxshall, Geoffrey A

    2017-02-01

    Both sexes of a new species of pandarid copepod are described from sharks of the genus Squalus L. (Squaliformes: Squalidae). Specimens of Pseudopandarus cairae n. sp. were collected from Squalus bucephalus Last, Séret & Pogonoski and S. melanurus Fourmanoir & Rivaton in New Caledonian waters, the first parasitic copepod to be described from either host species. This is the eighth nominal species of Pseudopandarus Kirtisinghe, 1950 and the first to be described from a shark of the order Squaliformes. Pseudopandarus cairae n. sp. is easily distinguished from P. australis Cressey & Simpfendorfer, 1988, P. longus (Gnanamuthu, 1951) Cressey, 1967, and P. pelagicus Rangnekar, 1977 in having the female genital complex concealed beneath an elongate dorsal genital shield with a trilobed posterior margin. It can be distinguished from P. gracilis Kirtisinghe, 1950 and P. scyllii Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959 by the armature of the leg 4 endopod and by the proportions of the dorsal genital shield. The new species is unique among known species of Pseudopandarus in its possession of only 1 setal element on the distal endopod segment of leg 4. In addition to describing the new species, the host associations of all species of Pseudopandarus are reviewed and observations are made regarding sexual dimorphism and mode of attachment. A key to the species considered valid is provided.

  8. Occurrence of Mesocyclops ogunnus Onabamiro, 1957 (Copepoda Cyclopoida) in water bodies of São Paulo State, identified as Mesocyclops kieferi Van de Velde, 1984.

    PubMed

    Matsumura-Tundisi, T; Silva, W M

    2002-11-01

    The aim of this work is clarify the identification of Mesocyclops ogunnus that occur in several reservoirs in the State of São Paulo and that was previously identified as Mesocyclops kieferi. These two species are closely related species with very similar characteristics. The differential characteristics are presented and the distribution of both species in the world is discussed.

  9. Numerical and functional responses to the presence of a competitor--the case of Aggregata sp. (Apicomplexa: Aggregatidae) and Octopicola superba (Copepoda: Octopicolidae).

    PubMed

    Cavaleiro, F I; Santos, M J

    2014-02-01

    Evidence of interference competition between the eimeriorin coccidian Aggregata sp. and the octopicolid copepod Octopicola superba at the level of the gills of naturally infected Octopus vulgaris is evaluated. Numerical and functional responses are considered for analysis, and the fundamental and realized spatial niches (FSNs and RSNs) are measured as part of the study. While it was not possible to measure the FSN of Aggregata sp., the analysis of the infection levels of O. superba recorded for non-concomitantly and concomitantly infected hosts suggests that the gills and body skin constitute, respectively, the main and accessory sites of infection of the parasite. According to the evidence found, the gills function mainly as an accessory site of infection of Aggregata sp., in specimens in which the caecum and intestine are massively infected. Evidence for a negative interaction between Aggregata sp. and O. superba has been found while controlling for a potential confounding effect of host size. Furthermore, the presence of O. superba on gill lamellae appears to have been negatively affected by the presence of Aggregata sp., while this latter remained mostly undisturbed. The mean number of oocysts of Aggregata sp. in the gills was higher in spring and summer, which were also the seasons presenting the broadest RSN for O. superba.

  10. Experimental studies on the feeding and reproduction of Calanoides patagoniensis (Copepoda, Calanoid) in a southern upwelling ecosystem of the Humboldt Current.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Victor M; Escribano, Ruben E

    2013-10-01

    Seasonal cohorts of the large-sized copepod Calanoides patagoniensis allowed testing the relative ability of this species to exploit food resources that prevail during winter time in southern upwelling ecosystems of the Humboldt Current. This was achieved by considering a local winter flagellate assemblage (WFA), Thalassiosira rotula isolated from the local spring phytoplankton and a laboratory culture of Prorocentrum minimum, as food offers in consecutive 96 h experiments. Ingestion rates (IR) varied between 7 and 14 μg C f(-1) d(-1), egg production reached a peak of 70 eggs while egg production rates (EPR) varied between 27 ± 6 and 31 ± 4 eggs f(-1) d(-1). Feeding and reproductive traits were dependent on food offer, and after 72 h both IR and EPR decreased by 28% and 40% respectively, when copepods were steadily fed with the diatom. The relatively high reproductive performance supported by WFA was notable; showing the feeding behavior of this species can couple with food availability in the field with successful reproductive outcomes. Migration strategies allowing remain in upper food-rich coastal waters along with this flexible trophic behavior may better explain why this species is among the most recurrent ones in these variable yet productive upwelling areas. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Morphological aspects and histological effects of the attachment organ of Parabrachiella sp. (Copepoda: Lernaeopodidae) on the grey mullet, Mugil liza Valenciennes.

    PubMed

    Plaul, S E; Montes, M M; Barbeito, C G; Martorelli, S R

    2013-10-01

    The genus Parabrachiella Wilson, 1915 (Lernaeopodidae) is represented by copepods that are highly adapted to a parasitic way of life. In Argentina, only P. insidiosa var. lageniformis Heller, 1865, P. chevreuxii Van Beneden, 1891 and P. spinicephala Ringuelet, 1945 have been cited, but none of these have been reported on mugilids. Recently, other species of this genus were found attached to the nasal cavities of juvenile grey mullets, Mugil liza Valenciennes, from Samborombón bay, Buenos Aires province. In this study, the prevalence and mean intensity of the Parabrachiella sp. on grey mullet is investigated. In addition, the damage the parasite imposes on its hosts is examined through evaluation of histological sections and immunostaining for proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The morphology of the parasite's bulla is described from light and scanning electron micrographs. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The effects of power station entrainment passage on three species of marine planktonic crustacean, Acartia tonsa (Copepoda), Crangon crangon (Decapoda) and Homarus gammarus (Decapoda).

    PubMed

    Bamber, Roger N; Seaby, Richard M H

    2004-05-01

    Experiments have been undertaken exposing larval common shrimp (Crangon crangon) and lobster (Homarus gammarus) and adult copepods (Acartia tonsa) to the key stresses of entrainment within power-station cooling-water systems. The apparatus has enabled the testing of mechanical, thermal, chlorine and realistic pressure effects both alone and in combination, the range of stressors spanning the standard conditions found within a temperate coastal direct-cooled power station. Mechanical stresses affected only lobster larvae, pressure changes affected only the Acartia adults. Residual chlorine caused significant mortality of Acartia and shrimp larvae, but had no effect on lobster larvae even at 1 ppm. The temperature increment significantly affected all three species, with a synergistic effect on chlorine sensitivity in the shrimp larvae, but only temperatures higher than would be experienced in a normally-operating power station affected the copepods. The majority of individuals of each species would survive passage through a power-station system under normal conditions. It is notable that, within the species tested, generalizations from the responses of one species to those of another are not valid.

  13. On some new species of Ancorabolidae Sars, 1909 from the Gulf of California: the genera Ceratonotus Sars, 1909, and Dendropsyllus Conroy-Dalton, 2003 (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida)

    PubMed Central

    Gómez, Samuel; Díaz, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of two genera of the family Ancorabolidae, Ceratonotus elongatus sp. n. and Dendropsyllus californiensis sp. n., found at 1642 m and 1759 m depth, respectively, in the Southern Trough of Guaymas Basin, are described. Ceratonotus elongatus sp. n. was attributed to that genus by a series of character states of which the lack of dendroid dorsal processes on the P6-bearing somite and the presence of such processes on the first abdominal somite were definitive. This species was observed to be very close to Ceratonotus thistlei Conroy-Dalton, 2003 from the San Diego Trough, and can be separated by a number of traits of which the elongated sensilla-bearing dorsal tubercles on the second abdominal somite in the new species was definitive. Dendropsyllus californiensis sp. n. has been placed within that genus given the presence of four geniculate setae on P1EXP2 and one seta on P1ENP2, one inner seta on P3EXP3, and lack of inner armature on P4EXP3. Dendropsyllus californiensis sp. n. appears to be more closely related to Dendropsyllus thomasi Conroy-Dalton, 2003 and Dendropsyllus magellanicus (George & Schminke, 1998) on account of the spinulose nature of the basis of the maxilliped, the two-segmented P4ENP, and the fused condition of the P5 baseoendopod and exopod, and seems to be even more closely related to Dendropsyllus thomasi by the degree of development of the lateroventral processes of the cephalothorax. Dendropsyllus californiensis sp. n. can be separated from its congeners by the relative length of the first antennulary segment, relative length of the caudal rami, and by the armature formula of P3ENP2. PMID:28331408

  14. Comparative study on acute effects of water accommodated fractions of an artificially weathered crude oil on Calanus finmarchicus and Calanus glacialis (Crustacea: Copepoda).

    PubMed

    Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Altin, Dag; Rørvik, Siv F; Øverjordet, Ida Beathe; Olsen, Anders J; Nordtug, Trond

    2011-01-15

    Extrapolation of ecotoxicological data from temperate species for use in risk assessment in the polar environments may be difficult since polar organisms as a rule differ from temperate species in terms of life span length, developmental time, surface-to-volume ratios, metabolic rates, total energy usage and lipid content for energy storage. In the current work we performed a comparative study where two closely related and morphologically similar copepod species, Calanus finmarchicus (temperate-boreal) and Calanus glacialis (arctic), were exposed to water accommodated fractions (WAF) of oil in a series of parallel experiments. The two species, adapted to 10°C and 2°C, respectively, were compared on the basis of acute ecotoxicity (LC(50)) and the WAF-mediated induction of the gene encoding glutathione S-transferase (GST). In addition, an experiment was conducted in order to reveal relationships between lipid content and acute toxicity. LC(50) values differed between the two species, and the Arctic copepod appeared less sensitive than the temperate-boreal species. The lipid contents of the two species, measured biometrically, were comparable, and the relationships between lipid content and response (reduced survival) to acute WAF exposure followed the same trend: Lipid-rich copepods survived longer than lipid-poor copepods at the same exposure concentration. In terms of GST expression, both species showed concentration-dependent and exposure time-dependent trends. However, as for the acute toxicity data, the Arctic copepod appeared to respond slower and with a lower intensity. From the study it can be concluded that temperature and lipid content are important factors for assessing differences between temperate and Arctic species, and that a delayed response in organisms adapted to low temperatures needs to be corrected for when extrapolating toxicity data from species with other temperature optimums for use in Arctic environments. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. First descriptions of copepodid stages, sexual dimorphism and intraspecific variability of Mesocletodes Sars, 1909 (Copepoda, Harpacticoida, Argestidae), including the description of a new species with broad abyssal distribution

    PubMed Central

    Menzel, Lena

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Mesocletodes Sars, 1909a encompasses 37 species to date. Initial evidence on intraspecific variability and sexual dimorphism has been verified for 77 specimens of Mesocletodes elmari sp. n. from various deep-sea regions, and ontogenetic development has been traced for the first time. Apomorphies are a strong spinule-like pinna on the mx seta that is fused to the basis, P2–P4 exp3 proximal outer seta lost, P1–P4 enp2 extremely elongated, furcal rami elongated, female body of prickly appearance, female P2–P4 enp2 proximal inner seta lost. Intraspecific variability involves spinulation, ornamentation and size of the body and setation and spinulation of pereiopods. Sexually dimorphic modifications of adult females include prickly appearance of the body, P1 enp exceeds exp in length, P1 coxa externally broadened, seta of basis arising from prominent protrusion, hyaline frills of body somites ornate. Sexual dimorphism in adult males is expressed in smaller body size, haplocer A1, 2 inner setae on P2–P4 enp2 and on P5 exp, P5 basendopodal lobe with 2 setae. Some modifications allow sexing of copepodid stages. The female A1 is fully developed in CV, the male A1 undergoes extensive modifications at the last molt. P1–P4 are fully developed in CV. Mesocletodes faroerensis and Mesocletodes thielei lack apomorphies of Mesocletodes and are excluded. PMID:21594073

  16. A new species of Monstrilla Dana, 1849 (Copepoda: Monstrilloida: Monstrillidae) from Korea, including a key to species from the north-west Pacific.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jimin; Chang, Cheon Young

    2016-10-11

    A new species of monstrilloid copepod belonging to the genus Monstrilla Dana, 1849 is recorded from South Korea. Specimens were obtained between May of 2012 and January of 2014 from inshore waters along the coasts of the East Sea, South Sea, and Jeju Island, using a light trap installed at quays and wharves overnight. Monstrilla ilhoii sp. nov. is characterized by a remarkable combination of a large body size (females about 3.8 mm long, males about 2.8 mm long), a polygonal ridge pattern (cuticular reticulation) over the entire body surface, and an antennule armature featuring a supernumerary spiniform seta (4d3) in females and a dagger-shaped distal spine (62) in both sexes. In other respects M. ilhoii sp. nov. most closely resembles M. lata Desai & Bal, 1963; both species have one and three setae on the endopodal and exopodal lobes, respectively, of female leg 5, a horseshoe-shaped male genital apparatus with marked undulations along the whole distal margin, and six setae on each caudal ramus in both sexes. This paper provides a description of the new species, taxonomic remarks on its morphological features, and differential diagnoses with respect to its allies. Scanning electron microscopy was used to document significant morphological microcharacters. The species of Monstrilla known from five sub-regions of the north-west Pacific are enumerated with the source references, and keys to the females and males of these species are provided.

  17. Preface: Recent Developments in Taxonomy and Biodiversity of Symbiotic Copepoda (Crustacea)-A Volume in Celebration of the Career of Prof. Il-Hoi Kim.

    PubMed

    Huys, Rony

    2016-10-11

    Symbiosis is one of the most successful modes of life displayed by aquatic organisms, as measured by the number of times it evolved and how many symbiotic species are presently in existence. Among the Crustacea copepods utilize an extraordinary range of hosts, occurring on virtually every phylum of marine macroinvertebrates and, jointly with the monogeneans, are the most speciose group of metazoan ectoparasites of marine fishes (Rhode 2005). Several species have a major impact on global finfish and shellfish aquaculture, causing significant effects on farm production, economic viability and sustainability (Shinn et al. 2015). Parasitism by copepods on other metazoans has evolved independently numerous times in the evolutionary history of animal life on Earth and has led to an exceptional diversity in morphologies, physiologies, life-strategies and habitat preferences of its members. Reflecting the diversity of hosts, copepods show an amazing variety of adaptations which secure infection of and survival on the hosts. Since the first descriptions of parasitic copepods occurring on fish by Linnaeus (1758) and the first report of a copepod utilizing an invertebrate host by Say (1818) (Clausidium caudatum (Say, 1818)) the number of described symbiotic copepods has seen a steady increase over a 200-yr period, culminating in a total of 5,306 valid species recognized today. About 38% of all described copepod species utilize either vertebrate (2,450 spp.) or invertebrate hosts (2,856 spp.), however, many host groups have not been thoroughly examined, and for this reason even approximate estimates of true species numbers are futile. Plotting the proposal of new species by decade (Fig. 1) shows a sharp rise since 1950 with 67% of the species having been described in the preceding 65 years. This period of exceptionally rapid progress can be attributed to a number of highly prolific investigators such as Arthur Humes, Il-Hoi Kim, Ju-shey Ho and Jan Stock who, single-handedly or in collaboration with other authors, described 698, 356, 290 and 246 species, respectively. Historically, the number of described copepod species parasitizing fish typically outnumbered those known to be associated with invertebrates. Only during the mid-1970s the species curves of both categories converged and during the last 30 years the discovery of new species associated with invertebrate hosts appears to progress more rapidly. Despite a significant drop in the number of specialists working on symbiotic copepods the steady addition of new taxa shows that the dynamism of their taxonomy is clearly set to continue.

  18. First record and redescription of Macandrewella cochinensis Gopalakrishnan, 1973 (Copepoda, Scolecitrichidae) from the Red Sea, with notes on swarm formation

    PubMed Central

    El-Sherbiny, Mohsen M.; Al-Aidaroos, Ali M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract During a study of the epipelagic zooplankton carried out near the fringing reef around Sharm El-Sheikh area, in the northern Red Sea, female and male specimens of the poorly known calanoid copepod Macandrewella cochinensis Gopalakrishnan, 1973 were collected. This is the first record of species occurrence in the Red Sea. Macandrewella cochinensis was previously known only from the offshore water of Cochin, south west of India. The Red Sea specimens are described in details herein to allow their comparison with the specimens from the type locality, because original description of M. cochinensis is incomplete and causes some taxonomic confusion. The most important characters that may have been overlooked in the original description are: shape of projections of the female distolateral prosomal borders, details of morphology of the asymmetrical female genital double-somite and presence of leg 5 in female. PMID:24194657

  19. A new species of Dermoergasilus Ho & Do, 1982 (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) from freshwater fishes in the south-west of Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Marina; Jones, Brian; Lymbery, Alan J

    2009-10-01

    A new species of Dermoergasilus Ho & Do, 1982 is described from freshwater fish hosts in the south west of Western Australia. D. occidentalis n. sp. differs from previously described species in the genus principally by the armature of the legs. The new species was found on the gills of the freshwater cobbler Tandanus bostocki Whitely and western minnow Galaxias occidentalis Ogilby in two different river systems.

  20. Phylogeny of freshwater parasitic copepods in the Ergasilidae (Copepoda: Poecilostomatoida) based on 18S and 28S rDNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Song, Y; Wang, G T; Yao, W J; Gao, Q; Nie, P

    2008-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among the Ergasilidae genera are poorly understood. In this study, 14 species from four genera in the Ergasilidae including Sinergasilus, Ergasilus, Pseudergasilus, and Paraergasilus were collected in China, and their phylogenetic relationships were examined using neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference methods based on partial sequences of 18S and 28S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid, respectively. All the analyses suggest that the Sinergasilus and Paraergasilus are both monophyletic, but the Ergasilus is polyphyletic rather than monophyletic. Considering the relationships among the four genera, the phylogenetic analyses and subsequent hypothesis tests all suggest that Pseudergasilus clustered with some Ergasilus species may have a closer relationship with Sinergasilus rather than with Paraergasilus. It is proposed that the Sinergasilus and the Pseudergasilus species might have evolved from Ergasilus species.

  1. An annotated list of fish parasites (Isopoda, Copepoda, Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda, Nematoda) collected from Snappers and Bream (Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae, Caesionidae) in New Caledonia confirms high parasite biodiversity on coral reef fish

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Coral reefs are areas of maximum biodiversity, but the parasites of coral reef fishes, and especially their species richness, are not well known. Over an 8-year period, parasites were collected from 24 species of Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae and Caesionidae off New Caledonia, South Pacific. Results Host-parasite and parasite-host lists are provided, with a total of 207 host-parasite combinations and 58 parasite species identified at the species level, with 27 new host records. Results are presented for isopods, copepods, monogeneans, digeneans, cestodes and nematodes. When results are restricted to well-sampled reef fish species (sample size > 30), the number of host-parasite combinations is 20–25 per fish species, and the number of parasites identified at the species level is 9–13 per fish species. Lutjanids include reef-associated fish and deeper sea fish from the outer slopes of the coral reef: fish from both milieus were compared. Surprisingly, parasite biodiversity was higher in deeper sea fish than in reef fish (host-parasite combinations: 12.50 vs 10.13, number of species per fish 3.75 vs 3.00); however, we identified four biases which diminish the validity of this comparison. Finally, these results and previously published results allow us to propose a generalization of parasite biodiversity for four major families of reef-associated fishes (Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae, Serranidae and Lethrinidae): well-sampled fish have a mean of 20 host-parasite combinations per fish species, and the number of parasites identified at the species level is 10 per fish species. Conclusions Since all precautions have been taken to minimize taxon numbers, it is safe to affirm than the number of fish parasites is at least ten times the number of fish species in coral reefs, for species of similar size or larger than the species in the four families studied; this is a major improvement to our estimate of biodiversity in coral reefs. Our results suggest that extinction of a coral reef fish species would eventually result in the coextinction of at least ten species of parasites. PMID:22947621

  2. First report of the presence of Acartiabispinosa Carl, 1907 (Copepoda, Calanoida) in a semi-enclosed Bay (Sharm El-Maya), northern Red Sea with some notes on its seasonal variation in abundance and body size.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbiny, Mohsen M; Al-Aidaroos, Ali M

    2014-01-01

    The calanoid copepod, Acartiabispinosa Carl, 1907, is reported for the first time in the Red Sea, where it is found to be an important copepod in the mesozooplankton community structure of the Sharm El-Maya Bay. Female and male are fully redescribed and illustrated of as the mouthparts of this species have never previously been described and figured. Acartiabispinosa was collected in the plankton samples throughout the year and showed two peaks of abundance, a pronounced one in April (4234 individuals m(-3)), and second smaller peak during November (1784 individuals m(-3)). The average total length of females varied between 1.32 and 1.53 mm at the end of June and January respectively. For males, the average total length fluctuated between 1.07 and 1.16 mm at end of June and March respectively. Temperature showed an inverse relationship with the body length (P > 0.001) and seemed to be one of the prime factors affecting the body length of both sexes.

  3. Amended diagnosis of the genus Nannodiaptomus (Copepoda, Calanoida), based on redescription of N. phongnhaensis and description of a new species from caves in central Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Tran, Duc Luong; Brancelj, Anton

    2017-01-19

    Nannodiaptomus phongnhaensis Dang & Ho, 2001, an endemic stygobiotic diaptomid from Vietnam and the type species of the genus Nannodiaptomus Dang & Ho, 2001, is redescribed on the basis of a new material from its type locality: Hang Phong Nha Cave, Quang Binh province, central Vietnam. We also designated a neotype, because the type material has been lost. The diagnosis of the genus is amended, based on the description of the neotype. The taxonomic position of the genus in the subfamily Speodiaptominae is proposed, and its relationships with other genera of this subfamily are discussed. A new cave-dwelling species Nannodiaptomus haii sp. nov., from a cave near the type locality of N. phongnhaensis, is also described and illustrated. The new species differs from the type species of the genus, among other things, by the structure of male's left swimming leg 5, where the inner margin of the apical process and the sub-terminal seta on the swimming leg 5 Exp-2 have small serrated membranes, but these bear 3-4 distinct denticular protrusions in N. phongnhaensis.

  4. An annotated list of fish parasites (Isopoda, Copepoda, Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda, Nematoda) collected from Snappers and Bream (Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae, Caesionidae) in New Caledonia confirms high parasite biodiversity on coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Justine, Jean-Lou; Beveridge, Ian; Boxshall, Geoffrey A; Bray, Rodney A; Miller, Terrence L; Moravec, František; Trilles, Jean-Paul; Whittington, Ian D

    2012-09-04

    Coral reefs are areas of maximum biodiversity, but the parasites of coral reef fishes, and especially their species richness, are not well known. Over an 8-year period, parasites were collected from 24 species of Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae and Caesionidae off New Caledonia, South Pacific. Host-parasite and parasite-host lists are provided, with a total of 207 host-parasite combinations and 58 parasite species identified at the species level, with 27 new host records. Results are presented for isopods, copepods, monogeneans, digeneans, cestodes and nematodes. When results are restricted to well-sampled reef fish species (sample size > 30), the number of host-parasite combinations is 20-25 per fish species, and the number of parasites identified at the species level is 9-13 per fish species. Lutjanids include reef-associated fish and deeper sea fish from the outer slopes of the coral reef: fish from both milieus were compared. Surprisingly, parasite biodiversity was higher in deeper sea fish than in reef fish (host-parasite combinations: 12.50 vs 10.13, number of species per fish 3.75 vs 3.00); however, we identified four biases which diminish the validity of this comparison. Finally, these results and previously published results allow us to propose a generalization of parasite biodiversity for four major families of reef-associated fishes (Lutjanidae, Nemipteridae, Serranidae and Lethrinidae): well-sampled fish have a mean of 20 host-parasite combinations per fish species, and the number of parasites identified at the species level is 10 per fish species. Since all precautions have been taken to minimize taxon numbers, it is safe to affirm than the number of fish parasites is at least ten times the number of fish species in coral reefs, for species of similar size or larger than the species in the four families studied; this is a major improvement to our estimate of biodiversity in coral reefs. Our results suggest that extinction of a coral reef fish species would eventually result in the coextinction of at least ten species of parasites.

  5. Two new species of Ergasilus Nordmann, 1832 (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) and a redescription of Ergasilus salmini Thatcher & Brazil-Sato, 2008 from Salminus brasiliensis Cuvier and S. franciscanus Lima & Britsky (Teleostei: Characidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marques, Taísa Mendes; Boeger, Walter A; de Carvalho Brasil-Sato, Marília

    2015-01-01

    Three species of Ergasilus Nordmann, 1832 are reported from the gills of Salminus spp. in Brazil. Ergasilus salmini Thatcher & Brazil-Sato, 2008 from Salminus brasiliensis Cuvier is redescribed, based on examination of paratypes. The study revealed morphological differences from the original description, especially in the morphology of the cephalothorax and the ornamentation of antenna, antennule and legs. Ergasilus lacusauratus n. sp. described from S. brasiliensis in lake Lagoa Dourada (Paraná) differs from the only known species from this host group, E. salmini, in the shape and size of the cephalothorax and the general morphology of the egg-sacs. Ergasilus sinefalcatus n. sp. from S. franciscanus Lima & Britsky in River São Francisco (Minas Gerais) closely resembles E. pitalicus, E. coatiarus and E. leporinidis in the lack of a pectinate seta on the first exopodal segment, a feature common in species of Ergasilus in the Neotropics. Ergasilus sinefalcatus n. sp. differs from these species in the presence of a spiniform process on the coxae of legs 2, 3 and 4, an ornament never reported from freshwater species of Ergasilus in South America.

  6. Seasonal variations of hydrophobic organic contaminant concentrations in the water-column of the Seine Estuary and their transfer to a planktonic species Eurytemora affinis (Calanoïda, copepoda). Part 1: PCBs and PAHs.

    PubMed

    Cailleaud, K; Forget-Leray, J; Souissi, S; Hilde, D; Lemenach, K; Budzinski, H

    2007-12-01

    Hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOC) (i.e. PAHs and PCBs) were measured in the water column and in Eurytemora affinis samples from the Seine Estuary collected from November 2002 to February 2005. Results showed seasonal variations of both total PCB and PAH levels in the suspended particulate matter (SPM) and in the copepods with maximum levels during winter times. PAH and PCB concentrations in the SPM ranged from 499 to 5819ngg(-1) and from 58 to 463ngg(-1), respectively. Phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo[b+j+k]fluoranthene (B[b+j+k]F) were the predominant PAH compounds in the water column, while CB 101, 118, 153 and 138 were the most abundant PCB congeners. PCBs and PAHs bioaccumulated by E. affinis (EA) varied between 383 and 1785ngg(-1) and 165-3866ngg(-1). CB101, 153, 138 and B[b+j+k] were, respectively, the major compounds of PCB and PAH fingerprints in EA. Thereby, the copepods could reach high accumulation factor (ACF) (91000 for PCBs and 17000 for PAHs). The principal component analyses of contaminant concentrations and environmental parameter datasets distinguished two groups of copepods. The winter time cluster, with high percentage of adult copepods, which bioaccumulated the highest PCB and PAH body-burdens, and the second cluster with juveniles showing the lowest HOC concentrations. Thus, PAH and PCB concentrations in EA exhibited significant correlations with the percentage of adults making up the samples.

  7. First report of the presence of Acartia bispinosa Carl, 1907 (Copepoda, Calanoida) in a semi-enclosed Bay (Sharm El-Maya), northern Red Sea with some notes on its seasonal variation in abundance and body size

    PubMed Central

    El-Sherbiny, Mohsen M.; Al-Aidaroos, Ali M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The calanoid copepod, Acartia bispinosa Carl, 1907, is reported for the first time in the Red Sea, where it is found to be an important copepod in the mesozooplankton community structure of the Sharm El-Maya Bay. Female and male are fully redescribed and illustrated of as the mouthparts of this species have never previously been described and figured. Acartia bispinosa was collected in the plankton samples throughout the year and showed two peaks of abundance, a pronounced one in April (4234 individuals m-3), and second smaller peak during November (1784 individuals m-3). The average total length of females varied between 1.32 and 1.53 mm at the end of June and January respectively. For males, the average total length fluctuated between 1.07 and 1.16 mm at end of June and March respectively. Temperature showed an inverse relationship with the body length (P > 0.001) and seemed to be one of the prime factors affecting the body length of both sexes. PMID:25349502

  8. A new species of Labidocera (Copepoda, Calanoida, Pontellidae) collected from Okinawa, southwestern Japan, with establishment of five Indo-West Pacific species groups in the L.detruncata species complex.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Takeshi; Ohtsuka, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    Labidocerachuraumi sp. n. is described from Okinawa, southwestern Japan. The female of the new species differs from other congeners in genital compound somite with right postero-lateral and left antero-lateral processes. The male is distinguished from other congeners by the structure of the fifth leg. This new species is assigned to a newly proposed species group, the Labidoceramadurae species group, within the Labidoceradetruncata species complex. In this species complex five Indo-West Pacific species groups are recognized (cervi, detruncata, gangetica, madurae, and pavo) and defined on the basis of difference in sexual dimorphism.

  9. Stage-V copepodites of Calanus sinicus and Calanus jashnovi (Copepoda: Calanoida) in mesopelagic zone of Sagami Bay as identified with genetic markers, with special reference to their vertical distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nonomura, Takumi; Machida, Ryuji J.; Nishida, Shuhei

    2008-04-01

    We applied genetic makers to identify Calanus species occurring in Sagami Bay, Japan, in order to investigate their vertical distribution in the upper 1000 m. First, interspecific genetic distances of three gene loci, mitochondrial small ribosomal RNA (srRNA), nuclear internal transcribed spacers 1 (ITS1) and 2 (ITS2), were estimated from morphologically distinguishable adult females of Calanus sinicus, Calanus jashnovi and Calanus pacificus that were collected from Sagami Bay, the Kuroshio Extension and the Oyashio region, respectively. The highest levels of interspecific genetic distance were observed in srRNA, followed by ITS1 and ITS2. The intraspecific genetic distances within C. sinicus were much lower than the interspecific genetic distances, indicating that DNA sequences in these loci are consistent with the morphological differences. This information was used as a criterion for species identification based on DNA sequence variation, and allowed us to identify the fifth copepodites (CVs) or younger stages of these species. Next, the vertical distribution of Calanus species was investigated in Sagami Bay in May 2006, on the basis of a stratified sampling in the upper 1000 m. By applying the genetic markers, 23 individuals comprising all copepodite stages were allocated into either C. sinicus or C. jashnovi, and the small- and large-sized CVs were identified as C. sinicus and C. jashnovi, respectively. The total abundance of C. sinicus was highest at 0-50 m and decreased with depth. On the contrary, CV individuals of C. sinicus were abundant not only in 0-50 m but also below 200 m with minimum occurrences in 150-200 m depth. C. jashnovi was much less abundant than C. sinicus and comprised of only CIV and CV which occurred in the upper 100 m and deeper than 50 m depths, respectively. The abundance of C. sinicus in the 1000-m water column of Sagami Bay was at a level comparable to that in shelf waters, suggesting the importance of off-shelf individuals in the biological production and organic transport in the respective areas.

  10. New record and redescription of Calanopia thompsoni A. Scott, 1909 (Copepoda, Calanoida, Pontellidae) from the Red Sea, with notes on the taxonomic status of C. parathompsoni Gaudy, 1969 and a key to species.

    PubMed

    Al-Aidaroos, Ali M; Salama, Adnan J; El-Sherbiny, Mohsen M

    2016-01-01

    During a plankton sampling programme around Al-Wajh area, Saudi Arabian coast of the northern Red Sea, a copepod Calanopia thompsoni A. Scott, 1909 (Calanoida: Pontellidae) was reported for the first time in the Red Sea. Both sexes are fully redescribed and compared to previous descriptions as well as the closely related species, Calanopia parathompsoni. The zoogeographical distribution of the species confirms that it is of Indo-Pacific origin. A dichotomous key for the identification of males and females of the species of Calanopia is included.

  11. Taxonomy, ecology, and geographical distribution of the species of the genus Thermocyclops Kiefer, 1927 (Copepoda, Cyclopoida) in São Paulo State, Brazil, with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Silva, W M; Matsumura-Tundisi, T

    2005-08-01

    The taxonomy and ecology of the cyclopoid copepod genus Thermocyclops were studied. Samples were collected in 207 water bodies located in the 22 hydrographic basins of São Paulo State, Brazil, including large reservoirs, small and shallow lakes, and ponds and rivers. The genus Thermocyclops inhabits mainly water bodies within a limnetic region. Four species were found, of which one is new: Thermocyclops iguapensis, which occurred in the reservoirs of the Ribeira do Iguape and Paraíba do Sul basins. The description of the new species and the geographical distribution of all four species in São Paulo State are presented. Thermocyclops decipiens was the most frequent species, occurring in 71% of the water bodies within a limnetic region. This species is characteristic of eutrophic environments where it can occur in great abundance, whereas Thermocyclops minutus is characteristic in oligotrophic systems. Thermocyclops inversus and Thermocyclops iguapensis n. sp. were not common but can occur together with Thermocyclops decipiens.

  12. New record and redescription of Calanopia thompsoni A. Scott, 1909 (Copepoda, Calanoida, Pontellidae) from the Red Sea, with notes on the taxonomic status of C. parathompsoni Gaudy, 1969 and a key to species

    PubMed Central

    Al-Aidaroos, Ali M.; Salama, Adnan J.; El-Sherbiny, Mohsen M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract During a plankton sampling programme around Al-Wajh area, Saudi Arabian coast of the northern Red Sea, a copepod Calanopia thompsoni A. Scott, 1909 (Calanoida: Pontellidae) was reported for the first time in the Red Sea. Both sexes are fully redescribed and compared to previous descriptions as well as the closely related species, Calanopia parathompsoni. The zoogeographical distribution of the species confirms that it is of Indo-Pacific origin. A dichotomous key for the identification of males and females of the species of Calanopia is included. PMID:26865813

  13. Endemism of subterranean Diacyclops in Korea and Japan, with descriptions of seven new species of the languidoides-group and redescriptions of D. brevifurcus Ishida, 2006 and D. suoensis Ito, 1954 (Crustacea, Copepoda, Cyclopoida)

    PubMed Central

    Karanovic, Tomislav; Grygier, Mark J.; Lee, Wonchoel

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Copepods have been poorly studied in subterranean habitats in Korea. Previous records have indicated mostly the presence of species already described from Japan, with very few endemic elements. This commonality has usually been explained by repeated dispersal across the land bridges that connected the two countries several times during the Pleistocene glacial cycles. However, the Korean Peninsula is known for pockets of Cambrian and Ordovician carbonate rocks, with more than 1,000 caves already having been explored. The relative isolation of these carbonate pockets makes for an enormous speciation potential, and the development of a high level of short-range endemism of subterranean copepods should be expected. Representatives of the genus Diacyclops Kiefer, 1927 are here investigated from a range of subterranean habitats in South Korea, with comparative material sampled from central Honshu in Japan. Morphological analyses of microcharacters, many of which are used in cyclopoid taxonomy for the first time herein, reveal high diversity in both countries. No subterranean species is found in common, although the existence of four sibling species pairs in Korea and Japan may be indicative of relatively recent speciation. We describe seven new stygobiotic species, including three from Korea (Diacyclops hanguk sp. n., Diacyclops leeae sp. n., and Diacyclops parasuoensis sp. n.) and four from Japan (Diacyclops hisuta sp. n., Diacyclops ishidai sp. n., Diacyclops parahanguk sp. n., and Diacyclops pseudosuoensis sp. n.). Diacyclops hanguk, Diacyclops parasuoensis, Diacyclops ishidai, and Diacyclops parahanguk are described from newly collected material, while the other three new species are proposed for specimens previously identified as other, widely distributed species. Diacyclops brevifurcus Ishida, 2006 is redescribed from the holotype female, and Diacyclops suoensis Ito, 1954 is redescribed from material newly collected near the ancient Lake Biwa in Japan. This research provides evidence for the importance of subterranean habitats as reservoirs of biodiversity, and also demonstrates the inadequacy of current morphological methods of identifying closely related species of copepods. The disproportionately high diversity discovered around Lake Biwa provides further evidence in support of the hypothesis about the role of ancient lakes as biodiversity pumps for subterranean habitats. A key to the East Asian species of the languidoides-group is provided. PMID:23653520

  14. Occurrence of Epistylis anastatica (Linnaeus, 1767) (Ciliophora: Peritrichia) on Mesocyclops isabellae Dussart & Fernando (Crustacea: Copepoda: Cyclopoida) in India, with an annotated checklist of species of Epistylis reported as Epibionts of Cyclopoid Copepods and resources for their identification.

    PubMed

    Clamp, John C; Chatterjee, Tapas; Fernandez-Leborans, Gregorio

    2016-09-16

    The colonial peritrich ciliate Epistylis anastatica (Linnaeus, 1767) was discovered living as an epibiont on Mesocyclops isabellae Dussart & Fernando, 1988 collected from a pond in Andhra Pradesh state, India. This is the first report of Epistylis on this host, and a description of its morphological characteristics is provided. The biomass of colonies of E. anastatica relative to that of their hosts was relatively high, being greater than that of the host in some cases (8.11 mm3 vs. 1.14 mm3 or less), and this epibiotic burden has the potential to have an impact on the host's activities. Relationships between epibiotic peritrichs and microcrustaceans like cyclopoid copepods may be much more complex than previously supposed and merit more thorough investigation. Species of Epistylis are commonly found on cyclopoid copepods, but resources for taxonomic identification are limited and scattered; therefore, an annotated checklist of all species reported from cyclopoid copepods and a summary of the diagnostic characteristics of each one is provided as an aid to investigators. Some records of Epistylis spp. from cyclopoid copepods that are accompanied by documentary evidence are misidentifications, raising the suspicion that many other undocumented records also may be erroneous; therefore, it is suggested that authors provide supplementary descriptions and figures.

  15. Description of Conchyliurus dispar n. sp. (Copepoda, Cyclopoida, Clausidiidae) associated with the bivalve Barnea manilensis (Philippi) from the Yellow Sea with a discussion of the male morphotypes in the genus.

    PubMed

    Moon, Seong Yong; Kim, Il-Hoi

    2014-02-03

    Conchyliurus dispar, a new species associated with the bivalve Barnea manilensis (Philippi), is described from the intertidal zone of the Yellow Sea. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following characters: the absence of posterolateral processes on the male genital somite, the absence of a dorsal lobe on the female genital double-somite, and the presence of proximal spinules on the ventral surface of the anal somite. Based on a review of the literature on Conchyliurus, we also argue that the male of the new species and possibly all other known species of Conchyliurus consist of two distinct morphotypes, a large male and a small male. 

  16. New insights into polyphyly of the harpacticoid genus Delavalia (Crustacea, Copepoda) through morphological and molecular study of an unprecedented diversity of sympatric species in a small South Korean bay.

    PubMed

    Karanovic, Tomislav; Kim, Kichoon

    2014-03-25

    Polyphyly of the genus Delavalia Brady, 1869 has been postulated previously based on intuitive methods, but no phylogenetic study was ever conducted. A chance discovery of seven sympatric species of this genus in the highly industrialized Gwangyang Bay in South Korea, in addition to one species each from the closely related genera Stenhelia Boeck, 1865 and Onychostenhelia Itô, 1979, prompted a renewed interest in the phylogenetic relationships within the subfamily Stenheliinae Brady, 1880. Additional surveys along the Korean coast failed to produce Delavalia species, but comparative material was sourced from Posyet Bay in the Russian Far East. Aims of this study were to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships of the newly collected stenheliins using molecular methods, test the hypothesized polyphyly of Delavalia, formally describe any resulting monophyletic units, perform a comparative study of traditional morphological and novel micro-morphological characters, and describe all new Delavalia species. A fragment of the mtCOI gene was successfully PCR-amplified from 23 stenheliin specimens and an additional 300 specimens were studied for morphological characters. All phylogenetic analyses supported the presence of at least eight genetically divergent lineages, most with very high bootstrap values, and the polyphyletic nature of Delavalia is demonstrated. Three new genera, each supported by molecular data and a number of morphological synapomorphies, were erected to accommodate the newly discovered species and some previously described members of Delavalia: Wellstenhelia gen. nov., Itostenhelia gen. nov., and Willenstenhelia gen. nov. The Chinese Wellstenhelia qingdaoensis (Ma & Li, 2011) comb. nov. is recorded for the first time in Korea, and six new species are described from Gwangyang Bay: Wellstenhelia calliope sp. nov., Wellstenhelia clio sp. nov., Wellstenhelia erato sp. nov., Wellstenhelia euterpe sp. nov., Itostenhelia polyhymnia sp. nov., and Willenstenhelia thalia sp. nov. Additonally, Itostenhelia golikovi (Chisleno, 1978) comb. nov. is redescribed from newly collected material from the type locality in Russia and its male described for the first time, while Wellstenhelia melpomene sp. nov., Willenstenhelia urania sp. nov., and Willenstenhelia terpsichore sp. nov. are established as new names for previously reported populations of two presumably widely distributed Delavalia species.

  17. Endemism of subterranean Diacyclops in Korea and Japan, with descriptions of seven new species of the languidoides-group and redescriptions of D. brevifurcus Ishida, 2006 and D. suoensis Ito, 1954 (Crustacea, Copepoda, Cyclopoida).

    PubMed

    Karanovic, Tomislav; Grygier, Mark J; Lee, Wonchoel

    2013-01-01

    Copepods have been poorly studied in subterranean habitats in Korea. Previous records have indicated mostly the presence of species already described from Japan, with very few endemic elements. This commonality has usually been explained by repeated dispersal across the land bridges that connected the two countries several times during the Pleistocene glacial cycles. However, the Korean Peninsula is known for pockets of Cambrian and Ordovician carbonate rocks, with more than 1,000 caves already having been explored. The relative isolation of these carbonate pockets makes for an enormous speciation potential, and the development of a high level of short-range endemism of subterranean copepods should be expected. Representatives of the genus Diacyclops Kiefer, 1927 are here investigated from a range of subterranean habitats in South Korea, with comparative material sampled from central Honshu in Japan. Morphological analyses of microcharacters, many of which are used in cyclopoid taxonomy for the first time herein, reveal high diversity in both countries. No subterranean species is found in common, although the existence of four sibling species pairs in Korea and Japan may be indicative of relatively recent speciation. We describe seven new stygobiotic species, including three from Korea (Diacyclops hanguk sp. n., Diacyclops leeae sp. n., and Diacyclops parasuoensis sp. n.) and four from Japan (Diacyclops hisuta sp. n., Diacyclops ishidai sp. n., Diacyclops parahanguk sp. n., and Diacyclops pseudosuoensis sp. n.). Diacyclops hanguk, Diacyclops parasuoensis, Diacyclops ishidai, and Diacyclops parahanguk are described from newly collected material, while the other three new species are proposed for specimens previously identified as other, widely distributed species. Diacyclops brevifurcus Ishida, 2006 is redescribed from the holotype female, and Diacyclops suoensis Ito, 1954 is redescribed from material newly collected near the ancient Lake Biwa in Japan. This research provides evidence for the importance of subterranean habitats as reservoirs of biodiversity, and also demonstrates the inadequacy of current morphological methods of identifying closely related species of copepods. The disproportionately high diversity discovered around Lake Biwa provides further evidence in support of the hypothesis about the role of ancient lakes as biodiversity pumps for subterranean habitats. A key to the East Asian species of the languidoides-group is provided.

  18. Redescription of two species of Asterocheres Boeck, 1860 (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida), A. corneliae Schirl, 1973 and A. boeckii (Brady, 1880), and proposal of a new genus for Asterocheres fastigatus Kim, 2010.

    PubMed

    Bandera, Eugenia; Conradi, Mercedes

    2016-10-11

    Asterocheres Boeck, 1860 is the largest genus in the family Asterocheridae and includes approximately 96 nominal species. Nevertheless, according to Kim (2010), the current assignment of twelve of these species to Asterocheres is debatable, and fifteen species are too incompletely described for reliable comparisons to be made. In this paper, two species, A. corneliae Schirl, 1973 and A. boeckii (Brady, 1880), are redescribed and compared with their congeners. As a result of the comparison between A. boeckii and A. fastigatus Kim, 2010, a new genus, Kimcheres, is erected to accommodate the only species of Asterocheres displaying the armature formula (0-1) on the second endopodal segment of leg 4. The taxonomic position of A. longisetosus Nair & Pillai, 1984, considered as species inquirenda by Kim (2010), is discussed. Examination of the original description and illustrations, especially the antennules and the mandible, casts doubts on the validity of the species.

     Asterocheres Boeck, 1860 is the largest genus in the family Asterocheridae and includes approximately 96 nominal species. Nevertheless, according to Kim (2010), the current assignment of twelve of these species to Asterocheres is debatable, and fifteen species are too incompletely described for reliable comparisons to be made. In this paper, two species, A. corneliae Schirl, 1973 and A. boeckii (Brady, 1880), are redescribed and compared with their congeners. As a result of the comparison between A. boeckii and A. fastigatus Kim, 2010, a new genus, Kimcheres, is erected to accommodate the only species of Asterocheres displaying the armature formula (0-1) on the second endopodal segment of leg 4. The taxonomic position of A. longisetosus Nair & Pillai, 1984, considered as species inquirenda by Kim (2010), is discussed. Examination of the original description and illustrations, especially the antennules and the mandible, casts doubts on the validity of the species.

  19. Revision of the Remaneicaris argentina-group (Copepoda, Harpacticoida, Parastenocarididae): supplementary description of species, and description of the first semi-terrestrial Remaneicaris from the tropical forest of Southeast Mexico.

    PubMed

    Corgosinho, Paulo Henrique C; Mercado-Salas, Nancy F; Arbizu, Pedro Martínez; Silva, Edinaldo Nelson Dos Santos; Kihara, Terue C

    2017-03-06

    Remaneicaris is a species-rich Neotropical monophyletic group, easily recognized by the synapomorphic position of the outer seta of the third exopodite of leg 4, localized at 2/3 of the outer margin. The genus, comprising 35 species in five monophyletic groups, plus R. ignotus and R. meyerabichi, retains an unusual set of plesiomorphic characters. Herein we supplement the descriptions of the species belonging to the Remaneicaris argentina-group, and describe a new species from the tropical forest of Southeast Mexico. The present study extends the geographic distribution of the genus, with the northernmost record until now being from El Salvador. The genus having hitherto been known from interstitial groundwater habitats, this is its first record in epigean semi-terrestrial habitats. Remaneicaris siankaan sp. nov. was found in phytotelmata (bromeliads), leaf litter, moist soil, permanent ponds (known locally as "aguadas"), and temporal and permanent wetlands (savannahs). The new species can be easily characterized by its finely pitted cuticle, the ε (epsilon)-shaped thumb of the male P3 and the bifid accessory spine with distal hyaline inner tip, which precedes the thumb. A new method for the 3D reconstruction of microcrustaceans is described.

  20. A new species of Leposphilus Hesse, 1866 (Copepoda: Philichthyidae) parasitic in the interorbital canals of the whitemouth croaker Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest) (Sciaenidae) off Brazil with an amended diagnosis of the genus.

    PubMed

    Paschoal, Fabiano; Nagasawa, Kazuya; Luque, José Luis

    2016-06-01

    A new species of the monotypic genus Leposphilus Hesse, 1866 (Cyclopoida: Philichthyidae), Leposphilus vogti n. sp., is described based on adult female and male specimens from the interorbital canals of Micropogonias furnieri (Desmarest) (Sciaenidae) in Sepetiba Bay, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The new species differs from its only congener, L. labrei Hesse, 1866, by the following combination of characters in the adult female: a globular cephalosome, a two-segmented maxilla, and fourth abdominal somite fused to caudal ramus; and in the adult male: presence of maxilliped, leg 3 with five setae, and caudal rami tipped with six setae. In addition, an amendment of diagnosis of Leposphilus is provided based on the characters of the new species. Previous records of philichthyid copepods from actinopterygians in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans off the American continent are also given.

  1. Zooplankton Distribution in Tropical Reservoirs, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qiu-Qi; Duan, Shun-Shan; Hu, Ren; Han, Bo-Ping

    2003-11-01

    The zooplankton of 18 reservoirs of South China was investigated in 2000. 61 Rotifera species, 23 Cladoceras and 14 Copepodas were identified. The most frequent Rotifera genera were Keratella, Brachionus, Trichocerca, Diurella, Ascomorpha, Polyarthra, Ploesoma, Asplanchna, Pompholyx and Conochilus. Bosmina longirostris, Bosminopsis deitersi, Diaphanosoma birgei, D. brachyurum and Moina micrura were typical of Cladocera in the reservoirs. Phyllodiaptomus tunguidus, Neodiaptomus schmackeri and Mesocyclops leuckarti were the most frequent Copepoda and M. leuckarti dominated Copepoda in most reservoirs. High zooplankton species richness with low abundance was characteristic of the throughflowing reservoir, whereas low species richness with low abundance was found in the reservoir with the longest retention time. Relative high abundance and medium species diversity were the distinction of intermediate retention time reservoirs.

  2. Moving Cages Further Offshore: Effects on Southern Bluefin Tuna, T. maccoyii, Parasites, Health and Performance

    PubMed Central

    Kirchhoff, Nicole T.; Rough, Kirsty M.; Nowak, Barbara F.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of offshore aquaculture on SBT health (particularly parasitic infections and haematology) and performance were the main aim of this study. Two cohorts of ranched Southern Bluefin tuna (SBT) (Thunnus maccoyii) were monitored throughout the commercial season, one maintained in the traditional near shore tuna farming zone and one maintained further offshore. SBT maintained offshore had reduced mortality, increased condition index at week 6 post transfer, reduced blood fluke and sealice loads, and haematological variables such as haemoglobin or lysozyme equal to or exceeding near shore maintained fish. The offshore cohort had no Cardicola forsteri and a 5% prevalence of Caligus spp., compared to a prevalence of 85% for Cardicola forsteri and 55% prevalence for Caligus spp. near shore at 6 weeks post transfer. This study is the first of its kind to examine the effects of commercial offshore sites on farmed fish parasites, health and performance. PMID:21901129

  3. [Copepode parasites of fish from the Kerkennah Islands (Southern Tunisia)].

    PubMed

    Essafi, K; Cabral, P; Raibaut, A

    1984-12-01

    Out of 29 species of fish from the Kerkennah Islands examined, 30 species of parasitic copepoda were collected which belong to seven families and nine different genera. Among them three new species have been found and ten were reported for the first time in Tunisia.

  4. [Species composition and distribution characteristics of pelagic copepods in the Northern Sea of Fujian during withdraw of Zhe-Min coastal current].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Guo; Lin, Jing-Hong; Wang, Chun-Guang; Lin, Mao

    2012-06-01

    Based on oceanographic survey data in April 2009 in the north central Taiwan Strait, ecological characteristics such as species composition, individual density, dominant species and distribution were analyzed. The results were compared with the same area survey in spring 2007 for discuss the annual variety. The result shows that 48 pelagic copepods species have been recognized, and most of them belongs to Calanodia. The higher species number occurs in southern and eastern area. The average density of pelagic copepoda was 231.96 ind x m(-3). As to the horizontal distribution, the coast and northern areas are higher than those of eastern and southern areas of the density of pelagic copepods which are dependent on the dominant species Calanus sinicus and Euchaeta plana. The community structure of pelagic copepoda was same to the other survey result, which shows low biodiversity index with remarkable dominant species. Owing to the Zhe-Min coastal current effect, the higher density distribution is different in 2007 and 2009. As to the ecological character, all the copepoda in this paper belong to warm-water, warm-temperature and tropic oceanic groups. Warm-water and tropic oceanic groups are the dominant groups of the pelagic copepods composition. When it comes to density, warm-temperature group is the dominant. The relationship of species number, diversity index and abundance with the environment were also discussed in this paper. The result showed that the pelagic copepoda species number and diversity would increase with the temperature and salty increase.

  5. Transmission of Microsporidian Parasites of Mosquitoes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    aquatic animals, were surveyed (Table 1). These totals exclude Protozoa, Rotatoria, and Nematoda , which were present in most or all of the jars. From the...ROTATORIA + + Al NEMATODA + + AI NEMATOMORPHA 1 2 A ANNELIDA Oliqochaeta 2 9 A ARTHROPODA Crustacea Cladocera 2 + A Copepoda 3 + AI Ostracoda 7 + AI Amphipoda

  6. A new species of Copepoda Harpacticoida, Xylora calyptogenae spec. n., with a carnivorous life-style from a hydrothermally active submarine volcano in the New Ireland Fore-Arc system (Papua New Guinea) with notes on the systematics of the Donsiellinae Lang, 1948

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willen, Elke

    2006-12-01

    A new species of harpacticoid copepods, Xylora calyptogenae spec. n., from Edison Seamount, a hydrothermally active submarine volcano in the New Ireland Fore-Arc system (Papua New Guinea) is described. The new species belongs to the Donsiellinae Lang, 1944, a highly specialised taxon, the members of which have previously been encountered only in association with decaying wood and/or wood-boring isopods. A closer relationship of the Donsiellinae with the Pseudotachidiidae Lang, 1936, can be stated on the basis of characteristics concerning the setation and/or segmentation of A1, A2, Mxl, Mxp, the shape of the female P5, anal somite, sexual dimorphisms on P2 and P3 and missing caudal seta I. Within the Pseudotachidiidae, the Donsiellinae again can be well characterized, e.g. by the setation and segmentation of A2, Mxl, swimming-legs, the shape of P1, female P5, male P2, sexual dimorphism and male P5. The Donsiellinae share some apomorphies with the pseudotachidiid subtaxon Paranannopinae Por, 1986: setation/segmentation of Mx, P1, A1. X. calyptogenae spec. n. is more closely related to Xylora bathyalis Hicks 1988 living in the deep sea wood substrata in New Zealand waters. Some traits of the evolutionary history of the Donsiellinae become evident, probably starting from the more primitive deep sea taxa X .calyptogenae spec. n., which lives in the hydrothermal seafloor in the absence of decaying wood, and X. bathyalis, which is found in decaying wood but not necessarily associated with the wood-boring isopod Limnoria Leach, 1814, towards the more advanced genera such as Donsiella Stephensen, 1936, which invades shallow waters and, further, clings to Limnoria, forming a close and, for the copepod, probably obligatory association. The specialised mouthparts of X. calyptogenae spec. n. seem to facilitate the grabbing and fixing of larger and/or active food items. This is confirmed by the presence of a large prey organism, presumably a copepod, consumed either alive or dead, in the gut of one of the available specimens. This morphology of the mouthparts is also shared by the closely related X. bathyalis.

  7. Review of Pennella Oken, 1816 (Copepoda: Pennellidae) with a description of Pennella benzi sp. nov., a parasite of Escolar, Lepidocybium flavobrunneum (Pisces) in the northwest Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Hogans, W E

    2017-03-17

    The genus Pennella Oken, 1816, mesoparasitic copepods from marine fish and mammals, is reviewed with the objective of determining the validity of members of the genus. Details of the external morphological structures of the adult female are presented. Pennella species are differentiated based on a combination of characters: the type of host parasitized, overall length of the parasite, shape, size and configuration of cephalothoracic papillae, segmentation of the first and second antenna, holdfast horn number, shape and configuration, and structure of the abdominal plumes. A new species of Pennella, Pennella benzi sp. nov., is described from the escolar, Lepidocybium flavobrunneum in the northwest Atlantic. Pennella balaenoptera Koren & Danielssen, 1877 is reported from the harbor porpoise (Phocaena phocaena) in the Bay of Fundy, a new locality record. The validity of 44 species is assessed; nine species (P. balaenoptera Koren & Danielssen, 1877, P. benzi sp. nov., P. diodontis Oken, 1816, P. exocoeti (Holten, 1802), P. filosa Linnaeus, 1758, P. hawaiiensis Kazachenko & Kurochkin, 1974, P. instructa Wilson, 1917, P. makaira Hogans, 1988 and P. sagitta Linnaeus, 1758) are considered substantiated and valid; six species (P. elegans Gnanamuthu, 1957, P. longicauda Gnanamuthu, 1957, P. platycephalus Gnanamuthu, 1957, P. remorae Murray, 1856, P. robusta Gnanamuthu, 1957, and P. selaris Kirtisinghe, 1964) exhibit unique characteristics, but are based on descriptions of single specimens, have not been found since the original reports and are considered as species inquirendae; the remaining species are unsubstantiated and invalid based on inadequate or missing original descriptions, or are designated as synonyms of valid species. A key to the valid species of the genus is provided.

  8. Structural basis for the fast maturation of Arthropoda green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Evdokimov, Artem G; Pokross, Matthew E; Egorov, Nikolay S; Zaraisky, Andrey G; Yampolsky, Ilya V; Merzlyak, Ekaterina M; Shkoporov, Andrey N; Sander, Ian; Lukyanov, Konstantin A; Chudakov, Dmitriy M

    2006-10-01

    Since the cloning of Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein (GFP) in 1992, a family of known GFP-like proteins has been growing rapidly. Today, it includes more than a hundred proteins with different spectral characteristics cloned from Cnidaria species. For some of these proteins, crystal structures have been solved, showing diversity in chromophore modifications and conformational states. However, we are still far from a complete understanding of the origin, functions and evolution of the GFP family. Novel proteins of the family were recently cloned from evolutionarily distant marine Copepoda species, phylum Arthropoda, demonstrating an extremely rapid generation of fluorescent signal. Here, we have generated a non-aggregating mutant of Copepoda fluorescent protein and solved its high-resolution crystal structure. It was found that the protein beta-barrel contains a pore, leading to the chromophore. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we showed that this feature is critical for the fast maturation of the chromophore.

  9. Toxicity and hazard of a mixture of SSRIs to zooplankton communities evaluated in aquatic microcosms.

    PubMed

    Laird, Brian D; Brain, Richard A; Johnson, David J; Wilson, Christian J; Sanderson, Hans; Solomon, Keith R

    2007-10-01

    The toxicity and hazard of a mixture of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), including fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, and sertraline, to zooplankton communities were evaluated using 120,00l outdoor microcosms. Acute (day 4) and chronic (day 35) zooplankton abundance and species richness were assessed for Rotifera, Cladocera, and Copepoda. For acute SSRI exposures, rotifers were the most sensitive zooplankton taxa to changes in abundance (predicted no effect concentration (PNEC)=19 nM); however, no effects in zooplankton species richness were observed for this treatment period. A decrease in Copepoda abundance and species richness was observed following chronic exposures of SSRIs (PNEC=9.1 nM). A 99th-centile predicted environmental concentration (PEC=0.51 nM) yielded HQs at least two orders of magnitude below 1. Therefore, mixtures of SSRIs do not appear to present a hazard to zooplankton communities at environmentally relevant concentrations.

  10. Effects of nonylphenol on zooplankton in aquatic microcosms.

    PubMed

    Severin, Gabriele E; Welzl, Gerhard; Jüttner, Ingrid; Pfister, Gerd; Schramm, Karl-Werner

    2003-11-01

    We investigated the effects of the endocrine disruptor nonylphenol (NP) on the zooplankton assemblages of 230 L aquatic microcosms during a four-week preapplication period, a six-week NP treatment via controlled release, and a six-week postapplication period. Zooplankton assemblage change, investigated by ordination principal response curves (PRC), was due to lower abundances of copepoda, rotifera, and cladocera. The most sensitive groups/taxa were copepoda larvae, followed by the rotifers Synchaeta spp., Polyarthra spp., and the cladocerans Daphnia longispina and Chydorus sphaericus. The mean no-observed-effect concentrations for the community (NOEC(community)) was 30 microg/L. Cladocera densities recovered during the postapplication period at all but the highest NP concentrations (maximum 120 microg/L); copepod densities did not recover at the three highest concentrations (maximum 96-120 microg/L).

  11. Zooplankton Patterns in Relation to Physical Processes and Behavior

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    Sea Research 36:385-405. Haury, L.R. 1988. Vertical distribution of Pleuromanmma ( Copepoda , Metridinidae) across the eastern North Pacific Ocean...Hydrobiologia 167/168:335-342. Genin, A., L.R. Haury, and P. Greenblatt 1988. Interactions of migrating zooplankton with shallow topography: predation by... predation on the zooplankton b, sz-amount-associated predators . This work led to the continuing study of patchiness intensification aý ound both deep and

  12. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest). Lingcod

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    Res. Board Can. Kabata, F. 1973. The species of 20(2):257-264. Lepeophiheirus ( Copepoda : Caligidae) from fishes in British Columbia. J. Fish. Res...AD-A224 839 Biological Report 82(11.119) TR EL-82-4 December 1989 OTC FiLE COPY Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of...1989 Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest) LINGCOD by William N

  13. [Localization of crustaceans--fish parasites and nose capsules as the habitat of the genus Salmincola (Podoplea: Lernaeopodidae) mesoparasites].

    PubMed

    Pronin, N M; Burdukovskaia, T G

    2013-01-01

    Copepoda parasitica of Baikal fishes (16 species) is divided into 7 groups according to their localization: parasites of the gill apparatus, gill covers, gill and buccal cavities, nasal fossa, cutaneous covering, and fins. It was proposed to separate nasal fossa parasites as the special ecological group ofmesoparasites. Typical speciemens of the group include crustaceans Salmincola longimanus complex--parasites of grayling and cisco fishes consist of three species (S. longimanus, S. svetlanovi, S. lavaretus) and one subspecies (S. longimanus sibirica).

  14. [Abundance and biomass of meiobenthos in Southern Yellow Sea in winter].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Zhi-nan; Huang, Yong; Hua, Er

    2007-02-01

    A two cruises investigation on the meiobenthos in the continental shelf of Southern Yellow Sea was made in January 2003 and January 2004. The results showed that the average abundance of meiobenthos was (954.20 +/- 269.47) ind x 10 cm(-2) and ( 1 186.12+/- 486.07) ind x 10 cm(-2), and the biomass was (954.38+/-403.93) microg x10 cm(-2) and (1 120.72+/-487.21 ) mg x 10 cm(-2) in January 2003 and January 2004, respectively, with no significant difference observed. A total of twenty meiobenthic groups were identified. Free-living marine nematodes was the most dominant group in abundance, with a relative dominance of 87% in 2003 and 90% in 2004, followed by benthic harpacticoids copepoda, polychaeta and kinorhyncha. In terms of biomass, the dominant groups were nematoda (34% -38%), polychaeta (25% -33%), ostracoda (9% -22%) and copepoda (8%). 96. 64% of the meiobenthos distributed in the top 0-5 cm of sediment, while 72. 48% of nematode and 89. 46% of copepoda were in the top 0-2 cm of the sediment. Meiobenthos biomass had significant correlation with the sand and silt contents of sediment and the content of Chl-a. The species composition and biodiversity analyses of six representative stations indicated that there were three meiobenthos communities in the study area, i. e. , inshore, cold waters mass, and transitional communities.

  15. The first data on the freshwater microcrustaceans of Shokalsky Island (Russian Arctic)

    PubMed Central

    Novichkova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Information on freshwater invertebrates of the Russian Arctic is very scarce, especially concerning insular biota. The species composition of microcrustaceans (Cladocera, Copepoda) of many arctic islands is still unknown and have never been explored. Here we report the results of the first investigation of the zooplankton of the Shokalsky Island (Yamalo­Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Russia). Information on freshwater invertebrates of the Russian Arctic is very scarce, especially concerning insular biota. The species composition of microcrustaceans (Cladocera, Copepoda) of many arctic islands is still unknown and have never been explored. Here we report the results of the first investigation of the zooplankton of the Shokalsky Island (Yamalo­Nenets Autonomous Okrug, Russia). New information The new records reported here are novel for the region and significantly expand the knowledge of the high­-latitude aquatic biota. We studied the species composition of Cladocera and Copepoda of 21 freshwater habitats located on the south­western part of Shokalsky Island. We found 15 species of microcrustaceans in total and all of them are reported for the first time here. Also, the obtained data expand the existing ranges of distribution of some species and report several new taxa for the whole Yamalo­Nenets region of Russia. PMID:28174508

  16. First records of parasitic copepods (Crustacea, Siphonostomatoida) from marine fishes in Korea.

    PubMed

    Venmathi Maran, B A; Soh, H Y; Hwang, U W; Chang, C Y; Myoung, J G

    2015-06-01

    The knowledge of the biodiversity of parasitic copepods in South Korea is increasing. Interestingly we report here, some parasitic copepods considered as the first record of findings from Korea. Nine species of parasitic copepods (Siphonostomatoida) including six genera of three different families [Caligidae (7), Lernaeopodidae (1), Lernanthropidae (1)] were recovered from eight species of wild fishes in Korea: 1) Caligus hoplognathi Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959 (♀, ♂) from the body surface of barred knifejaw Oplegnathus fasciatus (Temminck & Schlegel); 2) Caligus lagocephali Pillai, 1961 (♀) from the gills of panther puffer Takifugu pardalis (Temminck & Schlegel); 3) Euryphorus brachypterus (Gerstaecker, 1853) (♀, ♂) from the opercular cavity of Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus); 4) Euryphorus nordmanni Milne Edwards, 1840 (♀, ♂) from the opercular cavity of common dolphin fish Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus; 5) Gloiopotes huttoni (Thomson) (♀, ♂) from the body surface of black marlin Istiompax indica (Cuvier); 6) Lepeophtheirus hapalogenyos Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959 (♀) from the gill filaments of O. fasciatus; 7) Lepeophtheirus sekii Yamaguti, 1936 (♀, ♂) from the body surface of red seabream Pagrus major (Temminck & Schlegel); 8) Brachiella thynni Cuvier, 1830 (♀) from the body surface of longfin tuna or albacore Thunnus alalunga (Bonnaterre); 9) Lernanthropinus sphyraenae (Yamaguti & Yamasu, 1959) (♀) from the gill filaments of moon fish Mene maculata (Bloch & Schneider). Since the female was already reported in Korea, it is a new record for the male of C. hoplognathi. A checklist for the parasitic copepods of the family Caligidae, Lernaeopodidae and Lernanthropidae of Korea is provided.

  17. Trends in freshwater microcrustaceans studies in Brazil between 1990 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Silva, W M; Perbiche-Neves, G

    2016-12-01

    This study presents a review of scientiometric data about freshwater microcrustaceans (Copepoda, Ostracoda, Branchiopoda: Cladocera, Anostraca, Notostraca and Conchostraca) in Brazil from 1990-2014. This review is based on 179 papers published across four databases, using the following keywords in the search: microcrustaceans, Copepoda, Cyclopoida, Calanoida, Harpacticoida, Ergasilidae, Daphniidae, Moinidae, Cladocera, Ostracoda, Conchostraca, zooplankton, reservoir, river, ponds, reservoirs, wetlands, caves, lakes, limnology, ecology, aquatic, taxonomy, systematics, morphology and biogeography. No studies were identified that addressed freshwater microcrustaceans in four (Amapá, Roraima, Alagoas and Espírito Santo) of the 27 Brazilian Federative States. Forty-five percent of the included studies were concentrated within three of the most populous states (São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Paraná), which also have a long tradition of limnological study. The included studies mostly addressed reservoirs for hydropower generation (22%), multiple environments (22%), rivers (14%) and small artificial reservoirs (11%). Pools, ponds, small lakes, wetlands and phytothelma were not widely studied. Cladocera (48%) and Copepoda (48%) were the most studied groups. No studies were identified that addressed Notostraca, Anostraca or Conchostraca. The sharp increase in the number of published freshwater studies after 2000 is likely a result of increased internet facilities and the implementation of the Scielo platform. Ecology was most frequently the study focus (~50%), followed by taxonomy. Three journals (two Brazilian and one international) accounted for the publication of 44% of the Brazilian studies on microcrustaceans. We expect the frequency of studies employing newer technologies to increase in the coming years. Based on our findings, we propose that future studies should focus on the least well-studied states and should integrate biogeography and systematic approaches

  18. [Parasitic metazoans of Stenella coeruleoalba (Cetacea: Delphinidae) stranded along the coast of Latium, 1985-1991].

    PubMed

    Cerioni, S; Mariniello, L

    1996-12-01

    The striped dolphin represents the most common species of cetacean stranded along the Italian coasts. A parasitological survey on 17 specimens of Stenella coerulecaiba stranded along coasts of Latium from 1985 to 1991, has been carried out. The morphological study enabled the identification of the following parasites. The sites are reported in brackets. DIGENEA: Campula rochebruni (liver), Campula palliata (liver), Pholeter gastrophilus (pyloric stomach). CESTODA: Tetrabothrium forsteri (intestine), Strobilocephalus triangularis (intestine), Monorygma grimaldii, larvae (abdominal cavity, mesentery, testes), Phyliobothrium delphini, larvae (subcutaneous fat). NEMATODA: Skrjabinalius sp. (lungs). COPEPODA: Pennella sp. (skin). ISOPODA: Ceratothoa parallela (mouth, stomach). AMPHIPODA: Syncyamus aequus (blowhole).

  19. Common plankton of Twin Lakes, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Lieberman, D.M.

    1983-02-01

    A series of studies is being performed to evaluate the effects of the Mt. Elbert Pumped-Storage Powerplant on the ecology of Twin Lakes. Twin Lakes are a pair of connected dimictic lakes, formed as the result of glacial action on alluvial deposits. This report presents a taxonomic species study of the common plankton collected since 1974 from Twin Lakes. A total of 11 zooplankters and 14 phytoplankters were identified from the limnetic zone of Twin Lakes and the associated Mt. Elbert Forebay. The four divisions of zooplankton included four species of Rotifera (rotifer), three species of Copepoda (copepod), three species of Cladocera (cladoceran), and one species of Mysidacea (opossum shrimp).

  20. The InfThe Influence Of Subsample Size In A Study Of Freshwater Zooplantonluence Of Subsample Size In A Study Of Freshwater Zooplanton

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, James A.

    2005-08-15

    The influence of subsample size on counting precision and estimates of taxa richness is documented for a freshwater zooplankton biomonitoring program. Subsample variability was related to subsample size. The mean and median coefficient of variation for cladocera and copepoda were below 30% at counts of 50-100 individuals. Jaccard's similarity coefficient stabilized at counts of 100-150 individuals as did the total number of zooplankton taxa identified. These data suggest that counting more organisms in subsamples or more than one subsample per sample may do relatively little to better characterize samples.

  1. Large-Scale Testing of Treatment Processes as Alternatives to Ballast Exchange

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    N N N Acartia spp. (Order Calanoida) N *** ND ND N N ND ND Paracalanus spp. (Order Calanoida) N ** ND ND * N ND ND Oithona spp. (Order Cyclopoida ) N...Paracalanus spp. (Order Calanoida) ND ND ND ND ND ND Oithona spp. (Order Cyclopoida ) ND ND ND ND ND ND Order Harpacticoida ND ND ND ND ND ND Class...ND ND ND acalanus spp. (Order Calanoida) ND ND ND ND ND ND ona spp. (Order Cyclopoida ) ND ND ND ND ND ND er Harpacticoida ND ND ND ND ND ND s Copepoda

  2. Occurrence of Ergasilus megaceros Wilson, 1916, in the sea lamprey and other fishes from North America.

    PubMed

    Muzzall, Patrick M; Hudson, Patrick L

    2004-02-01

    Ergasilus megaceros (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) was recovered from the nasal fossae (lamellae) of the olfactory sac in 1 (1.8%) of 56 sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus Linne, 1758, collected in May 2002 from the Cheboygan River, Michigan. Although the sea lamprey is a new host record for E. megaceros, this fish species may not be a preferred host because of its low prevalence. Ergasilus megaceros is the second ergasilid species reported from the sea lamprey in North America. This is the third report of an ergasilid species infecting the nasal fossae of fishes in North America, with E. rhinos being the only other species reported from this site.

  3. Copepods and larvae of nematodes parasitizing (correction of parasiting) the white mullet Mugil curema (Valenciennes, 1836): indicators of anthropogenic impacts in tropical coastal lagoons?

    PubMed

    Fajer-Avila, E J; García-Vásquez, A; Plascencia-González, H; Ríos-Sicairos, J; García-De La Parra, L M; Betancourt-Lozano, M

    2006-11-01

    The relationship between parasites and environmental stress were studied in two tropical coastal lagoons of Northwest Mexico: Urias estuary (highly polluted) and Teacapan estuary (slightly polluted). Metazoan parasites were examined in 292 white mullet (Mugil curema) specimens collected bimonthly during a year from both systems. Haliotrema mugilinus, Metamicrocotyla macracantha, Ergasilus sp., Caligus sp., Holobomolochus sp., and Lernaeopodidae were found in gills, while Contracaecum sp. larvae III was found liver, hepatic portal vein and kidneys. Ecological indices were influenced by the slightly higher number of parasitic species in Urias compared to Teacapan, as well as the clear dominance of two species: Ergasilus sp. and Contracaecum sp. in both systems. In fact, Ergasilus sp. showed considerably higher abundance in Urias, possibly indicating that its success was a result of adverse conditions affecting the host, while Contracaecum sp showed higher abundances in Teacapan, suggesting that the environmental conditions occurring in Urias could have produced negative impacts on the nematode's infective potential.

  4. Intraerythrocytic merogony in Haemogregarina koppiensis (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina: Haemogregarinidae).

    PubMed

    Smit, Nico J; Davies, Angela J

    2005-09-01

    During October 2003, a specimen of Amblyrhynchotes honckenii (Bloch, 1795) was captured at low tide, with a hand net, in a rock pool at Koppie Alleen, De Hoop Nature Reserve, South Africa. This fish was heavily parasitized by unidentified gnathiid praniza larvae, caligid copepods identified as Caligus tetrodontis Barnard, 1948, cymothoid isopods identified as Cinusa tetrodontis (Schioedte et Meinert, 1884), and the blood protozoan Haemogregarina koppiensis Smit et Davies, 2001. Giemsa-stained blood smears from this fish revealed new and unusual stages of merogony for H. koppiensis that included small, rounded, likely intraerythrocytic merozoites arranged in circles of eight around the host nucleus. Host cells appeared ghost-like and enlarged compared with normal erythrocytes. Identical merozoites, usually in clusters of up to 16, were also observed free of host cells. The pattern of merogony seen in H. koppiensis is unusual for a fish haemogregarine.

  5. The metazoan parasites of Stellifer minor (Tschudi, 1844): an ecological approach.

    PubMed

    Oliva, M E; Luque, J L; Iannacone, J A

    1990-01-01

    A quantitative and qualitative analysis of the parasite fauna of the sciaenid Stellifer minor (Tschudi) from Chorrillos, Perú, was made. Some characteristics of the infectious processes, in terms of intensity and prevalence of infection, as a function of host sex and size, are given. Moreover, comments on the characteristics of the parasite fauna, related with host role in the marine food webs are included. The parasite fauna of Stellifer minor taken off Chorrillos, Perú, include the monogeneans Pedocotyle annakohni, Pedocotyle bravoi, Rhamnocercus sp. and Cynoscionicola sp., the digenean Helicometra fasciata, the adult acantocephalan Rhadinorhynchus sp. and the larval Corynosoma sp., the nematode Procamallanus sp., the copepods Caligus quadratus, Clavellotis dilatata and Bomolochus peruensis and one unidentified isopod of the family Cymothoidae. A distinctive characteristic of the parasite fauna (Metazoa) of S. minor is the almost absence of larval forms.

  6. Potential retention effect at fish farms boosts zooplankton abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Jover, D.; Toledo-Guedes, K.; Valero-Rodríguez, J. M.; Fernandez-Gonzalez, V.; Sanchez-Jerez, P.

    2016-11-01

    Coastal aquaculture activities influence wild macrofauna in natural environments due to the introduction of artificial structures, such as floating cages, that provide structural complexity in the pelagic system. This alters the abundance and distribution of the affected species and also their feeding behaviour and diet. Despite this, the effects of coastal aquaculture on zooplankton assemblages and the potential changes in their abundance and distribution remain largely unstudied. Traditional plankton sampling hauls between the farm mooring systems entail some practical difficulties. As an alternative, light traps were deployed at 2 farms in the SW Mediterranean during a whole warm season. Total zooplankton capture by traps at farms was higher than at control locations on every sampling night. It ranged from 3 to 10 times higher for the taxonomic groups: bivalvia, cladocera, cumacea, fish early-life-stages, gastropoda, polychaeta and tanaidacea; 10-20 times higher for amphipoda, chaetognatha, isopoda, mysidacea and ostracoda, and 22 times higher for copepoda and the crustacean juvenile stages zoea and megalopa. Permutational analysis showed significant differences for the most abundant zooplankton groups (copepoda, crustacean larvae, chaetognatha, cladocera, mysidacea and polychaeta). This marked incremental increase in zooplankton taxa at farms was consistent, irrespective of the changing environmental variables registered every night. Reasons for the greater abundance of zooplankton at farms are discussed, although results suggest a retention effect caused by cage structures rather than active attraction through physical or chemical cues.

  7. Carotenoid metabolic profiling and transcriptome-genome mining reveal functional equivalence among blue-pigmented copepods and appendicularia.

    PubMed

    Mojib, Nazia; Amad, Maan; Thimma, Manjula; Aldanondo, Naroa; Kumaran, Mande; Irigoien, Xabier

    2014-06-01

    The tropical oligotrophic oceanic areas are characterized by high water transparency and annual solar radiation. Under these conditions, a large number of phylogenetically diverse mesozooplankton species living in the surface waters (neuston) are found to be blue pigmented. In the present study, we focused on understanding the metabolic and genetic basis of the observed blue phenotype functional equivalence between the blue-pigmented organisms from the phylum Arthropoda, subclass Copepoda (Acartia fossae) and the phylum Chordata, class Appendicularia (Oikopleura dioica) in the Red Sea. Previous studies have shown that carotenoid-protein complexes are responsible for blue coloration in crustaceans. Therefore, we performed carotenoid metabolic profiling using both targeted and nontargeted (high-resolution mass spectrometry) approaches in four different blue-pigmented genera of copepods and one blue-pigmented species of appendicularia. Astaxanthin was found to be the principal carotenoid in all the species. The pathway analysis showed that all the species can synthesize astaxanthin from β-carotene, ingested from dietary sources, via 3-hydroxyechinenone, canthaxanthin, zeaxanthin, adonirubin or adonixanthin. Further, using de novo assembled transcriptome of blue A. fossae (subclass Copepoda), we identified highly expressed homologous β-carotene hydroxylase enzymes and putative carotenoid-binding proteins responsible for astaxanthin formation and the blue phenotype. In blue O. dioica (class Appendicularia), corresponding putative genes were identified from the reference genome. Collectively, our data provide molecular evidences for the bioconversion and accumulation of blue astaxanthin-protein complexes underpinning the observed ecological functional equivalence and adaptive convergence among neustonic mesozooplankton.

  8. Plankton community as an indicator of water quality in tropical shrimp culture ponds.

    PubMed

    Casé, Maristela; Leça, Enide Eskinazi; Leitão, Sigrid Neumann; Sant Anna, Eneida Eskinazi; Schwamborn, Ralf; de Moraes Junior, Antônio Travassos

    2008-07-01

    The plankton was examined as an indicator of water quality in 14 shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei farms in Brazil in 2003. The ponds were categorized by high stocking density (>30 PL m(-2)) of phytoplankton, consisting of 51 species with concentrations ranging from 365,218+/-416,615 cells mL(-1) to 1,961,675+/-3,160,172 cells mL(-1). Diatoms contributed to almost 70% of the species number and high densities resulted from Cyanophyta blooms, mainly Pseudanabaena cf limnetica. Forty zooplankton taxa were registered and were essentially composed of typical marine euryhaline species and suspension-feeders. Copepoda dominated (45%) the make-up, followed by Protozoa (18%), Rotifera (12%), and Mollusca (12%) larvae. Zooplankton varied from 972+/-209 ind m(-3) to 4235+/-2877 ind m(-3). Enhanced nutrient input affected plankton density and composition. Diatom and Copepoda dominance was replaced by cyanobacteria, protozoan, and rotifers as nutrient concentrations increased with the cultured period, indicating that plankton structure is affected by eutrophic conditions.

  9. The Impact of Water Table Drawdown and Drying on Subterranean Aquatic Fauna in In-Vitro Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Stumpp, Christine; Hose, Grant C.

    2013-01-01

    The abstraction of groundwater is a global phenomenon that directly threatens groundwater ecosystems. Despite the global significance of this issue, the impact of groundwater abstraction and the lowering of groundwater tables on biota is poorly known. The aim of this study is to determine the impacts of groundwater drawdown in unconfined aquifers on the distribution of fauna close to the water table, and the tolerance of groundwater fauna to sediment drying once water levels have declined. A series of column experiments were conducted to investigate the depth distribution of different stygofauna (Syncarida and Copepoda) under saturated conditions and after fast and slow water table declines. Further, the survival of stygofauna under conditions of reduced sediment water content was tested. The distribution and response of stygofauna to water drawdown was taxon specific, but with the common response of some fauna being stranded by water level decline. So too, the survival of stygofauna under different levels of sediment saturation was variable. Syncarida were better able to tolerate drying conditions than the Copepoda, but mortality of all groups increased with decreasing sediment water content. The results of this work provide new understanding of the response of fauna to water table drawdown. Such improved understanding is necessary for sustainable use of groundwater, and allows for targeted strategies to better manage groundwater abstraction and maintain groundwater biodiversity. PMID:24278111

  10. The impact of water table drawdown and drying on subterranean aquatic fauna in in-vitro experiments.

    PubMed

    Stumpp, Christine; Hose, Grant C

    2013-01-01

    The abstraction of groundwater is a global phenomenon that directly threatens groundwater ecosystems. Despite the global significance of this issue, the impact of groundwater abstraction and the lowering of groundwater tables on biota is poorly known. The aim of this study is to determine the impacts of groundwater drawdown in unconfined aquifers on the distribution of fauna close to the water table, and the tolerance of groundwater fauna to sediment drying once water levels have declined. A series of column experiments were conducted to investigate the depth distribution of different stygofauna (Syncarida and Copepoda) under saturated conditions and after fast and slow water table declines. Further, the survival of stygofauna under conditions of reduced sediment water content was tested. The distribution and response of stygofauna to water drawdown was taxon specific, but with the common response of some fauna being stranded by water level decline. So too, the survival of stygofauna under different levels of sediment saturation was variable. Syncarida were better able to tolerate drying conditions than the Copepoda, but mortality of all groups increased with decreasing sediment water content. The results of this work provide new understanding of the response of fauna to water table drawdown. Such improved understanding is necessary for sustainable use of groundwater, and allows for targeted strategies to better manage groundwater abstraction and maintain groundwater biodiversity.

  11. Unexpectedly higher metazoan meiofauna abundances in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench compared to the adjacent abyssal plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Christina; Martínez Arbizu, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    We studied meiofauna standing stocks and community structure in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench and its adjacent abyssal plains in the northwestern Pacific Ocean. In general, the Nematoda were dominant (93%) followed by the Copepoda (4%). Nematode abundances ranged from 87% to 96%; those of copepods from 2% to 7%. The most diverse deployment yielded 17 taxa: Acari, Amphipoda, Annelida, Bivalvia, Coelenterata, Copepoda, Cumacea, Gastrotricha, Isopoda, Kinorhyncha, Loricifera, Nematoda, Ostracoda, Priapulida, Tanaidacea, Tantulocarida, and Tardigrada. Nauplii were also present. Generally, the trench slope and the southernmost deployments had the highest abundances (850-1392 individuals/cm2). The results of non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated that these deployments were similar to each other in meiofauna community structure. The southernmost deployments were located in a zone of higher particulate organic carbon (POC) flux (g Corg m-2 yr-1), whereas the trench slope should have low POC flux due to depth attenuation. Also, POC and abundance were significantly correlated in the abyssal plains. This correlation may explain the higher abundances at the southernmost deployments. Lateral transport was also assumed to explain high meiofauna abundances on the trench slope. Abundances were generally higher than expected from model results. ANOSIM revealed significant differences between the trench slope and the northern abyssal plains, between the central abyssal plains and the trench slope, between the trench slope and the southern abyssal plains, between the central and the southern abyssal plains, and between the central and northern deployments. The northern and southern abyssal plains did not differ significantly. In addition, a U-test revealed highly significant differences between the trench-slope and abyssal deployments. The taxa inhabited mostly the upper 0-3 cm of the sediment layer (Nematoda 80-90%; Copepoda 88-100%). The trench-slope and abyssal did not differ

  12. Pancrustacean phylogeny: hexapods are terrestrial crustaceans and maxillopods are not monophyletic

    PubMed Central

    Regier, Jerome C.; Shultz, Jeffrey W.; Kambic, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    Recent molecular analyses indicate that crustaceans and hexapods form a clade (Pancrustacea or Tetraconata), but relationships among its constituent lineages, including monophyly of crustaceans, are controversial. Our phylogenetic analysis of three protein-coding nuclear genes from 62 arthropods and lobopods (Onychophora and Tardigrada) demonstrates that Hexapoda is most closely related to the crustaceans Branchiopoda (fairy shrimp, water fleas, etc.) and Cephalocarida+Remipedia, thereby making hexapods terrestrial crustaceans and the traditionally defined Crustacea paraphyletic. Additional findings are that Malacostraca (crabs, isopods, etc.) unites with Cirripedia (barnacles, etc.) and they, in turn, with Copepoda, making the traditional crustacean class Maxillopoda paraphyletic. Ostracoda (seed shrimp)—either all or a subgroup—is associated with Branchiura (fish lice) and likely to be basal to all other pancrustaceans. A Bayesian statistical (non-clock) estimate of divergence times suggests a Precambrian origin for Pancrustacea (600 Myr ago or more), which precedes the first unambiguous arthropod fossils by over 60 Myr. PMID:15734694

  13. Pancrustacean phylogeny: hexapods are terrestrial crustaceans and maxillopods are not monophyletic.

    PubMed

    Regier, Jerome C; Shultz, Jeffrey W; Kambic, Robert E

    2005-02-22

    Recent molecular analyses indicate that crustaceans and hexapods form a clade (Pancrustacea or Tetraconata), but relationships among its constituent lineages, including monophyly of crustaceans, are controversial. Our phylogenetic analysis of three protein-coding nuclear genes from 62 arthropods and lobopods (Onychophora and Tardigrada) demonstrates that Hexapoda is most closely related to the crustaceans Branchiopoda (fairy shrimp, water fleas, etc.) and Cephalocarida + Remipedia, thereby making hexapods terrestrial crustaceans and the traditionally defined Crustacea paraphyletic. Additional findings are that Malacostraca (crabs, isopods, etc.) unites with Cirripedia (barnacles, etc.) and they, in turn, with Copepoda, making the traditional crustacean class Maxillopoda paraphyletic. Ostracoda (seed shrimp)--either all or a subgroup--is associated with Branchiura (fish lice) and likely to be basal to all other pancrustaceans. A Bayesian statistical (non-clock) estimate of divergence times suggests a Precambrian origin for Pancrustacea (600 Myr ago or more), which precedes the first unambiguous arthropod fossils by over 60 Myr.

  14. A new species of chondracanthid copepod parasitic in the pharynx of hagfishes (Myxiniformes: Myxinidae) from off Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Rong; Luo, Hao-Yuan; Dai, Chang-Feng; Shih, Hsiu-Hui

    2014-07-01

    A new species of Acanthochondria Oakley, 1927 (Copepoda, Poecilostomatoida, Chondracanthidae), parasitic in the pharynx of hagfishes Eptatretus burgeri (Girard), E. sheni (Kuo, Huang & Mok) and E. yangi (Teng), from off Taiwan is described and illustrated. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by having the neck region longer than wide (about 2-3 times as long as wide), the moderately long protopod of leg 2 (Type E), the endopod of leg 2 as large as exopod, the cephalosome wider than long, the armature formula of antennule (1, 1, 2, 2, 9), the relatively long trunk (6.7 mm) and egg-sacs (14.4 mm). This is the first record of a parasitic chondracanthid from hagfishes. The findings may provide insights into the phylogenetic relationships and interactions among chondracanthids, hagfishes and demersal fishes, but call for further molecular studies.

  15. Zooplankton population in relation to physico-chemical parameters of Lal Diggi pond in Aligarh, India.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Uzma; Parveen, Saltanat; Abdel Mola, Hesham R; Kabir, Habeeba A; Ganai, Altaf H

    2012-11-01

    Physico-chemical parameters and zooplankton were assessed Lal Diggi pond from January to December, 2008. Four groups of zooplankton were recorded. Rotifera constituted the main dominant group in this pond contributing 44.89% of the total zooplankton population followed by Cladocera (30.41%), Copepoda (15.51%) and Ostracoda (4.68%). The highest density of zooplankton was recorded during January and February being 197 and 182 no l(-1) respectively, while the lowest density was recorded during May and June being 64 no l(-1) each could be due to the negative and significant value of correlation between zooplankton and water temperature (r = -0.700). These data is supported by similarity indices which recorded high values during January and February while the lowest values recorded during June and July.

  16. [PARASITES OF THE COMMON ROACH (RUTILUS RUTILUS L.) UNDER THE IMPACT OF INDUSTRIAL POLLUTION OF A LAKE].

    PubMed

    Ieshko, E P; Lebedeva, D I; Anikieva, L V; Ilmast, N V; Yakovleva, G A

    2015-01-01

    The consequences of man-induced transformation of Lake Kostomukshskoe (tailings dump) related to increased mineralization and entry of highly dispersed dredge material not typical for northern lakes were studied using roach parasites as the example. It was found that the roach parasite fauna has been losing rare and scant parasite species of different taxonomic groups, mainly helminthes with an indirect life cycle. Common and dominant species of myxosporidians, monogeneans, trematodes of genera Diplostomum and Tylodelphys have been preserved. The chances of survival are higher for those parasites with direct life cycle. Also the parasite species whose larvae can actively penetrate the host have been survived. The species Ligula intestinalis, Philometra rishta, Pseudocapillaria tomentosa had reported very rare. Fish are infected with these parasites by feeding of Copepoda and oligochaetes.

  17. Occurrence of Ergasilus megaceros Wilson, 1916, in the sea lamprey and other fishes from North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muzzall, Patrick M.; Hudson, Patrick L.

    2004-01-01

    Ergasilus megaceros (Copepoda: Ergasilidae) was recovered from the nasal fossae (lamellae) of the olfactory sac in 1 (1.8%) of 56 sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus Linne, 1758, collected in May 2002 from the Cheboygan River, Michigan. Although the sea lamprey is a new host record for E. megaceros, this fish species may not be a preferred host because of its low prevalence. Ergasilus megaceros is the second ergasilid species reported from the sea lamprey in North America. This is the third report of an ergasilid species infecting the nasal fossae of fishes in North America, with E. rhinos being the only other species reported from this site.

  18. Comparative experimental infection of the copepod Paracartia grani with Marteilia refringens and Marteilia maurini.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, N; Arzul, I; Chollet, B; Robert, M; Joly, J P; Furones, M D; Berthe, F C J

    2008-07-01

    Paracartia grani (Copepoda) has been identified as a potential intermediate host in the life cycle of Marteilia refringens, a paramyxean parasite infecting flat oysters. However, no intermediate host has yet been identified for Marteilia maurini that infects mussels. A better understanding of the life cycle of these two Marteilia types would clarify their taxonomic relationship and hypothesized co-specificity. For this purpose, experimental infections of copepods, P. grani, were performed using naturally infected flat oysters and mussels. Infection patterns were different depending whether copepods were infected from oysters or mussels. M. maurini did not proliferate in copepods while M. refringens rapidly proliferated in infected copepods. Previously unrecognized developmental stages of M. refringens were found during this study.

  19. Land Use and Hydrogeological Characteristics Influence Groundwater Invertebrate Communities.

    PubMed

    Tione, María Laura; Bedano, José Camilo; Blarasin, Mónica

    2016-08-01

    We examine the influence of land use and hydrogeological characteristics on the abundance, composition and structure of groundwater invertebrate communities in a loessic aquifer from Argentina. Seven wells, selected according to surrounding land use and hydrogeological characteristics, were sampled twice. Groundwater was characterized as sodium bicarbonate, bicarbonate sulfate or sulfate type. NO3(-) was detected in all samples. Land use in the area surrounding the well, unsaturated zone thickness and geochemical characteristics of groundwater influenced the abundance, composition and community structure of groundwater invertebrates. Copepoda, Oligochaeta, Cladocera, Ostracoda and Amphipoda were highly influenced by land use, particularly by point pollution sources that produced higher abundance and changes in taxonomic composition. The lowest invertebrate abundance was observed at the wells situated in areas with the thickest unsaturated zone. Groundwater salinity and geochemical type influenced the presence of certain species, particularly Stygonitocrella sp.

  20. Zooplankton Composition and Abundance as Indicators of Eutrophication in Two Small Man-made Lakes

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Azma Hanim; Adnan, Anis Amalina Mohd

    2016-01-01

    The distribution and abundance of zooplankton species of Harapan and Aman Lakes were investigated in relation to physical parameters and chlorophyll-a content. Both lakes were characterised by the occurrence of algal bloom problem. The composition of zooplankton was collected at monthly intervals from November 2013 to February 2014. The total number of taxa in Harapan and Aman Lakes were 23 and 27, respectively. Rotifera was the highest abundance group represent 64% of the total species recorded followed by Copepoda (29%) and Cladocera (7%). Three dominant zooplankton that been recorded in both the lakes are Brachionus forficula, Brachionus nilsoni, and Trichocerca sp. High abundance of these species indicates that the lakes are eutrophic water bodies. Overall, zooplankton species distribution and abundance in the study sites are influenced by various environmental factors such as water transparency and chlorophyll-a content. PMID:27965738

  1. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of fipronil in the nontarget arthropodan fauna associated with subalpine mosquito breeding sites.

    PubMed

    Chaton, P F; Ravanel, P; Tissut, M; Meyran, J C

    2002-05-01

    In order to examine ecological impact of fipronil use for larval culicine control in natural hydrosystems, toxicity and bioaccumulation of this new insecticide were analyzed on aquatic species representative of the nontarget arthropodan fauna (nonculicine larval Diptera: Chaoboridae, Chironomidae; planktonic Crustacea: Cladocera, Copepoda, Ostracoda) associated with target larval mosquito populations in the subalpine breeding sites. Standard toxicological bioassays using fipronil aqueous solutions from 1 to 2000 nM indicated different sensitivity levels among species. Insecticide bioaccumulation analyses, using [(14)C]fipronil solutions in simplified laboratory ecosystem, also indicated large differences among species. These differences may come from biological parameters characteristic of each species. Taking into account these nontarget effects of fipronil, a possible strategy of use of this insecticide for integrated mosquito control management was proposed, which is based upon selective dietary absorption of the insecticide by larval Culicidae.

  2. Copepods (Cyclopoida) associated with top shells (Vestigastropoda: Trochoidea: Tegulidae) from coastal waters in southern Japan, with descriptions of three new species.

    PubMed

    Uyeno, Daisuke

    2016-11-27

    Four species of copepods are described based on specimens of both sexes from tegulid top shells (Vestigastropoda) caught from coastal waters of southern Japan. Three species, including two undescribed and one known of the genus Panaietis (Copepoda: Cyclopoida: Anthessiidae) were found in the pharynx and esophagus of gastropods. Panaietis incamerata Stebbing, 1900, P. doraconis n. sp., and P. satsuma n. sp. are distinguished from its congeners by the dorsal plates on the first pedigerous somite, the genital somite, the shape of the spines on legs, the number of setae on legs 1 and 2, and the position and shape of leg 5. Pseudanthessius imo n. sp. (Cyclopoida: Pseudanthessiidae) was found in the mantle cavity of the host. This copepod differs from its congeners in the proportions of the caudal ramus, the armature and proportion of the antenna, the armature of the exopod and general shape of the endopod of leg 4, and the presence of a post-rostral process.

  3. [Diet composition and transition of clearhead icefish(Protosalanx hyalocranius)in Lake Xingkai].

    PubMed

    Tang, Fu-Jiang; Liu, Wei; Wang, Ji-Long; Li, Zhe; Xie, Song-Guang

    2013-10-01

    Diet compositions of alien clearhead icefish(Protosalanx hyalocranius)in Lake Xingkai were investigated monthly from June 2010 through January 2011. Protosalanx hyalocranius preyed mainly on cladoceran, copepoda, shrimp, and larvae or juvenile fish. In June, P. Hyalocranius were smaller than 60 mm standard length(SL), and their diets were composed of zooplankton only. In July, fish began to appear infrequently in the diet of P. Hyalocranius larger than 60 mm SL, and by August fish was occurring in the diets of P. hyalocranius larger than 80 mm, 100 mm in September, and 120 mm in October and thereafter, respectively. The increase in the minimum SL of P. hyalocranius preying on fish within a given season reflects changes in resource availability, largely attributed to the corresponding increase in prey fish size as seasons progress. Protosalanx hyalocranius and Hemiculter sp. were the dominant prey fish in the diets of P. hyalocranius.

  4. Dredge Disposal Study. San Francisco Bay and Estuary. Appendix D. Biological Community

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-08-01

    Spioghanes fimbriata =S. missionensis F. berkeleyorum. * Arthropoda -Crago franciscorum Crangon fl-anciscorum, *Mollusca -Ostrea gigas Crassostrea - Ostrea...3/73) (9/73) (12/73) (3/74) (6/74) Nematoda 4.9% 0.18 9.34 1.97 0.74 3.16 Oligochaeta 87.3 0.22 262.78 8.38 0.35 6.70 Arthropoda Copepoda 5.7 2.38...Oligochaeta 65.9 1.00 12.28 26.36 6.63 134.44 Polychaeta S. benedicti 8.8 0.13 2.63 14.61 0.04 5q Arthropoda ( B. improvisus 2.9 0 7.81 0 0 0 Mollusca M

  5. Feeding ecology of waterfowl wintering on evaporation ponds in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Euliss, N.H.; Jarvis, R.L.; Gilmer, D.S.

    1991-01-01

    We examined the feeding ecology of Northern Pintails (Anas acuta), Northern Shovelers (A. clypeata), and Ruddy Ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis) wintering on drainwater evaporation ponds in California from 1982 through 1984. Pintails primarily consumed midges (Chironomidae) (39.3%) and widegeongrass (Ruppia maritima) nutlets (34.6%). Shovelers and Ruddy Ducks consumed 92.5% and 90.1% animal matter, respectively. Water boatmen (Corixidae) (51.6%), rotifers (Rotatoria) (20.4%), and copepods (Copepoda) (15.2%) were the most important Shoveler foods, and midges (49.7%) and water boatmen (36.0%) were the most important foods of Ruddy Ducks. All three species were opportunistic foragers, shifting their diets seasonally to the most abundant foods given their behavioral and morphological attributes.

  6. Carnivory during Ontogeny of the Plagioscion squamosissimus: A Successful Non-Native Fish in a Lentic Environment of the Upper Paraná River Basin

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Mayara Pereira; Delariva, Rosilene Luciana; Guimarães, Ana Tereza Bittencourt; Sanches, Paulo Vanderlei

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated feeding patterns and ontogenetic variations in a non-native fish species (Plagioscion squamosissimus) in an isolated lake in the Upper Paraná River floodplain. Quarterly samplings were performed from April 2005 to February 2006 using plankton nets to capture larvae, seining nets for juveniles, and gill nets and trammel for adults. Stomach contents (n = 378) were examined according to the volumetric method in which the volume of each food item was estimated using graduated test tubes or a glass counting plate. During early development (larval stage), P. squamosissimus consumed mainly Cladocera and Copepoda. Juveniles showed a more diverse diet, including shrimp (Macrobrachium amazonicum), fish, aquatic insects (Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera, Chironomidae and pupae of Diptera) and plants. It was notable the high proportion of cannibalism (23.3%) in this stage. Adults consumed predominantly shrimp and fish. The use of food resources varied significantly between development stages (ANOSIM; r = 0.458; p<0.005), showing changes in food preferences during ontogeny. The Similarity Percentage Analysis (SIMPER) indicated that Cladocera and Copepoda were responsible for the differences observed between the larval stages of pre-flexion, flexion and post-flexion. M. amazonicum and Chironomidae were responsible for the differences between juvenile and larval stages, while M. amazonicum and other fishes caused the differences between adults and other ontogenetic stages. These results are confirmed by the relationship between standard length and developmental periods (ANCOVA; r2 = 0.94; p<0.0001). In general, there were low values of trophic niche breadth. The essentially carnivorous habit from the early stages of P. squamosissimus and the predominant use of M. amazonicum by adults have important roles in feeding patterns of the species, suggesting a major contribution to its success and establishment, especially in lentic environments. PMID:26524336

  7. [Abundance and biomass of meiobenthos in Lingdingyang Bay of Pearl River Estuary].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-huai; Gao, Yang; Fang, Hong-da

    2011-10-01

    An investigation was conducted on the meiobenthic abundance and biomass in the Lingdingyang Bay of Pearl River Estuary in July-August 2006 (summer), April 2007 (spring), and October 2007 (autumn). A total of 15 meiobenthic groups were recorded, including Nematoda, Copepoda, Polychaeta, Ostracoda, Kinorhyncha, Amphipoda, Cumacea, Tanaidacea, Gnathostomulida, Nemertea, Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Sipuncula, Echiura, and other unidentified taxa. The average abundance of the meiobenthos in spring, summer, and autumn was 272.1 +/- 281.9, 165.1 +/- 147.1 and 246. 4 +/- 369.3 ind 10 cm(-2), and Nematoda was the most dominant group in abundance, accounting for 86.8%, 83.5%, and 93.4% of the total, respectively, followed by Polychaeta, and benthic Copepoda. The meiobenthic abundance had an uneven vertical distribution. 54.1% of the meibenthos were in 0-2 cm sediments, 35.2% were in 2-5 cm sediments, and 10.8% were in 5-10 cm sediments. 87.4% of nematodes were distributed in 0-5 cm sediments. The average biomass of the meiobenthos in spring, summer, and autumn was 374.6 +/- 346.9, 274.1 +/- 352.2, and 270.8 +/- 396.0 microg 10 cm(-2), and Polychaeta was the most dominant group in biomass, accounting for 30.1%, 46.7% and 46.0%, respectively, followed by Nematoda (25.2%, 20.1%, and 34.0%), and Ostracoda (20.6%, 15.3%, and 14.8%). The horizontal distribution of the meiobenthos had a trend of increasing from north to south, and being higher at east than at west. The meiobenthic abundance and biomass had significant positive correlations with water depth.

  8. Synoptic patterns of meiofaunal and macrofaunal abundances and specific composition in littoral sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armonies, Werner; Hellwig-Armonies, Monika

    1987-03-01

    During recent years, many investigations on small zoobenthos have been performed at the island of Sylt. As these studies were carried out sporadically over many years and as different extraction methods were used, comparisons of the results have been hampered. Therefore, in August/September 1986, 24 sites were sampled and evaluated using one quantitative method throughout. Sites range from mud to exposed sand and from the sublittoral to the supralittoral. Macrofauna and the taxa Plathelminthes, Polychaeta, and Oligochaeta are determined to species level. Macrofaunal (>0.5 mm) abundance is highest in mud and continuously decreases with increasing exposure to wave action. Meiofaunal (<0.5 mm) abundance is less variable. Nematoda dominate in mud and muddy sand, Copepoda in sheltered and exposed sand, other taxa only intermittently. Related to surface area, no correlation between macro-and meiofaunal abundance is apparent. Plathelminthes and Copepoda reach highest abundance per surface area in sand but their per volume density is higher in mud and muddy sand. Related to sediment volume instead of surface area, the meiofaunal abundance pattern is very similar to the macrofaunal pattern. The faunal composition changes gradually along the tidal gradient without general faunal boundaries. On an averange, the faunal similarity of neighbouring sites is highest in Oligochaeta and lowest in Plathelminthes. Presumably, Oligochaeta tolerate wider ranges of environmental factors. This may explain the low number of oligochaete species. On the other hand, Plathelminthes seem to adapt to relatively narrow ranges of factors and their species richness is highest. Because of macrofaunameiofauna interaction it is suggested that the meiofaunal assemblage will be least stable in mud and muddy sand, and most stable in exposed sand.

  9. Spatial and temporal variations in deep-sea meiofauna assemblages in the Marginal Ice Zone of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoste, Eveline; Vanhove, Sandra; Schewe, Ingo; Soltwedel, Thomas; Vanreusel, Ann

    2007-01-01

    In order to understand the response of the deep-sea meiobenthos to a highly varying, ice-edge-related input of phytodetritus, we investigated the abundance and composition of the meiobenthos at the arctic long-term deep-sea station HAUSGARTEN (79°N, 4°E) along a bathymetric transect (1200-5500 m water depth) over 5 consecutive years (from 2000 to 2004) in relation to changes in environmental conditions. Results showed high sediment-bound pigment concentrations (chlorophyll a and degradation products) ranging from 4.5 to 41.6 μg/cm 3, and coinciding high meiobenthic densities ranging from 149±3 to 3409±525 ind/10 cm 2. Nematodes dominated the metazoan meiofaunal communities at every depth and time (85-99% of total meiofauna abundance), followed by harpacticoid copepods (0-4.6% of total meiofauna abundance). The expected pattern of gradually decreasing meiobenthic densities with increasing water depth was not confirmed. Instead, the bathymetric transect could be subdivided into a shallow area with equally high nematode and copepod densities from 1000 to 2000 m water depth (means: 2259±157 Nematoda/10 cm 2, and 50±4 Copepoda/10 cm 2), and a deeper area from 3000 to 5500 m water depth with similar low nematode and copepod densities (means: 595±52 Nematoda/10 cm 2, and 11±2 Copepoda/10 cm 2). Depth-related investigations on the meiobenthos at the HAUSGARTEN site showed a significant correlation between meiobenthos densities, microbial exo-enzymatic activity (esterase turnover) and phytodetrital food availability (chlorophyll a and phaeophytines). In time-series investigations, our data showed inter-annual variations in meiofauna abundance. However, no consistent relationship between nematode and copepod densities, and measures for organic matter input were found.

  10. Meiobenthic gradients with special reference to Plathelminthes and Polychaeta in an estuarine salt marsh creek—a small-scale model for boreal tidal coasts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellwig-Armonies, Monika; Armonies, Werner

    1987-06-01

    Environmental conditions in salt marsh creeks are intermediate between the open tidal coast and estuaries. A large salt marsh creek at the island of Sylt (North Sea) was studied in order to test whether its fauna is more similar to that of the open tidal coast or to that of estuaries. Because of a sandy bar at the seaward opening, the tidal range is only 10 cm in the creek, and the water level never drops below the level of the sand bar. Zoobenthos in the sandy bottom and on the sandy shores was studied at both ends and in the middle of the creek. Polychaeta and Plathelminthes were determined to species level. On an average, 2115 metazoans were found below 10 cm2 of surface area. At the seaward end of the creek, abundance and taxonomic composition are similar to that of the adjoining Wadden area. Nematoda are the dominant taxon, followed by Copepoda, Plathelminthes and Oligochaeta. Taxonomic composition is different at the landward end. Plathelminthes and Nematoda are most abundant followed by Copepoda. Both Oligochaeta and Polychaeta are scarce at these newly eroded sites. Plathelminth abundance at the landward end of the creek is exceptionally high (770 935·10 cm-2). Contrary to what is generally found in estuaries, the species density of Plathelminthes shows a significant increase toward the land. The species composition of Polychaeta and Plathelminthes indicates that the sites below mean high tide level of the creek correspond to the adjacent eulittoral Wadden area while the fauna of the supralittoral sites of the creek is similar to the fauna of supralittoral tidal coasts. Typical sublittoral species did not occur in the salt marsh creek. Thus, salt marsh creeks may be regarded as a small-scale model for the tidal coast. In context with the results obtained, the definition of estuaries is discussed.

  11. Changes of concentrations and possibility of accumulation of bisphenol A and alkylphenols, depending on biomass and composition, in zooplankton of the Southern Baltic (Gulf of Gdansk).

    PubMed

    Staniszewska, Marta; Nehring, Iga; Mudrak-Cegiołka, Stella

    2016-06-01

    The focus of the present study was to find the relationship between concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP) and 4-nonylphenol (NP) in zooplankton and seasonal changes in the composition and biomass of particular zooplankton taxa in the Gulf of Gdansk (Southern Baltic) in the years 2011-2012. Assays of BPA, OP and NP in water and zooplankton samples were performed using the HPLC/FL system. High mean concentrations of the studied compounds, determined in spring (405.9 (BPA); 25.7 (OP); 111.2 (NP) ng g(-1) dw), can be linked to the high proportion of meroplankton in that season. Rotifera also had an influence on the rise in concentrations of the studied compounds but to a lesser degree, while the lowest concentrations (determined in summer) can be associated with the high participation of Copepoda and Cladocera in zooplankton biomass. It was also observed that juvenile forms can be more susceptible to accumulating endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). This is indicated by the positive correlation between BPA concentration in zooplankton and the proportion of Copepoda nauplii biomass in spring (r = 0.90; p < 0.05). In most cases, greater zooplankton biomass accumulated higher concentrations and loads of the studied compounds. With biomass growth (to 123.32 μg m(-3)), the bioconcentration factor also rose (to max 46.1·10(3)), demonstrating that unlike typical hydrophobic compounds the studied EDCs do not become "diluted" in zooplankton biomass. The highest BPA concentrations from all compounds may be connected with anthropogenic sources located in the coastal zone.

  12. Abundance and diversity of zooplankton in semi intensive prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) farm.

    PubMed

    Shil, Jadobendro; Ghosh, Alokesh Kumar; Rahaman, S M Bazlur

    2013-12-01

    The present study was carried out on the seasonal abundance and diversity of zooplankton in a semi- intensive prawn farm of Bagerhat district from July to December, 2008. Plankton samples were collected by conical shaped monofilament nylon net (Plankton net) and Lugol's solution was used for preservation. The zooplankton abundance was influenced by physico-chemical factors. During the study period 11 genera of zooplankton under 5 orders were recorded from the study ponds namely Copepoda, Rotifera, Cladocera, Ostracoda and Crustacean Larvae. Among all groups copepod was the dominant order. The percentages of Copepoda, Rotifera, Cladocera, Ostracoda and Crustacean Larvae in semi-intensive culture system were 54%, 28%, 12%, 4% and 2% respectively. But the genera Brachionus under the order of Rotifer was dominant among all other genera. Cyclops and Helidiaptomus under the order of Copepod were the 2nd dominant genera. Numbers of zooplankton species were recorded to be the highest in summer season and minimum at early winter season. Highest number of zooplankton found at the month of October. Total zooplankton shows significant positive relationship with water temperature ((r = +0.384), Dissolve Oxygen(r = +0.113), pH(r = +0.320), Free CO2 (r = +0.319), Alkalinity(r = +0.269), Hardness (r = +0.402) and negative relationship with Salinity(r = -0.486), Transparency(r = -0.693). The findings of the present study will help to improve the management strategies of shrimp culture system.

  13. Mesozooplankton distribution near an active volcanic island in the Andaman Sea (Barren Island).

    PubMed

    Pillai, Honey U K; Jayaraj, K A; Rafeeq, M; Jayalakshmi, K J; Revichandran, C

    2011-05-01

    The study addresses the distribution and diversity of mesozooplankton near the active volcano-Barren Island (Andaman Sea) in the context of persistent volcanic signature and warm air pool existing for the last few months. Sampling was done from the stations along the west and east side of the volcano up to a depth of 1,000 m during the inter monsoon (April) of 2006. Existence of feeble warm air pool was noticed around the Island (Atm. Temp. 29°C). Sea surface temperature recorded as 29.9°C on the west and 29.6°C on the east side stations. High mesozooplankton biomass was observed in the study area than the earlier reports. High density and biomass observed in the surface layer decreased significantly to the deeper depths. Lack of correlation was observed between mesozooplankton biomass and density with chl. a. Twenty-three mesozooplankton taxa were observed with copepoda as the dominant taxa followed by chaetognatha. The relative abundance of chaetognatha considerably affected the copepod population density in the surface layer. A noticeable feature was the presence of cumaceans, a hyperbenthic fauna in the surface, mixed layer and thermocline layer on the western side station where the volcano discharges in to the sea. The dominant order of copepoda, the calanoida was represented by 52 species belonging to 17 families. The order poecilostomatoida also had a significant contribution. Copepods exhibited a clear difference in their distribution pattern in different depth layers. The families Calanidae and Pontellidae showed a clear dominance in the surface whereas small-sized copepods belonging to the families Clausocalanidae and Paracalanidae were observed as the predominant community in the mixed layer and thermocline layer depth. Families Metridinidae, Augaptilidae and Aetideidae were observed as dominant in deeper layers.

  14. A gene-based SNP resource and linkage map for the copepod Tigriopus californicus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background As yet, few genomic resources have been developed in crustaceans. This lack is particularly evident in Copepoda, given the extraordinary numerical abundance, and taxonomic and ecological diversity of this group. Tigriopus californicus is ideally suited to serve as a genetic model copepod and has been the subject of extensive work in environmental stress and reproductive isolation. Accordingly, we set out to develop a broadly-useful panel of genetic markers and to construct a linkage map dense enough for quantitative trait locus detection in an interval mapping framework for T. californicus--a first for copepods. Results One hundred and ninety Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) were used to genotype our mapping population of 250 F2 larvae. We were able to construct a linkage map with an average intermarker distance of 1.8 cM, and a maximum intermarker distance of 10.3 cM. All markers were assembled into linkage groups, and the 12 linkage groups corresponded to the 12 known chromosomes of T. californicus. We estimate a total genome size of 401.0 cM, and a total coverage of 73.7%. Seventy five percent of the mapped markers were detected in 9 additional populations of T. californicus. Of available model arthropod genomes, we were able to show more colocalized pairs of homologues between T. californicus and the honeybee Apis mellifera, than expected by chance, suggesting preserved macrosynteny between Hymenoptera and Copepoda. Conclusions Our study provides an abundance of linked markers spanning all chromosomes. Many of these markers are also found in multiple populations of T. californicus, and in two other species in the genus. The genomic resource we have developed will enable mapping throughout the geographical range of this species and in closely related species. This linkage map will facilitate genome sequencing, mapping and assembly in an ecologically and taxonomically interesting group for which genomic resources are currently under development

  15. A gene-based SNP resource and linkage map for the copepod Tigriopus californicus.

    PubMed

    Foley, Brad R; Rose, Colin G; Rundle, Daniel E; Leong, Wai; Moy, Gary W; Burton, Ronald S; Edmands, Suzanne

    2011-11-21

    As yet, few genomic resources have been developed in crustaceans. This lack is particularly evident in Copepoda, given the extraordinary numerical abundance, and taxonomic and ecological diversity of this group. Tigriopus californicus is ideally suited to serve as a genetic model copepod and has been the subject of extensive work in environmental stress and reproductive isolation. Accordingly, we set out to develop a broadly-useful panel of genetic markers and to construct a linkage map dense enough for quantitative trait locus detection in an interval mapping framework for T. californicus--a first for copepods. One hundred and ninety Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) were used to genotype our mapping population of 250 F2 larvae. We were able to construct a linkage map with an average intermarker distance of 1.8 cM, and a maximum intermarker distance of 10.3 cM. All markers were assembled into linkage groups, and the 12 linkage groups corresponded to the 12 known chromosomes of T. californicus. We estimate a total genome size of 401.0 cM, and a total coverage of 73.7%. Seventy five percent of the mapped markers were detected in 9 additional populations of T. californicus. Of available model arthropod genomes, we were able to show more colocalized pairs of homologues between T. californicus and the honeybee Apis mellifera, than expected by chance, suggesting preserved macrosynteny between Hymenoptera and Copepoda. Our study provides an abundance of linked markers spanning all chromosomes. Many of these markers are also found in multiple populations of T. californicus, and in two other species in the genus. The genomic resource we have developed will enable mapping throughout the geographical range of this species and in closely related species. This linkage map will facilitate genome sequencing, mapping and assembly in an ecologically and taxonomically interesting group for which genomic resources are currently under development.

  16. Carnivory during Ontogeny of the Plagioscion squamosissimus: A Successful Non-Native Fish in a Lentic Environment of the Upper Paraná River Basin.

    PubMed

    Neves, Mayara Pereira; Delariva, Rosilene Luciana; Guimarães, Ana Tereza Bittencourt; Sanches, Paulo Vanderlei

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated feeding patterns and ontogenetic variations in a non-native fish species (Plagioscion squamosissimus) in an isolated lake in the Upper Paraná River floodplain. Quarterly samplings were performed from April 2005 to February 2006 using plankton nets to capture larvae, seining nets for juveniles, and gill nets and trammel for adults. Stomach contents (n = 378) were examined according to the volumetric method in which the volume of each food item was estimated using graduated test tubes or a glass counting plate. During early development (larval stage), P. squamosissimus consumed mainly Cladocera and Copepoda. Juveniles showed a more diverse diet, including shrimp (Macrobrachium amazonicum), fish, aquatic insects (Trichoptera, Ephemeroptera, Chironomidae and pupae of Diptera) and plants. It was notable the high proportion of cannibalism (23.3%) in this stage. Adults consumed predominantly shrimp and fish. The use of food resources varied significantly between development stages (ANOSIM; r = 0.458; p<0.005), showing changes in food preferences during ontogeny. The Similarity Percentage Analysis (SIMPER) indicated that Cladocera and Copepoda were responsible for the differences observed between the larval stages of pre-flexion, flexion and post-flexion. M. amazonicum and Chironomidae were responsible for the differences between juvenile and larval stages, while M. amazonicum and other fishes caused the differences between adults and other ontogenetic stages. These results are confirmed by the relationship between standard length and developmental periods (ANCOVA; r2 = 0.94; p<0.0001). In general, there were low values of trophic niche breadth. The essentially carnivorous habit from the early stages of P. squamosissimus and the predominant use of M. amazonicum by adults have important roles in feeding patterns of the species, suggesting a major contribution to its success and establishment, especially in lentic environments.

  17. The lunule of caligid copepods: an evolutionarily novel structure.

    PubMed

    Kaji, Tomonari; Venmathi Maran, B A; Kondoh, Yuusuke; Ohtsuka, Susumu; Boxshall, Geoff A; Tsukagoshi, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Nearly half of the genera of the family Caligidae possess an evolutionarily novel structure called the "lunule" on the ventral surface of the frontal plate. Lunules are paired cup-like suckers that assist in securing attachment of the copepod parasite to its host. Although present in genera such as Caligus and Pseudocaligus, lunules are absent in other caligid genera such as Lepeophtheirus as well as in more primitive caligiforms such as members of the families Trebiidae and Dissonidae. We compared the morphology and development of the anterior margin of the frontal plates between two caligids, Pseudocaligus fugu and Lepeophtheirus sekii, and a more basal caligiform, Dissonus heronensis (a dissonid), using scanning electron, transmission electron, and laser confocal microscopes. Our observations suggest that the lunules originated as a modification of the marginal membranes of the ancestral frontal plates. We also demonstrated the presence of an anlagen cell population for the lunule and marginal membrane in the developing frontal plate. These primordial cells can be detected as early as the first stage of the chalimus phase. Based on these observations, an evolutionary scenario for the lunule is proposed based on cytological evidence. This case study enhances our understanding of "evolutionary novelty," which is a main focus of contemporary evolutionary developmental biology.

  18. Transmission dynamics of parasitic sea lice from farm to wild salmon.

    PubMed

    Krkosek, Martin; Lewis, Mark A; Volpe, John P

    2005-04-07

    Marine salmon farming has been correlated with parasitic sea lice infestations and concurrent declines of wild salmonids. Here, we report a quantitative analysis of how a single salmon farm altered the natural transmission dynamics of sea lice to juvenile Pacific salmon. We studied infections of sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus clemensi) on juvenile pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) as they passed an isolated salmon farm during their seaward migration down two long and narrow corridors. Our calculations suggest the infection pressure imposed by the farm was four orders of magnitude greater than ambient levels, resulting in a maximum infection pressure near the farm that was 73 times greater than ambient levels and exceeded ambient levels for 30 km along the two wild salmon migration corridors. The farm-produced cohort of lice parasitizing the wild juvenile hosts reached reproductive maturity and produced a second generation of lice that re-infected the juvenile salmon. This raises the infection pressure from the farm by an additional order of magnitude, with a composite infection pressure that exceeds ambient levels for 75 km of the two migration routes. Amplified sea lice infestations due to salmon farms are a potential limiting factor to wild salmonid conservation.

  19. How sea lice from salmon farms may cause wild salmonid declines in Europe and North America and be a threat to fishes elsewhere

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    Fishes farmed in sea pens may become infested by parasites from wild fishes and in turn become point sources for parasites. Sea lice, copepods of the family Caligidae, are the best-studied example of this risk. Sea lice are the most significant parasitic pathogen in salmon farming in Europe and the Americas, are estimated to cost the world industry €300 million a year and may also be pathogenic to wild fishes under natural conditions. Epizootics, characteristically dominated by juvenile (copepodite and chalimus) stages, have repeatedly occurred on juvenile wild salmonids in areas where farms have sea lice infestations, but have not been recorded elsewhere. This paper synthesizes the literature, including modelling studies, to provide an understanding of how one species, the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, can infest wild salmonids from farm sources. Three-dimensional hydrographic models predicted the distribution of the planktonic salmon lice larvae best when they accounted for wind-driven surface currents and larval behaviour. Caligus species can also cause problems on farms and transfer from farms to wild fishes, and this genus is cosmopolitan. Sea lice thus threaten finfish farming worldwide, but with the possible exception of L. salmonis, their host relationships and transmission adaptations are unknown. The increasing evidence that lice from farms can be a significant cause of mortality on nearby wild fish populations provides an additional challenge to controlling lice on the farms and also raises conservation, economic and political issues about how to balance aquaculture and fisheries resource management. PMID:19586950

  20. How sea lice from salmon farms may cause wild salmonid declines in Europe and North America and be a threat to fishes elsewhere.

    PubMed

    Costello, Mark J

    2009-10-07

    Fishes farmed in sea pens may become infested by parasites from wild fishes and in turn become point sources for parasites. Sea lice, copepods of the family Caligidae, are the best-studied example of this risk. Sea lice are the most significant parasitic pathogen in salmon farming in Europe and the Americas, are estimated to cost the world industry euro300 million a year and may also be pathogenic to wild fishes under natural conditions. Epizootics, characteristically dominated by juvenile (copepodite and chalimus) stages, have repeatedly occurred on juvenile wild salmonids in areas where farms have sea lice infestations, but have not been recorded elsewhere. This paper synthesizes the literature, including modelling studies, to provide an understanding of how one species, the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, can infest wild salmonids from farm sources. Three-dimensional hydrographic models predicted the distribution of the planktonic salmon lice larvae best when they accounted for wind-driven surface currents and larval behaviour. Caligus species can also cause problems on farms and transfer from farms to wild fishes, and this genus is cosmopolitan. Sea lice thus threaten finfish farming worldwide, but with the possible exception of L. salmonis, their host relationships and transmission adaptations are unknown. The increasing evidence that lice from farms can be a significant cause of mortality on nearby wild fish populations provides an additional challenge to controlling lice on the farms and also raises conservation, economic and political issues about how to balance aquaculture and fisheries resource management.

  1. Metazoan parasites in the head region of the bullet tuna Auxis rochei (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) from the western Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Mele, S; Saber, S; Gómez-Vives, M J; Garippa, G; Alemany, F; Macías, D; Merella, P

    2015-11-01

    The head region of 72 bullet tuna Auxis rochei from the western Mediterranean Sea (south-east Spain and the Strait of Gibraltar) was examined for parasites. Seven metazoan species were found in the fish from south-east Spain: three monogeneans, two trematodes and two copepods, whereas only three species were isolated in the fish from the Strait of Gibraltar. A comparison of the levels of infection of the parasites according to fish size in south-east Spain showed that the prevalence of Didymozoon auxis and the mean abundance of Allopseudaxine macrova were higher in the larger hosts (range of fork length = 38-44 cm) than in the smaller ones (33-37 cm). A comparison of the parasite infections according to geographical region showed that the mean abundances of Nematobothriinae gen. sp. and Caligus bonito were higher in fish from south-east Spain than in those from the Strait of Gibraltar. A comparison of the parasite fauna of A. rochei from the Mediterranean Sea with the published data on Auxis spp. from the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans revealed the closest similarity between the Mediterranean A. rochei and the Atlantic A. thazard.

  2. Notes on the husbandry and long-term transportation of Bull ray (Pteromylaeus bovinus) and Dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus and Coryphaena equiselis).

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Nuno; Correia, João; Pinho, Rúben; Graça, José; Rodrigues, Filipe; Hirofumi, Morikawa

    2013-03-01

    Bull rays (Pteromylaeus bovinus) and Dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippurus and Coryphaena equiselis) were collected in Olhão (south of Portugal). These animals hosted multiple parasites, namely Caligus spp., and underwent a variety of treatments to remove them. Of all treatments tested, hydrogen peroxide showed the best results, although only concentrations above 100 ppm were effective in parasite removal. These high concentrations, however, proved to be highly toxic for the fish and led to the loss of some animals, especially those which had been handled before treatment. A total of 14 Bull rays were transported to Bolougne-Sur-Mer (France) by road and some animals were lost, which was attributed to excessive time in transit (>45 hr). In another transport, three Bull rays and 10 Dolphinfishes were moved to Stralsund (Germany) by road and air. The mechanical wounds suffered by one of the Bull rays during transport led to its death and, consequently, a deterioration of water quality in the tank containing two other conspecifics. This deterioration of water quality resulted in problems for the other two Bull rays, and one perished approximately 48 hr after arrival. The authors concluded that Dolphinfish can be transported with a low bioload for at least 27 hr, and Bull rays should not undergo transports longer than 35 hr. Special attention must be taken to injured animals, since this can lead to a decrease in water quality and consequently affect other animals in the same transport tank. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Parasites and hepatic lesions among pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (Walbaum), during early seawater residence.

    PubMed

    Saksida, S M; Marty, G D; Jones, S R M; Manchester, H A; Diamond, C L; Bidulka, J; St-Hilaire, S

    2012-02-01

    Juvenile pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (Walbaum), in the Broughton Archipelago region of western Canada were surveyed over 2 years for sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus clemensi), gross and microscopic lesions and evidence of infections with viruses and bacteria. The 1071 fish examined had an approximate ocean residence time no longer than 3 months. A high prevalence of degenerative liver lesions, renal myxosporean parasites and a low prevalence of skin lesions and sea lice were observed. No indications of viral or bacterial diseases were detected in either year. The monthly prevalence of sea lice in 2007 (18-51%) was higher than in 2008 (1-26%), and the infestation density exceeded the lethal threshold in only two fish. Degenerative hepatic lesions and renal myxosporean parasites occurred in approximately 40% of the pink salmon examined in June of both years, and the peak monthly prevalence of hepatocellular hydropic degeneration was greater in 2007 (32%, in May) than in 2008 (12%, in June). Logistic regression analysis found skin lesions and hepatocellular hydropic degeneration significantly associated with sea lice. Most parasites and lesions occurred during both years, but the prevalence was often higher in 2007. Fish weight was 35% less in June 2007 than in June 2008, but condition factor was not different. Further research is required to monitor inter-annual variations and aetiology of the liver lesions and to assess their potential role on pink salmon survival.

  4. Ecology of the Atlantic black skipjack Euthynnus alletteratus (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) in the western Mediterranean Sea inferred by parasitological analysis.

    PubMed

    Mele, Salvatore; Pennino, M Grazia; Piras, M Cristina; Macías, David; Gómez-Vives, M José; Alemany, Francisco; Montero, Francisco E; Garippa, Giovanni; Merella, Paolo

    2016-09-01

    Between 2008 and 2011, the head of 150 Euthynnus alletteratus (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) caught inshore off the southeastern Iberian coast (western Mediterranean Sea) were examined for parasites. Two monogeneans, four didymozoid trematodes and four copepods were found. Parasite abundance showed a positive relationship with the annual sea surface temperature, except for Pseudocycnus appendiculatus, but negative with the sea depth (Capsala manteri, Neonematobothrium cf. kawakawa and Caligus bonito). Prevalences and mean abundances differed significantly among sampling areas, except for C. manteri, Oesophagocystis sp. 2 and Ceratocolax euthynni, and sampling years (Melanocystis cf. kawakawa, N.cf. kawakawa, P. appendiculatus and Unicolax collateralis). Results indicate that the parasite abundances of E. alletteratus in the western Mediterranean Sea depend mainly on regional environmental variables, which can show interannual variations. The presence of pelagic parasites, i.e. didymozoids and P. appendiculatus, could indicate that E. alletteratus migrates between inshore and offshore pelagic domains. The different parasite faunas reported in E. alletteratus populations from the western Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea appear to point out the geographical host isolation. These results suggest that E. alletteratus inhabiting the western Mediterranean Sea performs inshore-offshore small-scale migrations, and not transoceanic migrations between the western Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea.

  5. Richness, infestation and specificity of spinturnicid mites (Acari: Spinturnicidae) on bats in southern Oaxaca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Colín-Martínez, Helisama; García-Estrada, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    Studies of mites on bats in the Mexican state Oaxaca are scarce. Our objective was therefore to evaluate the richness, infestation, and specificity of spinturnicid mites on bats in southern Oaxaca, Mexico. Bats were monthly captured from April 2010 to February 2011, in four sites using four mist-nets; also, we visited natural (crevices) and artificial roosts (tunnel). Of each bat we account the number of spinturnicid mites, considering the area of the body where they were collected. Mites were preserved in 70 % ethanol and later they were mounted on microscope slides in Hoyer's medium. We captured bats of 15 species, of which eight species were infested. We recorded seven spinturnicid mites: five of the genus Periglischrus, one of the genus Cameronieta, and one of the genus Mesoperiglischrus. Periglischrus caligus, P. iheringi, and Periglischrus sp. are new records on Artibeus lituratus, Glossophaga soricina, and G. commissarisi, respectively. More infested bat species were Artibeus jamaicensis (93.8 %), A. lituratus (88.9 %), G. commissarisi and Sturnira parvidens (both 66.7 %). Prevalence of A. jamaicensis and A. lituratus was significantly higher than most other bat species. Although prevalence percentage was high, mean and median intensity were low. Spinturnicid mites were recorded in particular areas of a bat's body; therefore, they could be an additional tool for the taxonomic identification of bats.

  6. Population dynamics of a dominant species (Pseudocalanus, Acartia and Temora) in the Gulf of Gdansk (southern Baltic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzierzbicka-Glowacka, L.; Janecki, M.; Lemieszek, A.; Jakacki, J.; Nowicki, A.

    2012-04-01

    1 - C3 and C4 - C5 and finally the adult stage - C6. The Baltic zooplankton is composed of microzooplankton, mezozooplankton and macroplankton with characteristic ichtyoplankton forms. The structure of mezozooplankton in the Gdansk Gulf mainly consisted of four taxa: copepoda, cladocera, rotatoria and meroplankton. The most important species in the Gdansk Gulf are copepoda: Acartia spp. (i.e. A. bifilosa, A. longiremis and A. tonsa), Temora longicornis, Pseudocalanus minutus elongatus and Centropages hamatus and cladocera: Bosmina coregoni maritime and Podon polyphemoides. Copepoda dominate numerically, while in the warm season Cladocera are subdominants. The study describes numerical simulations of the seasonal dynamics of Acartia spp., Temora longicornis and Pseudocalanus minutus elongatus in the southern Baltic Sea using a three-dimensional version of the coupled ecosystem-copepod model. In the case of the Baltic Sea, food concentration and temperature are the main factors controlling copepod development, and salinity is a masking factor. The surface water salinity of the southern Baltic is constant at 7-8 PSU. It is included in the present study. The simulated population dynamics were compared with observations at the Gulf of Gdansk. This work is supported by the Polish State Committee of Scientific Research [grant number: NN306 353239 and No. N N305 111636]. The partial support for this study was also provided by the project Satellite Monitoring of the Baltic Sea Environment - SatBaltyk founded by European Union through European Regional Development Fund contract no. POIG 01.01.02-22-011/09. Calculations were done at the Academic Computer Center in Gdansk.

  7. Lipids in selected abyssal benthopelagic animals: links to the epipelagic zone?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bühring, Solveig I.; Christiansen, Bernd

    A detailed study of the lipids of selected zooplankton species and scavenging amphipods in the near-bottom water layer (15-100 m above bottom, mab) was carried out at the BENGAL site in late summer 1998. Copepoda were the main contributors to the zooplankton, comprising 75% of the total abundance, followed by Ostracoda and Chaetognatha. Calanoid copepods of the family Metridinidae were predominant and accounted for more than 50% of all copepods. Two types of storage lipids were distinguished: triacylglycerols and wax esters. Ostracoda and the polychaete Vanadis sp. stored exclusively triacylglycerols whilst the bulk of the Copepoda accumulated wax esters, with the exception of the family Aetideidae. In the amphipods both lipid classes were found: Eurythenes gryllus stored wax esters and Paralicella spp. and Orchomene sp. triacylglycerols. The fatty acid composition was characterized by a high level of monounsaturated 18:1 ( n-9), which is described as characteristic for animals living in the deeper layers of the water column, and to a lesser degree by 16:1 ( n-7) and 20:5 ( n-3), which are typical components of diatom lipids, and 22:6 ( n-3), typical of dinoflagellates. The ratio of 18:1 ( n-9):18:1 ( n-7) fatty acids was between 5 and 10 in the copepods and indicates a carnivorous/omnivorous feeding behaviour in this group, whereas the higher ratios of 8-18 in the amphipods confirm their necrophagy. The fatty alcohols of the animals storing wax esters were dominated by the monounsaturated isomers 18:1 ( n-9) and 18:1 ( n-7). The predominance of wax esters as storage lipids in the deep-sea copepods indicates a strong seasonality in the availability of food. This is supported by the high levels of 16:1 ( n-7), 20:5 ( n-3) and 22:6 ( n-3) fatty acids, which point to there being a direct link between the surface primary production and deep-sea copepods, probably via the rapid deposition of phytodetritus.

  8. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program, Part B; Limnology, Primary Production, and Zooplankton in Lake Roosevelt, Washington, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, John; Spotts, Jim; Underwood, Keith

    2002-11-01

    of 1.5 m (5 ft) when compared with a 4.6 m (15 ft) depth, and during the shorter incubation periods (two and four weeks). Mean zooplankton densities were greatest for Copepoda (88 %), then Daphnia spp. (10%) and other Cladocera (2.1%), while the zooplankton biomass assessment indicated Daphnia spp. had the greatest biomass (53.6%), then Copepoda (44.0%) and other Cladocera (2.5%). Mean overall zooplankton densities were the lowest observed since 1991. The cause was unclear, but may have been an artifact of human error. It seems unlikely that hydro-operations played a significant part in the reduction of zooplankton in light of the relatively friendly water year of 1998.

  9. The ice fauna in the shallow southwestern Beaufort Sea, Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Andrew G.

    1992-06-01

    Sympagic fauna were studied in seasonal fast ice adjacent to Narwhal Island during the spring of 1979 and 1980, with emphasis on the origin of the fauna and its relationship to contiguous pelagic and benthic communities. The results of five subprojects are reviewed and compared with recent literature. Within Stefansson Sound, inshore of Narwhal Island, total sympagic meiofaunal densities and species diversity were low. In March 1979, the dominant taxa were polychaete larvae and crustacean nauplii, while in May the dominant group was Nematoda. Total numerical densities were low, ranging from 4500 to 8000 per m 2. During the spring of 1980 large numbers of invertebrate fauna concentrated at the undersurface of seasonal sea ice on the inner western Beaufort Sea continental shelf, seaward of Narwhal Island. The sympagic meiofauna were comprised primarily of benthic harpacticoid and cyclopoid copepods, turbellarians, nematode worms, and polychaete worm larvae. Total meiofaunal densities increased from about 6000 per m 2 in April to about 482,000 per m 2 in June. All life stages of Cyclopina gracilis (Copepoda: Cyclopoida) were present in the ice. This species appeared to reproduce continuously from early April to early June during the study period. The Harpacticus sp. (Copepoda: Harpaticoida) population consisted of one cohort whose individuals grew in size from April to early June. The sympagic macrofauna consisted entirely of amphipod crustaceans, primarily comprised of benthic species. Population size structure of the amphipod Pseudalibrotus (= Onisimus) litoralis was bimodal and there was a lack of intermediate growth stages. These characteristics indicate that this species has a two-year life cycle in the Beaufort Sea. The highest growth rate for P. litoralis coincided with maximal ice algal production. P. litoralis fed largely on meiofaunal Crustacea and amphipod fragments in April, but its diet switched to ice algae during the height of the bloom in late May

  10. Zoo-heleoplankton structure in three artificial ponds of North-eastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Frutos, S M; Carnevali, R

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the abundance and species richness of zoo-heleoplankton bigger than 53 microm in an annual cycle under similar climate conditions in three artificial ponds, in order to observe the changes during an annual cycle. Samples were taken monthly from June 1993 to July 1994 in Corrientes, Argentina. The first pond (A) was covered an 80% by Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.), the second one (B) with bloom of Microcystis aeruginosa (Kurtzing) and the last one (C) with organic matter deposited in the bottom. The water was more acidic at pond A, and the water at pond B contained more dissolved oxygen concentration than the water at the other two ponds. The zoo-heleoplankton densities varied between 20-1728 ind.l(-1) at pond A, 42-4082 ind.l(-1) at pond B and 148-2447 ind.l(-1) at pond C. The maximum zoo-heleoplankton abundance was found in the pond with cyanobacteria bloom during Autumn 1994 and the minimum abundance was found in the one with a predominance of E. crassipes. The rank of species richness was pond A > pond B > pond C. Rotifera was the most abundant group in pond A whereas the larval stages of Copepoda were abundant in the other two ponds. Anuraeopsis navicula Rousselt 1910 was the dominant population in the pond with macrophytes prevalence. Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas 1776 and larval stage of Copepoda had variable proportions in the pond with cyanobacteria bloom. Thermocyclops decipiens (Kiefer 1929) was present during the annual cycle only in the pond with organic matter deposited in the bottom. The succession of taxa was observed in the pond with coverage of aquatic macrophytes and with cyanobacteria bloom. Differences in species richness and low similarity in zoo-heleoplankton between ponds were determined by differences in the quality of the water in relation to the presence of macrophytes, cyanobacteria, organic matter deposited in the bottom and fish predation. Multiple regression analysis (stepwise) revealed that

  11. Three new records of copepods (Siphonostomatoida) parasitic on marine fishes of Iraq, including the relegation of two species of Lernanthropinus to Lernanthropinus temminckii (von Nordmann, 1864).

    PubMed

    Venmathi Maran, B A; Moon, Seong Yong; Adday, Thamir Katea; Khamees, Najim Rijab; Myoung, Jung-Goo

    2014-03-01

    Three parasitic copepods (Siphonostomatoida) belonging to three different genera were recovered from marine fishes of Iraq, and are listed here as new records. The sea lice Caligus epinepheli Yamaguti, 1936 (Caligidae) was collected from the Japanese threadfin bream, Nemipterus japonicus (Bloch). It had been frequently reported from teleost fishes around the world. The second record, comprising male and female, was another caligid, rarely caught from fishes - Hermilius longicornis Bassett-Smith, 1898, collected from the giant catfish, Netuma thalassina (Rüppell). This paper features the first description of the male of the latter species. The third record was the lernanthropid, Lernanthropinus temminckii (von Nordmann, 1864) (Lernanthropidae), redescribed based on the specimens collected from the greater lizard fish, Saurida tumbil (Bloch) (Synodontidae). In order to clarify its taxonomic status, our specimen was compared with the holotype of L. gibbosus (Pillai, 1964) from the collections of Zoological Survey of India, Kolkata, and the syntypes of L. sauridae Do in Ho and Do, 1985 and L. temminckii from the collections of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C. We found similarities in the morphology of the body, mouthparts, and legs 1-4 in three above-mentioned species. The prominent feature, the setation pattern of legs 1 and 2 was similar in all the female specimens examined. In the light of this, we formally relegate L. gibbosus and L. sauridae to synonymy with L. temminckii. Another important similarity is that Lernanthropinus gibbosus, L. sauridae, and L. temminckii have exclusively been parasitic on lizardfishes (Synodontidae). The attachment site of all three copepods reported form Iraq were the gill filaments.

  12. Influence of season and site location on European cultured sea bass parasites in Corsican fish farms using indicator species analysis (IndVal).

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Laetitia; Foata, Joséphine; Quilichini, Yann; Marchand, Bernard

    2016-02-01

    The parasites of 536 European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, were studied between January 2012 and December 2013 in six Corsican fish farms. The indicator value (IndVal) method, which combines measures of fidelity and specificity, has been used in this study. Because of its resilience to changes in abundance, IndVal is a particularly effective tool for ecological bioindicator. The IndVal method showed how season can influence the occurrence of parasite species in cultured sea bass and also identified parasites as bioindicators relative to fish farm location. The combination of specificity and fidelity highlighted several parasite species as significant indicators. A randomization test identified five parasite species as having a significant indicator value for season (the monogenean Diplectanum aequans; the copepods Lernanthropus kroyeri and Caligus minimus; the isopod Ceratothoa oestroides, and the myxosporidian Ceratomyxa labracis). If gills parasites are compared, they can be seen to be indicator species for two different seasons. The only Monogenea species D. aequans had fidelity and specificity more pronounced in winter, whereas both copepod species and the Isopoda revealed highest rates of infestation corresponding with an increase of water temperature. Four species have a significant indicator value for site location (D. aequans, L. kroyeri, C. minimus, and C. oestroides). The fact that the farm 6 was isolated on the east coast of Corsica may not have allowed the parasite to infect other farms. The presence of copepods on a single farm can also be explained according to salinity variations. Data for species composition and infection levels should help to improve the monitoring and management of parasitism in cultured sea bass populations.

  13. Consumption of drugs for sea lice infestations in Norwegian fish farms: methods for assessment of treatment patterns and treatment rate.

    PubMed

    Grave, K; Horsberg, T E; Lunestad, B T; Litleskare, I

    2004-08-09

    Sea lice are a major problem in Norwegian fish farms; however, data on drug treatment patterns or treatment rates of sea lice infestations are not available. Such data are important for analysing resistance patterns against drugs used for such infestations. The main objective of the present study was to develop a method to estimate the treatment patterns and treatment rates for drugs used in the treatment against sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus) in farm salmonids by means of national sales statistics. Annual sales figures, as weight of active substances, were obtained from the drug wholesalers and the feed mills. The weight of active drug substances is not useful as a unit of measurement of drug use in an epidemiological context because it does not correct for dosage differences and number of repeat treatments. To correct for these factors, we introduced approved daily dose (ADD(farm fish)) and treatment course-doses(farm fish) kg(-1) live-weight fish. To express the drug treatment patterns, the biomass (in weight) of farm salmonids treated with 1 course of a drug were estimated. When measured as kg active substance, the quantities of drugs for the treatment of sea lice infestations declined by 98% during the study period (1989 to 2002) but this figure increased 5-fold when it was corrected for differences in dosage. To correct for amounts of farm salmonids liable to require treatment we estimated the annual treatment rate, defined as the number of treatments for sea lice infestations per biomass slaughtered Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The annual treatment rate increased gradually during the study period; however, it varied considerably (range 0.45 to 1.34, mean 0.90). Before 1995, organophosphates were the most frequently used drugs against sea lice; since then pyrethroids have become the dominating drug group.

  14. Metazoan gill parasites of the Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus) (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) from the Mediterranean and their possible use as biological tags.

    PubMed

    Culurgioni, Jacopo; Mele, Salvatore; Merella, Paolo; Addis, Piero; Figus, Vincenza; Cau, Angelo; Karakulak, Firdes Saadet; Garippa, Giovanni

    2014-04-01

    The gills of 63 specimens of the Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus) (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) from three localities of the Mediterranean (Sardinian, Tyrrhenian and Levantine Seas) were examined for metazoan parasites. The parasite fauna of T. thynnus from the Sea of Sardinia included 11 species: five didymozoid trematodes, three capsalid and one hexostomid monogeneans, and one caligid and one pseudocycnid copepods. Four didymozoids were found in fish from the Levantine Sea and only one didymozoid was recorded in fish from the Tyrrhenian Sea. Dividing the hosts into four size-groups (small, medium-sized, large and extra large), the pairwise comparison of prevalence and mean abundance of the new and literary data) showed differences according to host size. The differences in the composition of the parasitic faunas and in the prevalence of parasites, observed between the small tunas from the Tyrrhenian Sea and the medium-sized tunas from the Adriatic Sea, Levantine Sea and the North-East (NE) Atlantic Ocean, indicated that these groups form discrete units. The parasite fauna of the large tunas from the Sea of Sardinia is the richest among the bluefin tuna populations of the Mediterranean and the NE Atlantic, due to the presence of species not found elsewhere in bluefin tunas, such as Caligus coryphaenae Steenstrup et Lütken, 1861, Capsala magronum (Ishii, 1936) and C. paucispinosa (Mamaev, 1968). This fact and the prevalence of some parasites of this group (lower than those of medium-sized fish from the NE Atlantic and higher than the small and medium-sized tunas from the Mediterranean) suggest that the large-sized tuna group in the western Mediterranean is formed by Mediterranean resident tunas (poorly infected), and by tunas migrating from the Atlantic Ocean (heavily infected).

  15. DNA Barcoding of Metazoan Zooplankton Copepods from South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Shi Hyun; Kim, Sang Ki; Lee, Jin Hee; Lim, Young Jin; Lee, Jimin; Jun, Jumin; Kwak, Myounghai; Lee, Young-Sup; Hwang, Jae-Sam; Venmathi Maran, Balu Alagar; Chang, Cheon Young; Kim, Il-Hoi; Hwang, Ui Wook

    2016-01-01

    Copepods, small aquatic crustaceans, are the most abundant metazoan zooplankton and outnumber every other group of multicellular animals on earth. In spite of ecological and biological importance in aquatic environment, their morphological plasticity, originated from their various lifestyles and their incomparable capacity to adapt to a variety of environments, has made the identification of species challenging, even for expert taxonomists. Molecular approaches to species identification have allowed rapid detection, discrimination, and identification of cryptic or sibling species based on DNA sequence data. We examined sequence variation of a partial mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase I gene (COI) from 133 copepod individuals collected from the Korean Peninsula, in order to identify and discriminate 94 copepod species covering six copepod orders of Calanoida, Cyclopoida, Harpacticoida, Monstrilloida, Poecilostomatoida and Siphonostomatoida. The results showed that there exists a clear gap with ca. 20 fold difference between the averages of within-specific sequence divergence (2.42%) and that of between-specific sequence divergence (42.79%) in COI, suggesting the plausible utility of this gene in delimitating copepod species. The results showed, with the COI barcoding data among 94 copepod species, that a copepod species could be distinguished from the others very clearly, only with four exceptions as followings: Mesocyclops dissimilis–Mesocyclops pehpeiensis (0.26% K2P distance in percent) and Oithona davisae–Oithona similis (1.1%) in Cyclopoida, Ostrincola japonica–Pseudomyicola spinosus (1.5%) in Poecilostomatoida, and Hatschekia japonica–Caligus quadratus (5.2%) in Siphonostomatoida. Thus, it strongly indicated that COI may be a useful tool in identifying various copepod species and make an initial progress toward the construction of a comprehensive DNA barcode database for copepods inhabiting the Korean Peninsula. PMID:27383475

  16. Sea lice infestations on juvenile chum and pink salmon in the Broughton Archipelago, Canada, from 2003 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Patanasatienkul, Thitiwan; Sanchez, Javier; Rees, Erin E; Krkosek, Martin; Jones, Simon R M; Revie, Crawford W

    2013-07-22

    Juvenile pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha and chum salmon O. keta were sampled by beach or purse seine to assess levels of sea lice infestation in the Knight Inlet and Broughton Archipelago regions of coastal British Columbia, Canada, during the months of March to July from 2003 to 2012. Beach seine data were analyzed for sea lice infestation that was described in terms of prevalence, abundance, intensity, and intensity per unit length. The median annual prevalence for chum was 30%, ranging from 14% (in 2008 and 2009) to 73% (in 2004), while for pink salmon, the median was 27% and ranged from 10% (in 2011) to 68% (in 2004). Annual abundance varied from 0.2 to 5 sea lice per fish with a median of 0.47 for chum and from 0.1 to 3 lice (median 0.42) for pink salmon. Annual infestation followed broadly similar trends for both chum and pink salmon. However, the abundance and intensity of Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus clemensi, the 2 main sea lice species of interest, were significantly greater on chum than on pink salmon in around half of the years studied. Logistic regression with random effect was used to model prevalence of sea lice infestation for the combined beach and purse seine data. The model suggested inter-annual variation as well as a spatial clustering effect on the prevalence of sea lice infestation in both chum and pink salmon. Fish length had an effect on prevalence, although the nature of this effect differed according to host species.

  17. Seasonality of parasitic copepods on bullseye puffer, Sphoeroides annulatus (Pisces: Tetraodontidae), from the northwestern coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Morales-Serna, Francisco Neptalí; Rubio-Godoy, Miguel; Gómez, Samuel

    2011-08-01

    Seasonal occurrence of parasitic copepods in wild bullseye puffer, Sphoeroides annulatus (Pisces: Tetraodontidae), was analyzed in conjunction with variation of biotic and abiotic factors. Eleven samples were taken between February 2007 and February 2008 in Santa María La Reforma lagoon (northwestern coast of México). In total, 337 fish was examined; 5 parasitic copepod species were observed, including Acantholochus zairae , Caligus serratus , Lepeophtheirus simplex , Pseudochondracanthus diceraus , and Parabrachiella sp. The most common species were L. simplex , P. diceraus, and C. serratus (overall prevalence, 59, 53, and 35%, respectively), which significantly varied in prevalence and mean intensity between sampling months. A seasonal pattern was only observed for L. simplex, with higher infection levels in the warmest month than in the coldest month. Statistical analyses indicated that the intensity of L. simplex was positively correlated with water temperature. There were no significant differences in prevalence and intensity of infection among female and male hosts. At the component community level, species richness ranged between 4 and 5 during most of the study period, and no seasonality was observed in the number of individuals, Shannon diversity index, evenness index, or the Berger-Parker dominance index. At the infracommunity level, 4 descriptors used (mean species richness, mean number of individuals, mean Brillouin's diversity index, and mean Berger-Parker index) varied significantly between sampling months, but no seasonality was observed, except for a slight increase in the number of individuals during the warmest month. A significant positive association was detected between number of individuals and water temperature and between host size and both species richness and number of individuals. This is the first account of the ecology of these 5 parasitic copepods. Although no significant association was detected between fish condition factor and the

  18. Morphometric, molecular and ecological analyses of the parasites of the sharpsnout seabream Diplodus puntazzo Cetti (Sparidae) from the Spanish Mediterranean: implications for aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-García, N; Ahuir-Baraja, A E; Raga, J A; Montero, F E

    2015-03-01

    One of the fish species with the highest potential for aquaculture is the sharpsnout seabream, Diplodus puntazzo Cetti. Among other aspects, the development of new fish cultures requires studies of potential pathogens that may compromise survival of the fish in captivity. Moreover, both cultured and wild fish can act as sources or reservoirs of pathogens which may negatively affect other well-established cultures. We have studied the parasite fauna of the wild sharpsnout seabream, and monitored the survival of the parasites in culture conditions. The sharpsnout seabream was sampled from two different Spanish localities and examined for parasites. Additionally, 20 fish were maintained in captivity. Ten of them were examined for parasites after a period of 10 days and a further ten fish after another 10 days. All fish were parasitized with at least four species, with 19 parasite species being identified, seven of which were recorded for the first time in the sharpsnout seabream. These included Microcotyle sp., Magnibursatus bartolii, Steringotrema pagelli, Galactosomum sp., Cardiocephaloides longicollis, Caligus ligusticus and Gnathia vorax. We also report the first records of two parasite species in the wild sharpsnout seabream, the polyopisthocotylean monogeneans Atrispinum seminalis and Sparicotyle chrysophrii. Previously, these parasites had only been recorded in farmed sharpsnout seabream. Most parasites in the skin, gills and alimentary tract disappeared under the conditions of captivity, with the exception of the monogeneans of the genus Lamellodiscus. The information provided about the sharpsnout seabream parasite fauna will be useful to prevent possible problems in fish farms due to some parasite species. Many parasites of the sharpsnout seabream recorded in the present study are shared by the main fish species in Mediterranean aquaculture, the gilthead seabream, thus suggesting the possibility of cross-infections.

  19. Taxonomy, distribution and prevalence of parasites of tigerfish, Hydrocynus vittatus (Castelnau, 1861) in the Sanyati basin, Lake Kariba, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mabika, Nyasha; Barson, Maxwell; Van Dyk, Cobus; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè

    2016-09-01

    Parasites of the tigerfish (Hydrocynus vittatus) were investigated in the period October 2014 to July 2015 in the Sanyati Basin, Lake Kariba. The fish were collected using seine netting and also during the annual Kariba International Tiger Fishing Tournament. A total of 80 fish specimens (24 males and 56 females) were collected and were infected with the following seven parasite taxa: Monogenea (Annulotrema sp.1 from the gills and Annulotrema sp.2 from the skin), Nematoda (Contracaecum larvae), Cestoda (bothriocephalid, larval cyclophyllid), Copepoda (Lamproglena hemprichii), pentastomid, Myxosporea (Myxobolus sp.,) and unicellular ciliate parasites (Trichodina sp., Tetrahymena sp., and unidentified). Annulotrema sp. 1 was observed in all fish and had the highest prevalence, mean intensity and abundance. The fish organs infected were gills, skin, fin, body cavity, stomach, intestines, mesentery, liver, kidney, brain cavity and swim bladder. No parasites were observed in the muscle, eyes and blood. The distribution of the parasites was highest in the gills and lowest in the brain cavity and swimbladder. Bothriocephalids, pentastomes and Trichodina sp. were not observed in male fish. Sex was not related to the intensity of parasites. The results of the study showed that H. vittatus has a richer parasite community than other previous investigated alestids. Pentastomes, Myxobolus sp., Trichodina sp., Tetrahymena sp. and bothriocephalid cestodes are new records for H. vittatus in Zimbabwe.

  20. The Abundance and Spatial Distribution of Soft Sediment Communities in Tanjung Bungah, Malaysia: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Darif, Nur Aqilah Muhamad; Samad, Nur Shakila Abdul; Salleh, Sazlina; Mohammad, Mahadi; Nordin, Noor Alia Ahmad; Javeed, Aysha Mariam Mohamed; Jonik, Michelle Glory G; Zainudin, Muhamad Hilal Mohd

    2016-11-01

    Benthic faunal communities are important components in the intertidal zones. The diversity and abundance of the benthic communities are subjected to different natural and anthropogenic disturbances. The study was conducted as one off sampling on 6th November 2013 (1) to investigate the abundance and distribution of soft sediment communities in relation to environmental variables and (2) investigate the changes of population structure and diversity using spatial scales of 1 m, 10 m, and 100 m. Results indicated a total of 110 individuals of macrobenthos consisting of 7 different groups (Annelida, Bivalvia, Crustacea, Gastropoda, Nematoda, Nemertea, Polychaeta) and 4 different groups of meiobenthos (Copepoda, Nematoda, Ostracoda, Polychaeta) consisting 920 individuals were recorded. Dissolved oxygen played the most significant role in affecting the distribution of soft sediment communities while ammonia concentrations only affected marcobenthic organisms. However, sediment grain size did not show significant correlation (p>0.05) on soft sediment communities. Hence, understanding how different properties of benthos respond to changes in environmental variables is crucial in determining how the impacts on the sediment are tolerated by the benthic organisms.

  1. [Limnetic zooplankton run-off a high-head dam and their fate in a river with high current velocity (case of the Krasnoiarsk hydroelectric power station on the Yenisei river].

    PubMed

    Dubovskaia, O P; Gladyshev, M I; Makhutova, O N

    2004-01-01

    The vertical distribution of net zooplankton in head-water of Krasnoyarsk hydroelectric power station and its horizontal distribution in the tail-water were studied during two years in winter and summer seasons. In order to distinguish living and dead individuals the special staining was used. It was revealed that on average 77% of living plankton pass through high-head dam with deep water scoop to the tailwater. While passing through dam aggregates some individuals of the reservoir plankton are traumatized and die, that results in some increase of portion of dead individuals in the tail water near dam (from 3 to 6%). Alive zooplankton passed through the dam aggregates is eliminated under the Upper Yenisei highly turbulent conditions. There is approximately 10% of it in 32 km from the dam if compare with biomass in 20-40 m layer of reservoir, the portion of dead increases to 11%. The biomass of zooplankton suspended in the water column of the tail-water sometimes increases (till > 1 g/m3) due to large Copepoda Heteroscope borealis, which inhabits near-bottom and near-shore river zones and can be found in the central part of the river during reproductive period. Limnetic zooplankton from the reservoir cannot be considered as important food for planktivores in the tail-water.

  2. Temporal and spatial habitat preferences and biotic interactions between mosquito larvae and antagonistic crustaceans in the field.

    PubMed

    Kroeger, Iris; Liess, Matthias; Duquesne, Sabine

    2014-06-01

    Investigations on natural antagonists of mosquito larvae found that micro-crustaceans (e.g., Cladocera) control mosquito populations under experimental conditions. However, their relevance for mosquito control under field situations remains widely unclear because important information about habitat preferences and time of occurrence of crustaceans and mosquito larvae are still missing. In order to fill this knowledge gap, a field study was undertaken in different wetland areas of Saxony, Germany, in different habitats (i.e., grassland, forest, and reed-covered wetlands). We found negative interactions between larvae of Ae. vexans and predatory Cyclopoida (Crustacean: Copepoda), which both were dominant during the first two weeks of hydroperiod, at ponds located at grassland habitats. Larvae of Cx. pipiens were spatially associated with competing Cladocera, but they colonized ponds more rapidly. Populations of Cladocera established from the third week of hydroperiod and prevented Cx. pipiens colonization thereafter. Ostracoda were highly abundant during the whole hydroperiod, but their presence was restricted to habitats of reed-covered wetland at one geographical area. Mosquito larvae hardly occurred at those ponds. In general, we found that ponds at the reed-covered wetlands provided better conditions for the initial development of crustaceans and hence, mosquito larval colonization was strongly inhibited. Grassland habitat, in contrast, favored early development of mosquito larvae. This study showed that micro-crustaceans are relevant for mosquito management but their impact on mosquito larvae varies between species and depends on environmental conditions.

  3. Effects of habitat structure on the epifaunal community in Mussismilia corals: does coral morphology influence the richness and abundance of associated crustacean fauna?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, Marcos M.; Neves, Elizabeth; Johnsson, Rodrigo

    2015-06-01

    Coral habitat structures increase abundance and richness of organisms by providing niches, easy access to resources and refuge from predators. Corals harbor a great variety of animals; the variation in coral species morphology contributes to the heterogeneity and complexity of habitat types. In this report, we studied the richness and abundance of crustaceans (Decapoda, Copepoda, Peracarida and Ostracoda) associated with three species of Mussismilia exhibiting different growth morphologies, in two different coral reefs of the Bahia state (Caramuanas and Boipeba-Moreré, Brazil). Mussismilia hispida is a massive coral; M. braziliensis also has a massive growth pattern, but forms a crevice in the basal area of the corallum; M. harttii has a meandroid pattern. PERMANOVA analysis suggests significant differences in associated fauna richness among Mussismilia species, with higher values for M. harttii, followed by M. braziliensis and later by M. hispida. The same trend was observed for density, except that the comparison of M. braziliensis and M. hispida did not show differences. Redundancy and canonical correspondence analysis indicated that almost all of the crustacean species were more associated with the M. harttii colonies that formed a group clearly separated from colonies of M. braziliensis and M. hispida. We also found that the internal volume of interpolyp space, only present in M. harttii, was the most important factor influencing richness and abundance of all analyzed orders of crustaceans.

  4. Higher-level crustacean phylogeny: consensus and conflicting hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Jenner, Ronald A

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of current hypotheses of higher-level crustacean phylogeny in order to assist and help focus further research. It concentrates on hypotheses proposed or debated in the recent literature based on morphological, molecular and combined evidence phylogenetic analyses. It can be concluded that crustacean phylogeny remains essentially unresolved. Conflict is rife, irrespective of whether one compares different morphological studies, molecular studies, or both. Using the number of recently proposed alternative sister group hypotheses for each of the major tetraconatan taxa as a rough estimate of phylogenetic uncertainty, it can be concluded that the phylogenetic position of Malacostraca remains the most problematic, closely followed by Branchiopoda, Cephalocarida, Remipedia, Ostracoda, Branchiura, Copepoda and Hexapoda. Future progress will depend upon a broader taxon sampling in molecular analyses, and the further exploration of new molecular phylogenetic markers. However, the need for continued revision and expansion of morphological datasets remains undiminished given the conspicuous lack of agreement between molecules and morphology for positioning several taxa. In view of the unparalleled morphological diversity of Crustacea, and the likely nesting of Hexapoda somewhere within Crustacea, working out a detailed phylogeny of Tetraconata is a crucial step towards understanding arthropod body plan evolution.

  5. Relation between physico-chemical limnology and crustacean community in Wular Lake of Kashmir Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Shah, Javaid Ahmad; Pandit, Ashok K

    2013-10-01

    The present study scrutinizes the seasonal variation in the distribution of crustacean zooplankton in relation to physico-chemical liminology of Wular lake. Water samples were collected from five study sites during September 2010-August 2011. Remarkable spatial and temporal variations were observed among the different study sites. Among the parameters recorded water temperature showed positive correlation with pH (p<0.01) and orthophosphate (p<0.05).Transparency showed a significant negative correlation with total alkalinity (p<0.01), free carbon dioxide (p<0.01) and ammonical nitrogen (p<0.01). Crustacean zooplankton were collected by filtering 100 L lake water through a 30 microm nytal mesh and preserved in 4% formalin. A total of 42 taxa of crustacean were recorded, among them 23 species belonged to Cladocera, 16 to Copepoda and only 3 to Ostracoda. Species diversity and density depicted an abrupt up surge on the advent of warmer period (extending from March). Among the various sites a maximum of 40 species were recorded from a single biotope (site III) against the minimum of only 17 species being recorded from site I. Bray-Curtis cluster analysis showed close similarity (0.928-0.944%) between summer and autumn in terms of species diversity. Pearson correlation coefficient of the various physico-chemical parameters of water with crustacean zooplankton depicted that not only a single but multiple factors govern over the distribution and diversity of crustacean in the lake.

  6. Zooplankton abundance, biovolume and size spectra at western boundary currents in the subtropical North Pacific during winter 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Luping; Li, Chaolun; Yang, Guang; Sun, Xiaoxia

    2016-03-01

    Horizontal changes in mesozooplankton abundance, biovolume and size spectra at western boundary currents in the subtropical North Pacific during winter 2012 were evaluated by ZooScan measurement on samples collected by net towing from 23 stations. Zooplankton abundance and biovolume ranged from 35.1 to 456.8 ind. m- 3 and 4.3 to 231.7 mm3 m- 3, respectively. Copepoda were the most dominant species, followed by Chaetognatha and Tunicata. According to the Bray-Curtis cluster analysis based on biovolume of zooplankton size classes of each taxonomic group at intervals of 1 (log2 mm3 ind.- 1) between - 6 and 12 and considering the effect of regional factors, zooplankton communities were classified into four groups, which basically coincided with the geographical patterns of different currents: the North Equatorial Current (NEC), the North Equatorial Counter Current (NECC), the Kuroshio Current (KC), and the Mindanao Eddy (ME), respectively. The largest and lowest biovolumes were observed in the NECC region and the NEC region, respectively, and both were dominated by the 0.3 to 1 mm equivalent spherical diameter (ESD) size class, while the ME region was dominant by the 1 to 2 mm ESD size class. The slopes of the normalized biovolume size spectra for each group were slightly lower than - 1 (range from - 0.85 to - 0.92), which indicates that zooplankton communities in the study area were characterized by low productivity and high energy transfer efficiency.

  7. Response of aquatic invertebrates to ecological rehabilitation of Southeastern USA depressional wetlands.

    SciTech Connect

    Batzer, Donald P.; Taylor, Barbera E.

    2015-07-02

    Abstract We assessed aquatic invertebrate response to ecological rehabilitation treatment in 20 depression wetlands on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA. All wetlands had been ditched for 50+ years. Sixteen of the 20 wetlands received rehabilitation treatment, and four wetlands remained untreated as a control group. Treatment included logging of all trees, plugging drainage ditches, and planting wetland trees and grasses. Hydroperiods were consequently extended in most of the treatment wetlands. As part a larger study, we sampled macroinvertebrates and microcrustaceans during the pre-habilitation (1998–2000) and rehabilitation (2001–2003) phases. Our study spanned 2 years of high rainfall (1998 and 2003) and 4 years of low rainfall (1999–2002). Samples were collected bimonthly from any wetlands holding water. Macroinvertebrate assemblages in treatment wetlands in 2003 had changed from previous years (1998–2002) and compared to control wetlands (1998–2003), with abundances of Baetidae, Coenagrionidae, Dytiscidae, Chironomidae, and Chaoboridae driving variation. For microcrustaceans (Copepoda and Branchiopoda, including Cladocera, Anostraca and Laevicaudata), assemblage composition and species richness responded mainly to hydrologic conditions. Rehabilitation efforts in these wetlands induced diverse and abundant invertebrate communities to develop, but some responses appeared opportunistic; several taxa that benefitted were not typical residents of depressional wetlands in the region.

  8. Genetic diversity patterns of microeukaryotic plankton communities in Shenhu Bay, southeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Pan, Yongbo; Yu, Lingyu; Liu, Lemian

    2017-06-01

    Microeukaryotic plankton is an abundant and diverse component of marine environments and plays an important role in microbial food webs. However, few studies have been conducted on the genetic diversity of microeukaryotes in the subtropical bays of China. In the present study, we investigated the microeukaryotic plankton in the Shenhu Bay by using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and sequencing of prominent bands. Our results indicated that Copepoda and Dinophyceae were the most diverse groups, and that the microeukaryotic communities varied significantly between summer and autumn, with the autumn communities exhibited a higher diversity than summer communities. Furthermore, the community composition and diversity from both surface and bottom waters showed more significant differences in summer than in autumn. Environmental parameters also displayed obvious seasonal patterns. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that temperature was the most significant environmental factor shaping the seasonal patterns of the microplanktonic members in the Shenhu Bay. Community-level molecular techniques such as DGGE appear as useful tools to detect the presence of red tide causing species and to guide the management of coastal water mariculture.

  9. Zooplankton communities and Bythotrephes longimanus in lakes of the montane region of the northern Alps

    PubMed Central

    Horváth, Zsófia; Vad, Csaba F.; Preiler, Christian; Birtel, Julia; Matthews, Blake; Ptáčníková, Radka; Ptáčník, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Lakes in the Alps represent a considerable fraction of nutrient-poor lakes in Central Europe, with unique biodiversity and ecosystem properties. Although some individual lakes are well studied, less knowledge is available on large-scale patterns essential to general understanding of their functioning. Here, we aimed to describe crustacean zooplankton communities (Cladocera, Copepoda) and identify their environmental drivers in the pelagic zone of 54 oligotrophic lakes in the montane region of the Alps (400–1200 m) in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland, covering a spatial scale of 650 km. Moreover, we aimed to provide data on the distribution and ecological requirements of the North American invader Bythotrephes longimanus in its Central European native range. Communities were mainly dominated by widespread species typical of lowland habitats, and only a few true specialists of oligotrophic alpine lakes were present. The most frequent taxa were the Daphnia longispina complex and Eudiaptomus gracilis, with 48 and 45 occurrences, respectively. Species richness decreased with altitude and increased with lake area. The main structuring factors of community composition were chlorophyll a concentration and depth, which drove an apparent separation of mesotrophic and oligotrophic communities. Bythotrephes had 13 occurrences, showing a preference for deep oligotrophic lakes. Its presence was not coupled with lower crustacean species richness, as was repeatedly observed in North America. Additionally, it frequently co-occurred with the other large predatory cladoceran, Leptodora kindtii. B. longimanus might be considered a truly montane species in Central Europe, given its absence in lowland and alpine lakes. PMID:28824797

  10. Seasonal variation in the copepod community structure from a tropical Amazon estuary, Northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, André; Leite, Natália da R; Silva, João G S; Pereira, Luci C C; Costa, Rauquírio M da

    2009-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the seasonal variation of copepod community structure during the months of July, September and November 2003 (dry season) and January, March and May 2004 (rainy season) in the Curuçá estuary, northern Brazil. Samples were collected during neap tides via gentle 200microm mesh net tows from a small powerboat. Measurements of surface water conductivity were accomplished in situ using an electronic conductivimeter and salinity was later obtained through the transformation of the conductivity values. Salinity varied seasonally from 7.2 +/- 0.1 to 39.2 +/- 1.8 (mean +/- standard deviation) and was influenced mainly by differences in the amount of rainfall between the studied sampling seasons. In total, 30 Copepoda taxa were identified and Acartia tonsa comprised the most representative species throughout the entire studied period followed by Acartia lilljeborgii, Subeucalanus pileatus and Paracalanus quasimodo. In the present study, the density values, ecological indexes and copepod species dominance presented a clear seasonal pattern, showing that the studied area may be considered seasonally heterogeneous in relation to the investigated parameters.

  11. Effects of monensin on zooplankton communities in aquatic microcosms.

    PubMed

    Hillis, Derek G; Lissemore, Linda; Sibley, Paul K; Solomon, Keith R

    2007-09-15

    The effects of monensin, an antibiotic widely used in the poultry and beef industry, were evaluated on zooplankton community structure and population dynamics. Monensin was added to 12 000 L aquatic microcosms as a single treatment at concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 500 microg/L, and they were evaluated over a 50 day period. Changes in the zooplankton assemblage were evaluated by principal response curves (PRC), while changes in abundance and species richness were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Monensin did not significantly affect community structure. However, significant changes within specific taxonomic groups were observed with decreases in the abundance of Rotifera and Copepoda nauplii and in the richness of Rotifera and Cladocera. Concentration-dependent increases in Ostracoda abundance were also observed. Changes in chlorophyll-a concentrations within the microcosms over the course of the study indicated that the changes in zooplankton populations were the indirect result of the effects of monensin on the algal community. Monensin concentrations measured in surface waters were 40 times lower than the determined no-observable effect concentration (NOEC) of 50 microg/L and do not likely present a risk to zooplankton.

  12. Effects of the veterinary pharmaceutical ivermectin in indoor aquatic microcosms.

    PubMed

    Boonstra, Harry; Reichman, Erik P; van den Brink, Paul J

    2011-01-01

    The effects of the parasiticide ivermectin were assessed in plankton-dominated indoor microcosms. Ivermectin was applied once at concentrations of 30, 100, 300, 1000, 3000, and 10,000 ng/l. The half-life (dissipation time 50%; DT₅₀) of ivermectin in the water phase ranged from 1.1 to 8.3 days. The lowest NOEC(community) that could be derived on an isolated sampling from the microcosm study by means of multivariate techniques was 100 ng/l. The most sensitive species in the microcosm study were the cladocerans Ceriodaphnia sp. (no observed effect concentration, NOEC = 30 ng/l) and Chydorus sphaericus (NOEC = 100 ng/l). The amphipod Gammarus pulex was less sensitive to ivermectin, showing consistent statistically significant reductions at the 1000-ng/l treatment level. Copepoda taxa decreased directly after application of ivermectin in the highest treatment but had already recovered at day 20 posttreatment. Indirect effects (e.g., increase of rotifers, increased primary production) were observed at the highest treatment level starting only on day 13 of the exposure phase. Cladocera showed the highest sensitivity to ivermectin in both standard laboratory toxicity tests as well as in the microcosm study. This study demonstrates that simple plankton-dominated test systems for assessing the effects of ivermectin can produce results similar to those obtained with large complex outdoor systems.

  13. Response of the zooplankton community and environmental fate of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid in aquatic microcosms.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, Timothy M; Wilson, Christian J; Cheong, Woo Jay; Sibley, Paul K; Mabury, Scott A; Muir, Derek C G; Solomon, Keith R

    2003-11-01

    Little is known regarding perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) toxicity to freshwater organisms. This field evaluation aims to assess the toxicological risk associated with exposure to PFOS across levels of biological organization. The analysis of variance study was conducted in replicate (n = 3) 12,000 L outdoor microcosms. Multivariate techniques were used to assess the response of zooplankton community structure and dynamics, as well as a floating macrophyte, Lemna gibba. The zooplankton community was significantly affected (p < 0.05) by the treatment regime given by the Monte Carlo permutations for all sampling times. A community-level no-observable-effect concentration ([NOEC]community) of 3.0 mg/L was determined for the 35-day study, however, longer term studies are recommended. The most sensitive taxonomic groups, Cladocera and Copepoda, were virtually eliminated in 30 mg/L treatments after 7 d. The 42-d 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) for L. gibba frond number was 19.1 mg/L and the NOEC was 0.2 mg/L. Furthermore, we investigated the persistence of PFOS over 285 d in microcosms under natural conditions. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid concentration showed no drastic reduction in any treatment microcosm over the entire study period, confirming that this compound undergoes little degradation in aquatic systems. Presently, there appears to be little hazard to these freshwater organisms at reported environmental concentrations.

  14. Comprehensive transcriptome study to develop molecular resources of the copepod Calanus sinicus for their potential ecological applications.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing; Sun, Fanyue; Yang, Zhi; Li, Hongjun

    2014-01-01

    Calanus sinicus Brodsky (Copepoda, Crustacea) is a dominant zooplanktonic species widely distributed in the margin seas of the Northwest Pacific Ocean. In this study, we utilized an RNA-Seq-based approach to develop molecular resources for C. sinicus. Adult samples were sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. The sequencing data generated 69,751 contigs from 58.9 million filtered reads. The assembled contigs had an average length of 928.8 bp. Gene annotation allowed the identification of 43,417 unigene hits against the NCBI database. Gene ontology (GO) and KEGG pathway mapping analysis revealed various functional genes related to diverse biological functions and processes. Transcripts potentially involved in stress response and lipid metabolism were identified among these genes. Furthermore, 4,871 microsatellites and 110,137 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the C. sinicus transcriptome sequences. SNP validation by the melting temperature (T m )-shift method suggested that 16 primer pairs amplified target products and showed biallelic polymorphism among 30 individuals. The present work demonstrates the power of Illumina-based RNA-Seq for the rapid development of molecular resources in nonmodel species. The validated SNP set from our study is currently being utilized in an ongoing ecological analysis to support a future study of C. sinicus population genetics.

  15. The influence of water-level fluctuation on the drift of Simulium chutteri Lewis, 1965 (Diptera, Nematocera) in the Orange River, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Car, M

    1983-09-01

    In July 1982, the invertebrate drift at Marksdrift comprised 98, 7% Simulium chutteri; 0, 75% Chironomidae; 0, 3% Ephemeroptera; 0, 15% Copepoda, and 0, 1% Trichoptera. Simuliid eggs were found in only 6 out of 75 samples. A single water-level reduction of 57 cm (54%) resulted in a more than sixfold increase of S. chutteri larvae in the drift and a more than 50% decrease of 1st and 2nd instar larvae in the drift after the water had returned to its original level. Larvae found lying in pools after the water-level had dropped belonged mainly to instars 5-7, 70% of them showing symptoms of starvation after 3 days when the river had risen again. The drift of simuliid head capsules decreased when the larval drift increased, as fewer simuliid larvae moulted when they had been disturbed. The low drift of eggs and the presence of very few pupae and adults indicated that most of the S. chutteri population was in the larval stage and that July was therefore an ideal month for water-level manipulation. Its main effect was achieved by irritating larger larvae and thus preventing them from resettling.

  16. UV radiation and freshwater zooplankton: damage, protection and recovery.

    PubMed

    Rautio, Milla; Tartarotti, Barbara

    2010-12-01

    While many laboratory and field studies show that zooplankton are negatively affected when exposed to high intensities of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), most studies also indicate that zooplankton are well adapted to cope with large variations in their UVR exposure in the pelagic zone of lakes. The response mechanisms of zooplankton are diverse and efficient and may explain the success and richness of freshwater zooplankton in optically variable waters. While no single behavioural or physiological protection mechanism seems to be superior, and while several unexplained and contradictory patterns exist in zooplankton UVR ecology, recent increases in our understanding are consistent with UVR playing an important role for zooplankton. This review examines the variability in freshwater zooplankton responses to UVR, with a focus on crustacean zooplankton (Cladocera and Copepoda). We present an overview of UVR-induced damages, and the protection and recovery mechanisms freshwater zooplankton use when exposed to UVR. We review the current knowledge of UVR impact on freshwater zooplankton at species and community levels, and discuss briefly how global change over the last three decades has influenced the UVR milieu in lakes.

  17. Food of forage fishes in western Lake Erie, 1975-76

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muth, Kenneth M.; Busch, Wolf-Dieter N.

    1989-01-01

    In western Lake Erie in the summer and fall of 1975–1976, food eaten by seven forage fishes—emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides), spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius), trout-perch (Percopsis omiscomaycus), andyoung-of-the-year (YOY) of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum), white bass (Morone chrysops), and freshwater drum (Aplodi-notus grunniens)—was divided among six major taxa: Cladocera, Copepoda, Diptera, Ostracoda, Amphipoda, and Algae. In addition, fish were eaten by YOY white bass, and Rotifera were consumed by YOY gizzard shad. Interspecies diet overlap indices, calculated to compare the food of the different species and to evaluate diet similarities, were usually highest for YOY white bass and YOY freshwater drum when compared with the other species and usually lowest between emerald shiners and all other forage fishes. Understanding the feeding interactions among fishes that could influence production at the forage-food level of the food web could provide insight into how cascading trophic interactions influence the production of piscivorous predators.

  18. Effects of 4-nonylphenol on the biota in a littoral pond ecosystem

    SciTech Connect

    Liber, K.; Schmude, K.; O`Halloran, S.; Corry, T.; Gangl, J.; Stay, F.

    1994-12-31

    National water quality criteria for 4-nonylphenol, a surfactant precursor and metabolite, are currently being developed by the US EPA. Preliminary data from laboratory tests indicate that the criterion maximum concentration may be as low as 3--10 {mu}g/L; field data on biological effects are rare. The study presented here was designed to assess the effects of 4-nonylphenol on a natural aquatic community using a set of 18 littoral enclosures (average volume 33 m{sup 3}). The common occurrence of 4-nonylphenol in municipal and industrial discharges dictated the use of a ``chronic`` exposure scenario for this study. Test concentrations ranged from 3 to 300 {mu}g/L, with applications every 48 hours for a 20 day period. This ensured a 21-day ``chronic`` exposure period and allowed sediment concentration of 4-nonylphenol to steadily increase. Survival of juvenile bluegill sunfish was reduced at 300 {mu}g/L, but not at 100, {mu}g/L; no effects on growth were noted over the 68-day assessment period. Abundance of Cladocera and Copepoda were also reduced at 300 {mu}g/L, with recovery observed within 2--4 weeks after the last nonylphenol application. Benthic macroinvertebrates, including Chironomidae, Oligochaeta, and Mollusca, were affected at 100--300 {mu}g/L, with impacts persisting for several months. The slow recovery of benthic macroinvertebrates was partially attributed to their prolonged exposure to sediment associated nonylphenol residues.

  19. Norwegian deep-water coral reefs: cultivation and molecular analysis of planktonic microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Sigmund; Lynch, Michael D J; Ray, Jessica L; Neufeld, Josh D; Hovland, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Deep-sea coral reefs do not receive sunlight and depend on plankton. Little is known about the plankton composition at such reefs, even though they constitute habitats for many invertebrates and fish. We investigated plankton communities from three reefs at 260-350 m depth at hydrocarbon fields off the mid-Norwegian coast using a combination of cultivation and small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene and transcript sequencing. Eight months incubations of a reef water sample with minimal medium, supplemented with carbon dioxide and gaseous alkanes at in situ-like conditions, enabled isolation of mostly Alphaproteobacteria (Sulfitobacter, Loktanella), Gammaproteobacteria (Colwellia) and Flavobacteria (Polaribacter). The relative abundance of isolates in the original sample ranged from ∼ 0.01% to 0.80%. Comparisons of bacterial SSU sequences from filtered plankton of reef and non-reef control samples indicated high abundance and metabolic activity of primarily Alphaproteobacteria (SAR11 Ia), Gammaproteobacteria (ARCTIC96BD-19), but also of Deltaproteobacteria (Nitrospina, SAR324). Eukaryote SSU sequences indicated metabolically active microalgae and animals, including codfish, at the reef sites. The plankton community composition varied between reefs and differed between DNA and RNA assessments. Over 5000 operational taxonomic units were detected, some indicators of reef sites (e.g. Flavobacteria, Cercozoa, Demospongiae) and some more active at reef sites (e.g. Gammaproteobacteria, Ciliophora, Copepoda).

  20. Mobile epifauna on Zostera marina, and infauna of its inflorescences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellwig-Armonies, Monika

    1988-06-01

    The faunal colonization of the leaves and inflorescences of intertidal Zostera marina L. and of the ambient water has been studied at the Island of Sylt (North Sea). The abundance of the snail Littorina littorea L. and the isopod Jaera albifrons Leach correlates significantly with leaf surface area. This is not the case with the abundance of meiofaunal Plathelminthes, Nematoda, Copepoda, and Polychaeta. However, they increase significantly with the numbers of generative shoots in the sampled seagrass bunches. Members of these taxa inhabit the Zostera inflorescences, and average abundance increases with the degree of decay of inflorescences. This temporary microhabitat presumably offers food and shelter. Copepods and ostracods dominate in the ambient water. Planktonic calanoid copepods correlate with the amount of sampled seawater, while Ostracoda correlate with the amount of resuspended detritus suggesting that they were resuspended themselves. The study shows that some meiofaunal taxa can rapidly exploit a short-lived habitat such as the Zostera inflorescences. Juvenile polychaetes use inflorescences as a nursery.

  1. A qualitative assessment of the influence of bioturbation in Lake Baikal sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Patrick; Boes, Xavier; Goddeeris, Boudewijn; Fagel, Nathalie

    2005-04-01

    The impact of bioturbation in Lake Baikal sediments, particularly on rhythmic layering and mixing, was assessed by studying the actual vertical distribution of benthic animals in continuous accumulation zones selected by seismic survey (Vydrino Shoulder, Posolskoe Bank, Continent Ridge). To assess the influence of the bioturbation, animals were extracted from short cores and identified at the relevant taxonomic level. The faunal distribution is examined in parallel with the bioturbation tracks observed in thin section. Oligochaeta, Nematoda, Ostracoda, Copepoda, Gammaridae, Chironomidae and Hydrachnidia were found inhabiting the sediment. Among them, only oligochaete worms were assumed to have a significant impact on sediment mixing because of their "conveyor belt" feeding. The other two most abundantly sampled groups, nematods and copepods, belong to the interstitial fauna that has no significant impact on the vertical displacement of sediment particles and do not ingest the sediment. The presence of a benthic fauna as deep as 15 cm in the sediment indicates that the possibility of sediment disturbance by invertebrate activity cannot be dismissed in Lake Baikal. The effect of biological mixing is more limited in the deepest stations because the number of potential bioturbators is reduced, qualitatively as well as quantitatively. Located in the abyssal zone, Continent and Vydrino (but outside turbidites) deep stations appear to be most promising sediment records for tracking climate signal at high resolution.

  2. Meiobenthos assemblages in the mekong estuarine system with special focus on free-living marine nematodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quang, Ngo Xuan; Vanreusel, Ann; Smol, Nic; Chau, Nguyen Ngoc

    2010-12-01

    Meiobenthos assemblages in eight estuaries of the Mekong river system were investigated in August 2008 (from the Cua Tieu estuary to the Tran De estuary). In each estuary, one sampling station was established for meiobenthos sampling. Twelve major taxa of meiobenthos were recorded in this estuarine system, including Nematoda, Copepoda, Turbellaria, Polychaeta, Oligochaeta, Tardigrada, Bivalvia, Ostracoda, Amphipoda, Cumacea, Gastrotricha, Gastropoda, and Crustacean Nauplii larvae. The densities of the meiobenthos range from 581 to 3168 inds/10 cm2. Nematodes always occupy the highest numbers with a percentage ranging from 64-99%. There are 135 nematode genera recorded in this study with the following as dominant genera Desmodora, Leptolaimus, Halalaimus, Thalassomonhystera, Theristus, Daptonema, Rhynchonema, Parodontophora, and Oncholaimus. Although the biodiversity of the meiobenthos at higher taxa level is not high compared to other marine environments, the estimates of nematode biodiversity at the genus level indicates high values. The increase in number of genera with increasing sampling intensity illustrate that the diversity is underestimated and would have been higher if the authors had considered a larger number of individuals, more replicates per station, and more sampling stations.

  3. Seasonal variability of meiofauna, especially harpacticoid copepods, in Posidonia oceanica macrophytodetritus accumulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascart, Thibaud; Lepoint, Gilles; Deschoemaeker, Silke; Binard, Marc; Remy, François; De Troch, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was (1) to assess the diversity and density of meiofauna taxa, especially harpacticoid copepod species, present within accumulated seagrass macrophytodetritus on unvegetated sand patches and (2) to elucidate the community structure of detritus-associated harpacticoid copepods in relation to natural temporal variability of physico-chemical characteristics of accumulations. This was investigated in a Posidonia oceanica (L.) Delile seagrass ecosystem in the northwest Mediterranean Sea (Bay of Calvi, Corsica, 42°35‧N, 8°43‧E) using a triplicate macrophytodetritus core field sampling in two contrasting sites over the four seasons of 2011. Meiofauna higher taxa consisted of 50% Copepoda, of which 87% belonged to the Harpacticoida order. Nematoda was the second most abundant taxa. The copepod community displayed a wide variety of morphologically similar and ecologically different species (i.e. mesopsammic, phytal, phytal-swimmers, planktonic and parasitic). The harpacticoid copepod community followed a strong seasonal pattern with highest abundances and species diversity in May-August, revealing a link with the leaf litter epiphyte primary production cycle. Aside from the important role in sheltering, housing and feeding potential of macrophytodetritus, a harpacticoid community BEST analysis demonstrated a positive correlation with habitat complexity and a negative correlation with water movements and P. oceanica leaf litter accumulation.

  4. Free-living plathelminthes in sheep-grazed and ungrazed supralittoral salt marshes of the North Sea: Abundance, biomass, and their significance in food chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armonies, W.

    The supralittoral salt marshes of the North Sea are marked by high halophyte primary productivity. The environmental factors are strongly fluctuating. Despite these features the metazoan meiofaunal abundance is equal to that found in other littoral habitats. On average 1250 marine metazoans are found per 10 cm 2 in ungrazed and 770 per 10 cm 2 in sheep-grazed supralittoral salt marshes. Nematoda dominate in numerical abundance, Oligochaeta in biomass. Plathelminthes account for 15% of marine metazoans in ungrazed and 5% in grazed salt marshes. Total plathelminth abundance increases with halophyte density, whereas the abundance of diatom-feeding Plathelminthes decreases. In ungrazed marshes on average 104 Plathelminthes are found per 10 cm 2, accounting for a biomass of 0.65 g DW·m -2. In sheep-grazed marshes the average abundance is only 32 individuals per 10 cm 2, accounting for a biomass of 0.1 g DW·m -2. Average individual weight is 3.2 μg DW or 2.5 μg AFDW. In grazed salt marshes, 30% of plathelminthes feed on diatoms, 66% are predators, and 4% feed on bacteria (gut analysis). In ungrazed salt marshes only 3% are diatom-feeders, and 90% are predators feeding on Nematoda, Copepoda, Oligochaeta, and smaller Plathelminthes. Presumably plathelminthes are top predators on the salt marsh meiofauna.

  5. Meiofauna associated with a Pacific coral reef in Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, Héctor M.; Obando, Vilma L.; Cortés, Jorge

    1987-10-01

    The meiofauna of two coral reef habitats at Isla del Naño, Costa Rica was studied over a one year period. The dominant groups were: Foraminifera (21.2%), Copepoda (19.7%), Nematoda (19.1%), Gastropoda (16.5%), Polychaeta (7.2%) and Bivalvia (6.6%). The highest diversity was found in coarse, heterogeneous sands with the highest percentage of carbonates. The meiofauna showed a high degree of horizontal aggregation, which is a characteristic pattern for macro- and meiofauna in sediments of variable composition. No vertical variation in distribution was evident, probably due to the deep location of the Redox Potential Discontinuity layer. The total densities of organisms found in this study (99 to 575 ind/10 cm2) are low compared with densities in similar non-reefal sands (7 to 6116), and from fine sediments (80 to 17 000), but are comparable to densities found in other reef areas (39 to 609.5 ind/10 cm2). This is the first report on meiofauna from the eastern Pacific, and the first time that foraminiferans are the dominant group.

  6. Biodiversity of meiofauna in the intertidal khe nhan mudflat, can gio mangrove forest, vietnam with special emphasis on free living nematodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuan, Quang Ngo; Vanreusel, Ann; Thanh, Nguyen Vu; Smol, Nic

    2007-09-01

    The ecological aspect of meiofaunal communities in Can Gio mangrove forest, Ho Chi Minh city, Vietnam has not been investigated before. The composition, distribution, density and biodiversity of meiofaunal communities were studied along an intertidal transect at the Khe Nhan mudflat. Each time, three replicate samples were collected in four stations along a transect following the water line from low tide level up to the mangrove forest edge. In total, 18 meiofaunal taxa were found with the dominant taxa belonging to Nematoda, Copepoda, Sarcomastigophora and Polychaeta. The densities of meiofauna ranged from 1156 inds/10 cm2 to 2082 inds/10 cm2. The increase in densities from the mangrove forest edge towards the low water line was significant. Along the mudflat transect, the biodiversity (expressed by different indices) was relatively high at different taxonomic levels but did not vary significantly along the mudflat except for taxa richness. Eighty nematode genera belonging to 24 families with Comesomatidae having the highest abundance 33.8 % were found. Theristus and Neochromadora decreased in densities from the lower water line towards the mangrove forest edge, while Paracomesoma and Hopperia are typical and more abundant at the middle of the mudflat. Halalaimus increased from high on the mudflat to the low water line.

  7. Olfaction in a viscous environment: the "color" of sexual smells in Temora longicornis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinow, Peter; Strickler, J. Rudi; Yen, Jeannette

    2017-06-01

    We investigate chemical aspects of mating in the marine copepod Temora longicornis (Copepoda, Calanoidea). Our emphasis is the female pheromone signaling in form of well-defined trails for males to follow, observed in Doall et al. (Phil Trans R Soc Lond B 353:681-689, 1998). The viscous environment and the properties of the odorants play important roles as the spread of the pheromone trail limits the time during which it is useful for tracing. A key observation from our earlier work is the ability of a searching male to detect the direction of the female and to correct its swimming direction if necessary. We propose a simple mathematical model for the spread of a pheromone from a moving source and carry out numerical simulations of two possible detection mechanisms. We find that a searching agent that is capable to detect a ratio outperforms a searcher that depends on the gradient of a single compound. This suggests that copepod sex pheromones consist of blends of chemical compounds, and that a ratio detection mechanism similar to that in airborne insects is at work.

  8. Benthic fauna associated with mussel beds and shrimp swarms at hydrothermal fields on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goroslavskaya, E. I.; Galkin, S. V.

    2011-02-01

    Macrofaunal assemblages with the prevalence of Bresiliidae shrimp and Mytilidae mussels are abundant in the hydrothermal vents along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The mussels inhabit the zone of diffuse seeps of hydrothermal fluids with temperature abnormalities up to several degrees. Shrimps inhabit an extreme biotope in the mixed interface between the seawater and the hydrothermal fluid at a temperature up to 20-30°C. We studied the mussel and shrimp assemblages in three hydrothermal vent fields: the Rainbow, Broken Spur, and Snake Pit. The species richness of the mussel assemblages in at least two regions (Broken Spur and Snake Pit) is higher as compared with the shrimps of the same hydrothermal vent fields. The fauna inhibiting the shrimp swarms lack almost any taxa specific for particular assemblages: almost all the taxa are also present in the mussel beds. The structure of the shrimp assemblage is less homogeneous as compared with that of the mussel assemblage. The population prevalence of one taxon (Copepoda) in the shrimp assemblage is most likely connected with the extreme and unstable conditions of the biotope occupied by the shrimps in the hydrothermal field. The taxonomic similarity between the mussel and shrimp assemblages within one hydrothermal vent field is higher as compared with the similarity between the mussel (or shrimp) assemblages from different fields.

  9. A simple and efficient total genomic DNA extraction method for individual zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Fazhan, Hanafiah; Waiho, Khor; Shahreza, Md Sheriff

    2016-01-01

    Molecular approaches are widely applied in species identification and taxonomic studies of minute zooplankton. One of the most focused zooplankton nowadays is from Subclass Copepoda. Accurate species identification of all life stages of the generally small sized copepods through molecular analysis is important, especially in taxonomic and systematic assessment of harpacticoid copepod populations and to understand their dynamics within the marine community. However, total genomic DNA (TGDNA) extraction from individual harpacticoid copepods can be problematic due to their small size and epibenthic behavior. In this research, six TGDNA extraction methods done on individual harpacticoid copepods were compared. The first new simple, feasible, efficient and consistent TGDNA extraction method was designed and compared with the commercial kit and modified available TGDNA extraction methods. The newly described TGDNA extraction method, "Incubation in PCR buffer" method, yielded good and consistent results based on the high success rate of PCR amplification (82%) compared to other methods. Coupled with its relatively consistent and economical method the "Incubation in PCR buffer" method is highly recommended in the TGDNA extraction of other minute zooplankton species.

  10. Effect of Microcystis aeruginosa and Nodularia spumigena on survival of Eurytemora affinis and the embryonic and larval development of the Baltic herring Clupea harengus membras.

    PubMed

    Ojaveer, Evald; Simm, Mart; Balode, Maija; Purina, Ingrida; Suursaar, Ulo

    2003-08-01

    Laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of two strains of Microcystis aeruginosa and a strain of Nodularia spumigena on the survival of Eurytemora affinis (Copepoda) and on the embryonic and larval development of the Baltic spring-spawning herring Clupea harengus membras. The trials were made in water taken from Pärnu Bay, at a salinity of 3.7-5.1 psu, a constant temperature (15 degrees C +/- 1 degrees C in trials with Eurytemora and herring embryos; 18 degrees C +/- 2 degrees C with herring larvae), and an oxygen concentration of 8.8-10.4 ppm. The strains tested had a negative impact on the survival of Eurytemora, as well as on the embryonic development and hatching regime of the Baltic herring. In Eurytemora the response depended on the sex of the animals: the survival was clearly higher in females. In the embryonic stages of herring, the influence resulted in an increase in deviations from the normal pattern of development and a higher mortality. The impact of the strains on the larval development of herring was rather moderate. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 18: 236-242, 2003.

  11. Determining Microeukaryotic Plankton Community around Xiamen Island, Southeast China, Using Illumina MiSeq and PCR-DGGE Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lingyu; Zhang, Wenjing; Liu, Lemian; Yang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Microeukaryotic plankton are important components of aquatic environments and play key roles in marine microbial food webs; however, little is known about their genetic diversity in subtropical offshore areas. Here we examined the community composition and genetic diversity of the microeukaryotic plankton in Xiamen offshore water by PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis), clone-based sequencing and Illumina based sequencing. The Illumina MiSeq sequencing revealed a much (approximately two orders of magnitude) higher species richness of the microeukaryotic community than DGGE, but there were no significant difference in species richness and diversity among the northern, eastern, southern or western stations based on both methods. In this study, Copepoda, Ciliophora, Chlorophyta, Dinophyceae, Cryptophyta and Bacillariophyta (diatoms) were the dominant groups even though diatoms were not detected by DGGE. Our Illumina based results indicated that two northern communities (sites N2 and N3) were significantly different from others in having more protozoa and fewer diatoms. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that both temperature and salinity were the significant environmental factors influencing dominant species communities, whereas the full microeukaryotic community appeared to be affected by a complex of environmental factors. Our results suggested that extensive sampling combined with more deep sequencing are needed to obtain the complete diversity of the microeukaryotic community, and different diversity patterns for both abundant and rare taxa may be important in evaluating the marine ecosystem health. PMID:26020532

  12. The importance of uptake from food for the bioaccumulation of PCB and PBDE in the marine planktonic copepod Acartia clausi.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Kerstin; Tiselius, Peter

    2010-07-15

    The accumulation of (14)C-labelled PCB 31, PCB 101, PCB 153 and PBDE 99 was investigated at the two lowest trophic levels of the pelagic food web. Accumulation was measured in the small phytoplankter Thalassiosira weissflogii (Coscinodiscophyceae: Thalassiosirales) and in the neritic zooplankter Acartia clausi (Copepoda: Calanoida) exposed to the substance either only via water or through ingestion of contaminated T. weissflogii. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for all four compounds were significantly higher in A. clausi feeding on contaminated phytoplankton than in animals exposed only via water. The logBAF for the PCBs increased linearly with the octanol-water partitioning coefficients (logK(OW)) in both the algae and the copepods, but with steeper slopes for feeding than non-feeding animals. Reported values for K(OW) for PBDEs vary by almost an order of magnitude and it was therefore not meaningful to calculate a logBAF-logK(OW) ratio for PBDE 99. It is clear that the nutritional status of the zooplankton affects the uptake of the compounds and that the bioaccumulation cannot be modelled as a passive partitioning between the organisms and the surrounding water. Small copepods are typical of coastal waters and point sources (both temporal and spatial) may be the rule for HOC releases into the sea. Thus, the pathways shown in this study are important and realistic.

  13. Evaluation of model predictions of the ecological effects of 4-nonylphenol -- before and after model refinement

    SciTech Connect

    Hanratty, M.P.; Liber, K.

    1994-12-31

    The Littoral Ecosystem Risk Assessment Model (LERAM) is a bioenergetic ecosystem effects model. It links single species toxicity data to a bioenergetic model of the trophic structure of an ecosystem in order to simulate community and ecosystem level effects of chemical stressors. LERAM was used in 1992 to simulate the ecological effects of diflubenzuron. When compared to the results from a littoral enclosure study, the model exaggerated the cascading of effects through the trophic levels of the littoral ecosystem. It was hypothesized that this could be corrected by making minor changes in the representation of the littoral food web. Two refinements of the model were therefore performed: (1) the plankton and macroinvertebrate model populations [eg., predatory Copepoda, herbivorous Insecta, green phytoplankton, etc.] were changed to better represent the habitat and feeding preferences of the endemic taxa; and (2) the method for modeling the microbial degradation of detritus (and the resulting nutrient remineralization) was changed from simulating bacterial populations to simulating bacterial function. Model predictions of the ecological effects of 4-nonylphenol were made before and after these refinements. Both sets of predictions were then compared to the results from a littoral enclosure study of the ecological effects of 4-nonylphenol. The changes in the LERAM predictions were then used to determine the success of the refinements, to guide. future research, and to further define LERAM`s domain of application.

  14. Diurnal Changes of Zooplankton Community Reduction Rate at Lake Outlets and Related Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Czerniawski, Robert; Sługocki, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    The reduced zooplankton abundance at the outlet sections of lakes depends on the occurrence of preying fry. Therefore, light conditions can play a major role in the drift of zooplankton along river outlets. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of diurnal light conditions on the decline of zooplankton densities at lake outlets. Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) levels were measured to determine their effect on the rate of reduced zooplankton abundance. Cladocerans and copepods showed a significantly greater reduction in abundance than rotifers and nauplii. A significant positive relationship was observed between the PAR levels and the reduced abundance of Asplanchna sp., small cladocerans, large cladocerans and Copepoda at the lake outlets. Among the rotifers, small pelagic rotifers drifted the farthest at all hours of the day. Large crustaceans, especially the large cladocerans and copepodites and adult copepods, had the lowest chance of dispersing over a wide area. Our results indicate that light conditions play an important role in the reduction of zooplankton abundance at lake outlets and have an indirect influence on the downstream food web. PMID:27392017

  15. Horizontal and vertical distribution of meiofauna on sandy beaches of the North Sea (The Netherlands, Belgium, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotwicki, Lech; Troch, Marleen De; Urban-Malinga, Barbara; Gheskiere, Tom; Węslawski, Jan Marcin

    2005-11-01

    Sandy intertidal zones were analysed for the presence of meiofauna. The material was collected on six macro-tidal sandy beaches along the North Sea (The Netherlands, France, Belgium), in order to analyse the vertical and horizontal meiofaunal distribution patterns. Eleven higher meiofauna taxa (one represented by larval stage—Copepoda nauplii) were recorded. The maximum total meiofauna abundance was observed on the Dutch beach (4,295±911 ind. 10 cm-2) in the Westerschelde estuary, while the lowest values (361±128 ind. 10 cm-2) were recorded in France at the Audresselles beach. Meiofauna of the different localities consisted mainly of nematodes, harpacticoids and turbellarians. Nematodes numerically dominated all sampled stations, comprising more than 45% of the total meiofauna density. Meiofauna was mainly concentrated at the sand surface with about 70% present in the uppermost 5 cm. Meiofauna occurred across the entire intertidal zone. A clear zonation pattern in the distribution of meiofauna taxa across the beaches was observed. The present work suggests that designation of exposed sandy beaches as physically controlled (McLachlan 1988) does not explain their biological variability.

  16. [Conduct of the oviposition of Aedes aegypti (L.) in the presence of Macrocyclops albidus (J.) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis under lab conditions].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Jinnay; Menéndez Díaz, Zulema; García García, Israel; Díaz Pérez, Manuel; Sánchez, Jesús E; Gato Armas, René

    2007-01-01

    The behaviour of the oviposition of pregnant females of Aedes aegypti in the presence of biological agents: Macrocyclops albidus (Copepoda: Cyclopoidea) or Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) was evaluated under lab conditions. Recipients containing 225 mL of dechlorinated water were placed for oviposition with three variants: water with copepods, water with Bti, and water. The average of eggs layed in the recipients with copepods and Bti were 1 227.9 and 1 200.8, respectively, a figure higher than the 887.4 eggs of the recipient containing only water, although the differences observed were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The Oviposotion Activity Index (OAI) estimated showed values over 0 for copepods and for Bti, which indicated that females did not avoid to deposit their eggs in these recipients. The results suggested that in nature, these recipients with biological controllers may be oviposition sites for pregnant females of Aedes aegypti, which may have positive implications on its effectiveness to control this vector.

  17. Plankton pulses in a temperate coastal embayment during the Winter-Spring transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elosegui, A.; Pozo, J.; Orive, E.

    1987-06-01

    Hydrographical parameters, phytoplankton productivity and plankton composition were determined over a five-month period in the Bay of Plencia, a coastal area located in the mouth of the river Butron in Biscay, Basque Country. The water column was moderately mixed during most of the study period, which lasted from February to June 1985. Nutrient levels showed high temporal variability and were affected by both river runoff and seasonal biological processes. Nutrients were present most of the time in relatively high concentrations and most of them decreased in late spring. Phytoplankton size structure analysis showed that nanoplankton had the higher chlorophyll content and was responsible for most of the primary production. The phytoplankton showed changes in community composition resulting from the normal progression of the winter-spring conditions. Short-lived peaks of diatom concentration in the spring were followed by periods of low abundance, when maxima of Cladocera and Appendicularia occurred. Total zooplankton showed two peaks of abundance in mid-winter and mid-spring, respectively. Nauplii of Copepoda, juvenile stages of Calanoida and nauplii of Cirripedia were responsible for the two peaks, together with highly seasonal groups (Cladocera, Appendicularia and Cnidaria) in the spring maxima. Primary production seems to be driven by physical processes (temperature, short photoperiod and storms) in winter, whereas depletion of nutrients and grazing by zooplankton are responsible for phytoplankton minima between peaks of abundance in the growing season. Two temporal phases were apparent when the data were analysed by a principal component analysis.

  18. Response of microcrustacean communities from the surface-groundwater interface to water contamination in urban river system of the Jarama basin (central Spain).

    PubMed

    Iepure, Sanda; Martinez-Hernandez, Virtudes; Herrera, Sonia; Rasines-Ladero, Ruben; de Bustamante, Irene

    2013-08-01

    In order to evaluate the water quality at the surface/groundwater interface (hyporheic zone), the pattern of microcrustacean assemblages in response to environmental stress caused by urban industrial contamination was studied in the Jarama River basin (central Spain) during high water discharges (March and April 2011). The clustering of biological variables and the concentration of urban contaminants in hyporheic waters showed that pristine hyporheic waters have moderate species diversity (two to seven species) and dominance of k strategist stygobites, whereas excessively contaminated sites are devoid by crustaceans. An intermediate level of disturbance in hyporheic waters is associated with a peak of species taxonomic diversity (four to nine species) and proliferation of r strategist more tolerant species. Typical species found in hyporheic zone, e.g., Paracyclops imminutus (Copepoda, Cyclopoida), Cryptocandona vavrai (Ostracoda) and Herpetocypris chevreuxi (Ostracoda), were good indicators of high concentrations of Cr, Mn, Ni, Cd, Pb and VOCs; whereas the stygobites do not show any significant correlation. The effectiveness of hyporheic crustaceans as efficient bioindicators for assessing the current ecological status of river ecosystems is emphasised.

  19. Diurnal Changes of Zooplankton Community Reduction Rate at Lake Outlets and Related Environmental Factors.

    PubMed

    Czerniawski, Robert; Sługocki, Łukasz; Kowalska-Góralska, Monika

    2016-01-01

    The reduced zooplankton abundance at the outlet sections of lakes depends on the occurrence of preying fry. Therefore, light conditions can play a major role in the drift of zooplankton along river outlets. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of diurnal light conditions on the decline of zooplankton densities at lake outlets. Photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) levels were measured to determine their effect on the rate of reduced zooplankton abundance. Cladocerans and copepods showed a significantly greater reduction in abundance than rotifers and nauplii. A significant positive relationship was observed between the PAR levels and the reduced abundance of Asplanchna sp., small cladocerans, large cladocerans and Copepoda at the lake outlets. Among the rotifers, small pelagic rotifers drifted the farthest at all hours of the day. Large crustaceans, especially the large cladocerans and copepodites and adult copepods, had the lowest chance of dispersing over a wide area. Our results indicate that light conditions play an important role in the reduction of zooplankton abundance at lake outlets and have an indirect influence on the downstream food web.

  20. Food of young-of-the-year lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Presque Isle Harbor, Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swedberg, Donald V.; Peck, James W.

    1984-01-01

    The food habits of young lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) were studied by examining the digestive tracts of 293 young-of-the-year collected in Presque Isle Harbor, Lake Superior. Lake trout in the 25 to 27-mm length range started to eat food organisms before all of their yolk material was absorbed. Organisms consumed by the 25 to 27-mm young-of-the-year included Chironomidae, Copepoda (Harpacticoida, Calanoida, Cyclopoida), and Cladocerea (Daphnia spp., Bosmina sp., Chydorus sp.). Chironomid pupae and chironomid larvae accounted for 74% and 5%, respectively, of the total volume of food eaten by the young lake trout in Presque Isle Harbor. Although copepods, cladocerans, and mysids were present in many stomachs, their contribution to the total volume of food was only 15%. Some lake trout in the 32 to 54-mm length range had consumed fry of sculpin (Cottus spp.) or rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), but the overall contribution of fish fry to the total volume of food was only 4% (frequency of occurrence, 10%). The lake trout in Presque Isle Harbor fed heavily on planktonic organisms, sparingly on benthic organisms, and were opportunistic feeders that appeared to prey on whatever forage organisms were available in the shallow nearshore waters.

  1. Zooplankton community structure of two marginal lakes of the River Cuiabá (Mato Grosso, Brazil) with analysis of Rotifera and Cladocera diversity.

    PubMed

    Neves, I F; Rocha, O; Roche, K F; Pinto, A A

    2003-05-01

    In the present study, two small lakes on the margins of the River Cuiabá were analyzed regarding taxonomic composition and population densities of the zooplankton. Diversity was evaluated for two groups, Rotifera and Cladocera; sampling was carried out on two dates: 2 March 1999, in the rainy season, and 25 August 1999, in the dry season. Seventy-nine rotifer taxa, 30 cladoceran taxa, and 6 copepod taxa were found. Comparing the species identified in the present study with those recorded by other authors for several water bodies in Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul states, it was found that 9 species of Cladocera, 2 of Copepoda, and 14 of Rotifera are new records for the region. The most abundant rotifer species were Keratella cochlearis, Brachionus angularis, Polyarthra vulgaris, and Keratella americana. Moina minuta and Bosminopsis deitersi were dominant among the cladocerans, and Notodiaptomus transitans and N. devoyorum among the copepods. Comparing both lakes, the greatest species richness of both Rotifera and Cladocera was observed in Lake Souza Lima, during the rainy season. This is probably linked to the fact that the littoral region of this lake is densely colonized by macrophytes. The lake also has better environmental conditions since it does not receive domestic sewage inputs, as does Lake Parque Atalaia. The diversity of the Rotifera was markedly low in Lake Parque Atalaia, during the dry season, again perhaps linked domestic sewage input found in this water body.

  2. Feeding of the hyperbenthic mysid Neomysis integer in the maximum turbidity zone of the Elbe, Westerschelde and Gironde estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fockedey, N.; Mees, J.

    1999-10-01

    The diet of the mysid Neomysis integer in the maximum turbidity zone (MTZ) of three European estuaries (Elbe, Westerschelde and Gironde) was investigated in spring 1993. The quality and quantity of the diet were assessed through measurement of the stomach fullness and microscopical analysis of the stomach content combined with image analyses. N. integer was found to be an omnivore which mainly utilizes mesozooplankton and detritus carbon pools. The quality of the diet did not differ between the sexes or between different developmental stages,