Science.gov

Sample records for caloric restriction shortens

  1. Caloric restriction and genomic stability

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Ahmad R.; Unnikrishnan, Archana; Lucente, Lisa Ventrella; Richardson, Arlan

    2007-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) reduces the incidence and progression of spontaneous and induced tumors in laboratory rodents while increasing mean and maximum life spans. It has been suggested that CR extends longevity and reduces age-related pathologies by reducing the levels of DNA damage and mutations that accumulate with age. This hypothesis is attractive because the integrity of the genome is essential to a cell/organism and because it is supported by observations that both cancer and immunological defects, which increase significantly with age and are delayed by CR, are associated with changes in DNA damage and/or DNA repair. Over the last three decades, numerous laboratories have examined the effects of CR on the integrity of the genome and the ability of cells to repair DNA. The majority of studies performed indicate that the age-related increase in oxidative damage to DNA is significantly reduced by CR. Early studies suggest that CR reduces DNA damage by enhancing DNA repair. With the advent of genomic technology and our increased understanding of specific repair pathways, CR has been shown to have a significant effect on major DNA repair pathways, such as NER, BER and double-strand break repair. PMID:17942423

  2. Fasting or caloric restriction for Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Stephen; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with a host of biological changes that contribute to a progressive decline in cognitive and physical function, ultimately leading to a loss of independence, and increased risk of mortality. To date, prolonged caloric restriction (i.e., a reduction in caloric intake without malnutrition) is the only non-genetic intervention that has consistently been found to extend both mean and maximal life span across a variety of species. Most individuals have difficulty sustaining prolonged caloric restriction, which has led to a search for alternative approaches that can produce similar to benefits as caloric restriction. A growing body of evidence indicates that fasting periods and intermittent fasting regimens in particular can trigger similar biological pathways as caloric restriction. For this reason, there is increasing scientific interest in further exploring the biological and metabolic effects of intermittent fasting periods, as well as whether long-term compliance may be improved by this type of dietary approach. This special will highlight the latest scientific findings related to the effects of both caloric restriction and intermittent fasting across various species including yeast, fruit flies, worms, rodents, primates, and humans. A specific emphasis is placed on translational research with findings from basic bench to bedside reviewed and practical clinical implications discussed. PMID:23639403

  3. Dietary restriction with and without caloric restriction for healthy aging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Changhan; Longo, Valter

    2016-01-01

    Caloric restriction is the most effective and reproducible dietary intervention known to regulate aging and increase the healthy lifespan in various model organisms, ranging from the unicellular yeast to worms, flies, rodents, and primates. However, caloric restriction, which in most cases entails a 20–40% reduction of food consumption relative to normal intake, is a severe intervention that results in both beneficial and detrimental effects. Specific types of chronic, intermittent, or periodic dietary restrictions without chronic caloric restriction have instead the potential to provide a significant healthspan increase while minimizing adverse effects. Improved periodic or targeted dietary restriction regimens that uncouple the challenge of food deprivation from the beneficial effects will allow a safe intervention feasible for a major portion of the population. Here we focus on healthspan interventions that are not chronic or do not require calorie restriction. PMID:26918181

  4. Dietary restriction with and without caloric restriction for healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Changhan; Longo, Valter

    2016-01-01

    Caloric restriction is the most effective and reproducible dietary intervention known to regulate aging and increase the healthy lifespan in various model organisms, ranging from the unicellular yeast to worms, flies, rodents, and primates. However, caloric restriction, which in most cases entails a 20-40% reduction of food consumption relative to normal intake, is a severe intervention that results in both beneficial and detrimental effects. Specific types of chronic, intermittent, or periodic dietary restrictions without chronic caloric restriction have instead the potential to provide a significant healthspan increase while minimizing adverse effects. Improved periodic or targeted dietary restriction regimens that uncouple the challenge of food deprivation from the beneficial effects will allow a safe intervention feasible for a major portion of the population. Here we focus on healthspan interventions that are not chronic or do not require calorie restriction. PMID:26918181

  5. Patterns of intraspecific variability in the response to caloric restriction

    PubMed Central

    Gribble, Kristin E.; Kaido, Oksana; Jarvis, George; Mark Welch, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) is cited as the most robust means of increasing lifespan across a range of taxa, yet there is a high degree of variability in the response to CR, both within and between species. To examine the intraspecific evolutionary conservation of lifespan extension by CR, we tested the effects of chronic caloric restriction (CCR) at multiple food levels and of intermittent fasting (IF) in twelve isolates from the Brachionus plicatilis species complex of monogonont rotifers. While CCR generally increased or did not change lifespan and total fecundity, IF caused increased, unchanged, or decreased lifespan, depending upon the isolate, and decreased total fecundity in all but one isolate. Lifespan under ad libitum (AL) feeding varied among isolates and predicted the lifespan response to CR: longer-lived isolates under AL were less likely to have a significant increase in lifespan under CCR and were more likely to have a significantly shortened lifespan under IF. Lifespan under AL conditions and the response to CR were not correlated with hydroperiodicity of native habitat or with time in culture. Lack of trade-off between lifespan and fecundity under CCR, and differences in lifespan and fecundity under CCR and IF, even when average food intake was similar, suggest that longevity changes are not always directly determined by energy intake and that CCR and IF regimens extend lifespan through diverse genetic mechanisms. PMID:24384399

  6. Patterns of intraspecific variability in the response to caloric restriction.

    PubMed

    Gribble, Kristin E; Kaido, Oksana; Jarvis, George; Mark Welch, David B

    2014-03-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) is cited as the most robust means of increasing lifespan across a range of taxa, yet there is a high degree of variability in the response to CR, both within and between species. To examine the intraspecific evolutionary conservation of lifespan extension by CR, we tested the effects of chronic caloric restriction (CCR) at multiple food levels and of intermittent fasting (IF) in twelve isolates from the Brachionus plicatilis species complex of monogonont rotifers. While CCR generally increased or did not change lifespan and total fecundity, IF caused increased, unchanged, or decreased lifespan, depending upon the isolate, and decreased total fecundity in all but one isolate. Lifespan under ad libitum (AL) feeding varied among isolates and predicted the lifespan response to CR: longer-lived isolates under AL were less likely to have a significant increase in lifespan under CCR and were more likely to have a significantly shortened lifespan under IF. Lifespan under AL conditions and the response to CR were not correlated with hydroperiodicity of native habitat or with time in culture. Lack of trade-off between lifespan and fecundity under CCR, and differences in lifespan and fecundity under CCR and IF, even when average food intake was similar, suggest that longevity changes are not always directly determined by energy intake and that CCR and IF regimens extend lifespan through diverse genetic mechanisms.

  7. Patterns of intraspecific variability in the response to caloric restriction.

    PubMed

    Gribble, Kristin E; Kaido, Oksana; Jarvis, George; Mark Welch, David B

    2014-03-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) is cited as the most robust means of increasing lifespan across a range of taxa, yet there is a high degree of variability in the response to CR, both within and between species. To examine the intraspecific evolutionary conservation of lifespan extension by CR, we tested the effects of chronic caloric restriction (CCR) at multiple food levels and of intermittent fasting (IF) in twelve isolates from the Brachionus plicatilis species complex of monogonont rotifers. While CCR generally increased or did not change lifespan and total fecundity, IF caused increased, unchanged, or decreased lifespan, depending upon the isolate, and decreased total fecundity in all but one isolate. Lifespan under ad libitum (AL) feeding varied among isolates and predicted the lifespan response to CR: longer-lived isolates under AL were less likely to have a significant increase in lifespan under CCR and were more likely to have a significantly shortened lifespan under IF. Lifespan under AL conditions and the response to CR were not correlated with hydroperiodicity of native habitat or with time in culture. Lack of trade-off between lifespan and fecundity under CCR, and differences in lifespan and fecundity under CCR and IF, even when average food intake was similar, suggest that longevity changes are not always directly determined by energy intake and that CCR and IF regimens extend lifespan through diverse genetic mechanisms. PMID:24384399

  8. [Caloric restriction: about its positive metabolic effects and cellular impact].

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Bautista, Raúl Julián; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos Alberto; Monroy-Guzmán, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Caloric restriction, as a 30 to 60% decrease of ad libitum balanced caloric intake, without malnutrition, is the non-genetic strategy that has consistently extended the average and maximum lifespan of most living beings, and it has been tested from unicellular organisms like yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Rhesus primates. In addition, various genetic and pharmacological caloric restriction models have shown to protect against cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Primate studies suggest that this intervention delays the onset of age-related diseases; in humans, it has physiological, biochemical and metabolic effects decreasing diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk factor. Although currently the mechanism by which caloric restriction has its positive effects at the cellular level is unknown, it has been reported to decrease oxidative stress and increase in mitochondrial biogenesis.

  9. [Caloric restriction: about its positive metabolic effects and cellular impact].

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Bautista, Raúl Julián; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos Alberto; Monroy-Guzmán, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    Caloric restriction, as a 30 to 60% decrease of ad libitum balanced caloric intake, without malnutrition, is the non-genetic strategy that has consistently extended the average and maximum lifespan of most living beings, and it has been tested from unicellular organisms like yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Rhesus primates. In addition, various genetic and pharmacological caloric restriction models have shown to protect against cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Primate studies suggest that this intervention delays the onset of age-related diseases; in humans, it has physiological, biochemical and metabolic effects decreasing diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk factor. Although currently the mechanism by which caloric restriction has its positive effects at the cellular level is unknown, it has been reported to decrease oxidative stress and increase in mitochondrial biogenesis. PMID:25125067

  10. Caloric restriction and exercise "mimetics'': Ready for prime time?

    PubMed

    Handschin, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Exercise and diet are powerful interventions to prevent and ameliorate various pathologies. The development of pharmacological agents that confer exercise- or caloric restriction-like phenotypic effects is thus an appealing therapeutic strategy in diseases or even when used as life-style and longevity drugs. Such so-called exercise or caloric restriction "mimetics" have so far mostly been described in pre-clinical, experimental settings with limited translation into humans. Interestingly, many of these compounds activate related signaling pathways, most often postulated to act on the common downstream effector peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) in skeletal muscle. In this review, resveratrol and other exercise- and caloric restriction "mimetics" are discussed with a special focus on feasibility, chances and limitations of using such compounds in patients as well as in healthy individuals. PMID:26658171

  11. Caloric restriction as a mechanism mediating resistance to environmental disease.

    PubMed Central

    Frame, L T; Hart, R W; Leakey, J E

    1998-01-01

    It has been observed that susceptibility to many degenerative diseases increases concurrently with industrialization and rising living standards. Although epidemiologic studies suggest that specific environmental and dietary factors may be important, caloric intake alone (as reflected in body size) may account for much of the differential risk observed among diverse human populations. It has been suggested from animal studies that caloric intake may be the primary effector for many hormonal, metabolic, physiologic, and behavioral responses that coordinate reproductive strategy to apparent availability of food. When caloric intake is excessive, particularly at critical developmental stages, physiologic priorities are set for body growth and fecundity rather than for endurance and longevity. The converse occurs during periods of famine, thus increasing the probability that sufficient individuals survive to restore the population when conditions improve. Calorically restricted rodents have significantly longer reproductive and total life spans than their ad libitum-fed controls and exhibit a spectrum of biochemical and physiologic alterations that characterize their adaptation to reduced intake. These include reduced stature, hypercorticism in the absence of elevated adrenocorticotropic hormone levels, increased metabolic efficiency, decreased mitogenic response coupled with increased rates of apoptosis, reduced inflammatory response, induction of stress proteins and DNA repair enzymes, altered drug-metabolizing enzyme expression, and modified cell-mediated immune function. The overall profile of these changes is one of improved defense against environmental stress. This has been suggested as the mechanistic basis for the protective effects of low body weight on radiation and chemically induced cancers in experimental animals. It may also explain the significantly higher thresholds of acute toxicity observed when calorically restricted rodents are exposed to certain

  12. Protection against chronic cadmium toxicity by caloric restriction.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Z A; Jordan, S A; Tang, W

    1999-04-15

    Exposure to cadmium (Cd) can result in nephrotoxicity and osteotoxicity. Because Cd-induced nephrotoxicity involves oxidative stress and caloric restriction decreases oxidative stress, we examined whether reduced caloric intake will protect against Cd-induced nephrotoxicity. In addition, the protection against the osteotoxicity was also examined. Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were provided drinking water containing 100 mg Cd/l. Since fluid intake relative to the body weight was higher in females as compared to the males, the Cd concentration in their water was reduced to 80 mg/l after 3 months and 65 mg/l after 6.5 months. During the 27 month exposure period the males and females consumed a total of about 5 g Cd/kg body weight. Food was restricted to 20 g/day after the first 3 months. During the unrestricted food intake period Cd exposure reduced the bone density in females by 23%, with a partial recovery and stabilization during the caloric restriction phase. Hepatic and renal Cd accumulation and corresponding metallothionein (MT) levels were very similar in both sexes. The reported critical Cd concentration for nephrotoxicity was reached by 9 months. Renal MT levels were maximum at this time. Despite a 1.5-fold increase in renal Cd concentration over the next 18 months, there was no significant increase in renal MT levels. In spite of high renal Cd levels and lack of availability of sufficient MT, there was no sign of nephrotoxicity, as measured by urinary protein and glucose excretion. It is concluded that caloric restriction prevents Cd-induced nephrotoxicity and also appears to control the osteotoxicity of Cd.

  13. Aging, Neurogenesis, and Caloric Restriction in Different Model Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Arslan-Ergul, Ayca; Ozdemir, A Tugrul; Adams, Michelle M

    2013-01-01

    Brain aging is a multifactorial process that is occurring across multiple cognitive domains. A significant complaint that occurs in the elderly is a decrement in learning and memory ability. Both rodents and zebrafish exhibit a similar problem with memory during aging. The neurobiological changes that underlie this cognitive decline are complex and undoubtedly influenced by many factors. Alterations in the birth of new neurons and neuron turnover may contribute to age-related cognitive problems. Caloric restriction is the only non-genetic intervention that reliably increases life span and healthspan across multiple organisms although the molecular mechanisms are not well-understood. Recently the zebrafish has become a popular model organism for understanding the neurobiological consequences but to date very little work has been performed. Similarly, few studies have examined the effects of dietary restriction in zebrafish. Here we review the literature related to memory decline, neurogenesis, and caloric restriction across model organisms and suggest that zebrafish has the potential to be an important animal model for understanding the complex interactions between age, neurobiological changes in the brain, and dietary regimens or their mimetics as interventions. PMID:23936746

  14. Caloric restriction mimetics: natural/physiological pharmacological autophagy inducers

    PubMed Central

    Mariño, Guillermo; Pietrocola, Federico; Madeo, Frank; Kroemer, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Nutrient depletion, which is one of the physiological triggers of autophagy, results in the depletion of intracellular acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA) coupled to the deacetylation of cellular proteins. We surmise that there are 3 possibilities to mimic these effects, namely (i) the depletion of cytosolic AcCoA by interfering with its biosynthesis, (ii) the inhibition of acetyltransferases, which are enzymes that transfer acetyl groups from AcCoA to other molecules, mostly leucine residues in cellular proteins, or (iii) the stimulation of deacetylases, which catalyze the removal of acetyl groups from leucine residues. There are several examples of rather nontoxic natural compounds that act as AcCoA depleting agents (e.g., hydroxycitrate), acetyltransferase inhibitors (e.g., anacardic acid, curcumin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, garcinol, spermidine) or deacetylase activators (e.g., nicotinamide, resveratrol), and that are highly efficient inducers of autophagy in vitro and in vivo, in rodents. Another common characteristic of these agents is their capacity to reduce aging-associated diseases and to confer protective responses against ischemia-induced organ damage. Hence, we classify them as “caloric restriction mimetics” (CRM). Here, we speculate that CRM may mediate their broad health-improving effects by triggering the same molecular pathways that usually are elicited by long-term caloric restriction or short-term starvation and that imply the induction of autophagy as an obligatory event conferring organismal, organ- or cytoprotection. PMID:25484097

  15. Lifelong caloric restriction increases working memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Kuhla, Angela; Lange, Sophie; Holzmann, Carsten; Maass, Fabian; Petersen, Jana; Vollmar, Brigitte; Wree, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) is argued to positively affect general health, longevity and the normally occurring age-related reduction of cognition. This issue is well examined, but most studies investigated the effect of short-term periods of CR. Herein, 4 weeks old female mice were fed caloric restricted for 4, 20 and especially for 74 weeks. CR mice received 60% of food eaten by their ad libitum (AL) fed littermates, and all age-matched groups were behaviorally analyzed. The motor coordination, which was tested by rotarod/accelerod, decreased age-related, but was not influenced by the different periods of CR. In contrast, the age-related impairment of spontaneous locomotor activity and anxiety, both being evaluated by open field and by elevated plus maze test, was found aggravated by a lifelong CR. Measurement of cognitive performance with morris water maze showed that the working memory decreased age-related in AL mice, while a lifelong CR caused a better cognitive performance and resulted in a significantly better spatial memory upon 74 weeks CR feeding. However, a late-onset CR feeding in 66 weeks old mice did not ameliorate the working memory. Therefore, a lifelong CR seems to be necessary to improve working memory.

  16. Lifelong Caloric Restriction Increases Working Memory in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Holzmann, Carsten; Maass, Fabian; Petersen, Jana; Vollmar, Brigitte; Wree, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) is argued to positively affect general health, longevity and the normally occurring age-related reduction of cognition. This issue is well examined, but most studies investigated the effect of short-term periods of CR. Herein, 4 weeks old female mice were fed caloric restricted for 4, 20 and especially for 74 weeks. CR mice received 60% of food eaten by their ad libitum (AL) fed littermates, and all age-matched groups were behaviorally analyzed. The motor coordination, which was tested by rotarod/accelerod, decreased age-related, but was not influenced by the different periods of CR. In contrast, the age-related impairment of spontaneous locomotor activity and anxiety, both being evaluated by open field and by elevated plus maze test, was found aggravated by a lifelong CR. Measurement of cognitive performance with morris water maze showed that the working memory decreased age-related in AL mice, while a lifelong CR caused a better cognitive performance and resulted in a significantly better spatial memory upon 74 weeks CR feeding. However, a late-onset CR feeding in 66 weeks old mice did not ameliorate the working memory. Therefore, a lifelong CR seems to be necessary to improve working memory. PMID:23874758

  17. Lifelong caloric restriction increases working memory in mice.

    PubMed

    Kuhla, Angela; Lange, Sophie; Holzmann, Carsten; Maass, Fabian; Petersen, Jana; Vollmar, Brigitte; Wree, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) is argued to positively affect general health, longevity and the normally occurring age-related reduction of cognition. This issue is well examined, but most studies investigated the effect of short-term periods of CR. Herein, 4 weeks old female mice were fed caloric restricted for 4, 20 and especially for 74 weeks. CR mice received 60% of food eaten by their ad libitum (AL) fed littermates, and all age-matched groups were behaviorally analyzed. The motor coordination, which was tested by rotarod/accelerod, decreased age-related, but was not influenced by the different periods of CR. In contrast, the age-related impairment of spontaneous locomotor activity and anxiety, both being evaluated by open field and by elevated plus maze test, was found aggravated by a lifelong CR. Measurement of cognitive performance with morris water maze showed that the working memory decreased age-related in AL mice, while a lifelong CR caused a better cognitive performance and resulted in a significantly better spatial memory upon 74 weeks CR feeding. However, a late-onset CR feeding in 66 weeks old mice did not ameliorate the working memory. Therefore, a lifelong CR seems to be necessary to improve working memory. PMID:23874758

  18. Behavioral and physiologic responses to caloric restriction in mice.

    PubMed

    Overton, J M; Williams, T D

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of the review is to highlight the influences of ambient temperature (T(a)) and caloric restriction (CR) on metabolism, cardiovascular function and behavior in mice. Standard vivarium ambient temperatures (T(a)?23 degrees C) are a mild cold stress for mice requiring elevated metabolic rate and food intake. Increasing T(a) into the zone of thermoneutrality (TMN?29-33 degrees C) markedly reduces food intake, metabolic rate, heart rate (HR) and blood pressure in mice. Mice are members of a diverse, yet unique group of homeothermic animals that respond to thermal and energetic challenges by allowing body temperature (T(b)) to fall to less than 31 degrees C, a condition known as torpor. In mice housed at standard T(a), torpor is induced by a single night of fasting or a few days of CR. The mechanisms responsible for initiating torpor are related to reduced caloric availability, but do not require leptin. Mice housed at TMN and subjected to CR exhibit physiologic reductions in metabolic rate and HR, but do not appear to enter torpor. Finally, mice exhibit differential locomotor activity responses during CR that depends on T(a). At standard T(a), mice display increased light-phase home-cage activity with CR. This response is virtually eliminated when CR is performed at TMN. We suggest that researchers using mice to investigate energy homeostasis and cardiovascular physiology carefully consider the influence of T(a) on physiology and behavior.

  19. Autophagy mediates caloric restriction-induced lifespan extension in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Minina, Elena A; Sanchez-Vera, Victoria; Moschou, Panagiotis N; Suarez, Maria F; Sundberg, Eva; Weih, Martin; Bozhkov, Peter V

    2013-04-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) extends lifespan in various heterotrophic organisms ranging from yeasts to mammals, but whether a similar phenomenon occurs in plants remains unknown. Plants are autotrophs and use their photosynthetic machinery to convert light energy into the chemical energy of glucose and other organic compounds. As the rate of photosynthesis is proportional to the level of photosynthetically active radiation, the CR in plants can be modeled by lowering light intensity. Here, we report that low light intensity extends the lifespan in Arabidopsis through the mechanisms triggering autophagy, the major catabolic process that recycles damaged and potentially harmful cellular material. Knockout of autophagy-related genes results in the short lifespan and suppression of the lifespan-extending effect of the CR. Our data demonstrate that the autophagy-dependent mechanism of CR-induced lifespan extension is conserved between autotrophs and heterotrophs.

  20. Fasting and Caloric Restriction in Cancer Prevention and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Brandhorst, Sebastian; Longo, Valter D

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the USA and among the leading major diseases in the world. It is anticipated to continue to increase because of the growth of the aging population and prevalence of risk factors such as obesity, smoking, and/or poor dietary habits. Cancer treatment has remained relatively similar during the past 30 years with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in combination with surgery remaining the standard therapies although novel therapies are slowly replacing or complementing the standard ones. According to the American Cancer Society, the dietary recommendation for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy is to increase calorie and protein intake. In addition, there are no clear guidelines on the type of nutrition that could have a major impact on cancer incidence. Yet, various forms of reduced caloric intake such as calorie restriction (CR) or fasting demonstrate a wide range of beneficial effects able to help prevent malignancies and increase the efficacy of cancer therapies. Whereas chronic CR provides both beneficial and detrimental effects as well as major compliance challenges, periodic fasting (PF), fasting-mimicking diets (FMDs), and dietary restriction (DR) without a reduction in calories are emerging as interventions with the potential to be widely used to prevent and treat cancer. Here, we review preclinical and preliminary clinical studies on dietary restriction and fasting and their role in inducing cellular protection and chemotherapy resistance. PMID:27557543

  1. Fasting and Caloric Restriction in Cancer Prevention and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Brandhorst, Sebastian; Longo, Valter D

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the USA and among the leading major diseases in the world. It is anticipated to continue to increase because of the growth of the aging population and prevalence of risk factors such as obesity, smoking, and/or poor dietary habits. Cancer treatment has remained relatively similar during the past 30 years with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy in combination with surgery remaining the standard therapies although novel therapies are slowly replacing or complementing the standard ones. According to the American Cancer Society, the dietary recommendation for cancer patients receiving chemotherapy is to increase calorie and protein intake. In addition, there are no clear guidelines on the type of nutrition that could have a major impact on cancer incidence. Yet, various forms of reduced caloric intake such as calorie restriction (CR) or fasting demonstrate a wide range of beneficial effects able to help prevent malignancies and increase the efficacy of cancer therapies. Whereas chronic CR provides both beneficial and detrimental effects as well as major compliance challenges, periodic fasting (PF), fasting-mimicking diets (FMDs), and dietary restriction (DR) without a reduction in calories are emerging as interventions with the potential to be widely used to prevent and treat cancer. Here, we review preclinical and preliminary clinical studies on dietary restriction and fasting and their role in inducing cellular protection and chemotherapy resistance.

  2. Homeostatic responses to caloric restriction: influence of background metabolic rate.

    PubMed

    Evans, S A; Parsons, A D; Overton, J M

    2005-10-01

    The biological responses to caloric restriction (CR) are generally examined in rats with elevated metabolic rates due to being housed at ambient temperatures (T(a)) below the zone of thermoneutrality. We determined the physiological and behavioral responses to 2 wk of 30-40% CR in male FBNF1 rats housed in cool (T(a) = 12 degrees C) or thermoneutral (TMN; T(a) = 30 degrees C) conditions. Rats were instrumented with telemetry devices and housed continuously in home-cage calorimeters for the entire experiment. At baseline, rats housed in cool T(a) had reduced rate of weight gain; thus a mild CR (5%) group at thermoneutrality for weight maintenance was also studied. Rats housed in cool T(a) exhibited elevated caloric intake (cool = 77 +/- 1; TMN = 54 +/- 2 kcal), oxygen consumption (Vo(2); cool = 9.9 +/- 0.1; TMN = 5.5 +/- 0.1 ml/min), mean arterial pressure (cool = 103 +/- 1; TMN = 80 +/- 2 mmHg), and heart rate (cool = 374 +/- 3; TMN = 275 +/- 4 beats/min). Cool-CR rats exhibited greater CR-induced weight loss (cool = -62 +/- 3; TMN = -42 +/- 3 g) and reductions in Vo(2) (cool = -2.6 +/- 0.1; TMN = -1.5 +/- 0.1 ml/min) but similar CR-induced reductions in heart rate (cool = -59 +/- 1; TMN= -51 +/- 7 beats/min). CR had no effect on arterial blood pressure or locomotor activity in either group. Unexpectedly, weight maintenance produced significant reductions in Vo(2) and heart rate. At thermoneutrality, a single day of refeeding effectively abolished CR-induced reductions in Vo(2) and heart rate. The results reveal that rats with low or high baseline metabolic rate exhibit comparable compensatory reductions in Vo(2) and heart rate and suggest that T(a) can be used to modulate the metabolic background on which the more prolonged effects of CR can be studied.

  3. Caloric restriction augments radiation efficacy in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Anthony D.; Simone, Brittany A.; Palazzo, Juan; Savage, Jason E.; Sano, Yuri; Dan, Tu; Jin, Lianjin; Champ, Colin E.; Zhao, Shuping; Lim, Meng; Sotgia, Frederica; Camphausen, Kevin; Pestell, Richard G.; Mitchell, James B.; Lisanti, Michael P.; Simone, Nicole L.

    2013-01-01

    Dietary modification such as caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to decrease tumor initiation and progression. We sought to determine if nutrient restriction could be used as a novel therapeutic intervention to enhance cytotoxic therapies such as radiation (IR) and alter the molecular profile of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which displays a poor prognosis. In two murine models of TNBC, significant tumor regression is noted with IR or diet modification, and a greater regression is observed combining diet modification with IR. Two methods of diet modification were compared, and it was found that a daily 30% reduction in total calories provided more significant tumor regression than alternate day feeding. At the molecular level, tumors treated with CR and IR showed less proliferation and more apoptosis. cDNA array analysis demonstrated the IGF-1R pathway plays a key role in achieving this physiologic response, and multiple members of the IGF-1R pathway including IGF-1R, IRS, PIK3ca and mTOR were found to be downregulated. The innovative use of CR as a novel therapeutic option has the potential to change the biology of tumors and enhance the opportunity for clinical benefit in the treatment of patients with TNBC. PMID:23708519

  4. In vitro caloric restriction induces protective genes and functional rejuvenation in senescent SAMP8 astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    García-Matas, Silvia; Paul, Rajib K; Molina-Martínez, Patricia; Palacios, Hector; Gutierrez, Vincent M; Corpas, Rubén; Pallas, Mercè; Cristòfol, Rosa; de Cabo, Rafael; Sanfeliu, Coral

    2015-01-01

    Astrocytes are key cells in brain aging, helping neurons to undertake healthy aging or otherwise letting them enter into a spiral of neurodegeneration. We aimed to characterize astrocytes cultured from senescence-accelerated prone 8 (SAMP8) mice, a mouse model of brain pathological aging, along with the effects of caloric restriction, the most effective rejuvenating treatment known so far. Analysis of the transcriptomic profiles of SAMP8 astrocytes cultured in control conditions and treated with caloric restriction serum was performed using mRNA microarrays. A decrease in mitochondrial and ribosome mRNA, which was restored by caloric restriction, confirmed the age-related profile of SAMP8 astrocytes and the benefits of caloric restriction. An amelioration of antioxidant and neurodegeneration-related pathways confirmed the brain benefits of caloric restriction. Studies of oxidative stress and mitochondrial function demonstrated a reduction of oxidative damage and partial improvement of mitochondria after caloric restriction. In summary, caloric restriction showed a significant tendency to normalize pathologically aged astrocytes through the activation of pathways that are protective against the age-related deterioration of brain physiology. PMID:25711920

  5. Ageing and Caloric Restriction in a Marine Planktonic Copepod

    PubMed Central

    Saiz, Enric; Calbet, Albert; Griffell, Kaiene; Bersano, José Guilherme F.; Isari, Stamatina; Solé, Montserrat; Peters, Janna; Alcaraz, Miquel

    2015-01-01

    Planktonic copepods are a key group in the marine pelagic ecosystem, linking primary production with upper trophic levels. Their abundance and population dynamics are constrained by the life history tradeoffs associated with resource availability, reproduction and predation pressure. The tradeoffs associated with the ageing process and its underlying biological mechanisms are, however, poorly known. Our study shows that ageing in copepods involves a deterioration of their vital rates and a rise in mortality associated with an increase in oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation); the activity of the cell-repair enzymatic machinery also increases with age. This increase in oxidative damage is associated with an increase in the relative content of the fatty acid 22:6(n-3), an essential component of cell membranes that increases their susceptibility to peroxidation. Moreover, we show that caloric (food) restriction in marine copepods reduces their age-specific mortality rates, and extends the lifespan of females and their reproductive period. Given the overall low production of the oceans, this can be a strategy, at least in certain copepod species, to enhance their chances to reproduce in a nutritionally dilute, temporally and spatially patchy environment. PMID:26455575

  6. Ageing and Caloric Restriction in a Marine Planktonic Copepod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz, Enric; Calbet, Albert; Griffell, Kaiene; Bersano, José Guilherme F.; Isari, Stamatina; Solé, Montserrat; Peters, Janna; Alcaraz, Miquel

    2015-10-01

    Planktonic copepods are a key group in the marine pelagic ecosystem, linking primary production with upper trophic levels. Their abundance and population dynamics are constrained by the life history tradeoffs associated with resource availability, reproduction and predation pressure. The tradeoffs associated with the ageing process and its underlying biological mechanisms are, however, poorly known. Our study shows that ageing in copepods involves a deterioration of their vital rates and a rise in mortality associated with an increase in oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation); the activity of the cell-repair enzymatic machinery also increases with age. This increase in oxidative damage is associated with an increase in the relative content of the fatty acid 22:6(n-3), an essential component of cell membranes that increases their susceptibility to peroxidation. Moreover, we show that caloric (food) restriction in marine copepods reduces their age-specific mortality rates, and extends the lifespan of females and their reproductive period. Given the overall low production of the oceans, this can be a strategy, at least in certain copepod species, to enhance their chances to reproduce in a nutritionally dilute, temporally and spatially patchy environment.

  7. Cardioprotective Signature of Short-Term Caloric Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Isserlin, Ruth; Arab, Sara; Momen, Abdul; Cheng, Henry S.; Wu, Jun; Afroze, Talat; Li, Ren-Ke; Fish, Jason E.; Bader, Gary D.; Husain, Mansoor

    2015-01-01

    Objective To understand the molecular pathways underlying the cardiac preconditioning effect of short-term caloric restriction (CR). Background Lifelong CR has been suggested to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease through a variety of mechanisms. However, prolonged adherence to a CR life-style is difficult. Here we reveal the pathways that are modulated by short-term CR, which are associated with protection of the mouse heart from ischemia. Methods Male 10-12 wk old C57bl/6 mice were randomly assigned to an ad libitum (AL) diet with free access to regular chow, or CR, receiving 30% less food for 7 days (d), prior to myocardial infarction (MI) via permanent coronary ligation. At d8, the left ventricles (LV) of AL and CR mice were collected for Western blot, mRNA and microRNA (miR) analyses to identify cardioprotective gene expression signatures. In separate groups, infarct size, cardiac hemodynamics and protein abundance of caspase 3 was measured at d2 post-MI. Results This short-term model of CR was associated with cardio-protection, as evidenced by decreased infarct size (18.5±2.4% vs. 26.6±1.7%, N=10/group; P=0.01). mRNA and miR profiles pre-MI (N=5/group) identified genes modulated by short-term CR to be associated with circadian clock, oxidative stress, immune function, apoptosis, metabolism, angiogenesis, cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM). Western blots pre-MI revealed CR-associated increases in phosphorylated Akt and GSK3ß, reduced levels of phosphorylated AMPK and mitochondrial related proteins PGC-1α, cytochrome C and cyclooxygenase (COX) IV, with no differences in the levels of phosphorylated eNOS or MAPK (ERK1/2; p38). CR regimen was also associated with reduced protein abundance of cleaved caspase 3 in the infarcted heart and improved cardiac function. PMID:26098549

  8. A New Schizosaccharomyces pombe Chronological Lifespan Assay Reveals that Caloric Restriction Promotes Efficient Cell Cycle Exit and Extends Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo-Ruei; Runge, Kurt W.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a new chronological lifespan (CLS) assay for the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Yeast CLS assays monitor the loss of cell viability in a culture over time, and this new assay shows a continuous decline in viability without detectable regrowth until all cells in the culture are dead. Thus, the survival curve is not altered by the generation of mutants that can grow during the experiments, and one can monitor the entire lifespan of a strain until the number of viable cells has decreased over 106-fold. This CLS assay recapitulates the evolutionarily conserved features of lifespan shortening by over nutrition, lifespan extension by caloric restriction, increased stress resistance of calorically restricted cells and lifespan control by the AKT kinases. Both S. pombe AKT kinase orthologs regulate CLS: loss of sck1+ extended lifespan in over nutrition conditions, loss of sck2+ extended lifespan under both normal and over nutrition conditions, and loss of both genes showed that sck1+ and sck2+ control different longevity pathways. The longest-lived S. pombe cells showed the most efficient cell cycle exit, demonstrating that caloric restriction links these two processes. This new S. pombe CLS assay will provide a valuable tool for aging research. PMID:19409973

  9. Repletion of TNFα or leptin in calorically restricted mice suppresses post-restriction hyperphagia

    PubMed Central

    Hambly, Catherine; Duncan, Jacqueline S.; Archer, Zoë A.; Moar, Kim M.; Mercer, Julian G.; Speakman, John R.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The causes of post-restriction hyperphagia (PRH) represent a target for drug-based therapies to prevent obesity. However, the factors causing PRH are poorly understood. We show that, in mice, the extent of PRH was independent of the time under restriction, but depended on its severity, suggesting that PRH was driven by signals from altered body composition. Signals related to fat mass were important drivers. Circulating levels of leptin and TNFα were significantly depleted following caloric restriction (CR). We experimentally repleted their levels to match those of controls, and found that in both treatment groups the level of PRH was significantly blunted. These data establish a role for TNFα and leptin in the non-pathological regulation of energy homeostasis. Signals from adipose tissue, including but not limited to leptin and TNFα, regulate PRH and might be targets for therapies that support people engaged in CR to reduce obesity. PMID:21954068

  10. Caloric restricted male rats demonstrate fewer synapses in layer 2 of sensorimotor cortex.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lei; Poe, Brandon Hollis; Constance Linville, Martha; Sonntag, William Edmund; Brunso-Bechtold, Judy Karen

    2002-03-22

    Previous studies have demonstrated an age-related decline in the density of presumptive inhibitory synapses in layer 2 of rat sensorimotor cortex [J. Comp. Neurol. 439(1) (2001) 65]. Caloric restriction has been shown to ameliorate age-related deterioration in a variety of systems and to extend life span. The present study tested the hypothesis that caloric restriction would prevent the previously reported age-related synaptic decline. Accordingly, synaptic density in layer 2 of sensorimotor cortex was compared between 29-month-old male rats fed ad libitum and 29-month-old male rats that were caloric restricted (60% of ad libitum calories) from 4 months of age. In serial electron micrographs, the physical disector was used to determine the numerical density of presumptive excitatory and inhibitory synapses (those containing round or nonround vesicles, respectively) as well as that of neurons. Not only was the previously reported age-related decline in numerical density of presumptive inhibitory synapses not ameliorated by caloric restriction, the numerical density was significantly lower in caloric restricted than in ad libitum fed rats for total as well as for presumptive excitatory and inhibitory synapses. Analysis further revealed no difference in the numerical density of neurons in this region. Relating synapse density to neuron density as the ratio of synapses to neuron also demonstrated significantly fewer synapses per neuron in caloric restricted than in ad libitum fed old rats. Finally, synapse length was significantly less in caloric restricted rats. These results suggest that not only does caloric restriction fail to prevent the age-related decline in presumptive inhibitory synapses, it results in fewer presumptive excitatory synapses as well.

  11. A Human Thrifty Phenotype Associated With Less Weight Loss During Caloric Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Thearle, Marie S.; Ibrahim, Mostafa; Hohenadel, Maximilian G.; Bogardus, Clifton; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Successful weight loss is variable for reasons not fully elucidated. Whether effective weight loss results from smaller reductions in energy expenditure during caloric restriction is not known. We analyzed whether obese individuals with a “thrifty” phenotype, that is, greater reductions in 24-h energy expenditure during fasting and smaller increases with overfeeding, lose less weight during caloric restriction than those with a “spendthrift” phenotype. During a weight-maintaining period, 24-h energy expenditure responses to fasting and 200% overfeeding were measured in a whole-room indirect calorimeter. Volunteers then underwent 6 weeks of 50% caloric restriction. We calculated the daily energy deficit (kilocalories per day) during caloric restriction, incorporating energy intake and waste, energy expenditure, and daily activity. We found that a smaller reduction in 24-h energy expenditure during fasting and a larger response to overfeeding predicted more weight loss over 6 weeks, even after accounting for age, sex, race, and baseline weight, as well as a greater rate of energy deficit accumulation. The success of dietary weight loss efforts is influenced by the energy expenditure response to caloric restriction. Greater decreases in energy expenditure during caloric restriction predict less weight loss, indicating the presence of thrifty and spendthrift phenotypes in obese humans. PMID:25964395

  12. Early postnatal caloric restriction protects adult male intrauterine growth-restricted offspring from obesity.

    PubMed

    Garg, Meena; Thamotharan, Manikkavasagar; Dai, Yun; Thamotharan, Shanthie; Shin, Bo-Chul; Stout, David; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2012-06-01

    Postnatal ad libitum caloric intake superimposed on intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with adult-onset obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We hypothesized that this paradigm of prenatal nutrient deprivation-induced programming can be reversed with the introduction of early postnatal calorie restriction. Ten-month-old male rats exposed to either prenatal nutrient restriction with ad libitum postnatal intake (IUGR), pre- and postnatal nutrient restriction (IPGR), or postnatal nutrient restriction limited to the suckling phase (50% from postnatal [PN]1 to PN21) (PNGR) were compared with age-matched controls (CON). Visceral adiposity, metabolic profile, and insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps were examined. The 10-month-old male IUGR group had a 1.5- to 2.0-fold increase in subcutaneous and visceral fat (P < 0.0002) while remaining euglycemic, insulin sensitive, inactive, and exhibiting metabolic inflexibility (Vo(2)) versus CON. The IPGR group remained lean, euglycemic, insulin sensitive, and active while maintaining metabolic flexibility. The PNGR group was insulin sensitive, similar to IPGR, but less active while maintaining metabolic flexibility. We conclude that IUGR resulted in obesity without insulin resistance and energy metabolic perturbations prior to development of glucose intolerance and T2DM. Postnatal nutrient restriction superimposed on IUGR was protective, restoring metabolic normalcy to a lean and active phenotype. PMID:22461568

  13. Caloric Restriction Decreases Orthostatic Tolerance Independently from 6° Head-Down Bedrest

    PubMed Central

    Florian, John P.; Baisch, Friedhelm J.; Heer, Martina; Pawelczyk, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Astronauts consume fewer calories during spaceflight and return to earth with an increased risk of orthostatic intolerance. Whether a caloric deficiency modifies orthostatic responses is not understood. Thus, we determined the effects of a hypocaloric diet (25% caloric restriction) during 6° head down bedrest (an analog of spaceflight) on autonomic neural control during lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Nine healthy young men completed a randomized crossover bedrest study, consisting of four (2 weeks each) interventions (normocaloric bedrest, normocaloric ambulatory, hypocaloric bedrest, hypocaloric ambulatory), each separated by 5 months. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was recorded at baseline following normocaloric and hypocaloric interventions. Heart rate (HR) and arterial pressure were recorded before, during, and after 3 consecutive stages (7 min each) of LBNP (-15, -30, -45 mmHg). Caloric and posture effects during LBNP were compared using two-way ANOVA with repeated measures. There was a strong trend toward reduced basal MSNA following caloric restriction alone (normcaloric vs. hypocaloric: 22±3 vs. 14±4 burst/min, p = 0.06). Compared to the normocaloric ambulatory, both bedrest and caloric restriction were associated with lower systolic blood pressure during LBNP (p<0.01); however, HR responses were directionally opposite (i.e., increase with bedrest, decrease with caloric restriction). Survival analysis revealed a significant reduction in orthostatic tolerance following caloric restriction (normocaloric finishers: 12/16; hypocaloric finishers: 6/16; χ2, p = 0.03). Caloric restriction modifies autonomic responses to LBNP, which may decrease orthostatic tolerance after spaceflight. PMID:25915488

  14. Caloric restriction decreases orthostatic tolerance independently from 6° head-down bedrest.

    PubMed

    Florian, John P; Baisch, Friedhelm J; Heer, Martina; Pawelczyk, James A

    2015-01-01

    Astronauts consume fewer calories during spaceflight and return to earth with an increased risk of orthostatic intolerance. Whether a caloric deficiency modifies orthostatic responses is not understood. Thus, we determined the effects of a hypocaloric diet (25% caloric restriction) during 6° head down bedrest (an analog of spaceflight) on autonomic neural control during lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Nine healthy young men completed a randomized crossover bedrest study, consisting of four (2 weeks each) interventions (normocaloric bedrest, normocaloric ambulatory, hypocaloric bedrest, hypocaloric ambulatory), each separated by 5 months. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was recorded at baseline following normocaloric and hypocaloric interventions. Heart rate (HR) and arterial pressure were recorded before, during, and after 3 consecutive stages (7 min each) of LBNP (-15, -30, -45 mmHg). Caloric and posture effects during LBNP were compared using two-way ANOVA with repeated measures. There was a strong trend toward reduced basal MSNA following caloric restriction alone (normcaloric vs. hypocaloric: 22±3 vs. 14±4 burst/min, p = 0.06). Compared to the normocaloric ambulatory, both bedrest and caloric restriction were associated with lower systolic blood pressure during LBNP (p<0.01); however, HR responses were directionally opposite (i.e., increase with bedrest, decrease with caloric restriction). Survival analysis revealed a significant reduction in orthostatic tolerance following caloric restriction (normocaloric finishers: 12/16; hypocaloric finishers: 6/16; χ2, p = 0.03). Caloric restriction modifies autonomic responses to LBNP, which may decrease orthostatic tolerance after spaceflight. PMID:25915488

  15. Moderate exercise training and chronic caloric restriction modulate redox status in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Santin, Katiane; da Rocha, Ricardo Fagundes; Cechetti, Fernanda; Quincozes-Santos, André; de Souza, Daniela Fraga; Nardin, Patrícia; Rodrigues, Letícia; Leite, Marina Concli; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; Salbego, Christianne Gazzana; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto

    2011-11-01

    Physical activity has been related to antioxidant adaptations, which is associated with health benefits, including those to the nervous system. Additionally, available data suggest exercise and a caloric restriction regimen may reduce both the incidence and severity of neurological disorders. Therefore, our aim was to compare hippocampal redox status and glial parameters among sedentary, trained, caloric-restricted sedentary and caloric-restricted trained rats. Forty male adult rats were divided into 4 groups: ad libitum-fed sedentary (AS), ad libitum-fed exercise training (AE), calorie-restricted sedentary (RS) and calorie-restricted exercise training (RE). The caloric restriction (decrease of 30% in food intake) and exercise training (moderate in a treadmill) were carried out for 3 months. Thereafter hippocampus was surgically removed, and then redox and glial parameters were assessed. Increases in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and total antioxidant reactivity (TAR) were observed in AE, RS and RE. The nitrite/nitrate levels decreased only in RE. We found a decrease in carbonyl content in AE, RS and RE, while no modifications were detected in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, S100B and glial fibrilary acid protein (GFAP) content did not change, but caloric restriction was able to increase glutamine synthetase (GS) activity in RS and glutamate uptake in RS and RE. Exercise training, caloric restriction and both combined can decrease oxidative damage in the hippocampus, possibly involving modulation of astroglial function, and could be used as a strategy for the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:21974860

  16. Caloric restriction stimulates autophagy in rat cortical neurons through neuropeptide Y and ghrelin receptors activation

    PubMed Central

    Carmo-Silva, Sara; Botelho, Mariana; de Almeida, Luís Pereira; Cavadas, Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    Caloric restriction is an anti-aging intervention known to extend lifespan in several experimental models, at least in part, by stimulating autophagy. Caloric restriction increases neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the hypothalamus and plasma ghrelin, a peripheral gut hormone that acts in hypothalamus to modulate energy homeostasis. NPY and ghrelin have been shown to be neuroprotective in different brain areas and to induce several physiological modifications similar to those induced by caloric restriction. However, the effect of NPY and ghrelin in autophagy in cortical neurons is currently not known. Using a cell culture of rat cortical neurons we investigate the involvement of NPY and ghrelin in caloric restriction-induced autophagy. We observed that a caloric restriction mimetic cell culture medium stimulates autophagy in rat cortical neurons and NPY or ghrelin receptor antagonists blocked this effect. On the other hand, exogenous NPY or ghrelin stimulate autophagy in rat cortical neurons. Moreover, NPY mediates the stimulatory effect of ghrelin on autophagy in rat cortical neurons. Since autophagy impairment occurs in aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases, NPY and ghrelin synergistic effect on autophagy stimulation may suggest a new strategy to delay aging process. PMID:27441412

  17. Benefits of caloric restriction for cardiometabolic health, including type 2 diabetes mellitus risk.

    PubMed

    Soare, Andreea; Weiss, Edward P; Pozzilli, Paolo

    2014-03-01

    In the United States, life expectancy has markedly increased during the past century, and population ageing is expected to double within the next 25 years. The process of ageing in a population is associated with the development of chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, that can be prevented, and even reversed, with the implementation of healthy lifestyle interventions. The evidence to date, consolidated by the numerous epidemiological studies and clinical trials conducted, suggests that caloric restriction is an effective nutritional intervention for preventing most of these age-related conditions. At a metabolic level, caloric restriction with adequate nutrition has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity, reduce fasting glucose and insulin concentration and prevent obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and chronic inflammation. The purpose of this article is to review current knowledge of the metabolic and clinical implications of caloric restriction with adequate nutrition for the prevention of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. PMID:24532291

  18. Caloric restriction and exercise “mimetics”: ready for prime time?

    PubMed Central

    Handschin, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Exercise and diet are powerful interventions to prevent and ameliorate various pathologies. The development of pharmacological agents that confer exercise- or caloric restriction-like phenotypic effects is thus an appealing therapeutic strategy in diseases or even when used as life-style and longevity drugs. Such so-called exercise or caloric restriction “mimetics” have so far mostly been described in pre-clinical, experimental settings with limited translation into humans. Interestingly, many of these compounds activate related signaling pathways, most often postulated to act on the common downstream effector peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) in skeletal muscle. In this review, resveratrol and other exercise- and caloric restriction “mimetics” are discussed with a special focus on feasibility, chances and limitations of using such compounds in patients as well as in healthy individuals. PMID:26658171

  19. Body mass loss correlates with cognitive performance in primates under acute caloric restriction conditions.

    PubMed

    Villain, N; Picq, J-L; Aujard, F; Pifferi, F

    2016-05-15

    Brain functions are known to consume high levels of energy, thus, the integrity of cognitive performance can be drastically impacted by acute caloric restriction. In this study, we tested the impact of a 40% caloric restriction on the cognitive abilities of the grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus). Twenty-three male mouse lemurs were divided into two groups: 13 control animals (CTL) that were fed with 105kJ/day and 10calorie restricted (CR) animals that received 40% less food (63kJ/day) than the CTL animals. The animals were fed according to their group for 19days. Before treatment, we assessed baseline associative learning capacities, resting metabolic rates and locomotor performance of both animal groups. After treatment, we tested the same functions as well as long-term memory. Our results showed that CR animals had lower learning performance following caloric restriction. The effects of caloric restriction on memory recall varied and depended on the metabolism of the individual animal. Body mass loss was linked to memory test performance in the CR group, and lower performance was observed in individuals losing the most weight. While CR was observed to negatively impact learning, locomotor capacities were preserved in CR animals, and there were higher resting metabolic rates in the CR group. Our data reinforce the strong link between energy allocation and brain function, and suggest that in the context of food shortage, learning capacities could be a limiting parameter in the adaptation to a changing environment. PMID:26952885

  20. SIRT2 deacetylates FOXO3a in response to oxidative stress and caloric restriction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sirtuin family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent (NAD) deacetylases plays an important role in aging and metabolic regulation. In yeast, the Sir2 gene and its homolog Hst2 independently mediate the action of caloric restriction on lifespan extension. The mammalian Sir2 ortholog, SIR...

  1. Long–term effects of caloric restriction on total and resting energy expenditure in healthy adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of long-term caloric restriction (CR) on resting metabolic rate (RMR) and total energy expenditure (TEE) in humans is uncertain. Objective To examine the effects of a 30% CR regimen on TEE and RMR. Methods One year randomized controlled trial of 30% CR in 29 healthy overweight adults (me...

  2. Thermoregulatory, Cardiovascular, and Metabolic Responses to Mild Caloric Restriction in the Brown Norway Rat

    EPA Science Inventory

    Caloric restriction (CR) has been demonstrated to prolong the life span of a variety of species. CR-induced reduction in core temperature (Tc) is considered a key mechanism responsible for prolonging life span in rodents; however, little is known on the regulation of CR-induced h...

  3. Caloric Restriction Normalizes Obesity-Induced Alterations on Regulators of Skeletal Muscle Growth Signaling.

    PubMed

    Dungan, Cory M; Li, Ji; Williamson, David L

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the impact of caloric restriction on high fat diet-induced alterations on regulators of skeletal muscle growth. We hypothesized that caloric restriction would reverse the negative effects of high fat diet-induced obesity on REDD1 and mTOR-related signaling. Following an initial 8 week period of HF diet-induced obesity, caloric restriction (CR ~30 %) was employed while mice continued to consume either a low (LF) or high fat (HF) diet for 8 weeks. Western analysis of skeletal muscle showed that CR reduced (p < 0.05) the obesity-related effects on the lipogenic protein, SREBP1. Likewise, CR reduced (p < 0.05) the obesity-related effects on the hyperactivation of mTORC1 and ERK1/2 signaling to levels comparable to the LF mice. CR also reduced (p < 0.05) obesity-induced expression of negative regulators of growth, REDD1 and cleaved caspase 3. These findings have implications for on the reversibility of dysregulated growth signaling in obese skeletal muscle, using short-term caloric restriction. PMID:27289530

  4. Dietary restriction, caloric value and the accumulation of hepatic fat

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies using laboratory animals under what are considered to be "standard" conditions normally offer unrestricted amounts of food to the animals, which can lead to metabolic disorders. Moreover, standard diets have different compositions. Aim Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of two non-isocaloric diets (commercial Purina® and AIN-93M), which are considered standard diets, on the accumulation of fat in the liver of rats when offered ad libitum or in a restricted amount. Methods Thus, 40 Wistar rats (90 days old) were separated into 4 groups according to the amount of food offered (ad libitum or dietary restriction) and the type of diet (commercial diet, 3,028.0 kcal/g or AIN-93M, 3,802.7 kcal/g): animals fed the commercial Purina® diet ad libitum (AP), animals fed restricted amounts of the commercial Purina® diet (RP), animals fed the AIN-93M diet ad libitum (AD), and animals fed restricted amounts of the AIN-93M diet (RD). Dietary restriction consisted of pair-feeding the RP and RD groups with 60% of the total food consumed by the corresponding ad libitum groups. Results Because of its higher carbohydrate and calorie content, AIN-93M was found to accelerate weight gain, reduce glucose tolerance and peripheral insulin sensitivity, and increase the amount of fat in the liver when compared to the commercial diet. Conversely, a 40% dietary restriction assisted in weight loss without causing malnutrition, contributing to an improved glucose tolerance and higher levels of HDL cholesterol. Conclusion Therefore, differences in the amount of carbohydrates and calories provided by the diet can lead to important metabolic disorders, such as impaired tolerance and accumulation of hepatic fat, and dietary restriction improves serum and tissue lipid profiles in laboratory animals. PMID:22221448

  5. Mitochondrial respiratory thresholds regulate yeast chronological life span and its extension by caloric restriction.

    PubMed

    Ocampo, Alejandro; Liu, Jingjing; Schroeder, Elizabeth A; Shadel, Gerald S; Barrientos, Antoni

    2012-07-01

    We have explored the role of mitochondrial function in aging by genetically and pharmacologically modifying yeast cellular respiration production during the exponential and/or stationary growth phases and determining how this affects chronological life span (CLS). Our results demonstrate that respiration is essential during both growth phases for standard CLS, but that yeast have a large respiratory capacity, and only deficiencies below a threshold (~40% of wild-type) significantly curtail CLS. Extension of CLS by caloric restriction also required respiration above a similar threshold during exponential growth and completely alleviated the need for respiration in the stationary phase. Finally, we show that supplementation of media with 1% trehalose, a storage carbohydrate, restores wild-type CLS to respiratory-null cells. We conclude that mitochondrial respiratory thresholds regulate yeast CLS and its extension by caloric restriction by increasing stress resistance, an important component of which is the optimal accumulation and mobilization of nutrient stores.

  6. Caloric restriction: powerful protection for the aging heart and vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Research has shown that the majority of the cardiometabolic alterations associated with an increased risk of CVD (e.g., insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and inflammation) can be prevented, and even reversed, with the implementation of healthier diets and regular exercise. Data from animal and human studies indicate that more drastic interventions, i.e., calorie restriction with adequate nutrition (CR), may have additional beneficial effects on several metabolic and molecular factors that are modulating cardiovascular aging itself (e.g., cardiac and arterial stiffness and heart rate variability). The purpose of this article is to review the current knowledge on the effects of CR on the aging of the cardiovascular system and CVD risk in rodents, monkeys, and humans. Taken together, research shows that CR has numerous beneficial effects on the aging cardiovascular system, some of which are likely related to reductions in inflammation and oxidative stress. In the vasculature, CR appears to protect against endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness and attenuates atherogenesis by improving several cardiometabolic risk factors. In the heart, CR attenuates age-related changes in the myocardium (i.e., CR protects against fibrosis, reduces cardiomyocyte apoptosis, prevents myosin isoform shifts, etc.) and preserves or improves left ventricular diastolic function. These effects, in combination with other benefits of CR, such as protection against obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and cancer, suggest that CR may have a major beneficial effect on health span, life span, and quality of life in humans. PMID:21841020

  7. Weight cycling and cancer: weighing the evidence of intermittent caloric restriction and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Henry J; McTiernan, Anne

    2011-11-01

    Overweight and obese individuals frequently restrict caloric intake to lose weight. The resultant weight loss, however, typically is followed by an equal or greater weight gain, a phenomenon called weight cycling. Most attention to weight cycling has focused on identifying its detrimental effects, but preclinical experiments indicating that intermittent caloric restriction or fasting can reduce cancer risk have raised interest in potential benefits of weight cycling. Although hypothesized adverse effects of weight cycling on energy metabolism remain largely unsubstantiated, there is also a lack of epidemiologic evidence that intentional weight loss followed by regain of weight affects chronic-disease risk. In the limited studies of weight cycling and cancer, no independent effect on postmenopausal breast cancer but a modest enhancement of risk for renal cell carcinoma, endometrial cancer, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma have been reported. An effect of either intermittent caloric restriction or fasting in protecting against cancer is not supported by the majority of rodent carcinogenesis experiments. Collectively, the data argue against weight cycling and indicate that the objective of energy balance-based approaches to reduce cancer risk should be to strive to prevent adult weight gain and maintain body weight within the normal range defined by body mass index. PMID:21982873

  8. Akt2 Knockout Alleviates Prolonged Caloric Restriction-Induced Change in Cardiac Contractile Function through Regulation of Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yingmei; Han, Xuefeng; Hu, Nan; Huff, Anna F.; Gao, Feng; Ren, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Caloric restriction leads to changes in heart geometry and function although the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Autophagy, a conserved pathway for degradation of intracellular proteins and organelles, preserves energy and nutrient in the face of caloric insufficiency. This study was designed to examine the role of Akt2 in prolonged caloric restriction-induced change in cardiac homeostasis and the underlying mechanism(s) involved. Wild-type (WT) and Akt2 knockout mice were caloric restricted (by 40%) for 30 weeks. Echocardiographic, cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca2+ properties, autophagy and its regulatory proteins were evaluated. Caloric restriction compromised echocardiographic indices (decreased left ventricular mass, left ventricular diameters and cardiac output), cardiomyocyte contractile and intracellular Ca2+ properties associated with dampened SERCA2a phosphorylation, upregulated phospholamban and autophagy (Beclin-1, Atg7, LC3BII-to-LC3BI ratio), increased autophagy adaptor protein p62, elevated phosphorylation of AMPK, Akt2 and the Akt downstream signal molecule TSC2, the effects of which with the exception of autophagy protein markers (Beclin-1, Atg7, LC3B) and AMPK were mitigated or significantly alleviated by Akt2 knockout. Lysosomal inhibition using bafilomycin A1 negated Akt2 knockout-induced protective effect on p62. Evaluation of downstream signaling molecules of Akt and AMPK including mTOR and ULK1 revealed that caloric restriction suppressed and promoted phosphorylation of mTOR and ULK1, respectively, without affecting total mTOR and ULK1 expression. Akt2 knockout significantly augmented caloric restriction-induced responses on mTOR and ULK1. Taken together, these data suggest a beneficial role of Akt2 knockout in preservation of cardiac homeostasis against prolonged caloric restriction-induced pathological changes possibly through facilitating autophagy. PMID:24368095

  9. Nutrients, not caloric restriction, extend lifespan in Queensland fruit flies (Bactrocera tryoni).

    PubMed

    Fanson, Benjamin G; Weldon, Christopher W; Pérez-Staples, Diana; Simpson, Stephen J; Taylor, Phillip W

    2009-09-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) has been widely accepted as a mechanism explaining increased lifespan (LS) in organisms subjected to dietary restriction (DR), but recent studies investigating the role of nutrients have challenged the role of CR in extending longevity. Fuelling this debate is the difficulty in experimentally disentangling CR and nutrient effects due to compensatory feeding (CF) behaviour. We quantified CF by measuring the volume of solution imbibed and determined how calories and nutrients influenced LS and fecundity in unmated females of the Queensland fruit fly, Bactocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae). We restricted flies to one of 28 diets varying in carbohydrate:protein (C:P) ratios and concentrations. On imbalanced diets, flies overcame dietary dilutions, consuming similar caloric intakes for most dilutions. The response surface for LS revealed that increasing C:P ratio while keeping calories constant extended LS, with the maximum LS along C:P ratio of 21:1. In general, LS was reduced as caloric intake decreased. Lifetime egg production was maximized at a C:P ratio of 3:1. When given a choice of separate sucrose and yeast solutions, each at one of five concentrations (yielding 25 choice treatments), flies regulated their nutrient intake to match C:P ratio of 3:1. Our results (i) demonstrate that CF can overcome dietary dilutions; (ii) reveal difficulties with methods presenting fixed amounts of liquid diet; (iii) illustrate the need to measure intake to account for CF in DR studies and (iv) highlight nutrients rather than CR as a dominant influence on LS.

  10. Caloric restriction increases serum testosterone concentrations in obese male subjects by two distinct mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Schulte, D M; Hahn, M; Oberhäuser, F; Malchau, G; Schubert, M; Heppner, C; Müller, N; Güdelhöfer, H; Faust, M; Krone, W; Laudes, M

    2014-04-01

    The concentration of serum testosterone is mainly regulated by the testicular function, which is under control of the central hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. A certain amount of testosterone is converted into β-estradiol by adipose tissue. Obesity in men is often associated with decreased androgen levels. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of caloric restriction on serum testosterone levels in obese men. Dietary intervention study was performed with a very low calorie diet (800 kcal/d) for 12 weeks. Thirteen obese human male subjects (median body mass index: 42.7 kg/m2) were included. Body composition was assessed by impedance analysis. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by leptin-to-adiponectin ratio (LAR). Testosterone (T), β-estradiol, albumin, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), LH, and FSH serum concentrations were measured by enzyme immunoassays. Statistical analysis was performed on baseline and values after 3 months. Caloric restriction significantly increased total testosterone (6.97 nmol/l to 13.21 nmol/l; p=0.001) and SHBG (22.11 nmol/l to 42.12 nmol/l; p=0.001) concentrations in serum. This is caused by a significant improvement of the testicular function (LH/T: 0.36-0.20; p=0.005) and a significant reduction of the T/β-estradiol conversion rate (73.59-104.29; p=0.003). There was a significant negative correlation of improvement of testicular function and LAR (rs=-0.683 (p=0.042)). In obese men caloric restriction significantly increases the serum testosterone concentration. This is achieved by 2 distinct mechanisms, that is, improvement of testicular function and reduced conversion of testosterone to β-estradiol by aromatase activity of the adipose tissue.

  11. Effect of high fat, fiber and caloric restriction on rat mammary tumorigenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Magrane, D.; Van Sant, J.; Butler, B.

    1986-03-05

    Female rats given 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) were placed on diets of control fat (CF-4.5%) or high fat (HF-20%) with either control fiber (6%) or high fiber (FB-12%). A 60% reduction in the CF diet was used to study the effects of caloric restriction on tumorigenesis. Results showed that HF diets had a shorter latency period than CF rats. The respective average number of tumors per rat and tumor volume were 7.3 +/- 1.3 and 23694 mm/sup 2/ for rats on a HF diet and 5.1+/-1.1 and 9144 mm/sup 3/ for CF rats. Addition of high fiber to the diets reduced the tumor incidence from 95% to 70% in the CF group but did not reduce the incidence in HF group. Although tumor number was reduced to 3.7+/-1.5 in CF+FB rats, the tumor volumes were not reduced (8950 mm/sup 3/). Rats fed HF+FB did not have fewer tumors (7.0+/-1.1), but did show a 53% reduction in tumor load. The estrogen dependent enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was not affected by dietary levels of fat, which suggests that the promotional effects of fat may not be through estrogen stimulation. None of the caloric restricted rats had tumors 12 weeks post-DMBA. These restricted rats all had significantly elevated levels of serum corticosterone.

  12. Caloric Restriction Effect on Proinflammatory Cytokines, Growth Hormone, and Steroid Hormone Concentrations during Exercise in Judokas

    PubMed Central

    Abedelmalek, Salma; Chtourou, Hamdi; Souissi, Nizar; Tabka, Zouhair

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of caloric restriction on the immune and hormonal responses during exercise in judo athletes. In a randomised order, 11 male judokas (age: 20.45 ± 0.51; height: 1.71 ± 0.3 m; and body weight: 75.9 ± 3.1 kg) participate in this study during a period of weight maintenance (baseline) and after 7 days of caloric restriction (CR). All subjects performed the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) during the two conditions. Values for nutrient intakes were obtained from a 7 d food record kept during a period of weight maintenance and after a 7-day food restriction (−5~6 MJ/day). Our results showed that CR resulted in significant decreases in body weight (P < 0.05) and performance (P < 0.05). However, heart rate and SJFT index (P < 0.05) increase significantly during CR in comparison to baseline. Moreover, exercise leads to a significant increase in testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone (GH), leukocytes, neutrophils, TNF-α, and IL-6, in both CR and baseline conditions. Compared to baseline, TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly higher during CR condition (P < 0.05). Additionally, CR leads to an increase in cortisol and GH (P < 0.05) and a decrease in testosterone concentrations (P < 0.05). PMID:26075039

  13. Caloric Restriction Effect on Proinflammatory Cytokines, Growth Hormone, and Steroid Hormone Concentrations during Exercise in Judokas.

    PubMed

    Abedelmalek, Salma; Chtourou, Hamdi; Souissi, Nizar; Tabka, Zouhair

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of caloric restriction on the immune and hormonal responses during exercise in judo athletes. In a randomised order, 11 male judokas (age: 20.45 ± 0.51; height: 1.71 ± 0.3 m; and body weight: 75.9 ± 3.1 kg) participate in this study during a period of weight maintenance (baseline) and after 7 days of caloric restriction (CR). All subjects performed the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) during the two conditions. Values for nutrient intakes were obtained from a 7 d food record kept during a period of weight maintenance and after a 7-day food restriction (-5~6 MJ/day). Our results showed that CR resulted in significant decreases in body weight (P < 0.05) and performance (P < 0.05). However, heart rate and SJFT index (P < 0.05) increase significantly during CR in comparison to baseline. Moreover, exercise leads to a significant increase in testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone (GH), leukocytes, neutrophils, TNF-α, and IL-6, in both CR and baseline conditions. Compared to baseline, TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly higher during CR condition (P < 0.05). Additionally, CR leads to an increase in cortisol and GH (P < 0.05) and a decrease in testosterone concentrations (P < 0.05).

  14. Mitoprotective dietary approaches for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Caloric restriction, fasting, and ketogenic diets.

    PubMed

    Craig, Courtney

    2015-11-01

    Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome is an idiopathic illness characterized by debilitating fatigue and neuro-immune abnormalities. A growing body of evidence proposes mitochondrial dysfunction as a central perpetrator of the illness due to activation of immune-inflammatory pathways that burden the mitochondria. Under a model of mitochondrial dysfunction, this paper explores dietary strategies that are mitoprotective. Studied for decades, the cellular mechanisms of ketogenic diets, fasting, and caloric restriction now reveal mitochondria-specific mechanisms which could play a role in symptom reduction in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Future research should examine the physiological effects of these dietary strategies in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

  15. Caloric restriction and the precision-control of autophagy: A strategy for delaying neurodegenerative disease progression.

    PubMed

    Ntsapi, C; Loos, B

    2016-10-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) is known to extend lifespan in most organisms, indicating that nutrient and energy regulatory mechanisms impact aging. The greatest risk factor for neurodegeneration is age; thus, the antiaging effects of CR might attenuate progressive cell death and avert the aggregation of abnormal proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases. CR is a potent inducer of autophagy, a tightly regulated intracellular process that facilitates recycling of abnormal protein aggregates and damaged organelles into bioenergetic and biosynthetic materials to maintain homeostasis. Thus, dysregulated autophagy can lead to cellular dysfunction, abnormal protein accumulation, proteotoxicity and subsequently the onset of several neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, the targeted and precision-controlled activation of autophagy represents a promising therapeutic strategy. Non-pharmacological therapeutic interventions that delay aging by modulating specific stages of autophagy might be beneficial against premature aging, neurodegeneration and its associated ailments. However, the dynamic and often compensatory cross-talk that exists between the protein degradation pathways makes clinical translational approaches challenging. Here we review the primary autophagy pathways in the context of age-related neurodegenerative diseases, focusing on compensatory mechanisms and pathway failure. By critically assessing each underlying molecular machinery, we reveal their impact on aging and unmask the role of caloric restriction in changing cellular fate by delayed aging through stimulation of autophagy. This may point towards novel and better targeted interventions that exploit the autophagic machinery in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  16. Caloric restriction and the precision-control of autophagy: A strategy for delaying neurodegenerative disease progression.

    PubMed

    Ntsapi, C; Loos, B

    2016-10-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) is known to extend lifespan in most organisms, indicating that nutrient and energy regulatory mechanisms impact aging. The greatest risk factor for neurodegeneration is age; thus, the antiaging effects of CR might attenuate progressive cell death and avert the aggregation of abnormal proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases. CR is a potent inducer of autophagy, a tightly regulated intracellular process that facilitates recycling of abnormal protein aggregates and damaged organelles into bioenergetic and biosynthetic materials to maintain homeostasis. Thus, dysregulated autophagy can lead to cellular dysfunction, abnormal protein accumulation, proteotoxicity and subsequently the onset of several neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, the targeted and precision-controlled activation of autophagy represents a promising therapeutic strategy. Non-pharmacological therapeutic interventions that delay aging by modulating specific stages of autophagy might be beneficial against premature aging, neurodegeneration and its associated ailments. However, the dynamic and often compensatory cross-talk that exists between the protein degradation pathways makes clinical translational approaches challenging. Here we review the primary autophagy pathways in the context of age-related neurodegenerative diseases, focusing on compensatory mechanisms and pathway failure. By critically assessing each underlying molecular machinery, we reveal their impact on aging and unmask the role of caloric restriction in changing cellular fate by delayed aging through stimulation of autophagy. This may point towards novel and better targeted interventions that exploit the autophagic machinery in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27473756

  17. Growth hormone-releasing hormone disruption extends lifespan and regulates response to caloric restriction in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Liou Y; Spong, Adam; Swindell, William R; Fang, Yimin; Hill, Cristal; Huber, Joshua A; Boehm, Jacob D; Westbrook, Reyhan; Salvatori, Roberto; Bartke, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    We examine the impact of targeted disruption of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) in mice on longevity and the putative mechanisms of delayed aging. GHRH knockout mice are remarkably long-lived, exhibiting major shifts in the expression of genes related to xenobiotic detoxification, stress resistance, and insulin signaling. These mutant mice also have increased adiponectin levels and alterations in glucose homeostasis consistent with the removal of the counter-insulin effects of growth hormone. While these effects overlap with those of caloric restriction, we show that the effects of caloric restriction (CR) and the GHRH mutation are additive, with lifespan of GHRH-KO mutants further increased by CR. We conclude that GHRH-KO mice feature perturbations in a network of signaling pathways related to stress resistance, metabolic control and inflammation, and therefore provide a new model that can be used to explore links between GHRH repression, downregulation of the somatotropic axis, and extended longevity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01098.001 PMID:24175087

  18. Caloric restriction promotes cell survival in a mouse model of normal tension glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaoli; Kimura, Atsuko; Azuchi, Yuriko; Akiyama, Goichi; Noro, Takahiko; Harada, Chikako; Namekata, Kazuhiko; Harada, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is characterized by progressive degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons. We previously reported that loss of glutamate transporters (EAAC1 or GLAST) in mice leads to RGC degeneration that is similar to normal tension glaucoma and these animal models are useful in examining potential therapeutic strategies. Caloric restriction has been reported to increase longevity and has potential benefits in injury and disease. Here we investigated the effects of every-other-day fasting (EODF), a form of caloric restriction, on glaucomatous pathology in EAAC1−/− mice. EODF suppressed RGC death and retinal degeneration without altering intraocular pressure. Moreover, visual impairment was ameliorated with EODF, indicating the functional significance of the neuroprotective effect of EODF. Several mechanisms associated with this neuroprotection were explored. We found that EODF upregulated blood β-hydroxybutyrate levels and increased histone acetylation in the retina. Furthermore, it elevated retinal mRNA expression levels of neurotrophic factors and catalase, whereas it decreased oxidative stress levels in the retina. Our findings suggest that EODF, a safe, non-invasive, and low-cost treatment, may be available for glaucoma therapy. PMID:27669894

  19. Sex-Dependent Cognitive Performance in Baboon Offspring Following Maternal Caloric Restriction in Pregnancy and Lactation

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Jesse S.; Bartlett, Thad Q.; Keenan, Kathryn E.; Nathanielsz, Peter W.; Nijland, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    In humans a suboptimal diet during development has negative outcomes in offspring. We investigated the behavioral outcomes in baboons born to mothers undergoing moderate maternal nutrient restriction (MNR). Maternal nutrient restriction mothers (n = 7) were fed 70% of food eaten by controls (CTR, n = 12) fed ad libitum throughout gestation and lactation. At 3.3 ± 0.2 (mean ± standard error of the mean [SEM]) years of age offspring (controls: female [FC, n = 8], male [MC, n = 4]; nutrient restricted: female [FR, n = 3] and male [MR, n = 4]) were administered progressive ratio, simple discrimination, intra-/extra-dimension set shift and delayed matching to sample tasks to assess motivation, learning, attention, and working memory, respectively. A treatment effect was observed in MNR offspring who demonstrated less motivation and impaired working memory. Nutrient-restricted female offspring showed improved learning, while MR offspring showed impaired learning and attentional set shifting and increased impulsivity. In summary, 30% restriction in maternal caloric intake has long lasting neurobehavioral outcomes in adolescent male baboon offspring. PMID:22344725

  20. Artemisinin mimics calorie restriction to trigger mitochondrial biogenesis and compromise telomere shortening in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Da-Ting; He, Jiang; Wu, Ming; Li, Si-Ming; Gao, Qian; Zeng, Qing-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Calorie restriction is known to extend lifespan among organisms by a debating mechanism underlying nitric oxide-driven mitochondrial biogenesis. We report here that nitric oxide generators including artemisinin, sodium nitroprusside, and L-arginine mimics calorie restriction and resembles hydrogen peroxide to initiate the nitric oxide signaling cascades and elicit the global antioxidative responses in mice. The large quantities of antioxidant enzymes are correlated with the low levels of reactive oxygen species, which allow the down-regulation of tumor suppressors and accessory DNA repair partners, eventually leading to the compromise of telomere shortening. Accompanying with the up-regulation of signal transducers and respiratory chain signatures, mitochondrial biogenesis occurs with the elevation of adenosine triphosphate levels upon exposure of mouse skeletal muscles to the mimetics of calorie restriction. In conclusion, calorie restriction-triggered nitric oxide provides antioxidative protection and alleviates telomere attrition via mitochondrial biogenesis, thereby maintaining chromosomal stability and integrity, which are the hallmarks of longevity.

  1. Caloric restriction restores the cardioprotective effect of preconditioning in the rat heart.

    PubMed

    Long, Paige; Nguyen, Quang; Thurow, Chantelle; Broderick, Tom L

    2002-07-01

    Preconditioning (PC) describes the observation that brief periods of ischemia paradoxically protect the heart and limit necrosis caused by a subsequent more prolonged period of ischemia. However, the PC response is attenuated in hearts from 9- to 12-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats, as compared to young adults. This study determined whether long-term caloric restriction (CR) could preserve the PC response, since CR increases ischemic tolerance in these hearts. Following 6 months of CR, isolated hearts underwent PC followed by ischemia and reperfusion. In contrast to control hearts in which PC response was attenuated, PC in CR hearts was clearly of benefit. In these hearts, aortic flow was increased resulting in a dramatic improvement of cardiac output. Our study suggests that CR is effective in preserving the PC response.

  2. Caloric Restriction as a Strategy to Improve Vascular Dysfunction in Metabolic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    García-Prieto, Concha F.; Fernández-Alfonso, María S.

    2016-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) has proved to be the most effective and reproducible dietary intervention to increase healthy lifespan and aging. A reduction in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in obese subjects can be already achieved by a moderate and sustainable weight loss. Since pharmacological approaches for body weight reduction have, at present, a poor long-term efficacy, CR is of great interest in the prevention and/or reduction of CVD associated with obesity. Other dietary strategies changing specific macronutrients, such as altering carbohydrates, protein content or diet glycemic index have been also shown to decrease the progression of CVD in obese patients. In this review, we will focus on the positive effects and possible mechanisms of action of these strategies on vascular dysfunction. PMID:27314388

  3. Facts and controversies in our understanding of how caloric restriction impacts the mitochondrion.

    PubMed

    Gouspillou, Gilles; Hepple, Russell T

    2013-10-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) has pronounced benefits in promoting healthy aging. Amongst the most frequently implicated physiological mechanisms implicated in this benefit is altered mitochondrial function. Whereas a reduction in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is a widely consistent effect of CR, an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis, which is accepted by many as fact, is contradicted on several levels, most critically by a lack of increase in mitochondrial protein synthesis rate in vivo. Furthermore, an increase in PGC-1α protein and markers of mitochondrial content with CR is a highly variable observation between studies. On the other hand, deacetylation of several mitochondrial proteins by the sirtuin, Sirt3, is an increasingly reported observation and at least so far, this observation is consistent between studies. Notwithstanding this point, the controversies evident in the published literature underscore the significant questions that remain in our understanding of how CR impacts the mitochondrion and suggest we have yet to fully understand the complexities herein.

  4. Caloric Restriction as a Strategy to Improve Vascular Dysfunction in Metabolic Disorders.

    PubMed

    García-Prieto, Concha F; Fernández-Alfonso, María S

    2016-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) has proved to be the most effective and reproducible dietary intervention to increase healthy lifespan and aging. A reduction in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in obese subjects can be already achieved by a moderate and sustainable weight loss. Since pharmacological approaches for body weight reduction have, at present, a poor long-term efficacy, CR is of great interest in the prevention and/or reduction of CVD associated with obesity. Other dietary strategies changing specific macronutrients, such as altering carbohydrates, protein content or diet glycemic index have been also shown to decrease the progression of CVD in obese patients. In this review, we will focus on the positive effects and possible mechanisms of action of these strategies on vascular dysfunction. PMID:27314388

  5. Thermoregulatory, cardiovascular, and metabolic responses to mild caloric restriction in the Brown Norway rat.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Cenk; Gordon, Christopher J

    2013-07-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) has been demonstrated to prolong the life span of a variety of species. CR-induced reduction in core temperature (Tc) is considered a key mechanism responsible for prolonging life span in rodents; however, little is known about the regulation of CR-induced hypothermia as a function of the circadian cycle. We assessed how mild CR that resulted in a 10% reduction in body weight affected the 24 h patterns of Tc as well as heart rate (HR) and motor activity (MA) of the Brown Norway rat. Telemetered rats were allowed to feed for 20 weeks ad libitum (AL) or given a CR diet. Tc, HR, and MA of CR rats exhibited nocturnal reductions and diurnal elevations, opposite to that of AL rats. The effects of CR appeared to peak at ∼4 weeks. Metabolic rate (MR) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were measured overnight after 18 weeks of CR. MR and RER were elevated markedly at the time of feeding in CR rats and then declined during the night. We found that the pattern of Tc was altered with CR, characterized by elimination of high nocturnal Tc's typically observed in AL animals. In terms of mechanisms to prolong life span in CR animals, we suggest that the shift in the pattern of Tc during CR (i.e., elimination of high Tc's) may be as critical as the overall mean reduction in Tc. Future studies should address how the time of feeding may affect the thermoregulatory response in calorically restricted rats. PMID:24303105

  6. Caloric restriction improves efficiency and capacity of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Joon-Seok; Choi, Kyung-Mi; Lee, Cheol-Koo

    2011-06-03

    Highlights: {yields} Calorie restriction (CR) increases electron transport chain (ETC) at both RNA and protein level. {yields} CR enhances mitochondrial membrane potential, and, regardless of ages, reduces reactive oxygen species. {yields} CR increases both efficiency and capacity of the ETC. {yields} CR induces intensive modulation at mitochondrial ETC where might be a major site leading to extension of lifespan. -- Abstract: Caloric restriction (CR) is known to extend lifespan in a variety of species; however, the mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we found that CR potentiated the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) at both the transcriptional and translational levels. Indeed, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was increased by CR, and, regardless of ages, overall reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was decreased by CR. With these changes, overall growth rate of cells was maintained under various CR conditions, just like cells under a non-restricted condition. All of these data support increased efficiency and capacity of the ETC by CR, and this change might lead to extension of lifespan.

  7. A two year randomized controlled trial of human caloric restriction: feasibility and effects on predictors of health span and longevity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Caloric restriction (CR), energy intake reduced below ad libitum (AL) intake, increases life span in many species. The implications for humans can be clarified by randomized controlled trials of CR. Methods: To determine CRs feasibility, safety, and effects on predictors of longevity, di...

  8. Metabolic alterations due to caloric restriction and every other day feeding in normal and growth hormone receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Westbrook, Reyhan; Bonkowski, Michael S; Arum, Oge; Strader, April D; Bartke, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Mutations causing decreased somatotrophic signaling are known to increase insulin sensitivity and extend life span in mammals. Caloric restriction and every other day (EOD) dietary regimens are associated with similar improvements to insulin signaling and longevity in normal mice; however, these interventions fail to increase insulin sensitivity or life span in growth hormone receptor knockout (GHRKO) mice. To investigate the interactions of the GHRKO mutation with caloric restriction and EOD dietary interventions, we measured changes in the metabolic parameters oxygen consumption (VO2) and respiratory quotient produced by either long-term caloric restriction or EOD in male GHRKO and normal mice. GHRKO mice had increased VO2, which was unaltered by diet. In normal mice, EOD diet caused a significant reduction in VO2 compared with ad libitum (AL) mice during fed and fasted conditions. In normal mice, caloric restriction increased both the range of VO2 and the difference in minimum VO2 between fed and fasted states, whereas EOD diet caused a relatively static VO2 pattern under fed and fasted states. No diet significantly altered the range of VO2 of GHRKO mice under fed conditions. This provides further evidence that longevity-conferring diets cause major metabolic changes in normal mice, but not in GHRKO mice. PMID:23833202

  9. Caloric Restriction in Lean and Obese Strains of Laboratory Rat: Effects on Body Composition, Metabolism, Growth, and Overall Health

    EPA Science Inventory

    NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? How do lean and obese rats respond physiologically to caloric restriction? What is the main finding and its importance? Obese rats show marked benefits compared with lean animals. Reduced body fat is associated with improv...

  10. Higher Caloric Refeeding Is Safe in Hospitalised Adolescent Patients with Restrictive Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Elizabeth K.; Faruquie, Sahrish S.; Anderson, Gail; Gomes, Linette; Kennedy, Andrew; Wearne, Christine M.; Kohn, Michael R.; Clarke, Simon D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. This study examines weight gain and assesses complications associated with refeeding hospitalised adolescents with restrictive eating disorders (EDs) prescribed initial calories above current recommendations. Methods. Patients admitted to an adolescent ED structured “rapid refeeding” program for >48 hours and receiving ≥2400 kcal/day were included in a 3-year retrospective chart review. Results. The mean (SD) age of the 162 adolescents was 16.7 years (0.9), admission % median BMI was 80.1% (10.2), and discharge % median BMI was 93.1% (7.0). The mean (SD) starting caloric intake was 2611.7 kcal/day (261.5) equating to 58.4 kcal/kg (10.2). Most patients (92.6%) were treated with nasogastric tube feeding. The mean (SD) length of stay was 3.6 weeks (1.9), and average weekly weight gain was 2.1 kg (0.8). No patients developed cardiac signs of RFS or delirium; complications included 4% peripheral oedema, 1% hypophosphatemia (<0.75 mmol/L), 7% hypomagnesaemia (<0.70 mmol/L), and 2% hypokalaemia (<3.2 mmol/L). Caloric prescription on admission was associated with developing oedema (95% CI 1.001 to 1.047; p = 0.039). No statistical significance was found between electrolytes and calories provided during refeeding. Conclusion. A rapid refeeding protocol with the inclusion of phosphate supplementation can safely achieve rapid weight restoration without increased complications associated with refeeding syndrome. PMID:27293884

  11. Cognitive Performances Are Selectively Enhanced during Chronic Caloric Restriction or Resveratrol Supplementation in a Primate

    PubMed Central

    Marchal, Julia; Picq, Jean-Luc; Aujard, Fabienne

    2011-01-01

    Effects of an 18-month treatment with a moderate, chronic caloric restriction (CR) or an oral supplementation with resveratrol (RSV), a potential CR mimetic, on cognitive and motor performances were studied in non-human primates, grey mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus). Thirty-three adult male mouse lemurs were assigned to three different groups: a control (CTL) group fed ad libitum, a CR group fed 70% of the CTL caloric intake, and an RSV group (RSV supplementation of 200 mg.kg−1.day−1) fed ad libitum. Three different cognitive tests, two motor tests, one emotional test and an analysis of cortisol level were performed in each group. Compared to CTL animals, CR or RSV animals did not show any change in motor performances evaluated by rotarod and jump tests, but an increase in spontaneous locomotor activity was observed in both groups. Working memory was improved by both treatments in the spontaneous alternation task. Despite a trend for CR group, only RSV supplementation increased spatial memory performances in the circular platform task. Finally, none of these treatments induced additional stress to the animals as reflected by similar results in the open field test and cortisol analyses compared to CTL animals. The present data provided the earliest evidence for a beneficial effect of CR or RSV supplementation on specific cognitive functions in a primate. Taken together, these results suggest that RSV could be a good candidate to mimic long-term CR effects and support the growing evidences that nutritional interventions can have beneficial effects on brain functions even in adults. PMID:21304942

  12. Maintenance of cellular ATP level by caloric restriction correlates chronological survival of budding yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Joon-Seok; Lee, Cheol-Koo

    2013-09-13

    Highlights: •CR decreases total ROS and mitochondrial superoxide during the chronological aging. •CR does not affect the levels of oxidative damage on protein and DNA. •CR contributes extension of chronological lifespan by maintenance of ATP level -- Abstract: The free radical theory of aging emphasizes cumulative oxidative damage in the genome and intracellular proteins due to reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is a major cause for aging. Caloric restriction (CR) has been known as a representative treatment that prevents aging; however, its mechanism of action remains elusive. Here, we show that CR extends the chronological lifespan (CLS) of budding yeast by maintaining cellular energy levels. CR reduced the generation of total ROS and mitochondrial superoxide; however, CR did not reduce the oxidative damage in proteins and DNA. Subsequently, calorie-restricted yeast had higher mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and it sustained consistent ATP levels during the process of chronological aging. Our results suggest that CR extends the survival of the chronologically aged cells by improving the efficiency of energy metabolism for the maintenance of the ATP level rather than reducing the global oxidative damage of proteins and DNA.

  13. Measuring aging rates of mice subjected to caloric restriction and genetic disruption of growth hormone signaling.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Jacob J E; van Heemst, Diana; van Bodegom, David; Bonkowski, Michael S; Sun, Liou Y; Bartke, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Caloric restriction and genetic disruption of growth hormone signaling have been shown to counteract aging in mice. The effects of these interventions on aging are examined through age-dependent survival or through the increase in age-dependent mortality rates on a logarithmic scale fitted to the Gompertz model. However, these methods have limitations that impede a fully comprehensive disclosure of these effects. Here we examine the effects of these interventions on murine aging through the increase in age-dependent mortality rates on a linear scale without fitting them to a model like the Gompertz model. Whereas these interventions negligibly and non-consistently affected the aging rates when examined through the age-dependent mortality rates on a logarithmic scale, they caused the aging rates to increase at higher ages and to higher levels when examined through the age-dependent mortality rates on a linear scale. These results add to the debate whether these interventions postpone or slow aging and to the understanding of the mechanisms by which they affect aging. Since different methods yield different results, it is worthwhile to compare their results in future research to obtain further insights into the effects of dietary, genetic, and other interventions on the aging of mice and other species.

  14. Gene Expression in the Hippocampus: Regionally Specific Effects of Aging and Caloric Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Zeier, Zane; Madorsky, Irina; Xu, Ying; Ogle, William O.; Notterpek, Lucia; Foster, Thomas C.

    2010-01-01

    We measured changes in gene expression, induced by aging and caloric restriction (CR), in three hippocampal subregions. When analysis included all regions, aging was associated with expression of genes linked to mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, and stress responses, and in some cases, expression was reversed by CR. An age-related increase in ubiquintination was observed, including increased expression of ubiquitin conjugating enzyme genes and cytosolic ubiquitin immunoreactivity. CR decreased cytosolic ubiquitin and upregulated deubiquitinating genes. Region specific analyses indicated that CA1 was more susceptible to aging stress, exhibiting a greater number of altered genes relative to CA3 and the dentate gyrus (DG), and an enrichment of genes related to the immune response and apoptosis. CA3 and the DG were more responsive to CR, exhibiting marked changes in the total number of genes across diet conditions, reversal of age-related changes in p53 signaling, glucocorticoid receptor signaling, and enrichment of genes related to cell survival and neurotrophic signaling. Finally, CR differentially influenced genes for synaptic plasticity in CA1 and CA3. It is concluded that regional disparity in response to aging and CR relates to differences in vulnerability to stressors, the availability of neurotrophic, and cell survival mechanisms, and differences in cell function. PMID:21055414

  15. Caloric Restriction Leads to Browning of White Adipose Tissue through Type 2 Immune Signaling.

    PubMed

    Fabbiano, Salvatore; Suárez-Zamorano, Nicolas; Rigo, Dorothée; Veyrat-Durebex, Christelle; Stevanovic Dokic, Ana; Colin, Didier J; Trajkovski, Mirko

    2016-09-13

    Caloric restriction (CR) extends lifespan from yeast to mammals, delays onset of age-associated diseases, and improves metabolic health. We show that CR stimulates development of functional beige fat within the subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, contributing to decreased white fat and adipocyte size in lean C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice kept at room temperature or at thermoneutrality and in obese leptin-deficient mice. These metabolic changes are mediated by increased eosinophil infiltration, type 2 cytokine signaling, and M2 macrophage polarization in fat of CR animals. Suppression of the type 2 signaling, using Il4ra(-/-), Stat6(-/-), or mice transplanted with Stat6(-/-) bone marrow-derived hematopoietic cells, prevents the CR-induced browning and abrogates the subcutaneous fat loss and the metabolic improvements induced by CR. These results provide insights into the overall energy homeostasis during CR, and they suggest beige fat development as a common feature in conditions of negative energy balance. PMID:27568549

  16. Measuring aging rates of mice subjected to caloric restriction and genetic disruption of growth hormone signaling

    PubMed Central

    Koopman, Jacob J.E.; van Heemst, Diana; van Bodegom, David; Bonkowski, Michael S.; Sun, Liou Y.; Bartke, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Caloric restriction and genetic disruption of growth hormone signaling have been shown to counteract aging in mice. The effects of these interventions on aging are examined through age-dependent survival or through the increase in age-dependent mortality rates on a logarithmic scale fitted to the Gompertz model. However, these methods have limitations that impede a fully comprehensive disclosure of these effects. Here we examine the effects of these interventions on murine aging through the increase in age-dependent mortality rates on a linear scale without fitting them to a model like the Gompertz model. Whereas these interventions negligibly and non-consistently affected the aging rates when examined through the age-dependent mortality rates on a logarithmic scale, they caused the aging rates to increase at higher ages and to higher levels when examined through the age-dependent mortality rates on a linear scale. These results add to the debate whether these interventions postpone or slow aging and to the understanding of the mechanisms by which they affect aging. Since different methods yield different results, it is worthwhile to compare their results in future research to obtain further insights into the effects of dietary, genetic, and other interventions on the aging of mice and other species. PMID:26959761

  17. GENES REGULATED BY CALORIC RESTRICTION HAVE UNIQUE ROLES WITHIN TRANSCRIPTIONAL NETWORKS

    PubMed Central

    Swindell, William R.

    2009-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) has received much interest as an intervention that delays age-related disease and increases lifespan. Whole-genome microarrays have been used to identify specific genes underlying these effects, and in mice, this has led to the identification of genes with expression responses to CR that are shared across multiple tissue types. Such CR-regulated genes represent strong candidates for future investigation, but have been understood only as a list, without regard to their broader role within transcriptional networks. In this study, co-expression and network properties of CR-regulated genes were investigated using data generated by more than 600 Affymetrix microarrays. This analysis identified groups of co-expressed genes and regulatory factors associated with the mammalian CR response, and uncovered surprising network properties of CR-regulated genes. Genes downregulated by CR were highly connected and located in dense network regions. In contrast, CR-upregulated genes were weakly connected and positioned in sparse network regions. Some network properties were mirrored by CR-regulated genes from invertebrate models, suggesting an evolutionary basis for the observed patterns. These findings contribute to a systems-level picture of how CR influences transcription within mammalian cells, and point towards a comprehensive understanding of CR in terms of its influence on biological networks. PMID:18634819

  18. Whole-transcriptome analysis of mouse adipose tissue in response to short-term caloric restriction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Soo; Choi, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Soyoung; Park, Taesun; Cho, In-Cheol; Lee, Jae-Won; Lee, Cheol-Koo

    2016-04-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to extend the lifespan of many species by improving cellular function and organismal health. Additionally, fat reduction by CR may play an important role in lengthening lifespan and preventing severe age-related diseases. Interestingly, CR induced the greatest transcriptome change in the epididymal fat of mice in our study. In this transcriptome analysis, we identified and categorized 446 genes that correlated with CR level. We observed down-regulation of several signaling pathways, including insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (insulin/IGF-1), epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), and canonical wingless-type mouse mammary tumor virus integration site (Wnt). Many genes related to structural features, including extracellular matrix structure, cell adhesion, and the cytoskeleton, were down-regulated, with a strong correlation to the degree of CR. Furthermore, genes related to the cell cycle and adipogenesis were down-regulated. These biological processes are well-identified targets of insulin/IGF-1, EGF, TGF-β, and Wnt signaling. In contrast, genes involved in specific metabolic processes, including the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the electron transport chain were up-regulated. We performed in silico analysis of the promoter sequences of CR-responsive genes and identified two associated transcription factors, Paired-like homeodomain 2 (Pitx2) and Paired box gene 6 (Pax6). Our results suggest that strict regulation of signaling pathways is critical for creating the optimal energy homeostasis to extend lifespan.

  19. SIRT1 and Caloric Restriction: An Insight Into Possible Trade-Offs Between Robustness and Frailty

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Shin-ichiro

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review This review aims to summarize the importance of the mammalian NAD-dependent deacetylase SIRT1 as a critical mediator that coordinates metabolic responses to caloric restriction (CR) and the recent progress in the development of SIRT1-targeted CR mimetics. It also discusses possible trade-offs between robustness and frailty in CR and the applicability of CR or SIRT1-targeted CR mimetics to humans. Recent findings Loss- and gain-of-function mouse studies have provided genetic evidence that SIRT1 is a key mediator that orchestrates the physiological response to CR. SIRT1-activating compounds function as potential CR mimetics, at least in part, through the activation of SIRT1 in vivo. Summary Increasing SIRT1 dosage/activity is effective to provide significant protection from high-fat diet-induced metabolic complications, suggesting that SIRT1 activation likely promotes robustness in the regulation of metabolism. However, CR itself and CR mimicry through systemic SIRT1 activation might also generate frailty in response to unexpected environmental stimuli, such as bacterial and viral infections. It will be of great importance to understand the principles of systemic robustness and its spatial and temporal dynamics for the regulation of aging and longevity in mammals in order to achieve an optimal balance between robustness and frailty in our complex physiological system. PMID:19474721

  20. Krebs cycle enzymes from livers of old mice are differentially regulated by caloric restriction.

    PubMed

    Hagopian, Kevork; Ramsey, Jon J; Weindruch, Richard

    2004-08-01

    Krebs cycle enzyme activities and levels of five metabolites were determined from livers of old mice (30 months) maintained either on control or on long-term caloric restriction (CR) diets (28 months). In CR mice, the cycle was divided into two major blocks, the first containing citrate synthase, aconitase and NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase which showed decreased activities, while the second block, containing the remaining enzymes, displayed increased activity (except for fumarase, which was unchanged). CR also resulted in decreased levels of citrate, glutamate and alpha-ketoglutarate, increased levels of malate, and unchanged levels of aspartate. The alpha-ketoglutarate/glutamate and malate/alpha-ketoglutarate ratios were higher in CR, in parallel with previously reported increases with CR in pyruvate carboxylase activity and glucagon levels, respectively. The results indicate that long-term CR induces a differential regulation of Krebs cycle in old mice and this regulation may be the result of changes in gene expression levels, as well as a complex interplay between enzymes, hormones and other effectors. Truncation of Krebs cycle by CR may be an important adaptation to utilize available substrates for the gluconeogenesis necessary to sustain glycolytic tissues, such as brain.

  1. Caloric restriction reveals a metabolomic and lipidomic signature in liver of male mice

    PubMed Central

    Jové, Mariona; Naudí, Alba; Ramírez-Núñez, Omar; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Selman, Colin; Withers, Dominic J; Pamplona, Reinald

    2014-01-01

    Lipid composition, particularly membrane unsaturation, has been proposed as being a lifespan determinant, but it is currently unknown whether caloric restriction (CR), an accepted life-extending intervention, affects cellular lipid profiles. In this study, we employ a liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight-based methodology to demonstrate that CR in the liver of male C57BL/6 mice: (i) induces marked changes in the cellular lipidome, (ii) specifically reduces levels of a phospholipid peroxidation product, 1-palmitoyl-2-glutaryl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine, (iii) alters cellular phosphoethanolamine and triglyceride distributional profiles, (iv) affects mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes, increasing complex II and decreasing complex III and (v) is associated with specific changes in liver metabolic pathways. These data demonstrate that CR induces a specific lipidome and metabolome reprogramming event in mouse liver which is associated with lower protein oxidative damage, as assessed by mass spectrometry-based measurements. Such changes may be critical to the increased lifespan and healthspan observed in C57BL/6 mice following CR. PMID:25052291

  2. Maternal caloric restriction partially rescues the deleterious effects of advanced maternal age on offspring.

    PubMed

    Gribble, Kristin E; Jarvis, George; Bock, Martha; Mark Welch, David B

    2014-08-01

    While many studies have focused on the detrimental effects of advanced maternal age and harmful prenatal environments on progeny, little is known about the role of beneficial non-Mendelian maternal inheritance on aging. Here, we report the effects of maternal age and maternal caloric restriction (CR) on the life span and health span of offspring for a clonal culture of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas. Mothers on regimens of chronic CR (CCR) or intermittent fasting (IF) had increased life span compared with mothers fed ad libitum (AL). With increasing maternal age, life span and fecundity of female offspring of AL-fed mothers decreased significantly and life span of male offspring was unchanged, whereas body size of both male and female offspring increased. Maternal CR partially rescued these effects, increasing the mean life span of AL-fed female offspring but not male offspring and increasing the fecundity of AL-fed female offspring compared with offspring of mothers of the same age. Both maternal CR regimens decreased male offspring body size, but only maternal IF decreased body size of female offspring, whereas maternal CCR caused a slight increase. Understanding the genetic and biochemical basis of these different maternal effects on aging may guide effective interventions to improve health span and life span.

  3. Caloric restriction reveals a metabolomic and lipidomic signature in liver of male mice.

    PubMed

    Jové, Mariona; Naudí, Alba; Ramírez-Núñez, Omar; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Selman, Colin; Withers, Dominic J; Pamplona, Reinald

    2014-10-01

    Lipid composition, particularly membrane unsaturation, has been proposed as being a lifespan determinant, but it is currently unknown whether caloric restriction (CR), an accepted life-extending intervention, affects cellular lipid profiles. In this study, we employ a liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight-based methodology to demonstrate that CR in the liver of male C57BL/6 mice: (i) induces marked changes in the cellular lipidome, (ii) specifically reduces levels of a phospholipid peroxidation product, 1-palmitoyl-2-glutaryl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine, (iii) alters cellular phosphoethanolamine and triglyceride distributional profiles, (iv) affects mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes, increasing complex II and decreasing complex III and (v) is associated with specific changes in liver metabolic pathways. These data demonstrate that CR induces a specific lipidome and metabolome reprogramming event in mouse liver which is associated with lower protein oxidative damage, as assessed by mass spectrometry-based measurements. Such changes may be critical to the increased lifespan and healthspan observed in C57BL/6 mice following CR.

  4. Caloric restriction and intermittent fasting: Two potential diets for successful brain aging

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Bronwen; Mattson, Mark P.; Maudsley, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    The vulnerability of the nervous system to advancing age is all too often manifest in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. In this review article we describe evidence suggesting that two dietary interventions, caloric restriction (CR) and intermittent fasting (IF), can prolong the health-span of the nervous system by impinging upon fundamental metabolic and cellular signaling pathways that regulate life-span. CR and IF affect energy and oxygen radical metabolism, and cellular stress response systems, in ways that protect neurons against genetic and environmental factors to which they would otherwise succumb during aging. There are multiple interactive pathways and molecular mechanisms by which CR and IF benefit neurons including those involving insulin-like signaling, FoxO transcription factors, sirtuins and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. These pathways stimulate the production of protein chaperones, neurotrophic factors and antioxidant enzymes, all of which help cells cope with stress and resist disease. A better understanding of the impact of CR and IF on the aging nervous system will likely lead to novel approaches for preventing and treating neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:16899414

  5. Neuroendocrine and pharmacological manipulations to assess how caloric restriction increases life span.

    PubMed

    Mobbs, C V; Bray, G A; Atkinson, R L; Bartke, A; Finch, C E; Maratos-Flier, E; Crawley, J N; Nelson, J F

    2001-03-01

    As part of an effort to review current understanding of the mechanisms by which caloric restriction (CR) extends maximum life span, the authors of the present review were requested to develop a list of key issues concerning the potential role of neuroendocrine systems in mediating these effects. It has long been hypothesized that failure of specific neuroendocrine functions during aging leads to key age-related systemic and physiological failures, and more recently it has been postulated that physiological neuroendocrine responses to CR may increase life span. However, although the acute neuroendocrine responses to fasting have been well studied, it is not clear that these responses are necessarily identical to those observed in response to the chronic moderate (30% to 50% reduction) CR that increases maximum life span. Therefore the recommendations of this panel fall into two categories. First, further characterization of neuroendocrine responses to CR over the entire life span is needed. Second, rigorous interventional studies are needed to test the extent to which neuroendocrine responses to CR mediate the effects of CR on life span, or alternatively if CR protects the function of essential neuroendocrine cells whose impairment reduces life span. Complementary studies using rodent models, nonhuman primates, and humans will be essential to assess the generality of elucidated mechanisms, and to determine if such mechanisms might apply to humans. PMID:12088210

  6. Maternal caloric restriction partially rescues the deleterious effects of advanced maternal age on offspring.

    PubMed

    Gribble, Kristin E; Jarvis, George; Bock, Martha; Mark Welch, David B

    2014-08-01

    While many studies have focused on the detrimental effects of advanced maternal age and harmful prenatal environments on progeny, little is known about the role of beneficial non-Mendelian maternal inheritance on aging. Here, we report the effects of maternal age and maternal caloric restriction (CR) on the life span and health span of offspring for a clonal culture of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas. Mothers on regimens of chronic CR (CCR) or intermittent fasting (IF) had increased life span compared with mothers fed ad libitum (AL). With increasing maternal age, life span and fecundity of female offspring of AL-fed mothers decreased significantly and life span of male offspring was unchanged, whereas body size of both male and female offspring increased. Maternal CR partially rescued these effects, increasing the mean life span of AL-fed female offspring but not male offspring and increasing the fecundity of AL-fed female offspring compared with offspring of mothers of the same age. Both maternal CR regimens decreased male offspring body size, but only maternal IF decreased body size of female offspring, whereas maternal CCR caused a slight increase. Understanding the genetic and biochemical basis of these different maternal effects on aging may guide effective interventions to improve health span and life span. PMID:24661622

  7. Safety of two-year caloric restriction in non-obese healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Romashkan, Sergei V.; Das, Sai Krupa; Villareal, Dennis T.; Ravussin, Eric; Redman, Leanne M.; Rochon, James; Bhapkar, Manjushri; Kraus, William E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The extent to which sustained caloric restriction (CR) in healthy non-obese adults is safe has not been previously investigated. Objective Assess the safety and tolerability of sustained two-year CR intervention in healthy, non-obese adults. Design A multi-center, randomized controlled trial. Participants were randomized using a 2:1 allocation in favor of 25% CR vs. Ad-Libitum intake (AL). Adverse and serious adverse events (AE, SAE), safety laboratory tests, and other safety parameters were closely monitored. Results Three participants were withdrawn from the CR intervention because of the safety concerns. No deaths and one SAE was reported by participants in the CR group. Although the difference in AE between AL and CR groups was not significant, within the CR group, the incidence of nervous system (p = 0.02), musculoskeletal (p = 0.02) and reproductive system (p = 0.002) disorders was significantly higher in the normal-weight than in the overweight participants. At months 12 and 24, bone mineral densities at the lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck of participants in the CR group were significantly lower than in those in the AL group. Conclusions Two-years of CR at levels achieved in CALERIE was safe and well tolerated. Close monitoring for excessive bone loss and anemia is important. PMID:26992237

  8. Phenylpropanolamine OROS (Acutrim) vs. placebo in combination with caloric restriction and physician-managed behavior modification.

    PubMed

    Weintraub, M; Ginsberg, G; Stein, E C; Sundaresan, P R; Schuster, B; O'Connor, P; Byrne, L M

    1986-05-01

    We added phenylpropanolamine OROS (Acutrim; Ciba-Geigy Corp.) or placebo to a physician-managed behavior modification, mild caloric restriction, and exercise weight control program. One hundred six healthy, overweight (115% to 130% ideal body weight) women participated in this 14-week double-blind clinical trial. On average, the participants who took Acutrim lost significantly more weight (X +/- SE; 6.1 +/- 0.6 kg; 8.0% +/- 0.8%) than did those taking placebo (4.3 +/- 0.7 kg; 5.5% +/- 0.8%; P less than 0.05). Those taking Actrim continued to lose weight over the Christmas holiday, while the placebo group gained weight. Fifteen participants taking placebo withdrew, three because of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Thirteen of 53 participants in the Acutrim group left the study, two because of ADRs. Dry mouth was the most frequent complaint from participants taking Acutrim. No serious cardiovascular effects occurred. Both complaints and the number of participants reporting ADRs decreased with continued dosing. We conclude that Acutrim is a safe, modestly effective adjunct to a physician-managed, integrated weight control program.

  9. Better Living through Chemistry: Caloric Restriction (CR) and CR Mimetics Alter Genome Function to Promote Increased Health and Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Zoe E; Pickering, Joshua; Eskiw, Christopher H

    2016-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR), defined as decreased nutrient intake without causing malnutrition, has been documented to increase both health and lifespan across numerous organisms, including humans. Many drugs and other compounds naturally occurring in our diet (nutraceuticals) have been postulated to act as mimetics of caloric restriction, leading to a wave of research investigating the efficacy of these compounds in preventing age-related diseases and promoting healthier, longer lifespans. Although well studied at the biochemical level, there are still many unanswered questions about how CR and CR mimetics impact genome function and structure. Here we discuss how genome function and structure are influenced by CR and potential CR mimetics, including changes in gene expression profiles and epigenetic modifications and their potential to identify the genetic fountain of youth. PMID:27588026

  10. Better Living through Chemistry: Caloric Restriction (CR) and CR Mimetics Alter Genome Function to Promote Increased Health and Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Zoe E.; Pickering, Joshua; Eskiw, Christopher H.

    2016-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR), defined as decreased nutrient intake without causing malnutrition, has been documented to increase both health and lifespan across numerous organisms, including humans. Many drugs and other compounds naturally occurring in our diet (nutraceuticals) have been postulated to act as mimetics of caloric restriction, leading to a wave of research investigating the efficacy of these compounds in preventing age-related diseases and promoting healthier, longer lifespans. Although well studied at the biochemical level, there are still many unanswered questions about how CR and CR mimetics impact genome function and structure. Here we discuss how genome function and structure are influenced by CR and potential CR mimetics, including changes in gene expression profiles and epigenetic modifications and their potential to identify the genetic fountain of youth. PMID:27588026

  11. Caloric restriction blocks neuropathology and motor deficits in Machado–Joseph disease mouse models through SIRT1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cunha-Santos, Janete; Duarte-Neves, Joana; Carmona, Vitor; Guarente, Leonard; Pereira de Almeida, Luís; Cavadas, Cláudia

    2016-01-01

    Machado–Joseph disease (MJD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by an abnormal expansion of the CAG triplet in the ATXN3 gene, translating into a polyglutamine tract within the ataxin-3 protein. The available treatments only ameliorate symptomatology and do not block disease progression. In this study we find that caloric restriction dramatically rescues the motor incoordination, imbalance and the associated neuropathology in transgenic MJD mice. We further show that caloric restriction rescues SIRT1 levels in transgenic MJD mice, whereas silencing SIRT1 is sufficient to prevent the beneficial effects on MJD pathology. In addition, the re-establishment of SIRT1 levels in MJD mouse model, through the gene delivery approach, significantly ameliorates neuropathology, reducing neuroinflammation and activating autophagy. Furthermore, the pharmacological activation of SIRT1 with resveratrol significantly reduces motor incoordination of MJD mice. The pharmacological SIRT1 activation could provide important benefits to treat MJD patients. PMID:27165717

  12. Caloric restriction promotes genomic stability by induction of base excision repair and reversal of its age-related decline.

    PubMed

    Cabelof, Diane C; Yanamadala, Sunitha; Raffoul, Julian J; Guo, ZhongMao; Soofi, Abdulsalam; Heydari, Ahmad R

    2003-03-01

    Caloric restriction is a potent experimental manipulation that extends mean and maximum life span and delays the onset and progression of tumors in laboratory rodents. While caloric restriction (CR) clearly protects the genome from deleterious damage, the mechanism by which genomic stability is achieved remains unclear. We provide evidence that CR promotes genomic stability by increasing DNA repair capacity, specifically base excision repair (BER). CR completely reverses the age-related decline in BER capacity (P<0.01) in all tissues tested (brain, liver, spleen and testes) providing aged, CR animals with the BER phenotype of young, ad libitum-fed animals. This CR-induced reversal of the aged BER phenotype is accompanied by a reversal in the age-related decline in DNA polymerase beta (beta-pol), a rate-limiting enzyme in the BER pathway. CR significantly reversed the age-related loss of beta-pol protein levels (P<0.01), mRNA levels (P<0.01) and enzyme activity (P<0.01) in all tissues tested. Additionally, in young (4-6-month-old) CR animals a significant up-regulation in BER capacity, beta-pol protein and beta-pol mRNA is observed (P<0.01), demonstrating an early effect of CR that may provide insight in distinguishing the anti-tumor from the anti-aging effects of CR. This up-regulation in BER by caloric restriction in young animals corresponds to increased protection from carcinogen exposure, as mutation frequency is significantly reduced in CR animals exposed to either DMS or 2-nitropropane (2-NP) (P<0.01). Overall the data suggest an important biological consequence of moderate BER up-regulation and provides support for the hormesis theory of caloric restriction.

  13. Mild caloric restriction up-regulates the expression of prohibitin: A proteome study

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Shoko; Masuda, Junko; Shimagami, Hiroshi; Ohta, Yutaka; Kanda, Tomomasa; Saito, Kenji; Kato, Hisanori

    2011-02-18

    Research highlights: {yields} Proteomic analysis was performed to elucidate physiological alterations induced by mild CR. {yields} The results suggest good reproducibility and possibility to grasp the important response of CR. {yields} The increase in prohibitin abundance was observed in CR groups by proteomic analysis. {yields} We hypothesize that prohibitin might be involved in the longevity induced by CR. -- Abstract: Caloric restriction (CR) is well known to expand lifespan in a variety of species and to retard many age-related diseases. The effects of relatively mild CR on the proteome profile in relation to lifespan have not yet been reported, despite the more extensive studies of the stricter CR conditions. Thus, the present study was conducted to elucidate the protein profiles in rat livers after mild CR for a relatively short time. Young growing rats were fed CR diets (10% and 30% CR) for 1 month. We performed the differential proteomic analysis of the rat livers using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The most remarkable protein among the differentially expressed proteins was found to be prohibitin, the abundance of which was increased by 30% CR. Prohibitin is a ubiquitously expressed protein shown to suppress cell proliferation and to be related to longevity. The increase in prohibitin was observed both in 10% and 30% CR by Western blot analysis. Furthermore, induction of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) protein, related to the actions of prohibitin in promoting longevity, was observed. The increased prohibitin level in response to subtle CR suggests that this increase may be one of the early events leading to the expansion of lifespan in response to CR.

  14. Caloric restriction in young rats disturbs hippocampal neurogenesis and spatial learning.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Armando; Marrana, Francisco; Andrade, José P

    2016-09-01

    It is widely known that caloric restriction (CR) has benefits on several organic systems, including the central nervous system. However, the majority of the CR studies was performed in adult animals and the information about the consequences on young populations is limited. In this study, we analyzed the effects of young-onset CR, started at 4weeks of age, in the number of neuropeptide Y (NPY)-containing neurons and in neurogenesis of the hippocampal formation, using doublecortin (DCX) and Ki67 as markers. Knowing that CR treatment could interfere with exploratory activity, anxiety, learning and memory we have analyzed the performance of the rats in the open-field, elevated plus-maze and Morris water maze tests. Animals aged 4weeks were randomly assigned to control or CR groups. Controls were maintained in the ad libitum regimen during 2months. The adolescent CR rats were fed, during 2months, with 60% of the amount of food consumed by controls. We have found that young-onset CR treatment did not affect the total number of NPY-immunopositive neurons in dentate hilus, CA3 and CA1 hippocampal subfields and did not change the exploratory activity and anxiety levels. Interestingly, we have found that young-onset CR might affect spatial learning process since those animals showed worse performance during the acquisition phase of Morris water maze. Furthermore, young-onset CR induced alterations of neurogenesis in the dentate subgranular layer that seems to underlie the impairment of spatial learning. Our data suggest that adolescent animals are vulnerable to CR treatment and that this diet is not suitable to be applied in this age phase. PMID:27432519

  15. A return to ad libitum feeding following caloric restriction promotes hepatic steatosis in hyperphagic OLETF rats.

    PubMed

    Linden, Melissa A; Fletcher, Justin A; Meers, Grace M; Thyfault, John P; Laughlin, M Harold; Rector, R Scott

    2016-09-01

    Hyperphagic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats develop obesity, insulin resistance, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but lifestyle modifications, such as caloric restriction (CR), can prevent these conditions. We sought to determine if prior CR had protective effects on metabolic health and NAFLD development following a 4-wk return to ad libitum (AL) feeding. Four-week-old male OLETF rats (n = 8-10/group) were fed AL for 16 wk (O-AL), CR for 16 wk (O-CR; ∼70% kcal of O-AL), or CR for 12 wk followed by 4 wk of AL feeding (O-AL4wk). CR-induced benefit in prevention of NAFLD, including reduced hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and markers of Kupffer cell activation/number, was largely lost in AL4wk rats. These findings occurred in conjunction with a partial loss of CR-induced beneficial effects on obesity and serum triglycerides in O-AL4wk rats, but in the absence of changes in serum glucose or insulin. CR-induced increases in hepatic mitochondrial respiration remained significantly elevated (P < 0.01) in O-AL4wk compared with O-AL rats, while mitochondrial [1-(14)C]palmitate oxidation, citrate synthase activity, and β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity did not differ among OLETF groups. NAFLD development in O-AL4wk rats was accompanied by increases in the protein content of the de novo lipogenesis markers fatty acid synthase and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 and decreases in phosphorylated acetyl-CoA carboxylase (pACC)/ACC compared with O-CR rats (P < 0.05 for each). The beneficial effects of chronic CR on NAFLD development were largely lost with 4 wk of AL feeding in the hyperphagic OLETF rat, highlighting the importance of maintaining energy balance in the prevention of NAFLD. PMID:27445343

  16. Age-related alterations in the sarcolemmal environment are attenuated by lifelong caloric restriction and voluntary exercise.

    PubMed

    Hord, Jeffrey M; Botchlett, Rachel; Lawler, John M

    2016-10-01

    Age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, referred to as sarcopenia, is mitigated by lifelong calorie restriction as well as exercise. In aged skeletal muscle fibers there is compromised integrity of the cell membrane that may contribute to sarcopenia. The purpose of this study was to determine if lifelong mild (8%) caloric restriction (CR) and lifelong CR+voluntary wheel running (WR) could ameliorate disruption of membrane scaffolding and signaling proteins during the aging process, thus maintaining a favorable, healthy membrane environment in plantaris muscle fibers. Fischer-344 rats were divided into four groups: 24-month old adults fed ad libitum (OAL); 24-month old on 8% caloric restriction (OCR); 24month old 8% caloric restriction+wheel running (OCRWR); and 6-month old sedentary adults fed ad libitum (YAL) were used to determine age-related changes. Aging resulted in discontinuous membrane expression of dystrophin glycoprotein complex (DGC) proteins: dystrophin and α-syntrophin. Older muscle also displayed decreased content of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), a key DGC signaling protein. In contrast, OCR and OCRWR provided significant protection against age-related DGC disruption. In conjunction with the age-related decline in membrane DGC patency, key membrane repair proteins (MG53, dysferlin, annexin A6, and annexin A2) were significantly increased in the OAL plantaris. However, lifelong CR and CRWR interventions were effective at maintaining membrane repair proteins near YAL levels of. OAL fibers also displayed reduced protein content of NADPH oxidase isoform 2 (Nox2) subunits (p67phox and p47phox), consistent with a perturbed sarcolemmal environment. Loss of Nox2 subunits was prevented by lifelong CR and CRWR. Our results are therefore consistent with the hypothesis that lifelong CR and WR are effective countermeasures against age-related alterations in the myofiber membrane environment. PMID:27534381

  17. Age-related alterations in the sarcolemmal environment are attenuated by lifelong caloric restriction and voluntary exercise.

    PubMed

    Hord, Jeffrey M; Botchlett, Rachel; Lawler, John M

    2016-10-01

    Age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, referred to as sarcopenia, is mitigated by lifelong calorie restriction as well as exercise. In aged skeletal muscle fibers there is compromised integrity of the cell membrane that may contribute to sarcopenia. The purpose of this study was to determine if lifelong mild (8%) caloric restriction (CR) and lifelong CR+voluntary wheel running (WR) could ameliorate disruption of membrane scaffolding and signaling proteins during the aging process, thus maintaining a favorable, healthy membrane environment in plantaris muscle fibers. Fischer-344 rats were divided into four groups: 24-month old adults fed ad libitum (OAL); 24-month old on 8% caloric restriction (OCR); 24month old 8% caloric restriction+wheel running (OCRWR); and 6-month old sedentary adults fed ad libitum (YAL) were used to determine age-related changes. Aging resulted in discontinuous membrane expression of dystrophin glycoprotein complex (DGC) proteins: dystrophin and α-syntrophin. Older muscle also displayed decreased content of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), a key DGC signaling protein. In contrast, OCR and OCRWR provided significant protection against age-related DGC disruption. In conjunction with the age-related decline in membrane DGC patency, key membrane repair proteins (MG53, dysferlin, annexin A6, and annexin A2) were significantly increased in the OAL plantaris. However, lifelong CR and CRWR interventions were effective at maintaining membrane repair proteins near YAL levels of. OAL fibers also displayed reduced protein content of NADPH oxidase isoform 2 (Nox2) subunits (p67phox and p47phox), consistent with a perturbed sarcolemmal environment. Loss of Nox2 subunits was prevented by lifelong CR and CRWR. Our results are therefore consistent with the hypothesis that lifelong CR and WR are effective countermeasures against age-related alterations in the myofiber membrane environment.

  18. Feed restriction and a diet's caloric value: The influence on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity of rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The influence of feed restriction and different diet's caloric value on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity is unclear in the literature. Thus, the objectives of this study were to determine the possible influences of two diets with different caloric values and the influence of feed restriction on the aerobic (anaerobic threshold: AT) and anaerobic (time to exhaustion: Tlim) variables measured by a lactate minimum test (LM) in rats. Methods We used 40 adult Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups: ad libitum commercial Purina® diet (3028.0 Kcal/kg) (ALP), restricted commercial Purina® diet (RAP), ad libitum semi-purified AIN-93 diet (3802.7 Kcal/kg) (ALD) and restricted semi-purified AIN-93 diet (RAD). The animals performed LM at the end of the experiment, 48 h before euthanasia. Comparisons between groups were performed by analysis of variance (p < 0,05). Results At the end of the experiment, the weights of the rats in the groups with the restricted diets were significantly lower than those in the groups with ad libitum diet intakes. In addition, the ALD group had higher amounts of adipose tissue. With respect to energetic substrates, the groups subjected to diet restriction had significantly higher levels of liver and muscle glycogen. There were no differences between the groups with respect to AT; however, the ALD group had lower lactatemia at the AT intensity and higher Tlim than the other groups. Conclusions We conclude that dietary restriction induces changes in energetic substrates and that ad libitum intake of a semi-purified AIN-93 diet results in an increase in adipose tissue, likely reducing the density of the animals in water and favouring their performance during the swimming exercises. PMID:22448911

  19. Moderate caloric restriction during gestation in rats alters adipose tissue sympathetic innervation and later adiposity in offspring.

    PubMed

    García, Ana Paula; Palou, Mariona; Sánchez, Juana; Priego, Teresa; Palou, Andreu; Picó, Catalina

    2011-01-01

    Maternal prenatal undernutrition predisposes offspring to higher adiposity in adulthood. Mechanisms involved in these programming effects, apart from those described in central nervous system development, have not been established. Here we aimed to evaluate whether moderate caloric restriction during early pregnancy in rats affects white adipose tissue (WAT) sympathetic innervation in the offspring, and its relationship with adiposity development. For this purpose, inguinal and retroperitoneal WAT (iWAT and rpWAT, respectively) were analyzed in male and female offspring of control and 20% caloric-restricted (from 1-12 d of pregnancy) (CR) dams. Body weight (BW), the weight, DNA-content, morphological features and the immunoreactive tyrosine hydroxylase and Neuropeptide Y area (TH+ and NPY+ respectively, performed by immunohistochemistry) of both fat depots, were studied at 25 d and 6 m of age, the latter after 2 m exposure to high fat diet. At 6 m of life, CR males but not females, exhibited greater BW, and greater weight and total DNA-content in iWAT, without changes in adipocytes size, suggesting the development of hyperplasia in this depot. However, in rpWAT, CR males but not females, showed larger adipocyte diameter, with no changes in DNA-content, suggesting the development of hypertrophy. These parameters were not different between control and CR animals at the age of 25 d. In iWAT, both at 25 d and 6 m, CR males but not females, showed lower TH(+) and NPY(+), suggesting lower sympathetic innervation in CR males compared to control males. In rpWAT, at 6 m but not at 25 d, CR males but not females, showed lower TH(+) and NPY(+). Thus, the effects of caloric restriction during gestation on later adiposity and on the differences in the adult phenotype between internal and subcutaneous fat depots in the male offspring may be associated in part with specific alterations in sympathetic innervation, which may impact on WAT architecture.

  20. Effects of immobilisation and caloric restriction on antioxidant parameters and T-cell apoptosis in healthy young men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellinger, S.; Arendt, B. M.; Boese, A.; Juschus, M.; Schaefer, S.; Stoffel-Wagner, B.; Goerlich, R.

    Background: Astronauts are exposed to oxidative stress due to radiation and microgravity, which might impair immune functions. Effects of hypocaloric nutrition as often observed in astronauts on oxidative stress and immune functions are not clear. We investigated, if microgravity, simulated by 6 Head-down tilt (HDT) and caloric restriction (-25%, fat reduced) with adequate supply of micronutrients affect DNA-damage in peripheral leukocytes, antioxidant parameters in plasma, and T-cell apoptosis. Material & Methods: 10 healthy male non-smokers were subjected to 4 different interventions (normocaloric diet or caloric restriction (CR) in upright position (UP) or HDT) for 14 days each (cross-over). DNA-damage in peripheral leukocytes (Comet Assay), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and uric acid in plasma were measured before, after 5, 10, and 13 days of intervention, and after 2 days recovery. T-cell apoptosis (Annexin V binding test) was assessed before and after intervention. Results: Preliminary results show that only endogenous, but not ex vivo H2O2-induced DNA strand breaks were reduced by CR compared to normocaloric diet. In upright position, endogenous DNA strand breaks decreased continuously during CR, reaching significance after recovery. During HDT, caloric restriction seems to counteract a temporary increase in DNA strand breaks observed in subjects receiving normocaloric diet. TEAC was reduced during HDT compared to UP in subjects under caloric restriction. An increase in plasma uric acid related to intervention occurred only after 5 days HDT in CR vs. normocaloric diet. T-cell apoptosis was not affected by any kind of intervention. Conclusion: Neither HDT nor CR with sufficient supply of micronutrients seem to induce oxidative stress or T-cell apoptosis in healthy young men. In contrast, CR might prevent endogenous DNA-damage in peripheral leukocytes. As DNA-damage is a risk factor for carcinogenesis, protective effects of energy reduction are

  1. Respiratory and TCA cycle activities affect S. cerevisiae lifespan, response to caloric restriction and mtDNA stability.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Erich B; Cezário, Kizzy; Souza-Pinto, Nadja C; Barros, Mario H; Kowaltowski, Alicia J

    2011-10-01

    We studied the importance of respiratory fitness in S. cerevisiae lifespan, response to caloric restriction (CR) and mtDNA stability. Mutants harboring mtDNA instability and electron transport defects do not respond to CR, while tricarboxylic acid cycle mutants presented extended lifespans due to CR. Interestingly, mtDNA is unstable in cells lacking dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase under CR conditions, and cells lacking aconitase under standard conditions (both enzymes are components of the TCA and mitochondrial nucleoid). Altogether, our data indicate that respiratory integrity is required for lifespan extension by CR and that mtDNA stability is regulated by nucleoid proteins in a glucose-sensitive manner.

  2. Long-term Effects of Two Levels of Caloric Restriction on Body Composition, and Diet Satisfaction in CALERIE, a One Year Randomized Controlled Trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is little information on whether the extent of dietary energy restriction in a weight loss program influences long-term weight change. We examined the effects of two levels of caloric restriction (CR) over 12 months on body weight and fat loss, total energy expenditure (TEE), resting metabolic...

  3. Impact of caloric and dietary restriction regimens on markers of health and longevity in humans and animals: a summary of available findings

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Considerable interest has been shown in the ability of caloric restriction (CR) to improve multiple parameters of health and to extend lifespan. CR is the reduction of caloric intake - typically by 20 - 40% of ad libitum consumption - while maintaining adequate nutrient intake. Several alternatives to CR exist. CR combined with exercise (CE) consists of both decreased caloric intake and increased caloric expenditure. Alternate-day fasting (ADF) consists of two interchanging days; one day, subjects may consume food ad libitum (sometimes equaling twice the normal intake); on the other day, food is reduced or withheld altogether. Dietary restriction (DR) - restriction of one or more components of intake (typically macronutrients) with minimal to no reduction in total caloric intake - is another alternative to CR. Many religions incorporate one or more forms of food restriction. The following religious fasting periods are featured in this review: 1) Islamic Ramadan; 2) the three principal fasting periods of Greek Orthodox Christianity (Nativity, Lent, and the Assumption); and 3) the Biblical-based Daniel Fast. This review provides a summary of the current state of knowledge related to CR and DR. A specific section is provided that illustrates related work pertaining to religious forms of food restriction. Where available, studies involving both humans and animals are presented. The review includes suggestions for future research pertaining to the topics of discussion. PMID:21981968

  4. Interaction of growth hormone receptor/binding protein gene disruption and caloric restriction for insulin sensitivity and attenuated aging.

    PubMed

    Arum, Oge; Saleh, Jamal; Boparai, Ravneet; Turner, Jeremy; Kopchick, John; Khardori, Romesh; Bartke, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The correlation of physiological sensitivity to insulin ( vis-à-vis glycemic regulation) and longevity is extensively established, creating a justifiable gerontological interest on whether insulin sensitivity is causative, or even predictive, of some or all phenotypes of slowed senescence (including longevity). The growth hormone receptor/ binding protein gene-disrupted (GHR-KO) mouse is the most extensively investigated insulin-sensitive, attenuated aging model. It was reported that, in a manner divergent from similar mutants, GHR-KO mice fail to respond to caloric restriction (CR) by altering their insulin sensitivity. We hypothesized that maximized insulin responsiveness is what causes GHR-KO mice to exhibit a suppressed survivorship response to dietary (including caloric) restriction; and attempted to refute this hypothesis by assessing the effects of CR on GHR-KO mice for varied slow-aging-associated phenotypes. In contrast to previous reports, we found GHR-KO mice on CR to be less responsive than their ad libitum (A.L.) counterparts to the hypoglycemia-inducing effects of insulin. Further, CR had negligible effects on the metabolism or cognition of GHR-KO mice. Therefore, our data suggest that the effects of CR on the insulin sensitivity of GHR-KO mice do not concur with the effects of CR on the aging of GHR-KO mice. PMID:25789159

  5. Effect of exercise and caloric restriction on DMBA induced mammary tumorigenesis and plasma lipids in rats fed high fat diets

    SciTech Connect

    Magrane, D. )

    1991-03-15

    Female Sprague-Dawley rats were given a single 10 mg dose of 7, 12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and grouped as follows: (1) low fat-sedentary (LF-SED), (2) low fat-exercised (LF-EX), (3) high fat-sedentary (HF-SED), (4) high fat-exercised (HF-EX), (5) high fat-caloric restricted (HF-RES). Diets were isocaloric and contained 3.9% (LF) and 19.4% (HF) of corn oil. Group 5 was fed a 25% caloric restricted diet but with 24.6% fat content to equalize fat intake to HF-SED. After 12 weeks of diet or treadmill exercise, tumor data and plasma lipid profiles were determined. Results show that rats on HF-EX had more total tumors, % of tumors and tumors per tumor bearing rat than rats on HF-SED. The effect of exercise was also evident in LF-EX rats, when compared to LF-SED. Average tumor size and tumor volumes were not affected. The HF-RES group showed reduced tumor profiles compared to HF-SED. HDL, LDL, triglycerides and total cholesterol were unaffected by HF or LF diets or exercise. These data suggest that tumorigenesis is increased by moderate and constant exercise.

  6. Curcumin Mimics the Neurocognitive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Caloric Restriction in a Mouse Model of Midlife Obesity.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Marjana Rahman; Franks, Susan; Sumien, Nathalie; Thangthaeng, Nopporn; Filipetto, Frank; Forster, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Dietary curcumin was studied for its potential to decrease adiposity and reverse obesity- associated cognitive impairment in a mouse model of midlife sedentary obesity. We hypothesized that curcumin intake, by decreasing adiposity, would improve cognitive function in a manner comparable to caloric restriction (CR), a weight loss regimen. 15-month-old male C57BL/6 mice were assigned in groups to receive the following dietary regimens for 12 weeks: (i) a base diet (Ain93M) fed ad libitum (AL), (ii) the base diet restricted to 70% of ad libitum (CR) or (iii) the base diet containing curcumin fed AL (1000 mg/kg diet, CURAL). Blood markers of inflammation, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP), as well as an indicator of redox stress (GSH: GSSG ratio), were determined at different time points during the treatments, and visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue were measured upon completion of the experiment. After 8 weeks of dietary treatment, the mice were tested for spatial cognition (Morris water maze) and cognitive flexibility (discriminated active avoidance). The CR group showed significant weight loss and reduced adiposity, whereas CURAL mice had stable weight throughout the experiment, consumed more food than the AL group, with no reduction of adiposity. However, both CR and CURAL groups took fewer trials than AL to reach criterion during the reversal sessions of the active avoidance task, suggesting an improvement in cognitive flexibility. The AL mice had higher levels of CRP compared to CURAL and CR, and GSH as well as the GSH: GSSG ratio were increased during curcumin intake, suggesting a reducing shift in the redox state. The results suggest that, independent of their effects on adiposity; dietary curcumin and caloric restriction have positive effects on frontal cortical functions that could be linked to anti-inflammatory or antioxidant actions.

  7. Curcumin Mimics the Neurocognitive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Caloric Restriction in a Mouse Model of Midlife Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Susan; Sumien, Nathalie; Thangthaeng, Nopporn; Filipetto, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Dietary curcumin was studied for its potential to decrease adiposity and reverse obesity- associated cognitive impairment in a mouse model of midlife sedentary obesity. We hypothesized that curcumin intake, by decreasing adiposity, would improve cognitive function in a manner comparable to caloric restriction (CR), a weight loss regimen. 15-month-old male C57BL/6 mice were assigned in groups to receive the following dietary regimens for 12 weeks: (i) a base diet (Ain93M) fed ad libitum (AL), (ii) the base diet restricted to 70% of ad libitum (CR) or (iii) the base diet containing curcumin fed AL (1000 mg/kg diet, CURAL). Blood markers of inflammation, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP), as well as an indicator of redox stress (GSH: GSSG ratio), were determined at different time points during the treatments, and visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue were measured upon completion of the experiment. After 8 weeks of dietary treatment, the mice were tested for spatial cognition (Morris water maze) and cognitive flexibility (discriminated active avoidance). The CR group showed significant weight loss and reduced adiposity, whereas CURAL mice had stable weight throughout the experiment, consumed more food than the AL group, with no reduction of adiposity. However, both CR and CURAL groups took fewer trials than AL to reach criterion during the reversal sessions of the active avoidance task, suggesting an improvement in cognitive flexibility. The AL mice had higher levels of CRP compared to CURAL and CR, and GSH as well as the GSH: GSSG ratio were increased during curcumin intake, suggesting a reducing shift in the redox state. The results suggest that, independent of their effects on adiposity; dietary curcumin and caloric restriction have positive effects on frontal cortical functions that could be linked to anti-inflammatory or antioxidant actions. PMID:26473740

  8. Caloric restriction and intermittent fasting alter hepatic lipid droplet proteome and diacylglycerol species and prevent diabetes in NZO mice.

    PubMed

    Baumeier, Christian; Kaiser, Daniel; Heeren, Jörg; Scheja, Ludger; John, Clara; Weise, Christoph; Eravci, Murat; Lagerpusch, Merit; Schulze, Gunnar; Joost, Hans-Georg; Schwenk, Robert Wolfgang; Schürmann, Annette

    2015-05-01

    Caloric restriction and intermittent fasting are known to improve glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance in several species including humans. The aim of this study was to unravel potential mechanisms by which these interventions improve insulin sensitivity and protect from type 2 diabetes. Diabetes-susceptible New Zealand Obese mice were either 10% calorie restricted (CR) or fasted every other day (IF), and compared to ad libitum (AL) fed control mice. AL mice showed a diabetes prevalence of 43%, whereas mice under CR and IF were completely protected against hyperglycemia. Proteomic analysis of hepatic lipid droplets revealed significantly higher levels of PSMD9 (co-activator Bridge-1), MIF (macrophage migration inhibitor factor), TCEB2 (transcription elongation factor B (SIII), polypeptide 2), ACY1 (aminoacylase 1) and FABP5 (fatty acid binding protein 5), and a marked reduction of GSTA3 (glutathione S-transferase alpha 3) in samples of CR and IF mice. In addition, accumulation of diacylglycerols (DAGs) was significantly reduced in livers of IF mice (P=0.045) while CR mice showed a similar tendency (P=0.062). In particular, 9 DAG species were significantly reduced in response to IF, of which DAG-40:4 and DAG-40:7 also showed significant effects after CR. This was associated with a decreased PKCε activation and might explain the improved insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, our data indicate that protection against diabetes upon caloric restriction and intermittent fasting associates with a modulation of lipid droplet protein composition and reduction of intracellular DAG species. PMID:25645620

  9. Chronic caloric restriction reduces tissue damage and improves spatial memory in a rat model of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Rich, Nicholas J; Van Landingham, Jacob W; Figueiroa, Silvia; Seth, Rohit; Corniola, Rikki S; Levenson, Cathy W

    2010-10-01

    Although it has been known for some time that chronic caloric or dietary restriction reduces the risk of neurodegenerative disorders and injury following ischemia, the possible role of chronic restriction in improving outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI) has not been previously studied. Therefore, 2-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two dietary groups, an ad libitum fed group (AL) and a caloric-restriction group (CR) that was provided with 70% of the food intake of AL rats (n = 10/group). After 4 months, a weight-drop device (300 g) was used to produce a 2-mm bilateral medial frontal cortex contusion following craniotomy. Additional animals in each dietary group (n = 10) were used as sham-operated controls. The CR diet resulted in body weights that were reduced by 30% compared with AL controls. Not only did CR decrease the size of the cortical lesion after injury, there were marked improvements in spatial memory as measured by Morris water maze that included an increase in the number of animals successfully finding the platform as well as significantly reduced time to finding the hidden platform. Western analysis, used to examine the expression of proteins that play a role in neuronal survival, revealed significant increases in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the cortical region around the site of injury and in the hippocampus in CR rats after injury. These findings suggest that molecular mechanisms involved in cell survival may play a role in reducing tissue damage and improving cognition after TBI and that these mechanisms can be regulated by dietary interventions. PMID:20544832

  10. Prefrontal cortex, caloric restriction and stress during aging: studies on dopamine and acetylcholine release, BDNF and working memory.

    PubMed

    Del Arco, Alberto; Segovia, Gregorio; de Blas, Marta; Garrido, Pedro; Acuña-Castroviejo, Dario; Pamplona, Reinald; Mora, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether long-term caloric restriction during the life span of the rat changes the effects of an acute mild stress on the release of dopamine and acetylcholine in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and on working memory performance. Spontaneous motor activity was also monitored and levels of BDNF measured in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala and hippocampus. Male Wistar rats (3 months of age) were housed during 3, 12, 21 and 27 months (6, 15, 24 and 30 months of age at the end of housing) in caloric restriction (CR; 40% food intake restriction) or control conditions. After behavioural testing, animals were further subdivided into two other groups. In one of the groups BDNF protein levels were determined. In the other group rats were implanted with guide cannulas into the PFC to perform microdialysis experiments. In CR rats the release of dopamine produced by handling stress did not differ from the response found in control rats of 6, 15 and 24 months of age. The release of acetylcholine was not changed at the ages of 6 and 15 months but reduced at the age of 24 months. Stress did not change dopamine or acetylcholine release in CR and control rats of 30 months of age. BDNF levels were increased in the hippocampus and amygdala, but not in the PFC, of 6 and 15 months CR rats. Spontaneous motor activity was increased in all groups of CR rats. Age, however, decreased motor activity in CR and control rats. Both experimental groups showed similar working memory performance in a delayed alternation task in basal conditions and after a situation of acute stress. These results suggest that CR does not modify the function of the PFC in response to an acute stress nor the changes found as a result of the normal process of aging.

  11. Hunger in the Absence of Caloric Restriction Improves Cognition and Attenuates Alzheimer's Disease Pathology in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Dhurandhar, Emily J.; Allison, David B.; van Groen, Thomas; Kadish, Inga

    2013-01-01

    It has been shown that caloric restriction (CR) delays aging and possibly delays the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We conjecture that the mechanism may involve interoceptive cues, rather than reduced energy intake per se. We determined that hunger alone, induced by a ghrelin agonist, reduces AD pathology and improves cognition in the APP-SwDI mouse model of AD. Long-term treatment with a ghrelin agonist was sufficient to improve the performance in the water maze. The treatment also reduced levels of amyloid beta (Aβ) and inflammation (microglial activation) at 6 months of age compared to the control group, similar to the effect of CR. Thus, a hunger-inducing drug attenuates AD pathology, in the absence of CR, and the neuroendocrine aspects of hunger also prevent age-related cognitive decline. PMID:23565247

  12. Inaccessible food cues affect stress and weight gain in calorically-restricted and ad lib fed rats.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Jennifer S; Polivy, Janet; Fleming, Alison; Hargreaves, Duane; Herman, C Peter; Lao, Grace

    2010-02-01

    Research suggests that caloric restriction (CR) is beneficial; however, the effects of CR in the context of food cues are unclear. A 2 (food cue vs. no cue)x2 (CR vs. ad lib) between-subjects design was employed to test these effects in 40 rats. It was predicted that cue exposure and CR would induce stress, and that these factors might interact synergistically. The results demonstrated that cue-exposed CR rats weighed less than did non-exposed CR rats. A blunted stress response was evident in CR rats relative to ad lib rats. Finally, cue-exposed rats had higher corticosterone levels and body weight during ad lib feeding than did non-cued rats. These results suggest that both CR and chronic food-cue exposure can be stressful, and the implications of this research are discussed in the context of humans' 'obesigenic' environment.

  13. Effects of 12 weeks of combined training without caloric restriction on inflammatory markers in overweight girls.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Wendell Arthur; Leite, Neiva; da Silva, Larissa Rosa; Brunelli, Diego Trevisan; Gáspari, Arthur Fernandes; Radominski, Rosana Bento; Chacon-Mikahil, Mara Patrícia Traina; Cavaglieri, Cláudia Regina

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of combined training without caloric restriction on inflammatory markers in overweight girls. Thirty-three girls (13-17 years) were assigned into overweight training (n = 17) or overweight control (n = 16) groups. Additionally, a normal-weight group (n = 15) was used as control for the baseline values. The combined training programme consisted of six resistance exercises (three sets of 6-10 repetitions at 60-70% 1 RM) followed by 30 min of aerobic exercise (walking/running) at 50-80% VO2peak, performed in the same 60 min session, 3 days/weeks, for 12 weeks. Body composition, dietary intake, aerobic fitness (VO2peak), muscular strength (1 RM), glycaemia, insulinemia, lipid profile and inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-10, leptin, resistin and adiponectin) were measured before and after intervention. There was a significant decrease in body fat (P < 0.01) and increase in fat-free mass (P < 0.01), VO2peak (P < 0.01), 1 RM for leg press (P < 0.01) and bench press (P < 0.01) in the overweight training group. Concomitantly, this group presented significant decreases in serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (P < 0.05) and leptin (P < 0.05), as well as in insulin resistance (P < 0.05) after the experimental period. In conclusion, 12 weeks of combined training without caloric restriction reduced inflammatory markers associated with obesity in overweight girls.

  14. THE EFFECTS OF THE DASH DIET ALONE AND IN COMBINATION WITH EXERCISE AND CALORIC RESTRICTION ON INSULIN SENSITIVITY AND LIPIDS

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, James A.; Babyak, Michael A.; Sherwood, Andrew; Craighead, Linda; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Johnson, Julie; Watkins, Lana L.; Wang, Jenny T.; Kuhn, Cynthia; Feinglos, Mark; Hinderliter, Alan

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on insulin sensitivity and lipids. In a randomized control trial, 144 overweight (body mass index 25–40) men (N= 47) and women (N= 97) with high blood pressure (130–159/85–99 mm Hg) were randomly assigned to either: (1) DASH diet alone (DASH-A); (2) DASH diet with aerobic exercise and caloric restriction (DASH-WM); or usual diet controls (UC). Body composition, fitness, insulin sensitivity, and fasting lipids were measured before and following 4 months of treatment. Insulin sensitivity was estimated based on glucose and insulin levels in the fasting state and after an oral glucose load. Participants in the DASH-WM condition lost weight (−8.7 [95% CI = −2.0, −9.7] kg,), and exhibited a significant increase in aerobic capacity, while the DASH-A and UC participants maintained their weight (−0.3 [95% CI = −1.2, 0.5] kg and +0.9 [95% CI = 0.0, 1.7] kg, respectively) and had no improvement in exercise capacity. DASH-WM demonstrated lower glucose levels following the oral glucose load, improved insulin sensitivity, and lower total cholesterol and triglycerides compared to both DASH-A and UC, and lower fasting glucose and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to UC; DASH-A participants generally did not differ from UC in these measures. Combining the DASH diet with exercise and weight loss resulted in significant improvements in insulin sensitivity and lipids. Despite clinically significant reductions in blood pressure, the DASH diet alone, without caloric restriction or exercise, resulted in minimal improvements in insulin sensitivity or lipids. PMID:20212264

  15. Influence of aging and long-term caloric restriction on oxygen radical generation and oxidative DNA damage in rat liver mitochondria.

    PubMed

    López-Torres, Mónica; Gredilla, Ricardo; Sanz, Alberto; Barja, Gustavo

    2002-05-01

    The effect of long-term caloric restriction and aging on the rates of mitochondrial H2O2 production and oxygen consumption as well as on oxidative damage to nuclear (nDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was studied in rat liver tissue. Long-term caloric restriction significantly decreased H2O2 production of rat liver mitochondria (47% reduction) and significantly reduced oxidative damage to mtDNA (46% reduction) with no changes in nDNA. The decrease in ROS production was located at complex I because it only took place with complex I-linked substrates (pyruvate/malate) but not with complex II-linked substrates (succinate). The mechanism responsible for that decrease in ROS production was not a decrease in mitochondrial oxygen consumption because it did not change after long-term restriction. Instead, the caloric restricted mitochondria released less ROS per unit electron flow, due to a decrease in the reduction degree of the complex I generator. On the other hand, increased ROS production with aging in state 3 was observed in succinate-supplemented mitochondria because old control animals were unable to suppress H2O2 production during the energy transition from state 4 to state 3. The levels of 8-oxodG in mtDNA increased with age in old animals and this increase was abolished by caloric restriction. These results support the idea that caloric restriction reduces the aging rate at least in part by decreasing the rate of mitochondrial ROS production and so, the rate of oxidative attack to biological macromolecules like mtDNA. PMID:11978489

  16. Caloric Restriction reduces inflammation and improves T cell-mediated immune response in obese mice but concomitant consumption of curcumin/piperine adds no further benefit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obesity is associated with low-grade inflammation and impaired immune response. Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to inhibit inflammatory response and enhance cell-mediated immune function. Curcumin, the bioactive phenolic component of turmeric spice, is proposed to have anti-obesity and anti-...

  17. A Multi-stage Carcinogenesis Model to Investigate Caloric Restriction as a Potential Tool for Post-irradiation Mitigation of Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Tani, Shusuke; Blyth, Benjamin John; Shang, Yi; Morioka, Takamitsu; Kakinuma, Shizuko; Shimada, Yoshiya

    2016-01-01

    The risk of radiation-induced cancer adds to anxiety in low-dose exposed populations. Safe and effective lifestyle changes which can help mitigate excess cancer risk might provide exposed individuals the opportunity to pro-actively reduce their cancer risk, and improve mental health and well-being. Here, we applied a mathematical multi-stage carcinogenesis model to the mouse lifespan data using adult-onset caloric restriction following irradiation in early life. We re-evaluated autopsy records with a veterinary pathologist to determine which tumors were the probable causes of death in order to calculate age-specific mortality. The model revealed that in both irradiated and unirradiated mice, caloric restriction reduced the age-specific mortality of all solid tumors and hepatocellular carcinomas across most of the lifespan, with the mortality rate dependent more on age owing to an increase in the number of predicted rate-limiting steps. Conversely, irradiation did not significantly alter the number of steps, but did increase the overall transition rate between the steps. We show that the extent of the protective effect of caloric restriction is independent of the induction of cancer from radiation exposure, and discuss future avenues of research to explore the utility of caloric restriction as an example of a potential post-irradiation mitigation strategy. PMID:27390741

  18. Gene expression profiling of the short-term adaptive response to acute caloric restriction in liver and adipose tissues of pigs differing in feed efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency, where low RFI denotes high feed efficiency. Caloric restriction (CR) is associated with feed efficiency in livestock species and relevant to human health benefits such as longevity and cancer prevention. We generated transcript profiles of ...

  19. Effects of aerobic versus resistance exercise without caloric restriction on abdominal fat, intrahepatic lipid, and insulin sensitivity in obese adolescent boys: a randomized, controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The optimal exercise modality for reductions of abdominal obesity and risk factors for type 2 diabetes in youth is unknown. We examined the effects of aerobic exercise (AE) versus resistance exercise (RE) without caloric restriction on abdominal adiposity, ectopic fat, and insulin sensitivity and se...

  20. Food cravings and energy regulation: the characteristics of craved foods and their relationship with hunger and weight change during 6 months of caloric restriction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To examine the characteristics of craved foods and changes in food cravings in a long-term caloric restriction (CR) intervention in overweight women randomized to high or low glycemic load diets. Design: A randomized controlled trial of high or low glycemic load diets provided for 6 mon...

  1. Gastric Bypass Surgery but not Caloric Restriction Improves Reproductive Function in Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Frank, Aaron P; Zechner, Juliet F; Clegg, Deborah J

    2016-02-01

    In women, obesity is associated with decrements in reproductive health that are improved with weight loss. Due to the difficulty of maintaining weight loss through lifestyle interventions, surgical interventions have become popular treatments for obesity. We examined how weight loss induced by Roux-en Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) or calorie restriction impacted expression of hypothalamic genes related to energy intake and reproduction. RYGB and calorie restriction induced equivalent weight loss; however, expression of the anorexigenic melanocortin pathway decreased only in calorie restricted mice. Serum estradiol concentrations were lower in calorie restricted mice relative to RYGB during proestrous, suggesting that RYGB maintained normal estrous cycling. Thus, the effects of RYGB for female mice, and possibly humans, extend beyond weight loss to include enhanced reproductive health. PMID:26667161

  2. Early Shifts of Brain Metabolism by Caloric Restriction Preserve White Matter Integrity and Long-Term Memory in Aging Mice

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Janet; Bakshi, Vikas; Lin, Ai-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Preservation of brain integrity with age is highly associated with lifespan determination. Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to increase longevity and healthspan in various species; however, its effects on preserving living brain functions in aging remain largely unexplored. In the study, we used multimodal, non-invasive neuroimaging (PET/MRI/MRS) to determine in vivo brain glucose metabolism, energy metabolites, and white matter structural integrity in young and old mice fed with either control or 40% CR diet. In addition, we determined the animals’ memory and learning ability with behavioral assessments. Blood glucose, blood ketone bodies, and body weight were also measured. We found distinct patterns between normal aging and CR aging on brain functions – normal aging showed reductions in brain glucose metabolism, white matter integrity, and long-term memory, resembling human brain aging. CR aging, in contrast, displayed an early shift from glucose to ketone bodies metabolism, which was associated with preservations of brain energy production, white matter integrity, and long-term memory in aging mice. Among all the mice, we found a positive correlation between blood glucose level and body weight, but an inverse association between blood glucose level and lifespan. Our findings suggest that CR could slow down brain aging, in part due to the early shift of energy metabolism caused by lower caloric intake, and we were able to identify the age-dependent effects of CR non-invasively using neuroimaging. These results provide a rationale for CR-induced sustenance of brain health with extended longevity. PMID:26617514

  3. Impact of caloric restriction on myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury and new therapeutic options to mimic its effects

    PubMed Central

    Rohrbach, Susanne; Aslam, Muhammad; Niemann, Bernd; Schulz, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) is the most reliable intervention to extend lifespan and prevent age-related disorders in various species from yeast to rodents. Short- and long-term CR confers cardio protection against ischaemia/reperfusion injury in young and even in aged rodents. A few human trials suggest that CR has the potential to mediate improvement of cardiac or vascular function and induce retardation of cardiac senescence also in humans. The underlying mechanisms are diverse and have not yet been clearly defined. Among the known mediators for the benefits of CR are NO, the AMP-activated PK, sirtuins and adiponectin. Mitochondria, which play a central role in such complex processes within the cell as apoptosis, ATP-production or oxidative stress, are centrally involved in many aspects of CR-induced protection against ischaemic injury. Here, we discuss the relevant literature regarding the protection against myocardial ischaemia/reperfusion injury conferred by CR. Furthermore, we will discuss drug targets to mimic CR and the possible role of calorie restriction in preserving cardiovascular function in humans. PMID:24611611

  4. Influence of Long-Term Caloric Restriction on Myocardial and Cardiomyocyte Contractile Function and Autophagy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xuefeng; Turdi, Subat; Hu, Nan; Guo, Rui; Zhang, Yingmei; Ren, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Both clinical and experimental evidence has revealed that calorie restriction (CR) is capable of improving heart function. However, most the reports are focused on the effect of CR on the pathological states such as obesity while the effect of CR on heart function in otherwise healthy subjects are not well understood. This study examined the long-term CR effect on cardiac contractile function and possible underlying mechanisms involved. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to a 40% CR or ad libitum feeding for 20 weeks. Echocardiographic and cardiomyocyte contractile properties were evaluated. Intracellular signaling pathways were examined using western blot analysis. Our results showed that CR overtly lessened glucose intolerance, body and heart weights (although not heart size), lowered fat tissue density, decreased left ventricular (LV) wall thickness (septum and posterior wall) in both systole and diastole, and reduced LV mass (not normalized LV mass) without affecting fractional shortening. Cardiomyocyte cell length and cross-sectional area were reduced while peak shortening amplitude was increased following CR. CR failed to affect maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening, duration of shortening and relengthening. Immunoblotting data depicted decreased and increased phosphorylation of Akt/GSK-3β and AMPK/ACC, respectively, following CR. CR also dampened the phosphorylation of mTOR, ERK1/2 and c-Jun while it increased the phosphorylation of JNK. Last but not least, CR significantly promoted cardiac autophagy as evidenced by increased expression of LC3B-II (and LC3B-IIto-LC3B-I ratio) and Beclin-1. In summary, our data suggested that long-term CR may preserve cardiac contractile function with improved cardiomyocyte function, lessen cardiac remodeling and promote autophagy. PMID:22444502

  5. Influence of aging and caloric restriction on activation of Ras/MAPK, calcineurin, and CaMK-IV activities in rat T cells.

    PubMed

    Pahlavani, M A; Vargas, D M

    2000-02-01

    The signaling cascade mediated by Ras (p21ras) and MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) and calcium/calmodulin regulating enzymes, calcineurin (CaN) and CaMK-IV, are considered to be essential for T-cell growth and function. In the present study, the effect of aging and caloric restriction (CR) on the induction of Ras and MAPK activation by concanavalin A (ConA) was studied. Splenic T cells were isolated from young (4-6 months) and old (22-24 months) rats that had free access to food (control group), and from caloric restricted old (22-24 months) rats that beginning at 6 weeks of age were fed 60%(40% caloric restriction) of the diet consumed by the control rats. We found that the induction of Ras activity in T cells isolated from control old rats was lower (P<0.001) than that in control young rats. However, the levels of Ras activity in T cells isolated from CR old rats were similar to the levels in the age-matched control rats. The induction of MAPK activity in T cells isolated from control old rats and CR old rats was significantly less than in T cells isolated from control young rats, and caloric restriction significantly (P<0.05) reduced the age-related decline in MAPK activation. We also measured the induction of CaN and CaMK-IV activities by ConA in T cells from control young and old and CR old rats. The induction of both CaN and CaMK-IV activity decreased with age. Caloric restriction significantly (P<0.05) reduced the age-related decline in CaN activity, but had no significant effect on CaMK-IV activity. The changes in Ras/MAPK activation and in CaN and CaMK-IV activity with age or with CR were not associated with alterations in their corresponding protein levels. Thus, caloric restriction has a differential effect on the activation of the upstream signaling molecules that are altered with age.

  6. A meta-analysis of caloric restriction gene expression profiles to infer common signatures and regulatory mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Plank, Michael; Wuttke, Daniel; van Dam, Sipko; Clarke, Susan A; de Magalhães, João Pedro

    2012-04-01

    Caloric restriction, a reduction in calorie intake without malnutrition, retards age-related degeneration and extends lifespan in several organisms. CR induces multiple changes, yet its underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this work, we first performed a meta-analysis of microarray CR studies in mammals and identified genes and processes robustly altered due to CR. Our results reveal a complex array of CR-induced changes and we re-identified several genes and processes previously associated with CR, such as growth hormone signalling, lipid metabolism and immune response. Moreover, our results highlight novel associations with CR, such as retinol metabolism and copper ion detoxification, as well as hint of a strong effect of CR on circadian rhythms that in turn may contribute to metabolic changes. Analyses of our signatures by integrating co-expression data, information on genetic mutants, and transcription factor binding site analysis revealed candidate regulators of transcriptional modules in CR. Our results hint at a transcriptional module involved in sterol metabolism regulated by Srebf1. A putative regulatory role of Ppara was also identified. Overall, our conserved molecular signatures of CR provide a comprehensive picture of CR-induced changes and help understand its regulatory mechanisms.

  7. Long-term caloric restriction in mice may prevent age-related learning impairment via suppression of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lina; Wang, Rong; Dong, Wen; Li, Yun; Xu, Baolei; Zhang, Jingshuang; Zhao, Zhiwei

    2016-12-15

    Caloric restriction (CR) is the most reliable intervention to extend lifespan and prevent age-related disorders in various species from yeast to rodents. However, the underlying mechanisms have not yet been clearly defined. Therefore, we aimed to identify the underlying mechanisms of long-term CR on age-related learning impairment in C57/BL mice. Thirty six-week-old male C57/BL mice were randomly divided into three groups: normal control group (NC group, n=10), high energy group (HE group, n=10), and CR group (n=10). After 10 months, the Morris water maze test was performed to monitor learning abilities. Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to monitor changes in protein and mRNA levels associated with apoptosis-related proteins in the hippocampus. The average escape latency was lower in the CR group compared with the NC group, and the average time taken to first cross the platform in the CR group was significantly shorter than the HE group. Both Bcl-2 protein and mRNA expression levels in the CR group were significantly higher than those of the NC group and HE group. The expression of Bax, Caspase-3 and PARP protein in the CR group was significantly lower than the NC group. Our findings demonstrate that long-term CR may prevent age-related learning impairments via suppressing apoptosis in mice. PMID:27452805

  8. Enzymes of Glycerol and Glyceraldehyde Metabolism in Mouse Liver: Effects of Caloric Restriction and Age on Activities

    PubMed Central

    Hagopian, Kevork; Ramsey, Jon J.; Weindruch, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Synopsis The influence of caloric restriction on hepatic glyceraldehyde and glycerol metabolizing enzyme activities of young and old mice were studied. Glycerol kinase and cytoplasmic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activities were increased in both young and old CR mice when compared to controls, while triokinase increased only in old CR mice. Aldehyde dehydrogenase and aldehyde reductase activities in both young and old CR were unchanged by CR. Mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase showed a trend towards an increased activity in old CR mice, while a trend towards a decreased activity in alcohol dehydrogenase was observed in both young and old CR mice. Serum glycerol levels decreased in young and old CR mice. Therefore, increases in glycerol kinase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were associated with a decrease in fasting blood glycerol levels in CR animals. A prominent role for triokinase in glyceraldehyde metabolism with CR was also observed. The results indicate that long-term CR induces sustained increases in the capacity for gluconeogenesis from glycerol. PMID:18429748

  9. Caloric restriction of db/db mice reverts hepatic steatosis and body weight with divergent hepatic metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Eun; Jung, Youngae; Min, Soonki; Nam, Miso; Heo, Rok Won; Jeon, Byeong Tak; Song, Dae Hyun; Yi, Chin-ok; Jeong, Eun Ae; Kim, Hwajin; Kim, Jeonghyun; Jeong, Seon-Yong; Kwak, Woori; Ryu, Do Hyun; Horvath, Tamas L.; Roh, Gu Seob; Hwang, Geum-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most frequent causes of liver disease and its prevalence is a serious and growing clinical problem. Caloric restriction (CR) is commonly recommended for improvement of obesity-related diseases such as NAFLD. However, the effects of CR on hepatic metabolism remain unknown. We investigated the effects of CR on metabolic dysfunction in the liver of obese diabetic db/db mice. We found that CR of db/db mice reverted insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, body weight and adiposity to those of db/m mice. 1H-NMR- and UPLC-QTOF-MS-based metabolite profiling data showed significant metabolic alterations related to lipogenesis, ketogenesis, and inflammation in db/db mice. Moreover, western blot analysis showed that lipogenesis pathway enzymes in the liver of db/db mice were reduced by CR. In addition, CR reversed ketogenesis pathway enzymes and the enhanced autophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis, collagen deposition and endoplasmic reticulum stress in db/db mice. In particular, hepatic inflammation-related proteins including lipocalin-2 in db/db mice were attenuated by CR. Hepatic metabolomic studies yielded multiple pathological mechanisms of NAFLD. Also, these findings showed that CR has a therapeutic effect by attenuating the deleterious effects of obesity and diabetes-induced multiple complications. PMID:27439777

  10. Time-restricted feeding without reducing caloric intake prevents metabolic diseases in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Hatori, Megumi; Vollmers, Christopher; Zarrinpar, Amir; DiTacchio, Luciano; Bushong, Eric A; Gill, Shubhroz; Leblanc, Mathias; Chaix, Amandine; Joens, Matthew; Fitzpatrick, James A J; Ellisman, Mark H; Panda, Satchidananda

    2012-06-01

    While diet-induced obesity has been exclusively attributed to increased caloric intake from fat, animals fed a high-fat diet (HFD) ad libitum (ad lib) eat frequently throughout day and night, disrupting the normal feeding cycle. To test whether obesity and metabolic diseases result from HFD or disruption of metabolic cycles, we subjected mice to either ad lib or time-restricted feeding (tRF) of a HFD for 8 hr per day. Mice under tRF consume equivalent calories from HFD as those with ad lib access yet are protected against obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hepatic steatosis, and inflammation and have improved motor coordination. The tRF regimen improved CREB, mTOR, and AMPK pathway function and oscillations of the circadian clock and their target genes' expression. These changes in catabolic and anabolic pathways altered liver metabolome and improved nutrient utilization and energy expenditure. We demonstrate in mice that tRF regimen is a nonpharmacological strategy against obesity and associated diseases.

  11. Caloric restriction of db/db mice reverts hepatic steatosis and body weight with divergent hepatic metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Eun; Jung, Youngae; Min, Soonki; Nam, Miso; Heo, Rok Won; Jeon, Byeong Tak; Song, Dae Hyun; Yi, Chin-Ok; Jeong, Eun Ae; Kim, Hwajin; Kim, Jeonghyun; Jeong, Seon-Yong; Kwak, Woori; Ryu, Do Hyun; Horvath, Tamas L; Roh, Gu Seob; Hwang, Geum-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most frequent causes of liver disease and its prevalence is a serious and growing clinical problem. Caloric restriction (CR) is commonly recommended for improvement of obesity-related diseases such as NAFLD. However, the effects of CR on hepatic metabolism remain unknown. We investigated the effects of CR on metabolic dysfunction in the liver of obese diabetic db/db mice. We found that CR of db/db mice reverted insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, body weight and adiposity to those of db/m mice. (1)H-NMR- and UPLC-QTOF-MS-based metabolite profiling data showed significant metabolic alterations related to lipogenesis, ketogenesis, and inflammation in db/db mice. Moreover, western blot analysis showed that lipogenesis pathway enzymes in the liver of db/db mice were reduced by CR. In addition, CR reversed ketogenesis pathway enzymes and the enhanced autophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis, collagen deposition and endoplasmic reticulum stress in db/db mice. In particular, hepatic inflammation-related proteins including lipocalin-2 in db/db mice were attenuated by CR. Hepatic metabolomic studies yielded multiple pathological mechanisms of NAFLD. Also, these findings showed that CR has a therapeutic effect by attenuating the deleterious effects of obesity and diabetes-induced multiple complications. PMID:27439777

  12. Muscle-Specific Overexpression of PGC-1α Does Not Augment Metabolic Improvements in Response to Exercise and Caloric Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kari E.; Mikus, Catherine R.; Slentz, Dorothy H.; Seiler, Sarah E.; DeBalsi, Karen L.; Ilkayeva, Olga R.; Crain, Karen I.; Kinter, Michael T.; Kien, C. Lawrence; Stevens, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    This study used mice with muscle-specific overexpression of PGC-1α, a transcriptional coactivator that promotes mitochondrial biogenesis, to determine whether increased oxidative potential facilitates metabolic improvements in response to lifestyle modification. MCK-PGC1α mice and nontransgenic (NT) littermates were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 10 weeks, followed by stepwise exposures to voluntary wheel running (HFD+Ex) and then 25% caloric restriction with exercise (Ex/CR), each for an additional 10 weeks with continued HFD. Running and CR improved weight and glucose control similarly in MCK-PGC1α and NT mice. Sedentary MCK-PGC1α mice were more susceptible to diet-induced glucose intolerance, and insulin action measured in isolated skeletal muscles remained lower in the transgenic compared with the NT group, even after Ex/CR. Comprehensive profiling of >200 metabolites and lipid intermediates revealed dramatic group-specific responses to the intervention but did not produce a lead candidate that tracked with changes in glucose tolerance irrespective of genotype. Instead, principal components analysis identified a chemically diverse metabolite cluster that correlated with multiple measures of insulin responsiveness. These findings challenge the notion that increased oxidative capacity defends whole-body energy homeostasis and suggest that the interplay between mitochondrial performance, lipotoxicity, and insulin action is more complex than previously proposed. PMID:25422105

  13. Caloric restriction protects against electrical kindling of the amygdala by inhibiting the mTOR signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Phillips-Farfán, Bryan V; Rubio Osornio, María Del Carmen; Custodio Ramírez, Verónica; Paz Tres, Carlos; Carvajal Aguilera, Karla G

    2015-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to possess antiepileptic properties; however its mechanism of action is poorly understood. CR might inhibit the activity of the mammalian or mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling cascade, which seems to participate crucially in the generation of epilepsy. Thus, we investigated the effect of CR on the mTOR pathway and whether CR modified epilepsy generation due to electrical amygdala kindling. The former was studied by analyzing the phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, protein kinase B and the ribosomal protein S6. The mTOR cascade is regulated by energy and by insulin levels, both of which may be changed by CR; thus we investigated if CR altered the levels of energy substrates in the blood or the level of insulin in plasma. Finally, we studied if CR modified the expression of genes that encode proteins participating in the mTOR pathway. CR increased the after-discharge threshold and tended to reduce the after-discharge duration, indicating an anti-convulsive action. CR diminished the phosphorylation of protein kinase B and ribosomal protein S6, suggesting an inhibition of the mTOR cascade. However, CR did not change glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate or insulin levels; thus the effects of CR were independent from them. Interestingly, CR also did not modify the expression of any investigated gene. The results suggest that the anti-epileptic effect of CR may be partly due to inhibition of the mTOR pathway.

  14. A dietary regimen of caloric restriction or pharmacological activation of SIRT1 to delay the onset of neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Gräff, Johannes; Kahn, Martin; Samiei, Alireza; Gao, Jun; Ota, Kristie T; Rei, Damien; Tsai, Li-Huei

    2013-05-22

    Caloric restriction (CR) is a dietary regimen known to promote lifespan by slowing down the occurrence of age-dependent diseases. The greatest risk factor for neurodegeneration in the brain is age, from which follows that CR might also attenuate the progressive loss of neurons that is often associated with impaired cognitive capacities. In this study, we used a transgenic mouse model that allows for a temporally and spatially controlled onset of neurodegeneration to test the potentially beneficial effects of CR. We found that in this model, CR significantly delayed the onset of neurodegeneration and synaptic loss and dysfunction, and thereby preserved cognitive capacities. Mechanistically, CR induced the expression of the known lifespan-regulating protein SIRT1, prompting us to test whether a pharmacological activation of SIRT1 might recapitulate CR. We found that oral administration of a SIRT1-activating compound essentially replicated the beneficial effects of CR. Thus, SIRT1-activating compounds might provide a pharmacological alternative to the regimen of CR against neurodegeneration and its associated ailments.

  15. Impact of caloric restriction on health and survival in rhesus monkeys: the NIA study

    PubMed Central

    Mattison, Julie A.; Roth, George S.; Beasley, T. Mark; Tilmont, Edward M.; Handy, April H.; Herbert, Richard L.; Longo, Dan L.; Allison, David B.; Young, Jennifer E.; Bryant, Mark; Barnard, Dennis; Ward, Walter F.; Qi, Wenbo; Ingram, Donald K.; de Cabo, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Life extension by calorie restriction (CR) has been widely reported in a variety of species and remains on the forefront of anti-aging intervention studies. We report healthspan and survival effects of CR from a 23-year study in rhesus macaques conducted at the National Institute on Aging (NIA). CR initiated at older ages did not increase survival relative to Controls; however, CR monkeys demonstrated an improved metabolic profile and may have less oxidative stress as indicated by plasma isoprostane levels. When initiated in young monkeys, there was a trend (p=0.06) for a delay in age-associated disease onset in CR monkeys; but again, survival curves were not improved, in contrast to another study reported in the literature. This suggests that the effects of CR in a long-lived animal are complex and likely dependent on a variety of environmental, nutritional, and genetic factors. PMID:22932268

  16. Energy Content of Weight Loss: Kinetic Features During Voluntary Caloric Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Heymsfield, Steven B.; Thomas, Diana; Martin, Corby K.; Redman, Leanne M.; Strauss, Boyd; Bosy-Westphal, Anja; Müller, Manfred J.; Shen, Wei; Nguyen, Allison Martin

    2013-01-01

    Objective The classic rule stating that restricting intake by 3500 kcal/wk will lead to a 1-lb/wk rate of weight loss has come under intense scrutiny. Generally not a component of most weight loss prediction models, the “early” rapid weight loss phase may represent a period during which the energy content of weight change (ΔEC/ΔW) is low and thus does not follow the classic “rule”. The current study tested this hypothesis. Methods Dynamic ΔEC/ΔW changes were examined in 23 CALERIE Study overweight men and women evaluated by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry during weight loss at treatment weeks 4 to 24. Changes from baseline in body energy content were estimated from fat and fat-free mass. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to determine if ΔEC/ΔW changed significantly over time. The evaluation was expanded with addition of the Kiel 13-week weight loss study of 75 obese men and women to test with adequate power if there are sex differences in ΔEC/ΔW. Results The ANOVA CALERIE time effect was significant (p <0.001) with post hoc tests indicating ΔEC/ΔW (kcal/kg) increased significantly from week 4 (X±SEM, 4, 858±388) to 6 (6, 041±376, p<0.01) and changed insignificantly thereafter; ΔEC/ΔW was significantly larger for Kiel women (6, 804±226) versus men (6, 119±240, p<0.05). Conclusions Sex-specific dynamic relative changes in body composition and related ΔEC/ΔW occur with weight loss initiation that extend one-month or more. These observations provide new information for developing energy balance models and further define limitations of the 3500 kcal energy deficit → 1 lb weight loss rule. PMID:22257646

  17. Long-term hyperphagia and caloric restriction caused by low- or high-density husbandry have differential effects on zebrafish postembryonic development, somatic growth, fat accumulation and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Leibold, Sandra; Hammerschmidt, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as an alternative vertebrate model for energy homeostasis and metabolic diseases, including obesity and anorexia. It has been shown that diet-induced obesity (DIO) in zebrafish shares multiple pathophysiological features with obesity in mammals. However, a systematic and comprehensive analysis of the different pathways of energy expenditure in obese and starved fish had been missing thus far. Here, we carry out long-term ad libitum feeding (hyperphagia) and caloric restriction studies induced by low- or high-density husbandry, respectively, to investigate the impact of caloric intake on the timing of scale formation, a crucial step of postembryonic development and metamorphosis, and on somatic growth, body weight, fat storage and female reproduction. We show that all of them are positively affected by increased caloric intake, that middle-aged fish develop severe DIO, and that the body mass index (BMI) displays a strict linear correlation with whole-body triglyceride levels in adult zebrafish. Interestingly, juvenile fish are largely resistant to DIO, while BMI and triglyceride values drop in aged fish, pointing to aging-associated anorexic effects. Histological analyses further indicate that increased fat storage in white adipose tissue involves both hyperplasia and hypertrophy of adipocytes. Furthermore, in ovaries, caloric intake primarily affects the rate of oocyte growth, rather than total oocyte numbers. Finally, comparing the different pathways of energy expenditure with each other, we demonstrate that they are differentially affected by caloric restriction / high-density husbandry. In juvenile fish, scale formation is prioritized over somatic growth, while in sexually mature adults, female reproduction is prioritized over somatic growth, and somatic growth over fat storage. Our data will serve as a template for future functional studies to dissect the neuroendocrine regulators of energy homeostasis

  18. Long-Term Hyperphagia and Caloric Restriction Caused by Low- or High-Density Husbandry Have Differential Effects on Zebrafish Postembryonic Development, Somatic Growth, Fat Accumulation and Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Leibold, Sandra; Hammerschmidt, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as an alternative vertebrate model for energy homeostasis and metabolic diseases, including obesity and anorexia. It has been shown that diet-induced obesity (DIO) in zebrafish shares multiple pathophysiological features with obesity in mammals. However, a systematic and comprehensive analysis of the different pathways of energy expenditure in obese and starved fish had been missing thus far. Here, we carry out long-term ad libitum feeding (hyperphagia) and caloric restriction studies induced by low- or high-density husbandry, respectively, to investigate the impact of caloric intake on the timing of scale formation, a crucial step of postembryonic development and metamorphosis, and on somatic growth, body weight, fat storage and female reproduction. We show that all of them are positively affected by increased caloric intake, that middle-aged fish develop severe DIO, and that the body mass index (BMI) displays a strict linear correlation with whole-body triglyceride levels in adult zebrafish. Interestingly, juvenile fish are largely resistant to DIO, while BMI and triglyceride values drop in aged fish, pointing to aging-associated anorexic effects. Histological analyses further indicate that increased fat storage in white adipose tissue involves both hyperplasia and hypertrophy of adipocytes. Furthermore, in ovaries, caloric intake primarily affects the rate of oocyte growth, rather than total oocyte numbers. Finally, comparing the different pathways of energy expenditure with each other, we demonstrate that they are differentially affected by caloric restriction / high-density husbandry. In juvenile fish, scale formation is prioritized over somatic growth, while in sexually mature adults, female reproduction is prioritized over somatic growth, and somatic growth over fat storage. Our data will serve as a template for future functional studies to dissect the neuroendocrine regulators of energy homeostasis

  19. Combining metformin therapy with caloric restriction for the management of type 2 diabetes and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in obese rats.

    PubMed

    Linden, Melissa A; Lopez, Kristi T; Fletcher, Justin A; Morris, E Matthew; Meers, Grace M; Siddique, Sameer; Laughlin, M Harold; Sowers, James R; Thyfault, John P; Ibdah, Jamal A; Rector, R Scott

    2015-10-01

    Weight loss is recommended for patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), while metformin may lower liver enzymes in type 2 diabetics. Yet, the efficacy of the combination of weight loss and metformin in the treatment of NAFLD is unclear. We assessed the effects of metformin, caloric restriction, and their combination on NAFLD in diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Male OLETF rats (age 20 weeks; n = 6-8 per group) were fed ad libitum (AL), given metformin (300 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1); Met), calorically restricted (70% of AL; CR), or calorically restricted and given metformin (CR+Met) for 12 weeks. Met lowered adiposity compared with AL but not to the same magnitude as CR or CR+Met (p < 0.05). Although only CR improved fasting insulin and glucose, the combination of CR+Met was needed to improve post-challenge glucose tolerance. All treatments lowered hepatic triglycerides, but further improvements were observed in the CR groups (p < 0.05, Met vs. CR or CR+Met) and a further reduction in serum alanine aminotransferases was observed in CR+Met rats. CR lowered markers of hepatic de novo lipogenesis (fatty acid synthase, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1)) and increased hepatic mitochondrial activity (palmitate oxidation and β-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase (β-HAD) activity). Changes were enhanced in the CR+Met group for ACC, SCD-1, β-HAD, and the mitophagy marker BNIP3. Met decreased total hepatic mTOR content and inhibited mTOR complex 1, which may have contributed to Met-induced reductions in de novo lipogenesis. These findings in the OLETF rat suggest that the combination of caloric restriction and metformin may provide a more optimal approach than either treatment alone in the management of type 2 diabetes and NAFLD.

  20. Effects of the dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet alone and in combination with exercise and caloric restriction on insulin sensitivity and lipids.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, James A; Babyak, Michael A; Sherwood, Andrew; Craighead, Linda; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Johnson, Julie; Watkins, Lana L; Wang, Jenny T; Kuhn, Cynthia; Feinglos, Mark; Hinderliter, Alan

    2010-05-01

    This study examined the effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on insulin sensitivity and lipids. In a randomized control trial, 144 overweight (body mass index: 25 to 40) men (n=47) and women (n=97) with high blood pressure (130 to 159/85 to 99 mm Hg) were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: (1) DASH diet alone; (2) DASH diet with aerobic exercise and caloric restriction; or (3) usual diet controls (UC). Body composition, fitness, insulin sensitivity, and fasting lipids were measured before and after 4 months of treatment. Insulin sensitivity was estimated on the basis of glucose and insulin levels in the fasting state and after an oral glucose load. Participants in the DASH diet with aerobic exercise and caloric restriction condition lost weight (-8.7 kg [95% CI: -2.0 to -9.7 kg]) and exhibited a significant increase in aerobic capacity, whereas the DASH diet alone and UC participants maintained their weight (-0.3 kg [95% CI: -1.2 to 0.5 kg] and +0.9 kg [95% CI: 0.0 to 1.7 kg], respectively) and had no improvement in exercise capacity. DASH diet with aerobic exercise and caloric restriction demonstrated lower glucose levels after the oral glucose load, improved insulin sensitivity, and lower total cholesterol and triglycerides compared with both DASH diet alone and UC, as well as lower fasting glucose and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with UC. DASH diet alone participants generally did not differ from UC in these measures. Combining the DASH diet with exercise and weight loss resulted in significant improvements in insulin sensitivity and lipids. Despite clinically significant reductions in blood pressure, the DASH diet alone, without caloric restriction or exercise, resulted in minimal improvements in insulin sensitivity or lipids.

  1. Caloric restriction induces energy-sparing alterations in skeletal muscle contraction, fiber composition and local thyroid hormone metabolism that persist during catch-up fat upon refeeding

    PubMed Central

    De Andrade, Paula B. M.; Neff, Laurence A.; Strosova, Miriam K.; Arsenijevic, Denis; Patthey-Vuadens, Ophélie; Scapozza, Leonardo; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Ruegg, Urs T.; Dulloo, Abdul G.; Dorchies, Olivier M.

    2015-01-01

    Weight regain after caloric restriction results in accelerated fat storage in adipose tissue. This catch-up fat phenomenon is postulated to result partly from suppressed skeletal muscle thermogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated whether the reduced rate of skeletal muscle contraction-relaxation cycle that occurs after caloric restriction persists during weight recovery and could contribute to catch-up fat. Using a rat model of semistarvation-refeeding, in which fat recovery is driven by suppressed thermogenesis, we show that contraction and relaxation of leg muscles are slower after both semistarvation and refeeding. These effects are associated with (i) higher expression of muscle deiodinase type 3 (DIO3), which inactivates tri-iodothyronine (T3), and lower expression of T3-activating enzyme, deiodinase type 2 (DIO2), (ii) slower net formation of T3 from its T4 precursor in muscles, and (iii) accumulation of slow fibers at the expense of fast fibers. These semistarvation-induced changes persisted during recovery and correlated with impaired expression of transcription factors involved in slow-twitch muscle development. We conclude that diminished muscle thermogenesis following caloric restriction results from reduced muscle T3 levels, alteration in muscle-specific transcription factors, and fast-to-slow fiber shift causing slower contractility. These energy-sparing effects persist during weight recovery and contribute to catch-up fat. PMID:26441673

  2. Caloric restriction protects against electrical kindling of the amygdala by inhibiting the mTOR signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Phillips-Farfán, Bryan V.; Rubio Osornio, María del Carmen; Custodio Ramírez, Verónica; Paz Tres, Carlos; Carvajal Aguilera, Karla G.

    2015-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to possess antiepileptic properties; however its mechanism of action is poorly understood. CR might inhibit the activity of the mammalian or mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling cascade, which seems to participate crucially in the generation of epilepsy. Thus, we investigated the effect of CR on the mTOR pathway and whether CR modified epilepsy generation due to electrical amygdala kindling. The former was studied by analyzing the phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, protein kinase B and the ribosomal protein S6. The mTOR cascade is regulated by energy and by insulin levels, both of which may be changed by CR; thus we investigated if CR altered the levels of energy substrates in the blood or the level of insulin in plasma. Finally, we studied if CR modified the expression of genes that encode proteins participating in the mTOR pathway. CR increased the after-discharge threshold and tended to reduce the after-discharge duration, indicating an anti-convulsive action. CR diminished the phosphorylation of protein kinase B and ribosomal protein S6, suggesting an inhibition of the mTOR cascade. However, CR did not change glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate or insulin levels; thus the effects of CR were independent from them. Interestingly, CR also did not modify the expression of any investigated gene. The results suggest that the anti-epileptic effect of CR may be partly due to inhibition of the mTOR pathway. PMID:25814935

  3. Effects of Intermittent Fasting, Caloric Restriction, and Ramadan Intermittent Fasting on Cognitive Performance at Rest and During Exercise in Adults.

    PubMed

    Cherif, Anissa; Roelands, Bart; Meeusen, Romain; Chamari, Karim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to highlight the potent effects of intermittent fasting on the cognitive performance of athletes at rest and during exercise. Exercise interacts with dietary factors and has a positive effect on brain functioning. Furthermore, physical activity and exercise can favorably influence brain plasticity. Mounting evidence indicates that exercise, in combination with diet, affects the management of energy metabolism and synaptic plasticity by affecting molecular mechanisms through brain-derived neurotrophic factor, an essential neurotrophin that acts at the interface of metabolism and plasticity. The literature has also shown that certain aspects of physical performance and mental health, such as coping and decision-making strategies, can be negatively affected by daylight fasting. However, there are several types of intermittent fasting. These include caloric restriction, which is distinct from fasting and allows subjects to drink water ad libitum while consuming a very low-calorie food intake. Another type is Ramadan intermittent fasting, which is a religious practice of Islam, where healthy adult Muslims do not eat or drink during daylight hours for 1 month. Other religious practices in Islam (Sunna) also encourage Muslims to practice intermittent fasting outside the month of Ramadan. Several cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have shown that intermittent fasting has crucial effects on physical and intellectual performance by affecting various aspects of bodily physiology and biochemistry that could be important for athletic success. Moreover, recent findings revealed that immunological variables are also involved in cognitive functioning and that intermittent fasting might impact the relationship between cytokine expression in the brain and cognitive deficits, including memory deficits. PMID:26438184

  4. Effects of Intermittent Fasting, Caloric Restriction, and Ramadan Intermittent Fasting on Cognitive Performance at Rest and During Exercise in Adults.

    PubMed

    Cherif, Anissa; Roelands, Bart; Meeusen, Romain; Chamari, Karim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to highlight the potent effects of intermittent fasting on the cognitive performance of athletes at rest and during exercise. Exercise interacts with dietary factors and has a positive effect on brain functioning. Furthermore, physical activity and exercise can favorably influence brain plasticity. Mounting evidence indicates that exercise, in combination with diet, affects the management of energy metabolism and synaptic plasticity by affecting molecular mechanisms through brain-derived neurotrophic factor, an essential neurotrophin that acts at the interface of metabolism and plasticity. The literature has also shown that certain aspects of physical performance and mental health, such as coping and decision-making strategies, can be negatively affected by daylight fasting. However, there are several types of intermittent fasting. These include caloric restriction, which is distinct from fasting and allows subjects to drink water ad libitum while consuming a very low-calorie food intake. Another type is Ramadan intermittent fasting, which is a religious practice of Islam, where healthy adult Muslims do not eat or drink during daylight hours for 1 month. Other religious practices in Islam (Sunna) also encourage Muslims to practice intermittent fasting outside the month of Ramadan. Several cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have shown that intermittent fasting has crucial effects on physical and intellectual performance by affecting various aspects of bodily physiology and biochemistry that could be important for athletic success. Moreover, recent findings revealed that immunological variables are also involved in cognitive functioning and that intermittent fasting might impact the relationship between cytokine expression in the brain and cognitive deficits, including memory deficits.

  5. Behavioural changes are a major contributing factor in the reduction of sarcopenia in caloric-restricted ageing mice

    PubMed Central

    van Norren, Klaske; Rusli, Fenni; van Dijk, Miriam; Lute, Carolien; Nagel, Jolanda; Dijk, Francina J; Dwarkasing, Jvalini; Boekschoten, Mark V; Luiking, Yvette; Witkamp, Renger F; Müller, Michael; Steegenga, Wilma T

    2015-01-01

    Background In rodent models, caloric restriction (CR) with maintenance of adequate micronutrient supply has been reported to increase lifespan and to reduce age-induced muscle loss (sarcopenia) during ageing. In the present study, we further investigated effects of CR on the onset and severity of sarcopenia in ageing male C57BL/6 J mice. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CR induces changes in behaviour of the animals that could contribute to the pronounced health-promoting effects of CR in rodents. In addition, we aimed to investigate in more detail the effects of CR on the onset and severity of sarcopenia. Methods The mice received either an ad libitum diet (control) or a diet matching 70 E% of the control diet (C). Daily activity, body composition (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), grip strength, insulin sensitivity, and general agility and balance were determined at different ages. Mice were killed at 4, 12, 24, and 28 months. Skeletal muscles of the hind limb were dissected, and the muscle extensor digitorum longus muscle was used for force-frequency measurements. The musculus tibialis was used for real-time quantitative PCR analysis. Results From the age of 12 months, CR animals were nearly half the weight of the control animals, which was mainly related to a lower fat mass. In the control group, the hind limb muscles showed a decline in mass at 24 or 28 months of age, which was not present in the CR group. Moreover, insulin sensitivity (oral glucose tolerance test) was higher in this group and the in vivo and ex vivo grip strength did not differ between the two groups. In the hours before food was provided, CR animals were far more active than control animals, while total daily activity was not increased. Moreover, agility test indicated that CR animals were better climbers and showed more climbing behaviours. Conclusions Our study confirms earlier findings that in CR animals less sarcopenia is present. The mice on the CR diet, however, showed

  6. Effects of the addition of a resistance training programme to a caloric restriction weight loss intervention on psychosocial factors in overweight and obese post-menopausal women: a Montreal Ottawa New Emerging Team study.

    PubMed

    Messier, Virginie; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Doucet, Eric; Brochu, Martin; Lavoie, Jean-Marc; Karelis, Antony; Prud'homme, Denis; Strychar, Irene

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the addition of a resistance training programme to a caloric restriction weight loss intervention on psychosocial profile. The study sample consisted of 137 overweight and obese post-menopausal women. Participants were randomized to a caloric restriction group and caloric restriction + resistance training group. Psychosocial, anthropometric, and metabolic variables were measured before and after the 6-month weight loss intervention. Both groups presented similar weight loss and there were no significant differences between the caloric restriction group and caloric restriction + resistance training group for changes in psychosocial profile. Thereafter, all participants were classified into quintiles based on the amount of weight loss. In all quintiles, women markedly improved body esteem and self-esteem, and decreased hunger and perceived risk for diabetes mellitus (P < 0.05). However, significant increases in dietary restraint were observed in quintiles 2-5 (> or =2.4 % body weight loss), decreases in disinhibition in quintiles 3-5 (> or =4.9 %), increases in self-efficacy in quintiles 3-5 (> or =4.9 %), and increases in health perceptions in quintile 5 (> or =11.1%). The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that the addition of a resistance training programme to a caloric restriction weight loss intervention has additional benefits on psychosocial profile. Overall, the significant improvements in the psychosocial profile observed were mostly accounted for by the degree of weight loss.

  7. Moderate caloric restriction in lactating rats programs their offspring for a better response to HF diet feeding in a sex-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Palou, Mariona; Torrens, Juana María; Priego, Teresa; Sánchez, Juana; Palou, Andreu; Picó, Catalina

    2011-06-01

    We aimed to assess the lasting effects of moderate caloric restriction in lactating rats on the expression of key genes involved in energy balance of their adult offspring (CR) and their adaptations under high-fat (HF) diet. Dams were fed with either ad libitum normal-fat (NF) diet or a 30% caloric restricted diet throughout lactation. After weaning, the offspring were fed with NF diet until the age of 15 weeks and then with an NF or a HF diet until the age of 28 weeks, when they were sacrificed. Body weight and food intake were followed. Blood parameters and the expression of selected genes in hypothalamus and white adipose tissue (WAT) were analysed. CR ate fewer calories and showed lower body weight gain under HF diet than their controls. CR males were also resistant to the increase of insulin and leptin occurring in their controls under HF diet, and HF diet exposed CR females showed lower circulating fasting triglyceride levels than controls. In the hypothalamus, CR males had higher ObRb mRNA levels than controls, and CR females displayed greater InsR mRNA levels than controls and decreased neuropeptide Y mRNA levels when exposed to HF diet. CR males maintained WAT capacity of fat uptake and storage and of fatty-acid oxidation under HF diet, whereas these capacities were impaired in controls; female CR showed higher WAT ObRb mRNA levels than controls. These results suggest that 30% caloric restriction in lactating dams ameliorates diet-induced obesity in their offspring by enhancing their sensitivity to insulin and leptin signaling, but in a gender-dependent manner.

  8. Glucocorticoid antagonism limits adiposity rebound and glucose intolerance in young male rats following the cessation of daily exercise and caloric restriction.

    PubMed

    Teich, Trevor; Dunford, Emily C; Porras, Deanna P; Pivovarov, Jacklyn A; Beaudry, Jacqueline L; Hunt, Hazel; Belanoff, Joseph K; Riddell, Michael C

    2016-07-01

    Severe caloric restriction (CR), in a setting of regular physical exercise, may be a stress that sets the stage for adiposity rebound and insulin resistance when the food restriction and exercise stop. In this study, we examined the effect of mifepristone, a glucocorticoid (GC) receptor antagonist, on limiting adipose tissue mass gain and preserving whole body insulin sensitivity following the cessation of daily running and CR. We calorically restricted male Sprague-Dawley rats and provided access to voluntary running wheels for 3 wk followed by locking of the wheels and reintroduction to ad libitum feeding with or without mifepristone (80 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 1 wk. Cessation of daily running and CR increased HOMA-IR and visceral adipose mass as well as glucose and insulin area under the curve during an oral glucose tolerance test vs. pre-wheel lock exercised rats and sedentary rats (all P < 0.05). Insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance were preserved and adipose tissue mass gain was attenuated by daily mifepristone treatment during the post-wheel lock period. These findings suggest that following regular exercise and CR there are GC-induced mechanisms that promote adipose tissue mass gain and impaired metabolic control in healthy organisms and that this phenomenon can be inhibited by the GC receptor antagonist mifepristone.

  9. Disruption of Snf3/Rgt2 glucose sensors decreases lifespan and caloric restriction effectiveness through Mth1/Std1 by adjusting mitochondrial efficiency in yeast.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyung-Mi; Kwon, Young-Yon; Lee, Cheol-Koo

    2015-01-30

    Down-regulation of intracellular nutrient signal pathways was proposed to be a primary mechanism of caloric restriction (CR)-mediated lifespan extension. However, the link between lifespan and glucose sensors in the plasma membrane was poorly understood in yeast. Herein, a mutant that lacked glucose sensors (snf3Δrgt2Δ) had impaired glucose fermentation, showed decreased chronological lifespan (CLS), and reduced CLS extension by CR. The mutant also had reduced mitochondrial efficiency, as inferred by increased mitochondrial superoxide and decreased ATP levels. Mth1 and Std1, which are downstream effectors of the Snf3/Rgt2 pathway, were required for viability through mitochondrial function but not fermentative metabolism.

  10. Tackling the aging process with bio-molecules: a possible role for caloric restriction, food-derived nutrients, vitamins, amino acids, peptides, and minerals.

    PubMed

    Dabhade, Prachi; Kotwal, Swati

    2013-01-01

    Aging is a multifactorial process leading to general deterioration in many tissues and organs, accompanied by an increased incidence and severity of a wide variety of chronic, incurable, and often fatal diseases. A possibility of slowing down the aging process and improving the quality of life in old age by nutritional intervention has renewed the interest of the scientific world in anti-aging therapies. These include potential dietary interventions, adherence to nutrition, hormonal and cell-based therapies, genetic manipulations, and anti-aging supplements or nutrients. This review addresses strategies to slow the aging process by caloric restriction and the use of nutritional supplements.

  11. The effects of cocoa supplementation, caloric restriction, and regular exercise, on oxidative stress markers of brain and memory in the rat model.

    PubMed

    Radák, Zsolt; Silye, Gabriella; Bartha, Csaba; Jakus, Judit; Stefanovits-Bányai, Eva; Atalay, Mustafa; Marton, Orsolya; Koltai, Erika

    2013-11-01

    The effects of treadmill running (8 weeks, 5 times/week, 1h/day at 27 m/min), caloric restriction, and cocoa supplementation on brain function and oxidative stress markers were tested. The Morris maze test was used to appraise rat memory. Regular exercise significantly improved spatial learning performance. The level of oxidative stress was measured by the concentration of carbonylated proteins. The free radical concentration increased in brain of the training groups but not the controls. The content of reactive carbonyl derivates did not change with exercise, suggesting that the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were well tolerated in this experimental model. Caloric restriction (CR) decreased the accumulation of free radicals in the frontal lobe. The protein content of brain-derived neutrophic factors (BDNFs) was evaluated and changes did not occur either with exercise or cocoa supplementation treatments. These data did not show significant effects of the administration of cocoa (2% w/w) on the concentration of ROS, BDNF or on spatial memory. Conversely, exercise and CR can play a role in ROS generation and brain function.

  12. ABCG1 regulates mouse adipose tissue macrophage cholesterol levels and ratio of M1 to M2 cells in obesity and caloric restriction.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hao; Tarling, Elizabeth J; McMillen, Timothy S; Tang, Chongren; LeBoeuf, Renée C

    2015-12-01

    In addition to triacylglycerols, adipocytes contain a large reserve of unesterified cholesterol. During adipocyte lipolysis and cell death seen during severe obesity and weight loss, free fatty acids and cholesterol become available for uptake and processing by adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs). We hypothesize that ATMs become cholesterol enriched and participate in cholesterol clearance from adipose tissue. We previously showed that ABCG1 is robustly upregulated in ATMs taken from obese mice and further enhanced by caloric restriction. Here, we found that ATMs taken from obese and calorie-restricted mice derived from transplantation of WT or Abcg1-deficient bone marrow are cholesterol enriched. ABCG1 levels regulate the ratio of classically activated (M1) to alternatively activated (M2) ATMs and their cellular cholesterol content. Using WT and Abcg1(-/-) cultured macrophages, we found that Abcg1 is most highly expressed by M2 macrophages and that ABCG1 deficiency is sufficient to retard macrophage chemotaxis. However, changes in myeloid expression of Abcg1 did not protect mice from obesity or impaired glucose homeostasis. Overall, ABCG1 modulates ATM cholesterol content in obesity and weight loss regimes leading to an alteration in M1 to M2 ratio that we suggest is due to the extent of macrophage egress from adipose tissue.

  13. Long-term treatment with N-acetylcysteine, but not caloric restriction, protects mesenchymal stem cells of aged rats against tumor necrosis factor-induced death.

    PubMed

    Muscari, Claudio; Bonafe', Francesca; Farruggia, Giovanna; Stanic, Ivana; Gamberini, Chiara; Carboni, Marco; Basile, Ilaria; Giordano, Emanuele; Caldarera, Claudio Marcello; Guarnieri, Carlo

    2006-08-01

    The survival of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) stimulation was evaluated after a long-term antioxidant treatment, or caloric restriction, in aged rats. MSCs were isolated from bone marrow of 30-month-old rats which orally received N-acetylcysteine in the last 18 months. The necrotic cell death-induced in vitro by TNFalpha, determined by trypan blue exclusion, was markedly attenuated in MSCs obtained from treated vs. control aged rats (percent mean+/-SEM: 10.9+/-2.17 vs. 17.8+/-0.53; p<0.05). Also, the proliferation rate of MSCs from control, but not N-acetylcysteine-treated, aged rats evaluated up to 2 weeks was significantly higher than that of MSCs from younger (4-month-old) rats. No significant effect was observed relative to the parameters investigated when the aged rats were previously subjected to a hypocaloric diet for 18 months. In conclusion, a prolonged supplementation with N-acetylcysteine in rats can increase resistance to necrotic death of MSCs and may also counteract an excessive rate of MSC proliferation.

  14. Lactobacillus fermentum CRL1446 Ameliorates Oxidative and Metabolic Parameters by Increasing Intestinal Feruloyl Esterase Activity and Modulating Microbiota in Caloric-Restricted Mice

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Matias; Fabersani, Emanuel; Abeijón-Mukdsi, María C.; Ross, Romina; Fontana, Cecilia; Benítez-Páez, Alfonso; Gauffin-Cano, Paola; Medina, Roxana B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the administration of the feruloyl esterase (FE)-producing strain Lactobacillus fermentum CRL1446 enhances metabolic and oxidative parameters in caloric-restricted (CR) mice. Balb/c male mice were divided into ad libitum fed Group (ALF Group), CR diet Group (CR Group) and CR diet plus L. fermentum Group (CR-Lf Group). CR diet was administered during 45 days and CRL1446 strain was given in the dose of 108 cells/mL/day/mouse. FE activity was determined in intestinal mucosa and content at Day 1, 20 and 45. Triglyceride, total cholesterol, glucose, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels and glutathione reductase activity were determined in plasma. Gut microbiota was evaluated by high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. At Day 45, total intestinal FE activity in CR-Lf Group was higher (p = 0.020) than in CR and ALF groups and an improvement in both metabolic (reductions in triglyceride (p = 0.0025), total cholesterol (p = 0.005) and glucose (p < 0.0001) levels) and oxidative (decrease of TBARS levels and increase of plasmatic glutathione reductase activity (p = 0.006)) parameters was observed, compared to ALF Group. CR diet increased abundance of Bacteroidetes and CRL1446 administration increased abundance of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus genus. L. fermentun CRL1446 exerted a bifidogenic effect under CR conditions. PMID:27399766

  15. Lactobacillus fermentum CRL1446 Ameliorates Oxidative and Metabolic Parameters by Increasing Intestinal Feruloyl Esterase Activity and Modulating Microbiota in Caloric-Restricted Mice.

    PubMed

    Russo, Matias; Fabersani, Emanuel; Abeijón-Mukdsi, María C; Ross, Romina; Fontana, Cecilia; Benítez-Páez, Alfonso; Gauffin-Cano, Paola; Medina, Roxana B

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the administration of the feruloyl esterase (FE)-producing strain Lactobacillus fermentum CRL1446 enhances metabolic and oxidative parameters in caloric-restricted (CR) mice. Balb/c male mice were divided into ad libitum fed Group (ALF Group), CR diet Group (CR Group) and CR diet plus L. fermentum Group (CR-Lf Group). CR diet was administered during 45 days and CRL1446 strain was given in the dose of 10⁸ cells/mL/day/mouse. FE activity was determined in intestinal mucosa and content at Day 1, 20 and 45. Triglyceride, total cholesterol, glucose, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels and glutathione reductase activity were determined in plasma. Gut microbiota was evaluated by high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. At Day 45, total intestinal FE activity in CR-Lf Group was higher (p = 0.020) than in CR and ALF groups and an improvement in both metabolic (reductions in triglyceride (p = 0.0025), total cholesterol (p = 0.005) and glucose (p < 0.0001) levels) and oxidative (decrease of TBARS levels and increase of plasmatic glutathione reductase activity (p = 0.006)) parameters was observed, compared to ALF Group. CR diet increased abundance of Bacteroidetes and CRL1446 administration increased abundance of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus genus. L. fermentun CRL1446 exerted a bifidogenic effect under CR conditions. PMID:27399766

  16. Differential Development of Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Different Adipose Tissue Depots Along Aging in Wistar Rats: Effects of Caloric Restriction.

    PubMed

    Sierra Rojas, Johanna X; García-San Frutos, Miriam; Horrillo, Daniel; Lauzurica, Nuria; Oliveros, Eva; Carrascosa, Jose María; Fernández-Agulló, Teresa; Ros, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes increases with aging and these disorders are associated with inflammation. Insulin resistance and inflammation do not develop at the same time in all tissues. Adipose tissue is one of the tissues where inflammation and insulin resistance are established earlier during aging. Nevertheless, the existence of different fat depots states the possibility of differential roles for these depots in the development of age-associated inflammation and insulin resistance. To explore this, we analyzed insulin signaling and inflammation in epididymal, perirenal, subcutaneous, and brown adipose tissues during aging in Wistar rats. Although all tissues showed signs of inflammation and insulin resistance with aging, epididymal fat was the first to develop signs of inflammation and insulin resistance along aging among white fat tissues. Subcutaneous adipose tissue presented the lowest degree of inflammation and insulin resistance that developed latter with age. Brown adipose tissue also presented latter insulin resistance and inflammation but with lower signs of macrophage infiltration. Caloric restriction ameliorated insulin resistance and inflammation in all tissues, being more effective in subcutaneous and brown adipose tissues. These data demonstrate differential susceptibility of the different adipose depots to the development of age-associated insulin resistance and inflammation.

  17. Mild caloric restriction reduces blood pressure and activates endothelial AMPK-PI3K-Akt-eNOS pathway in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    García-Prieto, C F; Pulido-Olmo, H; Ruiz-Hurtado, G; Gil-Ortega, M; Aranguez, I; Rubio, M A; Ruiz-Gayo, M; Somoza, B; Fernández-Alfonso, M S

    2015-01-01

    Genetic obesity models exhibit endothelial dysfunction associated to adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) dysregulation. This study aims to assess if mild short-term caloric restriction (CR) restores endothelial AMPK activity leading to an improvement in endothelial function. Twelve-week old Zucker lean and obese (fa/fa) male rats had access to standard chow either ad libitum (AL, n=8) or 80% of AL (CR, n=8) for two weeks. Systolic blood pressure was significantly higher in fa/fa AL rats versus lean AL animals, but was normalized by CR. Endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine (ACh, 10(-9) to 10(-4) M) was reduced in fa/fa AL compared to control lean AL rats (p<0.001), and restored by CR. The AMPK activator AICAR (10(-5) to 8·10(-3) M) elicited a lower relaxation in fa/fa AL rings that was normalized by CR (p<0.001). Inhibition of PI3K (wortmannin, 10(-7) M), Akt (triciribine, 10(-5) M), or eNOS (L-NAME, 10(-4) M) markedly reduced AICAR-induced relaxation in lean AL, but not in fa/fa AL rats. These inhibitions were restored by CR in Zucker fa/fa rings. These data show that mild short-term CR improves endothelial function and lowers blood pressure in obesity due to the activation of the AMPK-PI3K-Akt-eNOS pathway. PMID:25530153

  18. Life-span extension by caloric restriction is determined by type and level of food reduction and by reproductive mode in Brachionus manjavacas (Rotifera).

    PubMed

    Gribble, Kristin E; Welch, David B Mark

    2013-04-01

    We measured life span and fecundity of three reproductive modes in a clone of the monogonont rotifer Brachionus manjavacas subjected to chronic caloric restriction (CCR) over a range of food concentrations or to intermittent fasting (IF). IF increased life span 50%-70% for all three modes, whereas CCR increased life span of asexual females derived from sexually or asexually produced eggs, but not that of sexual females. The main effect of CR on both asexual modes was to delay death at young ages, rather than to prevent death at middle ages or to greatly extend maximum life span; in contrast CR in sexual females greatly increased the life span of a few long-lived individuals. Lifetime fecundity did not decrease with CCR, suggesting a lack of resource allocation trade-off between somatic maintenance and reproduction. Multiple outcomes for a clonal lineage indicate that different responses are established through epigenetic programming, whereas differences in life-span allocations suggest that multiple genetic mechanisms mediate life-span extension.

  19. Prevention of Neuromusculoskeletal Frailty in Slow-Aging Ames Dwarf Mice: Longitudinal Investigation of Interaction of Longevity Genes and Caloric Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Arum, Oge; Rasche, Zachary Andrew; Rickman, Dustin John; Bartke, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Ames dwarf (Prop1df/df) mice are remarkably long-lived and exhibit many characteristics of delayed aging and extended healthspan. Caloric restriction (CR) has similar effects on healthspan and lifespan, and causes an extension of longevity in Ames dwarf mice. Our study objective was to determine whether Ames dwarfism or CR influence neuromusculoskeletal function in middle-aged (82 ± 12 weeks old) or old (128 ± 14 w.o.) mice. At the examined ages, strength was improved by dwarfism, CR, and dwarfism plus CR in male mice; balance/ motor coordination was improved by CR in old animals and in middle-aged females; and agility/ motor coordination was improved by a combination of dwarfism and CR in both genders of middle-aged mice and in old females. Therefore, extension of longevity by congenital hypopituitarism is associated with improved maintenance of the examined measures of strength, agility, and motor coordination, key elements of frailty during human aging, into advanced age. This study serves as a particularly important example of knowledge related to addressing aging-associated diseases and disorders that results from studies in long-lived mammals. PMID:24155868

  20. Dietary adenine controls adult lifespan via adenosine nucleotide biosynthesis and AMPK, and regulates the longevity benefit of caloric restriction

    PubMed Central

    Stenesen, Drew; Suh, Jae Myoung; Seo, Jin; Yu, Kweon; Lee, Kyu-Sun; Kim, Jong-Seok; Min, Kyung-Jin; Graff, Jonathan M.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY A common thread among conserved lifespan regulators lies within intertwined roles in metabolism and energy homeostasis. We show that heterozygous mutations of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) biosynthetic enzymes extend Drosophila lifespan. The lifespan benefit of these mutations depends upon increased AMP to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) to ATP ratios and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Transgenic expression of AMPK in adult fat body or adult muscle, key metabolic tissues, extended lifespan, while AMPK RNAi reduced lifespan. Supplementing adenine, a substrate for AMP biosynthesis, to the diet of long-lived AMP biosynthesis mutants reversed lifespan extension. Remarkably, this simple change in diet also blocked the pro-longevity effects of dietary restriction. These data establish AMP biosynthesis, adenosine nucleotide ratios, and AMPK as determinants of adult lifespan, provide a mechanistic link between cellular anabolism and energy sensing pathways, and indicate that dietary adenine manipulations might alter metabolism to influence animal lifespan. PMID:23312286

  1. Long-Term Effects of Caloric Restriction or Exercise on DNA and RNA Oxidation Levels in White Blood Cells and Urine in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Hofer, Tim; Fontana, Luigi; Weiss, Edward P.; Villareal, Dennis; Malayappan, Bhaskar

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Excessive adiposity is associated with increased oxidative stress and accelerated aging. Weight loss induced by negative energy balance reduces markers of oxidation in experimental animals and humans. The long-term effects of weight loss induced by calorie restriction or increased energy expenditure induced by exercise on measures of oxidative stress and damage have not been studied in humans. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of 20% caloric restriction or 20% exercise alone over 1 year on oxidative damage to DNA and RNA, as assessed through white blood cell and urine analyses. Eighteen men and women aged 50 to 60 years with a body mass index (BMI) between 23.5 to 29.9 kg/m2 were assigned to one of two conditions — 20% CR (n = 9) or 20% EX (n = 9) — which was designed to produce an identical energy deficit through increased energy expenditure. Compared to baseline, both interventions significantly reduced oxidative damage to both DNA (48.5% and 49.6% reduction for the CR and EX groups, respectively) and RNA (35.7% and 52.1% reduction for the CR and EX groups, respectively) measured in white blood cells. However, urinary levels of DNA and RNA oxidation products did not differ from baseline values following either 12-month intervention program. Data from the present study provide evidence that negative energy balances induced through either CR or EX result in substantial and similar improvements in markers of DNA and RNA damage to white blood cells, potentially by reducing systemic oxidative stress. PMID:18729811

  2. Green tea supplementation benefits body composition and improves bone properties in obese female rats fed with high-fat diet and caloric restricted diet.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Han, Jia; Wang, Shu; Chung, Eunhee; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Cao, Jay J

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) supplementation on body composition, bone properties, and serum markers in obese rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a caloric restricted diet (CRD). Forty-eight female rats were fed an HFD ad libitum for 4 months, and then either continued on the HFD or the CRD with or without 0.5% GTP in water. Body composition, bone efficacy, and serum markers were measured. We hypothesized that GTP supplementation would improve body composition, mitigate bone loss, and restore bone microstructure in obese animals fed either HFD or CRD. CRD lowered percent fat mass; bone mass and trabecular number of tibia, femur and lumbar vertebrae; femoral strength; trabecular and cortical thickness of tibia; insulin-like growth factor-I and leptin. CRD also increased percent fat-free mass; trabecular separation of tibia and femur; eroded surface of tibia; bone formation rate and erosion rate at tibia shaft; and adiponectin. GTP supplementation increased femoral mass and strength (P = .026), trabecular thickness (P = .012) and number (P = .019), and cortical thickness of tibia (P < .001), and decreased trabecular separation (P = .021), formation rate (P < .001), and eroded surface (P < .001) at proximal tibia, and insulin-like growth factor-I and leptin. There were significant interactions (diet type × GTP) on osteoblast surface/bone surface, mineral apposition rate at periosteal and endocortical bones, periosteal bone formation rate, and trabecular thickness at femur and lumbar vertebrate (P < .05). This study demonstrates that GTP supplementation for 4 months benefited body composition and improved bone microstructure and strength in obese rats fed with HFD or HFD followed by CRD diet.

  3. Green tea supplementation benefits body composition and improves bone properties in obese female rats fed with high-fat diet and caloric restricted diet.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chwan-Li; Han, Jia; Wang, Shu; Chung, Eunhee; Chyu, Ming-Chien; Cao, Jay J

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) supplementation on body composition, bone properties, and serum markers in obese rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a caloric restricted diet (CRD). Forty-eight female rats were fed an HFD ad libitum for 4 months, and then either continued on the HFD or the CRD with or without 0.5% GTP in water. Body composition, bone efficacy, and serum markers were measured. We hypothesized that GTP supplementation would improve body composition, mitigate bone loss, and restore bone microstructure in obese animals fed either HFD or CRD. CRD lowered percent fat mass; bone mass and trabecular number of tibia, femur and lumbar vertebrae; femoral strength; trabecular and cortical thickness of tibia; insulin-like growth factor-I and leptin. CRD also increased percent fat-free mass; trabecular separation of tibia and femur; eroded surface of tibia; bone formation rate and erosion rate at tibia shaft; and adiponectin. GTP supplementation increased femoral mass and strength (P = .026), trabecular thickness (P = .012) and number (P = .019), and cortical thickness of tibia (P < .001), and decreased trabecular separation (P = .021), formation rate (P < .001), and eroded surface (P < .001) at proximal tibia, and insulin-like growth factor-I and leptin. There were significant interactions (diet type × GTP) on osteoblast surface/bone surface, mineral apposition rate at periosteal and endocortical bones, periosteal bone formation rate, and trabecular thickness at femur and lumbar vertebrate (P < .05). This study demonstrates that GTP supplementation for 4 months benefited body composition and improved bone microstructure and strength in obese rats fed with HFD or HFD followed by CRD diet. PMID:26525915

  4. Protein-Pacing Caloric-Restriction Enhances Body Composition Similarly in Obese Men and Women during Weight Loss and Sustains Efficacy during Long-Term Weight Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Arciero, Paul J.; Edmonds, Rohan; He, Feng; Ward, Emery; Gumpricht, Eric; Mohr, Alex; Ormsbee, Michael J.; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Short-Term protein-pacing (P; ~6 meals/day, >30% protein/day) and caloric restriction (CR, ~25% energy deficit) improves total (TBF), abdominal (ABF) and visceral (VAT) fat loss, energy expenditure, and biomarkers compared to heart healthy (HH) recommendations (3 meals/day, 15% protein/day) in obese adults. Less is known whether obese men and women respond similarly to P-CR during weight loss (WL) and whether a modified P-CR (mP-CR) is more efficacious than a HH diet during long-term (52 week) weight maintenance (WM). The purposes of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of: (1) P-CR on TBF, ABF, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and biomarkers between obese men and women during WL (weeks 0–12); and (2) mP-CR compared to a HH diet during WM (weeks 13–64). During WL, men (n = 21) and women (n = 19) were assessed for TBF, ABF, VAT, RMR, and biomarkers at weeks 0 (pre) and 12 (post). Men and women had similar reductions (p < 0.01) in weight (10%), TBF (19%), ABF (25%), VAT (33%), glucose (7%–12%), insulin (40%), leptin (>50%) and increase in % lean body mass (9%). RMR (kcals/kg bodyweight) was unchanged and respiratory quotient decreased 9%. Twenty-four subjects (mP-CR, n = 10; HH, n = 14) completed WM. mP-CR regained significantly less body weight (6%), TBF (12%), and ABF (17%) compared to HH (p < 0.05). Our results demonstrate P-CR enhances weight loss, body composition and biomarkers, and maintains these changes for 52-weeks compared to a traditional HH diet. PMID:27483317

  5. Protein-Pacing Caloric-Restriction Enhances Body Composition Similarly in Obese Men and Women during Weight Loss and Sustains Efficacy during Long-Term Weight Maintenance.

    PubMed

    Arciero, Paul J; Edmonds, Rohan; He, Feng; Ward, Emery; Gumpricht, Eric; Mohr, Alex; Ormsbee, Michael J; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Short-Term protein-pacing (P; ~6 meals/day, >30% protein/day) and caloric restriction (CR, ~25% energy deficit) improves total (TBF), abdominal (ABF) and visceral (VAT) fat loss, energy expenditure, and biomarkers compared to heart healthy (HH) recommendations (3 meals/day, 15% protein/day) in obese adults. Less is known whether obese men and women respond similarly to P-CR during weight loss (WL) and whether a modified P-CR (mP-CR) is more efficacious than a HH diet during long-term (52 week) weight maintenance (WM). The purposes of this study were to evaluate the efficacy of: (1) P-CR on TBF, ABF, resting metabolic rate (RMR), and biomarkers between obese men and women during WL (weeks 0-12); and (2) mP-CR compared to a HH diet during WM (weeks 13-64). During WL, men (n = 21) and women (n = 19) were assessed for TBF, ABF, VAT, RMR, and biomarkers at weeks 0 (pre) and 12 (post). Men and women had similar reductions (p < 0.01) in weight (10%), TBF (19%), ABF (25%), VAT (33%), glucose (7%-12%), insulin (40%), leptin (>50%) and increase in % lean body mass (9%). RMR (kcals/kg bodyweight) was unchanged and respiratory quotient decreased 9%. Twenty-four subjects (mP-CR, n = 10; HH, n = 14) completed WM. mP-CR regained significantly less body weight (6%), TBF (12%), and ABF (17%) compared to HH (p < 0.05). Our results demonstrate P-CR enhances weight loss, body composition and biomarkers, and maintains these changes for 52-weeks compared to a traditional HH diet. PMID:27483317

  6. Systems pharmacology of adiposity reveals inhibition of EP300 as a common therapeutic mechanism of caloric restriction and resveratrol for obesity

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Yuhei; Sasagawa, Shota; Ariyoshi, Michiko; Ichikawa, Sayuri; Shimada, Yasuhito; Kawaguchi, Koki; Kawase, Reiko; Yamamoto, Reiko; Uehara, Takuma; Yanai, Takaaki; Takata, Ryoji; Tanaka, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    Both caloric restriction (CR) and resveratrol (RSV) have beneficial effects on obesity. However, the biochemical pathways that mediate these beneficial effects might be complex and interconnected and have not been fully elucidated. To reveal the common therapeutic mechanism of CR and RSV, we performed a comparative transcriptome analysis of adipose tissues from diet-induced obese (DIO) zebrafish and obese humans. We identified nine genes in DIO zebrafish and seven genes in obese humans whose expressions were regulated by CR and RSV. Although the gene lists did not overlap except for one gene, the gene ontologies enriched in the gene lists were highly overlapped, and included genes involved in adipocyte differentiation, lipid storage and lipid metabolism. Bioinformatic analysis of cis-regulatory sequences of these genes revealed that their transcriptional regulators also overlapped, including EP300, HDAC2, CEBPB, CEBPD, FOXA1, and FOXA2. We also identified 15 and 46 genes that were dysregulated in the adipose tissue of DIO zebrafish and obese humans, respectively. Bioinformatics analysis identified EP300, HDAC2, and CEBPB as common transcriptional regulators for these genes. EP300 is a histone and lysyl acetyltransferase that modulates the function of histone and various proteins including CEBPB, CEBPD, FOXA1, and FOXA2. We demonstrated that adiposity in larval zebrafish was significantly reduced by C646, an inhibitor of EP300 that antagonizes acetyl-CoA. The reduction of adiposity by C646 was not significantly different from that induced by RSV or co-treatment of C646 and RSV. These results indicate that the inhibition of EP300 might be a common therapeutic mechanism between CR and RSV in adipose tissues of obese individuals. PMID:26441656

  7. Effects of resistance training with and without caloric restriction on physical function and mobility in overweight and obese older adults: a randomized controlled trial1234

    PubMed Central

    Nicklas, Barbara J; Chmelo, Elizabeth; Delbono, Osvaldo; Carr, J Jeffrey; Lyles, Mary F; Marsh, Anthony P

    2015-01-01

    Background: Resistance training (RT) improves muscle strength and overall physical function in older adults. RT may be particularly important in the obese elderly who have compromised muscle function. Whether caloric restriction (CR) acts synergistically with RT to enhance function is unknown. Objective: As the primary goal of the Improving Muscle for Functional Independence Trial (I’M FIT), we determined the effects of adding CR for weight loss on muscle and physical function responses to RT in older overweight and obese adults. Design: I’M FIT was a 5-mo trial in 126 older (65–79 y) overweight and obese men and women who were randomly assigned to a progressive, 3-d/wk, moderate-intensity RT intervention with a weight-loss intervention (RT+CR) or without a weight-loss intervention (RT). The primary outcome was maximal knee extensor strength; secondary outcomes were muscle power and quality, overall physical function, and total body and thigh compositions. Results: Body mass decreased in the RT+CR group but not in the RT group. Fat mass, percentage of fat, and all thigh fat volumes decreased in both groups, but only the RT+CR group lost lean mass. Adjusted postintervention body- and thigh-composition measures were all lower with RT+CR except intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT). Knee strength, power, and quality and the 4-m gait speed increased similarly in both groups. Adjusted postintervention means for a 400-m walk time and self-reported disability were better with RT+CR with no group differences in other functional measures, including knee strength. Participants with a lower percentage of fat and IMAT at baseline exhibited a greater improvement in the 400-m walk and knee strength and power. Conclusions: RT improved body composition (including reducing IMAT) and muscle strength and physical function in obese elderly, but those with higher initial adiposity experienced less improvement. The addition of CR during RT improves mobility and does not compromise

  8. A weekly alternating diet between caloric restriction and medium fat protects the liver from fatty liver development in middle-aged C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Rusli, Fenni; Boekschoten, Mark V; Zubia, Arantza Aguirre; Lute, Carolien; Müller, Michael; Steegenga, Wilma T

    2015-01-01

    Scope We investigated whether a novel dietary intervention consisting of an every-other-week calorie-restricted diet could prevent nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) development induced by a medium-fat (MF) diet. Methods and results Nine-week-old male C57BL/6J mice received either a (i) control (C), (ii) 30E% calorie restricted (CR), (iii) MF (25E% fat), or (iv) intermittent (INT) diet, a diet alternating weekly between 40E% CR and an ad libitum MF diet until sacrifice at the age of 12 months. The metabolic, morphological, and molecular features of NAFLD were examined. The INT diet resulted in healthy metabolic and morphological features as displayed by the continuous CR diet: glucose tolerant, low hepatic triglyceride content, low plasma alanine aminotransferase. In contrast, the C- and MF-exposed mice with high body weight developed signs of NAFLD. However, the gene expression profiles of INT-exposed mice differed to those of CR-exposed mice and showed to be more similar with those of C- and MF-exposed mice with a comparable body weight. Conclusions Our study reveals that the INT diet maintains metabolic health and reverses the adverse effects of the MF diet, thus effectively prevents the development of NAFLD in 12-month-old male C57BL/6J mice. PMID:25504628

  9. The caloric irrigation test.

    PubMed

    Shepard, N T; Jacobson, G P

    2016-01-01

    The test of caloric thermal irrigations is one of the first tests for sensitivity of the peripheral vestibular systems dating to the late 1800s. This chapter reviews the various protocols that have been developed over the years using thermal irrigations to the external auditory canals. The discussion covers the interpretations of the protocols and makes recommendations for those protocols that have the best performance and at the same time are practical to perform. The primary utility of the caloric test has remained the same since its origination - the comparison of the relative sensitivity of the right versus left peripheral vestibular function. This is now known to be applicable to the horizontal canals without any significant influence of the vertical canals. The hypothesized physiology behind the thermal caloric proposed in the early 1900s has now, with the help of experiments in microgravity, been partially verified. Until recently this was the only test that could investigate one peripheral end organ at a time. It is still the one test that emphasizes the low-frequency function of the horizontal canals individually. PMID:27638067

  10. Influence of caloric intake on experimental carcinogenesis: a review.

    PubMed

    Kritchevsky, D; Klurfeld, D M

    1986-01-01

    The effect of caloric intake on tumor growth has been recognized for over 70 years. Inhibition of tumor growth depends primarily on the extent of caloric restriction, but tumor type, animal strain, and dietary composition all exert some influence. Caloric restriction is most effective when maintained during both initiation and promotion, but if limited to one of these phases, restriction during promotion appears to be the more effective modality. The types of tumor that have been studied include spontaneous mammary and lung tumors as well as tumors induced by organ-specific carcinogens or irradiation with ultraviolet light. Numerous investigators have studied the effects of fat, and a diet low in calories but high in fat is generally significantly more effective in inhibiting carcinogenesis than is a diet high in calories but low in fat. Mice fed high fat, low calorie diets exhibited 48% fewer chemically induced skin tumors and 61% fewer tumors induced by ultraviolet irradiation than did mice fed low fat, high calorie diets. Mice fed a diet containing 2% fat exhibited a 66% incidence of skin tumors, whereas mice fed an isocaloric diet containing 61% fat showed a 78% incidence. Rats whose diet was restricted in calories by 40% exhibited no mammary tumors (coconut oil as primary dietary fat) or 75% fewer tumors (corn oil as dietary fat) compared to ad libitum-fed controls; they also exhibited 47% fewer colonic tumors. The mechanism by which caloric restriction exerts its tumor-inhibiting effects remains to be elucidated.

  11. Leg lengthening and shortening

    MedlinePlus

    ... the bone to hold it in place during healing. BONE GROWTH RESTRICTION Bone growth takes place at ... used to hold the bone in place during healing. Most orthopedic surgeons will wait several months to ...

  12. Spatial orientation of caloric nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Arai, Yasuko; Yakushin, Sergei B; Dai, Mingjia; Kunin, Mikhail; Raphan, Theodore; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Cohen, Bernard

    2002-04-01

    The spatial orientation of the slow-phase eye velocity of caloric nystagmus was investigated in cynomolgus monkeys after all six semicircular canals had been plugged. Normal animals generate responses that have dominant convective components produced by movement of the endolymph in the lateral canal toward or away from gravity. As a result, the direction of horizontal slow-phase velocity induced by cold-water irrigation changes direction with changes in head position with regard to gravity. Plugging produced a dense overgrowth of bone that blocked the flow of endolymph, but the end organs were intact. Robust caloric nystagmus was elicited after recovery, but the horizontal (yaw) component was now always toward the stimulated (ipsilateral) side, regardless of head position re gravity. The induced caloric nystagmus had strong spatial orientation properties after canal plugging. With animals upright, the three-dimensional velocity vector of the caloric nystagmus was close to the yaw axis with small vertical and roll components. Roll components became stronger in supine and prone positions and vertical components were enhanced in the right- and left-side down positions. In each instance, the addition of the roll and vertical components moved the velocity vector of the nystagmus closer to the spatial vertical. Modeling supported the postulate that the caloric nystagmus after canal plugging is influenced by three factors: (1) a reduction in neural activity in the ampullary nerves on the stimulated side due to cooling of the nerves; (2) contraction of the endolymph in the closed space between the cupula and the plug due to cooling, which resulted in deflection of the cupula and hair cells toward the plug (ampullofugal deflection); and (3) alignment of eye velocity to gravity due to the orientation properties of velocity storage. Although convection is the most prominent factor in producing caloric responses in the normal state, our results suggest that alteration of nerve

  13. The caloric cost of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    1973-06-01

    To determine the amount of extra calories a pregnant woman needs to ensure normal growth of her fetus, a study was conducted using 11 normal women who were willing to spend 1 week in the hospital during the last half of pregnancy. The women were given a constant diet of known composition which closely approximated their normal diet at home. Data on fasting weight and fluid balance, nitrogen excretion (from urine samples), 24-hour oxygen consumption and CO2 production were recorded daily. The diet consisted of 80 gm. or more of high-quality protein and supplementary vitamins and iron. 7 women were in positive caloric balance eating 1600 to 2000 Kcal/day; their mean weight gain was 6.8 kg. The other 4, who were obese or who were prone to obesity, were on a lower caloric intake of 1200 to 1600 Kcal/day; despite this, their average gestational weight gain was 10.0 kg. All babies, except for 1 (the mother had placental insufficiency due to low implantation, premature separation, and antepartum hemorrhage; her baby weighed 2.58 kg. at 38 weeks), were born at term with a birthweight of more than 3 kg. The authors concluded that pregnancy hardly imposes any increase in physical activity on the women, and whatever physical effort is exerted is offset by a reduction in physical activity. A pregnant woman requires approximately 600 Kcal. daily for her activities; this amounts to total caloric requirements of 2100, 2200 and 2300 Kcal/day in each of the 3 trimesters. 12 oz. of homogenized milk per day is adequate to meet the extra caloric requirements of a well-nourished woman during her pregnancy. The findings suggest that a normal woman need not overeat to ensure normal growth of her fetus. PMID:4581116

  14. Mechano-caloric cooling device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederking, T. H. K.; Luna, Jack; Abbassi, P.; Carandang, R. M.

    1989-01-01

    The mechano-caloric effect is potentially useful in the He II temperature range. Aside from demonstration work, little quantification effort appears to have been known since other refrigeration possibilities have been available for some time. Successful He II use-related system examples are as follows: in space, the utilization of the latent heat of vaporization has been quite successful in vapor-liquid phase separation (VLPS) in conjunction with thermomechanical force application in plugs. In magnet cooling systems, the possibility of using the mechano-caloric cooling effect in conjunction with thermo-mechanical circulation pump schemes, has been assessed (but not quantified yet to the extent desirable). A third example is quoted in conjunction with superfluid wind tunnel studies and liquid helium tow tank for surface vessels respectively. In all of these (partially future) R and D areas, the question of refrigerator effectiveness using the mechano-caloric effect appears to be relevant, possibly in conjunction with questions of reliability and simplicity. The present work is concerned with quantification of phenomena including simplified thermodynamic cycle calculations.

  15. Carnot to Clausius: Caloric to Entropy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newburgh, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses how the Carnot engine led to the formulation of the second law of thermodynamics and entropy. The operation of the engine is analysed both in terms of heat as the caloric fluid and heat as a form of energy. A keystone of Carnot's thinking was the absolute conservation of caloric. Although the Carnot analysis was partly…

  16. Impairment of Caloric Function after Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuang, Heide; Haversat, Heather H.; Michaelides, Elias M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This article seeks to review current literature on caloric function following cochlear implantation while analyzing any correlations of caloric function changes with vestibular symptoms. Method: This article is a systematic review of evidence-based literature. English language articles published between 1980 and 2014 that presented some…

  17. Importance of caloric intake during renal failure.

    PubMed

    CARTER, F H; PLUMB, R T

    1958-10-01

    Loss of excretory function in acute renal failure results in the retention of catabolites and fluid. In the absence of available carbohydrate, endogenous fat and protein become the main caloric sources. This results in the rapid accumulation of keto acids and nitrogenous wastes. By providing readily available non-nitrogenous calories, protein catabolism is reduced, complete oxidation of fat is obtained and energy is provided to drive potassium into the intracellular compartment. The patient should be encouraged to eat despite his apathy, fear of vomiting and characteristically paranoid mood. Tube or parenteral feeding is complicated by the need to restrict fluid. Numerous small feedings are more successful than large meals. Hard candy and alcohol are often acceptable sources of calories, fat emulsions seldom. Oral hygiene aids feeding, and tranquilizers and anticholinergics are useful. If the patient does not take food by mouth, tube feeding may be carried out. Because of the bleeding tendency so often occurring in uremia, tube feeding may be contraindicated if it causes erosion of the pharynx or esophagus. Intravenous infusion of invert sugar, glucose and alcohol may be necessary if nutrition cannot be accomplished by other means.

  18. Macronutrients and caloric intake in health and longevity

    PubMed Central

    Solon-Biet, Samantha M.; Mitchell, Sarah J.; de Cabo, Rafael; Raubenheimer, David; Le Couteur, David G.; Simpson, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Both lifespan and healthspan are influenced by nutrition, with nutritional interventions proving to be robust across a wide range of species. However, the relationship between nutrition, health and aging is still not fully understood. Caloric restriction is the most studied dietary intervention known to extend life in many organisms, but recently the balance of macronutrients has been shown to play a critical role. In this review, we discuss the current understanding regarding the impact of calories and macronutrient balance in mammalian health and longevity and highlight the key nutrient-sensing pathways that mediate the effects of nutrition on health and ageing. PMID:26021555

  19. Caloric curve of star clusters.

    PubMed

    Casetti, Lapo; Nardini, Cesare

    2012-06-01

    Self-gravitating systems, such as globular clusters or elliptical galaxies, are the prototypes of many-body systems with long-range interactions, and should be the natural arena in which to test theoretical predictions on the statistical behavior of long-range-interacting systems. Systems of classical self-gravitating particles can be studied with the standard tools of equilibrium statistical mechanics, provided the potential is regularized at small length scales and the system is confined in a box. The confinement condition looks rather unphysical in general, so that it is natural to ask whether what we learn with these studies is relevant to real self-gravitating systems. In order to provide an answer to this question, we consider a basic, simple, yet effective model of globular clusters: the King model. This model describes a self-consistently confined system, without the need of any external box, but the stationary state is a nonthermal one. In particular, we consider the King model with a short-distance cutoff on the interactions, and we discuss how such a cutoff affects the caloric curve, i.e., the relation between temperature and energy. We find that the cutoff stabilizes a low-energy phase, which is absent in the King model without cutoff; the caloric curve of the model with cutoff turns out to be very similar to that of previously studied confined and regularized models, but for the absence of a high-energy gaslike phase. We briefly discuss the possible phenomenological as well as theoretical implications of these results. PMID:23005049

  20. Caloric curve of star clusters.

    PubMed

    Casetti, Lapo; Nardini, Cesare

    2012-06-01

    Self-gravitating systems, such as globular clusters or elliptical galaxies, are the prototypes of many-body systems with long-range interactions, and should be the natural arena in which to test theoretical predictions on the statistical behavior of long-range-interacting systems. Systems of classical self-gravitating particles can be studied with the standard tools of equilibrium statistical mechanics, provided the potential is regularized at small length scales and the system is confined in a box. The confinement condition looks rather unphysical in general, so that it is natural to ask whether what we learn with these studies is relevant to real self-gravitating systems. In order to provide an answer to this question, we consider a basic, simple, yet effective model of globular clusters: the King model. This model describes a self-consistently confined system, without the need of any external box, but the stationary state is a nonthermal one. In particular, we consider the King model with a short-distance cutoff on the interactions, and we discuss how such a cutoff affects the caloric curve, i.e., the relation between temperature and energy. We find that the cutoff stabilizes a low-energy phase, which is absent in the King model without cutoff; the caloric curve of the model with cutoff turns out to be very similar to that of previously studied confined and regularized models, but for the absence of a high-energy gaslike phase. We briefly discuss the possible phenomenological as well as theoretical implications of these results.

  1. Olanzapine induced Q-Tc shortening

    PubMed Central

    Fallah Jahromi, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Prolongation of Q-Tc interval is commonly accepted as a surrogate marker for the ability of a drug to cause torsade de pointes. In the present study, safety of olanzapine versus risperidone was compared among a group of patients with schizophrenia to see the frequency of the electrocardiographic alterations induced by those atypical antipsychotics. Method Two hundred and sixty-eight female inpatients with schizophrenia entered in one of the two parallel groups to participate in an open study for random assignment to olanzapine (n = 148) or risperidone (n = 120). Standard 12-lead surface electrocardiogram (ECG) was taken from each patient at baseline, before initiation of treatment, and then at the end of management, just before discharge. The parameters that were assessed included heart rate (HR), P-R interval, QRS interval, Q-T interval (corrected = Q-Tc), ventricular activation time (VAT), ST segment, T wave, axis of QRS, and finally, interventricular conduction process. Results A total of 37.83% of cases in the olanzapine group and 30% in the risperidone group showed some Q-Tc changes; 13.51% and 24.32% of the patients in the olanzapine group showed prolongation and shortening of the Q-Tc, respectively, while changes in the risperidone group were restricted to only prolongation of Q-Tc. Comparison of means showed a significant increment in Q-Tc by risperidone (p = 0.02). Also, comparison of proportions in the olanzapine group showed significantly more cases with shortening of Q-Tc versus its prolongation (p = 0.01). No significant alterations with respect to other variables were evident. Conclusion Olanzapine and risperidone had comparable potentiality for induction of Q-Tc changes, while production of further miscellaneous alterations in ECG was more observable in the olanzapine group compared with the risperidone group. Also shortening of Q-Tc was specific to olanzapine. PMID:25489475

  2. Caloric beverage consumption patterns in Mexican children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mexico has seen a very steep increase in child obesity level. Little is known about caloric beverage intake in this country as well as all other countries outside a few high income countries. This study examines overall patterns and trends in all caloric beverages from two nationally representative surveys from Mexico. Methods The two nationally representative dietary intake surveys (1999 and 2006) from Mexico are used to study caloric beverage intake in 17, 215 children. The volume (ml) and caloric energy (kcal) contributed by all beverages consumed by the sample subjects were measured. Results are weighted to be nationally representative. Results The trends from the dietary intake surveys showed very large increases in caloric beverages among pre-school and school children. The contribution of whole milk and sugar-sweetened juices was an important finding. Mexican pre-school children consumed 27.8% of their energy from caloric beverages in 2006 and school children consumed 20.7% of their energy from caloric beverages during the same time. The three major categories of beverage intake are whole milk, fruit juice with various sugar and water combinations and carbonated and noncarbonated sugared-beverages. Conclusion The Mexican government, greatly concerned about obesity, has identified the large increase in caloric beverages from whole milk, juices and soft drinks as a key target and is initiating major changes to address this problem. They have already used the data to shift 20 million persons in their welfare and feeding programs from whole to 1.5% fat milk and in a year will shift to nonfat milk. They are using these data to revise school beverage policies and national regulations and taxation policies related to an array of less healthful caloric beverages. PMID:20964842

  3. Drunkorexia: Calorie Restriction Prior to Alcohol Consumption among College Freshman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Sloane C.; Cremeens, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen; Woolsey, Conrad

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 692 freshmen at a southeastern university, this study examined caloric restriction among students prior to planned alcohol consumption. Participants were surveyed for self-reported alcohol consumption, binge drinking, and caloric intake habits prior to drinking episodes. Results indicated that 99 of 695 (14%) of first year…

  4. Atomistic simulations of caloric effects in ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisenkov, Sergey; Ponomareva, Inna

    2013-03-01

    The materials that exhibit large caloric effects have emerged as promising candidates for solid-state refrigeration which is an energy-efficient and environmentally friendly alternative to the conventional refrigeration technology. However, despite recent ground breaking discoveries of giant caloric effects in some materials they appear to remain one of nature's rarities. Here we use atomistic simulations to study electrocaloric and elastocaloric effects in Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 and PbTiO3 ferroelectrics. Our study reveals the intrinsic features of such caloric effects in ferroelectrics and their potential to exhibit giant caloric effects. Some of the findings include the coexistence of negative and positive electrocaloric effects in one material and an unusual field-driven transition between them as well as the coexistence of multiple giant caloric effects in Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 alloys. These findings could potentially lead to new paradigms for cooling devices. This work is partially supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under award DE-SC0005245.

  5. 10 CFR 590.316 - Shortened proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shortened proceedings. 590.316 Section 590.316 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.316 Shortened proceedings. In...

  6. 10 CFR 590.316 - Shortened proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shortened proceedings. 590.316 Section 590.316 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.316 Shortened proceedings. In...

  7. 10 CFR 590.316 - Shortened proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shortened proceedings. 590.316 Section 590.316 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) NATURAL GAS (ECONOMIC REGULATORY ADMINISTRATION) ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES WITH RESPECT TO THE IMPORT AND EXPORT OF NATURAL GAS Procedures § 590.316 Shortened proceedings. In...

  8. Autophagy involving age-related cognitive behavior and hippocampus injury is modulated by different caloric intake in mice

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wen; Wang, Rong; Ma, Li-Na; Xu, Bao-Lei; Zhang, Jing-Shuang; Zhao, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Yu-Lan; Zhang, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies indicated that different caloric intake may influence neuronal function. Excessive caloric intake associated with accelerated aging of the brain and increased the risk of neurodegenerative disorders. And low caloric intake (caloric restriction, CR) could delay aging, and protect the central nervous system from neurodegenerative disorders. The underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, thirty six-week-old male C57/BL male mice were randomly divided into three different dietary groups: normal control (NC) group (fed standard diet), CR group (fed low-caloric diet) and high-calorie (HC) group (fed high-caloric diet). After 10 months, spatial memory ability was determined by Morris water maze. Pathological changes of the hippocampus cells were detected with HE and Nissl staining. The expression of proteins involved in autophagy in the hippocampus was determined by immunofluorescence and Western blot. The result of Morris water maze showed that the learning and memory capacity significantly increased in the CR group, and significantly decreased in the HC group. HE and Nissl staining showed cells damaged obviously in the HC group. The expression of mTOR and p62 was increased in the HC group, and decreased in the CR group. The expression of Beclin1, LC3 and cathepsin B was decreased in the HC group, and increased in the CR group. Our findings demonstrate that long-term high caloric intake is a risk factor that can significantly contribute to the development of neurological disease via suppressing autophagy, and CR may prevent age-related learning ability impairment via activating autophagy in mice. PMID:26380026

  9. Child Abuse May Shorten Some Women's Lives

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160478.html Child Abuse May Shorten Some Women's Lives Extreme stress ... 300 middle-aged U.S. adults, female survivors of child abuse were more likely to die over the ...

  10. On the characteristics of caloric nystagmus in healthy persons. [in response to caloric stimuli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodo, D.; Baranova, V. P.; Matsnev, E. I.; Yakovleva, M. Y.

    1974-01-01

    The asymmetry of reflex activity of labyrinths and directional preponderance of the reaction were studied on healthy persons subjected to caloric tests. Calorization with hot water was accompanied by less pronounced reactions in all parameters of nystagmus than analogous indices at cold water stimulation. The symmetry of labyrinth function shifted to the right in individuals with greater activity of the left central vestibular formations, analogous to right handedness behavior. It is concluded that asymmetry of reflex nystagmus in healthy persons can be due to a certain preponderance of functional activity in structures of the left hemisphere of the brain.

  11. Modeling microscale heat transfer using Calore.

    SciTech Connect

    Gallis, Michail A.; Rader, Daniel John; Wong, Chung-Nin Channy; Bainbridge, Bruce L.; Torczynski, John Robert; Piekos, Edward Stanley

    2005-09-01

    Modeling microscale heat transfer with the computational-heat-transfer code Calore is discussed. Microscale heat transfer problems differ from their macroscopic counterparts in that conductive heat transfer in both solid and gaseous materials may have important noncontinuum effects. In a solid material, three noncontinuum effects are considered: ballistic transport of phonons across a thin film, scattering of phonons from surface roughness at a gas-solid interface, and scattering of phonons from grain boundaries within the solid material. These processes are modeled for polycrystalline silicon, and the thermal-conductivity values predicted by these models are compared to experimental data. In a gaseous material, two noncontinuum effects are considered: ballistic transport of gas molecules across a thin gap and accommodation of gas molecules to solid conditions when reflecting from a solid surface. These processes are modeled for arbitrary gases by allowing the gas and solid temperatures across a gas-solid interface to differ: a finite heat transfer coefficient (contact conductance) is imposed at the gas-solid interface so that the temperature difference is proportional to the normal heat flux. In this approach, the behavior of gas in the bulk is not changed from behavior observed under macroscopic conditions. These models are implemented in Calore as user subroutines. The user subroutines reside within Sandia's Source Forge server, where they undergo version control and regression testing and are available to analysts needing these capabilities. A Calore simulation is presented that exercises these models for a heated microbeam separated from an ambient-temperature substrate by a thin gas-filled gap. Failure to use the noncontinuum heat transfer models for the solid and the gas causes the maximum temperature of the microbeam to be significantly underpredicted.

  12. A Dissociation Between Recognition and Hedonic Value in Caloric and Non-caloric Carbonated Soft Drinks.

    PubMed

    Delogu, Franco; Huddas, Claire; Steven, Katelyn; Hachem, Souheila; Lodhia, Luv; Fernandez, Ryan; Logerstedt, Macee

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is considered to be a contributor to diabetes and the epidemic of obesity in many countries. The popularity of non-caloric carbonated soft drinks as an alternative to SSBs may be a factor in reducing the health risks associated with SSBs consumption. This study focuses on the perceptual discrimination of SSBs from artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs). Fifty-five college students rated 14 commercially available carbonated soft drinks in terms of sweetness and likeability. They were also asked to recognize, if the drinks contained sugar or a non-caloric artificial sweetener. Overall, participants showed poor accuracy in discriminating drinks' sweeteners, with significantly lower accuracy for SSBs than ASBs. Interestingly, we found a dissociation between sweetener recognition and drink pleasantness. In fact, in spite of a chance-level discrimination accuracy of SSBs, their taste was systematically preferred to the taste of non-caloric beverages. Our findings support the idea that hedonic value of carbonated soft drinks is dissociable from its identification and that the activation of the pleasure system seems not to require explicit recognition of the sweetener contained in the soft drink. We hypothesize that preference for carbonated soft drinks containing sugar over non-caloric alternatives might be modulated by metabolic factors that are independent from conscious and rational consumers' choices. PMID:26858681

  13. A Dissociation Between Recognition and Hedonic Value in Caloric and Non-caloric Carbonated Soft Drinks.

    PubMed

    Delogu, Franco; Huddas, Claire; Steven, Katelyn; Hachem, Souheila; Lodhia, Luv; Fernandez, Ryan; Logerstedt, Macee

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is considered to be a contributor to diabetes and the epidemic of obesity in many countries. The popularity of non-caloric carbonated soft drinks as an alternative to SSBs may be a factor in reducing the health risks associated with SSBs consumption. This study focuses on the perceptual discrimination of SSBs from artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs). Fifty-five college students rated 14 commercially available carbonated soft drinks in terms of sweetness and likeability. They were also asked to recognize, if the drinks contained sugar or a non-caloric artificial sweetener. Overall, participants showed poor accuracy in discriminating drinks' sweeteners, with significantly lower accuracy for SSBs than ASBs. Interestingly, we found a dissociation between sweetener recognition and drink pleasantness. In fact, in spite of a chance-level discrimination accuracy of SSBs, their taste was systematically preferred to the taste of non-caloric beverages. Our findings support the idea that hedonic value of carbonated soft drinks is dissociable from its identification and that the activation of the pleasure system seems not to require explicit recognition of the sweetener contained in the soft drink. We hypothesize that preference for carbonated soft drinks containing sugar over non-caloric alternatives might be modulated by metabolic factors that are independent from conscious and rational consumers' choices.

  14. A Dissociation Between Recognition and Hedonic Value in Caloric and Non-caloric Carbonated Soft Drinks

    PubMed Central

    Delogu, Franco; Huddas, Claire; Steven, Katelyn; Hachem, Souheila; Lodhia, Luv; Fernandez, Ryan; Logerstedt, Macee

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is considered to be a contributor to diabetes and the epidemic of obesity in many countries. The popularity of non-caloric carbonated soft drinks as an alternative to SSBs may be a factor in reducing the health risks associated with SSBs consumption. This study focuses on the perceptual discrimination of SSBs from artificially sweetened beverages (ASBs). Fifty-five college students rated 14 commercially available carbonated soft drinks in terms of sweetness and likeability. They were also asked to recognize, if the drinks contained sugar or a non-caloric artificial sweetener. Overall, participants showed poor accuracy in discriminating drinks’ sweeteners, with significantly lower accuracy for SSBs than ASBs. Interestingly, we found a dissociation between sweetener recognition and drink pleasantness. In fact, in spite of a chance-level discrimination accuracy of SSBs, their taste was systematically preferred to the taste of non-caloric beverages. Our findings support the idea that hedonic value of carbonated soft drinks is dissociable from its identification and that the activation of the pleasure system seems not to require explicit recognition of the sweetener contained in the soft drink. We hypothesize that preference for carbonated soft drinks containing sugar over non-caloric alternatives might be modulated by metabolic factors that are independent from conscious and rational consumers’ choices. PMID:26858681

  15. Energetics of shortening muscles in twitches and tetanic contractions. II. Force-determined shortening heat.

    PubMed

    Homsher, E; Mommaerts, W F; Ricchiuti, N V

    1973-12-01

    The extra heat liberation accompanying muscular shortening, the force-determined shortening heat, is defined as the difference between the heat produced when shortening occurs and that produced in an isometric contraction developing the same amount of force and performing the same amount of internal work. Based on this definition, the initial energy production in twitches and tetanic contractions (E) is given by E = A + f (P, t) + alpha(F)x + W, where A is the activation heat, f(P, t), the tension-related heat (a heat production associated with the development and maintenance of tension), alpha(F)x, the force-determined shortening heat, and W, the external work. It is demonstrated that this equation accurately accounts for the time-course of heat evolution and the total initial energy production in both twitches and tetani at 0 degrees C. The force-determined shortening heat is liberated, during shortening, in direct proportion to (a) the distance shortened, and (b) the force against which shortening occurs. The normalized value of the force-determined shortening heat coefficient, alpha(F)/P(o), is the same in both the twitch and the tetanus. Finally, this formulation of the muscle's energy production also accounts for the total energy production in afterload isotonic twitches at 20 degrees C, where a Fenn effect is not demonstrable. PMID:4548714

  16. 21 CFR 874.1800 - Air or water caloric stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1800 Air or water caloric stimulator. (a) Identification. An air or water caloric stimulator is a device that delivers a stream of air...) Classification. Class I (general controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures...

  17. Caloric Beverage Intake Among Adult Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Participants

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We compared sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB), alcohol, and other caloric beverage (juice and milk) consumption of Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) participants with that of low-income nonparticipants. Methods. We used 1 day of dietary intake data from the 2005–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 4594 adults aged 20 years and older with household income at or below 250% of the federal poverty line. We used bivariate and multivariate methods to compare the probability of consuming and the amount of calories consumed for each beverage type across 3 groups: current SNAP participants, former participants, and nonparticipants. We used instrumental variable methods to control for unobservable differences in participant groups. Results. After controlling for observable characteristics, SNAP participants were no more likely to consume SSBs than were nonparticipants. Instrumental variable estimates showed that current participants consumed fewer calories from SSBs than did similar nonparticipants. We found no differences in alcoholic beverage consumption, which cannot be purchased with SNAP benefits. Conclusions. SNAP participants are not unique in their consumption of SSBs or alcoholic beverages. Purchase restrictions may have little effect on SSB consumption. PMID:25033141

  18. Quantifying food intake in socially housed monkeys: social status effects on caloric consumption.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mark E; Fisher, Jeff; Fischer, Andrew; Lee, Vanessa; Harris, Ruth B; Bartness, Timothy J

    2008-07-01

    Obesity results from a number of factors including socio-environmental influences and rodent models show that several different stressors increase the preference for calorically dense foods leading to an obese phenotype. We present here a non-human primate model using socially housed adult female macaques living in long-term stable groups given access to diets of different caloric density. Consumption of a low fat (LFD; 15% of calories from fat) and a high fat diet (HFD; 45% of calories from fat) was quantified by means of a custom-built, automated feeder that dispensed a pellet of food when activated by a radiofrequency chip implanted subcutaneously in the animal's wrist. Socially subordinate females showed indices of chronic psychological stress having reduced glucocorticoid negative feedback and higher frequencies of anxiety-like behavior. Twenty-four hour intakes of both the LFD and HFD were significantly greater in subordinates than dominates, an effect that persisted whether standard monkey chow (13% of calories from fat) was present or absent. Furthermore, although dominants restricted their food intake to daylight, subordinates continued to feed at night. Total caloric intake was significantly correlated with body weight change. Collectively, these results show that food intake can be reliably quantified in non-human primates living in complex social environments and suggest that socially subordinate females consume more calories, suggesting this ethologically relevant model may help understand how psychosocial stress changes food preferences and consumption leading to obesity.

  19. [Caloric values and ash contents of some mangrove woods].

    PubMed

    Lin, Y; Lin, P; Wang, T

    2000-04-01

    The caloric values and ash contents of some mangrove woods in Dongzhai Harbor Mangrove Forest Reserve of Hainan Province were determined in Summer, and the changes of the caloric value of Kandelia candel woods at different latitudes were studied. The ash content of mangrove woods was low, ranging from 2.43% to 5.17%; and their gross and ash-free caloric values ranged from 17.23 kJ.g-1 to 19.21 kJ.g-1 and from 17.70 kJ.g-1 to 20.10 kJ.g-1, respectively. Sonneratia apetala wood had the lowest gross and ash-free caloric values. The caloric value of Kandelia candel wood decreased with increasing latitude in Summer.

  20. Computer Batch Files Shorten Many Complicated Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deppa, Joan

    1987-01-01

    Defines "batch files," claiming that they can shorten many complicated computer procedures. Describes how batch file was created using the computer program "PC-Write" to streamline the process of creating a work disk and increase students' computer literacy. Lists and discusses each element in the file. Provides references for more information.…

  1. 18 CFR 286.105 - Shortened procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... facts and applicable law that support the position or positions taken regarding the matters at issue... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Shortened procedure. 286.105 Section 286.105 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY...

  2. 18 CFR 158.3 - Shortened procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Shortened procedure. 158.3 Section 158.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... notice, an initial memorandum that addresses the relevant facts and applicable law that support...

  3. 18 CFR 349.3 - Shortened procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Shortened procedure. 349.3 Section 349.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... 45 days of the notice, an initial memorandum that addresses the relevant facts and applicable...

  4. 18 CFR 41.3 - Shortened procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Shortened procedure. 41.3 Section 41.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... notice, an initial memorandum that addresses the relevant facts and applicable law that support...

  5. 18 CFR 286.105 - Shortened procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... facts and applicable law that support the position or positions taken regarding the matters at issue... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Shortened procedure. 286.105 Section 286.105 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY...

  6. 18 CFR 41.3 - Shortened procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Shortened procedure. 41.3 Section 41.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... notice, an initial memorandum that addresses the relevant facts and applicable law that support...

  7. 18 CFR 349.3 - Shortened procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Shortened procedure. 349.3 Section 349.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... 45 days of the notice, an initial memorandum that addresses the relevant facts and applicable...

  8. 18 CFR 158.3 - Shortened procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Shortened procedure. 158.3 Section 158.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... notice, an initial memorandum that addresses the relevant facts and applicable law that support...

  9. 9 CFR 319.701 - Mixed fat shortening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 319.701 Mixed fat shortening. Shortening prepared with a mixture of meat fats and vegetable oils may be identified either as “Shortening Prepared with Meat Fats and Vegetable Oils” or “Shortening Prepared with Vegetable Oils and Meat Fats” depending on the predominance of the fat and oils used, or...

  10. 9 CFR 319.701 - Mixed fat shortening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 319.701 Mixed fat shortening. Shortening prepared with a mixture of meat fats and vegetable oils may be identified either as “Shortening Prepared with Meat Fats and Vegetable Oils” or “Shortening Prepared with Vegetable Oils and Meat Fats” depending on the predominance of the fat and oils used, or...

  11. 9 CFR 319.701 - Mixed fat shortening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 319.701 Mixed fat shortening. Shortening prepared with a mixture of meat fats and vegetable oils may be identified either as “Shortening Prepared with Meat Fats and Vegetable Oils” or “Shortening Prepared with Vegetable Oils and Meat Fats” depending on the predominance of the fat and oils used, or...

  12. 9 CFR 319.701 - Mixed fat shortening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 319.701 Mixed fat shortening. Shortening prepared with a mixture of meat fats and vegetable oils may be identified either as “Shortening Prepared with Meat Fats and Vegetable Oils” or “Shortening Prepared with Vegetable Oils and Meat Fats” depending on the predominance of the fat and oils used, or...

  13. 9 CFR 319.701 - Mixed fat shortening.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 319.701 Mixed fat shortening. Shortening prepared with a mixture of meat fats and vegetable oils may be identified either as “Shortening Prepared with Meat Fats and Vegetable Oils” or “Shortening Prepared with Vegetable Oils and Meat Fats” depending on the predominance of the fat and oils used, or...

  14. Normal Caloric Responses during Acute Phase of Vestibular Neuritis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun-Uk; Park, Seong-Ho; Kim, Hyo-Jung; Koo, Ja-Won

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose We report a novel finding of caloric conversion from normal responses into unilateral paresis during the acute phase of vestibular neuritis (VN). Methods We recruited 893 patients with a diagnosis of VN at Dizziness Clinic of Seoul National University Bundang Hospital from 2003 to 2014 after excluding 28 patients with isolated inferior divisional VN (n=14) and those without follow-up tests despite normal caloric responses initially (n=14). We retrospectively analyzed the neurotological findings in four (0.5%) of the patients who showed a conversion from initially normal caloric responses into unilateral paresis during the acute phase. Results In those four patients, the initial caloric tests were performed within 2 days of symptom onset, and conversion into unilateral caloric paresis was documented 1–4 days later. The clinical and laboratory findings during the initial evaluation were consistent with VN in all four patients except for normal findings in bedside head impulse tests in one of them. Conclusions Normal findings in caloric tests should be interpreted with caution during the acute phase of suspected VN. Follow-up evaluation should be considered when the findings of the initial caloric test are normal, but VN remains the most plausible diagnosis. PMID:26932259

  15. Unix version of CALOR89 for calorimeter applications

    SciTech Connect

    Handler, T.; Job, P.K.; Price, L.E.; Gabriel, T.A.

    1992-05-12

    CALOR89 is a system of coupled Monte Carlo particle transport computer codes which has been successfully employed for the estimation of calorimeter parameters in High Energy Physics. In the past CALOR89 has been running on various IBM machines and on CRAY X-MP at Lawrence Livermore Lab. These machines had non-unix operating systems. In this report we present a UNIX version of CALOR89, which is especially suited for the UNIX work stations. Moreover CALOR89 is also been supplemented with two new program packages which makes it more user friendly. CALPREP is a program for the preparation of the input files for CALOR89 in general geometry and ANALYZ is an analysis package to extract the final results from CALOR89 relevant to calorimeters. This report also provides two script files LCALOR and PCALOR. LCALOR runs CALOR89 sequences of programs and EGS4 for a given configuration sequentially on a single processor and PCALOR concurrently on a multiprocessor unix workstation.

  16. Effects of Caloric Intake on Learning and Memory Function in Juvenile C57BL/6J Mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bao-Lei; Wang, Rong; Ma, Li-Na; Dong, Wen; Zhao, Zhi-Wei; Zhang, Jing-Shuang; Wang, Yu-Lan; Zhang, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Dietary composition may influence neuronal function as well as processes underlying synaptic plasticity. In this study, we aimed to determine the effect of high and low caloric diets on a mouse model of learning and memory and to explore mechanisms underlying this process. Mice were divided into three different dietary groups: normal control (n = 12), high-caloric (HC) diet (n = 12), and low-caloric (LC) diet (n = 12). After 6 months, mice were evaluated on the Morris water maze to assess spatial memory ability. We found that HC diet impaired learning and memory function relative to both control and LC diet. The levels of SIRT1 as well as its downstream effectors p53, p16, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) were decreased in brain tissues obtained from HC mice. LC upregulated SIRT1 but downregulated p53, p16, and PPARγ. The expressions of PI3K and Akt were not altered after HC or LC diet treatment, but both LC and HC elevated the levels of phosphorylated-cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB) and IGF-1 in hippocampal CA1 region. Therefore, HC diet-induced dysfunction in learning and memory may be prevented by caloric restriction via regulation of the SIRT1-p53 or IGF-1 signaling pathways and phosphorylation of CREB.

  17. Some strategies for improving caloric responses with ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Scott, James F.; Dkhil, Brahim

    2016-06-01

    Many important breakthroughs and significant engineering developments have been achieved during the past two decades in the field of caloric materials. In this review, we address ferroelectrics emerging as ideal materials which permit both giant elastocaloric and/or electrocaloric responses near room temperature. We summarize recent strategies for improving caloric responses using geometrical optimization, maximizing the number of coexisting phases, combining positive and negative caloric responses, introducing extra degree of freedom like mechanical stress/pressure, and multicaloric effect driven by either single stimulus or multiple stimuli. This review highlights the promising perspective of ferroelectrics for developing next-generation solid-state refrigeration.

  18. Studies on flagellar shortening in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    SciTech Connect

    Cherniack, J.

    1985-01-01

    Flagellar shortening of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was promoted by sodium chloride, pyrophosphate (sodium, potassium and ammonium salts), EDTA and EGTA, succinate, citrate and oxalate (sodium salts), caffeine and aminophylline. Removal of calcium from the medium potentiated the effects of these agents in inducing shortening. Investigations of the release of phosphorylated compounds to the medium during pyrophosphate-induced flagellar shortening of cells pre-labelled with /sup 32/P, revealed an as yet unidentified /sup 32/P-labelled compound with distinct chromatographic properties. Chromatography and electrophoresis indicates that it is a small, highly polar molecule with a high charge to mass ratio, containing thermo- and acid-labile phosphate linkages. Investigations showed of the release of /sup 35/S-labelled protein to the medium from cells pre-labelled with /sup 35/S-sulfate showed that flagellated cells released two prominent polypeptides which comigrated with ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-flagellar tubulin on SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, while deflagellated cells did not.

  19. Counting calories in Drosophila diet restriction.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyung-Jin; Flatt, Thomas; Kulaots, Indrek; Tatar, Marc

    2007-03-01

    The extension of life span by diet restriction in Drosophila has been argued to occur without limiting calories. Here we directly measure the calories assimilated by flies when maintained on full- and restricted-diets. We find that caloric intake is reduced on all diets that extend life span. Flies on low-yeast diet are long-lived and consume about half the calories of flies on high-yeast diets, regardless of the energetic content of the diet itself. Since caloric intake correlates with yeast concentration and thus with the intake of every metabolite in this dietary component, it is premature to conclude for Drosophila that calories do not explain extension of life span. PMID:17125951

  20. 21 CFR 874.1800 - Air or water caloric stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1800 Air or water caloric... or water to the ear canal at controlled rates of flow and temperature and that is intended...

  1. 21 CFR 874.1800 - Air or water caloric stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1800 Air or water caloric... or water to the ear canal at controlled rates of flow and temperature and that is intended...

  2. Caloric balance during simulated and actual space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rambaut, P. C.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Smith, M. C., Jr.; Reid, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The in-flight caloric intakes of all Apollo astronauts are examined and shown to average about 25 kcal per kg per day. Measurement of weight changes following recovery indicates that about 0.15 kg of fat was lost per man per day in-flight for an average deficit of about 19 kcal per kg per day. Measurement of the caloric intake of astronauts under ground-based conditions and during hypobaric exposure indicated a caloric requirement which was not significantly different from the in-flight requirement adjusted for weight loss. Partial metabolic balance data and measurements of bone loss and body volume revealed that protein and mineral losses also occurred to an extent which would reduce the size of estimated in-flight caloric deficits.

  3. The minimal ice water caloric test compared with established vestibular caloric test procedures.

    PubMed

    Schmäl, Frank; Lübben, Björn; Weiberg, Kerstin; Stoll, Wolfgang

    2005-01-01

    Caloric testing of the vestibular labyrinth is usually performed by classical caloric test procedures (CCTP) using water warmed to 30 degrees C and 44 degrees C. Ice water irrigation (4 degrees C) is usually not performed, although it might be useful as a bedside test. To verify the validity of the Minimal Ice Water Caloric Test (MIWCT), comparative video-oculographic investigations were performed in 22 healthy subjects using ice water (0.5 ml, 1.0 ml, 2 ml), CCTP, and cold air (27 degrees C). Frequency, amplitude, slow phase velocity (SPV), the onset, and the duration of nystagmus were documented. After addition of three ice cubes, the temperature of conventional tap water (16 degrees C) fell within 13 min to 4 degrees C. In pessimum position the subjects demonstrated no nystagmus response. Compared to CCTP, MIWCT was associated with a significantly later onset of nystagmus and a significant prolongation of the nystagmus reaction. In contrast to air stimulation (27 degrees C), a significant Spearman's correlation was noted between MIWCT (1 and 2 ml) and established CCTP in respect of essential nystagmus parameters (frequency, amplitude and SPV). Furthermore, MIWCT (0.5 and 1 ml) showed a higher sensitivity and specificity with regard to the detection of canal paresis based on Jongkees' formula compared to stimulation with air 27 degrees C. Thus, MIWCT appears to be a suitable procedure for bedside investigation of vestibular function outside the vestibular laboratory, e.g. in a hospital ward, where bedridden patients with vertigo occasionally require vestibular testing. PMID:16286703

  4. Characteristics of vestibulosensory reactions studied by experimental caloric test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapranov, V. Z.

    1980-01-01

    Vestibulo-sensory reactions were studied in 135 workers who were in contact with nitroethers, by the method of an experimental caloric test. The response vestibulo-sensory reactions were recorded by means of an electroencephalograph. The changes in the sensory reaction depended on the duration of the workers' contact with toxic agents. A study of illusion reactions by the labyrinth calorization widens diagnostic possibilities in the examination of functional condition of the vestibular analyser considerably.

  5. Caloric vestibular stimulation modulates nociceptive evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Ferrè, Elisa Raffaella; Haggard, Patrick; Bottini, Gabriella; Iannetti, Gian Domenico

    2015-12-01

    Vestibular stimulation has been reported to alleviate central pain. Clinical and physiological studies confirm pervasive interactions between vestibular signals and somatosensory circuits, including nociception. However, the neural mechanisms underlying vestibular-induced analgesia remain unclear, and previous clinical studies cannot rule out explanations based on alternative, non-specific effects such as distraction or placebo. To investigate how vestibular inputs influence nociception, we combined caloric vestibular stimulation (CVS) with psychophysical and electrocortical responses elicited by nociceptive-specific laser stimulation in humans (laser-evoked potentials, LEPs). Cold water CVS applied to the left ear resulted in significantly lower subjective pain intensity for experimental laser pain to the left hand immediately after CVS, relative both to before CVS and to 1 h after CVS. This transient reduction in pain perception was associated with reduced amplitude of all LEP components, including the early N1 wave reflecting the first arrival of nociceptive input to primary somatosensory cortex. We conclude that cold left ear CVS elicits a modulation of both nociceptive processing and pain perception. The analgesic effect induced by CVS could be mediated either by subcortical gating of the ascending nociceptive input, or by direct modulation of the primary somatosensory cortex.

  6. CALOR89: Calorimetry analysis and benchmarking

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, T.A.; Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Bishop, B.L.; Fu, C.Y. ); Handler, T. ); Panakkal, J.K.; Proudfoot, J. ); Cremaldi, L.; Moore, B.; Reidy, J.J. )

    1990-01-01

    The CALOR89 code system has been utilized for extensive calorimeter benchmarking and design calculations. Even though this code system has previously demonstrated its power in the design of calorimeters, major revisions in the form of better collision models and cross-section data bases have expanded its capabilities. The benchmarking has been done with respect to the ZEUS and DO calorimeters. For the most part, good agreement with experimental data has been obtained. The design calculations presented here were done for a variety of absorbers (depleted uranium, lead, and iron) of various thickness, for a given scintillator thickness and for a fixed absorber thickness using various thickness for the scintillator. These studies indicate that a compensating calorimeter can be built using depleted uranium or lead as the absorber, whereas a purely iron calorimeter would be non-compensating. One possibly major problem exists with the depleted uranium calorimeter due to the large number of neutrons produced and due to the large capture cross-section of uranium. These captured neutrons will produce a signal in the scintillator due to secondary gamma rays for many hundreds of nanoseconds and this may contribute substantially to background noise and pile up. 14 figs.

  7. Use of caloric and non-caloric sweeteners in US consumer packaged foods, 2005–9

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Shu Wen; Slining, Meghan M.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the use of caloric (CS) and non-caloric sweeteners (NCS) in the US food supply is limited. This study utilizes full ingredient list and nutrition facts panel (NFP) data from Gladson Nutrition Database, and nationally representative purchases of consumer packaged foods from Nielsen Homescan in 2005 through 2009 to understand the use of CS (including FJC) and NCS in CPG foods. Of the 85,451 uniquely formulated foods purchased during 2005–2009, 75% contain sweeteners (68% with CS only, 1% with NCS only, 6% with both CS and NCS). CS are in >95% of cakes/cookies/pies, granola/protein/energy bars, ready-to-eat cereals, sweet snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages. NCS are in >33% of yogurts and sports/energy drinks, 42% of waters (plain or flavored), and most diet sweetened beverages. Across unique products, corn syrup is the most commonly listed sweetener, followed by sorghum, cane sugar, high fructose corn syrup and FJC. Also, 77% of all calories purchased in the US in 2005–2009 contained CS and 3% contained NCS, while 73% of the volume of foods purchased contained CS and 15% contained NCS. Trends during this period suggest a shift towards the purchase of NCS-containing products.Our study poses a challenge toward monitoring sweetener consumption in the US by discussing the need and options available to improve measures of CS and NCS, and additional requirements on NFPs on CPG foods. PMID:23102182

  8. Double rf system for bunch shortening

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, Yong Ho.

    1990-11-01

    It was suggested by Zisman that the combination of the two systems (double rf system) may be more effective to shorten a bunch, compromising between the desirable and the undesirable effects mentioned above. In this paper, we demonstrate that a double rf system is, in fact, quite effective in optimizing the rf performance. The parameters used are explained, and some handy formulae for bunch parameters are derived. We consider an example of bunch shortening by adding a higher-harmonic rf system to the main rf system. The parameters of the main rf system are unchanged. The double rf system, however, can be used for another purpose. Namely, the original bunch length can be obtained with a main rf voltage substantially lower than for a single rf system without necessitating a high-power source for the higher-harmonic cavities. Using a double rf system, the momentum acceptance remains large enough for ample beam lifetime. Moreover, the increase in nonlinearity of the rf waveform increases the synchrotron tune spread, which potentially helps a beam to be stabilized against longitudinal coupled-bunch instabilities. We will show some examples of this application. We discuss the choice of the higher-harmonic frequency.

  9. Shortening the second stage of labor?

    PubMed Central

    Mahendru, Rajiv

    2010-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the benefits and risks of using uterine fundal pressure in shortening the second stage of labor and on the obstetrical outcome. Material and Methods A pilot study comprising 209 primigravidae between 37 and 40 gestational weeks with singleton fetus in cephalic presentation admitted to the delivery suite were considered and were randomly allocated into two groups: I (n=101) and II (n=108), with or without manual fundal pressure, respectively, during the second stage of labor. Main observation measures considered were: duration of the second stage of labor was the primary outcome measure and the secondary outcome measures were severe maternal morbidity/mortality, neonatal trauma, admission to neonatal intensive care unit, and neonatal death. Results There were no significant differences in the mean duration of the second stage of labor and secondary outcome measures. Significant adverse findings having no mention in the earlier literature, were noticed which were: one case each of retained placenta and uterine prolapse besides increased evidence of maternal exhaustion and perineal injuries (including one case of complete perineal tear) in the group where fundal pressure was exercised. Conclusion Application of uterine fundal pressure in a delivering woman was not only ineffective in shortening the second stage of labor but added to the risks during parturition. PMID:24591907

  10. Diet-related telomere shortening and chromosome stability.

    PubMed

    Marcon, Francesca; Siniscalchi, Ester; Crebelli, Riccardo; Saieva, Calogero; Sera, Francesco; Fortini, Paola; Simonelli, Valeria; Palli, Domenico

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidences have highlighted an influence of micronutrients in the maintenance of telomere length (TL). In order to explore whether diet-related telomere shortening had any physiological relevance and was accompanied by significant damage in the genome, in the present study, TL was assessed by terminal restriction fragment (TRF) analysis in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 56 healthy subjects for which detailed information on dietary habits was available and data were compared \\with the incidence of nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs), a marker of chromosomal instability related to telomere dysfunction visualised with the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay. To increase the capability to detect even slight impairment of telomere function, the incidence of NPBs was also evaluated on cells exposed in vitro to ionising radiation. Care was taken to control for potential confounding factors that might influence TL, viz. age, hTERT genotype and smoking status. Data showed that higher consumption of vegetables was related with significantly higher mean TL (P = 0.013); in particular, the analysis of the association between micronutrients and mean TL highlighted a significant role of antioxidant intake, especially beta-carotene, on telomere maintenance (P = 0.004). However, the diet-related telomere shortening did not result in associated increased spontaneous or radiation-induced NPBs. The distribution of TRFs was also analysed and a slight prevalence of radiation-induced NPBs (P = 0.03) was observed in subjects with higher amount of very short TRFs (<2 kb). The relative incidence of very short TRFs was positively associate with ageing (P = 0.008) but unrelated to vegetables consumption and daily intake of micronutrients, suggesting that the degree of telomere erosion related with low dietary intake of antioxidants observed in this study was not so extensive to lead to chromosome instability.

  11. Proximate composition and caloric content of eight Lake Michigan fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rottiers, Donald V.; Tucker, Robert M.

    1982-01-01

    We measured the proximate composition (percentage lipid, water, fat-free dry material, ash) and caloric content of eight species of Lake Michigan fish: lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), bloater (Coregonus hoyi), alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus quadricornis), and slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus). Except for alewives, proximate composition and caloric content did not differ significantly between males and females. And, for coho salmon, there was no significant difference in composition between fish collected in different years. Lipid and caloric content of lake trout increased directly with age. In all species examined, lipids and caloric contents were significantly lower in small, presumably immature, fish than in larger, older fish. Lipid content of lake trout, lake whitefish, and bloaters (range of means, 16-22%) was nearly 3 times higher than that of coho salmon, sculpins, rainbow smelt, and alewives (range of means, 5.2-7.0%). The mean caloric content ranged from 6.9 to 7.1 kcal/g for species high in lipids and from 5.8 to 6.3 kcal/g for species low in lipids. Although the caloric content of all species varied directly with lipid content and inversely with water content, an increase in lipid content did not always coincide with a proportional increase in caloric content when other components of fish composition were essentially unchanged. This observation suggests that the energy content of fish estimated from the proximate composition by using universal conversion factors may not necessarily be accurate.

  12. Changes of ampulla pressure in the semicircular canal of pigeons by caloric stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Yoshiro; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Satoru

    Still now several hypotheses about the mechanisms of the caloric nystagmus have been in conclusive. In this study we confirmed the convection effect and the volume change effect of the endolymph in horizontal semicircular canal following the caloric stimulation using pigeons ( Columba livia). Although the direction of the caloric nystagmus depended on the head position and the stimulus site of calorization, the caloric nystagmus disappeared after plugging of horizontal semicircular canal. On the other hand, the ampulla pressure increased by cold calorization and decreased by hot calorization and these pressure changes had no relation to the head position. These results show that the main role of the mechanisms of the caloric nystagmus under 1G is the convection effect but the volume change effect may act on the caloric nystagmus not only under 1G but also under microgravity.

  13. Aneuploidy shortens replicative lifespan in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Sunshine, Anna B; Ong, Giang T; Nickerson, Daniel P; Carr, Daniel; Murakami, Christopher J; Wasko, Brian M; Shemorry, Anna; Merz, Alexey J; Kaeberlein, Matt; Dunham, Maitreya J

    2016-04-01

    Aneuploidy and aging are correlated; however, a causal link between these two phenomena has remained elusive. Here, we show that yeast disomic for a single native yeast chromosome generally have a decreased replicative lifespan. In addition, the extent of this lifespan deficit correlates with the size of the extra chromosome. We identified a mutation in BUL1 that rescues both the lifespan deficit and a protein trafficking defect in yeast disomic for chromosome 5. Bul1 is an E4 ubiquitin ligase adaptor involved in a protein quality control pathway that targets membrane proteins for endocytosis and destruction in the lysosomal vacuole, thereby maintaining protein homeostasis. Concurrent suppression of the aging and trafficking phenotypes suggests that disrupted membrane protein homeostasis in aneuploid yeast may contribute to their accelerated aging. The data reported here demonstrate that aneuploidy can impair protein homeostasis, shorten lifespan, and may contribute to age-associated phenotypes.

  14. Shortened forms of provocative lead chelation

    SciTech Connect

    Sokas, R.K.; Atleson, J.; Keogh, J.P.

    1988-05-01

    Shortened urinary lead collections following provocative chelation have been standardized for pediatric patients, but have not been considered adequate for adults. This study compared shortened urine collections for lead excretion post chelation with standard 24-hour collections. Thirty-five patients without known current lead exposure and with serum creatinine measurements less than 2 mg/dL were hospitalized and had provocative chelation performed as follows: One gram of CaNa2-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was administered in 250 mL of a 5% dextrose in water solution intravenously over one hour; the same dose was repeated 12 hours later. A 24-hour urine collection for lead excretion was begun at the time of initiation of the first dose. At three hours and six hours from start of first dose, each patient was instructed to void, total volume to that point was recorded, and a 10-mL aliquot was withdrawn for lead measurement. Both three-hour and six-hour urinary lead excretion following a single dose of EDTA correlated linearly with 24-hour lead excretion post chelation (r = .89 and .94, respectively). When a 24-hour level of 600 micrograms was defined as true positive the three-hour collection had a sensitivity of 76% and specificity of 95% and six-hour urinary lead excretion had 82% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Mild renal insufficiency (reflected by serum creatinine levels between 1.5 and 2.1 mg/dL) did not significantly alter the correlation between three-, six-, and 24-hour urinary post-chelation lead excretion.

  15. Cultural factors, caloric intake and micronutrient sufficiency in rural Nepali households.

    PubMed

    Gittelsohn, J; Thapa, M; Landman, L T

    1997-06-01

    This study examined the allocation of food within 105 Nepali households using a combination of recall and observation methods. While a relationship exists between caloric intake and sufficiency of intake of several key micronutrients (i.e., beta carotene, vitamin C and iron) for the study population as a whole this relationship is weaker for certain subgroups. In particular, micronutrient intakes of adolescent girls and adult women are much less likely to be tried to total caloric consumption when compared with the intakes of other household members. This gender differential appears linked in part to specific food beliefs and practices that tend to reduce women's consumption of micronutrient-rich foods, such as dietary restrictions during menstruation, pregnancy and lactation. Overlapping with these beliefs and practices, an overall pattern of disfavoritism of females in the intrahousehold allocation of food is evident in the study communities. While staple food items (i.e. rice, lentil soup, bread, etc.) are distributed fairly equally, side dishes usually containing a higher proportion of micronutrients (i.e. vegetables, meat, yogurt, ghee, etc.) are often preferentially allocated to valued household members, including adult males and small children (of both sexes).

  16. Restrictive cardiomyopathy

    MedlinePlus

    Cardiomyopathy - restrictive; Infiltrative cardiomyopathy; Idiopathic myocardial fibrosis ... of the heart lining (endocardium), such as endomyocardial fibrosis and Loeffler syndrome (rare) Iron overload (hemochromatosis) Sarcoidosis ...

  17. Systematic effects in CALOR simulation code to model experimental configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Job, P.K.; Proudfoot, J. ); Handler, T. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Gabriel, T.A. )

    1991-03-27

    CALOR89 code system is being used to simulate test beam results and the design parameters of several calorimeter configurations. It has been bench-marked against the ZEUS, D{theta} and HELIOS data. This study identifies the systematic effects in CALOR simulation to model the experimental configurations. Five major systematic effects are identified. These are the choice of high energy nuclear collision model, material composition, scintillator saturation, shower integration time, and the shower containment. Quantitative estimates of these systematic effects are presented. 23 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Andrew shortens lifetime of Louisiana Barrier Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    Because the Isles Dernieres, a series of four barrier islands off the coast of Louisiana, have one of the most rapidly eroding shorelines in the world, geologists at the U.S. Geological Survey and the Louisiana Geological Survey have been monitoring erosion activity over the last several years, said Jeff Williams of the USGS in Reston, Va. Hurricane Andrew, which struck the state on August 26, caused severe erosional damage to these islands that has shortened their lifetimes.Before Andrew struck, geologists projected that Raccoon Island would disappear below sea level by the year 2001 and that Whiskey Island would disappear by 2016. Now, due to the severe erosion from Hurricane Andrew, the scientists claim that the islands may disappear before the turn of the century, and the other islands in the Dernieres chain are expected to follow suit within 2 decades. Raccoon, Whiskey, Trinity, and East islands make up the Isles Dernieres, which existed as one island, known as the Isle Derniere, before an 1856 hurricane and subsequent erosion.

  19. The basolateral nucleus of the amygdala mediates caloric sugar preference over a non-caloric sweetener in mice.

    PubMed

    Yasoshima, Y; Yoshizawa, H; Shimura, T; Miyamoto, T

    2015-04-16

    Neurobiological and genetic mechanisms underlying increased intake of and preference for nutritive sugars over non-nutritive sweeteners are not fully understood. We examined the roles of subnuclei of the amygdala in the shift in preference for a nutritive sugar. Food-deprived mice alternately received caloric sucrose (1.0 M) on odd-numbered training days and a non-caloric artificial sweetener (2.5 mM saccharin) on even-numbered training days. During training, mice with sham lesions of the basolateral (BLA) or central (CeA) nucleus of the amygdala increased their intake of 1.0 M sucrose, but not saccharin. Trained mice with sham lesions showed a significant shift in preference toward less concentrated sucrose (0.075 M) over the saccharin in a two-bottle choice test, although the mice showed an equivalent preference for these sweeteners before training. No increased intake of or preference for sucrose before and after the alternating training was observed in non-food-deprived mice. Excitotoxic lesions centered in the BLA impaired the increase in 1.0M sucrose intake and shift in preference toward 0.075 M sucrose over saccharin. Microlesions with iontophoretic excitotoxin injections into the CeA did not block the training-dependent changes. These results suggest that food-deprived animals selectively shift their preference for a caloric sugar over a non-caloric sweetener through the alternate consumption of caloric and non-caloric sweet substances. The present data also suggest that the BLA, but not CeA, plays a role in the selective shift in sweetener preference. PMID:25684750

  20. The basolateral nucleus of the amygdala mediates caloric sugar preference over a non-caloric sweetener in mice.

    PubMed

    Yasoshima, Y; Yoshizawa, H; Shimura, T; Miyamoto, T

    2015-04-16

    Neurobiological and genetic mechanisms underlying increased intake of and preference for nutritive sugars over non-nutritive sweeteners are not fully understood. We examined the roles of subnuclei of the amygdala in the shift in preference for a nutritive sugar. Food-deprived mice alternately received caloric sucrose (1.0 M) on odd-numbered training days and a non-caloric artificial sweetener (2.5 mM saccharin) on even-numbered training days. During training, mice with sham lesions of the basolateral (BLA) or central (CeA) nucleus of the amygdala increased their intake of 1.0 M sucrose, but not saccharin. Trained mice with sham lesions showed a significant shift in preference toward less concentrated sucrose (0.075 M) over the saccharin in a two-bottle choice test, although the mice showed an equivalent preference for these sweeteners before training. No increased intake of or preference for sucrose before and after the alternating training was observed in non-food-deprived mice. Excitotoxic lesions centered in the BLA impaired the increase in 1.0M sucrose intake and shift in preference toward 0.075 M sucrose over saccharin. Microlesions with iontophoretic excitotoxin injections into the CeA did not block the training-dependent changes. These results suggest that food-deprived animals selectively shift their preference for a caloric sugar over a non-caloric sweetener through the alternate consumption of caloric and non-caloric sweet substances. The present data also suggest that the BLA, but not CeA, plays a role in the selective shift in sweetener preference.

  1. Extension of Drosophila Lifespan by Rhodiola rosea Depends on Dietary Carbohydrate and Caloric Content in a Simplified Diet.

    PubMed

    Schriner, Samuel E; Coskun, Volkan; Hogan, Sean P; Nguyen, Cindy T; Lopez, Terry E; Jafari, Mahtab

    2016-03-01

    The root and rhizome extract of Rhodiola rosea has been extensively used in traditional medicine to improve physical and mental performance and to protect against stress. We, and others, have reported that R. rosea can extend lifespan in flies, worms, and yeast. We also previously found that the extract can act independently of dietary restriction (DR), a treatment that can extend lifespan in a range of model organisms. In flies, DR is implemented through a reduction in dietary yeast content. Here, we report that the ability of R. rosea extract to extend lifespan in flies is dependent on the carbohydrate and caloric content when supplemented with a simplified diet composed of yeast and sucrose. R. rosea extract elevated the sugar content in flies and down-regulated hexokinase expression, suggesting that it perturbs carbohydrate metabolism in flies. In our previous studies, bananas, barley malt, and corn syrup provided dietary carbohydrates, and R. rosea extract could extend lifespan with a range of caloric levels. We conclude that the lifespan-extending effect of R. rosea extract in flies is dependent on dietary carbohydrate and caloric contents coupled with an interaction with complex dietary components present in bananas, barley, or corn.

  2. Extension of Drosophila Lifespan by Rhodiola rosea Depends on Dietary Carbohydrate and Caloric Content in a Simplified Diet.

    PubMed

    Schriner, Samuel E; Coskun, Volkan; Hogan, Sean P; Nguyen, Cindy T; Lopez, Terry E; Jafari, Mahtab

    2016-03-01

    The root and rhizome extract of Rhodiola rosea has been extensively used in traditional medicine to improve physical and mental performance and to protect against stress. We, and others, have reported that R. rosea can extend lifespan in flies, worms, and yeast. We also previously found that the extract can act independently of dietary restriction (DR), a treatment that can extend lifespan in a range of model organisms. In flies, DR is implemented through a reduction in dietary yeast content. Here, we report that the ability of R. rosea extract to extend lifespan in flies is dependent on the carbohydrate and caloric content when supplemented with a simplified diet composed of yeast and sucrose. R. rosea extract elevated the sugar content in flies and down-regulated hexokinase expression, suggesting that it perturbs carbohydrate metabolism in flies. In our previous studies, bananas, barley malt, and corn syrup provided dietary carbohydrates, and R. rosea extract could extend lifespan with a range of caloric levels. We conclude that the lifespan-extending effect of R. rosea extract in flies is dependent on dietary carbohydrate and caloric contents coupled with an interaction with complex dietary components present in bananas, barley, or corn. PMID:26987024

  3. Caloric and entropic temperatures in non-equilibrium steady states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jou, D.; Restuccia, L.

    2016-10-01

    We examine the non-equilibrium consequences of two different definitions of temperature in systems out of equilibrium: one is based on the internal energy (caloric temperature), and the other one on the entropy (entropic temperature). We discuss the relation between the values obtained from these two definitions in ideal gases and in two-level systems.

  4. Cupula dynamics under caloric stimulation of the semicircular canal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondrachuk, A. V.; Sirenko, S. P.

    Caloric stimulation of the semicircular canal SC is widely applied in studies of vestibular impairments Barany 1906 suggested that caloric response of SC results from mechanism of endolymph convection due to density changes of endolymph and therefore depends on the action of gravity forces However the Skylab experiments 1983 showed that the caloric reaction of SC can take place even under microgravity The studies of Scherer Clarke 1985 Harada Ariki 1985 Baumgarten et al 1985 considered the thermal expansion of endolymph to be a concurrent mechanism The model of caloric response based on the buoyancy force due to density change in the endolymph induced by thermal stimulation was proposed by Gentine et al 1990 1991 It should be noted that the first qualitative model that took into account the effect of endolymph thermal expansion under local heating to analyze the properties of primary afferents was proposed by Gusev Orlov 1977 However these models failed to answer the question which of the mentioned effects will be dominant under certain conditions The purpose of present study was to account for the expansion and convection of endolymph and to determine under which conditions one mechanism dominates over the other The consideration is based on the following model of SC Kondrachuk Sirenko 1990 an isolated torus filled by a compressible viscous Newton liquid endolymph the torus interior is plugged by an elastic body cupula the cupula surface in contact with endolymph is supposed to be stretched along the

  5. CALOR87: HETC87, MICAP, EGS4, and SPECT

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, T.A.; Alsmiller, F.S.; Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Bishop, B.L.; Hermann, O.W.; Johnson, J.O.

    1987-01-01

    A brief history of CALOR (HETC, EGS, MICAP, SPECT) is presented to indicate the evolution of this code system. Details concerning the current modifications and additions to the high-energy transport code, HETC, are also presented and new comparisons with experimental data are included to verify the new physics improvements. 27 refs., 5 figs.

  6. 21 CFR 874.1800 - Air or water caloric stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... vestibular function testing of a patient's body balance system. The vestibular stimulation of the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Air or water caloric stimulator. 874.1800 Section 874.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  7. 21 CFR 874.1800 - Air or water caloric stimulator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... vestibular function testing of a patient's body balance system. The vestibular stimulation of the... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Air or water caloric stimulator. 874.1800 Section 874.1800 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  8. Can imaginary head tilt shorten postrotatory nystagmus?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gianna-Poulin, C. C.; Voelker, C. C.; Erickson, B.; Black, F. O.

    2001-01-01

    In healthy subjects, head tilt upon cessation of a constant-velocity yaw head rotation shortens the duration of postrotatory nystagmus. The presumed mechanism for this effect is that the velocity storage of horizontal semicircular canal inputs is being discharged by otolith organ inputs which signal a constant yaw head position when the head longitudinal axis is no longer earth-vertical. In the present study, normal subjects were rotated head upright in the dark on a vertical-axis rotational chair at 60 degrees/s for 75 s and were required to perform a specific task as soon as the chair stopped. Horizontal position of the right eye was recorded with an infra-red video camera. The average eye velocity (AEV) was measured over a 30-s interval following chair acceleration/deceleration. The ratios (postrotatory AEV/perrotatory AEV) were 1.1 (SD 0.112) when subjects (N=10) kept their head erect, 0.414 (SD 0.083) when subjects tilted their head forward, 1.003 (SD 0.108) when subjects imagined watching a TV show, 1.012 (SD 0.074) when subjects imagined looking at a painting on a wall, and 0.995 (SD 0.074) when subjects imagined floating in a prone position on a lake. Thus, while actual head tilt reduced postrotatory nystagmus, the imagination tasks did not have a statistically significant effect on postrotatory nystagmus. Therefore, velocity storage does not appear to be under the influence of cortical neural signals when subjects imagine that they are floating in a prone orientation.

  9. Charged and neutral particle transport methods and applications: The CALOR code system

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, T.A.; Charlton, L.A.

    1997-04-01

    The CALOR code system, which is a complete radiation transport code system, is described with emphasis on the high-energy (> 20 MeV) nuclear collision models. Codes similar to CALOR are also briefly discussed. A current application using CALOR which deals with the development of the National Spallation Neutron Source is also given.

  10. Characteristics of and corrections for core shortening in unconsolidated sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert A.; White, William A.

    1997-01-01

    Thinning, bypassing, and compaction of shallow unconsolidated sediments during manual coring or vibracoring operations probably cause more sediment deformation and greater stratigraphic displacement than is commonly reported in the wetland literature. We measured core shortening in open-barrel cores from fluvial wetlands, lagoonal flats, and marshes to document the magnitude and characteristics of shortening where sediments may be stiff and require extra mechanical effort to recover a sufficient length of sample for analysis. Results of those measurements indicate that thinning or non- recovery of discrete sediment intervals can range from 0 to 67 percent and cumulative core shortening can be as much as 30 percent even for cores less than one meter long. Detailed open-barrel measurements also show that core shortening is not uniformly distributed throughout the depth of penetration as is often assumed. Analytical data derived from shortened cores can only be properly interpreted if patterns of shortening are established and incorporated into the analysis. Minor artificial displacement of sediment depths can alter plots of physico-chemical parameters and can significantly influence calculated rates of sedimentation and other depth-dependent statistical relationships. This study (1) demonstrates how plots of interval shortening and cumulative shortening can be used to characterize the distribution of shortening at depth and (2) presents a simple equation for stratigraphic restoration so that core observations and analyses are corrected to their original depths.

  11. The caloric vestibular nystagmus during short lasting microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oosterveld, W. J.; de Jong, H. A. A.; Kortschot, H. W.

    In human subjects the caloric vestibular test was conducted during parabolic flight. The ear irrigation was performed from 35 secs. till 5 secs. before the onset of microgravity. Nystagmography covered a 10-minutes period, including three parabolic manoeuvres of the aircraft. a. The slow phase velocity (SPV) of the caloric nystagmus increased proportionally with the value of the g-force. Introduction of microgravity induced an exponential decrease of the SPV decay. b. The nystagmus disappeared completely in microgravity, but SPV decay showed a specific time constant. c. The averaged time constant values of the caloric nystagmus SPV decay after sudden onset of microgravity and the averaged time constant of the SPV decay following a sudden stop after sustained rotation during 0-g appeared to be on the same level (10.2 s. and 10.6 s.). d. These two averaged time constant values obtained during shortlasting microgravity proved to be on a lower level than those time constants (15.5 secs.; 15.9 secs.) found in ground-based conditions. e. Because of the similarities in the characteristics of both SPV decay's and their accompanying time constants, a common working mechanism of cupular stimulation is likely. Most probably a fluid movement (or pressure) provokes a cupula deflexion followed by a cupula reflexion, either caused by a sudden stop after a sustained rotation or by a sudden onset of microgravity after g-load calorization. The present results support the Bárány convection theory with regard the endolymph stimulatory properties following the caloric test.

  12. Accelerated Telomere Shortening in Acromegaly; IGF-I Induces Telomere Shortening and Cellular Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Ryusaku; Fukuoka, Hidenori; Iguchi, Genzo; Odake, Yukiko; Yoshida, Kenichi; Bando, Hironori; Suda, Kentaro; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Michiko; Yamada, Shozo; Ogawa, Wataru; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Objective Patients with acromegaly exhibit reduced life expectancy and increased prevalence of age-related diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. Telomere shortening is reportedly associated with reduced life expectancy and increased prevalence of these age-related diseases. Methods We measured telomere length in patients with acromegaly using quantitative PCR method. The effect of GH and IGF-I on telomere length and cellular senescence was examined in human skin fibroblasts. Results Patients with acromegaly exhibited shorter telomere length than age-, sex-, smoking-, and diabetes-matched control patients with non-functioning pituitary adenoma (0.62 ± 0.23 vs. 0.75 ± 0.35, respectively, P = 0.047). In addition, telomere length in acromegaly was negatively correlated with the disease duration (R2 = 0.210, P = 0.003). In vitro analysis revealed that not GH but IGF-I induced telomere shortening in human skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, IGF-I-treated cells showed increased senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and expression of p53 and p21 protein. IGF-I-treated cells reached the Hayflick limit earlier than GH- or vehicle-treated cells, indicating that IGF-I induces cellular senescence. Conclusion Shortened telomeres in acromegaly and cellular senescence induced by IGF-I can explain, in part, the underlying mechanisms by which acromegaly exhibits an increased morbidity and mortality in association with the excess secretion of IGF-I. PMID:26448623

  13. Polymorphism of rs1836882 in NOX4 Gene Modifies Associations between Dietary Caloric Intake and ROS Levels in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qiang; Li, Hong; Wang, Ningfu; Chen, Huaihong; Jin, Qihui; Zhang, Ruoyu; Wang, Jing; Chen, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Excessive caloric intake is a contributing risk factor for human metabolic disorders. Caloric restriction may prolong a person’s life by lowering the incidence of deadly diseases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) have been associated with the biochemical basis of the relationship between caloric intake and pathophysiologic processes. Polymorphisms associated with ROS generation genes are being increasingly implicated in inter-individual responses to daily caloric intake alterations. In the current study, a single nucleotide polymorphism, rs1836882, in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase 4 (NOX4) gene’s promoter region was found to modulate associations between dietary caloric intake and ROS levels in PBMC. Based on rs1836882, 656 Chinese Han participants were classified into CC, CT and TT genotypes. ROS levels in PBMC were significantly higher in the CC or CT genotypes compared with the TT genotype with the same increases in daily caloric intake. Using an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, NOX4 promoter region with rs1836882 (T) was observed to have a higher affinity for hepatocyte nuclear factor gamma (HNF3γ) protein than rs1836882 (C). HNF3γ protein over-expression decreased NOX4 gene transcriptional activity in the TT genotype more than in the CC genotype (5.68% vs. 2.12%, P<0.05) in a dual luciferase reporter assay. By silencing the NOX4 gene using small interfering RNA or over-expressing HNF3γ using an expression plasmid, serum from high dietary caloric intake participants decreased ROS levels in PBMC of the TT genotype more than in the CC or CT genotype via HNF3γ down-regulating the NOX4 gene expression signaling pathway. This is the first study to report on the functions of phenotypes of rs1836882 in the NOX4 gene, and it suggests rs1836882 as a candidate gene for interpreting inter-individual ROS levels differences in PBMC induced by alterations in daily caloric intake. PMID:24392026

  14. Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mender, Ilgen; Shay, Jerry W.

    2016-01-01

    While telomerase is expressed in ~90% of primary human tumors, most somatic tissue cells except transiently proliferating stem-like cells do not have detectable telomerase activity (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). Telomeres progressively shorten with each cell division in normal cells, including proliferating stem-like cells, due to the end replication (lagging strand synthesis) problem and other causes such as oxidative damage, therefore all somatic cells have limited cell proliferation capacity (Hayflick limit) (Hayflick and Moorhead, 1961; Olovnikov, 1973). The progressive telomere shortening eventually leads to growth arrest in normal cells, which is known as replicative senescence (Shay et al., 1991). Once telomerase is activated in cancer cells, telomere length is stabilized by the addition of TTAGGG repeats to the end of chromosomes, thus enabling the limitless continuation of cell division (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). Therefore, the link between aging and cancer can be partially explained by telomere biology. There are many rapid and convenient methods to study telomere biology such as Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF), Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP) (Mender and Shay, 2015b) and Telomere dysfunction Induced Foci (TIF) analysis (Mender and Shay, 2015a). In this protocol paper we describe Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) analysis to determine average telomeric length of cells. Telomeric length can be indirectly measured by a technique called Telomere Restriction Fragment analysis (TRF). This technique is a modified Southern blot, which measures the heterogeneous range of telomere lengths in a cell population using the length distribution of the terminal restriction fragments (Harley et al., 1990; Ouellette et al., 2000). This method can be used in eukaryotic cells. The description below focuses on the measurement of human cancer cells telomere length. The principle of this method relies on the lack of

  15. Telomere shortening in neurological disorders: an abundance of unanswered questions.

    PubMed

    Eitan, Erez; Hutchison, Emmette R; Mattson, Mark P

    2014-05-01

    Telomeres, ribonucleoprotein complexes that cap eukaryotic chromosomes, typically shorten in leukocytes with aging. Aging is a primary risk factor for neurodegenerative disease (ND), and a common assumption has arisen that leukocyte telomere length (LTL) can serve as a predictor of neurological disease. However, the evidence for shorter LTL in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's patients is inconsistent. The diverse causes of telomere shortening may explain variability in LTL between studies and individuals. Additional research is needed to determine whether neuronal and glial telomeres shorten during aging and in neurodegenerative disorders, if and how LTL is related to brain cell telomere shortening, and whether telomere shortening plays a causal role in or exacerbates neurological disorders. PMID:24698125

  16. Telomere Shortening in Neurological Disorders: An Abundance of Unanswered Questions

    PubMed Central

    Eitan, Erez; Hutchison, Emmette R.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2014-01-01

    Telomeres, ribonucleoprotein complexes that cap eukaryotic chromosomes, typically shorten in leukocytes with aging. Aging is a primary risk factor for neurodegenerative disease (ND), and a common assumption has arisen that leukocyte telomere length (LTL) can serve as a predictor of neurological disease. However, the evidence for shorter LTL in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s patients is inconsistent. The diverse causes of telomere shortening may explain variability in LTL between studies and individuals. Additional research is needed to determine whether neuronal and glial telomeres shorten during aging and in neurodegenerative disorders, if and how LTL is related to brain cell telomere shortening, and whether telomere shortening plays a causal role in or exacerbates neurological disorders. PMID:24698125

  17. No Effect of Caloric Restriction or Exercise on Radiation Repair Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Habermann, Nina; Makar, Karen W.; Abbenhardt, Clare; Xiao, Liren; Wang, Ching-Yun; Utsugi, Heidi K.; Alfano, Catherine M.; Campbell, Kristin L.; Duggan, Catherine; Foster-Schubert, Karen E.; Mason, Caitlin E.; Imayama, Ikuyo; Blackburn, George L.; Potter, John D.; McTiernan, Anne; Ulrich, Cornelia M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Maintenance of normal weight and higher levels of physical activity are associated with a reduced risk of several types of cancer. As genomic instability is regarded as a hallmark of cancer development, one proposed mechanism is improvement of DNA repair function. We investigated links between dietary weight loss, exercise, and strand break rejoining in an ancillary study to a randomized-controlled trial. Methods Overweight/obese postmenopausal women (n=439) were randomized to: a) reduced-calorie weight-loss diet (“diet” n=118); b) moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise (“exercise” n=117); c) a combination (“diet+exercise” n=117); or d) control (n=87). The reduced-calorie diet had a 10% weight-loss goal. The exercise intervention consisted of 45 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous aerobic activity 5 days/week for 12 months. DNA repair capacity was measured in a subset of 226 women at baseline and 12 months, from cryopreserved peripheral mononuclear cells using the Comet assay. Anthropometric and body composition measures were performed at baseline and 12 months. Results DNA repair capacity did not change significantly with any of the 12 month interventions compared to control; there were also no significant changes when stratified by changes in body composition or aerobic fitness (VO2max). At baseline, DNA repair capacity was positively associated with weight, BMI, and fat mass (r=0.20, p=0.003; r=0.19, p=0.004; r=0.13, p=0.04, respectively) and inversely with lean body mass (r=-0.14, p=0.04). Conclusion In conclusion, DNA repair capacity did not change with dietary weight loss or exercise interventions in postmenopausal women within a period of 12 months. Other assays that capture different facets of DNA repair function may be needed. PMID:25160845

  18. Caloric Restriction in Treating Patients With Stage 0-I Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery and Radiation Therapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-19

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Invasive Ductal Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Lobular Breast Carcinoma; Lobular Breast Carcinoma in Situ; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer

  19. Effect of high- and low-caloric mixed liquid meals on intestinal gas dynamics.

    PubMed

    Harder, Hermann; Hernando-Harder, Ana C; Franke, Andreas; Krammer, Heinz-Juergen; Singer, Manfred V

    2006-01-01

    High-caloric meals can evoke postprandial abdominal complaints involving disturbances in intestinal gas balance. We aimed to determine the influence of the caloric content of meals on intestinal gas dynamics. Eight healthy subjects (five women, three men; age range, 25-43 years) underwent paired studies with low (1 kcal/min)- and high (3 kcal/min)-caloric meal infusion 35% fat, (45% carbohydrate, 20% protein) into the duodenum in random order and proximal jejunal gas infusion. Gas evacuation, perception, and abdominal girth were assessed. The low-caloric meal caused neither gas retention (-7 +/- 58 ml) nor girth changes (0 +/- 0 mm). In contrast, the high-caloric meal led to significant gas retention (705 +/- 56 ml) and increased abdominal perimeter (7 +/- 1 mm; P < 0.001 vs. the low-caloric meal for both). Thus, a high caloric load of nutrients arriving at the duodenum modulates both intestinal gas transit and abdominal perimeter.

  20. Atherosclerotic changes of vessels caused by restriction of movement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gvishiani, G. S.; Kobakhidze, N. G.; Mchedlishvili, M. G.; Dekanosidze, T. I.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of restriction of movement on the development of atheroscelerosis was studied in rabbits. Drastic restriction of movement for 20 and 30 days causes atherosclerotic alterations of the aorta and shifts in ECG which are characteristic of coronary atherosclerosis. At the same time, shortening of the duration of blood coagulation and an increase in the content of catecholamines and beta-lipoproteids occur.

  1. CALOR89 calorimeter simulations, benchmarking, and design calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Handler, T. ); Panakkal, J.K.; Proudfoot, J. ); Cremaldi, L.; Moore, B.; Reidy, J.J. ); Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Fu, P.; Gabriel, T.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Results on CALOR89 benchmarking and design calculations utilizing the CALOR89 programs are presented. The benchmarking is done with respect to the ZEUS and DO calorimeters. The design calculations were done for a variety of absorbers (depleted uranium, lead, and iron) of various thickness for a given scintillator thickness and for a fixed absorber thickness using various thickness for the scintillator. These studies indicate that a compensating calorimeter can be built using lead as the absorber, whereas a purely iron calorimeter would be non-compensating. A depleted uranium calorimeter would possibly be unsuitable if used in a large configuration and a high luminosity machine because of the delayed energy release from capture gammas. 11 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Smog May Shorten Lives of Lung Cancer Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5, 2016 FRIDAY, Aug. 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Air pollution may shorten the lives of lung cancer patients, ... the International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies air pollution as a cancer-causing agent. "This study, along ...

  3. Biochemical response to chronic shortening in unloaded soleus muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaspers, S. R.; Fagan, J. M.; Tischler, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    One leg of tail-casted suspended rats was immobilized in a plantar-flexed position to test whether chronic shortening of posterior leg muscles affected the metabolic response to unloading. The immobilized plantaris and gastrocnemius muscles of these animals showed approximately 20 percent loss of muscle mass in contrast to simply a slower growth rate with unloading. Loss of mass of the soleus muscle during suspension was not accentuated by chronic shortening. Although protein degradation in the isolated soleus muscle of the plantar-flexed limb was slightly faster than in the contralateral free limb, this difference was offset by faster synthesis of the myofibrillar protein fraction of the chronically shortened muscle. Total adenine nucleotides were 17 percent lower (P less than 0.005) in the chronically shortened soleus muscle following incubation. Glutamate, glutamine, and alanine metabolism showed little response to chronic shortening. These results suggest that, in the soleus muscle, chronic shortening did not alter significantly the metabolic responses to unloading and reduced activity.

  4. Time-restricted feeding of a high-fat diet reduces diet-induced obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing obesity may alleviate many medical complications including diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. It has been suggested that obesity is contributed by the disruption of the circadian rhythms in addition to increased caloric intake. Restricting feeding to particular times of the day ma...

  5. Frying performance of palm-based solid frying shortening.

    PubMed

    Omar, M N; Nor-Nazuha, M N; Nor-Dalilah, M N; Sahri, M M

    2010-03-15

    In order to evaluate the frying performance of palm-based solid frying shortening against standard olein, the fresh potato chips were fried in both frying media using an open fryer. After frying the chips for 40 h in an open batch fryer, it was found that the frying quality of palm-based solid frying shortening was better than standard palm olein in terms of Free Fatty Acid (FFA) values, Total Polar Content (TPC) and Total Polymeric Material (TPM). Solid shortening gave FFA, TPC and TPM values of 0.7, 15.3 and 2.67%, respectively, whilst standard palm olein gave values for FFA, TPC and TPM of 1.2, 19.6 and 3.10%, respectively. In terms of sensory mean scores, sensory panelists preferred the color of potato chips fried in solid shortening on the first day of frying, while on the third and fifth day of frying there were no significant differences (p < 0.05) in the sensory scores of fried products in both frying mediums. However, on the fifth day of frying, panelists gave higher scores in terms of taste, flavor and crispness for potato chips fried in solid shortening. These findings show that the palm-based solid shortening is better than palm olein when used for deep fat frying in terms of FFA values, total polar content and total polymeric material, especially for starch-based products such as potato chips. The result also shows that, in terms of sensory mean scores, after frying for 40 h, the sensory panelists gave higher scores in terms of taste, flavor and crispiness for potato chips fried in palm-based solid shortening.

  6. Can vestibular caloric stimulation be used to treat apotemnophilia?

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, V S; McGeoch, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Apotemnophilia, or body integrity image disorder (BIID), is characterised by a feeling of mismatch between the internal feeling of how one's body should be and the physical reality of how it actually is. Patients with this condition have an often overwhelming desire for an amputation- of a specific limb at a specific level. Such patients are not psychotic or delusional, however, they do express an inexplicable emotional abhorrence to the limb they wish removed. It is also known that such patients show a left-sided preponderance for their desired amputation. Often they take drastic action to be rid of the offending limb. Given the left-sided bias, emotional rejection and specificity of desired amputation, we suggest that there are clear similarities to be drawn between BIID and somatoparaphrenia. In this rare condition, which follows a right parietal stroke, the patient rejects (usually) his left arm as "alien". We go on to hypothesis that a dysfunction of the right parietal lobe is also the cause of BIID. We suggest that this leads to an uncoupling of the construct of one's body image in the right parietal lobe from how one's body physically is. This hypothesis would be amenable to testing by response to cold-water vestibular caloric stimulation, which is known to temporarily treat somatoparaphrenia. It could also be investigated using functional brain imaging and skin conductance response. If correct our hypothesis not only suggests why BIID arises, but also, in caloric stimulation a therapeutic avenue for this chronic and essentially untreatable condition.

  7. The AO Ulnar Shortening Osteotomy System Indications and Surgical Technique

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Ladislav; Jungwirth-Weinberger, Anna; Campbell, Douglas; Pino, Juan González del

    2014-01-01

    Ulnar shortening osteotomy is an established and frequently performed surgical procedure in wrist surgery. The technical aspects of the procedure have continued to develop in recent years, with instruments and implants being developed specifically for this purpose. Ulnar shortening osteotomy is required for different clinical indications and situations. These varying indications demand different amounts of shortening, but all must be precise and accurate. Controversy exists as to how this can best be achieved in terms of the location for osteotomy, the surgical approach and geometry of the osteotomy, as well as which implant to use to provide optimal stability. The goal of all techniques (besides successfully resolving the underlying problem) is to achieve reliable and rapid bone union without compromising early functional rehabilitation and also to avoid hardware complications. The AO Hand Expert Group has developed a specialized instrumentation system with dedicated and specifically designed implants to ensure exact and accurate cutting with precise and rigid stabilization of the ulna. The matched drill guides and double-blade saws allow accurate completion of the planned amount of shortening together with precise coaptation of the osteotomy fragments. The specific ulnar osteotomy LCP (locking compression plate) combines maximum stability with minimum bulk and soft tissue irritation. The features of the implant, its surgical technique, and early results are described. PMID:25077046

  8. Residual force enhancement following shortening is speed-dependent

    PubMed Central

    Fortuna, Rafael; Power, Geoffrey A.; Mende, Esther; Seiberl, Wolfgang; Herzog, Walter

    2016-01-01

    The steady-state isometric force following active muscle shortening or lengthening is smaller (force depression; FD) or greater (residual force enhancement; RFE) than a purely isometric contraction at the corresponding length. The mechanisms underlying these phenomena are not explained within the context of the cross-bridge theory and are rarely studied in concert. Previous studies have shown RFE to be speed-independent. In the present study, we investigated if RFE preceded by active shortening is time-dependent by electrically evoking RFE in the human adductor pollicis muscle. The results shown that a slow stretch following FD fully re-established RFE compared to higher speeds of stretch. The mechanism(s) responsible for the recovery of RFE following a preceding shortening contraction (FD) might be associated with the recovery of cross-bridge based force and/or the re-engagement of a passive structural element (titin). Voluntary interaction with one’s environment involves highly coordinated shortening and lengthening muscle contractions. Therefore comprehending these history-dependent muscle properties in the context of movement control is paramount in understanding the behavior of in vivo motor control. PMID:26869508

  9. Device and method for shortening reactor process tubes

    DOEpatents

    Frantz, Charles E.; Alexander, William K.; Lander, Walter E. B.

    1980-01-01

    This disclosure describes a device and method for in situ shortening of nuclear reactor zirconium alloy process tubes which have grown as a result of radiation exposure. An upsetting technique is utilized which involves inductively heating a short band of a process tube with simultaneous application of an axial load sufficient to cause upsetting with an attendant decrease in length of the process tube.

  10. On the Shortcomings of Shortened Tests: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruyen, Peter M.; Emons, Wilco H. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2013-01-01

    To efficiently assess multiple psychological constructs and to minimize the burden on respondents, psychologists increasingly use shortened versions of existing tests. However, compared to the longer test, a shorter test version may have a substantial impact on the reliability and the validity of the test scores in psychological research and…

  11. Device and method for shortening reactor process tubes

    DOEpatents

    Frantz, C.E.; Alexander, W.K.; Lander, W.E.B.

    A device and method are described for in situ shortening of nuclear reactor zirconium alloy process tubes which have grown as a result of radiation exposure. An upsetting technique is utilized which involves inductively heating a short band of a process tube with simultaneous application of an axial load sufficient to cause upsetting with an attendant decrease in length of the process tube.

  12. Kinematic modeling of single muscle fiber during diaphragm shortening.

    PubMed

    Kyckelhahn, Brian A; Nason, Patricia B; Tidball, James G; Boriek, Aladin M

    2003-03-01

    Understanding the kinematics of the diaphragm muscle at the single fiber level is important in understanding the mechanics of its membrane. Nevertheless, the geometric parameters of single muscle fiber contraction remain poorly understood. We modeled the kinematics of a single muscle fiber of the diaphragm to determine the relationships among fiber shape, perimeter of the fiber cross-section, and apparent surface area of the fiber during muscle shortening. We used the models to identify which constraints on the geometric parameters are most consistent with physiological data on diaphragmatic muscle shortening. Our kinematic models use isovolumic fibers with elliptical cross-sections, and these models have the following properties: (1) constant cross-sectional shape, (2) inextensible cross-sectional perimeter, (3) constant cross-sectional transverse dimension, or (4) constant apparent surface area. These models were investigated during muscle shortening of the diaphragm from functional residual capacity to total lung capacity. The model that matches physiologic data best has zero transverse strain and has a relationship between fiber shape and muscle shortening consistent with published data on single muscle fiber mechanics. PMID:12594994

  13. What impact will shortened training have on urological service delivery?

    PubMed Central

    Payne, S. R.; Shaw, M. B. K.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Modernisation of Medical Careers dictates a shortening of the training required to achieve consultant status. Precisely what type of work these consultants could be expected to accomplish, and be trained to do, is not clear. The objective of this study was to demonstrate a method of stratifying urological workload so as to determine what a urological trainee, undergoing shortened training, might be expected to do as a consultant and to use this stratification to help manpower planning within the specialty. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cohort study of all urological activity undertaken over a 3-year period in a single teaching hospital in the UK was performed. All out-patient, in-patient or day-case activity within the urological department was analysed in the years 2000-2002. Urological activity was stratified according to the absolute numbers of patients presenting for different types of out-patient consultation, the grade of complexity of any surgical intervention undertaken, and the theatre resource consumed by the study population. RESULTS: Utilising prospectively collected data, it was possible to aggregate information about the contributions generalist and sub-specialty activity made to the overall workload of a urological unit. Whilst the majority of out-patient activity, and almost 88% of the surgical workload, could be accomplished by consultants undergoing shortened training, 11.9% of specialised urological activity, consuming nearly 43% of the available theatre resource, was outwith the remit of such a specialist. CONCLUSIONS: Shortened training seems able to satisfy the service delivery needs of the majority of out-patient and day-case urological activity. It will not, however, fulfil the need for subspecialty-based training required to cope with the large minority of patients necessitating complex surgical intervention. Specialist training programmes, promoting advanced operative skills, need to be evolved in parallel to shortened training so

  14. Anomalies and synergy in the caloric effects of magnetoelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anand, Shashwat; Waghmare, Umesh V.

    2014-12-01

    We determine isothermal entropy changes (Δ S) associated with electrocaloric, magnetocaloric, and the corresponding multicaloric effects in a model type-I multiferroic system using Landau-Devonshire thermodynamic analysis. We show that (a) the magnetocaloric effect exhibits an unexpected anomaly at the ferroelectric transition occurring at a high temperature, even in the absence of magnetic ordering, and (b) the synergy between electro- and magnetocaloric effects leads to a significantly enhanced multicaloric effect (\\mid Δ {{S}MultiCE}\\mid \\gt \\mid Δ {{S}ECE}\\mid +\\mid Δ {{S}MCE}\\mid ) over a wide temperature range when the difference in temperatures of magnetic and ferroelectric ordering (\\mid Δ {{T}C}\\mid =\\mid TCE-TCM\\mid ) is small. This result originate from the coupled thermal fluctuations of magnetic and electric order parameters. While the former is useful in detecting multiferroic materials from the measurements covering higher temperature transition alone, the latter augurs well for caloric applications of multiferroics.

  15. Are Dietary Restraint Scales Valid Measures of Dietary Restriction? Additional Objective Behavioral and Biological Data Suggest Not

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Sysko, Robyn; Roberto, Christina A.; Allison, Shelley

    2009-01-01

    Prospective studies find that individuals with elevated dietary restraint scores are at increased risk for bulimic symptom onset, yet experiments find that assignment to energy-deficit diet interventions reduce bulimic symptoms. One explanation for the conflicting findings is that the dietary restraint scales used in the former studies do not actually identify individuals who are restraining their caloric intake. Thus, we tested whether dietary restraint scales showed inverse relations to objectively measured caloric intake in three studies. Four dietary restraint scales did not correlate with doubly labeled water estimates of caloric intake over a 2-week period (M r = .01). One scale showed a significant inverse correlation with objectively measured caloric intake during a regular meal ordered from an ecologically valid menu (M r = −.30), but a significant positive relation that was qualified by a significant quadratic effect, to objectively measured caloric intake during multiple eating episodes in the lab (M r = .32). In balance, results suggest that dietary restraint scales are not valid measures of dietary restriction, replicating findings from prior studies that examined objective measures of caloric intake. PMID:20006662

  16. Moderate stem-cell telomere shortening rate postpones cancer onset in a stochastic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holbek, Simon; Bendtsen, Kristian Moss; Juul, Jeppe

    2013-10-01

    Mammalian cells are restricted from proliferating indefinitely. Telomeres at the end of each chromosome are shortened at cell division and when they reach a critical length, the cell will enter permanent cell cycle arrest—a state known as senescence. This mechanism is thought to be tumor suppressing, as it helps prevent precancerous cells from dividing uncontrollably. Stem cells express the enzyme telomerase, which elongates the telomeres, thereby postponing senescence. However, unlike germ cells and most types of cancer cells, stem cells only express telomerase at levels insufficient to fully maintain the length of their telomeres, leading to a slow decline in proliferation potential. It is not yet fully understood how this decline influences the risk of cancer and the longevity of the organism. We here develop a stochastic model to explore the role of telomere dynamics in relation to both senescence and cancer. The model describes the accumulation of cancerous mutations in a multicellular organism and creates a coherent theoretical framework for interpreting the results of several recent experiments on telomerase regulation. We demonstrate that the longest average cancer-free lifespan before cancer onset is obtained when stem cells start with relatively long telomeres that are shortened at a steady rate at cell division. Furthermore, the risk of cancer early in life can be reduced by having a short initial telomere length. Finally, our model suggests that evolution will favor a shorter than optimal average cancer-free lifespan in order to postpone cancer onset until late in life.

  17. Comparison of energy output during ramp and staircase shortening in frog muscle fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Linari, M; Woledge, R C

    1995-01-01

    1. We compared the rates of work and heat production during ramp shortening with those during staircase shortening (sequence of step releases of the same amplitude, separated by regular time intervals). Ramp or staircase shortening was applied to isolated muscle fibres (sarcomere length, 2.2 microns; temperature, approximately 1 degree C) at the plateau of an isometric tetanus. The total amount of shortening was no greater than 6% of the fibre length. 2. During ramp shortening the power output showed a maximum at about 0.8 fibre lengths per second (Lo s-1), which corresponds to 1/3 the maximum shortening velocity (Vo). For the same average shortening velocity during staircase shortening (step size, approximately 0.5% Lo) the power output was 40-60% lower. The rate of heat production for the same average shortening velocity was approximately 45% higher during staircase shortening than during ramp shortening. 3. The relation between rate of total energy output and shortening velocity was well described by a second order regression line in the range of velocities used (0.1-2.3 Lo s-1). For any shortening velocity the rate of total energy output (power plus heat rate) was not statistically different for staircase (step size, approximately 0.5% Lo) and ramp shortening. 4. The mechanical efficiency (the ratio of the power over the total energy rate) during ramp shortening had a maximum value of 0.36 at 1/5 Vo; during staircase shortening, for any given shortening velocity, the mechanical efficiency was reduced compared with ramp shortening: with a staircase step of about 0.5% Lo at 1/5 Vo the efficiency was approximately 0.2. 5. The results indicate that a cross-bridge is able to convert different quantities of energy into work depending on the different shortening protocol used. The fraction of energy dissipated as heat is larger during staircase shortening than during ramp shortening. PMID:8544132

  18. Shortening the Defrost Time on a Heat Pump Air Conditioner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Eiji; Yamazaki, Masaya; Kawamura, Toshiaki

    Methods to shorten the defrost time have been studied on a heat pump air conditioner. The experiment has been carried out using a 0.75kW heat pump and the energy balance during defrosting has been analyzed. We have found that the following methods are effective to shorten the defrost time; (1) Increase in power inqut to the compressor during defrosting, (2) Utilization of the compressor for thermal energy storage, (3) Reduction of the water left on the outdoor heat exchanger fins. The heat pump with the new defrosting system has been made on an experimental basis. lts defrost time is 1 minute and 55 seconds under the defrost condition of the Japanese Industrial Standard. The defrost time of a conventional heat pump is about 4 or 5 minutes.

  19. Does low molecular weight heparin shorten term labor?

    PubMed

    Ekman-Ordeberg, Gunvor; Akerud, Anna; Dubicke, Aurelija; Malmström, Anders; Hellgren, Margareta

    2010-01-01

    Dalteparin, a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), is given to pregnant women with thrombotic disorders. Clinical observations together with the documented changes of heparan sulfate proteoglycans in normal and protracted labor fostered the idea that LMWH shortens delivery time. Labor time was retrospectively determined among nulliparous pregnant women treated with dalteparin because of previous venous thromboembolism (VTE), thrombophilia or acute VTE during current pregnancy. Their labor time was compared to matched untreated controls. The proportion of instrumental deliveries and neonatal outcome was also compared. The dalteparin-treated group showed a significantly (30%) shorter labor time compared to matched controls. Total instrumental deliveries were the same in the two groups but operative intervention due to protracted labor was significantly less common in dalteparin-treated women. There was no difference in neonatal outcome. Dalteparin most likely shortens parturition time and may decrease the number of operative interventions due to protracted labor.

  20. Reflex facilitation during the stretch-shortening cycle.

    PubMed

    Trimble, M H; Kukulka, C G; Thomas, R S

    2000-06-01

    Maximal torque during the concentric phase of a movement has been shown to be enhanced by prior eccentric muscle actions, a movement strategy referred to as the stretch-shortening cycle. Although the mechanical basis for this enhancement is well established, the neural component is not. We hypothesized that brief high-frequency bursts of spindle afferent discharge during the eccentric phase of the stretch-shortening cycle could be one mechanism for facilitating the volitional drive. To test this hypothesis, three sets of experiments were done. In the first (N=15), we demonstrated that both the peak and mean EMG of the soleus (S) and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscles were considerably greater during a reciprocal hopping (RHOP) task than for maximum isometric contractions (MIVCs). In the second experiment, we tested whether the dynamic nature of the RHOP or the eccentric phase of the RHOP contributed to the EMG potentiation. Peak and mean EMG produced with a concentric hop (CHOP), in which the lengthening phase of the hop was eliminated, were compared with that produced with the RHOP and MIVCs conditions (N=7). The RHOP produced greater peak EMG than either the CHOP or the MIVCs while the mean EMG for both hopping conditions was considerably more than the MIVCs. In the final experiment, we attempted to mimic the brief high-frequency burst of spindle afferent activity during the lengthening phase of the stretch-shortening cycle in the absence of muscle length changes. High-frequency (100 Hz) afferent stimulation (HFS) was delivered during MIVCs. At rest, the HFS produced negligible EMG activity but when superimposed over MIVCs produced a marked potentiation of the S EMG over values obtained during MIVCs alone. Evidence that HFS synchronizes the EMG associated with volitional activation is also provided. We conclude that a substantial but brief facilitation and possible synchronization of the neural drive is provided by the spindle afferents during the eccentric phase

  1. Estimation of circumferential fiber shortening velocity by echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Ruschhaupt, D G; Sodt, P C; Hutcheon, N A; Arcilla, R A

    1983-07-01

    The M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiograms of 40 young patients were analyzed to compare the mean circumferential fiber shortening velocity (Vcf) of the left ventricle calculated separately by two methods. The mean circumferential fiber shortening velocity was derived from the M-mode echocardiogram as minor axis shortening/ejection time and derived from the two-dimensional echocardiogram as actual circumference change/ejection time. With computer assistance, circumference was determined from the short-axis two-dimensional echocardiographic images during end-diastole and end-systole. Good correlations were obtained between the left ventricular diameter derived by M-mode echocardiography and the vertical axis during end-diastole (r = 0.79) and end-systole (r = 0.88) derived by two-dimensional echocardiography. Likewise, high correlations were noted between diameter and circumference in end-diastole (r = 0.89) and end-systole (r = 0.88). However, comparison of Vcf obtained by M-mode echocardiography with that obtained by two-dimensional echocardiography showed only fair correlation (r = 0.68). Moreover, the diameter/circumference ratio determined in end-diastole and end-systole differed significantly (p less than 0.001), possibly owing to the change in geometry of the ventricular sector image during systole. Although Vcf derived by M-mode echocardiography is a useful index of left ventricular performance, it does not truly reflect the circumference change during systole.

  2. Sleep Restriction Worsens Mood and Emotion Regulation in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Katherine T.; Desai, Anjali; Field, Julie; Miller, Lauren E.; Rausch, Joseph; Beebe, Dean W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The relationship between inadequate sleep and mood has been well-established in adults and is supported primarily by correlational data in younger populations. Given that adolescents often experience shortened sleep on school nights, we sought to better understand the effect of experimentally induced chronic sleep restriction on…

  3. Conjugate heat transfer analysis using the Calore and Fuego codes.

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, Nicholas Donald, Jr.

    2007-09-01

    Full coupling of the Calore and Fuego codes has been exercised in this report. This is done to allow solution of general conjugate heat transfer applications that require more than a fluid flow analysis with a very simple conduction region (solved using Fuego alone) or more than a complex conduction/radiation analysis using a simple Newton's law of cooling boundary condition (solved using Calore alone). Code coupling allows for solution of both complex fluid and solid regions, with or without thermal radiation, either participating or non-participating. A coupled physics model is developed to compare to data taken from a horizontal concentric cylinder arrangement using the Penlight heating apparatus located at the thermal test complex (TTC) at Sandia National Laboratories. The experimental set-up requires use of a conjugate heat transfer analysis including conduction, nonparticipating thermal radiation, and internal natural convection. The fluids domain in the model is complex and can be characterized by stagnant fluid regions, laminar circulation, a transition regime, and low-level turbulent regions, all in the same domain. Subsequently, the fluids region requires a refined mesh near the wall so that numerical resolution is achieved. Near the wall, buoyancy exhibits its strongest influence on turbulence (i.e., where turbulence conditions exist). Because low-Reynolds number effects are important in anisotropic natural convective flows of this type, the {ovr {nu}{sup 2}}-f turbulence model in Fuego is selected and compared to results of laminar flow only. Coupled code predictions are compared to temperature measurements made both in the solid regions and a fluid region. Turbulent and laminar flow predictions are nearly identical for both regions. Predicted temperatures in the solid regions compare well to data. The largest discrepancies occur at the bottom of the annulus. Predicted temperatures in the fluid region, for the most part, compare well to data. As before

  4. Caloric curves fitted by polytropic distributions in the HMF model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campa, Alessandro; Chavanis, Pierre-Henri

    2013-04-01

    We perform direct numerical simulations of the Hamiltonian mean field (HMF) model starting from non-magnetized initial conditions with a velocity distribution that is (i) Gaussian; (ii) semi-elliptical, and (iii) waterbag. Below a critical energy E c , depending on the initial condition, this distribution is Vlasov dynamically unstable. The system undergoes a process of violent relaxation and quickly reaches a quasi-stationary state (QSS). We find that the distribution function of this QSS can be conveniently fitted by a polytrope with index (i) n = 2; (ii) n = 1; and (iii) n = 1/2. Using the values of these indices, we are able to determine the physical caloric curve T kin ( E) and explain the negative kinetic specific heat region C kin = dE/ d T kin < 0 observed in the numerical simulations. At low energies, we find that the system has a "core-halo" structure. The core corresponds to the pure polytrope discussed above but it is now surrounded by a halo of particles. In case (iii), we recover the "uniform" core-halo structure previously found by Pakter and Levin [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 200603 (2011)]. We also consider unsteady initial conditions with magnetization M 0 = 1 and isotropic waterbag velocity distribution and report the complex dynamics of the system creating phase space holes and dense filaments. We show that the kinetic caloric curve is approximately constant, corresponding to a polytrope with index n 0 ≃ 3.56 (we also mention the presence of an unexpected hump). Finally, we consider the collisional evolution of an initially Vlasov stable distribution, and show that the time-evolving distribution function f( θ,v,t) can be fitted by a sequence of polytropic distributions with a time-dependent index n( t) both in the non-magnetized and magnetized regimes. These numerical results show that polytropic distributions (also called Tsallis distributions) provide in many cases a good fit of the QSSs. They may even be the rule rather than the exception

  5. Progress in constraining the asymmetry dependence of the nuclear caloric curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Alan B.; Yennello, Sherry J.

    2016-05-01

    The nuclear equation of state is a basic emergent property of nuclear material. Despite its importance in nuclear physics and astrophysics, aspects of it are still poorly constrained. Our research focuses on answering the question: How does the nuclear caloric curve depend on the neutron-proton asymmetry? We briefly describe our initial observation that increasing neutron-richness leads to lower temperatures. We then discuss the status of our recently executed experiment to independently measure the asymmetry dependence of the caloric curve.

  6. Role of caloric homeostasis and reward in alcohol intake in Syrian golden hamsters.

    PubMed

    Gulick, Danielle; Green, Alan I

    2010-11-01

    The Syrian golden hamster drinks alcohol readily, but only achieves moderate blood alcohol levels, and does not go through withdrawal from alcohol. Because the hamster is a model of caloric homeostasis, both caloric content and reward value may contribute to the hamster's alcohol consumption. The current study examines alcohol consumption in the hamster when a caloric or non-caloric sweet solution is concurrently available and caloric intake in the hamster before, during, and after exposure to either: alcohol, sucrose or saccharin. In Experiments 1 and 2, hamsters were given access to alcohol (15% v/v) and water; once alcohol consumption steadied, a bottle containing an ascending concentration of sucrose (99-614 mM) or saccharin (2-10 mM), or water was added. In Experiment 3, hamsters were given access to alcohol (15% v/v), sucrose (614 mM), saccharin (4 mM), or a second water bottle for 14 days. After the second bottle was removed, measurements continued for 14days. Sucrose exposure suppressed alcohol consumption at concentrations lower in calories than the alcohol solution. Saccharin exposure failed to suppress alcohol consumption. Exposure to sucrose and alcohol but not saccharin decreased food intake. Decreased alcohol consumption in response to a caloric sweetener and decreased food intake during alcohol exposure support that alcohol consumption by the hamster is mediated by caloric content. However, suppression of alcohol intake by a sucrose solution of lower caloric content and the equivalent intake of individual alcohol, sucrose and saccharin solutions support a role for reward value in alcohol consumption. PMID:20688091

  7. Use of caloric and noncaloric sweeteners in US consumer packaged foods, 2005-2009.

    PubMed

    Ng, Shu Wen; Slining, Meghan M; Popkin, Barry M

    2012-11-01

    Our understanding of the use of caloric and noncaloric sweeteners in the US food supply is limited. This study uses full ingredient list and Nutrition Facts label data from Gladson Nutrition Database and nationally representative purchases of consumer packaged foods from Nielsen Homescan in 2005 through 2009 to understand the use of caloric sweeteners (including fruit juice concentrate) and noncaloric sweeteners in consumer packaged foods. Of the 85,451 uniquely formulated foods purchased during 2005 through 2009, 75% contain sweeteners (68% with caloric sweetener only, 1% with noncaloric sweetener only, 6% with both caloric and noncaloric sweeteners). Caloric sweetener are in >95% of cakes/cookies/pies, granola/protein/energy bars, ready-to-eat cereals, sweet snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages. Noncaloric sweetener are in >33% of yogurts and sport/energy drinks, 42% of waters (plain or flavored), and most dietetic sweetened beverages. Across unique products, corn syrup is the most commonly listed sweetener, followed by sorghum, cane sugar, high-fructose corn syrup, and fruit juice concentrate. Also, 77% of all calories purchased in the United States in 2005-2009 contained caloric sweeteners and 3% contained noncaloric sweeteners, and 73% of the volume of foods purchased contained caloric sweetener and 15% contained noncaloric sweetener. Trends during this period suggest a shift toward the purchase of noncaloric sweetener-containing products. Our study poses a challenge toward monitoring sweetener consumption in the United States by discussing the need and options available to improve measures of caloric sweetener and noncaloric sweetener and additional requirements on Nutrition Facts labels on consumer packaged foods. PMID:23102182

  8. Increased caloric intake soon after exercise in cold water.

    PubMed

    White, Lesley J; Dressendorfer, Rudolph H; Holland, Eric; McCoy, Sean C; Ferguson, Michael A

    2005-02-01

    We examined the acute effect of cold-water temperature on post-exercise energy intake (EI) for 1 h. In a randomized, crossover design, 11 men (25.6 +/- 5 y) exercised for 45 min on a submersed cycle ergometer at 60 +/- 2% VO2max in 33 degrees C (neutral) and 20 degrees (cold) water temperatures, and also rested for 45 min (control). Energy expenditure (EE) was determined using indirect calorimetry before, during, and after each condition. Following exercise or rest, subjects had free access to a standard assortment of food items of known caloric value. EE was similar for the cold and neutral water conditions, averaging 505 +/- 22 (+/- standard deviation) and 517 +/- 42 kcal, respectively (P = NS). EI after the cold condition averaged 877 +/- 457 kcal, 44% and 41% higher (P < 0.05) than for the neutral and resting conditions, respectively. Cold-water temperature thus stimulated post-exercise EI. Water temperature warrants consideration in aquatic programs designed for weight loss. PMID:15902988

  9. Caloric intake, stress, and menstrual function in athletes.

    PubMed

    Schweiger, U; Laessle, R; Schweiger, M; Herrmann, F; Riedel, W; Pirke, K M

    1988-03-01

    The cause of menstrual disturbance in athletes is still debated. Apart from the acute and chronic effects of exertion, other associated behavioral variables are suspected to play a key role. A longitudinal study with frequent blood sampling was undertaken to link information about nutrition and stress with a quantitative assessment of endocrine menstrual function in 18 endurance-trained athletes and 25 age-matched, nonathletic women. Four athletes did not show hormonal signs of follicular development. The 14 athletes with cyclic gonadal function did not differ from controls with regard to estradiol concentrations during the follicular phase and at midcycle. During the luteal phase, however, they showed significantly reduced areas under the estradiol and progesterone curves. Caloric intake, as assessed by nutritional diaries, correlated positively with the area under the progesterone curve during the luteal phase (rs = 0.70, P less than 0.01). Ratings of subjective stress in the area "partner, family, friends" correlated negatively with the luteal progesterone area (rs = 0.80; P less than 0.01). Data support the hypothesis that nutrition and stress may play a critical role in the genesis of menstrual disturbance in athletes.

  10. Impact of time since last caloric intake on blood glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Moebus, Susanne; Göres, Laura; Lösch, Christian; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz

    2011-09-01

    Blood glucose (BG) is usually measured after a caloric restriction of at least 8 h; however evidence-based recommendations for the duration of a fasting status are missing. Here we analyze the effect of fasting duration on levels of BG to determine the minimal fasting duration to achieve comparable BG levels to conventional fasting measurements. We used data of a cross-sectional study on primary care patients, performed in October 2005. We included 28,024 individuals (age-range 18-99 years; 63% women) without known diabetes mellitus and without missing data for BG and fasting status. We computed general linear models, adjusting for age, sex, time of blood withdrawal, systolic blood pressure, waist circumference, total- and HDL-cholesterol, physical activity, smoking, intake of beta-blocker and alcohol. We tested the intra-individual variability with respect to fasting status. Overall, the mean BG differed only slightly between individuals fasting ≥ 8 h and those fasting <8 h (men: 5.1 ± 0.8 mmol/L versus 5.2 ± 1.2 mmol/L; women: 4.9 ± 0.7 mmol/L, 5.0 ± 1.0 mmol/L). After 3 h of fasting differences of BG diminished in men to -0.08 mmol/L (95%-CI: -0.15; -0.01 mmol/L), in women to -0.07 mmol/L (-0.12; -0.03 mmol/L) compared to individuals fasting ≥ 8 h. Noteworthy, age, time of day of blood withdrawal, physical activity, and intake of hard liquor influenced BG levels considerably. Our data challenge the necessity for a fasting duration of ≥ 8 h when measuring blood glucose, suggesting a random sampling or a fasting duration of 3 h as sufficient. Rather, our study indicates that essentially more effort on the assessment of additional external/internal factors on BG levels is necessary. PMID:21822717

  11. Caloric stimulation with near infrared radiation does not induce paradoxical nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Walther, L E; Asenov, D R; Di Martino, E

    2011-04-01

    Near infrared radiation can be used for warm stimulation in caloric irrigation of the equilibrium organ. Aim of this study was to determine whether near infrared radiation offers effective stimulation of the vestibular organ, whether it is well tolerated by the patients and especially whether it is a viable alternative to warm air stimulation in patients with defects of the tympanic membrane and radical mastoid cavities. Patients with perforations of the tympanic membrane (n = 15) and with radical mastoid cavities (n = 13) were tested both with near infrared radiation and warm dry air. A caloric-induced nystagmus could be seen equally effectively and rapidly in all patients. Contrary to stimulation with warm dry air, no paradoxical nystagmus was observed following caloric irrigation with a warm stimulus (near infrared radiation). Results of a questionnaire showed excellent patient acceptance of near infrared stimulation with no arousal effects or unpleasant feeling. In conclusion, near infrared radiation proved to be an alternative method of caloric irrigation to warm dry air in patients with tympanic membrane defects and radical mastoid cavities. Near infrared radiation is pleasant, quick, contact free, sterile and quiet. With this method an effective caloric warm stimulus is available. If near infrared radiation is used for caloric stimulus no evaporative heat loss occurs.

  12. Caloric compensation for sugar-sweetened beverages in meals: A population-based study in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gombi-Vaca, Maria Fernanda; Sichieri, Rosely; Verly-Jr, Eliseu

    2016-03-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption can cause positive energy balance, therefore leading to weight gain. A plausible biological mechanism to explain this association is through weak caloric compensation for liquid calories. However, there is an ongoing debate surrounding SSB calorie compensation. The body of evidence comes from a diversity of study designs and highly controlled settings assessing food and beverage intake. Our study aimed to test for caloric compensation of SSB in the free-living setting of daily meals. We analyzed two food records of participants (age 10 years or older) from the 2008-2009 National Dietary Survey (Brazil, N = 34,003). We used multilevel analyses to estimate the within-subject effects of SSB on food intake. Sugar-sweetened beverage calories were not compensated for when comparing daily energy intake over two days for each individual. When comparing meals, we found 42% of caloric compensation for breakfast, no caloric compensation for lunch and zero to 22% of caloric compensation for dinner, differing by household per capita income. In conclusion, SSB consumption contributed to higher energy intake due to weak caloric compensation. Discouraging the intake of SSB especially during lunch and dinner may help reduce excessive energy intake and lead to better weight management. PMID:26708263

  13. Stress and telomere shortening among central Indian conservation refugees

    PubMed Central

    Zahran, Sammy; Snodgrass, Jeffrey G.; Maranon, David G.; Upadhyay, Chakrapani; Granger, Douglas A.; Bailey, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Research links psychosocial stress to premature telomere shortening and accelerated human aging; however, this association has only been demonstrated in so-called “WEIRD” societies (Western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic), where stress is typically lower and life expectancies longer. By contrast, we examine stress and telomere shortening in a non-Western setting among a highly stressed population with overall lower life expectancies: poor indigenous people—the Sahariya—who were displaced (between 1998 and 2002) from their ancestral homes in a central Indian wildlife sanctuary. In this setting, we examined adult populations in two representative villages, one relocated to accommodate the introduction of Asiatic lions into the sanctuary (n = 24 individuals), and the other newly isolated in the sanctuary buffer zone after their previous neighbors were moved (n = 22). Our research strategy combined physical stress measures via the salivary analytes cortisol and α-amylase with self-assessments of psychosomatic stress, ethnographic observations, and telomere length assessment [telomere–fluorescence in situ hybridization (TEL-FISH) coupled with 3D imaging of buccal cell nuclei], providing high-resolution data amenable to multilevel statistical analysis. Consistent with expectations, we found significant associations between each of our stress measures—the two salivary analytes and the psychosomatic symptom survey—and telomere length, after adjusting for relevant behavioral, health, and demographic traits. As the first study (to our knowledge) to link stress to telomere length in a non-WEIRD population, our research strengthens the case for stress-induced telomere shortening as a pancultural biomarker of compromised health and aging. PMID:25730846

  14. Stress and telomere shortening among central Indian conservation refugees.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Sammy; Snodgrass, Jeffrey G; Maranon, David G; Upadhyay, Chakrapani; Granger, Douglas A; Bailey, Susan M

    2015-03-01

    Research links psychosocial stress to premature telomere shortening and accelerated human aging; however, this association has only been demonstrated in so-called "WEIRD" societies (Western, educated, industrialized, rich, and democratic), where stress is typically lower and life expectancies longer. By contrast, we examine stress and telomere shortening in a non-Western setting among a highly stressed population with overall lower life expectancies: poor indigenous people--the Sahariya--who were displaced (between 1998 and 2002) from their ancestral homes in a central Indian wildlife sanctuary. In this setting, we examined adult populations in two representative villages, one relocated to accommodate the introduction of Asiatic lions into the sanctuary (n = 24 individuals), and the other newly isolated in the sanctuary buffer zone after their previous neighbors were moved (n = 22). Our research strategy combined physical stress measures via the salivary analytes cortisol and α-amylase with self-assessments of psychosomatic stress, ethnographic observations, and telomere length assessment [telomere-fluorescence in situ hybridization (TEL-FISH) coupled with 3D imaging of buccal cell nuclei], providing high-resolution data amenable to multilevel statistical analysis. Consistent with expectations, we found significant associations between each of our stress measures--the two salivary analytes and the psychosomatic symptom survey--and telomere length, after adjusting for relevant behavioral, health, and demographic traits. As the first study (to our knowledge) to link stress to telomere length in a non-WEIRD population, our research strengthens the case for stress-induced telomere shortening as a pancultural biomarker of compromised health and aging. PMID:25730846

  15. Effects of caloric deprivation on thyroid hormone tissue uptake and generation of low-T3 syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    van der Heyden, J.T.M.; Docter, R.; van Toor, H.; Wilson, J.H.P.; Hennemann, G.; Krenning, E.P.

    1986-08-01

    Changes in thyroid hormone metabolism in the low-3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) syndrome cannot be fully explained in all conditions by a decrease in 5'-deiodinase activity. Recent observations showed that in rat hepatocytes iodothyronines are taken up by an active transport mechanism. To investigate whether regulation, i.e., inhibition of active transmembraneous transport for iodothyronines in humans may contribute to the generation of the low-T3 syndrome, tracer thyroxine (T4) and T3 kinetic studies were performed in 10 obese subjects before and after 7 days on a 240 kcal diet. Kinetics analyses were performed according to a three-pool model of distribution and metabolism for both T4 and T3. For T4 kinetics, during caloric deprivation serum total T4 and plasma pool did not change and production rate and metabolic clearance rate (MCR) were significantly lower. Despite a significantly higher serum free T4, the mass transfer rate to the rapidly equilibrating pool (REP) and the slowly equilibrating pool (SEP) diminished significantly, leading to smaller tissue pools. For T3 kinetics, both serum total T3, free T3, plasma pool, and production rate diminished significantly, while MCR remained unchanged. These changes cannot be fully explained by a similar decrease of serum free T3 (only 25%), indicating a diminished transport efficiency for T3. In conclusion, during caloric restriction, transport of T4 and T3 into tissues is diminished, and this phenomenon is much more pronounced for T4 transport per se may contribute to low-T3 production and low-T3 serum levels due to less substrate (i.e., T4) availability in tissues.

  16. Meat toughening does not occur when rigor shortening is prevented.

    PubMed

    Koohmaraie, M; Doumit, M E; Wheeler, T L

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that meat toughening during the first 24 h postmortem results from sarcomere shortening during rigor mortis development. Eleven market-weight lambs were used to measure changes in shear force of clamped longissimus during rigor development. Within 15 min of exsanguination, while attached at both ends, each longissimus was separated from the vertebrae body and clamped between three sets of metal plates to prevent muscle shortening (six clamped sections per lamb). Five of the clamped sections were placed at -1.1 degrees C for 0, 3, 6, 12, or 24 h. After storage at their respective times at -1.1 degrees C, the samples were placed at -30 degrees C for 90 min and then at -5 degrees C for 8 d. The sixth section (168-h section) was stored at -1.1 degrees C for the first 24 h, at 4 degrees C for 144 h, and then treated the same as other sampling times. Sections were sampled for pH, sarcomere length, shear force, and Western blot analyses before and after storage at -5 degrees C. Shear force values were the same (P > .05) from 0 to 24 h (4.5 kg at 0 h to 4.9 kg at 24 h) then declined (P < .05) to 3.3 kg at 168 h postmortem. As evident by lack of statistical difference in the sarcomere lengths, we were successful in holding the muscle length constant. Western blot analyses of nebulin, vinculin, and troponin-T indicated that minimum degradation occurred through 12 h, was slightly increased by 24 h, and was relatively extensive by 168 h postmortem. Although limited proteolysis occurred during storage at -5 degrees C for 8 d, this by itself had no effect on shear force. Results indicate that shear force values do not increase during rigor development when muscle is prevented from shortening; thus, the toughening that occurs during the first 24 h of slaughter is most likely due to sarcomere shortening.

  17. Influence on longevity of blueberry, cinnamon, green and black tea, pomegranate, sesame, curcumin, morin, pycnogenol, quercetin, and taxifolin fed iso-calorically to long-lived, F1 hybrid mice.

    PubMed

    Spindler, Stephen R; Mote, Patricia L; Flegal, James M; Teter, Bruce

    2013-04-01

    Phytonutrients reportedly extend the life span of Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, and mice. We tested extracts of blueberry, pomegranate, green and black tea, cinnamon, sesame, and French maritime pine bark (Pycnogenol and taxifolin), as well as curcumin, morin, and quercetin for their effects on the life span of mice. While many of these phytonutrients reportedly extend the life span of model organisms, we found no significant effect on the life span of male F1 hybrid mice, even though the dosages used reportedly produce defined therapeutic end points in mice. The compounds were fed beginning at 12 months of age. The control and treatment groups were iso-caloric with respect to one another. A 40% calorically restricted and other groups not reported here did experience life span extension. Body weights were un-changed relative to controls for all but two supplemented groups, indicating most supplements did not change energy absorption or utilization. Tea extracts with morin decreased weight, whereas quercetin, taxifolin, and Pycnogenol together increased weight. These changes may be due to altered locomotion or fatty acid biosynthesis. Published reports of murine life span extension using curcumin or tea components may have resulted from induced caloric restriction. Together, our results do not support the idea that isolated phytonutrient anti-oxidants and anti-inflammatories are potential longevity therapeutics, even though consumption of whole fruits and vegetables is associated with enhanced health span and life span.

  18. Conjectures on some curious connections among social status, calorie restriction, hunger, fatness, and longevity

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Kathryn A; Smith, Daniel L; Allison, David B

    2012-01-01

    Many animal and human studies show counterintuitive effects of environmental influences on energy balance and life span. Relatively low social and/or economic status seems to be associated with and produce greater adiposity, and reduced provision (e.g., caloric restriction) of food produces greater longevity. We suggest that a unifying factor may be perceptions of the environment as “energetically insecure” and inhospitable to reproduction, which may in turn provoke adiposity-increasing and longevity-extending mechanisms. We elaborate on two main aspects of resources (or the perceptions thereof) on body weight and longevity. We first discuss the effects of social dominance on body weight regulation in human and animal models. Second, we examine models of the interactions between caloric restriction, body composition, and longevity. Finally, we put forth a relational model of the influences of differing environmental cues on body composition and longevity. PMID:22834696

  19. Elevated ghrelin predicts food intake during experimental sleep restriction

    PubMed Central

    Broussard, Josiane L.; Kilkus, Jennifer M.; Delebecque, Fanny; Abraham, Varghese; Day, Andrew; Whitmore, Harry R.; Tasali, Esra

    2015-01-01

    Objective Sleep curtailment has been linked to obesity, but underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. We assessed whether sleep restriction alters 24-hour profiles of appetite-regulating hormones ghrelin, leptin and pancreatic polypeptide during a standardized diet, and whether these hormonal alterations predict food intake during ad libitum feeding. Methods Nineteen healthy, lean men were studied under normal sleep and sleep restriction in a randomized crossover design. Blood samples were collected for 24-hours during standardized meals. Subsequently, participants had an ad libitum feeding opportunity (buffet meals and snacks) and caloric intake was measured. Results Ghrelin levels were increased after sleep restriction as compared to normal sleep (p<0.01). Overall, sleep restriction did not alter leptin or pancreatic polypeptide profiles. Sleep restriction was associated with an increase in total calories from snacks by 328 ± 140 Kcal (p=0.03), primarily from carbohydrates (p=0.02). The increase in evening ghrelin during sleep restriction was correlated with higher consumption of calories from sweets (r=0.48, p=0.04). Conclusions Sleep restriction as compared to normal sleep significantly increases ghrelin levels. The increase in ghrelin is associated with more consumption of calories. Elevated ghrelin may be a mechanism by which sleep loss leads to increased food intake and the development of obesity. PMID:26467988

  20. Pureed cannellini beans can be substituted for shortening in brownies.

    PubMed

    Szafranski, Michele; Whittington, Julianne Allen; Bessinger, Carlton

    2005-08-01

    Studies have shown white beans to be an effective fat replacer in dropped cookies. However, research is needed to determine whether legumes may be an effective replacement for fat in other types of cookies. This study determined the overall acceptability, sensory characteristics, and nutrient content of brownies (bar cookie) made using cannellini beans as a replacement for shortening. Cannellini beans were used to replace 25%, 50%, and 75% of the shortening (by weight) in a control brownie formula. One hundred twenty untrained panelists participated in rating the brownies on a seven-point hedonic scale. Analysis of variance conducted on the acceptability and sensory characteristics indicated a statistically significant effect when replacing fat with beans for acceptability, tenderness, texture, and flavor (P<.05). Post-hoc testing (Scheffe's test) indicated that neither the 25% nor the 50% bean brownies were significantly different from the control in overall acceptability, tenderness, texture, or flavor. Also, the 50% bean brownies, compared with control, had 2.6 g less fat and 21 fewer kcal per 1.4-oz serving. This study demonstrated that pureed cannellini beans can replace as much as 50% of the fat (by weight) in brownies, while yielding an acceptable and more nutritious product.

  1. Telomere shortening as genetic risk factor of liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Carulli, Lucia

    2015-01-14

    Cirrhosis is the main complication of chronic liver disease, leads to progressive liver function impairment and is the main risk factor for the development of liver cancer. Liver failure at endstage cirrhosis is associated with increased mortality with liver transplantation as the only possible treatment at this stage. The pathogenesis of liver cirrhosis is not completely elucidated. Although the common factors leading to liver injury, such as viral hepatitis, alcohol consume or fatty liver disease can be identified in the majority of patients a small percentage of patients have no apparent risk factors. Moreover given the same risk factors, some patients progress to cirrhosis whereas others have a benign course, the reason remains unclear. In order to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic tools, it is s essential to understand the pathogenesis of cirrhosis. The identification of genetic risk factors associated with cirrhosis is one of the possible approach to achieve these goal. In the past years several studies have supported the role of telomere shortening and cirrhosis. In the recent year several studies on the relation between several single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) and cirrhosis have been published; it has been proposed also a cirrhosis risk score based on seven SNPs. Also epidemiological studies on identical twins and in different ethnic groups have been supporting the importance of the role of genetic risk factors. Finally in the very recent years it has been suggested that telomere shortening may represent a genetic risk factor for the development of cirrhosis. PMID:25593453

  2. Pulse shortening in high-peak-power Reltron tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, R. Bruce

    1996-10-01

    Most high-peak-power (>= 100 MW) microwave tubes are seemingly limited to an output RF energy per pulse of about 100 J. While Titan's L-band Reltron tubes have achieved 250 J/pulse, we have also observed pulse-shortening phenomena in both the modulating cavity and output cavity regions. We have examined the effects of construction materials, fabrication techniques, vacuum pressure, and conditioning. We will present data from these experiments and discuss a plausible pulse-shortening hypothesis involving electric- field-induced gas evolution and subsequent ionization. We believe that our energy-per-pulse limitations are the result of our current tube construction approach which uses explosive emission cathodes, plastic insulators, and grids to define cavity boundaries. While some simple extensions of this approach offers some hope for increasing the energy per pulse to perhaps 500 joules in L-band, we believe that achieving >= 1 kJ/pulse will require the use of conventional microwave tube construction techniques, including thermionic cathodes, ceramic insulators, and brazed joining with high-temperature bakeout. We will present the design of an L-band Reltron tube having these features.

  3. Simulation of Pulse Shortening in a Relativistic Klystron Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verboncoeur, J. P.; Cartwright, K. L.

    1996-11-01

    The relativistic klystron is a strong candidate for a high power microwave source for a number of applications; one of the impediments to higher power and longer pulses is shortening of the RF pulse compared to the current pulse. In this work, we simulate a high power, high perveance relativistic klystron oscillator(K. J. Hendricks, P. D. Coleman, R. W. Lemke, M. J. Arman and L. Bowers, Phys. Rev. Lett.) 76, 154 (1996). using a 2d PIC-MCC code(J. P. Verboncoeur, A. B. Langdon and N. T. Gladd, Comp. Phys. Comm.) 87, 199 (1995).. The experimental klystron was operated as an injection-locked oscillator at 1.25-1.35 GHz, with up to 1.2 GW rms output power for a 100 ns pulse. The beam voltage was 500 kV, with current of 10 kA, and a beam pulse length of 300 ns. Simulations indicate formation of a plasma due to ionization of gases from the porous graphite collector reduces the output power, but is insufficient to fully explain the pulse shortening. In addition, mode conversion from the 3 λ / 4 mode to the λ / 4 fundamental cavity mode also occurs. Loss in the walls may attenuate the fundamental mode in the experiment. The effects of charged particle formation in the output gap, due to ionization, field emission and multipactor, are also studied. This work supported in part by AFOSR/MURI grant F49620-95-1-0253.

  4. [Quality of shortenings available on the home market].

    PubMed

    Zbikowska, Anna; Rutkowska, Jarosława; Krygier, Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work was to examine the quality of shortenings available on Polish market, produced home or imported. The quality of twelve 100% vegetable fats and lard was estimated. Both chemical (fatty acids composition, especially trans isomers content, acid value, peroxide value, anisidine value, Totox, iodine value and oxidative stability--Rancimat test) and physical (melting point, solid fat content--at temperatures from 5 to 50 degrees C) properties were measured. The fats were subject to sensoric examination. The parameters defining the freshness of examined fats and their shelf life for all examined samples were good and proved the good quality. Induction time (150 degrees C) for examined fats varied from 1,79 to 4,29h. Examined fats differed significantly in saturated fatty acids content (from 14,0 do 60,2%) and trans isomers (from 0,1 to 56,6%). Fats produced from palm oil are also present and there are fats with smaller trans fat acids content. Examined shortenings contained very small content of essential fatty acids (from 0,5 to 10,4), and they showed very different melting points (from 19,6 to 42,1 degrees C) and solid phase contents. In general the examined fats were of good sensoric value. Summing up the received results, it should be underlined that large disparity in the content of trans isomers in analysed samples was observed and definitely TFA content should be lowered. PMID:17044306

  5. Nutrient modulation of intestinal gas dynamics in healthy humans: dependence on caloric content and meal consistency.

    PubMed

    Gonlachanvit, Sutep; Coleski, Radoslav; Owyang, Chung; Hasler, William L

    2006-09-01

    The actions of nutrients on gut transit of liquids and solids have been extensively studied, but the effects of meal ingestion on intestinal gas flow are unexplored. We hypothesized that meals of varying caloric content and consistency modulate gas transit to different degrees. Nine healthy volunteers underwent jejunal perfusion of physiological gas mixtures at 12 ml.min(-1).3 h, with ingestion of nothing (control), water (240 ml), 240-kcal liquid meals, and 240-kcal solid meals at the end of the second hour in separate studies. Gas was quantified from an intrarectal catheter. After an initial lag phase, gas evacuation approached steady state by the end of the fasting period. Solid and liquid caloric meals increased total gas volumes evacuated from 5-40 min after ingestion vs. control studies (P < 0.05). These increases resulted from increased numbers of bolus gas evacuations (P < 0.05), whereas bolus volumes, pressures, and flow rates were similar for all test conditions. Solid and liquid caloric meals elicited similar effects on bolus gas dynamic parameters, whereas water did not affect these measures vs. control (NS, not significant). Both caloric meals and the noncaloric liquid meal increased continuous gas flow, which represented <2% of total gas expulsion. In conclusion, caloric meals promote bolus gas transit in healthy humans, whereas noncaloric liquids have no effect. Solids stimulate early postprandial gas dynamics to the same extent as liquid meals of similar caloric content. Thus modulatory effects of meals on intestinal gas transit depend on their caloric content but not their consistency.

  6. Simulation studies of circular muscle contraction, longitudinal muscle shortening, and their coordination in esophageal transport.

    PubMed

    Kou, Wenjun; Pandolfino, John E; Kahrilas, Peter J; Patankar, Neelesh A

    2015-08-15

    On the basis of a fully coupled active musculomechanical model for esophageal transport, we aimed to find the roles of circular muscle (CM) contraction and longitudinal muscle (LM) shortening in esophageal transport, and the influence of their coordination. Two groups of studies were conducted using a computational model. In the first group, bolus transport with only CM contraction, only LM shortening, or both was simulated. Overall features and detailed information on pressure and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of mucosal and the two muscle layers were analyzed. In the second group, bolus transport with varying delay in CM contraction or LM shortening was simulated. The effect of delay on esophageal transport was studied. For cases showing abnormal transport, pressure and CSA were further analyzed. CM contraction by itself was sufficient to transport bolus, but LM shortening by itself was not. CM contraction decreased the CSA and the radius of the muscle layer locally, but LM shortening increased the CSA. Synchronized CM contraction and LM shortening led to overlapping of muscle CSA and pressure peaks. Advancing LM shortening adversely influenced bolus transport, whereas lagging LM shortening was irrelevant to bolus transport. In conclusion, CM contraction generates high squeezing pressure, which plays a primary role in esophageal transport. LM shortening increases muscle CSA, which helps to strengthen CM contraction. Advancing LM shortening decreases esophageal distensibility in the bolus region. Lagging LM shortening no longer helps esophageal transport. Synchronized CM contraction and LM shortening seems to be most effective for esophageal transport.

  7. Simulation studies of circular muscle contraction, longitudinal muscle shortening, and their coordination in esophageal transport

    PubMed Central

    Kou, Wenjun; Pandolfino, John E.; Kahrilas, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of a fully coupled active musculomechanical model for esophageal transport, we aimed to find the roles of circular muscle (CM) contraction and longitudinal muscle (LM) shortening in esophageal transport, and the influence of their coordination. Two groups of studies were conducted using a computational model. In the first group, bolus transport with only CM contraction, only LM shortening, or both was simulated. Overall features and detailed information on pressure and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of mucosal and the two muscle layers were analyzed. In the second group, bolus transport with varying delay in CM contraction or LM shortening was simulated. The effect of delay on esophageal transport was studied. For cases showing abnormal transport, pressure and CSA were further analyzed. CM contraction by itself was sufficient to transport bolus, but LM shortening by itself was not. CM contraction decreased the CSA and the radius of the muscle layer locally, but LM shortening increased the CSA. Synchronized CM contraction and LM shortening led to overlapping of muscle CSA and pressure peaks. Advancing LM shortening adversely influenced bolus transport, whereas lagging LM shortening was irrelevant to bolus transport. In conclusion, CM contraction generates high squeezing pressure, which plays a primary role in esophageal transport. LM shortening increases muscle CSA, which helps to strengthen CM contraction. Advancing LM shortening decreases esophageal distensibility in the bolus region. Lagging LM shortening no longer helps esophageal transport. Synchronized CM contraction and LM shortening seems to be most effective for esophageal transport. PMID:26113296

  8. Corner rounding and line-end shortening in optical lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, Chris A.

    2000-10-01

    Pattern infidelity of features on the wafer is critical to the functionality of a device. Among other error sources, the feature quality on the reticle is presumed to be a key contributing factor to wafer pattern fidelity. Of course, optimization of final pattern fidelity is dependent on the imaging and process of both the mask and wafer, as well as on their relationship to one another. This paper examines the key parameters used to predict the acceptable amount of corner rounding on the reticle, and to define proper metrics of reticle shape. Pattern shapes such as isolated corners, contact holes, and line ends will be examined. For line end shortening, the influence of both the imaging and the resist process is discussed.

  9. Transcription Errors Induce Proteotoxic Stress and Shorten Cellular Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Vermulst, Marc; Denney, Ashley S.; Lang, Michael J.; Hung, Chao-Wei; Moore, Stephanie; Mosely, M. Arthur; Thompson, J. Will; Madden, Victoria; Gauer, Jacob; Wolfe, Katie J.; Summers, Daniel W.; Schleit, Jennifer; Sutphin, George L.; Haroon, Suraiya; Holczbauer, Agnes; Caine, Joanne; Jorgenson, James; Cyr, Douglas; Kaeberlein, Matt; Strathern, Jeffrey N.; Duncan, Mara C.; Erie, Dorothy A.

    2015-01-01

    Transcription errors occur in all living cells; however, it is unknown how these errors affect cellular health. To answer this question, we monitored yeast cells that were genetically engineered to display error-prone transcription. We discovered that these cells suffer from a profound loss in proteostasis, which sensitizes them to the expression of genes that are associated with protein-folding diseases in humans; thus, transcription errors represent a new molecular mechanism by which cells can acquire disease. We further found that the error rate of transcription increases as cells age, suggesting that transcription errors affect proteostasis particularly in aging cells. Accordingly, transcription errors accelerate the aggregation of a peptide that is implicated in Alzheimer’s disease, and shorten the lifespan of cells. These experiments reveal a novel, basic biological process that directly affects cellular health and aging. PMID:26304740

  10. Shortened Sleep Duration does not Predict Obesity in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Calamaro, Christina J.; Park, Sunhee; Mason, Thornton B. A.; Marcus, Carole L.; Weaver, Terri E.; Pack, Allan; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity continues to be a major public health issue. In adolescents, there are limited studies on the relationship between obesity and sleep duration. We hypothesied that average sleep duration of less than 6 hours in adolescents was associated with obesity. Data was from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (ADD Health); survey of 90,000 youths, ages 12 – 18 years; surveyed in several waves. The sample population for our study was 13,568. Weighted multiple logistic regression was used to identify relationship between obesity at Wave II and sleep duration, having adjusted for skipping breakfast ≥ 2/week; race, gender, parental income, TV ≥ 2hrs/day, depression, and obesity at Wave I. At Wave I, mean age 15.96±0.11 yrs; mean sleep hours 7.91±0.04. 10.6% and 11.2% of adolescents were obese at Waves I and II, respectively. Adjusted analyses suggest that effect of shortened sleep duration in Wave I was not significantly predictive of obesity in Wave II (p<0.218).Longitudinally, depression and TV ≥ 2hrs/day at Wave I was associated with higher risk of obesity at Wave II in adjusted analyses. Depressed adolescents were almost twice as likely to be obese (OR=1.84, 95% CI=1.25–2.72); adolescents who watched TV ≥ 2hrs/day were 37% more likely to be obese (OR=1.37, 95% CI=1.09–1.72).Environmental factors including TV ≥ 2hrs/day and depression were significantly associated with obesity; shortened sleep duration was not. Future longitudinal studies in adolescents are needed to determine whether timing of television watching directly influences sleep patterns, and ultimately obesity. PMID:20545836

  11. Cricket antennae shorten when bending (Acheta domesticus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Loudon, Catherine; Bustamante, Jorge; Kellogg, Derek W.

    2014-01-01

    Insect antennae are important mechanosensory and chemosensory organs. Insect appendages, such as antennae, are encased in a cuticular exoskeleton and are thought to bend only between segments or subsegments where the cuticle is thinner, more flexible, or bent into a fold. There is a growing appreciation of the dominating influence of folds in the mechanical behavior of a structure, and the bending of cricket antennae was considered in this context. Antennae will bend or deflect in response to forces, and the resulting bending behavior will affect the sensory input of the antennae. In some cricket antennae, such as in those of Acheta domesticus, there are a large number (>100) of subsegments (flagellomeres) that vary in their length. We evaluated whether these antennae bend only at the joints between flagellomeres, which has always been assumed but not tested. In addition we questioned whether an antenna undergoes a length change as it bends, which would result from some patterns of joint deformation. Measurements using light microscopy and SEM were conducted on both male and female adult crickets (Acheta domesticus) with bending in four different directions: dorsal, ventral, medial, and lateral. Bending occurred only at the joints between flagellomeres, and antennae shortened a comparable amount during bending, regardless of sex or bending direction. The cuticular folds separating antennal flagellomeres are not very deep, and therefore as an antenna bends, the convex side (in tension) does not have a lot of slack cuticle to “unfold” and does not lengthen during bending. Simultaneously on the other side of the antenna, on the concave side in compression, there is an increasing overlap in the folded cuticle of the joints during bending. Antennal shortening during bending would prevent stretching of antennal nerves and may promote hemolymph exchange between the antenna and head. PMID:25018734

  12. [Monthly changes in caloric values of five shrubby Palmae species leaves].

    PubMed

    Tan, Zhongqi; Lin, Yiming; Ding, Yin-long; Liao, Qiliao; Lin, Peng

    2004-07-01

    Studies on the monthly changes in the ash contents and caloric values of 5 shrubby Palmae species (Chamaerops humilis, Rhapis gracilis, Sabal minor, Chamaedorea cataractarum, Chamaedorea brachypoda) leaves showed that annual average ash content of the five shrubby species was 4.87% +/- 1.37% for Chamaerops humilis, 8.33% +/- 0.89% for Rhapis gracilis, 7.85% +/- 2.64% for Sabal minor, 9.20% +/- 1.35% for Chamaedorea cataractarum, and 12.42% +/- 1.78% for Chamaedorea brachypoda. The monthly changes of gross caloric value were different for Chamaerops humilis, Rhapis gracilis and Sabal minor, but similar to each other for Chamaedorea cataractarum and Chamaedorea brachypoda, and the annual average gross caloric value of the five shrubby species was 20.50 +/- 0.32 kJ x g(-1) for Chamaerops humilis, 20.04 +/- 0.50 kJ x g(-1) for Rhapis gracilis, 20.21 +/- 0.68 kJ x g(-1) for Sabal minor, 20.52 +/- 0.48 kJ x g(-1) for Chamaedorea cataractarum and 18.90 +/- 0.47 kJ x g(-1) for Chamaedorea brachypoda. The gross caloric values were correlated remarkably with ash contents for Chamaedorea cataractarum and Sabal minor (P < 0.05), but there was no significant correlation between gross caloric values and ash contents for other three species (P > 0.05). Rhapis gracilis and Sabal minor, and Chamaedorea cataractarum and Chamaedorea brachypoda had similar monthly changes in ash free caloric values, respectively. The average ash free caloric value of the five shrubby species was 21.55 +/- 0.53 kJ x g(-1) for Chamaerops humilis, 21.87 +/- 0.46 kJ x g(-1) for Rhapis gracilis, 21.84 +/- 0.53 kJ x g(-1) for Sabal minor, 22.60 +/- 0.81 kJ x g(-1) for Chamaedorea cataractarum, and 21.59 +/- 0.63 kJ x g(-1) for Chamaedorea brachypoda. Chamaedorea cataractarum had a higher ash free caloric value than other four species (P < 0.05), and the ash free caloric values of Chamaerops humilis, Rhapis gracilis, Sabal minor and Chamaedorea brachypoda were similar, the differences being not significant

  13. Caloric compensation for lunches varying in fat and carbohydrate content by humans in a residential laboratory.

    PubMed

    Foltin, R W; Fischman, M W; Moran, T H; Rolls, B J; Kelly, T H

    1990-12-01

    Two groups of three subjects participated in a residential study that assessed the effects of varying the macronutrient and caloric content of a required lunch meal on subsequent food choice and intake. Lunches contained 431 or 844 kcal, with the caloric differential created by manipulating the calories derived from either fat or carbohydrate (CHO). Each lunch condition (high-fat, high-CHO, low-fat, and low-CHO) was examined for 3 consecutive days. Subjects controlled their own patterns of food intake and could consume any item or number of items at any time during the day or night. There were no significant differences in total daily caloric intake across conditions, indicating that subjects compensated for the caloric content of the lunch regardless of the macronutrient content. Total daily caloric intake under the high-fat and high-CHO conditions was 2824 +/- 151 (mean +/- SEM) and 2988 +/- 187 kcal, respectively, whereas intake under the low-fat and low-CHO conditions was 2700 +/- 131 and 2890 +/- 247 kcal, respectively.

  14. A biomechanical model of the inner ear: numerical simulation of the caloric test.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shuang; Liu, Yingxi; Sun, Xiuzhen; Zhao, Wei; Su, Yingfeng; Yu, Shen; Liu, Wenlong

    2013-01-01

    Whether two vertical semicircular canals can receive thermal stimuli remains controversial. This study examined the caloric response in the three semicircular canals to the clinical hot caloric test using the finite element method. The results of the developed model showed the horizontal canal (HC) cupula maximally deflected to the utricle side by approximately 3 μm during the hot supine test. The anterior canal cupula began to receive the caloric stimuli about 20 s after the HC cupula, and it maximally deflected to the canal side by 0.55 μm. The posterior canal cupula did not receive caloric stimuli until approximately 40 s after the HC cupula, and it maximally deflected to the canal side by 0.34 μm. Although the endolymph flow and the cupular deformation change with respect to the head position during the test, the supine test ensures the maximal caloric response in the HC, but no substantial improvement for the responses of the two vertical canals was observed. In conclusion, while the usual supine test is the optimum test for evaluating the functions of the inner ear, more irrigation time is needed in order to effectively clinically examine the vertical canals.

  15. Long–Term Effects of High-and Low-Glycemic Load Energy-Restricted Diets on Metabolic Adaptation and the Composition of Weight Loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of high glycemic load (HG) and low glycemic load (LG) diets on resting metabolic rate (RMR) and body composition changes in response to caloric restriction (CR) remains controversial. Objective To examine the effects of two CR diets differing primarily in glycemic load on RMR and the % o...

  16. Physico-chemical properties and performance of high oleic and palm-based shortenings.

    PubMed

    Ramli, Muhamad Roddy; Lin, Siew Wai; Yoo, Cheah Kien; Idris, Nor Aini; Sahri, Miskandar Mat

    2008-01-01

    Solid fat from fractionation of palm-based products was converted into cake shortening at different processing conditions. High oleic palm stearin with an oleic content of 48.2 % was obtained from fractionation of high oleic palm oil which was produced locally. Palm product was blended with different soft oils at pre-determined ratio and further fractionated to obtain the solid fractions. These fractions were then converted into cake shortenings named as high oleic, N1 and N2 blends. The physico-chemical properties of the experimental shortenings were compared with those of control shortenings in terms of fatty acid composition (FAC), iodine value (IV), slip melting point (SMP), solid fat content (SFC) and polymorphic forms. Unlike the imported commercial shortenings as reported by other studies and the control, experimental shortenings were trans-free. The SMP and SFC of experimental samples, except for the N2 sample, fell within the ranges of commercial and control shortenings. The IV was higher than those of domestic shortenings but lower when compared to imported and control shortenings. They were also observed to be beta tending even though a mixture of beta and beta' was observed in the samples after 3 months of storage. The shortenings were also used in the making of pound cake and sensory evaluation showed the good performance of high oleic sample as compared to the other shortenings.

  17. Reducing saturated fat with oleogel/shortening blends in a baked product.

    PubMed

    Mert, Behic; Demirkesen, Ilkem

    2016-05-15

    Short dough cookie structure, characterized by its aerated and tender texture, depends on the presence of solid fat during kneading. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential application of Candelilla wax (CDW) containing oleogels for partial replacement of the shortening in cookies. Oleogels were prepared with different amounts of CDW and blended with a commercial bakery shortening. After crystallizing the oleogel/shortening blends by using a pilot scale crystallization unit, the blends were evaluated in a cookie formulations. When the shortening was completely replaced with oleogel softer products were obtained compared to liquid oil, but they were harder than the shortening containing products. On the other hand, partial replacement of shortening with oleogels provided much more acceptable dough and cookie characteristics. Results suggest that gradual replacement of shortening with oleogels may be a suitable approach for reduction of saturated fat in short dough products.

  18. An Ultrathin Endoscope with a 2.4-mm Working Channel Shortens the Esophagogastroduodenoscopy Time by Shortening the Suction Time

    PubMed Central

    Shinozaki, Satoshi; Miura, Yoshimasa; Ino, Yuji; Shinozaki, Kenjiro; Lefor, Alan Kawarai; Yamamoto, Hironori

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Poor suction ability through a narrow working channel prolongs esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). The aim of this study was to evaluate suction with a new ultrathin endoscope (EG-580NW2; Fujifilm Corp.) having a 2.4-mm working channel in clinical practice. Methods: To evaluate in vitro suction, 200 mL water was suctioned and the suction time was measured. The clinical data of 117 patients who underwent EGD were retrospectively reviewed on the basis of recorded video, and the suction time was measured by using a stopwatch. Results: In vitro, the suction time with the EG-580NW2 endoscope was significantly shorter than that with the use of an ultrathin endoscope with a 2.0-mm working channel (EG-580NW; mean ± standard deviation, 22.7±1.1 seconds vs. 34.7±2.2 seconds; p<0.001). We analyzed the total time and the suction time for routine EGD in 117 patients (50 in the EG-580NW2 group and 67 in the EG-580NW group). In the EG-580NW2 group, the total time for EGD was significantly shorter than that in the EG-580NW group (275.3±42.0 seconds vs. 300.6±46.5 seconds, p=0.003). In the EG-580NW2 group, the suction time was significantly shorter than that in the EG-580NW group (19.2±7.6 seconds vs. 38.0±15.9 seconds, p<0.001). Conclusions: An ultrathin endoscope with a 2.4-mm working channel considerably shortens the routine EGD time by shortening the suction time, in comparison with an endoscope with a 2.0-mm working channel. PMID:26668798

  19. Calorie Restriction in Mammals and Simple Model Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Mirisola, Mario G.

    2014-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR), which usually refers to a 20–40% reduction in calorie intake, can effectively prolong lifespan preventing most age-associated diseases in several species. However, recent data from both human and nonhumans point to the ratio of macronutrients rather than the caloric intake as a major regulator of both lifespan and health-span. In addition, specific components of the diet have recently been identified as regulators of some age-associated intracellular signaling pathways in simple model systems. The comprehension of the mechanisms underpinning these findings is crucial since it may increase the beneficial effects of calorie restriction making it accessible to a broader population as well. PMID:24883306

  20. Calorie restriction in mammals and simple model organisms.

    PubMed

    Taormina, Giusi; Mirisola, Mario G

    2014-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR), which usually refers to a 20-40% reduction in calorie intake, can effectively prolong lifespan preventing most age-associated diseases in several species. However, recent data from both human and nonhumans point to the ratio of macronutrients rather than the caloric intake as a major regulator of both lifespan and health-span. In addition, specific components of the diet have recently been identified as regulators of some age-associated intracellular signaling pathways in simple model systems. The comprehension of the mechanisms underpinning these findings is crucial since it may increase the beneficial effects of calorie restriction making it accessible to a broader population as well. PMID:24883306

  1. Effect of gravity on the caloric stimulation of the inner ear

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassemi, Mohammad; Deserranno, Dimitri; Oas, John G.

    2004-01-01

    Robert Barany won the 1914 Nobel Prize in medicine for his convection hypothesis for caloric stimulation. Microgravity caloric tests aboard the 1983 SpaceLab 1 mission produced nystagmus results that contradicted the basic premise of Barany's convection theory. In this paper, we present a fluid structural analysis of the caloric stimulation of the lateral semicircular canal. Direct numerical simulations indicate that on earth, natural convection is the dominant mechanism for endolymphatic flow. However, in the microgravity environment of orbiting spacecraft, where buoyancy effects are mitigated, an expansive convection becomes the sole mechanism for producing endolymph motion and cupular displacement. Transient 1 g and microgravity case studies are presented to delineate the different dynamic behaviors of the 1 g and microgravity endolymphatic flows. The associated fluid-structural interactions are also analyzed based on the time evolution of cupular displacements.

  2. The physics of compensating calorimetry and the new CALOR89 code system

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, T.A.; Brau, J.E.; Bishop, B.L.

    1989-03-01

    Much of the understanding of the physics of calorimetry has come from the use of excellent radiation transport codes. A new understanding of compensating calorimetry was introduced four years ago following detailed studies with a new CALOR system. Now, the CALOR system has again been revised to reflect a better comprehension of high energy nuclear collisions by incorporating a modified high energy fragmentation model from FLUKA87. This revision will allow for the accurate analysis of calorimeters at energies of 100's of GeV. Presented in this paper is a discussion of compensating calorimetry, the new CALOR system, the revisions to HETC, and recently generated calorimeter related data on modes of energy deposition and secondary neutron production (E < 50 MeV) in infinite iron and uranium blocks. 38 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. A controlled trial of reduced meal frequency without caloric restriction in healthy, normal-weight, middle-aged adults123

    PubMed Central

    Stote, Kim S; Baer, David J; Spears, Karen; Paul, David R; Harris, G Keith; Rumpler, William V; Strycula, Pilar; Najjar, Samer S; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ingram, Donald K; Longo, Dan L; Mattson, Mark P

    2009-01-01

    Background Although consumption of 3 meals/d is the most common pattern of eating in industrialized countries, a scientific rationale for this meal frequency with respect to optimal health is lacking. A diet with less meal frequency can improve the health and extend the lifespan of laboratory animals, but its effect on humans has never been tested. Objective A pilot study was conducted to establish the effects of a reduced-meal-frequency diet on health indicators in healthy, normal-weight adults. Design The study was a randomized crossover design with two 8-wk treatment periods. During the treatment periods, subjects consumed all of the calories needed for weight maintenance in either 3 meals/d or 1 meal/d. Results Subjects who completed the study maintained their body weight within 2 kg of their initial weight throughout the 6-mo period. There were no significant effects of meal frequency on heart rate, body temperature, or most of the blood variables measured. However, when consuming 1 meal/d, subjects had a significant increase in hunger; a significant modification of body composition, including reductions in fat mass; significant increases in blood pressure and in total, LDL-, and HDL-cholesterol concentrations; and a significant decrease in concentrations of cortisol. Conclusions Normal-weight subjects are able to comply with a 1 meal/d diet. When meal frequency is decreased without a reduction in overall calorie intake, modest changes occur in body composition, some cardiovascular disease risk factors, and hematologic variables. Diurnal variations may affect outcomes. PMID:17413096

  4. Caloric Restriction Induces Changes in Insulin and Body Weight Measurements That Are Inversely Associated with Subsequent Weight Regain

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Monica H. T.; Holst, Claus; Astrup, Arne; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Jebb, Susan A.; Kafatos, Anthony; Kunesova, Marie; Larsen, Thomas M.; Martinez, J. Alfredo; Pfeiffer, Andreas F. H.; van Baak, Marleen A.; Saris, Wim H. M.; McNicholas, Paul D.; Mutch, David M.; DiOGenes, on behalf of

    2012-01-01

    Background Successful weight maintenance following weight loss is challenging for many people. Identifying predictors of longer-term success will help target clinical resources more effectively. To date, focus has been predominantly on the identification of predictors of weight loss. The goal of the current study was to determine if changes in anthropometric and clinical parameters during acute weight loss are associated with subsequent weight regain. Methodology The study consisted of an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD) followed by a 6-month weight maintenance phase. Anthropometric and clinical parameters were analyzed before and after the LCD in the 285 participants (112 men, 173 women) who regained weight during the weight maintenance phase. Mixed model ANOVA, Spearman correlation, and linear regression were used to study the relationships between clinical measurements and weight regain. Principal Findings Gender differences were observed for body weight and several clinical parameters at both baseline and during the LCD-induced weight loss phase. LCD-induced changes in BMI (Spearman’s ρ = 0.22, p = 0.0002) were inversely associated with weight regain in both men and women. LCD-induced changes in fasting insulin (ρ = 0.18, p = 0.0043) and HOMA-IR (ρ = 0.19, p = 0.0023) were also associated independently with weight regain in both genders. The aforementioned associations remained statistically significant in regression models taking account of variables known to independently influence body weight. Conclusions/Significance LCD-induced changes in BMI, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR are inversely associated with weight regain in the 6-month period following weight loss. PMID:22905179

  5. A Controlled Trial of Reduced Meal Frequency without Caloric Restriction in Healthy, Normal Weight Middle-Aged Men and Women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Although consumption of three meals per day is the most common pattern of eating in industrialized countries, a scientific rationale for this meal frequency in regards to optimal health is lacking. A reduced meal frequency diet can improve health and extend lifespan of laboratory animal...

  6. Magnitude of daily energy deficit predicts frequency but not severity of menstrual disturbances associated with exercise and caloric restriction

    PubMed Central

    Leidy, Heather J.; Hill, Brenna R.; Lieberman, Jay L.; Legro, Richard S.; Souza, Mary Jane De

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the impact of energy deficiency on menstrual function using controlled feeding and supervised exercise over four menstrual cycles (1 baseline and 3 intervention cycles) in untrained, eumenorrheic women aged 18–30 yr. Subjects were randomized to either an exercising control (EXCON) or one of three exercising energy deficit (ED) groups, i.e., mild (ED1; −8 ± 2%), moderate (ED2; −22 ± 3%), or severe (ED3; −42 ± 3%). Menstrual cycle length and changes in urinary concentrations of estrone-1-glucuronide, pregnanediol glucuronide, and midcycle luteinizing hormone were assessed. Thirty-four subjects completed the study. Weight loss occurred in ED1 (−3.8 ± 0.2 kg), ED2 (−2.8 ± 0.6 kg), and ED3 (−2.6 ± 1.1 kg) but was minimal in EXCON (−0.9 ± 0.7 kg). The overall sum of disturbances (luteal phase defects, anovulation, and oligomenorrhea) was greater in ED2 compared with EXCON and greater in ED3 compared with EXCON AND ED1. The average percent energy deficit was the main predictor of the frequency of menstrual disturbances (f = 10.1, β = −0.48, r2 = 0.23, P = 0.003) even when weight loss was included in the model. The estimates of the magnitude of energy deficiency associated with menstrual disturbances ranged from −22 (ED2) to −42% (ED3), reflecting an energy deficit of −470 to −810 kcal/day, respectively. This is the first study to demonstrate a dose-response relationship between the magnitude of energy deficiency and the frequency of exercise-related menstrual disturbances; however, the severity of menstrual disturbances was not dependent on the magnitude of energy deficiency. PMID:25352438

  7. A Predictive Model of the Dynamics of Body Weight and Food Intake in Rats Submitted to Caloric Restrictions

    PubMed Central

    Jacquier, Marine; Crauste, Fabien; Soulage, Christophe O.; Soula, Hédi A.

    2014-01-01

    Dynamics of body weight and food intake can be studied by temporally perturbing food availability. This perturbation can be obtained by modifying the amount of available food over time while keeping the overall food quantity constant. To describe food intake dynamics, we developed a mathematical model that describes body weight, fat mass, fat-free mass, energy expenditure and food intake dynamics in rats. In addition, the model considers regulation of food intake by leptin, ghrelin and glucose. We tested our model on rats experiencing temporally variable food availability. Our model is able to predict body weight and food intake variations by taking into account energy expenditure dynamics based on a memory of the previous food intake. This model allowed us to estimate this memory lag to approximately 8 days. It also explains how important variations in food availability during periods longer than these 8 days can induce body weight gains. PMID:24932616

  8. A predictive model of the dynamics of body weight and food intake in rats submitted to caloric restrictions.

    PubMed

    Jacquier, Marine; Crauste, Fabien; Soulage, Christophe O; Soula, Hédi A

    2014-01-01

    Dynamics of body weight and food intake can be studied by temporally perturbing food availability. This perturbation can be obtained by modifying the amount of available food over time while keeping the overall food quantity constant. To describe food intake dynamics, we developed a mathematical model that describes body weight, fat mass, fat-free mass, energy expenditure and food intake dynamics in rats. In addition, the model considers regulation of food intake by leptin, ghrelin and glucose. We tested our model on rats experiencing temporally variable food availability. Our model is able to predict body weight and food intake variations by taking into account energy expenditure dynamics based on a memory of the previous food intake. This model allowed us to estimate this memory lag to approximately 8 days. It also explains how important variations in food availability during periods longer than these 8 days can induce body weight gains.

  9. Absence of Rotation Perception during Warm Water Caloric Irrigation in Some Seniors with Postural Instability

    PubMed Central

    Chiarovano, Elodie; Vidal, Pierre-Paul; Magnani, Christophe; Lamas, Georges; Curthoys, Ian S.; de Waele, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Falls in seniors are a major public health problem. Falls lead to fear of falling, reduced mobility, and decreased quality of life. Vestibular dysfunction is one of the fall risk factors. The relationship between objective measures of vestibular responses and age has been studied. However, the effects of age on vestibular perception during caloric stimulation have not been studied. Twenty senior subjects were included in the study, and separated in two groups: 10 seniors reporting postural instability (PI) and exhibiting absence of vestibular perception when they tested with caloric stimulation and 10 sex- and age-matched seniors with no such problems (controls). We assessed vestibular perception on a binary rating scale during the warm irrigation of the caloric test. The function of the various vestibular receptors was assessed using video head impulse test (vHIT), caloric tests, and cervical and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials. The Equitest was used to evaluate balance. No horizontal canal dysfunction assessed using both caloric test and vHIT was detected in either group. No significant difference was detected between PI and control groups for the peak SPV of caloric-induced ocular nystagmus or for the HVOR gain. All the controls perceived rotation when the maximal SPV during warm irrigation was equal to or ≥15°/s. None of the subjects in the PI group perceived rotation even while the peak SPV exceeded 15°/s, providing objective evidence of normal peripheral horizontal canal function. All the PI group had abnormal Equitest results, particularly in the two last conditions. These investigations show for the first time that vestibular perception can be absent during a caloric test despite normal horizontal canal function. We call this as dissociation vestibular neglect. Patients with poor vestibular perception may not be aware of postural perturbations and so will not correct for them. Thus, falls in the elderly may result, among other factors, from

  10. Absence of Rotation Perception during Warm Water Caloric Irrigation in Some Seniors with Postural Instability.

    PubMed

    Chiarovano, Elodie; Vidal, Pierre-Paul; Magnani, Christophe; Lamas, Georges; Curthoys, Ian S; de Waele, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Falls in seniors are a major public health problem. Falls lead to fear of falling, reduced mobility, and decreased quality of life. Vestibular dysfunction is one of the fall risk factors. The relationship between objective measures of vestibular responses and age has been studied. However, the effects of age on vestibular perception during caloric stimulation have not been studied. Twenty senior subjects were included in the study, and separated in two groups: 10 seniors reporting postural instability (PI) and exhibiting absence of vestibular perception when they tested with caloric stimulation and 10 sex- and age-matched seniors with no such problems (controls). We assessed vestibular perception on a binary rating scale during the warm irrigation of the caloric test. The function of the various vestibular receptors was assessed using video head impulse test (vHIT), caloric tests, and cervical and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials. The Equitest was used to evaluate balance. No horizontal canal dysfunction assessed using both caloric test and vHIT was detected in either group. No significant difference was detected between PI and control groups for the peak SPV of caloric-induced ocular nystagmus or for the HVOR gain. All the controls perceived rotation when the maximal SPV during warm irrigation was equal to or ≥15°/s. None of the subjects in the PI group perceived rotation even while the peak SPV exceeded 15°/s, providing objective evidence of normal peripheral horizontal canal function. All the PI group had abnormal Equitest results, particularly in the two last conditions. These investigations show for the first time that vestibular perception can be absent during a caloric test despite normal horizontal canal function. We call this as dissociation vestibular neglect. Patients with poor vestibular perception may not be aware of postural perturbations and so will not correct for them. Thus, falls in the elderly may result, among other factors, from

  11. Fuel NOx production during the combustion of low caloric value fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Colaluca, M.A.; Caraway, J.P.

    1997-07-01

    The objective of this investigation is to identify and qualify physical mechanisms and parameters that affect the combustion of low caloric value gases (LCVG) and the formation of NOx pollutants produced form fuel bound nitrogen. Average physical properties of a low caloric value gas were determined from the products of several industrial coal gasifiers. A computer model was developed, utilizing the PHOENICS computational fluid dynamics software to model the combustion of LCVG. The model incorporates a 3-dimensional physical design and is based on typical industrial combustors. Feed stock to the gasifier can be wood, feed stock manure, cotton gin trash, coal, lignite and numerous forms of organic industrial wastes.

  12. New prospects for characterizing the asymmetry dependence of the nuclear caloric curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Alan; Yennello, Sherry

    2015-10-01

    My recent measurements have demonstrated a dependence of the caloric curve on the neutron-proton asymmetry. If confirmed, this represents a new feature of the nuclear equation of state. These results were made possible by the complete isotopic reconstruction of excited quasi-projectiles produced in heavy ion collisions. I will discuss the isotopic reconstruction and multiple probes of the the temperature, which are the strengths of this measurement. I have conducted a new independent experiment to further study the asymmetry dependence of the caloric curve through fusion reactions. The new experiment and the status of the analysis will be discussed.

  13. Changes of endolymphatic pressure in the semicircular canal of pigeon by caloric stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Y.; Suzuki, H.; Watanabe, S.

    1994-08-01

    It gets into difficult to explain the mechanism of caloric nystagmus only by convection theory from results of microgravity experiments. One of the other theories is an occurrence of a relative volume change due to a temperature change. Since the volume change must lead to a pressure change after caloric stimulation, we tried to measure the ampulla pressure of the horizontal semicircular canal in pigeons (Columba livia) using an improved servo micropipette system. The main result was that the ampulla pressure increased by cooling and decreased by heating. The changes of the ampulla pressure depended on the temperature change but were not influenced by the pigeon's head position.

  14. Genetic Heterogeneity of HER2 Amplification and Telomere Shortening in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Caria, Paola; Cantara, Silvia; Frau, Daniela Virginia; Pacini, Furio; Vanni, Roberta; Dettori, Tinuccia

    2016-01-01

    Extensive research is dedicated to understanding if sporadic and familial papillary thyroid carcinoma are distinct biological entities. We have previously demonstrated that familial papillary thyroid cancer (fPTC) cells exhibit short relative telomere length (RTL) in both blood and tissues and that these features may be associated with chromosome instability. Here, we investigated the frequency of HER2 (Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2) amplification, and other recently reported genetic alterations in sporadic PTC (sPTC) and fPTC, and assessed correlations with RTL and BRAF mutational status. We analyzed HER2 gene amplification and the integrity of ALK, ETV6, RET, and BRAF genes by fluorescence in situ hybridization in isolated nuclei and paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed sections of 13 fPTC and 18 sPTC patients. We analyzed BRAFV600E mutation and RTL by qRT-PCR. Significant HER2 amplification (p = 0.0076), which was restricted to scattered groups of cells, was found in fPTC samples. HER2 amplification in fPTCs was invariably associated with BRAFV600E mutation. RTL was shorter in fPTCs than sPTCs (p < 0.001). No rearrangements of other tested genes were observed. These findings suggest that the association of HER2 amplification with BRAFV600E mutation and telomere shortening may represent a marker of tumor aggressiveness, and, in refractory thyroid cancer, may warrant exploration as a site for targeted therapy. PMID:27775641

  15. Chemical Sharpening, Shortening, and Unzipping of Boron Nitride Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liao, Yunlong; Chen, Zhongfang; Connell, John W.; Fay, Catharine C.; Park, Cheol; Kim, Jae-Woo; Lin, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs), the one-dimensional member of the boron nitride nanostructure family, are generally accepted to be highly inert to oxidative treatments and can only be covalently modifi ed by highly reactive species. Conversely, it is discovered that the BNNTs can be chemically dispersed and their morphology modifi ed by a relatively mild method: simply sonicating the nanotubes in aqueous ammonia solution. The dispersed nanotubes are significantly corroded, with end-caps removed, tips sharpened, and walls thinned. The sonication treatment in aqueous ammonia solution also removes amorphous BN impurities and shortened BNNTs, resembling various oxidative treatments of carbon nanotubes. Importantly, the majority of BNNTs are at least partially longitudinally cut, or "unzipped". Entangled and freestanding BN nanoribbons (BNNRs), resulting from the unzipping, are found to be approximately 5-20 nm in width and up to a few hundred nanometers in length. This is the fi rst chemical method to obtain BNNRs from BNNT unzipping. This method is not derived from known carbon nanotube unzipping strategies, but is unique to BNNTs because the use of aqueous ammonia solutions specifi cally targets the B-N bond network. This study may pave the way for convenient processing of BNNTs, previously thought to be highly inert, toward controlling their dispersion, purity, lengths, and electronic properties.

  16. The different muscle-energetics during shortening and stretch.

    PubMed

    Jarosch, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The helical shape of the thin filaments causes their passive counterclockwise rotation during muscle stretch that increases tensile stress and torque at first by unwinding and then by winding up the four anchoring Z-filaments. This means storage of energy in the series elastic Z-filaments and a considerable decrease of the liberated energy of heat and work to (h-w(ap)), where h is the heat energy and w(ap) the stretch energy induced from outside by an apparatus. The steep thin filament helix with an inclination angle of 70° promotes the passive rotation during stretch, but impedes the smooth sliding of shortening by increased friction and production of frictional heat. The frictional heat may be produced by the contact with the myosin cross-bridges: (1) when they passively snap on drilling thin filaments from cleft to cleft over a distance 2 × 2.7 nm = 5.4 nm between the globular actin monomers in one groove, causing stepwise motion; or (2) when they passively cycle from one helical groove to the next (distance 36 nm). The latter causes more heat and may take place on rotating thin filaments without an effective forward drilling ("idle rotation"), e.g., when they produce "unexplained heat" at the beginning of an isometric tetanus. In an Appendix to this paper the different states of muscle are defined. The function of its most important components is described and rotation model and power-stroke model of muscular contraction is compared.

  17. Space travel shortens diapause in gypsy moth eggs.

    PubMed

    Hayes, D K; Morgan, N O; Webb, R E; Bell, R A

    1991-02-01

    Field-collected and laboratory-reared gypsy moth eggs were exposed to microgravity, cosmic radiation, sub-freezing temperatures, unusual vibrations, and other extraterrestrial phenomena while they were sealed for 6 days, in January, in a Get-Away-Special (GAS) canister in the open bay of a NASA earth-orbiting spacecraft, the Columbia. Insects were not exposed to light after preparation for and during space flight. Under field conditions, out-of-doors, the eggs should have hatched in April, after 3-4 months of chilling temperatures and should not have hatched after the 6 days of chilling to -11 degrees C during flight in the Columbia spacecraft. However by April 1, more than 4000 larvae had hatched from eggs that had travelled in space, as opposed to approximately 350 from a similar number of control, earthbound eggs. These results indicate that the period of a circannual rhythm in field- and lab-reared insects had been shortened, presumably as result of exposure to microgravity, other factors associated with space flight, and/or conditions of outer space. These results suggest that it may be possible to develop methods for rearing the gypsy moth year round, without the necessity of three months chilling interspersed in the development process. This, in turn, would facilitate production of large numbers of insects for sterile male release or for use as a rearing medium for parasites, predators and pathogens of the gypsy moth.

  18. Ectoparasitism shortens the breeding season in a colonial bird.

    PubMed

    Brown, Charles R; Brown, Mary Bomberger

    2015-02-01

    When blood-feeding parasites increase seasonally, their deleterious effects may prevent some host species, especially those living in large groups where parasites are numerous, from reproducing later in the summer. Yet the role of parasites in regulating the length of a host's breeding season-and thus the host's opportunity for multiple brooding-has not been systematically investigated. The highly colonial cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota), a temperate-latitude migratory songbird in the western Great Plains, USA, typically has a relatively short (eight to nine week) breeding season, with birds rarely nesting late in the summer. Colonies at which ectoparasitic swallow bugs (Oeciacus vicarius) were experimentally removed by fumigation were over 45 times more likely to have birds undertake a second round of nesting than were colonies exposed to parasites. Late nesting approximately doubled the length of the breeding season, with some birds raising two broods. Over a 27 year period the percentage of birds engaging in late nesting each year increased at a colony site where parasites were removed annually. This trend could not be explained by changes in group size, climate or nesting phenology during the study. The results suggest that ectoparasitism shortens the cliff swallow's breeding season and probably prevents many individuals from multiple brooding. When this constraint is removed, selection may rapidly favour late nesting. PMID:26064606

  19. Immunosenescence and Rheumatoid Arthritis: Does Telomere Shortening Predict Impending Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Costenbader, Karen H.; Prescott, Jennifer; Zee, Robert Y.; De Vivo, Immaculata

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenesis of RA, a disabling autoimmune disease, is incompletely understood. Early in the development of RA there appears to be loss of immune homeostasis and regulation, and premature immunosenescence. While identification of risk factors and understanding of the phases of RA pathogenesis are advancing, means of accurately predicting an individual’s risk of developing RA are currently lacking. Telomere length has been proposed as a potential new biomarker for the development of RA that could enhance prediction of this serious disease. Studies examining telomere length in relation to RA have found that telomere erosion appears to proceed more rapidly in subjects with RA than in healthy controls, and that telomere lengths are shorter in those with the RA-risk HLA-shared epitope genes. These studies have been small, however, with retrospective or cross-sectional designs. The potential role of telomere shortening as an independent biomarker for future RA risk, perhaps strongly genetically determined by HLA-SE genes, after controlling for known risk factors such as smoking, body mass index and immunosuppressant medication use, as well as systemic inflammation, is an unanswered question. PMID:21575746

  20. Prenatal Caloric Intake and the Development of Academic Achievement among U.S. Children from Ages 5 to 14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Eric J.; Beaver, Kevin M.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relation between maternal caloric intake during pregnancy and growth in child academic achievement while controlling for important confounding influences. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the current study examined the effects of reduced prenatal caloric intake on growth in scores on the…

  1. Weight loss by calorie restriction versus bariatric surgery differentially regulates the HPA axis in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Grayson, Bernadette E.; Hakala-Finch, Andrew P.; Kekulawala, Melani; Laub, Holly; Egan, Ann E.; Ressler, Ilana B.; Woods, Stephen C.; Herman, James P.; Seeley, Randy J.; Benoit, Stephen C.; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral modifications for the treatment of obesity, including caloric restriction, have notoriously low long-term success rates relative to bariatric weight-loss surgery. The reasons for the difference in sustained weight loss are not clear. One possibility is that caloric restriction alone activates the stress-responsive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, undermining the long-term maintenance of weight loss, and that this is abrogated after bariatric surgery. Accordingly, we compared the HPA response to weight loss in 5 groups of male rats: (1) high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) rats treated with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB, n=7), (2) DIO rats treated with vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG, n=11), (3) DIO rats given sham surgery and subsequently restricted to the food intake of the VSG/RYGB groups (Pair-fed, n=11), (4) ad libitum-fed DIO rats given sham surgery (Obese, n=11) and (5) ad libitum chow-fed rats given sham surgery (Lean, n=12). Compared to Lean controls, food-restricted rats exhibited elevated morning (nadir) non-stress plasma corticosterone concentrations and increased hypothalamic corticotropin releasing hormone and vasopressin mRNA expression, indicative of basal HPA activation. This was largely prevented when weight loss was achieved by bariatric surgery. DIO increased HPA activation by acute (novel environment) stress and this was diminished by bariatric surgery-, but not pair-feeding-, induced weight loss. These results suggest that the HPA axis is differentially affected by weight loss from caloric restriction versus bariatric surgery, and this may contribute to the differing long-term effectiveness of these two weight-loss approaches. PMID:25238021

  2. Circular smooth muscle contributes to esophageal shortening during peristalsis

    PubMed Central

    Vegesna, Anil K; Chuang, Keng-Yu; Besetty, Ramashesai; Phillips, Steven J; Braverman, Alan S; Barbe, Mary F; Ruggieri, Michael R; Miller, Larry S

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To study the angle between the circular smooth muscle (CSM) and longitudinal smooth muscle (LSM) fibers in the distal esophagus. METHODS: In order to identify possible mechanisms for greater shortening in the distal compared to proximal esophagus during peristalsis, the angles between the LSM and CSM layers were measured in 9 cadavers. The outer longitudinal layer of the muscularis propria was exposed after stripping the outer serosa. The inner circular layer of the muscularis propria was then revealed after dissection of the esophageal mucosa and the underlying muscularis mucosa. Photographs of each specimen were taken with half of the open esophagus folded back showing both the outer longitudinal and inner circular muscle layers. Angles were measured every one cm for 10 cm proximal to the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ) by two independent investigators. Two human esophagi were obtained from organ transplant donors and the angles between the circular and longitudinal smooth muscle layers were measured using micro-computed tomography (micro CT) and Image J software. RESULTS: All data are presented as mean ± SE. The CSM to LSM angle at the SCJ and 1 cm proximal to SCJ on the autopsy specimens was 69.3 ± 4.62 degrees vs 74.9 ± 3.09 degrees, P = 0.32. The CSM to LSM angle at SCJ were statistically significantly lower than at 2, 3, 4 and 5 cm proximal to the SCJ, 69.3 ± 4.62 degrees vs 82.58 ± 1.34 degrees, 84.04 ± 1.64 degrees, 84.87 ± 1.04 degrees and 83.72 ± 1.42 degrees, P = 0.013, P = 0.008, P = 0.004, P = 0.009 respectively. The CSM to LSM angle at SCJ was also statistically significantly lower than the angles at 6, 7 and 8 cm proximal to the SCJ, 69.3 ± 4.62 degrees vs 80.18 ± 2.09 degrees, 81.81 ± 1.75 degrees and 80.96 ± 2.04 degrees, P = 0.05, P = 0.02, P = 0.03 respectively. The CSM to LSM angle at 1 cm proximal to SCJ was statistically significantly lower than at 3, 4 and 5 cm proximal to the SCJ, 74.94 ± 3.09 degrees vs 84.04 ± 1

  3. The Different Muscle-Energetics during Shortening and Stretch

    PubMed Central

    Jarosch, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The helical shape of the thin filaments causes their passive counterclockwise rotation during muscle stretch that increases tensile stress and torque at first by unwinding and then by winding up the four anchoring Z-filaments. This means storage of energy in the series elastic Z-filaments and a considerable decrease of the liberated energy of heat and work to (h—wap), where h is the heat energy and wap the stretch energy induced from outside by an apparatus. The steep thin filament helix with an inclination angle of 70° promotes the passive rotation during stretch, but impedes the smooth sliding of shortening by increased friction and production of frictional heat. The frictional heat may be produced by the contact with the myosin cross-bridges: (1) when they passively snap on drilling thin filaments from cleft to cleft over a distance 2 × 2.7 nm = 5.4 nm between the globular actin monomers in one groove, causing stepwise motion; or (2) when they passively cycle from one helical groove to the next (distance 36 nm). The latter causes more heat and may take place on rotating thin filaments without an effective forward drilling (“idle rotation”), e.g., when they produce “unexplained heat” at the beginning of an isometric tetanus. In an Appendix to this paper the different states of muscle are defined. The function of its most important components is described and rotation model and power-stroke model of muscular contraction is compared. PMID:21686156

  4. Resource availability hypothesis: Perceived financial and caloric status affect individuals' height preferences for potential partners.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qingzhou; Lou, Liandi; Lu, Jingyi; Wang, Xiaoming; Zhong, Jun; Tan, Xuyun; Li, Yanxia; Liu, Yongfang

    2016-10-01

    Height is an important concern in human mate choices. Prior research indicates that people who live in areas with abundant resources differ from those who live in areas with scarce resources regarding height preferences. Based on a health-maximizing principle, we propose a resource availability account for such differences. Compared with women's height preferences, men's height preferences are hypothesized to be more dependent on either financial or caloric resource availability. Specifically, taller females would be more preferred by males who are poor in resources than those who are rich in resources. Results from three studies supported these hypotheses. In Study 1, men from remote areas of China who had lower family income preferred taller women more than those from eastern China who had higher family income. In Study 2, men who were financially dissatisfied preferred taller women more than those who were financially satisfied. In Study 3, men with low caloric status preferred taller women more than men with high caloric status. In addition, women's height preferences in Studies 1, 2 and 3 were less determined by resource availability. These findings suggest that height preferences are changeable, depending on financial or caloric status.

  5. Vestibular reactions to long-term caloric stimulation of the rabbit labyrinth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorgiladze, G. I.

    1978-01-01

    Long-term, periodically repeated caloric stimulation of the labyrinth receptors of the internal ear was studied on eight rabbits with immobilzed heads. Warm (20 C) water was used as a stimulus in a dose of 40 ml per min injected into the auditory meatus.

  6. The relative impact of circumferential and longitudinal shortening on left ventricular ejection fraction and stroke volume

    PubMed Central

    MacIver, David H

    2012-01-01

    In vivo data have been unable to provide conclusive results with regard to the relative impact of circumferential and longitudinal shortening on stroke volume. The objective of the present study was to assess the relative contribution of circumferential and longitudinal myocardial shortening to left ventricular stroke volume and ejection fraction, and to evaluate the effect of left ventricular hypertrophy. A two-shell, three-dimensional mathematical model was used to assess the individual contributions of longitudinal and midwall circumferential shortening (or strain) to stroke volume and ejection fraction. Reducing either circumferential or longitudinal shortening resulted in a reduced ejection fraction and stroke volume. The stroke volume fell by 43% when circumferential strain was reduced from −20% to −5%, but only by 19% when longitudinal strain was similarly reduced. The sole contribution of circumferential and longitudinal shortening to stroke volume was 67% and 33%, respectively. These proportions were independent of wall thickness. The present study demonstrated that both longitudinal and midwall circumferential shortening contribute to different extents depending on the degree of abnormality of myocardial shortening. Contrary to most previous studies, the present study shows that circumferential shortening has a relatively greater contribution to stroke volume (ie, two-thirds) and ejection fraction than longitudinal shortening. These observations have important clinical and research implications in the assessment of left ventricular function. PMID:23204893

  7. Femoral neck shortening after internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Stephanie M; Keijsers, Noël L; Praet, Stephan F E; Heetveld, Martin J; Bhandari, Mohit; Wilssens, Jean Pierre; Patka, Peter; Van Lieshout, Esther M M

    2013-07-01

    This study assesses femoral neck shortening and its effect on gait pattern and muscle strength in patients with femoral neck fractures treated with internal fixation. Seventy-six patients from a multicenter randomized controlled trial participated. Patient characteristics and Short Form 12 and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores were collected. Femoral neck shortening, gait parameters, and maximum isometric forces of the hip muscles were measured and differences between the fractured and contralateral leg were calculated. Variables of patients with little or no shortening, moderate shortening, and severe shortening were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. Median femoral neck shortening was 1.1 cm. Subtle changes in gait pattern, reduced gait velocity, and reduced abductor muscle strength were observed. Age, weight, and Pauwels classification were risk factors for femoral neck shortening. Femoral neck shortening decreased gait velocity and seemed to impair gait symmetry and physical functioning. In conclusion, internal fixation of femoral neck fractures results in permanent physical limitations. The relatively young and healthy patients in our study seem capable of compensating. Attention should be paid to femoral neck shortening and proper correction with a heel lift, as inadequate correction may cause physical complaints and influence outcome. PMID:23823040

  8. Mice that gorged during dietary restriction increased foraging related behaviors and differed in their macronutrient preference when released from restriction

    PubMed Central

    Speakman, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) can trigger gorging behavior. We examined macronutrient choice and behavior in mice that gorged during restriction compared to restricted non-gorgers and controls. Fifty MF1 male mice were restricted to 75% of ad-libitum food intake (FI), while ten controls were fed ad-lib. Body mass (BM) and FI were measured two and 24-h after food inclusion over 14-days. ‘Gorging’ mice were defined as those which ate over 25% of their daily FI in 2-h. The top 11 gorgers and the lowest 9 gorgers, along with 10 controls, had their behavior analysed during restriction, and were then provided with an unrestricted food choice, consisting of three diets that were high in fat, protein or carbohydrate. During restriction gorgers ate on average 51% of their daily FI in the 2-h following food introduction while the non-gorgers ate only 16%. Gorgers lost significantly more BM than non-gorgers possibly due to an increased physical activity linked to anticipation of daily food provision. Controls and non-gorgers spent most of their time sleeping. After restriction, both gorgers and non-gorgers were hyperphagic until their lost weight was regained. All 3 groups favoured high fat food. Gorgers and non-gorgers had a significantly greater high carbohydrate diet intake than controls, and gorgers also had a significantly greater high protein diet intake than non-gorgers and controls. On unrestricted food, they did not continue to gorge, although they still had a significantly greater 2-h FI than the other groups. Elevated protein intake may play an important role in the recovery of the lost lean tissue of gorgers after restriction. PMID:26157640

  9. Shortening-induced torque depression in old men: implications for age-related power loss.

    PubMed

    Power, Geoffrey A; Makrakos, Demetri P; Stevens, Daniel E; Herzog, Walter; Rice, Charles L; Vandervoort, Anthony A

    2014-09-01

    Following active muscle shortening, the steady-state isometric torque at the final muscle length is lower than the steady-state torque obtained for a purely isometric contraction at that same final muscle length. This well-documented property of skeletal muscle is termed shortening-induced torque depression (TD). Despite many investigations into the mechanisms of weakness and power loss in old age, the influence of muscle shortening on the history dependence of isometric torque production remains to be elucidated. Thus, it is unclear whether older adults are disadvantaged for torque and power production following a dynamic shortening contraction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate shortening-induced TD in older adults, and to determine whether shortening-induced TD is related to power loss. Maximal voluntary isometric dorsiflexion contractions (MVC; 10s) in 8 young (25.5±3.7years) and 9 old (76.1±5.4years) men were performed on a HUMAC NORM dynamometer as a reference, and then again following an active shortening of 40° joint excursion (40°PF-0°PF) at angular velocities of 15°/s and 120°/s. Work and instantaneous power were derived during shortening. Shortening-induced TD was calculated and expressed as a percentage by determining the mean torque value over 1s during the isometric steady state of the MVC following shortening, divided by the mean torque value for the same 1s time period during the isometric reference MVC. To assess muscle activation, electromyography (root mean square; EMGRMS) of the tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus (SOL) was calculated at identical time points used in assessing shortening-induced TD, and voluntary activation (VA) was assessed using the interpolated twitch technique. Old were 18% weaker than young for MVC, and ~40% less powerful for 15°/s and 120°/s of shortening. Old produced 37% and 21% less work for 15°/s and 120°/s than young, respectively. Furthermore, old experienced 60% and 70% greater shortening-induced TD

  10. Outcome analysis of ulnar shortening osteotomy for ulnar impaction syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fulton, Courtney; Grewal, Ruby; Faber, Kenneth J; Roth, James; Gan, Bing Siang

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ulnar-sided wrist pain is a common problem in the upper extremity. It affects a broad patient population and can be difficult to treat. Ulnar impaction syndrome (UIS) is major cause of ulnar-sided wrist pain and a number of different operations have been used to correct it, including ulnar shortening osteotomy (USO). OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively review functional outcomes and complication rates of USO for UIS at the Hand and Upper Limb Centre (London, Ontario) over a two-year period. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients who underwent USO between 2007 and 2009 participated in the present study. Ulnar variance pre- and post-surgery was assessed using standard radiographic examination. Patient-rated outcomes were measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS) for pain and the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) survey for functional outcomes. Objective grip strength and range of motion were compared with the contralateral extremity. RESULTS: On average, USO achieved a 3.11 mm reduction in ulnar variance. Nonunion occurred in five patients and required a secondary bone grafting procedure. All USO eventually healed. Overall, pain improved by 47.2% and the mean DASH score after surgery was 37.21. Flexion, extension and supination range of motion decreased by 10° compared with the unaffected side. Eleven patients (39%) elected to undergo a second surgery for hardware removal. Patients receiving compensation from the Workplace Safety and Insurance Board experienced significantly higher residual pain (VSA 5.24 versus 1.97) and disability levels (DASH 60.23 versus 25.70). Smokers also experienced worse outcomes in terms of pain (VSA 4.43 versus 2.36) and disability (DASH 51.06 versus 29.67). In this cohort, smoking was not associated with a higher rate of nonunion. CONCLUSION: USO is effective in reducing pain in UIS and improves disability, at the price of a small decrease in range of motion. Smokers and people receiving compensation from the Workplace

  11. Coeval Tibet uplift and shortening of SE Asia basins (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pubellier, M.; Robert, A.; de Sigoyer, J.; Zuo, X.; Chamot-Rooke, N. R.; Chan, L. S.

    2010-12-01

    The SE Asian region has been the site of two mega events during the Tertiary; the formation of the Tibet-Himalayan structure and the continuous opening of basins at the rear of the Sunda subduction zone. The area covered by the Tibet plateau is the result of an accretion period which started by Jurassic times, and shed clastics in the Sichuan basin. Evidences of uplift of the plateau exist since 35 My, but the important motion also exist mostly on the edges around 14-8 My depending on the area and the method of dating. In front of the South China Block, the Longmen Shan thick-skin tectonics and uplift is also dated by the late Middle Miocene. Besides, the opening of the marginal basins of the present Sunda plate started early by the end of Cretaceous times and continued until the Pliocene. If a correlation between the mechanisms and timing of thickening of the Plateau and the opening of the basins still needs to be demonstrated, on the other hand, the beginning of basin shortening in the Sunda Plate, which started in the Mid Miocene, is marked by the final stage of the Proto South China Sea (PSCS) subduction and the end of the opening of the South China Sea. Around the basin system which fringes the India-Eurasia continental subduction, the stratigraphic series are marked by the classical MMU (Mid Miocene Unconformity) which is ubiquitous although suffering from slight variations in age. We propose that the E-W extrusion of crustal material from the Tibet area was possible because of the free edge and traction of the Sunda subduction until the end of the Middle Miocene. The early arrival of Australian crustal blocks (E Sulawesi) into the subduction was accommodated first by the subduction of the PSCS which acted as a buffer. The end of the PSCS consumption is coeval to the MMU, the uplift of Tibet, and the thick-skin deformation and exhumation observed in the Longmen Shan.

  12. Differential effects of fasting vs food restriction on liver thyroid hormone metabolism in male rats.

    PubMed

    de Vries, E M; van Beeren, H C; Ackermans, M T; Kalsbeek, A; Fliers, E; Boelen, A

    2015-01-01

    A variety of illnesses that leads to profound changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) are axis collectively known as the nonthyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). NTIS is characterized by decreased tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) and inappropriately low TSH serum concentrations, as well as altered hepatic thyroid hormone (TH) metabolism. Spontaneous caloric restriction often occurs during illness and may contribute to NTIS, but it is currently unknown to what extent. The role of diminished food intake is often studied using experimental fasting models, but partial food restriction might be a more physiologically relevant model. In this comparative study, we characterized hepatic TH metabolism in two models for caloric restriction: 36 h of complete fasting and 21 days of 50% food restriction. Both fasting and food restriction decreased serum T4 concentration, while after 36-h fasting serum T3 also decreased. Fasting decreased hepatic T3 but not T4 concentrations, while food restriction decreased both hepatic T3 and T4 concentrations. Fasting and food restriction both induced an upregulation of liver D3 expression and activity, D1 was not affected. A differential effect was seen in Mct10 mRNA expression, which was upregulated in the fasted rats but not in food-restricted rats. Other metabolic pathways of TH, such as sulfation and UDP-glucuronidation, were also differentially affected. The changes in hepatic TH concentrations were reflected by the expression of T3-responsive genes Fas and Spot14 only in the 36-h fasted rats. In conclusion, limited food intake induced marked changes in hepatic TH metabolism, which are likely to contribute to the changes observed during NTIS.

  13. The Shortened Raven Standard Progressive Matrices: Item Response Theory-Based Psychometric Analyses and Normative Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Elst, Wim; Ouwehand, Carolijn; van Rijn, Peter; Lee, Nikki; Van Boxtel, Martin; Jolles, Jelle

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a shortened version of the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) under an item response theory framework (the one- and two-parameter logistic models). The shortened Raven SPM was administered to N = 453 cognitively healthy adults aged between 24 and 83 years. The…

  14. Assisting High School Students with Career Indecision Using a Shortened Form of the Career Construction Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rehfuss, Mark C.; Sickinger, Pamela H.

    2015-01-01

    A shortened form of the Career Construction Interview (CCI) was used to help high school students struggling with the career decision making process. The shortened instrument is described, as well as, its use with eleventh grade high school students who had low levels of career concern and career curiosity. Students who completed the exercise…

  15. Lower bound on the amount of crustal shortening in the central Bolivia Andes

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffels, B.M. )

    1990-09-01

    Balanced cross sections across the Cordillera Oriental and Subandean zone of the central Bolivian Andes indicate that crustal shortening probably has played the dominant role in orogeny in this convergent margin setting. A minimum amount of shortening, 210 km, is documented, which can account for two-thirds of the present-day crustal cross-sectional area along a transect spanning the entire mountain range. Substantial crustal shortening may also require loss of the lower lithosphere to the asthenosphere. A large, minimum amount of crustal shortening in the Bolivian Andes shows, contrary to common assumptions about orogeny, that (1) magmatic addition may be volumetrically less important in orogeny in Andean-type margins and (2) crustal shortening is not uniquely associated with continental or island-arc collision.

  16. Evaluation of canola oil oleogels with candelilla wax as an alternative to shortening in baked goods.

    PubMed

    Jang, Areum; Bae, Woosung; Hwang, Hong-Sik; Lee, Hyeon Gyu; Lee, Suyong

    2015-11-15

    The oleogels of canola oil with candelilla wax were prepared and utilized as a shortening replacer to produce cookies with a high level of unsaturated fatty acids. The incorporation of candelilla wax (3% and 6% by weight) to canola oil produced the oleogels with solid-like properties. The firmness of the oleogels was lower than that of the shortening at room temperature. A more rapid change in the viscosity with temperature was observed with increasing levels of candelilla wax in the steady shear measurements. The replacement of shortening with oleogels in the cookie formulation reduced both viscoelastic parameters (G' and G") of the cookie doughs. The level of unsaturated fatty acids in the oleogel cookies was distinctly increased up to around 92%, compared to the shortening cookies (47.2%). The cookies with the oleogels showed desirable spreadable property and the replacement of shortening with the oleogels produced cookies with soft eating characteristics.

  17. Shortening treatment time in robotic radiosurgery using a novel node reduction technique

    SciTech Connect

    Water, Steven van de; Hoogeman, Mischa S.; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Heijmen, Ben J. M.

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: The fraction duration of robotic radiosurgery treatments can be reduced by generating more time-efficient treatment plans with a reduced number of node positions, beams, and monitor units (MUs). Node positions are preprogramed locations where the robot can position the focal spot of the x-ray beam. As the time needed for the robot to travel between node positions takes up a large part of the treatment time, the aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a node reduction technique in order to reduce the treatment time per fraction for robotic radiosurgery. Methods: Node reduction was integrated into the inverse planning algorithm, developed in-house for the robotic radiosurgery modality. It involved repeated inverse optimization, each iteration excluding low-contribution node positions from the planning and resampling new candidate beams from the remaining node positions. Node reduction was performed until the exclusion of a single node position caused a constraint violation, after which the shortest treatment plan was selected retrospectively. Treatment plans were generated with and without node reduction for two lung cases of different complexity, one oropharyngeal case and one prostate case. Plan quality was assessed using the number of node positions, beams and MUs, and the estimated treatment time per fraction. All treatment plans had to fulfill all clinical dose constraints. Extra constraints were added to maintain the low-dose conformality and restrict skin doses during node reduction. Results: Node reduction resulted in 12 residual node positions, on average (reduction by 77%), at the cost of an increase in the number of beams and total MUs of 28% and 9%, respectively. Overall fraction durations (excluding patient setup) were shortened by 25% (range of 18%-40%), on average. Dose distributions changed only little and dose in low-dose regions was effectively restricted by the additional constraints. Conclusions: The fraction duration of robotic

  18. (Magneto)caloric refrigeration: is there light at the end of the tunnel?

    PubMed

    Pecharsky, Vitalij K; Cui, Jun; Johnson, Duane D

    2016-08-13

    Caloric cooling and heat pumping rely on reversible thermal effects triggered in solids by magnetic, electric or stress fields. In the recent past, there have been several successful demonstrations of using first-order phase transition materials in laboratory cooling devices based on both the giant magnetocaloric and elastocaloric effects. All such materials exhibit non-equilibrium behaviours when driven through phase transformations by corresponding fields. Common wisdom is that non-equilibrium states should be avoided; yet, as we show using a model material exhibiting a giant magnetocaloric effect, non-equilibrium phase-separated states offer a unique opportunity to achieve uncommonly large caloric effects by very small perturbations of the driving field(s).This article is part of the themed issue 'Taking the temperature of phase transitions in cool materials'. PMID:27402923

  19. Non-caloric artificial sweeteners and the microbiome: findings and challenges.

    PubMed

    Suez, Jotham; Korem, Tal; Zilberman-Schapira, Gili; Segal, Eran; Elinav, Eran

    2015-01-01

    Non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NAS) are common food supplements consumed by millions worldwide as means of combating weight gain and diabetes, by retaining sweet taste without increasing caloric intake. While they are considered safe, there is increasing controversy regarding their potential ability to promote metabolic derangements in some humans. We recently demonstrated that NAS consumption could induce glucose intolerance in mice and distinct human subsets, by functionally altering the gut microbiome. In this commentary, we discuss these findings in the context of previous and recent works demonstrating the effects of NAS on host health and the microbiome, and the challenges and open questions that need to be addressed in understanding the effects of NAS consumption on human health. PMID:25831243

  20. (Magneto)caloric refrigeration: Is there light at the end of the tunnel?

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Cui, Jun; Johnson, Duane D.

    2016-07-11

    Here, caloric cooling and heat pumping rely on reversible thermal effects triggered in solids by magnetic, electric or stress fields. In the recent past, there have been several successful demonstrations of using first-order phase transition materials in laboratory cooling devices based on both the giant magnetocaloric and elastocaloric effects. All such materials exhibit non-equilibrium behaviours when driven through phase transformations by corresponding fields. Common wisdom is that non-equilibrium states should be avoided; yet, as we show using a model material exhibiting a giant magnetocaloric effect, non-equilibrium phase-separated states offer a unique opportunity to achieve uncommonly large caloric effects by verymore » small perturbations of the driving field(s).« less

  1. Non-caloric artificial sweeteners and the microbiome: findings and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Suez, Jotham; Korem, Tal; Zilberman-Schapira, Gili; Segal, Eran; Elinav, Eran

    2015-01-01

    Non-caloric artificial sweeteners (NAS) are common food supplements consumed by millions worldwide as means of combating weight gain and diabetes, by retaining sweet taste without increasing caloric intake. While they are considered safe, there is increasing controversy regarding their potential ability to promote metabolic derangements in some humans. We recently demonstrated that NAS consumption could induce glucose intolerance in mice and distinct human subsets, by functionally altering the gut microbiome. In this commentary, we discuss these findings in the context of previous and recent works demonstrating the effects of NAS on host health and the microbiome, and the challenges and open questions that need to be addressed in understanding the effects of NAS consumption on human health. PMID:25831243

  2. Influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of meals in man

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.G.; Christian, P.E.; Brown, J.A.; Brophy, C.; Datz, F.; Taylor, A.; Alazraki, N.

    1984-06-01

    This study was designed to assess the relative influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of liquid and solid meals in man. A dual radioisotopic method which permits noninvasive and simultaneous measurement of liquid- and solid-phase emptying by external gamma camera techniques was employed. Nine healthy volunteer subjects ingested 50-, 300-, and 900-g lettuce and water meals adjusted to either 68, 208, or 633 kcal with added salad oil. The following observations were made: (1) absolute emptying rates (grams of solid food emptied from the stomach per minute) increased directly and significantly with meal weight; (2) increasing meal total caloric content significantly slowed solid food gastric emptying but did not overcome the enhancing effect of meal weight; and (3) liquid emptying rates were uninfluenced by meal total kcal amount.

  3. Prenatal Caloric Intake and the Development of Academic Achievement Among U.S. Children From Ages 5 to 14.

    PubMed

    Connolly, Eric J; Beaver, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relation between maternal caloric intake during pregnancy and growth in child academic achievement while controlling for important confounding influences. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, the current study examined the effects of reduced prenatal caloric intake on growth in scores on the Peabody Individual Achievement Test from ages 5 to 14. While models controlling for within-family covariates showed that prenatal caloric intake was associated with lower reading and mathematical achievement at age 5, models controlling for between-family covariates (such as maternal IQ) and unobserved familial confounders revealed only a statistically significant association between siblings differentially exposed to prenatal caloric intake and mathematical achievement at age 5.

  4. Utilization of zero-trans non-interesterified and interesterified shortenings in cookie production.

    PubMed

    Dinç, Saliha; Javidipour, Issa; Ozbas, Ozen Özboy; Tekin, Aziz

    2014-02-01

    The effects of zero-trans chemically interesterified (in-es) and non-interesterified (non-in-es) cottonseed (CO), hazelnut (HO) and olive oil (OO) and their blends (25, 50 and 75%) with palm oil (PO) were studied in the production of cookies. All the experimental shortenings had zero-trans fatty acids (TFA) while the shortening contained 14.20% TFA. Incorporation of CO in PO considerably increased the linoleic acid content whereas the raising of HO and OO ratio in the blend increased the oleic acid content. Zero-TFA and lower saturated /unsaturated fatty acid ratio (SFA/UFA) of some of the experimental shortenings indicated an important in nutritional properties of cookies produced from these experimental shortenings. Cookies with in-es shortenings showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) spread ratios and L Hunter color than their non-in-es shortenings added counterparts. It can be concluded that chemical interesterification is a promising method to produce cookie shortenings with zero-TFA.

  5. Elemental composition, biochemical composition and caloric value of Antarctic krill.: Implications in Energetics and carbon balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Färber-Lorda, Jaime; Gaudy, Raymond; Mayzaud, P.

    2009-11-01

    Samples of Antarctic krill were analyzed for elemental composition, biochemical composition, weight and caloric content. Sexes and maturity stages were separated. Mature females showed the highest caloric values (Joules) and juveniles the lowest in a per animal basis. On unit of wet weight per animal basis, spent females showed the lowest caloric values. For the caloric values by animal, a significant difference was found between males, mature females, spent females and juveniles, either on a per animal basis or in the basis of 1 g of wet weight, showing a real difference between the groups, regardless of their individual size. Significant differences were found for carbon, nitrogen and lipids, but not for proteins, analyzed in % of dry weight. Carbon was lowest for spent females and highest for mature females. On the contrary, nitrogen values were lowest for mature females and highest for males. Mature females had the highest lipid content and males the lowest. All variables were significantly correlated. For the linear regression analysis, the best correlation found was between Joules and carbon, followed by carbon vs. dry weight and Joules vs. dry weight. In an analysis with two independent variables, the best correlation was found for Joules vs. lipids and dry weight, followed by Joules vs. carbon and nitrogen, and Joules vs. lipids and proteins. The results obtained were used to make an analysis of the energy and carbon fluxes through the food chain in the sampled area, showing higher energetic and carbon "densities" in frontal areas, the POM calorific values showed an opposite pattern than that of krill.

  6. Vestibular Function Tests for Vestibular Migraine: Clinical Implication of Video Head Impulse and Caloric Tests

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Woo Seok; Lee, Sang Hun; Yang, Chan Joo; Ahn, Joong Ho; Chung, Jong Woo; Park, Hong Ju

    2016-01-01

    Vestibular migraine (VM) is one of the most common causes of episodic vertigo. We reviewed the results of multiple vestibular function tests in a cohort of VM patients who were diagnosed with VM according to the diagnostic criteria of the Barany Society and the International Headache Society and assessed the efficacy of each for predicting the prognosis in VM patients. A retrospective chart analysis was performed on 81 VM patients at a tertiary care center from June 2014 to July 2015. Patients were assessed by the video head impulse test (vHIT), caloric test, vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs), and sensory organization test (SOT) at the initial visit and then evaluated for symptomatic improvement after 6 months. Complete response (CR) was defined as no need for continued medication, partial response (PR) as improved symptoms but need for continued medication, and no response (NR) as no symptomatic improvement and requiring increased dosage or change in medications. At the initial evaluation, 9 of 81 patients (11%) exhibited abnormal vHIT results, 14 of 73 (19%) exhibited abnormal caloric test results, 25 of 65 (38%) exhibited abnormal SOT results, 8 of 75 (11%) exhibited abnormal cervical VEMP results, and 20 of 75 (27%) exhibited abnormal ocular VEMP results. Six months later, 63 of 81 patients (78%) no longer required medication (CR), while 18 (22%) still required medication, including 7 PR and 11 NR patients. Abnormal vHIT gain and abnormal caloric results were significantly related to the necessity for continued medication at 6-month follow-up (OR = 5.67 and 4.36, respectively). Abnormal vHIT and caloric test results revealed semicircular canal dysfunction in VM patients and predicted prolonged preventive medication requirement. These results suggest that peripheral vestibular abnormalities are closely related to the development of vertigo in VM patients. PMID:27746761

  7. Temperature characteristics of squirrel monkey horizontal semicircular canals during caloric irrigation.

    PubMed

    Wilpizeski, C

    1981-01-01

    Current assumptions concerning body temperature of experimental animals, particularly as it relates to the selection of caloric test stimuli, are likely to be inaccurate guesses. Although the temporal bone of squirrel monkeys attenuates irrigation temperature by a factor of nearly 10, there is a high correlation between thermal changes in inner ear fluid and irrigation values. In this study, nystagmus (defined by electronystagmographic thresholds) occurred when horizontal canal temperatures deviated from resting temperature by +/- 0.14 C.

  8. Caloric content of Chukchi Sea benthic invertebrates: Modeling spatial and environmental variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilt, Lisa M.; Grebmeier, Jacqueline M.; Miller, Thomas J.; Cooper, Lee W.

    2014-04-01

    The Chukchi Sea shelf off the northern coast of Alaska is rich with infauna and epibenthic macroinvertebrates used by foraging Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) and other benthic-feeding consumers. Recent seasonal sea-ice retreat on the Chukchi Sea shelf has resulted in walrus hauling out in late summer on beaches of the Chukchi Sea in Russia and Alaska rather than on sea ice. Additional energetic costs may be imposed upon walruses traveling from these haul-outs to more productive foraging areas. Here, we provide an energetic assessment of prey items that could be relevant to the foraging energetics of walruses in haul-out locations. Caloric values for 171 potential walrus prey items (comprising 11 classes of benthic fauna) were obtained over 15 southeastern Chukchi Sea stations in 2010. There were statistically significant relationships between caloric content and increasing latitude (R=0.661) and bottom temperature (R=-0.560). Linear modeling indicated that taxon and latitude were the most important explanatory variables for caloric content in the study area, whereas a second model with taxon dependencies removed returned significant coefficients for the explanatory variables of latitude, depth, bottom water temperature, and sediment total organic carbon and nitrogen. K-means cluster analysis identified 6 clusters based mainly upon environmental variables such as bottom temperature, bottom salinity, and other water-column and sediment parameters that explained 86% of the variation in the data. The finding that caloric content varies strongly with latitude, which is a proxy for both water-mass type and associated water-mass productivity in the study area, may have implications for Pacific walrus, whose historical foraging patterns well offshore on sea ice have been disrupted by sea-ice decline.

  9. High caloric intake, poor cognition and dementia: the Caerphilly Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Creavin, Samuel Thomas; Gallacher, John; Pickering, Janet; Fehily, Ann; Fish, Mark; Ebrahim, Shah; Bayer, Antony; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2012-03-01

    To examine the hypothesis that caloric intake in mid-life is associated with later dementia or cognitive impairment not dementia (CIND). A prospective cohort study was conducted in Caerphilly, South Wales, United Kingdom. Men aged 45-59 years were identified from the electoral roll and general practice. 2,512 men were examined between July 1979 until September 1983. Four follow-up examinations were conducted every 4-5 years until 2004. Participants were categorized on the basis of their average daily caloric intake over each of the first three phases. Outcomes were CIND and dementia ascertained at phase five (2004). 192 men (15% of 1,248 participants at phase five) had CIND and 100 (8%) dementia. Age adjusted odds ratios demonstrated strongest associations between average energy consumption and vascular CIND or dementia (OR 1.62 95% CI 1.25-2.10). Adjustment for nutritional factors, vascular disease, diabetes, smoking, BP and BMI if anything increased the association (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.03-2.60). After adjusting for social class, associations were attenuated and consistent with chance (OR 1.48, 95% CI 0.92-2.38). When adjusted for social class, the previously observed association between caloric intake and cognitive outcomes is modest, consistent with chance, and may be due to residual confounding.

  10. CALOR2012 XVth International Conference on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Akchurin, Nural .

    2015-05-04

    The International Conferences on Calorimetry in High Energy Physics, or the CALOR series, have always been where the calorimeter experts come together to review the state of calorimetry and bring forth new ideas every two years. The fteenth conference, CALOR2012, in Santa Fe was no exception. Although they were built roughly a decade ago, we are now witnessing the exceptional power of the LHC calorimeters and the crucial role they have been playing in the discovery of the 125 GeV Higgs-like boson. As we ruminate on the coming generation of experiments at the next (linear) collider and on the upgrades at the LHC, we are heartened by the substantial advances we made in calorimetry in the last decade. These advances will certainly help uncover new physics in the years to come, not only at colliders but also in astroparticle experiments that take advantage of natural elements such as air, water, and ice. The proceedings were published by the IOP in Journal of Physics, Vol 404 2011. The conference web site is calor2012.ttu.edu.

  11. Fluid-structural dynamics of ground-based and microgravity caloric tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassemi, M.; Oas, J. G.; Deserranno, Dimitri

    2005-01-01

    Microgravity caloric tests aboard the 1983 SpaceLab1 mission produced nystagmus results with an intensity comparable to those elicited during post- and pre- flight tests, thus contradicting the basic premise of Barany's convection hypothesis for caloric stimulation. In this work, we present a dynamic fluid structural analysis of the caloric stimulation of the lateral semicircular canal based on two simultaneous driving forces for the endolymphatic flow: natural convection driven by the temperature-dependent density variation in the bulk fluid and expansive convection caused by direct volumetric displacement of the endolymph during the thermal irrigation. Direct numerical simulations indicate that on earth, the natural convection mechanism is dominant. But in the microgravity environment of orbiting spacecraft, where buoyancy effects are mitigated, expansive convection becomes the sole mechanism for producing cupular displacement. A series of transient 1 g and microgravity case studies are presented to delineate the differences between the dynamics of the 1 g and microgravity endolymphatic flows. The impact of these different flow dynamics on the endolymph-cupula fluid-structural interactions is also analyzed based on the time evolutions of cupular displacement and velocity and the transcupular pressure differences.

  12. Comparison of CALOR89 model predictions with scintillator plate calorimeter data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Job, P. K.; Price, L.; Proudfoot, J.; Handler, T.; Bishop, B. L.; Gabriel, T. A.

    1991-11-01

    The CALOR code system has been recently revised by adding a high energy collision model for energies ≥ 5 GeV. This version is called as CALOR89. Calculations with this version have been carried out and compared with experimental data from four test beam scintillator plate calorimeter configurations. The agreement is good within the systematics. The limiting uncertainty in CALOR simulation at 10 GeV is the choice of collision model. We have addressed this uncertainty by appealing to the experimental data and determined that by a careful transition from the Intranuclear Cascade model to the FLUKA model this can be reduced to 1.5%. The other mostly mechanical effects such as cladding, scintillator saturation, shower integration time and shower containment can each produce systematic shifts as much as 4%. However, careful modeling of the experimental configuration should allow the systematic effects from each of these to be minimised to 1%. We find that an overall systematic uncertainty of 2.5% in the model predictions may then be achieved.

  13. Nutritional intervention improves the caloric and proteic ingestion of head and neck cancer patients under radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves Dias, M C; de Fátima Nunes Marucci, M; Nadalin, W; Waitzberg, D L

    2005-01-01

    Malnutrition is commonly associated with head and neck cancer, due especially to anorexia, which is aggravated by radiotherapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate modifications to nutritional ingestion following three types of nutritional intervention. Sixty-four male out-patients (62.1 +/- 1.5 years) were divided into three groups: oral group, (n=32) that received an adapted oral diet; feeding tube group, (n=16) under home enteral nutrition via a nasoenteral feeding tube (6x/day); and supplement group, (n=16) with oral diet associated to oral alimentary supplement between meals (3x/day). The groups were homogeneous and counseled to maintain a caloric ingestion of 40 kcal/kg. The diet for the oral group was adapted to the age and to the side effects of radiotherapyThe nutritional state of the three groups was evaluated for the caloric-proteic ingestion, anthropometric indicators (body weight, body mass index, triceps skinfold thickness, midarm muscle area), laboratorial indicators (total proteins, albumin, hematocrit, hemoglobin and total lymphocytes count), The results showed that all of the groups presented an increase in the ingestion of calories and proteins (p < 0.001). The nutritional therapy support for patients with head and neck cancer under radiotherapy, whether exclusive oral diet, enteral through a feeding tube, or with alimentary supplement associated to an oral diet achieved a significant increase in the total caloric ingestion. It is recommended that programs be implemented-to improve the ingestion of foods among these patients.

  14. Subjective Visual Vertical during Caloric Stimulation in Healthy Subjects: Implications to Research and Neurorehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Funabashi, Martha; Flores, Aline I.; Vicentino, Amanda; Barros, Camila G. C.; Pontes-Neto, Octavio M.; Leite, João P.; Santos-Pontelli, Taiza E. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The subjective visual vertical (SVV) is a perception often impaired in patients with neurologic disorders and is considered a sensitive tool to detect otolithic dysfunctions. However, it remains unclear whether the semicircular canals (SCCs) are also involved in the visual vertical perception. Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of horizontal SCCs on SVV by caloric stimulation in healthy subjects. Methods. SVV was performed before and during the ice-cold caloric stimulation (4°C, right ear) in 30 healthy subjects. Results. The mean SVV tilts before and during the caloric stimulation were 0.31° ± 0.39 and −0.28° ± 0.40, respectively. There was no significant difference between the mean SVV tilts before and during stimulation (p = 0.113). Conclusion. These results suggest that horizontal SCCs do not influence SVV. Therefore, investigations and rehabilitation approaches for SVV misperceptions should be focused on otolithic and cognitive strategies. PMID:26161271

  15. Length shortening and surfactant mixing behavior of nonionic/ionic mixed cylindrical micelle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sanghyun; Kwon, Su Yong; Moon, Jun hyuk; Kim, Mahn Won

    2008-10-01

    Cylindrical micelles, which are surfactant self-assembled structures with nm scale, usually grow in length as surfactant concentration increases. Small angle neutron scattering of nonionic/ionic (C 12E 5/DTAB) mixed cylindrical micellar solution showed the shape of aggregates maintained the cylindrical geometry while the micellar length shortened as the fraction of ionic surfactant increased. Unexpectedly, we observed, for the first time, the micellar length shortened as total surfactant concentration increased at constant DTAB mole fraction. This observation suggests that strong non-ideal mixing of the surfactants in the cylindrical micelles, leading to an end-cap energy lowering with increasing concentration, is responsible for the length shortening.

  16. Saccharin and aspartame, compared with sucrose, induce greater weight gain in adult Wistar rats, at similar total caloric intake levels.

    PubMed

    Feijó, Fernanda de Matos; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Batista, Bruna Aparecida Melo; Neves, Alice Magagnin; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) can lead to weight gain, but evidence regarding their real effect in body weight and satiety is still inconclusive. Using a rat model, the present study compares the effect of saccharin and aspartame to sucrose in body weight gain and in caloric intake. Twenty-nine male Wistar rats received plain yogurt sweetened with 20% sucrose, 0.3% sodium saccharin or 0.4% aspartame, in addition to chow and water ad libitum, while physical activity was restrained. Measurements of cumulative body weight gain, total caloric intake, caloric intake of chow and caloric intake of sweetened yogurt were performed weekly for 12 weeks. Results showed that addition of either saccharin or aspartame to yogurt resulted in increased weight gain compared to addition of sucrose, however total caloric intake was similar among groups. In conclusion, greater weight gain was promoted by the use of saccharin or aspartame, compared with sucrose, and this weight gain was unrelated to caloric intake. We speculate that a decrease in energy expenditure or increase in fluid retention might be involved.

  17. Economic management of vertigo/dizziness disease in a county hospital: video-head-impulse test vs. caloric irrigation.

    PubMed

    Rambold, Holger A

    2015-10-01

    The video-head-impulse test (vHIT) is an important test for examining unilateral vestibular hypofunction. Alternatively, one can test for vestibular hypofunction with the caloric irrigation test. Various studies have shown that both tests may not always identify vestibular hypofunction; instead, the results of the tests might be contradictory. This retrospective study reproduces those finding in a much larger group of patients at a county hospital. 1063 patients were examined with the vHIT and bithermal caloric irrigation on the same day and analyzed with respect to side differences. Of those patients 13.3% had pathological vHIT and a caloric irrigation test, 4.6% a pathological vHIT only and 24.1% a pathologic caloric test only. As both tests might be necessary, we calculated the optimal sequence of the two examinations based on savings in time for the different disease groups. Especially in vestibular failure using the vHIT first and only applying the caloric irrigation in case of an unremarkable vHIT saves time and optimizes the diagnostic work up. In contrast, in Menière's disease and vestibular migraine testing caloric irrigation first might be more efficient.

  18. Food restriction and refeeding induces changes in lipid pathways and fat deposition in the adipose and hepatic tissues in rats with diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Fernanda Oliveira; Sene-Fiorese, Marcela; Cheik, Nadia Carla; Maria, Adriana Simone Lopes Santa; de Aquino, Antônio Eduardo; Oishi, Jorge Camargo; Rossi, Elizeu Antônio; Garcia de Oliveira Duarte, Ana Cláudia; Dâmaso, Ana Raimunda

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of successive cycles of a moderately restrictive diet and refeeding with a high-fat diet on the metabolism of the adipose and hepatic tissues of obese rats. Rats were assigned to the following groups: a chow diet; a high-fat diet; a moderate caloric restriction; or a moderate caloric restriction plus refeeding. Some animals in each group were given [1-(14)C]triolein intragastrically, while others received an intraperitoneal injection of 3 mCi (3)H(2)O. All animals were killed by decapitation. The retroperitoneal, visceral epididymal and omental white adipose tissues, brown adipose tissue, liver and blood were immediately removed. The lipid uptake from the diet, in vivo rate of lipogenesis, percentage of fat, lipid profile and leptin concentration were analysed. The high-fat diet promoted an increase in fatty liver (P ≤ 0.05), adiposity mass (P ≤ 0.05) and the plasma concentration of leptin (P ≤ 0.05) and a decreased lipid uptake in white adipose tissue depots (P ≤ 0.05) in relation to the chow diet. The moderate caloric restriction did not reverse the changes promoted by the high-fat diet but induced a small decrease in adiposity, which was reversed after refeeding, and the animals maintained a dyslipidaemic profile and high fat deposition in the liver. We can conclude that the high-fat diet and subsequent moderate caloric restriction plus refeeding increased the risks of developing visceral obesity, dyslipidaemia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which suggests that this type of experimental protocol can be used to study mechanisms related to the metabolic syndrome.

  19. Spatial orientation of caloric nystagmus in semicircular canal-plugged monkeys.

    PubMed

    Arai, Yasuko; Yakushin, Sergei B; Cohen, Bernard; Suzuki, Jun-Ichi; Raphan, Theodore

    2002-08-01

    We studied caloric nystagmus before and after plugging all six semicircular canals to determine whether velocity storage contributed to the spatial orientation of caloric nystagmus. Monkeys were stimulated unilaterally with cold ( approximately 20 degrees C) water while upright, supine, prone, right-side down, and left-side down. The decline in the slow phase velocity vector was determined over the last 37% of the nystagmus, at a time when the response was largely due to activation of velocity storage. Before plugging, yaw components varied with the convective flow of endolymph in the lateral canals in all head orientations. Plugging blocked endolymph flow, eliminating convection currents. Despite this, caloric nystagmus was readily elicited, but the horizontal component was always toward the stimulated (ipsilateral) side, regardless of head position relative to gravity. When upright, the slow phase velocity vector was close to the yaw and spatial vertical axes. Roll components became stronger in supine and prone positions, and vertical components were enhanced in side down positions. In each case, this brought the velocity vectors toward alignment with the spatial vertical. Consistent with principles governing the orientation of velocity storage, when the yaw component of the velocity vector was positive, the cross-coupled pitch or roll components brought the vector upward in space. Conversely, when yaw eye velocity vector was downward in the head coordinate frame, i.e., negative, pitch and roll were downward in space. The data could not be modeled simply by a reduction in activity in the ipsilateral vestibular nerve, which would direct the velocity vector along the roll direction. Since there is no cross coupling from roll to yaw, velocity storage alone could not rotate the vector to fit the data. We postulated, therefore, that cooling had caused contraction of the endolymph in the plugged canals. This contraction would deflect the cupula toward the plug

  20. Caloric beverages were major sources of energy among children and adults in Mexico, 1999-2012.

    PubMed

    Stern, Dalia; Piernas, Carmen; Barquera, Simon; Rivera, Juan A; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-06-01

    Mexico, with 1 of the highest obesity prevalences in the world, instituted a 10% excise tax for any sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) starting on 1 January 2014. Understanding the recent patterns and trends in beverage intake and sales in Mexico provides both background and baseline data for the importance of SSBs and other beverages in the Mexican diet. We analyzed a single 24-h dietary recall from 2 nationally representative surveys: the Mexican Nutrition Survey 1999 (n = 6049) and the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012 (n = 10,343). To describe trends and patterns in beverages, we calculated the volume and energy intake per capita and per consumer and the proportion of consumers of each beverage group in each survey. A commercial sales dataset was used to describe beverage sales trends from 1999 to 2012. From 1999 to 2012, total daily energy from beverages increased among children aged 5-11 y (+45.3 kcal), females aged 12-19 y (+57.3 kcal), and adult females aged 20-49 y (+96.4 kcal) (P < 0.05). Over the same period, intake of beverages with added sugars increased, specifically flavored milk, agua fresca (fruit water made in stalls or at home, usually with added sugars), and fruit drinks among children aged 5-11 y and females aged 12-19 y and caloric coffee/tea, soda, and agua fresca among adult females aged 20-49 y. In 2012, beverages represented 17.5% (325 kcal) and 19.0% (382 kcal) of the total daily energy intake per capita in children aged 1-19 y and adults aged ≥20 y, respectively. In 2012, flavored milk beverages, caloric soda, and high-fat milk were the top 3 major contributors to total daily energy intake per capita in all children aged 1-19 y. Caloric soda, caloric coffee/tea, and agua fresca were the top 3 major energy contributors in adults aged ≥20 y. From 1999 to 2012, sales of soda, fruit-flavored drinks, and flavored waters increased. In conclusion, consumption of several beverages with added sugars increased among children and adult

  1. Caloric Beverages Were Major Sources of Energy among Children and Adults in Mexico, 1999–2012123

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Dalia; Piernas, Carmen; Barquera, Simon; Rivera, Juan A.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2014-01-01

    Mexico, with 1 of the highest obesity prevalences in the world, instituted a 10% excise tax for any sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) starting on 1 January 2014. Understanding the recent patterns and trends in beverage intake and sales in Mexico provides both background and baseline data for the importance of SSBs and other beverages in the Mexican diet. We analyzed a single 24-h dietary recall from 2 nationally representative surveys: the Mexican Nutrition Survey 1999 (n = 6049) and the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012 (n = 10,343). To describe trends and patterns in beverages, we calculated the volume and energy intake per capita and per consumer and the proportion of consumers of each beverage group in each survey. A commercial sales dataset was used to describe beverage sales trends from 1999 to 2012. From 1999 to 2012, total daily energy from beverages increased among children aged 5–11 y (+45.3 kcal), females aged 12–19 y (+57.3 kcal), and adult females aged 20–49 y (+96.4 kcal) (P < 0.05). Over the same period, intake of beverages with added sugars increased, specifically flavored milk, agua fresca (fruit water made in stalls or at home, usually with added sugars), and fruit drinks among children aged 5–11 y and females aged 12–19 y and caloric coffee/tea, soda, and agua fresca among adult females aged 20–49 y. In 2012, beverages represented 17.5% (325 kcal) and 19.0% (382 kcal) of the total daily energy intake per capita in children aged 1–19 y and adults aged ≥20 y, respectively. In 2012, flavored milk beverages, caloric soda, and high-fat milk were the top 3 major contributors to total daily energy intake per capita in all children aged 1–19 y. Caloric soda, caloric coffee/tea, and agua fresca were the top 3 major energy contributors in adults aged ≥20 y. From 1999 to 2012, sales of soda, fruit-flavored drinks, and flavored waters increased. In conclusion, consumption of several beverages with added sugars increased among

  2. Lengthening of the shortened first metatarsal after Wilson's osteotomy for hallux valgus.

    PubMed

    Singh, D; Dudkiewicz, I

    2009-12-01

    Metatarsalgia is a recognised complication following iatrogenic shortening of the first metatarsal in the management of hallux valgus. The traditional surgical treatment is by shortening osteotomies of the lesser metatarsals. We describe the results of lengthening of iatrogenic first brachymetatarsia in 16 females. A Scarf-type osteotomy was used in the first four cases and a step-cut of equal thicknesses along the axis of the first metatarsal was performed in the others. The mean follow-up was 21 months (19 to 26). Relief of metatarsalgia was obtained in the six patients in whom 10 mm of lengthening had been achieved, compared to only 50% relief in those where less than 8 mm of lengthening had been gained. One-stage step-cut lengthening osteotomy of the first metatarsal may be preferable to shortening osteotomies of the lesser metatarsals in the treatment of metatarsalgia following surgical shortening of the first metatarsal. PMID:19949121

  3. Influence of different shortening velocities preceding stretch on human triceps surae moment generation in vivo.

    PubMed

    De Monte, Gianpiero; Arampatzis, Adamantios

    2008-07-19

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of different shortening velocities preceding the stretch on moment generation of the triceps surae muscles and architecture of the m. gastrocnemius medialis after shortening-stretch cycles of equal magnitude in vivo. Eleven male subjects (31.6+/-5.8 years, 178.4+/-7.3cm, 80.6+/-9.6kg) performed a series of electro-stimulated (85Hz) shortening-stretch plantar flexion contractions. The shortening-stretch cycles were performed at three constant angular velocities (25, 50, 100 degrees /s) in the plantar flexion direction (shortening) and at 50 degrees /s in the dorsiflexion direction (stretching). The resultant ankle joint moments were calculated through inverse dynamics. Pennation angle and fascicle length of the m. gastrocnemius medialis at rest and during contractions were measured using ultrasonography. The corresponding ankle moments, kinematics and changes in muscle architecture were analysed at seven time intervals. An analysis of variance for repeated measurements and post hoc test with Bonferroni correction was used to check the velocity-related effects on moment enhancement (alpha=0.05). The results show an increase in pennation angles and a decrease in fascicle lengths after the shortening-stretch cycle. The ankle joint moment ratio (post to pre) was higher (p<0.01) than 1.0 indicating a moment enhancement after the shortening-stretch cycle. The found ankle joint moment enhancement was 2-5% after the shortening-stretch cycle and was independed of the shortening velocity. Furthermore, the decrease in fascicle length after the shortening-stretch cycle indicates that the moment enhancement found in the present study is underestimated at least by 1-3%. Considering that the experiments have been done at the ascending limb of the force-length curve and that force enhancement is higher at the descending and the plateau region of the force-length curve, we conclude that the moment enhancement after shortening

  4. The low-methionine content of vegan diets may make methionine restriction feasible as a life extension strategy.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F; Barroso-Aranda, Jorge; Contreras, Francisco

    2009-02-01

    Recent studies confirm that dietary methionine restriction increases both mean and maximal lifespan in rats and mice, achieving "aging retardant" effects very similar to those of caloric restriction, including a suppression of mitochondrial superoxide generation. Although voluntary caloric restriction is never likely to gain much popularity as a pro-longevity strategy for humans, it may be more feasible to achieve moderate methionine restriction, in light of the fact that vegan diets tend to be relatively low in this amino acid. Plant proteins - especially those derived from legumes or nuts - tend to be lower in methionine than animal proteins. Furthermore, the total protein content of vegan diets, as a function of calorie content, tends to be lower than that of omnivore diets, and plant protein has somewhat lower bioavailability than animal protein. Whole-food vegan diets that moderate bean and soy intake, while including ample amounts of fruit and wine or beer, can be quite low in methionine, while supplying abundant nutrition for health (assuming concurrent B12 supplementation). Furthermore, low-fat vegan diets, coupled with exercise training, can be expected to promote longevity by decreasing systemic levels of insulin and free IGF-I; the latter effect would be amplified by methionine restriction - though it is not clear whether IGF-I down-regulation is the sole basis for the impact of low-methionine diets on longevity in rodents.

  5. Shortening and Thickening of Metropolitan Los Angeles Measured and Inferred Using Geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argus, D.; Heflin, M.; Donnellan, A.; Webb, F.; Dong, D.; Hurst, K.; Jefferson, D.; Lyzenga, G.; Watkins, M.; Zumberge, J.

    1999-01-01

    Geodetic measurements using the Global Positioning System and other techniques show north-south shortening near Los Angeles to be fastest across the northern part of the metropolitan area, where an ESE-striking, 5- to 40-km-wide belt lying to the south of San Gabriel Mountains and to the north of downtown and West Los Angeles is shortening at 5 mm/yr.

  6. Attempts to Shorten the Time of Lactic Fermentation by Ultrasonic Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuzawa, Nobuyoshi; Ohdaira, Etsuzo

    2002-05-01

    In recent years, applications of ultrasound to food processing have been of interest. Fermentation is a typical example of food processing which has been used, since ancient times, on milk and is utilized for processing various dairy products, e.g., yoghurt. In this study, ultrasonic irradiation to shorten the time of fermentation in yoghurt production is attempted. It is proven that shortening the fermentation time is possible by employing ultrasonic irradiation.

  7. Cross-bridge attachment and stiffness during isotonic shortening of intact single muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, P J; Ashley, C C; Bagni, M A; Maéda, Y; Cecchi, G

    1993-04-01

    Equatorial x-ray diffraction pattern intensities (I10 and I11), fiber stiffness and sarcomere length were measured in single, intact muscle fibers under isometric conditions and during constant velocity (ramp) shortening. At the velocity of unloaded shortening (Vmax) the I10 change accompanying activation was reduced to 50.8% of its isometric value, I11 reduced to 60.7%. If the roughly linear relation between numbers of attached bridges and equatorial signals in the isometric state also applies during shortening, this would predict 51-61% attachment. Stiffness (measured using 4 kHz sinusoidal length oscillations), another putative measure of bridge attachment, was 30% of its isometric value at Vmax. When small step length changes were applied to the preparation (such as used for construction of T1 curves), no equatorial intensity changes could be detected with our present time resolution (5 ms). Therefore, unlike the isometric situation, stiffness and equatorial signals obtained during ramp shortening are not in agreement. This may be a result of a changed crossbridge spatial orientation during shortening, a different average stiffness per attached crossbridge, or a higher proportion of single headed crossbridges during shortening.

  8. Constraints on the use of lifespan-shortening Wolbachia to control dengue fever.

    PubMed

    Schraiber, Joshua G; Kaczmarczyk, Angela N; Kwok, Ricky; Park, Miran; Silverstein, Rachel; Rutaganira, Florentine U; Aggarwal, Taruna; Schwemmer, Michael A; Hom, Carole L; Grosberg, Richard K; Schreiber, Sebastian J

    2012-03-21

    Dengue fever, a viral disease spread by the mosquito Aedes aegypti, affects 50-100 million people a year in many tropical countries. Because the virus must incubate within mosquito hosts for two weeks before being able to transmit the infection, shortening the lifespan of mosquitoes may curtail dengue transmission. We developed a continuous time reaction-diffusion model of the spatial spread of Wolbachia through a population of A. aegypti. This model incorporates the lifespan-shortening effects of Wolbachia on infected A. aegypti and the fitness advantage to infected females due to cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). We found that local establishment of the Wolbachia infection can occur if the fitness advantage due to CI exceeds the fitness reduction due to lifespan-shortening effects, in accordance with earlier results concerning fecundity reduction. However, spatial spread is possible only if the fitness advantage due to CI is twice as great as the fitness reduction due to lifespan shortening effects. Moreover, lifespan-shortening and fecundity-reduction can have different effects on the speed of wave-retreat. Using data from the literature, we estimated all demographic parameters for infected and uninfected mosquitoes and computed the velocities of spread of infection. Our most optimistic estimates suggest that the spatial spread of lifespan-shortening Wolbachia may be so slow that efficient spatial spread would require a prohibitively large number of point releases. However, as these estimates of demographic parameters may not accurately reflect natural conditions, further research is necessary to corroborate these predictions.

  9. Antiretroviral restriction factors.

    PubMed

    Hatziioannou, Theodora; Bieniasz, Paul D

    2011-12-01

    Studies of retroviruses have been instrumental in revealing the existence of an array of antiviral proteins, or restriction factors, and the mechanisms by which they function. Some restriction factors appear to specifically inhibit retrovirus replication, while others have a broader antiviral action. Here, we briefly review current understanding of the mechanisms by which several such proteins exert antiviral activity. We also discuss how retroviruses have evolved to evade or antagonize antiviral proteins, including through the action of viral accessory proteins. Restriction factors, their viral targets and antagonists have exerted evolutionary pressure on each other, resulting in specialization and barriers to cross-species transmission. Potentially, this recently revealed intrinsic system of antiviral immunity might be mobilized for therapeutic benefit.

  10. Telomeres shorten more slowly in slow-aging wild animals than in fast-aging ones.

    PubMed

    Dantzer, Ben; Fletcher, Quinn E

    2015-11-01

    Research on the physiological causes of senescence aim to identify common physiological mechanisms that explain age-related declines in fitness across taxonomic groups. Telomeres are repetitive nucleotide sequences found on the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. Past research indicates that telomere attrition is strongly correlated with inter-specific rates of aging, though these studies cannot distinguish whether telomere attrition is a cause or consequence of the aging process. We extend previous research on this topic by incorporating recent studies to test the hypothesis that telomeres shorten more slowly with age in slow-aging animals than in fast-aging ones. We assembled all studies that have quantified cross-sectional (i.e. between-individual) telomere rates of change (TROC) over the lifespans of wild animals. This included 22 estimates reflecting absolute TROC (TROCabs, bp/yr, primarily measured using the terminal restriction fragment length method), and 10 estimates reflecting relative TROC (TROCrel, relative telomere length/yr, measured using qPCR), from five classes (Aves, Mammalia, Bivalvia, Reptilia, and Actinopterygii). In 14 bird species, we correlated between-individual (i.e. cross-sectional) TROCabs estimates with both maximum lifespan and a phylogenetically-corrected principle component axis (pcPC1) that reflected the slow-fast axis of life-history variation. Bird species characterized by faster life-histories and shorter maximum lifespans had faster TROCabs. In nine studies, both between-individual and within-individual TROC estimates were available (n=8 for TROCabs, n=1 for TROCrel). Within-individual TROC estimates were generally greater than between-individual TROC estimates, which is indicative of selective disappearance of individuals with shorter telomeres. However, the difference between within- and between-individual TROC estimates was only significant in two out of nine studies. The relationship between within-individual TROCabs and maximum

  11. Neuroaesthetics: range and restrictions.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Anjan

    2013-04-01

    Bullot & Reber (B&R) should be commended for highlighting tensions between scientific aesthetics and art history. The question of how each tradition can learn from the other is timely. While I am sympathetic to their views, their diagnosis of the problem appears exaggerated and their solution partial. They underestimate the reach of scientific aesthetics while failing to identify its inherent restrictions. PMID:23507092

  12. Drug-induced QT interval shortening: potential harbinger of proarrhythmia and regulatory perspectives.

    PubMed

    Shah, Rashmi R

    2010-01-01

    ATP-dependent potassium channel openers such as pinacidil and levcromakalim have long been known to shorten action potential duration and to be profibrillatory in non-clinical models, raising concerns on the clinical safety of drugs that shorten QT interval. Routine non-clinical evaluation of new drugs for their potential to affect cardiac repolarization has revealed that drugs may also shorten QT interval. The description of congenital short QT syndrome in 2000, together with the associated arrhythmias, suggests that drug-induced short QT interval may be proarrhythmic, and an uncanny parallel is evolving between our appreciation of the short and the long QT intervals. Epidemiological studies report an over-representation of short QT interval values in patients with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation. Therefore, as new compounds that shorten QT interval are progressed further into clinical development, questions will inevitably arise on their safety. Arising from the current risk-averse clinical and regulatory environment and concerns on proarrhythmic safety of drugs, together with our lack of a better understanding of the clinical significance of short QT interval, new drugs that substantially shorten QT interval will likely receive an unfavourable regulatory review unless these drugs fulfil an unmet clinical need. This review provides estimates of parameters of QT shortening that may be of potential clinical significance. Rufinamide, a recently approved anticonvulsant, illustrates the current regulatory approach to drugs that shorten QT interval. However, to further substantiate or confirm the safety of these drugs, their approval may well be conditional upon large-scale post-marketing studies with a focus on cardiac safety. PMID:19563537

  13. Titin-based contribution to shortening velocity of rabbit skeletal myofibrils

    PubMed Central

    Minajeva, Ave; Neagoe, Ciprian; Kulke, Michael; Linke, Wolfgang A

    2002-01-01

    The shortening velocity of skeletal muscle fibres is determined principally by actomyosin cross-bridges. However, these contractile elements are in parallel with elastic elements, whose main structural basis is thought to be the titin filaments. If titin is stretched, it may contribute to sarcomere shortening simply because it can recoil ‘passively’. The titin-based contribution to shortening velocity (Vp) was quantified in single rabbit psoas myofibrils. Non-activated specimens were rapidly released from different initial sarcomere lengths (SLs) by various step amplitudes sufficient to buckle the myofibrils; Vp was calculated from the release amplitude and the time to slack reuptake. Vp increased progressively (upper limit of detection, ∼60 μm s−1 sarcomere−1) between 2.0 and 3.0 μm SL, albeit more steeply than passive tension. At very low passive tension levels already (< 1–2 mN mm−2), Vp could greatly exceed the unloaded shortening velocity measured in fully Ca2+-activated skinned rabbit psoas fibres. Degradation of titin in relaxed myofibrils by low doses of trypsin (5 min) drastically decreased Vp. In intact myofibrils, average Vp was faster, the smaller the release step applied. Also, Vp was much higher at 30 °C than at 15 °C (Q10: 2.0, 3.04 or 6.15, for release steps of 150, 250 or 450 nm sarcomere−1, respectively). Viscous forces opposing the shortening are likely to be involved in determining these effects. The results support the idea that the contractile system imposes a braking force onto the passive recoil of elastic structures. However, elastic recoil may aid active shortening during phases of high elastic energy utilization, i.e. immediately after the onset of contraction under low or zero load or during prolonged shortening from greater physiological SLs. PMID:11927678

  14. Dietary Restrictions in Dialysis Patients: Is There Anything Left to Eat?

    PubMed Central

    Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Brown, Amanda; Chen, Joline L. T.; Kamgar, Mohammad; Lau, Wei-Ling; Moradi, Hamid; Rhee, Connie M.; Streja, Elani; Kovesdy, Csaba P.

    2015-01-01

    A significant number of dietary restrictions are imposed traditionally and uniformly on maintenance dialysis patients, whereas there is very little data to support their benefits. Recent studies indicate that dietary restrictions of phosphorus may lead to worse survival and poorer nutritional status. Restricting dietary potassium may deprive dialysis patients of heart-healthy diets and lead to intake of more atherogenic diets. There is little data about the survival benefits of dietary sodium restriction, and limiting fluid intake may inherently lead to lower protein and calorie consumption, when in fact dialysis patients often need higher protein intake to prevent and correct protein-energy wasting. Restricting dietary carbohydrates in diabetic dialysis patients may not be beneficial in those with burnt-out diabetes. Dietary fat including omega-3 fatty acids may be important caloric sources and should not be restricted. Data to justify other dietary restrictions related to calcium, vitamins and trace elements are scarce and often contradictory. The restriction of eating during hemodialysis treatment is likely another incorrect practice that may worsen hemodialysis induced hypoglycemia and nutritional derangements. We suggest careful relaxation of most dietary restrictions and adoption of a more balanced and individualized approach, thereby easing some of these overzealous restrictions that have not been proven to offer major advantages to patients and their outcomes and which may in fact worsen patients’ quality of life and satisfaction. This manuscript critically reviews the current paradigms and practices of recommended dietary regimens in dialysis patients including those related to dietary protein, carbohydrate, fat, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and calcium, and discusses the feasibility and implications of adherence to ardent dietary restrictions. PMID:25649719

  15. Longitudinal Relationships between Caloric Expenditure and Gray Matter in the Cardiovascular Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Raji, Cyrus A.; Merrill, David A.; Eyre, Harris; Mallam, Sravya; Torosyan, Nare; Erickson, Kirk I.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Becker, James T.; Carmichael, Owen T.; Gach, H. Michael; Thompson, Paul M.; Longstreth, W.T.; Kuller, Lewis H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) can be neuroprotective and reduce the risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In assessing physical activity, caloric expenditure is a proxy marker reflecting the sum total of multiple physical activity types conducted by an individual. Objective:To assess caloric expenditure, as a proxy marker of PA, as a predictive measure of gray matter (GM) volumes in the normal and cognitively impaired elderly persons. Methods: All subjects in this study were recruited from the Institutional Review Board approved Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS), a multisite population-based longitudinal study in persons aged 65 and older. We analyzed a sub-sample of CHS participants 876 subjects (mean age 78.3, 57.5% F, 42.5% M) who had i) energy output assessed as kilocalories (kcal) per week using the standardized Minnesota Leisure-Time Activities questionnaire, ii) cognitive assessments for clinical classification of normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and AD, and iii) volumetric MR imaging of the brain. Voxel-based morphometry modeled the relationship between kcal/week and GM volumes while accounting for standard covariates including head size, age, sex, white matter hyperintensity lesions, MCI or AD status, and site. Multiple comparisons were controlled using a False Discovery Rate of 5 percent. Results: Higher energy output, from a variety of physical activity types, was associated with larger GM volumes in frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes, as well as hippocampus, thalamus, and basal ganglia. High levels of caloric expenditure moderated neurodegeneration-associated volume loss in the precuneus, posterior cingulate, and cerebellar vermis. Conclusion:Increasing energy output from a variety of physical activities is related to larger gray matter volumes in the elderly, regardless of cognitive status. PMID:26967227

  16. Relationship Of Mediterranean Diet And Caloric Intake To Phenoconversion In Huntington Disease

    PubMed Central

    Marder, Karen; Gu, Yian; Eberly, Shirley; Tanner, Caroline M.; Scarmeas, Nikolaos; Oakes, David; Shoulson, Ira

    2014-01-01

    Importance Adherence to Mediterranean-type diet (MeDi) may delay onset of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease. Whether adherence to MeDi affects time to phenoconversion in Huntington’s Disease (HD), a highly penetrant, single gene disorder, is unknown. Objective To determine if MeDi modifies the time to clinical onset of HD ('phenoconversion') in premanifest carriers participating in Prospective Huntington At Risk Observational Study (PHAROS), and to examine the effects of BMI and caloric intake on time to phenoconversion. Design A prospective cohort study. Setting 41 Huntington Study Group sites in the US and Canada. Participants 1001 participants were enrolled in PHAROS between July 1999 and January 2004, and were followed every 9 months until 2010. A total of 211 participants aged 26–57 with an expanded CAG repeat (≥37) were included in the current study. Exposure A semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was administered 33 months after baseline. We calculated daily gram intake for dairy, meat, fruit, vegetables, legumes, cereals, fish, monounsaturated and saturated fatty-acids, and alcohol, and constructed MeDi scores (0–9); higher scores indicate higher adherence. Demographics, medical history, BMI, and Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) were collected. Main Outcome Measure Cox proportional hazards models to determine the association of MeDi and phenoconversion. Results Age, caloric intake, gender, education, and UHDRS motor scores did not differ among MeDi tertiles (0–3, 4–5, 6–9). The highest BMI was associated with lowest adherence to MeDi. 31 participants phenoconverted. In a model adjusted for age, CAG, and caloric intake, MeDi was not associated with phenoconversion (p for trend=0.14 for tertile of MeDi, and p=0.22 for continuous MeDi). When individual diet components of MeDi were analyzed, higher dairy consumption (hazard ratio 2.36; 1.0–5.57; p=0.051) and higher caloric intake (p=0.035) were associated with

  17. Proximate, caloric, nitrogen and mineral composition of bodies of some tropical bats.

    PubMed

    Studier, E H; Sevick, S H; Wilson, D E

    1994-11-01

    Proximate (live mass, water, lipid, ash, non-fat organic), caloric, nitrogen, and mineral (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and iron) concentrations and total body content of individuals of 24 species of Neotropical and Paleotropical bats were determined. Mass-related, concentration patterns were found for all measured variables, except iron. Concentrations increase with size for nitrogen, calcium, and magnesium but are concave, opening upward, for sodium and potassium. These last two elements reach minimal concentrations in bats weighing about 22 and 28 g dry mass, respectively. Total body content of nitrogen and minerals was compared with amounts in similar-sized birds and tetrapodal mammals. PMID:8529005

  18. Rapid relief of thalamic pain syndrome induced by vestibular caloric stimulation.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Vilayanur S; McGeoch, Paul D; Williams, Lisa; Arcilla, Gerard

    2007-06-01

    Central post-stroke pain syndrome develops in a minority of patients following a stroke. The most usual causative lesion involves the lateral thalamus. The classic presentation is of severe, unrelenting pain that involves the entire contralateral half of the body. It is largely refractory to current treatments. We found that in two patients with this condition their pain was substantially improved by vestibular caloric stimulation, whereas placebo procedures had no effect. We proposed that this is because vestibular stimulation activates the posterior insula, which in turn inhibits the generation of pain in the anterior cingulate.

  19. Proximate, caloric, nitrogen and mineral composition of bodies of some tropical bats.

    PubMed

    Studier, E H; Sevick, S H; Wilson, D E

    1994-11-01

    Proximate (live mass, water, lipid, ash, non-fat organic), caloric, nitrogen, and mineral (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and iron) concentrations and total body content of individuals of 24 species of Neotropical and Paleotropical bats were determined. Mass-related, concentration patterns were found for all measured variables, except iron. Concentrations increase with size for nitrogen, calcium, and magnesium but are concave, opening upward, for sodium and potassium. These last two elements reach minimal concentrations in bats weighing about 22 and 28 g dry mass, respectively. Total body content of nitrogen and minerals was compared with amounts in similar-sized birds and tetrapodal mammals.

  20. Spine biomechanics associated with the shortened, modern one-plane golf swing.

    PubMed

    Dale, R Barry; Brumitt, Jason

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare kinetic, kinematic, and performance variables associated with full and shortened modern backswings in a skilled group of modern swing (one-plane) golfers. Shortening the modern golf backswing is proposed to reduce vertebral spine stress, but supporting evidence is lacking and performance implications are unknown. Thirteen male golfers performed ten swings of each swing type using their own 7-iron club. Biomechanical-dependent variables included the X-Factor kinematic data and spine kinetics. Performance-related dependent variables included club head velocity (CHV), shot distance, and accuracy (distance from the target line). Data were analysed with repeated measures ANOVA with an a priori alpha of 0.05 (SPSS 22.0, IBM, Armonk, NY, USA). We found significant reductions for the X-Factor (p < 0.05) between the full and shortened swings. The shortened swing condition ameliorated vertebral compression force from 7.6 ± 1.4 to 7.0 ± 1.7 N (normalised to body weight, p = 0.01) and significantly reduced CHV (p < 0.05) by ~2 m/s with concomitant shot distance diminution by ~10 m (p < 0.05). Further research is necessary to examine the applicability of a shortened swing for golfers with low back pain. PMID:27064175

  1. Shortened telomere length in white matter oligodendrocytes in major depression: potential role of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Szebeni, Attila; Szebeni, Katalin; DiPeri, Timothy; Chandley, Michelle J; Crawford, Jessica D; Stockmeier, Craig A; Ordway, Gregory A

    2014-10-01

    Telomere shortening is observed in peripheral mononuclear cells from patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Whether this finding and its biological causes impact the health of the brain in MDD is unknown. Brain cells have differing vulnerabilities to biological mechanisms known to play a role in accelerating telomere shortening. Here, two glia cell populations (oligodendrocytes and astrocytes) known to have different vulnerabilities to a key mediator of telomere shortening, oxidative stress, were studied. The two cell populations were separately collected by laser capture micro-dissection of two white matter regions shown previously to demonstrate pathology in MDD patients. Cells were collected from brain donors with MDD at the time of death and age-matched psychiatrically normal control donors (N = 12 donor pairs). Relative telomere lengths in white matter oligodendrocytes, but not astrocytes, from both brain regions were significantly shorter for MDD donors as compared to matched control donors. Gene expression levels of telomerase reverse transcriptase were significantly lower in white matter oligodendrocytes from MDD as compared to control donors. Likewise, the gene expression of oxidative defence enzymes superoxide dismutases (SOD1 and SOD2), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) were significantly lower in oligodendrocytes from MDD as compared to control donors. No such gene expression changes were observed in astrocytes from MDD donors. These findings suggest that attenuated oxidative stress defence and deficient telomerase contribute to telomere shortening in oligodendrocytes in MDD, and suggest an aetiological link between telomere shortening and white matter abnormalities previously described in MDD.

  2. Caloric stimulation

    MedlinePlus

    ... temperature, it should cause fast, side-to-side eye movements called nystagmus. The test is done in the ... Rapid, side-to-side eye movements should occur when cold or warm water is placed into the ear. The eye movements should be similar on both ...

  3. License restrictions at Barnwell

    SciTech Connect

    Autry, V.R.

    1991-12-31

    The State of South Carolina was delegated the authority by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to regulate the receipt, possession, use and disposal of radioactive material as an Agreement State. Since 1970, the state has been the principal regulatory authority for the Barnwell Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility operated by Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc. The radioactive material license issued authorizing the receipt and disposal of low-level waste contains numerous restrictions to ensure environmental protection and compliance with shallow land disposal performance criteria. Low-level waste has evolved from minimally contaminated items to complex waste streams containing high concentrations of radionuclides and processing chemicals which necessitated these restrictions. Additionally, some waste with their specific radionuclides and concentration levels, many classified as low-level radioactive waste, are not appropriate for shallow land disposal unless additional precautions are taken. This paper will represent a number of these restrictions, the rationale for them, and how they are being dealt with at the Barnwell disposal facility.

  4. Human reproductive costs and the predicted response to dietary restriction.

    PubMed

    Arking, Robert

    2007-09-01

    The question has arisen in the literature as to whether dietary restriction (DR) will have a significant effect on human longevity. I initially use literature data to estimate the energy costs necessary to carry a human from conception to caloric self-sufficiency to be approximately 12.6 x 10(6)kcal, which amounts to approximately 25% of the the two parents' combined daily caloric intake for 20 years. Similar levels of financial costs are expended in developed societies. Thus, human reproductive costs are high enough to permit a DR response. I then review four different models relating diet and life span, three of which have been previously used to estimate the effects of DR on humans. A review of the pertinent literature suggests that these three models, while plausible, are not capable of making robust predictions that are consistent with human data not used in their development. Given this weakness, none of the predictions made by these theories should be relied on for policy development at this time. The fourth, or biocultural model, examined combines biologic and cultural factors. Human longevity is more complex than our model systems have led us to believe, and thus any solution will require the development of a new quantitative model. The outlines of a suggested quantitative biocultural model based on the prior model of Crews and the disposable soma model of Shanley and Kirkwood are presented and a prediction of the possible data outcomes is made. If the human cultural pro-longevity practices can be quantified in terms of their effect on energy allocation, then this model may serve in future as a realistic quantitative model capable of identifying pertinent pathways and making robust predictions.

  5. Multiple congenital brachymetatarsia. A one-stage combined shortening and lengthening procedure without iliac bone graft.

    PubMed

    Kim, J S; Baek, G H; Chung, M S; Yoon, P W

    2004-09-01

    We performed nine metatarsal and three proximal phalangeal lengthenings in five patients with congenital brachymetatarsia of the first and one or two other metatarsal bones, by a one-stage combined shortening and lengthening procedure using intercalcary autogenous bone grafts from adjacent shortened metatarsal bones. Instead of the isolated lengthening of the first and the other metatarsal bones, we shortened the adjacent normal metatarsal and used the excised bone to lengthen the short toes, except for the great toe, to restore the normal parabola. One skin incision was used. All the operations were performed bilaterally and the patients were followed up for a mean period of 69.5 months (29 to 107). They all regained a nearly normal parabola and were satisfied with the cosmetic results. Our technique is straightforward and produces good cosmetic results. Satisfactory, bony union is achieved, morbidity is low, and no additional surgery is required for the removal of metal implants. PMID:15446529

  6. Effect of carbon ions on life span shortening and tumorigenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Kakinuma, Shizuko; Kubo, Ayumi; Amasaki, Yoshiko; Nohima, Kumie; Imaoka, Tatsuhiko; Nishimura, Mayumi; Shimada, Yoshiya

    2004-11-01

    One of the important concerns for astronauts in space is cancer risk associated with cosmic radiation, including heavy particle ions. But little information on cancer risk is available. We investigated the effect of carbon ions on life span shortening and tumor induction in B6C3F1 mice. The mice were exposed weekly to 0.4 and 2.0 Gy whole-body carbon-ion- or X-ray-irradiation for 4 consecutive weeks. The spectrum of induced tumors varied depending on the dose. The cause of death was thymic lymphomas and liver tumors at high and low dose, respectively. The life span shortening by X-rays was proportional to dose, while carbon ions produced a convex upward relationship. The relative biological effectiveness for the 50% life span shortening was about 1.4. The large effect of carbon ions encourages the study on tumor induction at low doses in the space. PMID:15900637

  7. Preparation and Properties of Nanocomposites Prepared From Shortened, Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. G., Jr.; Delozier, D. M.; Watson, K. A.; Connell, J. W.; Yu, Aiping; Haddon, R. C.; Bekyarova, E.

    2006-01-01

    As part of a continuing materials development activity, low color space environmentally stable polymeric materials that possess sufficient electrical conductivity for electrostatic charge dissipation (ESD) have been investigated. One method of incorporating sufficient electrical conductivity for ESD without detrimental effects on other polymer properties of interest (i.e., optical and thermo-optical) is through the incorporation of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). However, SWNTs are difficult to fully disperse in the polymer matrix. One means of improving dispersion is by shortening and functionalizing SWNTs. While this improves dispersion, other properties (i.e., electrical) of the SWNTs can be affected which can in turn alter the final nanocomposite properties. Additionally, functionalization of the polymer matrix can also influence nanocomposite properties obtained from shortened, functionalized SWNTs. The preparation and characterization of nanocomposites fabricated from a polyimide, both functionalized and unfunctionalized, and shortened, functionalized SWNTs will be presented.

  8. Age-related changes in human vestibulo-ocular reflexes: Sinusoidal rotation and caloric tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterka, R. J.; Black, F. O.; Schoenhoff, M. B.

    1989-01-01

    The dynamic response properties of horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) were characterized in 216 human subjects ranging in age from 7 to 81 years. The object of this cross-sectional study was to determine the effects of aging on VOR dynamics, and to identify the distributions of parameters which describe VOR responses to caloric and to sinusoidal rotational stimuli in a putatively normal population. Caloric test parameters showed no consistent trend with age. Rotation test parameters showed declining response amplitude and slightly less compensatory response phase with increasing age. The magnitudes of these changes were not large relative to the variability within the population. The age-related trends in VOR were not consistent with the anatomic changes in the periphery reported by others which showed an increasing rate of peripheral hair cell and nerve fiber loss in subjects over 55 years. The poor correlation between physiological and anatomical data suggest that adaptive mechanisms in the central nervous system are important in maintaining the VOR.

  9. Caloric vestibular stimulation as a treatment for conversion disorder: a case report and medical hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Noll-Hussong, Michael; Holzapfel, Sabrina; Pokorny, Dan; Herberger, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Conversion disorder is a medical condition in which a person has paralysis, blindness, or other neurological symptoms that cannot be clearly explained physiologically. To date, there is neither specific nor conclusive treatment. In this paper, we draw together a number of disparate pieces of knowledge to propose a novel intervention to provide transient alleviation for this condition. As caloric vestibular stimulation has been demonstrated to modulate a variety of cognitive functions associated with brain activations, especially in the temporal-parietal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and insular cortex, there is evidence to assume an effect in specific mental disorders. Therefore, we go on to hypothesize that lateralized cold vestibular caloric stimulation will be effective in treating conversion disorder and we present provisional evidence from one patient that supports this conclusion. If our hypothesis is correct, this will be the first time in psychiatry and neurology that a clinically well-known mental disorder, long considered difficult to understand and to treat, is relieved by a simple or common, non-invasive medical procedure.

  10. Caloric Vestibular Stimulation as a Treatment for Conversion Disorder: A Case Report and Medical Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Noll-Hussong, Michael; Holzapfel, Sabrina; Pokorny, Dan; Herberger, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Conversion disorder is a medical condition in which a person has paralysis, blindness, or other neurological symptoms that cannot be clearly explained physiologically. To date, there is neither specific nor conclusive treatment. In this paper, we draw together a number of disparate pieces of knowledge to propose a novel intervention to provide transient alleviation for this condition. As caloric vestibular stimulation has been demonstrated to modulate a variety of cognitive functions associated with brain activations, especially in the temporal–parietal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and insular cortex, there is evidence to assume an effect in specific mental disorders. Therefore, we go on to hypothesize that lateralized cold vestibular caloric stimulation will be effective in treating conversion disorder and we present provisional evidence from one patient that supports this conclusion. If our hypothesis is correct, this will be the first time in psychiatry and neurology that a clinically well-known mental disorder, long considered difficult to understand and to treat, is relieved by a simple or common, non-invasive medical procedure. PMID:24917828

  11. Caloric and exercise requirements of space flight - Biostereometric results from Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittle, M. W.

    1979-01-01

    The biostereometric study of the Skylab astronauts used stereophotogrammetry to make accurate three-dimensional measurements of body form, from which regional and total body volumes were derived. Volume changes in the thighs and calves, over the course of the flight, showed a high correlation with inflight exercise on the bicycle ergometer, and suggested that an exercise level of 80-100 W-min/d/kg lean body mass would be necessary to prevent inflight muscle atrophy. The bicycle ergometer is thus a relatively inefficient means of preventing leg muscle atrophy. Inflight caloric intake showed a high correlation with the change in volume of the buttocks, the abdomen, and the body as a whole, and suggested that a caloric intake of 47-51 kcal/d/kg lean body mass would be necessary to prevent a change in body fat. Only one of the astronauts exceeded this range and gained body fat; the group as a whole showed a mean fat loss of 1.2 kg.

  12. Remission of anosognosia for right hemiplegia and neglect after caloric vestibular stimulation.

    PubMed

    Ronchi, Roberta; Rode, Gilles; Cotton, François; Farnè, Alessandro; Rossetti, Yves; Jacquin-Courtois, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    Neglect and related phenomena, as anosognosia for hemiplegia and somatoparaphrenia, are often associated to right-hemisphere lesions. These deficits can be alleviated by caloric vestibular stimulation, but little is known about the efficacy of this physiological intervention on neglect following left-hemisphere lesions. Here we report the case of an ambidextrous left brain-damaged patient with severe right personal and extrapersonal neglect, anosognosia for right hemiplegia and somatoparaphrenia. These symptoms co-occurred with more typical manifestations of left-brain damage, such as aphasia and apraxia. Neurological examination revealed right hemiplegia, hemianesthesia and hemianopia. Visuo-spatial tests for personal and extrapersonal neglect, as well as an anosognosia questionnaire, were submitted before and after caloric vestibular stimulation. Results showed a dramatic improvement of anosognosia for hemiplegia and neglect; no change was observed for the remaining deficits. The results confirm the notion of the selectivity of vestibular stimulation for neglect and related disorders and extend this notion by showing that similar effects can be obtained after lesion of the left hemisphere, suggesting that similar mechanisms are responsible for left- and right-sided neglect. Such a peculiar association of language and visuo-spatial disorders jointly present after a left-sided lesion opens the question of the link between handedness and lateralization of cognitive functions.

  13. Comparison of thermic effects of constant and relative caloric loads in lean and obese men.

    PubMed

    Segal, K R; Edaño, A; Blando, L; Pi-Sunyer, F X

    1990-01-01

    Controversy regarding defective thermic effect of food (TEF) in obesity might be related to differences among studies in the caloric loads. To clarify further the role of blunted thermogenesis in obesity, responses to the same absolute caloric load (720 kcal) and a relative load, which was 35% of each subject's resting metabolic rate (RMR), were compared in 11 lean (L) and 11 obese (O) men. The relative load was slightly larger for O than L (752 +/- 27 vs 683 +/- 21 kcal; means +/- SEM, NS). TEF, calculated as 3-h postprandial minus fasting RMR, was greater for L than O for both the 720-kcal (69 +/- 4 vs 31 +/- 3 kcal/3 h, p less than 0.01) and relative loads (64 +/- 4 vs 37 +/- 3 kcal/3 h, p less than 0.01). For L, TEF was greater for the 720-kcal load than for the relative load whereas for O, TEF was greater for the relative than for the 720-kcal meal. However, expressed as a percent of the calories ingested, TEF for the absolute and relative meals was identical for each group, in both cases lower for O (4.2 +/- 0.4% vs. 4.7 +/- 0.3%) than for L (9.7 +/- 0.4% vs 9.3 +/- 0.8%); p less than 0.01. These results demonstrate the impact on thermogenesis of the basis on which the meal is dosed and provide further evidence for defective thermogenesis in obesity.

  14. Posttraumatic midshaft clavicular shortening does not result in relevant functional outcome changes

    PubMed Central

    Stegeman, Sylvia A; de Witte, Pieter Bas; Boonstra, Sjoerd; de Groot, Jurriaan H; Nagels, Jochem; Krijnen, Pieta; Schipper, Inger B

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Shoulder function may be changed after healing of a nonoperatively treated clavicular fracture, especially in cases of clavicular shortening or mal-union. We investigated scapular orientations and functional outcome in healed clavicular fractures with and without clavicular shortening. Patients and methods 32 participants with a healed nonoperatively treated midshaft clavicular fracture were investigated. Motions of the thorax, arm, and shoulder were recorded by standardized electromagnetic 3D motion tracking. The DASH score and Constant-Murley score were used to evaluate functional outcome. Orientation of the scapula and humerus at rest and during standardized tasks, and strength and function of the affected shoulders were compared with corresponding values for the uninjured contralateral shoulders. Results Mean clavicular shortening was 25 mm (SD 16). Scapula protraction had increased by mean 4.4° in rest position in the affected shoulders. During abduction, slightly more protraction, slightly more lateral rotation, and slightly less backward tilt was found for the affected shoulders. For anteflexion, the scapular orientations of the affected shoulders also showed slightly increased protraction, slightly increased lateral rotation, and slightly reduced backward tilt. Scapulohumeral kinematics, maximum humerus angles, and strength were not associated with the degree of clavicular shortening. All participants had excellent performance on the Constant-Murley score and DASH score. Interpretation Scapulohumeral kinematics in shoulders with a healed clavicular fracture differ from those in uninjured shoulders, but these changes are small, do not result in clinically relevant changes in outcome, and do not relate to the amount of clavicular shortening. These findings do not support routine operative reduction and fixation of shortened midshaft clavicular fractures based on the argument of functional outcome. PMID:25872962

  15. Superimposed folding and thrusting by two phases of mutually orthogonal or oblique shortening in analogue models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Hongling; Koyi, Hemin A.; Nilfouroushan, Faramarz

    2016-02-01

    Orogens may suffer more than one phase shortening resulting in superposition of structures of different generations. Superimposition of orthogonal or oblique shortening is studied using sandbox and centrifuge modelling. Results of sand models show that in orthogonal superimposition, the two resulting structural trends are approximately orthogonal to each other. In oblique superimposition, structures trend obliquely to each other in the relatively thin areas of the model (foreland), and mutually orthogonal in areas where the model is thickened during the first phase of shortening (i.e. the hinterland). Thrusts formed during the first shortening phase may be reactivated during the later shortening phase. Spacing of the later phase structures is not as wide as expected, considering they across the pre-existing thickened wedge. Superposition of structures results in formation of type 1 fold interference pattern. Bedding is curved outwards both in the dome and basin structures. Folded layers are dipping and plunging outwards in a dome, while they are dipping and plunging inwards in a basin. In the areas between two adjacent domes or basins (i.e. where an anticline is superimposed by a syncline or a syncline is superimposed by an anticline), bedding is curved inwards, and the anticlines plunge inwards and the synclines outwards. The latter feature could be helpful to determine the age relationship for type 2 fold interference pattern. In tectonic regions where multiple phases of shortening have occurred, the orogenic-scale dome-and-basin and arrowhead-shaped interference patterns are commonly formed, as in the models. However, in some areas, the fold interference pattern might be modified by a later phase of thrusting. Similar to models results, superimposition of two and/or even more deformation phases may not be recorded by structures all over the tectonic area.

  16. Force depression following muscle shortening in sub-maximal voluntary contractions of human adductor pollicis.

    PubMed

    Rousanoglou, Elissavet N; Oskouei, Ali E; Herzog, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical properties of skeletal muscles are often studied for controlled, electrically induced, maximal, or supra-maximal contractions. However, many mechanical properties, such as the force-length relationship and force enhancement following active muscle stretching, are quite different for maximal and sub-maximal, or electrically induced and voluntary contractions. Force depression, the loss of force observed following active muscle shortening, has been observed and is well documented for electrically induced and maximal voluntary contractions. Since sub-maximal voluntary contractions are arguably the most important for everyday movement analysis and for biomechanical models of skeletal muscle function, it is important to study force depression properties under these conditions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine force depression following sub-maximal, voluntary contractions. Sets of isometric reference and isometric-shortening-isometric test contractions at 30% of maximal voluntary effort were performed with the adductor pollicis muscle. All reference and test contractions were executed by controlling force or activation using a feedback system. Test contractions included adductor pollicis shortening over 10 degrees, 20 degrees, and 30 degrees of thumb adduction. Force depression was assessed by comparing the steady-state isometric forces (activation control) or average electromyograms (EMGs) (force control) following active muscle shortening with those obtained in the corresponding isometric reference contractions. Force was decreased by 20% and average EMG was increased by 18% in the shortening test contractions compared to the isometric reference contractions. Furthermore, force depression was increased with increasing shortening amplitudes, and the relative magnitudes of force depression were similar to those found in electrically stimulated and maximal contractions. We conclude from these results that force depression occurs in sub

  17. In vivo maximal fascicle-shortening velocity during plantar flexion in humans.

    PubMed

    Hauraix, Hugo; Nordez, Antoine; Guilhem, Gaël; Rabita, Giuseppe; Dorel, Sylvain

    2015-12-01

    Interindividual variability in performance of fast movements is commonly explained by a difference in maximal muscle-shortening velocity due to differences in the proportion of fast-twitch fibers. To provide a better understanding of the capacity to generate fast motion, this study aimed to 1) measure for the first time in vivo the maximal fascicle-shortening velocity of human muscle; 2) evaluate the relationship between angular velocity and fascicle-shortening velocity from low to maximal angular velocities; and 3) investigate the influence of musculo-articular features (moment arm, tendinous tissues stiffness, and muscle architecture) on maximal angular velocity. Ultrafast ultrasound images of the gastrocnemius medialis were obtained from 31 participants during maximal isokinetic and light-loaded plantar flexions. A strong linear relationship between fascicle-shortening velocity and angular velocity was reported for all subjects (mean R(2) = 0.97). The maximal shortening velocity (V(Fmax)) obtained during the no-load condition (NLc) ranged between 18.8 and 43.3 cm/s. V(Fmax) values were very close to those of the maximal shortening velocity (V(max)), which was extrapolated from the F-V curve (the Hill model). Angular velocity reached during the NLc was significantly correlated with this V(Fmax) (r = 0.57; P < 0.001). This finding was in agreement with assumptions about the role of muscle fiber type, whereas interindividual comparisons clearly support the fact that other parameters may also contribute to performance during fast movements. Nevertheless, none of the biomechanical features considered in the present study were found to be directly related to the highest angular velocity, highlighting the complexity of the upstream mechanics that lead to maximal-velocity muscle contraction.

  18. Markers of cellular senescence. Telomere shortening as a marker of cellular senescence

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The cellular senescence definition comes to the fact of cells irreversible proliferation disability. Besides the cell cycle arrest, senescent cells go through some morphological, biochemical, and functional changes which are the signs of cellular senescence. The senescent cells (including replicative senescence and stress-induced premature senescence) of all the tissues look alike. They are metabolically active and possess the set of characteristics in vitro and in vivo, which are known as biomarkers of aging and cellular senescence. Among biomarkers of cellular senescence telomere shortening is a rather elegant frequently used biomarker. Validity of telomere shortening as a marker for cellular senescence is based on theoretical and experimental data. PMID:26805432

  19. Structural and thermochronological evidence for Paleogene basement-involved shortening in the axial Eastern Cordillera, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, Joel E.; Horton, Brian K.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Mora, Andrés; Corredor, Jaime

    2012-11-01

    Although most recent studies regard the northern Andes primarily as a low-shortening inversion orogen, new mapping and thermochronology along the paired basement-involved Floresta massif and Floresta basin in the axial Eastern Cordillera of Colombia suggest major Paleogene shortening in a ramp-flat fold-thrust belt. Field mapping indicates that the hanging wall of the east-directed Soápaga fault system contains a series of upright thrust sheets with flat-on-flat cutoff relationships and a deformed footwall characterized by a complex triangle zone. These geometries necessitate roughly east-west shortening exceeding that of a previously mapped overturned hanging wall anticline and disharmonic footwall folds. Zircon (U-Th)/He (ZHe) ages indicate exhumation-induced cooling of the Soápaga hanging wall through the ˜180 °C closure temperature at 31-25 Ma. This cooling postdated documented shortening to the west and predated shortening to the east, suggesting an eastward progression of Paleogene deformation. Synorogenic Oligocene footwall strata of the Floresta basin contain distal fine-grained sediments and lack growth strata or Oligocene detrital ZHe ages, suggesting relatively high heave along the Soápaga fault system. These results are consistent with a rapidly eastward-propagating, basement-involved fold-thrust belt with ramp-flat structures that accommodated tens of km of shortening. Long-term stasis of the deformation front on the eastern and western flanks of the Eastern Cordillera due to localization of Neogene shortening along Mesozoic rift-bounding normal faults indicates a shift in deformational style in late Oligocene-early Miocene time. This geometric and temporal framework implies: 1) a total shortening in the northern Andes exceeding most current estimates; 2) Paleogene deformation in the Eastern Cordillera marked by rapid advances of the deformation front along a ramp-flat thrust system; and 3) focused Neogene reactivation (inversion) of master rift

  20. Acute Ulnar Shortening for Delayed Presentation of Distal Radius Growth Arrest in an Adolescent

    PubMed Central

    Ellanti, Prasad; Harrington, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Distal radius physeal fractures are common in children and adolescents. However, posttraumatic growth arrest is uncommon. The management of posttraumatic growth arrest is dependent on the severity of the deformity and the remaining growth potential of the patient. Various treatment options exist. We present a 17-year-old male with distal radius growth arrest who presented four years after the initial injury. He had a symptomatic 15 mm positive ulnar variance managed with an ulnar shortening osteotomy with the use of the AO mini distractor intraoperatively. To the best of our knowledge, an acute ulnar shortening of 15 mm is the largest reported. PMID:23227397

  1. Markers of cellular senescence. Telomere shortening as a marker of cellular senescence.

    PubMed

    Bernadotte, Alexandra; Mikhelson, Victor M; Spivak, Irina M

    2016-01-01

    The cellular senescence definition comes to the fact of cells irreversible proliferation disability. Besides the cell cycle arrest, senescent cells go through some morphological, biochemical, and functional changes which are the signs of cellular senescence. The senescent cells (including replicative senescence and stress-induced premature senescence) of all the tissues look alike. They are metabolically active and possess the set of characteristics in vitro and in vivo, which are known as biomarkers of aging and cellular senescence. Among biomarkers of cellular senescence telomere shortening is a rather elegant frequently used biomarker. Validity of telomere shortening as a marker for cellular senescence is based on theoretical and experimental data. PMID:26805432

  2. Depression of tetanic force induced by loaded shortening of frog muscle fibres.

    PubMed

    Edman, K A; Caputo, C; Lou, F

    1993-07-01

    1. Single fibres isolated from the anterior tibialis muscle of Rana temporaria were allowed to shorten against a high load during a 2.5-4.0 s fused tetanus (1-3 degrees C) and the maximum force produced at the short length was compared with that recorded during a fixed-end tetanus at the same overall fibre length. Changes in length of marked, consecutive segments (ca 0.5 mm in length) along the fibre were measured throughout the tetanus using a photoelectric recording system. 2. Loaded shortening (load ca 3/4 of maximum tetanic force) starting from approximately 2.55 microns sarcomere length and ending near slack fibre length depressed the tetanic force by 13 +/- 2% (mean +/- S.E.M., n = 10) and caused a marked redistribution of sarcomere length along the fibre. Unloaded shortening over the same range caused no force deficit and did not lead to increased dispersion of sarcomere length. 3. Loaded shortening below slack length produced less force depression and less non-uniformity of sarcomere length than did a corresponding intervention above slack length. 4. The force deficit after loaded shortening, both above and below slack fibre length, was positively correlated (P < 0.005) to the coefficient of variation of the sarcomere length along the fibre. 5. The decrease in active force after loaded shortening, and its relation to increased dispersion of sarcomere length along the fibre, could be simulated closely by a computer model in which the muscle fibre was assumed to consist of eleven discrete segments acting in series with a passive elastic element. 6. Experiments were performed in which the length of an individual segment of the intact muscle fibre was strictly controlled throughout a tetanus. Loaded shortening of such a 'length-clamped' segment caused no force depression during the subsequent isometric phase either above or below slack fibre length. 7. The results suggest strongly that force depression after loaded shortening of a single muscle fibre is

  3. Therapeutic potential of ghrelin in restricting-type anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Mari; Ohwada, Rina; Akamizu, Takashi; Shibasaki, Tamotsu; Kangawa, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is an eating disorder characterized by a decrease in caloric intake and malnutrition. It is associated with a variety of medical morbidities as well as significant mortality. Nutritional support is of paramount importance to prevent impaired quality of life later in life in affected patients. Some patients with restricting-type AN who are fully motivated to gain body weight cannot increase their food intake because of malnutrition-induced gastrointestinal dysfunction. Chronicity of AN prevents participation in social activities and leads to increased medical expenses. Therefore, there is a pressing need for effective appetite-stimulating therapies for patients with AN. Ghrelin is the only orexigenic hormone that can be given intravenously. Intravenous infusion of ghrelin is reported to increase food intake and body weight in healthy subjects as well as in patients with poor nutritional status. Here, we introduce the results of a pilot study that investigated the effects of ghrelin on appetite, energy intake, and nutritional parameters in five patients with restricting-type AN, who are fully motivated to gain body weight but could not increase their food intake because of malnutrition-induced gastrointestinal dysfunction.

  4. Comparison of different cooling regimes within a shortened liquid cooling/warming garment on physiological and psychological comfort during exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, Gloria R.; Koscheyev, Victor S.; Coca, Aitor; List, Nathan

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of different cooling regime intensities to maintain physiological and subjective comfort during physical exertion levels comparable to that engaged in during extravehicular activities (EVA) in space. We studied eight subjects (six males, two females) donned in our newly developed physiologically based shortened liquid cooling/warming garment (SLCWG). Rigorous (condition 1) and mild (condition 2) water temperature cooling regimes were compared at physical exertion levels comparable to that performed during EVA to ascertain the effectiveness of a lesser intensity of cooling in maintaining thermal comfort, thus reducing energy consumption in the portable life support system. Exercise intensity was varied across stages of the session. Finger temperature, rectal temperature, and subjective perception of overall body and hand comfort were assessed. Finger temperature was significantly higher in the rigorous cooling condition and showed a consistent increase across exercise stages, likely due to the restriction of heat extraction because of the intensive cold. In the mild cooling condition, finger temperature exhibited an overall decline with cooling, indicating greater heat extraction from the body. Rectal temperature was not significantly different between conditions, and showed a steady increase over exercise stages in both rigorous and mild cooling conditions. Ratings of overall comfort were 30% higher (more positive) and more stable in mild cooling (p<0.001). The mild cooling regime was more effective than rigorous cooling in allowing the process of heat exchange to occur, thus maintaining thermal homeostasis and subjective comfort during physical exertion.

  5. Caloric Intake from Fast Food among Children and Adolescents in the United States, 2011-2012. NCHS Data Brief. Number 213

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vikraman, Sundeep; Fryar, Cheryl D.; Ogden, Cynthia L.

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of fast food has been linked to weight gain in adults. Fast food has also been associated with higher caloric intake and poorer diet quality in children and adolescents. From 1994 through 2006, caloric intake from fast food increased from 10% to 13% among children aged 2-18 years. This report presents the most recent data on the…

  6. Effect of caloric intake on Western-style diet-induced intestinal tumors in a mouse model for hereditary colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Itano, Osamu; Fan, Kunhua; Yang, Kan; Suzuki, Keiich; Quimby, Fred; Dong, Zhiqian; Jin, Bo; Edelmann, Winfried; Lipkin, Martin

    2012-04-01

    Increased caloric intake has been associated with increased risk for cancer of the large intestine. We studied caloric intake effect on tumor formation in Apc1638( N/+ ) mice, a preclinical model for human familial adenomatous polyposis. Mice were fed a controlled AIN-76A diet or a new Western-style diet (NWD). Intestinal tumor development was evaluated after 6 mo of feeding 1) AIN-76A diet (fed ad libitum) vs. AIN-76A (caloric intake reduced 30%); 2) NWD (fed ad libitum) vs. NWD (caloric intake reduced 30%); and 3) AIN-76A (fed ad libitum) vs. NWD (paired-fed with NWD providing equal caloric intakes to AIN-76A). Intestinal tumor incidences were 78-100% with intergroup variation P > 0.05; however, tumor multiplicity responded differently to dietary treatment: 1) Tumor multiplicity was unchanged after AIN-76A (caloric intake reduced 30% vs. mice fed AIN-76A ad libitum); 2) tumor multiplicity was unchanged after NWD (caloric intake reduced 30% vs. NWD ad libitum); and 3) tumor multiplicity increased 130% after NWD was paired-fed with the same caloric intake as mice fed AIN-76A ad libitum (P < 0.05). Body weights showed no association with tumor development. Findings indicated modified nutrients in NWD were mainly responsible for increased tumors in mice fed NWD vs. AIN-76A in this preclinical mouse model for human FAP.

  7. Prediction, Performance, and Promise: Perspective on Time-Shortened Degree Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, John M., Ed.; Howard, Toni A., Ed.

    Among the papers and presentations are: the keynote speech (E. Alden Dunham); the quality baccalaureate myth (Richard Giardina); the high school/college interface and time-shortening (panel presentation); restructuring the baccalaureate: a follow-up study (Robert Bersi); a point of view (Richard Meisler); more options: less time? (DeVere E.…

  8. Shortening of the menstrual cycle following light therapy in seasonal affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Danilenko, Konstantin V

    2007-09-30

    A significantly earlier onset of menstruation by 1.2 days, on average, was found following light therapy in 38 winter depressives; in two of them it could be classified as a minor side effect. There was no association between this shortening and depression improvement. A direct action of light on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is suggested.

  9. Nestling telomere shortening, but not telomere length, reflects developmental stress and predicts survival in wild birds.

    PubMed

    Boonekamp, Jelle J; Mulder, G A; Salomons, H Martijn; Dijkstra, Cor; Verhulst, Simon

    2014-06-22

    Developmental stressors often have long-term fitness consequences, but linking offspring traits to fitness prospects has remained a challenge. Telomere length predicts mortality in adult birds, and may provide a link between developmental conditions and fitness prospects. Here, we examine the effects of manipulated brood size on growth, telomere dynamics and post-fledging survival in free-living jackdaws. Nestlings in enlarged broods achieved lower mass and lost 21% more telomere repeats relative to nestlings in reduced broods, showing that developmental stress accelerates telomere shortening. Adult telomere length was positively correlated with their telomere length as nestling (r = 0.83). Thus, an advantage of long telomeres in nestlings is carried through to adulthood. Nestling telomere shortening predicted post-fledging survival and recruitment independent of manipulation and fledgling mass. This effect was strong, with a threefold difference in recruitment probability over the telomere shortening range. By contrast, absolute telomere length was neither affected by brood size manipulation nor related to survival. We conclude that telomere loss, but not absolute telomere length, links developmental conditions to subsequent survival and suggest that telomere shortening may provide a key to unravelling the physiological causes of developmental effects on fitness.

  10. On Tackling Flash Crowds with URL Shorteners and Examining User Behavior after Great East Japan Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Takeru; Minato, Shin-Ichi

    Several web sites providing disaster-related information failed repeatedly after the Great East Japan Earthquake, due to flash crowds caused by Twitter users. Twitter, which was intensively used for information sharing in the aftermath of the earthquake, relies on URL shorteners like bit.ly to offset its strict limit on message length. In order to mitigate the flash crowds, we examine the current Web usage and find that URL shorteners constitute a layer of indirection a significant part of Web traffic is guided by them. This implies that flash crowds can be controlled by URL shorteners. We developed a new URL shortener, named rcdn.info, just after the earthquake; rcdn.info redirects users to a replica created on a CoralCDN, if the original site is likely to become overloaded. This surprisingly simple solution worked very well in the emergency. We also conduct a thorough analysis of the request log and present several views that capture user behavior in the emergency from various aspects. Interestingly, the traffic significantly grew up at previously unpopular (i.e., small) sites during the disaster; this traffic shift could lead to the failure of several sites. Finally, we show that rcdn.info has great potential in mitigating such failures. We believe that our experience will help the research community tackle future disasters.

  11. How neurons make us jump: the neural control of stretch-shortening cycle movements.

    PubMed

    Taube, Wolfgang; Leukel, Christian; Gollhofer, Albert

    2012-04-01

    How can the human central nervous system (CNS) control complex jumping movements task- and context-specifically? This review highlights the complex interaction of multiple hierarchical levels of the CNS, which work together to enable stretch-shortening cycle contractions composed of activity resulting from feedforward (preprogrammed) and feedback (reflex) loops.

  12. Evaluation of canola oil oleogels with candelilla wax as an alternative to shortening in baked goods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The oleogels of canola oil with candelilla wax were prepared and utilized as a shortening replacer to produce cookies with a high level of unsaturated fatty acids. The incorporation of candelilla wax (3 and 6% by weight) to canola oil produced the oleogels with solid-like properties. The firmness of...

  13. Co-Teachers and Parents' Perceptions of Shortened Assignments for Learning Disabled Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Yxstian

    2013-01-01

    The Individual with Disabilities in Education Act (IDEA) 2007, a federal special education law, states that students with disabilities requiring special education services can use accommodations or adaptations of the curriculum to access the general education curriculum. A shortened assignment, as an accommodation, can help learning disabled…

  14. Some effects of vagal blockade on abdominal muscle activation and shortening in awake dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Leevers, A M; Road, J D

    1995-01-01

    1. The mechanisms of abdominal muscle activation are thought to be different during expiratory threshold loading (ETL) compared with hypercapnia. Our objectives in the present study were to determine the effects of removing excitatory vagal feedback on abdominal muscle activation, shortening and pattern of recruitment during ETL and hypercapnia. Six tracheotomized dogs were chronically implanted with sonomicrometer transducers and fine wire EMG electrodes in each of the four abdominal muscles. Muscle length changes and EMG activity were studied in the awake dog during ETL (6 dogs) and CO2 rebreathing (3 dogs), before and after vagal blockade. 2. Following vagal blockade, the change in volume (increase in functional residual capacity, FRC) during ETL was greater and active phasic shortening of all the abdominal muscles was reduced, when shortening was compared with a similar change in lung volume. Similarly, at comparable minute ventilation, abdominal muscle active shortening was also reduced during hypercapnia. The internal muscle layer was recruited preferentially in both control and vagally blocked dogs during both ETL and hypercapnia. 3. The degree of recruitment of the abdominal muscles during ETL and hypercapnia in awake dogs is influenced by vagal feedback, but less so than in anaesthetized dogs. These results illustrate the importance of the vagi and abdominal muscle activation in load compensation. However, vagal reflexes are apparently not contributing to the preferential recruitment of the internal muscle layer. In awake dogs during vagal blockade abdominal muscle recruitment still occurs by extravagal mechanisms. PMID:8568685

  15. Jet-cooked high amylose corn starch and shortening composites for use in cake icings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cake decorating continues to be popular for special occasions. Butter cream is an all-purpose icing that is used to both ice and decorate cakes. Cream icings contain up to 40% shortening. As the consumers become aware of the need to reduce fat in their diet, the demand for healthy, flavorful, low-...

  16. Development of a Shortened Form of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulhern, Fiona; Rae, Gordon

    1998-01-01

    Data from 196 Irish school children were analyzed and used to develop a shortened version of the Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitudes Scales (E. Fennema and J. Sherman, 1976). Internal consistency estimates of the reliability of scores on the whole scale and each of the subscales of the original and short form were favorable. (SLD)

  17. The Shortened Visuospatial Questionnaire for Children: A Useful Tool to Identify Students with Low Visuospatial Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fastame, Maria Chiara; Cherchi, Rossella; Penna, Maria Pietronilla

    2015-01-01

    The current research was aimed mainly at exploring the reliability of a short-screening tool developed to self-evaluate visuospatial abilities in children. We presented 290 Italian third, fourth, and fifth graders with the 16-item Shortened Visuospatial questionnaire and several objective measures of intellectual efficiency, such as Raven's…

  18. Cenozoic detachment folding in the southern Tianshan foreland, NW China: Shortening distances and rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhonghua; Sun, Jimin; Windley, Brian F.; Zhang, Zhiliang; Gong, Zhijun; Lin, Xu; Xiao, Wenjiao

    2016-03-01

    Intracontinental foreland basins with fold-and-thrust belts on the southern periphery of the Tianshan orogenic belt in China resulted from still-active contractional deformation ultimately cased by the India-Asia collision. To quantify the amounts of shortening distance and the rates of deformation, and to decipher the architectural framework, we mapped the stratigraphy and structure of four anticlines in the Kuqa and Baicheng foreland thrust belts in the central southern Tianshan. In the Baicheng foreland thrust belts, Lower Cretaceous Baxigai and Bashijiqike Formations located in the core of the Kumugeliemu anticline are overlain by the Paleocene to Eocene Kumugeliemu Formation, above which are conformable Oligocene through Pleistocene sediments. A disharmonic transition from parallel to unconformable bedding at the boundary of the Miocene Kangcun and Pliocene Kuqa Formations suggests a change from pre-detachment folded strata to beds deposited on top of a growing anticline. Most of the anticlines have steep limbs (70-90°) and are box to isoclinal folds, suggestive of detachment folding or faulted detachment folding (faults that transect a fold core or limb). Shortening estimates calculated from the cross-sections by the Excess area method indicate that the total shortening for the Kelasu, Kuchetawu, Kezile and Yaken sections are 6.3 km, 6.4 km, 5.8 km and 0.6 km, respectively, and the respective depths of the detachment zones are (2.3 km and 6.9 km), 2.3 km, 2.5 km and 3.4 km. Time estimates derived from a paleomagnetic study indicate that the transition to syn-folding strata occurred at ∼6.5 Ma at the Kuchetawu section along the Kuqa river. In addition, according to our field observations and previous sedimentary rate studies, the initial time of folding of the Yaken anticline was at 0.15-0.21 Ma. Therefore, the average shortening rate that began at ∼6 Ma was ∼2 mm/a for the Kelasu, Kuchetawu and Kezile sections. At 0.15-0.21 Ma, the average shortening

  19. Cross-bridge kinetics studied with staircase shortening in single fibres from frog skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Linari, M; Lombardi, V; Piazzesi, G

    1997-02-01

    The kinetics of actin-myosin interaction has been studied in single active muscle fibres by repetitively eliciting tension transients with staircase shortening, consisting in a sequence of step releases of identical size (1-5 nm per half-sarcomere) imposed at regular time intervals (3-11 ms). Under sarcomere length-clamp conditions, the quick phase of tension recovery following each step in the staircase is the manifestation of the working stroke by synchronized cross-bridges. Different average shortening velocities are obtained by varying both the size of the step and the time interval between steps. Ti, the tension just before each step in the sequence, T2, the tension attained at the end of the quick phase of tension recovery, decrease with the number of steps, reaching a steady state value, which is lower the larger the shortening velocity. In agreement with previous results on tension response to steady shortening, the overall shortening necessary to approach the steady state values of Ti and T2 is about 15 nm. The normalized amplitude of quick tension recovery (T2r), which is measured by the ratio of the amount of tension recovered at the end of the quick phase (T2-T1) over the tension drop simultaneous with the step (Ti-T1), has been used to measure the extent of the working stroke elicited by each step in the staircase. The steady state value of T2r decreases progressively with the increase of shortening velocity. At velocities higher than 0.5 microns s-1 per half-sarcomere the steady state value of T2r is attained after a transitory depression, which reaches a maximum for an amount of overall shortening increasing from about 8 nm up to about 13 nm with increase in shortening velocity from 0.5 to 1.4 microns s-1 per half-sarcomere. The velocity-dependent transitory depression of T2r can be explained with the mechanical-kinetic model described previously. In the model cross-bridges cycle through two pathway distinct for the kinetics of the detachment

  20. [Caloric value and ash content of dominant plants in plantation communities in Heshan of Guangdong, China].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiao-ping; Cai, Xi-an; Zhao, Ping; Rao, Xing-quan

    2009-03-01

    Different parts of twenty dominant plant species in five plantation communities on the subtropical hilly lands in Heshan of Gunagdong as well as the litters from three of the five plantation communities were sampled, and their gross caloric value (GCV) and ash content were measured by using a PARR-1281 oxygen bomb calorimeter and a muffle furnace. Based on the measurements, the ash-free caloric value (AFCV) of the samples was calculated, and the characteristics of caloric value and ash content of the samples, according to plant part, individual, and plant growth form, were analyzed. The results showed that the GCV and AFCV of leaf, branch, stem wood, stem bark, and root were in the range of 10.7-22.17 kJ x g(-1) and 13.89-23.04 kJ x g(-1), respectively. The GCV and AFCV of leaf were significantly higher than those of other parts (P < 0.05), and the individual plant' s weighted mean values of GCV and AFCV were in the range of 14.24-19.43 and 16.63-20.99 kJ x g(-1), respectively. The mean AFCV of plantation communities was in the order of tree layer (19.55 kJ x g(-1)) > shrub layer (19.46 kJ x g(-1) > herb layer (18.77 kJ x g(-1)), with indigenous coniferous tree (19.86 kJ x g(-1)) > indigenous broad-leaved tree (19.55 kJ x g(-1)) > exotic eucalyptus (19.18 kJ x g(-1)), while the mean ash content was just the opposite. In Acacia mangium, coniferous, and Schima plantation communities, the GCV and AFCV of litters were higher than those of various plant parts (P < 0.01). The litter-falls in A. mangium and coniferous plantations had higher mean GCV and AFCV than the litters and fresh leaves of tree layer, while the fresh leaves of tree layer in Schima plantation showed higher mean GCV and AFCV.

  1. [Caloric value and ash content of dominant plants in plantation communities in Heshan of Guangdong, China].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiao-ping; Cai, Xi-an; Zhao, Ping; Rao, Xing-quan

    2009-03-01

    Different parts of twenty dominant plant species in five plantation communities on the subtropical hilly lands in Heshan of Gunagdong as well as the litters from three of the five plantation communities were sampled, and their gross caloric value (GCV) and ash content were measured by using a PARR-1281 oxygen bomb calorimeter and a muffle furnace. Based on the measurements, the ash-free caloric value (AFCV) of the samples was calculated, and the characteristics of caloric value and ash content of the samples, according to plant part, individual, and plant growth form, were analyzed. The results showed that the GCV and AFCV of leaf, branch, stem wood, stem bark, and root were in the range of 10.7-22.17 kJ x g(-1) and 13.89-23.04 kJ x g(-1), respectively. The GCV and AFCV of leaf were significantly higher than those of other parts (P < 0.05), and the individual plant' s weighted mean values of GCV and AFCV were in the range of 14.24-19.43 and 16.63-20.99 kJ x g(-1), respectively. The mean AFCV of plantation communities was in the order of tree layer (19.55 kJ x g(-1)) > shrub layer (19.46 kJ x g(-1) > herb layer (18.77 kJ x g(-1)), with indigenous coniferous tree (19.86 kJ x g(-1)) > indigenous broad-leaved tree (19.55 kJ x g(-1)) > exotic eucalyptus (19.18 kJ x g(-1)), while the mean ash content was just the opposite. In Acacia mangium, coniferous, and Schima plantation communities, the GCV and AFCV of litters were higher than those of various plant parts (P < 0.01). The litter-falls in A. mangium and coniferous plantations had higher mean GCV and AFCV than the litters and fresh leaves of tree layer, while the fresh leaves of tree layer in Schima plantation showed higher mean GCV and AFCV. PMID:19637580

  2. Oxidative Stress-induced Telomere Length Shortening of Circulating Leukocyte in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Soo; Kwak, Jin Wook; Lim, Su Jin; Park, Yong Kyun; Yang, Hoon Shik; Kim, Hyun Jik

    2016-01-01

    The main mechanism of pathogenesis which causes systemic complications in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients is believed to be intermittent hypoxia-induced intermediary effect and it depends on the burden of oxidative stress during sleep. We aimed to search the predictive markers which reflect the burden of systemic oxidative stress in patients with OSA and whether excessive telomere length shortening is a characteristic feature that can assess oxidative stress levels. We used quantitative PCR to measure telomere length using peripheral blood genomic DNA. Telomere lengths were compared in an age- and body mass index (BMI)-dependent manner in 34 healthy volunteers and 43 OSA subjects. We also performed reactive oxygen species assay to measure the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in the peripheral blood of healthy volunteers and OSA subjects. We found that the serum concentration of hydrogen peroxide was considerably higher in OSA patients, and that this was closely related with the severity of OSA. Significantly shortened telomere length was observed in the circulating leukocytes of the peripheral blood of OSA patients, and telomere length shortening was aggravated more acutely in an age- and BMI-dependent manner. An inverse correlation was observed between the concentration of hydrogen peroxide and the telomere length of OSA patients and excessive telomere length shortening was also linked to severity of OSA. The results provided evidence that telomere length shortening or excessive cellular aging might be distinctive in circulating leukocyte of OSA patients and may be an predictive biomarker for reflect the burden of oxidative stress in the peripheral blood of OSA patients. PMID:27699083

  3. Oxidative Stress-induced Telomere Length Shortening of Circulating Leukocyte in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Soo; Kwak, Jin Wook; Lim, Su Jin; Park, Yong Kyun; Yang, Hoon Shik; Kim, Hyun Jik

    2016-01-01

    The main mechanism of pathogenesis which causes systemic complications in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients is believed to be intermittent hypoxia-induced intermediary effect and it depends on the burden of oxidative stress during sleep. We aimed to search the predictive markers which reflect the burden of systemic oxidative stress in patients with OSA and whether excessive telomere length shortening is a characteristic feature that can assess oxidative stress levels. We used quantitative PCR to measure telomere length using peripheral blood genomic DNA. Telomere lengths were compared in an age- and body mass index (BMI)-dependent manner in 34 healthy volunteers and 43 OSA subjects. We also performed reactive oxygen species assay to measure the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in the peripheral blood of healthy volunteers and OSA subjects. We found that the serum concentration of hydrogen peroxide was considerably higher in OSA patients, and that this was closely related with the severity of OSA. Significantly shortened telomere length was observed in the circulating leukocytes of the peripheral blood of OSA patients, and telomere length shortening was aggravated more acutely in an age- and BMI-dependent manner. An inverse correlation was observed between the concentration of hydrogen peroxide and the telomere length of OSA patients and excessive telomere length shortening was also linked to severity of OSA. The results provided evidence that telomere length shortening or excessive cellular aging might be distinctive in circulating leukocyte of OSA patients and may be an predictive biomarker for reflect the burden of oxidative stress in the peripheral blood of OSA patients.

  4. The effect of non-caloric sweeteners on cognition, choice, and post-consumption satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Hill, Sarah E; Prokosch, Marjorie L; Morin, Amanda; Rodeheffer, Christopher D

    2014-12-01

    Consumers often turn to non-caloric sweeteners (NCS) as a means of promoting a healthy body weight. However, several studies have now linked their long-term use to increased weight gain, raising the question of whether these products produce unintended psychological, physiological, or behavioral changes that have implications for weight management goals. In the following, we present the results of three experiments bearing on this issue, testing whether NCS-consumption influences how individuals think about and respond to food. Participants in each of our three experiments were randomly assigned to consume a sugar-sweetened beverage, an unsweetened beverage, or a beverage sweetened with NCS. We then measured their cognition (Experiment 1), product choice (Experiment 2), and subjective responses to a sugar-sweetened food (Experiment 3). Results revealed that consuming NCS-sweetened beverages influences psychological processes in ways that - over time - may increase calorie intake. PMID:25128835

  5. Achieving tailorable magneto-caloric effect in the Gd-Co binary amorphous alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C.; Ding, D.; Xia, L.; Chan, K. C.

    2016-03-01

    Tailorable magnetic properties and magneto-caloric effect were achieved in the Gd-Co binary amorphous alloys. It was found that the Curie temperature (Tc) of the GdxCo100-x (x=50, 53, 56, 58, 60) metallic glasses can be tuned by changing the concentration of Gd as Tc =708.8-8.83x, and the mechanism involved was investigated. On the other hand, a linear correlation between the peak value of magnetic entropy change (-Δ Smpeak) and Tc-2/3 is found in the amorphous alloys with a linear correlation coefficients of above 0.992. Therefore, the -ΔSmpeak of the Gd-Co binary amorphous alloys under different magnetic fields can be easily tailored by adjusting the composition of the alloy.

  6. Tuning the caloric response of BaTiO3 by tensile epitaxial strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünebohm, Anna; Marathe, Madhura; Ederer, Claude

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the effect of epitaxial strain on the electrocaloric effect (ECE) in BaTiO3 by means of ab-initio-based molecular-dynamics simulations. We show that tensile strain can be used to optimize the operation range for ferroic cooling. Strain in the range of ≤ 1% can be used to shift the operation temperature by several hundreds of kelvin both to higher and lower temperatures, depending on the direction of the external field. In addition, the transformation between multi-domain and mono-domain states, induced by an in-plane electric field, results in an additional peak of the adiabatic temperature change at lower temperatures, and a broad temperature interval where the caloric response scales linearly with the applied field strength, even up to very high fields.

  7. The effect of non-caloric sweeteners on cognition, choice, and post-consumption satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Hill, Sarah E; Prokosch, Marjorie L; Morin, Amanda; Rodeheffer, Christopher D

    2014-12-01

    Consumers often turn to non-caloric sweeteners (NCS) as a means of promoting a healthy body weight. However, several studies have now linked their long-term use to increased weight gain, raising the question of whether these products produce unintended psychological, physiological, or behavioral changes that have implications for weight management goals. In the following, we present the results of three experiments bearing on this issue, testing whether NCS-consumption influences how individuals think about and respond to food. Participants in each of our three experiments were randomly assigned to consume a sugar-sweetened beverage, an unsweetened beverage, or a beverage sweetened with NCS. We then measured their cognition (Experiment 1), product choice (Experiment 2), and subjective responses to a sugar-sweetened food (Experiment 3). Results revealed that consuming NCS-sweetened beverages influences psychological processes in ways that - over time - may increase calorie intake.

  8. Caloric beverages consumed freely at meal-time add calories to an ad libitum meal.

    PubMed

    Panahi, Shirin; El Khoury, Dalia; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Goff, H Douglas; Anderson, G Harvey

    2013-06-01

    The objective was to compare the effects of ad libitum consumption of commonly consumed meal-time beverages on energy and fluid intakes and post-meal average subjective appetite and blood glucose in healthy adults. In a randomized controlled design, 29 males and females consumed to satiation an ad libitum pizza meal with one of five beverages in unlimited amount including water (0 kcal), 1% milk (44 kcal/100 ml), regular cola (44 kcal/100 ml), orange juice (44 kcal/100 ml) and diet cola (0 kcal). Food and fluid intakes were measured at the meal. Average subjective appetite and blood glucose were measured before and for 2h after the meal. Although energy intake from pizza was similar among all beverage treatments, the amount of fluid consumed (g) varied among the beverages with intake of orange juice higher than regular and diet cola, but not different from water or milk. Meal-time ingestion of caloric beverages, milk, orange juice and regular cola, led to higher total meal-time energy intakes compared to either water or diet cola. Post-meal blood glucose area under the curve (AUC) was lower after milk than after meals with water, orange juice and regular cola and post-meal average subjective appetite AUC was lower after milk than after meals with water. Meal intakes of nutrients including protein, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, vitamins B12, A and D were higher at the meal with milk compared to the other beverages. Thus, caloric beverages consumed ad libitum during a meal add to total meal-time energy intake, but 1% milk favors a lower post-meal blood glucose and average subjective appetite score and adds to nutrient intake.

  9. Protein oxidation associated with aging is reduced by dietary restriction of protein or calories.

    PubMed Central

    Youngman, L D; Park, J Y; Ames, B N

    1992-01-01

    The accumulation of unrepaired oxidative damage products may be a major factor in cellular aging. Both oxidative lesions in DNA and oxidatively damaged proteins have been shown to accumulate during aging. The accumulation of oxidized proteins in Fischer 344 rats was compared for animals consuming protein-restricted and calorically restricted diets--both of which have been shown to extend lifespan. Rats were fed diets restricted in either protein (5% or 10% of the diet as compared with the normal 20% casein), or calories (25% or 40% less than normal), or total diet (40% less than normal). In addition, some of the rats fed a diet providing 5% or 20% protein were irradiated twice weekly (125 rads per exposure; 1 rad = 0.01 Gy). The level of oxidative damage to proteins (protein carbonyls) was determined in rats sacrificed at various times. The oxidative damage to proteins increased with aging and with radiation. Either protein or calorie restriction markedly inhibited the accumulation of oxidatively damaged proteins. Protein restriction reduced the accumulation of oxidatively damaged proteins during the oxidative stress of chronic irradiation. PMID:1409611

  10. [Carbohydrate restriction in the larval diet causes oxidative stress in adult insects of Drosophila melanogaster].

    PubMed

    Rovenko, B M; Lushchak, V I; Lushchak, O V

    2013-01-01

    The influence of 20 and 1% glucose and fructose, which were components of larval diet, on the level of oxidized proteins and lipids, low molecular mass antioxidant content as well as activities of antioxidant and associated enzymes in adult fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster were investigated. The restriction of carbohydrates in larval diet leads to oxidative stress in adult insects. It is supported by 40-50% increased content of protein carbonyl groups and by 60-70% decreased level of protein thiol groups as well as by a 4-fold increase of lipid peroxide content in 2-day-old flies of both sexes, developed on the diet with 1% carbohydrates. Oxidative stress, induced by carbohydrate restriction of the larval diet, caused the activation of antioxidant defence, differently exhibited in male and female fruit flies. Caloric restriction increased activity of superoxide dismutase and thioredoxin reductase associating only in males with 2-fold higher activity of NADPH-producing enzymes--glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase. Carbohydrate restriction in the larval diet caused the increase of uric acid content, but the decrease in catalase activity in males. In females the values of these parameters were changed in opposite direction compared with males. The obtained results let us conclude the different involvement of low molecular mass antioxidants, glutathione and uric acid, and antioxidant enzyme catalase in the protection of male and female fruit fly macromolecules against oxidative damages, caused by calorie restriction of larval diet.

  11. Role for Sit4p-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction in mediating the shortened chronological lifespan and oxidative stress sensitivity of Isc1p-deficient cells.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, António Daniel; Osório, Hugo; Sims, Kellie J; Almeida, Teresa; Alves, Mariana; Bielawski, Jacek; Amorim, Maria Amélia; Moradas-Ferreira, Pedro; Hannun, Yusuf A; Costa, Vítor

    2011-07-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking Isc1p, an orthologue of mammalian neutral sphingomyelinase 2, display a shortened lifespan and an increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. A lipidomic analysis revealed specific changes in sphingolipids that accompanied the premature ageing of Isc1p-deficient cells under severe calorie restriction conditions, including a decrease of dihydrosphingosine levels and an increase of dihydro-C(26) -ceramide and phyto-C(26) -ceramide levels, the latter raising the possibility of activation of ceramide-dependent protein phosphatases. Consequently, deletion of the SIT4 gene, which encodes for the catalytic subunit of type 2A ceramide-activated protein phosphatase in yeast, abolished the premature ageing and hydrogen peroxide sensitivity of isc1Δ cells. SIT4 deletion also abolished the respiratory defects and catalase A deficiency exhibited by isc1Δ mutants. These results are consistent with catabolic derepression associated with the loss of Sit4p. The overall results show that Isc1p is an upstream regulator of Sit4p and implicate Sit4p activation in mitochondrial dysfunction leading to the shortened chronological lifespan and oxidative stress sensitivity of isc1Δ mutants.

  12. Role for Sit4p-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction in mediating the shortened chronological lifespan and oxidative stress sensitivity of Isc1p-deficient cells.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, António Daniel; Osório, Hugo; Sims, Kellie J; Almeida, Teresa; Alves, Mariana; Bielawski, Jacek; Amorim, Maria Amélia; Moradas-Ferreira, Pedro; Hannun, Yusuf A; Costa, Vítor

    2011-07-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking Isc1p, an orthologue of mammalian neutral sphingomyelinase 2, display a shortened lifespan and an increased sensitivity to oxidative stress. A lipidomic analysis revealed specific changes in sphingolipids that accompanied the premature ageing of Isc1p-deficient cells under severe calorie restriction conditions, including a decrease of dihydrosphingosine levels and an increase of dihydro-C(26) -ceramide and phyto-C(26) -ceramide levels, the latter raising the possibility of activation of ceramide-dependent protein phosphatases. Consequently, deletion of the SIT4 gene, which encodes for the catalytic subunit of type 2A ceramide-activated protein phosphatase in yeast, abolished the premature ageing and hydrogen peroxide sensitivity of isc1Δ cells. SIT4 deletion also abolished the respiratory defects and catalase A deficiency exhibited by isc1Δ mutants. These results are consistent with catabolic derepression associated with the loss of Sit4p. The overall results show that Isc1p is an upstream regulator of Sit4p and implicate Sit4p activation in mitochondrial dysfunction leading to the shortened chronological lifespan and oxidative stress sensitivity of isc1Δ mutants. PMID:21707788

  13. Restrictive vs. non-restrictive composition: a magnetoencephalography study

    PubMed Central

    Leffel, Timothy; Lauter, Miriam; Westerlund, Masha; Pylkkänen, Liina

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on the brain mechanisms underlying language processing has implicated the left anterior temporal lobe (LATL) as a central region for the composition of simple phrases. Because these studies typically present their critical stimuli without contextual information, the sensitivity of LATL responses to contextual factors is unknown. In this magnetoencephalography (MEG) study, we employed a simple question-answer paradigm to manipulate whether a prenominal adjective or determiner is interpreted restrictively, i.e., as limiting the set of entities under discussion. Our results show that the LATL is sensitive to restriction, with restrictive composition eliciting higher responses than non-restrictive composition. However, this effect was only observed when the restricting element was a determiner, adjectival stimuli showing the opposite pattern, which we hypothesise to be driven by the special pragmatic properties of non-restrictive adjectives. Overall, our results demonstrate a robust sensitivity of the LATL to high level contextual and potentially also pragmatic factors. PMID:25379512

  14. Serotonin in the solitary tract nucleus shortens the laryngeal chemoreflex in anaesthetized neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, William T; Bartlett, Donald; Leiter, J C

    2016-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? Failure to terminate apnoea and arouse is likely to contribute to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Serotonin is deficient in the brainstems of babies who died of SIDS. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that serotonin in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) would shorten reflex apnoea. What is the main finding and its importance? Serotonin microinjected into the NTS shortened the apnoea and respiratory inhibition associated with the laryngeal chemoreflex. Moreover, this effect was achieved through a 5-HT3 receptor. This is a new insight that is likely to be relevant to the pathogenesis of SIDS. The laryngeal chemoreflex (LCR), an airway-protective reflex that causes apnoea and bradycardia, has long been suspected as an initiating event in the sudden infant death syndrome. Serotonin (5-HT) and 5-HT receptors may be deficient in the brainstems of babies who die of sudden infant death syndrome, and 5-HT seems to be important in terminating apnoeas directly or in causing arousals or as part of the process of autoresuscitation. We hypothesized that 5-HT in the brainstem would limit the duration of the LCR. We studied anaesthetized rat pups between 7 and 21 days of age and made microinjections into the cisterna magna or into the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS). Focal, bilateral microinjections of 5-HT into the caudal NTS significantly shortened the LCR. The 5-HT1a receptor antagonist, WAY 100635, did not affect the LCR consistently, nor did a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, ketanserin, alter the duration of the LCR. The 5-HT3 specific agonist, 1-(3-chlorophenyl)-biguanide, microinjected bilaterally into the caudal NTS significantly shortened the LCR. Thus, endogenous 5-HT released within the NTS may curtail the respiratory depression that is part of the LCR, and serotonergic shortening of the LCR may be attributed to activation of 5-HT3 receptors within the NTS. 5-HT3 receptors are expressed presynaptically on C

  15. Coexisting shortening and extension along the "Africa-Eurasia" plate boundary in southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuffaro, M.; Riguzzi, F.; Scrocca, D.; Doglioni, C.

    2009-04-01

    We performed geodetic strain rate field analyses along the "Africa (Sicily microplate)"-"Eurasia (Tyrrhenian microplate)" plate boundary in Sicily (southern Italy), using new GPS velocities from a data set spanning maximum ten years (1998-2007). Data from GPS permanent stations maintained from different institutions and the recent RING network, settled in Italy in the last five years by the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, were included into the analysis. Two dimensional strain and rotation rate fields were estimated by the distance weighted approach on a regularly spaced grid (30*30km), estimating the strain using all stations, but data from each station are weighted by their distance from the grid node by a constant a=70km that specifies how the effect of a station decays with distance from the node grid interpolation. Results show that most of the shortening of the Africa-Eurasia relative motion is distributed in the northwestern side offshore Sicily, whereas the extension becomes comparable with shortening on the western border of the Capo d'Orlando basin, and grater in the northeastern side, offshore Sicily, as directly provided by GPS velocities which show a larger E-ward component of sites located in Calabria with respect to those located either in northern Sicily or in the Ustica-Aeolian islands. Moreover, where shortening and extension have mostly a similar order of magnitude, two rotation rate fields can be detected, CCW in the northwestern side of Sicily, and CW in the northeastern one respectively. Also, 2-D dilatation field records a similar pattern, with negative values (shortening) in the northwestern area of Sicily close to the Ustica island, and positive values (extension) in the northeastern and southeastern ones, respectively. Principal shortening and extension rate axes are consistent with long-term geological features: seismic reflection profiles acquired in the southern Tyrrhenian seismogenic belt show active extensional faults

  16. Hypothalamic neuropeptide gene expression during recovery from food restriction superimposed on short-day photoperiod-induced weight loss in the Siberian hamster.

    PubMed

    Archer, Zoë A; Moar, Kim M; Logie, Tracy J; Reilly, Laura; Stevens, Valerie; Morgan, Peter J; Mercer, Julian G

    2007-09-01

    Previously, 40% food restriction of male Siberian hamsters over 21 days in short-day (SD) photoperiod induced characteristic changes in expression of hypothalamic arcuate nucleus energy balance genes; mRNAs for neuropeptide Y, agouti-related peptide, and leptin receptor were upregulated, and those of proopiomelanocortin and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript were depressed. The present study examined the effect of refeeding hamsters for 6 days (approximately 50% recovery of weight differential) or 19 days (resumption of appropriate weight trajectory). Hyperphagia continued throughout refeeding, but differences in fat pad weights and leptin levels had disappeared after 19 days. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript gene expression was depressed by prior restriction in both refed groups. The depressive effect of prior restriction on proopiomelanocortin gene expression had disappeared after 19 days of refeeding. There was no effect of prior food restriction on neuropeptide Y or agouti-related peptide gene expression. Expression of the anorexigenic brain-derived neurotrophic factor was downregulated in the ventromedial nucleus after SD exposure for 12 wk. In the SD food restriction study, there were effects of photoperiod on brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene expression but not of prior food restriction. Hypothalamic energy balance genes in the hamster respond asynchronously to return to a seasonally appropriate body weight. The achievement of this weight rather than the weight at which caloric restriction was imposed is the critical factor. The differential responses of hypothalamic energy balance genes to food restriction and refeeding are poorly characterized in any species, a critical issue given their potential relevance to human weight loss strategies that involve caloric restriction.

  17. Placental changes caused by food restriction during early pregnancy in mice are reversible

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Jennifer L.; Caesar, Gerialisa A.; Pennington, Kathleen A.; Davis, J. Wade; Schulz, Laura Clamon

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, 50% calorie restriction in mice from days 1.5–11.5 of pregnancy resulted in reduced placental weights and areas, relatively sparing of labyrinth zone area compared to junctional zone area, and dramatic changes in global gene expression profiles. However, little lasting effect was seen on adult offspring of these pregnancies, with a slight reduction in adiposity in males, and some changes in liver gene expression in both sexes. The goals of the present study were to determine whether the placental changes induced by caloric restriction in early pregnancy had permanent, irreversible effects on the placenta, and whether the changes in liver gene expression in adult offspring were present before birth. There were no differences in placental weights or areas, or the areas of individual placental zones near term in mice that had previously been food restricted. Global gene expression profiles at d18.5 were indistinguishable in placentas from control and previously food restricted mothers. In fetuses from restricted dams at d18.5, liver expression of Gck, a key regulator of glycogen synthesis was reduced, whereas its expression was increased in livers from adult offspring of restricted dams. Ppara expression was also reduced in fetal livers from restricted dams at d18.5, but not in adult offspring livers. We conclude that alterations in the placenta caused by nutrient restriction in early pregnancy are reversible, and that alterations in gene expression in livers of adult offspring are not a result of changes initiated during pregnancy and maintained through adulthood. PMID:26060317

  18. Placental changes caused by food restriction during early pregnancy in mice are reversible.

    PubMed

    Harper, Jennifer L; Caesar, Gerialisa A; Pennington, Kathleen A; Davis, J Wade; Schulz, Laura Clamon

    2015-09-01

    In a previous study, 50% calorie restriction in mice from d1.5 to 11.5 of pregnancy resulted in reduced placental weights and areas,relative sparing of labyrinth zone area compared to junctional zone area, and dramatic changes in global gene expression profiles.However, little lasting effect was seen on adult offspring of these pregnancies, with a slight reduction in adiposity in males and some changes in liver gene expression in both sexes. The goals of the present study were to determine whether the placental changes induced by caloric restriction in early pregnancy had permanent, irreversible effects on the placenta, and whether the changes in liver gene expression in adult offspring were present before birth. There were no differences in placental weights or areas, or the areas of individual placental zones near term in mice that had previously been food restricted. Global gene expression profiles at d18.5 were indistinguishable in placentas from control and previously food-restricted mothers. In fetuses from restricted dams at d18.5, liver expression of Gck, a key regulator of glycogen synthesis, was reduced, whereas its expression was increased in livers from adult offspring of restricted dams. Ppara expression was also reduced in fetal livers from restricted dams at d18.5, but not in adult offspring livers. We conclude that alterations in the placenta caused by nutrient restriction in early pregnancy are reversible, and that alterations in gene expression in livers of adult offspring are not a result of changes initiated during pregnancy and maintained through adulthood.

  19. A critical examination of the maximum velocity of shortening used in simulation models of human movement.

    PubMed

    Domire, Zachary J; Challis, John H

    2010-12-01

    The maximum velocity of shortening of a muscle is an important parameter in musculoskeletal models. The most commonly used values are derived from animal studies; however, these values are well above the values that have been reported for human muscle. The purpose of this study was to examine the sensitivity of simulations of maximum vertical jumping performance to the parameters describing the force-velocity properties of muscle. Simulations performed with parameters derived from animal studies were similar to measured jump heights from previous experimental studies. While simulations performed with parameters derived from human muscle were much lower than previously measured jump heights. If current measurements of maximum shortening velocity in human muscle are correct, a compensating error must exist. Of the possible compensating errors that could produce this discrepancy, it was concluded that reduced muscle fibre excursion is the most likely candidate.

  20. Adenosine monophosphate deaminase 3 activation shortens erythrocyte half-life and provides malaria resistance in mice.

    PubMed

    Hortle, Elinor; Nijagal, Brunda; Bauer, Denis C; Jensen, Lora M; Ahn, Seong Beom; Cockburn, Ian A; Lampkin, Shelley; Tull, Dedreia; McConville, Malcolm J; McMorran, Brendan J; Foote, Simon J; Burgio, Gaetan

    2016-09-01

    The factors that determine red blood cell (RBC) lifespan and the rate of RBC aging have not been fully elucidated. In several genetic conditions, including sickle cell disease, thalassemia, and G6PD deficiency, erythrocyte lifespan is significantly shortened. Many of these diseases are also associated with protection from severe malaria, suggesting a role for accelerated RBC senescence and clearance in malaria resistance. Here, we report a novel, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mutation that causes a gain of function in adenosine 5'-monophosphate deaminase (AMPD3). Mice carrying the mutation exhibit rapid RBC turnover, with increased erythropoiesis, dramatically shortened RBC lifespan, and signs of increased RBC senescence/eryptosis, suggesting a key role for AMPD3 in determining RBC half-life. Mice were also found to be resistant to infection with the rodent malaria Plasmodium chabaudi. We propose that resistance to P. chabaudi is mediated by increased RBC turnover and higher rates of erythropoiesis during infection. PMID:27465915

  1. Suppression of beam induced pulse shortening modes in high power RF generator TW output structures

    SciTech Connect

    Haimson, J.; Mecklenburg, B.

    1992-12-31

    Several different style 11.4 GHz relativistic klystrons, operating with beam pulse widths of 50 ns and using large aperture, tapered phase-velocity TW structures,` have recently demonstrated output RF power levels in the range of 100 to 300 MW without breakdown or pulse shortening. To extend this performance into the long pulse regime (1 {mu}s) or to demonstrate a threefold increase in output power by using higher currents, the existing TW circuit designs must be modified (a) to reduce the cavity maximum surface E-fields by a factor of 2 to 3, and (b) to elevate the current threshold values of the beam induced higher order modes (HOM) to ensure avoidance of RF pulse shortening and associated instabilities. A technique for substantially elevating this threshold current is described, and microwave data and photographs are presented showing the degree of HOM damping achieved in a recently constructed 11.4 GHz TW structure.

  2. A near-term ion-beam experiment to demonstrate pulse shortening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, K.; Woo, K. M.; Yu, S. S.

    2014-04-01

    Short beam pulse at a target is essential for High Energy Density Physics and Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF). A technique for ion-beam pulse shortening by the reduction of longitudinal emittance has recently been developed. An experimental demonstration of this technique would be important not only for the long-term design of HIF and HEDP targets, but would have immediate applications for near-term target experiments as well. To this end, using 3D PIC simulation code WARP, we have designed an experiment based on beam parameters of the existing NDCX-II machine at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The proposed experiment only requires non-invasive beam current measurements at two existing diagnostic stations and the implementation of two induction cells with special voltage waveforms, one for energy correction and a second one for final pulse compression. We show that the final pulse length in the NDCX-II experiment can be shortened by 46%.

  3. Telomeric noncoding RNA TERRA is induced by telomere shortening to nucleate telomerase molecules at short telomeres.

    PubMed

    Cusanelli, Emilio; Romero, Carmina Angelica Perez; Chartrand, Pascal

    2013-09-26

    Elongation of a short telomere depends on the action of multiple telomerase molecules, which are visible as telomerase RNA foci or clusters associated with telomeres in yeast and mammalian cells. How several telomerase molecules act on a single short telomere is unknown. Herein, we report that the telomeric noncoding RNA TERRA is involved in the nucleation of telomerase molecules into clusters prior to their recruitment at a short telomere. We find that telomere shortening induces TERRA expression, leading to the accumulation of TERRA molecules into a nuclear focus. Simultaneous time-lapse imaging of telomerase RNA and TERRA reveals spontaneous events of telomerase nucleation on TERRA foci in early S phase, generating TERRA-telomerase clusters. This cluster is subsequently recruited to the short telomere from which TERRA transcripts originate during S phase. We propose that telomere shortening induces noncoding RNA expression to coordinate the recruitment and activity of telomerase molecules at short telomeres.

  4. Telomere shortening leads to earlier age of onset in ALS mice

    PubMed Central

    Linkus, Birgit; Wiesner, Diana; MeΔner, Martina; Karabatsiakis, Alexander; Scheffold, Annika; Rudolph, K. Lenhard; Thal, Dietmar R.; Weishaupt, Jochen H.; Ludolph, Albert C.; Danzer, Karin M.

    2016-01-01

    Telomere shortening has been linked to a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Recent evidence suggests that reduced telomerase expression results in shorter telomeres in leukocytes from sporadic patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) compared with healthy controls. Here, we have characterized telomere length in microglia, astroglia and neurons in human post mortem brain tissue from ALS patients and healthy controls. Moreover, we studied the consequences of telomerase deletion in a genetic mouse model for ALS. We found a trend towards longer telomeres in microglia in the brains of ALS patients compared to non-neurologic controls. Knockout of telomerase leading to telomere shortening accelerated the ALS phenotype in SOD1G93A–transgenic mice. Our results suggest that telomerase dysfunction might contribute to the age-related risk for ALS. PMID:26978042

  5. The Impact of Subject Age, Gender, and Arch Length on Attitudes of Syrian Dentists towards Shortened Dental Arches.

    PubMed

    Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria; Al-Nahhal, Tammam Ibrahim; Kujan, Omar; Tarakji, Bassel; Kay, Elizabeth Jane

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to investigate the impact of subject age, gender, and arch length on dentists' attitudes towards unrestored shortened dental arches. Materials and Methods. 93 Syrian dentists were interviewed and presented with 24 scenarios for male and female subjects of different ages and shortened dental arches of varying length. Participants were asked to indicate on a standardized visual analogue scale how they would value the health of the mouth if the posterior space was left unrestored. Results. A value of 0.0 represented the worst possible health state for a mouth and 1.0 represented the best. The highest mean value (0.73) was assigned to a shortened dental arch with missing second molar teeth in the mouth of a 70-year-old subject. A 35-year-old female subject with an extremely shortened dental arch (all molar and premolar teeth are missing) attracted the lowest mean value (0.26). The statistical analysis indicated a significant decrease in the value placed on unrestored shortened dental arches as the number of remaining teeth decreased (p < 0.008). While subject gender had almost no impact on dentists' attitudes towards shortened dental arches, the scenarios for the older shortened dental arch subjects attracted significantly higher values compared to the scenarios for the younger subjects (p < 0.017). Conclusion. Subject age and arch length affect dentists' attitudes towards shortened dental arches, but subject gender does not.

  6. Restricting retrotransposons: a review.

    PubMed

    Goodier, John L

    2016-01-01

    Retrotransposons have generated about 40 % of the human genome. This review examines the strategies the cell has evolved to coexist with these genomic "parasites", focussing on the non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons of humans and mice. Some of the restriction factors for retrotransposition, including the APOBECs, MOV10, RNASEL, SAMHD1, TREX1, and ZAP, also limit replication of retroviruses, including HIV, and are part of the intrinsic immune system of the cell. Many of these proteins act in the cytoplasm to degrade retroelement RNA or inhibit its translation. Some factors act in the nucleus and involve DNA repair enzymes or epigenetic processes of DNA methylation and histone modification. RISC and piRNA pathway proteins protect the germline. Retrotransposon control is relaxed in some cell types, such as neurons in the brain, stem cells, and in certain types of disease and cancer, with implications for human health and disease. This review also considers potential pitfalls in interpreting retrotransposon-related data, as well as issues to consider for future research. PMID:27525044

  7. Effect of Preactivation on Torque Enhancement by the Stretch-Shortening Cycle in Knee Extensors.

    PubMed

    Fukutani, Atsuki; Misaki, Jun; Isaka, Tadao

    2016-01-01

    The stretch-shortening cycle is one of the most interesting topics in the field of sport sciences, because the performance of human movement is enhanced by the stretch-shortening cycle (eccentric contraction). The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the influence of preactivation on the torque enhancement by stretch-shortening cycle in knee extensors. Twelve men participated in this study. The following three conditions were conducted for knee extensors: (1) concentric contraction without preactivation (CON), (2) concentric contraction with eccentric preactivation (ECC), and (3) concentric contraction with isometric preactivation (ISO). Muscle contractions were evoked by electrical stimulation to discard the influence of neural activity. The range of motion of the knee joint was set from 80 to 140 degrees (full extension = 180 degrees). Angular velocities of the concentric and eccentric contractions were set at 180 and 90 degrees/s, respectively. In the concentric contraction phase, joint torques were recorded at 85, 95, and 105 degrees, and they were compared among the three conditions. In the early phase (85 degrees) of concentric contraction, the joint torque was larger in the ECC and ISO conditions than in the CON condition. However, these clear differences disappeared in the later phase (105 degrees) of concentric contraction. The results showed that joint torque was clearly different among the three conditions in the early phase whereas this difference disappeared in the later phase. Thus, preactivation, which is prominent in the early phase of contractions, plays an important role in torque enhancement by the stretch-shortening cycle in knee extensors.

  8. Foreland shortening and crustal balancing in the Andes at 30°S latitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allmendinger, R. W.; Figueroa, D.; Synder, D.; Beer, J.; Mpodozis, C.; Isaacks, B. L.

    1990-08-01

    Excellent surface exposures, known Benioff zone geometry, a dynamic morphology, and the availability of industry seismic reflection data all make the Andes at 30°S an excellent transect for investigating crustal-scale balanced sections. 150-170 km of horizontal shortening has occurred in three major belts located between the trench and the foreland. The thin-skinned, east-verging Precordillera of western Argentina accounts for 60-75% of the total shortening and formed mostly since major volcanism ceased at ˜10 Ma. Industry seismic reflection data show that the décollement of the Precordillera belt is located anomalously deep at ˜15 km. The belt is dominated by fault propagation folds and contains several prominent out-of-sequence thrust faults. Seismic stratigraphie analysis shows that Miocene strata in the Iglesia Valley, located between the Precordillera and the crest of the Andes, accumulated in a piggy-back basin. Onlap relations on the western side indicate that the High Cordillera was uplifted as a major fault bend fold over a buried ramp. Thrusting in the two western belts, both in the High Cordillera of Chile, formed during the waning stages of arc volcanism, 11-16 Ma. and account for 25-40% of the shortening. The observed shortening is probably greater than can be accounted for with reasonable crustal thicknesses, indicating the possibility of continental truncation or erosion along the plate margin or an anomalously thick root held down by the nearly flat subducted Nazca Plate. Our preferred crustal geometry puts the ramp between upper and lower crustal deformation west of the high topography, requiring crustal scale tectonic wedging to thicken the crust beneath the crest of the Andes. This non-unique model provides a simple explanation of the first order morphology of the Andes at this latitude.

  9. Effect of Preactivation on Torque Enhancement by the Stretch-Shortening Cycle in Knee Extensors

    PubMed Central

    Fukutani, Atsuki; Misaki, Jun; Isaka, Tadao

    2016-01-01

    The stretch-shortening cycle is one of the most interesting topics in the field of sport sciences, because the performance of human movement is enhanced by the stretch-shortening cycle (eccentric contraction). The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the influence of preactivation on the torque enhancement by stretch-shortening cycle in knee extensors. Twelve men participated in this study. The following three conditions were conducted for knee extensors: (1) concentric contraction without preactivation (CON), (2) concentric contraction with eccentric preactivation (ECC), and (3) concentric contraction with isometric preactivation (ISO). Muscle contractions were evoked by electrical stimulation to discard the influence of neural activity. The range of motion of the knee joint was set from 80 to 140 degrees (full extension = 180 degrees). Angular velocities of the concentric and eccentric contractions were set at 180 and 90 degrees/s, respectively. In the concentric contraction phase, joint torques were recorded at 85, 95, and 105 degrees, and they were compared among the three conditions. In the early phase (85 degrees) of concentric contraction, the joint torque was larger in the ECC and ISO conditions than in the CON condition. However, these clear differences disappeared in the later phase (105 degrees) of concentric contraction. The results showed that joint torque was clearly different among the three conditions in the early phase whereas this difference disappeared in the later phase. Thus, preactivation, which is prominent in the early phase of contractions, plays an important role in torque enhancement by the stretch-shortening cycle in knee extensors. PMID:27414804

  10. Shortened Length of Stay Improves Financial Outcomes in Living Donor Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Manuel; Siskind, Eric; Sameyah, Emil; Alex, Asha; Blum, Mark; Tyrell, Richard; Fana, Melissa; Mishler, Marni; Godwin, Andrew; Kuncewitch, Michael; Alexander, Mohini; Israel, Ezra; Bhaskaran, Madhu; Calderon, Kellie; Jhaveri, Kenar D.; Sachdeva, Mala; Bellucci, Alessandro; Mattana, Joseph; Fishbane, Steven; Coppa, Gene; Molmenti, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is the preferred clinical and most cost-effective option for end-stage renal disease. Significant advances have taken place in the care of the transplant patients with improvements in clinical outcomes. The optimization of the costs of transplantation has been a constant goal as well. We present herein the impact in financial outcomes of a shortened length of stay after kidney transplant. PMID:24436592

  11. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: IV. Non-linear change in behavioural phenotype of mice in response to short-term calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    Lusseau, David; Mitchell, Sharon E; Barros, Ceres; Derous, Davina; Green, Cara; Chen, Luonan; Han, Jing-Dong Jackie; Wang, Yingchun; Promislow, Daniel E L; Douglas, Alex; Speakman, John R

    2015-08-25

    Animals have to adjust their activities when faced with caloric restriction (CR) to deal with reduced energy intake. If CR is pronounced, allostasis can push individuals into alternate physiological states which can result in important health benefits across a wide range of taxa. Here we developed a new approach to determine the changes in behavioural phenotype associated with different levels of CR. We exposed C57BL/6 male mice to graded CR (from 0 to 40%) for three months and defined their behavioural phenotype using hidden Markov models of their movement and body temperature. All 40% CR mice exhibited a state-shift in behavioural phenotype and only some exposed to 30% CR did. We show for the first time that mice changed their activity characteristics rather than changed their activities. This new phenotyping approach provides an avenue to determine the mechanisms linking CR to healthspan.

  12. Antiretroviral restriction factors in mice.

    PubMed

    Nair, Smita; Rein, Alan

    2014-11-26

    One of the most exciting areas in contemporary retrovirus research is the discovery of "restriction factors". These are cellular proteins that act after virus entry to inhibit infection by or replication of retroviruses (and other viruses and intracellular pathogens). We briefly discuss here three antiretroviral restriction factors in mice: Fv1, APOBEC3, and tetherin, touching on both biological and molecular aspects of these restriction systems.

  13. Response of slow and fast muscle to hypothyroidism: maximal shortening velocity and myosin isoforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caiozzo, V. J.; Herrick, R. E.; Baldwin, K. M.

    1992-01-01

    This study examined both the shortening velocity and myosin isoform distribution of slow- (soleus) and fast-twitch (plantaris) skeletal muscles under hypothyroid conditions. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of two groups: control (n = 7) or hypothyroid (n = 7). In both muscles, the relative contents of native slow myosin (SM) and type I myosin heavy chain (MHC) increased in response to the hypothyroid treatment. The effects were such that the hypothyroid soleus muscle expressed only the native SM and type I MHC isoforms while repressing native intermediate myosin and type IIA MHC. In the plantaris, the relative content of native SM and type I MHC isoforms increased from 5 to 13% and from 4 to 10% of the total myosin pool, respectively. Maximal shortening velocity of the soleus and plantaris as measured by the slack test decreased by 32 and 19%, respectively, in response to hypothyroidism. In contrast, maximal shortening velocity as estimated by force-velocity data decreased only in the soleus (-19%). No significant change was observed for the plantaris.

  14. Reversibility of Defective Hematopoiesis Caused by Telomere Shortening in Telomerase Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Raval, Aparna; Behbehani, Gregory K.; Nguyen, Le Xuan Truong; Thomas, Daniel; Kusler, Brenda; Garbuzov, Alina; Ramunas, John; Holbrook, Colin; Park, Christopher Y.; Blau, Helen; Nolan, Garry P.; Artandi, Steven E.; Mitchell, Beverly S.

    2015-01-01

    Telomere shortening is common in bone marrow failure syndromes such as dyskeratosis congenita (DC), aplastic anemia (AA) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). However, improved knowledge of the lineage-specific consequences of telomere erosion and restoration of telomere length in hematopoietic progenitors is required to advance therapeutic approaches. We have employed a reversible murine model of telomerase deficiency to compare the dependence of erythroid and myeloid lineage differentiation on telomerase activity. Fifth generation Tert-/- (G5 Tert-/-) mice with shortened telomeres have significant anemia, decreased erythroblasts and reduced hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) populations associated with neutrophilia and increased myelopoiesis. Intracellular multiparameter analysis by mass cytometry showed significantly reduced cell proliferation and increased sensitivity to activation of DNA damage checkpoints in erythroid progenitors and in erythroid-biased CD150hi HSC, but not in myeloid progenitors. Strikingly, Cre-inducible reactivation of telomerase activity restored hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) proliferation, normalized the DNA damage response, and improved red cell production and hemoglobin levels. These data establish a direct link between the loss of TERT activity, telomere shortening and defective erythropoiesis and suggest that novel strategies to restore telomerase function may have an important role in the treatment of the resulting anemia. PMID:26133370

  15. Parallel telomere shortening in multiple body tissues owing to malaria infection.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Muhammad; Palinauskas, Vaidas; Zaghdoudi-Allan, Nadège; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Mukhin, Andrey; Platonova, Elena; Färnert, Anna; Bensch, Staffan; Hasselquist, Dennis

    2016-08-17

    Several studies have shown associations between shorter telomere length in blood and weakened immune function, susceptibility to infections, and increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Recently, we have shown that malaria accelerates telomere attrition in blood cells and shortens lifespan in birds. However, the impact of infections on telomere attrition in different body tissues within an individual is unknown. Here, we tested whether malarial infection leads to parallel telomere shortening in blood and tissue samples from different organs. We experimentally infected siskins (Spinus spinus) with the avian malaria parasite Plasmodium ashfordi, and used real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to measure telomere length in control and experimentally infected siskins. We found that experimentally infected birds showed faster telomere attrition in blood over the course of infection compared with control individuals (repeatedly measured over 105 days post-infection (DPI)). Shorter telomeres were also found in the tissue of all six major organs investigated (liver, lungs, spleen, heart, kidney, and brain) in infected birds compared with controls at 105 DPI. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study showing that an infectious disease results in synchronous telomere shortening in the blood and tissue cells of internal organs within individuals, implying that the infection induces systemic stress. Our results have far-reaching implications for understanding how the short-term effects of an infection can translate into long-term costs, such as organ dysfunction, degenerative diseases, and ageing. PMID:27488651

  16. Shortened Lifespan and Lethal Hemorrhage in a Hemophilia A Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Pollpeter, Molly J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Hemophilia A animal models have helped advance our understanding of factor VIII deficiency. Previously, factor VIII deficient mouse models were reported to have a normal life span without spontaneous bleeds. However, the bleeding frequency and survival in these animals has not been thoroughly evaluated. Objective To investigate the survival and lethal bleeding frequency in two strains of E-16 hemophilia A mice. Methods We prospectively studied factor VIII deficient hemizygous affected males (n = 83) and homozygous affected females (n = 55) for survival and bleeding frequency. Animals were evaluated for presence and location of bleeds as potential cause of death. Results and Conclusions Hemophilia A mice had a median survival of 254 days, which is significantly shortened compared to wild type controls (p < 0.0001). In addition, the hemophilia A mice experienced hemorrhage in several tissues. This previously-underappreciated shortened survival in the hemophilia A murine model provides new outcomes for investigation of therapeutics and also reflects the shortened lifespan of patients if left untreated. PMID:27144769

  17. Circular and longitudinal muscles shortening indicates sliding patterns during peristalsis and transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Nirali; Jiang, Yanfen; Mittal, Ravinder K.; Kim, Tae Ho; Ledgerwood, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal axial shortening is caused by longitudinal muscle (LM) contraction, but circular muscle (CM) may also contribute to axial shortening because of its spiral morphology. The goal of our study was to show patterns of contraction of CM and LM layers during peristalsis and transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation (TLESR). In rats, esophageal and LES morphology was assessed by histology and immunohistochemistry, and function with the use of piezo-electric crystals and manometry. Electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve was used to induce esophageal contractions. In 18 healthy subjects, manometry and high frequency intraluminal ultrasound imaging during swallow-induced esophageal contractions and TLESR were evaluated. CM and LM thicknesses were measured (40 swallows and 30 TLESRs) as markers of axial shortening, before and at peak contraction, as well as during TLESRs. Animal studies revealed muscular connections between the LM and CM layers of the LES but not in the esophagus. During vagal stimulated esophageal contraction there was relative movement between the LM and CM. Human studies show that LM-to-CM (LM/CM) thickness ratio at baseline was 1. At the peak of swallow-induced contraction LM/CM ratio decreased significantly (<1), whereas the reverse was the case during TLESR (>2). The pattern of contraction of CM and LM suggests sliding of the two muscles. Furthermore, the sliding patterns are in the opposite direction during peristalsis and TLESR. PMID:26045610

  18. Terminology for contractions of muscles during shortening, while isometric, and during lengthening.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, John A

    2003-08-01

    Communication among scientists must be clear and concise to avoid ambiguity and misinterpretations. The selection of words must be based on accepted definitions. The fields of biomechanics, muscle physiology, and exercise science have had a particularly difficult time with terminology, arising from the complexity of muscle contractions and by the use of inappropriate terminology by scientists. The dictionary definition of the verb "contract," specifically for the case of muscle, is "to undergo an increase in tension, or force, and become shorter." Under all circumstances, an activated muscle generates force, but an activated muscle generating force does not invariably shorten! During the 1920s and 1930s, investigators recognized that the interaction between the force generated by the muscle and the load on the muscle results in either shortening, no length change (isometric), or lengthening of the muscle. The recognition that muscles perform three different types of "contractions" required that contraction be redefined as "to undergo activation and generate force." Modifiers of contraction are then needed to clarify the lack of movement or the directionality of movement. Despite the contradiction, for 75 years the lack of movement has been termed an "isometric contraction." The directionality of the movement is then best described by the adjectives "shortening" and "lengthening." The definitions of "concentric" as "having the same center" and of "eccentric" as "not having the same center" are consistent with hypertrophy, or remodeling of the heart muscle, but are inappropriate to describe the contractions of skeletal muscles.

  19. Exposure to Room Light before Bedtime Suppresses Melatonin Onset and Shortens Melatonin Duration in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, Kyle; Smith, Kurt A.; Khalsa, Sat Bir S.; Rajaratnam, Shantha M. W.; Van Reen, Eliza; Zeitzer, Jamie M.; Czeisler, Charles A.; Lockley, Steven W.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Millions of individuals habitually expose themselves to room light in the hours before bedtime, yet the effects of this behavior on melatonin signaling are not well recognized. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that exposure to room light in the late evening suppresses the onset of melatonin synthesis and shortens the duration of melatonin production. Design: In a retrospective analysis, we compared daily melatonin profiles in individuals living in room light (<200 lux) vs. dim light (<3 lux). Patients: Healthy volunteers (n = 116, 18–30 yr) were recruited from the general population to participate in one of two studies. Setting: Participants lived in a General Clinical Research Center for at least five consecutive days. Intervention: Individuals were exposed to room light or dim light in the 8 h preceding bedtime. Outcome Measures: Melatonin duration, onset and offset, suppression, and phase angle of entrainment were determined. Results: Compared with dim light, exposure to room light before bedtime suppressed melatonin, resulting in a later melatonin onset in 99.0% of individuals and shortening melatonin duration by about 90 min. Also, exposure to room light during the usual hours of sleep suppressed melatonin by greater than 50% in most (85%) trials. Conclusions: These findings indicate that room light exerts a profound suppressive effect on melatonin levels and shortens the body's internal representation of night duration. Hence, chronically exposing oneself to electrical lighting in the late evening disrupts melatonin signaling and could therefore potentially impact sleep, thermoregulation, blood pressure, and glucose homeostasis. PMID:21193540

  20. Microstructures of bread dough and the effects of shortening on frozen dough.

    PubMed

    Aibara, Shigeo; Ogawa, Noriko; Hirose, Masaaki

    2005-02-01

    Three types of straight doughs different in combination of yeast and shortenings (RLS20, FTS20, and FTS80) were prepared, and the structure of the frozen doughs was examined under a microscope after staining protein or lipid droplets. Even after 2 months of frozen storage, distinct changes were not found in the gluten network of FTS80, although significant damages in the dough structures of FTS20 and RLS20 appeared after only one month of frozen storage. These results suggest that the gluten networks loosen and decrease in the water retention ability, and it may be concluded that the lipid is removed from the gluten protein due to the decrease in water in the continuous protein phase. The resulting product from the damage to the gluten matrix gave rise to fusion of lipid droplets and an increase in their size. Because of the difference in fatty acid composition, the lipids of shortening S80 are presumed to interact more strongly with gluten proteins and to keep the gluten matrix from damage in comparison with the lipids of shortening S20. PMID:15725667

  1. Decreasing initial telomere length in humans intergenerationally understates age-associated telomere shortening.

    PubMed

    Holohan, Brody; De Meyer, Tim; Batten, Kimberly; Mangino, Massimo; Hunt, Steven C; Bekaert, Sofie; De Buyzere, Marc L; Rietzschel, Ernst R; Spector, Tim D; Wright, Woodring E; Shay, Jerry W

    2015-08-01

    Telomere length shortens with aging, and short telomeres have been linked to a wide variety of pathologies. Previous studies suggested a discrepancy in age-associated telomere shortening rate estimated by cross-sectional studies versus the rate measured in longitudinal studies, indicating a potential bias in cross-sectional estimates. Intergenerational changes in initial telomere length, such as that predicted by the previously described effect of a father's age at birth of his offspring (FAB), could explain the discrepancy in shortening rate measurements. We evaluated whether changes occur in initial telomere length over multiple generations in three large datasets and identified paternal birth year (PBY) as a variable that reconciles the difference between longitudinal and cross-sectional measurements. We also clarify the association between FAB and offspring telomere length, demonstrating that this effect is substantially larger than reported in the past. These results indicate the presence of a downward secular trend in telomere length at birth over generational time with potential public health implications.

  2. Effect of shortening the barrel in contact shots from rifles and shotguns.

    PubMed

    Grosse Perdekamp, M; Vennemann, B; Kneubuehl, B P; Uhl, M; Treier, M; Braunwarth, R; Pollak, S

    2008-01-01

    In a suicidal gunshot fired to the chest from a carbine, the barrel of which had been shortened to half its original length, an unexpectedly large degree of destruction of the anterior thoracic wall with extensive undermining of the subcutis was found. This phenomenon was investigated for reconstructive purposes by firing test shots from two different long guns (caliber 7.92 x 57 repeating rifle with full-jacketed pointed bullet and caliber 12/70 single-barreled shotgun with shotgun slug) into blocks of soap (38 x 25 x 25 cm). The contact shots were fired before and after shortening the barrels (repeating rifle from 60 to 30 cm and single-barreled shotgun from 72 to 36 cm). The volume of the cavities in the simulant was visualized three-dimensionally with the help of a multislice computed tomography (CT) scanner and calculated sectionally. With the repeating rifle and the single-barreled shotgun, the shots from the sawed-off barrels produced significantly larger cavity diameters in the first section of the bullet track. This effect is attributable to the fact that, with a shortened barrel, the gas pressure at the muzzle is higher, thus, leading to increased expansion in the initial part of the wound track in contact shots.

  3. Cross-validation of a Shortened Battery for the Assessment of Dysexecutive Disorders in Alzheimer Disease.

    PubMed

    Godefroy, Olivier; Martinaud, Olivier; Verny, Marc; Mosca, Chrystèle; Lenoir, Hermine; Bretault, Eric; Devendeville, Agnès; Diouf, Momar; Pere, Jean-Jacques; Bakchine, Serge; Delabrousse-Mayoux, Jean-Philippe; Roussel, Martine

    2016-01-01

    The frequency of executive disorders in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer disease (AD) has been demonstrated by the application of a comprehensive battery. The present study analyzed data from 2 recent multicenter studies based on the same executive battery. The objective was to derive a shortened battery by using the GREFEX population as a training dataset and by cross-validating the results in the REFLEX population. A total of 102 AD patients of the GREFEX study (MMSE=23.2±2.9) and 72 patients of the REFLEX study (MMSE=20.8±3.5) were included. Tests were selected and receiver operating characteristic curves were generated relative to the performance of 780 controls from the GREFEX study. Stepwise logistic regression identified 3 cognitive tests (Six Elements Task, categorical fluency and Trail Making Test B error) and behavioral disorders globally referred as global hypoactivity (P=0.0001, all). This shortened battery was as accurate as the entire GREFEX battery in diagnosing dysexecutive disorders in both training group and the validation group. Bootstrap procedure confirmed the stability of AUC. A shortened battery based on 3 cognitive tests and 3 behavioral domains provides a high diagnosis accuracy of executive disorders in mild-to-moderate AD.

  4. Decreasing initial telomere length in humans intergenerationally understates age-associated telomere shortening

    PubMed Central

    Holohan, Brody; De Meyer, Tim; Batten, Kimberly; Mangino, Massimo; Hunt, Steven C; Bekaert, Sofie; De Buyzere, Marc L; Rietzschel, Ernst R; Spector, Tim D; Wright, Woodring E; Shay, Jerry W

    2015-01-01

    Telomere length shortens with aging, and short telomeres have been linked to a wide variety of pathologies. Previous studies suggested a discrepancy in age-associated telomere shortening rate estimated by cross-sectional studies versus the rate measured in longitudinal studies, indicating a potential bias in cross-sectional estimates. Intergenerational changes in initial telomere length, such as that predicted by the previously described effect of a father’s age at birth of his offspring (FAB), could explain the discrepancy in shortening rate measurements. We evaluated whether changes occur in initial telomere length over multiple generations in three large datasets and identified paternal birth year (PBY) as a variable that reconciles the difference between longitudinal and cross-sectional measurements. We also clarify the association between FAB and offspring telomere length, demonstrating that this effect is substantially larger than reported in the past. These results indicate the presence of a downward secular trend in telomere length at birth over generational time with potential public health implications. PMID:25952108

  5. Field monitoring of column shortenings in a high-rise building during construction.

    PubMed

    Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok; Kim, Jong Moon; Park, Hyo Seon

    2013-10-24

    The automatic monitoring of shortenings of vertical members in high-rise buildings under construction is a challenging issue in the high-rise building construction field. In this study, a practical system for monitoring column shortening in a high-rise building under construction is presented. The proposed monitoring system comprises the following components: (1) a wireless sensing system and (2) the corresponding monitoring software. The wireless sensing system comprises the sensors and energy-efficient wireless sensing units (sensor nodes, master nodes, and repeater nodes), which automate the processes for measuring the strains of vertical members and transmitting the measured data to the remote server. The monitoring software enables construction administrators to monitor real-time data collected by the server via an Internet connection. The proposed monitoring system is applied to actual 66-floor and 72-floor high-rise buildings under construction. The system enables automatic and real-time measurements of the shortening of vertical members, which can result in more precise construction.

  6. Field Monitoring of Column Shortenings in a High-Rise Building during Construction

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok; Kim, Jong Moon; Park, Hyo Seon

    2013-01-01

    The automatic monitoring of shortenings of vertical members in high-rise buildings under construction is a challenging issue in the high-rise building construction field. In this study, a practical system for monitoring column shortening in a high-rise building under construction is presented. The proposed monitoring system comprises the following components: (1) a wireless sensing system and (2) the corresponding monitoring software. The wireless sensing system comprises the sensors and energy-efficient wireless sensing units (sensor nodes, master nodes, and repeater nodes), which automate the processes for measuring the strains of vertical members and transmitting the measured data to the remote server. The monitoring software enables construction administrators to monitor real-time data collected by the server via an Internet connection. The proposed monitoring system is applied to actual 66-floor and 72-floor high-rise buildings under construction. The system enables automatic and real-time measurements of the shortening of vertical members, which can result in more precise construction. PMID:24284768

  7. Life-shortening and carcinogenesis in mice irradiated neonatally with x rays

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, S.; Kasuga, T.

    1981-11-01

    The characteristics of life-shortening and carcinogenesis were investigated in x-irradiated neonatal B6WFr mice. Animals were irradiated with 24 hr after birth and allowed to complete their normal life span. Mean life span was shortened linearly with doses at a rate of 9.1% per 100 R for females and 9.8% for males. The spectrum of neoplastic diseases was apparently modulated by x irradiation, showing neonatal B6WFr mice to be highly susceptible to the induction of thymic lymphoma, liver tumor, and pituitary tumor. The dose-response relationship for thymice lymphoma could be described by a linear-quadratic model, and linearity could be rejected. Thymic lymphoma developed after a short latent period, resulting in death between 100 and 450 days of age. Liver and pituitary tumors increased with increasing dose up to 400 R and decreased thereafter. The latent period for liver tumor development was apparently shortened with increasing doses. Pituitary tumor developed in excess only in females after a long latent period.

  8. Looking at the label and beyond: the effects of calorie labels, health consciousness, and demographics on caloric intake in restaurants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent legislation has required calorie labels on restaurant menus as a means of improving Americans’ health. Despite the growing research in this area, no consensus has been reached on the effectiveness of menu labels. This suggests the possibility of heterogeneity in responses to caloric labels across people with different attitudes and demographics. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential relationships between caloric intake and diners’ socio-economic characteristics and attitudes in a restaurant field experiment that systematically varied the caloric information printed on the menus. Methods We conducted a field experiment in a full service restaurant where patrons were randomly assigned to one of three menu treatments which varied the amount of caloric information printed on the menus (none, numeric, or symbolic calorie label). At the conclusion of their meals, diners were asked to complete a brief survey regarding their socio-economic characteristics, attitudes, and meal selections. Using regression analysis, we estimated the number of entrée and extra calories ordered by diners as a function of demographic and attitudinal variables. Additionally, irrespective of the menu treatment to which a subject was assigned, our study identified which types of people are likely to be low-, medium-, and high-calorie diners. Results Results showed that calorie labels have the greatest impact on those who are least health conscious. Additionally, using a symbolic calorie label can further reduce the caloric intake of even the most health conscious patrons. Finally, calorie labels were more likely to influence the selection of the main entrée as opposed to supplemental items such as drinks and desserts. Conclusions If numeric calorie labels are implemented (as currently proposed), they are most likely to influence consumers who are less health conscious – probably one of the key targets of this legislation. Unfortunately, numeric labels did

  9. Children's Restrictive Disclosure to Friends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotenberg, Ken J.; Sliz, Dave

    1988-01-01

    Children's restrictive disclosure to friends, which is a facet of intimate friendship, was investigated. It was found that children in kindergarten, second, and fourth grade showed restrictive disclosure to friends, and that greater disclosure of positive personal information to friends than to nonfriends was exhibited with age. (PCB)

  10. From yeast to human: exploring the comparative biology of methionine restriction in extending eukaryotic life span.

    PubMed

    McIsaac, R Scott; Lewis, Kaitlyn N; Gibney, Patrick A; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    Methionine restriction is a widely reported intervention for increasing life span in several model organisms. Low circulating levels of methionine are evident in the long-lived naked mole-rat, suggesting that it naturally presents with a life-extending phenotype akin to that observed in methionine-restricted animals. Similarly, long-lived dwarf mice also appear to have altered methionine metabolism. The mechanisms underlying methionine-restriction effects on life-span extension, however, remain unknown, as do their potential connections with caloric restriction, another well-established intervention for prolonging life span. Paradoxically, methionine is enriched in proteins expressed in mitochondria and may itself serve an important role in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species and may thereby contribute to delayed aging. Collectively, we highlight the evidence that modulation of the methionine metabolic network can extend life span-from yeast to humans-and explore the evidence that sulfur amino acids and the concomitant transsulfuration pathway play a privileged role in this regard. However, systematic studies in single organisms (particularly those that exhibit extreme longevity) are still required to distinguish the fundamental principles concerning the role of methionine and other amino acids in regulating life span. PMID:26995762

  11. From yeast to human: exploring the comparative biology of methionine restriction in extending eukaryotic life span.

    PubMed

    McIsaac, R Scott; Lewis, Kaitlyn N; Gibney, Patrick A; Buffenstein, Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    Methionine restriction is a widely reported intervention for increasing life span in several model organisms. Low circulating levels of methionine are evident in the long-lived naked mole-rat, suggesting that it naturally presents with a life-extending phenotype akin to that observed in methionine-restricted animals. Similarly, long-lived dwarf mice also appear to have altered methionine metabolism. The mechanisms underlying methionine-restriction effects on life-span extension, however, remain unknown, as do their potential connections with caloric restriction, another well-established intervention for prolonging life span. Paradoxically, methionine is enriched in proteins expressed in mitochondria and may itself serve an important role in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species and may thereby contribute to delayed aging. Collectively, we highlight the evidence that modulation of the methionine metabolic network can extend life span-from yeast to humans-and explore the evidence that sulfur amino acids and the concomitant transsulfuration pathway play a privileged role in this regard. However, systematic studies in single organisms (particularly those that exhibit extreme longevity) are still required to distinguish the fundamental principles concerning the role of methionine and other amino acids in regulating life span.

  12. Postnatal growth of infants of less than 1.3 kg birth weight: effects of metabolic acidosis, of caloric intake, and of calcium, sodium, and phosphate supplementation.

    PubMed

    Chance, G W; Radde, I C; Willis, D M; Roy, R N; Park, E; Ackerman, I

    1977-11-01

    Weekly increments of length, weight, head circumference, and skinfold thickness in response to a series of dietary changes were measured in 108 healthy infants who weighed less than 1.3 kg at birth. The serial manipulations included prevention of late metabolic acidosis, increased caloric intake, and calcium, sodium, and phosphorus supplementation. The study comprised four phases; the infants were divided into ten groups according to dietary regimen. AGA and SGA infants were studied separately. Growth in length was primarily influenced by a change to a formula providing a higher caloric intake and a 60:40 whey protein/casein ratio. Correction of late metabolic acidosis, sodium, and phosphorus supplementation had minor additive effects on growth in length. Increased caloric intake also influenced growth of head circumference, but only in AGA infants. Only the sodium intake was shown to influence body weight increments significantly with the range of caloric intake used in the study (132 to 160 calories/kg/day).

  13. Effect of Replacing Sugar with Non-Caloric Sweeteners in Beverages on the Reward Value after Repeated Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Griffioen-Roose, Sanne; Smeets, Paul A. M.; Weijzen, Pascalle L. G.; van Rijn, Inge; van den Bosch, Iris; de Graaf, Cees

    2013-01-01

    Background The reward value of food is partly dependent on learned associations. It is not yet known whether replacing sugar with non-caloric sweeteners in food is affecting long-term acceptance. Objective To determine the effect of replacing sugar with non-caloric sweeteners in a nutrient-empty drink (soft drink) versus nutrient-rich drink (yoghurt drink) on reward value after repeated exposure. Design We used a randomized crossover design whereby forty subjects (15 men, 25 women) with a mean±SD age of 21±2 y and BMI of 21.5±1.7 kg/m2 consumed a fixed portion of a non-caloric sweetened (NS) and sugar sweetened (SS) versions of either a soft drink or a yoghurt drink (counterbalanced) for breakfast which were distinguishable by means of colored labels. Each version of a drink was offered 10 times in semi-random order. Before and after conditioning the reward value of the drinks was assessed using behavioral tasks on wanting, liking, and expected satiety. In a subgroup (n=18) fMRI was performed to assess brain reward responses to the drinks. Results Outcomes of both the behavioral tasks and fMRI showed that conditioning did not affect the reward value of the NS and SS versions of the drinks significantly. Overall, subjects preferred the yoghurt drinks to the soft drinks and the ss drinks to the NS drinks. In addition, they expected the yoghurt drinks to be more satiating, they reduced hunger more, and delayed the first eating episode more. Conditioning did not influence these effects. Conclusion Our study showed that repeated consumption of a non-caloric sweetened beverage, instead of a sugar sweetened version, appears not to result in changes in the reward value. It cannot be ruled out that learned associations between sensory attributes and food satiating capacity which developed preceding the conditioning period, during lifetime, affected the reward value of the drinks. PMID:24312382

  14. The effect of brand and caloric information on flavor perception and food consumption in restrained and unrestrained eaters.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Kevin V; Kruja, Blina; Forestell, Catherine A

    2014-11-01

    The goal of the current study was to determine whether provision of brand and caloric information affects sensory perception and consumption of a food in restrained (n=84) and unrestrained eaters (n=104). Using a between-subjects 2 × 2 × 3 design, female restrained and unrestrained eaters were asked to taste and rate a cookie that was labeled with a brand associated with healthful eating (Kashi(®)) or one associated with unhealthful eating (Nabisco(®)). Additionally, some participants were presented with a nutrition label alongside the brand name indicating that one serving contained 130 calories (Low-Calorie Condition), or 260 calories (High-Calorie Condition). The remaining participants were not shown a nutrition label (No Label Condition). Results indicated that those in the No Label or the High-Calorie Condition perceived the healthful branded cookie to have a better flavor than those who received the unhealthful branded cookie regardless of their restraint status. However, restrained eaters in the No Label Condition consumed more of the healthful than the unhealthful branded cookie, whereas those in the Low-Calorie Condition consumed more of the unhealthful than the healthful branded cookie. In contrast, unrestrained eaters ate more of the healthful branded cookie regardless of the caloric information provided. Thus, although restrained and unrestrained eaters' perceptions are similarly affected by branding and caloric information, brands and caloric information interact to affect restrained eaters' consumption. This study reveals that labeling foods as low calorie may create a halo effect which may lead to over-consumption of these foods in restrained eaters.

  15. The effect of brand and caloric information on flavor perception and food consumption in restrained and unrestrained eaters.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, Kevin V; Kruja, Blina; Forestell, Catherine A

    2014-11-01

    The goal of the current study was to determine whether provision of brand and caloric information affects sensory perception and consumption of a food in restrained (n=84) and unrestrained eaters (n=104). Using a between-subjects 2 × 2 × 3 design, female restrained and unrestrained eaters were asked to taste and rate a cookie that was labeled with a brand associated with healthful eating (Kashi(®)) or one associated with unhealthful eating (Nabisco(®)). Additionally, some participants were presented with a nutrition label alongside the brand name indicating that one serving contained 130 calories (Low-Calorie Condition), or 260 calories (High-Calorie Condition). The remaining participants were not shown a nutrition label (No Label Condition). Results indicated that those in the No Label or the High-Calorie Condition perceived the healthful branded cookie to have a better flavor than those who received the unhealthful branded cookie regardless of their restraint status. However, restrained eaters in the No Label Condition consumed more of the healthful than the unhealthful branded cookie, whereas those in the Low-Calorie Condition consumed more of the unhealthful than the healthful branded cookie. In contrast, unrestrained eaters ate more of the healthful branded cookie regardless of the caloric information provided. Thus, although restrained and unrestrained eaters' perceptions are similarly affected by branding and caloric information, brands and caloric information interact to affect restrained eaters' consumption. This study reveals that labeling foods as low calorie may create a halo effect which may lead to over-consumption of these foods in restrained eaters. PMID:24979333

  16. Impact of Reduced Meal Frequency Without Caloric Restriction on Glucose Regulation in Healthy, Normal Weight Middle-Aged Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Olga; Martin, Bronwen; Stote, Kim S.; Golden, Erin; Maudsley, Stuart; Najjar, Samer S.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Ingram, Donald K.; Longo, Dan L.; Rumpler, William V.; Baer, David J.; Egan, Josephine; Mattson, Mark P.

    2007-01-01

    An unresolved issue in the field of diet and health is if and how changes in meal frequency affect energy metabolism in humans. We therefore evaluated the influence of reduced meal frequency without a reduction in energy intake on glucose metabolism in normal weight healthy male and female subjects. The study was a randomized cross-over design, with 2 eight-week treatment periods (with an intervening 11 week off-diet period) in which subjects consumed all of their calories for weight maintenance distributed in either 3 meals or 1 meal per day (consumed between 17:00 and 21:00). Energy metabolism was evaluated at designated time points throughout the study by performing morning oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and measuring levels of glucose, insulin, glucagon, leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, resistin and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Subjects consuming 1 meal/d exhibited higher morning fasting plasma glucose levels, greater and more sustained elevations of plasma glucose concentrations and a delayed insulin response in the OGTT compared to subjects consuming 3 meal/d. Levels of ghrelin were elevated in response to the 1 meal/d regimen. Fasting levels of insulin, leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, resistin and BDNF were not significantly affected by meal frequency. Subjects consuming a single large daily meal exhibit elevated fasting glucose levels, and impaired morning glucose tolerance associated with a delayed insulin response, during a 2 month diet period compared to those consuming 3 meals/day. The impaired glucose tolerance was reversible and was not associated with alterations in the levels of adipokines or BDNF. PMID:17998028

  17. Impact of reduced meal frequency without caloric restriction on glucose regulation in healthy, normal weight middle-aged men and women.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An unresolved issue in the field of diet and health is if and how changes in meal frequency affect energy metabolism in humans. We therefore evaluated the influence of reduced meal frequency without a reduction in energy intake on glucose metabolism in normal weight healthy male and female subjects...

  18. The calorically restricted low-fat nutrient-dense diet in Biosphere 2 significantly lowers blood glucose, total leukocyte count, cholesterol, and blood pressure in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Walford, R L; Harris, S B; Gunion, M W

    1992-01-01

    Biosphere 2 is a 3.15-acre space containing an ecosystem that is energetically open (sunlight, electric power, and heat) but materially closed, with air, water, and organic material being recycled. Since September 1991, eight subjects (four women and four men) have been sealed inside, living on food crops grown within. Their diet, low in calories (average, 1780 kcal/day; 1 kcal = 4.184 kJ), low in fat (10% of calories), and nutrient-dense, conforms to that which in numerous animal experiments has promoted health, retarded aging, and extended maximum life span. We report here medical data on the eight subjects, comparing preclosure data with data through 6 months of closure. Significant changes included: (i) weight, 74 to 62 kg (men) and 61 to 54 kg (women); (ii) mean systolic/diastolic blood pressure (eight subjects), 109/74 to 89/58 mmHg (1 mmHg = 133 Pa); (iii) total serum cholesterol, from 191 +/- 11 to 123 +/- 9 mg/dl (mean +/- SD; 36% mean reduction), and high density lipoprotein, from 62 +/- 8 to 38 +/- 5 (risk ratio unchanged); (iv) triglyceride, 139 to 96 mg/dl (men) and 78 to 114 mg/dl (women); (v) fasting glucose, 92 to 74 mg/dl; (vi) leukocyte count, 6.7 to 4.7 x 10(9) cells per liter. We conclude that drastic reductions in cholesterol and blood pressure may be instituted in normal individuals in Western countries by application of a carefully chosen diet and that a low-calorie nutrient-dense regime shows physiologic features in humans similar to those in other animal species. PMID:1454844

  19. Attentional biases to foods: The effects of caloric content and cognitive restraint.

    PubMed

    Forestell, Catherine A; Lau, Pia; Gyurovski, Ivo I; Dickter, Cheryl L; Haque, Sabrina S

    2012-12-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine whether female restrained and unrestrained eaters demonstrated differential levels of attentional bias to high calorie foods when they were presented as distractors in a flanker task. This task consisted of four blocks of 68 trials in which three food pictures were briefly presented simultaneously on a computer screen. On each trial a high or low calorie target food was presented in the center of a pair of high or low calorie food flanker pictures and participants' reaction times to answer a basic question about whether they would consume the target food for breakfast were recorded. In Experiment 1, in which all participants were fed a snack prior to engaging in the flanker task, there was no evidence that restrained (n=29) or unrestrained (n=37) eaters had an attentional bias. However, in Experiment 2, when participants completed the flanker task while hungry, restrained eaters (n=27) experienced response conflict only when low calorie targets were flanked by high calorie distractors, whereas unrestrained eaters (n=46) were distracted by high calorie flankers regardless of the caloric content of the target cue. The results from this implicit task indicate that flankers interfere with hungry participants' responses to varying degrees depending on their cognitive restraint. Whether attentional bias to food cues subsequently affects food choices and eating behavior is a topic for further investigation. PMID:22800656

  20. The preparation of High caloric fuel (HCF) from water hyacinth by deoxy-liquefaction.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weipeng; Wang, Chao; Yang, Zhengyu

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare HCF (High caloric fuel) from WH (water hyacinth) by deoxy-liquefaction and investigate the composition of HCF. The experiment was performed in a closed reactor at different final temperatures (573 K, 623 K, 673 K and 723 K) with the heating rate of 60 K/min. At 623 K, the maximum yield (12.6 wt.%) of HCF with heating value of 43.8 MJ/kg was obtained. Alkanes, benzene derivatives and phenol derivatives were the dominant components in HCF. The main component in gaseous product was CO(2) (93.2 mol%), which meant that the oxygen in WH was released mainly in the form of CO(2). In addition, the elemental analysis of solid char suggested that the residue content of hydrogen was too low to produce more HCF. So, deoxy-liquefaction mentioned in this article was an effective way to remove oxygen and utilize C and H in WH to the greatest extent.