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Sample records for call composition vary

  1. Syllable acoustics, temporal patterns, and call composition vary with behavioral context in Mexican free-tailed bats

    PubMed Central

    Bohn, Kirsten M.; Schmidt-French, Barbara; Ma, Sean T.; Pollak, George D.

    2008-01-01

    Recent research has shown that some bat species have rich vocal repertoires with diverse syllable acoustics. Few studies, however, have compared vocalizations across different behavioral contexts or examined the temporal emission patterns of vocalizations. In this paper, a comprehensive examination of the vocal repertoire of Mexican free-tailed bats, T. brasiliensis, is presented. Syllable acoustics and temporal emission patterns for 16 types of vocalizations including courtship song revealed three main findings. First, although in some cases syllables are unique to specific calls, other syllables are shared among different calls. Second, entire calls associated with one behavior can be embedded into more complex vocalizations used in entirely different behavioral contexts. Third, when different calls are composed of similar syllables, distinctive temporal emission patterns may facilitate call recognition. These results indicate that syllable acoustics alone do not likely provide enough information for call recognition; rather, the acoustic context and temporal emission patterns of vocalizations may affect meaning. PMID:19045674

  2. Titi monkey call sequences vary with predator location and type

    PubMed Central

    Cäsar, Cristiane; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Young, Robert J.; Byrne, Richard W.

    2013-01-01

    Animal alarm calls can encode information about a predator's category, size, distance or threat level. In non-human primates, alarm calls typically refer to broad classes of disturbances, in some instances to specific predators. Here, we present the results of a field experiment with a New World primate, the black-fronted titi monkey (Callicebus nigrifrons), designed to explore the information conveyed by their alarm call system. Adults produced sequences consisting of two main alarm call types that conveyed, in different parts of the utterance, information about a predator's type and location. In particular, sequence compositions differed depending on whether the predator was a mammalian carnivore or a raptor, and whether it was detected in a tree or on the ground. This is the first demonstration of a sequence-based alarm call system in a non-human animal that has the capacity to encode both location and type of predatory threat. PMID:24004492

  3. Killer whale call frequency is similar across the oceans, but varies across sympatric ecotypes.

    PubMed

    Filatova, Olga A; Miller, Patrick J O; Yurk, Harald; Samarra, Filipa I P; Hoyt, Erich; Ford, John K B; Matkin, Craig O; Barrett-Lennard, Lance G

    2015-07-01

    Killer whale populations may differ in genetics, morphology, ecology, and behavior. In the North Pacific, two sympatric populations ("resident" and "transient") specialize on different prey (fish and marine mammals) and retain reproductive isolation. In the eastern North Atlantic, whales from the same populations have been observed feeding on both fish and marine mammals. Fish-eating North Pacific "residents" are more genetically related to eastern North Atlantic killer whales than to sympatric mammal-eating "transients." In this paper, a comparison of frequency variables in killer whale calls recorded from four North Pacific resident, two North Pacific transient, and two eastern North Atlantic populations is reported to assess which factors drive the large-scale changes in call structure. Both low-frequency and high-frequency components of North Pacific transient killer whale calls have significantly lower frequencies than those of the North Pacific resident and North Atlantic populations. The difference in frequencies could be related to ecological specialization or to the phylogenetic history of these populations. North Pacific transient killer whales may have genetically inherited predisposition toward lower frequencies that may shape their learned repertoires.

  4. Composite laminates with spatially varying fiber orientations - 'Variable stiffness panel concept'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerdal, Zafer; Olmedo, Reynaldo

    1992-01-01

    A solution has been obtained to the plane elasticity problem for a symmetrically laminated composite panel with spatially varying fiber orientations. Since variation of the fiber angles along the length of a composite laminate results in stiffness properties that change as a function of location, the laminates are called variable stiffness panels. An analysis of the stiffness variation and its effect on the elastic response of the panel is presented here. A numerical solution has been obtained using an iterative collocation technique. Corresponding closed-form solutions are given for three different sets of boundary conditions. Two of the cases considered have exact solutions and thus serve to validate the numerical model.

  5. Axisymmetric vibrations of laminated composite conical shells with varying thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Shikanai, G.; Suzuki, K.; Kojima, M.

    1995-11-01

    An exact solution procedure is presented for solving axisymmetric free vibrations of laminated composite conical shells with varying thickness. Based on the classical lamination theory neglecting shear deformation and rotary inertia, equations of motion and boundary conditions are obtained from the stationary conditions of the Lagrangian. The equations of motion are solved exactly by using a power series expansion for symmetrically laminated, cross-ply conical shells. Numerical studies are made for conical shells having both ends clamped to show the effects of the number of laminae, stacking sequences and other parameters upon the frequencies.

  6. Experimental evidence for compositional syntax in bird calls.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toshitaka N; Wheatcroft, David; Griesser, Michael

    2016-03-08

    Human language can express limitless meanings from a finite set of words based on combinatorial rules (i.e., compositional syntax). Although animal vocalizations may be comprised of different basic elements (notes), it remains unknown whether compositional syntax has also evolved in animals. Here we report the first experimental evidence for compositional syntax in a wild animal species, the Japanese great tit (Parus minor). Tits have over ten different notes in their vocal repertoire and use them either solely or in combination with other notes. Experiments reveal that receivers extract different meanings from 'ABC' (scan for danger) and 'D' notes (approach the caller), and a compound meaning from 'ABC-D' combinations. However, receivers rarely scan and approach when note ordering is artificially reversed ('D-ABC'). Thus, compositional syntax is not unique to human language but may have evolved independently in animals as one of the basic mechanisms of information transmission.

  7. Experimental evidence for compositional syntax in bird calls

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Toshitaka N.; Wheatcroft, David; Griesser, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Human language can express limitless meanings from a finite set of words based on combinatorial rules (i.e., compositional syntax). Although animal vocalizations may be comprised of different basic elements (notes), it remains unknown whether compositional syntax has also evolved in animals. Here we report the first experimental evidence for compositional syntax in a wild animal species, the Japanese great tit (Parus minor). Tits have over ten different notes in their vocal repertoire and use them either solely or in combination with other notes. Experiments reveal that receivers extract different meanings from ‘ABC' (scan for danger) and ‘D' notes (approach the caller), and a compound meaning from ‘ABC–D' combinations. However, receivers rarely scan and approach when note ordering is artificially reversed (‘D–ABC'). Thus, compositional syntax is not unique to human language but may have evolved independently in animals as one of the basic mechanisms of information transmission. PMID:26954097

  8. Dictyostelium cells migrate similarly on surfaces of varying chemical composition.

    PubMed

    McCann, Colin P; Rericha, Erin C; Wang, Chenlu; Losert, Wolfgang; Parent, Carole A

    2014-01-01

    During cell migration, cell-substrate binding is required for pseudopod anchoring to move the cell forward, yet the interactions with the substrate must be sufficiently weak to allow parts of the cell to de-adhere in a controlled manner during typical protrusion/retraction cycles. Mammalian cells actively control cell-substrate binding and respond to extracellular conditions with localized integrin-containing focal adhesions mediating mechanotransduction. We asked whether mechanotransduction also occurs during non-integrin mediated migration by examining the motion of the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum, which is thought to bind non-specifically to surfaces. We discovered that Dictyostelium cells are able to regulate forces generated by the actomyosin cortex to maintain optimal cell-surface contact area and adhesion on surfaces of various chemical composition and that individual cells migrate with similar speed and contact area on the different surfaces. In contrast, during collective migration, as observed in wound healing and metastasis, the balance between surface forces and protrusive forces is altered. We found that Dictyostelium collective migration dynamics are strongly affected when cells are plated on different surfaces. These results suggest that the presence of cell-cell contacts, which appear as Dictyostelium cells enter development, alter the mechanism cells use to migrate on surfaces of varying composition.

  9. Device for producing a fluid stream of varying composition

    DOEpatents

    Moss, Owen R.; Clark, Mark L.; Rossignol, E. John

    1982-01-01

    A device for producing a fluid stream of varying composition comprises a chamber having an inlet at one end and outlet at the other. Between the inlet and outlet there are substantially planar pans or baffles positioned normal to the bulk flow of fluid between the inlet and the outlet. These pans are arranged in pairs. Each pan, except those of the pair most remote from the inlet, is spaced from the walls of the chamber to permit air to flow past it. The pans of each pair are also spaced from each other, in a direction parallel to their planes, leaving an empty space along the mid-plane of the chamber. This produces a circulation and mixing of fluid between the pairs of pans or baffles. A secondary stream of fluid is introduced between two pairs of baffles in the intermediate portion of the chamber, so that the composition of the fluid is different in the portion adjacent to the outlet and the portion adjacent to the inlet. In a specific embodiment, the device is an exposure chamber for experimental animals, and the pans or baffles are catch pans for excrement.

  10. Wear of nanofilled dental composites at varying filler concentrations.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Nathaniel C; Burgess, John O

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the effects of nanofiller concentration on the mechanisms of wear of a dental composite. Nanofilled composites were fabricated with a bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate polymer and 40 nm SiO2 filler particles at three filler loads (25, 50, and 65 wt %). The elastic modulus, flexural strength, and hardness of the composites and the unfilled resin were measured. The materials (n = 8) were tested in the modified wear testing device at 50,000, 100,000, and 200,000 cycles with 20N force at 1 Hz. A 33% glycerine lubricant and stainless steel antagonist were used. The worn composite and antagonist surfaces were analyzed with noncontact profilometry and SEM. The volumetric wear data indicated that there are significant differences between filler concentrations and cycles (p < 0.05). A trend was noted that increasing filler content beyond 25% decreased the wear resistance of the composites. Increasing filler content increased hardness and modulus and increased flexural strength up to 50% fill. SEM evaluation of the worn specimens indicated that the resin and 25% filled materials exhibited cracking and failed by fatigue and the 50 and 65% filled materials exhibited microcutting and failed by abrasive wear. Based on the results of this study, composite manufacturers are recommended to use a filler concentration between 25 and 50% when using nanosized filler particles.

  11. Does Mallard clutch size vary with landscape composition?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ball, I.J.; Artmann, M.J.; Hoekman, S.T.

    2002-01-01

    We studied Mallards (Arias platyrhynchos) nesting in artificial nesting structures in northeastern North Dakota and compared clutch size between landscapes where proportion of cropland was either high (mean = 68.9%, cropland landscapes) or low (mean = 30.2%, grassland landscapes). Mallard clutch size was significantly related to nest initiation date and landscape composition. Mean clutch size, controlled for nest initiation date, was 1.24 ?? 0.33 SE eggs smaller on cropland landscapes than on grassland landscapes. Generality of this pattern across space, time, and type of nesting sites is unknown, as is causation. Demographic importance of variation in clutch size may be influenced by covariation with other demographic variables, such as nest success and abundance of breeding pairs, which also are negatively correlated with landscape proportion of cropland. We suggest that researchers examine relationships between clutch size and landscape composition in both structure-nesting and ground-nesting Mallards, in other geographic areas, and in other duck species.

  12. Model atmospheres for cool stars. [varying chemical composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, H. R.

    1974-01-01

    This report contains an extensive series of model atmospheres for cool stars having a wide range in chemical composition. Model atmospheres (temperature, pressure, density, etc.) are tabulated, along with emergent energy flux distributions, limb darkening, and information on convection for selected models. The models are calculated under the usual assumptions of hydrostatic equilibrium, constancy of total energy flux (including transport both by radiation and convection) and local thermodynamic equilibrium. Some molecular and atomic line opacity is accounted for as a straight mean. While cool star atmospheres are regimes of complicated physical conditions, and these atmospheres are necessarily approximate, they should be useful for a number of kinds of spectral and atmospheric analysis.

  13. Masseter Myosin Heavy Chain Composition Varies With Mandibular Asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Raoul, Gwénaël; Rowlerson, Anthea; Sciote, James; Codaccioni, Emmanuel; Stevens, Laurence; Maurage, Claude-Alain; Duhamel, Alain; Ferri, Joël

    2014-01-01

    Human jaw dysmorphologies are frequent and often affect young patients, resulting in malocclusion of teeth and inappropriate jaw relationships. Treatment is performed by means of orthodontics with orthognathic surgery as required. Mandibular asymmetry is one of the most frequent dysmorphologies, but in many cases, the specific cause is unknown. In healthy patients who were undergoing orthognathic surgery for correction of malocclusion, we tested the hypothesis that masseter muscle phenotype composition, which determines contractile properties, was different between sides in patients with mandibular asymmetry but not in those without mandibular asymmetry. After cephalometric analysis, 50 patients from whom we obtained samples of both right and left masseter muscles were separated into 2 groups: with or without mandibular lateral deviation. Samples were immunostained with myosin-isoform–specific antibodies to identify 4 skeletal muscle fiber types, and their fiber areas and proportions were measured. Two-tailed Wilcoxon test for paired samples was used to compare the 4 fiber-type compositions by means of percent occupancy and mean fiber area on both sides. Patients with mandibular asymmetry were associated with a significant increase of type II fiber occupancy (P = 0.0035) on the same side as the deviation. This finding that masseter muscle phenotype is significantly linked to mandibular asymmetry is of relevance to physiotherapeutic and surgical managements of jaw discrepancies and merits further investigation in the light of its possible role in the etiology of this condition. PMID:21586952

  14. Meaningful call combinations and compositional processing in the southern pied babbler.

    PubMed

    Engesser, Sabrina; Ridley, Amanda R; Townsend, Simon W

    2016-05-24

    Language's expressive power is largely attributable to its compositionality: meaningful words are combined into larger/higher-order structures with derived meaning. Despite its importance, little is known regarding the evolutionary origins and emergence of this syntactic ability. Although previous research has shown a rudimentary capability to combine meaningful calls in primates, because of a scarcity of comparative data, it is unclear to what extent analog forms might also exist outside of primates. Here, we address this ambiguity and provide evidence for rudimentary compositionality in the discrete vocal system of a social passerine, the pied babbler (Turdoides bicolor). Natural observations and predator presentations revealed that babblers produce acoustically distinct alert calls in response to close, low-urgency threats and recruitment calls when recruiting group members during locomotion. On encountering terrestrial predators, both vocalizations are combined into a "mobbing sequence," potentially to recruit group members in a dangerous situation. To investigate whether babblers process the sequence in a compositional way, we conducted systematic experiments, playing back the individual calls in isolation as well as naturally occurring and artificial sequences. Babblers reacted most strongly to mobbing sequence playbacks, showing a greater attentiveness and a quicker approach to the loudspeaker, compared with individual calls or control sequences. We conclude that the sequence constitutes a compositional structure, communicating information on both the context and the requested action. Our work supports previous research suggesting combinatoriality as a viable mechanism to increase communicative output and indicates that the ability to combine and process meaningful vocal structures, a basic syntax, may be more widespread than previously thought.

  15. Meaningful call combinations and compositional processing in the southern pied babbler

    PubMed Central

    Engesser, Sabrina; Ridley, Amanda R.; Townsend, Simon W.

    2016-01-01

    Language’s expressive power is largely attributable to its compositionality: meaningful words are combined into larger/higher-order structures with derived meaning. Despite its importance, little is known regarding the evolutionary origins and emergence of this syntactic ability. Although previous research has shown a rudimentary capability to combine meaningful calls in primates, because of a scarcity of comparative data, it is unclear to what extent analog forms might also exist outside of primates. Here, we address this ambiguity and provide evidence for rudimentary compositionality in the discrete vocal system of a social passerine, the pied babbler (Turdoides bicolor). Natural observations and predator presentations revealed that babblers produce acoustically distinct alert calls in response to close, low-urgency threats and recruitment calls when recruiting group members during locomotion. On encountering terrestrial predators, both vocalizations are combined into a “mobbing sequence,” potentially to recruit group members in a dangerous situation. To investigate whether babblers process the sequence in a compositional way, we conducted systematic experiments, playing back the individual calls in isolation as well as naturally occurring and artificial sequences. Babblers reacted most strongly to mobbing sequence playbacks, showing a greater attentiveness and a quicker approach to the loudspeaker, compared with individual calls or control sequences. We conclude that the sequence constitutes a compositional structure, communicating information on both the context and the requested action. Our work supports previous research suggesting combinatoriality as a viable mechanism to increase communicative output and indicates that the ability to combine and process meaningful vocal structures, a basic syntax, may be more widespread than previously thought. PMID:27155011

  16. Iterative solutions for one-dimensional diffusion with time varying surface composition and composition-dependent diffusion coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, M.; Houska, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    Solutions are given for one-dimensional diffusion problems with a time varying surface composition and also a composition dependent diffusion coefficient. The most general solution does not require special mathematical functions to fit the variation in surface composition or D(C). In another solution, a series expansion may be used to fit the time dependent surface concentration. These solutions make use of iterative calculations that converge rapidly and are highly stable. Computer times are much shorter than that required for finite difference calculations and can efficiently make use of interactive graphics terminals. Existing gas carburization data were used to provide an illustration of an iterative approach with a time varying carbon composition at the free surface.

  17. Bioactivity of ceramic-polymer composites with varied composition and surface topography.

    PubMed

    Rea, S M; Best, S M; Bonfield, W

    2004-09-01

    HAPEX trade mark (40 vol % hydroxyapatite in a high-density polyethylene matrix) and AWPEX (40 vol % glass-ceramic apatite-wollastonite in a high-density polyethylene matrix) are composites designed to provide bioactivity and to match the mechanical properties of human cortical bone. HAPEX trade mark has had clinical success in middle ear and orbital implants, and there is great potential for further orthopaedic applications of these materials. However, more detailed in vitro investigations must be performed to better understand the biological interactions of the composites. In this study, the bioactivity of each material was assessed. Specifically, the effects of controlled surface topography and ceramic filler composition on apatite layer formation in acellular simulated body fluid (SBF) with ion concentration similar to those of human blood plasma were examined. Samples were prepared as 1 x 10 x 10 mm(3) tiles with polished, roughened or parallel-grooved surface finishes, and were incubated in 20 ml of SBF at 36.5 degrees C for one, three, seven or 14 days. The formation of an apatite layer on the composite surface after immersion was demonstrated by thin-film X-ray diffraction, environmental scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Variations in sample weight and solution pH over the period of incubation were also recorded. Significant differences were found between the two materials tested, with greater bioactivity in AWPEX than HAPEX trade mark. Results also showed surface topography to be important, with rougher samples correlated to earlier apatite formation. Osteoblast-like cells proliferated favourably on both composite materials, with many filopodia connections, preferential attachment to ceramic particles and contact guidance effects evident.

  18. Effect of in vivo loading on bone composition varies with animal age

    PubMed Central

    Aido, Marta; Kerschnitzki, Michael; Hoerth, Rebecca; Checa, Sara; Spevak, Lyudmila; Boskey, Adele; Fratzl, Peter; Duda, Georg N.; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Willie, Bettina M.

    2015-01-01

    Loading can increase bone mass and size and this response is reduced with aging. It is unclear, however how loading affects bone mineral and matrix properties. Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging and high resolution synchrotron scanning small angle X-ray scattering were used to study how bone’s microscale and nanoscale compositional properties were altered in the tibial midshaft of young, adult, and elderly female C57Bl/6J mice after two weeks of controlled in vivo compressive loading in comparison to physiological loading. The effect of controlled loading on bone composition varied with animal age, since it predominantly influenced the bone composition of elderly mice. Interestingly, controlled loading led to enhanced collagen maturity in elderly mice. In addition, although the rate of bone formation was increased by controlled loading based on histomorphometry, the newly formed tissue had similar material quality to new bone tissue formed during physiological loading. Similar to previous studies, our data showed that bone composition was animal and tissue age dependent during physiological loading. The findings that the new tissue formed in response to controlled loading and physiological loading had similar bone composition and that controlled loading enhanced bone composition in elderly mice further supports the use of physical activity as a noninvasive treatment to enhance bone quality as well as maintain bone mass in individuals suffering from age-related bone loss. PMID:25639943

  19. Photovoltaic Properties of Selenized CuGa/In Films with Varied Compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Muzzillo, Christopher P.; Mansfield, Lorelle M.; Ramanathan, Kannan; McGoffin, J. Tyler; Anderson, Timothy J.

    2016-11-21

    Thin CuGa/In films with varied compositions were deposited by co-evaporation and then selenized in situ with evaporated selenium. The selenized Cu(In, Ga)Se2 absorbers were used to fabricate 390 solar cells. Cu/(Ga+In) and Ga/(Ga+In) (Cu/III and Ga/III) were independently varied, and photovoltaic performance was optimal at Cu/III of 77-92% for all Ga/III compositions studied (Ga/III ~ 30, 50, and 70%). The best absorbers at each Ga/III composition were characterized with time-resolved photoluminescence, scanning electron microscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry, and devices were studied with temperature-dependent current density-voltage, light and electrical biased quantum efficiency, and capacitance-voltage. The best cells with Ga/III ~ 30, 50, and 70% had efficiencies of 14.5, 14.4, and 12.2% and maximum power temperature coefficients of -0.496, -0.452, and -0.413%/degrees C, respectively. This resulted in the Ga/III ~ 50% champion having the highest efficiency at temperatures greater than 40 degrees C, making it the optimal composition for practical purposes. This optimum is understood as a result of the absorber's band gap grading- where minimum band gap dominates short-circuit current density, maximum space charge region band gap dominates open-circuit voltage, and average absorber band gap dominates maximum power temperature coefficient.

  20. Comparison of results from different NDE techniques from ceramic matrix composites with varying porosity levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, Imelda; Ojard, Greg; Santhosh, Unni; Ahmad, Jalees; Gowayed, Yasser

    2015-03-01

    Ceramic matrix composites (CMC's) are attractive materials for use in advanced turbine engines. Due to the nature of available processing techniques, however, the amount and distribution of porosity in CMC's can vary greatly. This can be particularly true in parts with complex geometries. It is therefore important to characterize the porosity with non-destructive techniques and understand its effect on properties. A series of CMC samples were fabricated with varying levels of porosity and analyzed with different NDE techniques. The results were categorized and analyzed with respect to ease of interpretation and degree to which they could be quantified and used in models to determine the effects of defects. The results were also correlated with microstructural examination and mechanical properties.

  1. Forced torsional properties of PMR composites with varying nadic ester concentrations and processing histories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, F. I.

    1982-01-01

    PMR polyimide resin was prepared from 4,4'-methylenedianiline, the dimethyl ester of 3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic acid and the monomethyl ester of 5-norbornene-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (NE). The NE group serves as a chain terminator and crosslinking site. PMR/Celion 6000 composites were fabricated from resins having varying NE concentrations using two molding processes, and the laminates characterized in forced torsion. Glass transition temperatures (T(g)) of 360-390 C were observed in the crosslinked resins, as compared with the literature value of 284 C reported for the uncrosslinked system. T(g) did not decrease with decreasing NE concentrations over the range from 2.0 to 1.25 moles. Stoichiometry, within the range studied, showed little influence on shear properties; however, a 25% variation in matrix shear modulus with processing was observed. The G(12) values determined in forced torsion were in excellent agreement with those reported from tensile tests of + or - 45 deg laminates. A branching and possible secondary crosslink mechanism is proposed based on dynamic mechanical behavior and infrared spectra of the composites.

  2. Controlled combustion tests and bottom ash analysis using household waste with varying composition

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Yanjun; Bakker, Maarten; Brem, Gerrit; Chen Guanyi

    2011-02-15

    The influence of the co-combustion of household waste with either sewage sludge, shredder fluff, electronic and electrical waste (WEEE) or PVC on the bottom ash quality and content was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions using a pot furnace. This laboratory approach avoids the interpretation problems related to large variations in input waste composition and combustion conditions that are observed in large scale MSW incinerators. The data for metals content, transfer coefficients and leaching values are presented relative to data for a base household waste composition that did not contain any of the added special wastes. The small WEEE invited direct measurement of precious metals content in the ashes, where measurement accuracy is facilitated by using only mobile phone scrap for small WEEE. The analyses were carried out for different particle size ranges that are of relevance to the recyclability of metals and minerals in the ashes. Positive correlations were found between elements content of the input waste and the bottom ashes, and also between increased levels of Cl, Mo and Cu in the input waste and their leaching in the bottom ashes. These correlations indicate that addition of PVC, small WEEE and shredder fluff in input waste can have a negative influence on the quality of the bottom ashes. Enrichment of Au and Ag occurred in the fractions between 0.15 and 6 mm. The precious metals content represents an economically interesting intrinsic value, even when the observed peak values are properly averaged over a larger volume of ashes. Overall, it has been shown that changes in quality and content of bottom ashes may be traced back to the varied input waste composition.

  3. Controlled combustion tests and bottom ash analysis using household waste with varying composition.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yanjun; Bakker, Maarten; Brem, Gerrit; Chen, Guanyi

    2011-02-01

    The influence of the co-combustion of household waste with either sewage sludge, shredder fluff, electronic and electrical waste (WEEE) or PVC on the bottom ash quality and content was investigated under controlled laboratory conditions using a pot furnace. This laboratory approach avoids the interpretation problems related to large variations in input waste composition and combustion conditions that are observed in large scale MSW incinerators. The data for metals content, transfer coefficients and leaching values are presented relative to data for a base household waste composition that did not contain any of the added special wastes. The small WEEE invited direct measurement of precious metals content in the ashes, where measurement accuracy is facilitated by using only mobile phone scrap for small WEEE. The analyses were carried out for different particle size ranges that are of relevance to the recyclability of metals and minerals in the ashes. Positive correlations were found between elements content of the input waste and the bottom ashes, and also between increased levels of Cl, Mo and Cu in the input waste and their leaching in the bottom ashes. These correlations indicate that addition of PVC, small WEEE and shredder fluff in input waste can have a negative influence on the quality of the bottom ashes. Enrichment of Au and Ag occurred in the fractions between 0.15 and 6 mm. The precious metals content represents an economically interesting intrinsic value, even when the observed peak values are properly averaged over a larger volume of ashes. Overall, it has been shown that changes in quality and content of bottom ashes may be traced back to the varied input waste composition.

  4. Bacterial Community Composition Associated with Pyrogenic Organic Matter (Biochar) Varies with Pyrolysis Temperature and Colonization Environment

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zhongmin; Barberán, Albert; Li, Yong; Brookes, Philip C.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microbes that colonize pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) (also called biochar) play an important role in PyOM mineralization and crucially affect soil biogeochemical cycling, while the microbial community composition associated with PyOM particles is poorly understood. We generated two manure-based PyOMs with different characteristics (PyOM pyrolyzed at the low temperature of 300°C [i.e., PyOM300] and at the high temperature of 700°C [i.e., PyOM700]) and added them to high-carbon (4.15%) and low-C (0.37%) soil for microbial colonization. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that Actinobacteria, particularly Actinomycetales, was the dominant taxon in PyOM, regardless of the PyOM pyrolysis temperature and soil type. Bacterial communities associated with PyOM particles from high-C soils were similar to those in non-PyOM-amended soils. PyOM300 had higher total microbial activity and more differential bacterial communities than PyOM700. More bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) preferentially thrived on the low-pyrolysis-temperature PyOM, while some specific OTUs thrived on high-pyrolysis-temperature PyOM. In particular, Chloroflexi species tended to be more prevalent in high-pyrolysis-temperature PyOM in low-C soils. In conclusion, the differences in colonized bacterial community composition between the different PyOMs were strongly influenced by the pyrolysis temperatures of PyOM, i.e., under conditions of easily mineralizable C or fused aromatic C, and by other properties, e.g., pH, surface area, and nutrient content. IMPORTANCE Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) is widely distributed in soil and fluvial ecosystems and plays an important role in biogeochemical cycling. Many studies have reported changes in soil microbial communities stimulated by PyOM, but very little is known about the microbial communities associated with PyOM. The microbes that colonize PyOMs can participate in the mineralization of PyOM, so changing its structure affects the fate of Py

  5. Identification and characterization of transcript polymorphisms in soybean lines varying in oil composition and content

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Variation in seed oil composition and content among soybean varieties is largely attributed to differences in transcript sequences and/or transcript accumulation of oil production related genes in seeds. Discovery and analysis of sequence and expression variations in these genes will accelerate soybean oil quality improvement. Results In an effort to identify these variations, we sequenced the transcriptomes of soybean seeds from nine lines varying in oil composition and/or total oil content. Our results showed that 69,338 distinct transcripts from 32,885 annotated genes were expressed in seeds. A total of 8,037 transcript expression polymorphisms and 50,485 transcript sequence polymorphisms (48,792 SNPs and 1,693 small Indels) were identified among the lines. Effects of the transcript polymorphisms on their encoded protein sequences and functions were predicted. The studies also provided independent evidence that the lack of FAD2-1A gene activity and a non-synonymous SNP in the coding sequence of FAB2C caused elevated oleic acid and stearic acid levels in soybean lines M23 and FAM94-41, respectively. Conclusions As a proof-of-concept, we developed an integrated RNA-seq and bioinformatics approach to identify and functionally annotate transcript polymorphisms, and demonstrated its high effectiveness for discovery of genetic and transcript variations that result in altered oil quality traits. The collection of transcript polymorphisms coupled with their predicted functional effects will be a valuable asset for further discovery of genes, gene variants, and functional markers to improve soybean oil quality. PMID:24755115

  6. [Scanning electron microscopic study of so-called carvable composite filling materials after over one-year functional period].

    PubMed

    Triadan, H

    1979-03-01

    28 class-5 and 16 class-1 fillings were made from the composite material "Epoxydent" on a macaca speciosa monkey and examined with the electron microscope after a 15 months functional period. Statistically significant differences in the size of the marginal space were found to be larger than in comparable composites Adaptic, Concise, Compo-Cap and Cosmic. The spaces were frequently not located on the filling margin but inside, within the filling material. This is attributed to the "carving" technique during the gel phase of setting. The surface shows abrasions and porosities with loss of particles, sometimes fractures and discolored margins with secondary caries. It is not recommended to replace metal fillings by so-called carvable composits.

  7. The Effects of Varying Crustal Carbonate Composition on Assimilation and CO2 Degassing at Arc Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, L. B.; Holmes, A. K.; Dasgupta, R.; Tumiati, S.

    2015-12-01

    Magma-crustal carbonate interaction and subsequent decarbonation can provide an additional source of CO2 release to the exogenic system superimposed on mantle-derived CO2. Carbonate assimilation at present day volcanoes is often modeled by limestone consumption experiments [1-4]. Eruptive products, however, do not clearly display the characteristic ultracalcic melt compositions produced during limestone-magma interaction [4]. Yet estimated CO2outflux [5] and composition of volcanics in many volcanic systems may allow ~3-17% limestone- or dolostone-assimilated melt contribution. Crystallization may retain ultracalcic melts in pyroxenite cumulates. To extend our completed study on limestone assimilation, here we explore the effect of varying composition from calcite to dolomite on chemical and thermal decarbonation efficiency of crustal carbonates. Piston cylinder experiments at 0.5 GPa and 900-1200 °C demonstrate that residual mineralogy during interaction with magma shifts from CaTs cpx and anorthite/scapolite in the presence of calcite to Di cpx and Fo-rich olivine with dolomite. Silica-undersaturated melts double in magnesium content, while maintaining high (>30 wt.%) CaO values. At high-T, partial thermal breakdown of dolomite into periclase and CO2 is minimal (<5%) suggesting that in the presence of magma, CO2 is primarily released due to assimilation. Assimilated melts at identical P-T conditions depict similarly high volatile contents (10-20 wt.% by EMPA deficit at 0.5 GPa, 1150 °C with hydrous basalt) with calcite or dolomite. Analysis of the coexisting fluid phase indicates the majority of water is dissolved in the melt, while CO2 released from the carbonate is preferentially partitioned into the vapor. This suggests that although assimilated melts have a higher CO2 solubility, most of the CO2can easily degas from the vapor phase at arc volcanoes, possibly more so at volcanic plumbing systems traversing dolomite [8]. [1]Conte et al 2009 EuJMin (21) 763

  8. [Interaction of plague microbe strains varying in plasmid composition with the fleas Xenopsylla cheopis (Roths. 1903)].

    PubMed

    Voronova, G A; Tokmakova, E G; Balakhonov, S V; Bazanova, L P

    2011-01-01

    The interaction of two Yersinia pestis strains varying in plasmid composition with the fleas Xenopsylla cheopis was studied. The reference virulent strain I-2638 having four plasmids (pCad, pPst, pFra, and pTP 33) and its selected avirulent strain I-3480 that had lost the plasmids pCad and pPst formed a proventricular block in the fleas with equal frequency. There were no differences in the block-forming capacity of these strains among the infected females; however, the stock strain was more active in blocking the proventriculus in females in spring than was the mutant one. in summer. The fleas infected with a defect strain failed to transmit the pathogen. It follows that the presence of a proventricular block is not an indicator of how effectively the fleas transmit the causative agent of plague. While being in the insect, both strains of plague microbe did not alter their biological properties. In experiments, the death rate for insects infected with different strains was similar, but higher in spring than that in summer. The males naturally died more frequently than the females.

  9. Structural, optical and photocatalytic properties of graphene-ZnO nanocomposites for varied compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beura, Rosalin; Thangadurai, P.

    2017-03-01

    Graphene-ZnO nanocomposites (GZ) were prepared with different concentrations of ZnO by chemical method. Structural analysis by x-ray diffraction showed a hexagonal wurtzite phase of ZnO and Raman spectroscopy showed the formation of graphene. Shape of ZnO was found to be varied from sphere to rod with the increasing ZnO composition. Optical absorption at 369 nm (Eg=3.36 eV) was corresponding to the band edge emission of ZnO. Compared to pure ZnO, photoluminescence (PL) intensity of the nanocomposites had decreased drastically, due to quenching of photoemission, in the presence of graphene. The time resolved PL decay followed a triexponential behavior with a maximum lifetime of 27.97 ns. The BET surface area was in the range from 13 to 123 m2/g. Photocatalytic degradation study on methyl orange under UV light and Sun light showed a maximum degradation of 97.1% and 98.6% respectively. It was observed that the nanocomposites with optimum value of lifetime and surface area had shown the maximum degradation rate.

  10. Chemical composition and enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane clones selected for varied lignin content

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The recalcitrance of lignocellulosic materials is a major limitation for their conversion into fermentable sugars. Lignin depletion in new cultivars or transgenic plants has been identified as a way to diminish this recalcitrance. In this study, we assessed the success of a sugarcane breeding program in selecting sugarcane plants with low lignin content, and report the chemical composition and agronomic characteristics of eleven experimental hybrids and two reference samples. The enzymatic digestion of untreated and chemically delignified samples was evaluated to advance the performance of the sugarcane residue (bagasse) in cellulosic-ethanol production processes. Results The ranges for the percentages of glucan, hemicellulose, lignin, and extractive (based on oven-dry biomass) of the experimental hybrids and reference samples were 38% to 43%, 25% to 32%, 17% to 24%, and 1.6% to 7.5%, respectively. The samples with the smallest amounts of lignin did not produce the largest amounts of total polysaccharides. Instead, a variable increase in the mass of a number of components, including extractives, seemed to compensate for the reduction in lignin content. Hydroxycinnamic acids accounted for a significant part of the aromatic compounds in the samples, with p-coumaric acid predominating, whereas ferulic acid was present only in low amounts. Hydroxycinnamic acids with ester linkage to the hemicelluloses varied from 2.3% to 3.6%. The percentage of total hydroxycinnamic acids (including the fraction linked to lignin through ether linkages) varied from 5.0% to 9.2%, and correlated to some extent with the lignin content. These clones released up to 31% of glucose after 72 hours of digestion with commercial cellulases, whereas chemically delignified samples led to cellulose conversion values of more than 80%. However, plants with lower lignin content required less delignification to reach higher efficiencies of cellulose conversion during the enzymatic treatment

  11. Composition and properties of the so-called 'diamond-like' amorphous carbon films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angus, J. C.; Stultz, J. E.; Shiller, P. J.; Macdonald, J. R.; Mirtich, M. J.

    1984-01-01

    The composition of amorphous 'diamond-like' films made by direct low energy ion beam deposition, R.F. discharge and sputtering was determined by nuclear reaction analysis, IR spectroscopy and microcombustion chemical analysis. The nuclear reaction analysis showed very similar hydrogen depth profiles for all three types of samples. The atomic ratio of hydrogen to carbon was approximately 0.2 at the film surface and rose to approximately 1.0 at a depth of 500 A. The integrated intensity of the C-H stretching band at about 2900 per cm indicates that the amount of chemically bonded hydrogen is less than the total hydrogen content. Combustion analysis confirmed the overall atomic ratio of hydrogen to carbon determined by nuclear reaction analysis. The chemical state of the non-bonded hydrogen was not determined; however, the effective diffusion coefficient computed from the hydrogen depth profile was extremely low. This indicates either that the films are exceedingly impermeable or that the non-bonded hydrogen requires an additional activated step to leave the films, e.g., desorption or chemical reaction.

  12. Design, fabrication, and properties of 2-2 connectivity cement/polymer based piezoelectric composites with varied piezoelectric phase distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Dongyu, Xu; Xin, Cheng; Shifeng, Huang; Banerjee, Sourav

    2014-12-28

    The laminated 2-2 connectivity cement/polymer based piezoelectric composites with varied piezoelectric phase distribution were fabricated by employing Lead Zirconium Titanate ceramic as active phase, and mixture of cement powder, epoxy resin, and hardener as matrix phase with a mass proportion of 4:4:1. The dielectric, piezoelectric, and electromechanical coupling properties of the composites were studied. The composites with large total volume fraction of piezoelectric phase have large piezoelectric strain constant and relative permittivity, and the piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composites are independent of the dimensional variations of the piezoelectric ceramic layer. The composites with small total volume fraction of piezoelectric phase have large piezoelectric voltage constant, but also large dielectric loss. The composite with gradually increased dimension of piezoelectric ceramic layer has the smallest dielectric loss, and that with the gradually increased dimension of matrix layer has the largest piezoelectric voltage constant. The novel piezoelectric composites show potential applications in fabricating ultrasonic transducers with varied surface vibration amplitude of the transducer.

  13. Design, fabrication, and properties of 2-2 connectivity cement/polymer based piezoelectric composites with varied piezoelectric phase distribution.

    PubMed

    Dongyu, Xu; Xin, Cheng; Banerjee, Sourav; Shifeng, Huang

    2014-12-28

    The laminated 2-2 connectivity cement/polymer based piezoelectric composites with varied piezoelectric phase distribution were fabricated by employing Lead Zirconium Titanate ceramic as active phase, and mixture of cement powder, epoxy resin, and hardener as matrix phase with a mass proportion of 4:4:1. The dielectric, piezoelectric, and electromechanical coupling properties of the composites were studied. The composites with large total volume fraction of piezoelectric phase have large piezoelectric strain constant and relative permittivity, and the piezoelectric and dielectric properties of the composites are independent of the dimensional variations of the piezoelectric ceramic layer. The composites with small total volume fraction of piezoelectric phase have large piezoelectric voltage constant, but also large dielectric loss. The composite with gradually increased dimension of piezoelectric ceramic layer has the smallest dielectric loss, and that with the gradually increased dimension of matrix layer has the largest piezoelectric voltage constant. The novel piezoelectric composites show potential applications in fabricating ultrasonic transducers with varied surface vibration amplitude of the transducer.

  14. Intermediate-scale Fire Performance of Composite Panels under Varying Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Alexander; Jernigan, Dann A.; Dodd, Amanda B.

    2015-04-01

    New aircraft are being designed with increasing quantities of composite materials used in their construction. Different from the more traditional metals, composites have a higher propensity to burn. This presents a challenge to transportation safety analyses, as the aircraft structure now represents an additional fuel source involved in the fire scenario. Most of the historical fire testing of composite materials is aime d at studying kinetics, flammability or yield strength under fire conditions. Most of this testing is small - scale. Heterogeneous reactions are often length - scale dependent, and this is thought to be particularly true for composites which exhibit signific ant microscopic dynamics that can affect macro - scale behavior. We have designed a series of tests to evaluate composite materials under various structural loading conditions with a consistent thermal condition. We have measured mass - loss , heat flux, and temperature throughout the experiments. Several types of panels have been tested, including simple composite panels, and sandwich panels. The main objective of the testing was to understand the importance of the structural loading on a composite to its b ehavior in response to fire - like conditions. During flaming combustion at early times, there are some features of the panel decomposition that are unique to the type of loading imposed on the panels. At load levels tested, fiber reaction rates at later t imes appear to be independent of the initial structural loading.

  15. The Effect of Stochastically Varying Creep Parameters on Residual Stresses in Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Mital, Subodh K.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    Constituent properties, along with volume fraction, have a first order effect on the microscale fields within a composite material and influence the macroscopic response. Therefore, there is a need to assess the significance of stochastic variation in the constituent properties of composites at the higher scales. The effect of variability in the parameters controlling the time-dependent behavior, in a unidirectional SCS-6 SiC fiber-reinforced RBSN matrix composite lamina, on the residual stresses induced during processing is investigated numerically. The generalized method of cells micromechanics theory is utilized to model the ceramic matrix composite lamina using a repeating unit cell. The primary creep phases of the constituents are approximated using a Norton-Bailey, steady state, power law creep model. The effect of residual stresses on the proportional limit stress and strain to failure of the composite is demonstrated. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted using a normal distribution for the power law parameters and the resulting residual stress distributions were predicted.

  16. Composites for bone repair: phosphate glass fibre reinforced PLA with varying fibre architecture.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, I; Jones, I A; Parsons, A J; Bernard, J; Farmer, J; Scotchford, C A; Walker, G S; Rudd, C D

    2011-08-01

    Internal fixation for bone fractures with rigid metallic plates, screws and pins is a proven operative technique. However, refracture's have been observed after rigid internal fixation with metal plates and plate fixation has been known to cause localised osteopenia under and near the plate. In the present study, resorbable composites comprising a PLA matrix reinforced with iron doped phosphate glass fibres were investigated. Non-woven random mat laminates of approximately 30% and 45% fibre volume fraction (V(f)) were produced, along with unidirectional and 0°-90° samples of approximately 20% V(f). The non-woven composite laminates achieved maximum values of 10 GPa modulus and 120 MPa strength. The 0-90º samples showed unexpectedly low strengths close to matrix value (~50 MPa) although with a modulus of 7 GPa. The UD specimens exhibited values of 130 MPa and 11.5 GPa for strength and modulus respectively. All the modulus values observed were close to that expected from the rule of mixtures. Samples immersed in deionised water at 37°C revealed rapid mechanical property loss, more so for the UD and 0-90º samples. It was suggested that continuous fibres wicked the degradation media into the composite plates which sped up the deterioration of the fibre-matrix interface. The effect was less pronounced in the non-woven random mat laminates due to the discontinuous arrangement of fibres within the composite, making it less prone to wicking. Random mat composites revealed a higher mass loss than the UD and 0°-90° specimens, it was suggested this was due to the higher fibre volume fractions of these composites and SEM studies revealed voidage around the fibres by day 3. Studies of pH of the degradation media showed similar profiles for all the composites investigated. An initial decrease in pH was attributed to the release of phosphate ions into solution followed by a gradual return back to neutral.

  17. Practical Analysis of materials with depth varying compositions using FT-IR photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS)

    SciTech Connect

    J.F. McClelland; R.W. Jones; Siquan Luo

    2004-09-30

    FT-IR photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) is discussed as a nondestructive method to probe the molecular composition of materials versus depth on the basis of the analysis of layers of experimentally controllable thickness, which are measured from the sample surface to depths of some tens of micrometers, depending on optical and thermal properties. Computational methods are described to process photoacoustic amplitude and phase spectra for both semi-quantitative and quantitative depth analyses. These methods are demonstrated on layered and gradient samples.

  18. Varying rock responses as an indicator of changes in CO2-H2O fluid composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friend, C. R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The formation of the late Archean charnockite zone of southern India was ascribed to dehydration recrystallization due to an influx of CO2. Pressure temperature conditions for the metamorphism were calculated at about 750 C and 7.5 Kbar. The composition of the volatile species presently contained in fluid inclusions in the rocks changes across the transition zone. The transition zone was studied at Kabbaldurga and the paths taken by the fluids were identified.

  19. Effects of long-term drainage on microbial community composition vary between peatland types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanová, Zuzana; Barta, Jiri

    2016-04-01

    Peatlands represent an important reservoir of carbon, but their functioning can be threatened by water level drawdown caused by climate or land use change. Knowledge of how microbial communities respond to long-term drainage in different peatland types could help improve predictions of the effect of climate change on these ecosystems. We investigated the effect of long-term drainage on microbial community composition in bog, fen and spruce swamp forests (SSF) in the Sumava Mountains (Czech Republic), using high-throughput barcoded sequencing, in relation to peat biochemical properties. Longterm drainage had substantial effects, which depended strongly on peatland type, on peat biochemical properties and microbial community composition. The effect of drainage was most apparent on fen, followed by SSF, and lowest on bog. Long-term drainage led to lower pH, reduced peat decomposability and increased bulk density, which was reflected by reduced microbial activity. Bacterial diversity decreased and Acidobacteria became the dominant phylum on drained sites, reflecting a convergence in bacterial community composition across peatlands after long-term drainage. The archaeal communities changed very strongly and became similar across drained peatlands. Overall, the characteristic differences between distinct peatland types under natural conditions were diminished by long-term drainage. Bog represented a relatively resilient system while fen seemed to be very sensitive to environmental changes.

  20. The instability theory of drumlin formation and its explanation of their varied composition and internal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stokes, Chris R.; Fowler, Andrew C.; Clark, Chris D.; Hindmarsh, Richard C. A.; Spagnolo, Matteo

    2013-02-01

    Despite their importance in understanding glaciological processes and constraining large-scale flow patterns in palaeo-glaciology, there is little consensus as to how drumlins are formed. Attempts to solve the 'drumlin problem' often fail to address how they are created from an initially flat surface in the absence of obvious cores or obstacles. This is a key strength of the instability theory, which has been described in a suite of physically-based mathematical models and proposes that the coupled flow of ice and till causes spontaneous formation of relief in the till surface. Encouragingly, model predictions of bedform height and length are consistent with observations and, furthermore, the theory has been applied to a range of subglacial bedforms and not just drumlins. However, it has yet to confront the myriad observations relating to the composition and internal structure of drumlins and this could be seen as a major deficiency. This paper is a first attempt to assess whether the instability theory is compatible with the incredible diversity of sediments and structures found within drumlins. We summarise the underlying principles of the theory and then describe and attempt to explain the main types of drumlin composition (e.g. bedrock, till, glaciofluvial sediments, and combinations thereof). Contrary to a view which suggests that the presence of some sedimentary sequences (e.g. horizontally stratified cores) is inconsistent with the theory, we suggest that one would actually expect a diverse range of constituents depending on the inheritance of sediments that pre-date drumlin formation, the duration and variability of ice flow, and the balance between erosion and deposition (till continuity) at the ice-bed interface. We conclude that the instability theory is compatible with (and potentially strengthened by) what is known about drumlin composition and, as such, offers the most complete and promising solution to the drumlin problem to date.

  1. Investigating the barrier function of skin lipid models with varying compositions.

    PubMed

    Groen, Daniël; Poole, Dana S; Gooris, Gert S; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2011-10-01

    The lipids in the uppermost layer of the skin, the stratum corneum (SC), play an important role in the barrier function. The main lipid classes in stratum corneum are ceramides, cholesterol, and free fatty acids. In previous publications, a lipid model was presented, referred to as the stratum corneum substitute (SCS), that closely mimics the SC lipid organization and SC barrier function. In the present study, we use the SCS to study the effect of changes in lipid organization on the lipid barrier function using benzoic acid as permeation compound. First, in the SCS, we increased the level of one of the three major lipid classes keeping the ratio between the other lipid classes constant. An increased cholesterol level resulted in an increase in phase-separated cholesterol and a reduction in the permeability. An increase in ceramide or free fatty acid level resulted in the formation of additional phases, but had no significant influence on the permeability. We also examined models that mimic selected changes in lipid composition reported for dry or diseased skin. The SCS that mimics the composition in recessive X-linked ichthyosis skin displayed a twofold increase in permeability. This increase is possibly related to the formation of an additional, less ordered phase in this model.

  2. The Red Rectangle: Solid State Components of Varying Composition in the Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markwick-Kemper, F.; Green, J. D.; Peeters, E.

    We report the discovery of broad mid-infrared resonances in the outer regions of the Red Rectangle outflow (Markwick-Kemper et al. 2005). The peak position and the strength of the resonances vary spatially, but the full width at half maximum, as well as the shape of the feature, appears remarkably constant. While emission due to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is also present at these locations, we show that PAHs cannot be the carriers of these new components. Instead, we argue that these resonances are caused by solid state components, perhaps simple Mg-Fe-oxides. The presence of such O-rich species in the otherwise C-rich outflows further complicates the picture of the formation and chemistry of the Red Rectangle nebula.

  3. Thermal property characterization of single crystal diamond with varying isotopic composition

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, L.

    1993-01-01

    The mirage-effect/thermal wave technique as a modern technique for thermal property characterization is described. The thermal diffusivity of a material is determined by measuring the time and space varying temperature distribution (thermal wave) in the material generated by an intensity modulated heating laser beam. These thermal waves are detected through the deflection of a probe laser beam due to modulation of gradient of the index of refraction (mirage effect) either in the air above the specimens (the in-air technique) or in the specimen itself (the in-solid technique). Three-dimensional theories, for both in-air and in-solid mirage techniques, are represented. In order to extract the material parameters by comparing the theory with experimental data, an extensive data analysis procedure based on multiparameter-least-squares has been developed. The experimental and data analysis details are discussed. Topics concerns with the quality and reliability of the measurements are addressed. This technique has been successfully applied to the thermal property characterization of single crystal diamond with varying isotope contents. The results showed a 50% enhancement in the thermal conductivity by removal of C[sup 13] content from 1.1% to 0.1% in diamond at room temperature. The technique has also been adapted to function in cryogenic temperatures. The temperature dependence of thermal conductivity in the temperature range 80-378K for natural IIA specimen and 187-375K for isotopically enriched specimen are obtained, the former results agree with previous works and the latter results demonstrate the isotope effect on the thermal conductivity of single crystal diamond consistently in a large temperature range. The physical source of this enhancement in diffusivity due to the isotope effect in diamond is discussed. The discussion is based on the full Callaway's theory with emphasizing the role of N-processes in the phonon scattering mechanism.

  4. Modeled and Measured Dynamics of a Composite Beam with Periodically Varying Foam Core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabell, Randolph H.; Cano, Roberto J.; Schiller, Noah H.; Roberts Gary D.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamics of a sandwich beam with carbon fiber composite facesheets and foam core with periodic variations in material properties are studied. The purpose of the study is to compare finite element predictions with experimental measurements on fabricated beam specimens. For the study, three beams were fabricated: one with a compliant foam core, a second with a stiffer core, and a third with the two cores alternating down the length of the beam to create a periodic variation in properties. This periodic variation produces a bandgap in the frequency domain where vibrational energy does not readily propagate down the length of the beam. Mode shapes and natural frequencies are compared, as well as frequency responses from point force input to velocity response at the opposite end of the beam.

  5. Hair from different ethnic groups vary in elemental composition and nitrogen and phosphorus mineralisation in soil.

    PubMed

    Malepfane, N M; Muchaonyerwa, P

    2017-02-01

    Disposal of hair wastes at landfills causes nitrate leaching to ground water, and use of the waste as fertiliser could be a viable option. This study was to determine elemental composition of major hair types in South Africa and their nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) release in soil. Wastes of African, White and Indian hair were obtained from local salons and analysed for carbon (C), N and sulphur (S) with the Leco CNS analyzer, and P, bases, aluminium (Al) and micronutrients, with the ICP. We also conducted an incubation study to determine changes in mineral N and P in soil. Hair wastes were added to soil at increasing rates based on N, incubated at 25 °C with destructive sampling after 0, 28, 56 and 84 days and pH, ammonium-N, nitrate-N and extractable P measured. All data were subjected to analysis of variance. Indian and White hair had higher N than African. White hair had higher C and lower potassium (K) than those of other types. The Fe levels in hair were in the order White > African > Indian, whilst those of Al were African > Indian > White. African hair had higher calcium (Ca), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn) and cobalt (Co) than the other types. Ammonium-N and nitrate-N releases were in the order: Indian > African > White, especially at higher rates. Ammonium-N increased in the first 28 days and declined thereafter, when nitrate-N increased and pH decreased. The findings implied that hair types differ in elemental composition and nitrogen release in soil, with implications on pollution and soil fertility.

  6. Coral and macroalgal exudates vary in neutral sugar composition and differentially enrich reef bacterioplankton lineages

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Craig E; Goldberg, Stuart J; Wegley Kelly, Linda; Haas, Andreas F; Smith, Jennifer E; Rohwer, Forest; Carlson, Craig A

    2013-01-01

    Increasing algal cover on tropical reefs worldwide may be maintained through feedbacks whereby algae outcompete coral by altering microbial activity. We hypothesized that algae and coral release compositionally distinct exudates that differentially alter bacterioplankton growth and community structure. We collected exudates from the dominant hermatypic coral holobiont Porites spp. and three dominant macroalgae (one each Ochrophyta, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta) from reefs of Mo'orea, French Polynesia. We characterized exudates by measuring dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and fractional dissolved combined neutral sugars (DCNSs) and subsequently tracked bacterioplankton responses to each exudate over 48 h, assessing cellular growth, DOC/DCNS utilization and changes in taxonomic composition (via 16S rRNA amplicon pyrosequencing). Fleshy macroalgal exudates were enriched in the DCNS components fucose (Ochrophyta) and galactose (Rhodophyta); coral and calcareous algal exudates were enriched in total DCNS but in the same component proportions as ambient seawater. Rates of bacterioplankton growth and DOC utilization were significantly higher in algal exudate treatments than in coral exudate and control incubations with each community selectively removing different DCNS components. Coral exudates engendered the smallest shift in overall bacterioplankton community structure, maintained high diversity and enriched taxa from Alphaproteobacteria lineages containing cultured representatives with relatively few virulence factors (VFs) (Hyphomonadaceae and Erythrobacteraceae). In contrast, macroalgal exudates selected for less diverse communities heavily enriched in copiotrophic Gammaproteobacteria lineages containing cultured pathogens with increased VFs (Vibrionaceae and Pseudoalteromonadaceae). Our results demonstrate that algal exudates are enriched in DCNS components, foster rapid growth of bacterioplankton and select for bacterial populations with more potential VFs than

  7. Coordinated Oxygen Isotopic and Petrologic Studies of CAIS Record Varying Composition of Protosolar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Justin I.; Matzel, J. E. P.; Simon, S. B.; Weber, P. K.; Grossman, L.; Ross, D. K.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2012-01-01

    Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) record the O-isotope composition of Solar nebular gas from which they grew [1]. High spatial resolution O-isotope measurements afforded by ion microprobe analysis across the rims and margin of CAIs reveal systematic variations in (Delta)O-17 and suggest formation from a diversity of nebular environments [2-4]. This heterogeneity has been explained by isotopic mixing between the O-16-rich Solar reservoir [6] and a second O-16-poor reservoir (probably nebular gas) with a "planetary-like" isotopic composition [e.g., 1, 6-7], but the mechanism and location(s) where these events occur within the protoplanetary disk remain uncertain. The orientation of large and systematic variations in (Delta)O-17 reported by [3] for a compact Type A CAI from the Efremovka reduced CV3 chondrite differs dramatically from reports by [4] of a similar CAI, A37 from the Allende oxidized CV3 chondrite. Both studies conclude that CAIs were exposed to distinct, nebular O-isotope reservoirs, implying the transfer of CAIs among different settings within the protoplanetary disk [4]. To test this hypothesis further and the extent of intra-CAI O-isotopic variation, a pristine compact Type A CAI, Ef-1 from Efremovka, and a Type B2 CAI, TS4 from Allende were studied. Our new results are equally intriguing because, collectively, O-isotopic zoning patterns in the CAIs indicate a progressive and cyclic record. The results imply that CAIs were commonly exposed to multiple environments of distinct gas during their formation. Numerical models help constrain conditions and duration of these events.

  8. Coral and macroalgal exudates vary in neutral sugar composition and differentially enrich reef bacterioplankton lineages.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Craig E; Goldberg, Stuart J; Wegley Kelly, Linda; Haas, Andreas F; Smith, Jennifer E; Rohwer, Forest; Carlson, Craig A

    2013-05-01

    Increasing algal cover on tropical reefs worldwide may be maintained through feedbacks whereby algae outcompete coral by altering microbial activity. We hypothesized that algae and coral release compositionally distinct exudates that differentially alter bacterioplankton growth and community structure. We collected exudates from the dominant hermatypic coral holobiont Porites spp. and three dominant macroalgae (one each Ochrophyta, Rhodophyta and Chlorophyta) from reefs of Mo'orea, French Polynesia. We characterized exudates by measuring dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and fractional dissolved combined neutral sugars (DCNSs) and subsequently tracked bacterioplankton responses to each exudate over 48 h, assessing cellular growth, DOC/DCNS utilization and changes in taxonomic composition (via 16S rRNA amplicon pyrosequencing). Fleshy macroalgal exudates were enriched in the DCNS components fucose (Ochrophyta) and galactose (Rhodophyta); coral and calcareous algal exudates were enriched in total DCNS but in the same component proportions as ambient seawater. Rates of bacterioplankton growth and DOC utilization were significantly higher in algal exudate treatments than in coral exudate and control incubations with each community selectively removing different DCNS components. Coral exudates engendered the smallest shift in overall bacterioplankton community structure, maintained high diversity and enriched taxa from Alphaproteobacteria lineages containing cultured representatives with relatively few virulence factors (VFs) (Hyphomonadaceae and Erythrobacteraceae). In contrast, macroalgal exudates selected for less diverse communities heavily enriched in copiotrophic Gammaproteobacteria lineages containing cultured pathogens with increased VFs (Vibrionaceae and Pseudoalteromonadaceae). Our results demonstrate that algal exudates are enriched in DCNS components, foster rapid growth of bacterioplankton and select for bacterial populations with more potential VFs than

  9. Assembly route toward raspberry-like composite particles and their controlled surface wettability through varied dual-size binary roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Xin; Niu, Lin; Wu, Yuehuan; Cheng, Jiang; Yang, Zhuoru

    2015-03-01

    Sulfonated PS template/aniline medium method was used to assemble raspberry-like composite particles with varied dual-size binary morphology. The assembly efficiency of SiO2 particles on templates was found to increase with sulfonation temperature as well as sulfuric acid concentration. For sulfonation time one turning point appeared because there existed one balance between microgel structure formation and PSS chains detachment. The optimal preparation condition was finally obtained and proved effective for other types of anionic particles. Wettability of surfaces with varied binary roughness was studied and the results showed that dual-size structure could further improve the hydrophobic performance. The contact angles were found to increase with the size ratio of template particles/outer particles.

  10. Orientation and dynamics of melittin in membranes of varying composition utilizing NBD fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Raghuraman, H; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2007-02-15

    Melittin is a cationic hemolytic peptide isolated from the European honey bee, Apis mellifera. The organization of membrane-bound melittin has earlier been shown to be dependent on the physical state and composition of membranes. In this study, we covalently labeled the N-terminal (Gly-1) and Lys-7 of melittin with an environment-sensitive fluorescent probe, the NBD group, to monitor the influence of negatively charged lipids and cholesterol on the organization and dynamics of membrane-bound melittin. Our results show that the NBD group of melittin labeled at its N-terminal end does not exhibit red edge excitation shift in DOPC and DOPC/DOPG membranes, whereas the NBD group of melittin labeled at Lys-7 exhibits REES of approximately 8 nm. This could be attributed to difference in membrane microenvironment experienced by the NBD groups in these analogs. Interestingly, the membrane environment of the NBD groups is sensitive to the presence of cholesterol, which is supported by time-resolved fluorescence measurements. Importantly, the orientation of melittin is found to be parallel to the membrane surface as determined by membrane penetration depth analysis using the parallax method in all cases. Our results constitute the first report to our knowledge describing the orientation of melittin in cholesterol-containing membranes. These results assume significance in the overall context of the role of membrane lipids in the orientation and function of membrane proteins and peptides.

  11. Varying the concentration of single walled carbon nanotubes in thin film polymer composites, and its effect on thermoelectric power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, C. A.; Kaiser, A. B.; Roth, S.; Craps, M.; Czerw, R.; Carroll, D. L.

    2011-05-01

    Resistivity and thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements were conducted on single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT), polyvinylidene fluoride composite thin films of varying SWNT concentrations. This heterogeneous material was used in order to utilize the good electrical conductance of the nanotubes and the poor thermal conductance of the polymer to increase the figure of merit (ZT). As the nanotube weight percent decreased from 100% to 5%, the beneficial effects of the TEP increase and thermal conductivity decrease outweighed the negative effect of decreased electrical conductivity, resulting in an increase in ZT by a factor of 100.

  12. Exo-Transmit: An Open-Source Code for Calculating Transmission Spectra for Exoplanet Atmospheres of Varied Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempton, Eliza M.-R.; Lupu, Roxana; Owusu-Asare, Albert; Slough, Patrick; Cale, Bryson

    2017-04-01

    We present Exo-Transmit, a software package to calculate exoplanet transmission spectra for planets of varied composition. The code is designed to generate spectra of planets with a wide range of atmospheric composition, temperature, surface gravity, and size, and is therefore applicable to exoplanets ranging in mass and size from hot Jupiters down to rocky super-Earths. Spectra can be generated with or without clouds or hazes with options to (1) include an optically thick cloud deck at a user-specified atmospheric pressure or (2) to augment the nominal Rayleigh scattering by a user-specified factor. The Exo-Transmit code is written in C and is extremely easy to use. Typically the user will only need to edit parameters in a single user input file in order to run the code for a planet of their choosing. Exo-Transmit is available publicly on Github with open-source licensing at https://github.com/elizakempton/Exo_Transmit.

  13. Pheromone Production by an Invasive Bark Beetle Varies with Monoterpene Composition of its Naïve Host.

    PubMed

    Taft, Spencer; Najar, Ahmed; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2015-06-01

    The secondary chemistry of host plants can have cascading impacts on the establishment of new insect herbivore populations, their long-term population dynamics, and their invasion potential in novel habitats. Mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) has recently expanded its range into forests of jack pine, Pinus banksiana Lamb., in western Canada. We investigated whether variations in jack pine monoterpenes affect beetle pheromone production, as the primary components of the beetle's aggregation pheromone, (-)-trans-verbenol and anti-aggregation pheromone (-)-verbenone, are biosynthesized from the host monoterpene α-pinene. Jack pine bolts were collected from five Canadian provinces east of the beetle's current range, live D. ponderosae were introduced into them, and their monoterpene compositions were characterized. Production of (-)-trans-verbenol and (-)-verbenone emitted by beetles was measured to determine whether pheromone production varies with monoterpene composition of jack pines. Depending on particular ratios of major monoterpenes in host phloem, jack pine could be classified into three monoterpenoid groups characterized by high amounts of (+)-α-pinene, 3-carene, or a more moderate blend of monoterpenes, and beetle pheromone production varied among these groups. Specifically, beetles reared in trees characterized by high (+)-α-pinene produced the most (-)-trans-verbenol and (-)-verbenone, while beetles in trees characterized by high 3-carene produced the least. Our results indicate that pheromone production by D. ponderosae will remain a significant aspect and important predictor of its survival and persistence in the boreal forest.

  14. Setting the pace of life: membrane composition of flight muscle varies with metabolic rate of hovering orchid bees.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Enrique; Weber, Jean-Michel; Pagé, Benoît; Roubik, David W; Suarez, Raul K; Darveau, Charles-A

    2015-03-07

    Patterns of metabolic rate variation have been documented extensively in animals, but their functional basis remains elusive. The membrane pacemaker hypothesis proposes that the relative abundance of polyunsaturated fatty acids in membrane phospholipids sets the metabolic rate of organisms. Using species of tropical orchid bees spanning a 16-fold range in body size, we show that the flight muscles of smaller bees have more linoleate (%18 : 3) and stearate (%18 : 0), but less oleate (%18 : 1). More importantly, flight metabolic rate (FlightMR) varies with the relative abundance of 18 : 3 according to the predictions of the membrane pacemaker hypothesis. Although this relationship was found across large differences in metabolic rate, a direct association could not be detected when taking phylogeny and body mass into account. Higher FlightMR, however, was related to lower %16 : 0, independent of phylogeny and body mass. Therefore, this study shows that flight muscle membrane composition plays a significant role in explaining diversity in FlightMR, but that body mass and phylogeny are other factors contributing to their variation. Multiple factors are at play to modulate metabolic capacity, and changing membrane composition can have gradual and stepwise effects to achieve a new range of metabolic rates. Orchid bees illustrate the correlated evolution between membrane composition and metabolic rate, supporting the functional link proposed in the membrane pacemaker hypothesis.

  15. Setting the pace of life: membrane composition of flight muscle varies with metabolic rate of hovering orchid bees

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Enrique; Weber, Jean-Michel; Pagé, Benoît; Roubik, David W.; Suarez, Raul K.; Darveau, Charles-A.

    2015-01-01

    Patterns of metabolic rate variation have been documented extensively in animals, but their functional basis remains elusive. The membrane pacemaker hypothesis proposes that the relative abundance of polyunsaturated fatty acids in membrane phospholipids sets the metabolic rate of organisms. Using species of tropical orchid bees spanning a 16-fold range in body size, we show that the flight muscles of smaller bees have more linoleate (%18 : 3) and stearate (%18 : 0), but less oleate (%18 : 1). More importantly, flight metabolic rate (FlightMR) varies with the relative abundance of 18 : 3 according to the predictions of the membrane pacemaker hypothesis. Although this relationship was found across large differences in metabolic rate, a direct association could not be detected when taking phylogeny and body mass into account. Higher FlightMR, however, was related to lower %16 : 0, independent of phylogeny and body mass. Therefore, this study shows that flight muscle membrane composition plays a significant role in explaining diversity in FlightMR, but that body mass and phylogeny are other factors contributing to their variation. Multiple factors are at play to modulate metabolic capacity, and changing membrane composition can have gradual and stepwise effects to achieve a new range of metabolic rates. Orchid bees illustrate the correlated evolution between membrane composition and metabolic rate, supporting the functional link proposed in the membrane pacemaker hypothesis. PMID:25652831

  16. House calls.

    PubMed

    Unwin, Brian K; Tatum, Paul E

    2011-04-15

    House calls provide a unique perspective on patients' environment and health problems. The demand for house calls is expected to increase considerably in future decades as the U.S. population ages. Although study results have been inconsistent, house calls involving multidisciplinary teams may reduce hospital readmissions and long-term care facility stays. Common indications for house calls are management of acute or chronic illnesses, and palliative care. Medicare beneficiaries must meet specific criteria to be eligible for home health services. The INHOMESSS mnemonic provides a checklist for components of a comprehensive house call. In addition to performing a clinical assessment, house calls may involve observing the patient performing daily activities, reconciling medication discrepancies, and evaluating home safety. House calls can be integrated into practice with careful planning, including clustering house calls by geographic location and coordinating visits with other health care professionals and agencies.

  17. Structure and composition of the distant lunar exosphere: Constraints from ARTEMIS observations of ion acceleration in time-varying fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halekas, J. S.; Poppe, A. R.; Farrell, W. M.; McFadden, J. P.

    2016-06-01

    By analyzing the trajectories of ionized constituents of the lunar exosphere in time-varying electromagnetic fields, we can place constraints on the composition, structure, and dynamics of the lunar exosphere. Heavy ions travel slower than light ions in the same fields, so by observing the lag between field rotations and the response of ions from the lunar exosphere, we can place constraints on the composition of the ions. Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) provides an ideal platform to utilize such an analysis, since its two-probe vantage allows precise timing of the propagation of field discontinuities in the solar wind, and its sensitive plasma instruments can detect the ion response. We demonstrate the utility of this technique by using fully time-dependent charged particle tracing to analyze several minutes of ion observations taken by the two ARTEMIS probes ~3000-5000 km above the dusk terminator on 25 January 2014. The observations from this time period allow us to reach several interesting conclusions. The ion production at altitudes of a few hundred kilometers above the sunlit surface of the Moon has an unexpectedly significant contribution from species with masses of 40 amu or greater. The inferred distribution of the neutral source population has a large scale height, suggesting that micrometeorite impact vaporization and/or sputtering play an important role in the production of neutrals from the surface. Our observations also suggest an asymmetry in ion production, consistent with either a compositional variation in neutral vapor production or a local reduction in solar wind sputtering in magnetic regions of the surface.

  18. Structure and Composition of the Distant Lunar Exosphere: Constraints from ARTEMIS Observations of Ion Acceleration in Time-Varying Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halekas, J. S.; Poppe, A. R.; Farrell, W. M.; McFadden, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    By analyzing the trajectories of ionized constituents of the lunar exosphere in time-varying electromagnetic fields, we can place constraints on the composition, structure, and dynamics of the lunar exosphere. Heavy ions travel slower than light ions in the same fields, so by observing the lag between field rotations and the response of ions from the lunar exosphere, we can place constraints on the composition of the ions. Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) provides an ideal platform to utilize such an analysis, since its two-probe vantage allows precise timing of the propagation of field discontinuities in the solar wind, and its sensitive plasma instruments can detect the ion response. We demonstrate the utility of this technique by using fully time-dependent charged particle tracing to analyze several minutes of ion observations taken by the two ARTEMIS probes 3000-5000 km above the dusk terminator on 25 January 2014. The observations from this time period allow us to reach several interesting conclusions. The ion production at altitudes of a few hundred kilometers above the sunlit surface of the Moon has an unexpectedly significant contribution from species with masses of 40 amu or greater. The inferred distribution of the neutral source population has a large scale height, suggesting that micrometeorite impact vaporization and/or sputtering play an important role in the production of neutrals from the surface. Our observations also suggest an asymmetry in ion production, consistent with either a compositional variation in neutral vapor production or a local reduction in solar wind sputtering in magnetic regions of the surface.

  19. Effects of varying base glass composition on the optical properties of lead borate glasses doped with rare earth ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidorn, William D.

    Rare Earth (RE) doped lead borate glasses are expected to exhibit a compositional dependence in their optical properties due to the changes induced by variations in the structure of the base glass with increasing lead oxide content. A series of lead borate glasses with the composition xPbO:(99.5 - x)B2O 3 (x = 29.5 to 69.5 in steps of 10 mol%) doped with 0.5 mol% Sm2O3, Er2O3, and Ho2O3 were prepared using the melt quench technique followed by 3 hours of annealing near the glass transition temperature. Optical absorption and fluorescence spectra of these RE doped lead borate glasses were analyzed using Judd-Ofelt theory. The compositional dependence of Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, O t (t = 2, 4, 6), were determined and were then used to calculate the radiative transition probability of the excited states, the total radiative transition probability, branching ratios, and radiative lifetime of the glasses. From the fluorescence spectra the stimulated emission cross section, and Stark splitting of the excited states were calculated as a function of glass composition. A fourth set of samples with composition xPbO:(99 - x)B2O 3(x = 29 to 69 in steps of 10 mol%) co-doped with 0.5 mol% Er2 O3 and Ho2O3 were also prepared and the effects of co-doping on the absorption and fluorescence were analyzed. In all the glass systems studied, it was found that the optical properties are strongly influenced by structural changes arising from compositional variation. Er3+ transitions exhibit large stimulated cross section suggesting the possible utilization of these materials in laser applications. Keywords: Lead and bismuth borate glasses, fluorescence, optical absorption, Sm3+, Ho3+, Er3+ ions, Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters, stimulated emission cross section.

  20. A survey of biofilms on wastewater aeration diffusers suggests bacterial community composition and function vary by substrate type and time.

    PubMed

    Noble, Peter A; Park, Hee-Deung; Olson, Betty H; Asvapathanagul, Pitiporn; Hunter, M Colby; Garrido-Baserba, Manel; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Rosso, Diego

    2016-07-01

    Aeration diffusers in wastewater treatment plants generate air bubbles that promote mixing, distribution of dissolved oxygen, and microbial processing of dissolved and suspended matter in bulk solution. Biofouling of diffusers represents a significant problem to wastewater treatment plants because biofilms decrease oxygen transfer efficiency and increase backpressure on the blower. To better understand biofouling, we conducted a pilot study to survey the bacterial community composition and function of biofilms on different diffuser substrates and compare them to those in the bulk solution. DNA was extracted from the surface of ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM), polyurethane, and silicone diffusers operated for 15 months in a municipal treatment plant and sampled at 3 and 9 months. The bacterial community composition and function of the biofilms and bulk solution were determined by amplifying the 16S rRNA genes and pyrosequencing the amplicons and raw metagenomic DNA. The ordination plots and dendrograms of the 16S rRNA and functional genes showed that while the bacterial community composition and function of the bulk solution was independent of sampling time, the composition and function of the biofilms differed by diffuser type and testing time. For the EPDM and silicone diffusers, the biofilm communities were more similar in composition to the bulk solution at 3 months than 9 months. In contrast, the bacteria on the polyurethane diffusers were more dissimilar to the bulk solution at 3 months than 9 months. Taken together, the survey showed that the community composition and function of bacterial biofilms depend on the diffuser substrate and testing time, which warrants further elucidation.

  1. Attitudes, Behaviors, and Effectiveness of Black and White Leaders of Simulated Problem Solving Groups of Varying Size and Racial Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Walter A.; Allen, William R.

    A field experiment was used to investigate the effects, if any, of changing group size and racial composition on the attitudes, behaviors, and effectiveness of black and white leaders. Subjects were 288 naval recruits, half black and half white, performing two tasks which were watched by a pair of racially mixed observers through a one-way mirror.…

  2. Nonlinear and threshold responses of grassland productivity and species composition to increased CO2 vary with soil type

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Climate change is likely to cause non-linear responses in ecosystem function and threshold changes in species composition. Here we report aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) responses to a continuous CO2 concentration gradient (250 to 500 µL L-1) in experimental grassland communities on...

  3. Cinema audiences reproducibly vary the chemical composition of air during films, by broadcasting scene specific emissions on breath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jonathan; Stönner, Christof; Wicker, Jörg; Krauter, Nicolas; Derstroff, Bettina; Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Klüpfel, Thomas; Kramer, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    Human beings continuously emit chemicals into the air by breath and through the skin. In order to determine whether these emissions vary predictably in response to audiovisual stimuli, we have continuously monitored carbon dioxide and over one hundred volatile organic compounds in a cinema. It was found that many airborne chemicals in cinema air varied distinctively and reproducibly with time for a particular film, even in different screenings to different audiences. Application of scene labels and advanced data mining methods revealed that specific film events, namely “suspense” or “comedy” caused audiences to change their emission of specific chemicals. These event-type synchronous, broadcasted human chemosignals open the possibility for objective and non-invasive assessment of a human group response to stimuli by continuous measurement of chemicals in air. Such methods can be applied to research fields such as psychology and biology, and be valuable to industries such as film making and advertising.

  4. Cinema audiences reproducibly vary the chemical composition of air during films, by broadcasting scene specific emissions on breath.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jonathan; Stönner, Christof; Wicker, Jörg; Krauter, Nicolas; Derstroff, Bettina; Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Klüpfel, Thomas; Kramer, Stefan

    2016-05-10

    Human beings continuously emit chemicals into the air by breath and through the skin. In order to determine whether these emissions vary predictably in response to audiovisual stimuli, we have continuously monitored carbon dioxide and over one hundred volatile organic compounds in a cinema. It was found that many airborne chemicals in cinema air varied distinctively and reproducibly with time for a particular film, even in different screenings to different audiences. Application of scene labels and advanced data mining methods revealed that specific film events, namely "suspense" or "comedy" caused audiences to change their emission of specific chemicals. These event-type synchronous, broadcasted human chemosignals open the possibility for objective and non-invasive assessment of a human group response to stimuli by continuous measurement of chemicals in air. Such methods can be applied to research fields such as psychology and biology, and be valuable to industries such as film making and advertising.

  5. Cinema audiences reproducibly vary the chemical composition of air during films, by broadcasting scene specific emissions on breath

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jonathan; Stönner, Christof; Wicker, Jörg; Krauter, Nicolas; Derstroff, Bettina; Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Klüpfel, Thomas; Kramer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Human beings continuously emit chemicals into the air by breath and through the skin. In order to determine whether these emissions vary predictably in response to audiovisual stimuli, we have continuously monitored carbon dioxide and over one hundred volatile organic compounds in a cinema. It was found that many airborne chemicals in cinema air varied distinctively and reproducibly with time for a particular film, even in different screenings to different audiences. Application of scene labels and advanced data mining methods revealed that specific film events, namely “suspense” or “comedy” caused audiences to change their emission of specific chemicals. These event-type synchronous, broadcasted human chemosignals open the possibility for objective and non-invasive assessment of a human group response to stimuli by continuous measurement of chemicals in air. Such methods can be applied to research fields such as psychology and biology, and be valuable to industries such as film making and advertising. PMID:27160439

  6. Rumen microbial community composition varies with diet and host, but a core microbiome is found across a wide geographical range.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Gemma; Cox, Faith; Ganesh, Siva; Jonker, Arjan; Young, Wayne; Janssen, Peter H

    2015-10-09

    Ruminant livestock are important sources of human food and global greenhouse gas emissions. Feed degradation and methane formation by ruminants rely on metabolic interactions between rumen microbes and affect ruminant productivity. Rumen and camelid foregut microbial community composition was determined in 742 samples from 32 animal species and 35 countries, to estimate if this was influenced by diet, host species, or geography. Similar bacteria and archaea dominated in nearly all samples, while protozoal communities were more variable. The dominant bacteria are poorly characterised, but the methanogenic archaea are better known and highly conserved across the world. This universality and limited diversity could make it possible to mitigate methane emissions by developing strategies that target the few dominant methanogens. Differences in microbial community compositions were predominantly attributable to diet, with the host being less influential. There were few strong co-occurrence patterns between microbes, suggesting that major metabolic interactions are non-selective rather than specific.

  7. Rumen microbial community composition varies with diet and host, but a core microbiome is found across a wide geographical range

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Gemma; Cox, Faith; Ganesh, Siva; Jonker, Arjan; Young, Wayne; Abecia, Leticia; Angarita, Erika; Aravena, Paula; Nora Arenas, Graciela; Ariza, Claudia; Attwood, Graeme T.; Mauricio Avila, Jose; Avila-Stagno, Jorge; Bannink, André; Barahona, Rolando; Batistotti, Mariano; Bertelsen, Mads F.; Brown-Kav, Aya; Carvajal, Andres M.; Cersosimo, Laura; Vieira Chaves, Alexandre; Church, John; Clipson, Nicholas; Cobos-Peralta, Mario A.; Cookson, Adrian L.; Cravero, Silvio; Cristobal Carballo, Omar; Crosley, Katie; Cruz, Gustavo; Cerón Cucchi, María; de la Barra, Rodrigo; De Menezes, Alexandre B.; Detmann, Edenio; Dieho, Kasper; Dijkstra, Jan; dos Reis, William L. S.; Dugan, Mike E. R.; Hadi Ebrahimi, Seyed; Eythórsdóttir, Emma; Nde Fon, Fabian; Fraga, Martín; Franco, Francisco; Friedeman, Chris; Fukuma, Naoki; Gagić, Dragana; Gangnat, Isabelle; Javier Grilli, Diego; Guan, Le Luo; Heidarian Miri, Vahideh; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Gomez, Alma Ximena Ibarra; Isah, Olubukola A.; Ishaq, Suzanne; Jami, Elie; Jelincic, Juan; Kantanen, Juha; Kelly, William J.; Kim, Seon-Ho; Klieve, Athol; Kobayashi, Yasuo; Koike, Satoshi; Kopecny, Jan; Nygaard Kristensen, Torsten; Julie Krizsan, Sophie; LaChance, Hannah; Lachman, Medora; Lamberson, William R.; Lambie, Suzanne; Lassen, Jan; Leahy, Sinead C.; Lee, Sang-Suk; Leiber, Florian; Lewis, Eva; Lin, Bo; Lira, Raúl; Lund, Peter; Macipe, Edgar; Mamuad, Lovelia L.; Cuquetto Mantovani, Hilário; Marcoppido, Gisela Ariana; Márquez, Cristian; Martin, Cécile; Martinez, Gonzalo; Eugenia Martinez, Maria; Lucía Mayorga, Olga; McAllister, Tim A.; McSweeney, Chris; Mestre, Lorena; Minnee, Elena; Mitsumori, Makoto; Mizrahi, Itzhak; Molina, Isabel; Muenger, Andreas; Munoz, Camila; Murovec, Bostjan; Newbold, John; Nsereko, Victor; O’Donovan, Michael; Okunade, Sunday; O’Neill, Brendan; Ospina, Sonia; Ouwerkerk, Diane; Parra, Diana; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; Pinares-Patino, Cesar; Pope, Phil B.; Poulsen, Morten; Rodehutscord, Markus; Rodriguez, Tatiana; Saito, Kunihiko; Sales, Francisco; Sauer, Catherine; Shingfield, Kevin; Shoji, Noriaki; Simunek, Jiri; Stojanović-Radić, Zorica; Stres, Blaz; Sun, Xuezhao; Swartz, Jeffery; Liang Tan, Zhi; Tapio, Ilma; Taxis, Tasia M.; Tomkins, Nigel; Ungerfeld, Emilio; Valizadeh, Reza; van Adrichem, Peter; Van Hamme, Jonathan; Van Hoven, Woulter; Waghorn, Garry; John Wallace, R.; Wang, Min; Waters, Sinéad M.; Keogh, Kate; Witzig, Maren; Wright, Andre-Denis G.; Yamano, Hidehisa; Yan, Tianhai; Yanez-Ruiz, David R.; Yeoman, Carl J.; Zambrano, Ricardo; Zeitz, Johanna; Zhou, Mi; Wei Zhou, Hua; Xia Zou, Cai; Zunino, Pablo; Janssen, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    Ruminant livestock are important sources of human food and global greenhouse gas emissions. Feed degradation and methane formation by ruminants rely on metabolic interactions between rumen microbes and affect ruminant productivity. Rumen and camelid foregut microbial community composition was determined in 742 samples from 32 animal species and 35 countries, to estimate if this was influenced by diet, host species, or geography. Similar bacteria and archaea dominated in nearly all samples, while protozoal communities were more variable. The dominant bacteria are poorly characterised, but the methanogenic archaea are better known and highly conserved across the world. This universality and limited diversity could make it possible to mitigate methane emissions by developing strategies that target the few dominant methanogens. Differences in microbial community compositions were predominantly attributable to diet, with the host being less influential. There were few strong co-occurrence patterns between microbes, suggesting that major metabolic interactions are non-selective rather than specific. PMID:26449758

  8. Archaeosomes varying in lipid composition differ in receptor-mediated endocytosis and differentially adjuvant immune responses to entrapped antigen

    PubMed Central

    Sprott, G. Dennis; Sad, Subash; Fleming, L. Perry; DiCaire, Chantal J.; Patel, Girishchandra B.; Krishnan, Lakshmi

    2003-01-01

    Archaeosomes prepared from total polar lipids extracted from six archaeal species with divergent lipid compositions had the capacity to deliver antigen for presentation via both MHC class I and class II pathways. Lipid extracts from Halobacterium halobium and from Halococcus morrhuae strains 14039 and 16008 contained archaetidylglycerol methylphosphate and sulfated glycolipids rich in mannose residues, and lacked archaetidylserine, whereas the opposite was found in Methanobrevibacter smithii, Methanosarcina mazei and Methanococcus jannaschii. Annexin V labeling revealed a surface orientation of phosphoserine head groups in M. smithii, M. mazei and M. jannaschii archaeosomes. Uptake of rhodamine-labeled M. smithii or M. jannaschii archaeosomes by murine peritoneal macrophages was inhibited by unlabeled liposomes containing phosphatidylserine, by the sulfhydryl inhibitor N-ethylmaleimide, and by ATP depletion using azide plus fluoride, but not by H. halobium archaeosomes. In contrast, N-ethylmaleimide failed to inhibit uptake of the four other rhodamine-labeled archaeosome types, and azide plus fluoride did not inhibit uptake of H. halobium or H. morrhuae archaeosomes. These results suggest endocytosis ofarchaeosomes rich in surface-exposed phosphoserine head groups via a phosphatidylserine receptor, and energy-independent surface adsorption of certain other archaeosome composition classes. Lipid composition affected not only the endocytic mechanism, but also served to differentially modulate the activation of dendritic cells. The induction of IL-12 secretion from dendritic cells exposed to H. morrhuae 14039 archaeosomes was striking compared with cells exposed to archaeosomes from 16008. Thus, archaeosome types uniquely modulate antigen delivery and dendritic cell activation. PMID:15803661

  9. Nonlinear and Threshold Responses of Grassland Productivity and Species Composition to Increased CO2 Vary with Soil Type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, P. A.; Jin, V.; Jackson, R. B.; Gill, R. A.; Way, D.; Polley, W.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change is likely to cause nonlinear responses in ecosystem function and threshold changes in species composition. Here we report aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) responses to a continuous CO2 concentration gradient (250 to 500 μL L-1,) in experimental grassland communities on three soils differing in water holding capacity and other properties. Communities consisting of four C4 grasses, two C3 forbs, and one legume were established on a lowland clay (vertisol, n=32), an upland clay (mollisol, n=32), and an alluvial sand (alfisol, n=16). The communities were positioned in a stratified random design in the CO2 gradient for five growing seasons, and were irrigated to mimic the average growing season rainfall regime for the study site in Central Texas. ANPP increased with CO2 almost two-fold more on the upland clay and alluvial sand than on the lowland clay (p < 0.0001), because of strong linear responses to CO2 on these soils (R2 = 0.50 to 0.59, p < 0.002) compared to a saturating response to CO2 on the lowland clay (R2 = 0.48, p= 0.01). On the two more responsive soils, the mesic tallgrass Sorghastrum nutans replaced the more drought adapted mid-grass Bouteloua curtipendula at elevated CO2, while B. curtipendula largely replaced S. nutans at low CO2, especially on the upland clay. Evidence for a similar composition change was not found on the lowland clay. Thus, two soils displayed a threshold change in community composition that accounted for up to 57% of variation in ANPP for those soils. Variation in ANPP and species composition with CO2 were accompanied by linear increases in soil water content (SWC, 0 - 20 cm, volumetric), most strongly on the alluvial sand (R2 = 0.39, p < 0.009) and by weak decreases with CO2 in soil N. Structural equation models explained 34 to 52% of the variation in ANPP, and indicated that CO2 effects on ANPP on the upland clay were primarily explained by CO2 effects on species composition, and on the alluvial sand by CO

  10. Effect of acute feeding of diets of varying fatty acid composition on intestinal apolipoprotein expression in the newborn swine.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Zhan, R; Hunter, F; Du, J; Black, D

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of dietary fatty acids of varying chain lengths and degrees of saturation on intestinal apolipoprotein (apo) B and A-I expression in the newborn piglet. Two-day-old female piglets received one of three isocaloric formulas containing 48% of total calories (120 kcal/kg/24 h) as medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) from MCT oil, intermediate-chain saturated triglycerides (ICST) from coconut oil, or long-chain polyunsaturated triglycerides (LCPUT) from safflower oil by continuous duodenal infusion for 24 h. After in situ radiolabeling, jejunal and ileal mucosal apo B-48 and A-I were immunoprecipitated, and synthesis was expressed as percentage of total protein synthesis. Mucosal apo B and A-I mass was measured by ELISA as nanograms of apoprotein/microgram of total protein. Fifty percent less apo B jejunal synthesis was present in the ICST group versus the MCT and LCPUT groups (0.67 +/- 0.07, 1.19 +/- 0.20, and 1.25 +/- 0.15, respectively, mean +/- SEM, p < 0.05). Jejunal apo B mass was lower in the MCT group versus the ICST and LCPUT groups (0.10 +/- 0.02, 0.21 +/- 0.03, and 0.16 +/- 0.03, respectively, p < 0.05). Ileal apo B synthesis was lowest in the ICST group. No differences were found in ileal apo B mass. Two-fold higher jejunal apo A-I synthesis was found in the LCPUT group versus the MCT and ICST groups (14.18 +/- 1.69, 7.56 +/- 2.63, and 6.36 +/- 0.58, respectively, p < 0.01). No differences were found for jejunal apo A-I mass. In the ileum, the only difference was a higher apo A-I mass in the LCPUT group (p < 0.05). We conclude that in the newborn piglet intestinal apo B and A-I expression is acutely and differentially regulated by dietary lipid varying in fatty acid chain length and saturation. The patterns of regulation are complex and vary among specific apolipoproteins and regions of the small intestine and include co- and posttranslational mechanisms.

  11. A comparison of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yields and composition from ozonolysis of monoterpenes at varying concentrations of NO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, D. C.; Farmer, D. K.; Desyaterik, Y.; Fry, J. L.

    2015-05-01

    The effect of NO2 on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from ozonolysis of α-pinene, β-pinene, Δ3-carene, and limonene was investigated using a dark flow-through reaction chamber. SOA mass yields were calculated for each monoterpene from ozonolysis with varying NO2 concentrations. Kinetics modeling of the first generation gas-phase chemistry suggests that differences in observed aerosol yields for different NO2 concentrations are consistent with NO3 formation and subsequent competition between O3 and NO3 to oxidize each monoterpene. α-pinene was the only monoterpene studied that showed a systematic decrease in both aerosol number concentration and mass concentration with increasing [NO2]. β-pinene and Δ3-carene produced fewer particles at higher [NO2], but both retained moderate mass yields. Limonene exhibited both higher number concentrations and greater mass concentrations at higher [NO2]. SOA from each experiment was collected and analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS, enabling comparisons between product distributions for each system. In general, the systems influenced by NO3 oxidation contained more high molecular weight products (MW >400 amu), suggesting the importance of oligomerization mechanisms in NO3-initiated SOA formation. α-pinene, which showed anomalously low aerosol mass yields in the presence of NO2, showed no increase in these oligomer peaks, suggesting that lack of oligomer formation is a likely cause of α-pinene's near 0% yields with NO3. Through direct comparisons of mixed-oxidant systems, this work suggests that NO3 is likely to dominate nighttime oxidation pathways in most regions with both biogenic and anthropogenic influences. Therefore, accurately constraining SOA yields from NO3 oxidation, which vary substantially with the VOC precursor, is essential in predicting nighttime aerosol production.

  12. A qualitative comparison of secondary organic aerosol yields and composition from ozonolysis of monoterpenes at varying concentrations of NO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, D. C.; Farmer, D. K.; Desyaterik, Y.; Fry, J. L.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of NO2 on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from ozonolysis of α-pinene, β-pinene, Δ3-carene, and limonene was investigated using a dark flow-through reaction chamber. SOA mass yields were calculated for each monoterpene from ozonolysis with varying NO2 concentrations. Kinetics modeling of the first-generation gas-phase chemistry suggests that differences in observed aerosol yields for different NO2 concentrations are consistent with NO3 formation and subsequent competition between O3 and NO3 to oxidize each monoterpene. α-Pinene was the only monoterpene studied that showed a systematic decrease in both aerosol number concentration and mass concentration with increasing [NO2]. β-Pinene and Δ3-carene produced fewer particles at higher [NO2], but both retained moderate mass yields. Limonene exhibited both higher number concentrations and greater mass concentrations at higher [NO2]. SOA from each experiment was collected and analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS, enabling comparisons between product distributions for each system. In general, the systems influenced by NO3 oxidation contained more high molecular weight products (MW > 400 amu), suggesting the importance of oligomerization mechanisms in NO3-initiated SOA formation. α-Pinene, which showed anomalously low aerosol mass yields in the presence of NO2, showed no increase in these oligomer peaks, suggesting that lack of oligomer formation is a likely cause of α-pinene's near 0 % yields with NO3. Through direct comparisons of mixed-oxidant systems, this work suggests that NO3 is likely to dominate nighttime oxidation pathways in most regions with both biogenic and anthropogenic influences. Therefore, accurately constraining SOA yields from NO3 oxidation, which vary substantially with the volatile organic compound precursor, is essential in predicting nighttime aerosol production.

  13. Enhanced nurse call systems.

    PubMed

    2001-04-01

    This Evaluation focuses on high-end computerized nurse call systems--what we call enhanced systems. These are highly flexible systems that incorporate microprocessor and communications technologies to expand the capabilities of the nurse call function. Enhanced systems, which vary in configuration from one installation to the next, typically consist of a basic system that provides standard nurse call functionality and a combination of additional enhancements that provide the added functionality the facility desires. In this study, we examine the features that distinguish enhanced nurse call systems from nonenhanced systems, focusing on their application and benefit to healthcare facilities. We evaluated seven systems to determine how well they help (1) improve patient care, as well as increase satisfaction with the care provided, and (2) improve caregiver efficiency, as well as increase satisfaction with the work environment. We found that all systems meet these objectives, but not all systems perform equally well for all implementations. Our ratings will help facilities identify those systems that offer the most effective features for their intended use. The study also includes a Technology Management Guide to help readers (1) determine whether they'll benefit from the capabilities offered by enhanced systems and (2) target a system for purchase and equip the system for optimum performance and cost-effective operation.

  14. Stressful colours: corticosterone concentrations in a free-living songbird vary with the spectral composition of experimental illumination

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Jenny Q.; de Jong, Maaike; Hau, Michaela; Visser, Marcel E.; van Grunsven, Roy H. A.; Spoelstra, Kamiel

    2015-01-01

    Organisms have evolved under natural daily light/dark cycles for millions of years. These cycles have been disturbed as night-time darkness is increasingly replaced by artificial illumination. Investigating the physiological consequences of free-living organisms in artificially lit environments is crucial to determine whether nocturnal lighting disrupts circadian rhythms, changes behaviour, reduces fitness and ultimately affects population numbers. We make use of a unique, large-scale network of replicated field sites which were experimentally illuminated at night using lampposts emanating either red, green, white or no light to test effect on stress hormone concentrations (corticosterone) in a songbird, the great tit (Parus major). Adults nesting in white-light transects had higher corticosterone concentrations than in the other treatments. We also found a significant interaction between distance to the closest lamppost and treatment type: individuals in red light had higher corticosterone levels when they nested closer to the lamppost than individuals nesting farther away, a decline not observed in the green or dark treatment. Individuals with high corticosterone levels had fewer fledglings, irrespective of treatment. These results show that artificial light can induce changes in individual hormonal phenotype. As these effects vary considerably with light spectrum, it opens the possibility to mitigate these effects by selecting street lighting of specific spectra. PMID:26311159

  15. Carbon stable isotopic composition of soluble sugars in Tillandsia epiphytes varies in response to shifts in habitat.

    PubMed

    Goode, Laurel K; Erhardt, Erik B; Santiago, Louis S; Allen, Michael F

    2010-07-01

    We studied C stable isotopic composition (delta(13)C) of bulk leaf tissue and extracted sugars of four epiphytic Tillandsia species to investigate flexibility in the use of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) and C(3) photosynthetic pathways. Plants growing in two seasonally dry tropical forest reserves in Mexico that differ in annual precipitation were measured during wet and dry seasons, and among secondary, mature, and wetland forest types within each site. Dry season sugars were more enriched in (13)C than wet season sugars, but there was no seasonal difference in bulk tissues. Bulk tissue delta(13)C differed by species and by forest type, with values from open-canopied wetlands more enriched in (13)C than mature or secondary forest types. The shifts within forest habitat were related to temporal and spatial changes in vapor pressure deficits (VPD). Modeling results estimate a possible 4% increase in the proportional contribution of the C(3) pathway during the wet season, emphasizing that any seasonal or habitat-mediated variation in photosynthetic pathway appears to be quite moderate and within the range of isotopic effects caused by variation in stomatal conductance during assimilation through the C(3) pathway and environmental variation in VPD. C isotopic analysis of sugars together with bulk leaf tissue offers a useful approach for incorporating short- and long-term measurements of C isotope discrimination during photosynthesis.

  16. Carbon stable isotopic composition of soluble sugars in Tillandsia epiphytes varies in response to shifts in habitat

    PubMed Central

    Erhardt, Erik B.; Santiago, Louis S.; Allen, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    We studied C stable isotopic composition (δ13C) of bulk leaf tissue and extracted sugars of four epiphytic Tillandsia species to investigate flexibility in the use of crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) and C3 photosynthetic pathways. Plants growing in two seasonally dry tropical forest reserves in Mexico that differ in annual precipitation were measured during wet and dry seasons, and among secondary, mature, and wetland forest types within each site. Dry season sugars were more enriched in 13C than wet season sugars, but there was no seasonal difference in bulk tissues. Bulk tissue δ13C differed by species and by forest type, with values from open-canopied wetlands more enriched in 13C than mature or secondary forest types. The shifts within forest habitat were related to temporal and spatial changes in vapor pressure deficits (VPD). Modeling results estimate a possible 4% increase in the proportional contribution of the C3 pathway during the wet season, emphasizing that any seasonal or habitat-mediated variation in photosynthetic pathway appears to be quite moderate and within the range of isotopic effects caused by variation in stomatal conductance during assimilation through the C3 pathway and environmental variation in VPD. C isotopic analysis of sugars together with bulk leaf tissue offers a useful approach for incorporating short- and long-term measurements of C isotope discrimination during photosynthesis. PMID:20155286

  17. Sediment accretion rates and sediment composition in Prairie Pothole wetlands under varying land use practices, Montana, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Preston, T.M.; Sojda, R.S.; Gleason, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Increased sedimentation and nutrient cycle changes in Prairie Pothole Region wetlands associated with agriculture threaten the permanence and ecological functionality of these important resources. To determine the effects of land use on sedimentation and nutrient cycling, soil cores were analyzed for cesium-137 (137Cs), lead-210 (210Pb), and potassium-40 (40K) activities; textural composition; organic and inorganic carbon (C); and total nitrogen (N) from twelve wetlands surrounded by cropland, Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands, or native prairie uplands. Separate soil cores from nine of these wetlands were also analyzed for phosphorus (P), nitrate (NO3), and ammonium (NH4) concentrations. Wetlands surrounded by cropland had significantly greater linear sediment accretion rates than wetlands surrounded by CRP or native prairie. Linear sediment accretion rates from wetlands surrounded by cropland were 2.7 and 6 times greater than wetlands surrounded by native prairie when calculated from the initial and peak occurrence of 137Cs, respectively, and 0.15 cm y−1 (0.06 in yr−1) greater when calculated from 210Pb. Relative to wetlands surrounded by CRP, linear sediment accretion rates for wetlands surrounded by cropland were 4.4 times greater when calculated from the peak occurrence of 137Cs. No significant differences existed between the linear sediment accretion rates between wetlands surrounded by native prairie or CRP uplands. Wetlands surrounded by cropland had increased clay, P, NO3, and NH4, and decreased total C and N concentrations compared to wetlands surrounded by native prairie. Wetlands surrounded by CRP had the lowest P and NO3 concentrations and had clay, NH4, C, and N concentrations between those of cropland and native prairie wetlands. We documented increased linear sediment accretion rates and changes in the textural and chemical properties of sediments in wetlands with cultivated uplands relative to wetlands with native prairie uplands. These

  18. Cellulose-Enriched Microbial Communities from Leaf-Cutter Ant (Atta colombica) Refuse Dumps Vary in Taxonomic Composition and Degradation Ability

    PubMed Central

    Lewin, Gina R.; Johnson, Amanda L.; Soto, Rolando D. Moreira; Perry, Kailene; Book, Adam J.; Horn, Heidi A.; Pinto-Tomás, Adrián A.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2016-01-01

    Deconstruction of the cellulose in plant cell walls is critical for carbon flow through ecosystems and for the production of sustainable cellulosic biofuels. Our understanding of cellulose deconstruction is largely limited to the study of microbes in isolation, but in nature, this process is driven by microbes within complex communities. In Neotropical forests, microbes in leaf-cutter ant refuse dumps are important for carbon turnover. These dumps consist of decaying plant material and a diverse bacterial community, as shown here by electron microscopy. To study the portion of the community capable of cellulose degradation, we performed enrichments on cellulose using material from five Atta colombica refuse dumps. The ability of enriched communities to degrade cellulose varied significantly across refuse dumps. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of enriched samples identified that the community structure correlated with refuse dump and with degradation ability. Overall, samples were dominated by Bacteroidetes, Gammaproteobacteria, and Betaproteobacteria. Half of abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) across samples were classified within genera containing known cellulose degraders, including Acidovorax, the most abundant OTU detected across samples, which was positively correlated with cellulolytic ability. A representative Acidovorax strain was isolated, but did not grow on cellulose alone. Phenotypic and compositional analyses of enrichment cultures, such as those presented here, help link community composition with cellulolytic ability and provide insight into the complexity of community-based cellulose degradation. PMID:26999749

  19. Cellulose-Enriched Microbial Communities from Leaf-Cutter Ant (Atta colombica) Refuse Dumps Vary in Taxonomic Composition and Degradation Ability

    SciTech Connect

    Lewin, Gina R.; Johnson, Amanda L.; Soto, Rolando D. Moreira; Perry, Kailene; Book, Adam J.; Horn, Heidi A.; Pinto-Tomás, Adrián A.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2016-03-21

    Deconstruction of the cellulose in plant cell walls is critical for carbon flow through ecosystems and for the production of sustainable cellulosic biofuels. Our understanding of cellulose deconstruction is largely limited to the study of microbes in isolation, but in nature, this process is driven by microbes within complex communities. In Neotropical forests, microbes in leaf-cutter ant refuse dumps are important for carbon turnover. These dumps consist of decaying plant material and a diverse bacterial community, as shown here by electron microscopy. To study the portion of the community capable of cellulose degradation, we performed enrichments on cellulose using material from five Atta colombica refuse dumps. The ability of enriched communities to degrade cellulose varied significantly across refuse dumps. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of enriched samples identified that the community structure correlated with refuse dump and with degradation ability. Overall, samples were dominated by Bacteroidetes, Gammaproteobacteria, and Betaproteobacteria. Half of abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) across samples were classified within general containing known cellulose degraders, including Acidovorax, the most abundant OTU detected across samples, which was positively correlated with cellulolytic ability. Lastly, a representative Acidovorax strain was isolated, but did not grow on cellulose alone. Phenotypic and compositional analyses of enrichment cultures, such as those presented here, help link community composition with cellulolytic ability and provide insight into the complexity of community-based cellulose degradation.

  20. Cellulose-Enriched Microbial Communities from Leaf-Cutter Ant (Atta colombica) Refuse Dumps Vary in Taxonomic Composition and Degradation Ability

    DOE PAGES

    Lewin, Gina R.; Johnson, Amanda L.; Soto, Rolando D. Moreira; ...

    2016-03-21

    Deconstruction of the cellulose in plant cell walls is critical for carbon flow through ecosystems and for the production of sustainable cellulosic biofuels. Our understanding of cellulose deconstruction is largely limited to the study of microbes in isolation, but in nature, this process is driven by microbes within complex communities. In Neotropical forests, microbes in leaf-cutter ant refuse dumps are important for carbon turnover. These dumps consist of decaying plant material and a diverse bacterial community, as shown here by electron microscopy. To study the portion of the community capable of cellulose degradation, we performed enrichments on cellulose using materialmore » from five Atta colombica refuse dumps. The ability of enriched communities to degrade cellulose varied significantly across refuse dumps. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of enriched samples identified that the community structure correlated with refuse dump and with degradation ability. Overall, samples were dominated by Bacteroidetes, Gammaproteobacteria, and Betaproteobacteria. Half of abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) across samples were classified within general containing known cellulose degraders, including Acidovorax, the most abundant OTU detected across samples, which was positively correlated with cellulolytic ability. Lastly, a representative Acidovorax strain was isolated, but did not grow on cellulose alone. Phenotypic and compositional analyses of enrichment cultures, such as those presented here, help link community composition with cellulolytic ability and provide insight into the complexity of community-based cellulose degradation.« less

  1. Cellulose-Enriched Microbial Communities from Leaf-Cutter Ant (Atta colombica) Refuse Dumps Vary in Taxonomic Composition and Degradation Ability.

    PubMed

    Lewin, Gina R; Johnson, Amanda L; Soto, Rolando D Moreira; Perry, Kailene; Book, Adam J; Horn, Heidi A; Pinto-Tomás, Adrián A; Currie, Cameron R

    2016-01-01

    Deconstruction of the cellulose in plant cell walls is critical for carbon flow through ecosystems and for the production of sustainable cellulosic biofuels. Our understanding of cellulose deconstruction is largely limited to the study of microbes in isolation, but in nature, this process is driven by microbes within complex communities. In Neotropical forests, microbes in leaf-cutter ant refuse dumps are important for carbon turnover. These dumps consist of decaying plant material and a diverse bacterial community, as shown here by electron microscopy. To study the portion of the community capable of cellulose degradation, we performed enrichments on cellulose using material from five Atta colombica refuse dumps. The ability of enriched communities to degrade cellulose varied significantly across refuse dumps. 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of enriched samples identified that the community structure correlated with refuse dump and with degradation ability. Overall, samples were dominated by Bacteroidetes, Gammaproteobacteria, and Betaproteobacteria. Half of abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) across samples were classified within genera containing known cellulose degraders, including Acidovorax, the most abundant OTU detected across samples, which was positively correlated with cellulolytic ability. A representative Acidovorax strain was isolated, but did not grow on cellulose alone. Phenotypic and compositional analyses of enrichment cultures, such as those presented here, help link community composition with cellulolytic ability and provide insight into the complexity of community-based cellulose degradation.

  2. Influence of atmospheric properties on detection of wood-warbler nocturnal flight calls.

    PubMed

    Horton, Kyle G; Stepanian, Phillip M; Wainwright, Charlotte E; Tegeler, Amy K

    2015-10-01

    Avian migration monitoring can take on many forms; however, monitoring active nocturnal migration of land birds is limited to a few techniques. Avian nocturnal flight calls are currently the only method for describing migrant composition at the species level. However, as this method develops, more information is needed to understand the sources of variation in call detection. Additionally, few studies examine how detection probabilities differ under varying atmospheric conditions. We use nocturnal flight call recordings from captive individuals to explore the dependence of flight call detection on atmospheric temperature and humidity. Height or distance from origin had the largest influence on call detection, while temperature and humidity also influenced detectability at higher altitudes. Because flight call detection varies with both atmospheric conditions and flight height, improved monitoring across time and space will require correction for these factors to generate standardized metrics of songbird migration.

  3. Influence of atmospheric properties on detection of wood-warbler nocturnal flight calls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, Kyle G.; Stepanian, Phillip M.; Wainwright, Charlotte E.; Tegeler, Amy K.

    2015-10-01

    Avian migration monitoring can take on many forms; however, monitoring active nocturnal migration of land birds is limited to a few techniques. Avian nocturnal flight calls are currently the only method for describing migrant composition at the species level. However, as this method develops, more information is needed to understand the sources of variation in call detection. Additionally, few studies examine how detection probabilities differ under varying atmospheric conditions. We use nocturnal flight call recordings from captive individuals to explore the dependence of flight call detection on atmospheric temperature and humidity. Height or distance from origin had the largest influence on call detection, while temperature and humidity also influenced detectability at higher altitudes. Because flight call detection varies with both atmospheric conditions and flight height, improved monitoring across time and space will require correction for these factors to generate standardized metrics of songbird migration.

  4. Studies on the formation by rat brain preparations of CDP-diglyceride from CTP and phosphatidic acids of varying fatty acid compositions.

    PubMed

    Bishop, H H; Strickland, K P

    1976-03-01

    The enzyme, CTP:phosphatidate cytidylyltransferase (EC2.7.7.41) which catalyses formation of CDP-diglyceride from CTP and phosphatidic acid has been studied in rat brain preparations and other tissues. Improvement, as judged by the higher tissue activities obtained, in the assay method for this enzyme was achieved through use of phosphatidic acids sonicated in buffer-detergent solution saturated with ether and containing bovine serum albumin and use of short incubation times which essentially provided a measure of initial rates. The enzyme of rat brain microsomes yielded with 1,2-dioleolphosphatidic acid as substrate a pH optimum of 6.8 with maleate buffer and optimal concentrations of 60mM for MG2+, 6MM for CTP and 250 mug per 0.8 ml for phosphatidic acid. Enzyme activity was mainly located in the 90,000 X g fraction (microsomal) with small but significant activity in the 12,000 X g fraction. Comparison of activities (nanomoles CTP incorporated per milligram protein per minute) amongst tissues showed the following order: brain, 1.87; liver, 1.32; lung, 1.19; small intestine, 1.00; kidney, 0.69; heart, 0.41; diaphragm, 0.07; skeletal muscle, 0.02. Examination of the effect of varying the fatty acid composition in the phosphatidic acids added exogenously gave the following order (activities in parentheses); 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl- (5.58), 1-oleoyl-2-stearoyl- (5.37), 1,2-dioleoyl- (4.49) 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-(3.85), 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl-(3.31), 1-arachidonoyl-2-stearoyl-(3.16), 1,2-diarachidonoyl-(0.72), 1,2-dicaproyl-(0.67), 1,2-dipalmitoyl-(0.67) and 1,2-distearoyl-(0.18). The single bis- and lysophosphatidic acids tested were inactive as substrates. Apart from a possible preference for one or more unsaturated fatty acids the transferase enzyme showed no selectivity in respect to the fatty acid distribution of phosphatidic acids.

  5. Effect of temporal and spectral noise features on gap detection behavior by calling green treefrogs.

    PubMed

    Höbel, Gerlinde

    2014-10-01

    Communication plays a central role in the behavioral ecology of many animals, yet the background noise generated by large breeding aggregations may impair effective communication. A common behavioral strategy to ameliorate noise interference is gap detection, where signalers display primarily during lulls in the background noise. When attempting gap detection, signalers have to deal with the fact that the spacing and duration of silent gaps is often unpredictable, and that noise varies in its spectral composition and may thus vary in the degree in which it impacts communication. I conducted playback experiments to examine how male treefrogs deal with the problem that refraining from calling while waiting for a gap to appear limits a male's ability to attract females, yet producing calls during noise also interferes with effective sexual communication. I found that the temporal structure of noise (i.e., duration of noise and silent gap segments) had a stronger effect on male calling behavior than the spectral composition. Males placed calls predominantly during silent gaps and avoided call production during short, but not long, noise segments. This suggests that male treefrogs use a calling strategy that maximizes the production of calls without interference, yet allows for calling to persist if lulls in the background noise are infrequent.

  6. A call center primer.

    PubMed

    Durr, W

    1998-01-01

    Call centers are strategically and tactically important to many industries, including the healthcare industry. Call centers play a key role in acquiring and retaining customers. The ability to deliver high-quality and timely customer service without much expense is the basis for the proliferation and expansion of call centers. Call centers are unique blends of people and technology, where performance indicates combining appropriate technology tools with sound management practices built on key operational data. While the technology is fascinating, the people working in call centers and the skill of the management team ultimately make a difference to their companies.

  7. Bird calls: their potential for behavioral neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Marler, Peter

    2004-06-01

    Birdsongs are always part of larger set of sound signals. Every bird uses a repertoire of calls for communication. Calls are shorter and simpler than songs, with a much larger range of functions. Whereas songs are specialized for application in reproduction and territoriality, calls also serve such functions as signaling about food, maintaining social cohesion, contact calls, synchronizing and coordinating flight, and the resolution of aggressive and sexual conflicts. Alarm calls of various kinds are a major component, including distress, mobbing, and hawk alarm calls. Call repertoires vary greatly in size, up to 20 or so distinct call types. Rough estimates for songbirds range between 5 and 10, but some birds, especially galliforms, may have twice as many. Call usage is often sexually dimorphic and commonly varies seasonally and with physiological state. Most calls appear to be innate, but more and more examples of developmental plasticity in bird calls are emerging. Some display well-defined local dialects. A case is made for the value to avian behavioral neurobiology of including bird calls in studies of the psychophysics and sensory physiology of signal perception. They may also help to extend the range of neurobiological investigations of the song system to include circuitry controlling such functionally related behaviors as aggression and reproduction.

  8. The Power of CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Martha C., Ed.

    The book provides an overview of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) written by specialists in specific areas of electronic media. Its nine chapters include: "The Power of the Computer in Language Education" (Martha C. Pennington); "Elements of CALL Methodology: Development, Evaluation, and Implementation" (Philip L. Hubbard); "Second…

  9. Compare Gene Calls

    SciTech Connect

    Ecale Zhou, Carol L.

    2016-07-05

    Compare Gene Calls (CGC) is a Python code used for combining and comparing gene calls from any number of gene callers. A gene caller is a computer program that predicts the extends of open reading frames within genomes of biological organisms.

  10. Callings and Organizational Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elangovan, A. R.; Pinder, Craig C.; McLean, Murdith

    2010-01-01

    Current literature on careers, social identity and meaning in work tends to understate the multiplicity, historical significance, and nuances of the concept of calling(s). In this article, we trace the evolution of the concept from its religious roots into secular realms and develop a typology of interpretations using occupation and religious…

  11. Effect of thermocycling and varying polymerization techniques on the restorative interface of class V cavities restored with different composite resin systems

    PubMed Central

    Júnior, Lindomar-Corrêa; Só, Marcus-Vinicius-Reis; Júnior, Newton-Fahl

    2017-01-01

    Background To evaluate marginal microleakage of two composite resins - a methacrylate- and a silorane-based submitted to different polymerization techniques and thermocycling. Material and Methods Ninety-six class V cavities were prepared in sound human molars and restored under different polymerization and thermocycling regimens. The adhesive systems employed were Adper Scotchbond Multipurpose and Filtek P-90 for cavities restored with Z250 and P-90. The specimens were restored with Z250 or P-90, and divided into 3 subgroups with different polymerization techniques. The data were analyzed by Three way Analysis of Variance Test (p<0.05). Results Micro infiltration lower scores were found in groups which were used silorane-based resin with significant statistical difference compared with the specimens restored with methacrylate-based resin, independently of polymerization type used and thermocycling (P>0.001). Conclusions Silorane-based composite resins present lower marginal microleakage values when compared to methacrylate-based composites resins. Key words:Composite resin, microleakage, polymerization. PMID:28298983

  12. Experimental study on the effect of varying syngas composition on the emissions of dual fuel CI engine operating at various engine speeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahgoub, B. K. M.; Sulaiman, S. A.; Karim, Z. A. A.; Hagos, F. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Using syngas as a supplement fuel of diesel in dual fuel mode is a proposed solution in the effort to protect the environment and control the serious threats posed by greenhouse gas emissions from compression ignition engines. The objective of this study was to experimentally examine the effect of syngas composition on the exhaust emission of dual fuel compression ignition (CI) engine at various engine speeds, and to compare the operating ranges of imitated syngas versus pure diesel. The study was conducted using a naturally aspirated, two strokes, single cylinder 3.7 kW diesel engine operated at speeds of 1200, 2000 and 3000 rpm. The engine was tested with three different syngas compositions. Diesel fuel was partially substituted by syngas through the air inlet. The test results disclose the impact of using syngas in CI engines on emission of CO2, NOx, unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. The experimental measurements confirmed that all syngas compositions are capable of reducing the emissions of CO2 and NOX compared with diesel fuel. Wide range of diesel replacement ratios (up to 72%) was attained without any penalty. Syngas with composition of 49% N2, 12% CO2, 25% CO, 10% H2, and 4% CH4 reduced the emissions of CO2 and NOx at engine speed of 1200 rpm up to 1% and 108 ppm, respectively. The lowest emission of UHC and NOx was emitted when the engine was operating at speed of 2000 rpm and 3000 rpm, respectively with composition of 38% N2, 8% Co2, 29% CO, 19% H2, and 6% CH4. Therefore, syngas could be a promising technique for controlling NOx emissions in CI engines. However, hydrogen content in syngas is important parameter that needs to be further investigation for its effect.

  13. Electric-Field Modulation of Curie Temperature in (Ga, Mn)As Field-Effect Transistor Structures with Varying Channel Thickness and Mn Compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Nishitani, Y.; Endo, M.; Chiba, D.; Matsukura, F.; Ohno, H.

    2010-01-04

    We have investigated the change of T{sub C} of ferromagnetic semiconductor (Ga, Mn)As by changing hole concentration p. The field effect transistor structure was utilized to change p. The relation T{sub C}propor top{sup 0.2} is obtained for three samples, despite the difference of their Mn composition and thickness, indicating that the relation holds over 2 decades of p.

  14. Characterization of rumen ciliate community composition in domestic sheep, deer, and cattle, feeding on varying diets, by means of PCR-DGGE and clone libraries.

    PubMed

    Kittelmann, Sandra; Janssen, Peter H

    2011-03-01

    The structure and variability of ciliate protozoal communities in the rumens of domestic New Zealand ruminants feeding on different diets was investigated. The relative abundance of ciliates compared with bacteria was similar across all samples. However, molecular fingerprinting of communities showed ruminant-specific differences in species composition. Community compositions of cattle were significantly influenced by diet. In contrast, diet effects in deer and sheep were weaker than the animal-to-animal variation. Cloning and sequencing of almost-full-length 18S rRNA genes from representative samples revealed that New Zealand ruminants were colonized by at least nine genera of ciliates and allowed the assignment of samples to two distinct community types. Cattle contained A-type communities, with most sequences closely related to those of the genera Polyplastron and Ostracodinium. Deer and sheep (with one exception) harboured B-type communities, with the majority of sequences belonging to the genera Epidinium and Eudiplodinium. It has been suggested that species composition of ciliate communities may impact methane formation in ruminants, with the B-type producing more methane. Therefore, manipulation of ciliate communities may be a means of mitigating methane emissions from grazing sheep and deer in New Zealand.

  15. Exposure of grapes to smoke of vegetation with varying lignin composition and accretion of lignin derived putative smoke taint compounds in wine.

    PubMed

    Kelly, David; Zerihun, Ayalsew; Singh, Davinder P; Vitzthum von Eckstaedt, Christiane; Gibberd, Mark; Grice, Kliti; Downey, Mark

    2012-11-15

    Smoke taint in wines from bushfire smoke exposure has become a concern for wine producers. Smoke taint compounds are primarily derived from pyrolysis of the lignin component of fuels. This work examined the influence of the lignin composition of pyrolysed vegetation on the types of putative smoke taint compounds that accrue in wines. At veraison, Merlot vines were exposed to smoke generated from five vegetation types with differing lignin composition. Smoke was generated under pyrolysis conditions that simulated bushfire temperature profiles. Lignin and smoke composition of each fuel type along with putative smoke taint compounds in wines were determined. The results showed that, regardless of fuel type, the commonly reported guaiacyl lignin derived smoke taint compounds, guaiacol and 4-methylguaiacol, represented about 20% of the total phenols in wines. Quantitatively, syringyl lignin derived compounds dominated the total phenol pools in both free and bound forms. The contributions of p-hydroxyphenyls were generally similar to the guaiacyl sources. A further unexpected outcome of the study was that pine smoke affected wines had significantly elevated levels of syringols compared to the controls although pine fuel and its smoke emission lacked syringyl products.

  16. When lawyers call clinicians.

    PubMed

    Reid, William H

    2010-07-01

    Every psychiatrist, psychologist, and psychotherapist gets calls from attorneys from time to time, often with a request involving a patient. Patients sometimes ask their clinicians to become involved in their legal matters. Such calls and requests may sound straightforward, but they are often misleading, incomplete, or misunderstood. One should avoid being reflexively "helpful" when a lawyer calls or a patient makes such a special request. There may be no obligation to respond, or to respond immediately, although subpoenas must not be ignored; promptly contacting an appropriate supervisor, facility risk manager, malpractice insurance carrier, or one's own attorney is often the best course of action. Office staff such as secretaries and receptionists should also be trained and cautioned regarding the principles discussed here.

  17. Head-group acylation of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol is a common stress response, and the acyl-galactose acyl composition varies with the plant species and applied stress.

    PubMed

    Vu, Hieu Sy; Roth, Mary R; Tamura, Pamela; Samarakoon, Thilani; Shiva, Sunitha; Honey, Samuel; Lowe, Kaleb; Schmelz, Eric A; Williams, Todd D; Welti, Ruth

    2014-04-01

    Formation of galactose-acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols has been shown to be induced by leaf homogenization, mechanical wounding, avirulent bacterial infection and thawing after snap-freezing. Here, lipidomic analysis using mass spectrometry showed that galactose-acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols, formed in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) leaves upon wounding, have acyl-galactose profiles that differ from those of wounded Arabidopsis thaliana, indicating that different plant species accumulate different acyl-galactose components in response to the same stress. Additionally, the composition of the acyl-galactose component of Arabidopsis acMGDG (galactose-acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerol) depends on the stress treatment. After sub-lethal freezing treatment, acMGDG contained mainly non-oxidized fatty acids esterified to galactose, whereas mostly oxidized fatty acids accumulated on galactose after wounding or bacterial infection. Compositional data are consistent with acMGDG being formed in vivo by transacylation with fatty acids from digalactosyldiacylglycerols. Oxophytodienoic acid, an oxidized fatty acid, was more concentrated on the galactosyl ring of acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols than in galactolipids in general. Also, oxidized fatty acid-containing acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols increased cumulatively when wounded Arabidopsis leaves were wounded again. These findings suggest that, in Arabidopsis, the pool of galactose-acylated monogalactosyldiacylglycerols may serve to sequester oxidized fatty acids during stress responses.

  18. Modeling precipitation thermodynamics and kinetics in type 316 austenitic stainless steels with varying composition as an initial step toward predicting phase stability during irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Jae-Hyeok; Povoden-Karadeniz, Erwin; Kozeschnik, Ernst; Wirth, Brian D.

    2015-07-01

    The long-term evolution of precipitates in type 316 austenitic stainless steels at 400 °C has been simulated using a numerical model based on classical nucleation theory and the thermodynamic extremum principle. Particular attention has been paid to the precipitation of radiation-induced phases such as γ‧ and G phases. In addition to the original compositions, the compositions for radiation-induced segregation at a dose level of 5, 10 or 20 dpa have been used in the simulation. In a 316 austenitic stainless steel, γ‧ appears as the main precipitate with a small amount of G phase forming at 10 and 20 dpa. On the other hand, G phase becomes relatively dominant over γ‧ at the same dose levels in a Ti-stabilized 316 austenitic stainless steel, which tends to suppress the formation of γ‧. Among the segregated alloying elements, the concentration of Si seems to be the most critical for the formation of radiation-induced phases. An increase in dislocation density as well as increased diffusivity of Mn and Si significantly enhances the precipitation kinetics of the radiation-induced phases within this model.

  19. Artificial Intelligence and CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, John H.

    The potential application of artificial intelligence (AI) to computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is explored. Two areas of AI that hold particular interest to those who deal with language meaning--knowledge representation and expert systems, and natural-language processing--are described and examples of each are presented. AI contribution…

  20. Wake-Up Call.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the artist, Laquita Thomson, whose inspiration are the stars and space. Discusses her series called, "Celestial Happenings: Stars Fell on Alabama." Describes one event that inspired an art work when a meteor crashed into an Alabama home. Includes lessons for various subject areas. (CMK)

  1. A Call for Professionalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanker, Albert

    Albert Shanker, President of the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), speaks about the national testing of teachers and calls for the creation of a new and better national examination for new teachers. While members of the AFT have a few differences with some of the current reform proposals, the AFT in general supports the overwhelming majority…

  2. When Crises Call

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisch, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters, as well as crises of the man-made variety, call on leaders of school districts to manage scenarios impossible to predict and for which no amount of training can adequately prepare. One thing all major crises hold in common is their far-reaching effects, which can run the gamut from personal safety and mental well-being to the…

  3. Determination of the second virial coefficient of bovine serum albumin under varying pH and ionic strength by composition-gradient multi-angle static light scattering.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yingfang; Acosta, Diana M; Whitney, Jon R; Podgornik, Rudolf; Steinmetz, Nicole F; French, Roger H; Parsegian, V Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Composition-gradient multi-angle static light scattering (CG-MALS) is an emerging technique for the determination of intermolecular interactions via the second virial coefficient B22. With CG-MALS, detailed studies of the second virial coefficient can be carried out more accurately and effectively than with traditional methods. In addition, automated mixing, delivery and measurement enable high speed, continuous, fluctuation-free sample delivery and accurate results. Using CG-MALS we measure the second virial coefficient of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in aqueous solutions at various values of pH and ionic strength of a univalent salt (NaCl). The systematic variation of the second virial coefficient as a function of pH and NaCl strength reveals the net charge change and the isoelectric point of BSA under different solution conditions. The magnitude of the second virial coefficient decreases to 1.13 x 10(-5) ml*mol/g(2) near the isoelectric point of pH 4.6 and 25 mM NaCl. These results illuminate the role of fundamental long-range electrostatic and van der Waals forces in protein-protein interactions, specifically their dependence on pH and ionic strength.

  4. Numerical study on the quench propagation in a 1.5 T MgB2 MRI magnet design with varied wire compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poole, Charles; Baig, Tanvir; Deissler, Robert J.; Doll, David; Tomsic, Michael; Martens, Michael

    2016-04-01

    To reduce the usage of liquid helium in MRI magnets, magnesium diboride (MgB2), a high temperature superconductor, has been considered for use in a design of conduction cooled MRI magnets. Compared to NbTi wires the normal zone propagation velocity (NZPV) in MgB2 is much slower leading to a higher temperature rise and the necessity of active quench protection. The temperature rise, resistive voltage, and NZPV during a quench in a 1.5 T main magnet design with MgB2 superconducting wire was calculated for a variety of wire compositions. The quench development was modeled using the Douglas-Gunn method to solve the 3D heat equation. It was determined that wires with higher bulk thermal conductivity and lower electrical resistivity reduced the hot-spot temperature rise near the beginning of a quench. These improvements can be accomplished by increasing the copper fraction inside the wire, using a sheath material (such as Glidcop) with a higher thermal conductivity and lower electrical resistivity, and by increasing the thermal conductivity of the wire’s insulation. The focus of this paper is on the initial stages of quench development, and does not consider the later stages of the quench or magnet protection.

  5. Coating morphology and surface composition of acrylic terpolymers with pendant catechol, OEG and perfluoroalkyl groups in varying ratio and the effect on protein adsorption.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jun; Ji, Hua; Duan, Jiang; Tu, Haiyang; Zhang, Aidong

    2016-04-01

    This work aims at developing versatile low-biofouling polymeric coatings by using acrylic terpolymers (DOFs) that bear pendant catechol (D), oligo(ethylene glycol) (O), and perfluoroalkyl (F) groups in varying ratios. The polymers were endowed with the ability to form firmly coatings on virtually any surfaces and undergo surface microphase separation and self-assembly, as revealed by the surface enrichment of F pendants and the morphology variation from irregular solid domains to discrete crater-type aggregates of different size. The effect on protein adsorption was investigated using bovine serum albumin (BSA) and adhesive fibrinogen (Fib) as model proteins. The coating of DOF164 (low F content), which has morphology of discrete crater-type aggregates of ∼ 400 nm in size, adsorbed a least amount of protein but with a highest protein unit activity as determined by SPR and immunosorbent assay; whereas the coating of DOF1612 (high F content) showed a 12.3-fold higher adsorption capacity toward Fib. Interestingly, a 2.2-fold lower adsorption amount but with a 1.8-fold higher unit activity was found for Fib adsorbed on the DOF164 surface than on DOF250 (without F fraction), whose OEG segments being a widely recognized protein compatible material. The features of the DOF164 terpolymer presenting a robust coating ability and a minimal protein adsorption capacity while with a high protein unit activity suggest its potential application as a non-fouling surface-modifier for medical antifouling coatings and as a matrix material for selective protein immobilization and activity preservation in biosensor construction.

  6. Automated call tracking systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hardesty, C.

    1993-03-01

    User Services groups are on the front line with user support. We are the first to hear about problems. The speed, accuracy, and intelligence with which we respond determines the user`s perception of our effectiveness and our commitment to quality and service. To keep pace with the complex changes at our sites, we must have tools to help build a knowledge base of solutions, a history base of our users, and a record of every problem encountered. Recently, I completed a survey of twenty sites similar to the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center (NERSC). This informal survey reveals that 27% of the sites use a paper system to log calls, 60% employ homegrown automated call tracking systems, and 13% use a vendor-supplied system. Fifty-four percent of those using homegrown systems are exploring the merits of switching to a vendor-supplied system. The purpose of this paper is to provide guidelines for evaluating a call tracking system. In addition, insights are provided to assist User Services groups in selecting a system that fits their needs.

  7. Reduction of an E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella composite on fresh strawberries by varying antimicrobial washes and vacuum perfusion.

    PubMed

    Gurtler, Joshua B; Bailey, Rebecca B; Jin, Tony Z; Fan, Xuetong

    2014-10-17

    A 2011 outbreak of hemorrhagic colitis, which resulted in the death of two individuals, was associated with contaminated strawberries. A study was conducted to identify antimicrobial washes effective at reducing E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica from the surface of fresh whole strawberries during two-minute immersion washes. Twenty-seven antimicrobial treatments were tested. Vacuum perfusion was applied to strawberries during chlorine and peracetic acid treatments to promote infiltration of sanitizer into porous strawberry tissue. Strawberries were inoculated to 7.1logCFU/strawberry with a seven-strain bacterial composite, consisting of three strains of E. coli O157:H7 and four serovars of Salmonella enterica. Berries were air-dried for 2h and immersed in circulating antimicrobial solutions for 120s at 22°C. Four treatments reduced ≥3.0logCFU/strawberry, including (a) 1% acetic acid+1% H2O2, (b) 30% ethanol+1% H2O2, (c) 90ppm peracetic acid, and (d) 1% lactic acid+1% H2O2. Two additional treatments that reduced 2.8logCFU/strawberry were (a) 40% ethanol, and (b) 1% each of phosphoric+fumaric acids. Eight treatments reduced 2.0-2.6logCFU/strawberry. Five treatments reduced <1.45CFU/strawberry, including (a) 1% citric acid, (b) 1% lactic acid, (c) 1% acetic acid, (d) 0.5% each of acetic+citric acids and (e) 0.5% each of acetic+lactic acids. The use of vacuum perfusion with 200ppm chlorine or 90ppm peracetic acid did not reduce greater populations of pathogens than did the same treatments without vacuum perfusion. Fourteen treatments reduced no more pathogens (p<0.05) than did sterile deionized water. Results from this study provide some options for end-point decontamination of strawberries for retail operations just prior to serving to customers.

  8. Utility of multifrequency bioelectrical impedance compared with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry for assessment of total and regional body composition varies between men and women.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lindsey J; Erceg, David N; Schroeder, E Todd

    2012-07-01

    Multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis of body composition may be an appropriate alternative to dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. We hypothesized that there would be no significant differences between dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry and either the Biospace (Los Angeles, CA, USA) InBody 520 or 720 multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis devices for total lean body mass (LBM), appendicular lean mass (ALM), trunk lean mass (TM), and total fat mass (FM) in 25 men and 25 women (including lean, healthy, and obese individuals according to body mass index), age 18 to 49 years, weight of 73.6 ± 15.4 kg. Both devices overestimated LBM in women (~2.5 kg, P < .001) and underestimated ALM in men (~3.0 kg, P < .05) and women (~1.0 kg, P < .05). The 720 overestimated FM in men (1.6 kg, P < .05) and underestimated TM in women (0.6 kg, P ≤ .05). Regression analyses in men revealed R² (0.87-0.91), standard error of the estimate (SEE; 2.3-2.8 kg), and limits of agreement (LOAs; 4.5-5.7 kg) for LBM; R(2) (0.62-0.87), SEE (1.5-2.6 kg), and LOA (3.2-6.0 kg) for ALM; R² (0.52-0.71), SEE (2.4-3.0 kg), and LOA (4.6-6.1 kg) for TM; and R(2) (0.87-0.93), SEE (1.9-2.6 kg), and LOA (5.9-6.2 kg) for FM. Regression analyses in women revealed R² (0.87-0.88), SEE (1.8-1.9 kg), and LOA (4.1-4.2 kg) for LBM; R² (0.78-0.79), SEE (1.4-1.5 kg), and LOA (2.7-2.9 kg) for ALM; R² (0.76-0.77), SEE (1.0 kg), and LOA (2.2-2.3 kg) for TM; and R² (0.95), SEE (2.2 kg), and LOA (4.3-4.4 kg) for FM. The InBody 520 and 720 are valid estimators of LBM and FM in men and of LBM, ALM, and FM in women; the 720 and 520 are valid estimators of TM in men and women, respectively.

  9. Time Varying Feature Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echterhoff, J.; Simonis, I.; Atkinson, R.

    2012-04-01

    . Keeping track of feature property value corrections or even feature (state change) cancellations for auditing purposes is also not easy to achieve. The aviation domain has strong requirements to represent and manage the state of aeronautical features through time. Being able to efficiently encode and manage feature state changes, keeping track of all changes for auditing purposes and being able to determine the future state of an aeronautical feature as currently known to the system are vital for aeronautical applications. In order to support these requirements, the Aeronautical Information Exchange Model (AIXM) which has been developed by the aviation domain is based on the so called AIXM Temporality Model (AIXM-TM). The AIXM-TM defines various rules for modeling, representing and handling the state of aeronautical features through time. This is a promising approach that can be incorporated into the GFM so that ultimately the modeling and management of time varying feature data is supported in an interoperable and harmonized way in all geospatial domains. This presentation gives an introduction to the main concepts of the AIXM-TM. It also shows how the GFM can be extended to support time varying feature data. Finally, the relationship of O&M and time varying features is discussed.

  10. Bat echolocation calls: adaptation and convergent evolution

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Gareth; Holderied, Marc W

    2007-01-01

    Bat echolocation calls provide remarkable examples of ‘good design’ through evolution by natural selection. Theory developed from acoustics and sonar engineering permits a strong predictive basis for understanding echolocation performance. Call features, such as frequency, bandwidth, duration and pulse interval are all related to ecological niche. Recent technological breakthroughs have aided our understanding of adaptive aspects of call design in free-living bats. Stereo videogrammetry, laser scanning of habitat features and acoustic flight path tracking permit reconstruction of the flight paths of echolocating bats relative to obstacles and prey in nature. These methods show that echolocation calls are among the most intense airborne vocalizations produced by animals. Acoustic tracking has clarified how and why bats vary call structure in relation to flight speed. Bats using broadband echolocation calls adjust call design in a range-dependent manner so that nearby obstacles are localized accurately. Recent phylogenetic analyses based on gene sequences show that particular types of echolocation signals have evolved independently in several lineages of bats. Call design is often influenced more by perceptual challenges imposed by the environment than by phylogeny, and provides excellent examples of convergent evolution. Now that whole genome sequences of bats are imminent, understanding the functional genomics of echolocation will become a major challenge. PMID:17251105

  11. Bat echolocation calls: adaptation and convergent evolution.

    PubMed

    Jones, Gareth; Holderied, Marc W

    2007-04-07

    Bat echolocation calls provide remarkable examples of 'good design' through evolution by natural selection. Theory developed from acoustics and sonar engineering permits a strong predictive basis for understanding echolocation performance. Call features, such as frequency, bandwidth, duration and pulse interval are all related to ecological niche. Recent technological breakthroughs have aided our understanding of adaptive aspects of call design in free-living bats. Stereo videogrammetry, laser scanning of habitat features and acoustic flight path tracking permit reconstruction of the flight paths of echolocating bats relative to obstacles and prey in nature. These methods show that echolocation calls are among the most intense airborne vocalizations produced by animals. Acoustic tracking has clarified how and why bats vary call structure in relation to flight speed. Bats using broadband echolocation calls adjust call design in a range-dependent manner so that nearby obstacles are localized accurately. Recent phylogenetic analyses based on gene sequences show that particular types of echolocation signals have evolved independently in several lineages of bats. Call design is often influenced more by perceptual challenges imposed by the environment than by phylogeny, and provides excellent examples of convergent evolution. Now that whole genome sequences of bats are imminent, understanding the functional genomics of echolocation will become a major challenge.

  12. [Who is Called "Schizophrenic"?].

    PubMed

    Azorin, Jean-Michel; Kaladjian, Arthur; Besnier, Nathalie; Cermolacce, Michel

    2008-01-01

    Someone is called "schizophrenic" when suffering from a disorder described in 1911, for the first time by a Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler in a book entitled "Dementia Praecox oder Gruppe der Schizophrenien". In this book, Bleuler proposes a two-faced approach: one centered on the disease, the other on the person. Bleuler's main contribution was to show the importance of the latter in the determinism of clinical pictures and illness course, thus opening the way to more anthropological approaches to the schizophrenic self. Taking these approaches into account, at a time when naturalistic models of the illness are prevailing, is far from being of no consequence, as far as the effectiveness of our therapeutic actions is at issue.

  13. Evolution of advertisement calls in African clawed frogs.

    PubMed

    Tobias, Martha L; Evans, Ben J; Kelley, Darcy B

    2011-01-01

    For most frogs, advertisement calls are essential for reproductive success, conveying information on species identity, male quality, sexual state and location. While the evolutionary divergence of call characters has been examined in a number of species, the relative impacts of genetic drift or natural and sexual selection remain unclear. Insights into the evolutionary trajectory of vocal signals can be gained by examining how advertisement calls vary in a phylogenetic context. Evolution by genetic drift would be supported if more closely related species express more similar songs. Conversely, a poor correlation between evolutionary history and song expression would suggest evolution shaped by natural or sexual selection. Here, we measure seven song characters in 20 described and two undescribed species of African clawed frogs (genera Xenopus and Silurana) and four populations of X. laevis. We identify three call types - click, burst and trill - that can be distinguished by click number, call rate and intensity modulation. A fourth type is biphasic, consisting of two of the above. Call types vary in complexity from the simplest, a click, to the most complex, a biphasic call. Maximum parsimony analysis of variation in call type suggests that the ancestral type was of intermediate complexity. Each call type evolved independently more than once and call type is typically not shared by closely related species. These results indicate that call type is homoplasious and has low phylogenetic signal. We conclude that the evolution of call type is not due to genetic drift, but is under selective pressure.

  14. Automated detection of Antarctic blue whale calls.

    PubMed

    Socheleau, Francois-Xavier; Leroy, Emmanuelle; Pecci, Andres Carvallo; Samaran, Flore; Bonnel, Julien; Royer, Jean-Yves

    2015-11-01

    This paper addresses the problem of automated detection of Z-calls emitted by Antarctic blue whales (B. m. intermedia). The proposed solution is based on a subspace detector of sigmoidal-frequency signals with unknown time-varying amplitude. This detection strategy takes into account frequency variations of blue whale calls as well as the presence of other transient sounds that can interfere with Z-calls (such as airguns or other whale calls). The proposed method has been tested on more than 105 h of acoustic data containing about 2200 Z-calls (as found by an experienced human operator). This method is shown to have a correct-detection rate of up to more than 15% better than the extensible bioacoustic tool package, a spectrogram-based correlation detector commonly used to study blue whales. Because the proposed method relies on subspace detection, it does not suffer from some drawbacks of correlation-based detectors. In particular, it does not require the choice of an a priori fixed and subjective template. The analytic expression of the detection performance is also derived, which provides crucial information for higher level analyses such as animal density estimation from acoustic data. Finally, the detection threshold automatically adapts to the soundscape in order not to violate a user-specified false alarm rate.

  15. Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, John G.

    The Composites market is arguably the most challenging and profitable market for phenolic resins aside from electronics. The variety of products and processes encountered creates the challenges, and the demand for high performance in critical operations brings value. Phenolic composite materials are rendered into a wide range of components to supply a diverse and fragmented commercial base that includes customers in aerospace (Space Shuttle), aircraft (interiors and brakes), mass transit (interiors), defense (blast protection), marine, mine ducting, off-shore (ducts and grating) and infrastructure (architectural) to name a few. For example, phenolic resin is a critical adhesive in the manufacture of honeycomb sandwich panels. Various solvent and water based resins are described along with resin characteristics and the role of metal ions for enhanced thermal stability of the resin used to coat the honeycomb. Featured new developments include pultrusion of phenolic grating, success in RTM/VARTM fabricated parts, new ballistic developments for military vehicles and high char yield carbon-carbon composites along with many others. Additionally, global regional market resin volumes and sales are presented and compared with other thermosetting resin systems.

  16. Fluorosis varied treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, I Anand

    2010-01-01

    Fluorosis has been reported way back in 1901. The treatment options for fluorosis are varied depending upon individual cases. This article comes from Madurai in India where its surrounding towns are fluorosis-prone zones. The purpose of this article is to report various treatment options available for dental fluorosis; this is the first time that complete full mouth rehabilitation for dental fluorosis is being reported. This article also dwells on the need for the dentists to be aware of their local indigenous pathologies to treat it in a better manner. PMID:20582220

  17. Comparison of acid-detergent lignin, alkaline-peroxide lignin, and acid-detergent insoluble ash as internal markers for predicting fecal output and digestibility by cattle offered bermudagrass hays of varying nutrient composition

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The potential for acid-detergent insoluble ash (ADIA), alkaline-peroxide lignin (APL), and acid-detergent lignin (ADL) to predict fecal output (FO) and dry matter digestibility (DMD) by cattle offered bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] hays of different qualities was evaluated. Eight ruminally cannulated cows (594 ± 35.5 kg) were allocated randomly to 4 hay diets: low (L), medium low (ML), medium high (MH), and high (H) crude protein (CP) concentration (79, 111, 131, and 164 g CP/kg on a DM basis, respectively). Diets were offered in 3 periods with 2 diet replicates per period and were rotated across cows between periods. Cows were individually fed 20 g DM/kg of body weight in equal feedings at 08:00 and 16:00 h for a 10-d adaptation followed by a 5-d total fecal collection. Actual DM intake (DMI), DMD, and FO were determined based on hay offered, ort, and feces excreted. These components were then analyzed for ADL, APL, and ADIA concentration to determine marker recovery and marker-based estimates of FO and DMD. Results Forage DMI was affected by diet (P = 0.02), and DMI from MH and H was greater (P < 0.05) than from L. Apparent DMD tended (P = 0.08) to differ among diets while FO (P = 0.20) was not affected by diet treatments. Average ADL recovery (1.16) was greater (P < 0.05) than that of ADIA (1.03) and APL (1.06), but ADIA and APL did not differ (P = 0.42). Estimates of FO and DMD derived using APL and ADIA were not different (P ≥ 0.05) from total fecal collection while those using ADL differed (P < 0.05). There was no diet by marker interaction (P ≥ 0.22) for either FO or DMD. Conclusion Acid-detergent insoluble ash and APL accurately predicted FO and DMD of cattle fed bermudagrass hay of varying nutrient composition. These internal markers may facilitate studies involving large numbers of animals and forages. Results from such studies may be used to develop improved equations to predict energy values of

  18. CALL Essentials: Principles and Practice in CALL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egbert, Joy

    2005-01-01

    Computers and the Internet offer innovative teachers exciting ways to enhance their pedagogy and capture their students' attention. These technologies have created a growing field of inquiry, computer-assisted language learning (CALL). As new technologies have emerged, teaching professionals have adapted them to support teachers and learners in…

  19. Treatment with arginine vasotocin alters mating calls and decreases call attractiveness in male túngara frogs.

    PubMed

    Kime, Nicole M; Whitney, Tina K; Ryan, Michael J; Rand, A Stanley; Marler, Catherine A

    2010-01-15

    The peptide hormone arginine vasotocin (AVT) and its mammalian homolog arginine vasopressin modulate a variety of social behaviors in vertebrates. In anurans, AVT influences the production of advertisement calls, the acoustic signals that males use to attract females and repel rival males. In this study, we investigate the effects of AVT on call characteristics in the túngara frog (Physalaemus pustulosus). Túngara frogs produce a "whine" that is important for species recognition; they may also produce a second, attractive call component, the "chuck". We used a field playback experiment to determine changes in male calling behavior following treatment with AVT. A previous study showed that AVT alters call rate and the production of chucks; in the current analysis, we focus on changes in the whine. Males produce shorter whines with higher initial frequencies following treatment with AVT. Call changes do not vary with a social stimulus. We also used female phonotaxis experiments to investigate the effects of call changes on female mate choice. Females disfavor the calls produced by males treated with exogenous AVT. We suggest that AVT influences motivation to call and the motor control of call production, but that over-stimulation of the vocal system limited the production of attractive calls in this experimental context.

  20. Surveys of calling amphibians in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.; Batie, R.D.

    2001-01-01

    Amphibians have received increased attention in recent years from the scientific community and general public alike. Many populations throughout the world have declined, or have been extirpated, often without an apparent cause. Concern about the status of amphibians has translated into a growing interest in systematic and statistically sound monitoring programs. Several extensive efforts to monitor populations of calling amphibians are in place, and more are under development. Necessary for the design of appropriate surveys is an understanding of the behavior, especially vocalization, of the various species, and how it varies by geographic location and environmental conditions. In 1995 we conducted roadside surveys of calling amphibians along 44 routes in North Dakota. We describe results of that survey, with special attention given to variables that influence detectability of calling amphibians. Unlike similar studies, we accounted for the amount of time observers spent listening for amphibians under different conditions. We found that the optimal conditions for a single survey for North Dakota in that year would be in early June, between the hours of 2300 and 0130, with ambient temperatures above 13 deg. C, and with no rain and little or no wind or moonlight. Multiple surveys in a year would yield better results, of course, especially for the wood frog (Rana sylvatica), which is most active earlier in the season. Studies such as ours should be replicated in space and time to ensure a well-designed survey.

  1. An Evaluation Framework for CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurry, Benjamin L.; Williams, David Dwayne; Rich, Peter J.; Hartshorn, K. James

    2016-01-01

    Searching prestigious Computer-assisted Language Learning (CALL) journals for references to key publications and authors in the field of evaluation yields a short list. The "American Journal of Evaluation"--the flagship journal of the American Evaluation Association--is only cited once in both the "CALICO Journal and Language…

  2. Close Call: Breaking the Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Leadership, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Contrary to a rule to never teach students to lead climb, an instructor taught several youth to lead climb at a parent's request. These students planned to pursue rock climbing on their own after they left school, and preparing them was deemed a safety precaution. Analysis of this "close call" offers guidelines for introducing students…

  3. Formative Considerations Using Integrative CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Philip; Shaver, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Addresses technical and learning issues relating to a formative implementation of a computer assisted language learning (CALL) browser-based intermediate Russian program. Instruction took place through a distance education implementation and in a grouped classroom using a local-area network. Learners indicated the software was clear, motivating,…

  4. Bridging a High School Science Fair Experience with First Year Undergraduate Research: Using the E-SPART Analyzer to Determine Electrostatic Charge Properties of Compositionally Varied Rock Dust Particles as Terrestrial Analogues to Mars Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, A. G.; Williams, W. J. W.; Mazumder, M. K.; Biris, A.; Srirama, P. K.

    2005-03-01

    More is known about Mars from data collected in 2004. We present particle size and electrostatic data for particles derived from various terrestrial materials to provide analogue studies for what also appears to be present: sedimentary compositions.

  5. Call for improving air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    The European Environmental Bureau (EEB), a federation of citizen organizations, has called for stricter policies in Europe to protect human health and the environment. "Air pollution emanates from sources all around us, be they cars, industrial plants, shipping, agriculture, or waste. The [European Union] must propose ambitious legislation to address all of these sources if it is to tackle the grave public health consequences of air pollution," EEB secretary general Jeremy Wates said on 8 January.

  6. The Influence of Judgment Calls on Meta-Analytic Findings.

    PubMed

    Tarrahi, Farid; Eisend, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that judgment calls (i.e., methodological choices made in the process of conducting a meta-analysis) have a strong influence on meta-analytic findings and question their robustness. However, prior research applies case study comparison or reanalysis of a few meta-analyses with a focus on a few selected judgment calls. These studies neglect the fact that different judgment calls are related to each other and simultaneously influence the outcomes of a meta-analysis, and that meta-analytic findings can vary due to non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses (e.g., variations of effects over time). The current study analyzes the influence of 13 judgment calls in 176 meta-analyses in marketing research by applying a multivariate, multilevel meta-meta-analysis. The analysis considers simultaneous influences from different judgment calls on meta-analytic effect sizes and controls for alternative explanations based on non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses. The findings suggest that judgment calls have only a minor influence on meta-analytic findings, whereas non-judgment call differences between meta-analyses are more likely to explain differences in meta-analytic findings. The findings support the robustness of meta-analytic results and conclusions.

  7. Expression of Emotional Arousal in Two Different Piglet Call Types

    PubMed Central

    Linhart, Pavel; Ratcliffe, Victoria F.; Reby, David; Špinka, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Humans as well as many animal species reveal their emotional state in their voice. Vocal features show strikingly similar correlation patterns with emotional states across mammalian species, suggesting that the vocal expression of emotion follows highly conserved signalling rules. To fully understand the principles of emotional signalling in mammals it is, however, necessary to also account for any inconsistencies in the way that they are acoustically encoded. Here we investigate whether the expression of emotions differs between call types produced by the same species. We compare the acoustic structure of two common piglet calls—the scream (a distress call) and the grunt (a contact call)—across three levels of arousal in a negative situation. We find that while the central frequency of calls increases with arousal in both call types, the amplitude and tonal quality (harmonic-to-noise ratio) show contrasting patterns: as arousal increased, the intensity also increased in screams, but not in grunts, while the harmonicity increased in screams but decreased in grunts. Our results suggest that the expression of arousal depends on the function and acoustic specificity of the call type. The fact that more vocal features varied with arousal in scream calls than in grunts is consistent with the idea that distress calls have evolved to convey information about emotional arousal. PMID:26274816

  8. Social calls of flying big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus)

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Genevieve S.; Chiu, Chen; Xian, Wei; Wilkinson, Gerald S.; Moss, Cynthia F.

    2013-01-01

    Vocalizations serving a variety of social functions have been reported in many bat species (Order Chiroptera). While echolocation by big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) has been the subject of extensive study, calls used by this species for communication have received comparatively little research attention. Here, we report on a rich repertoire of vocalizations produced by big brown bats in a large flight room equipped with synchronized high speed stereo video and audio recording equipment. Bats were studied individually and in pairs, while sex, age, and experience with a novel foraging task were varied. We used discriminant function analysis (DFA) to classify six different vocalizations that were recorded when two bats were present. Contingency table analyses revealed a higher prevalence of social calls when males were present, and some call types varied in frequency of emission based on trial type or bat age. Bats flew closer together around the time some social calls were emitted, indicating that communicative calls may be selectively produced when conspecifics fly near one another. These findings are the first reports of social calls from flying big brown bats and provide insight into the function of communicative vocalizations emitted by this species. PMID:23966949

  9. Social calls of flying big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus).

    PubMed

    Wright, Genevieve S; Chiu, Chen; Xian, Wei; Wilkinson, Gerald S; Moss, Cynthia F

    2013-01-01

    Vocalizations serving a variety of social functions have been reported in many bat species (Order Chiroptera). While echolocation by big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) has been the subject of extensive study, calls used by this species for communication have received comparatively little research attention. Here, we report on a rich repertoire of vocalizations produced by big brown bats in a large flight room equipped with synchronized high speed stereo video and audio recording equipment. Bats were studied individually and in pairs, while sex, age, and experience with a novel foraging task were varied. We used discriminant function analysis (DFA) to classify six different vocalizations that were recorded when two bats were present. Contingency table analyses revealed a higher prevalence of social calls when males were present, and some call types varied in frequency of emission based on trial type or bat age. Bats flew closer together around the time some social calls were emitted, indicating that communicative calls may be selectively produced when conspecifics fly near one another. These findings are the first reports of social calls from flying big brown bats and provide insight into the function of communicative vocalizations emitted by this species.

  10. [Bioacoustic of the advertisement call of Ceratophrys cranwelli (Anura: Ceratophryidae)].

    PubMed

    Valetti, Julián Alonso; Salas, Nancy Edith; Martino, Adolfo Ludovico

    2013-03-01

    The advertisement call plays an important role in the life history of anuran amphibians, mainly during the breeding season. Call features represent an important character to discriminate species, and sound emissions are very effective to assure or reinforce genetic incompatibility, especially in the case of sibling species. Since frogs are ectotherms, acoustic properties of their calls will vary with temperature. In this study, we described the advertisement call of C. cranwelli, quantifying the temperature effect on its components. The acoustic emissions were recorded during 2007 using a DAT record Sony TCD-100 with stereo microphone ECM-MS907 Sony and tape TDK DAT-RGX 60. As males emit their calls floating in temporary ponds, water temperatures were registered after recording the advertisement calls with a digital thermometer TES 1300+/-0.1 degreeC. Altogether, 54 calls from 18 males were analyzed. The temporal variables of each advertisement call were measured using oscillograms and sonograms and the analyses of dominant frequency were performed using a spectrogram. Multiple correlation analysis was used to identify the temperature-dependent acoustic variables and the temperature effect on these variables was quantified using linear regression models. The advertisement call of C. cranwelli consists of a single pulse group. Call duration, Pulse duration and Pulse interval decreased with the temperature, whereas the Pulse rate increased with temperature. The temperature-dependent variables were standardized at 25 degreeC according to the linear regression model obtained. The acoustic variables that were correlated with the temperature are the variables which emissions depend on laryngeal muscles and the temperature constraints the contractile properties of muscles. Our results indicated that temperature explains an important fraction of the variability in some acoustic variables (79% in the Pulse rate), and demonstrated the importance of considering the effect of

  11. Call Combinations in Monkeys: Compositional or Idiomatic Expressions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Kate; Zuberbuhler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Syntax is widely considered the feature that most decisively sets human language apart from other natural communication systems. Animal vocalisations are generally considered to be holistic with few examples of utterances meaning something other than the sum of their parts. Previously, we have shown that male putty-nosed monkeys produce call…

  12. Estimating varying coefficients for partial differential equation models.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyu; Cao, Jiguo; Carroll, Raymond J

    2017-01-11

    Partial differential equations (PDEs) are used to model complex dynamical systems in multiple dimensions, and their parameters often have important scientific interpretations. In some applications, PDE parameters are not constant but can change depending on the values of covariates, a feature that we call varying coefficients. We propose a parameter cascading method to estimate varying coefficients in PDE models from noisy data. Our estimates of the varying coefficients are shown to be consistent and asymptotically normally distributed. The performance of our method is evaluated by a simulation study and by an empirical study estimating three varying coefficients in a PDE model arising from LIDAR data.

  13. Calling behavior of blue and fin whales off California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleson, Erin Marie

    Passive acoustic monitoring is an effective means for evaluating cetacean presence in remote regions and over long time periods, and may become an important component of cetacean abundance surveys. To use passive acoustic recordings for abundance estimation, an understanding of the behavioral ecology of cetacean calling is crucial. In this dissertation, I develop a better understanding of how blue (Balaenoptera musculus) and fin (B. physalus ) whales use sound with the goal of evaluating passive acoustic techniques for studying their populations. Both blue and fin whales produce several different call types, though the behavioral and environmental context of these calls have not been widely investigated. To better understand how calling is used by these whales off California I have employed both new technologies and traditional techniques, including acoustic recording tags, continuous long-term autonomous acoustic recordings, and simultaneous shipboard acoustic and visual surveys. The outcome of these investigations has led to several conclusions. The production of blue whale calls varies with sex, behavior, season, location, and time of day. Each blue whale call type has a distinct behavioral context, including a male-only bias in the production of song, a call type thought to function in reproduction, and the production of some calls by both sexes. Long-term acoustic records, when interpreted using all call types, provide a more accurate measure of the local seasonal presence of whales, and how they use the region annually, seasonally and daily. The relative occurrence of different call types may indicate prime foraging habitat and the presence of different segments of the population. The proportion of animals heard calling changes seasonally and geographically relative to the number seen, indicating the calibration of acoustic and visual surveys is complex and requires further study on the motivations behind call production and the behavior of calling whales

  14. Effects of calcium oxide treatment at varying moisture concentrations on the chemical composition, in situ degradability, in vitro digestibility and gas production kinetics of anaerobically stored corn stover.

    PubMed

    Shi, H T; Cao, Z J; Wang, Y J; Li, S L; Yang, H J; Bi, Y L; Doane, P H

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the optimum conditions for calcium oxide (CaO) treatment of anaerobically stored corn stover by in situ and in vitro methods. Four ruminally cannulated, non-lactating, non-pregnant Holstein cows were used to determine the in situ effective degradabilities of dry matter (ISDMD), organic matter (ISOMD), neutral detergent fibre (ISNDFD), in vitro organic matter disappearance (IVOMD) and gas production in 72 h (GP72h ) of corn stover. A completely randomized design involving a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement was adopted. Ground corn stover was treated with different levels of CaO (3%, 5% and 7% of dry stover) at varying moisture contents (40%, 50% and 60%) and stored under anaerobic conditions for 15 days before analysis. Compared with untreated corn stover, the CaO-treated stover had increased ash and calcium (Ca) contents but decreased aNDF and OM contents. The moisture content, CaO level and their interaction affected (p < 0.01) the content of aNDF, ash and OM, and the ratio of aNDF/OM. The greatest ISDMD, ISOMD and ISNDFD were observed when stover was treated with 7% CaO and 60% moisture, while no differences (p > 0.01) in these in situ degradability parameters were observed between the stover treated with 5% CaO at 60% moisture content and those treated with 7% CaO at 60% moisture content. Corn stover treated with 5% CaO at 50% moisture had the maximum IVOMD and GP72 h among the treatments, and there was no difference (p > 0.01) between 50% and 60% moisture. Results from this study suggested that 5% CaO applied at 60% moisture could be an effective and economical treatment combination.

  15. 76 FR 17934 - Infrastructure Protection Data Call

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Infrastructure Protection Data Call AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS...: Infrastructure Protection Data Call. OMB Number: 1670-NEW. Frequency: On occasion. Affected Public:...

  16. Potential Paradigms and Possible Problems for CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Martin

    1987-01-01

    Describes three models of CALL (computer assisted language learning) activity--games, the expert system, and the prosthetic approaches. A case is made for CALL development within a more instrumental view of the role of computers. (Author/CB)

  17. 78 FR 76218 - Rural Call Completion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... interest ramifications, causing rural businesses to lose customers, cutting families off from their... the static or dynamic selection of the path for a long-distance call based on the called number of...

  18. Individual, Contextual, and Age-Related Acoustic Variation in Simakobu (Simias concolor) Loud Calls

    PubMed Central

    Erb, Wendy M.; Hodges, J. Keith; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Primate loud calls have the potential to encode information about the identity, arousal, age, or physical condition of the caller, even at long distances. In this study, we conducted an analysis of the acoustic features of the loud calls produced by a species of Asian colobine monkey (simakobu, Simias concolor). Adult male simakobu produce loud calls spontaneously and in response to loud sounds and other loud calls, which are audible more than 500 m. Individual differences in calling rates and durations exist, but it is unknown what these differences signal and which other acoustic features vary among individuals. We aimed to describe the structure and usage of calls and to examine acoustic features that vary within and among individuals. We determined the context of 318 loud calls and analyzed 170 loud calls recorded from 10 adult males at an undisturbed site, Pungut, Siberut Island, Indonesia. Most calls (53%) followed the loud call of another male, 31% were spontaneous, and the remaining 16% followed a loud environmental disturbance. The fundamental frequency (F0) decreased while inter-unit intervals (IUI) increased over the course of loud call bouts, possibly indicating caller fatigue. Discriminant function analysis indicated that calls were not well discriminated by context, but spontaneous calls had higher peak frequencies, suggesting a higher level of arousal. Individual calls were distinct and individuals were mainly discriminated by IUI, call duration, and F0. Loud calls of older males had shorter IUI and lower F0, while middle-aged males had the highest peak frequencies. Overall, we found that calls were individually distinct and may provide information about the age, stamina, and arousal of the calling male, and could thus be a way for males and females to assess competitors and mates from long distances. PMID:24376651

  19. Probabilistic priority assessment of nurse calls.

    PubMed

    Ongenae, Femke; Myny, Dries; Dhaene, Tom; Defloor, Tom; Van Goubergen, Dirk; Verhoeve, Piet; Decruyenaere, Johan; De Turck, Filip

    2014-05-01

    Current nurse call systems are very static. Call buttons are fixed to the wall, and systems do not account for various factors specific to a situation. We have developed a software platform, the ontology-based Nurse Call System (oNCS), which supports the transition to mobile and wireless nurse call buttons and uses an intelligent algorithm to address nurse calls. This algorithm dynamically adapts to the situation at hand by taking the profile information of staff and patients into account by using an ontology. This article describes a probabilistic extension of the oNCS that supports a more sophisticated nurse call algorithm by dynamically assigning priorities to calls based on the risk factors of the patient and the kind of call. The probabilistic oNCS is evaluated through implementation of a prototype and simulations, based on a detailed dataset obtained from 3 nursing departments of Ghent University Hospital. The arrival times of nurses at the location of a call, the workload distribution of calls among nurses, and the assignment of priorities to calls are compared for the oNCS and the current nurse call system. Additionally, the performance of the system and the parameters of the priority assignment algorithm are explored. The execution time of the nurse call algorithm is on average 50.333 ms. Moreover, the probabilistic oNCS significantly improves the assignment of nurses to calls. Calls generally result in a nurse being present more quickly, the workload distribution among the nurses improves, and the priorities and kinds of calls are taken into account.

  20. On Varying-coefficient Independence Screening for High-dimensional Varying-coefficient Models.

    PubMed

    Song, Rui; Yi, Feng; Zou, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Varying coefficient models have been widely used in longitudinal data analysis, nonlinear time series, survival analysis, and so on. They are natural non-parametric extensions of the classical linear models in many contexts, keeping good interpretability and allowing us to explore the dynamic nature of the model. Recently, penalized estimators have been used for fitting varying-coefficient models for high-dimensional data. In this paper, we propose a new computationally attractive algorithm called IVIS for fitting varying-coefficient models in ultra-high dimensions. The algorithm first fits a gSCAD penalized varying-coefficient model using a subset of covariates selected by a new varying-coefficient independence screening (VIS) technique. The sure screening property is established for VIS. The proposed algorithm then iterates between a greedy conditional VIS step and a gSCAD penalized fitting step. Simulation and a real data analysis demonstrate that IVIS has very competitive performance for moderate sample size and high dimension.

  1. On Varying-coefficient Independence Screening for High-dimensional Varying-coefficient Models

    PubMed Central

    Song, Rui; Yi, Feng; Zou, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Varying coefficient models have been widely used in longitudinal data analysis, nonlinear time series, survival analysis, and so on. They are natural non-parametric extensions of the classical linear models in many contexts, keeping good interpretability and allowing us to explore the dynamic nature of the model. Recently, penalized estimators have been used for fitting varying-coefficient models for high-dimensional data. In this paper, we propose a new computationally attractive algorithm called IVIS for fitting varying-coefficient models in ultra-high dimensions. The algorithm first fits a gSCAD penalized varying-coefficient model using a subset of covariates selected by a new varying-coefficient independence screening (VIS) technique. The sure screening property is established for VIS. The proposed algorithm then iterates between a greedy conditional VIS step and a gSCAD penalized fitting step. Simulation and a real data analysis demonstrate that IVIS has very competitive performance for moderate sample size and high dimension. PMID:25484548

  2. An empirical analysis of the corporate call decision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Murray Dean

    1998-12-01

    conclude that the managers of the Pacific Gas and Electric Company clearly take into account the value of the option to delay the call when making their call decisions. Overall, the model seems to be robust to tests of its specification and does a better job of describing the data than do simpler models of the decision making process. Limitations in the data do not allow us to perform the same tests in a larger cross-section of utility companies. However, we are able to estimate transaction cost parameters for many firms and these do not seem to vary significantly from those of PGE. This evidence does not cause us to reject our hypothesis that managerial behavior is consistent with a model in which managers maximize shareholder value.

  3. 78 FR 21891 - Rural Call Completion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... the calling party's end when the called party's telephone never rings at all, false busy signals.... A. Data Reporting, Recordkeeping, and Retention 16. Our processing of informal complaints that have... in completing a call, it signals a ``cause value'' giving a precise indication of the event....

  4. 17 CFR 31.18 - Margin calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Margin calls. 31.18 Section 31....18 Margin calls. (a) No leverage transaction merchant shall liquidate a leverage contract because of... after contact is effected in which to respond to a margin call. Twenty-four hours, excluding...

  5. Perceiving a Calling, Living a Calling, and Job Satisfaction: Testing a Moderated, Multiple Mediator Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Bott, Elizabeth M.; Allan, Blake A.; Torrey, Carrie L.; Dik, Bryan J.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the relation between perceiving a calling, living a calling, and job satisfaction among a diverse group of employed adults who completed an online survey (N = 201). Perceiving a calling and living a calling were positively correlated with career commitment, work meaning, and job satisfaction. Living a calling moderated…

  6. 20 CFR 702.313 - Informal conferences; how called; when called.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Informal conferences; how called; when called... Adjudication Procedures Action by District Directors § 702.313 Informal conferences; how called; when called. Informal conferences may be called upon not less than 10 days' notice to the parties, unless the...

  7. Bat echolocation calls facilitate social communication

    PubMed Central

    Knörnschild, Mirjam; Jung, Kirsten; Nagy, Martina; Metz, Markus; Kalko, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Bat echolocation is primarily used for orientation and foraging but also holds great potential for social communication. The communicative function of echolocation calls is still largely unstudied, especially in the wild. Eavesdropping on vocal signatures encoding social information in echolocation calls has not, to our knowledge, been studied in free-living bats so far. We analysed echolocation calls of the polygynous bat Saccopteryx bilineata and found pronounced vocal signatures encoding sex and individual identity. We showed experimentally that free-living males discriminate approaching male and female conspecifics solely based on their echolocation calls. Males always produced aggressive vocalizations when hearing male echolocation calls and courtship vocalizations when hearing female echolocation calls; hence, they responded with complex social vocalizations in the appropriate social context. Our study demonstrates that social information encoded in bat echolocation calls plays a crucial and hitherto underestimated role for eavesdropping conspecifics and thus facilitates social communication in a highly mobile nocturnal mammal. PMID:23034703

  8. Bat echolocation calls facilitate social communication.

    PubMed

    Knörnschild, Mirjam; Jung, Kirsten; Nagy, Martina; Metz, Markus; Kalko, Elisabeth

    2012-12-07

    Bat echolocation is primarily used for orientation and foraging but also holds great potential for social communication. The communicative function of echolocation calls is still largely unstudied, especially in the wild. Eavesdropping on vocal signatures encoding social information in echolocation calls has not, to our knowledge, been studied in free-living bats so far. We analysed echolocation calls of the polygynous bat Saccopteryx bilineata and found pronounced vocal signatures encoding sex and individual identity. We showed experimentally that free-living males discriminate approaching male and female conspecifics solely based on their echolocation calls. Males always produced aggressive vocalizations when hearing male echolocation calls and courtship vocalizations when hearing female echolocation calls; hence, they responded with complex social vocalizations in the appropriate social context. Our study demonstrates that social information encoded in bat echolocation calls plays a crucial and hitherto underestimated role for eavesdropping conspecifics and thus facilitates social communication in a highly mobile nocturnal mammal.

  9. Energetic composites

    DOEpatents

    Danen, Wayne C.; Martin, Joe A.

    1993-01-01

    A method for providing chemical energy and energetic compositions of matter consisting of thin layers of substances which will exothermically react with one another. The layers of reactive substances are separated by thin layers of a buffer material which prevents the reactions from taking place until the desired time. The reactions are triggered by an external agent, such as mechanical stress or an electric spark. The compositions are known as metastable interstitial composites (MICs). This class of compositions includes materials which have not previously been capable of use as energetic materials. The speed and products of the reactions can be varied to suit the application.

  10. Energetic composites

    DOEpatents

    Danen, W.C.; Martin, J.A.

    1993-11-30

    A method for providing chemical energy and energetic compositions of matter consisting of thin layers of substances which will exothermically react with one another. The layers of reactive substances are separated by thin layers of a buffer material which prevents the reactions from taking place until the desired time. The reactions are triggered by an external agent, such as mechanical stress or an electric spark. The compositions are known as metastable interstitial composites (MICs). This class of compositions includes materials which have not previously been capable of use as energetic materials. The speed and products of the reactions can be varied to suit the application. 3 figures.

  11. When They Talk about CALL: Discourse in a Required CALL Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Greg

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates preservice teachers' discourse about CALL in a required CALL class which combines theory and practice. Thirty-three students in a Linguistics MA program CALL course were observed over a 10-week quarter. For all of these students, it was their first formal exposure to CALL as a discipline. Communication in the class…

  12. Temporal stability and change in the social call repertoire of migrating humpback whales.

    PubMed

    Rekdahl, Melinda L; Dunlop, Rebecca A; Noad, Michael J; Goldizen, Anne W

    2013-03-01

    Quantifying the stability of a species vocal repertoire is fundamental for further investigations into repertoire function and geographic variation. Changes to the repertoire of sounds used in the song displays of male humpback whales have been well studied. In contrast, little is known about the stability of this species' non-song vocal calls. The stability of the social call repertoire of east Australian humpback whales was investigated from 1997, 2003-2004, and 2008. Out of 46 qualitatively defined call types, 19 were classified as "song-unit calls" that tended to change with the song, and 15 were "inconsistent" and only found in one or two years. Twelve call types were "stable" and present in all years and were commonly produced (64.2% of calls). Stable calls tended to vary in some of the measured call parameters but there was no clear trend between years. This result could indicate that minor changes to calls are not permanent, but reflect individual differences in call production or the graded nature of calls within different social environments. This research has clearly identified stable calls in the call repertoire of humpback whales and while their function is not well understood, their stability suggests an important role in social interactions.

  13. A CALL for Improved School Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halverson, Richard; Kelley, Carolyn; Shaw, James

    2014-01-01

    The Comprehensive Assessment of Leadership for Learning (CALL) is a formative assessment that provides feedback to schools on the research-based leadership practices necessary to improve teaching and learning. Instead of focusing on an individual leader, CALL measures leadership practices in tasks carried out by actors across the school and…

  14. Bat echolocation calls: Orientation to communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenton, M. Brock

    2004-05-01

    Bats hunting flying insects adjust the design of their echolocation calls according to the situation in which they forage and stage in an attack. Changes in call design across attack sequences alert other bats within earshot to the presence of prey, demonstrating a continuum in roles for biosonar signals between orientation and communication. Many aerial-feeding bats change the design of their echolocation calls in the presence of echolocating conspecifics. Bats may change frequency parameters, durations, and/or intensities of their calls. While a variety of free-tailed bats (Molossidae Otomops martiensseni, Tadarida teniotis, Molossus molossus) consistently change their echolocation calls when more than one bat is flying in an area, at least one sheath-tailed bat (Emballonuridae Taphozous perforatus) does not. Changes in echolocation calls may maximize jamming avoidance and/or enhance the communicative function of the calls. The data for molossids support the hypothesis that when hunting some species fly in formation. Here, variation in individual call design could provide positional information and reduce the chances of mid-air collisions.

  15. Help Options in CALL: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a systematic review of research investigating help options in the different language skills in computer-assisted language learning (CALL). In this review, emerging themes along with is-sues affecting help option research are identified and discussed. We argue that help options in CALL are application resources that do not only seem…

  16. 33 CFR 401.64 - Calling in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Calling in. 401.64 Section 401.64 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Radio Communications § 401.64 Calling in. (a) Every...

  17. The function of Barbary macaque copulation calls.

    PubMed Central

    Semple, S

    1998-01-01

    In a wide variety of animal species, females produce vocalizations specific to mating contexts. It has been proposed that these copulation calls function to incite males to compete for access to the calling female. Two separate advantages of inciting male-male competition in this way have been put forward. The first suggests that as a result of calling, females are only mated by the highest ranking male in the vicinity (indirect mate choice hypothesis). The second proposes that copulation calling results in a female being mated by many males, thus promoting competition at the level of sperm (sperm competition hypothesis). In this paper, I give results from the first experimental study to test these hypotheses. Playback was used to examine the function of copulation calls of female Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) in Gibraltar. Although rank did not affect lone males' likelihood of approaching copulation calls, when playbacks were given to pairs of males only the higher ranking individual approached. Moreover, females were mated significantly sooner after playback of their copulation call than after playback of a control stimulus. These results suggest that the copulation calls of female Barbary macaques play a key role in affecting patterns of male reproductive behaviour, not only providing an indirect mechanism of female choice, but also promoting sperm competition by reducing the interval between copulations. Potential fitness benefits of inciting male-male competition at these two levels are discussed. PMID:9523431

  18. Peafowl antipredator calls encode information about signalers.

    PubMed

    Yorzinski, Jessica L

    2014-02-01

    Animals emit vocalizations that convey information about external events. Many of these vocalizations, including those emitted in response to predators, also encode information about the individual that produced the call. The relationship between acoustic features of antipredator calls and information relating to signalers (including sex, identity, body size, and social rank) were examined in peafowl (Pavo cristatus). The "bu-girk" antipredator calls of male and female peafowl were recorded and 20 acoustic parameters were automatically extracted from each call. Both the bu and girk elements of the antipredator call were individually distinctive and calls were classified to the correct signaler with over 90% and 70% accuracy in females and males, respectively. Females produced calls with a higher fundamental frequency (F0) than males. In both females and males, body size was negatively correlated with F0. In addition, peahen rank was related to the duration, end mean frequency, and start harmonicity of the bu element. Peafowl antipredator calls contain detailed information about the signaler and can potentially be used by receivers to respond to dangerous situations.

  19. 33 CFR 401.64 - Calling in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calling in. 401.64 Section 401.64 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Radio Communications § 401.64 Calling in. (a) Every...

  20. Promotion in Call Centres: Opportunities and Determinants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorjup, Maria Tatiana; Valverde, Mireia; Ryan, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the quality of jobs in call centres by focusing on the opportunities for promotion in this sector. More specifically, the research questions focus on discovering whether promotion is common practise in the call centre sector and on identifying the factors that affect this.…

  1. 47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Call Signs and Other Forms of Identifying Radio Transmissions § 2.302 Call signs... frequencies above 30 MHz) KAA20 through KZZ99.WAA20 through WZZ99. WZZ200 through WZZ999. Fixed 3 letters,...

  2. 47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Call Signs and Other Forms of Identifying Radio Transmissions § 2.302 Call signs... frequencies above 30 MHz) KAA20 through KZZ99. WAA20 through WZZ99. WZZ200 through WZZ999. Fixed 3 letters,...

  3. 47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Call Signs and Other Forms of Identifying Radio Transmissions § 2.302 Call signs... frequencies above 30 MHz) KAA20 through KZZ99.WAA20 through WZZ99. WZZ200 through WZZ999. Fixed 3 letters,...

  4. 47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Call Signs and Other Forms of Identifying Radio Transmissions § 2.302 Call signs... frequencies above 30 MHz) KAA20 through KZZ99. WAA20 through WZZ99. WZZ200 through WZZ999. Fixed 3 letters,...

  5. 47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS Call Signs and Other Forms of Identifying Radio Transmissions § 2.302 Call signs... frequencies above 30 MHz) KAA20 through KZZ99.WAA20 through WZZ99. WZZ200 through WZZ999. Fixed 3 letters,...

  6. Integrated Language Skills CALL Course Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Kevin; Agawa, Grant

    2013-01-01

    The importance of a structured learning framework or interrelated frameworks is the cornerstone of a solid English as a foreign language (EFL) computer-assisted language learning (CALL) curriculum. While the benefits of CALL are widely promoted in the literature, there is often an endemic discord separating theory and practice. Oftentimes the…

  7. Call Cultures in Orang-Utans?

    PubMed Central

    Wich, Serge A.; Nater, Alexander; Arora, Natasha; Bastian, Meredith L.; Meulman, Ellen; Morrogh-Bernard, Helen C.; Atmoko, S. Suci Utami; Pamungkas, Joko; Perwitasari-Farajallah, Dyah; Hardus, Madeleine E.; van Noordwijk, Maria; van Schaik, Carel P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Several studies suggested great ape cultures, arguing that human cumulative culture presumably evolved from such a foundation. These focused on conspicuous behaviours, and showed rich geographic variation, which could not be attributed to known ecological or genetic differences. Although geographic variation within call types (accents) has previously been reported for orang-utans and other primate species, we examine geographic variation in the presence/absence of discrete call types (dialects). Because orang-utans have been shown to have geographic variation that is not completely explicable by genetic or ecological factors we hypothesized that this will be similar in the call domain and predict that discrete call type variation between populations will be found. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined long-term behavioural data from five orang-utan populations and collected fecal samples for genetic analyses. We show that there is geographic variation in the presence of discrete types of calls. In exactly the same behavioural context (nest building and infant retrieval), individuals in different wild populations customarily emit either qualitatively different calls or calls in some but not in others. By comparing patterns in call-type and genetic similarity, we suggest that the observed variation is not likely to be explained by genetic or ecological differences. Conclusion/Significance These results are consistent with the potential presence of ‘call cultures’ and suggest that wild orang-utans possess the ability to invent arbitrary calls, which spread through social learning. These findings differ substantially from those that have been reported for primates before. First, the results reported here are on dialect and not on accent. Second, this study presents cases of production learning whereas most primate studies on vocal learning were cases of contextual learning. We conclude with speculating on how these findings might assist in bridging

  8. Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology.

    PubMed

    Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.

  9. Test Procedures for Toll Call Certification Alternatives.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-07

    REPORT 4 PERIOD COVERED (U) Test Procedures for Toll CallFia Se86-Ar7 Certification AlternativesFiaSe86-Ar7 6. PERFORMING ORG . REPORT NUMBER 1. AUTHOR(e...toll call sampling is to use the toll call 21 a a C3a En L~a cmaL-a Lna ac C3 a cc u _3 to a- aa aL 4r C14 I Lo a_ V ’ Iara a D r- w U 4 c * a I’ aDUJ

  10. Audience effects in chimpanzee copulation calls

    PubMed Central

    Zuberbuhler, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Audience effects arise when the signaling behavior of animals is affected by the presence of others. Whilst this phenomenon has been documented in numerous animal species, very little research has addressed what effect the listening audience has in the mating context. In this article we discuss our recent findings that the production of chimpanzee copulation calls is effected by the presence of potentially eavesdropping females and males. We relate these results to understanding the function of primate copulation calls in addition to what more they can tell us about the cognitive processes underlying primate call production. PMID:19641752

  11. Lunar phases and crisis center telephone calls.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J E; Tobacyk, J J

    1990-02-01

    The lunar hypothesis, that is, the notion that lunar phases can directly affect human behavior, was tested by time-series analysis of 4,575 crisis center telephone calls (all calls recorded for a 6-month interval). As expected, the lunar hypothesis was not supported. The 28-day lunar cycle accounted for less than 1% of the variance of the frequency of crisis center calls. Also, as hypothesized from an attribution theory framework, crisis center workers reported significantly greater belief in lunar effects than a non-crisis-center-worker comparison group.

  12. Patterns of call communication between group-housed zebra finches change during the breeding cycle.

    PubMed

    Gill, Lisa F; Goymann, Wolfgang; Ter Maat, Andries; Gahr, Manfred

    2015-10-06

    Vocal signals such as calls play a crucial role for survival and successful reproduction, especially in group-living animals. However, call interactions and call dynamics within groups remain largely unexplored because their relation to relevant contexts or life-history stages could not be studied with individual-level resolution. Using on-bird microphone transmitters, we recorded the vocalisations of individual zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) behaving freely in social groups, while females and males previously unknown to each other passed through different stages of the breeding cycle. As birds formed pairs and shifted their reproductive status, their call repertoire composition changed. The recordings revealed that calls occurred non-randomly in fine-tuned vocal interactions and decreased within groups while pair-specific patterns emerged. Call-type combinations of vocal interactions changed within pairs and were associated with successful egg-laying, highlighting a potential fitness relevance of calling dynamics in communication systems.

  13. Arginine vasotocin promotes calling behavior and call changes in male túngara frogs.

    PubMed

    Kime, Nicole M; Whitney, Tina K; Davis, Ellen S; Marler, Catherine A

    2007-01-01

    In the túngara frog, Physalaemus pustulosus, males alter calling behavior with changes in their social environment, adding 'chucks' to their advertisement calls in response to the calls of conspecific males. Other studies demonstrate that adding chucks increases the attractiveness of calls to females but also increases the risk of bat predation. In the current study, subcutaneous injections of the neuropeptide hormone arginine vasotocin (AVT) significantly increased chuck production in male túngara frogs. The effects of AVT on chuck production did not depend on the presence of playback stimuli, suggesting that AVT increased either the males' general motivation to produce chucks or their responsiveness to the calls of distant males. Injections of AVT also increased the probability that males would call and decreased the latency to call after injection, supporting the hypothesis that AVT influences motivation to call. Finally, AVT inhibited a drop in call rate after the termination of a playback stimulus and increased call rate at a lower dose of AVT. The effects of AVT on chucks and call rate appear to be independent of each other, as there was no correlation between change in chuck production and change in call rate in individual males. We conclude that AVT may play an important role in socially-mediated call changes that result from competition for mates. The behavioral changes induced by AVT might increase a male's attractiveness to females, and also may be consistent with an aggressive response to another túngara frog male.

  14. Responsiveness to conspecific distress calls is influenced by day-roost proximity in bats (Saccopteryx bilineata)

    PubMed Central

    Eckenweber, Maria; Knörnschild, Mirjam

    2016-01-01

    Distress calls signal extreme physical distress, e.g. being caught by a predator. In many bat species, distress calls attract conspecifics. Because bats often occupy perennial day-roosts, they might adapt their responsiveness according to the social relevance in which distress calls are broadcast. Specifically, we hypothesized that conspecific distress calls broadcast within or in proximity to the day-roost would elicit a stronger responsiveness than distress calls broadcast at a foraging site. We analysed the distress calls and conducted playback experiments with the greater sac-winged bat, Saccopteryx bilineata, which occupies perennial day-roosts with a stable social group composition. S. bilineata reacted significantly differently depending on the playback's location. Bats were attracted to distress call playbacks within the day-roost and in proximity to it, but showed no obvious response to distress call playbacks at a foraging site. Hence, the bats adapted their responsiveness towards distress calls depending on the social relevance in which distress calls were broadcast. Distress calls within or in proximity to the day-roost are probably perceived as a greater threat and thus have a higher behavioural relevance than distress calls at foraging sites, either because bats want to assess the predation risk or because they engage in mobbing behaviour. PMID:27293797

  15. Administrator Bolden Calls Underwater NEEMO Crew

    NASA Video Gallery

    From outside their underwater laboratory in Florida, NASA Astronaut and NEEMO 16 Commander Dottie Metcalf-Lindenburger and European Space Agency astronaut Timothy Peake took a call from NASA Admini...

  16. Segmental structure in banded mongoose calls.

    PubMed

    Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2012-12-03

    In complex animal vocalizations, such as bird or whale song, a great variety of songs can be produced via rearrangements of a smaller set of 'syllables', known as 'phonological syntax' or 'phonocoding' However, food or alarm calls, which function as referential signals, were previously thought to lack such combinatorial structure. A new study of calls in the banded mongoose Mungos mungo provides the first evidence of phonocoding at the level of single calls. The first portion of the call provides cues to the identity of the caller, and the second part encodes its current activity. This provides the first example known in animals of something akin to the consonants and vowels of human speech.

  17. 76 FR 4896 - Call for Candidates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board. ACTION: Notice... Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board (FASAB) is currently seeking candidates (candidates must...

  18. Russian Prime Minister Calls the Station Crew

    NASA Video Gallery

    Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin called the International Space Station from the Russian Mission Control Center in Korolev, Russia, on Jan. 11, 2011. Putin also offered his condolences to ISS ...

  19. President Obama Calls Atlantis and Station Crews

    NASA Video Gallery

    President Barack Obama called the crews of Atlantis and the International Space Station today, noting that the final shuttle mission also "ushers in an exciting new era to push the frontiers of spa...

  20. ALG: automated genotype calling of Luminex assays.

    PubMed

    Bourgey, Mathieu; Lariviere, Mathieu; Richer, Chantal; Sinnett, Daniel

    2011-05-06

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most commonly used polymorphic markers in genetics studies. Among the different platforms for SNP genotyping, Luminex is one of the less exploited mainly due to the lack of a robust (semi-automated and replicable) freely available genotype calling software. Here we describe a clustering algorithm that provides automated SNP calls for Luminex genotyping assays. We genotyped 3 SNPs in a cohort of 330 childhood leukemia patients, 200 parents of patient and 325 healthy individuals and used the Automated Luminex Genotyping (ALG) algorithm for SNP calling. ALG genotypes were called twice to test for reproducibility and were compared to sequencing data to test for accuracy. Globally, this analysis demonstrates the accuracy (99.6%) of the method, its reproducibility (99.8%) and the low level of no genotyping calls (3.4%). The high efficiency of the method proves that ALG is a suitable alternative to the current commercial software. ALG is semi-automated, and provides numerical measures of confidence for each SNP called, as well as an effective graphical plot. Moreover ALG can be used either through a graphical user interface, requiring no specific informatics knowledge, or through command line with access to the open source code. The ALG software has been implemented in R and is freely available for non-commercial use either at http://alg.sourceforge.net or by request to mathieu.bourgey@umontreal.ca.

  1. On call: alert or unsafe? A report of the AORN on-call electronic task force.

    PubMed

    Kenyon, Trudy A G; Gluesing, Rebecca E; White, Karen Y; Dunkel, Wanda L; Burlingame, Byron L

    2007-10-01

    Research has linked health care providers' long work hours with patient care errors. Perioperative staff members often work extended hours because of long shifts and being on call. AORN's on-call electronic task force conducted a survey of nurses to determine their work load, call scheduling, and experiences related to fatigue. Of the 1,013 respondents, 67.7% said they had experienced effects of sleep deprivation. A follow-up survey revealed that few call programs are in compliance with AORN's recommended practices. Compliant call programs are detailed for adaptation in other perioperative settings.

  2. Energetic cost of calling: general constraints and species-specific differences.

    PubMed

    Ophir, A G; Schrader, S B; Gillooly, J F

    2010-07-01

    The energetic cost of acoustic signalling varies tremendously among species. Understanding factors responsible for this heterogeneity is important for understanding the costs and benefits of signalling. Here, we present a general model, based on well-established principles of bioenergetics, which predicts the energetic cost of call production across species. We test model predictions using an extensive database of resting and calling metabolic rates of insects, amphibians and birds. Results are largely supportive of model predictions. Calling metabolic rates scale predictably with body mass and temperature such that calling and resting metabolic rates are directly proportional to each other. The cost of acoustic signalling is approximately 8 times higher than resting metabolic rate in ectotherms, and approximately 2 times higher in birds. Differences in the increase in metabolic rate during calling are explained by the relative size of species' sound-producing muscles. Combined with published work, we quantify call efficiency and discuss model implications.

  3. A micro-geography of fear: learning to eavesdrop on alarm calls of neighbouring heterospecifics

    PubMed Central

    Magrath, Robert D.; Bennett, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    Many vertebrates eavesdrop on alarm calls of other species, which is a remarkable ability, given geographical variation in community composition and call diversity within and among species. We used micro-geographical variation in community composition to test whether individuals recognize heterospecific alarm calls by: (i) responding to acoustic features shared among alarm calls; (ii) having innate responses to particular heterospecific calls; or (iii) learning specific alarm calls. We found that superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus) fled to cover to playback of noisy miner (Manorina melanocephala) aerial predator alarm calls only in locations where miners were present, suggesting that learning rather than acoustic structure determines response. Sites with and without miners were well within the dispersal distance of fairy-wrens, and philopatric males and dispersing females showed the same pattern, so that local genetic adaptation is extremely unlikely. Furthermore, where miners were present, fairy-wrens responded appropriately to different miner calls, implying eavesdropping on their signalling system rather than fleeing from miners themselves. Learned eavesdropping on alarm calls enables individuals to harvest ecologically relevant information from heterospecifics on an astonishingly fine spatial scale. Such phenotypic plasticity is valuable in a changing world, where individuals can be exposed to new species. PMID:21849313

  4. Close-Call Action Log Form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spuler, Linda M.; Ford, Patricia K.; Skeete, Darren C.; Hershman, Scot; Raviprakash, Pushpa; Arnold, John W.; Tran, Victor; Haenze, Mary Alice

    2005-01-01

    "Close Call Action Log Form" ("CCALF") is the name of both a computer program and a Web-based service provided by the program for creating an enhanced database of close calls (in the colloquial sense of mishaps that were avoided by small margins) assigned to the Center Operations Directorate (COD) at Johnson Space Center. CCALF provides a single facility for on-line collaborative review of close calls. Through CCALF, managers can delegate responses to employees. CCALF utilizes a pre-existing e-mail system to notify managers that there are close calls to review, but eliminates the need for the prior practices of passing multiple e-mail messages around the COD, then collecting and consolidating them into final responses: CCALF now collects comments from all responders for incorporation into reports that it generates. Also, whereas it was previously necessary to manually calculate metrics (e.g., numbers of maintenance-work orders necessitated by close calls) for inclusion in the reports, CCALF now computes the metrics, summarizes them, and displays them in graphical form. The reports and all pertinent information used to generate the reports are logged, tracked, and retained by CCALF for historical purposes.

  5. Contextualized Approach to Language and Literacy (Project CALL): Capitalizing on Varied Activities and Contexts to Teach Early Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culatta, Barbara; Hall, Kendra; Kovarsky, Dana; Theadore, Geraldine

    2007-01-01

    In a federally funded early literacy project, various instructional activities were embedded into an array of classroom contexts to provide supplemental literacy instruction and to contrast children's engagement and participation in different contexts and participant structures. The study was conducted with English- and Spanish-speaking children…

  6. Dispatching function calls across accelerator devices

    DOEpatents

    Jacob, Arpith C.; Sallenave, Olivier H.

    2017-01-10

    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method for dispatching a function call includes receiving, at a supervisor processing element (PE) and from an origin PE, an identifier of a target device, a stack frame of the origin PE, and an address of a function called from the origin PE. The supervisor PE allocates a target PE of the target device. The supervisor PE copies the stack frame of the origin PE to a new stack frame on a call stack of the target PE. The supervisor PE instructs the target PE to execute the function. The supervisor PE receives a notification that execution of the function is complete. The supervisor PE copies the stack frame of the target PE to the stack frame of the origin PE. The supervisor PE releases the target PE of the target device. The supervisor PE instructs the origin PE to resume execution of the program.

  7. Dispatching function calls across accelerator devices

    DOEpatents

    Jacob, Arpith C.; Sallenave, Olivier H.

    2017-01-17

    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method for dispatching a function call includes receiving, at a supervisor processing element (PE) and from an origin PE, an identifier of a target device, a stack frame of the origin PE, and an address of a function called from the origin PE. The supervisor PE allocates a target PE of the target device. The supervisor PE copies the stack frame of the origin PE to a new stack frame on a call stack of the target PE. The supervisor PE instructs the target PE to execute the function. The supervisor PE receives a notification that execution of the function is complete. The supervisor PE copies the stack frame of the target PE to the stack frame of the origin PE. The supervisor PE releases the target PE of the target device. The supervisor PE instructs the origin PE to resume execution of the program.

  8. Speech privacy in customer service call centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foulkes, Timothy

    2005-09-01

    Customer service call centers are a special type of open plan office with different design considerations and different acoustical goals. Workers want a high degree of visual and verbal contact with adjacent members of their team, but customers do not want to hear crosstalk from other conversations. Achieving the correct balance between these conflicting goals is a challenge for the architect and acoustic consultant. This paper will present several case studies of different call centers with acoustic measurements, user comments, and other subjective assessment methods.

  9. Time varying networks and the weakness of strong ties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karsai, Márton; Perra, Nicola; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2014-02-01

    In most social and information systems the activity of agents generates rapidly evolving time-varying networks. The temporal variation in networks' connectivity patterns and the ongoing dynamic processes are usually coupled in ways that still challenge our mathematical or computational modelling. Here we analyse a mobile call dataset and find a simple statistical law that characterize the temporal evolution of users' egocentric networks. We encode this observation in a reinforcement process defining a time-varying network model that exhibits the emergence of strong and weak ties. We study the effect of time-varying and heterogeneous interactions on the classic rumour spreading model in both synthetic, and real-world networks. We observe that strong ties severely inhibit information diffusion by confining the spreading process among agents with recurrent communication patterns. This provides the counterintuitive evidence that strong ties may have a negative role in the spreading of information across networks.

  10. Intra- and interspecific responses to Rafinesque’s big-eared bat (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) social calls.

    SciTech Connect

    Loeb, Susan, C.; Britzke, Eric, R.

    2010-07-01

    Bats respond to the calls of conspecifics as well as to calls of other species; however, few studies have attempted to quantify these responses or understand the functions of these calls. We tested the response of Rafinesque’s big-eared bats (Corynorhinus rafinesquii) to social calls as a possible method to increase capture success and to understand the function of social calls. We also tested if calls of bats within the range of the previously designated subspecies differed, if the responses of Rafinesque’s big-eared bats varied with geographic origin of the calls, and if other species responded to the calls of C. rafinesquii. We recorded calls of Rafinesque’s big-eared bats at two colony roost sites in South Carolina, USA. Calls were recorded while bats were in the roosts and as they exited. Playback sequences for each site were created by copying typical pulses into the playback file. Two mist nets were placed approximately 50–500 m from known roost sites; the net with the playback equipment served as the Experimental net and the one without the equipment served as the Control net. Call structures differed significantly between the Mountain and Coastal Plains populations with calls from the Mountains being of higher frequency and longer duration. Ten of 11 Rafinesque’s big-eared bats were caught in the Control nets and, 13 of 19 bats of other species were captured at Experimental nets even though overall bat activity did not differ significantly between Control and Experimental nets. Our results suggest that Rafinesque’s big-eared bats are not attracted to conspecifics’ calls and that these calls may act as an intraspecific spacing mechanism during foraging.

  11. Twelve years of tracking 52-Hz whale calls from a unique source in the North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, William A.; Daher, Mary Ann; George, Joseph E.; Rodriguez, David

    2004-12-01

    A unique whale call with 50-52 Hz emphasis from a single source has been tracked over 12 years in the central and eastern North Pacific. These calls, referred to as 52-Hz calls, were monitored and analyzed from acoustic data recorded by hydrophones of the US Navy Sound Surveillance System (SOSUS) and other arrays. The calls were noticed first in 1989, and have been detected and tracked since 1992. No other calls with similar characteristics have been identified in the acoustic data from any hydrophone system in the North Pacific basin. Only one series of these 52-Hz calls has been recorded at a time, with no call overlap, suggesting that a single whale produced the calls. The calls were recorded from August to February with most in December and January. The species producing these calls is unknown. The tracks of the 52-Hz whale were different each year, and varied in length from 708 to 11,062 km with travel speeds ranging from 0.7 to 3.8 km/h. Tracks included (A) meandering over short ranges, (B) predominantly west-to-east movement, and (C) mostly north-to-south travel. These tracks consistently appeared to be unrelated to the presence or movement of other whale species (blue, fin and humpback) monitored year-round with the same hydrophones.

  12. CALL--Past, Present, and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bax, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Provides a critical examination and reassessment of the history of computer assisted language learning (CALL), and argues for three new strategies--restricted, open, and integrated. Offers definitions and descriptions of the three approaches and argues that they allow a more detailed analysis of institutions and classrooms than earlier analyses.…

  13. Why We Like to Call Ourselves Latinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzlez, Christina; Gandara, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the complex and subtle reasons why many people of Spanish-speaking ancestry, both Latin Americans and Spaniards, like to call themselves Latinos. Among other things, this word, coined by the Mediterranean countries to resist Anglo dominance in the 19th century, is currently being used by people of Spanish-speaking ancestry…

  14. Bridging CALL & HCI: Input from Participatory Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Participatory design (PD), or the collaboration between software engineers and end users throughout the design process, may help improve CALL design practices. In this case study, four ESL learners, a software designer, and a language teacher created and evaluated a series of paper prototypes concerning help options in computer-based second…

  15. Becoming a Strategic Language Learner in CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Andrew D.

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines what it means to be a strategic language learner in the context of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL). It looks at the possible roles for language learner strategies at their crucial intersection with language learning technology. We will first consider what language learner strategies have been represented in…

  16. School-Turnaround Call Points Up Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. secretary of education's call to "turn around" the nation's 5,000 worst-performing schools has found a warm welcome among educators and policy makers who see that focus as long overdue. But it has also sparked debate about how--and whether--such an enormous leadership and management challenge can be accomplished. U.S. Secretary of…

  17. A Simple Selection System Called "Jobmatch."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheibar, Paul

    1979-01-01

    An automated candidate-job matching system called "Jobmatch" has been implemented at Citibank, in New York City, involving job analysis, performance appraisal techniques, clerical employment, and internal mobility. A job task scale is used by supervisor and employee to determine job and candidate matching through a series of computer…

  18. 76 FR 36130 - Call for Candidates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

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  19. Learner Activities in a Collaborative CALL Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses different research approaches in CALL and makes a case for applying grounded theory (GT) to data gathered from an electronic role-play conducted in L2. The article shows that this method can help gain a better understanding of what learners do when engaged in the task. Through the process of open coding, four…

  20. Academic Freedom: A Call for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochoa, Anna

    The need for research on academic freedom as it applies to the K-12 level is addressed. The existing literature in the area of academic freedom, while often critical, rhetorical, and prescriptive, never calls for research. Indeed, there are very few examples of research in this area. Two separate ERIC (Educational Research Information Center)…

  1. "The Call of the Wild": Thematic Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinsen, Tammy

    This unit intends for students to explore various literary devices such as theme, characterization, and vocabulary while they read Jack London's "The Call of the Wild." While reading this text, students will explore the relationship of these devices in connection to the unit's overall theme: survival. Students will be exposed to history,…

  2. Web-Based CALL to Listening Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Li-Mei; Zhang, Ruiming

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated effectiveness of Web-based CALL on listening comprehension. Both students' academic performance and attitudes were examined. T-tests were used to analyze the results of students' academic performance. Descriptive statistics interpreted students' attitudes toward this learning. Students' participation was also recorded.…

  3. Authenticity in CALL: Three Domains of "Realness"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buendgens-Kosten, Judith

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the role of authenticity and authenticity claims in computer assisted language learning (CALL). It considers authenticity as the result of a social negotiation process rather than an innate feature of a text, object, person, or activity. From this basis, it argues that authenticity claims play an important role in both second…

  4. The TATL Framework for CALL Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ni Chiaráin, Neasa; Ni Chasaide, Ailbhe

    2015-01-01

    The Theory Actions Technology Learner context (TATL) framework provides an initial analysis tool to guide Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) development. It entails joint consideration of four key factors that need to be considered prior and during development activities: (1) the underlying pedagogical theory; (2) the learning tasks…

  5. Modeling Learning Processes in Lexical CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodfellow, Robin; Laurillard, Diana

    1994-01-01

    Studies the performance of a novice Spanish student using a Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) system designed for vocabulary enlargement. Results indicate that introspective evidence may be used to validate performance data within a theoretical framework that characterizes the learning approach as "surface" or "deep." (25 references)…

  6. A History of Commitment in CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Joan

    The evolution of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is examined, focusing on what has changed and what has not changed much during that time. A variety of changes are noted: the development of multimedia capabilities, color, animation, and technical improvement of audio and video quality; availability of databases, better fit between…

  7. Using Software Design Methods in CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Monica

    2006-01-01

    The phrase "software design" is not one that arouses the interest of many CALL practitioners, particularly those from a humanities background. However, software design essentials are simply logical ways of going about designing a system. The fundamentals include modularity, anticipation of change, generality and an incremental approach. While CALL…

  8. A Call for School Counseling Practitioner Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaffenberger, Carol J.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the repeated call to increase the number of practitioner research manuscripts being published in counseling publications, practitioner research accounts for less than five percent of all manuscripts published. This article describes the challenges faced by practitioners seeking to publish their research, defines practitioner research, and…

  9. School-Turnaround Call Points Up Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. secretary of education's call to "turn around" the nation's 5,000 worst-performing schools has found a warm welcome among educators and policymakers who see that focus as long overdue. But it has also sparked debate about how--and whether--such an enormous leadership and management challenge can be accomplished. Secretary of…

  10. Calling dynamics and call synchronization in a local group of unison bout callers.

    PubMed

    Jones, Douglas L; Jones, Russell L; Ratnam, Rama

    2014-01-01

    In many species of chorusing frogs, callers can rapidly adjust their call timing with reference to neighboring callers so as to maintain call rate while minimizing acoustic interference. The rules governing the interactions, in particular, who is listening to whom are largely unknown, presumably influenced by distance between callers, caller density, and intensities of interfering calls. We report vocal interactions in a unison bout caller, the green tree frog (Hyla cinerea). Using a microphone array, we monitored bouts from a local group of six callers embedded in a larger chorus. Data were analyzed in a 21-min segment at the peak of the chorus. Callers within this group were localized and their voices were separated for analysis of spatio-temporal interactions. We show that callers in this group: (1) synchronize with one another, (2) prefer to time their calls antiphonally, almost exactly at one-third and two-thirds of the call intervals of their neighbors, (3) tolerate call collision when antiphonal calling is not possible, and (4) perform discrete phase-hopping between three preferred phases when tracking other callers. Further, call collision increases and phase-locking decreases, with increasing inter-caller spacing. We conclude that the precise phase-positioning, phase-tracking, and phase-hopping minimizes acoustic jamming while maintaining chorus synchrony.

  11. Adult Vampire Bats Produce Contact Calls When Isolated: Acoustic Variation by Species, Population, Colony, and Individual

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Gerald G.; Logsdon, Ryane; Arnold, Bryan D.; Menchaca, Angelica; Medellin, Rodrigo A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Bat pups produce individually distinct isolation calls to facilitate maternal recognition. Increasing evidence suggests that, in group-living bat species, adults often use similar calls to maintain contact. We investigated if isolated adults from all three species of the highly cooperative vampire bats (Phyllostomidae: Desmodontinae) would produce vocally distinct contact calls when physically isolated. Methods/Principal Findings We assessed variation in contact calls recorded from isolated captive and wild-caught adult common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus), white-winged vampire bats (Diaemus youngi) and hairy-legged vampire bats (Diphylla ecaudata). We compared species-typical contact call structure, and used information theory and permuted discriminate function analyses to examine call structure variation, and to determine if the individuality of contact calls is encoded by different call features across species and populations. We found that isolated adult vampire bats produce contact calls that vary by species, population, colony, and individual. However, much variation occurred within a single context and individual. We estimated signature information for captive Diaemus (same colony), captive Desmodus (same colony), and wild Desmodus (different colonies) at 3.21, 3.26, and 3.88 bits, respectively. Contact calls from a captive colony of Desmodus were less individually distinct than calls from wild-caught Desmodus from different colonies. Both the degree of individuality and parameters encoding individuality differed between the bats from a single captive colony and the wild-caught individuals from different groups. This result is consistent with, but not sufficient evidence of, vocal convergence in groups. Conclusion Our results show that adult vampire bats of all three species produce highly variable contact calls when isolated. Contact calls contain sufficient information for vocal discrimination, but also possess more intra-individual variation

  12. Variant Calling From Next Generation Sequence Data.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Nancy F

    2016-01-01

    The use of next generation nucleotide sequencing to discover and genotype small sequence variants has led to numerous insights into the molecular causes of various diseases. This chapter describes the use of freely available software to align next generation sequencing reads to a reference and then to use the resulting alignments to call, annotate, view, and filter small sequence variants. The suggested variant calling workflow includes read alignment with novoalign, the removal of polymerase chain reaction duplicate sequences with samtools or bamUtils, and the detection of variants with Freebayes or bam2mpg software. ANNOVAR is then used to annotate the predicted variants using gene models, population frequencies, and predicted mutation severity, producing variant files which can be viewed and filtered with the variant display tool VarSifter.

  13. Adjusting Permittivity by Blending Varying Ratios of SWNTs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tour, James M.; Stephenson, Jason J.; Higginbotham, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    A new composite material of singlewalled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) displays radio frequency (0 to 1 GHz) permittivity properties that can be adjusted based upon the nanotube composition. When varying ratios of raw to functionalized SWNTs are blended into the silicone elastomer matrix at a total loading of 0.5 percent by weight, a target real permittivity value can be obtained between 70 and 3. This has particular use for designing materials for microwave lenses, microstrips, filters, resonators, high-strength/low-weight electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding, antennas, waveguides, and low-loss magneto-dielectric products for applications like radome construction.

  14. Evaluating erroneous offside calls in soccer

    PubMed Central

    Hüttermann, Stefanie; Noël, Benjamin; Memmert, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The ability to simultaneously attend to multiple objects declines with increases in the visual angle separating distant objects. We explored whether these laboratory-measured limits on visual attentional spread generalize to a real life context: offside calls by soccer assistant referees. We coded all offside calls from a full year of first division German soccer matches. By determining the x-y coordinates of the relevant players and assistant referee on the soccer field we were able to calculate how far assistant referees had to spread their visual attention to perform well. Counterintuitively, assistant referees made fewer errors when they were farther away from the action due to an advantageous (smaller) visual angle on the game action. The pattern held even when we accounted for individual differences in a laboratory-based attentional spread measure of ten of the assistant referees. Our finding that errors are linked to smaller visual angles may explain the complaints of fans in some situations: Those seated directly behind the assistant referee, further from the players, might actually have it easier to make the right call because the relevant players would form a smaller visual angle. PMID:28333996

  15. Mobbing calls signal predator category in a kin group-living bird species.

    PubMed

    Griesser, Michael

    2009-08-22

    Many prey species gather together to approach and harass their predators despite the associated risks. While mobbing, prey usually utter calls and previous experiments have demonstrated that mobbing calls can convey information about risk to conspecifics. However, the risk posed by predators also differs between predator categories. The ability to communicate predator category would be adaptive because it would allow other mobbers to adjust their risk taking. I tested this idea in Siberian jays Perisoreus infaustus, a group-living bird species, by exposing jay groups to mounts of three hawk and three owl species of varying risks. Groups immediately approached to mob the mount and uttered up to 14 different call types. Jays gave more calls when mobbing a more dangerous predator and when in the presence of kin. Five call types were predator-category-specific and jays uttered two hawk-specific and three owl-specific call types. Thus, this is one of the first studies to demonstrate that mobbing calls can simultaneously encode information about both predator category and the risk posed by a predator. Since antipredator calls of Siberian jays are known to specifically aim at reducing the risk to relatives, kin-based sociality could be an important factor in facilitating the evolution of predator-category-specific mobbing calls.

  16. Mobbing calls signal predator category in a kin group-living bird species

    PubMed Central

    Griesser, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Many prey species gather together to approach and harass their predators despite the associated risks. While mobbing, prey usually utter calls and previous experiments have demonstrated that mobbing calls can convey information about risk to conspecifics. However, the risk posed by predators also differs between predator categories. The ability to communicate predator category would be adaptive because it would allow other mobbers to adjust their risk taking. I tested this idea in Siberian jays Perisoreus infaustus, a group-living bird species, by exposing jay groups to mounts of three hawk and three owl species of varying risks. Groups immediately approached to mob the mount and uttered up to 14 different call types. Jays gave more calls when mobbing a more dangerous predator and when in the presence of kin. Five call types were predator-category-specific and jays uttered two hawk-specific and three owl-specific call types. Thus, this is one of the first studies to demonstrate that mobbing calls can simultaneously encode information about both predator category and the risk posed by a predator. Since antipredator calls of Siberian jays are known to specifically aim at reducing the risk to relatives, kin-based sociality could be an important factor in facilitating the evolution of predator-category-specific mobbing calls. PMID:19474047

  17. The differences in transmission properties of two bird calls show relation to their specific functions.

    PubMed

    Piza, Paola; Sandoval, Luis

    2016-12-01

    When vocalizations transmit throughout the environment, attenuation and degradation may change the information of the signal; the loss of information is related to changes in both frequency and duration of vocalizations. The variation in frequency and duration of bird calls is related to the functions of each call type. Using a sound transmission experiment, the authors tested the transmission properties of two call types both produced by white-eared ground-sparrows Melozone leucotis; these calls vary in frequency and duration, suggesting that they may transmit at different distances. The authors broadcasted and re-recorded each call type at four different distances (4, 8, 16, and 32 m) inside ground-sparrow territories. The authors found that calls with a narrow bandwidth and longer duration transmitted at longer distances, and showed a lower attenuation and degradation than the calls with a broad bandwidth and shorter duration. These results support the relationship between the transmission properties of a call and the different functions (short and long distance communication) also evidence how the selection of these calls facilitates the communication over different distances.

  18. Adoption activities on the Internet: a call for regulation.

    PubMed

    Roby, Jini L; White, Holly

    2010-07-01

    There is a growing practice of adoption services on the Internet with varying degrees of regulation, depending on whether it is domestic infant adoption, public foster care adoption, or international adoption. Regulation is particularly lacking in domestic infant adoptions, with Web sites connecting prospective birth and adoptive parents, sometimes through an adoption brokerage service. International adoptions can also be plagued by unethical practices as the Internet has become available in both developed and developing countries. These activities, although offering the benefits of privacy and convenience, also pose serious problems of potential fraud, exploitation, and, most important, lack of professional consideration of the child's best interest. In this article, the authors review the landscape of current Internet-based adoption activities, examine the benefits and risks of Internet-based adoption activities, and call for social work self-regulation and leadership.

  19. Communication calls of Japanese pipistrelle bats: Examination by acoustic characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osawa, Yoshiki; Kondo, Yoko; Nagato, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Riquimaroux, Hiroshi

    2005-09-01

    We classified communication calls of Japanese pipistrelle bats (Pipistrellus abramus) by acoustic characteristics D. The Japanese pipistrelles emitted communication calls that were completely different from FM echolocation calls. Data showed that in general duration of communication calls was longer than that of echolocation calls (e.g., echolocation call, 1 ms; long CF communication call, 50 ms) and that frequency of commu-nication calls were lower than that of echolocation calls (e.g., echolocation call, 80-40 kHz; long CF communication call, about 14 kHz). Typical classified communication calls were as follows: slightly short CF call (20 ms, 14 kHz), short CF call (5 ms, 14 kHz), slightly long CF call (30 ms, 14 kHz), long CF call (50 ms, 14 kHz), slightly long FM call (15 ms, 30-15 kHz), long FM call (20 ms, 25-15 kHz), complicated FM call (10-50 ms, 25-15 kHz), short intermittent CF call (1 ms, 14 kHz) and noise call (20-100 ms, below 60 kHz). Details will be discussed more specifically. [Research supported by a grant to RCAST at Doshisha Univ. from MEXT and by the Innovative Cluster Creation Project promoted by MEXT.

  20. Hydride compositions

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Myung, W.

    1994-01-01

    Disclosed are a composition for use in storing hydrogen and a method for making the composition. The composition comprises a mixture of two or more hydrides, each hydride having a different series of hydrogen sorption isotherms that contribute to the overall isotherms of the mixture. The hydrides are chosen so that the isotherms of the mixture have regions wherein the H equilibrium pressure increases with increasing hydrogen, preferably linearly. The isotherms of the mixture can be adjusted by selecting hydrides with different isotherms and by varying the amounts of the individual hydrides, or both. Preferably, the mixture is made up of hydrides that have isotherms with substantially flat plateaus and in nearly equimolar amounts. The composition is activated by degassing, exposing to H, and then heating below the softening temperature of any of the constituents. When the composition is used to store hydrogen, its hydrogen content can be found simply by measuring P{sub H}{sub 2} and determining H/M from the isothermic function of the composition.

  1. Hydride compositions

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Myung W.

    1995-01-01

    A composition for use in storing hydrogen, and a method for making the composition. The composition comprises a mixture of two or more hydrides, each hydride having a different series of hydrogen sorption isotherms that contribute to the overall isotherms of the mixture. The hydrides are chosen so that the isotherms of the mixture have regions wherein the hydrogen equilibrium pressure increases with increasing hydrogen, preferably linearly. The isotherms of the mixture can be adjusted by selecting hydrides with different isotherms and by varying the amounts of the individual hydrides, or both. Preferably, the mixture is made up of hydrides that have isotherms with substantially flat plateaus and in nearly equimolar amounts. The composition is activated by degassing, exposing to hydrogen and then heating at a temperature below the softening temperature of any of the. constituents so that their chemical and structural integrity is preserved. When the composition is used to store hydrogen, its hydrogen content can be found simply by measuring P.sub.H.sbsb.2 and determining H/M from the isothermic function of the composition.

  2. Calling patterns in human communication dynamics.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Wen-Jie; Li, Ming-Xia; Podobnik, Boris; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H Eugene

    2013-01-29

    Modern technologies not only provide a variety of communication modes (e.g., texting, cell phone conversation, and online instant messaging), but also detailed electronic traces of these communications between individuals. These electronic traces indicate that the interactions occur in temporal bursts. Here, we study intercall duration of communications of the 100,000 most active cell phone users of a Chinese mobile phone operator. We confirm that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution with an exponential cutoff at the population level but find differences when focusing on individual users. We apply statistical tests at the individual level and find that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution for only 3,460 individuals (3.46%). The intercall durations for the majority (73.34%) follow a Weibull distribution. We quantify individual users using three measures: out-degree, percentage of outgoing calls, and communication diversity. We find that the cell phone users with a power-law duration distribution fall into three anomalous clusters: robot-based callers, telecom fraud, and telephone sales. This information is of interest to both academics and practitioners, mobile telecom operators in particular. In contrast, the individual users with a Weibull duration distribution form the fourth cluster of ordinary cell phone users. We also discover more information about the calling patterns of these four clusters (e.g., the probability that a user will call the c(r)-th most contact and the probability distribution of burst sizes). Our findings may enable a more detailed analysis of the huge body of data contained in the logs of massive users.

  3. Calling patterns in human communication dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Wen-Jie; Li, Ming-Xia; Podobnik, Boris; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Modern technologies not only provide a variety of communication modes (e.g., texting, cell phone conversation, and online instant messaging), but also detailed electronic traces of these communications between individuals. These electronic traces indicate that the interactions occur in temporal bursts. Here, we study intercall duration of communications of the 100,000 most active cell phone users of a Chinese mobile phone operator. We confirm that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution with an exponential cutoff at the population level but find differences when focusing on individual users. We apply statistical tests at the individual level and find that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution for only 3,460 individuals (3.46%). The intercall durations for the majority (73.34%) follow a Weibull distribution. We quantify individual users using three measures: out-degree, percentage of outgoing calls, and communication diversity. We find that the cell phone users with a power-law duration distribution fall into three anomalous clusters: robot-based callers, telecom fraud, and telephone sales. This information is of interest to both academics and practitioners, mobile telecom operators in particular. In contrast, the individual users with a Weibull duration distribution form the fourth cluster of ordinary cell phone users. We also discover more information about the calling patterns of these four clusters (e.g., the probability that a user will call the cr-th most contact and the probability distribution of burst sizes). Our findings may enable a more detailed analysis of the huge body of data contained in the logs of massive users. PMID:23319645

  4. Inhibitors of calling behavior of Plodia interpunctella

    PubMed Central

    Hirashima, Akinori; Shigeta, Yoko; Eiraku, Tomohiko; Kuwano, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    Some octopamine agonists were found to suppress the calling behavior of the stored product Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella. Compounds were screened using a calling behavior bioassay using female P. interpunctella. Four active derivatives, with inhibitory activity at the nanomolar range, were identified in order of decreasing activity: 2-(1-phenylethylamino)-2-oxazoline > 2-(2-ethyl,6-methylanilino)oxazolidine > 2-(2-methyl benzylamino)-2-thiazoline > 2-(2,6-diethylanilino)thiazolidine. Three-dimensional pharmacophore hypotheses were built from a set of 15 compounds. Among the ten common-featured models generated by the program Catalyst/HipHop, a hypothesis including a hydrogen-bond acceptor lipid, a hydrophobic aromatic and two hydrophobic aliphatic features was considered to be essential for inhibitory activity in the calling behavior. Active compounds mapped well onto all the hydrogen-bond acceptor lipid, hydrophobic aromatic and hydrophobic aliphatic features of the hypothesis. On the other hand, less active compounds were shown not to achieve the energetically favorable conformation that is found in the active molecules in order to fit the 3D common-feature pharmacophore models. The present studies demonstrate that inhibition of calling behavior is via an octopamine receptor. Abbreviation: AII 2-(arylimino)imidazolidine AIO 2-(arylimino)oxazolidine AIT 2-(arylimino)thiazolidine CBO 2-(4-chlorobenzylamino)-2-(4-phenyl)oxazoline CDM chlordimeform Confs number of conformers DIP 2-(2,6-diethylphenylimino)piperidine Features/Confs total number of features divided by the number of conformers (summed over the entire family of conformers) HBA hydrogen-bond acceptor HBAl hydrogen-bond acceptor lipid HBD hydrogen-bond donor Hp hydrophobic HpAl hydrophobic aliphatic HpAr hydrophobic aromatic mp melting point MTO 2-(3-methyl benzylthio)-2-oxazoline NI negative ionizable NIO 2-(1-naphthylimino)oxazolidine OA octopamine ODA 2-phenyl-5,6-dihydro-4H-1,3,4-oxadiazine

  5. Gene Calling Standards (GSC8 Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Kyrpides, Nikos [Genome Biology Program, DOE JGI

    2016-07-12

    The Genomic Standards Consortium was formed in September 2005. It is an international, open-membership working body which promotes standardization in the description of genomes and the exchange and integration of genomic data. The 2009 meeting was an activity of a five-year funding "Research Coordination Network" from the National Science Foundation and was organized held at the DOE Joint Genome Institute with organizational support provided by the JGI and by the University of California - San Diego. Nikos Kyrpides of the DOE Joint Genome Institute discusses gene calling standards at the Genomic Standards Consortium's 8th meeting at the DOE JGI in Walnut Creek, Calif. on Sept. 10, 2009.

  6. [Emergency calls in the Samu system].

    PubMed

    Barrier, G

    2001-07-01

    The French emergency medical system is public and medical. Named Samu, it is almost entirely managed by anesthesiologists specially trained for emergency medical assistance and advanced medical support. The system comprises a reception and dispatching center for emergency calls, directly connected to police and firemen, but assuring patient confidentiality. This fixed center is managing mobile units which are Medical Intensive Care Ambulances (MICA named Smur in France). The Samu's mission consists in performing urgent individual medical assistance and also medical services for treatment of mass casualties. It is also to find adequate hospital units for the patients, to perform medical transport and to be a consultant for general practitioners in emergency.

  7. Report calls for Earth science education "revolution"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    With just 7% of U.S. high school students taking classes in Earth and space science, in contrast to 88% studying biology, a new report calls for a "revolution" in Earth science education in the nation's schools, from kindergarten through 12th grade.The June 2002 report, "Blueprint for Change, notes that an increased emphasis on the Earth as a system and the expanded use of Internet resources is causing Earth and space science education to undergo "a revolution that is reshaping the nature and content of what is taught."

  8. Buckling response of laminates with spatially varying fiber orientations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olmedo, Reynaldo; Gurdal, Zafer

    1993-01-01

    The buckling response of a symmetrically laminated composite panel with a spatially varying fiber orientation has been analyzed. Variation of the fiber orientation angle as a function of the position in the panel results in a composite laminate with stiffness properties that are functions of the panel coordinates. The laminates are therefore termed variable stiffness panels. The fiber orientation is assumed to vary only in one spatial direction, although the analysis can be extended to fiber orientations that vary in two spatial directions. The Ritz Method has been used to find the buckling loads and buckling modes for the variable stiffness panels for two different cases. In one of the cases the fiber orientation is assumed to change in the direction of the applied load. The other case is the one in which the fiber orientation varies in a direction perpendicular to the loading direction. Improvements in the buckling load of up to 80 percent over straight fiber configurations were found. Results for three different panel aspect ratios are presented.

  9. Calling at a cost: elevated nestling calling attracts predators to active nests.

    PubMed

    Haff, Tonya M; Magrath, Robert D

    2011-08-23

    Begging by nestling birds has been used to test evolutionary models of signalling but theory has outstripped evidence. Eavesdropping predators potentially impose a cost on begging that ensures signal honesty, yet little experimental evidence exists for such a cost at active nests because the use of artificial nests, long playback bouts and absence of parents may have exaggerated costs. We broadcast short periods (1 h) of either nestling vocalizations or background noise at active white-browed scrubwren, Sericornis frontalis, nests. Nestlings called naturally during both treatments, allowing us to test whether elevated calling increases risk, a key but rarely tested assumption of evolutionary models. Predators visited nests exclusively during periods of elevated calling. Furthermore, playbacks affected neither adult visits nor nestling activity, suggesting that calling alone attracted predators. Adults gave alarm calls and nestlings usually called less when predators approached nests. Predation risk to broods is, therefore, likely to fluctuate substantially over short periods of time, depending on nestling hunger and whether adults or young have detected predators. This study confirms a present-day cost of nestling begging, demonstrates that this cost can be incurred over short periods and supports the importance of parent-offspring antipredator strategies in reducing predation risk.

  10. Effects of noise levels and call types on the source levels of killer whale calls.

    PubMed

    Holt, Marla M; Noren, Dawn P; Emmons, Candice K

    2011-11-01

    Accurate parameter estimates relevant to the vocal behavior of marine mammals are needed to assess potential effects of anthropogenic sound exposure including how masking noise reduces the active space of sounds used for communication. Information about how these animals modify their vocal behavior in response to noise exposure is also needed for such assessment. Prior studies have reported variations in the source levels of killer whale sounds, and a more recent study reported that killer whales compensate for vessel masking noise by increasing their call amplitude. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the source levels of a variety of call types in southern resident killer whales while also considering background noise level as a likely factor related to call source level variability. The source levels of 763 discrete calls along with corresponding background noise were measured over three summer field seasons in the waters surrounding the San Juan Islands, WA. Both noise level and call type were significant factors on call source levels (1-40 kHz band, range of 135.0-175.7 dB(rms) re 1 [micro sign]Pa at 1 m). These factors should be considered in models that predict how anthropogenic masking noise reduces vocal communication space in marine mammals.

  11. Social monitoring via close calls in meerkats.

    PubMed

    Reber, Stephan A; Townsend, Simon W; Manser, Marta B

    2013-08-22

    Social monitoring of the actions of group members is thought to be a key development associated with group living. Humans constantly monitor the behaviour of others and respond to them in a flexible way depending on past interactions and the current social context. While other primates have also been reported to change their behaviour towards other group members flexibly based on the current state of their relationship, empirical evidence is typically linked to contextually specific events such as aggressive or reproductive interactions. In the cooperatively breeding meerkat (Suricata suricatta), we investigated whether subordinate females use frequently emitted, non-agonistic close calls to monitor the location of the dominant female and whether they subsequently adjust their response based on recent social interactions during conflict and non-conflict periods. Subjects discriminated between the close calls of the dominant female and control playbacks, responding by approaching the loudspeaker and displaying submissive behaviour only if they were currently threatened by eviction. Our results suggest that meerkats assess the risk for aggressive interactions with close associates depending on social circumstances, and respond accordingly. We argue that social monitoring based on non-agonistic cues is probably a common mechanism in group-living species that allows the adjustment of behaviour depending on variation in relationships.

  12. Social monitoring via close calls in meerkats

    PubMed Central

    Reber, Stephan A.; Townsend, Simon W.; Manser, Marta B.

    2013-01-01

    Social monitoring of the actions of group members is thought to be a key development associated with group living. Humans constantly monitor the behaviour of others and respond to them in a flexible way depending on past interactions and the current social context. While other primates have also been reported to change their behaviour towards other group members flexibly based on the current state of their relationship, empirical evidence is typically linked to contextually specific events such as aggressive or reproductive interactions. In the cooperatively breeding meerkat (Suricata suricatta), we investigated whether subordinate females use frequently emitted, non-agonistic close calls to monitor the location of the dominant female and whether they subsequently adjust their response based on recent social interactions during conflict and non-conflict periods. Subjects discriminated between the close calls of the dominant female and control playbacks, responding by approaching the loudspeaker and displaying submissive behaviour only if they were currently threatened by eviction. Our results suggest that meerkats assess the risk for aggressive interactions with close associates depending on social circumstances, and respond accordingly. We argue that social monitoring based on non-agonistic cues is probably a common mechanism in group-living species that allows the adjustment of behaviour depending on variation in relationships. PMID:23825208

  13. A variational image restoration with spatially varying noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Zheng; Bai, Hua; Liu, Ruihua; Shen, Chaomin

    2008-10-01

    The noise in natural images sometimes changes according to imaging mechanism or local image information. This is called spatially varying noise. It is obvious that classical variational denoising algorithms such as the Rudin-Osher-Fatemi model are not suitable for this kind of noise. We propose a variational method to remove this spatially varying noise based on the estimation of local variance for a given image, such that high noise regions are smoothed meanwhile the textures and certain details in low noise regions are preserved. Moreover, we give the proof of existence of the minimizer of our proposed functional. The experimental results show visual improvement and high signal-to-noise ratio over other variational denoising models.

  14. Temporal segregation of the Australian and Antarctic blue whale call types (Balaenoptera musculus spp.).

    PubMed

    Tripovich, Joy S; Klinck, Holger; Nieukirk, Sharon L; Adams, Tempe; Mellinger, David K; Balcazar, Naysa E; Klinck, Karolin; Hall, Evelyn J S; Rogers, Tracey L

    2015-05-22

    We examined recordings from a 15-month (May 2009-July 2010) continuous acoustic data set collected from a bottom-mounted passive acoustic recorder at a sample frequency of 6kHz off Portland, Victoria, Australia (38°33'01″S, 141°15'13″E) off southern Australia. Analysis revealed that calls from both subspecies were recorded at this site, and general additive modeling revealed that the number of calls varied significantly across seasons. Antarctic blue whales were detected more frequently from July to October 2009 and June to July 2010, corresponding to the suspected breeding season, while Australian blue whales were recorded more frequently from March to June 2010, coinciding with the feeding season. In both subspecies, the number of calls varied with time of day; Antarctic blue whale calls were more prevalent in the night to early morning, while Australian blue whale calls were detected more often from midday to early evening. Using passive acoustic monitoring, we show that each subspecies adopts different seasonal and daily call patterns which may be related to the ecological strategies of these subspecies. This study demonstrates the importance of passive acoustics in enabling us to understand and monitor subtle differences in the behavior and ecology of cryptic sympatric marine mammals.

  15. Temporal segregation of the Australian and Antarctic blue whale call types (Balaenoptera musculus spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Tripovich, Joy S.; Klinck, Holger; Nieukirk, Sharon L.; Adams, Tempe; Mellinger, David K.; Balcazar, Naysa E.; Klinck, Karolin; Hall, Evelyn J. S.; Rogers, Tracey L.

    2015-01-01

    We examined recordings from a 15-month (May 2009–July 2010) continuous acoustic data set collected from a bottom-mounted passive acoustic recorder at a sample frequency of 6kHz off Portland, Victoria, Australia (38°33′01″S, 141°15′13″E) off southern Australia. Analysis revealed that calls from both subspecies were recorded at this site, and general additive modeling revealed that the number of calls varied significantly across seasons. Antarctic blue whales were detected more frequently from July to October 2009 and June to July 2010, corresponding to the suspected breeding season, while Australian blue whales were recorded more frequently from March to June 2010, coinciding with the feeding season. In both subspecies, the number of calls varied with time of day; Antarctic blue whale calls were more prevalent in the night to early morning, while Australian blue whale calls were detected more often from midday to early evening. Using passive acoustic monitoring, we show that each subspecies adopts different seasonal and daily call patterns which may be related to the ecological strategies of these subspecies. This study demonstrates the importance of passive acoustics in enabling us to understand and monitor subtle differences in the behavior and ecology of cryptic sympatric marine mammals. PMID:26937046

  16. Calibrating passive acoustic monitoring: correcting humpback whale call detections for site-specific and time-dependent environmental characteristics.

    PubMed

    Helble, Tyler A; D'Spain, Gerald L; Campbell, Greg S; Hildebrand, John A

    2013-11-01

    This paper demonstrates the importance of accounting for environmental effects on passive underwater acoustic monitoring results. The situation considered is the reduction in shipping off the California coast between 2008-2010 due to the recession and environmental legislation. The resulting variations in ocean noise change the probability of detecting marine mammal vocalizations. An acoustic model was used to calculate the time-varying probability of detecting humpback whale vocalizations under best-guess environmental conditions and varying noise. The uncorrected call counts suggest a diel pattern and an increase in calling over a two-year period; the corrected call counts show minimal evidence of these features.

  17. Glucocorticoid and androgen signaling pathways diverge between advertisement calling and non-calling fish.

    PubMed

    Genova, Rachel M; Marchaterre, Margaret A; Knapp, Rosemary; Fergus, Daniel; Bass, Andrew H

    2012-09-01

    Behavioral and neuroendocrine mechanisms of social vocalization in teleost fish are influenced by the glucocorticoid cortisol and the androgen 11-ketotestosterone (11kT). The relative abundance of both 11kT, which binds to androgen receptors (ARα, ARβ), and cortisol, which binds to glucocorticoid receptors (GR-1, GR-2), is regulated by 11β-hydroxylase (11βH) that converts 11-deoxycortisol to cortisol and testosterone to 11β-OH-testosterone, and 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11βHSD) that converts cortisol to the inactive metabolite cortisone and 11β-OH-testosterone to 11kT. In midshipman fish, we tested the hypothesis that plasma steroid levels, mRNA abundance for 11βH and 11βHSD in the vocal muscle and testis (known site of 11kT synthesis), and mRNA abundances for ARs and GRs in vocal muscle, would differ between males that did or did not recently produce 'hum' advertisement calls. Quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that non-calling male vocal muscle had significantly higher mRNA levels for all receptors except ARα, and a strong trend for higher 11βHSD; 11βH was similar to that in calling males. Calling males had higher plasma and testis 11kT, but lower plasma cortisol, levels. Testis enzyme levels did not differ between male groups, although calling males showed a positive linear correlation between plasma 11kT and testis 11βHSD mRNA levels, consistent with testis being the main source of plasma 11kT. We propose that higher vocal muscle 11βHSD levels in non-calling males reflect increased local conversion of elevated cortisol to cortisone, providing protection from cortisol-related toxicity, while increased receptor expression in non-calling males functions as a preparatory mechanism for meeting the physiological demands of future vocalization.

  18. Time-varying Reeb Graphs: A Topological Framework Supporting the Analysis of Continuous Time-varying Data

    SciTech Connect

    Mascarenhas, Ajith Arthur

    2006-01-01

    I present time-varying Reeb graphs as a topological framework to support the analysis of continuous time-varying data. Such data is captured in many studies, including computational fluid dynamics, oceanography, medical imaging, and climate modeling, by measuring physical processes over time, or by modeling and simulating them on a computer. Analysis tools are applied to these data sets by scientists and engineers who seek to understand the underlying physical processes. A popular tool for analyzing scientific datasets is level sets, which are the points in space with a fixed data value s. Displaying level sets allows the user to study their geometry, their topological features such as connected components, handles, and voids, and to study the evolution of these features for varying s. For static data, the Reeb graph encodes the evolution of topological features and compactly represents topological information of all level sets. The Reeb graph essentially contracts each level set component to a point. It can be computed efficiently, and it has several uses: as a succinct summary of the data, as an interface to select meaningful level sets, as a data structure to accelerate level set extraction, and as a guide to remove noise. I extend these uses of Reeb graphs to time-varying data. I characterize the changes to Reeb graphs over time, and develop an algorithm that can maintain a Reeb graph data structure by tracking these changes over time. I store this sequence of Reeb graphs compactly, and call it a time-varying Reeb graph. I augment the time-varying Reeb graph with information that records the topology of level sets of all level values at all times, that maintains the correspondence of level set components over time, and that accelerates the extraction of level sets for a chosen level value and time. Scientific data sampled in space-time must be extended everywhere in this domain using an interpolant. A poor choice of interpolant can create degeneracies that are

  19. So-called Spontaneous Human Combustion.

    PubMed

    Levi-Faict, Thierry W; Quatrehomme, Gérald

    2011-09-01

    A well-documented case of so-called Spontaneous Human Combustion is reported. Review of the literature shows that these strange observations have been reported since the 17th century, even in famous novels. There are several main features that may lead to help the diagnosis: the vicinity of the body is intact or nearly intact, some parts of the body are turned into ashes (usually the middle third of the body), whereas other parts are intact or nearly intact, burning of the body usually occurs postmortem, the cause of death is usually natural, there is often (but not always) high concentrations of blood alcohol, there is a source of heat near the body. It is indispensable to rule out a homicide by the examination of the body in situ, the autopsy, the toxicological and histopathological samples, the arson assessment, and a thorough police inquiry.

  20. Acoustic signal detection of manatee calls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niezrecki, Christopher; Phillips, Richard; Meyer, Michael; Beusse, Diedrich O.

    2003-04-01

    The West Indian manatee (trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of a growing number of collisions with boats. A system to warn boaters of the presence of manatees, that can signal to boaters that manatees are present in the immediate vicinity, could potentially reduce these boat collisions. In order to identify the presence of manatees, acoustic methods are employed. Within this paper, three different detection algorithms are used to detect the calls of the West Indian manatee. The detection systems are tested in the laboratory using simulated manatee vocalizations from an audio compact disc. The detection method that provides the best overall performance is able to correctly identify ~=96% of the manatee vocalizations. However the system also results in a false positive rate of ~=16%. The results of this work may ultimately lead to the development of a manatee warning system that can warn boaters of the presence of manatees.

  1. Varying electric charge in multiscale spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcagni, Gianluca; Magueijo, João; Fernández, David Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    We derive the covariant equations of motion for Maxwell field theory and electrodynamics in multiscale spacetimes with weighted Laplacian. An effective spacetime-dependent electric charge of geometric origin naturally emerges from the theory, thus giving rise to a varying fine-structure constant. The theory is compared with other varying-coupling models, such as those with a varying electric charge or varying speed of light. The theory is also confronted with cosmological observations, which can place constraints on the characteristic scales in the multifractional measure. We note that the model considered here is fundamentally different from those previously proposed in the literature, either of the varying-e or varying-c persuasion.

  2. Development of echolocation calls and neural selectivity for echolocation calls in the pallid bat.

    PubMed

    Razak, Khaleel A; Fuzessery, Zoltan M

    2015-10-01

    Studies of birdsongs and neural selectivity for songs have provided important insights into principles of concurrent behavioral and auditory system development. Relatively little is known about mammalian auditory system development in terms of vocalizations or other behaviorally relevant sounds. This review suggests echolocating bats are suitable mammalian model systems to understand development of auditory behaviors. The simplicity of echolocation calls with known behavioral relevance and strong neural selectivity provides a platform to address how natural experience shapes cortical receptive field (RF) mechanisms. We summarize recent studies in the pallid bat that followed development of echolocation calls and cortical processing of such calls. We also discuss similar studies in the mustached bat for comparison. These studies suggest: (1) there are different developmental sensitive periods for different acoustic features of the same vocalization. The underlying basis is the capacity for some components of the RF to be modified independent of others. Some RF computations and maps involved in call processing are present even before the cochlea is mature and well before use of echolocation in flight. Others develop over a much longer time course. (2) Normal experience is required not just for refinement, but also for maintenance, of response properties that develop in an experience independent manner. (3) Experience utilizes millisecond range changes in timing of inhibitory and excitatory RF components as substrates to shape vocalization selectivity. We suggest that bat species and call diversity provide a unique opportunity to address developmental constraints in the evolution of neural mechanisms of vocalization processing.

  3. Development of echolocation calls and neural selectivity for echolocation calls in the pallid bat

    PubMed Central

    Razak, Khaleel A.; Fuzessery, Zoltan M.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of birdsongs and neural selectivity for songs have provided important insights into principles of concurrent behavioral and auditory system development. Relatively little is known about mammalian auditory system development in terms of vocalizations, or other behaviorally relevant sounds. This review suggests echolocating bats are suitable mammalian model systems to understand development of auditory behaviors. The simplicity of echolocation calls with known behavioral relevance and strong neural selectivity provides a platform to address how natural experience shapes cortical receptive field (RF) mechanisms. We summarize recent studies in the pallid bat that followed development of echolocation calls and cortical processing of such calls. We also discuss similar studies in the mustached bat for comparison. These studies suggest: (1) there are different developmental sensitive periods for different acoustic features of the same vocalization. The underlying basis is the capacity for some components of the RF to be modified independent of others. Some RF computations and maps involved in call processing are present even before the cochlea is mature and well before use of echolocation in flight. Others develop over a much longer time course. (2) Normal experience is required not just for refinement, but also for maintenance, of response properties that develop in an experience independent manner. (3) Experience utilizes millisecond range changes in timing of inhibitory and excitatory RF components as substrates to shape vocalization selectivity. We suggest that bat species and call diversity provide a unique opportunity to address developmental constraints in the evolution of neural mechanisms of vocalization processing. PMID:25142131

  4. The Call of the Dark Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This approximate true-color rendering from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows a set of darker rocks dubbed 'Toltecs' lying southeast of the rover's current position. These rocks are believed to be basaltic, or volcanic, in composition, because their spectral properties match those of other basaltic rocks studied in Gusev Crater. Scientists hope to use these presumably unaltered rocks as a geologic standard for comparison to altered rocks in the area, such as 'Clovis.' This image was taken with the panoramic camera's 600-, 530-, and 480-nanometer filters on sol 220 (Aug. 15, 2004).

  5. The Call of the Dark Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This false-color image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows a group of darker rocks dubbed 'Toltecs,' lying to the southeast of the rover's current position. The rocks are believed to be basaltic, or volcanic, in composition because their color and spectral properties resemble those of basaltic rocks studied so far at Gusev Crater. Scientists hope to use these presumably unaltered rocks as a geologic standard for comparison to altered rocks in the area, such as 'Clovis.' This image was taken by the 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters of rover's panoramic camera on sol 220 (August 15, 2004).

  6. Sharing programming resources between Bio* projects through remote procedure call and native call stack strategies.

    PubMed

    Prins, Pjotr; Goto, Naohisa; Yates, Andrew; Gautier, Laurent; Willis, Scooter; Fields, Christopher; Katayama, Toshiaki

    2012-01-01

    Open-source software (OSS) encourages computer programmers to reuse software components written by others. In evolutionary bioinformatics, OSS comes in a broad range of programming languages, including C/C++, Perl, Python, Ruby, Java, and R. To avoid writing the same functionality multiple times for different languages, it is possible to share components by bridging computer languages and Bio* projects, such as BioPerl, Biopython, BioRuby, BioJava, and R/Bioconductor. In this chapter, we compare the two principal approaches for sharing software between different programming languages: either by remote procedure call (RPC) or by sharing a local call stack. RPC provides a language-independent protocol over a network interface; examples are RSOAP and Rserve. The local call stack provides a between-language mapping not over the network interface, but directly in computer memory; examples are R bindings, RPy, and languages sharing the Java Virtual Machine stack. This functionality provides strategies for sharing of software between Bio* projects, which can be exploited more often. Here, we present cross-language examples for sequence translation, and measure throughput of the different options. We compare calling into R through native R, RSOAP, Rserve, and RPy interfaces, with the performance of native BioPerl, Biopython, BioJava, and BioRuby implementations, and with call stack bindings to BioJava and the European Molecular Biology Open Software Suite. In general, call stack approaches outperform native Bio* implementations and these, in turn, outperform RPC-based approaches. To test and compare strategies, we provide a downloadable BioNode image with all examples, tools, and libraries included. The BioNode image can be run on VirtualBox-supported operating systems, including Windows, OSX, and Linux.

  7. Fractal analysis of time varying data

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Sadana, Ajit

    2002-01-01

    Characteristics of time varying data, such as an electrical signal, are analyzed by converting the data from a temporal domain into a spatial domain pattern. Fractal analysis is performed on the spatial domain pattern, thereby producing a fractal dimension D.sub.F. The fractal dimension indicates the regularity of the time varying data.

  8. Novel shock absorber features varying yield strengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geier, D. J.

    1964-01-01

    A shock absorbent webbing of partially drawn synthetic strands is arranged in sections of varying density related to the varying mass of the human body. This is contoured to protect the body at points of contact, when subjected to large acceleration or deceleration forces.

  9. Phylogenetic influence on mating call preferences in female túngara frogs, Physalaemus pustulosus.

    PubMed

    Ryan; Rand

    1999-04-01

    We evaluated how various phylogenetic models for estimating ancestral characters can influence studies of behavioural evolution. Previously we used a single model of evolution to estimate the values of call characters at ancestral nodes for the Physalaemus pustulosus species group and some close relatives (Ryan & Rand 1995, Science, 269, 390-392). We then synthesized these ancestral calls and measured the females' responses to such calls in phonotaxis experiments. We repeated the above procedure to determine the sensitivity of these results and conclusions to various models used to estimate the ancestral call characters. We asked whether: (1) different models gave different call estimates for the same nodes; (2) different call estimates at the same node were perceived as different by females; and (3) differences in female responses influenced previous conclusions. We used seven different models that varied in at least one of the following parameters: tree topology (bifurcating versus pectinate in-group trees), algorithms (local squared-change versus squared-change parsimony), tempo (gradual or punctuated evolution), and outgroups (two or three outgroup taxa used). Although different models often gave different call estimates for the same node, these different estimates often were not perceived as different by the females. These data reinforce our previous conclusions that: (1) the range of female preferences exceeds the known variation of the conspecific call; (2) females do not discriminate between the conspecific call and the call of their most recent ancestor; and (3) female responses may be context dependent, given that females differ in their responses to the same signal variation in discrimination and recognition experiments. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  10. Neural correlates of threat perception: neural equivalence of conspecific and heterospecific mobbing calls is learned.

    PubMed

    Avey, Marc T; Hoeschele, Marisa; Moscicki, Michele K; Bloomfield, Laurie L; Sturdy, Christopher B

    2011-01-01

    Songbird auditory areas (i.e., CMM and NCM) are preferentially activated to playback of conspecific vocalizations relative to heterospecific and arbitrary noise. Here, we asked if the neural response to auditory stimulation is not simply preferential for conspecific vocalizations but also for the information conveyed by the vocalization. Black-capped chickadees use their chick-a-dee mobbing call to recruit conspecifics and other avian species to mob perched predators. Mobbing calls produced in response to smaller, higher-threat predators contain more "D" notes compared to those produced in response to larger, lower-threat predators and thus convey the degree of threat of predators. We specifically asked whether the neural response varies with the degree of threat conveyed by the mobbing calls of chickadees and whether the neural response is the same for actual predator calls that correspond to the degree of threat of the chickadee mobbing calls. Our results demonstrate that, as degree of threat increases in conspecific chickadee mobbing calls, there is a corresponding increase in immediate early gene (IEG) expression in telencephalic auditory areas. We also demonstrate that as the degree of threat increases for the heterospecific predator, there is a corresponding increase in IEG expression in the auditory areas. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the amount IEG expression between conspecific mobbing calls or heterospecific predator calls that were the same degree of threat. In a second experiment, using hand-reared chickadees without predator experience, we found more IEG expression in response to mobbing calls than corresponding predator calls, indicating that degree of threat is learned. Our results demonstrate that degree of threat corresponds to neural activity in the auditory areas and that threat can be conveyed by different species signals and that these signals must be learned.

  11. Linking Calling Orientations to Organizational Attachment via Organizational Instrumentality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardador, M. Teresa; Dane, Erik; Pratt, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Despite an emerging interest in callings, researchers know little about whether calling orientations matter in the workplace. We explore the under-examined relationship between a calling orientation and employees' attachment to their organizations. Although some theory suggests that callings may be negatively related to organizational attachment,…

  12. 47 CFR 74.791 - Digital call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Digital call signs. 74.791 Section 74.791... Booster Stations § 74.791 Digital call signs. (a) Digital low power stations. Call signs for digital low... −D. (b) Digital television translator stations. Call signs for digital television translator...

  13. 47 CFR 74.791 - Digital call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Digital call signs. 74.791 Section 74.791... Booster Stations § 74.791 Digital call signs. (a) Digital low power stations. Call signs for digital low... −D. (b) Digital television translator stations. Call signs for digital television translator...

  14. 47 CFR 74.791 - Digital call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Digital call signs. 74.791 Section 74.791... Booster Stations § 74.791 Digital call signs. (a) Digital low power stations. Call signs for digital low... −D. (b) Digital television translator stations. Call signs for digital television translator...

  15. 47 CFR 74.791 - Digital call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Digital call signs. 74.791 Section 74.791... Booster Stations § 74.791 Digital call signs. (a) Digital low power stations. Call signs for digital low... −D. (b) Digital television translator stations. Call signs for digital television translator...

  16. 25 CFR 81.5 - Request to call election.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Request to call election. 81.5 Section 81.5 Indians... FEDERAL STATUTE § 81.5 Request to call election. (a) The Secretary shall authorize the calling of an... tribal government. (b) The Secretary shall authorize the calling of an election to adopt a...

  17. 47 CFR 80.225 - Requirements for selective calling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for selective calling equipment... for selective calling equipment. This section specifies the requirements for voluntary digital selective calling (DSC) equipment and selective calling equipment installed in ship and coast stations,...

  18. CALL and Less Commonly Taught Languages: Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) researchers face many challenges in developing effective, high-quality CALL. CALL research has a very strong focus on the Most Commonly Taught Languages (MCLTs), particularly English. CALL researchers working with Less Commonly Taught Languages (LCTLs) face further constraints. LCTLs can range from…

  19. 31 CFR 348.2 - Redemption/call/reinvestment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Redemption/call/reinvestment. 348.2... COMPENSATION SECURITIES § 348.2 Redemption/call/reinvestment. (a) Redemption by financial agents. The... Management Service, Washington, DC. (b) Call by the Treasury. The securities are subject to call...

  20. Lactational evaluation of protein supplements of varying ruminal degradabilities.

    PubMed

    Henson, J E; Schingoethe, D J; Maiga, H A

    1997-02-01

    Twelve lactating Holstein cows (9 multiparous and 3 primiparous) were used in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design with three periods of 4 wk each to evaluate diets containing three protein supplements that varied in ruminally undegradable protein and amino acid (AA) composition. Diets contained either 44% crude protein (CP) solvent-extracted soybean meal, expeller (mechanically extracted) soybean meal, or a blend of animal and vegetable proteins as the protein supplement. The animal and vegetable blend consisted of equal portions of protein from blood meal, corn gluten meal, meat and bone meal, and soybean meal. All diets contained 33.3% alfalfa haylage, 16.7% corn silage, and 50% of the respective concentrate mix (dry matter basis). Diets contained 17.4, 17.8, and 17.8% CP and 34, 45, and 45% of CP as ruminally undegradable protein, respectively. Dry matter intake, milk production and composition, and body weight were similar among treatments. Uptakes of AA by the mammary gland were similar among treatments. The apparent first-limiting AA for each diet was likely Met, but Lys and Phe were also potentially limiting. Varying degrees of protein degradability and AA composition within the range of this study did not affect lactational responses, indicating that all of these protein supplements were adequate to support milk production.

  1. Diversity-stability relationship varies with latitude in zooplankton.

    PubMed

    Shurin, Jonathan B; Arnott, Shelley E; Hillebrand, Helmut; Longmuir, Allyson; Pinel-Alloul, Bernadette; Winder, Monika; Yan, Norman D

    2007-02-01

    Analyses of temporal patterns of diversity across a wide range of taxa have found that more diverse communities often show smaller compositional changes over time. This generality indicates that high diversity is associated with greater temporal stability in species composition. We examined patterns of diversity and community stability in zooplankton time series data from 36 lakes sampled over a combined 483 years. The species-time relationship was flatter in more species-rich lakes in the temperate zone. However, high-latitude lakes had both low richness and low turnover. These patterns were consistent for turnover both within and among years. Daily, annual and long-term richness were all higher in large lakes while turnover was unaffected by the surface area. Richness on all time scales, as well as turnover within and among years, all declined at high latitude. Species-area relations and latitudinal gradients in richness therefore reflect different temporal components of diversity. Our results suggest that diversity shows strong associations with compositional stability that vary qualitatively across biogeographical provinces. Community stability increases with diversity among lakes in the temperate zone; however, the two are negatively correlated across latitudinal gradients. These patterns indicate that either the direct effects of diversity on stability or their covariance with environmental fluctuations vary with latitude.

  2. Pathological aspects of so called "hilar cholangiocarcinoma"

    PubMed Central

    Castellano-Megías, Víctor M; Ibarrola-de Andrés, Carolina; Colina-Ruizdelgado, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) arising from the large intrahepatic bile ducts and extrahepatic hilar bile ducts share clinicopathological features and have been called hilar and perihilar CC as a group. However, “hilar and perihilar CC” are also used to refer exclusively to the intrahepatic hilar type CC or, more commonly, the extrahepatic hilar CC. Grossly, a major distinction can be made between papillary and non-papillary tumors. Histologically, most hilar CCs are well to moderately differentiated conventional type (biliary) carcinomas. Immunohistochemically, CK7, CK20, CEA and MUC1 are normally expressed, being MUC2 positive in less than 50% of cases. Two main premalignant lesions are known: biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (BilIN) and intraductal papillary neoplasm of the biliary tract (IPNB). IPNB includes the lesions previously named biliary papillomatosis and papillary carcinoma. A series of 29 resected hilar CC from our archives is reviewed. Most (82.8%) were conventional type adenocarcinomas, mostly well to moderately differentiated, although with a broad morphological spectrum; three cases exhibited a poorly differentiated cell component resembling signet ring cells. IPNB was observed in 5 (17.2%), four of them with an associated invasive carcinoma. A clear cell type carcinoma, an adenosquamous carcinoma and two gastric foveolar type carcinomas were observed. PMID:23919110

  3. Contemporary spirituality: a call to wholeness.

    PubMed

    Coleman, H

    1986-06-01

    Our society and thus our health care organizations are beset by a dualistic perspective that identifies some groups as embodying "masculine" characteristics that are desirable, implying that other groups are less valuable. This perspective, visible in ageism, sexism, and racism, threatens the call to live and heal as Jesus lived and healed, which is the cornerstone of the Catholic health care ministry. A contemporary wholistic spirituality must be articulated that emphasizes individual responsibility for living as a person who believes in the dignity of all persons created by God. Modifying the language of health care is one way to better reflect a wholistic orientation. Two expressions that require special attention are "health care provider" and "patient." Substituting "health care promoter" and "client" for these terms would emphasize the health care ministry's role in helping persons with health care needs to be involved in the healing process. Since a health care organization's effectiveness depends on its members' commitment to healing, it is imperative that the organization's values be modeled and communicated to the members through the organization's decisions and activities. It likewise is important that those involved in the healing ministry reflect on their spirituality, their relationships with self, God, and others, to monitor those values that affect their relationships and experiences.

  4. Another call to increase STEM education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-07-01

    As science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education becomes increasingly important, U.S. students are lagging behind other nations on international assessments, according to a recent Trends in International Mathematics and Science study. A 22 June report from the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) calls for increasing the focus on STEM education in the United States. “To make progress in improving STEM education for all students, policy makers at the national, state, and local levels should elevate science to the same level of importance as reading and mathematics,” states the report, “Successful K-12 STEM Education: Identifying Effective Approaches in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics.” It outlines several goals: expand the number of students who pursue advanced degrees and careers in STEM fields; expand the STEM-capable workforce, while also broadening the participation of women and minorities; and increase STEM literacy for all students, whether or not they pursue STEM-related careers or additional study in those areas.

  5. Call to reverse decline in ODA.

    PubMed

    1997-01-01

    In November 1997, the UN Secretary-General noted that population assistance was a development success story that has resulted in increased life expectancy, child survival, and use of family planning as well as decreased maternal mortality, family size, and population growth. Despite this success, development activities are at a critical juncture because official development assistance has dropped to its lowest level. The financial target agreed upon at the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development called for $5.7 billion from donors, yet donors are committing only a small percentage of official development assistance to population programs. The income of the UN Population Fund will drop 8-10% for 1997 with the result that critical demands for reproductive health care will not be met. Because this will have critical consequences beyond the population field, the Secretary-General appealed to all nations to contribute to the highest level possible. In response to this statement, a Japanese newspaper asked why the Japanese government had cut donations by as much as 40% and urged the government to reconsider its reductions in donations to the UN.

  6. McNamara calls for action now.

    PubMed

    1992-05-01

    Robert McNamara outlined a 6 point global family planning (FP) program he designed to expand FP services to answer unmet need. The plan calls for Fp spending to increase to US$8 billion by 2000. For the US this would mean an increase from US$800 million to US$3.5 billion. This amount is very, very small compared to the total amount spent on official development assistance projected for Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. It is easily within the capabilities of OECD countries to meet this goal. The plan would develop a system in which the World Bank and the UNFPA would work together with each developing country to establish population target levels. The World Bank would assume responsibility for organizing external financing and serve as a last resort source of financing. Japan must also begin to take a leadership role more in line with its economic power. Currently it spends only .32% of its GNP to aid developing countries, despite the fact that its per capita income is 20% larger than any other OECD member. This means raising spending form US$9 billion to US$14.5 billion. This could be done easily by raising it US$500 million/year and planning to increase this US$1 billion by 2000.

  7. Calling by Domestic Piglets during Simulated Crushing and Isolation: A Signal of Need?

    PubMed Central

    Illmann, Gudrun; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Špinka, Marek; Tallet, Céline

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether piglet distress vocalizations vary with age, body weight and health status, according to the predictions of the honest signalling of need evolutionary model. Vocalizations were recorded during manual squeezing (a simulation of being crushed by mother sow) and during isolation on Days 1 and 7 after birth in piglets from 15 litters. We predicted that during squeezing, younger, lighter and sick piglets would call more intensely because they are in higher risk of dying during crushing and therefore they benefit more from the sow’s reaction to intensive vocalization. For isolation, we predicted that lighter and younger piglets would call more because they are more vulnerable to adverse effects of the separation. Calls were analyzed in their time and frequency domain. The rate of calling, call duration, proportion of high-pitched calls and eight acoustic parameters characterizing frequency distribution and tonality were used as indicators of acoustic signalling intensity. Piglets that experienced “squeezing” on Day 1 produced more intense acoustic distress signalling than on Day 7. Lighter piglets called more during squeezing than heavier piglets. Health status did not significantly affect any of the indicators of intensity of vocalization during squeezing. In isolation, none of the parameters of vocalization intensity were affected either by the age or by the weight of the piglets. In summary, the model of honest signalling of need was confirmed in the squeezed situation, but not in the isolation situation. PMID:24349527

  8. Advertisement-call modification, male competition and female preference in the bird-voiced treefrog Hyla avivoca

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Rivera, Carlos César; Gerhardt, H. Carl

    2009-01-01

    Senders and receivers influence dynamic characteristics of the signals used for mate attraction over different time scales. On a moment-to-moment basis, interactions among senders competing for a mate influence dynamic characteristics, whereas the preferences of receivers of the opposite gender exert an influence over evolutionary time. We observed and recorded the calling patterns of the bird-voiced treefrog Hyla avivoca, to assess how the dynamic characters of calls vary during interactions among groups of males in a chorus. This question was also addressed using playback experiments with males. Playback experiments with females showed how changes in dynamic call properties are likely to affect male mating success. Frogs calling in pairs, groups, or in response to playbacks produced longer calls than did isolated males. During call overlap, males often increased the duration of the silent interval (gaps) between the pulses of their calls so that the pulses of the calls of two neighbors interdigitated. This change resulted in increased variability of pulse rate, a traditionally static acoustic property; however, males also produced high proportions of non-overlapped calls in which variability in pulse rate was low and had species-typical values. Females preferred long calls to short and average-duration calls, and non-overlapped calls to overlapped calls. Given a choice between pairs of overlapped calls, females preferred pairs in which the proportion of overlap was low and pairs in which the pulses of such calls interdigitated completely. The observed patterns of vocal competition thus reflect the preferences of conspecific females, which have influenced the evolution of the calling behavior of H. avivoca. PMID:19789730

  9. Advertisement-call modification, male competition and female preference in the bird-voiced treefrog Hyla avivoca.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Rivera, Carlos César; Gerhardt, H Carl

    2008-01-01

    Senders and receivers influence dynamic characteristics of the signals used for mate attraction over different time scales. On a moment-to-moment basis, interactions among senders competing for a mate influence dynamic characteristics, whereas the preferences of receivers of the opposite gender exert an influence over evolutionary time. We observed and recorded the calling patterns of the bird-voiced treefrog Hyla avivoca, to assess how the dynamic characters of calls vary during interactions among groups of males in a chorus. This question was also addressed using playback experiments with males. Playback experiments with females showed how changes in dynamic call properties are likely to affect male mating success. Frogs calling in pairs, groups, or in response to playbacks produced longer calls than did isolated males. During call overlap, males often increased the duration of the silent interval (gaps) between the pulses of their calls so that the pulses of the calls of two neighbors interdigitated. This change resulted in increased variability of pulse rate, a traditionally static acoustic property; however, males also produced high proportions of non-overlapped calls in which variability in pulse rate was low and had species-typical values. Females preferred long calls to short and average-duration calls, and non-overlapped calls to overlapped calls. Given a choice between pairs of overlapped calls, females preferred pairs in which the proportion of overlap was low and pairs in which the pulses of such calls interdigitated completely. The observed patterns of vocal competition thus reflect the preferences of conspecific females, which have influenced the evolution of the calling behavior of H. avivoca.

  10. Ecological resource management: a call to arms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emlen, J.M.; Kapustka, L.; Barnthouse, L.; Beyer, N.; Biddinger, G.; Kedwards, T.; Landis, W.; Menzie, C.; Munns, W.; Sorenson, M.; Wentsel, R.

    2002-01-01

    As the human population enlarges, it becomes increasingly difficult to sustain valued ecological resources. Human use of resources, whether it is the harvest of ocean fisheries, logging of forests, or farming of arable lands, has resulted in significant population declines in many wildlife species. The growth of urban areas and the expansion of impermeable surfaces alter landscape diversity and modify hydrologic patterns in ways that decrease habitat quality for many desired plant, fish, and wildlife species. Impaired water, air, and soil quality related to industrial, municipal, and agricultural activities have altered the composition of aquatic and terrestrial communities.

  11. Calling under pressure: short-finned pilot whales make social calls during deep foraging dives

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Frants H.; Perez, Jacobo Marrero; Johnson, Mark; Soto, Natacha Aguilar; Madsen, Peter T.

    2011-01-01

    Toothed whales rely on sound to echolocate prey and communicate with conspecifics, but little is known about how extreme pressure affects pneumatic sound production in deep-diving species with a limited air supply. The short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus) is a highly social species among the deep-diving toothed whales, in which individuals socialize at the surface but leave their social group in pursuit of prey at depths of up to 1000 m. To investigate if these animals communicate acoustically at depth and test whether hydrostatic pressure affects communication signals, acoustic DTAGs logging sound, depth and orientation were attached to 12 pilot whales. Tagged whales produced tonal calls during deep foraging dives at depths of up to 800 m. Mean call output and duration decreased with depth despite the increased distance to conspecifics at the surface. This shows that the energy content of calls is lower at depths where lungs are collapsed and where the air volume available for sound generation is limited by ambient pressure. Frequency content was unaffected, providing a possible cue for group or species identification of diving whales. Social calls may be important to maintain social ties for foraging animals, but may be impacted adversely by vessel noise. PMID:21345867

  12. Patterns of call communication between group-housed zebra finches change during the breeding cycle

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Lisa F; Goymann, Wolfgang; Ter Maat, Andries; Gahr, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Vocal signals such as calls play a crucial role for survival and successful reproduction, especially in group-living animals. However, call interactions and call dynamics within groups remain largely unexplored because their relation to relevant contexts or life-history stages could not be studied with individual-level resolution. Using on-bird microphone transmitters, we recorded the vocalisations of individual zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) behaving freely in social groups, while females and males previously unknown to each other passed through different stages of the breeding cycle. As birds formed pairs and shifted their reproductive status, their call repertoire composition changed. The recordings revealed that calls occurred non-randomly in fine-tuned vocal interactions and decreased within groups while pair-specific patterns emerged. Call-type combinations of vocal interactions changed within pairs and were associated with successful egg-laying, highlighting a potential fitness relevance of calling dynamics in communication systems. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07770.001 PMID:26441403

  13. Evaluating Variant Calling Tools for Non-Matched Next-Generation Sequencing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandmann, Sarah; de Graaf, Aniek O.; Karimi, Mohsen; van der Reijden, Bert A.; Hellström-Lindberg, Eva; Jansen, Joop H.; Dugas, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Valid variant calling results are crucial for the use of next-generation sequencing in clinical routine. However, there are numerous variant calling tools that usually differ in algorithms, filtering strategies, recommendations and thus, also in the output. We evaluated eight open-source tools regarding their ability to call single nucleotide variants and short indels with allelic frequencies as low as 1% in non-matched next-generation sequencing data: GATK HaplotypeCaller, Platypus, VarScan, LoFreq, FreeBayes, SNVer, SAMtools and VarDict. We analysed two real datasets from patients with myelodysplastic syndrome, covering 54 Illumina HiSeq samples and 111 Illumina NextSeq samples. Mutations were validated by re-sequencing on the same platform, on a different platform and expert based review. In addition we considered two simulated datasets with varying coverage and error profiles, covering 50 samples each. In all cases an identical target region consisting of 19 genes (42,322 bp) was analysed. Altogether, no tool succeeded in calling all mutations. High sensitivity was always accompanied by low precision. Influence of varying coverages- and background noise on variant calling was generally low. Taking everything into account, VarDict performed best. However, our results indicate that there is a need to improve reproducibility of the results in the context of multithreading.

  14. Evaluating Variant Calling Tools for Non-Matched Next-Generation Sequencing Data

    PubMed Central

    Sandmann, Sarah; de Graaf, Aniek O.; Karimi, Mohsen; van der Reijden, Bert A.; Hellström-Lindberg, Eva; Jansen, Joop H.; Dugas, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Valid variant calling results are crucial for the use of next-generation sequencing in clinical routine. However, there are numerous variant calling tools that usually differ in algorithms, filtering strategies, recommendations and thus, also in the output. We evaluated eight open-source tools regarding their ability to call single nucleotide variants and short indels with allelic frequencies as low as 1% in non-matched next-generation sequencing data: GATK HaplotypeCaller, Platypus, VarScan, LoFreq, FreeBayes, SNVer, SAMtools and VarDict. We analysed two real datasets from patients with myelodysplastic syndrome, covering 54 Illumina HiSeq samples and 111 Illumina NextSeq samples. Mutations were validated by re-sequencing on the same platform, on a different platform and expert based review. In addition we considered two simulated datasets with varying coverage and error profiles, covering 50 samples each. In all cases an identical target region consisting of 19 genes (42,322 bp) was analysed. Altogether, no tool succeeded in calling all mutations. High sensitivity was always accompanied by low precision. Influence of varying coverages- and background noise on variant calling was generally low. Taking everything into account, VarDict performed best. However, our results indicate that there is a need to improve reproducibility of the results in the context of multithreading. PMID:28233799

  15. Effects of varying interfacial surface tension on macroscopic polymer lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, Charlotte; White, Mason; Baylor, Martha-Elizabeth

    2015-09-01

    We investigate macroscopic polymer lenses (0.5- to 2.5-cm diameter) fabricated by dropping hydrophobic photocurable resin onto the surface of various hydrophilic liquid surfaces. Due to the intermolecular forces along the interface between the two liquids, a lens shape is formed. We find that we can vary the lens geometry by changing the region over which the resin is allowed to spread and the surface tension of the substrate to produce lenses with theoretically determined focal lengths ranging from 5 to 25 mm. These effects are varied by changing the container width, substrate composition, and substrate temperature. We present data for five different variants, demonstrating that we can control the lens dimensions for polymer lens applications that require high surface quality.

  16. Spall Strength Measurements of Concrete for Varying Aggregate Sizes

    SciTech Connect

    Chhabildas, Lalit C.; Kipp, Marlin E.; Reinhart, William D.; Wilson, Leonard T.

    1999-05-05

    Controlled impact experiments have been performed to determine the spall strength of four different concrete compositions. The four concrete compositions are identified as, `SAC-5, CSPC', ("3/4") large, and ("3/8") small, Aggregate. They differ primarily in aggregate size but with average densities varying by less than five percent. Wave profiles from sixteen experiments, with shock amplitudes of 0.07 to 0.55 GPa, concentrate primarily within the elastic regime. Free-surface particle velocity measurements indicate consistent pullback signals in the release profiles, denoting average span strength of approximately 40 MPa. It is the purpose of this paper to present spall measurements under uniaxial strain loading. Notwithstanding considerable wave structure that is a unique characteristic to the heterogeneous nature of the scaled concrete, the spall amplitudes appear reproducible and consistent over the pressure range reported in this study.

  17. Effectiveness of the call in beach volleyball attacking play.

    PubMed

    Künzell, Stefan; Schweikart, Florian; Köhn, Daniel; Schläppi-Lienhard, Olivia

    2014-12-09

    In beach volleyball the setter has the opportunity to give her or his hitter a "call". The call intends that the setter suggests to her or his partner where to place the attack in the opponent's court. The effectiveness of a call is still unknown. We investigated the women's and men's Swiss National Beach Volleyball Championships in 2011 and analyzed 2185 attacks. We found large differences between female and male players. While men called in only 38.4% of attacks, women used calls in 85.5% of attacks. If the male players followed a given call, 63% of the attacks were successful. The success rate of attacks without any call was 55.8% and 47.6% when the call was ignored. These differences were not significant (χ(2)(2) = 4.55, p = 0.103). In women's beach volleyball, the rate of successful attacks was 61.5% when a call was followed, 35% for attacks without a call, and 42.6% when a call was ignored. The differences were highly significant (χ(2)(2) = 23.42, p < 0.0005). Taking into account the findings of the present study, we suggested that the call was effective in women's beach volleyball, while its effect in men's game was unclear. Considering the quality of calls we indicate that there is a significant potential to increase the effectiveness of a call.

  18. Non-song social call bouts of migrating humpback whales

    PubMed Central

    Rekdahl, Melinda L.; Dunlop, Rebecca A.; Goldizen, Anne W.; Garland, Ellen C.; Biassoni, Nicoletta; Miller, Patrick; Noad, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of stereotyped calls within structured bouts has been described for a number of species and may increase the information potential of call repertoires. Humpback whales produce a repertoire of social calls, although little is known about the complexity or function of these calls. In this study, digital acoustic tag recordings were used to investigate social call use within bouts, the use of bouts across different social contexts, and whether particular call type combinations were favored. Call order within bouts was investigated using call transition frequencies and information theory techniques. Call bouts were defined through analysis of inter-call intervals, as any calls within 3.9 s of each other. Bouts were produced significantly more when new whales joined a group compared to groups that did not change membership, and in groups containing multiple adults escorting a female and calf compared to adult only groups. Although social calls tended to be produced in bouts, there were few repeated bout types. However, the order in which most call types were produced within bouts was non-random and dependent on the preceding call type. These bouts appear to be at least partially governed by rules for how individual components are combined. PMID:26093396

  19. Non-song social call bouts of migrating humpback whales.

    PubMed

    Rekdahl, Melinda L; Dunlop, Rebecca A; Goldizen, Anne W; Garland, Ellen C; Biassoni, Nicoletta; Miller, Patrick; Noad, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    The use of stereotyped calls within structured bouts has been described for a number of species and may increase the information potential of call repertoires. Humpback whales produce a repertoire of social calls, although little is known about the complexity or function of these calls. In this study, digital acoustic tag recordings were used to investigate social call use within bouts, the use of bouts across different social contexts, and whether particular call type combinations were favored. Call order within bouts was investigated using call transition frequencies and information theory techniques. Call bouts were defined through analysis of inter-call intervals, as any calls within 3.9 s of each other. Bouts were produced significantly more when new whales joined a group compared to groups that did not change membership, and in groups containing multiple adults escorting a female and calf compared to adult only groups. Although social calls tended to be produced in bouts, there were few repeated bout types. However, the order in which most call types were produced within bouts was non-random and dependent on the preceding call type. These bouts appear to be at least partially governed by rules for how individual components are combined.

  20. OVarCall: Bayesian Mutation Calling Method Utilizing Overlapping Paired-End Reads.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Takuya; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Chiba, Kenichi; Yamaguchi, Rui; Imoto, Seiya; Miyano, Satoru

    2017-03-01

    Detection of somatic mutations from tumor and matched normal sequencing data has become a standard approach in cancer research. Although a number of mutation callers have been developed, it is still difficult to detect mutations with low allele frequency even in exome sequencing. We expect that overlapping paired-end read information is effective for this purpose, but no mutation caller has modeled overlapping information statistically in a proper form in exome sequence data. Here, we develop a Bayesian hierarchical method, OVar- Call (https://github.com/takumorizo/OVarCall), where overlapping paired-end read information improves the accuracy of low allele frequency mutation detection. Firstly, we construct two generative models: one is for reads with somatic variants generated from tumor cells and the other is for reads that does not have somatic variants but potentially includes sequence errors. Secondly, we calculate marginal likelihood for each model using a variational Bayesian algorithm to compute Bayes factor for the detection of somatic mutations. We empirically evaluated the performance of OVarCall and confirmed its better performance than other existing methods.

  1. Multi-component separation and analysis of bat echolocation calls.

    PubMed

    DiCecco, John; Gaudette, Jason E; Simmons, James A

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of animal vocalizations contain multiple frequency modulated (FM) components with varying amounts of non-linear modulation and harmonic instability. This is especially true of biosonar sounds where precise time-frequency templates are essential for neural information processing of echoes. Understanding the dynamic waveform design by bats and other echolocating animals may help to improve the efficacy of man-made sonar through biomimetic design. Bats are known to adapt their call structure based on the echolocation task, proximity to nearby objects, and density of acoustic clutter. To interpret the significance of these changes, a method was developed for component separation and analysis of biosonar waveforms. Techniques for imaging in the time-frequency plane are typically limited due to the uncertainty principle and interference cross terms. This problem is addressed by extending the use of the fractional Fourier transform to isolate each non-linear component for separate analysis. Once separated, empirical mode decomposition can be used to further examine each component. The Hilbert transform may then successfully extract detailed time-frequency information from each isolated component. This multi-component analysis method is applied to the sonar signals of four species of bats recorded in-flight by radiotelemetry along with a comparison of other common time-frequency representations.

  2. [Characteristics of courtship calls of Microhyla ornata (Anura: Microhylidae)].

    PubMed

    Wei, Li; Shao, Wei-Wei; Lin, Zhi-Hua

    2013-02-01

    During breeding season in May, 2012, we recorded and analyzed the courtship calls and the acoustic parameters of the male Microhyla ornate in Lishui, Zhejiang province using an IC recorder (SX950) and the sound software Praat. We observed that the male M. ornate produced calls characterized by a single harmonic call structure, multiple pulses (7, 9-16) and spindle amplitudes. Analyses of the calls revealed several interesting findings: the dominant frequency of all calls ranged from 1.22-4.09 kHz (n=233); their average values composed of different numbers of pulses were similar and that call duration increased with numbers of pulses; and pulse duration among different multi-pulse call groups was nearly identical, but it was equal or less in the last pulse than other pulses. By contrast, our analyses also showed that pulse interval was negatively correlated with call duration, i.e. the shorter in call duration, the longer in pulse interval among the different numbers of pulses call groups. Within the 7-pulse call group, calls exhibited the largest in pulse interval and the smallest in pulse rate, while those calls in 16-pulse were the opposite. Except that the 7- and 16-pulse call groups were both significantly different in pulse rate with other multi-pulse call groups, we found that pulse rates expressed different variations between pair-wise comparisons of the remaining call groups. As for call intensity, significant differences were only found between the 16-pulse call group and the other call groups, while pairwise comparisons of the remaining groups were not significant. After conducting our initial analyses, we compared the calls of the M. ornate population from Lishui with populations from five other localities-Hangzhou, Xuancheng, Karnoor, Bajipe and Padil-and found that the call structures were similar among the different populations, being single harmonic, while we observed differences in call dominant frequency, call duration, pulse duration and pulse

  3. Effectiveness of the Call in Beach Volleyball Attacking Play

    PubMed Central

    Künzell, Stefan; Schweikart, Florian; Köhn, Daniel; Schläppi-Lienhard, Olivia

    2014-01-01

    In beach volleyball the setter has the opportunity to give her or his hitter a “call”. The call intends that the setter suggests to her or his partner where to place the attack in the opponent’s court. The effectiveness of a call is still unknown. We investigated the women’s and men’s Swiss National Beach Volleyball Championships in 2011 and analyzed 2185 attacks. We found large differences between female and male players. While men called in only 38.4% of attacks, women used calls in 85.5% of attacks. If the male players followed a given call, 63% of the attacks were successful. The success rate of attacks without any call was 55.8% and 47.6% when the call was ignored. These differences were not significant (χ2(2) = 4.55, p = 0.103). In women’s beach volleyball, the rate of successful attacks was 61.5% when a call was followed, 35% for attacks without a call, and 42.6% when a call was ignored. The differences were highly significant (χ2(2) = 23.42, p < 0.0005). Taking into account the findings of the present study, we suggested that the call was effective in women’s beach volleyball, while its effect in men’s game was unclear. Considering the quality of calls we indicate that there is a significant potential to increase the effectiveness of a call. PMID:25713679

  4. Acoustic features of male baboon loud calls: Influences of context, age, and individuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Julia; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Cheney, Dorothy L.; Seyfarth, Robert M.

    2002-03-01

    The acoustic structure of loud calls (``wahoos'') recorded from free-ranging male baboons (Papio cynocephalus ursinus) in the Moremi Game Reserve, Botswana, was examined for differences between and within contexts, using calls given in response to predators (alarm wahoos), during male contests (contest wahoos), and when a male had become separated from the group (contact wahoos). Calls were recorded from adolescent, subadult, and adult males. In addition, male alarm calls were compared with those recorded from females. Despite their superficial acoustic similarity, the analysis revealed a number of significant differences between alarm, contest, and contact wahoos. Contest wahoos are given at a much higher rate, exhibit lower frequency characteristics, have a longer ``hoo'' duration, and a relatively louder ``hoo'' portion than alarm wahoos. Contact wahoos are acoustically similar to contest wahoos, but are given at a much lower rate. Both alarm and contest wahoos also exhibit significant differences among individuals. Some of the acoustic features that vary in relation to age and sex presumably reflect differences in body size, whereas others are possibly related to male stamina and endurance. The finding that calls serving markedly different functions constitute variants of the same general call type suggests that the vocal production in nonhuman primates is evolutionarily constrained.

  5. North Pacific right whale up-call source levels and propagation distance on the southeastern Bering Sea shelf.

    PubMed

    Munger, Lisa M; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

    2011-06-01

    Call source levels, transmission loss, and ambient noise levels were estimated for North Pacific right whale (Eubalaena japonica) up-calls recorded in the southeastern Bering Sea in autumn of 2000 and 2001. Distances to calling animals, needed to estimate source levels, were based on two independent techniques: (1) arrival-time differences on three or more hydrophones and (2) shallow-water dispersion of normal modes on a single receiver. Average root-mean-square (rms) call source levels estimated by the two techniques were 178 and 176 dB re 1 μPa at 1 m, respectively, over the up-call frequency band, which was determined per call and averaged 90 to 170 Hz. Peak-to-peak source levels were 14 to 22 dB greater than rms levels. Transmission loss was approximately 15∗log(10)(range), intermediate between cylindrical and spherical spreading. Ambient ocean noise within the up-call band varied from 72 to 91 dB re 1 μPa(2)/Hz. Under average noise conditions, call spectrograms were detectable for whales at distances up to 100 km, but propagation and detection distance may vary depending on environmental parameters and anthropogenic noise. Obtaining distances to animals and acoustic detection range is a step toward using long-term passive acoustic recordings to estimate abundance for this critically endangered whale population.

  6. Purpose, Mission, and Context: The Call for Educating Future Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chunoo, Vivechkanand; Osteen, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This chapter calls on higher education to reclaim its role in leadership education. Specifically it examines higher education's purpose, context, and mission as clarion calls to embed leadership education throughout higher education institutions and focuses on why this is important.

  7. Female preferences for spectral call properties in the western genetic lineage of Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis).

    PubMed

    Schrode, Katrina M; Ward, Jessica L; Vélez, Alejandro; Bee, Mark A

    2012-12-01

    Female frogs discriminate among potential mates based on individual variation in male advertisement calls. While considerable data have accumulated allowing comparisons of female preference functions among species, we still lack fundamental knowledge about how and why the shapes of preference functions for particular call properties vary among populations within all but a few species. Here, we report results from a study aimed at describing female preference functions for spectral call properties in Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis). Widespread throughout the eastern half of North America, Cope's gray treefrog is the diploid member of the cryptic diploid-tetraploid Hyla versicolor species complex, and its populations are divided into two distinct genetic lineages (eastern and western). In this study of a western lineage population, we recorded and analyzed the spectral properties of 1000 advertisement calls from 50 males and conducted two-choice phonotaxis experiments to estimate a population-level preference function. Females preferred calls with average frequencies over calls with frequencies that were 2 or 3 semitones (1.4 or 2.1 standard deviations, respectively) lower than the population mean. We observed no behavioral discrimination between calls with average and higher-than-average frequencies. Preferences discriminating against low-frequency calls were weak and were abolished by attenuating the preferred average call by 3 dB. We discuss these results in light of previous studies of eastern lineage populations, geographic variation in female preference functions, and the potential adaptive value of discriminating against calls with low frequencies.

  8. Untrained Forward Observer (UFO) Translator for Call for Fire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    release; distribution is unlimited UNTRAINED FORWARD OBSERVER ( UFO ) TRANSLATOR FOR CALL FOR FIRE by Regan R. King September 2013 Thesis...DATE September 2013 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE UNTRAINED FORWARD OBSERVER ( UFO ) TRANSLATOR FOR CALL...application, which we call the Untrained Forward Observer ( UFO ) Translator, capable of assisting untrained observers in performing Call for Fire by asking a

  9. 29 CFR 778.221 - “Call-back” pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âCall-backâ pay. 778.221 Section 778.221 Labor Regulations...Regular Rateâ Payments Not for Hours Worked § 778.221 “Call-back” pay. (a) General. In the interest of... minimum “call-back” or “call-out” payments made pursuant to employment agreements. Typically, such...

  10. The So-Called 'Face on Mars'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 13 April 2002) The Science The so called 'Face on Mars' can be seen slightly above center and to the right in this THEMIS visible image. This 3-km long knob, located near 10o N, 40o W (320o E), was first imaged by the Viking spacecraft in the 1970's and was seen by some to resemble a face carved into the rocks of Mars. Since that time the Mars Orbiter Camera on the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft has provided detailed views of this hill that clearly show that it is a normal geologic feature with slopes and ridges carved by eons of wind and downslope motion due to gravity. A similar-size hill in Phoenix, Arizona resembles a camel lying on the ground, and Phoenicians whimsically refer to it as Camelback Mountain. Like the hills and knobs of Mars, however, Camelback Mountain was carved into its unusual shape by thousands of years of erosion. The THEMIS image provides a broad perspective of the landscape in this region, showing numerous knobs and hills that have been eroded into a remarkable array of different shapes. Many of these knobs, including the 'Face', have several flat ledges partway up the hill slopes. These ledges are made of more resistant layers of rock and are the last remnants of layers that once were continuous across this entire region. Erosion has completely removed these layers in most places, leaving behind only the small isolated hills and knobs seen today. Many of the hills and ridges in this area also show unusual deposits of material that occur preferentially on the cold, north-facing slopes. It has been suggested that these deposits were 'pasted' on the slopes, with the distinct, rounded boundary on their upslope edges being the highest remaining point of this pasted-on layer. In several locations, such as in the large knob directly south of the 'Face', these deposits occur at several different heights on the hill. This observation suggests the layer once draped the entire knob and has since been removed from all but the north

  11. [Aberrations of the alarm call of the steppe marmot, Marmota bobak (Rodentia, Sciuridae)].

    PubMed

    Nikol'skiĭ, A A

    2008-01-01

    Aberrations, or deviations from the normal type of alarm call have been studied in the steppe marmot. One regular and several rare aberrations have been identified. The regular aberration manifests itself in all six populations studied, from the Kharkov Region in the west to the eastern border of the Orenburg Region in the east, with its frequency in the populations varying in different years from 10 to 66%. Rare aberrations occur sporadically and not in all populations.

  12. 75 FR 31458 - Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... SECURITY National Protection and Programs Directorate Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey AGENCY... Data Call Survey. DHS previously published this information collection request (ICR) in the Federal... consequences on a regional or national scale. The IP Data Call is administered out of IP/IICD. The IP Data...

  13. 76 FR 17933 - Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... SECURITY Infrastructure Protection Data Call Survey AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate... significant consequences on a regional or national scale. The IP Data Call is administered out of the IP Infrastructure Information Collection Division (IICD). The IP Data Call provides opportunities for states...

  14. 46 CFR 169.750 - Radio call sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Radio call sign. 169.750 Section 169.750 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.750 Radio call sign. Each vessel certificated for exposed or partially protected water service must have its radio call sign permanently...

  15. 46 CFR 169.750 - Radio call sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Radio call sign. 169.750 Section 169.750 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.750 Radio call sign. Each vessel certificated for exposed or partially protected water service must have its radio call sign permanently...

  16. 46 CFR 169.750 - Radio call sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio call sign. 169.750 Section 169.750 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.750 Radio call sign. Each vessel certificated for exposed or partially protected water service must have its radio call sign permanently...

  17. 46 CFR 169.750 - Radio call sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Radio call sign. 169.750 Section 169.750 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.750 Radio call sign. Each vessel certificated for exposed or partially protected water service must have its radio call sign permanently...

  18. 46 CFR 169.750 - Radio call sign.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Radio call sign. 169.750 Section 169.750 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.750 Radio call sign. Each vessel certificated for exposed or partially protected water service must have its radio call sign permanently...

  19. Path Models of Vocational Calling in Christian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Sheri L.

    2011-01-01

    In the Christian college environment, students are encouraged to understand their vocational calling, yet quantitative research on how college students conceptualize calling is sparse. This correlational study extends the research literature significantly by empirically examining variables that affect sense of vocational calling in 270 college…

  20. 47 CFR 74.791 - Digital call signs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital call signs. 74.791 Section 74.791 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... Booster Stations § 74.791 Digital call signs. (a) Digital low power stations. Call signs for digital...

  1. Calling and Career Preparation: Investigating Developmental Patterns and Temporal Precedence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschi, Andreas; Herrmann, Anne

    2013-01-01

    The presence of a calling and career development are assumed to be closely related. However, the nature of and reason for this relationship have not been thoroughly investigated. We hypothesized the existence of reciprocal effects between calling and three dimensions of career preparation and assessed the change of the presence of a calling,…

  2. 47 CFR 64.3001 - Obligation to transmit 911 calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Obligation to transmit 911 calls. 64.3001 Section 64.3001 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Obligation to transmit 911 calls. All telecommunications carriers shall transmit all 911 calls to a PSAP,...

  3. 47 CFR 64.3001 - Obligation to transmit 911 calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Obligation to transmit 911 calls. 64.3001 Section 64.3001 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Obligation to transmit 911 calls. All telecommunications carriers shall transmit all 911 calls to a PSAP,...

  4. 47 CFR 64.3001 - Obligation to transmit 911 calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Obligation to transmit 911 calls. 64.3001 Section 64.3001 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Obligation to transmit 911 calls. All telecommunications carriers shall transmit all 911 calls to a PSAP,...

  5. 47 CFR 64.3001 - Obligation to transmit 911 calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Obligation to transmit 911 calls. 64.3001 Section 64.3001 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Obligation to transmit 911 calls. All telecommunications carriers shall transmit all 911 calls to a PSAP,...

  6. 78 FR 4369 - Rates for Interstate Inmate Calling Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... capabilities for all calls. Commenters note that the costs of these security features, hardware and software... extensive record on ICS reform. We believe it is appropriate at this time to open a new docket exclusive to... collect calling if ICS providers offer 20 minutes of free calling per inmate per month. Can or should...

  7. Correlates of Gay-Related Name-Calling in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaatten, Hilde; Hetland, Jørn; Anderssen, Norman

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether attitudes about gay-related name-calling, social norms concerning gay-related name-calling among co-students, teacher intervention, and school-related support would predict whether secondary school pupils had called another pupil a gay-related name during the last month. A total of 921 ninth-grade…

  8. Linguistics, Procedure and Technique in CALL Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torsani, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Research in CALL education has identified a series of goals and constraints for technology in language education that need to be taken into account when designing a CALL syllabus. This article presents a theoretical framework for syllabus design based on the identification of three areas of expertise within CALL: linguistic knowledge, procedural…

  9. Listen to Your Heart? Calling and Receptivity to Career Advice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobrow, Shoshana R.; Tosti-Kharas, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This study explores calling in the context of career decision making. Specifically, the authors examine receptivity to advice that discourages individuals from pursuing a professional path in their calling's domain. The authors hypothesize that people with a strong calling will be more likely to ignore negative career advice. In Study 1, a…

  10. 29 CFR 785.17 - On-call time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false On-call time. 785.17 Section 785.17 Labor Regulations... On-call time. An employee who is required to remain on call on the employer's premises or so close thereto that he cannot use the time effectively for his own purposes is working while “on call”....

  11. 28 CFR 540.102 - Monitoring of inmate telephone calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring of inmate telephone calls. 540... inmate telephone calls. The Warden shall establish procedures that enable monitoring of telephone... call to an attorney. The Warden shall notify an inmate of the proper procedures to have an...

  12. 47 CFR 64.1320 - Payphone call tracking system audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Payphone call tracking system audits. 64.1320... call tracking system audits. (a) Unless it has entered into an alternative compensation arrangement... Certified Public Accountants, to determine whether the call tracking system accurately tracks payphone...

  13. 78 FR 35956 - Utah Resource Advisory Council Subgroup Conference Call

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... Bureau of Land Management Utah Resource Advisory Council Subgroup Conference Call AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Conference Call. SUMMARY: In accordance with the Federal Land Policy and... Advisory Council (RAC) Subgroup will host a conference call. DATES: The Utah RAC Subgroup will host...

  14. 77 FR 18258 - Notice of FHA Debenture Call

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of FHA Debenture Call AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing--Federal Housing Commissioner, HUD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This Notice announces a debenture call of... impairments may access this number through TTY by calling the toll-free Federal Relay Service at...

  15. 75 FR 16163 - Notice of FHA Debenture Call

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of FHA Debenture Call AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Housing... the Secretary of the Treasury, announces the call of all FHA debentures, with a coupon rate of 5..., ``outstanding'' as of March 31, 2010. The date of the call is July 1, 2010. The debentures will be redeemed...

  16. 47 CFR 64.1505 - Restrictions on collect telephone calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restrictions on collect telephone calls. 64... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Interstate Pay-Per-Call and Other Information Services § 64.1505 Restrictions on collect telephone calls. (a) No common carrier shall...

  17. 31 CFR 50.94 - Data call authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data call authority. 50.94 Section 50... PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.94 Data call authority. For the purpose of determining initial or recalculated PRLPs, Treasury may issue a data call to insurers for insured loss information. Submission of...

  18. 26 CFR 1.1092(c)-1 - Qualified covered calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Qualified covered calls. 1.1092(c)-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Wash Sales of Stock Or Securities § 1.1092(c)-1 Qualified covered calls. (a) In...), however, writing a qualified covered call option and owning the optioned stock is not treated as...

  19. 47 CFR 64.3001 - Obligation to transmit 911 calls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obligation to transmit 911 calls. 64.3001 Section 64.3001 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Obligation to transmit 911 calls. All telecommunications carriers shall transmit all 911 calls to a PSAP,...

  20. 29 CFR 1912.25 - Call of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Call of meetings. 1912.25 Section 1912.25 Labor Regulations...) ADVISORY COMMITTEES ON STANDARDS Operation of Advisory Committees § 1912.25 Call of meetings. No advisory committee shall hold any meeting except at the call of, or with the advance approval, of the...

  1. 28 CFR 540.103 - Inmate telephone calls to attorneys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate telephone calls to attorneys. 540.103 Section 540.103 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL... calls to attorneys. The Warden may not apply frequency limitations on inmate telephone calls...

  2. Bats aloft: Variation in echolocation call structure at high altitudes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bats alter their echolocation calls in response to changes in ecological and behavioral conditions, but little is known about how they adjust their call structure in response to changes in altitude. This study examines altitudinal variation in the echolocation calls of Brazilian free-tailed bats, T...

  3. Varying G. [in Einstein gravitation theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canuto, V.; Hsieh, S.-H.; Owen, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The problem of the variation of the gravitational constant with cosmological time is critically analyzed. Since Einstein's equation does not allow G to vary on any time scale, no observational data can be analyzed within the context of the standard theory. The recently proposed scale covariant theory, which allows (but does not demand) G to vary, and which has been shown to have passed several standard cosmological tests, is employed to discuss some recent nonnull observational results which indicate a time variation of G.

  4. Impacts of Varying Penetration of Distributed Resources with & without Volt/Var Control: Case Study of Varying Load Types

    SciTech Connect

    Rizy, D Tom; Li, Huijuan; Li, Fangxing; Xu, Yan; Adhikari, Sarina; Irminger, Philip

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a follow-up to an earlier one on impacts of distributed energy resources (DR) on distribution feeders. As DR penetration level on the feeder increases, there can be impacts to distribution system/feeder capacity, line losses, and voltage regulation. These can vary as the penetration level reaches the capacity of the distribution feeder/system or loading. The question is how high of a DR level can be accommodated without any major changes to system operation, system design and protection. Our objective for this work was to address the question of how the DR impacts vary in regards to both DR voltage regulation capability and load mix. A dynamic analysis was used to focus on the impacts of DR with and without volt/var control with different load composition on the distribution feeder. The study considered an example 10MVA distribution feeder in which two inverter-based DRs were used to provide voltage regulation. The results due to DR without voltage regulation capability are compared with DR capable of providing local (at its bus) voltage regulation. The analysis was repeated for four different feeder load compositions consisting of (1) constant power, (2) constant impedance, (3) constant current and (4) ZIP (equal combination of previous three).

  5. Relaxation Assessment with Varied Structured Milieu (RELAX).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Russell N.; Cassel, Susie L.

    1983-01-01

    Describes Relaxation Assessment with Varied Structured Milieu (RELAX), a clinical program designed to assess the degree to which an individual is able to demonstrate self-control for overall general relaxation. The program is designed for use with the Cassel Biosensors biofeedback equipment. (JAC)

  6. Regularizing cosmological singularities by varying physical constants

    SciTech Connect

    Dąbrowski, Mariusz P.; Marosek, Konrad E-mail: k.marosek@wmf.univ.szczecin.pl

    2013-02-01

    Varying physical constant cosmologies were claimed to solve standard cosmological problems such as the horizon, the flatness and the Λ-problem. In this paper, we suggest yet another possible application of these theories: solving the singularity problem. By specifying some examples we show that various cosmological singularities may be regularized provided the physical constants evolve in time in an appropriate way.

  7. The Varied Uses of Readability Measurement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry, Edward

    Readability formulas have varied uses. In education they are used to match children's reading ability to the difficulty level of material, select stories and books for classroom use and for individual students' particular needs, select textbooks and other reading materials, aid educational research, and check reading materials of newly literate…

  8. Divergence of a stereotyped call in northern resident killer whales.

    PubMed

    Grebner, Dawn M; Parks, Susan E; Bradley, David L; Miksis-Olds, Jennifer L; Capone, Dean E; Ford, John K B

    2011-02-01

    Northern resident killer whale pods (Orcinus orca) have distinctive stereotyped pulsed call repertoires that can be used to distinguish groups acoustically. Repertoires are generally stable, with the same call types comprising the repertoire of a given pod over a period of years to decades. Previous studies have shown that some discrete pulsed calls can be subdivided into variants or subtypes. This study suggests that new stereotyped calls may result from the gradual modification of existing call types through subtypes. Vocalizations of individuals and small groups of killer whales were collected using a bottom-mounted hydrophone array in Johnstone Strait, British Columbia in 2006 and 2007. Discriminant analysis of slope variations of a predominant call type, N4, revealed the presence of four distinct call subtypes. Similar to previous studies, there was a divergence of the N4 call between members of different matrilines of the same pod. However, this study reveals that individual killer whales produced multiple subtypes of the N4 call, indicating that divergence in the N4 call is not the result of individual differences, but rather may indicate the gradual evolution of a new stereotyped call.

  9. Individual Distinctiveness in Call Types of Wild Western Female Gorillas

    PubMed Central

    Salmi, Roberta; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Doran-Sheehy, Diane M.

    2014-01-01

    Individually distinct vocalizations play an important role in animal communication, allowing call recipients to respond differentially based on caller identity. However, which of the many calls in a species' repertoire should have more acoustic variability and be more recognizable is less apparent. One proposed hypothesis is that calls used over long distances should be more distinct because visual cues are not available to identify the caller. An alternative hypothesis proposes that close calls should be more recognizable because of their importance in social interactions. To examine which hypothesis garners more support, the acoustic variation and individual distinctiveness of eight call types of six wild western gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) females were investigated. Acoustic recordings of gorilla calls were collected at the Mondika Research Center (Republic of Congo). Acoustic variability was high in all gorilla calls. Similar high inter-individual variation and potential for identity coding (PIC) was found for all call types. Discriminant function analyses confirmed that all call types were individually distinct (although for call types with lowest sample size - hum, grumble and scream - this result cannot be generalized), suggesting that neither the distance at which communication occurs nor the call social function alone can explain the evolution of identity signaling in western gorilla communication. PMID:25029238

  10. The Phonetics and Phonology of the Polish Calling Melodies.

    PubMed

    Arvaniti, Amalia; Żygis, Marzena; Jaskuła, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Two calling melodies of Polish were investigated, the routine call, used to call someone for an everyday reason, and the urgent call, which conveys disapproval of the addressee's actions. A Discourse Completion Task was used to elicit the two melodies from Polish speakers using twelve names from one to four syllables long; there were three names per syllable count, and speakers produced three tokens of each name with each melody. The results, based on eleven speakers, show that the routine calling melody consists of a low F0 stretch followed by a rise-fall-rise; the urgent calling melody, on the other hand, is a simple rise-fall. Systematic differences were found in the scaling and alignment of tonal targets: the routine call showed late alignment of the accentual pitch peak, and in most instances lower scaling of targets. The accented vowel was also affected, being overall louder in the urgent call. Based on the data and comparisons with other Polish melodies, we analyze the routine call as LH* !H-H% and the urgent call as H* L-L%. We discuss the results and our analysis in light of recent findings on calling melodies in other languages, and explore their repercussions for intonational phonology and the modeling of intonation.

  11. Campbell's Monkeys Use Affixation to Alter Call Meaning

    PubMed Central

    Ouattara, Karim; Lemasson, Alban; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Human language has evolved on a biological substrate with phylogenetic roots deep in the primate lineage. Here, we describe a functional analogy to a common morphological process in human speech, affixation, in the alarm calls of free-ranging adult Campbell's monkeys (Cercopithecus campbelli campbelli). We found that male alarm calls are composed of an acoustically variable stem, which can be followed by an acoustically invariable suffix. Using long-term observations and predator simulation experiments, we show that suffixation in this species functions to broaden the calls' meaning by transforming a highly specific eagle alarm to a general arboreal disturbance call or by transforming a highly specific leopard alarm call to a general alert call. We concluded that, when referring to specific external events, non-human primates can generate meaningful acoustic variation during call production that is functionally equivalent to suffixation in human language. PMID:19915663

  12. Daily variations in ambulance calls for selected causes in Arkhangelsk, Russia: potential role of excessive alcohol consumption on weekends

    PubMed Central

    Drachev, Sergei N.; Unguryanu, Tatiana N.; Grjibovski, Andrej M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess daily variations in ambulance calls for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), mental and behavioral disorders, and external causes in Arkhangelsk, Northwest Russia, in 2000–2008. Study design A population-based study. Methods Data about all ambulance calls during the years 2000–2008 were obtained from the Arkhangelsk ambulance station. Information about patient's gender, age, doctor's diagnosis according to International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, and the date of call were recorded. Pearson's Chi-squared tests were used for comparing proportions of ambulance calls across the week for CVDs (I00-99), mental and behavioral disorders (F00-F99), and external causes (S00-T98, V01-Y98). The ratio of incidence of ambulance calls on Saturday, Sunday, and Monday versus the rest of week was also calculated. Results There is a significant daily variation (p < 0.001) in calls for CVDs in men and women aged 18–59 and women aged 60 years and older, with increased numbers of calls on weekends and Mondays varying between 2 and 3% excess calls. For mental and behavioral disorders, a similar pattern was found in the age group of 18–59 year-olds. Ratios for the number of calls during weekends and Mondays vs. the rest of the week were 1.05 (95% CI: 1.02–1.08) among women and 1.02 (95% CI: 1.00–1.05) among men. For external causes, a significant variation and an increase in ambulance calls during Saturdays, Sundays, and Mondays from 4 to 17% excess calls was observed for both age and gender groups. Conclusions The observed daily variations in ambulance calls with an increased number of calls on weekends and Mondays for CVDs, mental and behavioral disorders, and external causes may be associated with excessive alcohol consumption on the weekends. Further research using data on individual levels of alcohol consumption are warranted. PMID:23130353

  13. Pollinator effectiveness varies with experimental shifts in flowering time

    PubMed Central

    Rafferty, Nicole E.; Ives, Anthony R.

    2013-01-01

    The earlier flowering times exhibited by many plant species are a conspicuous sign of climate change. Altered phenologies have caused concern that species could suffer population declines if they flower at times when effective pollinators are unavailable. For two perennial wildflowers, Tradescantia ohiensis and Asclepias incarnata, we used an experimental approach to explore how changing phenology affects the taxonomic composition of the pollinator assemblage and the effectiveness of individual pollinator taxa. After finding in the previous year that fruit set varied with flowering time, we manipulated flowering onset in greenhouses, placed plants in the field over the span of five weeks, and measured pollinator effectiveness as the number of seeds produced after a single visit to a flower. The average effectiveness of pollinators and the expected rates of pollination success were lower for plants of both species flowering earlier than for plants flowering at historical times, suggesting there could be reproductive costs to earlier flowering. Whereas for A. incarnata, differences in average seed set among weeks were due primarily to changes in the composition of the pollinator assemblage, the differences for T. ohiensis were driven by the combined effects of compositional changes and increases over time in the effectiveness of some pollinator taxa. Both species face the possibility of temporal mismatch between the availability of the most effective pollinators and the onset of flowering, and changes in the effectiveness of individual pollinator taxa through time may add an unexpected element to the reproductive consequences of such mismatches. PMID:22690631

  14. Acoustic characteristics of the low-frequency nest call of discomfort of the house mouse ( Mus musculus) early ontogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorova, M. A.; Akimov, A. G.

    2010-05-01

    Acoustic characteristics of the low-frequency nest call signaling discomfort of mouse pups are considered. The spectral temporal analysis of the call is realized for house mouse pups. In the structure of some calls, the frequency modulation and components of the noise are established. Signal duration varies from 20 to 170 ms. A statistically significant decrease of call duration and its fundamental frequency is shown from the 6th to 29th day of the mouse pups’ lives. The most stable parameters of the call-the harmonic structure, low-frequency range (up to 20 kHz), and location of the fundamental frequency between 4 and 8 kHz are recognized.

  15. Variation in chick-a-dee calls of tufted titmice, Baeolophus bicolor: note type and individual distinctiveness.

    PubMed

    Owens, Jessica L; Freeberg, Todd M

    2007-08-01

    The chick-a-dee call of chickadee species (genus Poecile) has been the focus of much research. A great deal is known about the structural complexity and the meaning of variation in notes making up calls in these species. However, little is known about the likely homologous "chick-a-dee" call of the closely related tufted titmouse, Baeolophus bicolor. Tufted titmice are a prime candidate for comparative analyses of the call, because their vocal and social systems share many characteristics with those of chickadees. To address the paucity of data on the structure of chick-a-dee calls of tufted titmice, we recorded birds in field and aviary settings. Four main note types were identified in the call: Z, A, D(h), and D notes. Several acoustic parameters of each note type were measured, and statistical analyses revealed that the note types are acoustically distinct from one another. Furthermore, note types vary in the extent of individual distinctiveness reflected in their acoustic parameters. This first step towards understanding the chick-a-dee call of tufted titmice indicates that the call is comparable in structure and complexity to the calls of chickadees.

  16. Season-related changes in circulating androgen, brain aromatase, and perch-calling in male ring doves.

    PubMed

    Fusani, Leonida; Van't Hof, Thomas; Hutchison, John B

    2003-02-01

    The perch-call of ring doves (Streptopelia risoria) is related to territorial defence and mate attraction. Perch-calls are sexually dimorphic and individually different in structure. The expression of perch-call is androgen-dependent and is controlled by the action of testosterone on the preoptic-hypothalamic areas. However, it is not known whether the acoustic features of the call vary with the reproductive condition. We studied plasma androgen levels, brain steroid metabolism, and perch-calling of male ring doves kept in winter-like (low temperature, short days) or spring-like (mild temperature, long day) conditions. Circulating levels of androgen were higher in males kept on spring-like condition. Spring males spent more time in perch-calling than winter males. However, a detailed analysis of the call structure revealed no difference for any time or frequency parameter between groups. This work shows that in ring doves season-dependent variations in the circulating levels of androgen are correlated with differences in the amount of time males spend in perch-calling. In addition, the study suggests that in adult males the acoustic structure of the perch-calls is not influenced by season-related changes in androgen levels.

  17. Ambient noise induces independent shifts in call frequency and amplitude within the Lombard effect in echolocating bats.

    PubMed

    Hage, Steffen R; Jiang, Tinglei; Berquist, Sean W; Feng, Jiang; Metzner, Walter

    2013-03-05

    The Lombard effect, an involuntary rise in call amplitude in response to masking ambient noise, represents one of the most efficient mechanisms to optimize signal-to-noise ratio. The Lombard effect occurs in birds and mammals, including humans, and is often associated with several other vocal changes, such as call frequency and duration. Most studies, however, have focused on noise-dependent changes in call amplitude. It is therefore still largely unknown how the adaptive changes in call amplitude relate to associated vocal changes such as frequency shifts, how the underlying mechanisms are linked, and if auditory feedback from the changing vocal output is needed. Here, we examined the Lombard effect and the associated changes in call frequency in a highly vocal mammal, echolocating horseshoe bats. We analyzed how bandpass-filtered noise (BFN; bandwidth 20 kHz) affected their echolocation behavior when BFN was centered on different frequencies within their hearing range. Call amplitudes increased only when BFN was centered on the dominant frequency component of the bats' calls. In contrast, call frequencies increased for all but one BFN center frequency tested. Both amplitude and frequency rises were extremely fast and occurred in the first call uttered after noise onset, suggesting that no auditory feedback was required. The different effects that varying the BFN center frequency had on amplitude and frequency rises indicate different neural circuits and/or mechanisms underlying these changes.

  18. Progressive Fracture of Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Minnetyan, Levon

    2008-01-01

    A new approach is described for evaluating fracture in composite structures. This approach is independent of classical fracture mechanics parameters like fracture toughness. It relies on computational simulation and is programmed in a stand-alone integrated computer code. It is multiscale, multifunctional because it includes composite mechanics for the composite behavior and finite element analysis for predicting the structural response. It contains seven modules; layered composite mechanics (micro, macro, laminate), finite element, updating scheme, local fracture, global fracture, stress based failure modes, and fracture progression. The computer code is called CODSTRAN (Composite Durability Structural ANalysis). It is used in the present paper to evaluate the global fracture of four composite shell problems and one composite built-up structure. Results show that the composite shells and the built-up composite structure global fracture are enhanced when internal pressure is combined with shear loads.

  19. Echolocating bats emit terminal phase buzz calls while drinking on the wing.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Stephen R

    2013-09-01

    Echolocating bats are known to produce terminal buzz calls during pursuit and capture of airborne prey, however the use of buzz calls while drinking on the wing has not been previously investigated. In this study I recorded the first empirical evidence that bats produce terminal phase buzz calls while drinking on the wing. Every drinking pass recorded during this study was characterised by a terminal buzz which bats emitted immediately prior to touching the water surface with their mouth. The characteristic frequency (the frequency at the end or flattest portion of the pulse) of echolocation call sequences containing drinking buzzes varied from 25kHz to 50kHz, suggesting multiple bat species present at the study site emit buzzes while drinking on the wing. As feeding buzz calls appear to be ubiquitous among echolocating bat taxa, the prevalence of drinking buzzes clearly warrants further investigation. Drinking buzzes could potentially be used to document rates of drinking by bats in the same way that feeding buzzes are used to infer foraging activity.

  20. Individual differences and repeatability in vocal production: stress-induced calling exposes a songbird's personality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillette, Lauren M.; Sturdy, Christopher B.

    2011-11-01

    Recent research in songbirds has demonstrated that male singing behavior varies systematically with personality traits such as exploration and risk taking. Here we examine whether the production of bird calls, in addition to bird songs, is repeatable and related to exploratory behavior, using the black-capped chickadee ( Poecile atricapillus) as a model. We assessed the exploratory behavior of individual birds in a novel environment task. We then recorded the vocalizations and accompanying motor behavior of both male and female chickadees, over the course of several days, in two different contexts: a control condition with no playback and a stressful condition where chick-a-dee mobbing calls were played to individual birds. We found that several vocalizations and behaviors were repeatable within both a control and a stressful context, and across contexts. While there was no relationship between vocal output and exploratory behavior in the control context, production of alarm and chick-a-dee calls in the stressful condition was positively associated with exploratory behavior. These findings are important because they show that bird calls, in addition to bird song, are an aspect of personality, in that calls are consistent both within and across contexts, and covary with other personality measures (exploration).

  1. Propagation of natural toad calls in a Mediterranean terrestrial environment.

    PubMed

    Penna, Mario; Llusia, Diego; Márquez, R

    2012-12-01

    Propagation patterns of animal acoustic signals provide insights into the evolution of signal design to convey signaler's information to potential recipients. However, propagation properties of vertebrate calls have been rarely studied using natural calls from individuals; instead playback calls broadcast through loudspeakers have been used extensively, a procedure that may involve acoustical and physical features differing from natural sounds. Measurements of the transmission characteristics of natural advertisement calls, which are simple tonal sounds, of the Iberian midwife toad, Alytes cisternasii, were carried out, and the results were compared with previously published results broadcasting recorded calls of the same species. Measurements of sound pressure level (SPL) of calls from individual male A. cisternasii revealed that the call amplitude decreases at distances of 1-8 m from the source at rates averaging 1-5 dB above spherical transmission loss in an omni-directional pattern. A comparison between SPLs of natural calls in the current study and of playback calls from a previous study showed that patterns of propagation did not differ in average values, but variance was significantly higher for natural calls. Results suggest that using broadcast signals for transmission experiments may result in a simplification of the conditions in which actual animals communicate in nature.

  2. Varying potential silicon carbide gas sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shields, Virgil B. (Inventor); Ryan, Margaret A. (Inventor); Williams, Roger M. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A hydrocarbon gas detection device operates by dissociating or electro-chemically oxidizing hydrocarbons adsorbed to a silicon carbide detection layer. Dissociation or oxidation are driven by a varying potential applied to the detection layer. Different hydrocarbon species undergo reaction at different applied potentials so that the device is able to discriminate among various hydrocarbon species. The device can operate at temperatures between 100.degree. C. and at least 650.degree. C., allowing hydrocarbon detection in hot exhaust gases. The dissociation reaction is detected either as a change in a capacitor or, preferably, as a change of current flow through an FET which incorporates the silicon carbide detection layers. The silicon carbide detection layer can be augmented with a pad of catalytic material which provides a signal without an applied potential. Comparisons between the catalytically produced signal and the varying potential produced signal may further help identify the hydrocarbon present.

  3. Continuously Varying Critical Exponents Beyond Weak Universality

    PubMed Central

    Khan, N.; Sarkar, P.; Midya, A.; Mandal, P.; Mohanty, P. K.

    2017-01-01

    Renormalization group theory does not restrict the form of continuous variation of critical exponents which occurs in presence of a marginal operator. However, the continuous variation of critical exponents, observed in different contexts, usually follows a weak universality scenario where some of the exponents (e.g., β, γ, ν) vary keeping others (e.g., δ, η) fixed. Here we report ferromagnetic phase transition in (Sm1−yNdy)0.52Sr0.48MnO3 (0.5 ≤ y ≤ 1) single crystals where all three exponents β, γ, δ vary with Nd concentration y. Such a variation clearly violates both universality and weak universality hypothesis. We propose a new scaling theory that explains the present experimental results, reduces to the weak universality as a special case, and provides a generic route leading to continuous variation of critical exponents and multi-criticality. PMID:28327622

  4. The Thermal Collector With Varied Glass Covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luminosu, I.; Pop, N.

    2010-08-01

    The thermal collector with varied glass covers represents an innovation realized in order to build a collector able to reach the desired temperature by collecting the solar radiation from the smallest surface, with the highest efficiency. In the case of the thermal collector with variable cover glasses, the number of the glass plates covering the absorber increases together with the length of the circulation pipe for the working fluid. The thermal collector with varied glass covers compared to the conventional collector better meet user requirements because: for the same temperature increase, has the collecting area smaller; for the same collection area, realizes the highest temperature increase and has the highest efficiency. This works is addressed to researchers in the solar energy and to engineers responsible with air-conditioning systems design or industrial and agricultural products drying.

  5. Continuously Varying Critical Exponents Beyond Weak Universality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, N.; Sarkar, P.; Midya, A.; Mandal, P.; Mohanty, P. K.

    2017-03-01

    Renormalization group theory does not restrict the form of continuous variation of critical exponents which occurs in presence of a marginal operator. However, the continuous variation of critical exponents, observed in different contexts, usually follows a weak universality scenario where some of the exponents (e.g., β, γ, ν) vary keeping others (e.g., δ, η) fixed. Here we report ferromagnetic phase transition in (Sm1‑yNdy)0.52Sr0.48MnO3 (0.5 ≤ y ≤ 1) single crystals where all three exponents β, γ, δ vary with Nd concentration y. Such a variation clearly violates both universality and weak universality hypothesis. We propose a new scaling theory that explains the present experimental results, reduces to the weak universality as a special case, and provides a generic route leading to continuous variation of critical exponents and multi-criticality.

  6. Learning Time-Varying Coverage Functions

    PubMed Central

    Du, Nan; Liang, Yingyu; Balcan, Maria-Florina; Song, Le

    2015-01-01

    Coverage functions are an important class of discrete functions that capture the law of diminishing returns arising naturally from applications in social network analysis, machine learning, and algorithmic game theory. In this paper, we propose a new problem of learning time-varying coverage functions, and develop a novel parametrization of these functions using random features. Based on the connection between time-varying coverage functions and counting processes, we also propose an efficient parameter learning algorithm based on likelihood maximization, and provide a sample complexity analysis. We applied our algorithm to the influence function estimation problem in information diffusion in social networks, and show that with few assumptions about the diffusion processes, our algorithm is able to estimate influence significantly more accurately than existing approaches on both synthetic and real world data. PMID:25960624

  7. Varied line-space gratings and applications

    SciTech Connect

    McKinney, W.R.

    1991-07-15

    This paper presents a straightforward analytical and numerical method for the design of a specific type of varied line-space grating system. The mathematical development will assume plane or nearly-plane spherical gratings which are illuminated by convergent light, which covers many interesting cases for synchrotron radiation. The gratings discussed will have straight grooves whose spacing varies across the principal plane of the grating. Focal relationships and formulae for the optical grating-pole-to-exist-slit distance and grating radius previously presented by other authors will be derived with a symbolic algebra system. It is intended to provide the optical designer with the tools necessary to design such a system properly. Finally, some possible advantages and disadvantages for application to synchrotron to synchrotron radiation beamlines will be discussed.

  8. Representation of individual elements of a complex call sequence in primary auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Mark N.; Grimsley, Jasmine M. S.; Anderson, Lucy A.; Palmer, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    Conspecific communication calls can be rhythmic or contain extended, discontinuous series of either constant or frequency modulated harmonic tones and noise bursts separated by brief periods of silence. In the guinea pig, rhythmic calls can produce isomorphic responses within the primary auditory cortex (AI) where single units respond to every call element. Other calls such as the chutter comprise a series of short irregular syllables that vary in their spectral content and are more like human speech. These calls can also evoke isomorphic responses, but may only do so in fields in the auditory belt and not in AI. Here we present evidence that cells in AI treat the individual elements within a syllable as separate auditory objects and respond selectively to one or a subset of them. We used a single chutter exemplar to compare single/multi-unit responses in the low-frequency portion of AI—AI(LF) and the low-frequency part of the thalamic medial geniculate body—MGB(LF) in urethane anaesthetized guinea pigs. Both thalamic and cortical cells responded with brief increases in firing rate to one, or more, of the 8 main elements present in the chutter call. Almost none of the units responded to all 8 elements. While there were many different combinations of responses to between one and five of the elements, MBG(LF) and AI(LF) neurons exhibited the same specific types of response combinations. Nearby units in the upper layers of the cortex tended to respond to similar combinations of elements while the deep layers were less responsive. Thus, the responses from a number of AI units would need to be combined in order to represent the entire chutter call. Our results don't rule out the possibility of constructive convergence but there was no evidence that a convergence of inputs within AI led to a complete representation of all eight elements. PMID:24198766

  9. Synchronization in time-varying networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohar, Vivek; Ji, Peng; Choudhary, Anshul; Sinha, Sudeshna; Kurths, Jüergen

    2014-08-01

    We study the stability of the synchronized state in time-varying complex networks using the concept of basin stability, which is a nonlocal and nonlinear measure of stability that can be easily applied to high-dimensional systems [P. J. Menck, J. Heitzig, N. Marwan, and J. Kurths, Nature Phys. 9, 89 (2013), 10.1038/nphys2516]. The time-varying character is included by stochastically rewiring each link with the average frequency f. We find that the time taken to reach synchronization is lowered and the stability range of the synchronized state increases considerably in dynamic networks. Further we uncover that small-world networks are much more sensitive to link changes than random ones, with the time-varying character of the network having a significant effect at much lower rewiring frequencies. At very high rewiring frequencies, random networks perform better than small-world networks and the synchronized state is stable over a much wider window of coupling strengths. Lastly we show that the stability range of the synchronized state may be quite different for small and large perturbations, and so the linear stability analysis and the basin stability criterion provide complementary indicators of stability.

  10. Synchronization in time-varying networks.

    PubMed

    Kohar, Vivek; Ji, Peng; Choudhary, Anshul; Sinha, Sudeshna; Kurths, Jüergen

    2014-08-01

    We study the stability of the synchronized state in time-varying complex networks using the concept of basin stability, which is a nonlocal and nonlinear measure of stability that can be easily applied to high-dimensional systems [P. J. Menck, J. Heitzig, N. Marwan, and J. Kurths, Nature Phys. 9, 89 (2013)]. The time-varying character is included by stochastically rewiring each link with the average frequency f. We find that the time taken to reach synchronization is lowered and the stability range of the synchronized state increases considerably in dynamic networks. Further we uncover that small-world networks are much more sensitive to link changes than random ones, with the time-varying character of the network having a significant effect at much lower rewiring frequencies. At very high rewiring frequencies, random networks perform better than small-world networks and the synchronized state is stable over a much wider window of coupling strengths. Lastly we show that the stability range of the synchronized state may be quite different for small and large perturbations, and so the linear stability analysis and the basin stability criterion provide complementary indicators of stability.

  11. Reducing juvenile delinquency with automated cell phone calls.

    PubMed

    Burraston, Bert O; Bahr, Stephen J; Cherrington, David J

    2014-05-01

    Using a sample of 70 juvenile probationers (39 treatment and 31 controls), we evaluated the effectiveness of a rehabilitation program that combined cognitive-behavioral training and automated phone calls. The cognitive-behavioral training contained six 90-min sessions, one per week, and the phone calls occurred twice per day for the year following treatment. Recidivism was measured by whether they were rearrested and the total number of rearrests during the 1st year. To test the impact of the phone calls, those who received phone calls were divided into high and low groups depending on whether they answered more or less than half of their phone calls. Those who completed the class and answered at least half of their phone calls were less likely to have been arrested and had fewer total arrests.

  12. Modeling synchronized calling behavior of Japanese tree frogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aihara, Ikkyu

    2009-07-01

    We experimentally observed synchronized calling behavior of male Japanese tree frogs Hyla japonica; namely, while isolated single frogs called nearly periodically, a pair of interacting frogs called synchronously almost in antiphase or inphase. In this study, we propose two types of phase-oscillator models on different degrees of approximations, which can quantitatively explain the phase and frequency properties in the experiment. Moreover, it should be noted that, although the second model is obtained by fitting to the experimental data of the two synchronized states, the model can also explain the transitory dynamics in the interactive calling behavior, namely, the shift from a transient inphase state to a stable antiphase state. We also discuss the biological relevance of the estimated parameter values to calling behavior of Japanese tree frogs and the possible biological meanings of the synchronized calling behavior.

  13. Nonlinear Acoustics in Cicada Mating Calls Enhance Sound Propagation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    NUWC-NPT Reprint Report 11,907 1 March 2009 Nonlinear Acoustics in Cicada Mating Calls Enhance Sound Propagation Derke R. Hughes Albert H...vol. 125, no. 2, February 2009. Nonlinear acoustics in cicada mating calls enhance sound propagation Derke R. Hughes,3 Albert H. Nuttall,h Richard A...2008; revised 31 October 2008; accepted 15 November 2008) An analysis of cicada mating calls, measured in field experiments, indicates that the very

  14. 40 CFR 155.48 - Data Call-In.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Data Call-In. 155.48 Section 155.48... STANDARDS AND REGISTRATION REVIEW Registration Review Procedures § 155.48 Data Call-In. The Agency may issue a Data Call-In notice under FIFRA section 3(c)(2)(B) at any time if the Agency believes that...

  15. 40 CFR 155.48 - Data Call-In.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Data Call-In. 155.48 Section 155.48... STANDARDS AND REGISTRATION REVIEW Registration Review Procedures § 155.48 Data Call-In. The Agency may issue a Data Call-In notice under FIFRA section 3(c)(2)(B) at any time if the Agency believes that...

  16. TADtool: visual parameter identification for TAD-calling algorithms.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Kai; Hug, Clemens B; Hernández-Rodríguez, Benjamín; Vaquerizas, Juan M

    2016-10-15

    Eukaryotic genomes are hierarchically organized into topologically associating domains (TADs). The computational identification of these domains and their associated properties critically depends on the choice of suitable parameters of TAD-calling algorithms. To reduce the element of trial-and-error in parameter selection, we have developed TADtool: an interactive plot to find robust TAD-calling parameters with immediate visual feedback. TADtool allows the direct export of TADs called with a chosen set of parameters for two of the most common TAD calling algorithms: directionality and insulation index. It can be used as an intuitive, standalone application or as a Python package for maximum flexibility.

  17. Benefits of organic farming to biodiversity vary among taxa

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, R.J; Norton, L.R; Feber, R.E; Johnson, P.J; Chamberlain, D.E; Joys, A.C; Mathews, F; Stuart, R.C; Townsend, M.C; Manley, W.J; Wolfe, M.S; Macdonald, D.W; Firbank, L.G

    2005-01-01

    Habitat and biodiversity differences between matched pairs of organic and non-organic farms containing cereal crops in lowland England were assessed by a large-scale study of plants, invertebrates, birds and bats. Habitat extent, composition and management on organic farms was likely to favour higher levels of biodiversity and indeed organic farms tended to support higher numbers of species and overall abundance across most taxa. However, the magnitude of the response varied; plants showed larger and more consistent responses than other taxa. Variation in response across taxa may be partly a consequence of the small size and isolated context of many organic farms. Extension of organic farming could contribute to the restoration of biodiversity in agricultural landscapes. PMID:17148225

  18. Benefits of organic farming to biodiversity vary among taxa.

    PubMed

    Fuller, R J; Norton, L R; Feber, R E; Johnson, P J; Chamberlain, D E; Joys, A C; Mathews, F; Stuart, R C; Townsend, M C; Manley, W J; Wolfe, M S; Macdonald, D W; Firbank, L G

    2005-12-22

    Habitat and biodiversity differences between matched pairs of organic and non-organic farms containing cereal crops in lowland England were assessed by a large-scale study of plants, invertebrates, birds and bats. Habitat extent, composition and management on organic farms was likely to favour higher levels of biodiversity and indeed organic farms tended to support higher numbers of species and overall abundance across most taxa. However, the magnitude of the response varied; plants showed larger and more consistent responses than other taxa. Variation in response across taxa may be partly a consequence of the small size and isolated context of many organic farms. Extension of organic farming could contribute to the restoration of biodiversity in agricultural landscapes.

  19. Oxygen sensitive, refractory oxide composition

    DOEpatents

    Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E.; Smith, Douglas D.

    1976-01-01

    Oxide compositions containing niobium pentoxide and an oxide selected from the group consisting of hafnia, titania, and zirconia have electrical conductivity characteristics which vary greatly depending on the oxygen content.

  20. Linear Parameter Varying Control for Actuator Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Jong-Yeob; Wu, N. Eva; Belcastro, Christine; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A robust linear parameter varying (LPV) control synthesis is carried out for an HiMAT vehicle subject to loss of control effectiveness. The scheduling parameter is selected to be a function of the estimates of the control effectiveness factors. The estimates are provided on-line by a two-stage Kalman estimator. The inherent conservatism of the LPV design is reducing through the use of a scaling factor on the uncertainty block that represents the estimation errors of the effectiveness factors. Simulations of the controlled system with the on-line estimator show that a superior fault-tolerance can be achieved.

  1. 3D-printing spatially varying BRDFs.

    PubMed

    Rouiller, Olivier; Bickel, Bernd; Kautz, Jan; Matusik, Wojciech; Alexa, Marc

    2013-01-01

    A new method fabricates custom surface reflectance and spatially varying bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (svBRDFs). Researchers optimize a microgeometry for a range of normal distribution functions and simulate the resulting surface's effective reflectance. Using the simulation's results, they reproduce an input svBRDF's appearance by distributing the microgeometry on the printed material's surface. This method lets people print svBRDFs on planar samples with current 3D printing technology, even with a limited set of printing materials. It extends naturally to printing svBRDFs on arbitrary shapes.

  2. A time-varying magnetic flux concentrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kibret, B.; Premaratne, M.; Lewis, P. M.; Thomson, R.; Fitzgerald, P. B.

    2016-08-01

    It is known that diverse technological applications require the use of focused magnetic fields. This has driven the quest for controlling the magnetic field. Recently, the principles in transformation optics and metamaterials have allowed the realization of practical static magnetic flux concentrators. Extending such progress, here, we propose a time-varying magnetic flux concentrator cylindrical shell that uses electric conductors and ferromagnetic materials to guide magnetic flux to its center. Its performance is discussed based on finite-element simulation results. Our proposed design has potential applications in magnetic sensors, medical devices, wireless power transfer, and near-field wireless communications.

  3. Nonlinear mesomechanics of composites with periodic microstructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Kevin P.; Jordan, Eric H.; Freed, Alan D.

    1989-01-01

    This work is concerned with modeling the mechanical deformation or constitutive behavior of composites comprised of a periodic microstructure under small displacement conditions at elevated temperature. A mesomechanics approach is adopted which relates the microimechanical behavior of the heterogeneous composite with its in-service macroscopic behavior. Two different methods, one based on a Fourier series approach and the other on a Green's function approach, are used in modeling the micromechanical behavior of the composite material. Although the constitutive formulations are based on a micromechanical approach, it should be stressed that the resulting equations are volume averaged to produce overall effective constitutive relations which relate the bulk, volume averaged, stress increment to the bulk, volume averaged, strain increment. As such, they are macromodels which can be used directly in nonlinear finite element programs such as MARC, ANSYS and ABAQUS or in boundary element programs such as BEST3D. In developing the volume averaged or efective macromodels from the micromechanical models, both approaches will require the evaluation of volume integrals containing the spatially varying strain distributions throughout the composite material. By assuming that the strain distributions are spatially constant within each constituent phase-or within a given subvolume within each constituent phase-of the composite material, the volume integrals can be obtained in closed form. This simplified micromodel can then be volume averaged to obtain an effective macromodel suitable for use in the MARC, ANSYS and ABAQUS nonlinear finite element programs via user constitutive subroutines such as HYPELA and CMUSER. This effective macromodel can be used in a nonlinear finite element structural analysis to obtain the strain-temperature history at those points in the structure where thermomechanical cracking and damage are expected to occur, the so called damage critical points of

  4. Redescription of the Advertisement Call of Five Species of Thoropa (Anura, Cycloramphidae), Including Recordings of Rare and Endangered Species

    PubMed Central

    Assis, Clodoaldo L.; Feio, Renato N.; Toledo, Luís Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Frogs of the genus Thoropa comprise six endemic Brazilian species on the Eastern side of the country. Little is known about their natural history, especially about their acoustic communication. Therefore, aiming to provide an overview of their vocalizations, we analyzed and redescribed male advertisement calls of three living and two possibly extinct species. The smaller species, T. petropolitana and T. lutzi, produce simple calls (one single note) with a higher frequency range than the remaining larger ones. On the other hand, the larger species present complex calls, with more than one note: T. megatympanum calls have three notes, T. taophora calls have four notes, and T. miliaris calls varies from three to six notes. Population snout-vent length negatively correlated with peak of dominant frequency as expected. However, highlighted differences between two populations of T. lutzi, which could indicate need of further taxonomic evaluation of those lineages. Peculiar morphology, such as the absence of vocal sacs and slits, may have contributed to their call variation and highly banded frequency structure. If the observed population differences reflect species-level differences, T. lutzi may be classified as a critically endangered species, as T. petropolitana. Furthermore, we provided a suggestion to an unusual behavior in frogs: calling with the mouth open in the smaller species of the genus. PMID:27617833

  5. Redescription of the Advertisement Call of Five Species of Thoropa (Anura, Cycloramphidae), Including Recordings of Rare and Endangered Species.

    PubMed

    Nunes-de-Almeida, Carlos H L; Assis, Clodoaldo L; Feio, Renato N; Toledo, Luís Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Frogs of the genus Thoropa comprise six endemic Brazilian species on the Eastern side of the country. Little is known about their natural history, especially about their acoustic communication. Therefore, aiming to provide an overview of their vocalizations, we analyzed and redescribed male advertisement calls of three living and two possibly extinct species. The smaller species, T. petropolitana and T. lutzi, produce simple calls (one single note) with a higher frequency range than the remaining larger ones. On the other hand, the larger species present complex calls, with more than one note: T. megatympanum calls have three notes, T. taophora calls have four notes, and T. miliaris calls varies from three to six notes. Population snout-vent length negatively correlated with peak of dominant frequency as expected. However, highlighted differences between two populations of T. lutzi, which could indicate need of further taxonomic evaluation of those lineages. Peculiar morphology, such as the absence of vocal sacs and slits, may have contributed to their call variation and highly banded frequency structure. If the observed population differences reflect species-level differences, T. lutzi may be classified as a critically endangered species, as T. petropolitana. Furthermore, we provided a suggestion to an unusual behavior in frogs: calling with the mouth open in the smaller species of the genus.

  6. Disciplinary Articulation in Rhetoric and Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babb, Jacob Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines how nomenclature and the act of naming shapes disciplinary identities for scholars and teachers of rhetoric and composition. The discipline is named differently by many of its members, sometimes called "composition studies," "writing studies," "composition and rhetoric," "rhetorical…

  7. Plastic and Failure Analysis of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigelow, C. A.; Johnson, W. S.

    1985-01-01

    Three-dimensional finite-element computer program called PAFAC (Plastic and Failure Analysis of Composites) developed for elastic/plastic analysis of fiber-reinforced composite materials and structures. PAFAC written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution. Particularly suited for analyzing laminated metal-matrix composites.

  8. Transient, spatially varied groundwater recharge modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assefa, Kibreab Amare; Woodbury, Allan D.

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work is to integrate field data and modeling tools in producing temporally and spatially varying groundwater recharge in a pilot watershed in North Okanagan, Canada. The recharge modeling is undertaken by using the Richards equation based finite element code (HYDRUS-1D), ArcGIS™, ROSETTA, in situ observations of soil temperature and soil moisture, and a long-term gridded climate data. The public version of HYDUS-1D and another version with detailed freezing and thawing module are first used to simulate soil temperature, snow pack, and soil moisture over a one year experimental period. Statistical analysis of the results show both versions of HYDRUS-1D reproduce observed variables to the same degree. After evaluating model performance using field data and ROSETTA derived soil hydraulic parameters, the HYDRUS-1D code is coupled with ArcGIS™ to produce spatially and temporally varying recharge maps throughout the Deep Creek watershed. Temporal and spatial analysis of 25 years daily recharge results at various representative points across the study watershed reveal significant temporal and spatial variations; average recharge estimated at 77.8 ± 50.8 mm/year. Previous studies in the Okanagan Basin used Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance without any attempt of model performance evaluation, notwithstanding its inherent limitations. Thus, climate change impact results from this previous study and similar others, such as Jyrkama and Sykes (2007), need to be interpreted with caution.

  9. Brown Dwarf Variability: What's Varying and Why?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark Scott

    2014-01-01

    Surveys by ground based telescopes, HST, and Spitzer have revealed that brown dwarfs of most spectral classes exhibit variability. The spectral and temporal signatures of the variability are complex and apparently defy simplistic classification which complicates efforts to model the changes. Important questions include understanding if clearings are forming in an otherwise uniform cloud deck or if thermal perturbations, perhaps associated with breaking gravity waves, are responsible. If clouds are responsible how long does it take for the atmospheric thermal profile to relax from a hot cloudy to a cooler cloudless state? If thermal perturbations are responsible then what atmospheric layers are varying? How do the observed variability timescales compare to atmospheric radiative, chemical, and dynamical timescales? I will address such questions by presenting modeling results for time-varying partly cloudy atmospheres and explore the importance of various atmospheric processes over the relevant timescales for brown dwarfs of a range of effective temperatures. Regardless of the origin of the observed variability, the complexity seen in the atmospheres of the field dwarfs hints at the variability that we may encounter in the next few years in directly imaged young Jupiters. Thus understanding the nature of variability in the field dwarfs, including sensitivity to gravity and metallicity, is of particular importance for exoplanet characterization.

  10. CALL in the Year 2000: A Look Back from 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapelle, Carol A.

    2016-01-01

    This commentary offers a brief reflection on the state of CALL in 1997, when "Language Learning & Technology" was launched with my paper entitled "CALL in the year 2000: Still in search of research paradigms?" The point of my 1997 paper was to suggest the potential value of research on second language learning for the study…

  11. 47 CFR 10.510 - Call preemption prohibition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Call preemption prohibition. 10.510 Section 10.510 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM Equipment Requirements § 10.510 Call preemption prohibition. Devices marketed for public use under part...

  12. Why We All Need Call Waiting on Our Phones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higbie, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Have you ever noticed that you can go all day without a single call on your phone and then suddenly you get two calls at once? This is actually not as uncommon as it sounds and there is a mathematical reason for why we should expect it to happen, believe it or not.

  13. The Multidimensionality of Calling: Conceptualization, Measurement and a Bicultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagmaier, Tamara; Abele, Andrea E.

    2012-01-01

    The experience of a calling may be seen as the ultimate form of subjective career success that has many positive consequences for individuals and organizations. We are here concerned with the conceptualization of a new multidimensional measure of calling, the MCM. In the first two studies we employed a qualitative approach and came up with five…

  14. Consumer Experiences Calling Toll-Free Corporate Hotlines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Charles L.; Smart, Denise T.

    1994-01-01

    Finds that dimensions that contribute to caller satisfaction (of toll-free corporate hotlines) included operator characteristics such as knowledge, courtesy, and interest; specific behaviors such as apologizing for a problem, thanking the consumer for calling, and encouraging them to call again; and reducing time placed on "hold." (SR)

  15. Immunisation hotline calls as five-in-one vaccine introduced.

    PubMed

    Fisher-Jeffes, Lisa; Finlay, Fiona

    2006-04-01

    Announcement of the introduction of the five-in-one vaccine (DTaP/IPV/Hib) into the primary immunisation schedule was made on 9 August 2004. In this study all calls to the immunisation hotline were recorded between 9 August 2004 and 19 November 2004, noting who called and the nature of their enquiry. A total of 208 calls were received during the study period, and of these 23 (11.1%) related to the new vaccine. Calls were from parents (10/23, 43%), health visitors (9/23, 39%) and practice nurses (3/23, 13%). A variety of themes were covered in calls including local availability of the five-in-one vaccine, vaccine safety, mercury content and efficacy. Calls not connected with the new vaccine concerned mostly adolescent MMR (17.3%) as there was a local mumps epidemic. Others related to clarification of a child's immunisation status (13.5%), primary MMR immunisation (13.5%), vaccination scheduling or administration difficulties (12%), other schedule (12.5%) and non-schedule vaccines (2.4%), vaccine reactions (2.4%), travel vaccines (6%), BCG (6%), and a few miscellaneous queries (3%). Overall questions about the new five-in-one vaccine accounted for an extra 23 calls to the immunisation hotline during the study period (11.1% of calls).

  16. 50 CFR 510.4 - Calling of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Calling of meetings. 510.4 Section 510.4 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ACT § 510.4 Calling of meetings. (a) No committee shall hold any meeting except with the advance approval...

  17. 50 CFR 510.4 - Calling of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Calling of meetings. 510.4 Section 510.4 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ACT § 510.4 Calling of meetings. (a) No committee shall hold any meeting except with the advance approval...

  18. 50 CFR 510.4 - Calling of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Calling of meetings. 510.4 Section 510.4 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ACT § 510.4 Calling of meetings. (a) No committee shall hold any meeting except with the advance approval...

  19. 50 CFR 510.4 - Calling of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Calling of meetings. 510.4 Section 510.4 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ACT § 510.4 Calling of meetings. (a) No committee shall hold any meeting except with the advance approval...

  20. Called to Do Meaningful Work: A Blessing or a Curse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Vuuren, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Two groups of people are particularly inclined to mention a calling when talking about their work motivation: those who are spiritual (because the concept of calling originated in the religious realm) and those in serving occupations (such as hospitals, schools, and nongovernmental organizations). Because Christian professors are in both groups,…

  1. 47 CFR 25.284 - Emergency Call Center Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... mobile satellite service to end-user customers (part 25, subparts A-D) must provide Emergency Call Center... Center personnel must determine the emergency caller's phone number and location and then transfer or otherwise redirect the call to an appropriate public safety answering point. Providers of mobile...

  2. AI in CALL--Artificially Inflated or Almost Imminent?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulze, Mathias

    2008-01-01

    The application of techniques from artificial intelligence (AI) to CALL has commonly been referred to as intelligent CALL (ICALL). ICALL is only slightly older than the "CALICO Journal", and this paper looks back at a quarter century of published research mainly in North America and by North American scholars. This "inventory…

  3. Results from Organizational Development Interventions in a Technology Call Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Call center staff answered calls in 4 treatments: alignment job design (n=35), autonomous work teams (n=35), high-involvement work processes (n=43), and controls (n=36). Job satisfaction improved in alignment job design and high-involvement treatments, most significantly in the latter. Skill level and attitude toward autonomous work might have…

  4. 76 FR 43688 - Committee Meeting via Conference Call

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Committee Meeting via Conference Call AGENCY..., August 16, 2011, from 1 p.m. to 2:30 pm E.S.T. This meeting, to be held via audio conference call,...

  5. Formal and Informal CALL Preparation and Teacher Attitude toward Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Greg

    2007-01-01

    Recent research suggests that there is a general lack of a computer-assisted language learning (CALL) presence in teacher preparation programs. There is also evidence that teachers obtain a majority of their CALL knowledge from informal sources and personal experience rather than through formalized preparation. Further, graduates of these programs…

  6. 31 CFR 50.94 - Data call authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Data call authority. 50.94 Section 50.94 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.94 Data call authority. For the purpose of determining initial...

  7. Steven MacCall: Winner of LJ's 2010 Teaching Award

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2010-01-01

    This article profiles Steven L. MacCall, winner of "Library Journal's" 2010 Teaching Award. An associate professor at the School of Library and Information Studies (SLIS) at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, MacCall was nominated by Kathie Popadin, known as "Kpop" to the members of her cohort in the online MLIS program at SLIS. Sixteen of…

  8. Impact of Using CALL on Iranian EFL Learners' Vocabulary Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunus, Melor Md; Salehi, Hadi; Amini, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) integration in EFL contexts has intensified noticeably in recent years. This integration might be in different ways and for different purposes such as vocabulary acquisition, grammar learning, phonology, writing skills, etc. More explicitly, this study is an attempt to explore the effect of using CALL on…

  9. 7 CFR 7.7 - Calling of elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calling of elections. 7.7 Section 7.7 Agriculture... CONSERVATION STATE, COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.7 Calling of elections. (a) Each election of community... not later than December 30 each year. Each such election shall be held in accordance with...

  10. CALL: Using What We Know to Avoid Reinventing the Wheel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shield, Lesley

    2009-01-01

    Much has been written about Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) both from the point of view of its history and its definition. While it is not the aim of this paper to revisit such issues in detail, it opens with an overview of some of the major issues around definitions of CALL and the related terms that have emerged over the years to…

  11. Dialogue-Based CALL: An Overview of Existing Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bibauw, Serge; François, Thomas; Desmet, Piet

    2015-01-01

    Dialogue-based Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) covers applications and systems allowing a learner to practice the target language in a meaning-focused conversational activity with an automated agent. We first present a common definition for dialogue-based CALL, based on three features: dialogue as the activity unit, computer as the…

  12. Implications of Research on Human Memory for CALL Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forester, Lee

    2002-01-01

    Offers a brief overview of what is generally accepted about how human memory works as it applied to computer assisted language learning (CALL). Discusses a number of interactions from various CALL products in light of the research summarized. (Author/VWL)

  13. Environmental constraints and call evolution in torrent-dwelling frogs.

    PubMed

    Goutte, Sandra; Dubois, Alain; Howard, Samuel D; Marquez, Rafael; Rowley, Jodi J L; Dehling, J Maximilian; Grandcolas, Philippe; Rongchuan, Xiong; Legendre, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    Although acoustic signals are important for communication in many taxa, signal propagation is affected by environmental properties. Strong environmental constraints should drive call evolution, favoring signals with greater transmission distance and content integrity in a given calling habitat. Yet, few empirical studies have verified this prediction, possibly due to a shortcoming in habitat characterization, which is often too broad. Here we assess the potential impact of environmental constraints on the evolution of advertisement call in four groups of torrent-dwelling frogs in the family Ranidae. We reconstruct the evolution of calling site preferences, both broadly categorized and at a finer scale, onto a phylogenetic tree for 148 species with five markers (∼3600 bp). We test models of evolution for six call traits for 79 species with regard to the reconstructed history of calling site preferences and estimate their ancestral states. We find that in spite of existing morphological constraints, vocalizations of torrent-dwelling species are most probably constrained by the acoustic specificities of torrent habitats and particularly their high level of ambient noise. We also show that a fine-scale characterization of calling sites allows a better perception of the impact of environmental constraints on call evolution.

  14. Sustainability in CALL Learning Environments: A Systemic Functional Grammar Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to define a sustainable resource in Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL). In order for a CALL resource to be sustainable it must work within existing educational curricula. This feature is a necessary prerequisite of sustainability because, despite the potential for educational change that digitalization has offered since…

  15. The After-Death Call to Family Members: Academic Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoboPrabhu, Sheila; Molinari, Victor; Pate, Jennifer; Lomax, James

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors discuss clinical and teaching aspects of a telephone call by the treating clinician to family members after a patient dies. Methods: A MEDLINE search was conducted for references to an after-death call made by the treating clinician to family members. A review of this literature is summarized. Results: A clinical application…

  16. Calls to Teen Line: Representative Concerns of Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehm, Kathryn E.; Schondel, Connie K.; Ivoska, William J.; Marlowe, Alison L.; Manke-Mitchell, Laurie

    1998-01-01

    Study examines whether the concerns of teenagers calling a peer listening service are representative of the concerns of teenagers in the area served. Results indicate that students' biggest concerns involve family problems, peer relationships, self-esteem, and school problems. Concludes that calls to the teen line are representative. (Author/GCP)

  17. Heeding the Call for Change: Suggestions for Curricular Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Lynn Arthur, Ed.

    The "call for change" issued by the Board of Governors of the Mathematical Association of America (MAA) in "A Call For Change: Recommendations for the Mathematical Preparation of Teachers of Mathematics, 1991" may appear at first glance to concern only the mathematical preparation of teachers. However, two ingredients combine…

  18. 47 CFR 25.284 - Emergency Call Center Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... mobile satellite service to end-user customers (part 25, subparts A-D) must provide Emergency Call Center... Center personnel must determine the emergency caller's phone number and location and then transfer or otherwise redirect the call to an appropriate public safety answering point. Providers of mobile...

  19. 47 CFR 25.284 - Emergency Call Center Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Mobile-Satellite Service to end-user customers (part 25, subparts A-D) must provide Emergency Call Center... Center personnel must determine the emergency caller's phone number and location and then transfer or otherwise redirect the call to an appropriate public safety answering point. Providers of...

  20. 47 CFR 25.284 - Emergency Call Center Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... mobile satellite service to end-user customers (part 25, subparts A-D) must provide Emergency Call Center... Center personnel must determine the emergency caller's phone number and location and then transfer or otherwise redirect the call to an appropriate public safety answering point. Providers of mobile...

  1. 47 CFR 25.284 - Emergency Call Center Service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Mobile-Satellite Service to end-user customers (part 25, subparts A-D) must provide Emergency Call Center... Center personnel must determine the emergency caller's phone number and location and then transfer or otherwise redirect the call to an appropriate public safety answering point. Providers of...

  2. Antibiotic stewardship: a call for action by the urologic community.

    PubMed

    Wagenlehner, Florian M E; Bartoletti, Ricardo; Cek, Mete; Grabe, Magnus; Kahlmeter, Gunnar; Pickard, Robert; Bjerklund-Johansen, Truls E

    2013-09-01

    Increasing antibiotic resistance and lack of new antibiotics in the near future calls for a variety of coordinated strategies called "Antibiotic stewardship", to improve antibiotic use with the goal of enhancing patient health outcomes and reducing emergence of resistance to antibiotics.

  3. Critical Considerations for Planning and Implementing a CALL Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabilan, Muhammad Kamarul

    2009-01-01

    The field of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) has transformed dramatically--from the days of the behaviourist approach that dominated CALL in the 1970s to the dynamism of Interactive approach in the 1990s under the immense influence of information communication technology (ICT). Regardless of these periodic changes and improvements,…

  4. 76 FR 14684 - Call for Nominations for Resource Advisory Councils

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-17

    ... Bureau of Land Management Call for Nominations for Resource Advisory Councils AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Call for nominations. SUMMARY: The purpose of this notice is to request public nominations for the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Resource Advisory Councils (RAC) that have member...

  5. 75 FR 14622 - Call for Nominations for Resource Advisory Councils

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... Bureau of Land Management Call for Nominations for Resource Advisory Councils AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Resource Advisory Council Call for Nominations. SUMMARY: The purpose of this notice is to request public nominations for the Bureau of Land Management (BLM)...

  6. 47 CFR 64.1320 - Payphone call tracking system audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ensure that any software, personnel or any other network changes do not adversely affect its payphone... calls; and (iv) Determine the identities of the payphone service providers to which the Completing... noncompensable calls; (iv) Its criteria used to determine the identities of the payphone service providers...

  7. 47 CFR 64.1320 - Payphone call tracking system audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ensure that any software, personnel or any other network changes do not adversely affect its payphone... calls; and (iv) Determine the identities of the payphone service providers to which the Completing... noncompensable calls; (iv) Its criteria used to determine the identities of the payphone service providers...

  8. 47 CFR 64.1320 - Payphone call tracking system audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ensure that any software, personnel or any other network changes do not adversely affect its payphone... calls; and (iv) Determine the identities of the payphone service providers to which the Completing... noncompensable calls; (iv) Its criteria used to determine the identities of the payphone service providers...

  9. 47 CFR 64.1320 - Payphone call tracking system audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ensure that any software, personnel or any other network changes do not adversely affect its payphone... calls; and (iv) Determine the identities of the payphone service providers to which the Completing... noncompensable calls; (iv) Its criteria used to determine the identities of the payphone service providers...

  10. 47 CFR 32.6621 - Call completion services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Call completion services. 32.6621 Section 32... SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6621 Call completion services. This account shall include costs incurred in helping customers place and complete...

  11. 39 CFR 6.4 - Attendance by conference telephone call.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Attendance by conference telephone call. 6.4 Section 6.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE MEETINGS (ARTICLE VI) § 6.4 Attendance by conference telephone call. For regularly scheduled meetings...

  12. Student Evaluation of CALL Tools during the Design Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbitt, Dallas

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the comparative effectiveness of student input at different times during the design of CALL tools for learning kanji, the Japanese characters of Chinese origin. The CALL software "package" consisted of tools to facilitate the writing, reading and practising of kanji characters in context. A pre-design questionnaire…

  13. 50 CFR 510.4 - Calling of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calling of meetings. 510.4 Section 510.4 Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION IMPLEMENTATION OF THE FEDERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE ACT § 510.4 Calling of meetings. (a) No committee shall hold any meeting except with the advance approval...

  14. 47 CFR 64.704 - Call blocking prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Call blocking prohibited. 64.704 Section 64.704 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS... Bell Operating Companies; Telephone Operator Services § 64.704 Call blocking prohibited. (a)...

  15. 22 CFR 214.32 - Calling of advisory committee meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calling of advisory committee meetings. 214.32 Section 214.32 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Operation of Advisory Committees § 214.32 Calling of advisory committee meetings. (a) No advisory...

  16. 16 CFR 1018.21 - Calling of meetings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calling of meetings. 1018.21 Section 1018.21 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE MANAGEMENT Operation of Advisory Committees § 1018.21 Calling of meetings. Advisory committees shall, as a general rule, meet...

  17. Called to Teach: A Study of Highly Motivated Preservice Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serow, Robert C.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the belief that teaching is not merely a job but a calling, analyzing survey and interview data from 527 preservice teachers. Compared to other preservice teachers, those who felt a calling displayed significantly more enthusiasm, commitment to teaching, and willingness to accept sacrifices and extra duties. (SM)

  18. Novel Microstructures for Polymer-Liquid Crystal Composite Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magda, Jules J.

    2004-01-01

    There are a number of interface-dominated composite materials that contain a liquid crystalline (LC) phase in intimate contact with an isotropic phase. For example, polymer- dispersed liquid crystals, used in the fabrication of windows with switchable transparency, consist of micron size LC droplets dispersed in an isotropic polymer matrix. Many other types of liquid crystal composite materials can be envisioned that might have outstanding optical properties that could be exploited in novel chemical sensors, optical switches, and computer displays. This research project was based on the premise that many of these potentially useful LC composite materials can only be fabricated under microgravity conditions where gravity driven flows are absent. In the ground-based research described below, we have focused on a new class of LC composites that we call thermotropic- lyotropic liquid crystal systems (TLLCs). TLLCs consist of nanosize droplets of water dispersed in an LC matrix, with surfactants at the interface that stabilize the structure. By varying the type of surfactant one can access almost an infinite variety of unusual LC composite microstructures. Due to the importance of the interface in these types of systems, we have also developed molecular simulation models for liquid crystals at interfaces, and made some of the first measurements of the interfacial tension between liquid crystals and water.

  19. The function of nonlinear phenomena in meerkat alarm calls.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Simon W; Manser, Marta B

    2011-02-23

    Nonlinear vocal phenomena are a ubiquitous feature of human and non-human animal vocalizations. Although we understand how these complex acoustic intrusions are generated, it is not clear whether they function adaptively for the animals producing them. One explanation is that nonlinearities make calls more unpredictable, increasing behavioural responses and ultimately reducing the chances of habituation to these call types. Meerkats (Suricata suricatta) exhibit nonlinear subharmonics in their predator alarm calls. We specifically tested the 'unpredictability hypothesis' by playing back naturally occurring nonlinear and linear medium-urgency alarm call bouts. Results indicate that subjects responded more strongly and foraged less after hearing nonlinear alarm calls. We argue that these findings support the unpredictability hypothesis and suggest this is the first study in animals or humans to show that nonlinear vocal phenomena function adaptively.

  20. Evidence That Calls-Based and Mobility Networks Are Isomorphic

    PubMed Central

    Coscia, Michele; Hausmann, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Social relations involve both face-to-face interaction as well as telecommunications. We can observe the geography of phone calls and of the mobility of cell phones in space. These two phenomena can be described as networks of connections between different points in space. We use a dataset that includes billions of phone calls made in Colombia during a six-month period. We draw the two networks and find that the call-based network resembles a higher order aggregation of the mobility network and that both are isomorphic except for a higher spatial decay coefficient of the mobility network relative to the call-based network: when we discount distance effects on the call connections with the same decay observed for mobility connections, the two networks are virtually indistinguishable. PMID:26713730

  1. Computer-assisted scheduling of radiology resident call.

    PubMed

    Larson, T C; Larson, S L; Harle, T S

    1986-05-01

    The difficulties inherent in assigning an entire residency group fair and equivalent daily call prompted the development of a computerized scheduling program at The University of Texas at Houston. Written in COBOL, the program is run on a CDC mainframe computer. Logic parameters restrict the number and frequency of calls per month, and each resident is coded for five available call types at two university hospitals. The foundation of the program's operation is an arbitrary point scale applied to each call type determined by its difficulty and time commitment. Residents' point totals each month are roughly balanced within a prescribed range, with call exchanges made by the computer if necessary. The computer-generated schedules are flexible and equitable, require little manual correction, and save time for the chief resident and the residency secretary.

  2. Frequency synchronization of blue whale calls near Pioneer Seamount.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Michael D; Garfield, Newell; Bland, Roger W

    2010-07-01

    Vocalizations of blue whales were recorded with a cabled hydrophone array at Pioneer Seamount, 50 miles off the California coast. Most calls occurred in repeated sequences of two-call pairs (A, then B). The B call is a frequency-modulated tone highly repeatable in form and pitch. A model of this sound is described which permits detecting very small frequency shifts. B calls are found to be aligned in frequency to about one part in 180. This requires very fine pitch discrimination and control over calling frequency, and suggests that synchronizing to a common frequency pattern carries some adaptive advantage. Some possibilities for acoustic sensing by whales requiring this fine frequency resolution are discussed.

  3. Deceptive copulation calls attract female visitors to peacock leks.

    PubMed

    Dakin, Roslyn; Montgomerie, Robert

    2014-04-01

    Theory holds that dishonest signaling can be stable if it is rare. We report here that some peacocks perform specialized copulation calls (hoots) when females are not present and the peacocks are clearly not attempting to copulate. Because these solo hoots are almost always given out of view of females, they may be dishonest signals of male mating attempts. These dishonest calls are surprisingly common, making up about a third of all hoot calls in our study populations. Females are more likely to visit males after they give a solo hoot call, and we confirm using a playback experiment that females are attracted to the sound of the hoot. Our findings suggest that both sexes use the hoot call tactically: females to locate potential mates and males to attract female visitors. We suggest that the solo hoot may be a deceptive signal that is acquired and maintained through reward-based learning.

  4. The function of nonlinear phenomena in meerkat alarm calls

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Simon W.; Manser, Marta B.

    2011-01-01

    Nonlinear vocal phenomena are a ubiquitous feature of human and non-human animal vocalizations. Although we understand how these complex acoustic intrusions are generated, it is not clear whether they function adaptively for the animals producing them. One explanation is that nonlinearities make calls more unpredictable, increasing behavioural responses and ultimately reducing the chances of habituation to these call types. Meerkats (Suricata suricatta) exhibit nonlinear subharmonics in their predator alarm calls. We specifically tested the ‘unpredictability hypothesis’ by playing back naturally occurring nonlinear and linear medium-urgency alarm call bouts. Results indicate that subjects responded more strongly and foraged less after hearing nonlinear alarm calls. We argue that these findings support the unpredictability hypothesis and suggest this is the first study in animals or humans to show that nonlinear vocal phenomena function adaptively. PMID:20659926

  5. Medical resident driving simulator performance following a night on call.

    PubMed

    Ware, J Catesby; Risser, Mathew R; Manser, Thomas; Karlson, Karl H

    2006-01-01

    This study compared driving simulation performance after night call and after being off call in 22 medical residents and 1 medical student in a prospective within-subjects counterbalanced design. The results demonstrated an unexpected interaction between call and sex wherein men performed more poorly after night call than women as measured by lane variance and crash frequency. Secondary measures, including caffeine, actigraphy, and subjective total sleep time, did not differ between men and women. Collectively, results of this study and others suggest that medical residents are at risk when driving after a night on call and support the need for resident education to address sleep needs, consequences of sleep disruption, postcall recovery sleep, and countermeasures that may reduce residents' driving risks.

  6. Addressee Errors in ATC Communications: The Call Sign Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monan, W. P.

    1983-01-01

    Communication errors involving aircraft call signs were portrayed in reports of 462 hazardous incidents voluntarily submitted to the ASRS during an approximate four-year period. These errors resulted in confusion, disorder, and uncoordinated traffic conditions and produced the following types of operational anomalies: altitude deviations, wrong-way headings, aborted takeoffs, go arounds, runway incursions, missed crossing altitude restrictions, descents toward high terrain, and traffic conflicts in flight and on the ground. Analysis of the report set resulted in identification of five categories of errors involving call signs: (1) faulty radio usage techniques, (2) call sign loss or smearing due to frequency congestion, (3) confusion resulting from similar sounding call signs, (4) airmen misses of call signs leading to failures to acknowledge or readback, and (5) controller failures regarding confirmation of acknowledgements or readbacks. These error categories are described in detail and several associated hazard mitigating measures that might be aken are considered.

  7. Circular motion analysis of time-varying bioimpedance.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, B; Louarroudi, E; Rutkove, S B; Pintelon, R

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a step forward towards the analysis of a linear periodically time-varying (PTV) bioimpedance ZPTV(jw, t), which is an important subclass of a linear time-varying (LTV) bioimpedance. Similarly to the Fourier coefficients of a periodic signal, a PTV impedance can be decomposed into frequency dependent impedance phasors, [Formula: see text], that are rotating with an angular speed of wr = 2πr/TZ. The vector length of these impedance phasors corresponds to the amplitude of the rth-order harmonic impedance |Zr( jw)| and the initial phase is given by Φr(w, t0) = [Symbol: see text]Zr( jw) + 2πrt0/TZ, with t0∈[0, T] being a time instant within the measurement time T. The impedance period TZ stands for the cycle length of the bio-system under investigation; for example, the elapsed time between two consecutive R-waves in the electrocardiogram or the breathing periodicity in case of the heart or lungs, respectively. First, it is demonstrated that the harmonic impedance phasor [Formula: see text], at a particular measured frequency k, can be represented by a rotating phasor, leading to the so-called circular motion analysis technique. Next, the two dimensional (2D) representation of the harmonic impedance phasors is then extended to a three-dimensional (3D) coordinate system by taking into account the frequency dependence. Finally, we introduce a new visualizing tool to summarize the frequency response behavior of ZPTV( jw, t) into a single 3D plot using the local Frenet-Serret frame. This novel 3D impedance representation is then compared with the 3D Nyquist representation of a PTV impedance. The concepts are illustrated through real measurements conducted on a PTV RC-circuit.

  8. Neural Activity Patterns in Response to Interspecific and Intraspecific Variation in Mating Calls in the Túngara Frog

    PubMed Central

    Burmeister, Sabrina S.

    2010-01-01

    Background During mate choice, individuals must classify potential mates according to species identity and relative attractiveness. In many species, females do so by evaluating variation in the signals produced by males. Male túngara frogs (Physalaemus pustulosus) can produce single note calls (whines) and multi-note calls (whine-chucks). While the whine alone is sufficient for species recognition, females greatly prefer the whine-chuck when given a choice. Methodology/Principal Findings To better understand how the brain responds to variation in male mating signals, we mapped neural activity patterns evoked by interspecific and intraspecific variation in mating calls in túngara frogs by measuring expression of egr-1. We predicted that egr-1 responses to conspecific calls would identify brain regions that are potentially important for species recognition and that at least some of those brain regions would vary in their egr-1 responses to mating calls that vary in attractiveness. We measured egr-1 in the auditory brainstem and its forebrain targets and found that conspecific whine-chucks elicited greater egr-1 expression than heterospecific whines in all but three regions. We found no evidence that preferred whine-chuck calls elicited greater egr-1 expression than conspecific whines in any of eleven brain regions examined, in contrast to predictions that mating preferences in túngara frogs emerge from greater responses in the auditory system. Conclusions Although selectivity for species-specific signals is apparent throughout the túngara frog brain, further studies are necessary to elucidate how neural activity patterns vary with the attractiveness of conspecific mating calls. PMID:20877560

  9. An ETAS model with varying productivity rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harte, D. S.

    2014-07-01

    We present an epidemic type aftershock sequenc (ETAS) model where the offspring rates vary both spatially and temporally. This is achieved by distinguishing between those space-time volumes where the interpoint space and time distances are small, and those where they are considerably larger. We also question the nature of the background component in the ETAS model. Is it simply a temporal boundary correction (t = 0) or does it represent an additional tectonic process not described by the aftershock component? The form of these stochastic models should not be considered to be fixed. As we accumulate larger and better earthquake catalogues, GPS data, strain rates, etc., we have the ability to ask more complex questions about the nature of the process. By fitting modified models consistent with such questions, we should gain a better insight into the earthquake process. Hence, we consider a sequence of incrementally modified ETAS type models rather than `the' ETAS model.

  10. Tuning ferromagnetism by varying ion beam profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariwal, Rajesh V.; Malik, Hitendra K.; Asokan, K.

    2017-02-01

    Present study demonstrates a novel technique to tune the ferromagnetism at room temperature by varying the ion beam profiles from 3 to 7 mm during Carbon ion implantation in ZnO matrix and keeping other beam parameters constant. The interaction of implanted C ions with host ZnO matrix at different profiles result in variable ferromagnetism from 0.75 to 3.0  ×  10‑4 emu gm‑1 due to difference in the induced radiation pressure. Similar variation is also observed in the optical bandgap from 3.35 to 3.24 eV for different beam profiles. This study shows that the material properties can be tuned and controlled by the variation of beam profiles during the ion implantation.

  11. Time varying arctic climate change amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Chylek, Petr; Dubey, Manvendra K; Lesins, Glen; Wang, Muyin

    2009-01-01

    During the past 130 years the global mean surface air temperature has risen by about 0.75 K. Due to feedbacks -- including the snow/ice albedo feedback -- the warming in the Arctic is expected to proceed at a faster rate than the global average. Climate model simulations suggest that this Arctic amplification produces warming that is two to three times larger than the global mean. Understanding the Arctic amplification is essential for projections of future Arctic climate including sea ice extent and melting of the Greenland ice sheet. We use the temperature records from the Arctic stations to show that (a) the Arctic amplification is larger at latitudes above 700 N compared to those within 64-70oN belt, and that, surprisingly; (b) the ratio of the Arctic to global rate of temperature change is not constant but varies on the decadal timescale. This time dependence will affect future projections of climate changes in the Arctic.

  12. Varying ghost dark energy and particle creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurshudyan, M.

    2016-02-01

    One of the models of dark energy is the ghost dark energy, which has a geometrical origin. Recently, a certain type of phenomenological modification of ghost dark energy has been suggested which motivated us for this work. The goal of this paper is twofold. First, we would like to study the cosmological scenario involving interacting varying ghost dark energy. A cosmographic analysis of a non-interacting model is also performed. Then, we study the particle creation following the straight analogy between quantization in Minkowski background and canonical quantization of a scalar field in curved dynamical backgrounds. Particular attention will be paid to massless-particle production from a radiation-dominated universe (according to our toy model) which evolves to our large-scale universe. Constraints on the parameters of the models obtained during the cosmographic analysis did allow to demonstrate the possibility of a massless-particle creation in a radiation-dominated universe.

  13. Photon Propagation in Slowly Varying Electromagnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karbstein, F.

    2017-03-01

    Effective theory of soft photons in slowly varying electromagnetic background fields is studied at one-loop order in QED. This is of relevance for the study of all-optical signatures of quantum vacuum nonlinearity in realistic electromagnetic background fields as provided by high-intensity lasers. The central result derived in this article is a new analytical expression for the photon polarization tensor in two linearly polarized counterpropagating pulsed Gaussian laser beams. Treating the peak field strengths of both laser beams as free parameters, this field configuration can be considered as interpolating between the limiting cases of a purely right- or left-moving laser beam (if one of the peak field strengths is set equal to zero) and the standing-wave type scenario with two counter-propagating beams of equal strength.

  14. [Comparative toxicity of photosensitizers in varying destruction].

    PubMed

    Sinitsina, O O; Zholdakova, Z I; Poliakova, E E; Golovach, E N; Sycheva, L P; Beliaeva, N N; Kuznetsova, N A

    2007-01-01

    The toxicity of the photosensitizers proflavine acetate (PA) versus methylene blue (MB) was evaluated during their varying destruction. Under the influence of visible light, a partial (25%) transformation of the photosensitizers was shown to be attended by their enhanced toxicity and 100% destruction of the parent substances caused a reduction in their hazard. PA and its phototransformation products mainly affect the antiperoxide protection system and the structural and functional states of the liver, kidney, and duodenum. The maximum noneffective dose is 0.002 mg/kg. The possibility of using PA for water disinfection depends on the ratio of safe and effective concentrations. A partial (25%) MB destruction products cause mutagenic effects; the permissible dose of the mutagen is 0.00025 mg/kg. MB is not recommended for disinfection of all types of waters.

  15. Application of Hamilton's law of varying action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, C. D.

    1975-01-01

    The law of varying action enunciated by Hamilton in 1834-1835 permits the direct analytical solution of the problems of mechanics, both stationary and nonstationary, without consideration of force equilibrium and the theory of differential equations associated therewith. It has not been possible to obtain direct analytical solutions to nonstationary systems through the use of energy theory, which has been limited for 140 years to the principle of least action and to Hamilton's principle. It is shown here that Hamilton's law permits the direct analytical solution to nonstationary, initial value systems in the mechanics of solids without any knowledge or use of the theory of differential equations. Solutions are demonstrated for nonconservative, nonstationary particle motion, both linear and nonlinear.

  16. A generalized linear model for peak calling in ChIP-Seq data.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jialin; Zhang, Yu

    2012-06-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq) has become a routine for detecting genome-wide protein-DNA interaction. The success of ChIP-Seq data analysis highly depends on the quality of peak calling (i.e., to detect peaks of tag counts at a genomic location and evaluate if the peak corresponds to a real protein-DNA interaction event). The challenges in peak calling include (1) how to combine the forward and the reverse strand tag data to improve the power of peak calling and (2) how to account for the variation of tag data observed across different genomic locations. We introduce a new peak calling method based on the generalized linear model (GLMNB) that utilizes negative binomial distribution to model the tag count data and account for the variation of background tags that may randomly bind to the DNA sequence at varying levels due to local genomic structures and sequence contents. We allow local shifting of peaks observed on the forward and the reverse stands, such that at each potential binding site, a binding profile representing the pattern of a real peak signal is fitted to best explain the observed tag data with maximum likelihood. Our method can also detect multiple peaks within a local region if there are multiple binding sites in the region.

  17. Time varying, multivariate volume data reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Ahrens, James P; Fout, Nathaniel; Ma, Kwan - Liu

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale supercomputing is revolutionizing the way science is conducted. A growing challenge, however, is understanding the massive quantities of data produced by large-scale simulations. The data, typically time-varying, multivariate, and volumetric, can occupy from hundreds of gigabytes to several terabytes of storage space. Transferring and processing volume data of such sizes is prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Although it may not be possible to entirely alleviate these problems, data compression should be considered as part of a viable solution, especially when the primary means of data analysis is volume rendering. In this paper we present our study of multivariate compression, which exploits correlations among related variables, for volume rendering. Two configurations for multidimensional compression based on vector quantization are examined. We emphasize quality reconstruction and interactive rendering, which leads us to a solution using graphics hardware to perform on-the-fly decompression during rendering. In this paper we present a solution which addresses the need for data reduction in large supercomputing environments where data resulting from simulations occupies tremendous amounts of storage. Our solution employs a lossy encoding scheme to acrueve data reduction with several options in terms of rate-distortion behavior. We focus on encoding of multiple variables together, with optional compression in space and time. The compressed volumes can be rendered directly with commodity graphics cards at interactive frame rates and rendering quality similar to that of static volume renderers. Compression results using a multivariate time-varying data set indicate that encoding multiple variables results in acceptable performance in the case of spatial and temporal encoding as compared to independent compression of variables. The relative performance of spatial vs. temporal compression is data dependent, although temporal compression has the

  18. Spectrographic Analysis of Carrion Crow Calls and Their Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibuya, Hisashi; Yokota, Yasunari

    In recent years, damage to agricultural products, livestock, and power transmission systems by crows is regarded as a serious problem; countermeasures against crow damage are urgently necessary. This paper proposed a method for detecting crow calls in various environmental sounds. If detection and discernment of crow calls were possible, various actions could be undertaken to prevent the damage. Wildlife call detection, not only that for crows, should be executed in extremely noisy environments. We then introduced both a spectrograph estimation technique with AR modeling in which AR coefficients are temporally smoothed and interpolated and a background noise elimination technique to obtain higher-quality crow call templates. The input sounds are compared with these templates by DP matching in the metric vector space of a logarithmic cepstrum. Every input sound whose minimal distance to the template database is less than the specified threshold value is detected as a crow call. The maximal detection performance can be obtained when five call templates in the template database are utilized; the implication is that carrion crows have five distinguishable call patterns. It is shown that the proposed method achieves 95% detection rate when 1.66% misdetection rate is allowed.

  19. Lar gibbon (Hylobates lar) great call reveals individual caller identity.

    PubMed

    Terleph, Thomas A; Malaivijitnond, S; Reichard, U H

    2015-07-01

    Gibbons (family Hylobatidae) produce loud, elaborate vocalizations (songs), often in well-coordinated male/female duets. The female's great call, the most conspicuous phrase of the gibbon vocal repertoire, functions primarily to mediate territorial defense. Despite the fact that lar gibbons (Hylobates lar) are the most widely distributed and well researched hylobatid species and produce a rich vocal repertoire, the individual-specificity of their great calls has not previously been quantified. In addition, spectral and temporal features of notes occurring at specific locations within the lar great call have not been described. Here we provide such a description, and test the hypothesis that great calls are statistically discriminable between a large sample of individual callers. We compared recordings of great calls from 14 wild lar females in Khao Yai National Park, Thailand. Our analyses of principal components derived from spectral and temporal measures, as well as spectrograms from the entire great call, indicate that acoustic variation is sufficient to allow identification of individual callers (83.5% discriminability based on principal components, and inter-individual call variation exceeding intra-individual variation in overall spectrogram). These vocalizations potentially allow individual recognition of animals.

  20. Can a gray seal (Halichoerus grypus) generalize call classes?

    PubMed

    Stansbury, Amanda L; de Freitas, Mafalda; Wu, Gi-Mick; Janik, Vincent M

    2015-11-01

    Past researchers have found that gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) are capable of classifying vocal signals by call type using a trained set, but were unable to generalize to novel exemplars (Shapiro, Slater, & Janik, 2004). Given the importance of auditory categorization in communication, it would be surprising if the animals were unable to generalize acoustically similar calls into classes. Here, we trained a juvenile gray seal to discriminate novel calls into 2 classes, "growls" and "moans," by vocally matching call types (i.e., the seal moaned when played a moan and growled when played a growl). Our method differed from the previous study as we trained the animal using a comparatively large set of exemplars with standardized durations, consisting of both the seal's own calls and those of 2 other seals. The seal successfully discriminated growls and moans for both her own (94% correct choices) and the other seals' (87% correct choices) calls. We used a generalized linear model (GLM) and found that the seal's performance significantly improved across test sessions, and that accuracy was higher during the first presentation of a sound from her own repertoire but decreased after multiple exposures. This pattern was not found for calls from unknown seals. Factor analysis for mixed data (FAMD) identified acoustic parameters that could be used to discriminate between call types and individuals. Growls and moans differed in noise, duration and frequency parameters, whereas individuals differed only in frequency. These data suggest that the seal could have gained information about both call type and caller identity using frequency cues.

  1. Composite structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansell, G. S.; Loewy, R. G.; Wiberley, S. E.

    1982-01-01

    The promise of filamentary composite materials, whose development may be considered as entering its second generation, continues to generate intense interest and applications activity. Fiber reinforced composite materials offer substantially improved performance and potentially lower costs for aerospace hardware. Much progress has been achieved since the initial developments in the mid 1960's. Rather limited applications to primary aircraft structure have been made, however, mainly in a material-substitution mode on military aircraft, except for a few experiments currently underway on large passenger airplanes in commercial operation. To fulfill the promise of composite materials completely requires a strong technology base. NASA and AFOSR recognize the present state of the art to be such that to fully exploit composites in sophisticated aerospace structures, the technology base must be improved. This, in turn, calls for expanding fundamental knowledge and the means by which it can be successfully applied in design and manufacture.

  2. St. Lawrence blue whale vocalizations revisited: characterization of calls detected from 1998 to 2001.

    PubMed

    Berchok, Catherine L; Bradley, David L; Gabrielson, Thomas B

    2006-10-01

    From 1998 to 2001, 115 h of acoustic recordings were made in the presence of the well-studied St. Lawrence population of blue whales, using a calibrated omnidirectional hydrophone [flat (+/- 3 dB) response from 5 to 800 Hz] suspended at 50 m depth from a surface isolation buoy. The primary field site for this study was the estuary region of the St. Lawrence River (Québec, Canada), with most recordings made between mid-August and late October. During the recordings, detailed field notes were taken on all cetaceans within sight. Characterization of the more than 1000 blue whale calls detected during this study revealed that the St. Lawrence repertoire is much more extensive than previously reported. Three infrasonic (<20 Hz) and three audible range (30-200 Hz) call types were detected, with much time/frequency variation seen within each type. Further variation is seen in the form of call segmentation, which appears (through examination of Lloyd's Mirror interference effects) to be controlled at least partially by the whales. Although St. Lawrence blue whale call characteristics are similar to those of the North Atlantic, comparisons of phrase composition and spacing among studies suggest the possibility of population dialects within the North Atlantic.

  3. Varied line-space gratings: past, present and future

    SciTech Connect

    Hettrick, M.C.

    1985-08-01

    A classically ruled diffraction grating consists of grooves which are equidistant, straight and parallel. Conversely, the so-called ''holographic'' grating (formed by the interfering waves of coherent visible light), although severely constrained by the recording wavelength and recording geometry, has grooves which are typically neither equidistant, straight nor parallel. In contrast, a varied line-space (VLS) grating, in common nomenclature, is a design in which the groove positions are relatively unconstrained yet possess sufficient symmetry to permit mechanical ruling. Such seemingly exotic gratings are no longer only a theoretical curiosity, but have been ruled and used in a wide variety of applications. These include: (1) aberration-corrected normal incidence concave gratings for Seya-Namioka monochromators and optical de-multiplexers, (2) flat-field grazing incidence concave gratings for plasma diagnostics, (3) aberration-corrected grazing incidence plane gratings for space-borne spectrometers, (4) focusing grazing incidence plane grating for synchrotron radiation monochromators, and (5) wavefront generators for visible interferometry of optical surfaces (particularly aspheres). Future prospects of VLS gratings as dispersing elements, wavefront correctors and beamsplitters appear promising. The author discusses the history of VLS gratings, their present applications, and their potential in the future. 61 refs., 24 figs.

  4. Varied Line-Space Gratings: Past, Present And Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hettrick, Michael C.

    1986-05-01

    A classically ruled diffraction grating consists of grooves which are equidistant, straight and parallel. Conversely the so-called "holographic" grating ( formed by the interfering waves of coherent visible light ) , although severely constrained by the recording wavelength and recording geometry, has grooves which are typically neither equidistant, straight nor parallel. In contrast a varied line-space (VLS) grating, in common nomenclature, is a design in which the groove positions are relatively unconstrained yet possess sufficient symmetry to permit mechanical ruling. Such seemingly exotic gratings are no longer only a theoretical curiosity, but have been ruled and used in a wide variety of applications. These include 1) aberration-corrected normal incidence concave gratings for Seya-Namioka monochromators and optical demultiplexers, 2) flat-field grazing incidence concave gratings for plasma diagnostics, 3) aberration-corrected grazing incidence plane gratings for space-borne spectrometers, 4) focusing grazing incidence plane grating for synchrotron radiation monochromators, and 5) wavefront generators for visible interferometry of optical surfaces (particularly aspheres). Future prospects of VLS gratings as dispersing elements, wavefront correctors and beamsplitters appear promising. I discuss the history of VLS gratings, their present applications and their potential in the future.

  5. Hysteresis Can Grant Fitness in Stochastically Varying Environment

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Gary; McCarthy, Stephen; Rachinskii, Dmitrii

    2014-01-01

    Although the existence of multiple stable phenotypes of living organisms enables random switching between phenotypes as well as non-random history dependent switching called hysteresis, only random switching has been considered in prior experimental and theoretical models of adaptation to variable environments. This work considers the possibility that hysteresis may also evolve together with random phenotype switching to maximize population growth. In addition to allowing the possibility that switching rates between different phenotypes may depend not only on a continuous environmental input variable, but also on the phenotype itself, the present work considers an opportunity cost of the switching events. This opportunity cost arises as a result of a lag phase experimentally observed after phenotype switching and stochastic behavior of the environmental input. It is shown that stochastic environmental variation results in maximal asymptotic growth rate when organisms display hysteresis for sufficiently slowly varying environmental input. At the same time, sinusoidal input does not cause evolution of memory suggesting that the connection between the lag phase, stochastic environmental variation and evolution of hysteresis is a result of a stochastic resonance type phenomenon. PMID:25068284

  6. Does the Newtonian Gravity "Constant" G Vary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noerdlinger, Peter D.

    2015-08-01

    A series of measurements of Newton's gravity constant, G, dating back as far as 1893, yielded widely varying values, the variation greatly exceeding the stated error estimates (Gillies, 1997; Quinn, 2000, Mohr et al 2008). The value of G is usually said to be unrelated to other physics, but we point out that the 8B Solar Neutrino Rate ought to be very sensitive. Improved pulsar timing could also help settle the issue as to whether G really varies. We claim that the variation in measured values over time (1893-2014 C.E.) is a more serious problem than the failure of the error bars to overlap; it appears that challenging or adjusting the error bars hardly masks the underlying disagreement in central values. We have assessed whether variations in the gravitational potential due to (for example) local dark matter (DM) could explain the variations. We find that the required potential fluctuations could transiently accelerate the Solar System and nearby stars to speeds in excess of the Galactic escape speed. Previous theories for the variation in G generally deal with supposed secular variation on a cosmological timescale, or very rapid oscillations whose envelope changes on that scale (Steinhardt and Will 1995). Therefore, these analyses fail to support variations on the timescale of years or spatial scales of order parsecs, which would be required by the data for G. We note that true variations in G would be associated with variations in clock rates (Derevianko and Pospelov 2014; Loeb and Maoz 2015), which could mask changes in orbital dynamics. Geringer-Sameth et al (2014) studied γ-ray emission from the nearby Reticulum dwarf galaxy, which is expected to be free of "ordinary" (stellar, black hole) γ-ray sources and found evidence for DM decay. Bernabei et al (2003) also found evidence for DM penetrating deep underground at Gran Sasso. If, indeed, variations in G can be tied to variations in gravitational potential, we have a new tool to assess the DM density.

  7. Yoga Called Good Medicine for High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_162446.html Yoga Called Good Medicine for High Blood Pressure People who added this practice to a healthy ... in people who are at risk for developing hypertension, a new study finds. "Patients with pre-hypertension [ ...

  8. Vocal complexity influences female responses to gelada male calls

    PubMed Central

    Gustison, Morgan L.; Bergman, Thore J.

    2016-01-01

    Extensive research indicates that inter-sexual selection drives the evolution of complex vocal communication in birds, but parallel lines of evidence are almost entirely absent in mammals. This dearth of evidence, particularly among primates, limits our understanding of the link between sociality and vocal complexity. Here, we use a playback experiment to quantify how wild female geladas (Theropithecus gelada) respond to three call types that are ‘derived’ (i.e., unique to geladas) and made by males during various affiliative contexts. These derived calls appeared to be highly salient and preferable to females: they looked longer towards and spent more time in proximity to playbacks of male vocal sequences containing one of the derived calls than to sequences containing only common and less elaborate ‘grunt’ calls. Our results provide the first experimental evidence for vocal elaboration as a male-specific strategy to maintain social bonds with females in non-human primates. PMID:26790770

  9. 16. STONE MILL, ALSO CALLED LIGHTNINGSTRUCK HOUSE OR OLD PUMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. STONE MILL, ALSO CALLED LIGHTNING-STRUCK HOUSE OR OLD PUMP HOUSE Photocopy of photograph, 1930s National Park Service, National Capital Region files - Dumbarton Oaks Park, Thirty-second & R Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. The Pope's encyclical as a call for democratic social change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Anabela

    2015-10-01

    The climate change encyclical represents a decisive democratic act. It calls on citizens to challenge dominant politics, power, and consumer culture in the name of tackling one of the world's great socio-environmental issues.

  11. Sensory biology: echolocation from click to call, mouth to wing.

    PubMed

    Fenton, M Brock; Ratcliffe, John M

    2014-12-15

    Echolocators use echoes of sounds they produce, clicks or calls, to detect objects. Usually, these signals originate from the head. New work reveals that three species of bats use their wings to generate echolocation signals.

  12. Blood Shortage Prompts Red Cross Call for Donations

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Blood Shortage Prompts Red Cross Call for Donations Says decline in donors seen over holidays To ... 2017 FRIDAY, Jan. 6, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Blood donations to the American Red Cross have slumped recently, ...

  13. 9. Excavation work at Pleasant Dam (now called Waddell Dam). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Excavation work at Pleasant Dam (now called Waddell Dam). Photographer unknown, July, 22, 1926. Source: Maricopa County Municipal Water Conservation District Number One (MWD). - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  14. Front elevation of highlift pumping station. Colesville Road (also called ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Front elevation of high-lift pumping station. Colesville Road (also called U.S. Route 29 or Columbia Pike) is in foreground. - Robert B. Morse Water Filtration Plant, 10700 and 10701 Columbia Pike, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD

  15. 43 CFR 3921.60 - Call for applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) OIL SHALE LEASING Pre-Sale Activities § 3921.60 Call for applications. If, as a result of the analysis of the expression of leasing...

  16. Senate committee calls for major new spending on health care.

    PubMed

    Garmaise, David

    2002-12-01

    Senator Michael Kirby's committee says that the federal government should invest $6.5 billion more each year. It calls for the establishment of new national programs to pay for catastrophic drug costs and to expand home and palliative care.

  17. Suzanne Newton's "I Will Call it Georgie's Blues".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scales, Pat

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes Suzanne Newton's children's book, "I Will Call It Georgie's Blues." Includes discussion questions about the book, and a list of activities. Provides an annotated bibliography of fiction, picture books, nonfiction, and biography titles about jazz and jazz musicians. (AEF)

  18. Telephone calls postdischarge from hospital to home: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Hand, Kristin E; Cunningham, Regina S

    2014-02-01

    The oncology population is particularly affected by hospital readmissions because hospitalized patients with cancer often have complex needs. The complexity and diversity of care requirements create substantial challenges in planning for appropriate postdischarge support. Implementing postdischarge telephone calls in the population of patients with cancer could offer a low-cost intervention to address the complex needs of patients during the transition from hospital to home. The goal of the current literature review is to provide an understanding about postdischarge telephone calls in patients with cancer. Findings from this review support the notion that discharge phone calls could improve care continuity for patients transitioning from hospital to home. The literature review outlines information related to telephone call content, timing, and structure for healthcare systems that want to use a postdischarge telephone intervention for patients with cancer. However, additional research is needed to develop and test cancer-specific protocols.

  19. Family History of Colon Cancer Calls for Earlier Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164202.html Family History of Colon Cancer Calls for Earlier Screening ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- If you've got a family history of colon or rectal cancers, you probably ...

  20. Varying Inundation Regimes Differentially Affect Natural and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Climate change is altering sea-level rise rates and precipitation patterns worldwide. Coastal wetlands are vulnerable to these changes. System responses to stressors are important for resource managers and environmental stewards to understand in order to best manage them. Thin layer sand or sediment application to drowning and eroding marshes is one approach to build elevation and resilience. The above- and below-ground structure, soil carbon dioxide emissions, and pore water constituents in vegetated natural marsh sediments and sand-amended sediments were examined at varying inundation regimes between mean sea level and mean high water (0.82 m NAVD88 to 1.49 m NAVD88) in a field experiment at Laws Point, part of the Plum Island Sound Estuary (MA). Significantly lower salinities, pH, sulfides, phosphates, and ammonium were measured in the sand-amended sediments than in the natural sediments. In natural sediments there was a pattern of increasing salinity with increasing elevation while in the sand-amended sediments the trend was reversed, showing decreasing salinity with increasing elevation. Sulfide concentrations generally increased from low to high inundation with highest concentrations at the highest inundation (i.e., at the lowest elevations). High pore water phosphate concentrations were measured at low elevations in the natural sediments, but the sand-amended treatments had mostly low concentrations of phosphate and no consistent pattern with elevation. A

  1. Serotonin release varies with brain tryptophan levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaechter, Judith D.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1990-01-01

    This study examines directly the effects on serotonin release of varying brain tryptophan levels within the physiologic range. It also addresses possible interactions between tryptophan availability and the frequency of membrane depolarization in controlling serotonin release. We demonstrate that reducing tryptophan levels in rat hypothalamic slices (by superfusing them with medium supplemented with 100 microM leucine) decreases tissue serotonin levels as well as both the spontaneous and the electrically-evoked serotonin release. Conversely, elevating tissue tryptophan levels (by superfusing slices with medium supplemented with 2 microM tryptophan) increases both the tissue serotonin levels and the serotonin release. Serotonin release was found to be affected independently by the tryptophan availability and the frequency of electrical field-stimulation (1-5 Hz), since increasing both variables produced nearly additive increases in release. These observations demonstrate for the first time that both precursor-dependent elevations and reductions in brain serotonin levels produce proportionate changes in serotonin release, and that the magnitude of the tryptophan effect is unrelated to neuronal firing frequency. The data support the hypothesis that serotonin release is proportionate to intracellular serotonin levels.

  2. Dermatophyte susceptibility varies towards antimicrobial textiles.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Timo R; Mucha, Helmut; Hoefer, Dirk

    2012-07-01

    Dermatophytoses are a widespread problem worldwide. Textiles in contact with infected skin can serve as a carrier for fungus propagation. Hitherto, it is unknown, whether antifungal textiles could contribute in controlling dermatophytes e.g. by disrupting the chain of infection. Testing of antimicrobial fabrics for their antifungal activities therefore is a fundamental prerequisite to assess the putative clinical relevance of textiles for dermatophyte prevention. Fabrics finished with either didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC), poly-hexamethylenbiguanide, copper and two silver chloride concentrations were tested for their antifungal activity against Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Candida albicans. To prove dermatophyte susceptibility towards the textiles, swatches were subjected to DIN EN 14199 (Trichophyton sp.) or DIN EN ISO 20743 (C. albicans) respectively. In addition, samples were embedded, and semi-thin sections were analysed microscopically. While all samples showed a clear inhibition of C. albicans, activity against Trichophyton sp. varied significantly: For example, DDAC completely inhibited T. rubrum growth, whereas T. mentagrophytes growth remained unaffected even in direct contact to the fibres. The results favour to add T. mentagrophytes as a test organism in textile dermatophyte efficacy tests. Microscopic analysis of swatches allowed detailed evaluation of additional parameters like mycelium thickness, density and hyphae penetration depth into the fabric.

  3. Rumor Detection over Varying Time Windows.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sejeong; Cha, Meeyoung; Jung, Kyomin

    2017-01-01

    This study determines the major difference between rumors and non-rumors and explores rumor classification performance levels over varying time windows-from the first three days to nearly two months. A comprehensive set of user, structural, linguistic, and temporal features was examined and their relative strength was compared from near-complete date of Twitter. Our contribution is at providing deep insight into the cumulative spreading patterns of rumors over time as well as at tracking the precise changes in predictive powers across rumor features. Statistical analysis finds that structural and temporal features distinguish rumors from non-rumors over a long-term window, yet they are not available during the initial propagation phase. In contrast, user and linguistic features are readily available and act as a good indicator during the initial propagation phase. Based on these findings, we suggest a new rumor classification algorithm that achieves competitive accuracy over both short and long time windows. These findings provide new insights for explaining rumor mechanism theories and for identifying features of early rumor detection.

  4. TIME-VARYING DYNAMICAL STAR FORMATION RATE

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eve J.; Chang, Philip; Murray, Norman

    2015-02-10

    We present numerical evidence of dynamic star formation in which the accreted stellar mass grows superlinearly with time, roughly as t {sup 2}. We perform simulations of star formation in self-gravitating hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence that is continuously driven. By turning the self-gravity of the gas in the simulations on or off, we demonstrate that self-gravity is the dominant physical effect setting the mass accretion rate at early times before feedback effects take over, contrary to theories of turbulence-regulated star formation. We find that gravitational collapse steepens the density profile around stars, generating the power-law tail on what is otherwise a lognormal density probability distribution function. Furthermore, we find turbulent velocity profiles to flatten inside collapsing regions, altering the size-line width relation. This local flattening reflects enhancements of turbulent velocity on small scales, as verified by changes to the velocity power spectra. Our results indicate that gas self-gravity dynamically alters both density and velocity structures in clouds, giving rise to a time-varying star formation rate. We find that a substantial fraction of the gas that forms stars arrives via low-density flows, as opposed to accreting through high-density filaments.

  5. Proactive inhibitory control varies with task context.

    PubMed

    Wardak, Claire; Ramanoël, Stephen; Guipponi, Olivier; Boulinguez, Philippe; Ben Hamed, Suliann

    2012-12-01

    The goal of executive control is to adjust our behaviour to the environment. It involves not only the continuous planning and adaptation of actions but also the inhibition of inappropriate movements. Recently, a proactive form of inhibitory control has been shown, demonstrating that actions can be withheld, in an uncertain environment, thanks to the proactive locking of the mechanism by which motor commands are triggered (e.g. while waiting at traffic lights in a dense pedestrian zone, one will refrain in anticipation of a brisk acceleration when the green light comes on). However, little is known about this executive function and it remains unclear whether the overall amount of inhibitory control can be modulated as a function of the context. Here, we show that the level of this control varies parametrically as a function of the exogenous and endogenous factors setting the task context. We also show that the level of implemented proactive inhibitory control is dynamically readjusted to match the implicit temporal structure of the environment. These observations are discussed in relation to possible underlying functional substrates and related neurological and psychiatric pathologies.

  6. Rumor Detection over Varying Time Windows

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Sejeong; Jung, Kyomin

    2017-01-01

    This study determines the major difference between rumors and non-rumors and explores rumor classification performance levels over varying time windows—from the first three days to nearly two months. A comprehensive set of user, structural, linguistic, and temporal features was examined and their relative strength was compared from near-complete date of Twitter. Our contribution is at providing deep insight into the cumulative spreading patterns of rumors over time as well as at tracking the precise changes in predictive powers across rumor features. Statistical analysis finds that structural and temporal features distinguish rumors from non-rumors over a long-term window, yet they are not available during the initial propagation phase. In contrast, user and linguistic features are readily available and act as a good indicator during the initial propagation phase. Based on these findings, we suggest a new rumor classification algorithm that achieves competitive accuracy over both short and long time windows. These findings provide new insights for explaining rumor mechanism theories and for identifying features of early rumor detection. PMID:28081135

  7. Device for varying engine valve timing

    SciTech Connect

    Hampton, K.

    1988-07-05

    A device is described for angularly displacing a camshaft relative to the crankshaft of an IC engine to vary the engine valve timing, comprising; a hub member; means to attach the hub member to the engine crankshaft; a drive member rotatably mounted on the hub member, and means connecting the drive member in driving relationship with the engine crankshaft; an advancing member; a first means interconnecting the advancing member with the hub member affecting limited axial movement of the advancing member relative to the hub member; a second means interconnecting the advancing member with the drive member which upon axial movement of the advancing member causes limited rotation of the drive member relative to the hub member; an annular means mounted on the hub member, the advancing member mounted on the annular means; coacting meshing means formed in part on the annular means for moving the advancing member axially relative to the hub upon limited rotation of the annular means relative to the hub; and a non-rotational retarder means which when actuated applies a retarding torque to the annular means causing limited rotation of the annular means relative to the hub and thus cause the advancing member to move axially of the hub whereby the drive member is moved a limited angular distance relative to the hub member.

  8. Vector curvaton with varying kinetic function

    SciTech Connect

    Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Karciauskas, Mindaugas; Wagstaff, Jacques M.

    2010-01-15

    A new model realization of the vector curvaton paradigm is presented and analyzed. The model consists of a single massive Abelian vector field, with a Maxwell-type kinetic term. By assuming that the kinetic function and the mass of the vector field are appropriately varying during inflation, it is shown that a scale-invariant spectrum of superhorizon perturbations can be generated. These perturbations can contribute to the curvature perturbation of the Universe. If the vector field remains light at the end of inflation it is found that it can generate substantial statistical anisotropy in the spectrum and bispectrum of the curvature perturbation. In this case the non-Gaussianity in the curvature perturbation is predominantly anisotropic, which will be a testable prediction in the near future. If, on the other hand, the vector field is heavy at the end of inflation then it is demonstrated that particle production is approximately isotropic and the vector field alone can give rise to the curvature perturbation, without directly involving any fundamental scalar field. The parameter space for both possibilities is shown to be substantial. Finally, toy models are presented which show that the desired variation of the mass and kinetic function of the vector field can be realistically obtained, without unnatural tunings, in the context of supergravity or superstrings.

  9. Scrotal abscess: Varied etiology, associations, and management

    PubMed Central

    Ramareddy, Raghu S.; Alladi, Anand

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To report a series of scrotal abscess, a rare problem, their etiology, and management. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of children who presented with scrotal abscess between January 2010 and March 2015, analyzed with respect to clinical features, pathophysiology of spread and management. Results: Eight infants and a 3-year-old phenotypically male child presented with scrotal abscess as a result of abdominal pathologies which included mixed gonadal dysgenesis (MGD) [1]; three anorectal malformations with ectopic ureter [1], urethral stricture [1], and neurogenic bladder [1]; meconium peritonitis with meconium periorchitis [2], ileal atresia [1], and intra-abdominal abscess [1]; posturethroplasty for Y urethral duplication with metal stenosis [1] and idiopathic pyocele [1]. Transmission of the organism had varied routes include fallopian tube [1], urethra ejaculatory reflux [4], hematogenous [2], and the patent process of vaginalis [2]. Two of the nine required extensive evaluation for further management. Treating the predisposing pathology resolved scrotal abscesses in eight of nine patients, one of whom, required vasectomy additionally. Idiopathic pyocele responded to needle aspiration and antibiotics. Conclusion: Scrotal abscess needs a high index of suspicion for predisposing pathology, especially in infants. Laparoscopy is safe and effective in the management of the MGD and ectopic ureter. PMID:27695207

  10. Stratospheric Impact of Varying Sea Surface Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Nielsen, Jon E.; Waugh, Darryn; Pawson, Steven

    2004-01-01

    The Finite-Volume General Circulation Model (FVGCM) has been run in 50 year simulations with the: 1) 1949-1999 Hadley Centre sea surface temperatures (SST), and 2) a fixed annual cycle of SSTs. In this presentation we first show that the 1949-1999 FVGCM simulation produces a very credible stratosphere in comparison to an NCEP/NCAR reanalysis climatology. In particular, the northern hemisphere has numerous major and minor stratospheric warming, while the southern hemisphere has only a few over the 50-year simulation. During the northern hemisphere winter, temperatures are both warmer in the lower stratosphere and the polar vortex is weaker than is found in the mid-winter southern hemisphere. Mean temperature differences in the lower stratosphere are shown to be small (less than 2 K), and planetary wave forcing is found to be very consistent with the climatology. We then will show the differences between our varying SST simulation and the fixed SST simulation in both the dynamics and in two parameterized trace gases (ozone and methane). In general, differences are found to be small, with subtle changes in planetary wave forcing that lead to reduced temperatures in the SH and increased temperatures in the NH.

  11. Optimizing System Call Latency of ARM Virtual Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sok, Song-Woo; Jung, Young-Woo; Lee, Cheol-Hun

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces ViMo-S, a type 1 hypervisor for ARMv7 and ARMv8-based ARM server systems. It supports full virtualization to run existing operating systems and applications unmodified. It uses ARM hardware virtualization extensions to optimize the performance of virtual machines, especially system call latency. Therefore, its virtual machines’ system call latency is near physical machine’s, while other hypervisors like Xen and KVM show relatively slower and unstable performances in benchmark tests.

  12. Heterospecific alarm call recognition in a non-vocal reptile.

    PubMed

    Vitousek, Maren N; Adelman, James S; Gregory, Nathan C; Clair, James J H St

    2007-12-22

    The ability to recognize and respond to the alarm calls of heterospecifics has previously been described only in species with vocal communication. Here we provide evidence that a non-vocal reptile, the Galápagos marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus cristatus), can eavesdrop on the alarm call of the Galápagos mockingbird (Nesomimus parvulus) and respond with anti-predator behaviour. Eavesdropping on complex heterospecific communications demonstrates a remarkable degree of auditory discrimination in a non-vocal species.

  13. The Call to Excellence--No Room for Complacency.

    PubMed

    Mosher, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    The call of the nurse is to promote, protect, and support health in all areas of life. Christian nurses are further called to imitate Jesus Christ. Yet, complacency is a common attitude among nurses. With new national standards of collecting and publicly reporting patient perceptions of care, positive nursing attitudes and excellent care are imperative to successful outcomes. What does it mean to seek professional excellence?

  14. BIOCHEMICAL STUDIES ON SO-CALLED SYPHILIS ANTIGEN.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, H; Bronfenbrenner, J

    1911-01-05

    of tissue is very variable. (c) Substances Soluble in Ether, Alcohol, and Aceton.-In this group are found varying amounts of fatty acids, both saturated and unsaturated, some neutral fats, cholesterin and many unidentified lipoidal bodies. This group causes either hemolysis or inhibition, of hemolysis. In other words, it is anticomplementary as well as hemolytic in the majority of preparations. At the same time, in some preparations it is, to a certain extent, antigenic. This great variation in the amounts of these substances in given extracts renders their presence in the antigen preparation undesirable. It is not denied, however, that, when added in adequate quantities, some of these substances may improve the activity of the antigenic lipoids. (d) Substances Insoluble in Aceton.-This group of substances consists of phosphatids. The best known among them is, of course, lecithin. Besides lecithin, however, there must be various other phosphatids present in this fraction. It will be noticed that the precipitate formed by mixing the ethereal solution with aceton contains a certain amount of lipoids insoluble in ether as well as in alcohol. Before the fractionation in aceton, all lipoids were soluble in ether or ethyl alcohol. Further analytical work on the nature of the phosphatids contained in this fraction is necessary. This fraction, in general, is more constant in amount in the various liver extracts. Biologically considered, it is the most important. It is usually non-hemolytic, frequently anticomplementary, but much more strongly antigenic than the other fractions. The antigenic strength varies with different preparations, being almost absent in the extracts derived from fatty livers. An aceton insoluble fraction may be strongly antigenic without any other auxiliary effects, or may be accompanied by an anticomplementary property. This fraction does not cause the so-called non-specific reaction with an active human serum. For these reasons it is recommended (as

  15. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Orthogonality catastrophe in a composite fermion liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Darren J. T.; Portengen, T.; Nicopoulos, V. Nikos; Johnson, Neil F.

    1998-07-01

    We discuss the emergence of an orthogonality catastrophe in the response of a composite fermion liquid as the filling factor 0953-8984/10/27/002/img1 approaches 0953-8984/10/27/002/img2, where m = 1, 2, 3... . A tunnelling experiment is proposed in which dramatic changes in the I - V characteristic should be observable as 0953-8984/10/27/002/img1 is varied. Explicit I - V characteristics calculated within the so-called modified random phase approximation, are provided for 0953-8984/10/27/002/img4.

  16. Reproducibility of Variant Calls in Replicate Next Generation Sequencing Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Yuan; Liu, Xiuping; Liu, Chang-gong; Wang, Bailing; Hess, Kenneth R.; Symmans, W. Fraser; Shi, Weiwei; Pusztai, Lajos

    2015-01-01

    Nucleotide alterations detected by next generation sequencing are not always true biological changes but could represent sequencing errors. Even highly accurate methods can yield substantial error rates when applied to millions of nucleotides. In this study, we examined the reproducibility of nucleotide variant calls in replicate sequencing experiments of the same genomic DNA. We performed targeted sequencing of all known human protein kinase genes (kinome) (~3.2 Mb) using the SOLiD v4 platform. Seventeen breast cancer samples were sequenced in duplicate (n=14) or triplicate (n=3) to assess concordance of all calls and single nucleotide variant (SNV) calls. The concordance rates over the entire sequenced region were >99.99%, while the concordance rates for SNVs were 54.3-75.5%. There was substantial variation in basic sequencing metrics from experiment to experiment. The type of nucleotide substitution and genomic location of the variant had little impact on concordance but concordance increased with coverage level, variant allele count (VAC), variant allele frequency (VAF), variant allele quality and p-value of SNV-call. The most important determinants of concordance were VAC and VAF. Even using the highest stringency of QC metrics the reproducibility of SNV calls was around 80% suggesting that erroneous variant calling can be as high as 20-40% in a single experiment. The sequence data have been deposited into the European Genome-phenome Archive (EGA) with accession number EGAS00001000826. PMID:26136146

  17. Individual recognition during bouts of antiphonal calling in common marmosets.

    PubMed

    Miller, Cory T; Wren Thomas, A

    2012-05-01

    Many vocalizations are encoded with a diversity of acoustic information about the signal producer. Amongst this information content are social categories related to the identity of the caller that are important for determining if and how a signal receiver may interact with that individual. Here, we employed a novel playback method in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) to test individual recognition during bouts of antiphonal calling. These experiments utilized custom, interactive playback software that effectively engaged subjects in antiphonal calling using vocalizations produced by a single individual and presented 'probe' vocalization stimuli representing a different individual at specific points within bouts of calling. The aim here was to test whether marmosets would recognize that the probe stimulus was a phee call produced by a different individual. Data indicated that marmosets were able to detect the change in caller identity; subjects produced significantly fewer antiphonal call responses to probe than control stimuli and, in some conditions, exhibited a shorter latency to produce the vocal response. These data suggest that marmosets recognize the identity of the individual during bouts of antiphonal calling. Furthermore, these results provide a methodological foundation for implementing the probe playback procedure to examine a broader range of social categorization during vocal interactions.

  18. Distress calls may honestly signal bird quality to predators.

    PubMed

    Laiolo, Paola; Tella, José L; Carrete, Martina; Serrano, David; López, Guillermo

    2004-12-07

    In predator-prey interactions, both interactors may benefit from sharing information about prey vulnerability. We examined the relationship between calls used to discourage close predators (distress calls) and the health condition of the caller to test whether these signals are reliable indicators of prey quality. The structure of calls from captured lesser short-toed larks Calandrella rufescens was related to their body condition and T-cell-mediated immunocompetence. Birds in better nutritional and immunological condition utter harsher calls (i.e. they spread the call energy over a wider range of frequency) than birds in poorer conditions. Hence, the harshness of distress calls seems honestly to signal the health status of prey and thus their ability to escape, on which the predator might base its optimal foraging choice. Previous studies have investigated the honesty of songs that have evolved via sexual selection, but this is the first study, to our knowledge, the demonstrates a relationship between individual quality and a vocalization primarily shaped by natural selection.

  19. Distress calls may honestly signal bird quality to predators.

    PubMed Central

    Laiolo, Paola; Tella, José L; Carrete, Martina; Serrano, David; López, Guillermo

    2004-01-01

    In predator-prey interactions, both interactors may benefit from sharing information about prey vulnerability. We examined the relationship between calls used to discourage close predators (distress calls) and the health condition of the caller to test whether these signals are reliable indicators of prey quality. The structure of calls from captured lesser short-toed larks Calandrella rufescens was related to their body condition and T-cell-mediated immunocompetence. Birds in better nutritional and immunological condition utter harsher calls (i.e. they spread the call energy over a wider range of frequency) than birds in poorer conditions. Hence, the harshness of distress calls seems honestly to signal the health status of prey and thus their ability to escape, on which the predator might base its optimal foraging choice. Previous studies have investigated the honesty of songs that have evolved via sexual selection, but this is the first study, to our knowledge, the demonstrates a relationship between individual quality and a vocalization primarily shaped by natural selection. PMID:15801619

  20. Leveraging Call Center Logs for Customer Behavior Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvathy, Anju G.; Vasudevan, Bintu G.; Kumar, Abhishek; Balakrishnan, Rajesh

    Most major businesses use business process outsourcing for performing a process or a part of a process including financial services like mortgage processing, loan origination, finance and accounting and transaction processing. Call centers are used for the purpose of receiving and transmitting a large volume of requests through outbound and inbound calls to customers on behalf of a business. In this paper we deal specifically with the call centers notes from banks. Banks as financial institutions provide loans to non-financial businesses and individuals. Their call centers act as the nuclei of their client service operations and log the transactions between the customer and the bank. This crucial conversation or information can be exploited for predicting a customer’s behavior which will in turn help these businesses to decide on the next action to be taken. Thus the banks save considerable time and effort in tracking delinquent customers to ensure minimum subsequent defaulters. Majority of the time the call center notes are very concise and brief and often the notes are misspelled and use many domain specific acronyms. In this paper we introduce a novel domain specific spelling correction algorithm which corrects the misspelled words in the call center logs to meaningful ones. We also discuss a procedure that builds the behavioral history sequences for the customers by categorizing the logs into one of the predefined behavioral states. We then describe a pattern based predictive algorithm that uses temporal behavioral patterns mined from these sequences to predict the customer’s next behavioral state.

  1. Seasonal and diurnal calling patterns of Ross and leopards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Tracey L.; Rowney, Gayle A.; Ciaglia, Michaela B.; Cato, Douglas H.

    2005-09-01

    The temporal calling patterns of two Antarctic pack ice seals, the leopard and Ross seal, were examined. This included seasonal onset and decline of calling (coinciding with their breeding season) as well as diurnal changes. Understanding of calling behavior has important implications for acoustic surveying, since this allows the number of calls to be related to an index of the number of animals present and to estimate abundance. The monthly changes in diurnal calling and haul-out patterns (measured via satellite telemetry) were compared. Underwater acoustic recordings were made between 14 October 2003 and 10 January 2004 off Mawson, Eastern Antarctica (660 44.243S and 690 48.748E). Recordings were made using an Acoustics Recording Package (ARP by Dr. John Hildebrand, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA) which is designed to sit on the seafloor and passively record acoustic signals. The package was deployed at a depth of 1320.7 m. The sampling rate was 500 Hz and the effective bandwidth from 10 to 250 Hz, covering the bandwidth of only the low-frequency calls of the Ross and leopard seal.

  2. Responses of squirrel monkeys to their experimentally modified mobbing calls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichtel, Claudia; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

    2003-05-01

    Previous acoustic analyses suggested emotion-correlated changes in the acoustic structure of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) vocalizations. Specifically, calls given in aversive contexts were characterized by an upward shift in frequencies, often accompanied by an increase in amplitude. In order to test whether changes in frequencies or amplitude are indeed relevant for conspecific listeners, playback experiments were conducted in which either frequencies or amplitude of mobbing calls were modified. Latency and first orienting response were measured in playback experiments with six adult squirrel monkeys. After broadcasting yaps with increased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a longer orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding control stimuli. Furthermore, after broadcasting yaps with decreased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a shorter orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding manipulated calls with higher frequencies or amplitude. These results suggest that changes in frequencies or amplitude were perceived by squirrel monkeys, indicating that the relationship between call structure and the underlying affective state of the caller agreed with the listener's assessment of the calls. However, a simultaneous increase in frequencies and amplitude did not lead to an enhanced response, compared to each single parameter. Thus, from the receiver's perspective, both call parameters may mutually replace each other.

  3. Calling by concluding sentinels: coordinating cooperation or revealing risk?

    PubMed

    Hollén, Linda I; Bell, Matthew B V; Russell, Alexis; Niven, Fraser; Ridley, Amanda R; Radford, Andrew N

    2011-01-01

    Efficient cooperation requires effective coordination of individual contributions to the cooperative behaviour. Most social birds and mammals involved in cooperation produce a range of vocalisations, which may be important in regulating both individual contributions and the combined group effort. Here we investigate the role of a specific call in regulating cooperative sentinel behaviour in pied babblers (Turdoides bicolor). 'Fast-rate chuck' calls are often given by sentinels as they finish guard bouts and may potentially coordinate the rotation of individuals as sentinels, minimising time without a sentinel, or may signal the presence or absence of predators, regulating the onset of the subsequent sentinel bout. We ask (i) when fast-rate chuck calls are given and (ii) what effect they have on the interval between sentinel bouts. Contrary to expectation, we find little evidence that these calls are involved in regulating the pied babbler sentinel system: observations revealed that their utterance is influenced only marginally by wind conditions and not at all by habitat, while observations and experimental playback showed that the giving of these calls has no effect on inter-bout interval. We conclude that pied babblers do not seem to call at the end of a sentinel bout to maximise the efficiency of this cooperative act, but may use vocalisations at this stage to influence more individually driven behaviours.

  4. A method for calling copy number polymorphism using haplotypes

    PubMed Central

    Ho Jang, Gun; Christie, Jason D.; Feng, Rui

    2013-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and copy number variation (CNV) are both widespread characteristic of the human genome, but are often called separately on common genotyping platforms. To capture integrated SNP and CNV information, methods have been developed for calling allelic specific copy numbers or so called copy number polymorphism (CNP), using limited inter-marker correlation. In this paper, we proposed a haplotype-based maximum likelihood method to call CNP, which takes advantage of the valuable multi-locus linkage disequilibrium (LD) information in the population. We also developed a computationally efficient algorithm to estimate haplotype frequencies and optimize individual CNP calls iteratively, even at presence of missing data. Through simulations, we demonstrated our model is more sensitive and accurate in detecting various CNV regions, compared with commonly-used CNV calling methods including PennCNV, another hidden Markov model (HMM) using CNP, a scan statistic, segCNV, and cnvHap. Our method often performs better in the regions with higher LD, in longer CNV regions, and in common CNV than the opposite. We implemented our method on the genotypes of 90 HapMap CEU samples and 23 patients with acute lung injury (ALI). For each ALI patient the genotyping was performed twice. The CNPs from our method show good consistency and accuracy comparable to others. PMID:24069028

  5. Audibility of time-varying signals in time-varying backgrounds: Model and data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Brian C. J.; Glasberg, Brian R.

    2004-05-01

    We have described a model for calculating the partial loudness of a steady signal in the presence of a steady background sound [Moore et al., J. Audio Eng. Soc. 45, 224-240 (1997)]. We have also described a model for calculating the loudness of time-varying signals [B. R. Glasberg and B. C. J. Moore, J. Audio Eng. Soc. 50, 331-342 (2002)]. These two models have been combined to allow calculation of the partial loudness of a time-varying signal in the presence of a time-varying background. To evaluate the model, psychometric functions for the detection of a variety of time-varying signals (e.g., telephone ring tones) have been measured in a variety of background sounds sampled from everyday listening situations, using a two-alternative forced-choice task. The different signals and backgrounds were interleaved, to create stimulus uncertainty, as would occur in everyday life. The data are used to relate the detectability index, d', to the calculated partial loudness. In this way, the model can be used to predict the detectability of any signal, based on its calculated partial loudness. [Work supported by MRC (UK) and by Nokia.

  6. How specific halide adsorption varies hydrophobic interactions.

    PubMed

    Stock, Philipp; Müller, Melanie; Utzig, Thomas; Valtiner, Markus

    2016-03-11

    Hydrophobic interactions (HI) are driven by the water structure around hydrophobes in aqueous electrolytes. How water structures at hydrophobic interfaces and how this influences the HI was subject to numerous studies. However, the effect of specific ion adsorption on HI and hydrophobic interfaces remains largely unexplored or controversial. Here, the authors utilized atomic force microscopy force spectroscopy at well-defined nanoscopic hydrophobic interfaces to experimentally address how specific ion adsorption of halide ions as well as NH4 (+), Cs(+), and Na(+) cations alters interaction forces across hydrophobic interfaces. Our data demonstrate that iodide adsorption at hydrophobic interfaces profoundly varies the hydrophobic interaction potential. A long-range and strong hydration repulsion at distances D > 3 nm, is followed by an instability which could be explained by a subsequent rapid ejection of adsorbed iodides from approaching hydrophobic interfaces. In addition, the authors find only a weakly pronounced influence of bromide, and as expected no influence of chloride. Also, all tested cations do not have any significant influence on HI. Complementary, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and quartz-crystal-microbalance with dissipation monitoring showed a clear adsorption of large halide ions (Br(-)/I(-)) onto hydrophobic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). Interestingly, iodide can even lead to a full disintegration of SAMs due to specific and strong interactions of iodide with gold. Our data suggest that hydrophobic surfaces are not intrinsically charged negatively by hydroxide adsorption, as it was generally believed. Hydrophobic surfaces rather interact strongly with negatively charged large halide ions, leading to a surface charging and significant variation of interaction forces.

  7. Refilling and Composition at Geostationary Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, R. E.; Takahashi, K.; Thomsen, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    Here we examine the apparent long-term refilling (change in density at a particular position over days) of electron density and mass density. At solar maximum, the changes in these quantities following a period of large geomagnetic activity can be very different. For instance, for events during 2001 we used both the ion density measured by the Los Alamos National Lab (LANL) Magnetospheric Plasma Analyzer (MPA) instrument and mass density inferred from Alfven wave frequencies measured by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) to show that the mass density varied comparatively little while the electron density dropped down to a low value and recovered slowly. During this event, the composition changed dramatically, from a high concentration of O+ very soon after large geomagnetic activity to a very low concentration of O+ after a long quiet period. This result suggests that at solar maximum O+ is quickly distributed to the region outside the plasmasphere sometimes called the warm plasma cloak while H+ refills this region much more slowly. Here we use a large database of mass density measurements based on Alfven waves observed by GOES to examine statistically the behavior of the mass density during periods of quiet following large geomagnetic activity and to see how this behavior varies over the solar cycle. We will compare with previous results for refilling of electron density.

  8. Oxidative stability and ignition quality of algae derived methyl esters containing varying levels of methyl eicosapentaenoate and methyl docosahexaenoate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucy, Harrison

    Standards, which call for induction periods of at least three hours and six hours, respectively. Derived Cetane Number testing was conducted using a Waukesha FIT following the ASTM D7170 Method. Tests were conducted with synthetic algal oil blends manufactured from various sources to match the fatty acid compositions of several algae strains subjected to varying removal amounts of roughly 0 -- 100 percent LC-PUFA. In addition, tests were also conducted with real algal methyl esters produced from multiple sources. The bis-allylic position equivalent (BAPE) was calculated for each fuel sample to quantify the level of unsaturation. The induction period was then plotted as a function of BAPE, which showed that the oxidative stability varied exponentially with the amount of LC-PUFA. The results suggest that removal of 45 -- 65 percent of the LC-PUFA from Nannochloropsis-based algal methyl esters would be sufficient for meeting existing ASTM specifications for oxidative stability and 75 -- 85 percent removal would be needed to meet the EN specification. The oxidative stability additive tert-butylhydroquinone (THBQ) was found to increase Nannochloropsis-based algal methyl esters' oxidative stability to ASTM and EN specifications at only 0.03 percent and 0.06 percent additions by mass, respectively, when no LC-PUFA was removed. The ignition quality tests showed that the Derived Cetane Number varied linearly with BAPE and the algae formulations were found to pass the ASTM cetane specification of 47 only if all the LC-PUFA were removed.

  9. Rethinking Metaphor: Figurative Language and First-Year Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Peter Wayne

    2011-01-01

    A brief review of composition theory shows metaphor is often underused and misrepresented in the composition classroom. Approaches to teaching metaphor in composition courses do not go far enough in acknowledging the key role metaphor can play in argumentation, and very little composition theory heeds Andrea Lunsford's call to teach metaphor as…

  10. Lichen Persistence and Recovery in Response to Varied Volcanic Disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, P.; Wheeler, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions produce many ecological disturbances that structure vegetation. While lichens are sensitive to disturbances, little is known about their responses to volcanic disturbances, except for colonization of lava. We examined lichen community responses through time to different disturbances produced by the May 1, 2008 eruption of Volcan Chaiten in south-central Chile. Pre-eruption vegetation near the volcano was old-growth Valdivian temperate rainforest dominated by closed-canopy Nothofagus sp... In 2012, we installed thirteen 1-acre plots across volcanic disturbance zones on which a time-constrained search was done for all macrolichen species, each of which was assigned an approximate log10 categorical abundance. We also installed a 0.2 m2 quadrat on two representative trees per plot for repeat photography of lichen cover. We remeasured at least one plot per disturbance zone in 2014 and re-photographed tree quadrats in 2013 and 2014. We then analyzed species composition and abundance differences among disturbance zones. In 2012, the blast (pyroclastic density flow), scorch (standing scorched forest at the edge of the blast) and deep tephra (>10 cm) zones had the lowest lichen species richness (5-13 species), followed by reference (unimpacted) and shallow (<10 cm) tephra (17-20 species). Gravel rain (preexisting rock ejected by eruption initiation), gravel rain + pumice and flooded forests (fluvially reworked volcanic material entrained by heavy rains) were species-rich (25-42 species). In 2014, the blast and deep tephra had regained 2-3 times the number of lichen species since 2012 while the light tephra and reference were essentially unchanged. Gravel rain, gravel rain + pumice and flooded forest plots all had about the same number of species in 2014 as 2012. Lichen colonization and growth in tree quadrats varied widely, from very little colonization in the blast to prolific colonization in the gravel rain + pumice zone. Lichen's varied responses to

  11. Consumer concerns about paracetamol: a retrospective analysis of a medicines call centre

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Stephanie M; McGuire, Treasure M; van Driel, Mieke L

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify consumer information needs about paracetamol, the most commonly used analgesic and antipyretic worldwide. Design Retrospective analysis of medicines questions from the public. Setting Australian consumer medicines call centre. Participants Callers to National Prescribing Service Medicines Line between September 2002 and June 2010 (n=123 217). Main outcome measures Enquiry profile: demographics, enquiry type and concurrent medicines included in paracetamol calls; question themes derived from subset of call narratives. Results Paracetamol comprised part of the enquiry in 5.2% of calls (n=6367). The caller age distribution for paracetamol calls was skewed towards a younger cohort, with 45.2% made by those aged 25–44 vs 37.5% in ‘rest of calls’. Significantly more paracetamol-related calls were made for a child (23.7%) compared with ‘rest of calls’ (12.7%, p<0.001). The most frequent concurrently asked about medicines were codeine (11%, n=1521) and ibuprofen (6.4%, n=884). Questions underpinned by paracetamol risk (interaction, use in pregnancy/lactation or other safety concerns) predominated (55.8%). When individual paracetamol enquiry types were compared with ‘rest of calls’, efficacy was most frequent (24.9% vs 22.8%); however, interaction (21.5% vs 14.8%), administration (15.5% vs 11%) and pregnancy/lactation (13.8% vs 8.3%) categories were more prevalent for paracetamol calls (all p<0.001). Enquiry type frequency also varied by patient age group, with questions about administration more common in younger groups and efficacy dominating in those over 45. Narrative analysis of over-represented paracetamol enquiry types showed specific concerns relevant to life stages: young children, those of reproductive age and the elderly. Conclusions Consumers have many concerns about the use of paracetamol that may be under-recognised by healthcare providers, with the nature of enquiries differing across life stages. These concerns are not

  12. Carbon nanotube-polymer composite actuators

    DOEpatents

    Gennett, Thomas; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Landi, Brian J.; Heben, Michael J.

    2008-04-22

    The present invention discloses a carbon nanotube (SWNT)-polymer composite actuator and method to make such actuator. A series of uniform composites was prepared by dispersing purified single wall nanotubes with varying weight percents into a polymer matrix, followed by solution casting. The resulting nanotube-polymer composite was then successfully used to form a nanotube polymer actuator.

  13. Call-related factors influencing output power from mobile phones.

    PubMed

    Hillert, Lena; Ahlbom, Anders; Neasham, David; Feychting, Maria; Järup, Lars; Navin, Roshan; Elliott, Paul

    2006-11-01

    Mobile phone use is increasing but there is also concern for adverse health effects. Well-designed prospective studies to assess several health outcomes are required. In designing a study of mobile phone use, it is important to assess which factors need to be considered in classifying the exposure to radiofrequency fields (RF). A pilot study was performed in Sweden and in the UK 2002 to 2003 to test the feasibility of recruiting a cohort of mobile phone users from a random population sample and from mobile phone subscription lists for a prospective study. As one part of this pilot study, different factors were evaluated regarding possible influence on the output power of the phones. By local switch logging, information on calls made from predefined subscriptions or dedicated handsets were obtained and the output power of phones during calls made indoors and outdoors, in moving and stationary mode, and in rural as well in urban areas were compared. In this experiment, calls were either 1, 1.5 or 5 min long. The results showed that high mobile phone output power is more frequent in rural areas whereas the other factors (length of call, moving/stationary, indoor/outdoor) were of less importance. Urban and rural area should be considered in an exposure index for classification of the exposure to RF from mobile phones and may be assessed by first base station during mobile phone calls or, if this information is not available, possibly by using home address as a proxy.

  14. Genotype calling and haplotyping in parent-offspring trios

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Li, Bingshan; Zeng, Zhen; Sanna, Serena; Sidore, Carlo; Busonero, Fabio; Kang, Hyun Min; Li, Yun; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging sequencing technologies allow common and rare variants to be systematically assayed across the human genome in many individuals. In order to improve variant detection and genotype calling, raw sequence data are typically examined across many individuals. Here, we describe a method for genotype calling in settings where sequence data are available for unrelated individuals and parent-offspring trios and show that modeling trio information can greatly increase the accuracy of inferred genotypes and haplotypes, especially on low to modest depth sequencing data. Our method considers both linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns and the constraints imposed by family structure when assigning individual genotypes and haplotypes. Using simulations, we show that trios provide higher genotype calling accuracy across the frequency spectrum, both overall and at hard-to-call heterozygous sites. In addition, trios provide greatly improved phasing accuracy—improving the accuracy of downstream analyses (such as genotype imputation) that rely on phased haplotypes. To further evaluate our approach, we analyzed data on the first 508 individuals sequenced by the SardiNIA sequencing project. Our results show that our method reduces the genotyping error rate by 50% compared with analysis using existing methods that ignore family structure. We anticipate our method will facilitate genotype calling and haplotype inference for many ongoing sequencing projects. PMID:23064751

  15. Overview of the Shenzhen Emergency Medical Service Call Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Man Lo, Shuk; Min Yu, Yi; Larry Lee, Lap Yip; Eliza Wong, Mi Ling; Ying Chair, Sek; J Kalinowski, Edward; Jimmy Chan, Tak Shing

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Shenzhen, the Emergency Medical Service (EMS) system has been in service since 1997. This study aims to examine the operation of Shenzhen 120 EMS center and to identify the reasons of calling EMS. METHODS: In this retrospective quantitative descriptive study, the data from the Shenzhen 120 EMS registry in 2011 were analyzed. RESULTS: Shenzhen 120 EMS center is a communication command center. When the number of 120 are dialed, it is forwarded to the closest appropriate hospital for ambulance dispatch. In 2011, the Shenzhen 120 EMS center received 153 160 ambulance calls, with an average of 420 calls per day. Calling emergency services was mainly due to traffic accidents. Trauma and other acute diseases constituted a majority of ambulance transports. The adult patients aged 15–60 years are the principal users of EMS. There are no recognized ‘paramedic’ doctors and nurses. The pre-hospital emergency service is under the operation of emergency departments of hospitals. Shenzhen at present does not have specialized pre-hospital training for doctors and nurses in post-trauma management. Moreover, specialized pre-hospital training, financial support, and public health education on proper use of EMS should be emphasized. CONCLUSION: The Shenzhen 120 EMS center has its own epidemiology characteristics. Traumatic injury and traffic accident are the main reasons for calling ambulance service. In-depth study emphasizing the distribution and characteristics of trauma patients is crucial to the future development of EMS. PMID:25215072

  16. The So-Called 'Face on Mars' in Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Released 24 July 2002) This set of THEMIS infrared images shows the so-called 'face on Mars' landform located in the northern plains of Mars near 40o N, 10o W (350 o E). The 'face' is located near the center of the image approximately 1/6 of the way down from the top, and is one of a large number of knobs, mesas, hills, and buttes that are visible in this THEMIS image. The THEMIS infrared camera has ten different filters between 6.2 and 15 micrometers - nine view the surface and one views the CO2 atmosphere. The calibrated and geometrically projected data from all of the nine surface-viewing filters are shown in this figure. The major differences seen in this region are due to temperature effects -- sunlit slopes are warm (bright), whereas those in shadow are cold (dark), The temperature in this scene ranges from 50 oC (darkest) to 15 oC (brightest). The major differences between the different filters are due to the expected variation in the amount of energy emitted from the surface at different wavelengths. Minor spectral differences (infrared 'color') also exist between the different filters, but these differences are small in this region due to the uniform composition of the rocks and soils exposed at the surface. The THEMIS infrared camera provides an excellent regional view of Mars - this image covers an area 32 kilometers (20 miles) by approximately 200 kilometers (125 miles) at a resolution of 100 meters per picture element ('pixel'). This image provides a broad perspective of the landscape and geology of the Cydonia region, showing numerous knobs and hills that have been eroded into a remarkable array of different shapes. In this 'big picture' view the Cydonia region is seen to be covered with dozens of interesting knobs and mesas that are similar in many ways to the knob named the 'face' - so many in fact that it requires care to discover the 'face' among this jumble of knobs and hills. The 3-km

  17. The World Health Organization "Rehabilitation 2030: a call for action".

    PubMed

    Gimigliano, Francesca; Negrini, Stefano

    2017-04-04

    February 6th and 7th of year 2017 might be remembered in the future of rehabilitation. In fact, in these two days the World Health Organization (WHO) has called in the Executive Board Room of WHO headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, more than 200 people representing the rehabilitation stakeholders. The aims were to a launch "Rehabilitation 2030 - a call for action" and to present the WHO Recommendations on rehabilitation in health systems. These initiatives are meant to draw attention to the increasing needs for rehabilitation in the world; to highlight the role of rehabilitation in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals proposed by the United Nations; to call for coordinated and concerted global action towards strengthening rehabilitation in health systems. The aim of this paper is to present in detail the scientific events of these 2 days that will very likely mark the history of rehabilitation.

  18. Characteristics of calls to the Israeli hotline during the Intifada.

    PubMed

    Gilat, Itzhak; Latzer, Yael

    2007-08-01

    The present study examined the help-seeking characteristics of callers to the ten Israeli hotline centers during the Intifada - the Palestinian uprising in the Israeli administered territories. The research method combined quantitative and qualitative analyses of the volunteers' written reports. The quantitative analysis was conducted on a sample of 21,315 structured forms, and the qualitative content analysis was carried out on a sample of 498 verbal descriptions of calls. The quantitative analysis revealed a U-shaped curve illustrating the frequency of Intifada-related calls in relation to the time of the study. The qualitative analysis showed that the main complaints of the callers were focused on direct and masked manifestations of anxiety and feelings of helplessness. The implications of the findings are discussed in terms of understanding the unique psychological response to a new kind of stress, as seen from the perspective of calls to a hotline.

  19. Individual right whales call louder in increased environmental noise.

    PubMed

    Parks, Susan E; Johnson, Mark; Nowacek, Douglas; Tyack, Peter L

    2011-02-23

    The ability to modify vocalizations to compensate for environmental noise is critical for successful communication in a dynamic acoustic environment. Many marine species rely on sound for vital life functions including communication, navigation and feeding. The impacts of significant increases in ocean noise levels from human activities are a current area of concern for the conservation of marine mammals. Here, we document changes in calling behaviour by individual endangered North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) in increased background noise. Right whales, like several bird and primate species, respond to periods of increased noise by increasing the amplitude of their calls. This behaviour may help maintain the communication range with conspecifics during periods of increased noise. These call modifications have implications for conservation efforts for right whales, affecting both the way whales use sound to communicate and our ability to detect them with passive acoustic monitoring systems.

  20. Individual right whales call louder in increased environmental noise

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Susan E.; Johnson, Mark; Nowacek, Douglas; Tyack, Peter L.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to modify vocalizations to compensate for environmental noise is critical for successful communication in a dynamic acoustic environment. Many marine species rely on sound for vital life functions including communication, navigation and feeding. The impacts of significant increases in ocean noise levels from human activities are a current area of concern for the conservation of marine mammals. Here, we document changes in calling behaviour by individual endangered North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) in increased background noise. Right whales, like several bird and primate species, respond to periods of increased noise by increasing the amplitude of their calls. This behaviour may help maintain the communication range with conspecifics during periods of increased noise. These call modifications have implications for conservation efforts for right whales, affecting both the way whales use sound to communicate and our ability to detect them with passive acoustic monitoring systems. PMID:20610418