Science.gov

Sample records for called nod factors

  1. Plant recognition of Bradyrhizobium japonicum nod factors. Final report, September 15, 1992--March 14, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Stacey, G.

    1998-01-01

    This grant had three objectives: (1) isolate and identify the unique nod factor metabolites made by different wild-type B. japonicum strains; (2) investigate the biological activity of these unique nod factors, especially as it relates to host range; and (3) initiate studies to define the mechanism of plant recognition of the nod factors. This report summarizes the results of this research.

  2. Sulphation of Rhizobium sp. NGR234 Nod factors is dependent on noeE, a new host-specificity gene.

    PubMed

    Hanin, M; Jabbouri, S; Quesada-Vincens, D; Freiberg, C; Perret, X; Promé, J C; Broughton, W J; Fellay, R

    1997-06-01

    Rhizobia secrete specific lipo-chitooligosaccharide signals (LCOs) called Nod factors that are required for infection and nodulation of legumes. In Rhizobium sp. NGR234, the reducing N-acetyl-D-glucosamine of LCOs is substituted at C6 with 2-O-methyl-L-fucose which can be acetylated or sulphated. We identified a flavonoid-inducible locus on the symbiotic plasmid pNGR234a that contains a new nodulation gene, noeE, which is required for the sulphation of NGR234 Nod factors (NodNGR). noeE was identified by conjugation into the closely related Rhizobium fredii strain USDA257, which produces fucosylated but non-sulphated Nod factors (NodUSDA). R. fredii transconjugants producing sulphated LCOs acquire the capacity to nodulate Calopogonium caeruleum. Furthermore, mutation of noeE (NGRdelta noeE) abolishes the production of sulphated LCOs and prevents nodulation of Pachyrhizus tuberosus. The sulphotransferase activity linked to NoeE is specific for fucose. In contrast, the sulphotransferase NodH of Rhizobium meliloti seems to be less specific than NoeE, because its introduction into NGRdelta noeE leads to the production of a mixture of LCOs that are sulphated on C6 of the reducing terminus and sulphated on the 2-O-methylfucose residue. Together, these findings show that noeE is a host-specificity gene which probably encodes a fucose-specific sulphotransferase.

  3. Symbiotic activity of pea (Pisum sativum) after application of Nod factors under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Siczek, Anna; Lipiec, Jerzy; Wielbo, Jerzy; Kidaj, Dominika; Szarlip, Paweł

    2014-04-29

    Growth and symbiotic activity of legumes are mediated by Nod factors (LCO, lipo-chitooligosaccharides). To assess the effects of application of Nod factors on symbiotic activity and yield of pea, a two-year field experiment was conducted on a Haplic Luvisol developed from loess. Nod factors were isolated from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strain GR09. Pea seeds were treated with the Nod factors (10⁻¹¹ M) or water (control) before planting. Symbiotic activity was evaluated by measurements of nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction assay), nodule number and mass, and top growth by shoot mass, leaf area, and seed and protein yield. Nod factors generally improved pea yield and nitrogenase activity in the relatively dry growing season 2012, but not in the wet growing season in 2013 due to different weather conditions.

  4. Four Genes of Medicago truncatula Controlling Components of a Nod Factor Transduction Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Catoira, Romy; Galera, Christine; de Billy, Francoise; Penmetsa, R. Varma; Journet, Etienne-Pascal; Maillet, Fabienne; Rosenberg, Charles; Cook, Douglas; Gough, Clare; Dénarié, Jean

    2000-01-01

    Rhizobium nodulation (Nod) factors are lipo-chitooligosaccharides that act as symbiotic signals, eliciting several key developmental responses in the roots of legume hosts. Using nodulation-defective mutants of Medicago truncatula, we have started to dissect the genetic control of Nod factor transduction. Mutants in four genes (DMI1, DMI2, DMI3, and NSP) were pleiotropically affected in Nod factor responses, indicating that these genes are required for a Nod factor–activated signal transduction pathway that leads to symbiotic responses such as root hair deformations, expressions of nodulin genes, and cortical cell divisions. Mutant analysis also provides evidence that Nod factors have a dual effect on the growth of root hair: inhibition of endogenous (plant) tip growth, and elicitation of a novel tip growth dependent on (bacterial) Nod factors. dmi1, dmi2, and dmi3 mutants are also unable to establish a symbiotic association with endomycorrhizal fungi, indicating that there are at least three common steps to nodulation and endomycorrhization in M. truncatula and providing further evidence for a common signaling pathway between nodulation and mycorrhization. PMID:11006338

  5. Daintain/AIF-1 (Allograft Inflammatory Factor-1) accelerates type 1 diabetes in NOD mice

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yan-Ying, E-mail: biozyy@163.com; Huang, Xin-Yuan; Chen, Zheng-Wang

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 is over-expressed in the blood of NOD mice suffering from insulitis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 stimulates white blood cell proliferation in NOD mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 increases blood glucose levels and triggers type 1 diabetes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 accelerates insulitis, while its antibody prevents insulitis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Daintain/AIF-1 enhances the levels of nitric oxide in the pancreases of NOD mice. -- Abstract: A large body of experimental evidence suggests that cytokines trigger pancreatic {beta}-cell death in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Daintain/AIF-1 (Allograft Inflammatory Factor-1), a specific marker for activated macrophages, is accumulated in the pancreatic islets of pre-diabetic BB rats. In themore » present study, we demonstrate that daintain/AIF-1 is released into blood and the levels of daintain/AIF-1 in the blood of type 1 diabetes-prone non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice suffering from insulitis are significantly higher than that in healthy NOD mice. When injected intravenously into NOD mice, daintain/AIF-1 stimulates white blood cell proliferation, increases the concentrations of blood glucose, impairs insulin expression, up-regulates nitric oxide (NO) production in pancreases and accelerates diabetes in NOD mice, while the antibody against daintain/AIF-1 delays or prevents insulitis in NOD mice. These results imply daintain/AIF-1 triggers type 1 diabetes probably via arousing immune cells activation and induction of NO production in pancreas of NOD mice.« less

  6. Nod factor supply under water stress conditions modulates cytokinin biosynthesis and enhances nodule formation and N nutrition in soybean.

    PubMed

    Prudent, Marion; Salon, Christophe; Smith, Donald L; Emery, R J Neil

    2016-09-01

    Nod factors (NF) are molecules produced by rhizobia which are involved in the N 2 -fixing symbiosis with legume plants, enabling the formation of specific organs called nodules. Under drought conditions, nitrogen acquisition by N 2 -fixation is depressed, resulting in low legume productivity. In this study, we evaluated the effects of NF supply on nitrogen acquisition and on cytokinin biosynthesis of soybean plants grown under drought. NF supply to water stressed soybeans increased the CK content of all organs. The profile of CK metabolites also shifted from t-Z to cis-Z and an accumulation of nucleotide and glucoside conjugates. The changes in CK coincided with enhanced nodule formation with sustained nodule specific activity, which ultimately increased the total nitrogen fixed by the plant.

  7. An Epidemiologic Investigation of Potential Risk Factors for Nodding Syndrome in Kitgum District, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Foltz, Jennifer L.; Makumbi, Issa; Sejvar, James J.; Malimbo, Mugagga; Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Atai-Omoruto, Anne Deborah; Alexander, Lorraine N.; Abang, Betty; Melstrom, Paul; Kakooza, Angelina M.; Olara, Dennis; Downing, Robert G.; Nutman, Thomas B.; Dowell, Scott F.; Lwamafa, D. K. W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Nodding Syndrome (NS), an unexplained illness characterized by spells of head bobbing, has been reported in Sudan and Tanzania, perhaps as early as 1962. Hypothesized causes include sorghum consumption, measles, and onchocerciasis infection. In 2009, a couple thousand cases were reportedly in Northern Uganda. Methods In December 2009, we identified cases in Kitgum District. The case definition included persons who were previously developmentally normal who had nodding. Cases, further defined as 5- to 15-years-old with an additional neurological deficit, were matched to village controls to assess risk factors and test biological specimens. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations. Results Surveillance identified 224 cases; most (95%) were 5–15-years-old (range = 2–27). Cases were reported in Uganda since 1997. The overall prevalence was 12 cases per 1,000 (range by parish = 0·6–46). The case-control investigation (n = 49 case/village control pairs) showed no association between NS and previously reported measles; sorghum was consumed by most subjects. Positive onchocerciasis serology [age-adjusted odds ratio (AOR1) = 14·4 (2·7, 78·3)], exposure to munitions [AOR1 = 13·9 (1·4, 135·3)], and consumption of crushed roots [AOR1 = 5·4 (1·3, 22·1)] were more likely in cases. Vitamin B6 deficiency was present in the majority of cases (84%) and controls (75%). Conclusion NS appears to be increasing in Uganda since 2000 with 2009 parish prevalence as high as 46 cases per 1,000 5- to 15-year old children. Our results found no supporting evidence for many proposed NS risk factors, revealed association with onchocerciasis, which for the first time was examined with serologic testing, and raised nutritional deficiencies and toxic exposures as possible etiologies. PMID:23823012

  8. Genetic polymorphisms of the IL6 and NOD2 genes are risk factors for inflammatory reactions in leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Sales-Marques, Carolinne; Cardoso, Cynthia Chester; Alvarado-Arnez, Lucia Elena; Illaramendi, Ximena; Sales, Anna Maria; Hacker, Mariana de Andréa; Barbosa, Mayara Garcia de Mattos; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Pinheiro, Roberta Olmo; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Pacheco, Antonio Guilherme

    2017-01-01

    The pathways that trigger exacerbated immune reactions in leprosy could be determined by genetic variations. Here, in a prospective approach, both genetic and non-genetic variables influencing the amount of time before the development of reactional episodes were studied using Kaplan–Meier survival curves, and the genetic effect was estimated by the Cox proportional-hazards regression model. In a sample including 447 leprosy patients, we confirmed that gender (male), and high bacillary clinical forms are risk factors for leprosy reactions. From the 15 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the 8 candidate genes genotyped (TNF/LTA, IFNG, IL10, TLR1, NOD2, SOD2, and IL6) we observed statistically different survival curves for rs751271 at the NOD2 and rs2069845 at the IL6 genes (log-rank p-values = 0.002 and 0.023, respectively), suggesting an influence on the amount of time before developing leprosy reactions. Cox models showed associations between the SNPs rs751271 at NOD2 and rs2069845 at IL6 with leprosy reactions (HRGT = 0.45, p = 0.002; HRAG = 1.88, p = 0.0008, respectively). Finally, IL-6 and IFN-γ levels were confirmed as high, while IL-10 titers were low in the sera of reactional patients. Rs751271-GT genotype-bearing individuals correlated (p = 0.05) with lower levels of IL-6 in sera samples, corroborating the genetic results. Although the experimental size may be considered a limitation of the study, the findings confirm the association of classical variables such as sex and clinical forms with leprosy, demonstrating the consistency of the results. From the results, we conclude that SNPs at the NOD2 and IL6 genes are associated with leprosy reactions as an outcome. NOD2 also has a clear functional pro-inflammatory link that is coherent with the exacerbated responses observed in these patients. PMID:28715406

  9. Genetic polymorphisms of the IL6 and NOD2 genes are risk factors for inflammatory reactions in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Sales-Marques, Carolinne; Cardoso, Cynthia Chester; Alvarado-Arnez, Lucia Elena; Illaramendi, Ximena; Sales, Anna Maria; Hacker, Mariana de Andréa; Barbosa, Mayara Garcia de Mattos; Nery, José Augusto da Costa; Pinheiro, Roberta Olmo; Sarno, Euzenir Nunes; Pacheco, Antonio Guilherme; Moraes, Milton Ozório

    2017-07-01

    The pathways that trigger exacerbated immune reactions in leprosy could be determined by genetic variations. Here, in a prospective approach, both genetic and non-genetic variables influencing the amount of time before the development of reactional episodes were studied using Kaplan-Meier survival curves, and the genetic effect was estimated by the Cox proportional-hazards regression model. In a sample including 447 leprosy patients, we confirmed that gender (male), and high bacillary clinical forms are risk factors for leprosy reactions. From the 15 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the 8 candidate genes genotyped (TNF/LTA, IFNG, IL10, TLR1, NOD2, SOD2, and IL6) we observed statistically different survival curves for rs751271 at the NOD2 and rs2069845 at the IL6 genes (log-rank p-values = 0.002 and 0.023, respectively), suggesting an influence on the amount of time before developing leprosy reactions. Cox models showed associations between the SNPs rs751271 at NOD2 and rs2069845 at IL6 with leprosy reactions (HRGT = 0.45, p = 0.002; HRAG = 1.88, p = 0.0008, respectively). Finally, IL-6 and IFN-γ levels were confirmed as high, while IL-10 titers were low in the sera of reactional patients. Rs751271-GT genotype-bearing individuals correlated (p = 0.05) with lower levels of IL-6 in sera samples, corroborating the genetic results. Although the experimental size may be considered a limitation of the study, the findings confirm the association of classical variables such as sex and clinical forms with leprosy, demonstrating the consistency of the results. From the results, we conclude that SNPs at the NOD2 and IL6 genes are associated with leprosy reactions as an outcome. NOD2 also has a clear functional pro-inflammatory link that is coherent with the exacerbated responses observed in these patients.

  10. Endogenous Nod-Factor-Like Signal Molecules Promote Early Somatic Embryo Development in Norway Spruce1

    PubMed Central

    Dyachok, Julia V.; Wiweger, Malgorzata; Kenne, Lennart; von Arnold, Sara

    2002-01-01

    Embryogenic cultures of Norway spruce (Picea abies) are composed of pro-embryogenic masses (PEMs) and somatic embryos of various developmental stages. Auxin is important for PEM formation and proliferation. In this report we show that depletion of auxin blocks PEM development and causes large-scale cell death. Extracts of the media conditioned by embryogenic cultures stimulate development of PEM aggregates in auxin-deficient cultures. Partial characterization of the conditioning factor shows that it is a lipophilic, low-molecular-weight molecule, which is sensitive to chitinase and contains GlcNAc residues. On the basis of this information, we propose that the factor is a lipophilic chitin oligosaccharide (LCO). The amount of LCO correlates to the developmental stages of PEMs and embryos, with the highest level in the media conditioned by developmentally blocked cultures. LCO is not present in nonembryogenic cultures. Cell death, induced by withdrawal of auxin, is suppressed by extra supply of endogenous LCO or Nod factor from Rhizobium sp. NGR234. The effect can be mimicked by a chitotetraose or chitinase from Streptomyces griseus. Taken together, our data suggest that endogenous LCO acts as a signal molecule stimulating PEM and early embryo development in Norway spruce. PMID:11842156

  11. Fast, transient and specific intracellular ROS changes in living root hair cells responding to Nod factors (NFs).

    PubMed

    Cárdenas, Luis; Martínez, Adán; Sánchez, Federico; Quinto, Carmen

    2008-12-01

    The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in root-nodule development and metabolism has been extensively studied. However, there is limited evidence showing ROS changes during the earliest stages of the interaction between legumes and rhizobia. Herein, using ratio-imaging analysis, increasing and transient ROS levels were detected at the tips of actively growing root hair cells within seconds after addition of Nod factors (NFs). This transient response (which lasted up to 3 min) was Nod-factor-specific, as chitin oligomers (pentamers) failed to induce a similar response. When chitosan, a fungal elicitor, or ATP was used instead, a sustained increasing signal was observed. As ROS levels are transiently elevated after the perception of NFs, we propose that this ROS response is characteristic of the symbiotic interaction. Furthermore, we discuss the remarkable spatial and temporal coincidences between ROS and transiently increased calcium levels observed in root hair cells immediately after the detection of NFs.

  12. Visualization of highly dynamic F-actin plus ends in growing phaseolus vulgaris root hair cells and their responses to Rhizobium etli nod factors.

    PubMed

    Zepeda, Isaac; Sánchez-López, Rosana; Kunkel, Joseph G; Bañuelos, Luis A; Hernández-Barrera, Alejandra; Sánchez, Federico; Quinto, Carmen; Cárdenas, Luis

    2014-03-01

    Legume plants secrete signaling molecules called flavonoids into the rhizosphere. These molecules activate the transcription of rhizobial nod genes, which encode proteins involved in the synthesis of signaling compounds named Nod factors (NFs). NFs, in turn, trigger changes in plant gene expression, cortical cell dedifferentiation and mitosis, depolarization of the root hair cell membrane potential and rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton. Actin polymerization plays an important role in apical growth in hyphae and pollen tubes. Using sublethal concentrations of fluorescently labeled cytochalasin D (Cyt-Fl), we visualized the distribution of filamentous actin (F-actin) plus ends in living Phaseolus vulgaris and Arabidopsis root hairs during apical growth. We demonstrated that Cyt-Fl specifically labeled the newly available plus ends of actin microfilaments, which probably represent sites of polymerization. The addition of unlabeled competing cytochalasin reduced the signal, suggesting that the labeled and unlabeled forms of the drug bind to the same site on F-actin. Exposure to Rhizobium etli NFs resulted in a rapid increase in the number of F-actin plus ends in P. vulgaris root hairs and in the re-localization of F-actin plus ends to infection thread initiation sites. These data suggest that NFs promote the formation of F-actin plus ends, which results in actin cytoskeleton rearrangements that facilitate infection thread formation.

  13. Transcriptional response of soybean suspension-cultured cells induced by Nod factors obtained from Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110.

    PubMed

    Hakoyama, Tsuneo; Yokoyama, Tadashi; Kouchi, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Ken-ichi; Kaku, Hisatoshi; Arima, Yasuhiro

    2002-11-01

    Genes responding to Nod factors were picked up by the application of a differential display method for soybean suspension-cultured cells. Forty-five cDNA fragments derived from such genes were detected. Seven fragments (ssc1-ssc7) were successfully cloned. The putative product of genes corresponding to ssc1 was estimated to be a disease-resistance protein relating to the induction of the plant defense response against pathogens, and that corresponding to ssc7 was a sucrose transporter. Amino acid sequences deduced from full-length cDNA corresponding to ssc2 and ssc4 were investigated, and it was shown that these polypeptides were equipped with a leucine zipper motif and with phosphorylation sites that were targeted by tyrosin kinase and cAMP-dependent protein kinase, respectively. In a differential display experiment, the transcriptional levels of three genes corresponding to ssc2, ssc3 and ssc5 were estimated to be up-regulated at 6 h after initiation of the treatment and the remaining four were estimated to be down-regulated. However, transcription of the genes corresponding to all ssc was clearly repressed within 2 h after initiation of the treatment. Five of them were restored to their transcriptional level 6 h after initiation of the treatment, although the others were repressed throughout the experimental period.

  14. NOD2 mutations and anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies are risk factors for Crohn’s disease in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Dassopoulos, Themistocles; Nguyen, Geoffrey C.; Talor, Monica Vladut; Datta, Lisa Wu; Isaacs, Kim L.; Lewis, James D.; Gold, Michael S.; Valentine, John F.; Smoot, Duane T.; Harris, Mary L.; Oliva-Hemker, Maria; Bayless, Theodore M.; Burek, C. Lynne; Brant, Steven R.

    2012-01-01

    Background NOD2 mutations and anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) are associated with Crohn’s disease (CD), ileal involvement and complicated disease behavior in whites. ASCA and the three common NOD2 mutations have not been assessed in African American (AA) adults with CD. Methods AA patients with CD and controls were recruited by the Mid-Atlantic African American IBD Study (Johns Hopkins Hospital and satellite centers at Howard University, University of Florida, University of North Carolina, University of Pennsylvania, and the Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC) as part of the NIDDK IBD Genetics Consortium. Genotyping for the three common CD associated NOD2 mutations (Leu1007fsinsC, G908R/2722g>c, and R702W/2104c>t) and ASCA ELISA assays were performed in 183 AA CD patients and 143 controls. Positive ASCA was based on either IgA or IgG above threshold. CD phenotyping was performed using the NIDDK IBD Genetics Consortium guidelines. Logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR) for the association between ASCA and disease phenotype. Results ASCA sensitivity and specificity in this AA population were 70.5% and 70.4% respectively. On univariate analysis, ASCA was associated with younger mean age at diagnosis (25.0±11.8 vs. 32.1±14.2 yrs, p<0.001), ileal involvement (73.0% vs. 48.0%, p=0.002), and complicated (stricturing/ penetrating) behavior (60.3% vs. 41.7%, p=0.03). On multivariate analysis, ASCA titer (/25U) was associated with ileal involvement (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04-1.34), complicated behavior (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.01-1.28) and surgery (hazard ratio 1.11, 95% CI 1.02-1.21). Risks for surgery also included smoking (hazard ratio 1.50, 95% CI 1.14-1.99) and CD family history (hazard ratio 2.39, 95% CI 1.11-5.14). NOD2 carriers (all heterozygotes) were more common among CD cases than controls (8.2 vs. 2.1%; OR 4.17, 95% CI: 1.18 - 14.69). NOD2 mutation population attributable risk was 6.2%. Conclusions In comparison to

  15. Call-related factors influencing output power from mobile phones.

    PubMed

    Hillert, Lena; Ahlbom, Anders; Neasham, David; Feychting, Maria; Järup, Lars; Navin, Roshan; Elliott, Paul

    2006-11-01

    Mobile phone use is increasing but there is also concern for adverse health effects. Well-designed prospective studies to assess several health outcomes are required. In designing a study of mobile phone use, it is important to assess which factors need to be considered in classifying the exposure to radiofrequency fields (RF). A pilot study was performed in Sweden and in the UK 2002 to 2003 to test the feasibility of recruiting a cohort of mobile phone users from a random population sample and from mobile phone subscription lists for a prospective study. As one part of this pilot study, different factors were evaluated regarding possible influence on the output power of the phones. By local switch logging, information on calls made from predefined subscriptions or dedicated handsets were obtained and the output power of phones during calls made indoors and outdoors, in moving and stationary mode, and in rural as well in urban areas were compared. In this experiment, calls were either 1, 1.5 or 5 min long. The results showed that high mobile phone output power is more frequent in rural areas whereas the other factors (length of call, moving/stationary, indoor/outdoor) were of less importance. Urban and rural area should be considered in an exposure index for classification of the exposure to RF from mobile phones and may be assessed by first base station during mobile phone calls or, if this information is not available, possibly by using home address as a proxy.

  16. Alcohol as a Factor in 911 Calls in Denver.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Daniel; Vogel, Jody A; Smith, C Sam; Barrett, Whitney; Bryskiewicz, Gary; Eberhardt, Aaron; Edwards, David; Rappaport, Lara; Colwell, Christopher B; McVaney, Kevin E

    2018-02-08

    Excessive alcohol consumption is associated with a substantial number of emergency department visits annually and is responsible for a significant number of lives lost each year in the United States. However, a minimal amount is known about the impact of alcohol on the EMS system. The primary objective was to determine the proportion of 9-1-1 calls in Denver, Colorado in which (1) alcohol was a contributing factor or (2) the individual receiving EMS services had recently ingested alcohol. The secondary objectives were to compare the characteristics of EMS calls and to estimate the associated costs. This was a prospective observational cohort study of EMS calls for adults from July 1, 2012, to June 30, 2014. Primary outcomes for the study were alcohol as a contributing factor to the EMS call and recent alcohol consumption by the patient receiving EMS services. Logistic regression was utilized to determine the associations between EMS call characteristics and the outcomes. Cost was estimated using historic data. During the study period, 169,642 EMS calls were completed by the Denver Health Paramedic Division. Of these 71% were medical and 29% were trauma-related. The median age was 45 (interquartile range [IQR] 29-59) years, and 55% were male. 50,383 calls (30%) had alcohol consumption, and 49,165 (29%) had alcohol as a contributing factor. Alcohol related calls were associated with male sex, traumatic injuries including head trauma, emergent response, use of airway adjuncts, cardiac monitoring, glucose measurement, use of restraints, use of spinal precautions, and administration of medications for sedation. Estimated costs to the EMS system due to alcohol intoxication exceeded $14 million dollars over the study period and required in excess of 37 thousand hours of paramedic time. Compared to 9-1-1 calls that do not involve alcohol, alcohol-related calls are more likely to involve male patients, emergent response, traumatic injuries, advanced monitoring, airway

  17. Monomer/Dimer Transition of the Caspase-Recruitment Domain of Human Nod1

    SciTech Connect

    Srimathi,T.; Robbins, S.; Dubas, R.

    2008-01-01

    Nod1 is an essential cytoplasmic sensor for bacterial peptidoglycans in the innate immune system. The caspase-recruitment domain of Nod1 (Nod1{_}CARD) is indispensable for recruiting a downstream kinase, receptor-interacting protein 2 (RIP2), that activates nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B). The crystal structure of human Nod1{_}CARD at 1.9 Angstroms resolution reveals a novel homodimeric conformation. Our structural and biochemical analysis shows that the homodimerization of Nod1{_}CARD is achieved by swapping the H6 helices at the carboxy termini and stabilized by forming an interchain disulfide bond between the Cys39 residues of the two monomers in solution and in the crystal. In addition, we present experimentalmore » evidence for a pH-sensitive conformational change of Nod1{_}CARD. Our results suggest that the pH-sensitive monomer/dimer transition is a unique molecular property of Nod1{_}CARD.« less

  18. NOD2 promotes renal injury by exacerbating inflammation and podocyte insulin resistance in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Du, Pengchao; Fan, Baoxia; Han, Huirong; Zhen, Junhui; Shang, Jin; Wang, Xiaojie; Li, Xiang; Shi, Weichen; Tang, Wei; Bao, Chanchan; Wang, Ziying; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Bin; Wei, Xinbing; Yi, Fan

    2013-08-01

    An increasing number of clinical and animal model studies indicate that activation of the innate immune system and inflammatory mechanisms are important in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 (NOD2), a member of the NOD-like receptor family, plays an important role in innate immune response. Here we explore the contribution of NOD2 to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy and found that it was upregulated in kidney biopsies from diabetic patients and high-fat diet/streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Further, NOD2 deficiency ameliorated renal injury in diabetic mice. In vitro, NOD2 induced proinflammatory response and impaired insulin signaling and insulin-induced glucose uptake in podocytes. Moreover, podocytes treated with high glucose, advanced glycation end-products, tumor necrosis factor-α, or transforming growth factor-β (common detrimental factors in diabetic nephropathy) significantly increased NOD2 expression. NOD2 knockout diabetic mice were protected from the hyperglycemia-induced reduction in nephrin expression. Further, knockdown of NOD2 expression attenuated high glucose-induced nephrin downregulation in vitro, supporting an essential role of NOD2 in mediating hyperglycemia-induced podocyte dysfunction. Thus, NOD2 is one of the critical components of a signal transduction pathway that links renal injury to inflammation and podocyte insulin resistance in diabetic nephropathy.

  19. Structural Insight Into the Role of Mutual Polymorphism and Conservatism in the Contact Zone of the NFR5-K1 Heterodimer With the Nod Factor.

    PubMed

    Igolkina, A A; Porozov, Yu B; Chizhevskaya, E P; Andronov, E E

    2018-01-01

    Sandwich-like docking configurations of the heterodimeric complex of NFR5 and K1 Vicia sativa receptor-like kinases together with the putative ligand, Nod factor (NF) of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae , were modeled and two of the most probable configurations were assessed through the analysis of the mutual polymorphisms and conservatism. We carried out this analysis based on the hypothesis that in a contact zone of two docked components (proteins or ligands) the population polymorphism or conservatism is mutual, i.e., the variation in one component has a reflected variation in the other component. The population material of 30 wild-growing V. sativa (leaf pieces) was collected from a large field (uncultivated for the past 25-years) and pooled; form this pool, 100 randomly selected cloned fragments of NFR5 gene and 100 of K1 gene were sequenced by the Sanger method. Congruence between population trees of NFR5 and K1 haplotypes allowed us to select two respective haplotypes, build their 3D structures, and perform protein-protein docking. In a separate simulation, the protein-ligand docking between NFR5 and NF was carried out. We merged the results of the two docking experiments and extracted NFR5-NF-K1 complexes, in which NF was located within the cavity between two receptors. Molecular dynamics simulations indicated two out of six complexes as stable. Regions of mutual polymorphism in the contact zone of one complex overlapped with known NF structural variations produced by R. leguminosarum bv. viciae . A total of 74% of the contact zone of another complex contained mutually polymorphic and conservative areas. Common traits of the obtained two stable structures allowed us to hypothesize the functional role of three-domain structure of plant LysM-RLKs in their heteromers.

  20. Candidatus Frankia Datiscae Dg1, the Actinobacterial Microsymbiont of Datisca glomerata, Expresses the Canonical nod Genes nodABC in Symbiosis with Its Host Plant

    PubMed Central

    Persson, Tomas; Battenberg, Kai; Demina, Irina V.; Vigil-Stenman, Theoden; Vanden Heuvel, Brian; Pujic, Petar; Facciotti, Marc T.; Wilbanks, Elizabeth G.; O'Brien, Anna; Fournier, Pascale; Cruz Hernandez, Maria Antonia; Mendoza Herrera, Alberto; Médigue, Claudine; Normand, Philippe; Pawlowski, Katharina; Berry, Alison M.

    2015-01-01

    Frankia strains are nitrogen-fixing soil actinobacteria that can form root symbioses with actinorhizal plants. Phylogenetically, symbiotic frankiae can be divided into three clusters, and this division also corresponds to host specificity groups. The strains of cluster II which form symbioses with actinorhizal Rosales and Cucurbitales, thus displaying a broad host range, show suprisingly low genetic diversity and to date can not be cultured. The genome of the first representative of this cluster, Candidatus Frankia datiscae Dg1 (Dg1), a microsymbiont of Datisca glomerata, was recently sequenced. A phylogenetic analysis of 50 different housekeeping genes of Dg1 and three published Frankia genomes showed that cluster II is basal among the symbiotic Frankia clusters. Detailed analysis showed that nodules of D. glomerata, independent of the origin of the inoculum, contain several closely related cluster II Frankia operational taxonomic units. Actinorhizal plants and legumes both belong to the nitrogen-fixing plant clade, and bacterial signaling in both groups involves the common symbiotic pathway also used by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. However, so far, no molecules resembling rhizobial Nod factors could be isolated from Frankia cultures. Alone among Frankia genomes available to date, the genome of Dg1 contains the canonical nod genes nodA, nodB and nodC known from rhizobia, and these genes are arranged in two operons which are expressed in D. glomerata nodules. Furthermore, Frankia Dg1 nodC was able to partially complement a Rhizobium leguminosarum A34 nodC::Tn5 mutant. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Dg1 Nod proteins are positioned at the root of both α- and β-rhizobial NodABC proteins. NodA-like acyl transferases were found across the phylum Actinobacteria, but among Proteobacteria only in nodulators. Taken together, our evidence indicates an Actinobacterial origin of rhizobial Nod factors. PMID:26020781

  1. Nod Factor Effects on Root Hair-Specific Transcriptome of Medicago truncatula: Focus on Plasma Membrane Transport Systems and Reactive Oxygen Species Networks.

    PubMed

    Damiani, Isabelle; Drain, Alice; Guichard, Marjorie; Balzergue, Sandrine; Boscari, Alexandre; Boyer, Jean-Christophe; Brunaud, Véronique; Cottaz, Sylvain; Rancurel, Corinne; Da Rocha, Martine; Fizames, Cécile; Fort, Sébastien; Gaillard, Isabelle; Maillol, Vincent; Danchin, Etienne G J; Rouached, Hatem; Samain, Eric; Su, Yan-Hua; Thouin, Julien; Touraine, Bruno; Puppo, Alain; Frachisse, Jean-Marie; Pauly, Nicolas; Sentenac, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    Root hairs are involved in water and nutrient uptake, and thereby in plant autotrophy. In legumes, they also play a crucial role in establishment of rhizobial symbiosis. To obtain a holistic view of Medicago truncatula genes expressed in root hairs and of their regulation during the first hours of the engagement in rhizobial symbiotic interaction, a high throughput RNA sequencing on isolated root hairs from roots challenged or not with lipochitooligosaccharides Nod factors (NF) for 4 or 20 h was carried out. This provided a repertoire of genes displaying expression in root hairs, responding or not to NF, and specific or not to legumes. In analyzing the transcriptome dataset, special attention was paid to pumps, transporters, or channels active at the plasma membrane, to other proteins likely to play a role in nutrient ion uptake, NF electrical and calcium signaling, control of the redox status or the dynamic reprogramming of root hair transcriptome induced by NF treatment, and to the identification of papilionoid legume-specific genes expressed in root hairs. About 10% of the root hair expressed genes were significantly up- or down-regulated by NF treatment, suggesting their involvement in remodeling plant functions to allow establishment of the symbiotic relationship. For instance, NF-induced changes in expression of genes encoding plasma membrane transport systems or disease response proteins indicate that root hairs reduce their involvement in nutrient ion absorption and adapt their immune system in order to engage in the symbiotic interaction. It also appears that the redox status of root hair cells is tuned in response to NF perception. In addition, 1176 genes that could be considered as "papilionoid legume-specific" were identified in the M. truncatula root hair transcriptome, from which 141 were found to possess an ortholog in every of the six legume genomes that we considered, suggesting their involvement in essential functions specific to legumes. This

  2. Nod Factor Effects on Root Hair-Specific Transcriptome of Medicago truncatula: Focus on Plasma Membrane Transport Systems and Reactive Oxygen Species Networks

    PubMed Central

    Damiani, Isabelle; Drain, Alice; Guichard, Marjorie; Balzergue, Sandrine; Boscari, Alexandre; Boyer, Jean-Christophe; Brunaud, Véronique; Cottaz, Sylvain; Rancurel, Corinne; Da Rocha, Martine; Fizames, Cécile; Fort, Sébastien; Gaillard, Isabelle; Maillol, Vincent; Danchin, Etienne G. J.; Rouached, Hatem; Samain, Eric; Su, Yan-Hua; Thouin, Julien; Touraine, Bruno; Puppo, Alain; Frachisse, Jean-Marie; Pauly, Nicolas; Sentenac, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    Root hairs are involved in water and nutrient uptake, and thereby in plant autotrophy. In legumes, they also play a crucial role in establishment of rhizobial symbiosis. To obtain a holistic view of Medicago truncatula genes expressed in root hairs and of their regulation during the first hours of the engagement in rhizobial symbiotic interaction, a high throughput RNA sequencing on isolated root hairs from roots challenged or not with lipochitooligosaccharides Nod factors (NF) for 4 or 20 h was carried out. This provided a repertoire of genes displaying expression in root hairs, responding or not to NF, and specific or not to legumes. In analyzing the transcriptome dataset, special attention was paid to pumps, transporters, or channels active at the plasma membrane, to other proteins likely to play a role in nutrient ion uptake, NF electrical and calcium signaling, control of the redox status or the dynamic reprogramming of root hair transcriptome induced by NF treatment, and to the identification of papilionoid legume-specific genes expressed in root hairs. About 10% of the root hair expressed genes were significantly up- or down-regulated by NF treatment, suggesting their involvement in remodeling plant functions to allow establishment of the symbiotic relationship. For instance, NF-induced changes in expression of genes encoding plasma membrane transport systems or disease response proteins indicate that root hairs reduce their involvement in nutrient ion absorption and adapt their immune system in order to engage in the symbiotic interaction. It also appears that the redox status of root hair cells is tuned in response to NF perception. In addition, 1176 genes that could be considered as “papilionoid legume-specific” were identified in the M. truncatula root hair transcriptome, from which 141 were found to possess an ortholog in every of the six legume genomes that we considered, suggesting their involvement in essential functions specific to legumes. This

  3. The Nucleotide Synthesis Enzyme CAD Inhibits NOD2 Antibacterial Function in Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Richmond, Amy L.; Kabi, Amrita; Homer, Craig R.; García, Noemí Marina; Nickerson, Kourtney P.; NesvizhskiI, Alexey I.; Sreekumar, Arun; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.; Nuñez, Gabriel; McDonald, Christine

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Polymorphisms that reduce the function of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)2, a bacterial sensor, have been associated with Crohn’s disease (CD). No proteins that regulate NOD2 activity have been identified as selective pharmacologic targets. We sought to discover regulators of NOD2 that might be pharmacologic targets for CD therapies. METHODS Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase/ aspartate transcarbamylase/dihydroorotase (CAD) is an enzyme required for de novo pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis; it was identified as a NOD2-interacting protein by immunoprecipitation-coupled mass spectrometry. CAD expression was assessed in colon tissues from individuals with and without inflammatory bowel disease by immunohistochemistry. The interaction between CAD and NOD2 was assessed in human HCT116 intestinal epithelial cells by immunoprecipitation, immunoblot, reporter gene, and gentamicin protection assays. We also analyzed human cell lines that express variants of NOD2 and the effects of RNA interference, overexpression and CAD inhibitors. RESULTS CAD was identified as a NOD2-interacting protein expressed at increased levels in the intestinal epithelium of patients with CD compared with controls. Overexpression of CAD inhibited NOD2-dependent activation of nuclear factor κB and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, as well as intracellular killing of Salmonella. Reduction of CAD expression or administration of CAD inhibitors increased NOD2-dependent signaling and antibacterial functions of NOD2 variants that are and are not associated with CD. CONCLUSIONS The nucleotide synthesis enzyme CAD is a negative regulator of NOD2. The antibacterial function of NOD2 variants that have been associated with CD increased in response to pharmacologic inhibition of CAD. CAD is a potential therapeutic target for CD. PMID:22387394

  4. Factors Affecting the Vocational Calling of Laboratory Animal Care and Research Employees

    PubMed Central

    Boivin, Gregory P; Markert, Ronald J

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed laboratory animal care and research workers to determine the factors affecting their vocational calling. The survey comprised 56 questions in 4 groups: passion, job stability or happiness, work volition, and demographics. We hypothesized that personnel who worked in the field a longer time, were older, had higher education levels, were involved with AALAS, and in higher positions in their organization were more likely to indicate a calling to the laboratory animal care field. In addition, we hypothesized that job satisfaction and classifying one's job as a calling were positively related to organizational support and work volition. Overall, 44% of respondents categorized their work as at least partially a calling. Those working at a higher level in the position of laboratory animal technician and in the organization were more likely to view their work as a calling. Increasing education level was related to work being a calling. Overall, vocational calling was significantly associated with higher pay, but technicians were the only subgroup where calling and higher pay were significantly related. Vocational calling and job satisfaction were associated with organizational support. For our sample of workers in the animal care field, other factors analyzed were not related to work being considered a calling. Leaders in the field of animal care may find our survey results valuable as they strive to adapt their organization's structure to the perceptions of their workforce with regard to their sense of calling. PMID:27931315

  5. Influence of patient and provider factors on the workload of on-call physicians

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Nin-Chieh; Huang, Chun-Che; Jerng, Jih-Shuin; Hsu, Chia-Hao; Yang, Ming-Chin; Chang, Ray-E; Ko, Wen-Je; Yu, Chong-Jen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Factors associated with the physician workload are scarcely reported. The study aims to investigate the associated factors of on-call physician workload based on a published conceptual framework. The study was conducted in a general internal medicine unit of National Taiwan University Hospital. On-call physician workloads were recorded on a shift basis from 1198 hospitalized patients between May 2010 and April 2011. The proxy of on-call workloads included night calls, bedside evaluation/management (E/M), and performing clinical procedures in a shift. Multivariable logistic and negative binomial regression models were used to determine the factors associated with the workloads of on-call physicians. During the study period, 378 (31.6%) of patients had night calls with related workloads. Multivariate analysis showed that the number of patients with unstable conditions in a shift (odds ratio [OR] 1.89 and 1.66, respectively) and the intensive care unit (ICU) training of the nurse leader (OR 2.87 and 3.08, respectively) resulted in higher likelihood of night calls to and bedside E/M visits by the on-call physician. However, ICU training of nurses (OR = 0.37, 95% confidence interval: 0.16–0.86) decreased the demand of performing clinical procedures by the on-call physician. Moreover, number of patients with unstable conditions (risk ratio [RR] 1.52 and 1.55, respectively) had significantly increased the number of night calls and bedside E/M by on-call physicians by around 50%. Nurses with N1 level (RR 2.16 and 2.71, respectively) were more likely to place night calls and facilitate bedside E/M by the on-call physician compared to nurses with N0 level. In addition, the nurse leaders with ICU training (RR 1.72 and 3.07, respectively) had significant increases in night calls and bedside E/M by the on-call physician compared to those without ICU training. On-call physician workload is associated with patient factors and the training of nurses. Number of

  6. Inhibition of Nod2 Signaling and Target Gene Expression by Curcumin

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Shurong; Zhao, Ling; Kim, Kihoon; Lee, Dong Seok; Hwang, Daniel H.

    2008-01-01

    Nod2 is an intracellular pattern recognition receptor that detects a conserved moiety of bacterial peptidoglycan and subsequently activates proinflammatory signaling pathways. Mutations in Nod2 have been implicated to be linked to inflammatory granulomatous disorders, such as Crohn's disease and Blau syndrome. Many phytochemicals possess anti-inflammatory properties. However, it is not known whether any of these phytochemicals might modulate Nod2-mediated immune responses and thus might be of therapeutic value for the intervention of these inflammatory diseases. In this report, we demonstrate that curcumin, a polyphenol found in the plant Curcuma longa, and parthenolide, a sesquiterpene lactone, suppress both ligand-induced and lauric acid-induced Nod2 signaling, leading to the suppression of nuclear factor-κB activation and target gene interleukin-8 expression. We provide molecular and biochemical evidence that the suppression is mediated through the inhibition of Nod2 oligomerization and subsequent inhibition of downstream signaling. These results demonstrate for the first time that curcumin and parthenolide can directly inhibit Nod2-mediated signaling pathways at the receptor level and suggest that Nod2-mediated inflammatory responses can be modulated by these phytochemicals. It remains to be determined whether these phytochemicals possess protective or therapeutic efficacy against Nod2-mediated inflammatory disorders. PMID:18413660

  7. Proceedings of the human factors workshop : improving railroad safety through understanding close calls.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2004-05-01

    On April 23 and 24, 2003, the Federal Railroad Administrations Office of Research and Development held a Human Factors Workshop: Improving Railroad Safety Through Understanding Close Calls in Baltimore, Maryland. The purpose of the workshop ...

  8. Resistin increases the expression of NOD2 in mouse monocytes.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yi; Wan, Taomei; Zuo, Zhicai; Cui, Hengmin; Peng, Xi; Fang, Jing; Deng, Junliang; Hu, Yanchun; Yu, Shuming; Shen, Liuhong; Ma, Xiaoping; Wang, Ya; Ren, Zhihua

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies have indicated that resistin, a type of adipokine, contributes to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and mediates inflammatory reactions. However, a specific receptor for resistin has not yet been identified. In this study, the relationship between resistin and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors, as well as resistin signal transduction, was examined through transfection, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blot analysis and ELISA. The mRNA expression of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2), a key immune receptor related to insulin resistance, was significantly increased by resistin treatment at concentrations of 100, 150 and 200 ng/ml (P<0.05, P<0.01 and P<0.01, respectively). The mRNA expression of downstream signaling molecules in the NOD2 signaling pathway, receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 2 (RIP2; P<0.01 at 6, 12 and 24 h) and inhibitor of NF-κB kinase subunit beta (P<0.01 at 3, 6, 12 and 24 h) were significantly increased by resistin treatment compared with the control. The mRNA expression of key proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor α, IL (interleukin)-6 and IL-1β, were also significantly increased by resistin treatment compared with the control (P<0.01). NOD2 knockdown by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly decreased the expression of NOD2 and RIP2 (P<0.01), and there was no significant increase in the levels of cytokines, as compared with treatment with control siRNA. These findings indicate that the inflammatory reaction induced by resistin involves the NOD2-nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathway. The inhibition of NF-κB significantly decreased the secretion of key inflammatory cytokines (P<0.01), suggesting that NF-κB signaling mechanisms are essential to the resistin-induced inflammatory response.

  9. Regulation of contact sensitivity in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice by innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Szczepanik, Marian; Majewska-Szczepanik, Monika; Wong, Florence S; Kowalczyk, Paulina; Pasare, Chandrashekhar; Wen, Li

    2018-06-25

    Genetic background influences allergic immune responses to environmental stimuli. Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice are highly susceptible to environmental stimuli. Little is known about the interaction of autoimmune genetic factors with innate immunity in allergies, especially skin hypersensitivity. To study the interplay of innate immunity and autoimmune genetic factors in contact hypersensitivity (CHS) by using various innate immunity-deficient NOD mice. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2-deficient, TLR9-deficient and MyD88-deficient NOD mice were used to investigate CHS. The cellular mechanism was determined by flow cytometry in vitro and adoptive cell transfer in vivo. To investigate the role of MyD88 in dendritic cells (DCs) in CHS, we also used CD11c MyD88+  MyD88 -/- NOD mice, in which MyD88 is expressed only in CD11c + cells. We found that innate immunity negatively regulates CHS, as innate immunity-deficient NOD mice developed exacerbated CHS accompanied by increased numbers of skin-migrating CD11c + DCs expressing higher levels of major histocompatibility complex II and CD80. Moreover, MyD88 -/- NOD mice had increased numbers of CD11c +  CD207 -  CD103 + DCs and activated T effector cells in the skin-draining lymph nodes. Strikingly, re-expression of MyD88 in CD11c + DCs (CD11c MyD88+  MyD88 -/- NOD mice) restored hyper-CHS to a normal level in MyD88 -/- NOD mice. Our results suggest that the autoimmune-prone NOD genetic background aggravates CHS regulated by innate immunity, through DCs and T effector cells. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The NOD3 software package: A graphical user interface-supported reduction package for single-dish radio continuum and polarisation observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Peter; Krause, Marita; Beck, Rainer; Schmidt, Philip

    2017-10-01

    Context. The venerable NOD2 data reduction software package for single-dish radio continuum observations, which was developed for use at the 100-m Effelsberg radio telescope, has been successfully applied over many decades. Modern computing facilities, however, call for a new design. Aims: We aim to develop an interactive software tool with a graphical user interface for the reduction of single-dish radio continuum maps. We make a special effort to reduce the distortions along the scanning direction (scanning effects) by combining maps scanned in orthogonal directions or dual- or multiple-horn observations that need to be processed in a restoration procedure. The package should also process polarisation data and offer the possibility to include special tasks written by the individual user. Methods: Based on the ideas of the NOD2 package we developed NOD3, which includes all necessary tasks from the raw maps to the final maps in total intensity and linear polarisation. Furthermore, plot routines and several methods for map analysis are available. The NOD3 package is written in Python, which allows the extension of the package via additional tasks. The required data format for the input maps is FITS. Results: The NOD3 package is a sophisticated tool to process and analyse maps from single-dish observations that are affected by scanning effects from clouds, receiver instabilities, or radio-frequency interference. The "basket-weaving" tool combines orthogonally scanned maps into a final map that is almost free of scanning effects. The new restoration tool for dual-beam observations reduces the noise by a factor of about two compared to the NOD2 version. Combining single-dish with interferometer data in the map plane ensures the full recovery of the total flux density. Conclusions: This software package is available under the open source license GPL for free use at other single-dish radio telescopes of the astronomical community. The NOD3 package is designed to be

  11. Metastable Pluripotent States in NOD Mouse Derived ES Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Jacob; Markoulaki, Styliani; Mitalipova, Maisam; Cheng, Albert W.; Cassady, John P.; Staerk, Judith; Carey, Bryce W.; Lengner, Christopher J.; Foreman, Ruth; Love, Jennifer; Gao, Qing; Kim, Jongpil; Jaenisch, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    Embryonic stem (ES) cells are isolated from the inner cell mass (ICM) of blastocysts, whereas epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) are derived from the post-implantation epiblast and display a restricted developmental potential. Here we characterize pluripotent states in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse strain, which prior to this study was considered “non-permissive” for ES cell derivation. We find that NOD stem cells can be stabilized by providing constitutive expression of Klf4 or c-Myc or small molecules that can replace these factors during in vitro reprogramming. The NOD ES and iPS cells appear “metastable”, as they acquire an alternative EpiSC-like identity after removal of the exogenous factors, while their reintroduction converts the cells back to ICM-like pluripotency. Our findings suggest that stem cells from different genetic backgrounds can assume distinct states of pluripotency in vitro, the stability of which is regulated by endogenous genetic determinants and can be modified by exogenous factors. PMID:19427283

  12. NOD2/CARD15 mutations and the risk of reoperation in patients with Crohns disease.

    PubMed

    Martínek, L; Kupka, T; Simova, J; Klvaňa, P; Bojková, M; Uvírová, M; Dítě, P; Dvorackova, J; Hoch, J; Zonca, P

    2015-06-01

    Three NOD2/CARD15 gene variants (3020insC, R702W, G908R) have been identified as genetic risk factors for Crohns disease patients. However the diagnostic and therapeutic relevance for clinical practice remains limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between these variants, the risk of reoperation and disease phenotype. In 76 Crohns disease patients (41 female, 35 male) with a minimum 5 year follow-up, three polymorphisms of the NOD2/CARD15 gene (R702W, G908R, 3020insC) were tested. Detailed clinical and medical history including surgical procedures and reoperations were obtained by reviewing the medical charts and completed prospectively. Association between the need for reoperation, disease phenotypes and gene variants were analyzed. 24 patients (32%) showed at least one NOD2/CARD15 mutation. 25 patients (33%) required reoperation, 51 (67%) represented the control group. The expected trend that patients with NOD2/CARD15 variants have a higher frequency of reoperations was not confirmed to a level of statistical significance (p=0.2688). Two of the four patients (50%) with the 3020insC variant required further surgery. We did not confirm any association between NOD2/CARD15 mutations and age at diagnosis (p=0.4356), behavior (p=0.6610), or localization (p=0.4747) according to the Montreal classification. NOD2/CARD15 polymorphisms did not significantly affect the reoperation rate. Homozygosity for the 3020insC variant in the NOD2/CARD15 gene is associated with a high risk of reoperation. NOD2/CARD15 gene variants are not significantly associated with specific disease phenotypes.

  13. IGF-1 decreases collagen degradation in diabetic NOD mesangial cells: implications for diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Lupia, E; Elliot, S J; Lenz, O; Zheng, F; Hattori, M; Striker, G E; Striker, L J

    1999-08-01

    Nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice develop glomerulosclerosis shortly after the onset of diabetes. We showed that mesangial cells (MCs) from diabetic mice exhibited a stable phenotypic switch, consisting of both increased IGF-1 synthesis and proliferation (Elliot SJ, Striker LJ, Hattori M, Yang CW, He CJ, Peten EP, Striker GE: Mesangial cells from diabetic NOD mice constitutively secrete increased amounts of insulin-like growth factor-I. Endocrinology 133:1783-1788, 1993). Because the extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation in diabetic glomerulosclerosis may be partly due to decreased degradation, we examined the effect of excess IGF-1 on collagen turnover and the activity of metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMPs) in diabetic and nondiabetic NOD-MC. Total collagen degradation was reduced by 58 +/- 18% in diabetic NOD-MCs, which correlated with a constitutive decrease in MMP-2 activity and mRNA levels, and nearly undetectable MMP-9 activity and mRNA. TIMP levels were slightly decreased in diabetic NOD-MC. The addition of recombinant IGF-1 to nondiabetic NOD-MC resulted in a decrease in MMP-2 and TIMP activity. Furthermore, treatment of diabetic NOD-MC with a neutralizing antibody against IGF-1 increased the latent form, and restored the active form, of MMP-2. In conclusion, the excessive production of IGF-1 contributes to the altered ECM turnover in diabetic NOD-MC, largely through a reduction of MMP-2 activity. These data suggest that IGF-1 could be a major contributor to the development of diabetic glomerulosclerosis.

  14. The importance of the Non Obese Diabetic (NOD) mouse model in autoimmune diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, James A; Wong, F. Susan; Wen, Li

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the pancreatic infiltration of immune cells resulting in T cell-mediated destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells. The successes of the Non Obese Diabetic (NOD) mouse model have come in multiple forms including identifying key genetic and environmental risk factors e.g. Idd loci and effects of microorganisms including the gut microbiota, respectively, and how they may contribute to disease susceptibility and pathogenesis. Furthermore, the NOD model also provides insights into the roles of the innate immune cells as well as the B cells in contributing to the T cell-mediated disease. Unlike many autoimmune disease models, the NOD mouse develops spontaneous disease and has many similarities to human T1D. Through exploiting these similarities many targets have been identified for immune-intervention strategies. Although many of these immunotherapies did not have a significant impact on human T1D, they have been shown to be effective in the NOD mouse in early stage disease, which is not equivalent to trials in newly-diagnosed patients with diabetes. However, the continued development of humanized NOD mice would enable further clinical developments, bringing T1D research to a new translational level. Therefore, it is the aim of this review to discuss the importance of the NOD model in identifying the roles of the innate immune system and the interaction with the gut microbiota in modifying diabetes susceptibility. In addition, the role of the B cells will also be discussed with new insights gained through B cell depletion experiments and the impact on translational developments. Finally, this review will also discuss the future of the NOD mice and the development of humanized NOD mice, providing novel insights into human T1D. PMID:26403950

  15. Impact of T-cell-specific Smad4 deficiency on the development of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Donghee; Lee, Song Mi; Jun, Hee-Sook

    2017-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes results from autoimmune-mediated pancreatic beta-cell destruction and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is known to play a preventive role in type 1 diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. In this study, we investigated the role of Smad4, a key molecule for Smad-dependent TGF-β signaling, in T cells of NOD mice in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes. We generated T-cell-specific Smad4 knockout (Smad4 tKO) NOD mice and assessed the pathological and immunological changes. Smad4 tKO showed earlier onset and increased incidence of diabetes than wild type (WT) NOD mice. Pathological features such as insulitis, anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase auto-antibody levels and serum IFN-γ levels were significantly increased in Smad4 tKO compared with WT NOD mice. Proportion and number of activated/memory CD4+ T cell were significantly increased in pancreatic lymph nodes of Smad4 tKO compared with WT NOD mice. However, the proportion and function of regulatory T cells was not different. Effector CD4+ T cells from Smad4 tKO were more resistant to suppression by regulatory T cells than effector cells from WT NOD mice. The proliferative potential of effector T cells from Smad4 tKO was significantly elevated compared with WT NOD mice, and activation of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) in T cells of Smad4 tKO NOD mice was correlated with this proliferative activity. We conclude that Smad4 deletion in T cells of NOD mice accelerated the development of autoimmune diabetes and increased the incidence of the disease by dysregulation of T cell activation at least in part via SREBP-1c activation. PMID:27686408

  16. Impact of T-cell-specific Smad4 deficiency on the development of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donghee; Lee, Song Mi; Jun, Hee-Sook

    2017-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes results from autoimmune-mediated pancreatic beta-cell destruction and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is known to play a preventive role in type 1 diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. In this study, we investigated the role of Smad4, a key molecule for Smad-dependent TGF-β signaling, in T cells of NOD mice in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes. We generated T-cell-specific Smad4 knockout (Smad4 tKO) NOD mice and assessed the pathological and immunological changes. Smad4 tKO showed earlier onset and increased incidence of diabetes than wild type (WT) NOD mice. Pathological features such as insulitis, anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase auto-antibody levels and serum IFN-γ levels were significantly increased in Smad4 tKO compared with WT NOD mice. Proportion and number of activated/memory CD4 + T cell were significantly increased in pancreatic lymph nodes of Smad4 tKO compared with WT NOD mice. However, the proportion and function of regulatory T cells was not different. Effector CD4 + T cells from Smad4 tKO were more resistant to suppression by regulatory T cells than effector cells from WT NOD mice. The proliferative potential of effector T cells from Smad4 tKO was significantly elevated compared with WT NOD mice, and activation of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) in T cells of Smad4 tKO NOD mice was correlated with this proliferative activity. We conclude that Smad4 deletion in T cells of NOD mice accelerated the development of autoimmune diabetes and increased the incidence of the disease by dysregulation of T cell activation at least in part via SREBP-1c activation.

  17. Review of Significant Incidents and Close Calls in Human Spaceflight from a Human Factors Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva-Martinez, Jackelynne; Ellenberger, Richard; Dory, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    This project aims to identify poor human factors design decisions that led to error-prone systems, or did not facilitate the flight crew making the right choices; and to verify that NASA is effectively preventing similar incidents from occurring again. This analysis was performed by reviewing significant incidents and close calls in human spaceflight identified by the NASA Johnson Space Center Safety and Mission Assurance Flight Safety Office. The review of incidents shows whether the identified human errors were due to the operational phase (flight crew and ground control) or if they initiated at the design phase (includes manufacturing and test). This classification was performed with the aid of the NASA Human Systems Integration domains. This in-depth analysis resulted in a tool that helps with the human factors classification of significant incidents and close calls in human spaceflight, which can be used to identify human errors at the operational level, and how they were or should be minimized. Current governing documents on human systems integration for both government and commercial crew were reviewed to see if current requirements, processes, training, and standard operating procedures protect the crew and ground control against these issues occurring in the future. Based on the findings, recommendations to target those areas are provided.

  18. Hepatocytes express functional NOD1 and NOD2 receptors: A role for NOD1 in hepatocyte CC and CXC chemokine production

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Melanie J.; Chen, Christine; Sun, Qian; Billiar, Timothy R.

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims NOD-like receptors are recently described cytosolic pattern recognition receptors. NOD1 and NOD2 are members of this family that recognize bacterial cell wall components, diaminopimelic acid and muramyl dipeptide, respectively. Both NOD1 and NOD2 have been associated with many inflammatory diseases, although their role in liver inflammation and infection has not been well studied. Materials and Methods We investigated the role of NOD receptors in mouse liver by assessing expression and activation of NOD1 and NOD2 in liver and primary isolated hepatocytes from C57BL/6 mice. Results Both NOD1 and NOD2 mRNA and protein were highly expressed in hepatocytes and liver. RIP2, the main signaling partner for NODs, was also expressed. Stimulation of hepatocytes with NOD1 ligand (C12-iEDAP) induced NFκB activation, activation of MAP kinases and expression of chemokines CCL5 (RANTES) and CXCL1 (KC). C12-iEDAP also synergized with interferon (IFN)γ to increase iNOS expression and production of nitric oxide. Despite activating NFκB, NOD1 ligand did not upregulate hepatocyte production of the acute phase proteins lipopolysaccharide binding protein, serum amyloid A, or soluble CD14 in cell culture supernatants, or upregulate mRNA expression of lipopolysaccharide binding protein, serum amyloid A, C-reactive protein, or serum amyloid P. NOD2 ligand (MDP) did not activate hepatocytes when given alone, but did synergize with Toll-like receptor ligands, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and polyI:C to activate NFκB and MAPK. Conclusions All together these data suggest an important role for hepatocyte NOD1 in attracting leukocytes to the liver during infection and for hepatic NLRs to augment innate immune responses to pathogens. PMID:20615568

  19. Evolutionarily Conserved nodE, nodO, T1SS, and Hydrogenase System in Rhizobia of Astragalus membranaceus and Caragana intermedia.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hui; Xie, Jian Bo; Ji, Zhao Jun; Yuan, Na; Tian, Chang Fu; Ji, Shou Kun; Wu, Zhong Yu; Zhong, Liang; Chen, Wen Xin; Du, Zheng Lin; Wang, En Tao; Chen, Wen Feng

    2017-01-01

    Mesorhizobium species are the main microsymbionts associated with the medicinal or sand-fixation plants Astragalus membranaceus and Caragana intermedia (AC) in temperate regions of China, while all the Mesorhizobium strains isolated from each of these plants could nodulate both of them. However, Rhizobium yanglingense strain CCBAU01603 could nodulate AC plants and it's a high efficiency symbiotic and competitive strain with Caragana . Therefore, the common features shared by these symbiotic rhizobia in genera of Mesorhizobium and Rhizobium still remained undiscovered. In order to study the genomic background influencing the host preference of these AC symbiotic strains, the whole genomes of two ( M. silamurunense CCBAU01550, M. silamurunense CCBAU45272) and five representative strains ( M. septentrionale CCBAU01583, M. amorphae CCBAU01570, M. caraganae CCBAU01502, M. temperatum CCBAU01399, and R. yanglingense CCBAU01603) originally isolated from AC plants were sequenced, respectively. As results, type III secretion systems (T3SS) of AC rhizobia evolved in an irregular pattern, while an evolutionarily specific region including nodE, nodO , T1SS, and a hydrogenase system was detected to be conserved in all these AC rhizobia. Moreover, nodO was verified to be prevalently distributed in other AC rhizobia and was presumed as a factor affecting the nodule formation process. In conclusion, this research interpreted the multifactorial features of the AC rhizobia that may be associated with their host specificity at cross-nodulation group, including nodE, nodZ , T1SS as the possible main determinants; and nodO , hydrogenase system, and T3SS as factors regulating the bacteroid formation or nitrogen fixation efficiency.

  20. NOD1CARD Might Be Using Multiple Interfaces for RIP2-Mediated CARD-CARD Interaction: Insights from Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Sukanta Kumar; De, Sachinandan

    2017-01-01

    The nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-containing protein 1 (NOD1) plays the pivotal role in host-pathogen interface of innate immunity and triggers immune signalling pathways for the maturation and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Upon the recognition of iE-DAP, NOD1 self-oligomerizes in an ATP-dependent fashion and interacts with adaptor molecule receptor-interacting protein 2 (RIP2) for the propagation of innate immune signalling and initiation of pro-inflammatory immune responses. This interaction (mediated by NOD1 and RIP2) helps in transmitting the downstream signals for the activation of NF-κB signalling pathway, and has been arbitrated by respective caspase-recruitment domains (CARDs). The so-called CARD-CARD interaction still remained contradictory due to inconsistent results. Henceforth, to understand the mode and the nature of the interaction, structural bioinformatics approaches were employed. MD simulation of modelled 1:1 heterodimeric complexes revealed that the type-Ia interface of NOD1CARD and the type-Ib interface of RIP2CARD might be the suitable interfaces for the said interaction. Moreover, we perceived three dynamically stable heterotrimeric complexes with an NOD1:RIP2 ratio of 1:2 (two numbers) and 2:1. Out of which, in the first trimeric complex, a type-I NOD1-RIP2 heterodimer was found interacting with an RIP2CARD using their type-IIa and IIIa interfaces. However, in the second and third heterotrimer, we observed type-I homodimers of NOD1 and RIP2 CARDs were interacting individually with RIP2CARD and NOD1CARD (in type-II and type-III interface), respectively. Overall, this study provides structural and dynamic insights into the NOD1-RIP2 oligomer formation, which will be crucial in understanding the molecular basis of NOD1-mediated CARD-CARD interaction in higher and lower eukaryotes. PMID:28114344

  1. Hematopoietic stem cells from NOD mice exhibit autonomous behavior and a competitive advantage in allogeneic recipients.

    PubMed

    Chilton, Paula M; Rezzoug, Francine; Ratajczak, Mariusz Z; Fugier-Vivier, Isabelle; Ratajczak, Janina; Kucia, Magda; Huang, Yiming; Tanner, Michael K; Ildstad, Suzanne T

    2005-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes is a systemic autoimmune disease that can be cured by transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from disease-resistant donors. Nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice have a number of features that distinguish them as bone marrow transplant recipients that must be understood prior to the clinical application of chimerism to induce tolerance. In the present studies, we characterized NOD HSCs, comparing their engraftment characteristics to HSCs from disease-resistant strains. Strikingly, NOD HSCs are significantly enhanced in engraftment potential compared with HSCs from disease-resistant donors. Unlike HSCs from disease-resistant strains, they do not require graft-facilitating cells to engraft in allogeneic recipients. Additionally, they exhibit a competitive advantage when coadministered with increasing numbers of syngeneic HSCs, produce significantly more spleen colony-forming units (CFU-Ss) in vivo in allogeneic recipients, and more granulocyte macrophage-colony-forming units (CFU-GMs) in vitro compared with HSCs from disease-resistant controls. NOD HSCs also exhibit significantly enhanced chemotaxis to a stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) gradient and adhere significantly better on primary stroma. This enhanced engraftment potential maps to the insulin-dependent diabetes locus 9 (Idd9) locus, and as such the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor family as well as ski/sno genes may be involved in the mechanism underlying the autonomy of NOD HSCs. These findings may have important implications to understand the evolution of autoimmune disease and impact on potential strategies for cure.

  2. NOD2/CARD15: geographic differences in the Spanish population and clinical applications in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Barreiro-de-Acosta, M; Mendoza, J L; Lana, R; Domínguez-Muñoz, J E; Díaz-Rubio, M

    2010-05-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is a genetically complex disease in which both genetic susceptibility and environmental factors play key roles in the development of the disorder. NOD2/CARD15 mutations are associated with CD. NOD2 encodes for a protein that is an intracellular receptor for a bacterial product (muramyl dipeptide), though the exact functional consequences of these mutations remain the subject of debate. NOD2/CARD15 mutations are associated with ileal CD, with stricturing behavior, and possibly with a more complicated course of CD. NOD2/CARD15 mutations associated with CD have demonstrated heterogeneity across ethnicities and populations throughout the world, with regional variations across Europe and Spain. However, "NOD2/CARD15 testing" is not yet ready for use in the clinical setting. One of the reasons is that we know that these genetic variants increase the risk of disease only marginally, and many healthy individuals carry the risk alleles, at present it is not recommended to screen first-degree relatives, because we do not have the ability to prevent the disease at the present time.

  3. Reply to Noddings, Darwall, Wren, and Fullinwider

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slote, Michael

    2010-01-01

    I respond to Noddings with further clarification of the notion of empathy and also argue that previous care ethics has put too much of an exclusive emphasis on relationships. I respond to Darwall by pointing out some implausible implications of his own and Kantian views about respect and by showing how a sentimentalist approach can avoid those…

  4. Factors Affecting the Normalization of CALL in Chinese Senior High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Bi; Puakpong, Nattaya; Lian, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    With the development of Information Technology, increasing attention has been paid to Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL). Meanwhile, increasing enthusiasm is seen for English learning and teaching in China. Yet, few research studies have focused on the normalization of CALL in ethnically diverse areas. In response to this research gap,…

  5. Ecological and Behavioural Factors Influencing Territorial Call Rates for the Bolivian Titi Monkeys, Plecturocebus modestus and Plecturocebus olallae.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Jesus; Wallace, Robert B

    2016-01-01

    Primate territorial calls have been used to locate groups in censuses. Daily variations in call rates are a potential source of error in these studies. To obtain more accurate estimations of population density it is necessary to determine how much variation there is in group call rates and to identify the factors that influence them. We present data on the emission of territorial calls by two threatened and endemic titi monkeys in Bolivia: Plecturocebus olallae and P. modestus. We found interspecific differences in daily call rates (52% P. modestus and 33% P. olallae). Groups inhabiting more continuous forests vocalized more frequently than groups in fragmented forests, which might be linked to the higher abundance of groups in less fragmented forests. We found seasonal differences in call rates between species, with more frequent calling in P. modestus during the dry season, while P. olallae called more frequently in the rainy season. The study groups emitted territorial calls mostly from the central zones of their territories, suggesting they do not face intense spatial competition with neighbouring groups. Our results improve the general ecological knowledge on P. olallae and P. modestus, and can also be used to improve population abundance studies and ongoing conservation efforts. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Modification of Helicobacter pylori peptidoglycan enhances NOD1 activation and promotes cancer of the stomach

    DOE PAGES

    Suarez, Giovanni; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; ...

    2015-03-02

    Helicobacter pylori is the strongest known risk factor for gastric carcinogenesis. One cancer-linked locus is the cag pathogenicity island, which translocates components of peptidoglycan (PGN) into host cells. NOD1 is an intracellular immune receptor that senses PGN from Gram-negative bacteria and responds by inducing autophagy and activating NF-κB, leading to inflammation-mediated bacterial clearance; however chronic pathogens can evade NOD1-mediated clearance by altering PGN structure. We previously demonstrated that the H. pylori cag+ strain 7.13 rapidly induces gastric cancer in Mongolian gerbils. Using 2D-DIGE and mass spectrometry, we identified a novel mutation within the gene encoding the peptidoglycan deacetylase PgdA; therefore,more » we sought to define the role of H. pylori PgdA in NOD1-dependent activation of NF-κB, inflammation, and cancer. Co-culture of H. pylori strain 7.13 or its pgdA$-$ isogenic mutant with AGS gastric epithelial cells or HEK293 epithelial cells expressing a NF-κB reporter revealed that pgdA inactivation significantly decreased NOD1-dependent NF-κB activation and autophagy. Infection of Mongolian gerbils with an H. pylori pgdA$-$ mutant strain led to significantly decreased levels of inflammation and malignant lesions in the stomach; however, pre-activation of NOD1 prior to bacterial challenge reciprocally suppressed inflammation and cancer in response to wild-type H. pylori. Expression of NOD1 differs in human gastric cancer specimens compared to non-cancer samples harvested from the same patients. In conclusion, these results indicate that PGN deacetylation plays an important role in modulating host inflammatory responses to H. pylori, allowing the bacteria to persist and induce carcinogenic consequences in the gastric niche.« less

  7. Diabetes Associated Metabolomic Perturbations in NOD Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jessica; Poudel, Ananta; Jo, Junghyo; Periwal, Vipul; Fiehn, Oliver; Hara, Manami

    2014-01-01

    Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice are a widely-used model oftype1 diabetes (T1D). However, not all animals develop overt diabetes. This study examined the circulating metabolomic profiles of NOD mice progressing or not progressing to T1D. Total beta-cell mass was quantified in the intact pancreas using transgenic NOD mice expressinggreen fluorescent protein under the control of mouse insulin I promoter.While both progressor and non-progressor animals displayed lymphocyte infiltration and endoplasmic reticulum stress in the pancreas tissue;overt T1D did not develop until animals lost ~70% of the total beta-cell mass.Gas chromatography time of flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF) was used to measure >470 circulating metabolites in male and female progressor and non-progressor animals (n=76) across a wide range of ages (neonates to >40-wk).Statistical and multivariate analyses were used to identify age and sex independent metabolic markers which best differentiated progressor and non-progressor animals’ metabolic profiles. Key T1D-associated perturbations were related with: (1) increased plasma glucose and reduced 1,5-anhydroglucitol markers of glycemic control; (2) increased allantoin, gluconic acid and nitric oxide-derived saccharic acid markers of oxidative stress; (3) reduced lysine, an insulin secretagogue; (4) increased branched-chain amino acids, isoleucine and valine; (5) reduced unsaturated fatty acids including arachidonic acid; and (6)perturbations in urea cycle intermediates suggesting increased arginine-dependent NO synthesis. Together these findings highlight the strength of the unique approach of comparing progressor and non-progressor NOD mice to identify metabolic perturbations involved in T1D progression. PMID:25755629

  8. Upregulating CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in pancreatic lymph nodes in diabetic NOD mice by adjuvant immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tian, Bole; Hao, Jianqiang; Zhang, Yu; Tian, Lei; Yi, Huimin; O'Brien, Timothy D; Sutherland, David E R; Hering, Bernhard J; Guo, Zhiguang

    2009-01-27

    Immunotherapy with Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) is effective in ameliorating autoimmunity in diabetic nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. We investigated whether CFA treatment up-regulates CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and increases transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 production in diabetic NOD mice. New-onset diabetic NOD mice were treated with CFA and exendin-4, a potent analog of glucagon-like peptide-1. Reversal of diabetes was determined by monitoring blood glucose level. Ameliorating autoimmunity through immunoregulation was assessed by adoptive transfer. Regulatory T cells in the peripheral blood, spleen, thymus, and pancreatic nodes were measured. TGF-beta1 in plasma and the insulin content in the pancreas were also measured. Immunostainings for insulin and BrdU were performed. New-onset diabetes could be reversed in 38% of NOD mice treated with CFA alone and in 86% of NOD mice treated with both CFA and exendin-4. Diabetes adoptive transfer by splenocytes from CFA-treated NOD mice was delayed. The percentage of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in the pancreatic lymph nodes of CFA-treated NOD mice was significantly increased at 1, 5, and 15 to 17 weeks after treatment. TGF-beta1 in the plasma of CFA-treated NOD mice was also significantly increased. Combining CFA with exendin-4 treatment significantly increased the insulin content and the numbers of insulin and BrdU double-labeled beta cells in the islets. Our results demonstrated that CFA treatment ameliorates autoimmunity in diabetic NOD mice by up-regulating CD4=CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells and increasing TGF-beta1 production. Exendin-4 enhanced the effect of CFA on reversing diabetes in NOD mice by stimulating beta-cell replication.

  9. NOD2 Down-Regulates Colonic Inflammation by IRF4-Mediated Inhibition of K63-Linked Polyubiquitination of RICK and TRAF6

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Tomohiro; Asano, Naoki; Meng, Guangxun; Yamashita, Kouhei; Arai, Yasuyuki; Sakurai, Toshiharu; Kudo, Masatoshi; Fuss, Ivan J; Kitani, Atsushi; Shimosegawa, Tooru; Chiba, Tsutomu; Strober, Warren

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that polymorphisms of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) gene, a major risk factor in Crohn's disease (CD), lead to loss of NOD2 function. However, a molecular explanation of how such loss of function leads to increased susceptibility to CD has remained unclear. In a previous study exploring this question we reported that activation of NOD2 in human dendritic cells by its ligand, muramyl dipeptide (MDP) negatively regulates Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated inflammatory responses. Here we show that NOD2 activation results in increased interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) expression and binding to TNF receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and receptor interacting serine-threonine kinase (RICK). We then show that such binding leads to IRF4-mediated inhibition of Lys63-linked polyubiquitination of TRAF6 and RICK and thus to down-regulation of NF-κB activation. Finally, we demonstrate that protection of mice from the development of experimental colitis by MDP or IRF4 administration is accompanied by similar IRF4-mediated effects on polyubiquitination of TRAF6 and RICK in colonic lamina propria mononuclear cells. These findings thus define a mechanism of NOD2-mediated regulation of innate immune responses to intestinal microflora that could explain the relation of NOD2 polymorphisms and resultant NOD2 dysfunction to CD. PMID:24670424

  10. Driving Factors for the Evolution of Species-Specific Echolocation Call Design in New World Free-Tailed Bats (Molossidae)

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Kirsten; Molinari, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Phylogeny, ecology, and sensorial constraints are thought to be the most important factors influencing echolocation call design in bats. The Molossidae is a diverse bat family with a majority of species restricted to tropical and subtropical regions. Most molossids are specialized to forage for insects in open space, and thus share similar navigational challenges. We use an unprecedented dataset on the echolocation calls of 8 genera and 18 species of New World molossids to explore how habitat, phylogenetic relatedness, body mass, and prey perception contribute to echolocation call design. Our results confirm that, with the exception of the genus Molossops, echolocation calls of these bats show a typical design for open space foraging. Two lines of evidence point to echolocation call structure of molossids reflecting phylogenetic relatedness. First, such structure is significantly more similar within than among genera. Second, except for allometric scaling, such structure is nearly the same in congeneric species. Despite contrasting body masses, 12 of 18 species call within a relatively narrow frequency range of 20 to 35 kHz, a finding that we explain by using a modeling approach whose results suggest this frequency range to be an adaptation optimizing prey perception in open space. To conclude, we argue that the high variability in echolocation call design of molossids is an advanced evolutionary trait allowing the flexible adjustment of echolocation systems to various sensorial challenges, while conserving sender identity for social communication. Unraveling evolutionary drivers for echolocation call design in bats has so far been hampered by the lack of adequate model organisms sharing a phylogenetic origin and facing similar sensorial challenges. We thus believe that knowledge of the echolocation call diversity of New World molossid bats may prove to be landmark to understand the evolution and functionality of species-specific signal design in bats. PMID

  11. Driving factors for the evolution of species-specific echolocation call design in new world free-tailed bats (molossidae).

    PubMed

    Jung, Kirsten; Molinari, Jesús; Kalko, Elisabeth K V

    2014-01-01

    Phylogeny, ecology, and sensorial constraints are thought to be the most important factors influencing echolocation call design in bats. The Molossidae is a diverse bat family with a majority of species restricted to tropical and subtropical regions. Most molossids are specialized to forage for insects in open space, and thus share similar navigational challenges. We use an unprecedented dataset on the echolocation calls of 8 genera and 18 species of New World molossids to explore how habitat, phylogenetic relatedness, body mass, and prey perception contribute to echolocation call design. Our results confirm that, with the exception of the genus Molossops, echolocation calls of these bats show a typical design for open space foraging. Two lines of evidence point to echolocation call structure of molossids reflecting phylogenetic relatedness. First, such structure is significantly more similar within than among genera. Second, except for allometric scaling, such structure is nearly the same in congeneric species. Despite contrasting body masses, 12 of 18 species call within a relatively narrow frequency range of 20 to 35 kHz, a finding that we explain by using a modeling approach whose results suggest this frequency range to be an adaptation optimizing prey perception in open space. To conclude, we argue that the high variability in echolocation call design of molossids is an advanced evolutionary trait allowing the flexible adjustment of echolocation systems to various sensorial challenges, while conserving sender identity for social communication. Unraveling evolutionary drivers for echolocation call design in bats has so far been hampered by the lack of adequate model organisms sharing a phylogenetic origin and facing similar sensorial challenges. We thus believe that knowledge of the echolocation call diversity of New World molossid bats may prove to be landmark to understand the evolution and functionality of species-specific signal design in bats.

  12. TLR4, NOD1 and NOD2 mediate immune recognition of putative newly identified periodontal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Marchesan, Julie; Jiao, Yizu; Schaff, Riley A; Hao, Jie; Morelli, Thiago; Kinney, Janet S; Gerow, Elizabeth; Sheridan, Rachel; Rodrigues, Vinicius; Paster, Bruce J; Inohara, Naohiro; Giannobile, William V

    2016-06-01

    Periodontitis is a polymicrobial inflammatory disease that results from the interaction between the oral microbiota and the host immunity. Although the innate immune response is important for disease initiation and progression, the innate immune receptors that recognize both classical and putative periodontal pathogens that elicit an immune response have not been elucidated. By using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM), we identified multiple predominant oral bacterial species in human plaque biofilm that strongly associate with severe periodontitis. Ten of the identified species were evaluated in greater depth, six being classical pathogens and four putative novel pathogens. Using human peripheral blood monocytes (HPBM) and murine bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) from wild-type (WT) and Toll-like receptor (TLR)-specific and MyD88 knockouts (KOs), we demonstrated that heat-killed Campylobacter concisus, Campylobacter rectus, Selenomonas infelix, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Tannerella forsythia mediate high immunostimulatory activity. Campylobacter concisus, C. rectus, and S. infelix exhibited robust TLR4 stimulatory activity. Studies using mesothelial cells from WT and NOD1-specific KOs and NOD2-expressing human embryonic kidney cells demonstrated that Eubacterium saphenum, Eubacterium nodatum and Filifactor alocis exhibit robust NOD1 stimulatory activity, and that Porphyromonas endodontalis and Parvimonas micra have the highest NOD2 stimulatory activity. These studies allowed us to provide important evidence on newly identified putative pathogens in periodontal disease pathogenesis showing that these bacteria exhibit different immunostimulatory activity via TLR4, NOD1, and NOD2 (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01154855). © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Inflammatory Signaling by NOD-RIPK2 Is Inhibited by Clinically Relevant Type II Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Canning, Peter; Ruan, Qui; Schwerd, Tobias; Hrdinka, Matous; Maki, Jenny L.; Saleh, Danish; Suebsuwong, Chalada; Ray, Soumya; Brennan, Paul E.; Cuny, Gregory D.; Uhlig, Holm H.; Gyrd-Hansen, Mads; Degterev, Alexei; Bullock, Alex N.

    2015-01-01

    Summary RIPK2 mediates pro-inflammatory signaling from the bacterial sensors NOD1 and NOD2, and is an emerging therapeutic target in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. We observed that cellular RIPK2 can be potently inhibited by type II inhibitors that displace the kinase activation segment, whereas ATP-competitive type I inhibition was only poorly effective. The most potent RIPK2 inhibitors were the US Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs ponatinib and regorafenib. Their mechanism of action was independent of NOD2 interaction and involved loss of downstream kinase activation as evidenced by lack of RIPK2 autophosphorylation. Notably, these molecules also blocked RIPK2 ubiquitination and, consequently, inflammatory nuclear factor κB signaling. In monocytes, the inhibitors selectively blocked NOD-dependent tumor necrosis factor production without affecting lipopolysaccharide-dependent pathways. We also determined the first crystal structure of RIPK2 bound to ponatinib, and identified an allosteric site for inhibitor development. These results highlight the potential for type II inhibitors to treat indications of RIPK2 activation as well as inflammation-associated cancers. PMID:26320862

  14. Inflammatory Signaling by NOD-RIPK2 Is Inhibited by Clinically Relevant Type II Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Canning, Peter; Ruan, Qui; Schwerd, Tobias; Hrdinka, Matous; Maki, Jenny L; Saleh, Danish; Suebsuwong, Chalada; Ray, Soumya; Brennan, Paul E; Cuny, Gregory D; Uhlig, Holm H; Gyrd-Hansen, Mads; Degterev, Alexei; Bullock, Alex N

    2015-09-17

    RIPK2 mediates pro-inflammatory signaling from the bacterial sensors NOD1 and NOD2, and is an emerging therapeutic target in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. We observed that cellular RIPK2 can be potently inhibited by type II inhibitors that displace the kinase activation segment, whereas ATP-competitive type I inhibition was only poorly effective. The most potent RIPK2 inhibitors were the US Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs ponatinib and regorafenib. Their mechanism of action was independent of NOD2 interaction and involved loss of downstream kinase activation as evidenced by lack of RIPK2 autophosphorylation. Notably, these molecules also blocked RIPK2 ubiquitination and, consequently, inflammatory nuclear factor κB signaling. In monocytes, the inhibitors selectively blocked NOD-dependent tumor necrosis factor production without affecting lipopolysaccharide-dependent pathways. We also determined the first crystal structure of RIPK2 bound to ponatinib, and identified an allosteric site for inhibitor development. These results highlight the potential for type II inhibitors to treat indications of RIPK2 activation as well as inflammation-associated cancers. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Congenital Head Nodding and Nystagmus with Cerebrocerebellar Degeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyanaraman, K.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Reported are three case histories of children with congenital head nodding and nystagmus (rhytmic oscillation of the eyeballs) associated with brain degeneration and motor and mental retardation. (DB)

  16. Guillain Barré Syndrome is induced in Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) mice following Campylobacter jejuni infection and is exacerbated by antibiotics.

    PubMed

    St Charles, J L; Bell, J A; Gadsden, B J; Malik, A; Cooke, H; Van de Grift, L K; Kim, H Y; Smith, E J; Mansfield, L S

    2017-02-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis linked to several serious autoimmune sequelae such as the peripheral neuropathies Guillain Barré syndrome (GBS) and Miller Fisher syndrome (MFS). We hypothesized that GBS and MFS can result in NOD wild type (WT) mice or their congenic interleukin (IL)-10 or B7-2 knockouts secondary to C. jejuni infection. Mice were gavaged orally with C. jejuni strains HB93-13 and 260.94 from patients with GBS or CF93-6 from a patient with MFS and assessed for clinical neurological signs and phenotypes, anti-ganglioside antibodies, and cellular infiltrates and lesions in gut and peripheral nerve tissues. Significant increases in autoantibodies against single gangliosides (GM1, GQ1b, GD1a) occurred in infected NOD mice of all genotypes, although the isotypes varied (NOD WT had IgG1, IgG3; NOD B7-2 -/- had IgG3; NOD IL-10 -/- had IgG1, IgG3, IgG2a). Infected NOD WT and NOD IL-10 -/- mice also produced anti-ganglioside antibodies of the IgG1 isotype directed against a mixture of GM1/GQ1b gangliosides. Phenotypic tests showed significant differences between treatment groups of all mouse genotypes. Peripheral nerve lesions with macrophage infiltrates were significantly increased in infected mice of NOD WT and IL-10 -/- genotypes compared to sham-inoculated controls, while lesions with T cell infiltrates were significantly increased in infected mice of the NOD B7-2 -/- genotype compared to sham-inoculated controls. In both infected and sham inoculated NOD IL-10 -/- mice, antibiotic treatment exacerbated neurological signs, lesions and the amount and number of different isotypes of antiganglioside autoantibodies produced. Thus, inducible mouse models of post-C. jejuni GBS are feasible and can be characterized based on evaluation of three factors-onset of GBS clinical signs/phenotypes, anti-ganglioside autoantibodies and nerve lesions. Based on these factors we characterized 1) NOD B-7 -/- mice as an acute

  17. Recipient’s Genetic R702W NOD2 Variant Is Associated with an Increased Risk of Bacterial Infections after Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    van Hoek, Bart; van den Berg, Arie P.; Porte, Robert J.; Blokzijl, Hans; Coenraad, Minneke J.; Hepkema, Bouke G.; Schaapherder, Alexander F.; Ringers, Jan; Weersma, Rinse K.; Verspaget, Hein W.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is accompanied by a significant postoperative infection risk. Immunosuppression to prevent rejection increases the susceptibility to infections, mainly by impairing the adaptive immune system. Genetic polymorphisms in the lectin complement pathway of the donor have recently been identified as important risk determinants of clinically significant bacterial infection (CSI) after OLT. Another genetic factor involved in innate immunity is NOD2, which was reported to be associated with increased risk of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic patients. Methods We assessed association of three genetic NOD2 variants (R702W, G908R and 3020insC) with increased risk of CSI after OLT. 288 OLT recipient-donor pairs from two tertiary referral centers were genotyped for the three NOD2 variants. The probability of CSI in relation to NOD2 gene variants was determined with cumulative incidence curves and log-rank analysis. Results The R702W NOD2 variant in the recipient was associated with CSI after OLT. Eight out of 15 (53.3%) individuals with a mutated genotype compared to 80/273 (29.3%) with wild type genotype developed CSI (p=0.027, univariate cox regression), illustrated by a higher frequency of CSI after OLT over time (p=0.0003, log rank analysis). Multivariate analysis (including the donor lectin complement pathway profile) showed independence of this R702W NOD2 association from other risk factors (HR 2.0; p=0.04). The other NOD2 variants, G908R and 3020insC, in the recipient were not associated with CSI. There was no association with CSI after OLT for any of the NOD2 variants in the donor. Conclusion The mutated NOD2 R702W genotype in the recipient is independently associated with an increased risk of bacterial infections after liver transplantation, indicating a predisposing role for this genetic factor impairing the recipient’s innate immune system. PMID:23977330

  18. Thyroid epithelial cell hyperplasia in IFN-gamma deficient NOD.H-2h4 mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shiguang; Sharp, Gordon C; Braley-Mullen, Helen

    2006-01-01

    The role of inflammatory cells in thyroid epithelial cell (thyrocyte) hyperplasia is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that thyrocyte hyperplasia in IFN-gamma-/- NOD.H-2h4 mice has an autoimmune basis. After chronic exposure to increased dietary iodine, 60% of IFN-gamma-/- mice had severe thyrocyte hyperplasia with minimal or moderate lymphocyte infiltration, and thyroid dysfunction with reduced serum T4. All mice produced anti-thyroglobulin autoantibody. Some wild-type NOD.H-2h4 mice had isolated areas of thyrocyte hyperplasia with predominantly lymphocytic infiltration, whereas IL-4-/- and 50% of wild-type NOD.H-2h4 mice developed lymphocytic thyroiditis but no thyrocyte hyperplasia. Both thyroid infiltrating inflammatory cells and environmental factors (iodine) were required to induce thyrocyte hyperplasia. Splenocytes from IFN-gamma-/- mice with thyrocyte hyperplasia, but not splenocytes from naïve IFN-gamma-/- mice, induced hyperplasia in IFN-gamma-/- NOD.H-2h4.SCID mice. These results may provide clues for understanding the mechanisms underlying development of epithelial cell hyperplasia not only in thyroids but also in other tissues and organs.

  19. NOD2: a potential target for regulating liver injury.

    PubMed

    Body-Malapel, Mathilde; Dharancy, Sébastien; Berrebi, Dominique; Louvet, Alexandre; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Philpott, Dana J; Giovannini, Marco; Chareyre, Fabrice; Pages, Gilles; Gantier, Emilie; Girardin, Stephen E; Garcia, Irène; Hudault, Sylvie; Conti, Filoména; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Chamaillard, Mathias; Desreumaux, Pierre; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Mathurin, Philippe

    2008-03-01

    The recent discovery of bacterial receptors such as NOD2 that contribute to crosstalk between innate and adaptive immune systems in the digestive tract constitutes an important challenge in our understanding of liver injury mechanisms. The present study focuses on NOD2 functions during liver injury. NOD2, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma mRNA were quantified using real-time PCR in liver samples from patients and mice with liver injury. We evaluated the susceptibility of concanavalin A (ConA) challenge in NOD2-deficient mice (Nod2-/-) compared to wild-type littermates. We tested the effect of muramyl dipeptide (MDP), the specific activator of NOD2, on ConA-induced liver injury in C57BL/6 mice. We studied the cellular distribution and the role of NOD2 in immune cells and hepatocytes. We demonstrated that NOD2, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma were upregulated during liver injury in mice and humans. Nod2-/- mice were resistant to ConA-induced hepatitis compared to their wild-type littermates, through reduced IFN-gamma production by immune cells. Conversely, administration of MDP exacerbated ConA-induced liver injury. MDP was a strong inducer of IFN-gamma in freshly isolated human PBMC, splenocytes and hepatocytes. Our study supports the hypothesis that NOD2 contributes to liver injury via a regulatory mechanism affecting immune cells infiltrating the liver and hepatocytes. Taken together, our results indicate that NOD2 may represent a new therapeutic target in liver diseases.

  20. Genetic deletion of the bacterial sensor NOD2 improves murine Crohn’s disease-like ileitis independent of functional dysbiosis

    SciTech Connect

    Corridoni, D.; Rodriguez-Palacios, A.; Di Stefano, G.

    Although genetic polymorphisms in NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing 2) have been associated with the pathogenesis of Crohn’s disease (CD), little is known regarding the role of wild-type (WT) NOD2 in the gut. To date, most murine studies addressing the role of WT Nod2 have been conducted using healthy (ileitis/colitis-free) mouse strains. Here, we evaluated the effects of Nod2 deletion in a murine model of spontaneous ileitis, i.e., the SAMP1Yit/Fc (SAMP) strain, which closely resembles CD. Remarkably, Nod2 deletion improved both chronic cobblestone ileitis (by 50% assessed, as the % of abnormal mucosa at 24 wks of age), as well asmore » acute dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis. Mechanistically, Th2 cytokine production and Th2-transcription factor activation (i.e., STAT6 phosphorylation) were reduced. Microbiologically, the effects of Nod2 deletion appeared independent of fecal microbiota composition and function, assessed by 16S rRNA and metatranscriptomics. Our findings indicate that pharmacological blockade of NOD2 signaling in humans could improve health in Th2-driven chronic intestinal inflammation.« less

  1. Clustering of cardiovascular risk factors in a middle-income country: a call for urgency.

    PubMed

    Selvarajah, Sharmini; Haniff, Jamaiyah; Kaur, Gurpreet; Hiong, Tee Guat; Cheong, Kee Chee; Lim, Chiao Mei; Bots, Michiel L

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and its clustering. The findings are to help shape the Malaysian future healthcare planning for cardiovascular disease prevention and management. Data from a nationally representative cross-sectional survey was used. The survey was conducted via a face-to-face interview using a standardised questionnaire. A total of 37,906 eligible participants aged 18 years and older was identified, of whom 34,505 (91%) participated. Focus was on hypertension, hyperglycaemia (diabetes and impaired fasting glucose), hypercholesterolaemia and central obesity. Overall, 63% (95% confidence limits 62, 65%) of the participants had at least one cardiovascular risk factor, 33% (32, 35%) had two or more and 14% (12, 15%) had three risk factors or more. The prevalence of hypertension, hyperglycaemia, hypercholesterolaemia and central obesity were 38%, 15%, 24% and 37%, respectively. Women were more likely to have a higher number of cardiovascular risk factors for most age groups; adjusted odds ratios ranging from 1.1 (0.91, 1.32) to 1.26 (1.12, 1.43) for the presence of one risk factor and 1.07 (0.91, 1.32) to 2.00 (1.78, 2.25) for two or more risk factors. Cardiovascular risk-factor clustering provides a clear impression of the true burden of cardiovascular disease risk in the population. Women displayed higher prevalence and a younger age shift in clustering was seen. These findings signal the presence of a cardiovascular epidemic in an upcoming middle-income country and provide evidence that drastic measures have to be taken to safeguard the health of the nation.

  2. NOD-like receptor cooperativity in effector-triggered immunity.

    PubMed

    Griebel, Thomas; Maekawa, Takaki; Parker, Jane E

    2014-11-01

    Intracellular nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are basic elements of innate immunity in plants and animals. Whereas animal NLRs react to conserved microbe- or damage-associated molecular patterns, plant NLRs intercept the actions of diverse pathogen virulence factors (effectors). In this review, we discuss recent genetic and molecular evidence for functional NLR pairs, and discuss the significance of NLR self-association and heteromeric NLR assemblies in the triggering of downstream signaling pathways. We highlight the versatility and impact of cooperating NLR pairs that combine pathogen sensing with the initiation of defense signaling in both plant and animal immunity. We propose that different NLR receptor molecular configurations provide opportunities for fine-tuning resistance pathways and enhancing the host's pathogen recognition spectrum to keep pace with rapidly evolving microbial populations. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Rural Women's Perceptions About Cancer Disparities and Contributing Factors: a Call to Communication.

    PubMed

    Molina, Yamile; Zimmermann, Kristine; Carnahan, Leslie R; Paulsey, Ellen; Bigman, Cabral A; Khare, Manorama M; Zahnd, Whitney; Jenkins, Wiley D

    2017-02-27

    Rural cancer disparities are increasingly documented in the USA. Research has identified and begun to address rural residents' cancer knowledge and behaviors, especially among women. Little, however, is known about rural female residents' awareness of cancer inequities and perceived contributing factors affecting them and their families. The purpose of this study was to address these gaps in the literature via a secondary analysis of qualitative needs assessment in Illinois' rural southernmost seven counties, a geographic region with relatively high rates of cancer incidence, morbidity, and mortality. A convenience sample of 202 rural adult female residents was recruited and participated in 26 focus groups, with 3-13 women per group. Inductive content analysis, guided by the principle of constant comparison, was used to analyze the qualitative data. Most respondents indicated their awareness of disproportionate cancer burden in their communities. Individual-level behaviors and environmental toxins were identified as contributing factors. Interestingly, however, environmental toxins were more often discussed as factors contributing to geographic differences, whereas individual-level behaviors were noted as important for overall cancer prevention and control. This study provides important insight into female rural residents' perspectives and offers novel venues for educational programs and research in the context of communication to eliminate disparities.

  4. Communication failure: basic components, contributing factors, and the call for structure.

    PubMed

    Dayton, Elizabeth; Henriksen, Kerm

    2007-01-01

    Communication is a taken-for-granted human activity that is recognized as important once it has failed. Communication failures are a major contributor to adverse events in health care. The components and processes of communication converge in an intricate manner, creating opportunities for misunderstanding along the way. When a patient's safety is at risk, providers should speak up (that is, initiate a message) to draw attention to the situation before harm is caused. They should also clearly explain (encode) and understand (decode) each other's diagnosis and recommendations to ensure well coordinated delivery of care. Beyond basic dyadic communication exchanges, an intricate web of individual, group, and organizational factors--more specifically, cognitive workload, implicit assumptions, authority gradients, diffusion of responsibility, and transitions of care--complicate communication. More structured and explicitly designed forms of communication have been recommended to reduce ambiguity, enhance clarity, and send an unequivocal signal, when needed, that a different action is required. Read-backs, Situation-Background-Assessment-Recommendation, critical assertions, briefings, and debriefings are seeing increasing use in health care. CODA: Although structured forms of communication have good potential to enhance clarity, they are not fail-safe. Providers need to be sensitive to unexpected consequences regarding their use.

  5. Risk factors for computer visual syndrome (CVS) among operators of two call centers in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sa, Eduardo Costa; Ferreira Junior, Mario; Rocha, Lys Esther

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate work conditions, to estimate the prevalence and to describe risk factors associated with Computer Vision Syndrome among two call centers' operators in São Paulo (n = 476). The methods include a quantitative cross-sectional observational study and an ergonomic work analysis, using work observation, interviews and questionnaires. The case definition was the presence of one or more specific ocular symptoms answered as always, often or sometimes. The multiple logistic regression model, were created using the stepwise forward likelihood method and remained the variables with levels below 5% (p < 0.05). The operators were mainly female and young (from 15 to 24 years old). The call center was opened 24 hours and the operators weekly hours were 36 hours with break time from 21 to 35 minutes per day. The symptoms reported were eye fatigue (73.9%), "weight" in the eyes (68.2%), "burning" eyes (54.6%), tearing (43.9%) and weakening of vision (43.5%). The prevalence of Computer Vision Syndrome was 54.6%. Associations verified were: being female (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.6 to 4.1), lack of recognition at work (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.8), organization of work in call center (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.7) and high demand at work (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.3). The organization and psychosocial factors at work should be included in prevention programs of visual syndrome among call centers' operators.

  6. miR-122 targets NOD2 to decrease intestinal epithelial cell injury in Crohn’s disease

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yu; Wang, Chengxiao; Liu, Ying

    2013-08-16

    Highlights: •NOD2 is a target gene of miR-122. •miR-122 inhibits LPS-induced apoptosis by suppressing NOD2 in HT-29 cells. •miR-122 reduces the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IFN-γ). •miR-122 promotes the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10). •NF-κB signaling pathway is involved in inflammatory response induced by LPS. -- Abstract: Crohn’s disease (CD) is one of the two major types of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) thought to be caused by genetic and environmental factors. Recently, miR-122 was found to be deregulated in association with CD progression. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, the genemore » nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2/CARD15), which is strongly associated with susceptibility to CD, was identified as a functional target of miR-122. MiR-122 inhibited LPS-induced apoptosis by suppressing NOD2 in HT-29 cells. NOD2 interaction with LPS initiates signal transduction mechanisms resulting in the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and the stimulation of downstream pro-inflammatory events. The activation of NF-κB was inhibited in LPS-stimulated HT-29 cells pretreated with miR-122 precursor or NOD2 shRNA. The expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ was significantly decreased, whereas therelease of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 was increased in LPS-stimulated HT-29 cells pretreated with miR-122 precursor, NOD2 shRNA or the NF-κB inhibitor QNZ. Taken together, these results indicate that miR-122 and its target gene NOD2 may play an important role in the injury of intestinal epithelial cells induced by LPS.« less

  7. Inhibition of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice with serum from streptococcal preparation (OK-432)-injected mice.

    PubMed Central

    Seino, H; Satoh, J; Shintani, S; Takahashi, K; Zhu, X P; Masuda, T; Nobunaga, T; Saito, M; Terano, Y; Toyota, T

    1991-01-01

    We have recently reported that systemic and chronic administration of recombinant tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), as well as streptococcal preparation (OK-432), inhibits development of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in NOD mice and BB rats, models of IDDM. In this study we examined whether serum containing endogenous TNF induced by OK-432 injection could inhibit IDDM in NOD mice. Treatment twice a week from 4 weeks of age with OK-432-injected mouse serum, which contained endogenous TNF (75U), but not IL-1, IL-2 and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) activity, reduced the intensity of insulitis and significantly inhibited the cumulative incidence of diabetes by 28 weeks of age in NOD mice, as compared with the incidence in non-treated mice (P less than 0.01) and in mice treated with control serum (P less than 0.02). This inhibitory effect of the serum was diminished, although not significantly, by neutralization of serum TNF activity with anti-mouse TNF antibody. In the mice treated with the serum from OK-432-injected mice, Thy-1.2+ or CD8+ spleen cells decreased (P less than 0.01) and surface-Ig+ (S-Ig+) cells increased (P less than 0.05), whereas the proliferative response of spleen cells to concanavalin A (P less than 0.01) and lipopolysaccharide (P less than 0.05) increased. The results indicate that the inhibition by OK-432 treatment of IDDM in NOD mice was partially mediated by serum factors including endogenous TNF. PMID:1747949

  8. Caring to Care: Applying Noddings' Philosophy to Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Balmer, Dorene F; Hirsh, David A; Monie, Daphne; Weil, Henry; Richards, Boyd F

    2016-12-01

    The authors argue that Nel Noddings' philosophy, "an ethic of caring," may illuminate how students learn to be caring physicians from their experience of being in a caring, reciprocal relationship with teaching faculty. In her philosophy, Noddings acknowledges two important contextual continuities: duration and space, which the authors speculate exist within longitudinal integrated clerkships. In this Perspective, the authors highlight core features of Noddings' philosophy and explore its applicability to medical education. They apply Noddings' philosophy to a subset of data from a previously published longitudinal case study to explore its "goodness of fit" with the experience of eight students in the 2012 cohort of the Columbia-Bassett longitudinal integrated clerkship. In line with Noddings' philosophy, the authors' supplementary analysis suggests that students (1) recognized caring when they talked about "being known" by teaching faculty who "cared for" and "trusted" them; (2) responded to caring by demonstrating enthusiasm, action, and responsibility toward patients; and (3) acknowledged that duration and space facilitated caring relations with teaching faculty. The authors discuss how Noddings' philosophy provides a useful conceptual framework to apply to medical education design and to future research on caring-oriented clinical training, such as longitudinal integrated clerkships.

  9. The nodC, nodG, and glgX genes of Rhizobium tropici strain PRF 81.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Luciana Ruano; Marcelino, Francismar Corrêa; Barcellos, Fernando Gomes; Rodrigues, Elisete Pains; Megías, Manuel; Hungria, Mariangela

    2010-08-01

    Rhizobium tropici is a diazotrophic microsymbiont of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that encompasses important but still poorly studied tropical strains, and a recent significant contribution to the knowledge of the species was the publication of a genomic draft of strain PRF 81, which revealed several novel genes [Pinto et al. Funct Int Gen 9:263-270, 2009]. In this study, we investigated the transcription of nodC, nodG, and glgX genes, located in the nod operon of PRF 81 strain, by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR. All three genes showed low levels of transcription when the cells were grown until exponential growth phase in the presence of common-bean-seed exudates or of the root nod-gene inducer naringenin. However, when cells at the exponential phase of growth were incubated with seed exudates, transcription occurred after only 5 min, and nodC, nodG, and glgX were transcribed 121.97-, 14.86-, and 50.29-fold more than the control, respectively, followed by a rapid decrease in gene transcription. Much lower levels of transcription were observed in the presence of naringenin; furthermore, maximum transcription required 8 h of incubation for all three genes. In light of these results, the mechanisms of induction of the nodulation genes by flavonoids are discussed.

  10. NOD1 contributes to mouse host defense against Helicobacter pylori via induction of type I IFN and activation of the ISGF3 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Tomohiro; Asano, Naoki; Fichtner-Feigl, Stefan; Gorelick, Peter L.; Tsuji, Yoshihisa; Matsumoto, Yuko; Chiba, Tsutomu; Fuss, Ivan J.; Kitani, Atsushi; Strober, Warren

    2010-01-01

    Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) is an intracellular epithelial cell protein known to play a role in host defense at mucosal surfaces. Here we show that a ligand specific for NOD1, a peptide derived from peptidoglycan, initiates an unexpected signaling pathway in human epithelial cell lines that results in the production of type I IFN. Detailed analysis revealed the components of the signaling pathway. NOD1 binding to its ligand triggered activation of the serine-threonine kinase RICK, which was then able to bind TNF receptor–associated factor 3 (TRAF3). This in turn led to activation of TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) and IκB kinase ε (IKKε) and the subsequent activation of IFN regulatory factor 7 (IRF7). IRF7 induced IFN-β production, which led to activation of a heterotrimeric transcription factor complex known as IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) and the subsequent production of CXCL10 and additional type I IFN. In vivo studies showed that mice lacking the receptor for IFN-β or subjected to gene silencing of the ISGF3 component Stat1 exhibited decreased CXCL10 responses and increased susceptibility to Helicobacter pylori infection, phenotypes observed in NOD1-deficient mice. These studies thus establish that NOD1 can activate the ISGF3 signaling pathway that is usually associated with protection against viral infection to provide mice with robust type I IFN–mediated protection from H. pylori and possibly other mucosal infections. PMID:20389019

  11. Ubiquitin Regulates Caspase Recruitment Domain-mediated Signaling by Nucleotide-binding Oligomerization Domain-containing Proteins NOD1 and NOD2*

    PubMed Central

    Ver Heul, Aaron M.; Fowler, C. Andrew; Ramaswamy, S.; Piper, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    NOD1 and NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing proteins) are intracellular pattern recognition receptors that activate inflammation and autophagy. These pathways rely on the caspase recruitment domains (CARDs) within the receptors, which serve as protein interaction platforms that coordinately regulate immune signaling. We show that NOD1 CARD binds ubiquitin (Ub), in addition to directly binding its downstream targets receptor-interacting protein kinase 2 (RIP2) and autophagy-related protein 16-1 (ATG16L1). NMR spectroscopy and structure-guided mutagenesis identified a small hydrophobic surface of NOD1 CARD that binds Ub. In vitro, Ub competes with RIP2 for association with NOD1 CARD. In vivo, we found that the ligand-stimulated activity of NOD1 with a mutant CARD lacking Ub binding but retaining ATG16L1 and RIP2 binding is increased relative to wild-type NOD1. Likewise, point mutations in the tandem NOD2 CARDs at positions analogous to the surface residues defining the Ub interface on NOD1 resulted in loss of Ub binding and increased ligand-stimulated NOD2 signaling. These data suggest that Ub binding provides a negative feedback loop upon NOD-dependent activation of RIP2. PMID:23300079

  12. Influence of patient and provider factors on the workload of on-call physicians: A general internal medicine cohort observational study.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Nin-Chieh; Huang, Chun-Che; Jerng, Jih-Shuin; Hsu, Chia-Hao; Yang, Ming-Chin; Chang, Ray-E; Ko, Wen-Je; Yu, Chong-Jen

    2016-08-01

    Factors associated with the physician workload are scarcely reported. The study aims to investigate the associated factors of on-call physician workload based on a published conceptual framework.The study was conducted in a general internal medicine unit of National Taiwan University Hospital. On-call physician workloads were recorded on a shift basis from 1198 hospitalized patients between May 2010 and April 2011. The proxy of on-call workloads included night calls, bedside evaluation/management (E/M), and performing clinical procedures in a shift. Multivariable logistic and negative binomial regression models were used to determine the factors associated with the workloads of on-call physicians.During the study period, 378 (31.6%) of patients had night calls with related workloads. Multivariate analysis showed that the number of patients with unstable conditions in a shift (odds ratio [OR] 1.89 and 1.66, respectively) and the intensive care unit (ICU) training of the nurse leader (OR 2.87 and 3.08, respectively) resulted in higher likelihood of night calls to and bedside E/M visits by the on-call physician. However, ICU training of nurses (OR = 0.37, 95% confidence interval: 0.16-0.86) decreased the demand of performing clinical procedures by the on-call physician. Moreover, number of patients with unstable conditions (risk ratio [RR] 1.52 and 1.55, respectively) had significantly increased the number of night calls and bedside E/M by on-call physicians by around 50%. Nurses with N1 level (RR 2.16 and 2.71, respectively) were more likely to place night calls and facilitate bedside E/M by the on-call physician compared to nurses with N0 level. In addition, the nurse leaders with ICU training (RR 1.72 and 3.07, respectively) had significant increases in night calls and bedside E/M by the on-call physician compared to those without ICU training.On-call physician workload is associated with patient factors and the training of nurses. Number of unstable patients

  13. Microbial host interactions and impaired wound healing in mice and humans: defining a role for BD14 and NOD2.

    PubMed

    Williams, Helen; Campbell, Laura; Crompton, Rachel A; Singh, Gurdeep; McHugh, Brian J; Davidson, Donald J; McBain, Andrew J; Cruickshank, Sheena M; Hardman, Matthew J

    2018-04-30

    Chronic wounds cause significant patient morbidity and mortality. A key factor in their etiology is microbial infection, yet skin host-microbiota interactions during wound repair remain poorly understood. Microbiome profiles of non-infected human chronic wounds are associated with subsequent healing outcome. Furthermore, poor clinical healing outcome was associated with increased local expression of the pattern recognition receptor NOD2. To investigate NOD2 function in the context of cutaneous healing, we treated mice with the NOD2 ligand muramyl dipeptide (MDP) and analyzed wound repair parameters and expression of anti-microbial peptides. MDP treatment of littermate controls significantly delayed wound repair associated with reduced re-epithelialization, heightened inflammation and upregulation of murine β-Defensins (mBD) 1, 3 and particularly 14. We postulated that although BD14 might impact on local skin microbial communities it may further impact other healing parameters. Indeed, exogenously administered mBD14 directly delayed mouse primary keratinocyte scratch wound closure in vitro. To further explore the role of mBD14 in wound repair, we employed Defb14 -/- mice, and showed they had a global delay in healing in vivo, associated with alterations in wound microbiota. Taken together these studies suggest a key role for NOD2-mediated regulation of local skin microbiota which in turn impacts on chronic wound etiology. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Nodding syndrome (NS) and Onchocerca Volvulus (OV) in Northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Lagoro, David Kitara; Arony, Denis Anywar

    2017-01-01

    Nodding Syndrome (NS) is a childhood neurological disorder characterized by atonic seizures, cognitive decline, school dropout, muscle weakness, thermal dysfunction, wasting and stunted growth. There are recent published information suggesting associations between Nodding Syndrome (NS) with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) VGKC antibodies and serum leiomidin-1 antibody cross reacting with Onchocerca Volvulus ( OV ). These findings suggest a neuro-inflammatory cause of NS and they are important findings in the search for the cause of Nodding Syndrome. These observations perhaps provide further, the unique explanation for the association between Nodding Syndrome and Onchocerca Volvulus . Many clinical and epidemiological studies had shown a significant correlation between NS and infestation with a nematode, Onchocerca volvulus which causes a disease, Onchocerciasis , some of which when left untreated can develop visual defect ("River Blindness"). While these studies conducted in Northern Uganda and Southern Sudan indicate a statistically significant association with ( OV infection (using positive skin snips), we observe that ( OV is generally endemic in many parts of Sub Saharan Africa and Latin America and that to date, no NS cases have been recorded in those regions. This letter to the Editor is to provide additional information on the current view about the relationship between Nodding Syndrome and Onchocerca Volvulus as seen in Northern Uganda.

  15. Nodding syndrome (NS) and Onchocerca Volvulus (OV) in Northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Lagoro, David Kitara; Arony, Denis Anywar

    2017-01-01

    Nodding Syndrome (NS) is a childhood neurological disorder characterized by atonic seizures, cognitive decline, school dropout, muscle weakness, thermal dysfunction, wasting and stunted growth. There are recent published information suggesting associations between Nodding Syndrome (NS) with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) VGKC antibodies and serum leiomidin-1 antibody cross reacting with Onchocerca Volvulus (OV). These findings suggest a neuro-inflammatory cause of NS and they are important findings in the search for the cause of Nodding Syndrome. These observations perhaps provide further, the unique explanation for the association between Nodding Syndrome and Onchocerca Volvulus. Many clinical and epidemiological studies had shown a significant correlation between NS and infestation with a nematode, Onchocerca volvulus which causes a disease, Onchocerciasis, some of which when left untreated can develop visual defect ("River Blindness"). While these studies conducted in Northern Uganda and Southern Sudan indicate a statistically significant association with (OV infection (using positive skin snips), we observe that (OV is generally endemic in many parts of Sub Saharan Africa and Latin America and that to date, no NS cases have been recorded in those regions. This letter to the Editor is to provide additional information on the current view about the relationship between Nodding Syndrome and Onchocerca Volvulus as seen in Northern Uganda. PMID:29138647

  16. A study to determine the prevalence and factors associated with hypertension among employees working at a call centre Nairobi Kenya.

    PubMed

    Onyango, Mwagi Joseph; Kombe, Iyeri; Nyamongo, Daniel Sagwe; Mwangi, Moses

    2017-01-01

    Hypertension often referred to as Non Communicable Diseases (NCDs). Causes of hypertension are classified into modifiable and non-modifiable factors. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence and other associated factors leading to the onset of hypertension among employees working at the call center. This was a descriptive cross sectional study design. Data collection was done in two parts; part one comprised of clinical health assessments; weight and height to aid determine Body Mass Index and blood pressure measurement. Part two was by self-administered questionnaires to participants to aid identify behavioral risk factors and further elicit lifestyle practices. Data was collected from a sample population of 370 respondents. Descriptive statistical analysis was applied in univariate analysis. Further analysis included bivariate and multiple regression analysis; Odds Ratio with 95% confidence interval was used to determine the strength of association. The proportion of hypertension was significantly higher among overweight respondents (32.7%) (OR= 11.55; 95% CI= 4.44-30.07; P < 0.001) and obese respondents (60.2%) (OR= 36.02; 95% CI= 13.43-96.60; P < 0.001) compared to those respondents who were within normal range of weight (4.0%). Nine (9) factors that were associated with hypertension at bivariate analysis (P < 0.05) were all subjected to a multiple regression analysis or reduced model where four factors remained in the final analysis. Respondents who were classified as overweight had 10.6 times likelihood developing hypertension compared to those respondents with normal weight (AOR= 10.61; 95%CI= 3.98-28.32; P < 0.001). Likewise, obese respondents were 43.6 fold more likely to develop hypertension compared to those respondents within normal range of weight [OR=43.68; 95%CI=15.24-125.16; P<0.001]. Respondents not trying to reduce fat in their diet were highly predisposed having hypertension at (AOR=2.44; 95% CI=1.20-4.96; P= 0.014) than

  17. Orphan Kinesin NOD Lacks Motile Properties But Does Possess a Microtubule-stimulated ATPase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Matthies, Heinrich J.G.; Baskin, Ronald J.; Hawley, R. Scott

    2001-01-01

    NOD is a Drosophila chromosome-associated kinesin-like protein that does not fall into the chromokinesin subfamily. Although NOD lacks residues known to be critical for kinesin function, we show that microtubules activate the ATPase activity of NOD >2000-fold. Biochemical and genetic analysis of two genetically identified mutations of NOD (NODDTW and NOD“DR2”) demonstrates that this allosteric activation is critical for the function of NOD in vivo. However, several lines of evidence indicate that this ATPase activity is not coupled to vectorial transport, including 1) NOD does not produce microtubule gliding; and 2) the substitution of a single amino acid in the Drosophila kinesin heavy chain with the analogous amino acid in NOD results in a drastic inhibition of motility. We suggest that the microtubule-activated ATPase activity of NOD provides transient attachments of chromosomes to microtubules rather than producing vectorial transport. PMID:11739796

  18. Quantitative analysis of protein and gene expression in salivary glands of Sjogren's-like disease NOD mice treated by bone marrow soup.

    PubMed

    Misuno, Kaori; Tran, Simon D; Khalili, Saeed; Huang, Junwei; Liu, Younan; Hu, Shen

    2014-01-01

    Bone marrow cell extract (termed as BM Soup) has been demonstrated to repair irradiated salivary glands (SGs) and restore saliva secretion in our previous study. In the present study, we aim to investigate if the function of damaged SGs in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice can be restored by BM Soup treatment and the molecular alterations associated with the treatment. Whole BM cells were lysed and soluble intracellular contents ("BM Soup") were injected I.V. into NOD mice. Tandem mass tagging with 2-D liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to quantify proteins in the submandibular glands (SMGs) between untreated and BM Soup-treated mice. Quantitative PCR was used to identify genes with altered expression in the treated mice. restored salivary flow rates to normal levels and significantly reduced the focus scores of SMGs in NOD mice. More than 1800 proteins in SMG cells were quantified by the proteomic approach. Many SMG proteins involved in inflammation and apoptosis were found to be down-regulated whereas those involved in salivary gland biology and development/regeneration were up-regulated in the BM Soup-treated mice. qPCR analysis also revealed expression changes of growth factors and cytokines in the SMGs of the treated NOD mice. BM Soup treatment is effective to restore the function of damaged SGs in NOD mice. Through gene/protein expression analysis, we have found that BM Soup treatment might effectuate via inhibiting apoptosis, focal adhesion and inflammation whereas promoting development, regeneration and differentiation of the SG cells in NOD mice. These findings provide important insights on the potential mechanisms underlying the BM Soup treatment for functional restoration of damaged SGs in NOD mice. Additional studies are needed to further confirm the identified target genes and their related signaling pathways that are responsible for the BM Soup treatment.

  19. Quantitative Analysis of Protein and Gene Expression in Salivary Glands of Sjogren’s-Like Disease NOD Mice Treated by Bone Marrow Soup

    PubMed Central

    Misuno, Kaori; Khalili, Saeed; Huang, Junwei; Liu, Younan

    2014-01-01

    Background Bone marrow cell extract (termed as BM Soup) has been demonstrated to repair irradiated salivary glands (SGs) and restore saliva secretion in our previous study. In the present study, we aim to investigate if the function of damaged SGs in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice can be restored by BM Soup treatment and the molecular alterations associated with the treatment. Methods Whole BM cells were lysed and soluble intracellular contents (“BM Soup”) were injected I.V. into NOD mice. Tandem mass tagging with 2-D liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to quantify proteins in the submandibular glands (SMGs) between untreated and BM Soup-treated mice. Quantitative PCR was used to identify genes with altered expression in the treated mice. Results BM Soup restored salivary flow rates to normal levels and significantly reduced the focus scores of SMGs in NOD mice. More than 1800 proteins in SMG cells were quantified by the proteomic approach. Many SMG proteins involved in inflammation and apoptosis were found to be down-regulated whereas those involved in salivary gland biology and development/regeneration were up-regulated in the BM Soup-treated mice. qPCR analysis also revealed expression changes of growth factors and cytokines in the SMGs of the treated NOD mice. Conclusion BM Soup treatment is effective to restore the function of damaged SGs in NOD mice. Through gene/protein expression analysis, we have found that BM Soup treatment might effectuate via inhibiting apoptosis, focal adhesion and inflammation whereas promoting development, regeneration and differentiation of the SG cells in NOD mice. These findings provide important insights on the potential mechanisms underlying the BM Soup treatment for functional restoration of damaged SGs in NOD mice. Additional studies are needed to further confirm the identified target genes and their related signaling pathways that are responsible for the BM Soup treatment. PMID:24489858

  20. Circulatory and Renal Consequences of Pregnancy in Diabetic NOD Mice

    PubMed Central

    Burke, S.D.; Barrette, V.F.; David, S.; Khankin, E. V.; Adams, M.A.; Croy, B.A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Women with diabetes have elevated gestational risks for severe hemodynamic complications, including preeclampsia in mid- to late pregnancy. This study employed continuous, chronic radiotelemetry to compare the hemodynamic patterns in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice who were overtly diabetic or normoglycemic throughout gestation. We hypothesized that overtly diabetic, pregnant NOD mice would develop gestational hypertension and provide understanding of mechanisms in progression of this pathology. Study Design Telemeter-implanted, age-matched NOD females with and without diabetes were assessed for six hemodynamic parameters (mean, systolic, diastolic, pulse pressures, heart rate and activity) prior to mating, over pregnancy and over a 72 hr post-partum interval. Urinalysis, serum biochemistry and renal histopathology were also conducted. Results Pregnant, normoglycemic NOD mice had a hemodynamic profile similar to other inbred strains, despite insulitis. This pattern was characterized by an interval of pre-implantation stability, post implantation decline in arterial pressure to mid gestation, and then a rebound to pre-pregnancy baseline during later gestation. Overtly diabetic NOD mice had a blood pressure profile that was normal until mid-gestation then become mildly hypotensive (−7mmHg, P<0.05), severely bradycardic (−80bpm, P<0.01) and showed signs of acute kidney injury. Pups born to diabetic dams were viable but growth restricted, despite their mothers’ failing health, which did not rebound post-partum (−10% pre-pregnancy pressure and HR, P<0.05). Conclusions Pregnancy accelerates circulatory and renal pathologies in overtly diabetic NOD mice and is characterized by depressed arterial pressure from mid-gestation and birth of growth 45 restricted offspring. PMID:22014504

  1. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of duck nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1).

    PubMed

    Li, Huilin; Jin, Hui; Li, Yaqian; Liu, Dejian; Foda, Mohamed Frahat; Jiang, Yunbo; Luo, Rui

    2017-09-01

    Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) is an imperative cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and considered as a key member of the NOD-like receptor (NLR) family which plays a critical role in innate immunity through sensing microbial components derived from bacterial peptidoglycan. In the current study, the full-length of duck NOD1 (duNOD1) cDNA from duck embryo fibroblasts (DEFs) was cloned. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that duNOD1 exhibited a strong evolutionary relationship with chicken and rock pigeon NOD1. Tissue-specific expression analysis showed that duNOD1 was widely distributed in various organs, with the highest expression observed in the liver. Furthermore, duNOD1 overexpression induced NF-κB activation in DEFs and the CARD domain is crucial for duNOD1-mediated NF-κB activation. In addition, silencing the duNOD1 decreased the activity of NF-κB in DEFs stimulated by iE-DAP. Overexpression of duNOD1 significantly increased the expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and RANTES in DEFs. These findings highlight the crucial role of duNOD1 as an intracellular sensor in duck innate immune system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. [Calls due to suicidal behaviour made to the prehospital, emergency department in Málaga: characteristics and associated factors].

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Hernández, M; Castro-Zamudio, S; Guzmán Parra, J; Martínez-García, A I; Guillén-Benítez, C; Moreno-Küstner, B

    2017-12-29

    Suicidal behaviour (fatal and non-fatal) has become a serious public health problem in many countries. The aim of the study was to describe the differential characteristics of emergency calls due to suicidal behaviour made to the Emergency Coordinating Centre (CCUE) in the province of Málaga, in comparison with calls due to physical or psychiatric problems. Retrospective observational study of the calls recorded in the database of the Public Company for Emergency Health during one year. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out including age, gender and the following variables related with the demand: hours of the day, type of day (working days or bank holidays), months of the year and trimesters, number of resources mobilized and types of resolution. The analyses were carried out on 163,331 calls, of which 1,380 calls were due to suicidal behaviour (0.8%), 9,951 for psychiatric reasons (6.1%) and 152,000 for physical reasons (93%). The emergency calls for suicidal behaviour were mainly made by females, between 31-60 years, in the evening and at night, and required transfer to hospital and more than one mobilized resource. Calls due to completed suicide were more frequently made by older men. Calls due to suicidal tendencies predominated over those due to attempted or threatened suicide during the first trimester of the year, while the opposite was the case during the third trimester. The results indicated differential characteristics of suicide calls that are potentially relevant for prevention in spite of the limitations of the present study.

  3. TLR4, NOD1 and NOD2 Mediate Immune Recognition of Putative Newly-Identified Periodontal Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Schaff, Riley A.; Hao, Jie; Morelli, Thiago; Kinney, Janet S.; Gerow, Elizabeth; Sheridan, Rachel; Rodrigues, Vinicius; Paster, Bruce J.; Inohara, Naohiro; Giannobile, William V.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Periodontitis is a polymicrobial inflammatory disease that results from the interaction between the oral microbiota and the host immunity. While the innate immune response is important for disease initiation and progression, the innate immune receptors that recognize both classical and putative periodontal pathogens that elicit an immune response have not been elucidated. By using the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM), we identified multiple predominant oral bacterial species in human plaque biofilm that strongly associate with severe periodontitis. Ten of the identified species were evaluated in greater depth, 6 being classical pathogens and 4 putative novel pathogens. Using human peripheral blood monocytes (HPBM) and murine bone marrow–derived macrophages (BMDM) from wild-type (WT) and toll-like receptor (TLR)-specific and MyD88 knockouts (KOs), we demonstrated that heat-killed Campylobacter concisus, Campylobacter rectus, Selenomonas infelix, Porphyromonas endodontalis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Tannerella forsythia mediate high immunostimulatory activity. C. concisus, C. rectus, and S. infelix exhibited robust TLR4 stimulatory activity. Studies using mesothelial cells from WT and NOD1-specific KOs and NOD2-expressing human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells demonstrated that Eubacterium saphenum, Eubacterium nodatum and Filifactor alocis exhibit robust NOD1 stimulatory activity, and that Porphyromonas endodontalis and Parvimonas micra have the highest NOD2-stimulatory activity. These studies allowed us to provide important evidence on newly-identified putative pathogens in periodontal disease pathogenesis showing that these bacteria exhibit different immunostimulatory activity via TLR4, NOD1, and NOD2 (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01154855). PMID:26177212

  4. Conference calls.

    PubMed

    2002-07-01

    Last minute places were still available as Emergency Nurse went to press at an RCN A&E Nursing Association symposium on July 2 to examine the impact of the Department of Health's Reforming Emergency Care strategy. For details of the event, to be held at Cheadle, Cheshire, call Grant Williams on 07771 740243.

  5. The Absence of NOD1 Enhances Killing of Aspergillus fumigatus Through Modulation of Dectin-1 Expression.

    PubMed

    Gresnigt, Mark S; Jaeger, Martin; Subbarao Malireddi, R K; Rasid, Orhan; Jouvion, Grégory; Fitting, Catherine; Melchers, Willem J G; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi; Carvalho, Agostinho; Ibrahim-Granet, Oumaima; van de Veerdonk, Frank L

    2017-01-01

    One of the major life-threatening infections for which severely immunocompromised patients are at risk is invasive aspergillosis (IA). Despite the current treatment options, the increasing antifungal resistance and poor outcome highlight the need for novel therapeutic strategies to improve outcome of patients with IA. In the current study, we investigated whether and how the intracellular pattern recognition receptor NOD1 is involved in host defense against Aspergillus fumigatus . When exploring the role of NOD1 in an experimental mouse model, we found that Nod1 -/- mice were protected against IA and demonstrated reduced fungal outgrowth in the lungs. We found that macrophages derived from bone marrow of Nod1 -/- mice were more efficiently inducing reactive oxygen species and cytokines in response to Aspergillus . Most strikingly, these cells were highly potent in killing A. fumigatus compared with wild-type cells. In line, human macrophages in which NOD1 was silenced demonstrated augmented Aspergillus killing and NOD1 stimulation decreased fungal killing. The differentially altered killing capacity of NOD1 silencing versus NOD1 activation was associated with alterations in dectin-1 expression, with activation of NOD1 reducing dectin-1 expression. Furthermore, we were able to demonstrate that Nod1 -/- mice have elevated dectin-1 expression in the lung and bone marrow, and silencing of NOD1 gene expression in human macrophages increases dectin-1 expression. The enhanced dectin-1 expression may be the mechanism of enhanced fungal killing of Nod1 -/- cells and human cells in which NOD1 was silenced, since blockade of dectin-1 reversed the augmented killing in these cells. Collectively, our data demonstrate that NOD1 receptor plays an inhibitory role in the host defense against Aspergillus . This provides a rationale to develop novel immunotherapeutic strategies for treatment of aspergillosis that target the NOD1 receptor, to enhance the efficiency of host immune cells

  6. The linguistic and interactional factors impacting recognition and dispatch in emergency calls for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a mixed-method linguistic analysis study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Riou, Marine; Ball, Stephen; Williams, Teresa A; Whiteside, Austin; O’Halloran, Kay L; Bray, Janet; Perkins, Gavin D; Cameron, Peter; Fatovich, Daniel M; Inoue, Madoka; Bailey, Paul; Brink, Deon; Smith, Karen; Della, Phillip; Finn, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Emergency telephone calls placed by bystanders are crucial to the recognition of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), fast ambulance dispatch and initiation of early basic life support. Clear and efficient communication between caller and call-taker is essential to this time-critical emergency, yet few studies have investigated the impact that linguistic factors may have on the nature of the interaction and the resulting trajectory of the call. This research aims to provide a better understanding of communication factors impacting on the accuracy and timeliness of ambulance dispatch. Methods and analysis A dataset of OHCA calls and their corresponding metadata will be analysed from an interdisciplinary perspective, combining linguistic analysis and health services research. The calls will be transcribed and coded for linguistic and interactional variables and then used to answer a series of research questions about the recognition of OHCA and the delivery of basic life-support instructions to bystanders. Linguistic analysis of calls will provide a deeper understanding of the interactional dynamics between caller and call-taker which may affect recognition and dispatch for OHCA. Findings from this research will translate into recommendations for modifications of the protocols for ambulance dispatch and provide directions for further research. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee (HR128/2013) and the St John Ambulance Western Australia Research Advisory Group. Findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and communicated to key audiences, including ambulance dispatch professionals. PMID:28694349

  7. Noddings's caring ethics theory applied in a paediatric setting.

    PubMed

    Lundqvist, Anita; Nilstun, Tore

    2009-04-01

    Since the 1990s, numerous studies on the relationship between parents and their children have been reported on in the literature and implemented as a philosophy of care in most paediatric units. The purpose of this article is to understand the process of nurses' care for children in a paediatric setting by using Noddings's caring ethics theory. Noddings's theory is in part described from a theoretical perspective outlining the basic idea of the theory followed by a critique of her work. Important conceptions in her theory are natural caring (reception, relation, engrossment, motivational displacement, reciprocity) and ethical caring (physical self, ethical self, and ethical ideal). As a nurse one holds a duty of care to patients and, in exercising this duty, the nurse must be able to develop a relationship with the patient including giving the patient total authenticity in a 'feeling with' the patient. Noddings's theory is analysed and described in three examples from the paediatrics. In the first example, the nurse cared for the patient in natural caring while in the second situation, the nurse strived for the ethical caring of the patient. In the third example, the nurse rejected the impulse to care and deliberately turned her back to ethics and abandoned her ethical caring. According to the Noddings's theory, caring for the patient enables the nurse to obtain ethical insights from the specific type of nursing care which forms an important contribution to an overall increase of an ethical consciousness in the nurse.

  8. Muramyl peptides activate innate immunity conjointly via YB1 and NOD2.

    PubMed

    Laman, Alexander G; Lathe, Richard; Shepelyakovskaya, Anna O; Gartseva, Alexandra; Brovko, Feodor A; Guryanova, Svetlana; Alekseeva, Ludmila; Meshcheryakova, Elena A; Ivanov, Vadim T

    2016-11-01

    Bacterial cell wall muramyl dipeptide (MDP) and glucosaminyl-MDP (GMDP) are potent activators of innate immunity. Two receptor targets, NOD2 and YB1, have been reported; we investigated potential overlap of NOD2 and YB1 pathways. Separate knockdown of NOD2 and YB1 demonstrates that both contribute to GMDP induction of NF-κB expression, a marker of innate immunity, although excess YB1 led to induction in the absence of NOD2. YB1 and NOD2 co-migrated on sucrose gradient centrifugation, and GMDP addition led to the formation of higher molecular mass complexes containing both YB1 and NOD2. Co-immunoprecipitation demonstrated a direct interaction between YB1 and NOD2, a major recombinant fragment of NOD2 (NACHT-LRR) bound to YB1, and complex formation was stimulated by GMDP. We also report subcellular colocalization of NOD2 and YB1. Although YB1 may have other binding partners in addition to NOD2, maximal innate immunity activation by muramyl peptides is mediated via an interaction between YB1 and NOD2.

  9. Understanding the molecular differential recognition of muramyl peptide ligands by LRR domains of human NOD receptors.

    PubMed

    Vijayrajratnam, Sukhithasri; Pushkaran, Anju Choorakottayil; Balakrishnan, Aathira; Vasudevan, Anil Kumar; Biswas, Raja; Mohan, Chethampadi Gopi

    2017-07-27

    Human nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain proteins, hNOD1 and hNOD2, are host intracellular receptors with C-terminal leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains, which recognize specific bacterial peptidoglycan (PG) fragments as their ligands. The specificity of this recognition is dependent on the third amino acid of the stem peptide of the PG ligand, which is usually meso -diaminopimelic acid ( meso DAP) or l-lysine (l-Lys). Since the LRR domains of hNOD receptors had been experimentally shown to confer the PG ligand-sensing specificity, we developed three-dimensional structures of hNOD1-LRR and the hNOD2-LRR to understand the mechanism of differential recognition of muramyl peptide ligands by hNOD receptors. The hNOD1-LRR and hNOD2-LRR receptor models exhibited right-handed curved solenoid shape. The hot-spot residues experimentally proved to be critical for ligand recognition were located in the concavity of the NOD-LRR and formed the recognition site. Our molecular docking analyses and molecular electrostatic potential mapping studies explain the activation of hNOD-LRRs, in response to effective molecular interactions of PG ligands at the recognition site; and conversely, the inability of certain PG ligands to activate hNOD-LRRs, by deviations from the recognition site. Based on molecular docking studies using PG ligands, we propose few residues - G825, D826 and N850 in hNOD1-LRR and L904, G905, W931, L932 and S933 in hNOD2-LRR, evolutionarily conserved across different host species, which may play a major role in ligand recognition. Thus, our integrated experimental and computational approach elucidates the molecular basis underlying the differential recognition of PG ligands by hNOD receptors. © 2017 The Author(s); published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  10. Homology modeling and in silico prediction of Ulcerative colitis associated polymorphisms of NOD1.

    PubMed

    Majumdar, Ishani; Nagpal, Isha; Paul, Jaishree

    2017-10-01

    Cytosolic pattern recognition receptors play key roles in innate immune response. Nucleotide binding and oligomerisation domain containing protein 1 (NOD1) belonging to the Nod-like receptor C (NLRC) sub-family of Nod-like receptors (NLRs) is important for detection and clearance of intra-cellular Gram negative bacteria. NOD1 is involved in activation of pro-inflammatory pathways. Limited structural data is available for NOD1. Using different templates for each domain of NOD1, we determined the full-length homology model of NOD1. ADP binding amino acids within the nucleotide binding domain (NBD) of NOD1 were also predicted. Key residues in inter-domain interaction were identified by sequence comparison with Oryctolagus cuniculus NOD2, a related protein. Interactions between NBD and winged helix domain (WHD) were found to be conserved in NOD1. Functional and structural effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms within the NOD1 NBD domain associated with susceptibility risk to Ulcerative colitis (UC), an inflammatory disorder of the colon was evaluated by in silico studies. Mutations W219R and L349P were predicted to be damaging and disease associated by prediction programs SIFT, PolyPhen2, PANTHER, SNP&GO, PhD SNP and SNAP2. We further validated the effect of W219R and L349P mutation on NOD1 function in vitro. Elevated mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL8 and IL-1β was seen as compared to the wild type NOD1 in intestinal epithelial cell line HT29 when stimulated with NOD1 ligand. Thus, these mutations may indeed have a bearing on pathogenesis of inflammation during UC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Exposure to bisphenol A, but not phthalates, increases spontaneous diabetes type 1 development in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Bodin, Johanna; Kocbach Bølling, Anette; Wendt, Anna; Eliasson, Lena; Becher, Rune; Kuper, Frieke; Løvik, Martinus; Nygaard, Unni Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune destruction of insulin producing pancreatic beta-cells due to a genetic predisposition and can be triggered by environmental factors. We have previously shown that bisphenol A (BPA) accelerates the spontaneous development of diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Here, we hypothesized that oral exposure to a mixture of the endocrine disruptors BPA and phthalates, relevant for human exposure, would accelerate diabetes development compared to BPA alone. NOD mice were exposed to BPA (1 mg/l), a mixture of phthalates (DEHP 1 mg/l, DBP 0.2 mg/l, BBP 10 mg/l and DiBP 20 mg/l) or a combination of BPA and the phthalate mixture through drinking water from conception and throughout life. Previous observations that BPA exposure increased the prevalence of diabetes and insulitis and decreased the number of tissue resident macrophages in pancreas were confirmed, and extended by demonstrating that BPA exposure also impaired the phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages. None of these effects were observed after phthalate exposure alone. The phthalate exposure in combination with BPA seemed to dampen the BPA effects on macrophage number and function as well as diabetes development, but not insulitis development. Exposure to BPA alone or in combination with phthalates decreased cytokine release (TNFα, IL-6, IL-10, IFNγ, IL-4) from in vitro stimulated splenocytes and lymph node cells, indicating systemic changes in immune function. In conclusion, exposure to BPA, but not to phthalates or mixed exposure to BPA and phthalates, accelerated diabetes development in NOD mice, apparently in part via systemic immune alterations including decreased macrophage function.

  12. Treatment with Cordyceps sinensis enriches Treg population in peripheral lymph nodes and delays type I diabetes development in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei-Fen; Zhu, Qing-Hua; He, Yu-Gong

    2013-09-01

    Cordyceps sinensis is a widely used Chinese traditional herb with a long history. In China C. sinensis is usually applied in the treatment of respiratory diseases, however, the efficacy of C. sinensis still lacks experimental evidence. Type I diabetes is a multi-factor related autoimmune disease caused by cellular-mediated destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells in the islets in human. We tested C. sinensis for its ability to work as an immune modulator in NOD mice, an animal model which mimicks the progression of type I diabetes in humans and found that treatment with C. sinensis extract could slow down disease development in NOD mice. Further research also suggested that treatment with C. sinensis extract increased the frequency of Treg cells and IFN-gama producing Th1 cells in peripheral lymph nodes. However, C. sinensis has no effect on the natural Treg cell differentiation in thymus.

  13. Gluten-free but also gluten-enriched (gluten+) diet prevent diabetes in NOD mice; the gluten enigma in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Funda, David P; Kaas, Anne; Tlaskalová-Hogenová, Helena; Buschard, Karsten

    2008-01-01

    Environmental factors such as nutrition or exposure to infections play a substantial role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). We have previously shown that gluten-free, non-purified diet largely prevented diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. In this study we tested hypothesis that early introduction of gluten-enriched (gluten+) diet may increase diabetes incidence in NOD mice. Standard, gluten-free, gluten+ modified Altromin diets and hydrolysed-casein-based Pregestimil diet were fed to NOD females and diabetes incidence was followed for 310 days. Insulitis score and numbers of gut mucosal lymphocytes were determined in non-diabetic animals. A significantly lower diabetes incidence (p < 0.0001) was observed in NOD mice fed gluten-free diet (5.9%, n = 34) and Pregestimil diet (10%, n = 30) compared to mice on the standard Altromin diet (60.6%, n = 33). Surprisingly, gluten+ diet also prevented diabetes incidence, even at the level found with the gluten-free diet (p < 0.0001, 5.9%, n = 34). The minority of mice, which developed diabetes on all the three diabetes-protective (gluten+, gluten-free, Pregestimil) diets, did that slightly later compared to those on the standard diet. Lower insulitis score compared to control mice was found in non-diabetic NOD mice on the gluten-free, and to a lesser extent also gluten+ and Pregestimil diets. No substantial differences in the number of CD3(+), TCR-gammadelta(+), and IgA(+) cells in the small intestine were documented. Gluten+ diet prevents diabetes in NOD mice at the level found with the non-purified gluten-free diet. Possible mechanisms of the enigmatic, dual effect of dietary gluten on the development of T1D are discussed. 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd

  14. The Gene Expression Profile of CD11c+CD8α− Dendritic Cells in the Pre-Diabetic Pancreas of the NOD Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Beumer, Wouter; Welzen-Coppens, Jojanneke M. C.; van Helden-Meeuwsen, Cornelia G.; Gibney, Sinead M.; Drexhage, Hemmo A.; Versnel, Marjan A.

    2014-01-01

    Two major dendritic cell (DC) subsets have been described in the pancreas of mice: The CD11c+CD8α− DCs (strong CD4+ T cell proliferation inducers) and the CD8α+CD103+ DCs (T cell apoptosis inducers). Here we analyzed the larger subset of CD11c+CD8α− DCs isolated from the pancreas of pre-diabetic NOD mice for genome-wide gene expression (validated by Q-PCR) to elucidate abnormalities in underlying gene expression networks. CD11c+CD8α− DCs were isolated from 5 week old NOD and control C57BL/6 pancreas. The steady state pancreatic NOD CD11c+CD8α− DCs showed a reduced expression of several gene networks important for the prime functions of these cells, i.e. for cell renewal, immune tolerance induction, migration and for the provision of growth factors including those for beta cell regeneration. A functional in vivo BrdU incorporation test showed the reduced proliferation of steady state pancreatic DC. The reduced expression of tolerance induction genes (CD200R, CCR5 and CD24) was supported on the protein level by flow cytometry. Also previously published functional tests on maturation, immune stimulation and migration confirm the molecular deficits of NOD steady state DC. Despite these deficiencies NOD pancreas CD11c+CD8α− DCs showed a hyperreactivity to LPS, which resulted in an enhanced pro-inflammatory state characterized by a gene profile of an enhanced expression of a number of classical inflammatory cytokines. The enhanced up-regulation of inflammatory genes was supported by the in vitro cytokine production profile of the DCs. In conclusion, our data show that NOD pancreatic CD11c+CD8α− DCs show various deficiencies in steady state, while hyperreactive when encountering a danger signal such as LPS. PMID:25166904

  15. The linguistic and interactional factors impacting recognition and dispatch in emergency calls for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a mixed-method linguistic analysis study protocol.

    PubMed

    Riou, Marine; Ball, Stephen; Williams, Teresa A; Whiteside, Austin; O'Halloran, Kay L; Bray, Janet; Perkins, Gavin D; Cameron, Peter; Fatovich, Daniel M; Inoue, Madoka; Bailey, Paul; Brink, Deon; Smith, Karen; Della, Phillip; Finn, Judith

    2017-07-09

    Emergency telephone calls placed by bystanders are crucial to the recognition of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), fast ambulance dispatch and initiation of early basic life support. Clear and efficient communication between caller and call-taker is essential to this time-critical emergency, yet few studies have investigated the impact that linguistic factors may have on the nature of the interaction and the resulting trajectory of the call. This research aims to provide a better understanding of communication factors impacting on the accuracy and timeliness of ambulance dispatch. A dataset of OHCA calls and their corresponding metadata will be analysed from an interdisciplinary perspective, combining linguistic analysis and health services research. The calls will be transcribed and coded for linguistic and interactional variables and then used to answer a series of research questions about the recognition of OHCA and the delivery of basic life-support instructions to bystanders. Linguistic analysis of calls will provide a deeper understanding of the interactional dynamics between caller and call-taker which may affect recognition and dispatch for OHCA. Findings from this research will translate into recommendations for modifications of the protocols for ambulance dispatch and provide directions for further research. The study has been approved by the Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee (HR128/2013) and the St John Ambulance Western Australia Research Advisory Group. Findings will be published in peer-reviewed journals and communicated to key audiences, including ambulance dispatch professionals. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Prognostic significance of NOD2/CARD15 variants in HLA-identical sibling hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: effect on long-term outcome is confirmed in 2 independent cohorts and may be modulated by the type of gastrointestinal decontamination.

    PubMed

    Holler, Ernst; Rogler, Gerhard; Brenmoehl, Julia; Hahn, Joachim; Herfarth, Hans; Greinix, Hildegard; Dickinson, Anne M; Socié, Gerard; Wolff, Daniel; Fischer, Gottfried; Jackson, Graham; Rocha, Vanderson; Steiner, Beate; Eissner, Guenther; Marienhagen, Jeorg; Schoelmerich, Juergen; Andreesen, Reinhard

    2006-05-15

    To assess the role of NOD2/CARD15 variants on the long-term outcome of allogeneic stem cell transplantation in a genetically homogeneous group, we extended our previous study (cohort I, n = 78) and typed DNA for NOD2/CARD15 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from an additional 225 recipients and their HLA-identical sibling donors (cohort II) treated at four other European centers. Results of genotyping were compared with clinical outcome. The strong association of NOD2/CARD15 variants with transplantation-related mortality (TRM) was confirmed in univariate and multivariate analysis; TRM increased from 20% in cohort I/22% in cohort II in recipient/donor pairs without any NOD2/CARD15 variants to 47% in cohort I/32% in cohort II in the presence of one variant in either donor or recipient and further to 57% in cohort I/74% in cohort II in the presence of 2 or more variants (P < .002 in both cohorts). NOD2/CARD15 SNPs were not associated with relapse rate but had a strong impact on overall survival. In an analysis of center effects, the type of gastrointestinal decontamination was the only factor interfering with the prognostic significance of NOD2/CARD15 SNPs. Our data further support an interaction between gastrointestinal defense mechanisms, activation of the innate immune system, and specific transplant-related complications.

  17. CD28 co-stimulation restores T cell responsiveness in NOD mice by overcoming deficiencies in Rac-1/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and IL-2 and IL-4 gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Salojin, K V; Delovitch, T L

    2001-03-01

    Previously, we reported that T cell hyporesponsiveness induced by TCR ligation is causal to autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. Neonatal CD28 co-stimulation reverses T cell hyporesponsiveness and protects NOD mice from diabetes by an IL-4-mediated mechanism, indicating that a deficiency in TCR signaling may be overcome by CD28/B7-2 co-stimulation in NOD T cells. To investigate which co-stimulation-induced signaling events mediate this protection, we analyzed the activity of Ras, Rac-1, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and several transcription factors in TCR-activated NOD T cells in the presence or absence of CD28 co-stimulation. We show that CD28 co-stimulation restores normal TCR-induced activation of Rac-1 and p38 MAPK in NOD T cells. Deficiencies in TCR-induced nuclear expression of activating protein (AP)-1 binding proteins as well as activation of AP-1 and NF-AT in the IL-2 and IL-4 P1 promoters are also corrected by CD28 co-stimulation. Thus, CD28 co-stimulation reverses NOD T cell hyporesponsiveness by restoring TCR signaling leading to the activation of AP-1 and NF-AT during IL-2 and IL-4 gene transcription. Our findings provide additional evidence that CD28 co-stimulation amplifies signals delivered by the TCR and further explain the mechanism by which CD28 co-stimulation may protect against autoimmune diabetes.

  18. Effect of Sulforaphane on NOD2 via NF-κB: implications for Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Folkard, Danielle L; Marlow, Gareth; Mithen, Richard F; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2015-01-01

    Sulforaphane has well established anti-cancer properties and more recently anti-inflammatory properties have also been determined. Sulforaphane has been shown to inhibit PRR-mediated pro-inflammatory signalling by either directly targeting the receptor or their downstream signalling molecules such as the transcription factor, NF-κB. These results raise the possibility that PRR-mediated inflammation could be suppressed by specific dietary bioactives. We examined whether sulforaphane could suppress NF-κB via the NOD2 pathway. Human embryonic kidney 293T (HEK293T) cells were stably transfected with NOD2 variants and the NF-κB reporter, pNifty2-SEAP. The cells were co-treated with sulforaphane and MDP and secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) production was determined. We found that sulforaphane was able to significantly suppress the ligand-induced NF-κB activity at physiologically relevant concentrations, achievable via the consumption of broccoli within the diet. These results demonstrate that the anti-inflammatory role of sulforaphane is not restricted to LPS-induced inflammatory signalling. These data add to the growing evidence that PRR activation can be inhibited by specific phytochemicals and thus suggests that diet could be a way of controlling inflammation. This is particularly important for a disease like Crohn's disease where diet can play a key role in relieving or exacerbating symptoms.

  19. NOD2, an Intracellular Innate Immune Sensor Involved in Host Defense and Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Strober, Warren; Watanabe, Tomohiro

    2013-01-01

    Nucleotide binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) is an intracellular sensor for small peptides derived from the bacterial cell wall component, peptidoglycan. Recent studies have uncovered unexpected functions of NOD2 in innate immune responses such as induction of type I IFN and facilitation of autophagy; moreover, they have disclosed extensive cross-talk between NOD2 and Toll-like receptors which plays an indispensable role both in host defense against microbial infection and in the development of autoimmunity. Of particular interest, polymorphisms of CARD15 encoding NOD2 are associated with Crohn's disease and other autoimmune states such as graft versus host disease. In this review, we summarize recent findings regarding normal functions of NOD2 and discuss the mechanisms by which NOD2 polymorphisms associated with Crohn's disease lead to intestinal inflammation. PMID:21750585

  20. Consumption of Acidic Water Alters the Gut Microbiome and Decreases the Risk of Diabetes in NOD Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Kyle J.; Daft, Joseph G.; Tanner, Scott M.; Hartmann, Riley; Khafipour, Ehsan

    2014-01-01

    Infant formula and breastfeeding are environmental factors that influence the incidence of Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) as well as the acidity of newborn diets. To determine if altering the intestinal microbiome is one mechanism through which an acidic liquid plays a role in T1D, we placed non-obese diabetic (NOD)/ShiLtJt mice on neutral (N) or acidified H2O and monitored the impact on microbial composition and diabetes incidence. NOD-N mice showed an increased development of diabetes, while exhibiting a decrease in Firmicutes and an increase in Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria from as early as 2 weeks of age. NOD-N mice had a decrease in the levels of Foxp3 expression in CD4+Foxp3+ cells, as well as decreased CD4+IL17+ cells, and a lower ratio of IL17/IFNγ CD4+ T-cells. Our data clearly indicates that a change in the acidity of liquids consumed dramatically alters the intestinal microbiome, the presence of protective Th17 and Treg cells, and the incidence of diabetes. This data suggests that early dietary manipulation of intestinal microbiota may be a novel mechanism to delay T1D onset in genetically pre-disposed individuals. PMID:24453191

  1. Consumption of acidic water alters the gut microbiome and decreases the risk of diabetes in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Kyle J; Daft, Joseph G; Tanner, Scott M; Hartmann, Riley; Khafipour, Ehsan; Lorenz, Robin G

    2014-04-01

    Infant formula and breastfeeding are environmental factors that influence the incidence of Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) as well as the acidity of newborn diets. To determine if altering the intestinal microbiome is one mechanism through which an acidic liquid plays a role in T1D, we placed non-obese diabetic (NOD)/ShiLtJt mice on neutral (N) or acidified H2O and monitored the impact on microbial composition and diabetes incidence. NOD-N mice showed an increased development of diabetes, while exhibiting a decrease in Firmicutes and an increase in Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria from as early as 2 weeks of age. NOD-N mice had a decrease in the levels of Foxp3 expression in CD4(+)Foxp3(+) cells, as well as decreased CD4(+)IL17(+) cells, and a lower ratio of IL17/IFNγ CD4+ T-cells. Our data clearly indicates that a change in the acidity of liquids consumed dramatically alters the intestinal microbiome, the presence of protective Th17 and Treg cells, and the incidence of diabetes. This data suggests that early dietary manipulation of intestinal microbiota may be a novel mechanism to delay T1D onset in genetically pre-disposed individuals.

  2. ADHD, Lifestyles and Comorbidities: A Call for an Holistic Perspective – from Medical to Societal Intervening Factors

    PubMed Central

    Weissenberger, Simon; Ptacek, Radek; Klicperova-Baker, Martina; Erman, Andreja; Schonova, Katerina; Raboch, Jiri; Goetz, Michal

    2017-01-01

    The review examines Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD in its Child and Adult form) and its various presentations (Hyperactive Impulsive, Inattentive, and Combined) with a particular focus on environmental (incl. social factors), lifestyles and comorbidities. It is argued that ADHD is best understood in a holistic and interactive context and a vast empirical literature is presented to illustrate the point: Environmental factors include stress in general as well as exposure to toxins (phthalates, bisphenol A). Social factors are illustrated by effects of social deprivation and seduction to unhealthy lifestyles. Maternal lifestyle during pregnancy is pointed out (particularly her exposure to nicotine, alcohol, caffeine, and drugs, even seemingly benign medications like acetaminophen), which all tend to be related to ADHD. Family environment is discussed with respect to protective effect of (mainly authoritative and autocratic) parenting styles. Societal factors include mainly economic and political issues: income inequality and poverty (low SES is an ADHD risk factor) and a growing moral dilemma between a humanistic effort to globally spread the knowledge of ADHD and the medicalization and commercialization of the disorder. The second part of the review is devoted to ADHD related lifestyles and resulting comorbidities (e.g., food addiction and obesity, substance abuse, electronic media dependencies and conduct and personality disorders). Although ADHD is a neurodevelopmental disorder, its assessment and treatment are also linked to environmental, behavioral and social factors and their interactions. PMID:28428763

  3. Unique Variant of NOD2 Pediatric Granulomatous Arthritis With Severe 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D-Mediated Hypercalcemia and Generalized Osteosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Michael P; Lim, Emilina; McAlister, William H; Gottesman, Gary S; Trinh, Lien; Veis, Deborah J; Bijanki, Vinieth N; Boden, Matthew G; Nenninger, Angela; Mumm, Steven; Buchbinder, David

    2018-06-22

    Pediatric granulomatous arthritis (PGA) refers to two formerly separate entities; autosomal dominant Blau syndrome (BS) and its sporadic phenocopy early-onset sarcoidosis (EOS). In 2001 BS and in 2005 EOS became explained by heterozygous mutations within the gene that encodes nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2), also called caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 15 (CARD15). NOD2 is a microbe sensor in leukocyte cytosol that activates and regulates inflammation. PGA is characterized by a triad of auto-inflammatory problems (dermatitis, uveitis, and arthritis) in early childhood, which suggests the causal NOD2/CARD15 mutations are activating defects. Additional complications of PGA were recognized especially when NOD2 mutation analysis became generally available. However, in PGA hypercalcemia is only briefly mentioned, and generalized osteosclerosis is not reported although NOD2 regulates NF-κB signaling essential for osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast function. Herein, we report a 4-year-old girl with PGA uniquely complicated by severe 1,25(OH) 2 D-mediated hypercalcemia, nephrocalcinosis, and compromised renal function together with radiological and histopathological features of osteopetrosis (OPT). The classic triad of PGA complications was absent although joint pain and an antalgic gait accompanied wrist, knee, and ankle swelling and soft non-tender masses over her hands, knees, and feet. MRI revealed tenosynovitis in her hands and suprapatellar effusions. Synovial biopsy demonstrated reactive synovitis without granulomas. Spontaneous resolution of metaphyseal osteosclerosis occurred while biochemical markers indicated active bone turnover. Anti-inflammatory medications suppressed circulating 1,25(OH) 2 D, corrected the hypercalcemia, and improved her renal function, joint pain and swelling, and gait. Mutation analysis excluded idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia, type 1, and known forms of OPT, and identified a

  4. NOD2 Receptor is Expressed in Platelets and Enhances Platelet Activation and Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Si; Zhang, Shenghui; Hu, Liang; Zhai, Lili; Xue, Ruyi; Ye, Jianqin; Chen, Leilei; Cheng, Guanjun; Mruk, Jozef; Kunapuli, Satya P.; Ding, Zhongren

    2015-01-01

    Background Pattern recognition receptor NOD2 (nucleotide binding oligomerization domain 2) is well investigated in immunity, its expression and function in platelets has never been explored. Method and Results Using RT-PCR and Western blot we show that both human and mouse platelets express NOD2, and its agonist MDP induced NOD2 activation as evidenced by receptor dimerization. NOD2 activation potentiates platelet aggregation and secretion induced by low concentration of thrombin or collagen, as well as clot retraction. These potentiating effects of MDP were not seen in platelets from NOD2-deficient mice. Plasma from septic patients also potentiates platelet aggregation induced by thrombin or collagen NOD2-dependently. Using intravital microscopy, we found that MDP administration accelerated in vivo thrombosis in FeCl3-injured mesenteric arteriole thrombosis mouse model. Platelet depletion and transfusion experiments confirmed that NOD2 from platelets contributes to the in vivo thrombosis in mice. NOD2 activation also accelerates platelet-dependent hemostasis. We further found that platelets express RIP2 (receptor-interacting protein 2), and provided evidences suggesting that MAPK and NO/sGC/cGMP/PGK pathways downstream of RIP2 mediate the role of NOD2 in platelets. Finally, MDP stimulates proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β maturation and accumulation in human and mouse platelets NOD2-dependently. Conclusions NOD2 is expressed in platelets and functions in platelet activation and arterial thrombosis, possibly during infection. To our knowledge, this is the first study on NOD-like receptors in platelets which links thrombotic events to inflammation. PMID:25825396

  5. Bacterial interactions with cells of the intestinal mucosa: Toll-like receptors and NOD2.

    PubMed

    Cario, E

    2005-08-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLR) and NOD2 are emerging as key mediators of innate host defence in the intestinal mucosa, crucially involved in maintaining mucosal as well as commensal homeostasis. Recent observations suggest new (patho-) physiological mechanisms of how functional versus dysfunctional TLRx/NOD2 pathways may oppose or favour inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In health, TLRx signalling protects the intestinal epithelial barrier and confers commensal tolerance whereas NOD2 signalling exerts antimicrobial activity and prevents pathogenic invasion. In disease, aberrant TLRx and/or NOD2 signalling may stimulate diverse inflammatory responses leading to acute and chronic intestinal inflammation with many different clinical phenotypes.

  6. Evidence for the involvement of NOD2 in regulating colonic epithelial cell growth and survival.

    PubMed

    Cruickshank, Sheena-M; Wakenshaw, Louise; Cardone, John; Howdle, Peter-D; Murray, Peter-J; Carding, Simon-R

    2008-10-14

    To investigate the function of NOD2 in colonic epithelial cells (CEC). A combination of in vivo and in vitro analyses of epithelial cell turnover in the presence and absence of a functional NOD2 protein and, in response to enteric Salmonella typhimurium infection, were used. shRNA interference was also used to investigate the consequences of knocking down NOD2 gene expression on the growth and survival of colorectal carcinoma cell lines. In the colonic mucosa the highest levels of NOD2 expression were in proliferating crypt epithelial cells. Muramyl dipeptide (MDP), that is recognized by NOD2, promoted CEC growth in vitro. By contrast, the growth of NOD2-deficient CECs was impaired. In vivo CEC proliferation was also reduced and apoptosis increased in Nod2(-/-) mice, which were also evident following enteric Salmonella infection. Furthermore, neutralization of NOD2 mRNA expression in human colonic carcinoma cells by shRNA interference resulted in decreased survival due to increased levels of apoptosis. These findings are consistent with the involvement of NOD2 protein in promoting CEC growth and survival. Defects in proliferation by CECs in cases of CD may contribute to the underlying pathology of disrupted intestinal homeostasis and excessive inflammation.

  7. Evidence for the involvement of NOD2 in regulating colonic epithelial cell growth and survival

    PubMed Central

    Cruickshank, Sheena M; Wakenshaw, Louise; Cardone, John; Howdle, Peter D; Murray, Peter J; Carding, Simon R

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the function of NOD2 in colonic epithelial cells (CEC). METHODS: A combination of in vivo and in vitro analyses of epithelial cell turnover in the presence and absence of a functional NOD2 protein and, in response to enteric Salmonella typhimurium infection, were used. shRNA interference was also used to investigate the consequences of knocking down NOD2 gene expression on the growth and survival of colorectal carcinoma cell lines. RESULTS: In the colonic mucosa the highest levels of NOD2 expression were in proliferating crypt epithelial cells. Muramyl dipeptide (MDP), that is recognized by NOD2, promoted CEC growth in vitro. By contrast, the growth of NOD2-deficient CECs was impaired. In vivo CEC proliferation was also reduced and apoptosis increased in Nod2-/- mice, which were also evident following enteric Salmonella infection. Furthermore, neutralization of NOD2 mRNA expression in human colonic carcinoma cells by shRNA interference resulted in decreased survival due to increased levels of apoptosis. CONCLUSION: These findings are consistent with the involvement of NOD2 protein in promoting CEC growth and survival. Defects in proliferation by CECs in cases of CD may contribute to the underlying pathology of disrupted intestinal homeostasis and excessive inflammation. PMID:18855982

  8. Nod2 deficiency protects mice from cholestatic liver disease by increasing renal excretion of bile acids

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lirui; Hartmann, Phillipp; Haimerl, Michael; Bathena, Sai P.; Sjöwall, Christopher; Almer, Sven; Alnouti, Yazen; Hofmann, Alan F.; Schnabl, Bernd

    2014-01-01

    Background & aims Chronic liver disease is characterized by fibrosis that may progress to cirrhosis. Nucleotide oligomerization domain 2 (Nod2), a member of the Nod-like receptor (NLR) family of intracellular immune receptors, plays an important role in the defense against bacterial infection through binding to the ligand muramyl dipeptide (MDP). Here, we investigated the role of Nod2 in the development of liver fibrosis. Methods We studied experimental cholestatic liver disease induced by bile duct ligation or toxic liver disease induced by carbon tetrachloride in wild type and Nod2−/− mice. Results Nod2 deficiency protected mice from cholestatic but not toxin-induced liver injury and fibrosis. Most notably, the hepatic bile acid concentration was lower in Nod2−/− mice than wild type mice following bile duct ligation for 3 weeks. In contrast to wild type mice, Nod2−/− mice had increased urinary excretion of bile acids, including sulfated bile acids, and an upregulation of the bile acid efflux transporters MRP2 and MRP4 in tubular epithelial cells of the kidney. MRP2 and MRP4 were downregulated by IL-1β in a Nod2 dependent fashion. Conclusions Our findings indicate that Nod2 deficiency protects mice from cholestatic liver injury and fibrosis through enhancing renal excretion of bile acids that in turn contributes to decreased concentration of bile acids in the hepatocyte. PMID:24560660

  9. NLR Nod1 signaling promotes survival of BCR-engaged mature B cells through up-regulated Nod1 as a positive outcome

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Masanao; Li, Yue-Sheng; Núñez, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Although B cell development requires expression of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR), it remains unclear whether engagement of self-antigen provides a positive impact for most B cells. Here, we show that BCR engagement by self-ligand during development in vivo results in up-regulation of the Nod-like receptor member Nod1, which recognizes the products of intestinal commensal bacteria. In anti-thymocyte/Thy-1 autoreactive BCR knock-in mice lacking self–Thy-1 ligand, immunoglobulin light chain editing occurred, generating B cells with up-regulated Nod1, including follicular and marginal zone B cells with natural autoreactivity. This BCR editing with increased Nod1 resulted in preferential survival. In normal adult mice, most mature B cells are enriched for Nod1 up-regulated cells, and signaling through Nod1 promotes competitive survival of mature B cells. These findings demonstrate a role for microbial products in promoting survival of mature B cells through up-regulated Nod1, providing a positive effect of BCR engagement on development of most B cells. PMID:28878001

  10. Rhizobium meliloti lipooligosaccharide nodulation factors: different structural requirements for bacterial entry into target root hair cells and induction of plant symbiotic developmental responses.

    PubMed

    Ardourel, M; Demont, N; Debellé, F; Maillet, F; de Billy, F; Promé, J C; Dénarié, J; Truchet, G

    1994-10-01

    Rhizobium meliloti produces lipochitooligosaccharide nodulation NodRm factors that are required for nodulation of legume hosts. NodRm factors are O-acetylated and N-acylated by specific C16-unsaturated fatty acids. nodL mutants produce non-O-acetylated factors, and nodFE mutants produce factors with modified acyl substituents. Both mutants exhibited a significantly reduced capacity to elicit infection thread (IT) formation in alfalfa. However, once initiated, ITs developed and allowed the formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules. In contrast, double nodF/nodL mutants were unable to penetrate into legume hosts and to form ITs. Nevertheless, these mutants induced widespread cell wall tip growth in trichoblasts and other epidermal cells and were also able to elicit cortical cell activation at a distance. NodRm factor structural requirements are thus clearly more stringent for bacterial entry than for the elicitation of developmental plant responses.

  11. Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 (MCP-1) and Growth Factors Called into Question as Markers of Prolonged Psychosocial Stress

    PubMed Central

    Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H.; Hägg, Daniel A.; Glise, Kristina; Ekman, Rolf

    2009-01-01

    Background Psychosocial stress is becoming a major contributor to increased mental ill-health and sick leave in many countries. Valid markers of chronic stress would be valuable for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. A recent study suggested monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), epidermal growth factor (EGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as markers of chronic stress. We aimed to confirm these potential biomarkers of prolonged psychosocial stress in female patients. Methodology/Principal Findings Circulating levels of MCP-1, EGF and VEGF, along with several other cytokines, were measured in plasma from 42 female patients suffering from exhaustion due to prolonged psychosocial stress and 42 control subjects, using a protein biochip immunoassay. There were no significant differences between patients and controls in any of the cytokines or growth factors analyzed. Furthermore, when using a different protein bioassay and reanalyzing MCP-1 and VEGF in the same samples, markedly different levels were obtained. To further explore if inflammation is present in patients with exhaustion, the classical inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) was measured in another group of patients (n = 89) and controls (n = 88) showing a small but significant increase of CRP levels in the patients. Conclusions/Significance MCP-1, EGF and VEGF may not be suitable markers of prolonged psychosocial stress as previously suggested. Furthermore, significant differences were obtained when using two different protein assays measuring the same samples, indicating that comparing studies where different analytic techniques have been used might be difficult. Increased levels of CRP indicate that low-grade inflammation might be present in patients with exhaustion due to prolonged stress exposure but this inflammation does not seem to be reflected by increase in circulating MCP-1 or other cytokines measured. PMID:19888340

  12. Allelic Variation of Ets1 Does Not Contribute to NK and NKT Cell Deficiencies in Type 1 Diabetes Susceptible NOD Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Margaret A.; Poulton, Lynn D.; Fletcher, Julie M.; Baxter, Alan G.

    2009-01-01

    The NOD mouse is a well characterized model of type 1 diabetes that shares several of the characteristics of Ets1-deficient targeted mutant mice, viz: defects in TCR allelic exclusion, susceptibility to a lupus like disease characterized by IgM and IgG autoantibodies and immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis, and deficiencies of NK and NKT cells. Here, we sought evidence for allelic variation of Ets1 in mice contributing to the NK and NKT cell phenotypes of the NOD strain. ETS1 expression in NK and NKT cells was reduced in NOD mice, compared to C57BL/6 mice. Although NKT cells numbers were significantly correlated with ETS1 expression in both strains, NKT cell numbers were not linked to the Ets1 gene in a first backcross from NOD to C57BL/6 mice. These results indicate that allelic variation of Ets1 did not contribute to variation in NKT cell numbers in these mice. It remains possible that a third factor not linked to the Ets1 locus controls both ETS1 expression and subsequently NK and NKT cell phenotypes. PMID:19806240

  13. The Absence of NOD1 Enhances Killing of Aspergillus fumigatus Through Modulation of Dectin-1 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Gresnigt, Mark S.; Jaeger, Martin; Subbarao Malireddi, R. K.; Rasid, Orhan; Jouvion, Grégory; Fitting, Catherine; Melchers, Willem J. G.; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi; Carvalho, Agostinho; Ibrahim-Granet, Oumaima; van de Veerdonk, Frank L.

    2017-01-01

    One of the major life-threatening infections for which severely immunocompromised patients are at risk is invasive aspergillosis (IA). Despite the current treatment options, the increasing antifungal resistance and poor outcome highlight the need for novel therapeutic strategies to improve outcome of patients with IA. In the current study, we investigated whether and how the intracellular pattern recognition receptor NOD1 is involved in host defense against Aspergillus fumigatus. When exploring the role of NOD1 in an experimental mouse model, we found that Nod1−/− mice were protected against IA and demonstrated reduced fungal outgrowth in the lungs. We found that macrophages derived from bone marrow of Nod1−/− mice were more efficiently inducing reactive oxygen species and cytokines in response to Aspergillus. Most strikingly, these cells were highly potent in killing A. fumigatus compared with wild-type cells. In line, human macrophages in which NOD1 was silenced demonstrated augmented Aspergillus killing and NOD1 stimulation decreased fungal killing. The differentially altered killing capacity of NOD1 silencing versus NOD1 activation was associated with alterations in dectin-1 expression, with activation of NOD1 reducing dectin-1 expression. Furthermore, we were able to demonstrate that Nod1−/− mice have elevated dectin-1 expression in the lung and bone marrow, and silencing of NOD1 gene expression in human macrophages increases dectin-1 expression. The enhanced dectin-1 expression may be the mechanism of enhanced fungal killing of Nod1−/− cells and human cells in which NOD1 was silenced, since blockade of dectin-1 reversed the augmented killing in these cells. Collectively, our data demonstrate that NOD1 receptor plays an inhibitory role in the host defense against Aspergillus. This provides a rationale to develop novel immunotherapeutic strategies for treatment of aspergillosis that target the NOD1 receptor, to enhance the efficiency of host

  14. Structures of NodZ α1,6-fucosyltransferase in complex with GDP and GDP-fucose

    SciTech Connect

    Brzezinski, Krzysztof; Polish Academy of Sciences, 61-704 Poznan; Dauter, Zbigniew

    Crystal structures of the bacterial α1,6-fucosyltransferase NodZ in complex with GDP and GDP-fucose are presented. Rhizobial NodZ α1,6-fucosyltransferase (α1,6-FucT) catalyzes the transfer of the fucose (Fuc) moiety from guanosine 5′-diphosphate-β-l-fucose to the reducing end of the chitin oligosaccharide core during Nod-factor (NF) biosynthesis. NF is a key signalling molecule required for successful symbiosis with a legume host for atmospheric nitrogen fixation. To date, only two α1,6-FucT structures have been determined, both without any donor or acceptor molecule that could highlight the structural background of the catalytic mechanism. Here, the first crystal structures of α1,6-FucT in complex with its substrate GDP-Fucmore » and with GDP, which is a byproduct of the enzymatic reaction, are presented. The crystal of the complex with GDP-Fuc was obtained through soaking of native NodZ crystals with the ligand and its structure has been determined at 2.35 Å resolution. The fucose residue is exposed to solvent and is disordered. The enzyme–product complex crystal was obtained by cocrystallization with GDP and an acceptor molecule, penta-N-acetyl-l-glucosamine (penta-NAG). The structure has been determined at 1.98 Å resolution, showing that only the GDP molecule is present in the complex. In both structures the ligands are located in a cleft formed between the two domains of NodZ and extend towards the C-terminal domain, but their conformations differ significantly. The structures revealed that residues in three regions of the C-terminal domain, which are conserved among α1,2-, α1,6- and protein O-fucosyltransferases, are involved in interactions with the sugar-donor molecule. There is also an interaction with the side chain of Tyr45 in the N-terminal domain, which is very unusual for a GT-B-type glycosyltransferase. Only minor conformational changes of the protein backbone are observed upon ligand binding. The only exception is a movement of the

  15. Crohn's disease patients carrying Nod2/CARD15 gene variants have an increased and early need for first surgery due to stricturing disease and higher rate of surgical recurrence.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Lobos, Manuel; Arostegui, Juan I; Sans, Miquel; Tassies, Dolors; Plaza, Susana; Delgado, Salvadora; Lacy, Antonio M; Pique, Josep M; Yagüe, Jordi; Panés, Julián

    2005-11-01

    To study the predictive value of Nod2/CARD15 gene variants along with disease phenotypic characteristics for requirement of initial surgery and for surgical recurrence in Crohn's disease (CD). Nod2/CARD15 gene variants play an important role in the susceptibility to CD. Studies of genotype-phenotype relationship suggest that these variants are associated with development of intestinal strictures. Preliminary reports analyzing the association between these variants and need for surgery have produced inconsistent results. A total of 170 CD patients were included prospectively in the study and followed up regularly for a mean of 7.4 +/- 6.1 years. Clinical characteristics of CD, time and indication for surgery, and recurrence were registered. Nod2/CARD15 gene variants were determined by DNA sequencing analysis. Surgery for stricturing disease was significantly more frequent in patients with Nod2/CARD15 variants in the univariate analysis (odds ratio [OR], 3.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42-9.27), and it was required at an earlier time (P = 0.004). Only Nod2/CARD15 variants (OR, 3.58; 95% CI, 1.21-10.5) and stricturing phenotype at diagnosis of CD (OR, 9.34; 95% CI, 2.56-33.3) were independent predictive factors of initial surgery for stricturing lesions in the multivariate analysis. Among 70 patients that required surgery, postoperative recurrence was also more frequent in patients with Nod2/CARD15 variants in the univariate and multivariate analysis (OR, 3.29; 95% CI, 1.13-9.56), and reoperation was needed at an earlier time (P = 0.03). Nod2/CARD15 variants are associated with early initial surgery due to stenosis and with surgical recurrence in Crohn's disease. Patients with these variants could benefit from preventive and/or early therapeutic strategies.

  16. The relevance of Noddings' ethics of care to the moral education of nurses.

    PubMed

    Crowley, M A

    1994-02-01

    Noddings' ethics of care is proposed as a model for moral education in nursing. A discussion of Noddings' moral theory is followed by a review of significant criticisms of her theory and her response to these criticisms. Finally, the usefulness of her moral theory as a guide to moral education in nursing is explored.

  17. A Discrete Ubiquitin-Mediated Network Regulates the Strength of NOD2 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Tigno-Aranjuez, Justine T.; Bai, Xiaodong

    2013-01-01

    Dysregulation of NOD2 signaling is implicated in the pathology of various inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease, asthma, and sarcoidosis, making signaling proteins downstream of NOD2 potential therapeutic targets. Inhibitor-of-apoptosis (IAP) proteins, particularly cIAP1, are essential mediators of NOD2 signaling, and in this work, we describe a molecular mechanism for cIAP1's regulation in the NOD2 signaling pathway. While cIAP1 promotes RIP2's tyrosine phosphorylation and subsequent NOD2 signaling, this positive regulation is countered by another E3 ubiquitin ligase, ITCH, through direct ubiquitination of cIAP1. This ITCH-mediated ubiquitination leads to cIAP1's lysosomal degradation. Pharmacologic inhibition of cIAP1 expression in ITCH−/− macrophages attenuates heightened ITCH−/− macrophage muramyl dipeptide-induced responses. Transcriptome analysis, combined with pharmacologic inhibition of cIAP1, further defines specific pathways within the NOD2 signaling pathway that are targeted by cIAP1. This information provides genetic signatures that may be useful in repurposing cIAP1-targeted therapies to correct NOD2-hyperactive states and identifies a ubiquitin-regulated signaling network centered on ITCH and cIAP1 that controls the strength of NOD2 signaling. PMID:23109427

  18. Multiple defects in innate and adaptive immunologic function in NOD/LtSz-scid mice.

    PubMed

    Shultz, L D; Schweitzer, P A; Christianson, S W; Gott, B; Schweitzer, I B; Tennent, B; McKenna, S; Mobraaten, L; Rajan, T V; Greiner, D L

    1995-01-01

    The scid mutation was backcrossed ten generations onto the NOD/Lt strain background, resulting in an immunodeficient stock (NOD/LtSz-scid/scid) with multiple defects in adaptive as well as nonadaptive immunologic function. NOD/LtSz-scid/scid mice lack functional lymphoid cells and show little or no serum Ig with age. Although NOD/(Lt-)+/+ mice develop T cell-mediated autoimmune, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, NOD/LtSz-scid/scid mice are both insulitis- and diabetes-free throughout life. However, because of a high incidence of thymic lymphomas, the mean lifespan of this congenic stock is only 8.5 mo under specific pathogen-free conditions. After i.v. injection of human CEM T-lymphoblastoid cells, splenic engraftment of these cells was fourfold greater in NOD/LtSz-scid/scid mice than in C.B17/Sz-scid/scid mice. Although C.B-17Sz-scid/scid mice exhibit robust NK cell activity, this activity is markedly reduced in both NOD/(Lt-)+/+ and NOD/LtSz-scid/scid mice. Presence of a functionally less mature macrophage population in NOD/LtSz-scid/scid vs C.B-17Sz-scid/scid mice is indicated by persistence in the former of the NOD/Lt strain-specific defect in LPS-stimulated IL-1 secretion by marrow-derived macrophages. Although C.B-17Sz-scid/scid and C57BL/6Sz-scid/scid mice have elevated serum hemolytic complement activity compared with their respective +/+ controls, both NOD/(LtSz-)+/+ and NOD/LtSz-scid/scid mice lack this activity. Age-dependent increases in serum Ig levels (> 1 micrograms/ml) were observed in only 2 of 30 NOD/LtSz-scid/scid mice vs 21 of 29 C.B-17/Sz-scid/scid animals. The multiple defects in innate and adaptive immunity unique to the NOD/LtSz-scid/scid mouse provide an excellent in vivo environment for reconstitution with human hematopoietic cells.

  19. Nakalanga Syndrome: Clinical Characteristics, Potential Causes, and Its Relationship with Recently Described Nodding Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Föger, Kathrin; Gora-Stahlberg, Gina; Sejvar, James; Ovuga, Emilio; Jilek-Aall, Louise; Schmutzhard, Erich

    2017-01-01

    Nakalanga syndrome is a condition that was described in Uganda and various other African countries decades ago. Its features include growth retardation, physical deformities, endocrine dysfunction, mental impairment, and epilepsy, amongst others. Its cause remains obscure. Nodding syndrome is a neurological disorder with some features in common with Nakalanga syndrome, which has been described mainly in Uganda, South Sudan, and Tanzania. It has been considered an encephalopathy affecting children who, besides head nodding attacks, can also present with stunted growth, delayed puberty, and mental impairment, amongst other symptoms. Despite active research over the last years on the pathogenesis of Nodding syndrome, to date, no convincing single cause of Nodding syndrome has been reported. In this review, by means of a thorough literature search, we compare features of both disorders. We conclude that Nakalanga and Nodding syndromes are closely related and may represent the same condition. Our findings may provide new directions in research on the cause underlying this neurological disorder. PMID:28182652

  20. First description of NOD2 variant associated with defective neutrophil responses in a woman with granulomatous mastitis related to corynebacteria.

    PubMed

    Bercot, Béatrice; Kannengiesser, Caroline; Oudin, Claire; Grandchamp, Bernard; Sanson-le Pors, Marie-José; Mouly, Stéphane; Elbim, Carole

    2009-09-01

    We report the first case of granulomatous mastitis due to Corynebacterium kroppenstedtii linked to strongly impaired neutrophil responses to Nod2 agonist and a single nucleotide polymorphism within the NOD2 gene (SNP13 [Leu1007fsinsC]) in a heterozygous state. These findings provided the first demonstration of impaired Nod2 function associated with corynebacterial infection.

  1. Reduced plasma concentrations of vitamin B6 and increased plasma concentrations of the neurotoxin 3-hydroxykynurenine are associated with nodding syndrome: a case control study in Gulu and Amuru districts, Northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Obol, James Henry; Arony, Denis Anywar; Wanyama, Ronald; Moi, Kenneth Luryama; Bodo, Bongomin; Odong, Patrick Olwedo; Odida, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Nodding syndrome was first reported in Uganda in 2003 among internally displaced populations. Risk factors for the syndrome remain unknown. We therefore explored vitamin B6 deficiency and resulting high 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-HK) levels as risk factor for nodding syndrome in Northern Uganda. Case-control study conducted in Gulu and Amuru districts. Cases were children/young adults with nodding syndrome. Healthy children/young adults were recruited as controls from same community as cases. Data on socio-demographic and other risk factors was collected using questionnaires. Whole blood was collected in EDTA tubes for assay of 3-HK and vitamin B6 using sandwich ELISA. Conditional logistic regression model was used to assess associations. 66 cases and 73 controls were studied. Factors associated with nodding syndrome were being positive for 3-HK (AOR=4.50, p=0.013), vitamin B6 concentration below mean (AOR=7.22, P=0.001), child being taken care of by mother only (AOR=5.43, p=0.011), child being taken care of by guardian (AOR=5.90, p=0.019) and child consuming relief food at weaning (AOR=4.05, p=0.021). Having low vitamin B6 concentration which leads to a build up of 3-hydroxykynurenine concentration in cases as a main risk factor. Therefore, cases should be treated with vitamin B6 and community members should be sensitise to ensure adequate dietary intake of vitamin B6 so that the risk of nodding syndrome among children is averted. We encourage future prospective intervention study to be conducted to assess the effect of low vitamin B6 on the development of nodding syndrome via raised 3-HK concentration.

  2. Comparative genetics: synergizing human and NOD mouse studies for identifying genetic causation of type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Driver, John P; Chen, Yi-Guang; Mathews, Clayton E

    2012-01-01

    Although once widely anticipated to unlock how human type 1 diabetes (T1D) develops, extensive study of the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse has failed to yield effective treatments for patients with the disease. This has led many to question the usefulness of this animal model. While criticism about the differences between NOD and human T1D is legitimate, in many cases disease in both species results from perturbations modulated by the same genes or different genes that function within the same biological pathways. Like in humans, unusual polymorphisms within an MHC class II molecule contributes the most T1D risk in NOD mice. This insight supports the validity of this model and suggests the NOD has been improperly utilized to study how to cure or prevent disease in patients. Indeed, clinical trials are far from administering T1D therapeutics to humans at the same concentration ranges and pathological states that inhibit disease in NOD mice. Until these obstacles are overcome it is premature to label the NOD mouse a poor surrogate to test agents that cure or prevent T1D. An additional criticism of the NOD mouse is the past difficulty in identifying genes underlying T1D using conventional mapping studies. However, most of the few diabetogenic alleles identified to date appear relevant to the human disorder. This suggests that rather than abandoning genetic studies in NOD mice, future efforts should focus on improving the efficiency with which diabetes susceptibility genes are detected. The current review highlights why the NOD mouse remains a relevant and valuable tool to understand the genes and their interactions that promote autoimmune diabetes and therapeutics that inhibit this disease. It also describes a new range of technologies that will likely transform how the NOD mouse is used to uncover the genetic causes of T1D for years to come.

  3. Cannabidiol Arrests Onset of Autoimmune Diabetes in NOD Mice

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Lola; Zeira, Michael; Reich, Shoshana; Slavin, Shimon; Raz, Itamar; Mechoulam, Raphael; Gallily, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    We have previously reported that cannabidiol (CBD) lowers the incidence of diabetes in young non-obese diabetes-prone (NOD) female mice. In the present study we show that administration of CBD to 11–14 week old female NOD mice, which are either in a latent diabetes stage or with initial symptoms of diabetes, ameliorates the manifestations of the disease. Diabetes was diagnosed in only 32% of the mice in the CBD-treated group, compared to 86% and 100% in the emulsifier-treated and untreated groups, respectively. In addition, the level of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-12 produced by splenocytes was significantly reduced, whereas the level of the anti-inflammatory IL-10 was significantly elevated following CBD-treatment. Histological examination of the pancreata of CBD-treated mice revealed more intact islets than in the controls. Our data strengthen our previous assumption that CBD, known to be safe in man, can possibly be used as a therapeutic agent for treatment of type 1 diabetes. PMID:17714746

  4. Transmaternal bisphenol A exposure accelerates diabetes type 1 development in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Bodin, Johanna; Bølling, Anette Kocbach; Becher, Rune; Kuper, Frieke; Løvik, Martinus; Nygaard, Unni Cecilie

    2014-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus type 1 is an autoimmune disease with a genetic predisposition that is triggered by environmental factors during early life. Epidemiological studies show that bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor, has been detected in about 90% of all analyzed human urine samples. In this study, BPA was found to increase the severity of insulitis and the incidence of diabetes in female non obese diabetic (NOD) mice offspring after transmaternal exposure through the dams' drinking water (0, 0.1, 1, and 10mg/l). Both the severity of insulitis in the pancreatic islets at 11 weeks of age and the diabetes prevalence at 20 weeks were significantly increased for female offspring in the highest exposure group compared to the control group. Increased numbers of apoptotic cells, a reduction in tissue resident macrophages and an increase in regulatory T cells were observed in islets prior to insulitis development in transmaternally exposed offspring. The detectable apoptotic cells were identified as mostly glucagon producing alpha-cells but also tissue resident macrophages and beta-cells. In the local (pancreatic) lymph node neither regulatory T cell nor NKT cell populations were affected by maternal BPA exposure. Maternal BPA exposure may have induced systemic immune changes in offspring, as evidenced by alterations in LPS- and ConA-induced cytokine secretion in splenocytes. In conclusion, transmaternal BPA exposure, in utero and through lactation, accelerated the spontaneous diabetes development in NOD mice. This acceleration appeared to be related to early life modulatory effects on the immune system, resulting in adverse effects later in life.

  5. Comparative study of peripheral neuropathy and nerve regeneration in NOD and ICR diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Homs, Judit; Ariza, Lorena; Pagès, Gemma; Verdú, Enrique; Casals, Laura; Udina, Esther; Chillón, Miguel; Bosch, Assumpció; Navarro, Xavier

    2011-09-01

    The non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse was suggested as an adequate model for diabetic autonomic neuropathy. We evaluated sensory-motor neuropathy and nerve regeneration following sciatic nerve crush in NOD males rendered diabetic by multiple low doses of streptozotocin, in comparison with similarly treated Institute for Cancer Research (ICR) mice, a widely used model for type I diabetes. Neurophysiological values for both strains showed a decline in motor and sensory nerve conduction velocity at 7 and 8 weeks after induction of diabetes in the intact hindlimb. However, amplitudes of compound muscle and sensory action potentials (CMAPs and CNAPs) were significantly reduced in NOD but not in ICR diabetic mice. Morphometrical analysis showed myelinated fiber loss in highly hyperglycemic NOD mice, but no significant changes in fiber size. There was a reduction of intraepidermal nerve fibers, more pronounced in NOD than in ICR diabetic mice. Interestingly, aldose reductase and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activities were increased already at 1 week of hyperglycemia, persisting until the end of the experiment in both strains. Muscle and nerve reinnervation was delayed in diabetic mice following sciatic nerve crush, being more marked in NOD mice. Thus, diabetes of mid-duration induces more severe peripheral neuropathy and slower nerve regeneration in NOD than in ICR mice. © 2011 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  6. Bradyrhizobium japonicum mutants with enhanced sensitivity to genistein resulting in altered nod gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Ip, H; D'Aoust, F; Begum, A A; Zhang, H; Smith, D L; Driscoll, B T; Charles, T C

    2001-12-01

    Bradyrhizobium japonicum mutants with altered nod gene induction characteristics were isolated by screening mutants for genistein-independent nod gene expression. Plasmid pZB32, carrying a nodY::lacZ transcriptional gene fusion, was introduced into B. japonicum cells that had been subjected to UV mutagenesis. Ten independent transformants producing a blue color on plates containing 5bromo-4chloro-3indolyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside but lacking genistein, indicative of constitutive expression of the nodY::lacZ reporter gene, were isolated. Beta-galactosidase activity assays revealed that while all of the 10 strains were sensitive to low concentrations of genistein, none exhibited truly constitutive nodY::lacZ expression in liquid culture. Soybean plants inoculated with three of the mutants were chlorotic and stunted, with shoot dry weights close to those of the uninoculated plants, indicating the absence of nitrogen fixation. Differences in the kinetics of nodY::lacZ expression and lipochitin oligosaccharide Nod signal production suggested that the strains carried different mutations. Some of these strains may be useful in mitigating the low root zone temperature-associated delay in soybean nodulation at the northern extent of soybean cultivation.

  7. Crohn's Disease Variants of Nod2 Are Stabilized by the Critical Contact Region of Hsp70.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Amy K; Wastyk, Hannah C; Mohanan, Vishnu; Hou, Ching-Wen; Lauro, Mackenzie L; Melnyk, James E; Burch, Jason M; Grimes, Catherine L

    2017-08-29

    Nod2 is a cytosolic, innate immune receptor responsible for binding to bacterial cell wall fragments such as muramyl dipeptide (MDP). Upon binding, subsequent downstream activation of the NF-κB pathway leads to an immune response. Nod2 mutations are correlated with an increased susceptibility to Crohn's disease (CD) and ultimately result in a misregulated immune response. Previous work had demonstrated that Nod2 interacts with and is stabilized by the molecular chaperone Hsp70. In this work, it is shown using purified protein and in vitro biochemical assays that the critical Nod2 CD mutations (G908R, R702W, and 1007fs) preserve the ability to bind bacterial ligands. A limited proteolysis assay and luciferase reporter assay reveal regions of Hsp70 that are capable of stabilizing Nod2 and rescuing CD mutant activity. A minimal 71-amino acid subset of Hsp70 that stabilizes the CD-associated variants of Nod2 and restores a proper immune response upon activation with MDP was identified. This work suggests that CD-associated Nod2 variants could be stabilized in vivo with a molecular chaperone.

  8. A Novel Clinically Relevant Strategy to Abrogate Autoimmunity and Regulate Alloimmunity in NOD Mice

    PubMed Central

    Vergani, Andrea; D'Addio, Francesca; Jurewicz, Mollie; Petrelli, Alessandra; Watanabe, Toshihiko; Liu, Kaifeng; Law, Kenneth; Schuetz, Christian; Carvello, Michele; Orsenigo, Elena; Deng, Shaoping; Rodig, Scott J.; Ansari, Javeed M.; Staudacher, Carlo; Abdi, Reza; Williams, John; Markmann, James; Atkinson, Mark; Sayegh, Mohamed H.; Fiorina, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate a new clinically relevant immunoregulatory strategy based on treatment with murine Thymoglobulin mATG Genzyme and CTLA4-Ig in NOD mice to prevent allo- and autoimmune activation using a stringent model of islet transplantation and diabetes reversal. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Using allogeneic islet transplantation models as well as NOD mice with recent onset type 1 diabetes, we addressed the therapeutic efficacy and immunomodulatory mechanisms associated with a new immunoregulatory protocol based on prolonged low-dose mATG plus CTLA4-Ig. RESULTS BALB/c islets transplanted into hyperglycemic NOD mice under prolonged mATG+CTLA4-Ig treatment showed a pronounced delay in allograft rejection compared with untreated mice (mean survival time: 54 vs. 8 days, P < 0.0001). Immunologic analysis of mice receiving transplants revealed a complete abrogation of autoimmune responses and severe downregulation of alloimmunity in response to treatment. The striking effect on autoimmunity was confirmed by 100% diabetes reversal in newly hyperglycemic NOD mice and 100% indefinite survival of syngeneic islet transplantation (NOD.SCID into NOD mice). CONCLUSIONS The capacity to regulate alloimmunity and to abrogate the autoimmune response in NOD mice in different settings confirmed that prolonged mATG+CTLA4-Ig treatment is a clinically relevant strategy to translate to humans with type 1 diabetes. PMID:20805386

  9. Neuropsychiatric perspectives on nodding syndrome in northern Uganda: a case series study and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Musisi, S; Akena, D; Nakimuli-Mpungu, E; Abbo, C; Okello, J

    2013-06-01

    Nodding Syndrome (NS), previously called Nodding Disease, is a chronic and debilitating illness affecting thousands of children aged 3-18 years in post-conflict Northern Uganda and South Sudan. Characterised by malnutrition, stunted growth, mental retardation and seizures, some researchers have designated it as epilepsy. With reports appearing in Northern Uganda in1997, NS reached epidemic proportions around 2000-2003 when people were moved into Internally Displaced People's (IDP) camps. Investigations for infections (onchocerciasis) and toxins have been inconclusive as to cause, treatment or outcome. No study has addressed the possible relationship of NS to childhood war-trauma experiences. To explore a possible relationship of exposure to prolonged war-trauma and the emergence of epidemic NS in Northern Uganda. This study was a case-series descriptive psychiatric naturalistic field observations of NS cases from homesteads in Northern Uganda and psychiatric investigations and treatment of NS cases referred to Mulago National Referral and Teaching Hospital. Detailed Psychiatric clinical evaluations and field observations revealed that NS children had been exposed to severe war-related psychological and physical trauma as well as non-specific CNS insults including untreated CNS infections/infestations and malnutrition possibly causing seizures. Many children suffered post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. NS could present as an association of childhood complex PTSD, (called Developmental Trauma Disorder), occurring in the chronically war-traumatised children of Northern Uganda, complicated by severe prolonged depression with its characteristic symptoms of psychomotor retardation, anxiety, anhedonia and anorexia. This, coupled with food shortages, resulted in malnutrition, wasting and stunted growth with severe avitaminoses. Many children had seizures. All this calls for multi-disciplinary treatment approaches.

  10. NOD1 downregulates intestinal serotonin transporter and interacts with other pattern recognition receptors.

    PubMed

    Layunta, Elena; Latorre, Eva; Forcén, Raquel; Grasa, Laura; Plaza, Miguel A; Arias, Maykel; Alcalde, Ana I; Mesonero, José E

    2018-05-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is an essential gastrointestinal modulator whose effects regulate the intestinal physiology. 5-HT effects depend on extracellular 5-HT bioavailability, which is controlled by the serotonin transporter (SERT) expressed in both the apical and basolateral membranes of enterocytes. SERT is a critical target for regulating 5-HT levels and consequently, modulating the intestinal physiology. The deregulation of innate immune receptors has been extensively studied in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), where an exacerbated defense response to commensal microbiota is observed. Interestingly, many innate immune receptors seem to affect the serotonergic system, demonstrating a new way in which microbiota could modulate the intestinal physiology. Therefore, our aim was to analyze the effects of NOD1 activation on SERT function, as well as NOD1's interaction with other immune receptors such as TLR2 and TLR4. Our results showed that NOD1 activation inhibits SERT activity and expression in Caco-2/TC7 cells through the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway. A negative feedback between 5-HT and NOD1 expression was also described. The results showed that TLR2 and TLR4 activation seems to regulate NOD1 expression in Caco-2/TC7 cells. To assess the extend of cross-talk between NOD1 and TLRs, NOD1 expression was measured in the intestinal tract (ileum and colon) of wild type mice and mice with individual knockouts of TLR2, and TLR4 as well as double knockout TLR2/TLR4 mice. Hence, we demonstrate that NOD1 acts on the serotonergic system decreasing SERT activity and molecular expression. Additionally, NOD1 expression seems to be modulated by 5-HT and other immune receptors as TLR2 and TLR4. This study could clarify the relation between both the intestinal serotonergic system and innate immune system, and their implications in intestinal inflammation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Prolonged antibiotic treatment induces a diabetogenic intestinal microbiome that accelerates diabetes in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kirsty; Godovannyi, Artem; Ma, Caixia; Zhang, YiQun; Ahmadi-Vand, Zahra; Dai, Chaunbin; Gorzelak, Monika A; Chan, YeeKwan; Chan, Justin M; Lochner, Arion; Dutz, Jan P; Vallance, Bruce A; Gibson, Deanna L

    2016-02-01

    Accumulating evidence supports that the intestinal microbiome is involved in Type 1 diabetes (T1D) pathogenesis through the gut-pancreas nexus. Our aim was to determine whether the intestinal microbiota in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model played a role in T1D through the gut. To examine the effect of the intestinal microbiota on T1D onset, we manipulated gut microbes by: (1) the fecal transplantation between non-obese diabetic (NOD) and resistant (NOR) mice and (2) the oral antibiotic and probiotic treatment of NOD mice. We monitored diabetes onset, quantified CD4+T cells in the Peyer's patches, profiled the microbiome and measured fecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). The gut microbiota from NOD mice harbored more pathobionts and fewer beneficial microbes in comparison with NOR mice. Fecal transplantation of NOD microbes induced insulitis in NOR hosts suggesting that the NOD microbiome is diabetogenic. Moreover, antibiotic exposure accelerated diabetes onset in NOD mice accompanied by increased T-helper type 1 (Th1) and reduced Th17 cells in the intestinal lymphoid tissues. The diabetogenic microbiome was characterized by a metagenome altered in several metabolic gene clusters. Furthermore, diabetes susceptibility correlated with reduced fecal SCFAs. In an attempt to correct the diabetogenic microbiome, we administered VLS#3 probiotics to NOD mice but found that VSL#3 colonized the intestine poorly and did not delay diabetes. We conclude that NOD mice harbor gut microbes that induce diabetes and that their diabetogenic microbiome can be amplified early in life through antibiotic exposure. Protective microbes like VSL#3 are insufficient to overcome the effects of a diabetogenic microbiome.

  12. Nod-shuffle 3D spectroscopy with PMAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Martin M.; Fechner, Thomas; Becker, Thomas; Kelz, Andreas

    2004-09-01

    PMAS is a versatile integral field spectrograph based on the principle of a fiber-coupled lens array type of IFU. The instrument was commissioned at the Calar Alto 3.5m Telescope in May 2001. PMAS is offered as a common user instrument at Calar Alto since 2002. However, it has remained flexible enough to be used as a testbed for new observing techniques. Since the instrument is sensitive in the wavelength range from 0.35 to 1 μm, it is being used to experiment with faint object 3D spectroscopy for a variety of objects in stellar and extragalactic astronomy. Among these experiments, we have implemented a nod-shuffle mode of operation, which is a beam switching technique to achieve a high degree of sky subtraction accuracy. We describe the technical details of the special solution found for PMAS and first results obtained in test observations of faint haloes of planetary nebulae.

  13. Methylation of insulin DNA in response to proinflammatory cytokines during the progression of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Rui, Jinxiu; Deng, Songyan; Lebastchi, Jasmin; Clark, Pamela L; Usmani-Brown, Sahar; Herold, Kevan C

    2016-05-01

    Type 1 diabetes is caused by the immunological destruction of pancreatic beta cells. Preclinical and clinical data indicate that there are changes in beta cell function at different stages of the disease, but the fate of beta cells has not been closely studied. We studied how immune factors affect the function and epigenetics of beta cells during disease progression and identified possible triggers of these changes. We studied FACS sorted beta cells and infiltrating lymphocytes from NOD mouse and human islets. Gene expression was measured by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and methylation of the insulin genes was investigated by high-throughput and Sanger sequencing. To understand the role of DNA methyltransferases, Dnmt3a was knocked down with small interfering RNA (siRNA). The effects of cytokines on methylation and expression of the insulin gene were studied in humans and mice. During disease progression in NOD mice, there was an inverse relationship between the proportion of infiltrating lymphocytes and the beta cell mass. In beta cells, methylation marks in the Ins1 and Ins2 genes changed over time. Insulin gene expression appears to be most closely regulated by the methylation of Ins1 exon 2 and Ins2 exon 1. Cytokine transcription increased with age in NOD mice, and these cytokines could induce methylation marks in the insulin DNA by inducing methyltransferases. Similar changes were induced by cytokines in human beta cells in vitro. Epigenetic modification of DNA by methylation in response to immunological stressors may be a mechanism that affects insulin gene expression during the progression of type 1 diabetes.

  14. PD-L1–Driven Tolerance Protects Neurogenin3-Induced Islet Neogenesis to Reverse Established Type 1 Diabetes in NOD Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rongying; Lee, Jeongkyung; Kim, Mi-sun; Liu, Victoria; Moulik, Mousumi; Li, Haiyan; Yi, Qing; Xie, Aini; Chen, Wenhao; Yang, Lina; Li, Yimin; Tsai, Tsung Huang; Oka, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    A breakdown in self-tolerance underlies autoimmune destruction of β-cells and type 1 diabetes. A cure by restoring β-cell mass is limited by the availability of transplantable β-cells and the need for chronic immunosuppression. Evidence indicates that inhibiting costimulation through the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway is central to immune tolerance. We therefore tested whether induction of islet neogenesis in the liver, protected by PD-L1–driven tolerance, reverses diabetes in NOD mice. We demonstrated a robust induction of neo-islets in the liver of diabetic NOD mice by gene transfer of Neurogenin3, the islet-defining factor, along with betacellulin, an islet growth factor. These neo-islets expressed all the major pancreatic hormones and transcription factors. However, an enduring restoration of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and euglycemia occurs only when tolerance is also induced by the targeted overexpression of PD-L1 in the neo-islets, which results in inhibition of proliferation and increased apoptosis of infiltrating CD4+ T cells. Further analysis revealed an inhibition of cytokine production from lymphocytes isolated from the liver but not from the spleen of treated mice, indicating that treatment did not result in generalized immunosuppression. This treatment strategy leads to persistence of functional neo-islets that resist autoimmune destruction and consequently an enduring reversal of diabetes in NOD mice. PMID:25332429

  15. Differences in the Expression of TLR-2, NOD2, and NF-κB in Placenta Between Twins.

    PubMed

    Szylberg, Łukasz; Bodnar, Magdalena; Lebioda, Anna; Krepska, Patrycja; Kowalewski, Adam; Bręborowicz, Grzegorz; Marszałek, Andrzej

    2018-05-23

    Dizygotic twins share the same type of genetic relationship as non-twin siblings. Whereas monozygotic (MZ) twins are considered to have identical genetic material, they still differ. There is a number of reasons for early MZ twin discordance, including differences in the in utero environment, stochasticity, genetic mosaicism, and epigenetic factors. During gestation, the efficient innate immune system is of utmost importance. Our study was based on immunohistochemical evaluation of the differences in innate immune protein expression (TLR-2, NOD2, and NF-κB) in the 95 placentas between twins. Our study revealed statistical significant differences between diamniotic-dichorionic and monoamniotic-dichorionic twins. Monoamniotic-monochorionic twins exhibited no significant differences in protein expressions. To identify epigenetic factors causing the differences between twins, we made a series of comparisons with clinical data. The study revealed more cases with infections, miscarriages, in vitro fertilization, and premature rupture of membranes within the group with higher differences level of NF-κB, NOD2 and TLR-2 between twins. In case of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome, there were no significant differences in innate immune protein expressions between twins. These results show that dissimilar genetic material and separate in utero environment promote discordance in innate immune protein expressions between twins. Moreover, additional blood flow between twins may be favorable in life-threatening conditions ensuring similar microenvironment.

  16. Structures of NodZ [alpha]1,6-fucosyltransferase in complex with GDP and GDP-fucose

    SciTech Connect

    Brzezinski, Krzysztof; Dauter, Zbigniew; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    Rhizobial NodZ {alpha}1,6-fucosyltransferase ({alpha}1,6-FucT) catalyzes the transfer of the fucose (Fuc) moiety from guanosine 5'-diphosphate-{beta}-L-fucose to the reducing end of the chitin oligosaccharide core during Nod-factor (NF) biosynthesis. NF is a key signaling molecule required for successful symbiosis with a legume host for atmospheric nitrogen fixation. To date, only two {alpha}1,6-FucT structures have been determined, both without any donor or acceptor molecule that could highlight the structural background of the catalytic mechanism. Here, the first crystal structures of {alpha}1,6-FucT in complex with its substrate GDP-Fuc and with GDP, which is a byproduct of the enzymatic reaction, are presented. The crystalmore » of the complex with GDP-Fuc was obtained through soaking of native NodZ crystals with the ligand and its structure has been determined at 2.35 {angstrom} resolution. The fucose residue is exposed to solvent and is disordered. The enzyme-product complex crystal was obtained by cocrystallization with GDP and an acceptor molecule, penta-N-acetyl-L-glucosamine (penta-NAG). The structure has been determined at 1.98 {angstrom} resolution, showing that only the GDP molecule is present in the complex. In both structures the ligands are located in a cleft formed between the two domains of NodZ and extend towards the C-terminal domain, but their conformations differ significantly. The structures revealed that residues in three regions of the C-terminal domain, which are conserved among {alpha}1,2-, {alpha}1,6- and protein O-fucosyltransferases, are involved in interactions with the sugar-donor molecule. There is also an interaction with the side chain of Tyr45 in the N-terminal domain, which is very unusual for a GT-B-type glycosyltransferase. Only minor conformational changes of the protein backbone are observed upon ligand binding. The only exception is a movement of the loop located between strand {beta}C2 and helix {alpha}C3. In addition

  17. Structures of NodZ α1,6-fucosyltransferase in complex with GDP and GDP-fucose

    PubMed Central

    Brzezinski, Krzysztof; Dauter, Zbigniew; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2012-01-01

    Rhizobial NodZ α1,6-fucosyltransferase (α1,6-FucT) catalyzes the transfer of the fucose (Fuc) moiety from guanosine 5′-­diphosphate-β-l-fucose to the reducing end of the chitin oligosaccharide core during Nod-factor (NF) biosynthesis. NF is a key signalling molecule required for successful symbiosis with a legume host for atmospheric nitrogen fixation. To date, only two α1,6-FucT structures have been determined, both without any donor or acceptor molecule that could highlight the structural background of the catalytic mechanism. Here, the first crystal structures of α1,6-FucT in complex with its substrate GDP-Fuc and with GDP, which is a byproduct of the enzymatic reaction, are presented. The crystal of the complex with GDP-Fuc was obtained through soaking of native NodZ crystals with the ligand and its structure has been determined at 2.35 Å resolution. The fucose residue is exposed to solvent and is disordered. The enzyme–product complex crystal was obtained by cocrystallization with GDP and an acceptor molecule, penta-N-acetyl-l-­glucosamine (penta-NAG). The structure has been determined at 1.98 Å resolution, showing that only the GDP molecule is present in the complex. In both structures the ligands are located in a cleft formed between the two domains of NodZ and extend towards the C-terminal domain, but their conformations differ significantly. The structures revealed that residues in three regions of the C-­terminal domain, which are conserved among α1,2-, α1,6- and protein O-fucosyltransferases, are involved in interactions with the sugar-donor molecule. There is also an interaction with the side chain of Tyr45 in the N-terminal domain, which is very unusual for a GT-B-type glycosyltransferase. Only minor conformational changes of the protein backbone are observed upon ligand binding. The only exception is a movement of the loop located between strand βC2 and helix αC3. In addition, there is a shift of the αC3 helix itself upon GDP

  18. Structures of NodZ α1,6-fucosyltransferase in complex with GDP and GDP-fucose.

    PubMed

    Brzezinski, Krzysztof; Dauter, Zbigniew; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2012-02-01

    Rhizobial NodZ α1,6-fucosyltransferase (α1,6-FucT) catalyzes the transfer of the fucose (Fuc) moiety from guanosine 5'-diphosphate-β-L-fucose to the reducing end of the chitin oligosaccharide core during Nod-factor (NF) biosynthesis. NF is a key signalling molecule required for successful symbiosis with a legume host for atmospheric nitrogen fixation. To date, only two α1,6-FucT structures have been determined, both without any donor or acceptor molecule that could highlight the structural background of the catalytic mechanism. Here, the first crystal structures of α1,6-FucT in complex with its substrate GDP-Fuc and with GDP, which is a byproduct of the enzymatic reaction, are presented. The crystal of the complex with GDP-Fuc was obtained through soaking of native NodZ crystals with the ligand and its structure has been determined at 2.35 Å resolution. The fucose residue is exposed to solvent and is disordered. The enzyme-product complex crystal was obtained by cocrystallization with GDP and an acceptor molecule, penta-N-acetyl-L-glucosamine (penta-NAG). The structure has been determined at 1.98 Å resolution, showing that only the GDP molecule is present in the complex. In both structures the ligands are located in a cleft formed between the two domains of NodZ and extend towards the C-terminal domain, but their conformations differ significantly. The structures revealed that residues in three regions of the C-terminal domain, which are conserved among α1,2-, α1,6- and protein O-fucosyltransferases, are involved in interactions with the sugar-donor molecule. There is also an interaction with the side chain of Tyr45 in the N-terminal domain, which is very unusual for a GT-B-type glycosyltransferase. Only minor conformational changes of the protein backbone are observed upon ligand binding. The only exception is a movement of the loop located between strand βC2 and helix αC3. In addition, there is a shift of the αC3 helix itself upon GDP

  19. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) activation induces apoptosis of human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyo-Eun; Ahn, Mee-Young; Kwon, Seong-Min; Kim, Dong-Jae; Lee, Jun; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2016-04-01

    Microbial Pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), such as nucleotide-binding oligomerization domains (NODs), are essential for mammalian innate immune response. This study was designed to determine the effect of NOD1 and NOD2 agonist on innate immune responses and antitumor activity in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells. NODs expression was examined by RT-PCR, and IL-8 production by NODs agonist was examined by ELISA. Western blot analysis was performed to determine the MAPK activation in response to their agonist. Cell proliferation was determined by MTT assay. Flow cytometry and Western blot analysis were performed to determine the MDP-induced cell death. The levels of NODs were apparently expressed in OSCC cells. NODs agonist, Tri-DAP and MDP, led to the production of IL-8 and MAPK activation. NOD2 agonist, MDP, inhibited the proliferation of YD-10B cells in a dose-dependent manner. Also, the ratio of Annexin V-positive cells and cleaved PARP was increased by MDP treatment in YD-10B cells, suggesting that MDP-induced cell death in YD-10B cells may be owing to apoptosis. Our results indicate that NODs are functionally expressed in OSCC cells and can trigger innate immune responses. In addition, NOD2 agonist inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis. These findings provide the potential value of MDP as novel candidates for antitumor agents of OSCC. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The molecular chaperone HSP70 binds to and stabilizes NOD2, an important protein involved in Crohn disease.

    PubMed

    Mohanan, Vishnu; Grimes, Catherine Leimkuhler

    2014-07-04

    Microbes are detected by the pathogen-associated molecular patterns through specific host pattern recognition receptors. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) is an intracellular pattern recognition receptor that recognizes fragments of the bacterial cell wall. NOD2 is important to human biology; when it is mutated it loses the ability to respond properly to bacterial cell wall fragments. To determine the mechanisms of misactivation in the NOD2 Crohn mutants, we developed a cell-based system to screen for protein-protein interactors of NOD2. We identified heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) as a protein interactor of both wild type and Crohn mutant NOD2. HSP70 has previously been linked to inflammation, especially in the regulation of anti-inflammatory molecules. Induced HSP70 expression in cells increased the response of NOD2 to bacterial cell wall fragments. In addition, an HSP70 inhibitor, KNK437, was capable of decreasing NOD2-mediated NF-κB activation in response to bacterial cell wall stimulation. We found HSP70 to regulate the half-life of NOD2, as increasing the HSP70 level in cells increased the half-life of NOD2, and down-regulating HSP70 decreased the half-life of NOD2. The expression levels of the Crohn-associated NOD2 variants were less compared with wild type. The overexpression of HSP70 significantly increased NOD2 levels as well as the signaling capacity of the mutants. Thus, our study shows that restoring the stability of the NOD2 Crohn mutants is sufficient for rescuing the ability of these mutations to signal the presence of a bacterial cell wall ligand. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. The Molecular Chaperone HSP70 Binds to and Stabilizes NOD2, an Important Protein Involved in Crohn Disease*

    PubMed Central

    Mohanan, Vishnu; Grimes, Catherine Leimkuhler

    2014-01-01

    Microbes are detected by the pathogen-associated molecular patterns through specific host pattern recognition receptors. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) is an intracellular pattern recognition receptor that recognizes fragments of the bacterial cell wall. NOD2 is important to human biology; when it is mutated it loses the ability to respond properly to bacterial cell wall fragments. To determine the mechanisms of misactivation in the NOD2 Crohn mutants, we developed a cell-based system to screen for protein-protein interactors of NOD2. We identified heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) as a protein interactor of both wild type and Crohn mutant NOD2. HSP70 has previously been linked to inflammation, especially in the regulation of anti-inflammatory molecules. Induced HSP70 expression in cells increased the response of NOD2 to bacterial cell wall fragments. In addition, an HSP70 inhibitor, KNK437, was capable of decreasing NOD2-mediated NF-κB activation in response to bacterial cell wall stimulation. We found HSP70 to regulate the half-life of NOD2, as increasing the HSP70 level in cells increased the half-life of NOD2, and down-regulating HSP70 decreased the half-life of NOD2. The expression levels of the Crohn-associated NOD2 variants were less compared with wild type. The overexpression of HSP70 significantly increased NOD2 levels as well as the signaling capacity of the mutants. Thus, our study shows that restoring the stability of the NOD2 Crohn mutants is sufficient for rescuing the ability of these mutations to signal the presence of a bacterial cell wall ligand. PMID:24790089

  2. Human NOD2 Recognizes Structurally Unique Muramyl Dipeptides from Mycobacterium leprae

    PubMed Central

    Schenk, Mirjam; Mahapatra, Sebabrata; Le, Phuonganh; Kim, Hee Jin; Choi, Aaron W.; Brennan, Patrick J.; Belisle, John T.

    2016-01-01

    The innate immune system recognizes microbial pathogens via pattern recognition receptors. One such receptor, NOD2, via recognition of muramyl dipeptide (MDP), triggers a distinct network of innate immune responses, including the production of interleukin-32 (IL-32), which leads to the differentiation of monocytes into dendritic cells (DC). NOD2 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of human leprosy, yet it is not clear whether Mycobacterium leprae, which has a distinct MDP structure, can activate this pathway. We investigated the effect of MDP structure on the innate immune response, finding that infection of monocytes with M. leprae induces IL-32 and DC differentiation in a NOD2-dependent manner. The presence of the proximal l-Ala instead of Gly in the common configuration of the peptide side chain of M. leprae did not affect recognition by NOD2 or cytokine production. Furthermore, amidation of the d-Glu residue did not alter NOD2 activation. These data provide experimental evidence that NOD2 recognizes naturally occurring structural variants of MDP. PMID:27297389

  3. Human NOD2 Recognizes Structurally Unique Muramyl Dipeptides from Mycobacterium leprae.

    PubMed

    Schenk, Mirjam; Mahapatra, Sebabrata; Le, Phuonganh; Kim, Hee Jin; Choi, Aaron W; Brennan, Patrick J; Belisle, John T; Modlin, Robert L

    2016-09-01

    The innate immune system recognizes microbial pathogens via pattern recognition receptors. One such receptor, NOD2, via recognition of muramyl dipeptide (MDP), triggers a distinct network of innate immune responses, including the production of interleukin-32 (IL-32), which leads to the differentiation of monocytes into dendritic cells (DC). NOD2 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of human leprosy, yet it is not clear whether Mycobacterium leprae, which has a distinct MDP structure, can activate this pathway. We investigated the effect of MDP structure on the innate immune response, finding that infection of monocytes with M. leprae induces IL-32 and DC differentiation in a NOD2-dependent manner. The presence of the proximal l-Ala instead of Gly in the common configuration of the peptide side chain of M. leprae did not affect recognition by NOD2 or cytokine production. Furthermore, amidation of the d-Glu residue did not alter NOD2 activation. These data provide experimental evidence that NOD2 recognizes naturally occurring structural variants of MDP. Copyright © 2016 Schenk et al.

  4. The Tandem CARDs of NOD2: Intramolecular Interactions and Recognition of RIP2

    PubMed Central

    Fridh, Veronica; Rittinger, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Caspase recruitment domains (CARDs) are homotypic protein interaction modules that link the stimulus-dependent assembly of large signaling platforms such as inflammasomes to the activation of downstream effectors that often include caspases and kinases and thereby play an important role in the regulation of inflammatory and apoptotic signaling pathways. NOD2 belongs to the NOD-like (NLR) family of intracellular pattern recognition receptors (PRR) and induces activation of the NF-κB pathway in response to the recognition of bacterial components. This process requires the specific recognition of the CARD of the protein kinase RIP2 by the tandem CARDs of NOD2. Here we demonstrate that the tandem CARDs of NOD2 are engaged in an intramolecular interaction that is important for the structural stability of this region. Using a combination of ITC and pull-down experiments we identify distinct surface areas that are involved in the intramolecular tandem CARD interaction and the interaction with the downstream effector RIP2. Our findings indicate that while CARDa of NOD2 might be the primary binding partner of RIP2 the two CARDs of NOD2 do not act independently of one another but may cooperate to from a binding surface that is distinct from that of single CARDs. PMID:22470564

  5. NOD1 is required for Helicobacter pylori induction of IL-33 responses in gastric epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tran, Le Son; Tran, Darren; De Paoli, Amanda; D'Costa, Kimberley; Creed, Sarah J; Ng, Garrett Z; Le, Lena; Sutton, Philip; Silke, J; Nachbur, U; Ferrero, Richard L

    2018-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) causes chronic inflammation which is a key precursor to gastric carcinogenesis. It has been suggested that H. pylori may limit this immunopathology by inducing the production of interleukin 33 (IL-33) in gastric epithelial cells, thus promoting T helper 2 immune responses. The molecular mechanism underlying IL-33 production in response to H. pylori infection, however, remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that H. pylori activates signalling via the pathogen recognition molecule Nucleotide-Binding Oligomerisation Domain-Containing Protein 1 (NOD1) and its adaptor protein receptor-interacting serine-threonine Kinase 2, to promote production of both full-length and processed IL-33 in gastric epithelial cells. Furthermore, IL-33 responses were dependent on the actions of the H. pylori Type IV secretion system, required for activation of the NOD1 pathway, as well as on the Type IV secretion system effector protein, CagA. Importantly, Nod1 +/+ mice with chronic H. pylori infection exhibited significantly increased gastric IL-33 and splenic IL-13 responses, but decreased IFN-γ responses, when compared with Nod1 -/- animals. Collectively, our data identify NOD1 as an important regulator of mucosal IL-33 responses in H. pylori infection. We suggest that NOD1 may play a role in protection against excessive inflammation. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Gut microbial markers are associated with diabetes onset, regulatory imbalance, and IFN-γ level in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Krych, Ł; Nielsen, D S; Hansen, A K; Hansen, C H F

    2015-01-01

    Gut microbiota regulated imbalances in the host's immune profile seem to be an important factor in the etiology of type 1 diabetes (T1D), and identifying bacterial markers for T1D may therefore be useful in diagnosis and prevention of T1D. The aim of the present study was to investigate the link between the early gut microbiota and immune parameters of non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice in order to select alleged bacterial markers of T1D. Gut microbial composition in feces was analyzed with 454/FLX Titanium (Roche) pyro-sequencing and correlated with diabetes onset age and immune cell populations measured in diabetic and non-diabetic mice at 30 weeks of age. The early gut microbiota composition was found to be different between NOD mice that later in life were classified as diabetic or non-diabetic. Those differences were further associated with changes in FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells, CD11b(+) dendritic cells, and IFN-γ production. The model proposed in this work suggests that operational taxonomic units classified to S24-7, Prevotella, and an unknown Bacteriodales (all Bacteroidetes) act in favor of diabetes protection whereas members of Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcus, and Oscillospira (all Firmicutes) promote pathogenesis.

  7. NOD2 and TLR2 ligands trigger the activation of basophils and eosinophils by interacting with dermal fibroblasts in atopic dermatitis-like skin inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Delong; Wong, Chun-Kwok; Qiu, Huai-Na; Dong, Jie; Cai, Zhe; Chu, Man; Hon, Kam-Lun; Tsang, Miranda Sin-Man; Lam, Christopher Wai-Kei

    2016-01-01

    The skin of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) has a unique predisposition for colonization by Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), which contributes to the inflammation and grim prognosis of AD. Although the mechanism underlying the S. aureus-induced exacerbation of AD remains unclear, recent studies have found a pivotal role for pattern recognition receptors in regulating the inflammatory responses in S. aureus infection. In the present study, we used a typical mouse model of AD-like skin inflammation and found that S. aureus-associated nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) and toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) ligands exacerbated AD-like symptoms, which were further deteriorated by the in vivo expansion of basophils and eosinophils. Subsequent histological analyses revealed that dermal fibroblasts were pervasive in the AD-like skin lesions. Co-culture of human dermal fibroblasts with basophils and eosinophils resulted in a vigorous cytokine/chemokine response to the NOD2/TLR2 ligands and the enhanced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 on the dermal fibroblasts. Basophils and eosinophils were primarily responsible for the AD-related cytokine/chemokine expression in the co-cultures. Direct intercellular contact was necessary for the crosstalk between basophils and dermal fibroblasts, while soluble mediators were sufficient to mediate the eosinophil–fibroblast interactions. Moreover, the intracellular p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathways were essential for NOD2/TLR2 ligand-mediated activation of basophils, eosinophils, and dermal fibroblasts in AD-related inflammation. This study provides the evidence of NOD2/TLR2-mediated exacerbation of AD through activation of innate immune cells and therefore sheds light on a novel mechanistic pathway by which S. aureus contributes to the pathophysiology of AD. PMID:26388234

  8. Troxerutin Attenuates Enhancement of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis by Inhibiting NOD Activation-Mediated Inflammation in High-Fat Diet-Treated Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zifeng; Wang, Xin; Zheng, Guihong; Shan, Qun; Lu, Jun; Fan, Shaohua; Sun, Chunhui; Wu, Dongmei; Zhang, Cheng; Su, Weitong; Sui, Junwen; Zheng, Yuanlin

    2016-12-25

    Recent evidence suggests that troxerutin, a trihydroxyethylated derivative of natural bioflavonoid rutin, exhibits beneficial effects on diabetes-related symptoms. Here we investigated the effects of troxerutin on the enhancement of hepatic gluconeogenesis in high-fat diet (HFD)-treated mice and the mechanisms underlying these effects. Mice were divided into four groups: Control group, HFD group, HFD + Troxerutin group, and Troxerutin group. Troxerutin was treated by daily oral administration at doses of 150 mg/kg/day for 20 weeks. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) was used to inhibit endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress). Our results showed that troxerutin effectively improved obesity and related metabolic parameters, and liver injuries in HFD-treated mouse. Furthermore, troxerutin significantly attenuated enhancement of hepatic gluconeogenesis in HFD-fed mouse. Moreover, troxerutin notably suppressed nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 transcriptional activation and release of inflammatory cytokines in HFD-treated mouse livers. Mechanismly, troxerutin dramatically decreased Nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD) expression, as well as interaction between NOD1/2 with interacting protein-2 (RIP2), by abating oxidative stress-induced ER stress in HFD-treated mouse livers, which was confirmed by TUDCA treatment. These improvement effects of troxerutin on hepatic glucose disorders might be mediated by its anti-obesity effect. In conclusion, troxerutin markedly diminished HFD-induced enhancement of hepatic gluconeogenesis via its inhibitory effects on ER stress-mediated NOD activation and consequent inflammation, which might be mediated by its anti-obesity effect.

  9. Troxerutin Attenuates Enhancement of Hepatic Gluconeogenesis by Inhibiting NOD Activation-Mediated Inflammation in High-Fat Diet-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zifeng; Wang, Xin; Zheng, Guihong; Shan, Qun; Lu, Jun; Fan, Shaohua; Sun, Chunhui; Wu, Dongmei; Zhang, Cheng; Su, Weitong; Sui, Junwen; Zheng, Yuanlin

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that troxerutin, a trihydroxyethylated derivative of natural bioflavonoid rutin, exhibits beneficial effects on diabetes-related symptoms. Here we investigated the effects of troxerutin on the enhancement of hepatic gluconeogenesis in high-fat diet (HFD)-treated mice and the mechanisms underlying these effects. Mice were divided into four groups: Control group, HFD group, HFD + Troxerutin group, and Troxerutin group. Troxerutin was treated by daily oral administration at doses of 150 mg/kg/day for 20 weeks. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) was used to inhibit endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress). Our results showed that troxerutin effectively improved obesity and related metabolic parameters, and liver injuries in HFD-treated mouse. Furthermore, troxerutin significantly attenuated enhancement of hepatic gluconeogenesis in HFD-fed mouse. Moreover, troxerutin notably suppressed nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 transcriptional activation and release of inflammatory cytokines in HFD-treated mouse livers. Mechanismly, troxerutin dramatically decreased Nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD) expression, as well as interaction between NOD1/2 with interacting protein-2 (RIP2), by abating oxidative stress-induced ER stress in HFD-treated mouse livers, which was confirmed by TUDCA treatment. These improvement effects of troxerutin on hepatic glucose disorders might be mediated by its anti-obesity effect. In conclusion, troxerutin markedly diminished HFD-induced enhancement of hepatic gluconeogenesis via its inhibitory effects on ER stress-mediated NOD activation and consequent inflammation, which might be mediated by its anti-obesity effect. PMID:28029143

  10. Nod-like receptor protein 1 inflammasome mediates neuron injury under high glucose.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xian-Fang; Wang, Xiao-Lan; Tian, Xiu-Juan; Yang, Zhi-Hua; Chu, Guang-Pin; Zhang, Jing; Li, Man; Shi, Jing; Zhang, Chun

    2014-04-01

    Diabetic encephalopathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes. Inflammatory events during diabetes may be an important mechanism of diabetic encephalopathy. Inflammasome is a multiprotein complex consisting of Nod-like receptor proteins (NLRPs), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC), and caspase 1 or 5, which functions to switch on the inflammatory process and the release of inflammatory factors. The present study hypothesized that the formation and activation of NLRP1 inflammasome turns on neuroinflammation and neuron injury during hyperglycemia. The results demonstrated that the levels of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) were increased in the cortex of streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. The levels of mature IL-1β and IL-18 were also elevated in culture medium of neurons treated with high glucose (50 mM). The expression of three essential components of the NLRP1 inflammasome complex, namely, NLRP1, ASC, and caspase 1, was also upregulated in vivo and in vitro under high glucose. Silencing the ASC gene prevented the caspase-1 activation, and inhibiting caspase 1 activity blocked hyperglycemia-induced release of inflammatory factors and neuron injury. Moreover, we found that pannexin 1 mediated the actvitation of NLRP1 inflammasome under high glucose. These results suggest that hyperglycemia induces neuroinflammation through activation of NLRP1 inflammasome, which represents a novel mechanism of diabetes-associated neuron injury.

  11. Critical role of IFN-gamma in CFA-mediated protection of NOD mice from diabetes development.

    PubMed

    Mori, Yoshiko; Kodaka, Tetsuro; Kato, Takako; Kanagawa, Edith M; Kanagawa, Osami

    2009-11-01

    IFN-gamma signaling-deficient non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice develop diabetes with similar kinetics to those of wild-type NOD mice. However, the immunization of IFN-gamma signaling-deficient NOD mice with CFA failed to induce long-term protection, whereas wild-type NOD mice receiving CFA remained diabetes-free. CFA also failed to protect IFN-gamma receptor-deficient (IFN-gammaR(-/-)) NOD mice from the autoimmune rejection of transplanted islets, as it does in diabetic NOD mice, and from disease transfer by spleen cells from diabetic NOD mice. These data clearly show that the pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-gamma is necessary for the CFA-mediated protection of NOD mice from diabetes. There is no difference in the T(h)1/T(h)17 balance between IFN-gammaR(-/-) NOD and wild-type NOD mice. There is also no difference in the total numbers and percentages of regulatory T (Treg) cells in the lymph node CD4(+) T-cell populations between IFN-gammaR(-/-) NOD and wild-type NOD mice. However, pathogenic T cells lacking IFN-gammaR are resistant to the suppressive effect of Treg cells, both in vivo and in vitro. Therefore, it is likely that CFA-mediated protection against diabetes development depends on a change in the balance between Treg cells and pathogenic T cells, and IFN-gamma signaling seems to control the susceptibility of pathogenic T cells to the inhibitory activity of Treg cells.

  12. Nucleotide-oligomerizing domain-1 (NOD1) receptor activation induces pro-inflammatory responses and autophagy in human alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Juárez, Esmeralda; Carranza, Claudia; Hernández-Sánchez, Fernando; Loyola, Elva; Escobedo, Dante; León-Contreras, Juan Carlos; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Torres, Martha; Sada, Eduardo

    2014-09-25

    Nucleotide-binding oligomerizing domain-1 (NOD1) is a cytoplasmic receptor involved in recognizing bacterial peptidoglycan fragments that localize to the cytosol. NOD1 activation triggers inflammation, antimicrobial mechanisms and autophagy in both epithelial cells and murine macrophages. NOD1 mediates intracellular pathogen clearance in the lungs of mice; however, little is known about NOD1's role in human alveolar macrophages (AMs) or its involvement in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. AMs, monocytes (MNs), and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) from healthy subjects were assayed for NOD1 expression. Cells were stimulated with the NOD1 ligand Tri-DAP and cytokine production and autophagy were assessed. Cells were infected with Mtb and treated with Tri-DAP post-infection. CFUs counting determined growth control, and autophagy protein recruitment to pathogen localization sites was analyzed by immunoelectron microscopy. NOD1 was expressed in AMs, MDMs and to a lesser extent MNs. Tri-DAP stimulation induced NOD1 up-regulation and a significant production of IL1β, IL6, IL8, and TNFα in AMs and MDMs; however, the level of NOD1-dependent response in MNs was limited. Autophagy activity determined by expression of proteins Atg9, LC3, IRGM and p62 degradation was induced in a NOD1-dependent manner in AMs and MDMs but not in MNs. Infected AMs could be activated by stimulation with Tri-DAP to control the intracellular growth of Mtb. In addition, recruitment of NOD1 and the autophagy proteins IRGM and LC3 to the Mtb localization site was observed in infected AMs after treatment with Tri-DAP. NOD1 is involved in AM and MDM innate responses, which include proinflammatory cytokines and autophagy, with potential implications in the killing of Mtb in humans.

  13. Rhizobial Nodulation Factors Stimulate Mycorrhizal Colonization of Nodulating and Nonnodulating Soybeans.

    PubMed

    Xie, Z. P.; Staehelin, C.; Vierheilig, H.; Wiemken, A.; Jabbouri, S.; Broughton, W. J.; Vogeli-Lange, R.; Boller, T.

    1995-08-01

    Legumes form tripartite symbiotic associations with noduleinducing rhizobia and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Co-inoculation of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) roots with Bradyrhizobium japonicum 61-A-101 considerably enhanced colonization by the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae. A similar stimulatory effect on mycorrhizal colonization was also observed in nonnodulating soybean mutants when inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and in wild-type soybean plants when inoculated with ineffective rhizobial strains, indicating that a functional rhizobial symbiosis is not necessary for enhanced mycorrhiza formation. Inoculation with the mutant Rhizobium sp. NGR[delta]nodABC, unable to produce nodulation (Nod) factors, did not show any effect on mycorrhiza. Highly purified Nod factors also increased the degree of mycorrhizal colonization. Nod factors from Rhizobium sp. NGR234 differed in their potential to promote fungal colonization. The acetylated factor NodNGR-V (MeFuc, Ac), added at concentrations as low as 10-9 M, was active, whereas the sulfated factor, NodNGR-V (MeFuc, S), was inactive. Several soybean flavonoids known to accumulate in response to the acetylated Nod factor showed a similar promoting effect on mycorrhiza. These results suggest that plant flavonoids mediate the Nod factor-induced stimulation of mycorrhizal colonization in soybean roots.

  14. Rhizobial Nodulation Factors Stimulate Mycorrhizal Colonization of Nodulating and Nonnodulating Soybeans.

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Z. P.; Staehelin, C.; Vierheilig, H.; Wiemken, A.; Jabbouri, S.; Broughton, W. J.; Vogeli-Lange, R.; Boller, T.

    1995-01-01

    Legumes form tripartite symbiotic associations with noduleinducing rhizobia and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Co-inoculation of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) roots with Bradyrhizobium japonicum 61-A-101 considerably enhanced colonization by the mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae. A similar stimulatory effect on mycorrhizal colonization was also observed in nonnodulating soybean mutants when inoculated with Bradyrhizobium japonicum and in wild-type soybean plants when inoculated with ineffective rhizobial strains, indicating that a functional rhizobial symbiosis is not necessary for enhanced mycorrhiza formation. Inoculation with the mutant Rhizobium sp. NGR[delta]nodABC, unable to produce nodulation (Nod) factors, did not show any effect on mycorrhiza. Highly purified Nod factors also increased the degree of mycorrhizal colonization. Nod factors from Rhizobium sp. NGR234 differed in their potential to promote fungal colonization. The acetylated factor NodNGR-V (MeFuc, Ac), added at concentrations as low as 10-9 M, was active, whereas the sulfated factor, NodNGR-V (MeFuc, S), was inactive. Several soybean flavonoids known to accumulate in response to the acetylated Nod factor showed a similar promoting effect on mycorrhiza. These results suggest that plant flavonoids mediate the Nod factor-induced stimulation of mycorrhizal colonization in soybean roots. PMID:12228558

  15. Reevaluation of the major histocompatibility complex genes of the NOD-progenitor CTS/Shi strain.

    PubMed

    Mathews, C E; Graser, R T; Serreze, D V; Leiter, E H

    2000-01-01

    The common Kd and/or Db alleles of NOD mice contribute to the development of autoimmune diabetes, but their respective contributions are unresolved. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) of the CTS/Shi mouse, originally designated as H2ct, shares MHC class II region identity with the H2g7 haplotype of NOD mice. However, CTS mice were reported to express distinct but undefined MHC class I gene products. Because diabetes frequency was reduced 56% in females of a NOD stock congenic for H2ct, this partial resistance may have derived from the MHC class I allelic differences. In the present report, we use a combination of serologic analysis and sequencing of MHC class I cDNAs to establish that NOD/Lt and CTS/Shi share a common H2-Kd allele but differ at the H2-D end of the MHC complex. The H2-D allele of CTS/Shi was identified as the rare H2-Ddx recently described in ALR/Lt, another NOD-related strain. These results in mouse model systems show that multiple MHC genes confer diabetes resistance and suggest that at least one of the protective MHC or MHC-linked genes in CTS mice may be at the H2-D end of the complex.

  16. NOD2 enhances the innate response of alveolar macrophages to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in humans.

    PubMed

    Juárez, Esmeralda; Carranza, Claudia; Hernández-Sánchez, Fernando; León-Contreras, Juan C; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Escobedo, Dante; Torres, Martha; Sada, Eduardo

    2012-04-01

    A role for the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) receptor in pulmonary innate immune responses has recently been explored. In the present study, we investigated the role that NOD2 plays in human alveolar macrophage innate responses and determined its involvement in the response to infection with virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Our results showed that NOD2 was expressed in human alveolar macrophages, and significant amounts of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α were produced upon ligand recognition with muramyldipeptide (MDP). NOD2 ligation induced the transcription and protein expression of the antimicrobial peptide LL37 and the autophagy enzyme IRGM in alveolar macrophages, demonstrating a novel function for this receptor in these cells. MDP treatment of alveolar macrophages improved the intracellular growth control of virulent M. tuberculosis; this was associated with a significant release of TNF-α and IL-6 and overexpression of bactericidal LL37. In addition, the autophagy proteins IRGM, LC3 and ATG16L1 were recruited to the bacteria-containing autophagosome after treatment with MDP. In conclusion, our results suggest that NOD2 can modulate the innate immune response of alveolar macrophages and play a role in the initial control of respiratory M. tuberculosis infections. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Antibiotic-associated Manipulation of the Gut Microbiota and Phenotypic Restoration in NOD Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, James R; Lyons, Bonnie L; Olekszak, Haiyan L; Mourino, Anthony J; Ratiu, Jeremy J; Racine, Jeremy J; Chapman, Harold D; Serreze, David V; Baker, Dina L; Hendrix, N Ken

    2017-01-01

    Segmented filamentous bacterium (SFB) a gram-positive, anaerobic, and intestinal commensal organism directly influences the development of Th17 helper cells in the small intestine of mice. In NOD mice, SFB colonization interferes with the development of type 1 diabetes (T1D), a T-cell–mediated autoimmune disease, suggesting that SFB may influence Th17 cells to inhibit Th1 populations associated with the anti-β-cell immune response. This effect is a serious concern for investigators who use NOD mice for diabetes research because the expected incidence of disease decreases markedly when they are colonized by SFB. A room housing mice for T1D studies at The Jackson Laboratory was determined by fecal PCR testing to have widespread SFB colonization of multiple NOD strains after a steady decline in the incidence of T1D was noted. Rederivation of all NOD-related mouse strains was not feasible; therefore an alternative treatment using antibiotics to eliminate SFB from colonized mice was undertaken. After antibiotic treatment, soiled bedding from NOD mouse strains housed in SFB-free high-health–status production barrier rooms was used to reintroduce the gastrointestinal microbiota. Over the past 16 mo since treating the mice and disinfecting the mouse room, regular PCR testing has shown that no additional SFB colonization of mice has occurred, and the expected incidence of T1D has been reestablished in the offspring of treated mice. PMID:28830580

  18. Similar call signs

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-08-18

    This presentation was given at the Partnership for Safety Meeting in Washington, DC. It examines the similarities that are found when calls signs are visually similar or similar sounding. Visually similar call signs increase the chances of controller...

  19. Isoliquiritigenin, a strong nod gene- and glyceollin resistance-inducing flavonoid from soybean root exudate.

    PubMed

    Kape, R; Parniske, M; Brandt, S; Werner, D

    1992-05-01

    Isoflavonoid signal molecules from soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) seed and root exudate induce the transcription of nodulation (nod) genes in Bradyrhizobium japonicum. In this study, a new compound with symbiotic activity was isolated from soybean root exudate. The isolated 2',4',4-trihydroxychalcone (isoliquiritigenin) is characterized by its strong inducing activity for the nod genes of B. japonicum. These genes are already induced at concentrations 1 order of magnitude below those required of the previously described isoflavonoid inducers genistein and daidzein. Isoliquiritigenin is also a potent inducer of glyceollin resistance in B. japonicum, which renders this bacterium insensitive to potentially bactericidal concentrations of glyceollin, the phytoalexin of G. max. No chemotactic effect of isoliquiritigenin was observed. The highly efficient induction of nod genes and glyceollin resistance by isoliquiritigenin suggests the ecological significance of this compound, although it is not a major flavonoid constituent of the soybean root exudate in quantitative terms.

  20. Research on CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pederson, Kathleen Marshall

    The status of research on computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is explored beginning with a historical perspective of research on the language laboratory, followed by analyses of applied research on CALL. A theoretical base is provided to illustrate the need for more basic research on CALL that considers computer capabilities, learner…

  1. Transcriptomic Studies of the Effect of nod Gene-Inducing Molecules in Rhizobia: Different Weapons, One Purpose

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez-Guerrero, Irene; Acosta-Jurado, Sebastián; Navarro-Gómez, Pilar; López-Baena, Francisco Javier; Ollero, Francisco Javier

    2017-01-01

    Simultaneous quantification of transcripts of the whole bacterial genome allows the analysis of the global transcriptional response under changing conditions. RNA-seq and microarrays are the most used techniques to measure these transcriptomic changes, and both complement each other in transcriptome profiling. In this review, we exhaustively compiled the symbiosis-related transcriptomic reports (microarrays and RNA sequencing) carried out hitherto in rhizobia. This review is specially focused on transcriptomic changes that takes place when five rhizobial species, Bradyrhizobium japonicum (=diazoefficiens) USDA 110, Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae 3841, Rhizobium tropici CIAT 899, Sinorhizobium (=Ensifer) meliloti 1021 and S. fredii HH103, recognize inducing flavonoids, plant-exuded phenolic compounds that activate the biosynthesis and export of Nod factors (NF) in all analysed rhizobia. Interestingly, our global transcriptomic comparison also indicates that each rhizobial species possesses its own arsenal of molecular weapons accompanying the set of NF in order to establish a successful interaction with host legumes. PMID:29267254

  2. Cutaneous Nod2 Expression Regulates the Skin Microbiome and Wound Healing in a Murine Model.

    PubMed

    Williams, Helen; Crompton, Rachel A; Thomason, Helen A; Campbell, Laura; Singh, Gurdeep; McBain, Andrew J; Cruickshank, Sheena M; Hardman, Matthew J

    2017-11-01

    The skin microbiome exists in dynamic equilibrium with the host, but when the skin is compromised, bacteria can colonize the wound and impair wound healing. Thus, the interplay between normal skin microbial interactions versus pathogenic microbial interactions in wound repair is important. Bacteria are recognized by innate host pattern recognition receptors, and we previously showed an important role for the pattern recognition receptor NOD2 in skin wound repair. NOD2 is implicated in changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota in Crohn's disease, but its role on skin microbiota is unknown. Nod2-deficient (Nod2 -/- ) mice had an inherently altered skin microbiome compared with wild-type controls. Furthermore, we found that Nod2 -/- skin microbiome dominated and caused impaired healing, shown in cross-fostering experiments of wild-type pups with Nod2 -/- pups, which then acquired altered cutaneous bacteria and delayed healing. High-throughput sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR showed a significant compositional shift, specifically in the genus Pseudomonas in Nod2 -/- mice. To confirm whether Pseudomonas species directly impair wound healing, wild-type mice were infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms and, akin to Nod2 -/- mice, were found to exhibit a significant delay in wound repair. Collectively, these studies show the importance of the microbial communities in skin wound healing outcome. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. ITCH directly K63-ubiquitinates the NOD2 binding protein, RIP2, to influence inflammatory signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Tao, MingFang; Scacheri, Peter C.; Marinis, Jill M.; Harhaj, Edward W.; Matesic, Lydia E.; Abbott, Derek W.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The inability to coordinate the signaling pathways that lead to proper cytokine responses characterizes the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases such as Crohn's Disease. The Crohn's Disease susceptibility protein, NOD2, helps coordinate cytokine responses upon intracellular exposure to bacteria, and this signal coordination by NOD2 is accomplished, in part, through K63-linked polyubiquitin chains that create binding surfaces for the scaffolding of signaling complexes. Results: In this work, we show that the NOD2 signaling partner, RIP2, is directly K63 polyubiquitinated by ITCH, an E3 ubiquitin ligase which when lost genetically, causes widespread inflammatory disease at mucosal surfaces. We show that ITCH is responsible for RIP2 polyubiquitination in response to infection with listeria monocytogenes. We further show that NOD2 can bind polyubiquitinated RIP2, and while ITCH E3 ligase activity is required for optimal NOD2:RIP2-induced p38 and JNK activation, ITCH inhibits NOD2:RIP2-induced NFκB activation. This effect can be seen independently at the whole genome level by microarray analysis of MDP-treated Itch−/− primary macrophages. Conclusions: These findings suggest that ITCH helps regulate NOD2-dependent signal transduction pathways and as such, may be involved in the pathogenesis of NOD2-mediated inflammatory disease. PMID:19592251

  4. Evidence that MHC I-E dampens thyroid autoantibodies and prevents spreading to a second thyroid autoantigen in I-Ak NOD mice

    PubMed Central

    Pelletier, Adam-Nicolas; Aliesky, Holly A.; Banuelos, Bianca; Chabot-Roy, Geneviève; Rapoport, Basil; Lesage, Sylvie; McLachlan, Sandra M

    2015-01-01

    NOD.H2k and NOD.H2h4 mice carry the MHC class II molecule I-Ak associated with susceptibility to experimentally-induced thyroiditis. Dietary iodine enhanced spontaneous thyroid autoimmunity, well known in NOD.H2h4 mice, has not been investigated in NOD.H2k mice. We compared NOD.H2h4 and NOD.H2k strains for thyroiditis and autoantibodies to thyroglobulin (TgAb) and thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) without or with dietary sodium iodide (NaI) for up to 32 weeks. TgAb levels were significantly higher in NOD.H2h4 than NOD.H2k mice on NaI and TPOAb developed in NOD.H2h4 but not NOD.H2k mice. DNA exome analysis revealed, in addition to the differences in the chromosome (Chr) 17 MHC regions, that NOD.H2k and particularly NOD.H2h4 mice have substantial non-MHC parental DNA. KEGG pathway-analysis highlighted thyroid autoimmunity and immune-response genes on Chr 17 but not on Chr 7 and 15 parental B10.A4R DNA. Studies of parental strains provided no evidence for non-MHC gene contributions. The exon 10 thyroglobulin haplotype, associated with experimentally-induced thyroiditis, is absent in NOD.H2h4 and NOD.H2k mice and is not a marker for spontaneous murine thyroid autoimmunity. In conclusion, the absence of I-E is a likely explanation for the difference between NOD.H2h4 and NOD.H2k mice in TgAb levels and, as in humans, autoantibody spreading to TPO. PMID:25811933

  5. 'You sit in fear': understanding perceptions of nodding syndrome in post-conflict northern Uganda.

    PubMed

    Buchmann, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    Nodding syndrome, a disabling epidemic epileptic encephalopathy, has affected an estimated 1,834 children in northern Uganda, with reports of as many as 3,000. Etiology is unknown and children are being treated symptomatically but inconsistently with anti-epileptic drugs. This qualitative study comprised 10 semi-structured interviews with caregivers of affected children and five focus group discussions with 23 participants; relatives, teachers, and religious leaders. Data collection and participant observation were carried out from July to September 2012 in Kitgum and Pader districts. The material was coded through inductive thematic analysis. Nodding syndrome has brought signs of discrimination in school admission procedures, founded in a fear of transmission. The suffering and loss caused by nodding syndrome is collective, and participants felt that nodding syndrome was viewed as a threat to the Acholi only, and that interventions had therefore been delayed. Multiple theories of causation exist, most commonly that the disease is caused by chemicals from bombs or that food aid distributed in IDP camps had expired or been poisoned.A feeling of uncertainty was present in all focus group discussions, fueled by the fact that results of investigations were not being shared with the communities. It was especially agonizing that CDC results had been given to the Ugandan government in 2010 but not to the public. The definitive fear is that the disease will be the end of the Acholi. This study provided insight into the perceptions of communities affected by an unknown emerging disease. Families of affected children are grieving not only their child's illness; it is a loss of social value and of lineage. The loss and suffering involved with nodding syndrome should be seen in the context of the wider suffering of a society disrupted by violent conflict. The memory of war is omnipresent and is also how nodding syndrome is understood.

  6. Type 1 diabetes in NOD mice unaffected by mast cell deficiency.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Dario A; Fu, Wenxian; Schonefeldt, Susann; Feyerabend, Thorsten B; Ortiz-Lopez, Adriana; Lampi, Yulia; Liston, Adrian; Mathis, Diane; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer

    2014-11-01

    Mast cells have been invoked as important players in immune responses associated with autoimmune diseases. Based on in vitro studies, or in vivo through the use of Kit mutant mice, mast cells have been suggested to play immunological roles in direct antigen presentation to both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, in the regulation of T-cell and dendritic cell migration to lymph nodes, and in Th1 versus Th2 polarization, all of which could significantly impact the immune response against self-antigens in autoimmune disease, including type 1 diabetes (T1D). Until now, the role of mast cells in the onset and incidence of T1D has only been indirectly tested through the use of low-specificity mast cell inhibitors and activators, and published studies reported contrasting results. Our three laboratories have generated independently two strains of mast cell-deficient nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, NOD.Cpa3(Cre/+) (Heidelberg) and NOD.Kit(W-sh/W-sh) (Leuven and Boston), to address the effects of mast cell deficiency on the development of T1D in the NOD strain. Our collective data demonstrate that both incidence and progression of T1D in NOD mice are independent of mast cells. Moreover, analysis of pancreatic lymph node cells indicated that lack of mast cells has no discernible effect on the autoimmune response, which involves both innate and adaptive immune components. Our results demonstrate that mast cells are not involved in T1D in the NOD strain, making their role in this process nonessential and excluding them as potential therapeutic targets. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  7. Specific destruction of islet transplants in NOD<-->C57BL/6 and NOD<-->C3H/Tif embryo aggregation chimeras irrespective of allelic differences in beta-cell antigens.

    PubMed

    Leijon, K; Hillörn, V; Bergqvist, I; Holmberg, D

    1995-06-01

    We have tested the hypothesis that allelic differences in the antigens expressed by the beta-cells of the islets of Langerhans influence the development of insulitis in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse. Islets of Langerhans from NOD, C57BL/6 and C3H/Tif mice were transplanted under the kidney capsule of NOD<-->C57BL/6 and NOD<-->C3H/Tif embryo aggregation (EA) chimeras and the infiltration was scored 5-7 weeks later. Mononuclear cell infiltration of pancreatic islets was observed in 60% of the NOD<-->C57BL/6 and in 55% of the NOD<-->C3H/Tif EA chimeras. All transplanted EA chimeras that developed insulitis also displayed mononuclear cell infiltrates in the transplants, irrespective of the origin of the transplanted islets. In contrast, no infiltration of transplants was detected in EA chimeras scoring negative for insulitis. These results demonstrate that the specific destruction of islet transplants does not require the expression of NOD specific antigens by the islets. Moreover, the beta-cell destruction appears not to be restricted to NOD-MHC. The correlation between insulitis and transplant beta-cell destruction suggests the possibility that the development of insulitis is a prerequisite for transplant specific destruction. MHC restricted destruction may, therefore, precede the beta-cell destruction of transplanted islets. The chimerism among the mononuclear cells infiltrating the islet transplants was found to correlate with the overall haematopoetic chimerism in each of the individual EA chimeras. This observation suggests that NOD bone marrow, as well as non-NOD bone marrow, generates cells contributing to the beta-cell destruction process.

  8. A call center primer.

    PubMed

    Durr, W

    1998-01-01

    Call centers are strategically and tactically important to many industries, including the healthcare industry. Call centers play a key role in acquiring and retaining customers. The ability to deliver high-quality and timely customer service without much expense is the basis for the proliferation and expansion of call centers. Call centers are unique blends of people and technology, where performance indicates combining appropriate technology tools with sound management practices built on key operational data. While the technology is fascinating, the people working in call centers and the skill of the management team ultimately make a difference to their companies.

  9. Inflammatory bowel diseases phenotype, C. difficile and NOD2 genotype are associated with shifts in human ileum associated microbial composition.

    PubMed

    Li, Ellen; Hamm, Christina M; Gulati, Ajay S; Sartor, R Balfour; Chen, Hongyan; Wu, Xiao; Zhang, Tianyi; Rohlf, F James; Zhu, Wei; Gu, Chi; Robertson, Charles E; Pace, Norman R; Boedeker, Edgar C; Harpaz, Noam; Yuan, Jeffrey; Weinstock, George M; Sodergren, Erica; Frank, Daniel N

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that Crohn's disease (CD)-related genetic polymorphisms involved in host innate immunity are associated with shifts in human ileum-associated microbial composition in a cross-sectional analysis of human ileal samples. Sanger sequencing of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene and 454 sequencing of 16S rRNA gene hypervariable regions (V1-V3 and V3-V5), were conducted on macroscopically disease-unaffected ileal biopsies collected from 52 ileal CD, 58 ulcerative colitis and 60 control patients without inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) undergoing initial surgical resection. These subjects also were genotyped for the three major NOD2 risk alleles (Leu1007fs, R708W, G908R) and the ATG16L1 risk allele (T300A). The samples were linked to clinical metadata, including body mass index, smoking status and Clostridia difficile infection. The sequences were classified into seven phyla/subphyla categories using the Naïve Bayesian Classifier of the Ribosome Database Project. Centered log ratio transformation of six predominant categories was included as the dependent variable in the permutation based MANCOVA for the overall composition with stepwise variable selection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were conducted to measure the relative frequencies of the Clostridium coccoides - Eubacterium rectales group and the Faecalibacterium prausnitzii spp. Empiric logit transformations of the relative frequencies of these two microbial groups were included in permutation-based ANCOVA. Regardless of sequencing method, IBD phenotype, Clostridia difficile and NOD2 genotype were selected as associated (FDR ≤ 0.05) with shifts in overall microbial composition. IBD phenotype and NOD2 genotype were also selected as associated with shifts in the relative frequency of the C. coccoides--E. rectales group. IBD phenotype, smoking and IBD medications were selected as associated with shifts in the relative frequency of F. prausnitzii spp. These results indicate

  10. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Phenotype, C. difficile and NOD2 Genotype Are Associated with Shifts in Human Ileum Associated Microbial Composition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ellen; Hamm, Christina M.; Gulati, Ajay S.; Sartor, R. Balfour; Chen, Hongyan; Wu, Xiao; Zhang, Tianyi; Rohlf, F. James; Zhu, Wei; Gu, Chi; Robertson, Charles E.; Pace, Norman R.; Boedeker, Edgar C.; Harpaz, Noam; Yuan, Jeffrey; Weinstock, George M.; Sodergren, Erica; Frank, Daniel N.

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that Crohn’s disease (CD)-related genetic polymorphisms involved in host innate immunity are associated with shifts in human ileum–associated microbial composition in a cross-sectional analysis of human ileal samples. Sanger sequencing of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene and 454 sequencing of 16S rRNA gene hypervariable regions (V1–V3 and V3–V5), were conducted on macroscopically disease-unaffected ileal biopsies collected from 52 ileal CD, 58 ulcerative colitis and 60 control patients without inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) undergoing initial surgical resection. These subjects also were genotyped for the three major NOD2 risk alleles (Leu1007fs, R708W, G908R) and the ATG16L1 risk allele (T300A). The samples were linked to clinical metadata, including body mass index, smoking status and Clostridia difficile infection. The sequences were classified into seven phyla/subphyla categories using the Naïve Bayesian Classifier of the Ribosome Database Project. Centered log ratio transformation of six predominant categories was included as the dependent variable in the permutation based MANCOVA for the overall composition with stepwise variable selection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were conducted to measure the relative frequencies of the Clostridium coccoides – Eubacterium rectales group and the Faecalibacterium prausnitzii spp. Empiric logit transformations of the relative frequencies of these two microbial groups were included in permutation-based ANCOVA. Regardless of sequencing method, IBD phenotype, Clostridia difficile and NOD2 genotype were selected as associated (FDR ≤0.05) with shifts in overall microbial composition. IBD phenotype and NOD2 genotype were also selected as associated with shifts in the relative frequency of the C. coccoides – E. rectales group. IBD phenotype, smoking and IBD medications were selected as associated with shifts in the relative frequency of F. prausnitzii spp. These

  11. Naloxone inhibits nod-like receptor protein 3 inflammasome.

    PubMed

    Lin, Han-Yu; Chang, Ya-Ying; Kao, Ming-Chang; Huang, Chun-Jen

    2017-11-01

    Naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist, possesses potent anti-inflammation effects. We previously confirmed the effects of naloxone on inhibiting upregulation of inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Production of mature form IL-1β is mediated by the nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, a multiprotein complex composed of NLRP3, and the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein contains a caspase recruitment domain (ASC). We elucidated whether naloxone could inhibit the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. To induce IL-1β production and NLRP3 inflammasome activation, the human monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 cells were first primed with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 μg/mL) and then activated with adenosine triphosphate (ATP, 1 mM). For NLRP3 transcription, THP-1 cells were only treated with LPS priming. Enzyme-link immunosorbent assay data revealed that the concentration of IL-1β in THP-1 cells treated with LPS plus ATP was significantly higher than that in THP-1 cells treated with LPS plus ATP plus naloxone (0.1 μM) (P < 0.001). Real-time quantitative reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction data also revealed that NLRP3 mRNA concentration in THP-1 cells treated with LPS was significantly higher than that in THP-1 cells treated with LPS plus naloxone (P = 0.001). ASC speck formation, that is, ASC assembles into a large protein complex, is an indicator for NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Our data revealed that the percentage of cells containing ASC specks in THP-1 cells treated with LPS plus ATP was also significantly higher than that in THP-1 cells treated with LPS plus ATP plus naloxone (P < 0.001). Naloxone inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nonobese Diabetic (NOD) Mice Congenic for a Targeted Deletion of 12/15-Lipoxygenase Are Protected From Autoimmune Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    McDuffie, Marcia; Maybee, Nelly A.; Keller, Susanna R.; Stevens, Brian K.; Garmey, James C.; Morris, Margaret A.; Kropf, Elizabeth; Rival, Claudia; Ma, Kaiwen; Carter, Jeffrey D.; Tersey, Sarah A.; Nunemaker, Craig S.; Nadler, Jerry L.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LO), one of a family of fatty acid oxidoreductase enzymes, reacts with polyenoic fatty acids to produce proinflammatory lipids. 12/15-LO is expressed in macrophages and pancreatic β-cells. It enhances interleukin 12 production by macrophages, and several of its products induce apoptosis of β-cells at nanomolar concentrations in vitro. We had previously demonstrated a role for 12/15-LO in β-cell damage in the streptozotocin model of diabetes. Since the gene encoding 12/15-LO (gene designation Alox15) lies within the Idd4 diabetes susceptibility interval in NOD mice, we hypothesized that 12/15-LO is also a key regulator of diabetes susceptibility in the NOD mouse. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We developed NOD mice carrying an inactivated 12/15-LO locus (NOD-Alox15null) using a “speed congenic” protocol, and the mice were monitored for development of insulitis and diabetes. RESULTS NOD mice deficient in 12/15-LO develop diabetes at a markedly reduced rate compared with NOD mice (2.5 vs. >60% in females by 30 weeks). Nondiabetic female NOD-Alox15null mice demonstrate improved glucose tolerance, as well as significantly reduced severity of insulitis and improved β-cell mass, when compared with age-matched nondiabetic NOD females. Disease resistance is associated with decreased numbers of islet-infiltrating activated macrophages at 4 weeks of age in NOD-Alox15null mice, preceding the development of insulitis. Subsequently, islet-associated infiltrates are characterized by decreased numbers of CD4+ T cells and increased Foxp3+ cells. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest an important role for 12/15-LO in conferring susceptibility to autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice through its effects on macrophage recruitment or activation. PMID:17940120

  13. [NOD2 gene mutation in Moroccan patients with Crohn's disease: prevalence, genotypic study and correlation of NOD2 gene mutation with the phenotype of Crohn's disease].

    PubMed

    Tamzaourte, Mouna; Errabih, Ikram; Krami, Hayat; Maha, Fadlouallah; Maria, Lahmiri; Benzzoubeir, Nadia; Ouazzani, Laaziza; Sefiani, Ahmed; Ouazzani, Houria

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of NOD2/CARD15 gene mutations in a group of Moroccan patients with Crohn's disease and to study its correlation with genotype-phenotypic expression. We conducted a cross-sectional case-control study over a period of 16 months. 101 patients with Crohn's disease were enrolled between January 2012 and April 2013 as well as a control group of 107 patients. We performed a genetic analysis to identify 3 NOD2 gene variants: p.Arg702Trp, p.Gly908Arg and p.Leu1007fsins. Then we conducted a study of the correlation between genotype and phenotypic expression. The genetic analysis of patients with Crohn's disease highlighted the presence of NOD2 mutation in 14 patients (13.77%) versus 7 patients (6.53%) in the control group. The study of the frequency of different alleles showed p.Gly908Arg mutation in 6.43%, p.Leu1007fsins in 0.99% and p.Arg702Trp in 0.49% versus 2.80%, 0% and 0.46% in the control group respectively. The study of the correlation between genotype and phenotypic expression showed that CARD15 mutation is associated with ileocecal Crohn's disease, with fistulizing and stenosing behavior in Crohn's disease as well as with severe evolution and frequent recourse to surgery and immunosuppressants. The prevalence of NOD2/ CARD15 mutation in our case series is low. This mutation is correlated with severe Crohn's disease.

  14. Analysis of NOD1, NOD2, TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6 and TLR9 genes in anal furunculosis of German shepherd dogs.

    PubMed

    House, A K; Binns, M M; Gregory, S P; Catchpole, B

    2009-03-01

    Anal furunculosis (AF) primarily affects German shepherd dogs (GSD) and is characterised by inflammation and ulceration of the perianal tissues with development of cutaneous sinuses or rectocutaneous fistulae. Investigation of pattern recognition receptor (PRR) function has suggested that defective responses might occur in AF-affected GSD. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether canine PRR genes are involved in determining susceptibility to AF in this breed. Chromosomal location and coding sequences for NOD1, NOD2, TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6 and TLR9 were determined and microsatellite markers identified for each gene. Microsatellite genotyping of 100 control GSD and 47 AF-affected GSD showed restricted allelic variation for AHT H91 (associated with TLR5) and REN216 NO5 (associated with both TLR1 and TLR6) compared with non-GSD dogs. Genotyping of single nucleotide polymorphisms identified in canine TLR1, TLR5, TLR6 and NOD2 genes failed to show any significant associations between PRR polymorphisms and AF. The highly restricted PRR genotypes seen in GSD are likely to have resulted from selective breeding and might influence innate immune responses in this breed.

  15. Flaxseed Oil Attenuates Intestinal Damage and Inflammation by Regulating Necroptosis and TLR4/NOD Signaling Pathways Following Lipopolysaccharide Challenge in a Piglet Model.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huiling; Wang, Haibo; Wang, Shuhui; Tu, Zhixiao; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Xiuying; Hou, Yongqing; Wang, Chunwei; Chen, Jie; Liu, Yulan

    2018-05-01

    Flaxseed oil is a rich source of α-linolenic acid (ALA), which is the precursor of the long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). This study investigates the protective effect of flaxseed oil against intestinal injury induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Twenty-four weaned pigs were used in a 2 × 2 factorial experiment with dietary treatment (5% corn oil vs 5% flaxseed oil) and LPS challenge (saline vs LPS). On day 21 of the experiment, pigs were administrated with LPS or saline. At 2 h and 4 h post-administration, blood samples were collected. After the blood harvest at 4 h, all piglets were slaughtered and intestinal samples were collected. Flaxseed oil supplementation led to the enrichment of ALA, EPA, and total n-3 PUFAs in intestine. Flaxseed oil improved intestinal morphology, jejunal lactase activity, and claudin-1 protein expression. Flaxseed oil downregulated the mRNA expression of intestinal necroptotic signals. Flaxseed oil also downregulated the mRNA expression of intestinal toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4) and its downstream signals myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain proteins 1, 2 (NOD1, NOD2) and its adapter molecule, receptor-interacting protein kinase 2 (RIPK2). These results suggest that dietary addition of flaxseed oil enhances intestinal integrity and barrier function, which is involved in modulating necroptosis and TLR4/NOD signaling pathways. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Development and Validation of the Calling and Vocation Questionnaire (CVQ) and Brief Calling Scale (BCS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dik, Bryan J.; Eldridge, Brandy M.; Steger, Michael F.; Duffy, Ryan D.

    2012-01-01

    Research on work as a calling is limited by measurement concerns. In response, the authors introduce the multidimensional Calling and Vocation Questionnaire (CVQ) and the Brief Calling scale (BCS), instruments assessing presence of, and search for, a calling. Study 1 describes CVQ development using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis…

  17. Listening Behaviors in Japanese: "Aizuchi" and Head Nod Use by Native Speakers and Second Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanzawa, Chiemi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate similarities and differences in the listening behaviors of native speakers and learners of Japanese, focusing on the production of "aizuchi" and head nods. The term "aizuchi" is often interchangeably used with the word backchannel, and these are characterized as the…

  18. Nodding syndrome in Kitgum District, Uganda: association with conflict and internal displacement.

    PubMed

    Landis, Jesa L; Palmer, Valerie S; Spencer, Peter S

    2014-11-04

    To test for any temporal association of Nodding syndrome with wartime conflict, casualties and household displacement in Kitgum District, northern Uganda. Data were obtained from publicly available information reported by the Ugandan Ministry of Health (MOH), the Armed Conflict Location & Event Data (ACLED) Project of the University of Sussex in the UK, peer-reviewed publications in professional journals and other sources. Reports of Nodding syndrome began to appear in 1997, with the first recorded cases in Kitgum District in 1998. Cases rapidly increased annually beginning in 2001, with peaks in 2003-2005 and 2008, 5-6 years after peaks in the number of wartime conflicts and deaths. Additionally, peaks of Nodding syndrome cases followed peak influxes 5-7 years earlier of households into internal displacement camps. Peaks of Nodding syndrome reported by the MOH are associated with, but temporally displaced from, peaks of wartime conflicts, deaths and household internment, where infectious disease was rampant and food insecurity rife. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. "But Everything Is against Us Here": Some Thoughts on Noddings and on Exposing Our Educational Present

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramaekers, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Noddings's radical choice for a particular stance in life is both what makes "Happiness and Education" a thought-provoking book and what also leads me to have some reservations. First, I briefly outline some of these reservations and focus on what I think are two important difficulties "Happiness and Education" faces:…

  20. Triggering through NOD-2 Differentiates Bone Marrow Precursors to Dendritic Cells with Potent Bactericidal activity

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Nargis; Aqdas, Mohammad; Vidyarthi, Aurobind; Negi, Shikha; Pahari, Susanta; Agnihotri, Tapan; Agrewala, Javed N.

    2016-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a crucial role in bridging innate and adaptive immunity by activating naïve T cells. The role of pattern recognition receptors like Toll-Like Receptors and Nod-Like Receptors expressed on DCs is well-defined in the recognition of the pathogens. However, nothing is precisely studied regarding the impact of NOD-2 signaling during the differentiation of DCs. Consequently, we explored the role of NOD-2 signaling in the differentiation of DCs and therefore their capability to activate innate and adaptive immunity. Intriguingly, we observed that NOD-2 stimulated DCs (nDCs) acquired highly activated and matured phenotype and exhibited substantially greater bactericidal activity by robust production of nitric oxide. The mechanism involved in improving the functionality of nDCs was dependent on IFN-αβ signaling, leading to the activation of STAT pathways. Furthermore, we also observed that STAT-1 and STAT-4 dependent maturation and activation of DCs was under the feedback mechanism of SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 proteins. nDCs acquired enhanced potential to activate chiefly Th1 and Th17 immunity. Taken together, these results suggest that nDCs can be exploited as an immunotherapeutic agent in bolstering host immunity and imparting protection against the pathogens. PMID:27265209

  1. Prior Knowledge Facilitates Mutual Gaze Convergence and Head Nodding Synchrony in Face-to-face Communication

    PubMed Central

    Thepsoonthorn, C.; Yokozuka, T.; Miura, S.; Ogawa, K.; Miyake, Y.

    2016-01-01

    As prior knowledge is claimed to be an essential key to achieve effective education, we are interested in exploring whether prior knowledge enhances communication effectiveness. To demonstrate the effects of prior knowledge, mutual gaze convergence and head nodding synchrony are observed as indicators of communication effectiveness. We conducted an experiment on lecture task between lecturer and student under 2 conditions: prior knowledge and non-prior knowledge. The students in prior knowledge condition were provided the basic information about the lecture content and were assessed their understanding by the experimenter before starting the lecture while the students in non-prior knowledge had none. The result shows that the interaction in prior knowledge condition establishes significantly higher mutual gaze convergence (t(15.03) = 6.72, p < 0.0001; α = 0.05, n = 20) and head nodding synchrony (t(16.67) = 1.83, p = 0.04; α = 0.05, n = 19) compared to non-prior knowledge condition. This study reveals that prior knowledge facilitates mutual gaze convergence and head nodding synchrony. Furthermore, the interaction with and without prior knowledge can be evaluated by measuring or observing mutual gaze convergence and head nodding synchrony. PMID:27910902

  2. Dear Nel: Opening the Circles of Care (Letters to Nel Noddings)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This collection is a moving tribute to Nel Noddings, a fascinating and influential scholar who has contributed greatly to numerous fields, including education, feminism, ethics, and the study of social justice and equity. "Dear Nel: Opening the Circles of Care" presents contributions from renowned teachers, educators, and activists, such as David…

  3. Prior Knowledge Facilitates Mutual Gaze Convergence and Head Nodding Synchrony in Face-to-face Communication.

    PubMed

    Thepsoonthorn, C; Yokozuka, T; Miura, S; Ogawa, K; Miyake, Y

    2016-12-02

    As prior knowledge is claimed to be an essential key to achieve effective education, we are interested in exploring whether prior knowledge enhances communication effectiveness. To demonstrate the effects of prior knowledge, mutual gaze convergence and head nodding synchrony are observed as indicators of communication effectiveness. We conducted an experiment on lecture task between lecturer and student under 2 conditions: prior knowledge and non-prior knowledge. The students in prior knowledge condition were provided the basic information about the lecture content and were assessed their understanding by the experimenter before starting the lecture while the students in non-prior knowledge had none. The result shows that the interaction in prior knowledge condition establishes significantly higher mutual gaze convergence (t(15.03) = 6.72, p < 0.0001; α = 0.05, n = 20) and head nodding synchrony (t(16.67) = 1.83, p = 0.04; α = 0.05, n = 19) compared to non-prior knowledge condition. This study reveals that prior knowledge facilitates mutual gaze convergence and head nodding synchrony. Furthermore, the interaction with and without prior knowledge can be evaluated by measuring or observing mutual gaze convergence and head nodding synchrony.

  4. Nodding syndrome in Kitgum District, Uganda: association with conflict and internal displacement

    PubMed Central

    Landis, Jesa L; Palmer, Valerie S; Spencer, Peter S

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To test for any temporal association of Nodding syndrome with wartime conflict, casualties and household displacement in Kitgum District, northern Uganda. Methods Data were obtained from publicly available information reported by the Ugandan Ministry of Health (MOH), the Armed Conflict Location & Event Data (ACLED) Project of the University of Sussex in the UK, peer-reviewed publications in professional journals and other sources. Results Reports of Nodding syndrome began to appear in 1997, with the first recorded cases in Kitgum District in 1998. Cases rapidly increased annually beginning in 2001, with peaks in 2003–2005 and 2008, 5–6 years after peaks in the number of wartime conflicts and deaths. Additionally, peaks of Nodding syndrome cases followed peak influxes 5–7 years earlier of households into internal displacement camps. Conclusions Peaks of Nodding syndrome reported by the MOH are associated with, but temporally displaced from, peaks of wartime conflicts, deaths and household internment, where infectious disease was rampant and food insecurity rife. PMID:25371417

  5. Divergent Nod-Containing Bradyrhizobium sp. DOA9 with a Megaplasmid and its Host Range

    PubMed Central

    Teamtisong, Kamonluck; Songwattana, Pongpan; Noisangiam, Rujirek; Piromyou, Pongdet; Boonkerd, Nantakorn; Tittabutr, Panlada; Minamisawa, Kiwamu; Nantagij, Achara; Okazaki, Shin; Abe, Mikiko; Uchiumi, Toshiki; Teaumroong, Neung

    2014-01-01

    Bradyrhizobium sp. DOA9, a non-photosynthetic bacterial strain originally isolated from the root nodules of the legume Aeschynomene americana, is a divergent nod-containing strain. It exhibits a broad host range, being able to colonize and efficiently nodulate the roots of most plants from the Dalbergioid, Millettioid, and Robinioid tribes (7 species of Papilionoideae). In all cases, nodulation was determinate. The morphology and size of DOA9 bacteroids isolated from the nodules of various species of Papilionoideae were indistinguishable from the free-living form. However, they were spherical in Arachis hypogaea nodules. GusA-tagged DOA9 also colonized rice roots as endophytes. Since broad-host-range legume symbionts often carry multiple replicons in their genome, we analyzed the replicons for symbiosis genes by electrophoresis. DOA9 carried two replicons, a chromosome (cDOA9) and single megaplasmid (pDOA9) larger than 352 kb. The genes for nodulation (nodA, B, C) and nitrogen fixation (nifH) were localized on the megaplasmid. Southern blot hybridization revealed two copies of nodA on the megaplasmid, single copies of nodB and C on the megaplasmid, and one copy each of nifH on the chromosome and megaplasmid. These results suggested that Bradyrhizobium sp. DOA9 may have the unusual combination of a broad host range, bacteroid differentiation, and symbiosis-mediating replicons. PMID:25283477

  6. The NOD2 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism rs72796353 (IVS4+10 A>C) Is a Predictor for Perianal Fistulas in Patients with Crohn's Disease in the Absence of Other NOD2 Mutations.

    PubMed

    Schnitzler, Fabian; Friedrich, Matthias; Wolf, Christiane; Stallhofer, Johannes; Angelberger, Marianne; Diegelmann, Julia; Olszak, Torsten; Tillack, Cornelia; Beigel, Florian; Göke, Burkhard; Glas, Jürgen; Lohse, Peter; Brand, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    A previous study suggested an association of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs72796353 (IVS4+10 A>C) in the NOD2 gene with susceptibility to Crohn's disease (CD). However, this finding has not been confirmed. Given that NOD2 variants still represent the most important predictors for CD susceptibility and phenotype, we evaluated the association of rs72796353 with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) susceptibility and the IBD phenotype. Genomic DNA from 2256 Caucasians, including 1073 CD patients, 464 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), and 719 healthy controls, was genotyped for the NOD2 SNP rs72796353 and the three main CD-associated NOD2 mutations rs2066844, rs2066845, and rs2066847. Subsequently, IBD association and genotype-phenotype analyses were conducted. In contrast to the strong associations of the NOD2 SNPs rs2066844 (p=3.51 x 10(-3)), rs2066845 (p=1.54 x 10(-2)), and rs2066847 (p=1.61 x 10(-20)) with CD susceptibility, no significant association of rs72796353 with CD or UC susceptibility was found. However, in CD patients without the three main CD-associated NOD2 mutations, rs72796353 was significantly associated with the development of perianal fistulas (p=2.78 x 10(-7), OR 5.27, [95% CI 2.75-10.12] vs. NOD2 wild-type carriers). Currently, this study represents the largest genotype-phenotype analysis of the impact of the NOD2 variant rs72796353 on the disease phenotype in IBD. Our data demonstrate that in CD patients the IVS4+10 A>C variant is strongly associated with the development of perianal fistulas. This association is particularly pronounced in patients who are not carriers of the three main CD-associated NOD2 mutations, suggesting rs72796353 as additional genetic marker for the CD disease behaviour.

  7. Compare Gene Calls

    SciTech Connect

    Ecale Zhou, Carol L.

    2016-07-05

    Compare Gene Calls (CGC) is a Python code used for combining and comparing gene calls from any number of gene callers. A gene caller is a computer program that predicts the extends of open reading frames within genomes of biological organisms.

  8. Callings and Organizational Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elangovan, A. R.; Pinder, Craig C.; McLean, Murdith

    2010-01-01

    Current literature on careers, social identity and meaning in work tends to understate the multiplicity, historical significance, and nuances of the concept of calling(s). In this article, we trace the evolution of the concept from its religious roots into secular realms and develop a typology of interpretations using occupation and religious…

  9. Sodium meta-arsenite prevents the development of autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.S.; Kim, D.; Lee, E.K.

    Sodium meta-arsenite (SA) is an orally available arsenic compound. We investigated the effects of SA on the development of autoimmune type 1 diabetes. Female non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice were orally intubated with SA (5 mg/kg/day) from 8 weeks of age for 8 weeks. The cumulative incidence of diabetes was monitored until 30 weeks of age, islet histology was examined, and lymphocytes including T cells, B cells, CD4+ IFN-γ+ cells, CD8+ IFN-γ+ cells, CD4+ IL-4+ cells, and regulatory T cells were analyzed. We also investigated the diabetogenic ability of splenocytes using an adoptive transfer model and the effect of SA onmore » the proliferation, activation, and expression of glucose transporter 1 (Glut1) in splenocytes treated with SA in vitro and splenocytes isolated from SA-treated mice. SA treatment decreased the incidence of diabetes and delayed disease onset. SA treatment reduced the infiltration of immunocytes in islets, and splenocytes from SA-treated mice showed a reduced ability to transfer diabetes. The number of total splenocytes and T cells and both the number and the proportion of CD4+ IFN-γ+ and CD8+ IFN-γ+ T cells in the spleen were significantly reduced in SA-treated NOD mice compared with controls. The number, but not the proportion, of regulatory T cells was decreased in SA-treated NOD mice. Treatment with SA either in vitro or in vivo inhibited proliferation of splenocytes. In addition, the expression of Glut1 and phosphorylated ERK1/2 was decreased by SA treatment. These results suggest that SA reduces proliferation and activation of T cells, thus preventing autoimmune diabetes in NOD mice. - Highlights: • SA prevents the development of diabetes and delays the age of onset in NOD mice. • SA decreases the number but not the proportion of T lymphocytes in NOD mice. • SA reduces IFN-γ-producing T lymphocytes in NOD mice. • SA reduces proliferation and activation of T lymphocytes in vitro and in vivo. • SA reduces the expression of

  10. Identification of Gambling Problems in Primary Care: Properties of the NODS-CLiP Screening Tool.

    PubMed

    Cowlishaw, Sean; McCambridge, Jim; Kessler, David

    2018-06-25

    There are several brief screening tools for gambling that possess promising psychometric properties, but have uncertain utility in generalist healthcare environments which prioritize prevention and brief interventions. This study describes an examination of the National Opinion Research Centre Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Screen for Gambling Problems (NODS-CLiP), in comparison with the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI), when used to operationalize gambling problems across a spectrum of severity. Data were obtained from 1058 primary care attendees recruited from 11 practices in England who completed various measures including the NODS-CLiP and PGSI. The performance of the former was defined by estimates of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPVs), and negative predictive values (NPVs), when PGSI indicators of problem gambling (5+) and any gambling problems (1+), respectively, were reference standards. The NODS-CLiP demonstrated perfect sensitivity for problem gambling, along with high specificity and a NPV, but a low PPV. There was much lower sensitivity when the indicator of any gambling problems was the reference standard, with capture rates indicating only 20% of patients exhibiting low to moderate severity gambling problems (PGSI 1-4) were identified by the NODS-CLiP. The NODS-CLiP performs well when identifying severe cases of problem gambling, but lacks sensitivity for less severe problems and may be unsuitable for settings which prioritize prevention and brief interventions. There is a need for screening measures which are sensitive across the full spectrum of risk and severity, and can support initiatives for improving identification and responses to gambling problems in healthcare settings such as primary care.

  11. Reduction of T cell receptor diversity in NOD mice prevents development of type 1 diabetes but not Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kern, Joanna; Drutel, Robert; Leanhart, Silvia; Bogacz, Marek; Pacholczyk, Rafal

    2014-01-01

    Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice are well-established models of independently developing spontaneous autoimmune diseases, Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and type 1 diabetes (T1D). The key determining factor for T1D is the strong association with particular MHCII molecule and recognition by diabetogenic T cell receptor (TCR) of an insulin peptide presented in the context of I-Ag7 molecule. For SS the association with MHCII polymorphism is weaker and TCR diversity involved in the onset of the autoimmune phase of SS remains poorly understood. To compare the impact of TCR diversity reduction on the development of both diseases we generated two lines of TCR transgenic NOD mice. One line expresses transgenic TCRβ chain originated from a pathogenically irrelevant TCR, and the second line additionally expresses transgenic TCRαmini locus. Analysis of TCR sequences on NOD background reveals lower TCR diversity on Treg cells not only in the thymus, but also in the periphery. This reduction in diversity does not affect conventional CD4+ T cells, as compared to the TCRmini repertoire on B6 background. Interestingly, neither transgenic TCRβ nor TCRmini mice develop diabetes, which we show is due to lack of insulin B:9-23 specific T cells in the periphery. Conversely SS develops in both lines, with full glandular infiltration, production of autoantibodies and hyposalivation. It shows that SS development is not as sensitive to limited availability of TCR specificities as T1D, which suggests wider range of possible TCR/peptide/MHC interactions driving autoimmunity in SS.

  12. A cluster of coregulated genes determines TGF-β–induced regulatory T-cell (Treg) dysfunction in NOD mice

    PubMed Central

    D'Alise, Anna Morena; Ergun, Ayla; Hill, Jonathan A.; Mathis, Diane; Benoist, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) originate in the thymus, but the Treg phenotype can also be induced in peripheral lymphoid organs or in vitro by stimulation of conventional CD4+ T cells with IL-2 and TGF-β. There have been divergent reports on the suppressive capacity of these TGF-Treg cells. We find that TGF-Tregs derived from diabetes-prone NOD mice, although expressing normal Foxp3 levels, are uniquely defective in suppressive activity, whereas TGF-Tregs from control strains (B6g7) or ex vivo Tregs from NOD mice all function normally. Most Treg-typical transcripts were shared by NOD or B6g7 TGF-Tregs, except for a small group of differentially expressed genes, including genes relevant for suppressive activity (Lrrc32, Ctla4, and Cd73). Many of these transcripts form a coregulated cluster in a broader analysis of T-cell differentiation. The defect does not map to idd3 or idd5 regions. Whereas Treg cells from NOD mice are normal in spleen and lymph nodes, the NOD defect is observed in locations that have been tied to pathogenesis of diabetes (small intestine lamina propria and pancreatic lymph node). Thus, a genetic defect uniquely affects a specific Treg subpopulation in NOD mice, in a manner consistent with a role in determining diabetes susceptibility. PMID:21543717

  13. A cluster of coregulated genes determines TGF-beta-induced regulatory T-cell (Treg) dysfunction in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    D'Alise, Anna Morena; Ergun, Ayla; Hill, Jonathan A; Mathis, Diane; Benoist, Christophe

    2011-05-24

    Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) originate in the thymus, but the Treg phenotype can also be induced in peripheral lymphoid organs or in vitro by stimulation of conventional CD4(+) T cells with IL-2 and TGF-β. There have been divergent reports on the suppressive capacity of these TGF-Treg cells. We find that TGF-Tregs derived from diabetes-prone NOD mice, although expressing normal Foxp3 levels, are uniquely defective in suppressive activity, whereas TGF-Tregs from control strains (B6g7) or ex vivo Tregs from NOD mice all function normally. Most Treg-typical transcripts were shared by NOD or B6g7 TGF-Tregs, except for a small group of differentially expressed genes, including genes relevant for suppressive activity (Lrrc32, Ctla4, and Cd73). Many of these transcripts form a coregulated cluster in a broader analysis of T-cell differentiation. The defect does not map to idd3 or idd5 regions. Whereas Treg cells from NOD mice are normal in spleen and lymph nodes, the NOD defect is observed in locations that have been tied to pathogenesis of diabetes (small intestine lamina propria and pancreatic lymph node). Thus, a genetic defect uniquely affects a specific Treg subpopulation in NOD mice, in a manner consistent with a role in determining diabetes susceptibility.

  14. Influence of Pause Duration and Nod Response Timing in Dialogue between Human and Communication Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takasugi, Shoji; Yoshida, Shohei; Okitsu, Kengo; Yokoyama, Masanori; Yamamoto, Tomohito; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the influence from timing of utterance and body motion in dialogue between human and robot. We controlled pause duration and nod response timing in robot-side, and analyzed impression of communication in human-side by using Scheffe's Paired Comparison method. The results revealed that the impression of communication significantly modified by changing the pause duration and nod response timing. And, timing pattern of the impression altered diversely in elderly people than in younger, indicating that elderly generation uses various timing control mechanisms. From these results, it was suggested that timing control and impression of communication are mutually influenced, and this mechanism is thought to be useful to realize human-robot communication system for elderly generation.

  15. An intravital microscopy model to study early pancreatic inflammation in type 1 diabetes in NOD mice

    PubMed Central

    Lehmann, Christian; Fisher, Nicholas B.; Tugwell, Barna; Zhou, Juan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Intravital microscopy (IVM) of the pancreas has been proven to be an invaluable tool in pancreatitis, transplantation and ischemia/reperfusion research. Also in type 1 diabetes (T1D) pancreatic IVM offers unique advantages for the elucidation of the disease process. Female non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice develop T1D spontaneously by 40 weeks of age. Our goal was to establish an IVM-based method to study early pancreatic inflammation in NOD mice, which can be used to screen novel medications to prevent or delay T1D in future studies. This included evaluation of leukocyte-endothelial interactions as well as disturbances of capillary perfusion in the pancreatic microcirculation. PMID:28243521

  16. When Crises Call

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisch, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Natural disasters, as well as crises of the man-made variety, call on leaders of school districts to manage scenarios impossible to predict and for which no amount of training can adequately prepare. One thing all major crises hold in common is their far-reaching effects, which can run the gamut from personal safety and mental well-being to the…

  17. Wake-Up Call.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the artist, Laquita Thomson, whose inspiration are the stars and space. Discusses her series called, "Celestial Happenings: Stars Fell on Alabama." Describes one event that inspired an art work when a meteor crashed into an Alabama home. Includes lessons for various subject areas. (CMK)

  18. Teacher Resistance to CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastment, David

    Despite the evolution of software for computer-assisted language learning (CALL), teacher resistance remains high. Early software for language instruction was almost exclusively designed for drill and practice. That approach was later replaced by a model in which the computer provided a stimulus for students, most often as a partner in games.…

  19. CALL on Mac.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukuzawa, Jeannette L.; Lubin, Jan M.

    Five computer programs for the Macintosh that are geared for Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) are described. All five programs allow the teacher to input material. The first program allows entry of new vocabulary lists including definition, a sentence in which the exact word is used, a fill-in-the-blank exercise, and the word's phonetics…

  20. Artificial Intelligence and CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, John H.

    The potential application of artificial intelligence (AI) to computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is explored. Two areas of AI that hold particular interest to those who deal with language meaning--knowledge representation and expert systems, and natural-language processing--are described and examples of each are presented. AI contribution…

  1. A Call for Professionalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanker, Albert

    Albert Shanker, President of the American Federation of Teachers (AFT), speaks about the national testing of teachers and calls for the creation of a new and better national examination for new teachers. While members of the AFT have a few differences with some of the current reform proposals, the AFT in general supports the overwhelming majority…

  2. Paricalcitol modulates ACE2 shedding and renal ADAM17 in NOD mice beyond proteinuria.

    PubMed

    Riera, Marta; Anguiano, Lidia; Clotet, Sergi; Roca-Ho, Heleia; Rebull, Marta; Pascual, Julio; Soler, Maria Jose

    2016-03-15

    Circulating and renal activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is increased in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Because paricalcitol has been reported to protect against diabetic nephropathy, we investigated the role of paricalcitol in modulating ACE2 in these mice. In addition, renal ADAM17, a metalloprotease implied in ACE2 shedding, was assessed. NOD female and non-diabetic control mice were studied for 21 days after diabetes onset and divided into various treatment groups. Diabetic animals received either vehicle; 0.4 or 0.8 μg/kg paricalcitol, aliskiren, or a combination of paricalcitol and aliskiren. We then studied the effect of paricalcitol on ACE2 expression in proximal tubular epithelial cells. Paricalcitol alone or in combination with aliskiren resulted in significantly reduced circulating ACE2 activity in NOD mice but there were no changes in urinary albumin excretion. Serum renin activity was significantly decreased in mice that received aliskiren but no effect was found when paricalcitol was used alone. Renal content of ADAM17 was significantly decreased in animals that received a high dose of paricalcitol. Renal and circulating oxidative stress (quantified by plasma H2O2 levels and immunolocalization of nitrotyrosine) were reduced in high-dose paricalcitol-treated mice compared with non-treated diabetic mice. In culture, paricalcitol incubation resulted in a significant increase in ACE2 expression compared with nontreated cells. In NOD mice with type 1 diabetes, paricalcitol modulates ACE2 activity, ADAM17, and oxidative stress renal content independently from the glycemic profile and urinary albumin excretion. In tubular cells, paricalcitol may modulate ACE2 by blocking its shedding. In the early stage of diabetic nephropathy, paricalcitol treatment counterbalances the effect of diabetes on circulating ACE2 activity. Our results suggest that additional use of paricalcitol may be beneficial in treating patients with diabetes under standard

  3. Calling to Nursing: Concept Analysis.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Christie

    The aims of this article are (a) to analyze the concept of a calling as it relates nursing and (b) to develop a definition of calling to nursing with the detail and clarity needed to guide reliable and valid research. The classic steps described by Walker and Avant are used for the analysis. Literature from several disciplines is reviewed including vocational psychology, Christian career counseling, sociology, organizational management, and nursing. The analysis provides an operational definition of a calling to nursing and establishes 3 defining attributes of the concept: (a) a passionate intrinsic motivation or desire (perhaps with a religious component), (b) an aspiration to engage in nursing practice, as a means of fulfilling one's purpose in life, and (c) the desire to help others as one's purpose in life. Antecedents to the concept are personal introspection and cognitive awareness. Positive consequences to the concept are improved work meaningfulness, work engagement, career commitment, personal well-being, and satisfaction. Negative consequences of having a calling might include willingness to sacrifice well-being for work and problems with work-life balance. Following the concept analysis, philosophical assumptions, contextual factors, interdisciplinary work, research opportunities, and practice implications are discussed.

  4. Beside the point: Mothers' head nodding and shaking gestures during parent-child play.

    PubMed

    Fusaro, Maria; Vallotton, Claire D; Harris, Paul L

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the context for children's social learning and language acquisition requires consideration of caregivers' multi-modal (speech, gesture) messages. Though young children can interpret both manual and head gestures, little research has examined the communicative input that children receive via parents' head gestures. We longitudinally examined the frequency and communicative functions of mothers' head nodding and head shaking gestures during laboratory play sessions for 32 mother-child dyads, when the children were 14, 20, and 30 months of age. The majority of mothers produced head nods more frequently than head shakes. Both gestures contributed to mothers' verbal attempts at behavior regulation and dialog. Mothers' head nods primarily conveyed agreement with, and attentiveness to, children's utterances, and accompanied affirmative statements and yes/no questions. Mothers' head shakes primarily conveyed prohibitions and statements with negations. Changes over time appeared to reflect corresponding developmental changes in social and communicative dimensions of caregiver-child interaction. Directions for future research are discussed regarding the role of head gesture input in socialization and in supporting language development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Large Gliadin Peptides Detected in the Pancreas of NOD and Healthy Mice following Oral Administration

    PubMed Central

    Sidenius, Ulrik; Heegaard, Niels H.

    2016-01-01

    Gluten promotes type 1 diabetes in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice and likely also in humans. In NOD mice and in non-diabetes-prone mice, it induces inflammation in the pancreatic lymph nodes, suggesting that gluten can initiate inflammation locally. Further, gliadin fragments stimulate insulin secretion from beta cells directly. We hypothesized that gluten fragments may cross the intestinal barrier to be distributed to organs other than the gut. If present in pancreas, gliadin could interact directly with the immune system and the beta cells to initiate diabetes development. We orally and intravenously administered 33-mer and 19-mer gliadin peptide to NOD, BALB/c, and C57BL/6 mice and found that the peptides readily crossed the intestinal barrier in all strains. Several degradation products were found in the pancreas by mass spectroscopy. Notably, the exocrine pancreas incorporated large amounts of radioactive label shortly after administration of the peptides. The study demonstrates that, even in normal animals, large gliadin fragments can reach the pancreas. If applicable to humans, the increased gut permeability in prediabetes and type 1 diabetes patients could expose beta cells directly to gliadin fragments. Here they could initiate inflammation and induce beta cell stress and thus contribute to the development of type 1 diabetes. PMID:27795959

  6. G908R NOD2 variant in a family with sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Besnard, Valérie; Calender, Alain; Bouvry, Diane; Pacheco, Yves; Chapelon-Abric, Catherine; Jeny, Florence; Nunes, Hilario; Planès, Carole; Valeyre, Dominique

    2018-03-20

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease characterized by the formation of immune granulomas in various organs, mainly the lungs and the lymphatic system. Exaggerated granulomatous reaction might be triggered in response to unidentified antigens in individuals with genetic susceptibility. The present study aimed to determine the genetic variants implicated in a familial case of sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis presentation and history, NOD2 profile, NF-κB and cytokine production in blood monocytes/macrophages were evaluated in individuals from a family with late appearance of sarcoidosis. In the present study, we report a case of familial sarcoidosis with typical thoracic sarcoidosis and carrying the NOD2 2722G > C variant. This variant is associated with the presence of three additional SNPs for the IL17RA, KALRN and EPHA2 genes, which discriminate patients expressing the disease from others. Despite a decrease in NF-κB activity, IL-8 and TNF-A mRNA levels were increased at baseline and in stimulated conditions. Combination of polymorphisms in the NOD2, IL17RA, EPHA2 and KALRN genes could play a significant role in the development of sarcoidosis by maintaining a chronic pro-inflammatory status in macrophages.

  7. Unexpected Diversity and High Abundance of Putative Nitric Oxide Dismutase (Nod) Genes in Contaminated Aquifers and Wastewater Treatment Systems

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Lauren; Huang, Sichao; Szalay, Anna; Leix, Carmen; Weissbach, Max; Táncsics, András; Drewes, Jörg E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT It has recently been suggested that oxygenic dismutation of NO into N2 and O2 may occur in the anaerobic methanotrophic “Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera” and the alkane-oxidizing gammaproteobacterium HdN1. It may represent a new pathway in microbial nitrogen cycling catalyzed by a putative NO dismutase (Nod). The formed O2 enables microbes to employ aerobic catabolic pathways in anoxic habitats, suggesting an ecophysiological niche space of substantial appeal for bioremediation and water treatment. However, it is still unknown whether this physiology is limited to “Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera” and HdN1 and whether it can be coupled to the oxidation of electron donors other than alkanes. Here, we report insights into an unexpected diversity and remarkable abundance of nod genes in natural and engineered water systems. Phylogenetically diverse nod genes were recovered from a range of contaminated aquifers and N-removing wastewater treatment systems. Together with nod genes from “Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera” and HdN1, the novel environmental nod sequences formed no fewer than 6 well-supported phylogenetic clusters, clearly distinct from canonical NO reductase (quinol-dependent NO reductase [qNor] and cytochrome c-dependent NO reductase [cNor]) genes. The abundance of nod genes in the investigated samples ranged from 1.6 × 107 to 5.2 × 1010 copies · g−1 (wet weight) of sediment or sludge biomass, accounting for up to 10% of total bacterial 16S rRNA gene counts. In essence, NO dismutation could be a much more widespread physiology than currently perceived. Understanding the controls of this emergent microbial capacity could offer new routes for nitrogen elimination or pollutant remediation in natural and engineered water systems. IMPORTANCE NO dismutation into N2 and O2 is a novel process catalyzed by putative NO dismutase (Nod). To date, only two bacteria, the anaerobic methane-oxidizing bacterium “Ca. Methylomirabilis oxyfera” and

  8. Unexpected Diversity and High Abundance of Putative Nitric Oxide Dismutase (Nod) Genes in Contaminated Aquifers and Wastewater Treatment Systems.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Baoli; Bradford, Lauren; Huang, Sichao; Szalay, Anna; Leix, Carmen; Weissbach, Max; Táncsics, András; Drewes, Jörg E; Lueders, Tillmann

    2017-02-15

    It has recently been suggested that oxygenic dismutation of NO into N 2 and O 2 may occur in the anaerobic methanotrophic "Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera" and the alkane-oxidizing gammaproteobacterium HdN1. It may represent a new pathway in microbial nitrogen cycling catalyzed by a putative NO dismutase (Nod). The formed O 2 enables microbes to employ aerobic catabolic pathways in anoxic habitats, suggesting an ecophysiological niche space of substantial appeal for bioremediation and water treatment. However, it is still unknown whether this physiology is limited to "Ca Methylomirabilis oxyfera" and HdN1 and whether it can be coupled to the oxidation of electron donors other than alkanes. Here, we report insights into an unexpected diversity and remarkable abundance of nod genes in natural and engineered water systems. Phylogenetically diverse nod genes were recovered from a range of contaminated aquifers and N-removing wastewater treatment systems. Together with nod genes from "Ca Methylomirabilis oxyfera" and HdN1, the novel environmental nod sequences formed no fewer than 6 well-supported phylogenetic clusters, clearly distinct from canonical NO reductase (quinol-dependent NO reductase [qNor] and cytochrome c-dependent NO reductase [cNor]) genes. The abundance of nod genes in the investigated samples ranged from 1.6 × 10 7 to 5.2 × 10 10 copies · g -1 (wet weight) of sediment or sludge biomass, accounting for up to 10% of total bacterial 16S rRNA gene counts. In essence, NO dismutation could be a much more widespread physiology than currently perceived. Understanding the controls of this emergent microbial capacity could offer new routes for nitrogen elimination or pollutant remediation in natural and engineered water systems. NO dismutation into N 2 and O 2 is a novel process catalyzed by putative NO dismutase (Nod). To date, only two bacteria, the anaerobic methane-oxidizing bacterium "Ca Methylomirabilis oxyfera" and the alkane

  9. NOD2 Modulates Serotonin Transporter and Interacts with TLR2 and TLR4 in Intestinal Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Layunta, Elena; Latorre, Eva; Forcén, Raquel; Grasa, Laura; Castro, Marta; Arias, Maykel A; Alcalde, Ana I; Mesonero, José Emilio

    2018-06-15

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a chief modulator of intestinal activity. The effects of 5-HT depend on its extracellular availability, which is mainly controlled by serotonin transporter (SERT), expressed in enterocytes. On the other hand, innate immunity, mediated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), is known to control intestinal microbiota and maintain intestinal homeostasis. The dysregulation of the intestinal serotonergic system and innate immunity has been observed in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), the incidence of which has severely increased all over the world. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to analyze the effect of NOD2 on intestinal SERT activity and expression, as well as to study the crosstalk of NOD2 with TLR2 and TLR4. Intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2/TC7 was used to analyze SERT activity and SERT, NOD2, TLR2 and TLR4 molecular expression by real-time PCR and western blotting. Moreover, intestinal tract (ileum and colon) from mice deficient in TLR2, TLR4 or TLR2/4 receptors was used to test the interdependence of NOD2 with these TLR receptors. NOD2 activation inhibits SERT activity in Caco-2/TC7 cells, mainly due to the decrement of SERT molecular expression, with RIP2/RICK being the intracellular pathway involved in this effect. This inhibitory effect on SERT would yield an increment of extracellular 5-HT availability. In this sense, 5-HT strongly inhibits NOD2 expression. In addition, NOD2 showed greater interdependence with TLR2 than with TLR4. Indeed, NOD2 expression significantly increased in both cells treated with TLR2 agonists and the intestinal tract of Tlr2-/- mice. It may be inferred from our data that NOD2 could play a role in intestinal pathophysiology not only through its inherent innate immune role but also due to its interaction with other receptors as TLR2 and the modulation of the intestinal serotonergic system decreasing SERT activity and expression. © 2018

  10. Promotion in Call Centres: Opportunities and Determinants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorjup, Maria Tatiana; Valverde, Mireia; Ryan, Gerard

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the quality of jobs in call centres by focusing on the opportunities for promotion in this sector. More specifically, the research questions focus on discovering whether promotion is common practise in the call centre sector and on identifying the factors that affect this.…

  11. The Role of NOD Mice in Type 1 Diabetes Research: Lessons from the Past and Recommendations for the Future.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Guang; Mathews, Clayton E; Driver, John P

    2018-01-01

    For more than 35 years, the NOD mouse has been the primary animal model for studying autoimmune diabetes. During this time, striking similarities to the human disease have been uncovered. In both species, unusual polymorphisms in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule confer the most disease risk, disease is caused by perturbations by the same genes or different genes in the same biological pathways and that diabetes onset is preceded by the presence of circulating autoreactive T cells and autoantibodies that recognize many of the same islet antigens. However, the relevance of the NOD model is frequently challenged due to past failures translating therapies from NOD mice to humans and because the appearance of insulitis in mice and some patients is different. Nevertheless, the NOD mouse remains a pillar of autoimmune diabetes research for its usefulness as a preclinical model and because it provides access to invasive procedures as well as tissues that are rarely procured from patients or controls. The current article is focused on approaches to improve the NOD mouse by addressing reasons why immune therapies have failed to translate from mice to humans. We also propose new strategies for mixing and editing the NOD genome to improve the model in ways that will better advance our understanding of human diabetes. As proof of concept, we report that diabetes is completely suppressed in a knock-in NOD strain with a serine to aspartic acid substitution at position 57 in the MHC class II Aβ. This supports that similar non-aspartic acid substitutions at residue 57 of variants of the human class II HLA-DQβ homolog confer diabetes risk.

  12. The Role of NOD Mice in Type 1 Diabetes Research: Lessons from the Past and Recommendations for the Future

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Guang; Mathews, Clayton E.; Driver, John P.

    2018-01-01

    For more than 35 years, the NOD mouse has been the primary animal model for studying autoimmune diabetes. During this time, striking similarities to the human disease have been uncovered. In both species, unusual polymorphisms in a major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecule confer the most disease risk, disease is caused by perturbations by the same genes or different genes in the same biological pathways and that diabetes onset is preceded by the presence of circulating autoreactive T cells and autoantibodies that recognize many of the same islet antigens. However, the relevance of the NOD model is frequently challenged due to past failures translating therapies from NOD mice to humans and because the appearance of insulitis in mice and some patients is different. Nevertheless, the NOD mouse remains a pillar of autoimmune diabetes research for its usefulness as a preclinical model and because it provides access to invasive procedures as well as tissues that are rarely procured from patients or controls. The current article is focused on approaches to improve the NOD mouse by addressing reasons why immune therapies have failed to translate from mice to humans. We also propose new strategies for mixing and editing the NOD genome to improve the model in ways that will better advance our understanding of human diabetes. As proof of concept, we report that diabetes is completely suppressed in a knock-in NOD strain with a serine to aspartic acid substitution at position 57 in the MHC class II Aβ. This supports that similar non-aspartic acid substitutions at residue 57 of variants of the human class II HLA-DQβ homolog confer diabetes risk. PMID:29527189

  13. New-onset diabetes mellitus after heart transplantation in children - Incidence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Swati; Bock, Matthew J; Louks Palac, Hannah; Brickman, Wendy J; Gossett, Jeffrey G; Marino, Bradley S; Backer, Carl L; Pahl, Elfriede

    2016-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a recognized complication of SOT in adults and is associated with decreased graft and patient survival. Little is known about NOD in pediatric HT recipients. We aimed to characterize the incidence and describe risk factors for development of NOD after HT in children. Children who developed diabetes after HT were identified from the OPTN database. Demographic and clinical data before and after transplant were compared between patients with and without NOD. A total of 2056 children were included, 56% were male, 54% were Caucasian, and 62% had cardiomyopathy prior to HT. NOD developed in 219 children (11%) after HT. The incidence of NOD was 2.4, 9.0, and 10.4% at one, five, and 10 yr after HT, respectively. Obesity (HR: 4.32), dialysis prior to transplant (HR: 2.38), African American race (HR: 1.86), transplant before year 2000 (HR: 1.82), female gender (HR: 1.68), and older age at transplant (HR: 1.28) were independent predictors of NOD. The major modifiable risk factor for NOD is obesity, imparting the maximum hazard. Improved surveillance for diabetes in high-risk patients and specific prevention and intervention strategies are imperative in this population. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Human umbilical cord blood mesenchymal stem cells reduce colitis in mice by activating NOD2 signaling to COX2.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung-Sik; Shin, Tae-Hoon; Lee, Byung-Chul; Yu, Kyung-Rok; Seo, Yoojin; Lee, Seunghee; Seo, Min-Soo; Hong, In-Sun; Choi, Soon Won; Seo, Kwang-Won; Núñez, Gabriel; Park, Jong-Hwan; Kang, Kyung-Sun

    2013-12-01

    Decreased levels or function of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2) are associated with Crohn's disease. NOD2 regulates intestinal inflammation, and also is expressed by human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs), to regulate their differentiation. We investigated whether NOD2 is required for the anti-inflammatory activities of MSCs in mice with colitis. Colitis was induced in mice by administration of dextran sulfate sodium or trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. Mice then were given intraperitoneal injections of NOD2-activated hUCB-MSCs; colon tissues and mesenteric lymph nodes were collected for histologic analyses. A bromodeoxyuridine assay was used to determine the ability of hUCB-MSCs to inhibit proliferation of human mononuclear cells in culture. Administration of hUCB-MSCs reduced the severity of colitis in mice. The anti-inflammatory effects of hUCB-MSCs were greatly increased by activation of NOD2 by its ligand, muramyl dipeptide (MDP). Administration of NOD2-activated hUCB-MSCs increased anti-inflammatory responses in colons of mice, such as production of interleukin (IL)-10 and infiltration by T regulatory cells, and reduced production of inflammatory cytokines. Proliferation of mononuclear cells was inhibited significantly by co-culture with hUCB-MSCs that had been stimulated with MDP. MDP induced prolonged production of prostaglandin (PG)E2 in hUCB-MSCs via the NOD2-RIP2 pathway, which suppressed proliferation of mononuclear cells derived from hUCB. PGE2 produced by hUCB-MSCs in response to MDP increased production of IL-10 and T regulatory cells. In mice, production of PGE2 by MSCs and subsequent production of IL-10 were required to reduce the severity of colitis. Activation of NOD2 is required for the ability of hUCB-MSCs to reduce the severity of colitis in mice. NOD2 signaling increases the ability of these cells to suppress mononuclear cell proliferation by inducing production of PGE2. Copyright © 2013 AGA

  15. Concurrent synthesis and release of nod-gene-inducing flavonoids from alfalfa roots. [Medicago sativa L. ; Rhizobium meliloti

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, C.A.; Phillips, D.A.

    Flavonoid signals from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) induce transcription of nodulation (nod) genes in Rhizobium meliloti. Alfalfa roots release three major nod-gene inducers: 4{prime},7-dihydroxyflavanone, 4{prime},7-dihydroxyflavone, and 4,4{prime}-dihydroxy-2{prime}-methoxychalcone. The objective of the present study was to define temporal relationships between synthesis and exudation for those flavonoids. Requirements for concurrent flavonoid biosynthesis were assessed by treating roots of intact alfalfa seedlings with (U-{sup 14}C)-L-phenylalanine in the presence or absence of the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase inhibitor L-2-aminoxy-3-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP). In the absence of AOPP, each of the three flavonoids in exudates contained {sup 14}C. In the presence of AOPP, {sup 14}C labeling and releasemore » of all the exuded nod-gene inducers were reduced significantly. AOPP inhibited labeling and release of the strongest nod-gene inducer, methoxychalcone, by more than 90%. The release process responsible for exudation of nod-gene inducers appears to be specific rather than a general phenomenon such as a sloughing off of cells during root growth.« less

  16. Activation of CD1d-restricted T cells protects NOD mice from developing diabetes by regulating dendritic cell subsets

    PubMed Central

    Naumov, Yuri N.; Bahjat, Keith S.; Gausling, Rudolph; Abraham, Roshini; Exley, Mark A.; Koezuka, Yasuhiko; Balk, Steven B.; Strominger, Jack L.; Clare-Salzer, Michael; Wilson, S. Brian

    2001-01-01

    CD1d-restricted invariant NKT (iNKT) cells are immunoregulatory cells whose loss exacerbates diabetes in nonobese diabetic (NOD) female mice. Here, we show that the relative numbers of iNKT cells from the pancreatic islets of NOD mice decrease at the time of conversion from peri-insulitis to invasive insulitis and diabetes. Conversely, NOD male mice who have a low incidence of diabetes showed an increased frequency of iNKT cells. Moreover, administration of α-galactosylceramide, a potent activating ligand presented by CD1d, ameliorated the development of diabetes in NOD female mice and resulted in the accumulation of iNKT cells and myeloid dendritic cells (DC) in pancreatic lymph nodes (PLN), but not in inguinal lymph nodes. Strikingly, injection of NOD female mice with myeloid DC isolated from the PLN, but not those from the inguinal lymph nodes, completely prevented diabetes. Thus, the immunoregulatory role of iNKT cells is manifested by the recruitment of tolerogenic myeloid DC to the PLN and the inhibition of ongoing autoimmune inflammation. PMID:11707602

  17. No evidence of association between NOD2/CARD15 gene polymorphism and atherosclerotic events after renal transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Courivaud, Cécile; Ferrand, Christophe; Deschamps, Marina; Tiberghien, Pierre; Chalopin, Jean-Marc; Duperrier, Anne; Saas, Philippe; Ducloux, Didier

    2006-01-01

    Stable renal transplant recipients (RTR) display high rates of atherosclerotic events (AE). Innate immunity and especially vascular inflammation play a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. It is illustrated both by an increased occurrence of post-renal transplant cardiovascular events in patients with elevated levels of C-reactive protein and by a correlation between post-transplant AE and Toll-like receptor-4 Asp299Gly polymorphism. Here, we analyze the influence NOD2/CARD15 gene polymorphism since NOD2 can modulate macrophage pro-inflammatory activity and macrophage is present in early atherosclerotic lesions. The incidence of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the three major polymorphic region of NOD2 gene (SNP8, SNP12 and SNP13) was assessed in 182 RTR and the correlation between such polymorphism and the development of AE was analyzed. No correlation was observed between NOD2 gene polymorphism and the occurrence of AE after renal transplantation. NOD2 gene polymorphism thus does not appear to influence cardiovascular complications in RTR. PMID:16641610

  18. TAM receptor-dependent regulation of SOCS3 and MAPKs contributes to pro-inflammatory cytokine downregulation following chronic NOD2 stimulation of human macrophages1

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shasha; Hedl, Matija; Abraham, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Microbial-induced cytokine regulation is critical to intestinal immune homeostasis. Acute stimulation of NOD2, the Crohn’s disease-associated sensor of bacterial peptidoglycan, induces cytokines. However, cytokines are attenuated after chronic NOD2 and pattern recognition receptor (PRR) stimulation of macrophages; similar attenuation is observed in intestinal macrophages. The role of Tyro3, Axl and Mer (TAM) receptors in regulating chronic PRR stimulation and NOD2-induced outcomes has not been examined. Moreover, TAM receptors have been relatively less investigated in human macrophages. Whereas TAM receptors did not downregulate acute NOD2-induced cytokines in primary human macrophages, they were essential for downregulating signaling and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion after chronic NOD2 and TLR4 stimulation. Axl and Mer were similarly required in mice for cytokine downregulation after chronic NOD2 stimulation in vivo and in intestinal tissues. Consistently, TAM expression was increased in human intestinal myeloid-derived cells. Chronic NOD2 stimulation led to IL-10- and TGFβ-dependent TAM upregulation in human macrophages, which in turn, upregulated SOCS3 expression. Restoring SOCS3 expression under TAM knockdown conditions restored chronic NOD2-mediated pro-inflammatory cytokine downregulation. In contrast to the upregulated pro-inflammatory cytokines, attenuated IL-10 secretion was maintained in TAM-deficient macrophages upon chronic NOD2 stimulation. The level of MAPK activation in TAM-deficient macrophages after chronic NOD2 stimulation was insufficient to upregulate IL-10 secretion; however, full restoration of MAPK activation under these conditions restored c-Fos, c-Jun, MAFK and PU.1 binding to the IL-10 promoter and IL-10 secretion. Therefore, TAM receptors are critical for downregulating pro-inflammatory cytokines under the chronic NOD2 stimulation conditions observed in the intestinal environment. PMID:25567680

  19. TAM receptor-dependent regulation of SOCS3 and MAPKs contributes to proinflammatory cytokine downregulation following chronic NOD2 stimulation of human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shasha; Hedl, Matija; Abraham, Clara

    2015-02-15

    Microbial-induced cytokine regulation is critical to intestinal immune homeostasis. Acute stimulation of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain 2 (NOD2), the Crohn's disease-associated sensor of bacterial peptidoglycan, induces cytokines. However, cytokines are attenuated after chronic NOD2 and pattern recognition receptor stimulation of macrophages; similar attenuation is observed in intestinal macrophages. The role of Tyro3, Axl, and Mer (TAM) receptors in regulating chronic pattern recognition receptor stimulation and NOD2-induced outcomes has not been examined. Moreover, TAM receptors have been relatively less investigated in human macrophages. Whereas TAM receptors did not downregulate acute NOD2-induced cytokines in primary human macrophages, they were essential for downregulating signaling and proinflammatory cytokine secretion after chronic NOD2 and TLR4 stimulation. Axl and Mer were similarly required in mice for cytokine downregulation after chronic NOD2 stimulation in vivo and in intestinal tissues. Consistently, TAM expression was increased in human intestinal myeloid-derived cells. Chronic NOD2 stimulation led to IL-10- and TGF-β-dependent TAM upregulation in human macrophages, which, in turn, upregulated suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 expression. Restoring suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 expression under TAM knockdown conditions restored chronic NOD2-mediated proinflammatory cytokine downregulation. In contrast to the upregulated proinflammatory cytokines, attenuated IL-10 secretion was maintained in TAM-deficient macrophages upon chronic NOD2 stimulation. The level of MAPK activation in TAM-deficient macrophages after chronic NOD2 stimulation was insufficient to upregulate IL-10 secretion; however, full restoration of MAPK activation under these conditions restored c-Fos, c-Jun, musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog K, and PU.1 binding to the IL-10 promoter and IL-10 secretion. Therefore, TAM receptors are critical for

  20. Mutual Regulation of NOD2 and RIG-I in Zebrafish Provides Insights into the Coordination between Innate Antibacterial and Antiviral Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Nie, Li; Xu, Xiao-Xiao; Xiang, Li-Xin; Shao, Jian-Zhong; Chen, Jiong

    2017-05-27

    Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) are two important cytosolic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) in the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), initiating innate antibacterial and antiviral signaling pathways. However, the relationship between these PRRs, especially in teleost fish models, is rarely reported. In this article, we describe the mutual regulation of zebrafish NOD2 ( Dr NOD2) and RIG-I ( Dr RIG-I) in innate immune responses. Luciferase assays were conducted to determine the activation of NF-κB and interferon signaling. Morpholino-mediated knockdown and mRNA-mediated rescue were performed to further confirm the regulatory roles between Dr NOD2 and Dr RIG-I. Results showed that Dr NOD2 and Dr RIG-I shared conserved structural hallmarks with their mammalian counterparts, and activated Dr RIG-I signaling can induce Dr NOD2 production. Surprisingly, Dr NOD2-initiated signaling can also induce Dr RIG-I expression, indicating that a mutual regulatory mechanism may exist between them. Studies conducted using HEK293T cells and zebrafish embryos showed that Dr RIG-I could negatively regulate Dr NOD2-activated NF-κB signaling, and Dr NOD2 could inhibit Dr RIG-I-induced IFN signaling. Moreover, knocking down Dr RIG-I expression by morpholino could enhance Dr NOD2-initiated NF-κB activation, and vice versa, which could be rescued by their corresponding mRNAs. Results revealed a mutual feedback regulatory mechanism underlying NOD2 and RIG-I signaling pathways in teleosts. This mechanism reflects the coordination between cytosolic antibacterial and antiviral PRRs in the complex network of innate immunity.

  1. Akkermansia muciniphila induces gut microbiota remodelling and controls islet autoimmunity in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Hänninen, Arno; Toivonen, Raine; Pöysti, Sakari; Belzer, Clara; Plovier, Hubert; Ouwerkerk, Janneke P; Emani, Rohini; Cani, Patrice D; De Vos, Willem M

    2017-12-21

    Intestinal microbiota is implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune type 1 diabetes in humans and in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, but evidence on its causality and on the role of individual microbiota members is limited. We investigated if different diabetes incidence in two NOD colonies was due to microbiota differences and aimed to identify individual microbiota members with potential significance. We profiled intestinal microbiota between two NOD mouse colonies showing high or low diabetes incidence by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing and colonised the high-incidence colony with the microbiota of the low-incidence colony. Based on unaltered incidence, we identified a few taxa which were not effectively transferred and thereafter, transferred experimentally one of these to test its potential significance. Although the high-incidence colony adopted most microbial taxa present in the low-incidence colony, diabetes incidence remained unaltered. Among the few taxa which were not transferred, Akkermansia muciniphila was identified. As A. muciniphila abundancy is inversely correlated to the risk of developing type 1 diabetes-related autoantibodies, we transferred A. muciniphila experimentally to the high-incidence colony. A. muciniphila transfer promoted mucus production and increased expression of antimicrobial peptide Reg3γ , outcompeted Ruminococcus torques from the microbiota, lowered serum endotoxin levels and islet toll-like receptor expression, promoted regulatory immunity and delayed diabetes development. Transfer of the whole microbiota may not reduce diabetes incidence despite a major change in gut microbiota, but single symbionts such as A. muciniphila with beneficial metabolic and immune signalling effects may reduce diabetes incidence when administered as a probiotic. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly

  2. Human T-cell responses to oral streptococci in human PBMC-NOD/SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Salam, M A; Nakao, R; Yonezawa, H; Watanabe, H; Senpuku, H

    2006-06-01

    We investigated cellular and humoral immune responses to oral biofilm bacteria, including Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus sobrinus, and Streptococcus sanguinis, in NOD/SCID mice immunized with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hu-PBMC-NOD/SCID mice) to explore the pathogenicity of each of those organisms in dental and oral inflammatory diseases. hu-PBMC-NOD/SCID mice were immunized by intraperitoneal injections with the whole cells of the streptococci once a week for 3 weeks. FACS analyses were used to determine the percentages of various hu-T cell types, as well as intracellular cytokine production of interleukin-4 and interferon-gamma. Serum IgG and IgM antibody levels in response to the streptococci were also determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. S. anginosus induced a significant amount of the proinflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma in CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in comparison with the other streptococci. However, there was no significant differences between the streptococci in interleukin-4 production by CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells after inoculation. Further, S. mutans significantly induced human anti-S. mutans IgG, IgG(1), IgG(2), and IgM antibodies in comparison with the other organisms. In conclusion, S. anginosus up-regulated Th1 and Tc1 cells, and S. mutans led to increasing levels of their antibodies, which was associated with the induction of Th2 cells. These results may contribute to a better understanding of human lymphocyte interactions to biofilm bacteria, along with their impact on dental and mucosal inflammatory diseases, as well as endocarditis.

  3. Induction of nodD Gene in a Betarhizobium Isolate, Cupriavidus sp. of Mimosa pudica, by Root Nodule Phenolic Acids.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Santi M; Chakraborty, Dipjyoti; Dutta, Suhrid R; Ghosh, Ananta K; Pati, Bikas R; Korpole, Suresh; Paul, Debarati

    2016-06-01

    A range of phenolic acids, viz., p-coumaric acid, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and cinnamic acid have been isolated and identified by LC-MS analysis in the roots and root nodules of Mimosa pudica. The effects of identified phenolic acids on the regulation of nodulation (nod) genes have been evaluated in a betarhizobium isolate of M. pudica root nodule. Protocatechuic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid were most effective in inducing nod gene, whereas caffeic acid had no significant effect. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase activities were estimated, indicating regulation and metabolism of phenolic acids in root nodules. These results showed that nodD gene expression of betarhizobium is regulated by simple phenolic acids such as protocatechuic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid present in host root nodule and sustains nodule organogenesis.

  4. Application of SGT1-Hsp90 chaperone complex for soluble expression of NOD1 LRR domain in E. coli

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Tae-Joon; Hahn, Ji-Sook

    NOD1 is an intracellular sensor of innate immunity which is related to a number of inflammatory diseases. NOD1 is known to be difficult to express and purify for structural and biochemical studies. Based on the fact that Hsp90 and its cochaperone SGT1 are necessary for the stabilization and activation of NOD1 in mammals, SGT1 was chosen as a fusion partner of the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain of NOD1 for its soluble expression in Escherichia coli. Fusion of human SGT1 (hSGT1) to NOD1 LRR significantly enhanced the solubility, and the fusion protein was stabilized by coexpression of mouse Hsp90α. The expressionmore » level of hSGT1-NOD1 LRR was further enhanced by supplementation of rare codon tRNAs and exchange of antibiotic marker genes. - Highlights: • The NOD1 LRR domain was solubilized by SGT1 fusion in E. coli. • The coexpression of HSP90 stabilized the SGT1-NOD1 LRR fusion protein. • Several optimizations could enhance the expression level of the fusion protein.« less

  5. ‘You sit in fear’: understanding perceptions of nodding syndrome in post-conflict northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Buchmann, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    Background Nodding syndrome, a disabling epidemic epileptic encephalopathy, has affected an estimated 1,834 children in northern Uganda, with reports of as many as 3,000. Etiology is unknown and children are being treated symptomatically but inconsistently with anti-epileptic drugs. Design This qualitative study comprised 10 semi-structured interviews with caregivers of affected children and five focus group discussions with 23 participants; relatives, teachers, and religious leaders. Data collection and participant observation were carried out from July to September 2012 in Kitgum and Pader districts. The material was coded through inductive thematic analysis. Results Nodding syndrome has brought signs of discrimination in school admission procedures, founded in a fear of transmission. The suffering and loss caused by nodding syndrome is collective, and participants felt that nodding syndrome was viewed as a threat to the Acholi only, and that interventions had therefore been delayed. Multiple theories of causation exist, most commonly that the disease is caused by chemicals from bombs or that food aid distributed in IDP camps had expired or been poisoned. A feeling of uncertainty was present in all focus group discussions, fueled by the fact that results of investigations were not being shared with the communities. It was especially agonizing that CDC results had been given to the Ugandan government in 2010 but not to the public. The definitive fear is that the disease will be the end of the Acholi. Conclusions This study provided insight into the perceptions of communities affected by an unknown emerging disease. Families of affected children are grieving not only their child's illness; it is a loss of social value and of lineage. The loss and suffering involved with nodding syndrome should be seen in the context of the wider suffering of a society disrupted by violent conflict. The memory of war is omnipresent and is also how nodding syndrome is understood

  6. CP-25 Alleviates Experimental Sjögren's Syndrome Features in NOD/Ltj Mice and Modulates T Lymphocyte Subsets.

    PubMed

    Gu, Fang; Xu, Shixia; Zhang, Pengying; Chen, Xiaoyun; Wu, Yujing; Wang, Chun; Gao, Mei; Si, Min; Wang, Xinming; Heinrich, Korner; Wu, Huaxun; Wei, Wei

    2018-04-17

    Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune illness of the moisture-producing glands such as salivary glands that is characterized by various immune abnormalities. The aetiology of pSS remains unclear and there is no curative agent. In this study, we investigated the putative therapeutic effects on a NOD/Ltj mouse model of Sjögren's syndrome-like disorders of an ester derivative of paeoniflorin, paeoniflorin-6'O-benzene (termed CP-25). Our study showed that CP-25 alleviated effectively clinical manifestations in NOD/Ltj mice resulting, for example, in increased salivary flow and reduced histopathological scores. Furthermore, CP-25 decreased lymphocyte viability in NOD/Ltj mice and attenuated the infiltration of Th1 cells and Th2 cells into the salivary glands of NOD/Ltj mice. In the spleen on NOD/Ltj mice, CP-25 skewed the ratio of Th17 and regulatory T cells towards regulatory T cells. After treatment, concentrations of anti-La/SSB and IgG antibodies were reduced and the titre of the inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-17A in the serum on NOD/Ltj mice was alleviated. Thus, we define CP-25 as a novel compound that is a potent therapeutic agent for pSS by modulating T lymphocyte subsets. Future studies will validate the use of CP-25 as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of pSS. © 2018 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  7. The HhH(2)/NDD Domain of the Drosophila Nod Chromokinesin-like Protein Is Required for Binding to Chromosomes in the Oocyte Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Wei; Hawley, R. Scott

    2005-01-01

    Nod is a chromokinesin-like protein that plays a critical role in segregating achiasmate chromosomes during female meiosis. The C-terminal half of the Nod protein contains two putative DNA-binding domains. The first of these domains, known as the HMGN domain, consists of three tandemly repeated high-mobility group N motifs. This domain was previously shown to be both necessary and sufficient for binding of the C-terminal half of Nod to mitotic chromosomes in embryos. The second putative DNA-binding domain, denoted HhH(2)/NDD, is a helix-hairpin-helix(2)/Nod-like DNA-binding domain. Although the HhH(2)/NDD domain is not required or sufficient for chromosome binding in embryos, several well-characterized nod mutations have been mapped in this domain. To characterize the role of the HhH(2)/NDD domain in mediating Nod function, we created a series of UAS-driven transgene constructs capable of expressing either a wild-type Nod-GFP fusion protein or proteins in which the HhH(2)/NDD domain had been altered by site-directed mutagenesis. Although wild-type Nod-GFP localizes to the oocyte chromosomes and rescues the segregation defect in nod mutant oocytes, two of three proteins carrying mutants in the HhH(2)/NDD domain fail to either rescue the nod mutant phenotype or bind to oocyte chromosomes. However, these mutant proteins do bind to the polytene chromosomes in nurse-cell nuclei and enter the oocyte nucleus. Thus, even though the HhH(2)/NDD domain is not essential for chromosome binding in other cell types, it is required for chromosome binding in the oocyte. These HhH(2)/NDD mutants also block the localization of Nod to the posterior pole of stage 9–10A oocytes, a process that is thought to facilitate the interaction of Nod with the plus ends of microtubules (Cui et al. 2005). This observation suggests that the Nod HhH2/NDD domain may play other roles in addition to binding Nod to meiotic chromosomes. PMID:16143607

  8. The Inositol Phosphatase SHIP-1 Inhibits NOD2-Induced NF-κB Activation by Disturbing the Interaction of XIAP with RIP2

    PubMed Central

    Condé, Claude; Rambout, Xavier; Lebrun, Marielle; Lecat, Aurore; Di Valentin, Emmanuel; Dequiedt, Franck; Piette, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    SHIP-1 is an inositol phosphatase predominantly expressed in hematopoietic cells. Over the ten past years, SHIP-1 has been described as an important regulator of immune functions. Here, we characterize a new inhibitory function for SHIP-1 in NOD2 signaling. NOD2 is a crucial cytoplasmic bacterial sensor that activates proinflammatory and antimicrobial responses upon bacterial invasion. We observed that SHIP-1 decreases NOD2-induced NF-κB activation in macrophages. This negative regulation relies on its interaction with XIAP. Indeed, we observed that XIAP is an essential mediator of the NOD2 signaling pathway that enables proper NF-κB activation in macrophages. Upon NOD2 activation, SHIP-1 C-terminal proline rich domain (PRD) interacts with XIAP, thereby disturbing the interaction between XIAP and RIP2 in order to decrease NF-κB signaling. PMID:22815893

  9. Deep Sequencing of the Medicago truncatula Root Transcriptome Reveals a Massive and Early Interaction between Nodulation Factor and Ethylene Signals.

    PubMed

    Larrainzar, Estíbaliz; Riely, Brendan K; Kim, Sang Cheol; Carrasquilla-Garcia, Noelia; Yu, Hee-Ju; Hwang, Hyun-Ju; Oh, Mijin; Kim, Goon Bo; Surendrarao, Anandkumar K; Chasman, Deborah; Siahpirani, Alireza F; Penmetsa, Ramachandra V; Lee, Gang-Seob; Kim, Namshin; Roy, Sushmita; Mun, Jeong-Hwan; Cook, Douglas R

    2015-09-01

    The legume-rhizobium symbiosis is initiated through the activation of the Nodulation (Nod) factor-signaling cascade, leading to a rapid reprogramming of host cell developmental pathways. In this work, we combine transcriptome sequencing with molecular genetics and network analysis to quantify and categorize the transcriptional changes occurring in roots of Medicago truncatula from minutes to days after inoculation with Sinorhizobium medicae. To identify the nature of the inductive and regulatory cues, we employed mutants with absent or decreased Nod factor sensitivities (i.e. Nodulation factor perception and Lysine motif domain-containing receptor-like kinase3, respectively) and an ethylene (ET)-insensitive, Nod factor-hypersensitive mutant (sickle). This unique data set encompasses nine time points, allowing observation of the symbiotic regulation of diverse biological processes with high temporal resolution. Among the many outputs of the study is the early Nod factor-induced, ET-regulated expression of ET signaling and biosynthesis genes. Coupled with the observation of massive transcriptional derepression in the ET-insensitive background, these results suggest that Nod factor signaling activates ET production to attenuate its own signal. Promoter:β-glucuronidase fusions report ET biosynthesis both in root hairs responding to rhizobium as well as in meristematic tissue during nodule organogenesis and growth, indicating that ET signaling functions at multiple developmental stages during symbiosis. In addition, we identified thousands of novel candidate genes undergoing Nod factor-dependent, ET-regulated expression. We leveraged the power of this large data set to model Nod factor- and ET-regulated signaling networks using MERLIN, a regulatory network inference algorithm. These analyses predict key nodes regulating the biological process impacted by Nod factor perception. We have made these results available to the research community through a searchable online

  10. Penicillin resistance compromises Nod1-dependent proinflammatory activity and virulence fitness of neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Zarantonelli, Maria Leticia; Skoczynska, Anna; Antignac, Aude; El Ghachi, Meriem; Deghmane, Ala-Eddine; Szatanik, Marek; Mulet, Céline; Werts, Catherine; Peduto, Lucie; d'Andon, Martine Fanton; Thouron, Françoise; Nato, Faridabano; Lebourhis, Lionel; Philpott, Dana J; Girardin, Stephen E; Vives, Francina Langa; Sansonetti, Philippe; Eberl, Gérard; Pedron, Thierry; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir; Boneca, Ivo G

    2013-06-12

    Neisseria meningitidis is a life-threatening human bacterial pathogen responsible for pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. Meningococcal strains with reduced susceptibility to penicillin G (Pen(I)) carry a mutated penicillin-binding protein (PBP2) resulting in a modified peptidoglycan structure. Despite their antibiotic resistance, Pen(I) strains have failed to expand clonally. We analyzed the biological consequences of PBP2 alteration among clinical meningococcal strains and found that peptidoglycan modifications of the Pen(I) strain resulted in diminished in vitro Nod1-dependent proinflammatory activity. In an influenza virus-meningococcal sequential mouse model mimicking human disease, wild-type meningococci induced a Nod1-dependent inflammatory response, colonizing the lungs and surviving in the blood. In contrast, isogenic Pen(I) strains were attenuated for such response and were out-competed by meningococci sensitive to penicillin G. Our results suggest that antibiotic resistance imposes a cost to the success of the pathogen and may potentially explain the lack of clonal expansion of Pen(I) strains. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Efficacy studies of Sclerotium rolfsii lectin on breast cancer using NOD SCID mouse model.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Prajna; Narasimhappagari, Jagadeesh; Swamy, Bale M; Inamdar, Shashikala R

    2018-04-20

    Expression of altered glycans like TF, Tn and sTn antigens has been observed in a number of carcinomas which are targeted in cancer therapy. Sclerotium rolfsii lectin (SRL) is known to recognize TF and its substituted forms. Clinical potential of SRL has been demonstrated by studying its interaction with different types of cancer cells. Here we report, in vitro studies of SRL on breast cancer MDA-MB-468 cells and in vivo studies with MCF-7 xenografts. In vitro growth inhibitory studies of SRL on metastatic triple negative breast cancer MDA-MB-468 cells was performed by MTT assay, flow cytometry, adhesion and CAM assay. In vivo efficacy studies of SRL were performed using NOD SCID mice bearing MCF-7 xenografts. SRL has strong binding to MDA-MB-468 cells with MFI of 85.5 and has growth inhibitory effect with IC 50 of 32μg/mL at 48 h. SRL has anti angiogenesis effect and also anti adhesive effect with fibronectin and collagen at 20μg/mL by 36 and 42% respectively. In vivo efficacy studies of SRL on NOD SCID mice bearing MCF-7 xenogratfs revealed 61.77 and 75.71% tumor regressing effect respectively at 20 and 30mg/kg body weight without any toxicity. All these results substantiate clinical potential of SRL on breast cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Dax Gets the Nod: Toddlers Detect and Use Social Cues to Evaluate Testimony

    PubMed Central

    Fusaro, Maria; Harris, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    Children ages 18 and 24 months were assessed for the ability to understand and learn from an adult’s nonverbal expression of agreement and disagreement with a speaker’s claims. In one type of communicative exchange, a speaker made 2 different claims about the identity or location of an object. The hearer nodded her head in agreement with one claim and shook her head in disagreement with the other claim. In a second type of exchange, the speaker asked 2 different questions about the identity or location of an object. The hearer nodded her head in response to one question and shook her head in response to the other. The 24-month-olds grasped the implication of these gestural responses, by inferring the correct name or location of the object. The 18-month-olds showed a limited grasp of their implications. Thus, in learning from others’ testimony, toddlers focus not only on the claims of a single speaker but also on whether that information is accepted or rejected by another hearer. In particular, they detect and act on social cues of assent and dissent. PMID:23127298

  13. Repurposed JAK1/JAK2 Inhibitor Reverses Established Autoimmune Insulitis in NOD Mice.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Prerak M; Graham, Kate L; Scott, Nicholas A; Jenkins, Misty R; Majaw, Suktilang; Sutherland, Robyn M; Fynch, Stacey; Lew, Andrew M; Burns, Christopher J; Krishnamurthy, Balasubramanian; Brodnicki, Thomas C; Mannering, Stuart I; Kay, Thomas W; Thomas, Helen E

    2017-06-01

    Recent advances in immunotherapeutics have not yet changed the routine management of autoimmune type 1 diabetes. There is an opportunity to repurpose therapeutics used to treat other diseases to treat type 1 diabetes, especially when there is evidence for overlapping mechanisms. Janus kinase (JAK) 1/JAK2 inhibitors are in development or clinical use for indications including rheumatoid arthritis. There is good evidence for activation of the JAK1/JAK2 and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1 pathway in human type 1 diabetes and in mouse models, especially in β-cells. We tested the hypothesis that using these drugs to block the JAK-STAT pathway would prevent autoimmune diabetes. The JAK1/JAK2 inhibitor AZD1480 blocked the effect of cytokines on mouse and human β-cells by inhibiting MHC class I upregulation. This prevented the direct interaction between CD8 + T cells and β-cells, and reduced immune cell infiltration into islets. NOD mice treated with AZD1480 were protected from autoimmune diabetes, and diabetes was reversed in newly diagnosed NOD mice. This provides mechanistic groundwork for repurposing clinically approved JAK1/JAK2 inhibitors for type 1 diabetes. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  14. [Abnormalities in gastric mechanic sensitivity, gastric emptying and electrogastrography in non organic dyspepsia (NOD)].

    PubMed

    López Gastón, A; López DeLuise, G A; Sarmiento, A; Andrusch, A

    1997-01-01

    The aim was to study the alterations in mechanosensitivity, gastric emptying, and electrogastrography (E.G.G.) in a population of patients suffering from N.O.D. eighteen controls (9 males, 9 females, mean age 49.33 years old < SEM 3.62, range 24-74) and 32 patients with N.O.D. (22 males, 21 females, mean age 55.72 years old, SEM 2.87, range 17-86) were studied. Gastric mechano-sensitivity with a latex balloon of low compliance inflated "in phasic" was investigated, and intra balloon pressure was recorded. Gastric emptying with a mixed meal marked with 99 Tc in the solid phase, containing 250 Cal, was studied. E.G.G. was studied using two skin surface electrodes Ag-2C1Ag placed on epigastric area following a probalistic antral axe. Only dominant frequency in each block was considered, and % of total abnormalities on total recording time lesser than 2 c.p.m or more than 4 c.p.m. was considered. Recordings were taken during fast time during 30 minutes, and 30 minutes after a meal containing 250 Cal. Analysis with F.F.T, and spectral running. In 67.92% a delay in gastric emptying was observed. 56.3% did not complete 700 ml. of balloon inflation because of pain, Vs 16.8% in controls (p < 0.001) The slopes of intra-balloon pressure were not different in both groups. (Variance, F-NS). Mean E.C.A was 2.99 c.p.m in control, Vs 3.46 in fasting and 3.64 in postprandial period in N.O.D. (p = NS) Differences in fasting and postprandial % of arrhythmias total time recording were significant in N.O.D. ("t". 0.02 > p 0.01). Twenty percent of controls showed isolated tachygastria, but dominant frequencies never were higher than 6 c.p.m and never last more than 8% of the total recording time. Sixty eight point seventy five percent of N.O.D. showed arrhythmias. 48% of tachygastrias were in the range 30-60% of total recording time. No differences in gastric emptying between patient presenting pain with = < 700 ml. and < 700 ml. of balloon inflation were seen. Patients with sensorial

  15. Is alarm calling risky? Marmots avoid calling from risky places.

    PubMed

    Collier, Travis C; Blumstein, Daniel T; Girod, Lewis; Taylor, Charles E

    2010-12-01

    Alarm calling is common in many species. A prevalent assumption is that calling puts the vocalizing individual at increased risk of predation. If calling is indeed costly, we need special explanations for its evolution and maintenance. In some, but not all species, callers vocalize away from safety and thus may be exposed to an increased risk of predation. However, for species that emit bouts with one or a few calls, it is often difficult to identify the caller and find the precise location where a call was produced. We analyzed the spatial dynamics of yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris) alarm calling using an acoustic localization system to determine the location from which calls were emitted. Marmots almost always called from positions close to the safety of their burrows, and, if they produced more than one alarm call, tended to end their calling bouts closer to safety than they started them. These results suggest that for this species, potential increased predation risk from alarm calling is greatly mitigated and indeed calling may have limited predation costs.

  16. Is alarm calling risky? Marmots avoid calling from risky places

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Travis C.; Blumstein, Daniel T.; Girod, Lewis; Taylor, Charles E.

    2010-01-01

    Alarm calling is common in many species. A prevalent assumption is that calling puts the vocalizing individual at increased risk of predation. If calling is indeed costly, we need special explanations for its evolution and maintenance. In some, but not all species, callers vocalize away from safety and thus may be exposed to an increased risk of predation. However, for species that emit bouts with one or a few calls, it is often difficult to identify the caller and find the precise location where a call was produced. We analyzed the spatial dynamics of yellow-bellied marmot (Marmota flaviventris) alarm calling using an acoustic localization system to determine the location from which calls were emitted. Marmots almost always called from positions close to the safety of their burrows, and, if they produced more than one alarm call, tended to end their calling bouts closer to safety than they started them. These results suggest that for this species, potential increased predation risk from alarm calling is greatly mitigated and indeed calling may have limited predation costs. PMID:21116460

  17. Cryopreservation of cord blood CD34+ cells before or after thrombopoietin expansion differentially affects early platelet recovery in NOD SCID mice.

    PubMed

    van Hensbergen, Yvette; van der Garde, Mark; Brand, Anneke; Slot, Manon C; de Graaf-Dijkstra, Alice; Watt, Suzanne; Zwaginga, Jaap Jan

    2015-07-01

    Expansion of human cord blood (CB) CD34+ cells with thrombopoietin (TPO) can accelerate delayed platelet (PLT) recovery after transplantation into immunodeficient mice. Clinical implementation, however, will depend on practical and effective protocols. The best timing of TPO expansion in relation to cryopreservation in this respect is unknown. In this study, we evaluated whether the order of cryopreservation and TPO expansion affected the expansion rate and numbers of clonogenic hematopoietic progenitor cells in vitro or PLT and longer-term hematopoietic repopulation in NOD SCID mice in vivo. Our results demonstrate higher expansion rates and the generation of higher numbers of multilineage and megakaryocytic progenitors (granulocyte, erythrocyte, monocyte, megakaryocyte colony-forming units and megakaryocyte colony-forming units) in vitro when freshly isolated CB CD34+ cells are first cultured with TPO and then cryopreserved and thawed as compared to TPO expansion after CD34+ cell cryopreservation. In contrast, the cells produced with the latter strategy showed higher expression of CD62L and a superior stromal cell-derived factor-1α-mediated migration. This might play a role in an also observed superior early PLT recovery after transplantation of these cells into NOD SCID mice. The hematopoietic engraftment in the marrow 6 weeks after transplantation was not different between the two strategies. Although TPO expansion before cryopreservation would yield higher nucleated cell and clonogenic myeloid and megakaryocyte cell numbers and enable earlier availability, CB TPO expansion after cryopreservation is likely to be clinically more effective, despite the lower number of cells obtained after expansion. Moreover, the latter strategy is logistically more feasible. © 2015 AABB.

  18. Implication of TLR- but Not of NOD2-Signaling Pathways in Dendritic Cell Activation by Group B Streptococcus Serotypes III and V

    PubMed Central

    Lemire, Paul; Roy, David; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Okura, Masatoshi; Takamatsu, Daisuke; Bergman, Eugenia; Segura, Mariela

    2014-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an important agent of life-threatening invasive infection. It has been previously shown that encapsulated type III GBS is easily internalized by dendritic cells (DCs), and that this internalization had an impact on cytokine production. The receptors underlying these processes are poorly characterized. Knowledge on the mechanisms used by type V GBS to activate DCs is minimal. In this work, we investigated the role of Toll-like receptor (TLR)/MyD88 signaling pathway, the particular involvement of TLR2, and that of the intracellular sensing receptor NOD2 in the activation of DCs by types III and V GBS. The role of capsular polysaccharide (CPS, one of the most important GBS virulence factors) in bacterial-DC interactions was evaluated using non-encapsulated mutants. Despite differences in the role of CPS between types III and V GBS in bacterial internalization and intracellular survival, no major differences were observed in their capacity to modulate release of cytokines by DC. For both serotypes, CPS had a minor role in this response. Production of cytokines by DCs was shown to strongly rely on MyD88-dependent signaling pathways, suggesting that DCs recognize GBS and become activated mostly through TLR signaling. Yet, GBS-infected TLR2-/- DCs only showed a partial reduction in the production of IL-6 and CXCL1 compared to control DCs. Surprisingly, CXCL10 release by type III or type V GBS-infected DCs was MyD88-independent. No differences in DC activation were observed between NOD2-/- and control DCs. These results demonstrate the involvement of various receptors and the complexity of the cytokine production pathways activated by GBS upon DC infection. PMID:25436906

  19. Receptor-mediated chitin perception in legume roots is functionally separable from Nod factor perception.

    PubMed

    Bozsoki, Zoltan; Cheng, Jeryl; Feng, Feng; Gysel, Kira; Vinther, Maria; Andersen, Kasper R; Oldroyd, Giles; Blaise, Mickael; Radutoiu, Simona; Stougaard, Jens

    2017-09-19

    The ability of root cells to distinguish mutualistic microbes from pathogens is crucial for plants that allow symbiotic microorganisms to infect and colonize their internal root tissues. Here we show that Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula possess very similar LysM pattern-recognition receptors, Lj LYS6/ Mt LYK9 and Mt LYR4, enabling root cells to separate the perception of chitin oligomeric microbe-associated molecular patterns from the perception of lipochitin oligosaccharide by the Lj NFR1/ Mt LYK3 and Lj NFR5/ Mt NFP receptors triggering symbiosis. Inactivation of chitin-receptor genes in Ljlys6 , Mtlyk9 , and Mtlyr4 mutants eliminates early reactive oxygen species responses and induction of defense-response genes in roots. Ljlys6 , Mtlyk9 , and Mtlyr4 mutants were also more susceptible to fungal and bacterial pathogens, while infection and colonization by rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was maintained. Biochemical binding studies with purified Lj LYS6 ectodomains further showed that at least six GlcNAc moieties (CO6) are required for optimal binding efficiency. The 2.3-Å crystal structure of the Lj LYS6 ectodomain reveals three LysM βααβ motifs similar to other LysM proteins and a conserved chitin-binding site. These results show that distinct receptor sets in legume roots respond to chitin and lipochitin oligosaccharides found in the heterogeneous mixture of chitinaceous compounds originating from soil microbes. This establishes a foundation for genetic and biochemical dissection of the perception and the downstream responses separating defense from symbiosis in the roots of the 80-90% of land plants able to develop rhizobial and/or mycorrhizal endosymbiosis.

  20. Degradable polymeric carrier for the delivery of IL-10 plasmid DNA to prevent autoimmune insulitis of NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Koh, J J; Ko, K S; Lee, M; Han, S; Park, J S; Kim, S W

    2000-12-01

    Recently, we have reported that biodegradable poly [alpha-(4-aminobutyl)-L-glycolic acid] (PAGA) can condense and protect plasmid DNA from DNase I. In this study, we investigated whether the systemic administration of pCAGGS mouse IL-10 (mIL-10) expression plasmid complexed with PAGA can reduce the development of insulitis in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. PAGA/mIL-10 plasmid complexes were stable for more than 60 min, but the naked DNA was destroyed within 10 min by DNase I. The PAGA/DNA complexes were injected into the tail vein of 3-week-old NOD mice. Serum mIL-10 level peaked at 5 days after injection, and could be detected for more than 9 weeks. The prevalence of severe insulitis on 12-week-old NOD mice was markedly reduced by the intravenous injection of PAGA/DNA complex (15.7%) compared with that of naked DNA injection (34.5%) and non-treated controls (90.9%). In conclusion, systemic administration of pCAGGS mIL-10 plasmid/PAGA complexes can reduce the severity of insulitis in NOD mice. This study shows that the PAGA/DNA complex has the potential for the prevention of autoimmune diabetes mellitus. Gene Therapy (2000) 7, 2099-2104.

  1. An "Ideal" Home for Care: Nel Noddings, Thomas Hill Green, and an Ontological Support for a Phenomenology of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decoste, Jordan; Boyd, Dwight

    2009-01-01

    This paper is grounded in a deep appreciation of Nel Noddings' "ethics of care" as an important contribution to moral philosophy and moral education. We seek to offer some philosophical reflections that have the potential to strengthen this important alternative to mainstream ethics and to how moral education might be conceived and practiced…

  2. Nod-Like Receptor Protein-3 Inflammasome Plays an Important Role during Early Stages of Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Weinheimer-Haus, Eileen M.; Mirza, Rita E.; Koh, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    The Nod-like receptor protein (NLRP)-3 inflammasome/IL-1β pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory skin diseases, but its biological role in wound healing remains to be elucidated. Since inflammation is typically thought to impede healing, we hypothesized that loss of NLRP-3 activity would result in a downregulated inflammatory response and accelerated wound healing. NLRP-3 null mice, caspase-1 null mice and C57Bl/6 wild type control mice (WT) received four 8 mm excisional cutaneous wounds; inflammation and healing were assessed during the early stage of wound healing. Consistent with our hypothesis, wounds from NLRP-3 null and caspase-1 null mice contained lower levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α compared to WT mice and had reduced neutrophil and macrophage accumulation. Contrary to our hypothesis, re-epithelialization, granulation tissue formation, and angiogenesis were delayed in NLRP-3 null mice and caspase-1 null mice compared to WT mice, indicating that NLRP-3 signaling is important for early events in wound healing. Topical treatment of excisional wounds with recombinant IL-1β partially restored granulation tissue formation in wounds of NLRP-3 null mice, confirming the importance of NLRP-3-dependent IL-1β production during early wound healing. Despite the improvement in healing, angiogenesis and levels of the pro-angiogenic growth factor VEGF were further reduced in IL-1β treated wounds, suggesting that IL-1β has a negative effect on angiogenesis and that NLRP-3 promotes angiogenesis in an IL-1β-independent manner. These findings indicate that the NLRP-3 inflammasome contributes to the early inflammatory phase following skin wounding and is important for efficient healing. PMID:25793779

  3. Fungal Chitin Dampens Inflammation through IL-10 Induction Mediated by NOD2 and TLR9 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Wagener, Jeanette; Malireddi, R. K. Subbarao; Lenardon, Megan D.; Köberle, Martin; Vautier, Simon; MacCallum, Donna M.; Biedermann, Tilo; Schaller, Martin; Netea, Mihai G.; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi; Brown, Gordon D.; Brown, Alistair J. P.; Gow, Neil A. R.

    2014-01-01

    Chitin is an essential structural polysaccharide of fungal pathogens and parasites, but its role in human immune responses remains largely unknown. It is the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature after cellulose and its derivatives today are widely used for medical and industrial purposes. We analysed the immunological properties of purified chitin particles derived from the opportunistic human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, which led to the selective secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. We identified NOD2, TLR9 and the mannose receptor as essential fungal chitin-recognition receptors for the induction of this response. Chitin reduced LPS-induced inflammation in vivo and may therefore contribute to the resolution of the immune response once the pathogen has been defeated. Fungal chitin also induced eosinophilia in vivo, underpinning its ability to induce asthma. Polymorphisms in the identified chitin receptors, NOD2 and TLR9, predispose individuals to inflammatory conditions and dysregulated expression of chitinases and chitinase-like binding proteins, whose activity is essential to generate IL-10-inducing fungal chitin particles in vitro, have also been linked to inflammatory conditions and asthma. Chitin recognition is therefore critical for immune homeostasis and is likely to have a significant role in infectious and allergic disease. Authors Summary Chitin is the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature after cellulose and an essential component of the cell wall of all fungal pathogens. The discovery of human chitinases and chitinase-like binding proteins indicates that fungal chitin is recognised by cells of the human immune system, shaping the immune response towards the invading pathogen. We show that three immune cell receptors– the mannose receptor, NOD2 and TLR9 recognise chitin and act together to mediate an anti-inflammatory response via secretion of the cytokine IL-10. This mechanism may prevent inflammation-based damage

  4. A role for the pattern recognition receptor Nod2 in promoting recruitment of CD103+ Dendritic Cells to the colon in response to Trichuris muris infection

    PubMed Central

    Bowcutt, Rowann; Bramhall, Michael; Logunova, Larisa; Wilson, Jim; Booth, Cath; Carding, Simon R.; Grencis, Richard; Cruickshank, Sheena

    2014-01-01

    The ability of the colon to generate an immune response to pathogens, such as the model pathogen Trichuris muris, is a fundamental and critical defense mechanism. Resistance to T.muris infection is associated with the rapid recruitment of dendritic cells (DCs) to the colonic epithelium via epithelial chemokine production. However, the epithelial-pathogen interactions that drive chemokine production are not known. We addressed the role of the cytosolic pattern recognition receptor Nod2. In response to infection, there was a rapid influx of CD103+CD11c+ DCs into the colonic epithelium in wild type (WT) mice whereas this was absent in Nod2−/− animals. In vitro chemotaxis assays and in vivo experiments using bone marrow chimeras of WT mice reconstituted with Nod2−/− bone marrow and infected with T. muris demonstrated that the migratory function of Nod2−/− DCs was normal. Investigation of colonic epithelial cell (CEC) innate responses revealed a significant reduction in epithelial production of the chemokines CCL2 and CCL5 but not CCL20 by Nod2-deficient CEC. Collectively, these data demonstrate the importance of Nod2 in CEC responses to infection and the requirement for functional Nod2 in initiating host epithelial chemokine mediated responses and subsequent DC recruitment and T cell responses following infection. PMID:24448097

  5. Emv30null NOD-scid mice. An improved host for adoptive transfer of autoimmune diabetes and growth of human lymphohematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Serreze, D V; Leiter, E H; Hanson, M S; Christianson, S W; Shultz, L D; Hesselton, R M; Greiner, D L

    1995-12-01

    When used as hosts in passive transfer experiments, a stock of NOD/Lt mice congenic for the severe combined immunodeficiency (scid) mutation have provided great insight to the contributions of various T-cell populations in the pathogenesis of autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Moreover, NOD-scid mice support higher levels of human lymphohematopoietic cell growth than the C.B-17-scid strain in which the mutation originated. However, the ability to perform long-term lymphohematopoietic repopulation studies in the NOD-scid stock has been limited by the fact that most of these mice develop lethal thymic lymphomas beginning at 20 weeks of age. These thymic lymphomas are characterized by activation and subsequent genomic reintegrations of Emv30, an endogenous murine ecotropic retrovirus unique to the NOD genome. To test the role of this endogenous retrovirus in thymomagenesis, we produced a stock of Emv30null NOD-scid mice by congenic replacement of the proximal end of chromosome 11 with genetic material derived from the closely related NOR/Lt strain. Thymic lymphomas still initiate in Emv30null NOD-scid females, but their rate of progression is significantly retarded since the frequency of tumors weighing between 170 and 910 mg at 25 weeks of age was reduced to 20.8% vs. 76.2% in Emv30% segregants. The thymic lymphomas that did develop in Emv30null NOD-scid mice were not characterized by a compensatory increase in mink cell focus-forming proviral integrations, which initiate thymomagenesis in other susceptible mouse strains. Significantly, the ability of standard NOD T-cells to transfer IDDM to the Emv30null NOD-scid stock was not impaired.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Deep Sequencing of the Medicago truncatula Root Transcriptome Reveals a Massive and Early Interaction between Nodulation Factor and Ethylene Signals1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Larrainzar, Estíbaliz; Riely, Brendan K.; Kim, Sang Cheol; Carrasquilla-Garcia, Noelia; Yu, Hee-Ju; Hwang, Hyun-Ju; Oh, Mijin; Kim, Goon Bo; Surendrarao, Anandkumar K.; Chasman, Deborah; Siahpirani, Alireza F.; Penmetsa, Ramachandra V.; Lee, Gang-Seob; Kim, Namshin; Roy, Sushmita; Mun, Jeong-Hwan; Cook, Douglas R.

    2015-01-01

    The legume-rhizobium symbiosis is initiated through the activation of the Nodulation (Nod) factor-signaling cascade, leading to a rapid reprogramming of host cell developmental pathways. In this work, we combine transcriptome sequencing with molecular genetics and network analysis to quantify and categorize the transcriptional changes occurring in roots of Medicago truncatula from minutes to days after inoculation with Sinorhizobium medicae. To identify the nature of the inductive and regulatory cues, we employed mutants with absent or decreased Nod factor sensitivities (i.e. Nodulation factor perception and Lysine motif domain-containing receptor-like kinase3, respectively) and an ethylene (ET)-insensitive, Nod factor-hypersensitive mutant (sickle). This unique data set encompasses nine time points, allowing observation of the symbiotic regulation of diverse biological processes with high temporal resolution. Among the many outputs of the study is the early Nod factor-induced, ET-regulated expression of ET signaling and biosynthesis genes. Coupled with the observation of massive transcriptional derepression in the ET-insensitive background, these results suggest that Nod factor signaling activates ET production to attenuate its own signal. Promoter:β-glucuronidase fusions report ET biosynthesis both in root hairs responding to rhizobium as well as in meristematic tissue during nodule organogenesis and growth, indicating that ET signaling functions at multiple developmental stages during symbiosis. In addition, we identified thousands of novel candidate genes undergoing Nod factor-dependent, ET-regulated expression. We leveraged the power of this large data set to model Nod factor- and ET-regulated signaling networks using MERLIN, a regulatory network inference algorithm. These analyses predict key nodes regulating the biological process impacted by Nod factor perception. We have made these results available to the research community through a searchable online

  7. What Do We Know About NOD-Like Receptors in Plant Immunity?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Dodds, Peter N; Bernoux, Maud

    2017-08-04

    The first plant disease resistance (R) genes were identified and cloned more than two decades ago. Since then, many more R genes have been identified and characterized in numerous plant pathosystems. Most of these encode members of the large family of intracellular NLRs (NOD-like receptors), which also includes animal immune receptors. New discoveries in this expanding field of research provide new elements for our understanding of plant NLR function. But what do we know about plant NLR function today? Genetic, structural, and functional analyses have uncovered a number of commonalities and differences in pathogen recognition strategies as well as how NLRs are regulated and activate defense signaling, but many unknowns remain. This review gives an update on the latest discoveries and breakthroughs in this field, with an emphasis on structural findings and some comparison to animal NLRs, which can provide additional insights and paradigms in plant NLR function.

  8. Nodding motions of accretion rings and disks - A short-term period in SS 433

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katz, J. I.; Anderson, S. F.; Grandi, S. A.; Margon, B.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that accretion disks and rings in mass transfer binaries have been observed spectroscopically and calculated theoretically for many years. The present investigation is partly based on the availability of several years of spectroscopic observations of the Doppler shifts of the moving lines in SS433. A formalism is presented to compute frequencies and amplitudes of short-term 'nodding' motions in precessing accretion disks in close binary systems. This formalism is applied to an analysis of the moving-line Doppler shifts in SS433. The 35d X-ray cycle of Hercules X-1 is also discussed. In the considered model, the companion star exerts a gravitational torque on the disk rim. Averaged over the binary orbit, this yields a steady torque which results in the mean driven counterprecession of the disk.

  9. NOD-Like Receptors: A Tail from Plants to Mammals Through Invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Pontillo, Alessandra; Crovella, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    NOD Like Receptors (NLRs) are the most abundant cytoplasmic immune receptors in plants and animals and they similarly act sensing pathogen invasion and activating immune response. Despite the fact that plant and mammals NLRs share homology.; with some protein structure differences.; for signalling pathway.; divergent evolution of the receptors has been hypothesized. Next generation genome sequencing has contributed to the description of NLRs in phyla others than plants and mammals and leads to new knowledge about NLRs evolution along phylogeny. Full comprehension of NLR-mediated immune response in plant could contribute to the understanding of animal NLRs physiology and/or pathology. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. Molecular characterization of nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-2, analysis of its inductive expression and down-stream signaling following ligands exposure and bacterial infection in rohu (Labeo rohita).

    PubMed

    Swain, B; Basu, M; Sahoo, B R; Maiti, N K; Routray, P; Eknath, A E; Samanta, M

    2012-01-01

    Nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-2 is a cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and is a member of NOD like receptor (NLR) family. It senses a wide range of bacteria and viruses or their products and is involved in innate immune responses. In this report, NOD-2 gene was cloned and characterized from rohu (Labeo rohita) which is highly commercially important fish species in the Indian subcontinent. The full length rohu NOD-2 (rNOD-2) cDNA comprised of 3176 bp with a single open reading frame (ORF) of 2949 bp encoding a polypeptide of 982 amino acids (aa) with an estimated molecular mass of 109.65 kDa. The rNOD-2 comprised two N-terminal CARD domains (at 4-91 aa and 111-200 aa), one NACHT domain (at 271-441 aa) and seven C-terminal leucine rich repeat (LRR) regions. Phylogenetically, rNOD-2 was closely related to grass carp NOD-2 (gcNOD2) and exhibited significant similarity (94.2%) and identity (88.6%) in their amino acids. Ontogeny analysis of rNOD-2 showed its constitutive expression across the developmental stages, and highlighted the embryonic innate defense system in fish. Tissue specific analysis of rNOD-2 by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed its wide distribution; highest expression was in liver followed by blood. In response to PGN and LTA stimulation, Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella tarda infection, and poly I:C treatment, expression of rNOD-2 and its associated downstream molecules RICK and IFN-γ were significantly enhanced in the treated fish compared to control. These findings suggested the key role of NOD-2 in augmenting innate immunity in fish in response to bacterial and viral infection. This study may be helpful for the development of preventive measures against infectious diseases in fish. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Double Negative (CD3+4-8-) TCRalphaBeta Splenic Cells from Young NOD Mice Provide Long-Lasting Protection against Type 1 Diabetes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-02

    indicated. Panel B, pancreatic infiltrating lymphocytes from 4 month-old NOD females ( left histogram) and males ( right histogram) (n = 8 mice/group...assay was used to measure the IL-2 secretion in the culture medium. Panel A, DN splenic cell cultures stimulated under Th1 ( left panel) and Th2 ( right ...variance test. The significance (p#0.005) of individual differences in frequency of DNCD3 thymocytes and splenocytes from female and male NOD littermates

  12. Co-existence of Blau syndrome and NAID? Diagnostic challenges associated with presence of multiple pathogenic variants in NOD2 gene: a case report.

    PubMed

    Dziedzic, Magdalena; Marjańska, Agata; Bąbol-Pokora, Katarzyna; Urbańczyk, Anna; Grześk, Elżbieta; Młynarski, Wojciech; Kołtan, Sylwia

    2017-07-27

    Pediatric autoinflammatory diseases are rare and still poorly understood conditions resulting from defective genetic control of innate immune system, inter alia from anomalies of NOD2 gene. The product of this gene is Nod2 protein, taking part in maintenance of immune homeostasis. Clinical form of resultant autoinflammatory condition depends on NOD2 genotype; usually patients with NOD2 defects present with Blau syndrome, NOD2-associated autoinflammatory disease (NAID) or Crohn's disease. We present the case of a 7-year-old girl with co-existing symptoms of two rare diseases, Blau syndrome and NAID. Overlapping manifestations of two syndromes raised a significant diagnostic challenge, until next-generation molecular test (NGS) identified presence of three pathogenic variants of NOD2 gene: P268S, IVS8 +158 , 1007 fs, and established the ultimate diagnosis. Presence of multiple genetical abnormalities resulted in an ambiguous clinical presentation with overlapping symptoms of Blau syndrome and NAID. Final diagnosis of autoinflammatory disease opened new therapeutic possibilities, including the use of biological treatments.

  13. Discovery of Nanomolar Desmuramylpeptide Agonists of the Innate Immune Receptor Nucleotide-Binding Oligomerization Domain-Containing Protein 2 (NOD2) Possessing Immunostimulatory Properties.

    PubMed

    Gobec, Martina; Tomašič, Tihomir; Štimac, Adela; Frkanec, Ruža; Trontelj, Jurij; Anderluh, Marko; Mlinarič-Raščan, Irena; Jakopin, Žiga

    2018-04-12

    Muramyl dipeptide (MDP), a fragment of bacterial peptidoglycan, has long been known as the smallest fragment possessing adjuvant activity, on the basis of its agonistic action on the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2). There is a pressing need for novel adjuvants, and NOD2 agonists provide an untapped source of potential candidates. Here, we report the design, synthesis, and characterization of a series of novel acyl tripeptides. A pivotal structural element for molecular recognition by NOD2 has been identified, culminating in the discovery of compound 9, the most potent desmuramylpeptide NOD2 agonist to date. Compound 9 augmented pro-inflammatory cytokine release from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in synergy with lipopolysaccharide. Furthermore, it was able to induce ovalbumin-specific IgG titers in a mouse model of adjuvancy. These findings provide deeper insights into the structural requirements of desmuramylpeptides for NOD2-activation and highlight the potential use of NOD2 agonists as adjuvants for vaccines.

  14. Calling behaviour under climate change: geographical and seasonal variation of calling temperatures in ectotherms.

    PubMed

    Llusia, Diego; Márquez, Rafael; Beltrán, Juan F; Benítez, Maribel; do Amaral, José P

    2013-09-01

    Calling behaviour is strongly temperature-dependent and critical for sexual selection and reproduction in a variety of ectothermic taxa, including anuran amphibians, which are the most globally threatened vertebrates. However, few studies have explored how species respond to distinct thermal environments at time of displaying calling behaviour, and thus it is still unknown whether ongoing climate change might compromise the performance of calling activity in ectotherms. Here, we used new audio-trapping techniques (automated sound recording and detection systems) between 2006 and 2009 to examine annual calling temperatures of five temperate anurans and their patterns of geographical and seasonal variation at the thermal extremes of species ranges, providing insights into the thermal breadths of calling activity of species, and the mechanisms that enable ectotherms to adjust to changing thermal environments. All species showed wide thermal breadths during calling behaviour (above 15 °C) and increases in calling temperatures in extremely warm populations and seasons. Thereby, calling temperatures differed both geographically and seasonally, both in terrestrial and aquatic species, and were 8-22 °C below the specific upper critical thermal limits (CTmax ) and strongly associated with the potential temperatures of each thermal environment (operative temperatures during the potential period of breeding). This suggests that calling behaviour in ectotherms may take place at population-specific thermal ranges, diverging when species are subjected to distinct thermal environments, and might imply plasticity of thermal adjustment mechanisms (seasonal and developmental acclimation) that supply species with means of coping with climate change. Furthermore, the thermal thresholds of calling at the onset of the breeding season were dissimilar between conspecific populations, suggesting that other factors besides temperature are needed to trigger the onset of reproduction. Our

  15. Effects of noise levels and call types on the source levels of killer whale calls.

    PubMed

    Holt, Marla M; Noren, Dawn P; Emmons, Candice K

    2011-11-01

    Accurate parameter estimates relevant to the vocal behavior of marine mammals are needed to assess potential effects of anthropogenic sound exposure including how masking noise reduces the active space of sounds used for communication. Information about how these animals modify their vocal behavior in response to noise exposure is also needed for such assessment. Prior studies have reported variations in the source levels of killer whale sounds, and a more recent study reported that killer whales compensate for vessel masking noise by increasing their call amplitude. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the source levels of a variety of call types in southern resident killer whales while also considering background noise level as a likely factor related to call source level variability. The source levels of 763 discrete calls along with corresponding background noise were measured over three summer field seasons in the waters surrounding the San Juan Islands, WA. Both noise level and call type were significant factors on call source levels (1-40 kHz band, range of 135.0-175.7 dB(rms) re 1 [micro sign]Pa at 1 m). These factors should be considered in models that predict how anthropogenic masking noise reduces vocal communication space in marine mammals.

  16. Major histocompatibility complex class I-deficient NOD-B2mnull mice are diabetes and insulitis resistant.

    PubMed

    Serreze, D V; Leiter, E H; Christianson, G J; Greiner, D; Roopenian, D C

    1994-03-01

    Specific allelic combinations within the class II region of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) represent a major genetic component for susceptibility to autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in humans. We produced and used a stock of NOD/Lt mice congenic for a functionally inactivated beta 2-microglobulin (B2mnull) locus to assess whether there was an absolute requirement for MHC class I expression and/or CD8+ T-cells in diabetogenesis. These NOD-B2mnull mice do not express cell surface MHC class I molecules or produce detectable levels of CD8+ T-cells and are diabetes and insulitis resistant. Previous results from transgenic mouse models indicated that intracellular accumulation of MHC class I molecules negatively affects pancreatic beta-cell function and can result in the development of nonautoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). MHC class I molecules have been shown to accumulate intracellularly in the presence of a disrupted B2m locus, but this mutation does not negatively affect plasma insulin levels in either NOD/Lt mice or in those of a mixed 129 and C57BL/6 genetic background. Interestingly, 14% of the male mice in this mixed background did develop hyperinsulinemia (> 1,500 pM) independent of the disrupted B2m locus, suggesting that these mice could conceivably develop insulin-resistant diabetes. However, none of these mice became diabetic at up to 22 months of age. Thus, elimination of cell surface MHC class I expression with a disrupted B2m gene blocks autoimmune diabetes in NOD/Lt mice, without engendering a separate, distinct form of glucose intolerance.

  17. Nod2 is required for antigen-specific humoral responses against antigens orally delivered using a recombinant Lactobacillus vaccine platform

    PubMed Central

    Bumgardner, Sara A.; Zhang, Lin; LaVoy, Alora S.; Frank, Chad B.; Kajikawa, Akinobu; Klaenhammer, Todd R.

    2018-01-01

    Safe and efficacious orally-delivered mucosal vaccine platforms are desperately needed to combat the plethora of mucosally transmitted pathogens. Lactobacillus spp. have emerged as attractive candidates to meet this need and are known to activate the host innate immune response in a species- and strain-specific manner. For selected bacterial isolates and mutants, we investigated the role of key innate immune pathways required for induction of innate and subsequent adaptive immune responses. Co-culture of murine macrophages with L. gasseri (strain NCK1785), L. acidophilus (strain NCFM), or NCFM-derived mutants—NCK2025 and NCK2031—elicited an M2b-like phenotype associated with TH2 skewing and immune regulatory function. For NCFM, this M2b phenotype was dependent on expression of lipoteichoic acid and S layer proteins. Through the use of macrophage genetic knockouts, we identified Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), the cytosolic nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2 (NOD2) receptor, and the inflammasome-associated caspase-1 as contributors to macrophage activation, with NOD2 cooperating with caspase-1 to induce inflammasome derived interleukin (IL)-1β in a pyroptosis-independent fashion. Finally, utilizing an NCFM-based mucosal vaccine platform with surface expression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag or membrane proximal external region (MPER), we demonstrated that NOD2 signaling is required for antigen-specific mucosal and systemic humoral responses. We show that lactobacilli differentially utilize innate immune pathways and highlight NOD2 as a key mediator of macrophage function and antigen-specific humoral responses to a Lactobacillus acidophilus mucosal vaccine platform. PMID:29734365

  18. NOD2 expression, DNA damage and oxido-inflammatory status in atopic bronchial asthma: Exploring their nexus to disease severity.

    PubMed

    Gaballah, Hanaa H; Gaber, Rasha A; Sharshar, Ragia S; Elshweikh, Samah A

    2018-06-20

    Allergic asthma is a chronically relapsing inflammatory airway disease with a complex pathophysiology. This study was undertaken to investigate the potential contribution of NOD2 signaling, proinflammatory cytokines, chitotriosidase (CHIT1) activity, oxidative stress and DNA damage to atopic asthma pathogenesis, as well as to explore their possible role as surrogate noninvasive biomarkers for monitoring asthma severity. Sixty patients with atopic bronchial asthma who were divided according to asthma severity into 40 mild-moderate, 20 severe atopic asthmatics, in addition to thirty age-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study. NOD2 expression in PBMCs was assessed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. DNA damage indices were assessed by alkaline comet assay. Serum IgE, IL-17, IL-8 and 3-Nitrotyrosine levels were estimated by ELISA. Serum CHIT1and GST activities, as well as MDA levels, were measured. NOD2 mRNA relative expression levels were significantly decreased in atopic asthmatic cases relative to controls with lower values among severe atopic asthmatics. On the other hand, IL-17 and IL-8 serum levels, CHIT1 activity, DNA damage indices and oxidative stress markers were significantly increased in atopic asthmatic cases relative to controls with higher values among severe atopic asthmatics. The change in these parameters correlated significantly with the degree of decline in lung function. The interplay between NOD2 signaling, proinflammatory cytokines, CHIT1 activity, heightened oxidative stress and DNA damage orchestrates allergic airway inflammation and thus contributing to the pathogenesis of atopic asthma. These parameters qualified for measurement as part of new noninvasive biomarker panels for monitoring asthma severity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Toll-Like Receptor 3 Is Critical for Coxsackievirus B4-Induced Type 1 Diabetes in Female NOD Mice

    PubMed Central

    Thuma, Jean R.; Courreges, Maria C.; Benencia, Fabian; James, Calvin B.L.; Malgor, Ramiro; Kantake, Noriko; Mudd, William; Denlinger, Nathan; Nolan, Bret; Wen, Li; Schwartz, Frank L.

    2015-01-01

    Group B coxsackieviruses (CVBs) are involved in triggering some cases of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, the molecular mechanism(s) responsible for this remain elusive. Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), a receptor that recognizes viral double-stranded RNA, is hypothesized to play a role in virus-induced T1DM, although this hypothesis is yet to be substantiated. The objective of this study was to directly investigate the role of TLR3 in CVB-triggered T1DM in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, a mouse model of human T1DM that is widely used to study both spontaneous autoimmune and viral-induced T1DM. As such, we infected female wild-type (TLR3+/+) and TLR3 knockout (TLR3−/−) NOD mice with CVB4 and compared the incidence of diabetes in CVB4-infected mice with that of uninfected counterparts. We also evaluated the islets of uninfected and CVB4-infected wild-type and TLR3 knockout NOD mice by immunohistochemistry and insulitis scoring. TLR3 knockout mice were markedly protected from CVB4-induced diabetes compared with CVB4-infected wild-type mice. CVB4-induced T-lymphocyte-mediated insulitis was also significantly less severe in TLR3 knockout mice compared with wild-type mice. No differences in insulitis were observed between uninfected animals, either wild-type or TLR3 knockout mice. These data demonstrate for the first time that TLR3 is 1) critical for CVB4-induced T1DM, and 2) modulates CVB4-induced insulitis in genetically prone NOD mice. PMID:25422874

  20. Effects of human interleukin-18 and interleukin-12 treatment on human lymphocyte engraftment in NOD-scid mouse

    PubMed Central

    Senpuku, Hidenobu; Asano, Toshihiko; Matin, Khairul; Salam, M Abdus; Tsuha, Yuzo; Horibata, Shigeo; Shimazu, Yoshihito; Soeno, Yuichi; Aoba, Takaaki; Sata, Tetsutaro; Hanada, Nobuhiro; Honda, Mitsuo

    2002-01-01

    NOD/LtSz-prkdcscid/prkdcscid (non-obese diabetic-severe combine immunodeficiency; NOD-scid) mice grafted with human peripheral blood lymphoid cells have been used as an in vivo humanized mouse model in various studies. However, cytotoxic human T cells are induced in this model during immune responses, which gives misleading results. To assist in grafting of human lymphocytes without the induction of cytotoxic human T cells, we investigated the effects of T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokines on human lymphocyte grafting and migration, as well as the production of immunoglobulin deposited in glomeruli and human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection using NOD-scid mice. Administration of interleukin-18 (IL-18) and IL-12 enhanced the grafting of human CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the mice, whereas co-administration prevented grafting due to interferon-γ-dependent apoptosis. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) deposits were observed in mice treated with IL-18 alone, but not in those given phosphate-buffered saline, IL-12 alone, or IL-18 + IL-12. A high rate of HIV infection was also observed in the IL-18-treated group. Together, these results indicate that IL-18 may be effective for the grafting and migration of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, except for the induction of apoptosis and regulation of class-switching IgA. IL-18-administered NOD-scid mice provide a useful small humanized model for the study of HIV infection and IgA nephropathy. PMID:12383203

  1. Age-dependent divergent effects of OX40L treatment on the development of diabetes in NOD mice

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Christine S.; Bhattacharya, Palash; Alharshawi, Khaled; Marinelarena, Alejandra; Kumar, Prabhakaran; El-Sayed, Osama; Elshabrawy, Hatem A.; Epstein, Alan L.; Prabhakar, Bellur S.

    2016-01-01

    Earlier, we have shown that GM-CSF derived bone marrow dendritic cells (G-BMDCs) can expand Foxp3+ regulatory T-cells (Tregs) through a TCR-independent, but IL-2 dependent mechanism that required OX40L/OX40 interaction. While some reports have shown suppression of autoimmunity upon treatment with an OX40 agonist, others have shown exacerbation of autoimmune disease instead. To better understand the basis for these differing outcomes, we compared the effects of OX40L treatment in 6-week-old pre-diabetic and 12-week-old near diabetic NOD mice. Upon treatment with OX40L, 6-week-old NOD mice remained normoglycemic and showed a significant increase in Tregs in their spleen and lymph nodes, while 12-week-old NOD mice very rapidly developed hyperglycemia and failed to show Treg increase in spleen or LN. Interestingly, OX40L treatment increased Tregs in the thymus of both age groups. However, it induced Foxp3+CD103+CD38− stable-phenotype Tregs in the thymus and reduced the frequency of autoreactive Teff cells in 6-week-old mice; while it induced Foxp3+CD103−CD38+ labile-phenotype Tregs in the thymus and increased autoreactive CD4+ T cells in the periphery of 12-week-old mice. This increase in autoreactive CD4+ T cells was likely due to either a poor suppressive function or conversion of labile Tregs into Teff cells. Using ex vivo cultures, we found that the reduction in Treg numbers in 12-week-old mice was likely due to IL-2 deficit, and their numbers could be increased upon addition of exogenous IL-2. The observed divergent effects of OX40L treatment were likely due to differences in the ability of 6- and 12-week-old NOD mice to produce IL-2. PMID:27245356

  2. House Calls in Private Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittington, Ronaele

    1985-01-01

    Relates the experiences of a social worker in private practice who offered house calls as an ongoing setting for counseling and psychotherapy to individuals and families. Describes advantages and disadvantages, liability, and target populations. (JAC)

  3. Association of a NOD2 Gene Polymorphism and T-Helper 17 Cells With Presumed Ocular Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Dutra, Míriam S.; Béla, Samantha R.; Peixoto-Rangel, Alba L.; Fakiola, Michaela; Cruz, Ariane G.; Gazzinelli, Andrea; Quites, Humberto F.; Bahia-Oliveira, Lilian M. G.; Peixe, Ricardo G.; Campos, Wesley R.; Higino-Rocha, Anna C.; Miller, Nancy E.; Blackwell, Jenefer M.; Antonelli, Lis R.; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T.

    2013-01-01

    Retinochoroiditis manifests in patients infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Here, we assessed 30 sibships and 89 parent/case trios of presumed ocular toxoplasmosis (POT) to evaluate associations with polymorphisms in the NOD2 gene. Three haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tag-SNPs) within the NOD2 gene were genotyped. The family-based association test showed that the tag-SNP rs3135499 is associated with retinochoroiditis (P = .039). We then characterized the cellular immune response of 59 cases of POT and 4 cases of active ocular toxoplasmosis (AOT). We found no differences in levels of interferon γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin 2 produced by T-helper 1 cells when comparing patients with AOT or POT to asymptomatic individuals. Unexpectedly, we found an increased interleukin 17A (IL-17A) production in patients with POT or OAT. In patients with POT or AOT, the main cellular source of IL-17A was CD4+CD45RO+T-bet−IFN-γ− T-helper 17 cells. Altogether, our results suggest that NOD2 influences the production of IL-17A by CD4+ T lymphocytes and might contribute to the development of ocular toxoplasmosis. PMID:23100559

  4. Association of a NOD2 gene polymorphism and T-helper 17 cells with presumed ocular toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Dutra, Míriam S; Béla, Samantha R; Peixoto-Rangel, Alba L; Fakiola, Michaela; Cruz, Ariane G; Gazzinelli, Andrea; Quites, Humberto F; Bahia-Oliveira, Lilian M G; Peixe, Ricardo G; Campos, Wesley R; Higino-Rocha, Anna C; Miller, Nancy E; Blackwell, Jenefer M; Antonelli, Lis R; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T

    2013-01-01

    Retinochoroiditis manifests in patients infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Here, we assessed 30 sibships and 89 parent/case trios of presumed ocular toxoplasmosis (POT) to evaluate associations with polymorphisms in the NOD2 gene. Three haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tag-SNPs) within the NOD2 gene were genotyped. The family-based association test showed that the tag-SNP rs3135499 is associated with retinochoroiditis (P = .039). We then characterized the cellular immune response of 59 cases of POT and 4 cases of active ocular toxoplasmosis (AOT). We found no differences in levels of interferon γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin 2 produced by T-helper 1 cells when comparing patients with AOT or POT to asymptomatic individuals. Unexpectedly, we found an increased interleukin 17A (IL-17A) production in patients with POT or OAT. In patients with POT or AOT, the main cellular source of IL-17A was CD4(+)CD45RO(+)T-bet(-)IFN-γ(-) T-helper 17 cells. Altogether, our results suggest that NOD2 influences the production of IL-17A by CD4(+) T lymphocytes and might contribute to the development of ocular toxoplasmosis.

  5. Genes Outside the Major Histocompatibility Complex Locus Are Linked to the Development of Thyroid Autoantibodies and Thyroiditis in NOD.H2h4 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lesage, Sylvie; Collin, Roxanne; Banuelos, Bianca; Aliesky, Holly A.; Rapoport, Basil

    2017-01-01

    Thyroiditis and autoantibodies to thyroglobulin (TgAb) and thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) develop spontaneously in NOD.H2h4 mice, a phenotype enhanced by dietary iodine. NOD.H2h4 mice were derived by introducing the major histocompatibility class (MHC) molecule I-Ak from B10.A(4R) mice to nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. Apart from I-Ak, the genes responsible for the NOD.H2h4 phenotype are unknown. Extending serendipitous observations from crossing BALB/c to NOD.H2h4 mice, thyroid autoimmunity was investigated in both genders of the F1, F2, and the second-generation backcross of F1 to NOD.H2h4 (N2). Medium-density linkage analysis was performed on thyroid autoimmunity traits in F2 and N2 progeny. TgAb develop before TPOAb and were measured after 8 and 16 weeks of iodide exposure; TPOAb and thyroiditis were studied at 16 weeks. TgAb, TPOAb, and thyroiditis, absent in BALB/c and F1 mice, developed in most NOD.H2h4 and in more N2 than F2 progeny. No linkages were observed in F2 progeny, probably because of the small number of autoantibody-positive mice. In N2 progeny (equal numbers of males and females), a chromosome 17 locus is linked to thyroiditis and TgAb and is suggestively linked to TPOAb. This locus includes MHC region genes from B10.A(4R) mice (such as I-Ak and Tnf, the latter involved in thyrocyte apoptosis) and genes from NOD mice such as Satb1, which most likely plays a role in immune tolerance. In conclusion, MHC and non-MHC genes, encoded within the chromosome 17 locus from both B10.A(4R) and NOD strains, are most likely responsible for the Hashimoto disease–like phenotype of NOD.H2h4 mice. PMID:28323998

  6. Genes Outside the Major Histocompatibility Complex Locus Are Linked to the Development of Thyroid Autoantibodies and Thyroiditis in NOD.H2h4 Mice.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, Sandra M; Lesage, Sylvie; Collin, Roxanne; Banuelos, Bianca; Aliesky, Holly A; Rapoport, Basil

    2017-04-01

    Thyroiditis and autoantibodies to thyroglobulin (TgAb) and thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) develop spontaneously in NOD.H2h4 mice, a phenotype enhanced by dietary iodine. NOD.H2h4 mice were derived by introducing the major histocompatibility class (MHC) molecule I-Ak from B10.A(4R) mice to nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. Apart from I-Ak, the genes responsible for the NOD.H2h4 phenotype are unknown. Extending serendipitous observations from crossing BALB/c to NOD.H2h4 mice, thyroid autoimmunity was investigated in both genders of the F1, F2, and the second-generation backcross of F1 to NOD.H2h4 (N2). Medium-density linkage analysis was performed on thyroid autoimmunity traits in F2 and N2 progeny. TgAb develop before TPOAb and were measured after 8 and 16 weeks of iodide exposure; TPOAb and thyroiditis were studied at 16 weeks. TgAb, TPOAb, and thyroiditis, absent in BALB/c and F1 mice, developed in most NOD.H2h4 and in more N2 than F2 progeny. No linkages were observed in F2 progeny, probably because of the small number of autoantibody-positive mice. In N2 progeny (equal numbers of males and females), a chromosome 17 locus is linked to thyroiditis and TgAb and is suggestively linked to TPOAb. This locus includes MHC region genes from B10.A(4R) mice (such as I-Ak and Tnf, the latter involved in thyrocyte apoptosis) and genes from NOD mice such as Satb1, which most likely plays a role in immune tolerance. In conclusion, MHC and non-MHC genes, encoded within the chromosome 17 locus from both B10.A(4R) and NOD strains, are most likely responsible for the Hashimoto disease-like phenotype of NOD.H2h4 mice. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  7. Characterization of ACE and ACE2 Expression within Different Organs of the NOD Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Roca-Ho, Heleia; Riera, Marta; Palau, Vanesa; Pascual, Julio; Soler, Maria Jose

    2017-01-01

    Renin angiotensin system (RAS) is known to play a key role in several diseases such as diabetes, and renal and cardiovascular pathologies. Its blockade has been demonstrated to delay chronic kidney disease progression and cardiovascular damage in diabetic patients. In this sense, since local RAS has been described, the aim of this study is to characterize angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 activities, as well as protein expression, in several tissues of the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice model. After 21 or 40 days of diabetes onset, mouse serums and tissues were analyzed for ACE and ACE2 enzyme activities and protein expression. ACE and ACE2 enzyme activities were detected in different tissues. Their expressions vary depending on the studied tissue. Thus, whereas ACE activity was highly expressed in lungs, ACE2 activity was highly expressed in pancreas among the studied tissues. Interestingly, we also observed that diabetes up-regulates ACE mainly in serum, lung, heart, and liver, and ACE2 mainly in serum, liver, and pancreas. In conclusion, we found a marked serum and pulmonary alteration in ACE activity of diabetic mice, suggesting a common regulation. The increase of ACE2 activity within the circulation in diabetic mice may be ascribed to a compensatory mechanism of RAS. PMID:28273875

  8. Nodding syndrome since 2012: recent progress, challenges and recommendations for future research.

    PubMed

    Colebunders, R; Post, R; O'Neill, S; Haesaert, G; Opar, B; Lakwo, T; Laudisoit, A; Hendy, A

    2015-02-01

    We aim to review the current epidemiology of nodding syndrome (NS) and discuss relevant gaps in research. NS and convulsive epilepsy of unknown aetiology are clustered within the same villages and families in onchocerciasis-endemic areas. They are therefore potentially different clinical expressions of the same disease. It has been difficult to perform full autopsies on NS patients who die in remote villages. Adequate fixation of tissue immediately after death is critical for the examination of brain tissue. Therefore, post-mortem transsphenoidal brain biopsies, performed immediately after death by trained nurses, will provide the best option for obtaining tissue for analysis. We suspect that certain blackflies in onchocerciasis-endemic areas may transmit a novel pathogen that could cause NS and epilepsy. This is supported by a recent drop in the number of new NS cases coinciding with vector control activities aimed at reducing blackfly populations in northern Uganda. We propose that metagenomic studies of human samples, blackflies and microfilariae are conducted to screen for pathogens, and that a clinical trial is planned to evaluate the impact of larviciding against NS and epilepsy epidemics. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The machinery of Nod-like receptors: refining the paths to immunity and cell death.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Maya

    2011-09-01

    One of the fundamental aspects of the innate immune system is its capacity to discriminate between self and non-self or altered self, and to quickly respond by eliciting effector mechanisms that act in concert to restore normalcy. This capacity is determined by a set of evolutionarily conserved pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that sense the presence of microbial motifs or endogenous danger signals, including tissue damage, cellular transformation or metabolic perturbation, and orchestrate the nature, duration and intensity of the innate immune response. Nod-like receptors (NLRs), a group of intracellular PRRs, are particularly essential as evident by the high incidence of genetic variations in their genes in various diseases of homeostasis. Here, I overview the signaling mechanisms of NLRs and discuss the mounting evidence of evolutionary conservation between their pathways and the cell death machinery. I also describe their effector functions that link the sensing of danger to the induction of inflammation, autophagy or cell death. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Characterization of ACE and ACE2 Expression within Different Organs of the NOD Mouse.

    PubMed

    Roca-Ho, Heleia; Riera, Marta; Palau, Vanesa; Pascual, Julio; Soler, Maria Jose

    2017-03-05

    Renin angiotensin system (RAS) is known to play a key role in several diseases such as diabetes, and renal and cardiovascular pathologies. Its blockade has been demonstrated to delay chronic kidney disease progression and cardiovascular damage in diabetic patients. In this sense, since local RAS has been described, the aim of this study is to characterize angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 activities, as well as protein expression, in several tissues of the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice model. After 21 or 40 days of diabetes onset, mouse serums and tissues were analyzed for ACE and ACE2 enzyme activities and protein expression. ACE and ACE2 enzyme activities were detected in different tissues. Their expressions vary depending on the studied tissue. Thus, whereas ACE activity was highly expressed in lungs, ACE2 activity was highly expressed in pancreas among the studied tissues. Interestingly, we also observed that diabetes up-regulates ACE mainly in serum, lung, heart, and liver, and ACE2 mainly in serum, liver, and pancreas. In conclusion, we found a marked serum and pulmonary alteration in ACE activity of diabetic mice, suggesting a common regulation. The increase of ACE2 activity within the circulation in diabetic mice may be ascribed to a compensatory mechanism of RAS.

  11. Th1 and Th17 Immunocompetence in Humanized NOD/SCID/γC-KO mice

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, Deepika; Zhou, Ying; Jankowska-Gan, Ewa; Ronneburg, Drew Allan; Dart, Melanie M; Torrealba, Jose; Burlingham, William J

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the immunocompetence of human T cells in humanized NOD-scid IL2r-γ-null (Hu—NSG) mice bearing a human thymic organoid, after multilinegage reconstitution with isogeneic human leukocytes. Delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response was assessed by a direct footpad challenge of the immunized hu-NSG host, or by transfer of splenocytes from immunized hu-NSG, along with antigen, into footpads of CB17 SCID mice [trans-vivo (tv) DTH]. Both methods revealed cellular immunity to tetanus toxoid (TT) or collagen type V (ColV). Immunohistochemical analysis of the swollen footpads revealed infiltration of human CD45+ cells, including CD3+ T cells, CD68+ macrophages and murine Ly6G+ neutrophils. We observed a significant correlation between % circulating human CD4+ cells and the direct DTH swelling response to TT. The tvDTH response to TT was inhibited by anti-IFNγ, while the tvDTH response to collagen V was inhibited by anti IL-17 antibody, mimicking the cytokine bias of adult human T cells to these antigens. Hu-NSG mice were also capable of mounting a B cell response (primarily IgM) to TT antigen. The activation of either Th1- or Th17 - dependent cellular immune response supports the utility of Hu-NSG mice as a surrogate model of allograft rejection and autoimmunity. PMID:20298731

  12. CALL Essentials: Principles and Practice in CALL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egbert, Joy

    2005-01-01

    Computers and the Internet offer innovative teachers exciting ways to enhance their pedagogy and capture their students' attention. These technologies have created a growing field of inquiry, computer-assisted language learning (CALL). As new technologies have emerged, teaching professionals have adapted them to support teachers and learners in…

  13. Symbiotic Burkholderia Species Show Diverse Arrangements of nif/fix and nod Genes and Lack Typical High-Affinity Cytochrome cbb3 Oxidase Genes.

    PubMed

    De Meyer, Sofie E; Briscoe, Leah; Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; Agapakis, Christina M; de-Los Santos, Paulina Estrada; Seshadri, Rekha; Reeve, Wayne; Weinstock, George; O'Hara, Graham; Howieson, John G; Hirsch, Ann M

    2016-08-01

    Genome analysis of fourteen mimosoid and four papilionoid beta-rhizobia together with fourteen reference alpha-rhizobia for both nodulation (nod) and nitrogen-fixing (nif/fix) genes has shown phylogenetic congruence between 16S rRNA/MLSA (combined 16S rRNA gene sequencing and multilocus sequence analysis) and nif/fix genes, indicating a free-living diazotrophic ancestry of the beta-rhizobia. However, deeper genomic analysis revealed a complex symbiosis acquisition history in the beta-rhizobia that clearly separates the mimosoid and papilionoid nodulating groups. Mimosoid-nodulating beta-rhizobia have nod genes tightly clustered in the nodBCIJHASU operon, whereas papilionoid-nodulating Burkholderia have nodUSDABC and nodIJ genes, although their arrangement is not canonical because the nod genes are subdivided by the insertion of nif and other genes. Furthermore, the papilionoid Burkholderia spp. contain duplications of several nod and nif genes. The Burkholderia nifHDKEN and fixABC genes are very closely related to those found in free-living diazotrophs. In contrast, nifA is highly divergent between both groups, but the papilionoid species nifA is more similar to alpha-rhizobia nifA than to other groups. Surprisingly, for all Burkholderia, the fixNOQP and fixGHIS genes required for cbb3 cytochrome oxidase production and assembly are missing. In contrast, symbiotic Cupriavidus strains have fixNOQPGHIS genes, revealing a divergence in the evolution of two distinct electron transport chains required for nitrogen fixation within the beta-rhizobia.

  14. An Evaluation Framework for CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurry, Benjamin L.; Williams, David Dwayne; Rich, Peter J.; Hartshorn, K. James

    2016-01-01

    Searching prestigious Computer-assisted Language Learning (CALL) journals for references to key publications and authors in the field of evaluation yields a short list. The "American Journal of Evaluation"--the flagship journal of the American Evaluation Association--is only cited once in both the "CALICO Journal and Language…

  15. The So-Called Face

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-05-21

    The so-called Face on Mars can be seen slightly above center and to the right in this NASA Mars Odyssey image. This 3-km long knob was first imaged by NASA Viking spacecraft in the 1970 and to some resembled a face carved into the rocks of Mars.

  16. l-Homocarnosine attenuates inflammation in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury through inhibition of nod-like receptor protein 3 inflammasome.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Wang, Tao; Yu, Daorui; Fang, Xingyue; Fan, Haofei; Liu, Qiang; Yi, Guohui; Yi, Xinan; Liu, Qibin

    2018-06-08

    We investigated the therapeutic effects of l-homocarnosine against inflammation in a rat model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Rats were grouped into control, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), 0.5 mM l-homocarnosine + MCAO, and 1 mM l-homocarnosine + MCAO treatment groups. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), catalase, lipid peroxidation, and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were measured. Neurological scores were assessed, and histopathology, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and fluorescence microscopy analyses were conducted. The mRNA expression levels of nod-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and protein expression levels of NLRP3 were assessed. l-Homocarnosine supplementation substantially increased SOD, catalase, Gpx, and GSH levels, whereas it reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation relative to MCAO rats. l-Homocarnosine significantly reduced the infarct area and neurological deficit score, as well as histopathological alteration, apoptosis, and necrosis in brain tissue. The mRNA expression levels of NLRP3, TNF-α, and IL-6 were increased in MCAO rats, whereas l-homocarnosine supplementation reduced mRNA expression by >40%, and NLRP3 protein expression was reduced by >30% in 1 mM l-homocarnosine-treated MCAO rats. We propose that l-homocarnosine exerts a protective effect in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury-induced rats by downregulating NLRP3 expression. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. B-Lymphocytes Expressing an Ig Specificity Recognizing the Pancreatic β-Cell Autoantigen Peripherin Are Potent Contributors to Type 1 Diabetes Development in NOD Mice

    PubMed Central

    Leeth, Caroline M.; Racine, Jeremy; Chapman, Harold D.; Arpa, Berta; Carrillo, Jorge; Carrascal, Jorge; Wang, Qiming; Ratiu, Jeremy; Egia-Mendikute, Leire; Rosell-Mases, Estela; Stratmann, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Although the autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β-cells underlying type 1 diabetes (T1D) development is ultimately mediated by T cells in NOD mice and also likely in humans, B cells play an additional key pathogenic role. It appears that the expression of plasma membrane–bound Ig molecules that efficiently capture β-cell antigens allows autoreactive B cells that bypass normal tolerance induction processes to be the subset of antigen-presenting cells most efficiently activating diabetogenic T cells. NOD mice transgenically expressing Ig molecules recognizing antigens that are (insulin) or are not (hen egg lysozyme [HEL]) expressed by β-cells have proven useful in dissecting the developmental basis of diabetogenic B cells. However, these transgenic Ig specificities were originally selected for their ability to recognize insulin or HEL as foreign, rather than autoantigens. Thus, we generated and characterized NOD mice transgenically expressing an Ig molecule representative of a large proportion of naturally occurring islet-infiltrating B cells in NOD mice recognizing the neuronal antigen peripherin. Transgenic peripherin-autoreactive B cells infiltrate NOD pancreatic islets, acquire an activated proliferative phenotype, and potently support accelerated T1D development. These results support the concept of neuronal autoimmunity as a pathogenic feature of T1D, and targeting such responses could ultimately provide an effective disease intervention approach. PMID:26961115

  18. Muramyl dipeptide (MDP) induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation via the NOD2/COX-2/NOX4 signaling pathway in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs).

    PubMed

    Kong, Ling-Jun; Liu, Xiao-Qian; Xue, Ying; Gao, Wei; Lv, Qian-Zhou

    2018-03-20

    Vascular endothelium dysfunction caused by oxidative stress accelerates the pathologic process of cardiovascular diseases. NOD2, an essential receptor of innate immune system, has been demonstrated to play a critical role in atherosclerosis. Here, the aim of our study was to investigate the effect and underlying molecular mechanism of muramyl dipeptide (MDP) on NOX4-mediated ROS generation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate staining was to measure the intracellular ROS level and showed MDP promoted ROS production in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The mRNA and protein levels of NOX4 and COX-2 were detected by real-time PCR and western blot. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to silence NOD2 or COX-2 gene expression and investigate the mechanism of NOD2-mediated signaling pathway in HUVECs. Data showed that MDP induced NOX4 and COX-2 expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner. NOD2 knock-down suppressed up-regulation of COX-2 and NOX4 in HUVECs treated with MDP. Furthermore, silence of COX-2 in HUVECs down-regulated the NOX4 expression after MDP stimulation. Collectively, we indicated that NOD2 played a leading role in MDP-induced COX-2/NOX4/ROS signaling pathway in HUVECs, which was a novel regulatory mechanism in the progress of ROS generation.

  19. Analysis of Post-transcriptional Gene Regulation of Nod-Like Receptors via the 3'UTR.

    PubMed

    Haneklaus, Moritz

    2016-01-01

    Innate immune signaling is the front line of defense against pathogens, leading to an appropriate response of immune cells upon activation of their pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) by microbial products, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Apart from transcriptional control, gene expression in the innate immune system is also highly regulated at the post-transcriptional level. miRNA or RNA-binding protein can bind to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of target mRNAs and affect their mRNA stability and translation efficiency, which ultimately affects the amount of protein that is produced. In recent years, a new group of PRRs, the Nod-like receptors (NLR) have been discovered. They often cooperate with TLR signaling to induce potent inflammatory responses. Many NLRs can form inflammasomes, which facilitate the production of the potent pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β and other inflammatory mediators. In contrast to TLRs, the importance of post-transcriptional regulators in the context of inflammasomes has not been well defined. This chapter describes a series of experimental approaches to determine the effect of post-transcriptional regulation for a gene of interest using the best-studied NLR, NLRP3, as an example. To start investigating post-transcriptional regulation, 3'UTR luciferase experiments can be performed to test if regulatory sequences in the 3'UTR are functional. An RNA pull-down approach followed by mass spectrometry provides an unbiased assay to identify RNA-binding proteins that target the 3'UTR. Candidate binding proteins can then be further validated by RNA immunoprecipitation (RNA-IP), where the candidate protein is isolated using a specific antibody and bound mRNAs are analyzed by qPCR.

  20. β-cell-specific IL-2 therapy increases islet Foxp3+Treg and suppresses type 1 diabetes in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark C; Garland, Alaina L; Nicolson, Sarah C; Li, Chengwen; Samulski, R Jude; Wang, Bo; Tisch, Roland

    2013-11-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a critical cytokine for the homeostasis and function of forkhead box p3-expressing regulatory T cells (Foxp3(+)Tregs). Dysregulation of the IL-2-IL-2 receptor axis is associated with aberrant Foxp3(+)Tregs and T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases such as type 1 diabetes. Treatment with recombinant IL-2 has been reported to enhance Foxp3(+)Tregs and suppress different models of autoimmunity. However, efficacy of IL-2 therapy is dependent on achieving sufficient levels of IL-2 to boost tissue-resident Foxp3(+)Tregs while avoiding the potential toxic effects of systemic IL-2. With this in mind, adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector gene delivery was used to localize IL-2 expression to the islets of NOD mice. Injection of a double-stranded AAV vector encoding IL-2 driven by a mouse insulin promoter (dsAAVmIP-IL2) increased Foxp3(+)Tregs in the islets but not the draining pancreatic lymph nodes. Islet Foxp3(+)Tregs in dsAAVmIP-IL2-treated NOD mice exhibited enhanced fitness marked by increased expression of Bcl-2, proliferation, and suppressor function. In contrast, ectopic IL-2 had no significant effect on conventional islet-infiltrating effector T cells. Notably, β-cell-specific IL-2 expression suppressed late preclinical type 1 diabetes in NOD mice. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that β-cell-specific IL-2 expands an islet-resident Foxp3(+)Tregs pool that effectively suppresses ongoing type 1 diabetes long term.

  1. MHC-mismatched mixed chimerism restores peripheral tolerance of noncross-reactive autoreactive T cells in NOD mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingfeng; Racine, Jeremy J.; Lin, Qing; Liu, Yuqing; Tang, Shanshan; Qin, Qi; Qi, Tong; Riggs, Arthur D.; Zeng, Defu

    2018-01-01

    Autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) and other autoimmune diseases are associated with particular MHC haplotypes and expansion of autoreactive T cells. Induction of MHC-mismatched but not -matched mixed chimerism by hematopoietic cell transplantation effectively reverses autoimmunity in diabetic nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, even those with established diabetes. As expected, MHC-mismatched mixed chimerism mediates deletion in the thymus of host-type autoreactive T cells that have T-cell receptor (TCR) recognizing (cross-reacting with) donor-type antigen presenting cells (APCs), which have come to reside in the thymus. However, how MHC-mismatched mixed chimerism tolerizes host autoreactive T cells that recognize only self-MHC–peptide complexes remains unknown. Here, using NOD.Rag1−/−.BDC2.5 or NOD.Rag1−/−.BDC12-4.1 mice that have only noncross-reactive transgenic autoreactive T cells, we show that induction of MHC-mismatched but not -matched mixed chimerism restores immune tolerance of peripheral noncross-reactive autoreactive T cells. MHC-mismatched mixed chimerism results in increased percentages of both donor- and host-type Foxp3+ Treg cells and up-regulated expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) by host-type plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). Furthermore, adoptive transfer experiments showed that engraftment of donor-type dendritic cells (DCs) and expansion of donor-type Treg cells are required for tolerizing the noncross-reactive autoreactive T cells in the periphery, which are in association with up-regulation of host-type DC expression of PD-L1 and increased percentage of host-type Treg cells. Thus, induction of MHC-mismatched mixed chimerism may establish a peripheral tolerogenic DC and Treg network that actively tolerizes autoreactive T cells, even those with no TCR recognition of the donor APCs. PMID:29463744

  2. Candidate chromosome 1 disease susceptibility genes for Sjogren’s syndrome xerostomia are narrowed by novel NOD.B10 congenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Mongini, Patricia K. A.; Kramer, Jill M.; Ishikawa, Tomo-o; Herschman, Harvey; Esposito, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Sjogren’s syndrome (SS) is characterized by salivary gland leukocytic infiltrates and impaired salivation (xerostomia). Cox-2 (Ptgs2) is located on chromosome 1 within the span of the Aec2 region. In an attempt to demonstrate that COX-2 drives antibody-dependent hyposalivation, NOD.B10 congenic mice bearing a Cox-2flox gene were generated. A congenic line with non-NOD alleles in Cox-2-flanking genes failed manifest xerostomia. Further backcrossing yielded disease-susceptible NOD.B10 Cox-2flox lines; fine genetic mapping determined that critical Aec2 genes lie within a 1.56 to 2.17 Mb span of DNA downstream of Cox-2. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that susceptible and non-susceptible lines exhibit non-synonymous coding SNPs in 8 protein-encoding genes of this region, thereby better delineating candidate Aec2 alleles needed for SS xerostomia. PMID:24685748

  3. What Do Monkey Calls Mean?

    PubMed

    Schlenker, Philippe; Chemla, Emmanuel; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2016-12-01

    A field of primate linguistics is gradually emerging. It combines general questions and tools from theoretical linguistics with rich data gathered in experimental primatology. Analyses of several monkey systems have uncovered very simple morphological and syntactic rules and have led to the development of a primate semantics that asks new questions about the division of semantic labor between the literal meaning of monkey calls, additional mechanisms of pragmatic enrichment, and the environmental context. We show that comparative studies across species may validate this program and may in some cases help in reconstructing the evolution of monkey communication over millions of years. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Cooperative effect of the attenuation determinants derived from poliovirus sabin 1 strain is essential for attenuation of enterovirus 71 in the NOD/SCID mouse infection model.

    PubMed

    Arita, Minetaro; Ami, Yasushi; Wakita, Takaji; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2008-02-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is a causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease and is also associated with serious neurological disorders. An attenuated EV71 strain [EV71(S1-3')] has been established in the cynomolgus monkey infection model; this strain contains the attenuation determinants derived from the type 1 poliovirus vaccine strain, Sabin 1 [PV1(Sabin)], in the 5' nontranslated region (NTR), 3D polymerase, and 3' NTR. In this study, we analyzed the effect of the attenuation determinants of PV1(Sabin) on EV71 infection in a NOD/SCID mouse infection model. We isolated a mouse-adapted EV71 strain [EV71(NOD/SCID)] that causes paralysis of the hind limbs in 3- to 4-week-old NOD/SCID mice by adaptation of the virulent EV71(Nagoya) strain in the brains of NOD/SCID mice. A single mutation at nucleotide 2876 that caused an amino acid change in capsid protein VP1 (change of the glycine at position 145 to glutamic acid) was essential for the mouse-adapted phenotype in NOD/SCID mice. Next, we introduced attenuation determinants derived from PV1(Sabin) along with the mouse adaptation mutation into the EV71(Nagoya) genome. In 4-week-old mice, the determinants in the 3D polymerase and 3' NTR, which are the major temperature-sensitive determinants, had a strong effect on attenuation. In contrast, the effect of individual determinants was weak in 3-week-old NOD/SCID mice, and all the determinants were required for substantial attenuation. These results suggest that a cooperative effect of the attenuation determinants of PV1(Sabin) is essential for attenuated neurovirulence of EV71.

  5. A NodD-like protein activates transcription of genes involved with naringenin degradation in a flavonoid-dependent manner in Herbaspirillum seropedicae.

    PubMed

    Wassem, R; Marin, A M; Daddaoua, A; Monteiro, R A; Chubatsu, L S; Ramos, J L; Deakin, W J; Broughton, W J; Pedrosa, F O; Souza, E M

    2017-03-01

    Herbaspirillum seropedicae is an associative, endophytic non-nodulating diazotrophic bacterium that colonises several grasses. An ORF encoding a LysR-type transcriptional regulator, very similar to NodD proteins of rhizobia, was identified in its genome. This nodD-like gene, named fdeR, is divergently transcribed from an operon encoding enzymes involved in flavonoid degradation (fde operon). Apigenin, chrysin, luteolin and naringenin strongly induce transcription of the fde operon, but not that of the fdeR, in an FdeR-dependent manner. The intergenic region between fdeR and fdeA contains several generic LysR consensus sequences (T-N 11 -A) and we propose a binding site for FdeR, which is conserved in other bacteria. DNase I foot-printing revealed that the interaction with the FdeR binding site is modified by the four flavonoids that stimulate transcription of the fde operon. Moreover, FdeR binds naringenin and chrysin as shown by isothermal titration calorimetry. Interestingly, FdeR also binds in vitro to the nod-box from the nodABC operon of Rhizobium sp. NGR234 and is able to activate its transcription in vivo. These results show that FdeR exhibits two features of rhizobial NodD proteins: nod-box recognition and flavonoid-dependent transcription activation, but its role in H. seropedicae and related organisms seems to have evolved to control flavonoid metabolism. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Emerging Bordetella pertussis Strains Induce Enhanced Signaling of Human Pattern Recognition Receptors TLR2, NOD2 and Secretion of IL-10 by Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hovingh, Elise S.; van Gent, Marjolein; Hamstra, Hendrik-Jan; Demkes, Marc; Mooi, Frits R.; Pinelli, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Vaccines against pertussis have been available for more than 60 years. Nonetheless, this highly contagious disease is reemerging even in countries with high vaccination coverage. Genetic changes of Bordetella pertussis over time have been suggested to contribute to the resurgence of pertussis, as these changes may favor escape from vaccine-induced immunity. Nonetheless, studies on the effects of these bacterial changes on the immune response are limited. Here, we characterize innate immune recognition and activation by a collection of genetically diverse B. pertussis strains isolated from Dutch pertussis patients before and after the introduction of the pertussis vaccines. For this purpose, we used HEK-Blue cells transfected with human pattern recognition receptors TLR2, TLR4, NOD2 and NOD1 as a high throughput system for screening innate immune recognition of more than 90 bacterial strains. Physiologically relevant human monocyte derived dendritic cells (moDC), purified from peripheral blood of healthy donors were also used. Findings indicate that, in addition to inducing TLR2 and TLR4 signaling, all B. pertussis strains activate the NOD-like receptor NOD2 but not NOD1. Furthermore, we observed a significant increase in TLR2 and NOD2, but not TLR4, activation by strains circulating after the introduction of pertussis vaccines. When using moDC, we observed that the recently circulating strains induced increased activation of these cells with a dominant IL-10 production. In addition, we observed an increased expression of surface markers including the regulatory molecule PD-L1. Expression of PD-L1 was decreased upon blocking TLR2. These in vitro findings suggest that emerging B. pertussis strains have evolved to dampen the vaccine-induced inflammatory response, which would benefit survival and transmission of this pathogen. Understanding how this disease has resurged in a highly vaccinated population is crucial for the design of improved vaccines against pertussis

  7. Confidential close call reporting system : preliminary evaluation findings.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-12-01

    The Federal Railroad Administration (FRA) is implementing a collaborative problem-solving approach to improving safety. The Confidential Close Call Reporting System (C3RS) is a human factors-based approach that is designed to reduce the accident rate...

  8. Association of NOD2 and IL23R with Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Ballester, Veroushka; Guo, Xiuqing; Vendrell, Roberto; Haritunians, Talin; Klomhaus, Alexandra M.; Li, Dalin; McGovern, Dermot P. B.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Torres, Esther A.; Taylor, Kent D.

    2014-01-01

    The Puerto Rico population may be modeled as an admixed population with contributions from three continents: Sub-Saharan Africa, Ancient America, and Europe. Extending the study of the genetics of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) to an admixed population such as Puerto Rico has the potential to shed light on IBD genes identified in studies of European populations, find new genes contributing to IBD susceptibility, and provide basic information on IBD for the care of US patients of Puerto Rican and Latino descent. In order to study the association between immune-related genes and Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) in Puerto Rico, we genotyped 1159 Puerto Rican cases, controls, and family members with the ImmunoChip. We also genotyped 832 subjects from the Human Genome Diversity Panel to provide data for estimation of global and local continental ancestry. Association of SNPs was tested by logistic regression corrected for global continental descent and family structure. We observed the association between Crohn’s disease and NOD2 (rs17313265, 0.28 in CD, 0.19 in controls, OR 1.5, p = 9×10−6) and IL23R (rs11209026, 0.026 in CD, 0.0.071 in controls, OR 0.4, p = 3.8×10−4). The haplotype structure of both regions resembled that reported for European populations and “local” continental ancestry of the IL23R gene was almost entirely of European descent. We also observed suggestive evidence for the association of the BAZ1A promoter SNP with CD (rs1200332, 0.45 in CD, 0.35 in controls, OR 1.5, p = 2×10−6). Our estimate of continental ancestry surrounding this SNP suggested an origin in Ancient America for this putative susceptibility region. Our observations underscored the great difference between global continental ancestry and local continental ancestry at the level of the individual gene, particularly for immune-related loci. PMID:25259511

  9. Using genes to triangulate the pathophysiology of granulomatous autoinflammatory disease: NOD2, PLCG2 and LACC1.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, Ann Marie; Ombrello, Michael J

    2018-04-25

    The intersection of granulomatosis and autoinflammatory disease is a rare occurrence that can be generally subdivided into purely granulomatous phenotypes and disease spectra that are inclusive of granulomatous features. NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2)-related disease, which includes Blau syndrome and early-onset sarcoidosis, is the prototypic example of granulomatous inflammation in the context of monogenic autoinflammation. Granulomatous inflammation has also been observed in two related autoinflammatory diseases caused by mutations in PLCG2 (phospholipase Cγ2). More recently, mutations in LACC1 (laccase domain-containing protein 1) have been identified as the cause of a monogenic form of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, which does not itself manifest granulomatous inflammation, but the same LACC1 mutations have also been shown to cause an early-onset, familial form of a well-known granulomatous condition, Crohn's disease (CD). Rare genetic variants of PLCG2 have also been shown to cause a monogenic form of CD, and moreover common variants of all three of these genes have been implicated in polygenic forms of CD. Additionally, common variants of NOD2 and LACC1 have been implicated in susceptibility to leprosy, a granulomatous infection. Although no specific mechanistic link exists between these three genes, they form an intriguing web of susceptibility to both monogenic and polygenic autoinflammatory and granulomatous phenotypes.

  10. Germline TRAV5D-4 T-Cell Receptor Sequence Targets a Primary Insulin Peptide of NOD Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Maki; Castoe, Todd; Sosinowski, Tomasz; He, XiangLing; Johnson, Kelly; Haskins, Kathryn; Vignali, Dario A.A.; Gapin, Laurent; Pollock, David; Eisenbarth, George S.

    2012-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that autoimmunity to insulin B chain peptide, amino acids 9–23 (insulin B:9–23), is central to development of autoimmune diabetes of the NOD mouse model. We hypothesized that enhanced susceptibility to autoimmune diabetes is the result of targeting of insulin by a T-cell receptor (TCR) sequence commonly encoded in the germline. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate that a particular Vα gene TRAV5D-4 with multiple junction sequences is sufficient to induce anti-islet autoimmunity by studying retrogenic mouse lines expressing α-chains with different Vα TRAV genes. Retrogenic NOD strains expressing Vα TRAV5D-4 α-chains with many different complementarity determining region (CDR) 3 sequences, even those derived from TCRs recognizing islet-irrelevant molecules, developed anti-insulin autoimmunity. Induction of insulin autoantibodies by TRAV5D-4 α-chains was abrogated by the mutation of insulin peptide B:9–23 or that of two amino acid residues in CDR1 and 2 of the TRAV5D-4. TRAV13–1, the human ortholog of murine TRAV5D-4, was also capable of inducing in vivo anti-insulin autoimmunity when combined with different murine CDR3 sequences. Targeting primary autoantigenic peptides by simple germline-encoded TCR motifs may underlie enhanced susceptibility to the development of autoimmune diabetes. PMID:22315318

  11. CCR7 directs the recruitment of T cells into inflamed pancreatic islets of nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice.

    PubMed

    Shan, Zhongyan; Xu, Baohui; Mikulowska-Mennis, Anna; Michie, Sara A

    2014-05-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease characterized by the destruction of insulin-producing β cells in the pancreatic islets. The migration of T cells from blood vessels into pancreas is critical for the development of islet inflammation and β cell destruction in T1D. To define the roles of C-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7) in recruitment of T cells into islets, we used laser capture microdissection to isolate tissue from inflamed islets of nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice and uninflamed islets of BALB/c and young NOD mice. RT-PCR analyses detected mRNAs for CCR7 and its chemokine ligands CCL19 (ELC; MIP-3β) and CCL21 (SLC) in captures from inflamed, but not from uninflamed, islets. Immunohistology studies revealed that high endothelial venules in inflamed islets co-express CCL21 protein and MAdCAM-1 (an adhesion molecule that recruits lymphocytes into islets). Desensitization of lymphocyte CCR7 blocked about 75 % of T cell migration from the bloodstream into inflamed islets, but had no effect on B cell migration into islets. These results indicate that CCR7 and its ligands are important in the recruitment of T cells into inflamed islets and thus in the pathogenesis of T1D.

  12. 78 FR 76218 - Rural Call Completion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... calls to rural areas, and enforce restrictions against blocking, choking, reducing, or restricting calls... to alert the Commission of systemic problems receiving calls from a particular originating long... associated with completing calls to rural areas. These rules will also enhance our ability to enforce...

  13. Resveratrol given intraperitoneally does not inhibit growth of high-risk t(4;11) acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells in NOD/SCID mouse model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The efficacy of the phytochemical resveratrol as a preventive agent against the growth of t(4;11) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was evaluated in NOD.CB17-Prkdcscid/J mice engrafted with the human t(4;11) ALL line SEM. SEM cells were injected into the tail vein and engraftment was monitored by ...

  14. Anti-FcεR1 antibody injections activate basophils and mast cells and delay Type I diabetes onset in NOD mice

    PubMed Central

    Larson, David; Torrero, Marina N.; Mueller, Ellen; Shi, Yinghui; Killoran, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that helminth infections protect against autoimmune diseases. As helminths cause chronic IgE-mediated activation of basophils and mast cells we hypothesized that continuous activation of these cells could prevents diabetes onset in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice in the absence of infection. Anti-FcεR1 activated basophils and mast cells and resulted in the release of IL-4 and histamine into the bloodstream. Anti-FcεR1-treated NOD mice showed a type 2 shift in insulin-specific antibody production and exhibited significant delays in diabetes onset. IL-4 responses played a partial role as the protective effect of anti-FcεR1 therapy was diminished in IL-4-deficient NOD mice. In contrast, histamine signaling was not required as anti-FcεR1-mediated protection was not reduced in mice treated with histamine receptor blockers. These results demonstrate that anti-FcεR1 therapy delays diabetes onset in NOD mice and suggest that chronic basophil and mast cell activation may represent a new avenue of therapy for Th1-associated autoimmune diseases. PMID:21920822

  15. Restoration of the type I IFN–IL-1 balance through targeted blockade of PTGER4 inhibits autoimmunity in NOD mice

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. Jubayer; Quiel, Juan A.; Liu, Yi; Bhargava, Vipul; Zhao, Yongge; Hotta-Iwamura, Chie; Lau-Kilby, Annie W.; Malloy, Allison M.W.; Thoner, Timothy W.; Tarbell, Kristin V.

    2018-01-01

    Type I IFN (IFN-I) dysregulation contributes to type 1 diabetes (T1D) development, and although increased IFN-I signals are pathogenic at the initiation of autoimmune diabetes, IFN-I dysregulation at later pathogenic stages more relevant for therapeutic intervention is not well understood. We discovered that 5 key antigen-presenting cell subsets from adult prediabetic NOD mice have reduced responsiveness to IFN-I that is dominated by a decrease in the tonic-sensitive subset of IFN-I response genes. Blockade of IFNAR1 in prediabetic NOD mice accelerated diabetes and increased Th1 responses. Therefore, IFN-I responses shift from pathogenic to protective as autoimmunity progresses, consistent with chronic IFN-I exposure. In contrast, IL-1–associated inflammatory pathways were elevated in prediabetic mice. These changes correlated with human T1D onset-associated gene expression. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostaglandin receptor 4 (PTGER4), a receptor for PGE2 that mediates both inflammatory and regulatory eicosanoid signaling, were higher in NOD mice and drive innate immune dysregulation. Treating prediabetic NOD mice with a PTGER4 antagonist restored IFNAR signaling, decreased IL-1 signaling, and decreased infiltration of leukocytes into the islets. Therefore, innate cytokine alterations contribute to both T1D-associated inflammation and autoimmune pathogenesis. Modulating innate immune balance via signals such as PTGER4 may contribute to treatments for autoimmunity. PMID:29415894

  16. Restoration of the type I IFN-IL-1 balance through targeted blockade of PTGER4 inhibits autoimmunity in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Jubayer; Rodrigues, Kameron B; Quiel, Juan A; Liu, Yi; Bhargava, Vipul; Zhao, Yongge; Hotta-Iwamura, Chie; Shih, Han-Yu; Lau-Kilby, Annie W; Malloy, Allison Mw; Thoner, Timothy W; Tarbell, Kristin V

    2018-02-08

    Type I IFN (IFN-I) dysregulation contributes to type 1 diabetes (T1D) development, and although increased IFN-I signals are pathogenic at the initiation of autoimmune diabetes, IFN-I dysregulation at later pathogenic stages more relevant for therapeutic intervention is not well understood. We discovered that 5 key antigen-presenting cell subsets from adult prediabetic NOD mice have reduced responsiveness to IFN-I that is dominated by a decrease in the tonic-sensitive subset of IFN-I response genes. Blockade of IFNAR1 in prediabetic NOD mice accelerated diabetes and increased Th1 responses. Therefore, IFN-I responses shift from pathogenic to protective as autoimmunity progresses, consistent with chronic IFN-I exposure. In contrast, IL-1-associated inflammatory pathways were elevated in prediabetic mice. These changes correlated with human T1D onset-associated gene expression. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostaglandin receptor 4 (PTGER4), a receptor for PGE2 that mediates both inflammatory and regulatory eicosanoid signaling, were higher in NOD mice and drive innate immune dysregulation. Treating prediabetic NOD mice with a PTGER4 antagonist restored IFNAR signaling, decreased IL-1 signaling, and decreased infiltration of leukocytes into the islets. Therefore, innate cytokine alterations contribute to both T1D-associated inflammation and autoimmune pathogenesis. Modulating innate immune balance via signals such as PTGER4 may contribute to treatments for autoimmunity.

  17. The host control of a clinical isolate strain of P. aeruginosa infection is independent of Nod-1 but depends on MyD88.

    PubMed

    Sônego, Fabiane; Castanheira, Fernanda V S; Horta, Catarina V; Kanashiro, Alexandre; Czaikoski, Paula G; Zamboni, Dario S; Alves-Filho, José Carlos; Cunha, Fernando Q

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the role of Nod1 in the recruitment of neutrophils into the infection site and in the establishment of the inflammatory response elicited by a clinical isolate strain of P. aeruginosa in vivo, while comparing it to the well-established role of MyD88 in this process. Wild-type, Nod1 -/- and MyD88 -/- mice, all with a C57Bl/6 background. Mice were intranasally infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa DZ605. Bronchoalveolar lavage and blood were harvested 6 or 20 h post-infection for evaluating bacterial load, chemokine levels and neutrophil migration. Survival post-infection was also observed. We show here that wild-type and Nod1 -/- mice induce similar lung chemokine levels, neutrophil recruitment, and bacterial load, thus leading to equal survival rates upon P. aeruginosa pulmonary infection. Furthermore, we confirmed the essential role of MyD88-dependent signalling in recruiting neutrophils and controlling P. aeruginosa-induced pulmonary infection. The results suggest that in contrast to MyD88, under our experimental conditions, the absence of Nod1 does not impair the recruitment of neutrophils in response to P. aeruginosa DZ605.

  18. The role of the innate immune system in destruction of pancreatic beta cells in NOD mice and humans with type I diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Ningwen; Wong, F. Susan; Wen, Li

    2016-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an organ-specific autoimmune disease characterized by T cell-mediated destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic β cells. A combination of genetic and environmental factors eventually leads to the loss of functional β cells mass and hyperglycemia. Both innate and adaptive immunity are involved in the development of T1D. In this review, we have highlighted the most recent findings on the role of innate immunity, especially the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), in disease development. In murine models and human studies, different PRRs, such as toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat-containing (or NOD-like) receptors (NLRs), have different roles in the pathogenesis of T1D. These PRRs play a critical role in defending against infection by sensing specific ligands derived from exogenous microorganisms to induce innate immune responses and shape adaptive immunity. Animal studies have shown that TLR7, TLR9, MyD88 and NLPR3 play a disease-predisposing role in T1D, while controversial results have been found with other PRRs, such as TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5 and others. Human studies also shown that TLR2, TLR3 and TLR4 are expressed in either islet β cells or infiltrated immune cells, indicating the innate immunity plays a role in β cell autoimmunity. Furthermore, some human genetic studies showed a possible association of TLR3, TLR7, TLR8 or NLRP3 genes, at single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) level, with human T1D. Increasing evidence suggest that the innate immunity modulates β cell autoimmunity. Thus, targeting pathways of innate immunity may provide novel therapeutic strategies to fight this disease. PMID:27021275

  19. Constitutive and UV-B modulated transcription of Nod-like receptors and their functional partners in human corneal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Benko, Szilvia; Tozser, Jozsef; Miklossy, Gabriella; Varga, Aliz; Kadas, Janos; Csutak, Adrienne; Berta, Andras; Rajnavolgyi, Eva

    2008-08-29

    To determine the transcription pattern of Nod-like receptors (NLRs) and inflammasome components (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD [ASC], CARD inhibitor of NFkB-activating ligands [Cardinal], and caspase-1) in human corneal epithelial cells obtained from healthy individuals undergoing photorefractive keratectomy and in immortalized human corneal epithelial cells (HCE-T). Human corneal epithelial cells were taken from the eyes of healthy individuals by epithelial ablation for photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). The SV-40 immortalized human corneal epithelial cell line (HCE-T) was cultured. mRNA obtained from the cells was reverse transcribed and subjected to quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) measurements. Protein obtained from HCE-T cells was studied using the western blot technique. HCE-T cells were irradiated by UV-B light or treated with ultrapure peptidoglycan, and the effects were studied at the mRNA and protein level while the supernatant of the cells was tested for the presence of various cytokines by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods. mRNA levels of the studied proteins in the primary cells of the donors were similar in most cases. The transcription of Nod1, Nod2, NLRX1, Nalp1, and Cardinal was similar in the two cell types. While the expression of Nalp3 and Nalp10 was higher in HCE-T cells, ASC and caspase-1 showed higher transcription levels in the primary cells. NLRC5 and Nalp7 were hardly detectable in the studied cells. Functionality of the Nod1/Nod2 system was demonstrated by increased phosphorylation of IkB upon Nod1/Nod2 agonist ultrapure peptidoglycan treatment in HCE-T cells. While UV-B irradiation exerted a downregulation of both Nalp and Nod mRNAs as well as those of inflammasome components in HCE-T cells, longer incubation of the cells after exposure resulted in recovery or upregulation only of the Nalp sensors. At the protein level, we detected a short isoform of Nalp1 and its

  20. Prevention of Diabetes in NOD Mice by Repeated Exposures to a Contact Allergen Inducing a Sub-Clinical Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Engkilde, Kaare; Buschard, Karsten; Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2010-01-01

    Background Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, while allergic contact dermatitis although immune mediated, is considered an exposure driven disease that develops due to epicutanous contact with reactive low-molecular chemicals. The objective of the present study was to experimentally study the effect of contact allergens on the development of diabetes in NOD mice. As the link between contact allergy and diabetes is yet unexplained we also examined the effect of provocation with allergens on Natural Killer T (NKT) cells, since involvement of NKT cells could suggest an innate connection between the two diseases. Method NOD mice 4 weeks of age were exposed, on the ears, to two allergens, p-phenylenediamine and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene respectively, to investigate the diabetes development. The mice were followed for a maximum of 32 weeks, and they were either repeatedly exposed to the allergens or only sensitized a week after arrival. The stimulation of NKT cells by the two allergens were additionally studied in C57BL/6 mice. The mice were sensitized and two weeks later provocated with the allergens. The mice were subsequently euthanized at different time points after the provocation. Results It was found that repeated application of p-phenylenediamine reduced the incidence of diabetes compared to application with water (47% vs. 93%, P = 0.004). Moreover it was shown that in C57BL/6 mice both allergens resulted in a slight increment in the quantity of NKT cells in the liver. Application of the allergens at the same time resulted in an increased number of NKT cells in the draining auricular lymph node, and the increase appeared to be somewhat allergen specific as the accumulation was stronger for p-phenylenediamine. Conclusion The study showed that repeated topical application on the ears with a contact allergen could prevent the development of diabetes in NOD mice. The contact allergens gave a non-visible, sub-clinical dermatitis on the application site. The

  1. Adverse effect on syngeneic islet transplantation by transgenic coexpression of decoy receptor 3 and heme oxygenase-1 in the islet of NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, S-H; Lin, G-J; Chien, M-W; Chu, C-H; Yu, J-C; Chen, T-W; Hueng, D-Y; Liu, Y-L; Sytwu, H-K

    2013-03-01

    Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3) blocks both Fas ligand- and LIGHT-induced pancreatic β-cell damage in autoimmune diabetes. Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) possesses antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative effects that protect cells against various forms of attack by the immune system. Previously, we have demonstrated that transgenic islets overexpressing DcR3 or murine HO-1 (mHO-1) exhibit longer survival times than nontransgenic islets in syngeneic islet transplantation. In this study, we evaluated whether DcR3 and mHO-1 double-transgenic islets of NOD mice could provide better protective effects and achieve longer islet graft survival than DcR3 or mHO-1 single-transgenic islets after islet transplantation. We generated DcR3 and mHO-1 double-transgenic NOD mice that specifically overexpress DcR3 and HO-1 in islets. Seven hundred islets isolated from double-transgenic, single-transgenic, or nontransgenic NOD mice were syngeneically transplanted into the kidney capsules of newly diabetic female recipients. Unexpectedly, there was no significant difference in the survival time between double-transgenic or nontransgenic NOD islet grafts, and the survival times of double-transgenic NOD islet grafts were even shorter than those of DcR3 or mHO-1 single-transgenic islets. Our data indicate that transplantation of double-transgenic islets that coexpress HO-1 and DcR3 did not result in a better outcome. On the contrary, this strategy even caused an adverse effect in syngeneic islet transplantation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. NOD2/RICK-Dependent β-Defensin 2 Regulation Is Protective for Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae-Induced Middle Ear Infection

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Jeong-Im; Oh, Sejo; Webster, Paul; Lee, Yoo Jin; Lim, David J.; Moon, Sung K.

    2014-01-01

    Middle ear infection, otitis media (OM), is clinically important due to the high incidence in children and its impact on the development of language and motor coordination. Previously, we have demonstrated that the human middle ear epithelial cells up-regulate β-defensin 2, a model innate immune molecule, in response to nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), the most common OM pathogen, via TLR2 signaling. NTHi does internalize into the epithelial cells, but its intracellular trafficking and host responses to the internalized NTHi are poorly understood. Here we aimed to determine a role of cytoplasmic pathogen recognition receptors in NTHi-induced β-defensin 2 regulation and NTHi clearance from the middle ear. Notably, we observed that the internalized NTHi is able to exist freely in the cytoplasm of the human epithelial cells after rupturing the surrounding membrane. The human middle ear epithelial cells inhibited NTHi-induced β-defensin 2 production by NOD2 silencing but augmented it by NOD2 over-expression. NTHi-induced β-defensin 2 up-regulation was attenuated by cytochalasin D, an inhibitor of actin polymerization and was enhanced by α-hemolysin, a pore-forming toxin. NOD2 silencing was found to block α-hemolysin-mediated enhancement of NTHi-induced β-defensin 2 up-regulation. NOD2 deficiency appeared to reduce inflammatory reactions in response to intratympanic inoculation of NTHi and inhibit NTHi clearance from the middle ear. Taken together, our findings suggest that a cytoplasmic release of internalized NTHi is involved in the pathogenesis of NTHi infections, and NOD2-mediated β-defensin 2 regulation contributes to the protection against NTHi-induced otitis media. PMID:24625812

  3. Systemic alterations in the metabolome of diabetic NOD mice delineate increased oxidative stress accompanied by reduced inflammation and hypertriglyceremia

    PubMed Central

    Fahrmann, Johannes; Grapov, Dmitry; Yang, Jun; Hammock, Bruce; Fiehn, Oliver; Bell, Graeme I.

    2015-01-01

    Nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice are a commonly used model of type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, not all animals will develop overt diabetes despite undergoing similar autoimmune insult. In this study, a comprehensive metabolomic approach, consisting of gas chromatography time-of-flight (GC-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS), ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-accurate mass quadruple time-of-flight (UHPLC-qTOF) MS and targeted UHPLC-tandem mass spectrometry-based methodologies, was used to capture metabolic alterations in the metabolome and lipidome of plasma from NOD mice progressing or not progressing to T1D. Using this multi-platform approach, we identified >1,000 circulating lipids and metabolites in male and female progressor and nonprogressor animals (n = 71). Statistical and multivariate analyses were used to identify age- and sex-independent metabolic markers, which best differentiated metabolic profiles of progressors and nonprogressors. Key T1D-associated perturbations were related with 1) increases in oxidation products glucono-δ-lactone and galactonic acid and reductions in cysteine, methionine and threonic acid, suggesting increased oxidative stress; 2) reductions in circulating polyunsaturated fatty acids and lipid signaling mediators, most notably arachidonic acid (AA) and AA-derived eicosanoids, implying impaired states of systemic inflammation; 3) elevations in circulating triacylglyercides reflective of hypertriglyceridemia; and 4) reductions in major structural lipids, most notably lysophosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylcholines. Taken together, our results highlight the systemic perturbations that accompany a loss of glycemic control and development of overt T1D. PMID:25852003

  4. The Inhibitory G Protein α-Subunit, Gαz, Promotes Type 1 Diabetes-Like Pathophysiology in NOD Mice.

    PubMed

    Fenske, Rachel J; Cadena, Mark T; Harenda, Quincy E; Wienkes, Haley N; Carbajal, Kathryn; Schaid, Michael D; Laundre, Erin; Brill, Allison L; Truchan, Nathan A; Brar, Harpreet; Wisinski, Jaclyn; Cai, Jinjin; Graham, Timothy E; Engin, Feyza; Kimple, Michelle E

    2017-06-01

    The α-subunit of the heterotrimeric Gz protein, Gαz, promotes β-cell death and inhibits β-cell replication when pancreatic islets are challenged by stressors. Thus, we hypothesized that loss of Gαz protein would preserve functional β-cell mass in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) model, protecting from overt diabetes. We saw that protection from diabetes was robust and durable up to 35 weeks of age in Gαz knockout mice. By 17 weeks of age, Gαz-null NOD mice had significantly higher diabetes-free survival than wild-type littermates. Islets from these mice had reduced markers of proinflammatory immune cell infiltration on both the histological and transcript levels and secreted more insulin in response to glucose. Further analyses of pancreas sections revealed significantly fewer terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive β-cells in Gαz-null islets despite similar immune infiltration in control mice. Islets from Gαz-null mice also exhibited a higher percentage of Ki-67-positive β-cells, a measure of proliferation, even in the presence of immune infiltration. Finally, β-cell-specific Gαz-null mice phenocopy whole-body Gαz-null mice in their protection from developing hyperglycemia after streptozotocin administration, supporting a β-cell-centric role for Gαz in diabetes pathophysiology. We propose that Gαz plays a key role in β-cell signaling that becomes dysfunctional in the type 1 diabetes setting, accelerating the death of β-cells, which promotes further accumulation of immune cells in the pancreatic islets, and inhibiting a restorative proliferative response. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  5. A Celiac Diasease Associated lncRNA Named HCG14 Regulates NOD1 Expression in Intestinal Cells.

    PubMed

    Santin, Izortze; Jauregi-Miguel, Amaia; Velayos, Teresa; Castellanos-Rubio, Ainara; Garcia-Etxebarria, Koldo; Romero-Garmendia, Irati; Fernandez-Jimenez, Nora; Irastorza, Iñaki; Castaño, Luis; Bilbao, Jose Ramón

    2018-03-29

    To identify additional celiac disease associated loci in the Major Histocompatibility Complex independent from classical HLA risk alleles (HLA-DR3-DQ2) and to characterize their potential functional impact in celiac disease pathogenesis at the intestinal level. We performed a high resolution SNP genotyping of the MHC region, comparing HLA-DR3 homozygous celiac patients and non-celiac controls carrying a single copy of the B8-DR3-DQ2 conserved extended haplotype. Expression level of potential novel risk genes was determined by RT-PCR in intestinal biopsies and in intestinal and immune cells isolated from control and celiac individuals. Small interfering RNA-driven silencing of selected genes was performed in the intestinal cell line T84. MHC genotyping revealed two associated SNPs, one located in TRIM27 gene and another in the non-coding gene HCG14. After stratification analysis, only HCG14 showed significant association independent from HLA-DR-DQ loci Expression of HCG14 was slightly downregulated in epithelial cells isolated from duodenal biopsies of celiac patients, and eQTL analysis revealed that polymorphisms in HCG14 region were associated with decreased NOD1 expression in duodenal intestinal cells. We have sucessfully employed a conserved extended haplotype-matching strategy and identified a novel additional celiac disease risk variant in the lncRNA HGC14. This lncRNA seems to regulate the expression of NOD1 in an allele-specific manner. Further functional studies are needed to clarify the role of HCG14 in the regulation of gene expression and to determine the molecular mechanisms by which the risk variant in HCG14 contributes to celiac disease pathogenesis.

  6. Prevention of Autoimmune Diabetes and Induction of β-Cell Proliferation in NOD Mice by Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Faleo, Gaetano; Fotino, Carmen; Bocca, Nicola; Molano, R. Damaris; Zahr-Akrawi, Elsie; Molina, Judith; Villate, Susana; Umland, Oliver; Skyler, Jay S.; Bayer, Allison L.; Ricordi, Camillo; Pileggi, Antonello

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HOT) on autoimmune diabetes development in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. Animals received no treatment or daily 60-min HOT 100% oxygen (HOT-100%) at 2.0 atmospheres absolute and were monitored for diabetes onset, insulitis, infiltrating cells, immune cell function, and β-cell apoptosis and proliferation. Cyclophosphamide-induced diabetes onset was reduced from 85.3% in controls to 48% after HOT-100% (P < 0.005) and paralleled by lower insulitis. Spontaneous diabetes incidence reduced from 85% in controls to 65% in HOT-100% (P = 0.01). Prediabetic mice receiving HOT-100% showed lower insulitis scores, reduced T-cell proliferation upon stimulation in vitro (P < 0.03), increased CD62L expression in T cells (P < 0.04), reduced costimulation markers (CD40, DC80, and CD86), and reduced major histocompatibility complex class II expression in dendritic cells (DCs) (P < 0.025), compared with controls. After autoimmunity was established, HOT was less effective. HOT-100% yielded reduced apoptosis (transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling-positive insulin-positive cells; P < 0.01) and increased proliferation (bromodeoxyuridine incorporation; P < 0.001) of insulin-positive cells compared with controls. HOT reduces autoimmune diabetes incidence in NOD mice via increased resting T cells and reduced activation of DCs with preservation of β-cell mass resulting from decreased apoptosis and increased proliferation. The safety profile and noninvasiveness makes HOT an appealing adjuvant therapy for diabetes prevention and intervention trials. PMID:22566533

  7. Hornbills can distinguish between primate alarm calls.

    PubMed Central

    Rainey, Hugo J.; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Slater, Peter J. B.

    2004-01-01

    Some mammals distinguish between and respond appropriately to the alarm calls of other mammal and bird species. However, the ability of birds to distinguish between mammal alarm calls has not been investigated. Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) produce different alarm calls to two predators: crowned eagles (Stephanoaetus coronatus) and leopards (Panthera pardus). Yellow-casqued hornbills (Ceratogymna elata) are vulnerable to predation by crowned eagles but are not preyed on by leopards and might therefore be expected to respond to the Diana monkey eagle alarm call but not to the leopard alarm call. We compared responses of hornbills to playback of eagle shrieks, leopard growls, Diana monkey eagle alarm calls and Diana monkey leopard alarm calls and found that they distinguished appropriately between the two predator vocalizations as well as between the two Diana monkey alarm calls. We discuss possible mechanisms leading to these responses. PMID:15209110

  8. Press Calls | NOAA Gulf Spill Restoration

    Science.gov Websites

    Projects Near You Strategic Frameworks Monitoring and Adaptive Management Restoration Areas Alabama Florida Archive Home Press Calls Press Calls Gulf Spill Restoration Menu Home Restoration Areas About Us Data How

  9. Potential Paradigms and Possible Problems for CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Martin

    1987-01-01

    Describes three models of CALL (computer assisted language learning) activity--games, the expert system, and the prosthetic approaches. A case is made for CALL development within a more instrumental view of the role of computers. (Author/CB)

  10. Calling in Work: Secular or Sacred?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steger, Michael F.; Pickering, N. K.; Shin, J. Y.; Dik, B. J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent scholarship indicates that people who view their work as a calling are more satisfied with their work and their lives. Historically, calling has been regarded as a religious experience, although modern researchers frequently have adopted a more expansive and secular conceptualization of calling, emphasizing meaning and personal fulfillment…

  11. ICALL's Relevance to CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Monica

    2017-01-01

    The term Intelligent Computer Assisted Language Learning (ICALL) covers many different aspects of CALL that add something extra to a CALL resource. This could be with the use of computational linguistics or Artificial Intelligence (AI). ICALL tends to be not very well understood within the CALL community. There may also be the slight fear factor…

  12. Perceiving a Calling, Living a Calling, and Job Satisfaction: Testing a Moderated, Multiple Mediator Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Bott, Elizabeth M.; Allan, Blake A.; Torrey, Carrie L.; Dik, Bryan J.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the relation between perceiving a calling, living a calling, and job satisfaction among a diverse group of employed adults who completed an online survey (N = 201). Perceiving a calling and living a calling were positively correlated with career commitment, work meaning, and job satisfaction. Living a calling moderated…

  13. NFP, a LysM protein controlling Nod factor perception, also intervenes in Medicago truncatula resistance to pathogens.

    PubMed

    Rey, Thomas; Nars, Amaury; Bonhomme, Maxime; Bottin, Arnaud; Huguet, Stéphanie; Balzergue, Sandrine; Jardinaud, Marie-Françoise; Bono, Jean-Jacques; Cullimore, Julie; Dumas, Bernard; Gough, Clare; Jacquet, Christophe

    2013-05-01

    Plant LysM proteins control the perception of microbial-derived N-acetylglucosamine compounds for the establishment of symbiosis or activation of plant immunity. This raises questions about how plants, and notably legumes, can differentiate friends and foes using similar molecular actors and whether any receptors can intervene in both symbiosis and resistance. To study this question, nfp and lyk3 LysM-receptor like kinase mutants of Medicago truncatula that are affected in the early steps of nodulation, were analysed following inoculation with Aphanomyces euteiches, a root oomycete. The role of NFP in this interaction was further analysed by overexpression of NFP and by transcriptome analyses. nfp, but not lyk3, mutants were significantly more susceptible than wildtype plants to A. euteiches, whereas NFP overexpression increased resistance. Transcriptome analyses on A. euteiches inoculation showed that mutation in the NFP gene led to significant changes in the expression of c. 500 genes, notably involved in cell dynamic processes previously associated with resistance to pathogen penetration. nfp mutants also showed an increased susceptibility to the fungus Colletotrichum trifolii. These results demonstrate that NFP intervenes in M. truncatula immunity, suggesting an unsuspected role for NFP in the perception of pathogenic signals. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. TNF{alpha} and IL-1{beta} are mediated by both TLR4 and Nod1 pathways in the cultured HAPI cells stimulated by LPS

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Wenwen; Zheng, Xuexing; Department of Anesthesiology, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL 33136

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LPS induces proinflammatory cytokine release in HAPI cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer JNK pathway is dependent on TLR4 signaling to release cytokines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NF-{kappa}B pathway is dependent on Nod1 signaling to release cytokines. -- Abstract: A growing body of evidence recently suggests that glial cell activation plays an important role in several neurodegenerative diseases and neuropathic pain. Microglia in the central nervous system express toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) that is traditionally accepted as the primary receptor of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS activates TLR4 signaling pathways to induce the production of proinflammatory molecules. In the present studies, we verified the LPS signaling pathwaysmore » using cultured highly aggressively proliferating immortalized (HAPI) microglial cells. We found that HAPI cells treated with LPS upregulated the expression of TLR4, phospho-JNK (pJNK) and phospho-NF-{kappa}B (pNF-{kappa}B), TNF{alpha} and IL-1{beta}. Silencing TLR4 with siRNA reduced the expression of pJNK, TNF{alpha} and IL-1{beta}, but not pNF-{kappa}B in the cells. Inhibition of JNK with SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor) decreased the expression of TNF{alpha} and IL-1{beta}. Unexpectedly, we found that inhibition of Nod1 with ML130 significantly reduced the expression of pNF-{kappa}B. Inhibition of NF-{kappa}B also reduced the expression of TNF{alpha} and IL-1{beta}. Nod1 ligand, DAP induced the upregulation of pNF-{kappa}B which was blocked by Nod1 inhibitor. These data indicate that LPS-induced pJNK is TLR4-dependent, and that pNF-{kappa}B is Nod1-dependent in HAPI cells treated with LPS. Either TLR4-JNK or Nod1-NF-{kappa}B pathways is involved in the expression of TNF{alpha} and IL-1{beta}.« less

  15. Crew Factors in Flight Operations. 8; A Survey of Fatigue Factors in Corporate/Executive A Viation Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Miller, Donna L.

    2000-01-01

    Corporate flight crews face unique challenges including unscheduled flights, quickly changing schedules, extended duty days, long waits, time zone changes, and peripheral tasks. Most corporate operations are regulated by Part 91 FARs which set no flight or duty time limits. The objective of this study was to identify operationally significant factors that may influence fatigue, alertness, and performance in corporate operations. In collaboration with the National Business Aircraft Association and the Flight Safety Foundation, NASA developed and distributed a retrospective survey comprising 107 questions addressing demographics, home sleep habits, flight experience, duty schedules, fatigue during operations, and work environment. Corporate crewmembers returned 1,488 surveys. Respondents averaged 45.2 years of age, had 14.9 years of corporate flying experience, and 9,750 total flight hours. The majority (89%) rated themselves as 'good' or 'very good' sleepers at home. Most (82%) indicated they are subject to call for duty and described an average duty day of 9.9 h. About two-thirds reported having a daily duty time limit and over half (57%) reported a daily flight time limit. Nearly three-quarters (71%) acknowledged having 'nodded off' during a flight. Only 21% reported that their flight departments offer training on fatigue issues. Almost three-quarters (74%) described fatigue as a 'moderate' or 'serious' concern, and a majority (61%) characterized it as a common occurrence. Most (85%) identified fatigue as a 'moderate' or 'serious' safety issue.

  16. Bat echolocation calls facilitate social communication

    PubMed Central

    Knörnschild, Mirjam; Jung, Kirsten; Nagy, Martina; Metz, Markus; Kalko, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Bat echolocation is primarily used for orientation and foraging but also holds great potential for social communication. The communicative function of echolocation calls is still largely unstudied, especially in the wild. Eavesdropping on vocal signatures encoding social information in echolocation calls has not, to our knowledge, been studied in free-living bats so far. We analysed echolocation calls of the polygynous bat Saccopteryx bilineata and found pronounced vocal signatures encoding sex and individual identity. We showed experimentally that free-living males discriminate approaching male and female conspecifics solely based on their echolocation calls. Males always produced aggressive vocalizations when hearing male echolocation calls and courtship vocalizations when hearing female echolocation calls; hence, they responded with complex social vocalizations in the appropriate social context. Our study demonstrates that social information encoded in bat echolocation calls plays a crucial and hitherto underestimated role for eavesdropping conspecifics and thus facilitates social communication in a highly mobile nocturnal mammal. PMID:23034703

  17. Bat echolocation calls facilitate social communication.

    PubMed

    Knörnschild, Mirjam; Jung, Kirsten; Nagy, Martina; Metz, Markus; Kalko, Elisabeth

    2012-12-07

    Bat echolocation is primarily used for orientation and foraging but also holds great potential for social communication. The communicative function of echolocation calls is still largely unstudied, especially in the wild. Eavesdropping on vocal signatures encoding social information in echolocation calls has not, to our knowledge, been studied in free-living bats so far. We analysed echolocation calls of the polygynous bat Saccopteryx bilineata and found pronounced vocal signatures encoding sex and individual identity. We showed experimentally that free-living males discriminate approaching male and female conspecifics solely based on their echolocation calls. Males always produced aggressive vocalizations when hearing male echolocation calls and courtship vocalizations when hearing female echolocation calls; hence, they responded with complex social vocalizations in the appropriate social context. Our study demonstrates that social information encoded in bat echolocation calls plays a crucial and hitherto underestimated role for eavesdropping conspecifics and thus facilitates social communication in a highly mobile nocturnal mammal.

  18. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 1 (NOD1) haplotypes and single nucleotide polymorphisms modify susceptibility to inflammatory bowel diseases in a New Zealand caucasian population: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Huebner, Claudia; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Han, Dug Yeo; Philpott, Martin; Barclay, Murray L; Gearry, Richard B; McCulloch, Alan; Demmers, Pieter S; Browning, Brian L

    2009-01-01

    Background The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 1 (NOD1) gene encodes a pattern recognition receptor that senses pathogens, leading to downstream responses characteristic of innate immunity. We investigated the role of NOD1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on IBD risk in a New Zealand Caucasian population, and studied Nod1 expression in response to bacterial invasion in the Caco2 cell line. Findings DNA samples from 388 Crohn's disease (CD), 405 ulcerative colitis (UC), 27 indeterminate colitis patients and 201 randomly selected controls, from Canterbury, New Zealand were screened for 3 common SNPs in NOD1, using the MassARRAY® iPLEX Gold assay. Transcriptional activation of the protein produced by NOD1 (Nod1) was studied after infection of Caco2 cells with Escherichia coli LF82. Carrying the rs2075818 G allele decreased the risk of CD (OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.50–0.88, p < 0.002) but not UC. There was an increased frequency of the three SNP (rs2075818, rs2075822, rs2907748) haplotype, CTG (p = 0.004) and a decreased frequency of the GTG haplotype (p = 0.02).in CD. The rs2075822 CT or TT genotypes were at an increased frequency (genotype p value = 0.02), while the rs2907748 AA or AG genotypes showed decreased frequencies in UC (p = 0.04), but not in CD. Functional assays showed that Nod1 is produced 6 hours after bacterial invasion of the Caco2 cell line. Conclusion The NOD1 gene is important in signalling invasion of colonic cells by pathogenic bacteria, indicative of its' key role in innate immunity. Carrying specific SNPs in this gene significantly modifies the risk of CD and/or UC in a New Zealand Caucasian population. PMID:19327158

  19. Dimensionality of organizational justice in a call center context.

    PubMed

    Flint, Douglas; Haley, Lynn M; McNally, Jeffrey J

    2012-04-01

    Summary.-Employees in three call centers were surveyed about their perceptions of organizational justice. Four factors were measured: distributive justice, procedural justice, interpersonal justice, and informational justice. Structural equation modeling was employed to test whether a two-, three-, or four-factor model best fit the call center data. A three-factor model of distributive, procedural, and informational justice provided the best fit to these data. The three-factor model that showed the best fit does not conform to any of the more traditional models identified in the organizational justice literature. This implies that the context in which organizational justice is measured may play a role in identifying which justice factors are relevant to employees. Findings add to the empirical evidence on the dimensionality of organizational justice and imply that dimensionality of organizational justice is more context-dependent than previously thought.

  20. Transient B-Cell Depletion with Anti-CD20 in Combination with Proinsulin DNA Vaccine or Oral Insulin: Immunologic Effects and Efficacy in NOD Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sarikonda, Ghanashyam; Sachithanantham, Sowbarnika; Manenkova, Yulia; Kupfer, Tinalyn; Posgai, Amanda; Wasserfall, Clive; Bernstein, Philip; Straub, Laura; Pagni, Philippe P.; Schneider, Darius; Calvo, Teresa Rodriguez; Coulombe, Marilyne; Herold, Kevan; Gill, Ronald G.; Atkinson, Mark; Nepom, Gerald; Ehlers, Mario; Staeva, Teodora; Garren, Hideki; Steinman, Lawrence; Chan, Andrew C.; von Herrath, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    A recent type 1 diabetes (T1D) clinical trial of rituximab (a B cell-depleting anti-CD20 antibody) achieved some therapeutic benefit in preserving C-peptide for a period of approximately nine months in patients with recently diagnosed diabetes. Our previous data in the NOD mouse demonstrated that co-administration of antigen (insulin) with anti-CD3 antibody (a T cell-directed immunomodulator) offers better protection than either entity alone, indicating that novel combination therapies that include a T1D-related autoantigen are possible. To accelerate the identification and development of novel combination therapies that can be advanced into the clinic, we have evaluated the combination of a mouse anti-CD20 antibody with either oral insulin or a proinsulin-expressing DNA vaccine. Anti-CD20 alone, given once or on 4 consecutive days, produced transient B cell depletion but did not prevent or reverse T1D in the NOD mouse. Oral insulin alone (twice weekly for 6 weeks) was also ineffective, while proinsulin DNA (weekly for up to 12 weeks) showed a trend toward modest efficacy. Combination of anti-CD20 with oral insulin was ineffective in reversing diabetes in NOD mice whose glycemia was controlled with SC insulin pellets; these experiments were performed in three independent labs. Combination of anti-CD20 with proinsulin DNA was also ineffective in diabetes reversal, but did show modest efficacy in diabetes prevention (p = 0.04). In the prevention studies, anti-CD20 plus proinsulin resulted in modest increases in Tregs in pancreatic lymph nodes and elevated levels of proinsulin-specific CD4+ T-cells that produced IL-4. Thus, combination therapy with anti-CD20 and either oral insulin or proinsulin does not protect hyperglycemic NOD mice, but the combination with proinsulin offers limited efficacy in T1D prevention, potentially by augmentation of proinsulin-specific IL-4 production. PMID:23405091

  1. A quantitative comparison of rates of phagocytosis and digestion of apoptotic cells by macrophages from normal (BALB/c) and diabetes-prone (NOD) mice.

    PubMed

    Marée, Athanasius F M; Komba, Mitsuhiro; Finegood, Diane T; Edelstein-Keshet, Leah

    2008-01-01

    Macrophages play an important role in clearing apoptotic debris from tissue. Defective or reduced clearance, seen, for instance, in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, has been correlated with initiation of autoimmune (Type 1) diabetes (T1D) (O'Brien BA, Huang Y, Geng X, Dutz JP, Finegood DT. Diabetes 51: 2481-2488, 2002). To validate such a link, it is essential to quantify the reduced clearance (for example, by comparison to BALB/c control mice) and to determine which elements of that clearance are impaired. Recently, we fit data for the time course of in vitro macrophage feeding experiments to basic models of macrophage clearance dynamics, thus quantifying kinetics of uptake and digestion of apoptotic cells in both mouse strains (Marée AFM, Komba M, Dyck C, Łabeçki M, Finegood DT, Edelstein-Keshet L. J Theor Biol 233: 533-551, 2005). In the cycle of modeling and experimental investigation, we identified the importance of 1) measuring short-, intermediate-, and long-time data (to increase the accuracy of parameter fits), and 2) designing experiments with distinct observable regimes, including engulfment-only and digestion-only phases. Here, we report on new results from experiments so designed. In comparing macrophages from the two strains, we find that NOD macrophage engulfment of apoptotic cells is 5.5 times slower than BALB/c controls. Significantly, our new data demonstrate that digestion is at least two times slower in NOD, in contrast with previous conclusions. Moreover, new data enable us to detect an acceleration in engulfment (after the first engulfment) in both strains, but much smaller in NOD macrophages.

  2. Outsourcing an Effective Postdischarge Call Program

    PubMed Central

    Meek, Kevin L.; Williams, Paula; Unterschuetz, Caryn J.

    2018-01-01

    To improve patient satisfaction ratings and decrease readmissions, many organizations utilize internal staff to complete postdischarge calls to recently released patients. Developing, implementing, monitoring, and sustaining an effective call program can be challenging and have eluded some of the renowned medical centers in the country. Using collaboration with an outsourced vendor to bring state-of-the-art call technology and staffed with specially trained callers, health systems can achieve elevated levels of engagement and satisfaction for their patients postdischarge. PMID:29494453

  3. First field trial of Virtual Network Operator oriented network on demand (NoD) service provisioning over software defined multi-vendor OTN networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yajie; Zhao, Yongli; Zhang, Jie; Yu, Xiaosong; Chen, Haoran; Zhu, Ruijie; Zhou, Quanwei; Yu, Chenbei; Cui, Rui

    2017-01-01

    A Virtual Network Operator (VNO) is a provider and reseller of network services from other telecommunications suppliers. These network providers are categorized as virtual because they do not own the underlying telecommunication infrastructure. In terms of business operation, VNO can provide customers with personalized services by leasing network infrastructure from traditional network providers. The unique business modes of VNO lead to the emergence of network on demand (NoD) services. The conventional network provisioning involves a series of manual operation and configuration, which leads to high cost in time. Considering the advantages of Software Defined Networking (SDN), this paper proposes a novel NoD service provisioning solution to satisfy the private network need of VNOs. The solution is first verified in the real software defined multi-domain optical networks with multi-vendor OTN equipment. With the proposed solution, NoD service can be deployed via online web portals in near-real time. It reinvents the customer experience and redefines how network services are delivered to customers via an online self-service portal. Ultimately, this means a customer will be able to simply go online, click a few buttons and have new services almost instantaneously.

  4. Comparative expression profile of NOD1/2 and certain acute inflammatory cytokines in thermal-stressed cell culture model of native and crossbred cattle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhanuprakash, V.; Singh, Umesh; Sengar, Gyanendra Singh; Raja, T. V.; Sajjanar, Basavraj; Alex, Rani; Kumar, Sushil; Alyethodi, R. R.; Kumar, Ashish; Sharma, Ankur; Kumar, Suresh; Bhusan, Bharat; Deb, Rajib

    2017-05-01

    Thermotolerance depends mainly on the health and immune status of the animals. The variation in the immune status of the animals may alter the level of tolerance of animals exposed to heat or cold stress. The present study was conducted to investigate the expression profile of two important nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain receptors (NLRs) (NOD1 and NOD2) and their central signalling molecule RIP2 gene during in vitro thermal-stressed bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of native (Sahiwal) and crossbred (Sahiwal X HF) cattle. We also examined the differential expression profile of certain acute inflammatory cytokines in in vitro thermal-stressed PBMC culture among native and its crossbred counterparts. Results revealed that the expression profile of NOD1/2 positively correlates with the thermal stress, signalling molecule and cytokines. Present findings also highlighted that the expression patterns during thermal stress were comparatively superior among indigenous compared to crossbred cattle which may add references regarding the better immune adaptability of Zebu cattle.

  5. Nondepleting anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody prevents diabetes and blocks induction of insulin autoantibodies following insulin peptide B:9-23 immunization in the NOD mouse.

    PubMed

    Liu, Edwin; Moriyama, Hiroaki; Paronen, Johanna; Abiru, Norio; Miao, Dongmei; Yu, Liping; Taylor, Robert M; Eisenbarth, George S

    2003-11-01

    Insulin peptide B:9-23 is a major autoantigen in type 1 diabetes that induces insulin autoantibodies and prevents diabetes in the NOD. However, immunization with peptide without adjuvant may be insufficient to reverse disease or induce long-term tolerance. Furthermore, recent experience has demonstrated the potential dangers of disease exacerbation or anaphylaxis with peptide immunotherapy. Combination therapy of B:9-23 with a nondepleting anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody (YTS 177.9) was studied in female NOD mice from 4 through 6 weeks of age. Injections of either B:9-23 in saline, YTS 177.9 antibody, or both peptide and antibody were given to mice. By 52 weeks follow-up, 40% of B:9-23-treated, 100% of YTS177.9-treated, and 70% of B:9-23 and YTS177.9 combination-treated mice remained diabetes-free. IAA, both spontaneous and induced by B:9-23, was almost completely suppressed in mice receiving YTS 177.9. In addition to suppression of IAA expression, anti-B:9-23 peptide antibodies are also suppressed in mice receiving B:9-23 with YTS 177.9, compared to B:9-23 alone. A brief course of the nondepleting anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody (YTS 177.9) in NOD mice confers long-term protection from diabetes and insulitis and profoundly blocks spontaneous and B:9-23 peptide-induced insulin autoantibodies.

  6. IL-27 Induced by Select Candida spp. via TLR7/NOD2 Signaling and IFN-β Production Inhibits Fungal Clearance

    PubMed Central

    Patin, Emmanuel C.; Jones, Adam V.; Thompson, Aiysha; Clement, Mathew; Liao, Chia-Te; Griffiths, James S.; Wallace, Leah E.; Bryant, Clare E.; Lang, Roland; Rosenstiel, Philip; Humphreys, Ian R.; Taylor, Philip R.

    2016-01-01

    Candida spp. elicit cytokine production downstream of various pathogen recognition receptors, including C-type lectin-like receptors, TLRs, and nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)–like receptors. IL-12 family members IL-12p70 and IL-23 are important for host immunity against Candida spp. In this article, we show that IL-27, another IL-12 family member, is produced by myeloid cells in response to selected Candida spp. We demonstrate a novel mechanism for Candida parapsilosis–mediated induction of IL-27 in a TLR7-, MyD88-, and NOD2-dependent manner. Our data revealed that IFN-β is induced by C. parapsilosis, which in turn signals through the IFN-α/β receptor and STAT1/2 to induce IL-27. Moreover, IL-27R (WSX-1)–deficient mice systemically infected with C. parapsilosis displayed enhanced pathogen clearance compared with wild-type mice. This was associated with increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the serum and increased IFN-γ and IL-17 responses in the spleens of IL-27R–deficient mice. Thus, our data define a novel link between C. parapsilosis, TLR7, NOD2, IFN-β, and IL-27, and we have identified an important role for IL-27 in the immune response against C. parapsilosis. Overall, these findings demonstrate an important mechanism for the suppression of protective immune responses during infection with C. parapsilosis, which has potential relevance for infections with other fungal pathogens. PMID:27259855

  7. Pathogenesis of NOD Diabetes is Initiated by Reactivity to the Insulin B Chain 9–23 Epitope and Involves Functional Epitope Spreading1

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Suchitra; Kohm, Adam P.; McMahon, Jeffrey S.; Luo, Xunrong; Miller, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is mediated by destruction of pancreatic β cells by CD4 and CD8 T cells specific for epitopes on numerous diabetogenic autoantigens resulting in loss of glucose homeostasis. Employing antigen-specific tolerance induced by i.v. administration of syngeneic splenocytes ECDI cross-linked to various diabetogenic antigens/epitopes (Ag-SP), we show that epitope spreading plays a functional role in the pathogenesis of T1D in NOD mice. Specifically, Ag-SP coupled with intact insulin, Ins B9–23 or Ins B15–23, but not GAD65509–528, GAD65524–543 or IGRP206–214, protected 4–6 week-old NOD mice from the eventual development of clinical disease; infiltration of immune cells to the pancreatic islets; and blocked the induction of DTH responses in a Treg-dependent, antigen-specific manner. However, tolerance induction in 19–21 week-old NOD mice was effectively accomplished only by Ins-SP, suggesting Ins B9–23 is a dominant initiating epitope, but autoimmune responses to insulin epitope(s) distinct from Ins B9–23 emerge during disease progression. PMID:22647732

  8. 47 CFR 22.921 - 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... programming in the mobile unit that determines the handling of a non-911 call and permit the call to be... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.921 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode. Mobile telephones manufactured after February 13, 2000 that are capable of...

  9. When They Talk about CALL: Discourse in a Required CALL Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Greg

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates preservice teachers' discourse about CALL in a required CALL class which combines theory and practice. Thirty-three students in a Linguistics MA program CALL course were observed over a 10-week quarter. For all of these students, it was their first formal exposure to CALL as a discipline. Communication in the class…

  10. A Call for Change: Providing Solutions for Black Male Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casserly, Michael; Lewis, Sharon; Simon, Candace; Uzzell, Renata; Palacios, Moses

    2012-01-01

    In October 2010, the Council of the Great City Schools released a major report on the academic status of African American males, "A Call for Change: The Social and Educational Factors Contributing to the Outcomes of Black Males in Urban Schools." The report was the first phase of the Council's efforts to recommit the energies of the nation's urban…

  11. Infusion of Trx-1-overexpressing hucMSC prolongs the survival of acutely irradiated NOD/SCID mice by decreasing excessive inflammatory injury.

    PubMed

    Hu, JiangWei; Yang, ZaiLiang; Wang, Jun; Tang, YongYong; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Hu

    2013-01-01

    A protective reagent for ARI should have the ability to repair injured tissue caused by radiation and prevent continuous damage from secondary risk factors. Trx-1 was explored as a candidate therapy for ARI, as it scavenges reactive oxygen species, regulates cell growth and differentiation, participates in immune reactions, and inhibits apoptosis by acting inside and/or outside cells. Trx-1 can also decrease excessive inflammation in ARI by regulating the creation of inflamed media, by inhibiting the activation of complement, and by reducing the chemotaxis, adhesion, and migration of inflammatory cells. As effectively and stably expressing exogenous genes in the long term and regulating immune inflammation and tissue repair, MSC are a good choice for Trx-1 gene therapy. In this study, Trx-1-overexpressing hucMSC-Trx-1 were obtained by adenoviral vector-mediated infection. We first measured the redox capacity of hucMSC-Trx-1 with an antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) assay, a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content determination assay in vivo, a H2O2-induced oxidation hemolysis assay, and a lipid peroxidation assay in vitro. Then, we measured survival time, the protection of the hematopoietic system, and the regulation of inflammation in important organs in three treatment groups of NOD/SCID mice (treated with hucMSC-Trx-1, with hucMSC, and with saline) that were exposed to 4.5 Gy (60)Co-γ-ray radiation. The hucMSC-Trx-1 group achieved superior antioxidation results, protecting bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (Lin(-)CD117(+): hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. hucMSC, P<0.05; hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. NS, P<0.01), promoting the formation of red blood cells and hemoglobin (hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. hucMSC or NS, P<0.05), reducing inflammation and damage in important organs (Bone marrow and lung: hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. NS, P<0.01; hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. hucMSC, P<0.05. Liver and intestine: hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. NS, P<0.05; hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. hucMSC, P<0.05), and prolonging survival (hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. hucMSC or NS, P<0

  12. Infusion of Trx-1-Overexpressing hucMSC Prolongs the Survival of Acutely Irradiated NOD/SCID Mice by Decreasing Excessive Inflammatory Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Tang, YongYong; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Hu

    2013-01-01

    A protective reagent for ARI should have the ability to repair injured tissue caused by radiation and prevent continuous damage from secondary risk factors. Trx-1 was explored as a candidate therapy for ARI, as it scavenges reactive oxygen species, regulates cell growth and differentiation, participates in immune reactions, and inhibits apoptosis by acting inside and/or outside cells. Trx-1 can also decrease excessive inflammation in ARI by regulating the creation of inflamed media, by inhibiting the activation of complement, and by reducing the chemotaxis, adhesion, and migration of inflammatory cells. As effectively and stably expressing exogenous genes in the long term and regulating immune inflammation and tissue repair, MSC are a good choice for Trx-1 gene therapy. In this study, Trx-1-overexpressing hucMSC-Trx-1 were obtained by adenoviral vector-mediated infection. We first measured the redox capacity of hucMSC-Trx-1 with an antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) assay, a hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content determination assay in vivo, a H2O2-induced oxidation hemolysis assay, and a lipid peroxidation assay in vitro. Then, we measured survival time, the protection of the hematopoietic system, and the regulation of inflammation in important organs in three treatment groups of NOD/SCID mice (treated with hucMSC-Trx-1, with hucMSC, and with saline) that were exposed to 4.5 Gy 60Co-γ-ray radiation. The hucMSC-Trx-1 group achieved superior antioxidation results, protecting bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (Lin−CD117+: hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. hucMSC, P<0.05; hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. NS, P<0.01), promoting the formation of red blood cells and hemoglobin (hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. hucMSC or NS, P<0.05), reducing inflammation and damage in important organs (Bone marrow and lung: hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. NS, P<0.01; hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. hucMSC, P<0.05. Liver and intestine: hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. NS, P<0.05; hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. hucMSC, P<0.05), and prolonging survival (hucMSC-Trx-1 vs. hucMSC or NS, P<0.01). Therefore

  13. Increased Expression of the NOD-like Receptor Family, Pyrin Domain Containing 3 Inflammasome in Dermatomyositis and Polymyositis is a Potential Contributor to Their Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xi; Han, Gen-Cheng; Jiang, Xing-Wei; Shi, Qiang; Pu, Chuan-Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dermatomyositis (DM) and polymyositis (PM) are common inflammatory myopathies whose immunopathogenic mechanisms remain poorly understood. The NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a type of cytoplasmic multiprotein inflammasome and is responsible for the activation of inflammatory reactivations. Responding to a wide range of exogenous and endogenous microbial or sterile stimuli, NLRP3 inflammasomes can cleave pro-caspase-1 into active caspase-1, which processes the pro-inflammatory cytokines pro-interleukin (IL)-1β and pro-IL-18 into active and secreted IL-1β and IL-18. The NLRP3 inflammasome is implicated in infectious and sterile inflammatory diseases. However, it remains unclear whether it is involved in the pathogenesis of DM/PM, which we aim to address in our research. Methods: In this study, 22 DM/PM patients and 24 controls were recruited. The protein and RNA expression of IL-1β, IL-18, NLRP3, and caspase-1 in serum and muscle samples were tested and compared between the two groups. Results: The serum IL-1β and IL-18 levels were significantly higher in DM/PM patients than those in the controls by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, DM vs. control, 25.02 ± 8.29 ng/ml vs. 16.49 ± 3.30 ng/ml, P < 0.001; PM vs. control, 26.49 ± 7.79 ng/ml vs. 16.49 ± 3.30 ng/ml, P < 0.001). Moreover, the real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) showed that DM/PM patients exhibited higher RNA expression of IL-1β, IL-18, and NLRP3 in the muscle (for IL-1β, DM vs. control, P = 0.0012, PM vs. control, P = 0.0021; for IL-18, DM vs. control, P = 0.0045, PM vs. control, P = 0.0031; for NLRP3, DM vs. control, P = 0.0017, PM vs. control, P = 0.0006). Moreover, the protein expression of NLRP3 and caspase-1 in muscle samples of DM/PM patients were also significantly elevated compared to that in the muscles of the controls. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrate that the NLRP3

  14. Integrated Language Skills CALL Course Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Kevin; Agawa, Grant

    2013-01-01

    The importance of a structured learning framework or interrelated frameworks is the cornerstone of a solid English as a foreign language (EFL) computer-assisted language learning (CALL) curriculum. While the benefits of CALL are widely promoted in the literature, there is often an endemic discord separating theory and practice. Oftentimes the…

  15. Help Options in CALL: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a systematic review of research investigating help options in the different language skills in computer-assisted language learning (CALL). In this review, emerging themes along with is-sues affecting help option research are identified and discussed. We argue that help options in CALL are application resources that do not only seem…

  16. Coaching "Callings" throughout the Adult Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Frederic M.

    2001-01-01

    The process of "callings" continues throughout life. Coaching can connect the present to the future in a meaningful way. Callings represent a value shift requiring revision of the nature and scope of one's central purpose in life and meaningful activities. (JOW)

  17. Source levels of foraging humpback whale calls.

    PubMed

    Fournet, Michelle E H; Matthews, Leanna P; Gabriele, Christine M; Mellinger, David K; Klinck, Holger

    2018-02-01

    Humpback whales produce a wide range of low- to mid-frequency vocalizations throughout their migratory range. Non-song "calls" dominate this species' vocal repertoire while on high-latitude foraging grounds. The source levels of 426 humpback whale calls in four vocal classes were estimated using a four-element planar array deployed in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Southeast Alaska. There was no significant difference in source levels between humpback whale vocal classes. The mean call source level was 137 dB RMS re 1 μPa @ 1 m in the bandwidth of the call (range 113-157 dB RMS re 1 μPa @ 1 m), where bandwidth is defined as the frequency range from the lowest to the highest frequency component of the call. These values represent a robust estimate of humpback whale source levels on foraging grounds and should append earlier estimates.

  18. Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Female NOD Mice Reveals Daily Rhythms and a Negative Correlation With Body Temperature.

    PubMed

    Korstanje, Ron; Ryan, Jennifer L; Savage, Holly S; Lyons, Bonnie L; Kane, Kevin G; Sukoff Rizzo, Stacey J

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies with continuous glucose monitoring in mice have been limited to several days or weeks, with the mouse's physical attachment to the equipment affecting behavior and measurements. In the current study, we measured blood glucose and body temperature at 10-second intervals for 12 weeks in a cohort of NOD/ShiLtJ female mice using wireless telemetry. This allowed us to obtain a high-resolution profile of the circadian rhythm of these two parameters and the onset of hyperglycemic development in real time. The most striking observations were the elevated nocturnal concentrations of glucose into the diabetic range days before elevations in diurnal glucose (when glucose concentrations are historically measured) and the strong, negative correlation between elevated blood glucose concentrations and body temperature with a steady decline of the body temperature with diabetes development. Taken together, this technological advancement provides improved resolution in the study of the disease trajectory of diabetes in mouse models, including relevant translatability to the current technologies of continuous glucose monitoring now regularly used in patients. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  19. Coding variants in NOD-like receptors: An association study on risk and survival of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Huhn, Stefanie; da Silva Filho, Miguel I; Sanmuganantham, Tharmila; Pichulik, Tica; Catalano, Calogerina; Pardini, Barbara; Naccarati, Alessio; Polakova-Vymetálkova, Veronika; Jiraskova, Katerina; Vodickova, Ludmila; Vodicka, Pavel; Löffler, Markus W; Courth, Lioba; Wehkamp, Jan; Din, Farhat V N; Timofeeva, Maria; Farrington, Susan M; Jansen, Lina; Hemminki, Kari; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Brenner, Hermann; Hoffmeister, Michael; Dunlop, Malcolm G; Weber, Alexander N R; Försti, Asta

    2018-01-01

    Nod-like receptors (NLRs) are important innate pattern recognition receptors and regulators of inflammation or play a role during development. We systematically analysed 41 non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 21 NLR genes in a Czech discovery cohort of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) (1237 cases, 787 controls) for their association with CRC risk and survival. Five SNPs were found to be associated with CRC risk and eight with survival at 5% significance level. In a replication analysis using data of two large genome-wide association studies (GWASs) from Germany (DACHS: 1798 cases and 1810 controls) and Scotland (2210 cases and 9350 controls) the associations found in the Czech discovery set were not confirmed. However, expression analysis in human gut-related tissues and immune cells revealed that the NLRs associated with CRC risk or survival in the discovery set were expressed in primary human colon or rectum cells, CRC tissue and/or cell lines, providing preliminary evidence for a potential involvement of NLRs in general in CRC development and/or progression. Most interesting was the finding that the enigmatic development-related NLRP5 (also known as MATER) was not expressed in normal colon tissue but in colon cancer tissue and cell lines. Future studies may show whether regulatory variants instead of coding variants might affect the expression of NLRs and contribute to CRC risk and survival.

  20. Human Adipose Tissue Stem Cells Promote the Growth of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Cells in NOD/SCID Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myoung Woo; Park, Yoo Jin; Kim, Dae Seong; Park, Hyun Jin; Jung, Hye Lim; Lee, Ji Won; Sung, Ki Woong; Koo, Hong Hoe; Yoo, Keon Hee

    2018-06-01

    In this study, the effect of adipose tissue stem cells (ASCs) on the growth of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells was examined in an in vivo model. We established ALL cell lines expressing firefly luciferase (ALL/fLuc) by lentiviral infection that were injected intraperitoneally to NOD/SCID mice. The luciferase activities were significantly higher in mice co-injected with 10 5 ALL/fLuc cells and ASCs than in those injected with ALL/fLuc cells alone. Co-injection of 10 5 ALL/fLuc cells and ASCs in differing ratios into mice gradually increased the bioluminescence intensity in all groups, and mice co-injected with 1 or 2 × 10 6 ASCs showed higher bioluminescence intensity than those receiving lower numbers. Interestingly, in the mice injected with 10 5 or 10 7 ALL/fLuc cells alone, the formation of tumor masses was not observed for at least five weeks. Moreover, co-injection of 10 7 ALL/fLuc cells and 5 × 10 5 ASCs into mice increased the bioluminescence intensity in all groups, and showed significantly higher bioluminescence intensity compared to mice co-injected with human normal fibroblast HS68 cells. Overall, ASCs promote the growth of ALL cells in vivo, suggesting that ASCs negatively influence hematologic malignancy, which should be considered in developing cell therapy using ASCs.

  1. Rapid response team calls that overlap in time: incidence, consequences and patient outcomes.

    PubMed

    Flabouris, Arthas; Mesecke, Michelle

    2017-09-01

    To investigate overlap rapid response team (RRT) calls, factors associated with overlap calls, and their impact on RRT call times and patient outcomes. Review of prospectively collected, linked clinical and administrative datasets, at a public adult tertiary hospital during July 2013 to May 2016. There were 11 669 RRT calls to 7223 patients, of which 10 868 calls (93.1%) were to inpatients. The median number of daily calls was 12 (interquartile range [IQR], 9-15 calls; range, 2-29 calls). The median number of daily calls per 1000 hospital admissions was 56.3 (IQR, 41.3- 78.9 calls/1000 admissions; range, 8.3-231.5 calls/1000 admissions), and the median proportion of the day spent at RRT calls was 22.8% (IQR, 16.9%-30.5%). In total, 4575 (39.2%) calls overlapped. Overlap calls, compared with non-overlap calls, had similar patient characteristics, but a longer response time (4 min v 3 min; P < 0.001) and scene time (20 min v 34 min; P < 0.001). The daily number of calls correlated with the number of overnight-stay hospital admissions (r = 0.104; P = 0.001), but not with the total number of hospital admissions (r = -0.035; P = 0.258). The number of overlap calls correlated with the number of RRT calls (r = 0.786; P < 0.001), and also correlated with the proportion of the day spent at RRT calls (r = 0.762; P < 0.001). Overlap calls, compared with non-overlap calls, were more likely to result in an ICU admission (484 calls [11.2%] v 571 calls [8.7%]; P < 0.001). In contrast, efferent limb failure (815 calls [17.8%] v 1195 calls [16.8%]; P = 0.389) and hospital mortality (496 calls [19.3%] v 781 calls [19.6%]; P = 0.823) was similar for overlap and nonoverlap calls, respectively. Overlap RRT calls are common and influenced by overall RRT and hospital activity. They are more likely to be associated with longer response and scene times and unanticipated ICU admissions.

  2. Scintigraphic studies on the corneal residence of a New Ophthalmic Delivery System (NODS): rate of clearance of a soluble marker in relation to duration of pharmacological action of pilocarpine.

    PubMed Central

    Greaves, J L; Wilson, C G; Birmingham, A T; Richardson, M C; Bentley, P H

    1992-01-01

    1. A gamma scintigraphic study has been carried out on the precorneal residence and pharmacodynamic action of a radiolabelled New Ophthalmic Delivery System (NODS) containing pilocarpine nitrate in 12 healthy volunteers. 2. The NODS was radiolabelled with the soluble marker technetium-99m labelled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, to mark the release characteristics of soluble drugs contained within the matrix. 3. The relationship between the precorneal residence time of the marker and the duration of drug effect on intraocular pressure and pupil diameter was monitored. Results obtained following administration of the NODS were compared with those obtained after administration of a 25 microliters drop of a 2% w/v pilocarpine nitrate solution. Each formulation was administered to one eye only, the other eye acting as a control. 4. Dissolution of the radiolabel from the NODS in vivo showed considerable intersubject variation with half-times of dissolution ranging from 46 s to 833 s (mean +/- s.d. -280 +/- 217 s), the mean (+/- s.d.) half-time of clearance of the radiolabel from the NODS and corneal region of interest was 406 +/- 214 s whereas the radiolabelled solution had a mean (+/- s.d.) ocular surface residence time of 2.9 +/- 1.5 s. 5. Pupil diameter and intraocular pressure were measured for 5 h post-administration of the NODS and the solution. After both treatments pupil diameter was significantly constricted in the test eye when compared with the control eye (P less than 0.001; Student's paired t-test). Pupil diameter was constricted by 52% after administration of the NODS and by 35% after administration of the solution.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1 PMID:1389932

  3. Scintigraphic studies on the corneal residence of a New Ophthalmic Delivery System (NODS): rate of clearance of a soluble marker in relation to duration of pharmacological action of pilocarpine.

    PubMed

    Greaves, J L; Wilson, C G; Birmingham, A T; Richardson, M C; Bentley, P H

    1992-06-01

    1. A gamma scintigraphic study has been carried out on the precorneal residence and pharmacodynamic action of a radiolabelled New Ophthalmic Delivery System (NODS) containing pilocarpine nitrate in 12 healthy volunteers. 2. The NODS was radiolabelled with the soluble marker technetium-99m labelled diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, to mark the release characteristics of soluble drugs contained within the matrix. 3. The relationship between the precorneal residence time of the marker and the duration of drug effect on intraocular pressure and pupil diameter was monitored. Results obtained following administration of the NODS were compared with those obtained after administration of a 25 microliters drop of a 2% w/v pilocarpine nitrate solution. Each formulation was administered to one eye only, the other eye acting as a control. 4. Dissolution of the radiolabel from the NODS in vivo showed considerable intersubject variation with half-times of dissolution ranging from 46 s to 833 s (mean +/- s.d. -280 +/- 217 s), the mean (+/- s.d.) half-time of clearance of the radiolabel from the NODS and corneal region of interest was 406 +/- 214 s whereas the radiolabelled solution had a mean (+/- s.d.) ocular surface residence time of 2.9 +/- 1.5 s. 5. Pupil diameter and intraocular pressure were measured for 5 h post-administration of the NODS and the solution. After both treatments pupil diameter was significantly constricted in the test eye when compared with the control eye (P less than 0.001; Student's paired t-test). Pupil diameter was constricted by 52% after administration of the NODS and by 35% after administration of the solution.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Lunar phases and crisis center telephone calls.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J E; Tobacyk, J J

    1990-02-01

    The lunar hypothesis, that is, the notion that lunar phases can directly affect human behavior, was tested by time-series analysis of 4,575 crisis center telephone calls (all calls recorded for a 6-month interval). As expected, the lunar hypothesis was not supported. The 28-day lunar cycle accounted for less than 1% of the variance of the frequency of crisis center calls. Also, as hypothesized from an attribution theory framework, crisis center workers reported significantly greater belief in lunar effects than a non-crisis-center-worker comparison group.

  5. Echolocation calls and communication calls are controlled differentially in the brainstem of the bat Phyllostomus discolor

    PubMed Central

    Fenzl, Thomas; Schuller, Gerd

    2005-01-01

    Background Echolocating bats emit vocalizations that can be classified either as echolocation calls or communication calls. Neural control of both types of calls must govern the same pool of motoneurons responsible for vocalizations. Electrical microstimulation in the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) elicits both communication and echolocation calls, whereas stimulation of the paralemniscal area (PLA) induces only echolocation calls. In both the PAG and the PLA, the current thresholds for triggering natural vocalizations do not habituate to stimuli and remain low even for long stimulation periods, indicating that these structures have relative direct access to the final common pathway for vocalization. This study intended to clarify whether echolocation calls and communication calls are controlled differentially below the level of the PAG via separate vocal pathways before converging on the motoneurons used in vocalization. Results Both structures were probed simultaneously in a single experimental approach. Two stimulation electrodes were chronically implanted within the PAG in order to elicit either echolocation or communication calls. Blockade of the ipsilateral PLA site with iontophoretically application of the glutamate antagonist kynurenic acid did not impede either echolocation or communication calls elicited from the PAG. However, blockade of the contralateral PLA suppresses PAG-elicited echolocation calls but not communication calls. In both cases the blockade was reversible. Conclusion The neural control of echolocation and communication calls seems to be differentially organized below the level of the PAG. The PLA is an essential functional unit for echolocation call control before the descending pathways share again the final common pathway for vocalization. PMID:16053533

  6. Perceiving a calling, living a calling, and job satisfaction: testing a moderated, multiple mediator model.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Ryan D; Bott, Elizabeth M; Allan, Blake A; Torrey, Carrie L; Dik, Bryan J

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the relation between perceiving a calling, living a calling, and job satisfaction among a diverse group of employed adults who completed an online survey (N = 201). Perceiving a calling and living a calling were positively correlated with career commitment, work meaning, and job satisfaction. Living a calling moderated the relations of perceiving a calling with career commitment and work meaning, such that these relations were more robust for those with a stronger sense they were living their calling. Additionally, a moderated, multiple mediator model was run to examine the mediating role of career commitment and work meaning in the relation of perceiving a calling and job satisfaction, while accounting for the moderating role of living a calling. Results indicated that work meaning and career commitment fully mediated the relation between perceiving a calling and job satisfaction. However, the indirect effects of work meaning and career commitment were only significant for individuals with high levels of living a calling, indicating the importance of living a calling in the link between perceiving a calling and job satisfaction. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Gender and Leadership: A Call to Action.

    PubMed

    Shea, Heather D; Renn, Kristen A

    2017-06-01

    In the final chapter of this volume, the authors provide a call to action for changes in the way educators conceptualize gender, particularly within the context of leadership development and education. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  8. Segmental structure in banded mongoose calls

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In complex animal vocalizations, such as bird or whale song, a great variety of songs can be produced via rearrangements of a smaller set of 'syllables', known as 'phonological syntax' or 'phonocoding' However, food or alarm calls, which function as referential signals, were previously thought to lack such combinatorial structure. A new study of calls in the banded mongoose Mungos mungo provides the first evidence of phonocoding at the level of single calls. The first portion of the call provides cues to the identity of the caller, and the second part encodes its current activity. This provides the first example known in animals of something akin to the consonants and vowels of human speech. See research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/10/97 PMID:23206277

  9. Segmental structure in banded mongoose calls.

    PubMed

    Fitch, W Tecumseh

    2012-12-03

    In complex animal vocalizations, such as bird or whale song, a great variety of songs can be produced via rearrangements of a smaller set of 'syllables', known as 'phonological syntax' or 'phonocoding' However, food or alarm calls, which function as referential signals, were previously thought to lack such combinatorial structure. A new study of calls in the banded mongoose Mungos mungo provides the first evidence of phonocoding at the level of single calls. The first portion of the call provides cues to the identity of the caller, and the second part encodes its current activity. This provides the first example known in animals of something akin to the consonants and vowels of human speech.

  10. 76 FR 36130 - Call for Candidates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... Budget. FASAB is the body designated to establish generally accepted accounting principles for federal... FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting... candidates. Any applicant who provided the Federal Accounting Standards Advisory Board (FASAB or the Board...

  11. 76 FR 4896 - Call for Candidates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... designated to establish generally accepted accounting principles for federal government entities. Generally, non-federal Board members are selected from the general financial community, the accounting and... FEDERAL ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADVISORY BOARD Call for Candidates AGENCY: Federal Accounting...

  12. 78 FR 21891 - Rural Call Completion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... traffic may not be blocked, choked, reduced, or restricted, we have learned that carriers often do not... called party, including, for example, by voicemail, answering machine, or fax machine. We calculate a...

  13. The chemokine SDF-1 activates the integrins LFA-1, VLA-4, and VLA-5 on immature human CD34(+) cells: role in transendothelial/stromal migration and engraftment of NOD/SCID mice.

    PubMed

    Peled, A; Kollet, O; Ponomaryov, T; Petit, I; Franitza, S; Grabovsky, V; Slav, M M; Nagler, A; Lider, O; Alon, R; Zipori, D; Lapidot, T

    2000-06-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell homing and engraftment require several adhesion interactions, which are not fully understood. Engraftment of nonobese/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mice by human stem cells is dependent on the major integrins very late activation antigen-4 (VLA-4); VLA-5; and to a lesser degree, lymphocyte function associated antigen-1 (LFA-1). Treatment of human CD34(+) cells with antibodies to either VLA-4 or VLA-5 prevented engraftment, and treatment with anti-LFA-1 antibodies significantly reduced the levels of engraftment. Activation of CD34(+) cells, which bear the chemokine receptor CXCR4, with stromal derived factor 1 (SDF-1) led to firm adhesion and transendothelial migration, which was dependent on LFA-1/ICAM-1 (intracellular adhesion molecule-1) and VLA-4/VCAM-1 (vascular adhesion molecule-1). Furthermore, SDF-1-induced polarization and extravasation of CD34(+)/CXCR4(+) cells through the extracellular matrix underlining the endothelium was dependent on both VLA-4 and VLA-5. Our results demonstrate that repopulating human stem cells functionally express LFA-1, VLA-4, and VLA-5. Furthermore, this study implies a novel approach to further advance clinical transplantation.

  14. The Role of Calling in Military Engagement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-01

    best people will always be good for mission and organizational success, selecting for calling may be the necessary outlet to satisfy retention goals...the long run, leading to greater life satisfaction and commitment. By selecting for and encouraging calling, we can raise standards in all levels of...R., & Tracey, J. B. (2000). The cost of turnover: Putting a price on the learning curve. The Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly

  15. Scaling of echolocation call parameters in bats.

    PubMed

    Jones, G

    1999-12-01

    I investigated the scaling of echolocation call parameters (frequency, duration and repetition rate) in bats in a functional context. Low-duty-cycle bats operate with search phase cycles of usually less than 20 %. They process echoes in the time domain and are therefore intolerant of pulse-echo overlap. High-duty-cycle (>30 %) species use Doppler shift compensation, and they separate pulse and echo in the frequency domain. Call frequency scales negatively with body mass in at least five bat families. Pulse duration scales positively with mass in low-duty-cycle quasi-constant-frequency (QCF) species because the large aerial-hawking species that emit these signals fly fast in open habitats. They therefore detect distant targets and experience pulse-echo overlap later than do smaller bats. Pulse duration also scales positively with mass in the Hipposideridae, which show at least partial Doppler shift compensation. Pulse repetition rate corresponds closely with wingbeat frequency in QCF bat species that fly relatively slowly. Larger, fast-flying species often skip pulses when detecting distant targets. There is probably a trade-off between call intensity and repetition rate because 'whispering' bats (and hipposiderids) produce several calls per predicted wingbeat and because batches of calls are emitted per wingbeat during terminal buzzes. Severe atmospheric attenuation at high frequencies limits the range of high-frequency calls. Low-duty-cycle bats that call at high frequencies must therefore use short pulses to avoid pulse-echo overlap. Rhinolophids escape this constraint by Doppler shift compensation and, importantly, can exploit advantages associated with the emission of both high-frequency and long-duration calls. Low frequencies are unsuited for the detection of small prey, and low repetition rates may limit prey detection rates. Echolocation parameters may therefore constrain maximum body size in aerial-hawking bats.

  16. Molecular role of TGF-beta, secreted from a new type of CD4+ suppressor T cell, NY4.2, in the prevention of autoimmune IDDM in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Han, H S; Jun, H S; Utsugi, T; Yoon, J W

    1997-06-01

    A new type of CD4+ T cell clone (NY4.2) isolated from pancreatic islet-infiltrated lymphocytes of acutely diabetic non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice prevents the development of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in NOD mice, as well as the recurrence of autoimmune diabetes in syngeneic islet-transplanted NOD mice. It has been demonstrated that the cytokine TGF-beta, secreted from the cells of this clone, is the substance which prevents autoimmune IDDM. This investigation was initiated to determine the molecular role TGF-beta plays in the prevention of autoimmune IDDM by determining its effect on IL-2-induced signal transduction in Con A-activated NOD mouse splenocytes and HT-2 cells. First, we determined whether TGF-beta, secreted from NY4.2 T cells, inhibits IL-2-dependent T cell proliferation in HT-2 cells (IL-2-dependent T cell line) and NOD splenocytes. We found that TGF-beta suppresses IL-2-dependent T cell proliferation. Second, we determined whether TGF-beta inhibits the activation of Janus kinases (JAKs), as well as signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) proteins, involved in an IL-2-induced signalling pathway that normally leads to the proliferation of T cells. We found that TGF-beta inhibited tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK1, JAK3, STAT3 and STAT5 in Con A blasts from NOD splenocytes and HT-2 cells. Third, we examined whether TGF-beta inhibits the cooperation between STAT proteins and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), especially extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2). We found that TGF-beta inhibited the association of STAT3 and STAT5 with ERK2 in Con A blasts from NOD splenocytes and HT-2 cells. On the basis of these observations, we conclude that TGF-beta may interfere with signal transduction via inhibition of the IL-2-induced JAK/STAT pathway and inhibition of the association of STAT proteins with ERK2 in T cells from NOD splenocytes, resulting in the inhibition of IL-2-dependent T cell proliferation. TGF

  17. 47 CFR 22.921 - 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 911 call processing procedures; 911-only... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.921 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode. Mobile telephones manufactured after February 13, 2000 that are capable of...

  18. 47 CFR 22.921 - 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false 911 call processing procedures; 911-only... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.921 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode. Mobile telephones manufactured after February 13, 2000 that are capable of...

  19. 47 CFR 22.921 - 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode. 22.921 Section 22.921 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.921 911 call processing...

  20. 47 CFR 22.921 - 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false 911 call processing procedures; 911-only calling mode. 22.921 Section 22.921 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.921 911 call processing...

  1. Calling Orientations of Junior Doctors and Medical Interns in India: Cultural, Occupational and Relational Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nath, Vandana

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the factors that shape calling orientations within the Indian context. Based on the narratives of 72 junior doctors and medical interns, it is found that participants identify with harbouring a calling both prior and subsequent to occupational entry. Although factors such as self-recognition of talent and sensemaking of work as…

  2. Inhibition of the NOD-Like Receptor Protein 3 Inflammasome Is Protective in Juvenile Influenza A Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Coates, Bria M.; Staricha, Kelly L.; Ravindran, Nandini; Koch, Clarissa M.; Cheng, Yuan; Davis, Jennifer M.; Shumaker, Dale K.; Ridge, Karen M.

    2017-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) is a significant cause of life-threatening lower respiratory tract infections in children. Antiviral therapy is the mainstay of treatment, but its effectiveness in this age group has been questioned. In addition, damage inflicted on the lungs by the immune response to the virus may be as important to the development of severe lung injury during IAV infection as the cytotoxic effects of the virus itself. A crucial step in the immune response to IAV is activation of the NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and the subsequent secretion of the inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-18 (IL-18). The IAV matrix 2 proton channel (M2) has been shown to be an important activator of the NLRP3 inflammasome during IAV infection. We sought to interrupt this ion channel-mediated activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome through inhibition of NLRP3 or the cytokine downstream from its activation, IL-1β. Using our juvenile mouse model of IAV infection, we show that inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome with the small molecule inhibitor, MCC950, beginning 3 days after infection with IAV, improves survival in juvenile mice. Treatment with MCC950 reduces NLRP3 levels in lung homogenates, decreases IL-18 secretion into the alveolar space, and inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation in alveolar macrophages. Importantly, inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome with MCC950 does not impair viral clearance. In contrast, inhibition of IL-1β signaling with the IL-1 receptor antagonist, anakinra, is insufficient to protect juvenile mice from IAV. Our findings suggest that targeting the NLRP3 inflammasome in juvenile IAV infection may improve disease outcomes in this age group. PMID:28740490

  3. Inhibition of the NOD-Like Receptor Protein 3 Inflammasome Is Protective in Juvenile Influenza A Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Coates, Bria M; Staricha, Kelly L; Ravindran, Nandini; Koch, Clarissa M; Cheng, Yuan; Davis, Jennifer M; Shumaker, Dale K; Ridge, Karen M

    2017-01-01

    Influenza A virus (IAV) is a significant cause of life-threatening lower respiratory tract infections in children. Antiviral therapy is the mainstay of treatment, but its effectiveness in this age group has been questioned. In addition, damage inflicted on the lungs by the immune response to the virus may be as important to the development of severe lung injury during IAV infection as the cytotoxic effects of the virus itself. A crucial step in the immune response to IAV is activation of the NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and the subsequent secretion of the inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-18 (IL-18). The IAV matrix 2 proton channel (M2) has been shown to be an important activator of the NLRP3 inflammasome during IAV infection. We sought to interrupt this ion channel-mediated activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome through inhibition of NLRP3 or the cytokine downstream from its activation, IL-1β. Using our juvenile mouse model of IAV infection, we show that inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome with the small molecule inhibitor, MCC950, beginning 3 days after infection with IAV, improves survival in juvenile mice. Treatment with MCC950 reduces NLRP3 levels in lung homogenates, decreases IL-18 secretion into the alveolar space, and inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation in alveolar macrophages. Importantly, inhibition of the NLRP3 inflammasome with MCC950 does not impair viral clearance. In contrast, inhibition of IL-1β signaling with the IL-1 receptor antagonist, anakinra, is insufficient to protect juvenile mice from IAV. Our findings suggest that targeting the NLRP3 inflammasome in juvenile IAV infection may improve disease outcomes in this age group.

  4. Signal Transduction by a Fungal NOD-Like Receptor Based on Propagation of a Prion Amyloid Fold

    PubMed Central

    Daskalov, Asen; Habenstein, Birgit; Martinez, Denis; Debets, Alfons J. M.; Sabaté, Raimon; Loquet, Antoine; Saupe, Sven J.

    2015-01-01

    In the fungus Podospora anserina, the [Het-s] prion induces programmed cell death by activating the HET-S pore-forming protein. The HET-s β-solenoid prion fold serves as a template for converting the HET-S prion-forming domain into the same fold. This conversion, in turn, activates the HET-S pore-forming domain. The gene immediately adjacent to het-S encodes NWD2, a Nod-like receptor (NLR) with an N-terminal motif similar to the elementary repeat unit of the β-solenoid fold. NLRs are immune receptors controlling cell death and host defense processes in animals, plants and fungi. We have proposed that, analogously to [Het-s], NWD2 can activate the HET-S pore-forming protein by converting its prion-forming region into the β-solenoid fold. Here, we analyze the ability of NWD2 to induce formation of the β-solenoid prion fold. We show that artificial NWD2 variants induce formation of the [Het-s] prion, specifically in presence of their cognate ligands. The N-terminal motif is responsible for this prion induction, and mutations predicted to affect the β-solenoid fold abolish templating activity. In vitro, the N-terminal motif assembles into infectious prion amyloids that display a structure resembling the β-solenoid fold. In vivo, the assembled form of the NWD2 N-terminal region activates the HET-S pore-forming protein. This study documenting the role of the β-solenoid fold in fungal NLR function further highlights the general importance of amyloid and prion-like signaling in immunity-related cell fate pathways. PMID:25671553

  5. Telephone calls by individuals with cancer.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Marie; McAndrews, Leanne; Stein, Karen F

    2013-09-01

    To describe symptom type and reporting patterns found in spontaneously initiated telephone calls placed to an ambulatory cancer center practice. Retrospective, descriptive. Adult hematology oncology cancer center. 563 individuals with a wide range of oncology diagnoses who initiated 1,229 telephone calls to report symptoms. Raw data were extracted from telephone forms using a data collection sheet with 23 variables obtained for each phone call, using pre-established coding criteria. A literature-based, investigator-developed instrument was used for the coding criteria and selection of which variables to extract. Symptom reporting, telephone calls, pain, and symptoms. A total of 2,378 symptoms were reported by telephone during the four months. At least 10% of the sample reported pain (38%), fatigue (16%), nausea (16%), swelling (12%), diarrhea (12%), dyspnea (10%), and anorexia (10%). The modal response was to call only one time and to report only one symptom (55%). Pain emerged as the symptom that most often prompted an individual to pick up the telephone and call. Although variation was seen in symptom reporting, an interesting pattern emerged with an individual reporting on a solitary symptom in a single telephone call. The emergence of pain as the primary symptom reported by telephone prompted educational efforts for both in-person clinic visit management of pain and prioritizing nursing education and protocol management of pain reported by telephone. Report of symptoms by telephone can provide nurses unique insight into patient-centered needs. Although pain has been an important focus of education and research for decades, it remains a priority for individuals with cancer. A wide range in symptom reporting by telephone was evident.

  6. Calling behavior of spotted owls in Northern Arizona

    Treesearch

    Jospeh L. Ganey

    1990-01-01

    I studied the calling behavior of radio-tagged Mexican Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) in northern Arizona. Owls used a variety of calls, with three call types (Four-note Location Call, Contact Call, and Bark Series) accounting for 86% of calling bouts heard. These calls were used by both sexes, but in significantly different proportions....

  7. Close-Call Action Log Form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spuler, Linda M.; Ford, Patricia K.; Skeete, Darren C.; Hershman, Scot; Raviprakash, Pushpa; Arnold, John W.; Tran, Victor; Haenze, Mary Alice

    2005-01-01

    "Close Call Action Log Form" ("CCALF") is the name of both a computer program and a Web-based service provided by the program for creating an enhanced database of close calls (in the colloquial sense of mishaps that were avoided by small margins) assigned to the Center Operations Directorate (COD) at Johnson Space Center. CCALF provides a single facility for on-line collaborative review of close calls. Through CCALF, managers can delegate responses to employees. CCALF utilizes a pre-existing e-mail system to notify managers that there are close calls to review, but eliminates the need for the prior practices of passing multiple e-mail messages around the COD, then collecting and consolidating them into final responses: CCALF now collects comments from all responders for incorporation into reports that it generates. Also, whereas it was previously necessary to manually calculate metrics (e.g., numbers of maintenance-work orders necessitated by close calls) for inclusion in the reports, CCALF now computes the metrics, summarizes them, and displays them in graphical form. The reports and all pertinent information used to generate the reports are logged, tracked, and retained by CCALF for historical purposes.

  8. A genomic view of the NOD-like receptor family in teleost fish: Identification of a novel NLR subfamily in zebrafish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laing, K.J.; Purcell, M.K.; Winton, J.R.; Hansen, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Background. A large multigene family of NOD-like receptor (NLR) molecules have been described in mammals and implicated in immunity and apoptosis. Little information, however, exists concerning this gene family in non-mammalian taxa. This current study, therefore, provides an in-depth investigation of this gene family in lower vertebrates including extensive phylogenetic comparison of zebrafish NLRs with orthologs in tetrapods, and analysis of their tissue-specific expression. Results. Three distinct NLR subfamilies were identified by mining genome databases of various non-mammalian vertebrates; the first subfamily (NLR-A) resembles mammalian NODs, the second (NLR-B) resembles mammalian NALPs, while the third (NLR-C) appears to be unique to teleost fish. In zebrafish, NLR-A and NLR-B subfamilies contain five and six genes respectively. The third subfamily is large, containing several hundred NLR-C genes, many of which are predicted to encode a C-terminal B30.2 domain. This subfamily most likely evolved from a NOD3-like molecule. Gene predictions for zebrafish NLRs were verified using sequence derived from ESTs or direct sequencing of cDNA. Reverse-transcriptase (RT)-PCR analysis confirmed expression of representative genes from each subfamily in selected tissues. Conclusion. Our findings confirm the presence of multiple NLR gene orthologs, which form a large multigene family in teleostei. Although the functional significance of the three major NLR subfamilies is unclear, we speculate that conservation and abundance of NLR molecules in all teleostei genomes, reflects an essential role in cellular control, apoptosis or immunity throughout bony fish. ?? 2008 Laing et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  9. Dispatching function calls across accelerator devices

    DOEpatents

    Jacob, Arpith C.; Sallenave, Olivier H.

    2017-01-10

    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method for dispatching a function call includes receiving, at a supervisor processing element (PE) and from an origin PE, an identifier of a target device, a stack frame of the origin PE, and an address of a function called from the origin PE. The supervisor PE allocates a target PE of the target device. The supervisor PE copies the stack frame of the origin PE to a new stack frame on a call stack of the target PE. The supervisor PE instructs the target PE to execute the function. The supervisor PE receives a notification that execution of the function is complete. The supervisor PE copies the stack frame of the target PE to the stack frame of the origin PE. The supervisor PE releases the target PE of the target device. The supervisor PE instructs the origin PE to resume execution of the program.

  10. Dispatching function calls across accelerator devices

    SciTech Connect

    Jacob, Arpith C.; Sallenave, Olivier H.

    In one embodiment, a computer-implemented method for dispatching a function call includes receiving, at a supervisor processing element (PE) and from an origin PE, an identifier of a target device, a stack frame of the origin PE, and an address of a function called from the origin PE. The supervisor PE allocates a target PE of the target device. The supervisor PE copies the stack frame of the origin PE to a new stack frame on a call stack of the target PE. The supervisor PE instructs the target PE to execute the function. The supervisor PE receives a notificationmore » that execution of the function is complete. The supervisor PE copies the stack frame of the target PE to the stack frame of the origin PE. The supervisor PE releases the target PE of the target device. The supervisor PE instructs the origin PE to resume execution of the program.« less

  11. Insights into the diversity of NOD-like receptors: Identification and expression analysis of NLRC3, NLRC5 and NLRX1 in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Claudio A; Ramírez-Cepeda, Felipe; Santana, Paula; Torres, Elisa; Cortés, Jimena; Guzmán, Fanny; Schmitt, Paulina; Mercado, Luis

    2017-07-01

    Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are efficient soluble intracellular sensors that activate defense mechanisms against pathogens. In teleost fish, the involvement of NLRs in the immune response is not well understood. However, recent work has evidenced the expression of different NLRs in response to some pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). In the present work, the cDNA sequence encoding three new NOD-like receptors were identified in Oncorhynchus mykiss, namely OmNLRC3, OmNLRC5 and OmNLRX1. Results showed that their sequences coded for proteins of 1135, 836 and 1010 amino acids, respectively. The deduced protein sequences of all receptors showed characteristic domains of this receptor family, such as leucine rich repeats and NACHT domain. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a high degree of identity with other NOD-like receptors and they are clustered into different families. Transcript expression analysis indicated that OmNLRs are constitutively expressed in liver, spleen, intestine, gill, skin and brain. OmNLR expression was upregulated in kidney and gills from rainbow trout in response to LPS. In order to give new insights into the function of these new NLR members, an in vitro model of immune stimulation was established using the rainbow trout cell line RTgill-W1. Expression analysis revealed that RTgill-W1 overexpressed proinflammatory cytokines in response to LPS and poly I:C alongside with a differential overexpression of OmNLRC3, OmNLRC5 and OmNLRX1. The expression of OmNLRC5 was further verified at the protein level by immunofluorescence. Finally, the effect of the overexpressed cytokines on the OmNLR expression by RTgill-W1 cells was assessed, suggesting a regulatory mechanism on OmNLRC3 expression. Overall, results suggest that O. mykiss NOD-like receptors could play a key role in the defense mechanisms of teleost through PAMP recognition. Future studies will focus on gills which could be related with a key

  12. Hourly associations between heat and ambulance calls.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuming

    2017-01-01

    The response speed of ambulance calls is very crucial to rescue patients suffering immediately life threatening conditions. The serious health outcomes might be caused by exposing to extreme heat only several hours before. However, limited evidence is available on this topic. This study aims to examine the hourly association between heat and ambulance calls, to improve the ambulance services and to better protect health. Hourly data on ambulance calls for non-accidental causes, temperature and air pollutants (PM 10 , NO 2 , and O 3 ) were collected from Brisbane, Australia, during 2001 and 2007. A time-stratified case-crossover design was used to examine the associations between hourly ambulance calls and temperature during warm season (Nov, Dec, Jan, Feb, and Mar), while adjusting for potential confounders. Stratified analyses were performed for sex and age groups. Ambulance calls peaked at 10am for all groups, except those aged <15 years at 19pm, while temperature was hottest at 13pm. The hourly heat-ambulance calls relationships were non-linear for all groups, with thresholds between 27 °C and 31 °C. The associations appeared immediately, and lasted for about 24 h. There were no significant modification effect by sex and age. The findings suggest that hot hourly temperatures (>27 °C) increase the demands of ambulance. This information is helpful to increase the efficiency of ambulance service then save lives, for example, preparing more ambulance before appearance of extremely hot temperature in combination with weather forecast. Also, people should better arrange their time for outdoor activities to avoid exposing to extreme hot temperatures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. "How can I help?" Nurse call openings on a cancer helpline and implications for call progressivity.

    PubMed

    Leydon, Geraldine Marie; Ekberg, Katie; Drew, Paul

    2013-07-01

    Helplines are a key service used for information and support by people affected by cancer. Little is known about the process of delivering and seeking cancer related telephone help. Using conversation analysis 52 calls between callers and specialist nurses on a major UK cancer helpline are analysed; focusing on the openings of helpline calls by specialist nurses. The helpline involves a triage system from a frontline call-taker to a specialist nurse. The triage system introduces challenges to the interactions for nurses and callers. This paper demonstrates how calls commence, and outlines implications for how they progress. Four key elements to the nurse's initial opening of the call were identified, which together contribute to managing an effective transition from the frontline call-taker to the current call with the specialist cancer nurse. The smooth exchange of information and provision of support in a trusted call environment is a critical goal of the cancer helpline; an effective call opening in a triage environment may significantly optimise the possibility of this goal being realised. A simple strategy is recommended to avoid the difficulties identified, a script for how the triaged call openings may be optimally formulated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. What is this thing called growth?

    Treesearch

    Adrian M. Gilbert

    1954-01-01

    What is this thing called "growth"? We foresters are constantly thinking in terms of growth. We use growth data to evaluate a forest property. We use them to determine how much we can cut. We use them to weigh the results of a type of cutting.

  15. Don't Call It School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robb, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    "Homeschooling," "deschooling," and "unschooling" are commonly used terms in the alternative-education world, but each lacks specificity. In this article, the author describes what he discovered during several visits to North Star. Known officially as North Star: Self-Directed Learning for Teens, it is not as structured as a so-called "free"…

  16. A History of Commitment in CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamieson, Joan

    The evolution of computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is examined, focusing on what has changed and what has not changed much during that time. A variety of changes are noted: the development of multimedia capabilities, color, animation, and technical improvement of audio and video quality; availability of databases, better fit between…

  17. Inhibitors of calling behavior of Plodia interpunctella.

    PubMed

    Hirashima, Akinori; Shigeta, Yoko; Eiraku, Tomohiko; Kuwano, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    Some octopamine agonists were found to suppress the calling behavior of the stored product Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella. Compounds were screened using a calling behavior bioassay using female P. interpunctella. Four active derivatives, with inhibitory activity at the nanomolar range, were identified in order of decreasing activity: 2-(1-phenylethylamino)-2-oxazoline > 2-(2-ethyl,6-methylanilino)oxazolidine > 2-(2-methyl benzylamino)-2-thiazoline > 2-(2,6-diethylanilino)thiazolidine. Three-dimensional pharmacophore hypotheses were built from a set of 15 compounds. Among the ten common-featured models generated by the program Catalyst/HipHop, a hypothesis including a hydrogen-bond acceptor lipid, a hydrophobic aromatic and two hydrophobic aliphatic features was considered to be essential for inhibitory activity in the calling behavior. Active compounds mapped well onto all the hydrogen-bond acceptor lipid, hydrophobic aromatic and hydrophobic aliphatic features of the hypothesis. On the other hand, less active compounds were shown not to achieve the energetically favorable conformation that is found in the active molecules in order to fit the 3D common-feature pharmacophore models. The present studies demonstrate that inhibition of calling behavior is via an octopamine receptor.

  18. Rodgers on Calls for Observable Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Jim

    2018-01-01

    This paper takes up Shannon Rodgers' 2016 critique of curriculum writers' call for observable verbs ("Minding our metaphors in education." "Educational Philosophy and Theory" 48 (6), pp. 563-578), and argues that a more effective line of critique should focus not on metaphorical thinking, but on the notion of observation…

  19. Bridging CALL & HCI: Input from Participatory Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardenas-Claros, Monica S.; Gruba, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    Participatory design (PD), or the collaboration between software engineers and end users throughout the design process, may help improve CALL design practices. In this case study, four ESL learners, a software designer, and a language teacher created and evaluated a series of paper prototypes concerning help options in computer-based second…

  20. CALL FOR ABSTRACTS - PIT LAKES 2004

    EPA Science Inventory

    This call for abstracts is for the 11/16-18/2004 Pit Lakes 2004 meeting held in Reno, NV. This conference will provide a forum for the exchange of scientific information on current domestic and international pit lake approaches, including pit lakes from arid and wet regions throu...

  1. 78 FR 76257 - Rural Call Completion

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... FCC seeks comments on additional measures that may help the Commission ensure a reasonable and... calls. The Further Notice of Proposed Rulemaking seeks public comment on additional measures intended to... signaling. In the Further Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (FNPRM), we seek comment on additional measures that...

  2. School-Turnaround Call Points Up Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. secretary of education's call to "turn around" the nation's 5,000 worst-performing schools has found a warm welcome among educators and policy makers who see that focus as long overdue. But it has also sparked debate about how--and whether--such an enormous leadership and management challenge can be accomplished. U.S. Secretary of…

  3. Why We Like to Call Ourselves Latinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzlez, Christina; Gandara, Patricia

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the complex and subtle reasons why many people of Spanish-speaking ancestry, both Latin Americans and Spaniards, like to call themselves Latinos. Among other things, this word, coined by the Mediterranean countries to resist Anglo dominance in the 19th century, is currently being used by people of Spanish-speaking ancestry…

  4. Modeling Learning Processes in Lexical CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodfellow, Robin; Laurillard, Diana

    1994-01-01

    Studies the performance of a novice Spanish student using a Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) system designed for vocabulary enlargement. Results indicate that introspective evidence may be used to validate performance data within a theoretical framework that characterizes the learning approach as "surface" or "deep." (25 references)…

  5. Using Software Design Methods in CALL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Monica

    2006-01-01

    The phrase "software design" is not one that arouses the interest of many CALL practitioners, particularly those from a humanities background. However, software design essentials are simply logical ways of going about designing a system. The fundamentals include modularity, anticipation of change, generality and an incremental approach. While CALL…

  6. CALL--Past, Present, and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bax, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Provides a critical examination and reassessment of the history of computer assisted language learning (CALL), and argues for three new strategies--restricted, open, and integrated. Offers definitions and descriptions of the three approaches and argues that they allow a more detailed analysis of institutions and classrooms than earlier analyses.…

  7. School-Turnaround Call Points Up Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gewertz, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. secretary of education's call to "turn around" the nation's 5,000 worst-performing schools has found a warm welcome among educators and policymakers who see that focus as long overdue. But it has also sparked debate about how--and whether--such an enormous leadership and management challenge can be accomplished. Secretary of…

  8. ParticleCall: A particle filter for base calling in next-generation sequencing systems

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Next-generation sequencing systems are capable of rapid and cost-effective DNA sequencing, thus enabling routine sequencing tasks and taking us one step closer to personalized medicine. Accuracy and lengths of their reads, however, are yet to surpass those provided by the conventional Sanger sequencing method. This motivates the search for computationally efficient algorithms capable of reliable and accurate detection of the order of nucleotides in short DNA fragments from the acquired data. Results In this paper, we consider Illumina’s sequencing-by-synthesis platform which relies on reversible terminator chemistry and describe the acquired signal by reformulating its mathematical model as a Hidden Markov Model. Relying on this model and sequential Monte Carlo methods, we develop a parameter estimation and base calling scheme called ParticleCall. ParticleCall is tested on a data set obtained by sequencing phiX174 bacteriophage using Illumina’s Genome Analyzer II. The results show that the developed base calling scheme is significantly more computationally efficient than the best performing unsupervised method currently available, while achieving the same accuracy. Conclusions The proposed ParticleCall provides more accurate calls than the Illumina’s base calling algorithm, Bustard. At the same time, ParticleCall is significantly more computationally efficient than other recent schemes with similar performance, rendering it more feasible for high-throughput sequencing data analysis. Improvement of base calling accuracy will have immediate beneficial effects on the performance of downstream applications such as SNP and genotype calling. ParticleCall is freely available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/particlecall. PMID:22776067

  9. Over-expression of Stat5b confers protection against diabetes in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice via up-regulation of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} regulatory T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Yulan; Purohit, Sharad; Department of Pathology, Medical College of Georgia, Georgia Health Sciences University, GA

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is the first study to provide direct evidence of the role of Stat5b in NOD mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Over-expression of wild type Stat5b transgene protects NOD mice against diabetes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This protection may be mediated by the up-regulation of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} Tregs. -- Abstract: The signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) family of proteins play a critical role in cytokine signaling required for fine tuning of immune regulation. Previous reports showed that a mutation (L327M) in the Stat5b protein leads to aberrant cytokine signaling in the NOD mice. To further elaborate the role of Stat5b inmore » diabetes, we established a NOD transgenic mouse that over-expresses the wild type Stat5b gene. The incidences of spontaneous diabetes as well as cyclophosphamide-induced diabetes were significantly reduced and delayed in the Stat5b transgenic NOD mice compared to their littermate controls. The total cell numbers of CD4{sup +} T cells and especially CD8{sup +} T cells in the spleen and pancreatic lymph node were increased in the Stat5b transgenic NOD mice. Consistent with these findings, CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T cells from the Stat5b transgenic NOD mice showed a higher proliferation capacity and up-regulation of multiple cytokines including IL-2, IFN-{gamma}, TNF-{alpha} and IL-10 as well as anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-xl. Furthermore, the number and proportion of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} regulatory T cells were significantly increased in transgenic mice although in vitro suppression ability of the regulatory T-cells was not affected by the transgene. Our results suggest that Stat5b confers protection against diabetes in the NOD mice by regulating the numbers and function of multiple immune cell types, especially by up-regulating CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} regulatory T cells.« less

  10. Tracking urban human activity from mobile phone calling patterns

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Asim; Bhattacharya, Kunal; Dunbar, Robin I. M.; Kaski, Kimmo

    2017-01-01

    Timings of human activities are marked by circadian clocks which in turn are entrained to different environmental signals. In an urban environment the presence of artificial lighting and various social cues tend to disrupt the natural entrainment with the sunlight. However, it is not completely understood to what extent this is the case. Here we exploit the large-scale data analysis techniques to study the mobile phone calling activity of people in large cities to infer the dynamics of urban daily rhythms. From the calling patterns of about 1,000,000 users spread over different cities but lying inside the same time-zone, we show that the onset and termination of the calling activity synchronizes with the east-west progression of the sun. We also find that the onset and termination of the calling activity of users follows a yearly dynamics, varying across seasons, and that its timings are entrained to solar midnight. Furthermore, we show that the average mid-sleep time of people living in urban areas depends on the age and gender of each cohort as a result of biological and social factors. PMID:29161270

  11. Tracking urban human activity from mobile phone calling patterns.

    PubMed

    Monsivais, Daniel; Ghosh, Asim; Bhattacharya, Kunal; Dunbar, Robin I M; Kaski, Kimmo

    2017-11-01

    Timings of human activities are marked by circadian clocks which in turn are entrained to different environmental signals. In an urban environment the presence of artificial lighting and various social cues tend to disrupt the natural entrainment with the sunlight. However, it is not completely understood to what extent this is the case. Here we exploit the large-scale data analysis techniques to study the mobile phone calling activity of people in large cities to infer the dynamics of urban daily rhythms. From the calling patterns of about 1,000,000 users spread over different cities but lying inside the same time-zone, we show that the onset and termination of the calling activity synchronizes with the east-west progression of the sun. We also find that the onset and termination of the calling activity of users follows a yearly dynamics, varying across seasons, and that its timings are entrained to solar midnight. Furthermore, we show that the average mid-sleep time of people living in urban areas depends on the age and gender of each cohort as a result of biological and social factors.

  12. A Preclinical Consortium Approach for Assessing the Efficacy of Combined Anti-CD3 Plus IL-1 Blockade in Reversing New-Onset Autoimmune Diabetes in NOD Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Ronald G.; Pagni, Philippe P.; Kupfer, Tinalyn; Wasserfall, Clive H.; Deng, Songyan; Posgai, Amanda; Manenkova, Yulia; Bel Hani, Amira; Straub, Laura; Bernstein, Philip; Atkinson, Mark A.; Herold, Kevan C.; von Herrath, Matthias; Staeva, Teodora; Ehlers, Mario R.; Nepom, Gerald T.

    2016-01-01

    There is an ongoing need to develop strategic combinations of therapeutic agents to prevent type 1 diabetes (T1D) or to preserve islet β-cell mass in new-onset disease. Although clinical trials using candidate therapeutics are commonly based on preclinical studies, concern is growing regarding the reproducibility as well as the potential clinical translation of reported results using animal models of human disorders. In response, the National Institutes of Health Immune Tolerance Network and JDRF established a multicenter consortium of academic institutions designed to assess the efficacy and intergroup reproducibility of clinically applicable immunotherapies for reversing new-onset disease in the NOD mouse model of T1D. Predicated on prior studies, this consortium conducted coordinated, prospective studies, using joint standard operating procedures, fixed criteria for study entry, and common reagents, to optimize combined anti-CD3 treatment plus interleukin-1 (IL-1) blockade to reverse new-onset disease in NOD mice. We did not find that IL-1 blockade with anti–IL-1β monoclonal antibody or IL-1trap provided additional benefit for reversing new-onset disease compared with anti-CD3 treatment alone. These results demonstrate the value of larger, multicenter preclinical studies for vetting and prioritizing therapeutics for future clinical use. PMID:26718498

  13. Comparative Pathogenesis of Autoimmune Diabetes in Humans, NOD Mice, and Canines: Has a Valuable Animal Model of Type 1 Diabetes Been Overlooked?

    PubMed Central

    O’Kell, Allison L.; Wasserfall, Clive; Catchpole, Brian; Davison, Lucy J.; Hess, Rebecka S.; Kushner, Jake A.

    2017-01-01

    Despite decades of research in humans and mouse models of disease, substantial gaps remain in our understanding of pathogenic mechanisms underlying the development of type 1 diabetes. Furthermore, translation of therapies from preclinical efforts capable of delaying or halting β-cell destruction has been limited. Hence, a pressing need exists to identify alternative animal models that reflect human disease. Canine insulin deficiency diabetes is, in some cases, considered to follow autoimmune pathogenesis, similar to NOD mice and humans, characterized by hyperglycemia requiring lifelong exogenous insulin therapy. Also similar to human type 1 diabetes, the canonical canine disorder appears to be increasing in prevalence. Whereas islet architecture in rodents is distinctly different from humans, canine pancreatic endocrine cell distribution is more similar. Differences in breed susceptibility alongside associations with MHC and other canine immune response genes parallel that of different ethnic groups within the human population, a potential benefit over NOD mice. The impact of environment on disease development also favors canine over rodent models. Herein, we consider the potential for canine diabetes to provide valuable insights for human type 1 diabetes in terms of pancreatic histopathology, impairment of β-cell function and mass, islet inflammation (i.e., insulitis), and autoantibodies specific for β-cell antigens. PMID:28533295

  14. Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) in Crohn's disease are associated with disease severity but not NOD2/CARD15 mutations.

    PubMed

    Walker, L J; Aldhous, M C; Drummond, H E; Smith, B R K; Nimmo, E R; Arnott, I D R; Satsangi, J

    2004-03-01

    Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCAs) have been proposed as serological markers, which may differentiate Crohn's disease (CD) from ulcerative colitis (UC) and predict disease phenotype. Their importance in pathogenesis is unproven. We investigated the relationship between ASCAs, disease phenotype and NOD2/CARD15 genotype in CD and whether ASCAs were related to antibodies to other fungal proteins. Serum from 228 patients [143 CD, 75 UC, 10 with indeterminate colitis (IC)] and 78 healthy controls (HC) were assayed for ASCA. Antibodies (IgA, IgG) to other fungal proteins (Fusarium species ATC20334, Mycoprotein) were measured in the same samples using an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay. ASCAs were present in 57% of CD, 19% of UC, 30% of IC and 8% of HCs. ASCA-positive status was a predictor for CD with sensitivity of 57%, specificity of 87%, positive predictive value of 78% and negative predictive value of 68%. ASCA was associated with proximal (gastroduodenal and small bowel involvement) rather than purely colonic disease (P < 0.001) and with a more severe disease phenotype and requirement for surgery over a median follow-up time of 9 years (P < 0.0001). No associations with NOD2/CARD15 mutations were seen. There was no association between ASCA and antibodies to MP (IgA or IgG). These data implicate ASCA as a specific marker of disease location and progression in CD, emphasizing the heterogeneity within IBD.

  15. Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) in Crohn's disease are associated with disease severity but not NOD2/CARD15 mutations

    PubMed Central

    WALKER, L J; ALDHOUS, M C; DRUMMOND, H E; SMITH, B R K; NIMMO, E R; ARNOTT, I D R; SATSANGI, J

    2004-01-01

    Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCAs) have been proposed as serological markers, which may differentiate Crohn's disease (CD) from ulcerative colitis (UC) and predict disease phenotype. Their importance in pathogenesis is unproven. We investigated the relationship between ASCAs, disease phenotype and NOD2/CARD15 genotype in CD and whether ASCAs were related to antibodies to other fungal proteins. Serum from 228 patients [143 CD, 75 UC, 10 with indeterminate colitis (IC)] and 78 healthy controls (HC) were assayed for ASCA. Antibodies (IgA, IgG) to other fungal proteins (Fusarium species ATC20334, Mycoprotein) were measured in the same samples using an in-house enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay. ASCAs were present in 57% of CD, 19% of UC, 30% of IC and 8% of HCs. ASCA-positive status was a predictor for CD with sensitivity of 57%, specificity of 87%, positive predictive value of 78% and negative predictive value of 68%. ASCA was associated with proximal (gastroduodenal and small bowel involvement) rather than purely colonic disease (P < 0·001) and with a more severe disease phenotype and requirement for surgery over a median follow-up time of 9 years (P < 0·0001). No associations with NOD2/CARD15 mutations were seen. There was no association between ASCA and antibodies to MP (IgA or IgG). These data implicate ASCA as a specific marker of disease location and progression in CD, emphasizing the heterogeneity within IBD. PMID:15008984

  16. Knockdown of long noncoding RNA XIST alleviates oxidative low-density lipoprotein-mediated endothelial cells injury through modulation of miR-320/NOD2 axis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaohui; Ma, Congmin; Liu, Chao; Duan, Zhihui; Zhang, Li

    2018-06-14

    Atherosclerosis remains to be one of the most common vascular disorders resulting in morbidity and mortality in the world. Recent studies suggested that endothelial cells (ECs) injury caused by oxidative low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is an early marker for atherosclerosis. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of ox-LDL-induced ECs injury are complicated and largely unknown. Here, we found lncRNA XIST (X-inactive specific transcript) was upregulated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) stimulated by ox-LDL. Knockdown of XIST boosted the cell viability and suppressed cell apoptosis under ox-LDL stimuli. Further experiments identified XIST regulated the expression of Nucleotide-Binding Oligomerization Domain 2 (NOD2) by sponging miR-320. XIST silencing exerted a protective effect on ox-LDL-induced HUVECs injury via miR-320/NOD2 regulatory network. Our data provide insight into the role of the lncRNA XIST in ox-LDL mediated ECs injury, which can aid in developing new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Eight Leadership Emergency Codes Worth Calling.

    PubMed

    Freed, David H

    Hospitals have a contemporary opportunity to change themselves before attempting to transform the larger US health care system. However, actually implementing change is much more easily described than accomplished in practice. This article calls out 8 dysfunctional behaviors that compromise professional standards at the ground level of the hospital. The construct of calling a code when one witnesses such behaviors is intended to make it safe for leaders to "See something, say something" and confront them in real time. The coordinated continuum of services that health care reform seeks to attain will not emerge until individual hospital organizations prepare themselves to operate better in their own spaces and the ones that immediately surround them.

  18. [Work-family conflict in call center].

    PubMed

    Ghislieri, Chiara; Ricotta, Simona; Colombo, Lara

    2012-01-01

    The working environment of call centers, which have seen a significant growth in recent years, has been the subject of several studies aiming at understanding its specific dynamics, with particular attention to the possible causes of stress and discomfort. Despite the fact that the work-family conflict is considered a source of stress responsible for undermining workers' well-being, and as such has been explored in many work environments, there is still very little research specific to call centers. This study had the following aims: to explore work-family conflict perceived by call-center operators taking account of any differences related to respondents'professional and personal characteristics; to understand which demands and resources can have an impact on work-family conflict in this context. The study was carried out on a sample of 898 call center operators in a telecommunications company through the administration of a self-reporting questionnaire. Data analysis included: t-test, one-way analysis of variance, linear correlations and multiple regressions. A higher perception of work-family conflict among workers having a full-time contract was observed compared to those having part-time contracts. Multiple regression analysis identified as sources of influence on work-family conflict: emotional dissonance, uneasiness due customer dissatisfaction, workload, avoidance coping and working hours. Work-family conflict in the context studied is not particularly critical: it is in part influenced by professional and personal characteristics of respondents and primarily caused by work demands. Managerial implications are discussed, especially referred to training activities.

  19. Call progress time measurement in IP telephony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasnabish, Bhumip

    1999-11-01

    Usually a voice call is established through multiple stages in IP telephony. In the first stage, a phone number is dialed to reach a near-end or call-originating IP-telephony gateway. The next stages involve user identification through delivering an m-digit user-id to the authentication and/or billing server, and then user authentication by using an n- digit PIN. After that, the caller is allowed (last stage dial tone is provided) to dial a destination phone number provided that authentication is successful. In this paper, we present a very flexible method for measuring call progress time in IP telephony. The proposed technique can be used to measure the system response time at every stage. It is flexible, so that it can be easily modified to include new `tone' or a set of tones, or `voice begin' can be used in every stage to detect the system's response. The proposed method has been implemented using scripts written in Hammer visual basic language for testing with a few commercially available IP telephony gateways.

  20. Oral or parenteral administration of curcumin does not prevent the growth of high-risk t(4;11) acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells engrafted into a NOD/SCID mouse model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The efficacy of orally and parenterally administered curcumin was evaluated in NOD.CB17-Prkdcscid/J mice engrafted with the human t(4;11) acute lymphoblastic leukemia line SEM. SEM cells were injected into the tail vein and engraftment was monitored by flow cytometry. Once engraftment was observed...

  1. Calling patterns in human communication dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Wen-Jie; Li, Ming-Xia; Podobnik, Boris; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Modern technologies not only provide a variety of communication modes (e.g., texting, cell phone conversation, and online instant messaging), but also detailed electronic traces of these communications between individuals. These electronic traces indicate that the interactions occur in temporal bursts. Here, we study intercall duration of communications of the 100,000 most active cell phone users of a Chinese mobile phone operator. We confirm that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution with an exponential cutoff at the population level but find differences when focusing on individual users. We apply statistical tests at the individual level and find that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution for only 3,460 individuals (3.46%). The intercall durations for the majority (73.34%) follow a Weibull distribution. We quantify individual users using three measures: out-degree, percentage of outgoing calls, and communication diversity. We find that the cell phone users with a power-law duration distribution fall into three anomalous clusters: robot-based callers, telecom fraud, and telephone sales. This information is of interest to both academics and practitioners, mobile telecom operators in particular. In contrast, the individual users with a Weibull duration distribution form the fourth cluster of ordinary cell phone users. We also discover more information about the calling patterns of these four clusters (e.g., the probability that a user will call the cr-th most contact and the probability distribution of burst sizes). Our findings may enable a more detailed analysis of the huge body of data contained in the logs of massive users. PMID:23319645

  2. Calling patterns in human communication dynamics.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Xie, Wen-Jie; Li, Ming-Xia; Podobnik, Boris; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H Eugene

    2013-01-29

    Modern technologies not only provide a variety of communication modes (e.g., texting, cell phone conversation, and online instant messaging), but also detailed electronic traces of these communications between individuals. These electronic traces indicate that the interactions occur in temporal bursts. Here, we study intercall duration of communications of the 100,000 most active cell phone users of a Chinese mobile phone operator. We confirm that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution with an exponential cutoff at the population level but find differences when focusing on individual users. We apply statistical tests at the individual level and find that the intercall durations follow a power-law distribution for only 3,460 individuals (3.46%). The intercall durations for the majority (73.34%) follow a Weibull distribution. We quantify individual users using three measures: out-degree, percentage of outgoing calls, and communication diversity. We find that the cell phone users with a power-law duration distribution fall into three anomalous clusters: robot-based callers, telecom fraud, and telephone sales. This information is of interest to both academics and practitioners, mobile telecom operators in particular. In contrast, the individual users with a Weibull duration distribution form the fourth cluster of ordinary cell phone users. We also discover more information about the calling patterns of these four clusters (e.g., the probability that a user will call the c(r)-th most contact and the probability distribution of burst sizes). Our findings may enable a more detailed analysis of the huge body of data contained in the logs of massive users.

  3. JPEG XS call for proposals subjective evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNally, David; Bruylants, Tim; Willème, Alexandre; Ebrahimi, Touradj; Schelkens, Peter; Macq, Benoit

    2017-09-01

    In March 2016 the Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), formally known as ISO/IEC SC29 WG1, issued a call for proposals soliciting compression technologies for a low-latency, lightweight and visually transparent video compression scheme. Within the JPEG family of standards, this scheme was denominated JPEG XS. The subjective evaluation of visually lossless compressed video sequences at high resolutions and bit depths poses particular challenges. This paper describes the adopted procedures, the subjective evaluation setup, the evaluation process and summarizes the obtained results which were achieved in the context of the JPEG XS standardization process.

  4. Gene Calling Standards (GSC8 Meeting)

    ScienceCinema

    Kyrpides, Nikos

    2018-04-27

    The Genomic Standards Consortium was formed in September 2005. It is an international, open-membership working body which promotes standardization in the description of genomes and the exchange and integration of genomic data. The 2009 meeting was an activity of a five-year funding "Research Coordination Network" from the National Science Foundation and was organized held at the DOE Joint Genome Institute with organizational support provided by the JGI and by the University of California - San Diego. Nikos Kyrpides of the DOE Joint Genome Institute discusses gene calling standards at the Genomic Standards Consortium's 8th meeting at the DOE JGI in Walnut Creek, CA on Sept. 10, 2009.

  5. Inhibitors of calling behavior of Plodia interpunctella

    PubMed Central

    Hirashima, Akinori; Shigeta, Yoko; Eiraku, Tomohiko; Kuwano, Eiichi

    2003-01-01

    Some octopamine agonists were found to suppress the calling behavior of the stored product Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella. Compounds were screened using a calling behavior bioassay using female P. interpunctella. Four active derivatives, with inhibitory activity at the nanomolar range, were identified in order of decreasing activity: 2-(1-phenylethylamino)-2-oxazoline > 2-(2-ethyl,6-methylanilino)oxazolidine > 2-(2-methyl benzylamino)-2-thiazoline > 2-(2,6-diethylanilino)thiazolidine. Three-dimensional pharmacophore hypotheses were built from a set of 15 compounds. Among the ten common-featured models generated by the program Catalyst/HipHop, a hypothesis including a hydrogen-bond acceptor lipid, a hydrophobic aromatic and two hydrophobic aliphatic features was considered to be essential for inhibitory activity in the calling behavior. Active compounds mapped well onto all the hydrogen-bond acceptor lipid, hydrophobic aromatic and hydrophobic aliphatic features of the hypothesis. On the other hand, less active compounds were shown not to achieve the energetically favorable conformation that is found in the active molecules in order to fit the 3D common-feature pharmacophore models. The present studies demonstrate that inhibition of calling behavior is via an octopamine receptor. Abbreviation: AII 2-(arylimino)imidazolidine AIO 2-(arylimino)oxazolidine AIT 2-(arylimino)thiazolidine CBO 2-(4-chlorobenzylamino)-2-(4-phenyl)oxazoline CDM chlordimeform Confs number of conformers DIP 2-(2,6-diethylphenylimino)piperidine Features/Confs total number of features divided by the number of conformers (summed over the entire family of conformers) HBA hydrogen-bond acceptor HBAl hydrogen-bond acceptor lipid HBD hydrogen-bond donor Hp hydrophobic HpAl hydrophobic aliphatic HpAr hydrophobic aromatic mp melting point MTO 2-(3-methyl benzylthio)-2-oxazoline NI negative ionizable NIO 2-(1-naphthylimino)oxazolidine OA octopamine ODA 2-phenyl-5,6-dihydro-4H-1,3,4-oxadiazine

  6. The variant call format and VCFtools.

    PubMed

    Danecek, Petr; Auton, Adam; Abecasis, Goncalo; Albers, Cornelis A; Banks, Eric; DePristo, Mark A; Handsaker, Robert E; Lunter, Gerton; Marth, Gabor T; Sherry, Stephen T; McVean, Gilean; Durbin, Richard

    2011-08-01

    The variant call format (VCF) is a generic format for storing DNA polymorphism data such as SNPs, insertions, deletions and structural variants, together with rich annotations. VCF is usually stored in a compressed manner and can be indexed for fast data retrieval of variants from a range of positions on the reference genome. The format was developed for the 1000 Genomes Project, and has also been adopted by other projects such as UK10K, dbSNP and the NHLBI Exome Project. VCFtools is a software suite that implements various utilities for processing VCF files, including validation, merging, comparing and also provides a general Perl API. http://vcftools.sourceforge.net

  7. The NOD2 p.Leu1007fsX1008 mutation (rs2066847) is a stronger predictor of the clinical course of Crohn's disease than the FOXO3A intron variant rs12212067.

    PubMed

    Schnitzler, Fabian; Friedrich, Matthias; Wolf, Christiane; Angelberger, Marianne; Diegelmann, Julia; Olszak, Torsten; Beigel, Florian; Tillack, Cornelia; Stallhofer, Johannes; Göke, Burkhard; Glas, Jürgen; Lohse, Peter; Brand, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Very recently, a sub-analysis of genome-wide association scans revealed that the non-coding single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs12212067 in the FOXO3A gene is associated with a milder course of Crohn's disease (CD) (Cell 2013;155:57-69). The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical value of the SNP rs12212067 in predicting the severity of CD by correlating CD patient genotype status with the most relevant complications of CD such as stenoses, fistulas, and CD-related surgery. We genotyped 550 CD patients for rs12212067 (FOXO3A) and the three common CD-associated NOD2 mutations rs2066844, rs2066847, and rs2066847 and performed genotype-phenotype analyses. No significant phenotypic differences were found between the wild-type genotype TT of the FOXO3A SNP rs12212067 and the minor genotypes TG and GG independently from NOD2 variants. The allele frequency of the minor G allele was 12.7%. Age at diagnosis, disease duration, body mass index, surgery rate, stenoses, fistula, need for immunosuppressive therapy, and disease course were not significantly different. In contrast, the NOD2 mutant p.Leu1007fsX1008 (rs2066847) was highly associated with penetrating CD (p = 0.01), the development of fistulas (p = 0.01) and stenoses (p = 0.01), and ileal disease localization (p = 0.03). Importantly, the NOD2 SNP rs2066847 was a strong separator between an aggressive and a mild course of CD (p = 2.99×10(-5)), while the FOXO3A SNP rs12212067 did not separate between mild and aggressive CD behavior in our cohort (p = 0.35). 96.2% of the homozygous NOD2 p.Leu1007fsX1008 carriers had an aggressive disease behavior compared to 69.3% of the patients with the NOD2 wild-type genotype (p = 0.007). In clinical practice, the NOD2 variant p.Leu1007fsX1008 (rs2066847), in particular in homozygous form, is a much stronger marker for a severe clinical phenotype than the FOXO3A rs12212067 SNP for a mild disease course on an individual patient level despite its

  8. The NOD2 p.Leu1007fsX1008 Mutation (rs2066847) Is a Stronger Predictor of the Clinical Course of Crohn's Disease than the FOXO3A Intron Variant rs12212067

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Christiane; Angelberger, Marianne; Diegelmann, Julia; Olszak, Torsten; Beigel, Florian; Tillack, Cornelia; Stallhofer, Johannes; Göke, Burkhard; Glas, Jürgen; Lohse, Peter; Brand, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Background Very recently, a sub-analysis of genome-wide association scans revealed that the non-coding single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs12212067 in the FOXO3A gene is associated with a milder course of Crohn's disease (CD) (Cell 2013;155:57–69). The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical value of the SNP rs12212067 in predicting the severity of CD by correlating CD patient genotype status with the most relevant complications of CD such as stenoses, fistulas, and CD-related surgery. Methodology/Principal Findings We genotyped 550 CD patients for rs12212067 (FOXO3A) and the three common CD-associated NOD2 mutations rs2066844, rs2066847, and rs2066847 and performed genotype-phenotype analyses. Results No significant phenotypic differences were found between the wild-type genotype TT of the FOXO3A SNP rs12212067 and the minor genotypes TG and GG independently from NOD2 variants. The allele frequency of the minor G allele was 12.7%. Age at diagnosis, disease duration, body mass index, surgery rate, stenoses, fistula, need for immunosuppressive therapy, and disease course were not significantly different. In contrast, the NOD2 mutant p.Leu1007fsX1008 (rs2066847) was highly associated with penetrating CD (p = 0.01), the development of fistulas (p = 0.01) and stenoses (p = 0.01), and ileal disease localization (p = 0.03). Importantly, the NOD2 SNP rs2066847 was a strong separator between an aggressive and a mild course of CD (p = 2.99×10−5), while the FOXO3A SNP rs12212067 did not separate between mild and aggressive CD behavior in our cohort (p = 0.35). 96.2% of the homozygous NOD2 p.Leu1007fsX1008 carriers had an aggressive disease behavior compared to 69.3% of the patients with the NOD2 wild-type genotype (p = 0.007). Conclusion/Significance In clinical practice, the NOD2 variant p.Leu1007fsX1008 (rs2066847), in particular in homozygous form, is a much stronger marker for a severe clinical phenotype than the FOXO3A rs

  9. [Anti-mouse CD122 antibody promotes the hematopoietic repopulating capacity of cord blood CD34⁺ cells in NOD/SCID mice].

    PubMed

    Sheng, Men-Yao; Shi, Hui; Xing, Wen; Wang, Wen-Jun; Si, Xiao-Hui; Bai, Jie; Yuan, Wei-Ping; Zhou, Yuan; Yang, Feng-Chun

    2014-12-01

    The study was aimed to investigate the effect of anti-mouse CD122 antibody on the hematopoietic repopulating capacity of cord blood CD34⁺ cells in a humanized murine model-non obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mice. After sublethal irradiation with γ-ray, NOD/SCID mice were intraperitoneally injected with 200 µg mouse isotype control antibody or anti-mouse CD122 antibody. Human cord blood CD34⁺ cells or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were injected via the tail vein at 6-8 hours later. Cohort of the mice injected with anti-mice CD122 antibody or control antibody alone were sacrificed at different time point (at week 2, 3, and 4 weeks) after the injection, and the percentage of NK cells in the peripheral blood was analyzed by flow cytometry. To evaluate the effect of anti-mouse CD122 antibody on the repopulating capacity of cord blood CD34⁺ cells in the recipient mice, phenotype analysis was performed in the bone marrow at 6 and 8 weeks after the transplantation. The results showed that the proportion of NK cells in the peripheral blood were (4.6 ± 0.6)% and (5.7 ± 1.7)% at week 2 and 3 after anti-CD122 antibody injection respectively,which decreased by 60%, compared with the mice injected with isotype control antibody. After 6 and 8 weeks of cord blood CD34⁺ cell transplantation,the percentage of human CD45⁺ in the bone marrow of the recipient mice treated with anti-mice CD122 antibody was (63.0 ± 12.2)% and (53.2 ± 16.3)%,respectively,which were dramatically higher than that in the mice treated with isotype control antibody (7.7 ± 3.6)% and (6.1 ± 2.4)%. Moreover,at 8 weeks after transplantation,human CD34⁺ cells appeared significantly in the recipients treated with anti-CD122 antibody. It is concluded that the anti-mouse CD122 antibody enhances the hematopoietic repopulating capacity of cord blood CD34⁺ cells in the NOD/SCID mice through decreasing the proportion of NK cells.

  10. An ontology-based nurse call management system (oNCS) with probabilistic priority assessment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The current, place-oriented nurse call systems are very static. A patient can only make calls with a button which is fixed to a wall of a room. Moreover, the system does not take into account various factors specific to a situation. In the future, there will be an evolution to a mobile button for each patient so that they can walk around freely and still make calls. The system would become person-oriented and the available context information should be taken into account to assign the correct nurse to a call. The aim of this research is (1) the design of a software platform that supports the transition to mobile and wireless nurse call buttons in hospitals and residential care and (2) the design of a sophisticated nurse call algorithm. This algorithm dynamically adapts to the situation at hand by taking the profile information of staff members and patients into account. Additionally, the priority of a call probabilistically depends on the risk factors, assigned to a patient. Methods The ontology-based Nurse Call System (oNCS) was developed as an extension of a Context-Aware Service Platform. An ontology is used to manage the profile information. Rules implement the novel nurse call algorithm that takes all this information into account. Probabilistic reasoning algorithms are designed to determine the priority of a call based on the risk factors of the patient. Results The oNCS system is evaluated through a prototype implementation and simulations, based on a detailed dataset obtained from Ghent University Hospital. The arrival times of nurses at the location of a call, the workload distribution of calls amongst nurses and the assignment of priorities to calls are compared for the oNCS system and the current, place-oriented nurse call system. Additionally, the performance of the system is discussed. Conclusions The execution time of the nurse call algorithm is on average 50.333 ms. Moreover, the oNCS system significantly improves the assignment of nurses

  11. CallWall: tracking resident calls to improve clinical utilization of pathology laboratories.

    PubMed

    Buck, Thomas P; Connor, Ian M; Horowitz, Gary L; Arnaout, Ramy A

    2011-07-01

    Clinical pathology (CP) laboratories are used for millions of tests each year. These lead to thousands of calls to CP residents. However, although laboratory utilization is a frequent topic of study, clinical utilization--the content of the interactions between clinicians and CP residents--is not. Because it reflects questions about laboratory utilization, clinical utilization could suggest ways to improve both training and care by reducing diagnostic error. To build and implement a secure, scalable Web-based system to allow CP residents at any hospital to track the calls they receive, the interaction's context, and the action taken as a result, with evidence where applicable, and to use this system to report on clinical utilization at a major academic hospital. Entries were analyzed from a nearly year-long period to describe the clinical utilization of CP at a large academic teaching hospital. Sixteen residents logged 847 calls during 10 months, roughly evenly distributed among transfusion medicine, chemistry, microbiology, and hematopathology. Calls covered 94 different analytes in chemistry and 71 different organisms or tests in microbiology. Analysis revealed areas where CP can improve clinical care through educating the clinical services, for example, about ordering Rh immune globulin, testosterone testing, and diagnosis of tick-borne diseases. Documenting calls also highlighted patterns among residents. Clinical utilization is a potentially rich knowledge base for improving patient care and resident training. Our resident call-tracking system is a useful way for measuring clinical utilization and mining it for actionable information.

  12. Theology links Christian ministry with God's call.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, L J

    1984-03-01

    Catholic health care ministry originates in and is shaped by the theme of call in the Old and New Testaments. To be specifically Catholic, health professionals and facilities must define their ministries according to the values expressed in this theological tradition. Sponsorship. The opportunity to provide health care enables religious communities to contribute to God's ongoing creation process and to reiterate Christ's call to minister to others. Although health care facility sponsorship thrusts religious communities into the arena of big business, the abandonment of the health care mission could be considered a betrayal of evangelical values. Quality of life. The implicit concern for human dignity that distinguishes Catholic health care facilities should be evident in personalized patient care, just working conditions, and a commitment to healing in the civic community. Stewardship in ethics. The development of business policies and procedures and institutional responses to social change should be carefully considered in light of the Catholic understanding of loving covenant and the Christian way of life. Shared ministry. Health care facilities have played a leading role in implementing the Second Vatican Council's vision of ministry. Sponsoring communities' continued willingness to share responsibilities with laity will be imperative in meeting the health care demands of the future.

  13. Influence of atmospheric properties on detection of wood-warbler nocturnal flight calls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, Kyle G.; Stepanian, Phillip M.; Wainwright, Charlotte E.; Tegeler, Amy K.

    2015-10-01

    Avian migration monitoring can take on many forms; however, monitoring active nocturnal migration of land birds is limited to a few techniques. Avian nocturnal flight calls are currently the only method for describing migrant composition at the species level. However, as this method develops, more information is needed to understand the sources of variation in call detection. Additionally, few studies examine how detection probabilities differ under varying atmospheric conditions. We use nocturnal flight call recordings from captive individuals to explore the dependence of flight call detection on atmospheric temperature and humidity. Height or distance from origin had the largest influence on call detection, while temperature and humidity also influenced detectability at higher altitudes. Because flight call detection varies with both atmospheric conditions and flight height, improved monitoring across time and space will require correction for these factors to generate standardized metrics of songbird migration.

  14. Hospital emergency on-call coverage: is there a doctor in the house?

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Ann S; Draper, Debra A; Felland, Laurie E

    2007-11-01

    The nation's community hospitals face increasing problems obtaining emergency on-call coverage from specialist physicians, according to findings from the Center for Studying Health System Change's (HSC) 2007 site visits to 12 nationally representative metropolitan communities. The diminished willingness of specialist physicians to provide on-call coverage is occurring as hospital emergency departments confront an ever-increasing demand for services. Factors influencing physician reluctance to provide on-call coverage include decreased dependence on hospital admitting privileges as more services shift to non-hospital settings; payment for emergency care, especially for uninsured patients; and medical liability concerns. Hospital strategies to secure on-call coverage include enforcing hospital medical staff bylaws that require physicians to take call, contracting with physicians to provide coverage, paying physicians stipends, and employing physicians. Nonetheless, many hospitals continue to struggle with inadequate on-call coverage, which threatens patients' timely access to high-quality emergency care and may raise health care costs.

  15. On-call work and physicians' turnover intention: the moderating effect of job strain.

    PubMed

    Heponiemi, Tarja; Presseau, Justin; Elovainio, Marko

    2016-01-01

    Physician shortage and turnover are major problems worldwide. On-call duties may be among the risk factors of high turnover rates among physicians. We investigated whether having on-call duties is associated with physicians' turnover intention and whether job strain variables moderate this association. The present study was a cross-sectional questionnaire study among 3324 (61.6% women) Finnish physicians. The analyses were conducted using analyses of covariance adjusted for age, gender, response format, specialization status and employment sector. The results showed that job strain moderated the association between being on-call and turnover intention. The highest levels of turnover intention were among those who had on-call duties and high level of job strain characterized by high demands and low control opportunities. The lowest levels of turnover intention were among those who were not on-call and who had low strain involving low demands and high control. Also, job demands moderated the association between being on-call and turnover intention; turnover intention levels were higher among those with on-call duties and high demands than those being on-call and low demands. To conclude, working on-call was related to physicians' turnover intention particularly in those with high job strain. Health care organizations should focus more attention on working arrangements and scheduling of on-call work, provide a suitable working pace and implement means to increase physicians' participation and control over their job.

  16. Clouds of different colors: A prospective look at head and neck surgical resident call experience.

    PubMed

    Melzer, Jonathan

    2017-12-01

    Graduate medical education programs typically set up call under the assumption that residents will have similar experiences. The terms black cloud and white cloud have frequently been used to describe residents with more difficult (black) or less difficult (white) call experiences. This study followed residents in the department of head and neck surgery during call to determine whether certain residents have a significantly different call experience than the norm. It is a prospective observational study conducted over 16 months in a tertiary care center with a resident training program in otolaryngology. Resident call data on total pages, consults, and operative interventions were examined, as well as subjective survey data about sleep and perceived difficulty of resident call. Analysis showed no significant difference in call activity (pages, consults, operative interventions) among residents. However, data from the resident call surveys revealed perceived disparities in call difficulty that were significant. Two residents were clearly labeled as black clouds compared to the rest. These residents did not have the highest average number of pages, consults, or operative interventions. This study suggests that factors affecting call perception are outside the objective, absolute workload. These results may be used to improve resident education on sleep training and nighttime patient management in the field of otolaryngology and may influence otolaryngology residency programs.

  17. The birth of a house call practice.

    PubMed

    De Leon, Fidias E

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly, physicians of all specialties are frustrated with the complex, unrewarding system of third-party billing in the United States. It has led many physicians to wonder how best to change their practice to ameliorate these challenges or leave their practice altogether. It is possible that family physicians suffer most because they are trained to provide comprehensive care to all comers, regardless of reimbursement status. What they may not know is that leaving the practice might be the best thing for everyone, and it doesn't necessarily mean leaving medicine! As I realized during my experiences working in South Florida, transitioning to a house call practice can be emotionally and financially rewarding.

  18. A continuous operating protection system called COPS

    SciTech Connect

    Chaperon, G.

    1987-01-01

    The continuous operating protection system called COPS is a diverless solution to achieve the stabilization and protection of subsea pipelines and cables: the system is based on the use of a continuous fabric form work mattress which is spread on the sea bed over the pipeline or cable to be protected by a remotely controlled underwater crawler and simultaneously filled with cement grout. The method has been successfully used in the GULLFAKS field where about 3.6 km of grout mattresses having a cross section of 2 meters by 0.2 meters have been laid. The performances of the system are presentedmore » as well as a trade off comparison with the other stabilization and protection methods currently used: burying, rock dumping or placement of covers.« less

  19. Acoustic signal detection of manatee calls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niezrecki, Christopher; Phillips, Richard; Meyer, Michael; Beusse, Diedrich O.

    2003-04-01

    The West Indian manatee (trichechus manatus latirostris) has become endangered partly because of a growing number of collisions with boats. A system to warn boaters of the presence of manatees, that can signal to boaters that manatees are present in the immediate vicinity, could potentially reduce these boat collisions. In order to identify the presence of manatees, acoustic methods are employed. Within this paper, three different detection algorithms are used to detect the calls of the West Indian manatee. The detection systems are tested in the laboratory using simulated manatee vocalizations from an audio compact disc. The detection method that provides the best overall performance is able to correctly identify ~=96% of the manatee vocalizations. However the system also results in a false positive rate of ~=16%. The results of this work may ultimately lead to the development of a manatee warning system that can warn boaters of the presence of manatees.

  20. Human nasal polyp microenvironments maintained in a viable and functional state as xenografts in NOD-scid IL2rgamma(null) mice.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Joel M; Brooks, Stephen P; Lehman, Heather K; Pope, Liza; Sands, Amy; Shultz, Leonard D; Bankert, Richard B

    2009-12-01

    The objective was to develop a model with which to study the cellular and molecular events associated with nasal polyp progression. To accomplish this, we undertook to develop a system in which nondisrupted human nasal polyp tissue could be successfully implanted into severely immunocompromised mice, in which the histopathology of the original nasal polyp tissue, including inflammatory lymphocytes, epithelial and goblet cell hyperplasia, and subepithelial fibrosis, could be preserved for prolonged periods. Small, non-disrupted pieces of human nasal polyp tissues were subcutaneously implanted into NOD-scid IL2rgamma(null) mice. Xenografts at 8 to 12 weeks after implantation were examined histologically and immunohistochemically to identify human inflammatory leukocytes and to determine whether the characteristic histopathologic characteristics of the nasal polyps were maintained for a prolonged period. The xenografts, spleen, lung, liver, and kidneys were examined histologically and immunohistochemically and were evaluated for changes in volume. The sera of these mice were assayed for human cytokines and immunoglobulin. Xenografts of human nasal polyp tissues were established after their subcutaneous implantation into NOD-scid IL2rgamma(null) mice. The xenografts were maintained in a viable and functional state for up to 3 months, and retained a histopathologic appearance similar to that of the original tissue, with a noticeable increase in goblet cell hyperplasia and marked mucus accumulation in the submucosal glands compared to the original nasal polyp tissue. Inflammatory lymphocytes present in the polyp microenvironment were predominantly human CD8+ T cells with an effector memory phenotype. Human CD4+ T cells, CD138+ plasma cells, and CD68+ macrophages were also observed in the xenografts. Human immunoglobulin and interferon-gamma were detected in the sera of xenograft-bearing mice. The polyp-associated lymphocytes proliferated and were found to migrate from

  1. Development of echolocation calls and neural selectivity for echolocation calls in the pallid bat.

    PubMed

    Razak, Khaleel A; Fuzessery, Zoltan M

    2015-10-01

    Studies of birdsongs and neural selectivity for songs have provided important insights into principles of concurrent behavioral and auditory system development. Relatively little is known about mammalian auditory system development in terms of vocalizations or other behaviorally relevant sounds. This review suggests echolocating bats are suitable mammalian model systems to understand development of auditory behaviors. The simplicity of echolocation calls with known behavioral relevance and strong neural selectivity provides a platform to address how natural experience shapes cortical receptive field (RF) mechanisms. We summarize recent studies in the pallid bat that followed development of echolocation calls and cortical processing of such calls. We also discuss similar studies in the mustached bat for comparison. These studies suggest: (1) there are different developmental sensitive periods for different acoustic features of the same vocalization. The underlying basis is the capacity for some components of the RF to be modified independent of others. Some RF computations and maps involved in call processing are present even before the cochlea is mature and well before use of echolocation in flight. Others develop over a much longer time course. (2) Normal experience is required not just for refinement, but also for maintenance, of response properties that develop in an experience independent manner. (3) Experience utilizes millisecond range changes in timing of inhibitory and excitatory RF components as substrates to shape vocalization selectivity. We suggest that bat species and call diversity provide a unique opportunity to address developmental constraints in the evolution of neural mechanisms of vocalization processing. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Development of echolocation calls and neural selectivity for echolocation calls in the pallid bat

    PubMed Central

    Razak, Khaleel A.; Fuzessery, Zoltan M.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of birdsongs and neural selectivity for songs have provided important insights into principles of concurrent behavioral and auditory system development. Relatively little is known about mammalian auditory system development in terms of vocalizations, or other behaviorally relevant sounds. This review suggests echolocating bats are suitable mammalian model systems to understand development of auditory behaviors. The simplicity of echolocation calls with known behavioral relevance and strong neural selectivity provides a platform to address how natural experience shapes cortical receptive field (RF) mechanisms. We summarize recent studies in the pallid bat that followed development of echolocation calls and cortical processing of such calls. We also discuss similar studies in the mustached bat for comparison. These studies suggest: (1) there are different developmental sensitive periods for different acoustic features of the same vocalization. The underlying basis is the capacity for some components of the RF to be modified independent of others. Some RF computations and maps involved in call processing are present even before the cochlea is mature and well before use of echolocation in flight. Others develop over a much longer time course. (2) Normal experience is required not just for refinement, but also for maintenance, of response properties that develop in an experience independent manner. (3) Experience utilizes millisecond range changes in timing of inhibitory and excitatory RF components as substrates to shape vocalization selectivity. We suggest that bat species and call diversity provide a unique opportunity to address developmental constraints in the evolution of neural mechanisms of vocalization processing. PMID:25142131

  3. From nestling calls to fledgling silence: adaptive timing of change in response to aerial alarm calls.

    PubMed

    Magrath, Robert D; Platzen, Dirk; Kondo, Junko

    2006-09-22

    Young birds and mammals are extremely vulnerable to predators and so should benefit from responding to parental alarm calls warning of danger. However, young often respond differently from adults. This difference may reflect: (i) an imperfect stage in the gradual development of adult behaviour or (ii) an adaptation to different vulnerability. Altricial birds provide an excellent model to test for adaptive changes with age in response to alarm calls, because fledglings are vulnerable to a different range of predators than nestlings. For example, a flying hawk is irrelevant to a nestling in a enclosed nest, but is dangerous to that individual once it has left the nest, so we predict that young develop a response to aerial alarm calls to coincide with fledging. Supporting our prediction, recently fledged white-browed scrubwrens, Sericornis frontalis, fell silent immediately after playback of their parents' aerial alarm call, whereas nestlings continued to calling despite hearing the playback. Young scrubwrens are therefore exquisitely adapted to the changing risks faced during development.

  4. An Improved Protocol for Efficient Engraftment in NOD/LTSZ-SCIDIL-2RγNULL Mice Allows HIV Replication and Development of Anti-HIV Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Maneesh; Singh, Pratibha; Gaudray, Gilles; Musumeci, Lucia; Thielen, Caroline; Vaira, Dolores; Vandergeeten, Claire; Delacroix, Laurence; Van Gulck, Ellen; Vanham, Guido; de Leval, Laurence; Rahmouni, Souad; Moutschen, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Cord blood hematopoietic progenitor cells (CB-HPCs) transplanted immunodeficient NOD/LtsZ-scidIL2Rγnull (NSG) and NOD/SCID/IL2Rγnull (NOG) mice need efficient human cell engraftment for long-term HIV-1 replication studies. Total body irradiation (TBI) is a classical myeloablation regimen used to improve engraftment levels of human cells in these humanized mice. Some recent reports suggest the use of busulfan as a myeloablation regimen to transplant HPCs in neonatal and adult NSG mice. In the present study, we further ameliorated the busulfan myeloablation regimen with fresh CB-CD34+cell transplantation in 3–4 week old NSG mice. In this CB-CD34+transplanted NSG mice engraftment efficiency of human CD45+cell is over 90% in peripheral blood. Optimal engraftment promoted early and increased CD3+T cell levels, with better lymphoid tissue development and prolonged human cell chimerism over 300 days. These humanized NSG mice have shown long-lasting viremia after HIV-1JRCSF and HIV-1Bal inoculation through intravenous and rectal routes. We also saw a gradual decline of the CD4+T cell count, widespread immune activation, up-regulation of inflammation marker and microbial translocation after HIV-1 infection. Humanized NSG mice reconstituted according to our new protocol produced, moderate cellular and humoral immune responses to HIV-1 postinfection. We believe that NSG mice reconstituted according to our easy to use protocol will provide a better in vivo model for HIV-1 replication and anti-HIV-1 therapy trials. PMID:22675567

  5. Call for research: detecting early vulnerability for psychiatric hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Prince, Jonathan D

    2013-01-01

    This study delineated the extent to which a broad set of risk factors in youth, a period well suited to primary prevention strategies, influences the likelihood and timing of first lifetime psychiatric hospitalizations. Logistic regression was used to delineate early risk factors for psychiatric hospitalization among Americans in a nationally representative survey (NCS-R, Part II, 2001-2003: N = 5,692). Results suggest that inpatient stay is more common and happens at earlier ages among Americans who report growing up with versus without: (1) depressed parents or caregivers, (2) family members who victimized them, or (3) one of three child mental illnesses (conduct, oppositional defiant, or separation anxiety disorder). In order to prevent inpatient stay, findings call for longitudinal research on early vulnerability for psychiatric hospitalization among families with: (1) depressed parents of children or adolescents, (2) violence against children, and (3) children that have externalizing or separation anxiety disorders.

  6. Sharing programming resources between Bio* projects through remote procedure call and native call stack strategies.

    PubMed

    Prins, Pjotr; Goto, Naohisa; Yates, Andrew; Gautier, Laurent; Willis, Scooter; Fields, Christopher; Katayama, Toshiaki

    2012-01-01

    Open-source software (OSS) encourages computer programmers to reuse software components written by others. In evolutionary bioinformatics, OSS comes in a broad range of programming languages, including C/C++, Perl, Python, Ruby, Java, and R. To avoid writing the same functionality multiple times for different languages, it is possible to share components by bridging computer languages and Bio* projects, such as BioPerl, Biopython, BioRuby, BioJava, and R/Bioconductor. In this chapter, we compare the two principal approaches for sharing software between different programming languages: either by remote procedure call (RPC) or by sharing a local call stack. RPC provides a language-independent protocol over a network interface; examples are RSOAP and Rserve. The local call stack provides a between-language mapping not over the network interface, but directly in computer memory; examples are R bindings, RPy, and languages sharing the Java Virtual Machine stack. This functionality provides strategies for sharing of software between Bio* projects, which can be exploited more often. Here, we present cross-language examples for sequence translation, and measure throughput of the different options. We compare calling into R through native R, RSOAP, Rserve, and RPy interfaces, with the performance of native BioPerl, Biopython, BioJava, and BioRuby implementations, and with call stack bindings to BioJava and the European Molecular Biology Open Software Suite. In general, call stack approaches outperform native Bio* implementations and these, in turn, outperform RPC-based approaches. To test and compare strategies, we provide a downloadable BioNode image with all examples, tools, and libraries included. The BioNode image can be run on VirtualBox-supported operating systems, including Windows, OSX, and Linux.

  7. Effect of introduction of electronic patient reporting on the duration of ambulance calls.

    PubMed

    Kuisma, Markku; Väyrynen, Taneli; Hiltunen, Tuomas; Porthan, Kari; Aaltonen, Janne

    2009-10-01

    We examined the effect of the change from paper records to the electronic patient records (EPRs) on ambulance call duration. We retrieved call duration times 6 months before (group 1) and 6 months after (group 2) the introduction of EPR. Subgroup analysis of group 2 was fulfilled depending whether the calls were made during the first or last 3 months after EPR introduction. We analyzed 37 599 ambulance calls (17 950 were in group 1 and 19 649 were in group 2). The median call duration in group 1 was 48 minutes and in group 2 was 49 minutes (P = .008). In group 2, call duration was longer during the first 3 months after EPR introduction. In multiple linear regression analysis, urgency category (P < .0001), unit level (P < .0001), and transportation decision (P < .0001) influenced the call duration. The documentation method was not a significant factor. Electronic patient record system can be implemented in an urban ambulance service in such a way that documentation method does not become a significant factor in determining call duration in the long run. Temporary performance drop during the first 3 months after introduction was noticed, reflecting adaptation process to a new way of working.

  8. Pathological aspects of so called "hilar cholangiocarcinoma"

    PubMed Central

    Castellano-Megías, Víctor M; Ibarrola-de Andrés, Carolina; Colina-Ruizdelgado, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) arising from the large intrahepatic bile ducts and extrahepatic hilar bile ducts share clinicopathological features and have been called hilar and perihilar CC as a group. However, “hilar and perihilar CC” are also used to refer exclusively to the intrahepatic hilar type CC or, more commonly, the extrahepatic hilar CC. Grossly, a major distinction can be made between papillary and non-papillary tumors. Histologically, most hilar CCs are well to moderately differentiated conventional type (biliary) carcinomas. Immunohistochemically, CK7, CK20, CEA and MUC1 are normally expressed, being MUC2 positive in less than 50% of cases. Two main premalignant lesions are known: biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (BilIN) and intraductal papillary neoplasm of the biliary tract (IPNB). IPNB includes the lesions previously named biliary papillomatosis and papillary carcinoma. A series of 29 resected hilar CC from our archives is reviewed. Most (82.8%) were conventional type adenocarcinomas, mostly well to moderately differentiated, although with a broad morphological spectrum; three cases exhibited a poorly differentiated cell component resembling signet ring cells. IPNB was observed in 5 (17.2%), four of them with an associated invasive carcinoma. A clear cell type carcinoma, an adenosquamous carcinoma and two gastric foveolar type carcinomas were observed. PMID:23919110

  9. Pathological aspects of so called "hilar cholangiocarcinoma".

    PubMed

    Castellano-Megías, Víctor M; Ibarrola-de Andrés, Carolina; Colina-Ruizdelgado, Francisco

    2013-07-15

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CC) arising from the large intrahepatic bile ducts and extrahepatic hilar bile ducts share clinicopathological features and have been called hilar and perihilar CC as a group. However, "hilar and perihilar CC" are also used to refer exclusively to the intrahepatic hilar type CC or, more commonly, the extrahepatic hilar CC. Grossly, a major distinction can be made between papillary and non-papillary tumors. Histologically, most hilar CCs are well to moderately differentiated conventional type (biliary) carcinomas. Immunohistochemically, CK7, CK20, CEA and MUC1 are normally expressed, being MUC2 positive in less than 50% of cases. Two main premalignant lesions are known: biliary intraepithelial neoplasia (BilIN) and intraductal papillary neoplasm of the biliary tract (IPNB). IPNB includes the lesions previously named biliary papillomatosis and papillary carcinoma. A series of 29 resected hilar CC from our archives is reviewed. Most (82.8%) were conventional type adenocarcinomas, mostly well to moderately differentiated, although with a broad morphological spectrum; three cases exhibited a poorly differentiated cell component resembling signet ring cells. IPNB was observed in 5 (17.2%), four of them with an associated invasive carcinoma. A clear cell type carcinoma, an adenosquamous carcinoma and two gastric foveolar type carcinomas were observed.

  10. From Systematic Review to Call for Action.

    PubMed

    Sawin, Erika Metzler; Sobel, Linda L; Annan, Sandra L; Schminkey, Donna L

    2017-06-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health and criminal justice concern with significant impacts; especially high rates are seen among rural Hispanic American (HA) communities, the fastest growing population in the United States. They experience additional barriers to care including extreme poverty, lesser education, gender norms, and language and immigration issues. A systematic literature review was conducted using Cooper's framework to identify evidence supporting associations between interventions and prevention, reduction, and elimination of IPV among rural HA women. Searches conducted on databases including CINAHL, PubMed, Medline, Women's Studies International, MedicLatina, and JSTOR used the MeSH terms Hispanic Americans (Latino/a and Hispanic), domestic violence, and intimate partner violence. Selected studies were published between January 1, 2000, and January 1, 2014. Of the 617 yielded articles, only 6 met the inclusion criteria. Of these, none closely examined rurality or provided valid and reliable measures of outcomes, instead reporting program descriptions and suggested interventions. We identify key findings to guide program, screening, and tool development. Our study identifies a gap in knowledge, research, and effective practices and issues a call for action to create evidence-based tools to prevent, reduce, and eliminate IPV in these underserved populations.

  11. Rare disease registries: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Lacaze, Paul; Millis, Nicole; Fookes, Megan; Zurynski, Yvonne; Jaffe, Adam; Bellgard, Matthew; Winship, Ingrid; McNeil, John; Bittles, Alan H

    2017-09-01

    When registries collect accurate clinical data over time, they can act as fundamental support structures for patients and their families and powerful cost-effective instruments to support clinical trials and translational research to improve quality of care, quality of life and survival. Registries are critical for rare diseases (RD) with low prevalence and propensity for variation in treatment and outcomes. Rare Voices Australia is leading a call for action to the research and clinical community to prioritise RD data collection and develop an integrated RD Registry strategy for Australia. Financial, operational and governance challenges exist for establishing and maintaining RD registries. As a multidisciplinary team whose interests converge on RD, we highlight the need for the establishment of an Australian RD Registry Alliance. This 'umbrella' organisation will: (i) bring together existing RD registries across Australia; (ii) establish National RD Registry Standards to support interoperability and cohesion across registries; (iii) develop strategies to attract sustainable funding from government and other sources to maximise the utility of existing RD registries and support the development of new RD registries. The most important role for the Alliance would be to use the RD registries for translational research to address current knowledge gaps about RD and to improve the care for the over 1.4 million Australians estimated to live with RD. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  12. A study of so-called hypochondriasis.

    PubMed

    von Scheele, C; Nordgren, L; Kempi, V; Hetta, J; Hallborg, A

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-four patients with unexplained somatic complaints were subjected to a thorough somatic examination. Only when the examination proved negative was the patient entered into the study. The patients were clinically appraised according to criteria given in DSM-III. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) was diagnosed in 12, somatization disorder (SD) in 8, and hypochondriasis in 4 patients. Seventeen of the 24 patients agreed to participate in biochemical investigations including a TRH load, a dexamethasone test, and a determination of the monoamine metabolites 5-HIAA and HVA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A normal TSH increase and a normal suppression of cortisol were registered. The HVA values correlated significantly with the 5-HIAA values as well as with the alexithymia scores. Concerning alexithymia and maturity level, no difference as to social class was found. The patients filled in a Zung depression chart. The Zung scale and the 5-HIAA values were both inconsistent with depressive illness. In so-called hypochondriasis a long-term relationship, including selected somatic and biochemical examinations and thorough information, was crucial in abating the patient's distrust and thus the need for health care.

  13. 47 CFR 80.225 - Requirements for selective calling equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... selective calling (DSC) equipment and selective calling equipment installed in ship and coast stations, and...-STD, “RTCM Recommended Minimum Standards for Digital Selective Calling (DSC) Equipment Providing... Class ‘D’ Digital Selective Calling (DSC)—Methods of testing and required test results,” March 2003. ITU...

  14. Linking Calling Orientations to Organizational Attachment via Organizational Instrumentality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardador, M. Teresa; Dane, Erik; Pratt, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Despite an emerging interest in callings, researchers know little about whether calling orientations matter in the workplace. We explore the under-examined relationship between a calling orientation and employees' attachment to their organizations. Although some theory suggests that callings may be negatively related to organizational attachment,…

  15. Calling Behavior of Male Acheta domesticus Crickets Infected with Paragordius varius (Nematomorpha: Gordiida).

    PubMed

    Barquin, A; McGehee, B; Sedam, R T; Gordy, W L; Hanelt, B; de Valdez, M R Wise

    2015-08-01

    It is well established that parasites in the phylum Nematomorpha induce suicide behavior of their insect hosts to bring adult worms to the appropriate habitat for emergence. It is not well established, however, whether other nematomorph-induced behavioral alterations occur before worm emergence. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of the nematomorph Paragordius varius on the calling behavior of the male house cricket Acheta domesticus . We hypothesized that cricket calling, an energetically expensive and risky behavior, would be a potential target for nematomorph-induced behavioral alterations. We assessed if and how infection with P. varius affects A. domesticus calling behavior and whether the presence of wings at time of exposure to P. varius influenced changes in calling behavior. We recorded the calling behavior of male A. domesticus over the course of their infection after exposure to P. various before or after wing development. Additionally, we assessed whether winged crickets were "callers" or "noncallers" before exposure. We found that regardless of cricket developmental stage (or age) at time of infection, infected crickets spent significantly less time calling than their uninfected counterparts but only during the later stages of infection. Developmental stage at infection did affect whether crickets became callers: when infected before wing development significantly more uninfected crickets initiated calling; there was no difference between infected and uninfected crickets when infected as winged adults. Infection was a factor in whether callers stopped calling, with more infected crickets ceasing to call than uninfected crickets. This is the first study to show that infection with nematomorphs affects calling behavior of their insect host. Cricket calling behavior is immensely complex and although it was difficult to elucidate the adaptive nature of these parasite-induced behavioral changes, this study lays the groundwork for future

  16. Does revealing contextual knowledge of the patient's intention help nurses' handling of nurse calls?

    PubMed

    Klemets, Joakim; Toussaint, Pieter

    2016-02-01

    An inherent part of nurses' work is to handle nurse calls that often cause challenging interruptions to ongoing activities. In situations when nurses are interrupted by a nurse call, they need to decide whether to continue focusing on the task at hand or to abort and respond to the nurse call. The difficult decision is often influenced by a number of factors and can have implications for patient safety and quality of care. The study investigates how technology could be designed to support nurses' handling of nurse calls by allowing patients to communicate a more contextualised message revealing their intention to the nurse when issuing a nurse call. Through a qualitative methodology employing a scenario-based design approach, three different nurse call system concepts are evaluated by nurses from different departments of a Norwegian university hospital. Nurses find the uncertainty of not knowing the reason behind a nurse call stressful in situations where they are required to prioritise either the calling patient or a patient they are currently nursing. Providing information about a patient's intention behind a nurse call influences the nurse's decision to various degrees depending on the situation in which they find themselves and the information that is communicated. The nurses' reflections suggested that the message communicated should be designed to contain neither too little nor too much information about the patient's needs. A nurse call system that allows nurses to discern the reason behind a nurse call allows them to make a more accurate decision and relieves stress. In particular, the information communicated would reduce uncertainty and lessen nurses' dependence on other factors in their decision. The design of such a system should, however, carefully consider the needs of the department in which it is deployed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mitigating Handoff Call Dropping in Wireless Cellular Networks: A Call Admission Control Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekpenyong, Moses Effiong; Udoh, Victoria Idia; Bassey, Udoma James

    2016-06-01

    Handoff management has been an important but challenging issue in the field of wireless communication. It seeks to maintain seamless connectivity of mobile users changing their points of attachment from one base station to another. This paper derives a call admission control model and establishes an optimal step-size coefficient (k) that regulates the admission probability of handoff calls. An operational CDMA network carrier was investigated through the analysis of empirical data collected over a period of 1 month, to verify the performance of the network. Our findings revealed that approximately 23 % of calls in the existing system were lost, while 40 % of the calls (on the average) were successfully admitted. A simulation of the proposed model was then carried out under ideal network conditions to study the relationship between the various network parameters and validate our claim. Simulation results showed that increasing the step-size coefficient degrades the network performance. Even at optimum step-size (k), the network could still be compromised in the presence of severe network crises, but our model was able to recover from these problems and still functions normally.

  18. Calling under pressure: short-finned pilot whales make social calls during deep foraging dives

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Frants H.; Perez, Jacobo Marrero; Johnson, Mark; Soto, Natacha Aguilar; Madsen, Peter T.

    2011-01-01

    Toothed whales rely on sound to echolocate prey and communicate with conspecifics, but little is known about how extreme pressure affects pneumatic sound production in deep-diving species with a limited air supply. The short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus) is a highly social species among the deep-diving toothed whales, in which individuals socialize at the surface but leave their social group in pursuit of prey at depths of up to 1000 m. To investigate if these animals communicate acoustically at depth and test whether hydrostatic pressure affects communication signals, acoustic DTAGs logging sound, depth and orientation were attached to 12 pilot whales. Tagged whales produced tonal calls during deep foraging dives at depths of up to 800 m. Mean call output and duration decreased with depth despite the increased distance to conspecifics at the surface. This shows that the energy content of calls is lower at depths where lungs are collapsed and where the air volume available for sound generation is limited by ambient pressure. Frequency content was unaffected, providing a possible cue for group or species identification of diving whales. Social calls may be important to maintain social ties for foraging animals, but may be impacted adversely by vessel noise. PMID:21345867

  19. Calling under pressure: short-finned pilot whales make social calls during deep foraging dives.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Frants H; Perez, Jacobo Marrero; Johnson, Mark; Soto, Natacha Aguilar; Madsen, Peter T

    2011-10-22

    Toothed whales rely on sound to echolocate prey and communicate with conspecifics, but little is known about how extreme pressure affects pneumatic sound production in deep-diving species with a limited air supply. The short-finned pilot whale (Globicephala macrorhynchus) is a highly social species among the deep-diving toothed whales, in which individuals socialize at the surface but leave their social group in pursuit of prey at depths of up to 1000 m. To investigate if these animals communicate acoustically at depth and test whether hydrostatic pressure affects communication signals, acoustic DTAGs logging sound, depth and orientation were attached to 12 pilot whales. Tagged whales produced tonal calls during deep foraging dives at depths of up to 800 m. Mean call output and duration decreased with depth despite the increased distance to conspecifics at the surface. This shows that the energy content of calls is lower at depths where lungs are collapsed and where the air volume available for sound generation is limited by ambient pressure. Frequency content was unaffected, providing a possible cue for group or species identification of diving whales. Social calls may be important to maintain social ties for foraging animals, but may be impacted adversely by vessel noise.

  20. To call or not to call--that is the question (while driving).

    PubMed

    Tractinsky, Noam; Ram, Efrat Soffer; Shinar, David

    2013-07-01

    We studied whether decisions to engage in cell phone conversation while driving and the consequences of such decisions are related to the driver's age, to the road conditions (demands of the driving task), and to the driver's role in initiating the phone call (i.e. the driver as caller vs. as receiver). Two experiments were performed in a driving simulator in which driver age, road conditions and phone conversation, as a secondary task, were manipulated. Engagement in cell phone conversations, performance in the driving and the conversation tasks, and subjective effort assessment were recorded. In general, drivers were more willing to accept incoming calls than to initiate calls. In addition, older and younger drivers were more susceptible to the deleterious effects of phone conversations while driving than middle aged/experienced drivers. While older drivers were aware of this susceptibility by showing sensitivity to road conditions before deciding whether to engage in a call or not, young drivers showed no such sensitivity. The results can guide the development of young driver training programs and point at the need to develop context-aware management systems of in-vehicle cell phone conversations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Call for Colloquialisms: Origins and Remedies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salah, Reem

    2015-01-01

    This research aims at discovering the gap between Standard Arabic and the current spoken varieties of Arabic due to social, educational, political, colonial, and media factors. The researcher will try to also analyse the causes of the current gap and suggest remedies. Standard Arabic (SA) or FuSha (the Arabic term for "standard Arabic")…

  2. Mobbing calls signal predator category in a kin group-living bird species

    PubMed Central

    Griesser, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Many prey species gather together to approach and harass their predators despite the associated risks. While mobbing, prey usually utter calls and previous experiments have demonstrated that mobbing calls can convey information about risk to conspecifics. However, the risk posed by predators also differs between predator categories. The ability to communicate predator category would be adaptive because it would allow other mobbers to adjust their risk taking. I tested this idea in Siberian jays Perisoreus infaustus, a group-living bird species, by exposing jay groups to mounts of three hawk and three owl species of varying risks. Groups immediately approached to mob the mount and uttered up to 14 different call types. Jays gave more calls when mobbing a more dangerous predator and when in the presence of kin. Five call types were predator-category-specific and jays uttered two hawk-specific and three owl-specific call types. Thus, this is one of the first studies to demonstrate that mobbing calls can simultaneously encode information about both predator category and the risk posed by a predator. Since antipredator calls of Siberian jays are known to specifically aim at reducing the risk to relatives, kin-based sociality could be an important factor in facilitating the evolution of predator-category-specific mobbing calls. PMID:19474047

  3. Mobbing calls signal predator category in a kin group-living bird species.

    PubMed

    Griesser, Michael

    2009-08-22

    Many prey species gather together to approach and harass their predators despite the associated risks. While mobbing, prey usually utter calls and previous experiments have demonstrated that mobbing calls can convey information about risk to conspecifics. However, the risk posed by predators also differs between predator categories. The ability to communicate predator category would be adaptive because it would allow other mobbers to adjust their risk taking. I tested this idea in Siberian jays Perisoreus infaustus, a group-living bird species, by exposing jay groups to mounts of three hawk and three owl species of varying risks. Groups immediately approached to mob the mount and uttered up to 14 different call types. Jays gave more calls when mobbing a more dangerous predator and when in the presence of kin. Five call types were predator-category-specific and jays uttered two hawk-specific and three owl-specific call types. Thus, this is one of the first studies to demonstrate that mobbing calls can simultaneously encode information about both predator category and the risk posed by a predator. Since antipredator calls of Siberian jays are known to specifically aim at reducing the risk to relatives, kin-based sociality could be an important factor in facilitating the evolution of predator-category-specific mobbing calls.

  4. Call-handlers' working conditions and their subjective experience of work: a transversal study.

    PubMed

    Croidieu, Sophie; Charbotel, Barbara; Vohito, Michel; Renaud, Liliane; Jaussaud, Joelle; Bourboul, Christian; Ardiet, Dominique; Imbard, Isabelle; Guerin, Anne Céline; Bergeret, Alain

    2008-10-01

    The present study sought to describe call-center working conditions and call-handlers' subjective experience of their work. A transversal study was performed in companies followed by the 47 occupational physicians taking part. A dedicated questionnaire included one part on working conditions (work-station organization, task types, work schedules, and controls) and another on the perception of working conditions. Psychosocial risk factors were explored by three dimensions of the Karasek questionnaire, decision latitude, psychological demands and social support. A descriptive stage characterized the population and quantified the frequency of the various types of work organization, working conditions and perception. Certain working conditions data were crossed with perception data. The total sample comprised 2,130 call-handlers from around 100 different companies. The population was 71.9% female, with a mean age of 32.4 years. The general educational level was high, with 1,443 (68.2%) of call-handlers having at least 2 years' higher education; 1,937 of the workers (91.2%) had permanent work contracts. Some working situations were found to be associated with low decision latitude and high psychological demands: i.e., where the schedule (full-time or part-time) was imposed, where the call-handlers had not chosen to work in a call-center, or where they received prior warning of controls. Moreover, the rate of low decision latitude and high psychological demands increased with seniority in the job. The rate of low decision latitude increased with the size of the company and was higher when call duration was imposed and when the call-handlers handled only incoming calls. The rate of high psychological demands was higher when call-handlers handled both incoming and outgoing calls. This study confirmed the high rate of psychosocial constraints for call-handlers and identified work situations at risk.

  5. Cross-sectional analysis of patient phone calls to an inflammatory bowel disease clinic.

    PubMed

    Corral, Juan E; Yarur, Andres J; Diaz, Liege; Simmons, Okeefe L; Sussman, Daniel A

    2015-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) require close follow up and frequently utilize healthcare services. We aimed to identify the main reasons that prompted patient calls to gastroenterology providers and further characterize the "frequent callers". This retrospective cross-sectional study included all phone calls registered in medical records of IBD patients during 2012. Predictive variables included demographics, psychiatric history, IBD phenotype, disease complications and medical therapies. Primary outcome was the reason for call (symptoms, medication refill, procedures and appointment issues). Secondary outcome was the frequency of changes in management prompted by the call. 209 patients participated in 526 calls. The mean number of calls per patient was 2.5 (range 0-27); 49 (23.4%) patients met the criterion of "frequent caller". Frequent callers made or received 75.9% of all calls. Crohn's disease, anxiety, extra-intestinal manifestations and high sedimentation rate were significantly associated with higher call volume. 85.7% of frequent callers had at least one call that prompted a therapeutic intervention, compared to 18.9% of non-frequent callers (P<0.001). The most common interventions were ordering laboratory or imaging studies (15.4%), dose adjustments (12.1%), changes in medication class (8.4%), and expediting clinic visits (8.4%). Most phone calls originated from a minority of patients. Repeated calling by the same patient and new onset of gastrointestinal (GI) and non-GI symptoms were important factors predicting the order of diagnostic modalities or therapeutic changes in care. Triaging calls to IBD healthcare providers for patients more likely to require a change in management may improve healthcare delivery.

  6. Firefighter health and fitness assessment: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Storer, Thomas W; Dolezal, Brett A; Abrazado, Marlon L; Smith, Denise L; Batalin, Maxim A; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Cooper, Christopher B

    2014-03-01

    Sudden cardiac deaths experienced by firefighters in the line of duty account for the largest proportion of deaths annually. Several fire service standards for fitness and wellness have been recommended but currently only 30% of U.S. fire departments are implementing programs for this purpose. The Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate has initiated the Physiological Health Assessment System for Emergency Responders (PHASER) program aiming to reduce these line-of-duty deaths through an integration of medical science and sensor technologies. Confirming previous reports, PHASER comprehensive risk assessment has identified lack of physical fitness with propensity for overexertion as a major modifiable risk factor. We sought to determine if current levels of fitness and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in a contemporary cohort of firefighters were better than those reported over the past 30 years. Fifty-one firefighters from a Southern California department were characterized for physical fitness and CVD risk factors using standard measures. Overall, physical fitness and risk factors were not different from previous reports of firefighter fitness and most subjects did not achieve recommended fitness standards. Considering the lack of widespread implementation of wellness/fitness programs in the U.S. fire service together with our findings that low physical fitness and the presence of CVD risk factors persist, we issue a call to action among health and fitness professionals to assist the fire service in implementing programs for firefighters that improve fitness and reduce CVD risk factors. Fitness professionals should be empowered to work with fire departments lending their expertise to guide programs that achieve these objectives, which may then lead to reduced incidence of sudden cardiac death or stroke.

  7. Perceptual uncertainty and line-call challenges in professional tennis

    PubMed Central

    Mather, George

    2008-01-01

    Fast-moving sports such as tennis require both players and match officials to make rapid accurate perceptual decisions about dynamic events in the visual world. Disagreements arise regularly, leading to disputes about decisions such as line calls. A number of factors must contribute to these disputes, including lapses in concentration, bias and gamesmanship. Fundamental uncertainty or variability in the sensory information supporting decisions must also play a role. Modern technological innovations now provide detailed and accurate physical information that can be compared against the decisions of players and officials. The present paper uses this psychophysical data to assess the significance of perceptual limitations as a contributor to real-world decisions in professional tennis. A detailed analysis is presented of a large body of data on line-call challenges in professional tennis tournaments over the last 2 years. Results reveal that the vast majority of challenges can be explained in a direct highly predictable manner by a simple model of uncertainty in perceptual information processing. Both players and line judges are remarkably accurate at judging ball bounce position, with a positional uncertainty of less than 40 mm. Line judges are more reliable than players. Judgements are more difficult for balls bouncing near base and service lines than those bouncing near side and centre lines. There is no evidence for significant errors in localization due to image motion. PMID:18426755

  8. Creating a vision for your medical call center.

    PubMed

    Barr, J L; Laufenberg, S; Sieckman, B L

    1998-01-01

    MCC technologies and applications that can have a positive impact on managed care delivery are almost limitless. As you determine your vision, be sure to have in mind the following questions: (1) Do you simply want an efficient front end for receiving calls? (2) Do you want to offer triage services? (3) Is your organization ready for a fully functional "electronic physician's office?" Understand your organization's strategy. Where are you going, not only today but five years from now? That information is essential to determine your vision. Once established, your vision will help determine what you need and whether you should build or outsource. Vendors will assist in cost/benefit analysis of their equipment, but do not lose sight of internal factors such as "prior inclination" costs in the case of a nurse triage program. The technology is available to take your vision to its outer reaches. With the projected increase in utilization of call center services, don't let your organization be left behind!

  9. Perceptual uncertainty and line-call challenges in professional tennis.

    PubMed

    Mather, George

    2008-07-22

    Fast-moving sports such as tennis require both players and match officials to make rapid accurate perceptual decisions about dynamic events in the visual world. Disagreements arise regularly, leading to disputes about decisions such as line calls. A number of factors must contribute to these disputes, including lapses in concentration, bias and gamesmanship. Fundamental uncertainty or variability in the sensory information supporting decisions must also play a role. Modern technological innovations now provide detailed and accurate physical information that can be compared against the decisions of players and officials. The present paper uses this psychophysical data to assess the significance of perceptual limitations as a contributor to real-world decisions in professional tennis. A detailed analysis is presented of a large body of data on line-call challenges in professional tennis tournaments over the last 2 years. Results reveal that the vast majority of challenges can be explained in a direct highly predictable manner by a simple model of uncertainty in perceptual information processing. Both players and line judges are remarkably accurate at judging ball bounce position, with a positional uncertainty of less than 40mm. Line judges are more reliable than players. Judgements are more difficult for balls bouncing near base and service lines than those bouncing near side and centre lines. There is no evidence for significant errors in localization due to image motion.

  10. Call for Papers: Photonics in Switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wosinska, Lena; Glick, Madeleine

    2006-04-01

    Call for Papers: Photonics in Switching

    Guest Editors:

    Lena Wosinska, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) / ICT Sweden Madeleine Glick, Intel Research, Cambridge, UK

    Technologies based on DWDM systems allow data transmission with bit rates of Tbit/s on a single fiber. To facilitate this enormous transmission volume, high-capacity and high-speed network nodes become inevitable in the optical network. Wideband switching, WDM switching, optical burst switching (OBS), and optical packet switching (OPS) are promising technologies for harnessing the bandwidth of WDM optical fiber networks in a highly flexible and efficient manner. As a number of key optical component technologies approach maturity, photonics in switching is becoming an increasingly attractive and practical solution for the next-generation of optical networks. The scope of this special issue is focused on the technology and architecture of optical switching nodes, including the architectural and algorithmic aspects of high-speed optical networks.

    Scope of Submission

    The scope of the papers includes, but is not limited to, the following topics:
    • WDM node architectures
    • Novel device technologies enabling photonics in switching, such as optical switch fabrics, optical memory, and wavelength conversion
    • Routing protocols
    • WDM switching and routing
    • Quality of service
    • Performance measurement and evaluation
    • Next-generation optical networks: architecture, signaling, and control
    • Traffic measurement and field trials
    • Optical burst and packet switching
    • OBS/OPS node architectures
    • Burst/Packet scheduling and routing algorithms
    • Contention resolution/avoidance strategies
    • Services and applications for OBS/OPS (e.g., grid networks, storage-area networks, etc.)
    • Burst assembly and ingress traffic shaping

    • Non-song social call bouts of migrating humpback whales.

      PubMed

      Rekdahl, Melinda L; Dunlop, Rebecca A; Goldizen, Anne W; Garland, Ellen C; Biassoni, Nicoletta; Miller, Patrick; Noad, Michael J

      2015-06-01

      The use of stereotyped calls within structured bouts has been described for a number of species and may increase the information potential of call repertoires. Humpback whales produce a repertoire of social calls, although little is known about the complexity or function of these calls. In this study, digital acoustic tag recordings were used to investigate social call use within bouts, the use of bouts across different social contexts, and whether particular call type combinations were favored. Call order within bouts was investigated using call transition frequencies and information theory techniques. Call bouts were defined through analysis of inter-call intervals, as any calls within 3.9 s of each other. Bouts were produced significantly more when new whales joined a group compared to groups that did not change membership, and in groups containing multiple adults escorting a female and calf compared to adult only groups. Although social calls tended to be produced in bouts, there were few repeated bout types. However, the order in which most call types were produced within bouts was non-random and dependent on the preceding call type. These bouts appear to be at least partially governed by rules for how individual components are combined.

    • Effectiveness of the call in beach volleyball attacking play.

      PubMed

      Künzell, Stefan; Schweikart, Florian; Köhn, Daniel; Schläppi-Lienhard, Olivia

      2014-12-09

      In beach volleyball the setter has the opportunity to give her or his hitter a "call". The call intends that the setter suggests to her or his partner where to place the attack in the opponent's court. The effectiveness of a call is still unknown. We investigated the women's and men's Swiss National Beach Volleyball Championships in 2011 and analyzed 2185 attacks. We found large differences between female and male players. While men called in only 38.4% of attacks, women used calls in 85.5% of attacks. If the male players followed a given call, 63% of the attacks were successful. The success rate of attacks without any call was 55.8% and 47.6% when the call was ignored. These differences were not significant (χ(2)(2) = 4.55, p = 0.103). In women's beach volleyball, the rate of successful attacks was 61.5% when a call was followed, 35% for attacks without a call, and 42.6% when a call was ignored. The differences were highly significant (χ(2)(2) = 23.42, p < 0.0005). Taking into account the findings of the present study, we suggested that the call was effective in women's beach volleyball, while its effect in men's game was unclear. Considering the quality of calls we indicate that there is a significant potential to increase the effectiveness of a call.

    • Non-song social call bouts of migrating humpback whales

      PubMed Central

      Rekdahl, Melinda L.; Dunlop, Rebecca A.; Goldizen, Anne W.; Garland, Ellen C.; Biassoni, Nicoletta; Miller, Patrick; Noad, Michael J.

      2015-01-01

      The use of stereotyped calls within structured bouts has been described for a number of species and may increase the information potential of call repertoires. Humpback whales produce a repertoire of social calls, although little is known about the complexity or function of these calls. In this study, digital acoustic tag recordings were used to investigate social call use within bouts, the use of bouts across different social contexts, and whether particular call type combinations were favored. Call order within bouts was investigated using call transition frequencies and information theory techniques. Call bouts were defined through analysis of inter-call intervals, as any calls within 3.9 s of each other. Bouts were produced significantly more when new whales joined a group compared to groups that did not change membership, and in groups containing multiple adults escorting a female and calf compared to adult only groups. Although social calls tended to be produced in bouts, there were few repeated bout types. However, the order in which most call types were produced within bouts was non-random and dependent on the preceding call type. These bouts appear to be at least partially governed by rules for how individual components are combined. PMID:26093396

    • Graphics, Playability and Social Interaction, the Greatest Motivations for Playing Call of Duty. Educational Reflections

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Marcano Lárez, Beatriz Elena

      2014-01-01

      War videogames raise a lot of controversy in the educational field and are by far the most played videogames worldwide. This study explores the factors that encouraged gamers to choose war videogames with a sample of 387 Call of Duty players. The motivational factors were pinpointed using a non-experimental descriptive exploratory study through an…

    • Entrepreneurship research and practice: a call to action for psychology.

      PubMed

      Hisrich, Robert; Langan-Fox, Janice; Grant, Sharon

      2007-09-01

      Entrepreneurship is a major source of employment, economic growth, and innovation, promoting product and service quality, competition, and economic flexibility. It is also a mechanism by which many people enter the society's economic and social mainstream, aiding culture formation, population integration, and social mobility. This article aims to illuminate research opportunities for psychologists by exposing gaps in the entrepreneurship literature and describing how these gaps can be filled. A "call to action" is issued to psychologists to develop theory and undertake empirical research focusing on five key topic areas: the personality characteristics of entrepreneurs, the psychopathology of entrepreneurs, entrepreneurial cognition, entrepreneurship education, and international entrepreneurship. Methodological issues are discussed and recommendations provided. It is shown that psychologists can help identify the factors that influence new venture creation and success and inform the construction of public policy to facilitate entrepreneurship.

    • Integration of oceanographic data with fin whale calling presence in the Bering Sea

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Dasarathy, S.; Berchok, C.; Stabeno, P. J.; Crance, J.

      2016-02-01

      Through the integration of environmental data with passive acoustic monitoring, it is possible to investigate whether fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) presence is influenced by environmental factors. Fin whale calling activity and concurrent environmental variables were analyzed from May 2012 to September 2013. These data were collected from passive acoustic and oceanographic moorings located in the Bering Sea. Fin whale calling presence was strongly correlated with three of the eight parameters analyzed: ice concentration, chlorophyll (a proxy for primary production), and temperature. Fin whale calling was negatively correlated with ice concentration; as ice concentration increased, fin whale calling decreased. A strong positive correlation was observed between fin whale calling and chlorophyll. A large spike in chlorophyll concentration in July 2013 preceded fin whale calling at the northern location. Fin whale calling also increased concurrently with a mixing of the water column (evidenced in the temperature data) at a depth of 30 to 50m. Peaks in chlorophyll concentration occurred after the mixing of the water column, and followed an increase in fin whale calling. These data illustrate the relationship between fin whale presence and environmental variables in the Bering Sea. These correlations may be used to predict the impact of climate change on fin whale populations in the rapidly changing environment of the Bering Sea.

    • Lymphotoxin-beta receptor blockade reduces CXCL13 in lacrimal glands and improves corneal integrity in the NOD model of Sjögren's syndrome

      PubMed Central

      2011-01-01

      Introduction In Sjögren's syndrome, keratoconjunctivitis sicca (dry eye) is associated with infiltration of lacrimal glands by leukocytes and consequent losses of tear-fluid production and the integrity of the ocular surface. We investigated the effect of blockade of the lymphotoxin-beta receptor (LTBR) pathway on lacrimal-gland pathology in the NOD mouse model of Sjögren's syndrome. Methods Male NOD mice were treated for up to ten weeks with an antagonist, LTBR-Ig, or control mouse antibody MOPC-21. Extra-orbital lacrimal glands were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for high endothelial venules (HEV), by Affymetrix gene-array analysis and real-time PCR for differential gene expression, and by ELISA for CXCL13 protein. Leukocytes from lacrimal glands were analyzed by flow-cytometry. Tear-fluid secretion-rates were measured and the integrity of the ocular surface was scored using slit-lamp microscopy and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) staining. The chemokine CXCL13 was measured by ELISA in sera from Sjögren's syndrome patients (n = 27) and healthy controls (n = 30). Statistical analysis was by the two-tailed, unpaired T-test, or the Mann-Whitney-test for ocular integrity scores. Results LTBR blockade for eight weeks reduced B-cell accumulation (approximately 5-fold), eliminated HEV in lacrimal glands, and reduced the entry rate of lymphocytes into lacrimal glands. Affymetrix-chip analysis revealed numerous changes in mRNA expression due to LTBR blockade, including reduction of homeostatic chemokine expression. The reduction of CXCL13, CCL21, CCL19 mRNA and the HEV-associated gene GLYCAM-1 was confirmed by PCR analysis. CXCL13 protein increased with disease progression in lacrimal-gland homogenates, but after LTBR blockade for 8 weeks, CXCL13 was reduced approximately 6-fold to 8.4 pg/mg (+/- 2.7) from 51 pg/mg (+/-5.3) in lacrimal glands of 16 week old control mice. Mice given LTBR blockade exhibited an approximately two-fold greater tear-fluid secretion than

    • 1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING MOBILE LAUNCHER. BASE IS CALLED LAUNCH ...

      Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

      1. AERIAL VIEW, SHOWING MOBILE LAUNCHER. BASE IS CALLED LAUNCH PLATFORM AND TOWER ON RIGHT IS CALLED LAUNCH UMBILICAL TOWER, (LUT). - Mobile Launcher One, Kennedy Space Center, Titusville, Brevard County, FL

    • Purpose, Mission, and Context: The Call for Educating Future Leaders

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Chunoo, Vivechkanand; Osteen, Laura

      2016-01-01

      This chapter calls on higher education to reclaim its role in leadership education. Specifically it examines higher education's purpose, context, and mission as clarion calls to embed leadership education throughout higher education institutions and focuses on why this is important.

    • TPMG Northern California appointments and advice call center.

      PubMed

      Conolly, Patricia; Levine, Leslie; Amaral, Debra J; Fireman, Bruce H; Driscoll, Tom

      2005-08-01

      Kaiser Permanente (KP) has been developing its use of call centers as a way to provide an expansive set of healthcare services to KP members efficiently and cost effectively. Since 1995, when The Permanente Medical Group (TPMG) began to consolidate primary care phone services into three physical call centers, the TPMG Appointments and Advice Call Center (AACC) has become the "front office" for primary care services across approximately 89% of Northern California. The AACC provides primary care phone service for approximately 3 million Kaiser Foundation Health Plan members in Northern California and responds to approximately 1 million calls per month across the three AACC sites. A database records each caller's identity as well as the day, time, and duration of each call; reason for calling; services provided to callers as a result of calls; and clinical outcomes of calls. We here summarize this information for the period 2000 through 2003.

  1. Smart call box field operational test evaluation : subtest reports

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-05-01

    Smart call boxes are an enhanced version of devices used as emergency call boxes in California. The overall system consists of a microprocessor, a cellular communications transceiver, solar power sources, data collection devices, maintenance computer...

  2. Smart call box field operational test evaluation : summary report

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1997-05-01

    Smart call boxes are an enhanced version of devices used as emergency call boxes in California. The overall system consists of a microprocessor, a cellular communications transceiver, solar power sources, data collection devices, maintenance computer...

  3. The So-Called 'Face on Mars'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 13 April 2002) The Science The so called