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Sample records for calorie restricted diets

  1. The neuroprotective properties of calorie restriction, the ketogenic diet, and ketone bodies.

    PubMed

    Maalouf, Marwan; Rho, Jong M; Mattson, Mark P

    2009-03-01

    Both calorie restriction and the ketogenic diet possess broad therapeutic potential in various clinical settings and in various animal models of neurological disease. Following calorie restriction or consumption of a ketogenic diet, there is notable improvement in mitochondrial function, a decrease in the expression of apoptotic and inflammatory mediators and an increase in the activity of neurotrophic factors. However, despite these intriguing observations, it is not yet clear which of these mechanisms account for the observed neuroprotective effects. Furthermore, limited compliance and concern for adverse effects hamper efforts at broader clinical application. Recent research aimed at identifying compounds that can reproduce, at least partially, the neuroprotective effects of the diets with less demanding changes to food intake suggests that ketone bodies might represent an appropriate candidate. Ketone bodies protect neurons against multiple types of neuronal injury and are associated with mitochondrial effects similar to those described during calorie restriction or ketogenic diet treatment. The present review summarizes the neuroprotective effects of calorie restriction, of the ketogenic diet and of ketone bodies, and compares their putative mechanisms of action.

  2. What are the roles of calorie restriction and diet quality in promoting healthy longevity?

    PubMed

    Rizza, Wanda; Veronese, Nicola; Fontana, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental data indicate that diet plays a central role in the pathogenesis of many age-associated chronic diseases, and in the biology of aging itself. Data from several animal studies suggest that the degree and time of calorie restriction (CR) onset, the timing of food intake as well as diet composition, play major roles in promoting health and longevity, breaking the old dogma that only calorie intake is important in extending healthy lifespan. Data from human studies indicate that long-term CR with adequate intake of nutrients results in several metabolic adaptations that reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Moreover, CR opposes the expected age-associated alterations in myocardial stiffness, autonomic function, and gene expression in the human skeletal muscle. However, it is possible that some of the beneficial effects on metabolic health are not entirely due to CR, but to the high quality diets consumed by the CR practitioners, as suggested by data collected in individuals consuming strict vegan diets. More studies are needed to understand the interactions among single nutrient modifications (e.g. protein/aminoacid, fatty acids, vitamins, phytochemicals, and minerals), the degree of CR and the frequency of food consumption in modulating anti-aging metabolic and molecular pathways, and in the prevention of age-associated diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Intermittent versus daily calorie restriction: which diet regimen is more effective for weight loss?

    PubMed

    Varady, K A

    2011-07-01

    Dietary restriction is an effective strategy for weight loss in obese individuals. The most common form of dietary restriction implemented is daily calorie restriction (CR), which involves reducing energy by 15-60% of usual caloric intake every day. Another form of dietary restriction employed is intermittent CR, which involves 24 h of ad libitum food consumption alternated with 24 h of complete or partial food restriction. Although both diets are effective for weight loss, it remains unknown whether one of these interventions produces superior changes in body weight and body composition when compared to the other. Accordingly, this review examines the effects of daily CR versus intermittent CR on weight loss, fat mass loss and lean mass retention in overweight and obese adults. Results reveal similar weight loss and fat mass loss with 3 to 12 weeks' intermittent CR (4-8%, 11-16%, respectively) and daily CR (5-8%, 10-20%, respectively). In contrast, less fat free mass was lost in response to intermittent CR versus daily CR. These findings suggest that these diets are equally as effective in decreasing body weight and fat mass, although intermittent CR may be more effective for the retention of lean mass. © 2011 The Author. obesity reviews © 2011 International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  4. Calorie Restricted High Protein Diets Downregulate Lipogenesis and Lower Intrahepatic Triglyceride Concentrations in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Margolis, Lee M.; Rivas, Donato A.; Ezzyat, Yassine; Gaffney-Stomberg, Erin; Young, Andrew J.; McClung, James P.; Fielding, Roger A.; Pasiakos, Stefan M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the influence of calorie restriction (CR) alone, higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake alone, and combined CR higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake on glucose homeostasis, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL), and intrahepatic triglycerides. Twelve-week old male Sprague Dawley rats consumed ad libitum (AL) or CR (40% restriction), adequate (10%), or high (32%) protein (PRO) milk-based diets for 16 weeks. Metabolic profiles were assessed in serum, and intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations and molecular markers of de novo lipogenesis were determined in liver. Independent of calorie intake, 32% PRO tended to result in lower homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values compared to 10% PRO, while insulin and homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β) values were lower in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations were 27.4 ± 4.5 and 11.7 ± 4.5 µmol·g−1 lower (p < 0.05) in CR and 32% PRO compared to AL and 10% PRO, respectively. Gene expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN), stearoyl-CoA destaurase-1 (SCD1) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, isozyme 4 (PDK4) were 45% ± 1%, 23% ± 1%, and 57% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05), respectively, in CR than AL, regardless of protein intake. Total protein of FASN and SCD were 50% ± 1% and 26% ± 1% lower (p < 0.05) in 32% PRO compared to 10% PRO, independent of calorie intake. Results from this investigation provide evidence that the metabolic health benefits associated with CR—specifically reduction in intrahepatic triglyceride content—may be enhanced by consuming a higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate diet. PMID:27649241

  5. Inhibition of Neuroblastoma Tumor Growth by Ketogenic Diet and/or Calorie Restriction in a CD1-Nu Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Morscher, Raphael Johannes; Aminzadeh-Gohari, Sepideh; Feichtinger, René Gunther; Mayr, Johannes Adalbert; Lang, Roland; Neureiter, Daniel; Sperl, Wolfgang; Kofler, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a malignant pediatric cancer derived from neural crest cells. It is characterized by a generalized reduction of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The goal of the present study was to investigate the effects of calorie restriction and ketogenic diet on neuroblastoma tumor growth and monitor potential adaptive mechanisms of the cancer's oxidative phosphorylation system. Xenografts were established in CD-1 nude mice by subcutaneous injection of two neuroblastoma cell lines having distinct genetic characteristics and therapeutic sensitivity [SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2)]. Mice were randomized to four treatment groups receiving standard diet, calorie-restricted standard diet, long chain fatty acid based ketogenic diet or calorie-restricted ketogenic diet. Tumor growth, survival, metabolic parameters and weight of the mice were monitored. Cancer tissue was evaluated for diet-induced changes of proliferation indices and multiple oxidative phosphorylation system parameters (respiratory chain enzyme activities, western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and mitochondrial DNA content). Ketogenic diet and/or calorie restriction significantly reduced tumor growth and prolonged survival in the xenograft model. Neuroblastoma growth reduction correlated with decreased blood glucose concentrations and was characterized by a significant decrease in Ki-67 and phospho-histone H3 levels in the diet groups with low tumor growth. As in human tumor tissue, neuroblastoma xenografts showed distinctly low mitochondrial complex II activity in combination with a generalized low level of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, validating the tumor model. Neuroblastoma showed no ability to adapt its mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation activity to the change in nutrient supply induced by dietary intervention. Our data suggest that targeting the metabolic characteristics of neuroblastoma could open a new front in supporting standard therapy regimens. Therefore, we propose

  6. Nutrition and Inflammation: Are Centenarians Similar to Individuals on Calorie-Restricted Diets?

    PubMed

    Franceschi, Claudio; Ostan, Rita; Santoro, Aurelia

    2018-05-31

    Individuals capable of reaching the extreme limit of human life such as centenarians are characterized by an exceptionally healthy phenotype-that is, a low number of diseases, low blood pressure, optimal metabolic and endocrine parameters, and increased diversity in the gut microbiota-and they are epigenetically younger than their chronological age. We present data suggesting that such a remarkable phenotype is largely similar to that found in adults following a calorie-restricted diet. Interviews with centenarians and historical data on the nutritional and lifestyle habits of Italians during the twentieth century suggest that as children and into adulthood, centenarians lived in an environment that was nonobesogenic, but at the same time the environment did not produce malnutrition. Centenarians appear to be creatures of habit, and we argue that their habit of eating meals at the same time each day favored the maintenance of circadian rhythms, including their sleep cycle. Finally, we argue that centenarians' chronic inflammatory status, which we dubbed inflammaging, is peculiar, likely adaptive, and less detrimental than in younger people. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Nutrition Volume 38 is August 21, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  7. Calorie restricted high protein diets downregulate lipogenesis and lower intrahepatic triglyceride concentrations in male rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the influence of calorie restriction (CR) alone, higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake alone, and combined CR higher-protein/lower-carbohydrate intake on glucose homeostasis, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL), and intrahepatic triglycerides. Twelve-...

  8. A randomized trial comparing a very low carbohydrate diet and a calorie-restricted low fat diet on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Brehm, Bonnie J; Seeley, Randy J; Daniels, Stephen R; D'Alessio, David A

    2003-04-01

    Untested alternative weight loss diets, such as very low carbohydrate diets, have unsubstantiated efficacy and the potential to adversely affect cardiovascular risk factors. Therefore, we designed a randomized, controlled trial to determine the effects of a very low carbohydrate diet on body composition and cardiovascular risk factors. Subjects were randomized to 6 months of either an ad libitum very low carbohydrate diet or a calorie-restricted diet with 30% of the calories as fat. Anthropometric and metabolic measures were assessed at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. Fifty-three healthy, obese female volunteers (mean body mass index, 33.6 +/- 0.3 kg/m(2)) were randomized; 42 (79%) completed the trial. Women on both diets reduced calorie consumption by comparable amounts at 3 and 6 months. The very low carbohydrate diet group lost more weight (8.5 +/- 1.0 vs. 3.9 +/- 1.0 kg; P < 0.001) and more body fat (4.8 +/- 0.67 vs. 2.0 +/- 0.75 kg; P < 0.01) than the low fat diet group. Mean levels of blood pressure, lipids, fasting glucose, and insulin were within normal ranges in both groups at baseline. Although all of these parameters improved over the course of the study, there were no differences observed between the two diet groups at 3 or 6 months. beta- Hydroxybutyrate increased significantly in the very low carbohydrate group at 3 months (P = 0.001). Based on these data, a very low carbohydrate diet is more effective than a low fat diet for short-term weight loss and, over 6 months, is not associated with deleterious effects on important cardiovascular risk factors in healthy women.

  9. A non-calorie-restricted low-carbohydrate diet is effective as an alternative therapy for patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yoshifumi; Uchida, Junichi; Izumi, Hisa; Tsukamoto, Yoko; Inoue, Gaku; Watanabe, Yuichi; Irie, Junichiro; Yamada, Satoru

    2014-01-01

    Although caloric restriction is a widely used intervention to reduce body weight and insulin resistance, many patients are unable to comply with such dietary therapy for long periods. The clinical effectiveness of low-carbohydrate diets was recently described in a position statement of Diabetes UK and a scientific review conducted by the American Diabetes Association. However, randomised trials of dietary interventions in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes are scarce. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of a non-calorie-restricted, low-carbohydrate diet in Japanese patients unable to adhere to a calorie-restricted diet. The enrolled patients were randomly allocated to receive a conventional calorie-restricted diet or low-carbohydrate diet. The patients received consultations every two months from a registered dietician for six months. We compared the effects of the two dietary interventions on glycaemic control and metabolic profiles. The HbA1c levels decreased significantly from baseline to six months in the low-carbohydrate diet group (baseline 7.6±0.4%, six months 7.0±0.7%, p=0.03) but not in the calorie-restricted group (baseline 7.7±0.6%, six months 7.5±1.0%, n.s.), (between-group comparison, p=0.03). The patients in the former group also experienced improvements in their triglyceride levels, without experiencing any major adverse effects or a decline in the quality of life. Our findings suggest that a low-carbohydrate diet is effective in lowering the HbA1c and triglyceride levels in patients with type 2 diabetes who are unable to adhere to a calorie-restricted diet.

  10. Effect of Exercise and Calorie Restriction on Tissue Acylcarnitines, Tissue Desaturase Indices, and Fat Accumulation in Diet-Induced Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gopalan, Venkatesh; Michael, Navin; Ishino, Seigo; Lee, Swee Shean; Yang, Adonsia Yating; Bhanu Prakash, K. N.; Yaligar, Jadegoud; Sadananthan, Suresh Anand; Kaneko, Manami; Zhou, Zhihong; Satomi, Yoshinori; Hirayama, Megumi; Kamiguchi, Hidenori; Zhu, Bin; Horiguchi, Takashi; Nishimoto, Tomoyuki; Velan, S. Sendhil

    2016-01-01

    Both exercise and calorie restriction interventions have been recommended for inducing weight-loss in obese states. However, there is conflicting evidence on their relative benefits for metabolic health and insulin sensitivity. This study seeks to evaluate the differential effects of the two interventions on fat mobilization, fat metabolism, and insulin sensitivity in diet-induced obese animal models. After 4 months of ad libitum high fat diet feeding, 35 male Fischer F344 rats were grouped (n = 7 per cohort) into sedentary control (CON), exercise once a day (EX1), exercise twice a day (EX2), 15% calorie restriction (CR1) and 30% calorie restriction (CR2) cohorts. Interventions were carried out over a 4-week period. We found elevated hepatic and muscle long chain acylcarnitines with both exercise and calorie restriction, and a positive association between hepatic long chain acylcarnitines and insulin sensitivity in the pooled cohort. Our result suggests that long chain acylcarnitines may not indicate incomplete fat oxidation in weight loss interventions. Calorie restriction was found to be more effective than exercise in reducing body weight. Exercise, on the other hand, was more effective in reducing adipose depots and muscle triglycerides, favorably altering muscle/liver desaturase activity and improving insulin sensitivity. PMID:27197769

  11. Influence of a ketogenic diet, fish-oil, and calorie restriction on plasma metabolites and lipids in C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diet therapies including calorie restriction, ketogenic diets, and fish-oil supplementation have been used to improve health and to treat a variety of neurological and non-neurological diseases. Methods We investigated the effects of three diets on circulating plasma metabolites (glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate), hormones (insulin and adiponectin), and lipids over a 32-day period in C57BL/6J mice. The diets evaluated included a standard rodent diet (SD), a ketogenic diet (KD), and a standard rodent diet supplemented with fish-oil (FO). Each diet was administered in either unrestricted (UR) or restricted (R) amounts to reduce body weight by 20%. Results The KD-UR increased body weight and glucose levels and promoted a hyperlipidemic profile, whereas the FO-UR decreased body weight and glucose levels and promoted a normolipidemic profile, compared to the SD-UR. When administered in restricted amounts, all three diets produced a similar plasma metabolite profile, which included decreased glucose levels and a normolipidemic profile. Linear regression analysis showed that circulating glucose most strongly predicted body weight and triglyceride levels, whereas calorie intake moderately predicted glucose levels and strongly predicted ketone body levels. Conclusions These results suggest that biomarkers of health can be improved when diets are consumed in restricted amounts, regardless of macronutrient composition. PMID:24910707

  12. A comparative genotoxicity study of a supraphysiological dose of triiodothyronine (T₃) in obese rats subjected to either calorie-restricted diet or hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    De Sibio, Maria Teresa; Luvizotto, Renata Azevedo Melo; Olimpio, Regiane Marques Castro; Corrêa, Camila Renata; Marino, Juliana; de Oliveira, Miriane; Conde, Sandro José; Ferreira, Ana Lúcia dos Anjos; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Nogueira, Célia Regina

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the genotoxicity of a supraphysiological dose of triiodothyronine (T3) in both obese and calorie-restricted obese animals. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of the two following groups: control (C; n = 10) and obese (OB; n = 40). The C group received standard food, whereas the OB group was fed a hypercaloric diet for 20 weeks. After this period, half of the OB animals (n = 20) were subjected to a 25%-calorie restriction of standard diet for 8 weeks forming thus a new group (OR), whereas the remaining OB animals were kept on the initial hypercaloric diet. During the following two weeks, 10 OR animals continued on the calorie restriction diet, whereas the remaining 10 rats of this group formed a new group (ORS) given a supraphysiological dose of T3 (25 µg/100 g body weight) along with the calorie restriction diet. Similarly, the remaining OB animals were divided into two groups, one that continued on the hypercaloric diet (OB, n = 10), and one that received the supraphysiological dose of T3 (25 µg/100 g body weight) along with the hypercaloric diet (OS, n = 10) for two weeks. The OB group showed weight gain, increased adiposity, insulin resistance, increased leptin levels and genotoxicity; T3 administration in OS animals led to an increase in genotoxicity and oxidative stress when compared with the OB group. The OR group showed weight loss and normalized levels of adiposity, insulin resistance, serum leptin and genotoxicity, thus having features similar to those of the C group. On the other hand, the ORS group, compared to OR animals, showed higher genotoxicity. Our results indicate that regardless of diet, a supraphysiological dose of T3 causes genotoxicity and potentiates oxidative stress.

  13. A Comparative Genotoxicity Study of a Supraphysiological Dose of Triiodothyronine (T3) in Obese Rats Subjected to Either Calorie-Restricted Diet or Hyperthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    De Sibio, Maria Teresa; Luvizotto, Renata Azevedo Melo; Olimpio, Regiane Marques Castro; Corrêa, Camila Renata; Marino, Juliana; de Oliveira, Miriane; Conde, Sandro José; Ferreira, Ana Lúcia dos Anjos; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Nogueira, Célia Regina

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the genotoxicity of a supraphysiological dose of triiodothyronine (T3) in both obese and calorie-restricted obese animals. Fifty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of the two following groups: control (C; n = 10) and obese (OB; n = 40). The C group received standard food, whereas the OB group was fed a hypercaloric diet for 20 weeks. After this period, half of the OB animals (n = 20) were subjected to a 25%-calorie restriction of standard diet for 8 weeks forming thus a new group (OR), whereas the remaining OB animals were kept on the initial hypercaloric diet. During the following two weeks, 10 OR animals continued on the calorie restriction diet, whereas the remaining 10 rats of this group formed a new group (ORS) given a supraphysiological dose of T3 (25 µg/100 g body weight) along with the calorie restriction diet. Similarly, the remaining OB animals were divided into two groups, one that continued on the hypercaloric diet (OB, n = 10), and one that received the supraphysiological dose of T3 (25 µg/100 g body weight) along with the hypercaloric diet (OS, n = 10) for two weeks. The OB group showed weight gain, increased adiposity, insulin resistance, increased leptin levels and genotoxicity; T3 administration in OS animals led to an increase in genotoxicity and oxidative stress when compared with the OB group. The OR group showed weight loss and normalized levels of adiposity, insulin resistance, serum leptin and genotoxicity, thus having features similar to those of the C group. On the other hand, the ORS group, compared to OR animals, showed higher genotoxicity. Our results indicate that regardless of diet, a supraphysiological dose of T3 causes genotoxicity and potentiates oxidative stress. PMID:23468891

  14. A calorie-restriction diet supplemented with fish oil and high-protein powder is associated with reduced severity of metabolic syndrome in obese women.

    PubMed

    Su, H-Y; Lee, H-C; Cheng, W-Y; Huang, S-Y

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and obesity has increased worldwide, as well as in Taiwan, particularly in women aged>40 years. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of a calorie-restriction diet (CR) supplemented with protein and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on women with MetS. A total of 143 eligible female participants were recruited and assigned to four dietary interventions such as 1500-kcal CR, calorie-restriction meal-replacement diet (CRMR), calorie-restriction diet with fish oil supplementation (CRF) and calorie-restriction meal-replacement diet with fish oil supplementation (CRMRF). The changes in anthropometric measures, metabolic profiles, inflammatory response and the Z-score of severity of MetS were evaluated. Among 143 female MetS patients enrolled, 136 patients completed the 12-week study. After the 12-week dietary interventions, we observed reductions in body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in all groups. BMI and triglyceride (TG) levels decreased significantly in the CRMR, CRF and CRMRF groups, but not in the CR group. The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) had significantly improved in all four groups, and the levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) had significantly decreased in the CRF and CRMRF groups. Following the interventions, the changes in waist circumference (WC), mean arterial pressure (MAP), fasting blood glucose (FBG), TGs, HOMA-IR, CRP and IL-6 significantly correlated with the reductions in Z-score of MetS severity. Our study results indicate that a calorie-restriction dietary intervention combined with various macronutrients can reduce the severity of MetS in women and increase recovery from MetS by almost twofold in comparison with a CR alone.

  15. Weight loss and dropout during a commercial weight-loss program including a very-low-calorie diet, a low-calorie diet, or restricted normal food: observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hemmingsson, Erik; Johansson, Kari; Eriksson, Jonas; Sundström, Johan; Neovius, Martin; Marcus, Claude

    2012-11-01

    The effectiveness of commercial weight-loss programs consisting of very-low-calorie diets (VLCDs) and low-calorie diets (LCDs) is unclear. The aim of the study was to quantify weight loss and dropout during a commercial weight-loss program in Sweden (Itrim; cost: $1300/€1000; all participants paid their own fee). This observational cohort study linked commercial weight-loss data with National Health Care Registers. Weight loss was induced with a 500-kcal liquid-formula VLCD [n = 3773; BMI (in kg/m(2)): 34 ± 5 (mean ± SD); 80% women; 45 ± 12 y of age (mean ± SD)], a 1200-1500-kcal formula and food-combination LCD (n = 4588; BMI: 30 ± 4; 86% women; 50 ± 11 y of age), and a 1500-1800-kcal/d restricted normal-food diet (n = 676; BMI: 29 ± 5; 81% women; 51 ± 12 y of age). Maintenance strategies included exercise and a calorie-restricted diet. Weight loss was analyzed by using an intention-to-treat analysis (baseline substitution). After 1 y, mean (±SD) weight changes were -11.4 ± 9.1 kg with the VLCD (18% dropout), -6.8 ± 6.4 kg with the LCD (23% dropout), and -5.1 ± 5.9 kg with the restricted normal-food diet (26% dropout). In an adjusted analysis, the VLCD group lost 2.8 kg (95% CI: 2.5, 3.2) and 3.8 kg (95% CI: 3.2, 4.5) more than did the LCD and restricted normal-food groups, respectively. A high baseline BMI and rapid initial weight loss were both independently associated with greater 1-y weight loss (P < 0.001). Younger age and low initial weight loss predicted an increased dropout rate (P < 0.001). Treatment of depression (OR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1, 1.9) and psychosis (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.1, 6.3) were associated with an increased dropout rate in the VLCD group. A commercial weight-loss program, particularly one using a VLCD, was effective at reducing body weight in self-selected, self-paying adults.

  16. Calorie restriction increases cigarette use in adult smokers.

    PubMed

    Cheskin, Lawrence J; Hess, Judith M; Henningfield, Jack; Gorelick, David A

    2005-05-01

    Cigarette smokers weigh less than nonsmokers, and smokers often gain weight when they quit. This is a major barrier to smoking cessation, especially among women. However, strict dieting is not recommended during smoking cessation out of concern that it might promote relapse. This concern derives, in part, from the observation that calorie restriction increases self-administration of drugs of abuse in animals. This relationship has never been experimentally demonstrated in humans. To evaluate whether calorie restriction increases cigarette smoking in humans. Seventeen (nine males, eight females) healthy, normal-weight smokers not attempting to quit were cycled in partially counterbalanced order, double-blind, through four diets-normal calorie (2,000-2,800 kcal/day), low calorie (700 kcal/day deficit), low-carbohydrate (CHO)/normal-calorie, and low-CHO/low-calorie-for 6 days per diet in an inpatient research ward. Smoking was assessed by cigarette counts, breath carbon monoxide (CO) levels, and cigarette craving. Compared with the normal-calorie diet, while on the low-calorie diet, subjects smoked 8% more cigarettes (P<0.02) and had 11% higher breath CO levels (P<0.01). The low-CHO/normal-calorie diet showed no significant effect on either variable, but there was a 15% increase in breath CO levels (P<0.05) on the low-CHO/low-calorie diet. There were no changes in self-reported cigarette craving or mood. Consistent with animal studies, moderate calorie restriction was associated with a small but statistically significant increase in cigarette smoking, with no independent effect of CHO deprivation. These findings suggest that dieting may increase smoking behavior and could impede smoking-cessation attempts.

  17. Very-low-calorie ketogenic diet with aminoacid supplement versus very low restricted-calorie diet for preserving muscle mass during weight loss: a pilot double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Merra, G; Miranda, R; Barrucco, S; Gualtieri, P; Mazza, M; Moriconi, E; Marchetti, M; Chang, T F M; De Lorenzo, A; Di Renzo, L

    2016-07-01

    Obesity plays a relevant pathophysiological role in the development of health problems, arising as result of complex interaction of genetic, nutritional and metabolic factors. We conducted a dietary intervention case-control randomized trial, to compare the effectiveness on body composition of two nutritional protocols: a very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (VLCKD), integrated by an aminoacid supplement with whey protein, and very low restricted-calorie diet (VLCD). The clinical study was conducted with a randomized case-control in which twenty-five healthy subjects gave informed consent to participate in the interventional study and were evaluated for their health and nutritional status, by anthropometric, and body composition evaluation. The results of this pilot study show that a diet low in carbohydrates, associated with a decreased caloric intake, is effective in weight loss. After VLCKD, versus VLCD, no significant differences in body lean of the trunk, body lean distribution (android and gynoid), total body lean were observed (p > 0.05). After VLCKD, no increasing of sarcopenia frequency, according ASSMI, was observed. Many studies have shown the effectiveness of the ketogenic diet on weight loss; even if not know how to work effectively, as some researchers believe that the weight loss is due to reduced calorie intake, satiety could also be induced by the effect of the proteins, rather than the low-carbohydrates. Our pilot study showed that a VLCKD was highly effective in terms of body weight reduction without to induce lean body mass loss, preventing the risk of sarcopenia. Further clinical trials are needed on a larger population and long-term body weight maintenance and risk factors management effects of VLCKD. There is no doubt, however, that a proper dietary approach would impact significantly on the reduction of public expenditure costs, in view of prospective data on increasing the percentage of obese people in our nation.

  18. Calorie restriction and cardiometabolic health.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Luigi

    2008-02-01

    An epidemic of overweight/obesity and type 2 diabetes, caused by overeating nutrient-poor energy-dense foods and a sedentary lifestyle, is spreading rapidly throughout the world. Abdominal obesity represents a serious threat to health because it increases the risk of developing many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Calorie restriction (CR) with adequate nutrition improves cardiometabolic health, prevents tumorigenesis and increases life span in experimental animals. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the metabolic and clinical implications of CR with adequate nutrition in humans, within the context of data obtained in animal models. It is unlikely that information regarding the effect of CR on maximal life span in humans will become available in the foreseeable future. In young and middle-aged healthy individuals, however, CR causes many of the same cardiometabolic adaptations that occur in long-lived CR rodents, including decreased metabolic, hormonal and inflammatory risk factors for diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Unraveling the mechanisms that link calorie intake and body composition with metabolism and aging will be a major step in understanding the age-dependency of a wide range of human diseases and will also contribute to improve the general quality of life at old ages.

  19. Intermittent calorie restriction largely counteracts the adverse health effects of a moderate-fat diet in aging C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Rusli, Fenni; Lute, Carolien; Boekschoten, Mark V; van Dijk, Miriam; van Norren, Klaske; Menke, Aswin L; Müller, Michael; Steegenga, Wilma T

    2017-05-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) has been shown to extend life- and health-span in model species. For most humans, a life-long CR diet is too arduous to adhere to. The aim of this study was to explore whether weekly intermittent CR can (1) provide long-term beneficial effects and (2) counteract diet-induced obesity in male aging mice. In this study, we have exposed C57Bl/6J mice for 24 months to an intermittent (INT) diet, alternating weekly between CR of a control diet and ad libitum moderate-fat (MF) feeding. This weekly intermittent CR significantly counteracted the adverse effects of the MF diet on mortality, body weight, and liver health markers in 24-month-old male mice. Hepatic gene expression profiles of INT-exposed animals appeared much more comparable to CR- than to MF-exposed mice. At 12 months of age, a subgroup of MF-exposed mice was transferred to the INT diet. Gene expression profiles in the liver of the 24-month-old diet switch mice were highly similar to the INT-exposed mice. However, a small subset of genes was consistently changed by the MF diet during the first phase of life. Weekly intermittent CR largely, but not completely, reversed adverse effects caused by a MF diet. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Calorie restriction in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Mattison, Julie A; Lane, Mark A; Roth, George S; Ingram, Donald K

    2003-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) extends lifespan and reduces the incidence and age of onset of age-related disease in several animal models. To determine if this nutritional intervention has similar actions in a long-lived primate species, the National Institute on Aging (NIA) initiated a study in 1987 to investigate the effects of a 30% CR in male and female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) of a broad age range. We have observed physiological effects of CR that parallel rodent studies and may be predictive of an increased lifespan. Specifically, results from the NIA study have demonstrated that CR decreases body weight and fat mass, improves glucoregulatory function, decreases blood pressure and blood lipids, and decreases body temperature. Juvenile males exhibited delayed skeletal and sexual maturation. Adult bone mass was not affected by CR in females nor were several reproductive hormones or menstrual cycling. CR attenuated the age-associated decline in both dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and melatonin in males. Although 81% of the monkeys in the study are still alive, preliminary evidence suggests that CR will have beneficial effects on morbidity and mortality. We are now preparing a battery of measures to provide a thorough and relevant analysis of the effectiveness of CR at delaying the onset of age-related disease and maintaining function later into life.

  1. High-intensity interval training and calorie restriction promote remodeling of glucose and lipid metabolism in diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Davis, Rachel A H; Halbrooks, Jacob E; Watkins, Emily E; Fisher, Gordon; Hunter, Gary R; Nagy, Tim R; Plaisance, Eric P

    2017-08-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) decreases adiposity, but the magnitude and defense of weight loss is less than predicted due to reductions in total daily energy expenditure (TEE). The purpose of the current investigation was to determine whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would increase markers of sympathetic activation in white adipose tissue (WAT) and rescue CR-mediated reductions in EE to a greater extent than moderate-intensity aerobic exercise training (MIT). Thirty-two 5-wk-old male C57BL/6J mice were placed on ad libitum HFD for 11 wk, followed by randomization to one of four groups ( n = 8/group) for an additional 15 wk: 1 ) CON (remain on HFD), 2 ) CR (25% lower energy intake), 3 ) CR + HIIT (25% energy deficit created by 12.5% CR and 12.5% EE through HIIT), and 4 ) CR + MIT (25% energy deficit created by 12.5% CR and 12.5% EE through MIT). Markers of adipose thermogenesis ( Ucp1 , Prdm16 , Dio2 , and Fgf21 ) were unchanged in either exercise group in inguinal or epididymal WAT, whereas CR + HIIT decreased Ucp1 expression in retroperitoneal WAT and brown adipose tissue. HIIT rescued CR-mediated reductions in lean body mass (LBM) and resting energy expenditure (REE), and both were associated with improvements in glucose/insulin tolerance. Improvements in glucose metabolism in the CR + HIIT group appear to be linked to a molecular signature that enhances glucose and lipid storage in skeletal muscle. Exercise performed at either moderate or high intensity does not increase markers of adipose thermogenesis when performed in the presence of CR but remodels skeletal muscle metabolic and thermogenic capacity. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Plasticity of lifelong calorie-restricted C57BL/6J mice in adapting to a medium-fat diet intervention at old age.

    PubMed

    Rusli, Fenni; Boekschoten, Mark V; Borelli, Vincenzo; Sun, Chen; Lute, Carolien; Menke, Aswin L; van den Heuvel, Joost; Salvioli, Stefano; Franceschi, Claudio; Müller, Michael; Steegenga, Wilma T

    2018-04-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is a dietary regimen that supports healthy aging. In this study, we investigated the systemic and liver-specific responses caused by a diet switch to a medium-fat (MF) diet in 24-month-old lifelong, CR-exposed mice. This study aimed to increase the knowledge base on dietary alterations of gerontological relevance. Nine-week-old C57BL/6J mice were exposed either to a control, CR, or MF diet. At the age of 24 months, a subset of mice of the CR group was transferred to ad libitumMF feeding (CR-MF). The mice were sacrificed at the age of 28 months, and then, biochemical and molecular analyses were performed. Our results showed that, despite the long-term exposure to the CR regimen, mice in the CR-MF group displayed hyperphagia, rapid weight gain, and hepatic steatosis. However, no hepatic fibrosis/injury or alteration in CR-improved survival was observed in the diet switch group. The liver transcriptomic profile of CR-MF mice largely shifted to a profile similar to the MF-fed animals but leaving ~22% of the 1,578 differentially regulated genes between the CR and MF diet groups comparable with the expression of the lifelong CR group. Therefore, although the diet switch was performed at an old age, the CR-MF-exposed mice showed plasticity in coping with the challenge of a MF diet without developing severe liver pathologies. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Calorie Restriction and Aging in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Kemnitz, Joseph W.

    2012-01-01

    In the 75 years since the seminal observation of Clive McCay that restriction of calorie intake extends the lifespan of rats, a great deal has been learned about the effects of calorie restriction (CR; reduced intake of a nutritious diet) on aging in various short-lived animal models. Studies have demonstrated many beneficial effects of CR on health, the rate of aging, and longevity. Two prospective investigations of the effects of CR on long-lived nonhuman primate (NHP) species began nearly 25 years ago and are still under way. This review presents the design, methods, and main findings of these and other important contributing studies, which have generally revealed beneficial effects of CR on physiological function and the retardation of disease consistent with studies in other species. Specifically, prolonged CR appears to extend the lifespan of rhesus monkeys, which exhibited lower body fat; slower rate of muscle loss with age; lower incidence of neoplasia, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and endometriosis; improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance; and no apparent adverse effect on bone health, as well as a reduction in total energy expenditure. In addition, there are no reports of deleterious effects of CR on reproductive endpoints, and brain morphology is preserved by CR. Adrenal and thyroid hormone profiles are inconsistently affected. More research is needed to delineate the mechanisms of the desirable outcomes of CR and to develop interventions that can produce similar beneficial outcomes for humans. This research offers tremendous potential for producing novel insights into aging and risk of disease. PMID:21411859

  4. Calorie restriction in overweight seniors: response of older adults to a dieting study: the CROSSROADS randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Haas, Marilyn C; Bodner, Eric V; Brown, Cynthia J; Bryan, David; Buys, David R; Keita, Akilah Dulin; Flagg, Lee Anne; Goss, Amy; Gower, Barbara; Hovater, Martha; Hunter, Gary; Ritchie, Christine S; Roth, David L; Wingo, Brooks C; Ard, Jamy; Locher, Julie L

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a study designed to evaluate whether the benefits of intentional weight loss exceed the potential risks in a group of community-dwelling obese older adults who were at increased risk for cardiometabolic disease. The CROSSROADS trial used a prospective randomized controlled design to compare the effects of changes in diet composition alone or combined with weight loss with an exercise only control intervention on body composition and adipose tissue deposition (Specific Aim #1: To compare the effects of changes in diet composition alone or combined with weight loss with an exercise only control intervention on body composition, namely visceral adipose tissue), cardiometabolic disease risk (Specific Aim #2: To compare the effects of a change in diet composition alone or combined with weight loss with an exercise only control intervention on cardiometabolic disease risk), and functional status and quality of life (Specific Aim #3: To compare the effects of a change in diet composition alone or combined with weight loss with an exercise only control intervention on functional status and quality of life). Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: Exercise Only (Control) Intervention, Exercise + Diet Quality + Weight Maintenance Intervention, or Exercise + Diet Quality + Weight Loss Intervention. CROSSROADS utilized a lifestyle intervention approach consisting of exercise, dietary, and behavioral components. The development and implementation of the CROSSROADS protocol, including a description of the methodology, detailing specific elements of the lifestyle intervention, assurances of treatment fidelity, and participant retention; outcome measures and adverse event monitoring; as well as unique data management features of the trial results, are presented in this article.

  5. The effect of low-carbohydrates calorie-restricted diet on visceral adipose tissue and metabolic status in psoriasis patients receiving TNF-alpha inhibitors: results of an open label controlled, prospective, clinical study.

    PubMed

    Campanati, A; Molinelli, E; Ganzetti, G; Giuliodori, K; Minetti, I; Taus, M; Catani, M; Martina, E; Conocchiari, L; Offidani, A

    2017-05-01

    TNF alpha inhibitors are usually associated with anthropometric changes over the time, however whether and how the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is involved in this phenomenon, still remains unclear. Aim of the study is to evaluate if the increases in trunk fat percentage (TF%) and VAT are directly involved in anthropometric changes occurring during treatment, and whether and how a calorie restricted diet could prevent these changes. Twenty patients receiving TNF-alpha inhibitors for psoriasis was evaluated at baseline (T0) and after 24 weeks of therapy (T24), and then compared with 25 patients receiving a combined treatment based on TNF alpha inhibitors and low-carbohydrates calorie-restricted diet. TNF-alpha inhibitors do not influence the VAT expression. The combined treatment is associated with a significant decrease in body weight (kg) (p < .0001), BMI (p = .0001), WC (cm) (p < .0001), TF% (p < .0001), VAT (p < .0001), serum levels of triglycerides (mg/dL) (p = .0018) and total cholesterol (mg/dL) (p = .0005). The administration of TNF-alpha inhibitors can induce anthropometric changes after 24 weeks, but it does not cause an increase in VAT. The association between low-carbohydrates calorie-restricted diet and anti-TNF-alpha therapy seems to be able to improve the anthropometric profile of psoriasis patients.

  6. Weight Changes and Metabolic Outcomes in Calorie-Restricted Obese Mice Fed High-Fat Diets Containing Corn or Flaxseed Oil: Physiological Role of Sugar Replacement with Polyphenol-Rich Grape.

    PubMed

    Ansar, Hastimansooreh; Zamaninour, Negar; Djazayery, Abolghassem; Pishva, Hamideh; Vafa, Mohammadreza; Mazaheri Nezhad Fard, Ramin; Dilmaghanian, Aydin; Mirzaei, Khadijeh; Shidfar, Farzad

    2017-08-01

    Because diet components are important during dieting in obesity treatment, we examined possible beneficial effects of substituting corn oil and sugar with flaxseed oil and grape in calorie-restricted high-fat diets on weight changes as well as improvement in some metabolic markers and related gene expression. Seventy-five C57BL/6J male mice were given free access to a high-fat (36% of energy from fat) diet containing corn oil plus sugar (CO + S). After 11 weeks, 15 mice were sacrificed and another 60 were divided among 4 high-fat diet groups with 30% calorie restriction (CR) for the next 12 weeks. The diets contained corn oil (CO) or flaxseed oil (FO) with sugar (S) or grape (G). Despite CR, a weight loss trend was observed only during the first 4 weeks in all groups. CR did not significantly increase SIRT1 gene expression. Higher liver weight was observed in mice consuming FO (p < 0.05). Proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) expression decreased in FO + G-CR significantly and even with a reduction of adiposity and higher adiponectin levels, fasting blood sugar (FBS) was significantly higher than in CO + G-CR. Grape intake increased Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α) expression and decreased insulin resistance in CO + G-CR. Sugar replacement with polyphenol-rich grape along with CR improved glucose homeostasis, and substituting corn oil with flaxseed oil in obese mice reduced fat mass, but even with no change in adiponectin levels it could not decrease insulin resistance. However, none of the food item combinations facilitated weight reduction in the long-term CR. Therefore, regardless of the total calorie intake, different diet components and fat contents may have unexpected effects on metabolic regulation.

  7. NRF2, cancer and calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    Martín-Montalvo, A; Villalba, J M; Navas, P; de Cabo, R

    2011-02-03

    The transcription factor NF-E2-related factor (NRF2) is a key regulator of several enzymatic pathways, including cytoprotective enzymes in highly metabolic organs. In this review, we summarize the ongoing research related to NRF2 activity in cancer development, focusing on in vivo studies using NRF2 knockout (KO) mice, which have helped in defining the crucial role of NRF2 in chemoprevention. The lower cancer protection observed in NRF2 KO mice under calorie restriction (CR) suggests that most of the beneficial effects of CR on the carcinogenesis process are likely mediated by NRF2. We propose that future interventions in cancer treatment would be carried out through the activation of NRF2 in somatic cells, which will lead to a delay or prevention of the onset of some forms of human cancers, and subsequently an extension of health- and lifespan.

  8. dSir2 mediates the increased spontaneous physical activity in flies on calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Vijay; Rogina, Blanka

    2009-06-22

    Calorie restriction (CR) is the most effective way to increase life span and delay the onset of age-related symptoms in animals. We have previously reported that CR affects a variety of physiological phenotypes in flies and results in dramatic behavioral, physical and demographic changes. Here we show effects of low and high calorie levels on the spontaneous physical activity of flies. Wild type flies maintained on a low calorie diet exhibit higher spontaneous activity compared to flies on higher calorie diets. This increase is dependent on the presence of Sir2 since a low calorie diet does not increase the activity of dSir2 null flies. Similarly, increasing dSir2 activity by feeding flies resveratrol, a CR mimetic, increases spontaneous physical activity of flies on high caloric food. In Drosophila, spontaneous physical activity therefore closely mimics life span in its dependence on Sir2.

  9. Examination of Cognitive Function During Six Months of Calorie Restriction: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Corby K.; Anton, Stephen D.; Han, Hongmei; York-Crowe, Emily; Redman, Leanne M.; Ravussin, Eric; Williamson, Donald A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Calorie restriction increases longevity in many organisms, and calorie restriction or its mimetic might increase longevity in humans. It is unclear if calorie restriction/dieting contributes to cognitive impairment. During this randomized controlled trial, the effect of 6 months of calorie restriction on cognitive functioning was tested. Methods Participants (n = 48) were randomized to one of four groups: (1) control (weight maintenance), (2) calorie restriction (CR; 25% restriction), (3) CR plus structured exercise (CR + EX, 12.5% restriction plus 12.5% increased energy expenditure via exercise), or (4) low-calorie diet (LCD; 890 kcal/d diet until 15% weight loss, followed by weight maintenance). Cognitive tests (verbal memory, visual memory, attention/concentration) were conducted at baseline and months 3 and 6. Mixed linear models tested if cognitive function changed significantly from baseline to months 3 and 6, and if this change differed by group. Correlation analysis was used to determine if average daily energy deficit (quantified from change in body energy stores) was associated with change in cognitive test performance for the three dieting groups combined. Results No consistent pattern of verbal memory, visual retention/memory, or attention/concentration deficits emerged during the trial. Daily energy deficit was not significantly associated with change in cognitive test performance. Conclusions This randomized controlled trial suggests that calorie restriction/dieting was not associated with a consistent pattern of cognitive impairment. These conclusions must be interpreted in the context of study limitations, namely small sample size and limited statistical power. Previous reports of cognitive impairment might reflect sampling biases or information processing biases. PMID:17518698

  10. Mitochondrial Metabolic Reprogramming Induced by Calorie Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Montalvo, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Calorie restriction (CR) is a known intervention that delays most aging processes. Most of the beneficial effects of CR are mediated by improved maintenance of mitochondrial performance in aged individuals. The control of mitochondrial biogenesis, apoptosis, and protein turnover is required for healthy aging. CR is able to induce molecular mechanisms that preserve oxidative capacity and decrease oxidative damage. Recent Advances and Critical Issues: Published data indicate that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) is activated in old animals under CR conditions compared to ad libitum counterparts, enhancing mitochondrial biogenesis. Molecular regulation of PGC-1α has recently attracted significant research interest. We discuss the master regulators of energy metabolism such as AMP-activated protein kinase and sirtuin 1 among others that have been demonstrated to activate mitochondrial biogenesis through increased PGC-1α activity at transcriptional and post-translational levels. Additionally, we describe the latest findings that explain how CR promotes mitochondrial efficiency and decreases mitochondrial-derived oxidative damage. Future Directions: Understanding the beneficial mitochondrial changes conferred by CR will aid design of therapies for age-related diseases and help slow the aging process. Given the difficulty for humans to adhere to CR, we also explore new molecules that have been proposed during the last years to mimic the CR phenotype and their potential as future therapeutics. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 310–320. PMID:22901095

  11. Mitochondrial metabolic reprogramming induced by calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    Martin-Montalvo, Alejandro; de Cabo, Rafael

    2013-07-20

    Calorie restriction (CR) is a known intervention that delays most aging processes. Most of the beneficial effects of CR are mediated by improved maintenance of mitochondrial performance in aged individuals. The control of mitochondrial biogenesis, apoptosis, and protein turnover is required for healthy aging. CR is able to induce molecular mechanisms that preserve oxidative capacity and decrease oxidative damage. Published data indicate that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) is activated in old animals under CR conditions compared to ad libitum counterparts, enhancing mitochondrial biogenesis. Molecular regulation of PGC-1α has recently attracted significant research interest. We discuss the master regulators of energy metabolism such as AMP-activated protein kinase and sirtuin 1 among others that have been demonstrated to activate mitochondrial biogenesis through increased PGC-1α activity at transcriptional and post-translational levels. Additionally, we describe the latest findings that explain how CR promotes mitochondrial efficiency and decreases mitochondrial-derived oxidative damage. Understanding the beneficial mitochondrial changes conferred by CR will aid design of therapies for age-related diseases and help slow the aging process. Given the difficulty for humans to adhere to CR, we also explore new molecules that have been proposed during the last years to mimic the CR phenotype and their potential as future therapeutics.

  12. Calorie restriction in rodents: Caveats to consider.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Donald K; de Cabo, Rafael

    2017-10-01

    The calorie restriction paradigm has provided one of the most widely used and most useful tools for investigating mechanisms of aging and longevity. By far, rodent models have been employed most often in these endeavors. Over decades of investigation, claims have been made that the paradigm produces the most robust demonstration that aging is malleable. In the current review of the rodent literature, we present arguments that question the robustness of the paradigm to increase lifespan and healthspan. Specifically, there are several questions to consider as follows: (1) At what age does CR no longer produce benefits? (2) Does CR attenuate cognitive decline? (3) Are there negative effects of CR, including effects on bone health, wound healing, and response to infection? (4) How important is schedule of feeding? (5) How long does CR need to be imposed to be effective? (6) How do genotype and gender influence CR? (7) What role does dietary composition play? Consideration of these questions produce many caveats that should guide future investigations to move the field forward. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Calories or protein? The effect of dietary restriction on lifespan in rodents is explained by calories alone.

    PubMed

    Speakman, J R; Mitchell, S E; Mazidi, M

    2016-12-15

    Almost exactly 100years ago Osborne and colleagues demonstrated that restricting the food intake of a small number of female rats extended their lifespan. In the 1930s experiments on the impact of diet on lifespan were extended by Slonaker, and subsequently McCay. Slonaker concluded that there was a strong impact of protein intake on lifespan, while McCay concluded that calories are the main factor causing differences in lifespan when animals are restricted (Calorie restriction or CR). Hence from the very beginning the question of whether food restriction acts on lifespan via reduced calorie intake or reduced protein intake was disputed. Subsequent work supported the idea that calories were the dominant factor. More recently, however, this role has again been questioned, particularly in studies of insects. Here we review the data regarding previous studies of protein and calorie restriction in rodents. We show that increasing CR (with simultaneous protein restriction: PR) increases lifespan, and that CR with no PR generates an identical effect. None of the residual variation in the impact of CR (with PR) on lifespan could be traced to variation in macronutrient content of the diet. Other studies show that low protein content in the diet does increase median lifespan, but the effect is smaller than the CR effect. We conclude that CR is a valid phenomenon in rodents that cannot be explained by changes in protein intake, but that there is a separate phenomenon linking protein intake to lifespan, which acts over a different range of protein intakes than is typical in CR studies. This suggests there may be a fundamental difference in the responses of insects and rodents to CR. This may be traced to differences in the physiology of these groups, or reflect a major methodological difference between 'restriction' studies performed on rodents and insects. We suggest that studies where the diet is supplied ad libitum, but diluted with inert components, should perhaps be

  14. Calorie Restriction Attenuates Terminal Differentiation of Immune Cells.

    PubMed

    White, Matthew J; Beaver, Charlotte M; Goodier, Martin R; Bottomley, Christian; Nielsen, Carolyn M; Wolf, Asia-Sophia F M; Boldrin, Luisa; Whitmore, Charlotte; Morgan, Jennifer; Pearce, Daniel J; Riley, Eleanor M

    2016-01-01

    Immune senescence is a natural consequence of aging and may contribute to frailty and loss of homeostasis in later life. Calorie restriction increases healthy life-span in C57BL/6J (but not DBA/2J) mice, but whether this is related to preservation of immune function, and how it interacts with aging, is unclear. We compared phenotypic and functional characteristics of natural killer (NK) cells and T cells, across the lifespan, of calorie-restricted (CR) and control C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice. Calorie restriction preserves a naïve T cell phenotype and an immature NK cell phenotype as mice age. The splenic T cell populations of CR mice had higher proportions of CD11a - CD44 lo cells, lower expression of TRAIL, KLRG1, and CXCR3, and higher expression of CD127, compared to control mice. Similarly, splenic NK cells from CR mice had higher proportions of less differentiated CD11b - CD27 + cells and correspondingly lower proportions of highly differentiated CD11b + CD27 - NK cells. Within each of these subsets, cells from CR mice had higher expression of CD127, CD25, TRAIL, NKG2A/C/E, and CXCR3 and lower expression of KLRG1 and Ly49 receptors compared to controls. The effects of calorie restriction on lymphoid cell populations in lung, liver, and lymph nodes were identical to those seen in the spleen, indicating that this is a system-wide effect. The impact of calorie restriction on NK cell and T cell maturation is much more profound than the effect of aging and, indeed, calorie restriction attenuates these age-associated changes. Importantly, the effects of calorie restriction on lymphocyte maturation were more marked in C57BL/6 than in DBA/2J mice indicating that delayed lymphocyte maturation correlates with extended lifespan. These findings have implications for understanding the interaction between nutritional status, immunity, and healthy lifespan in aging populations.

  15. Metabolic Aspects of Caloric Restriction (500 Calories): Body Composition Changes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-01

    both groups were also decreased during caloric restriction. Lesser changes were noted when minerals were in- cluded in the diet . The data indicate that...composition dataa before and during caloric restriction and after rehabilitation. Group I - Unsupplemented Diet Control Restriction Rehabilitation 8... caloric restriction and after rehabilitation). Control Restriction Rehabilitation 8 days 10 days 8 days Group I - Unsupplemented Diet 4 0K and

  16. Effects of calorie restriction on the zebrafish liver proteome

    PubMed Central

    Jury, David R.; Kaveti, Suma; Duan, Zhong-Hui; Willard, Belinda; Kinter, Michael; Londraville, Richard

    2012-01-01

    A proteomic approach was taken to study how fish respond to changes in calorie availability, with the longer-term goal of understanding the evolution of lipid metabolism in vertebrates. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were fed either high (3 rations/day) or low (1 ration/7 days) calorie diets for 5 weeks and liver proteins extracted for proteomic analyses. Proteins were separated on two-dimensional electrophoresis gels and homologous spots compared between treatments to determine which proteins were up-regulated with high-calorie diet. Fifty-five spots were excised from the gel and analyzed via LC–ESI MS/MS, which resulted in the identification of 69 unique proteins (via multiple peptides). Twenty-nine of these proteins were differentially expressed between treatments. Differentially expressed proteins were mapped to Gene Ontology (GO) terms, and these terms compared to the entire zebrafish GO annotation set by Fisher's exact test. The most significant GO terms associated with high-calorie diet are related to a decrease in oxygen-binding activity in the high-calorie treatment. This response is consistent with a well-characterized response in obese humans, indicating there may be a link between lipid storage and hypoxia sensitivity in vertebrates. PMID:20494847

  17. Calorie restriction and bone health in young, overweight individuals.

    PubMed

    Redman, Leanne M; Rood, Jennifer; Anton, Stephen D; Champagne, Catherine; Smith, Steven R; Ravussin, Eric

    2008-09-22

    Calorie restriction (CR) is promoted to increase longevity, yet this regimen could lead to bone loss and fracture and therefore affect quality of life. Forty-six individuals were randomized to 4 groups for 6 months: (1) healthy diet (control group); (2) 25% CR from baseline energy requirements (CR group); (3) 25% energy deficit by a combination of CR and increased aerobic exercise (CR + EX group); and (4) low-calorie diet (890 kcal/d; goal, 15% weight loss) followed by weight maintenance (LCD group). Bone mineral density (total body and hip by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) and serum bone markers (bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, cross-linked C-telopeptide of type I collagen, and cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen) were measured at baseline and after 6 months. Mean +/- SE body weight was reduced by -1.0% +/- 1.1% (control), -10.4% +/- 0.9% (CR), -10.0% +/- 0.8% (CR + EX), and -13.9% +/- 0.7% (LCD). Compared with the control group, none of the groups showed any change in bone mineral density for total body or hip. Bone resorption by serum cross-linked C-telopeptide of type I collagen was increased in all 3 intervention groups, with the largest change observed in the LCD group (CR, 23% +/- 10%; CR + EX, 22% +/- 9%; and LCD, 74% +/- 16% vs control, 4% +/- 10%). Serum levels of cross-linked N-telopeptide of type I collagen were also increased in the LCD group. With regard to bone formation, bone alkaline phosphatase levels were decreased in the CR group (-23% +/- 10%) but were unchanged in the CR + EX, LCD, and control groups. Moderate CR, with or without exercise, that preserves calcium intake for 6 months leads to large changes in body composition without significant bone loss in young adults. Longer studies with assessments of bone architecture are needed to confirm that CR nutrient-dense diets have no deleterious effect on bone health. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00099151.

  18. Physically active rats lose more weight during calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    Smyers, Mark E; Bachir, Kailey Z; Britton, Steven L; Koch, Lauren G; Novak, Colleen M

    2015-02-01

    Daily physical activity shows substantial inter-individual variation, and low physical activity is associated with obesity and weight gain. Elevated physical activity is also associated with high intrinsic aerobic capacity, which confers considerable metabolic health benefits. Rats artificially selected for high intrinsic aerobic capacity (high-capacity runners, HCR) are more physically active than their low-capacity counterparts (low-capacity runners, LCR). To test the hypothesis that physical activity counters metabolic thriftiness, we measured physical activity and weight loss during three weeks of 50% calorie restriction (CR) in the HCR and LCR rat lines. At baseline, HCR ate more and were more active than LCR; this was seen in male rats, where LCR are considerably heavier than HCR, as well as in a set of female rats where body weight did not differ between the lines, demonstrating that this effect is consistent across sex and not secondary to body weight. We show for the first time that HCR lose more weight than LCR relative to baseline. Physical activity levels declined throughout CR, and this was more pronounced in HCR than in LCR, yet some aspects of activity remained elevated in HCR relative to LCR even during CR. This is consistent with the idea that low physical activity contributes to metabolic thriftiness during food restriction, allowing LCR to defend body mass, particularly lean mass. This has implications for physical activity during diet-induced weight loss, the genetic underpinnings of individual differences in weight loss during a diet, and the potential evolutionary opposition between metabolic thriftiness and aerobic capacity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Physically Active Rats Lose More Weight during Calorie Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Smyers, Mark E.; Bachir, Kailey Z.; Britton, Steven L.; Koch, Lauren G.; Novak, Colleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Daily physical activity shows substantial inter-individual variation, and low physical activity is associated with obesity and weight gain. Elevated physical activity is also associated with high intrinsic aerobic capacity, which confers considerable metabolic health benefits. Rats artificially selected for high intrinsic aerobic capacity (high-capacity runners, HCR) are more physically active than their low-capacity counterparts (low-capacity runners, LCR). To test the hypothesis that physical activity counters metabolic thriftiness, we measured physical activity and weight loss during three weeks of 50% calorie restriction (CR) in the HCR and LCR rat lines. At baseline, HCR ate more and were more active than LCR; this was seen in male rats, where LCR are considerably heavier than HCR, as well as in a set of female rats where body weight did not differ between the lines, demonstrating that this effect is consistent across sex and not secondary to body weight. We show for the first time that HCR lose more weight than LCR relative to baseline. Physical activity levels declined throughout CR, and this was more pronounced in HCR than in LCR, yet some aspects of activity remained elevated in HCR relative to LCR even during CR. This is consistent with the idea that low physical activity contributes to metabolic thriftiness during food restriction, allowing LCR to defend body mass, particularly lean mass. This has implications for physical activity during diet-induced weight loss, the genetic underpinnings of individual differences in weight loss during a diet, and the potential evolutionary opposition between metabolic thriftiness and aerobic capacity. PMID:25449411

  20. Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research News From NIH Low Calorie Diet Affects Aging-Related Factors Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of ... project sponsored by the NIH's National Institute on Aging (NIA) to learn more about the effects of ...

  1. Effects of 2-day calorie restriction on cardiovascular autonomic response, mood, and cognitive and motor functions in obese young adult women.

    PubMed

    Solianik, Rima; Sujeta, Artūras; Čekanauskaitė, Agnė

    2018-06-02

    Although long-term energy restriction has been widely investigated and has consistently induced improvements in health and cognitive and motor functions, the responses to short-duration calorie restriction are not completely understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a 2-day very low-calorie diet on evoked stress, mood, and cognitive and motor functions in obese women. Nine obese women (body fatness > 32%) aged 22-31 years were tested under two randomly allocated conditions: 2-day very low-calorie diet (511 kcal) and 2-day usual diet. The perceived stressfulness of the diet, cardiovascular autonomic response, and cognitive and motor performances were evaluated before and after each diet. The subjective stress rating of the calorie-restricted diet was 41.5 ± 23.3. Calorie restriction had no detectable effects on the heart rate variability indices, mood, grip strength, or psychomotor functions. By contrast, calorie restriction increased (p < 0.05) spatial processing and visuospatial working memory accuracy, and decreased (p < 0.05) accuracy of cognitive flexibility. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that although a 2-day calorie restriction evoked moderate stress in obese women, cardiovascular autonomic function was not affected. Calorie restriction had complex effects on cognition: it declined cognitive flexibility, and improved spatial processing and visuospatial working memory, but did not affect mood or motor behavior.

  2. Calorie Restriction in Overweight SeniorS: Response of Older Adults to a Dieting Study: The CROSSROADS Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Marilyn C.; Bodner, Eric V.; Brown, Cynthia J.; Bryan, David; Buys, David R.; Keita, Akilah Dulin; Flagg, Lee Anne; Goss, Amy; Gower, Barbara; Hovater, Martha; Hunter, Gary; Ritchie, Christine S.; Roth, David L.; Wingo, Brooks C.; Ard, Jamy; Locher, Julie L.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a study designed to evaluate whether the benefits of intentional weight loss exceed the potential risks in a group of community-dwelling, obese, older adults who were at increased risk for cardiometabolic disease. The CROSSROADS trial used a prospective randomized controlled design to compare the effects of changes in diet composition alone or combined with weight loss with an exercise only control intervention on body composition and adipose tissue deposition (Specific Aim #1: To compare the effects of changes in diet composition alone or combined with weight loss with an exercise only control intervention on body composition, namely visceral adipose tissue (VAT)), cardiometabolic disease risk (Specific Aim #2: To compare the effects of a change in diet composition alone or combined with weight loss with an exercise only control intervention on cardiometabolic disease risk), functional status and quality of life (Specific Aim #3: To compare the effects of a change in diet composition alone or combined with weight loss with an exercise only control intervention on functional status and quality of life). Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: Exercise Only (Control) Intervention, Exercise + Diet Quality + Weight Maintenance Intervention, or Exercise + Diet Quality + Weight Loss Intervention. CROSSROADS utilized a lifestyle intervention approach consisting of exercise, dietary, and behavioral components. The development and implementation of the CROSSROADS protocol, including a description of the methodology, detailing specific elements of the lifestyle intervention, assurances of treatment fidelity, and participant retention; outcome measures and adverse event monitoring; as well as unique data management features of the trial results, are presented in this article. PMID:25424512

  3. Differential effects of calorie restriction and involuntary wheel running on body composition and bone structure in diet-induced obese rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Weight reduction is recommended to reduce obesity-related health disorders. This study investigated the differential effects of weight reduction through caloric restriction and/or physical activity on bone structure and molecular characteristics of bone metabolism in an obese rat model. We tested th...

  4. Trial Protocol: randomised controlled trial of the effects of very low calorie diet, modest dietary restriction, and sequential behavioural programme on hunger, urges to smoke, abstinence and weight gain in overweight smokers stopping smoking.

    PubMed

    Lycett, Deborah; Hajek, Peter; Aveyard, Paul

    2010-10-07

    Weight gain accompanies smoking cessation, but dieting during quitting is controversial as hunger may increase urges to smoke. This is a feasibility trial for the investigation of a very low calorie diet (VLCD), individual modest energy restriction, and usual advice on hunger, ketosis, urges to smoke, abstinence and weight gain in overweight smokers trying to quit. This is a 3 armed, unblinded, randomized controlled trial in overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2), daily smokers (CO > 10 ppm); with at least 30 participants in each group. Each group receives identical behavioural support and NRT patches (25 mg(8 weeks),15 mg(2 weeks),10 mg(2 weeks)). The VLCD group receive a 429-559 kcal/day liquid formula beginning 1 week before quitting and continuing for 4 weeks afterwards. The modest energy restricted group (termed individual dietary and activity planning(IDAP)) engage in goal-setting and receive an energy prescription based on individual basal metabolic rate(BMR) aiming for daily reduction of 600 kcal. The control group receive usual dietary advice that accompanies smoking cessation i.e. avoiding feeling hungry but eating healthy snacks. After this, the VLCD participants receive IDAP to provide support for changing eating habits in the longer term; the IDAP group continues receiving this support. The control group receive IDAP 8 weeks after quitting. This allows us to compare IDAP following a successful quit attempt with dieting concurrently during quitting. It also aims to prevent attrition in the unblinded, control group by meeting their need for weight management. Follow-up occurs at 6 and 12 months.Outcome measures include participant acceptability, measured qualitatively by semi-structured interviewing and quantitatively by recruitment and attrition rates. Feasibility of running the trial within primary care is measured by interview and questionnaire of the treatment providers. Adherence to the VLCD is verified by the presence of urinary ketones measured weekly. Daily

  5. Trial Protocol: Randomised controlled trial of the effects of very low calorie diet, modest dietary restriction, and sequential behavioural programme on hunger, urges to smoke, abstinence and weight gain in overweight smokers stopping smoking

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Weight gain accompanies smoking cessation, but dieting during quitting is controversial as hunger may increase urges to smoke. This is a feasibility trial for the investigation of a very low calorie diet (VLCD), individual modest energy restriction, and usual advice on hunger, ketosis, urges to smoke, abstinence and weight gain in overweight smokers trying to quit. Methods This is a 3 armed, unblinded, randomized controlled trial in overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2), daily smokers (CO > 10 ppm); with at least 30 participants in each group. Each group receives identical behavioural support and NRT patches (25 mg(8 weeks),15 mg(2 weeks),10 mg(2 weeks)). The VLCD group receive a 429-559 kcal/day liquid formula beginning 1 week before quitting and continuing for 4 weeks afterwards. The modest energy restricted group (termed individual dietary and activity planning(IDAP)) engage in goal-setting and receive an energy prescription based on individual basal metabolic rate(BMR) aiming for daily reduction of 600 kcal. The control group receive usual dietary advice that accompanies smoking cessation i.e. avoiding feeling hungry but eating healthy snacks. After this, the VLCD participants receive IDAP to provide support for changing eating habits in the longer term; the IDAP group continues receiving this support. The control group receive IDAP 8 weeks after quitting. This allows us to compare IDAP following a successful quit attempt with dieting concurrently during quitting. It also aims to prevent attrition in the unblinded, control group by meeting their need for weight management. Follow-up occurs at 6 and 12 months. Outcome measures include participant acceptability, measured qualitatively by semi-structured interviewing and quantitatively by recruitment and attrition rates. Feasibility of running the trial within primary care is measured by interview and questionnaire of the treatment providers. Adherence to the VLCD is verified by the presence of urinary ketones

  6. Use of a Computerized Tracking System to Monitor and Provide Feedback on Dietary Goals for Calorie-Restricted Diets: The POUNDS LOST Study

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Stephen D.; LeBlanc, Eric; Allen, H. Raymond; Karabetian, Christy; Sacks, Frank; Bray, George; Williamson, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    The use of self-monitoring as a tool to facilitate behavioral modification is common in many lifestyle-based weight loss interventions. Electronic tracking programs, including computer-based systems and smart phone applications, have been developed to allow individuals to self-monitor their behavior digitally. These programs offer an advantage over traditional self-report modalities in that they can provide users with direct feedback about dietary and/or physical activity adherence levels and thereby assist them in real-time decision making. This article describes the use of an Internet-based computerized tracking system (CTS) that was developed specifically for the POUNDS LOST study, a 2-year randomized controlled trial designed to test the efficacy of four macronutrient diets for weight and fat reduction in healthy, overweight men and women (body mass index range = 25.0–39.9 kg/m2). The CTS served many functions in this study, including data collection, dietary and exercise assessment and feedback, messaging system, and report generation. Across all groups, participants with high usage of the CTS during the initial 8 weeks lost greater amounts of weight than participants with low usage (8.7% versus 5.5% of initial body weight, respectively; p < .001) at week 32. Rates of CTS utilization were highest during the first year of this 2-year intervention, and utilization of the CTS declined steadily over time. The unique features of the CTS combined with technological developments, such as smart phone applications, offer significant potential to improve the user’s self-monitoring experience and adherence to health promotion programs designed specifically for individuals with obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:23063049

  7. Effects of Calorie Restriction on Cardioprotection and Cardiovascular Health

    PubMed Central

    Ahmet, Ismayil; Tae, Hyun-Jin; de Cabo, Rafael; Lakatta, Edward G.; Talan, Mark I.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple health benefits of calorie restriction (CR) and alternate day fasting (ADF) regimens are widely recognized. Experimental data concerning the effects of calorie restriction on cardiac health are more controversial, ranging from evidence that ADF protects heart from ischemic damage but results in developing of diastolic dysfunction, to reports that CR ameliorates the age-associated diastolic dysfunction. Here we investigated the effects of chronic CR on morphology and function of the cardiovascular system of aged rats and cardioprotective effect of CR against ischemic damage in the experimental rat model of MI. Cardiovascular fitness of 24-mo old Fisher 344 rats maintained through life on ad libitum (AL) or CR diets was extensively evaluated via echocardiography, dobutamine stress test, pressure-volume loop analyses, pulse wave velocity measurements, and histology. Groups of 2-mo old AL and 29-mo old CR rats were studied for comparison. Myocardial infarction (MI) was induced by a permanent ligation of the anterior descending coronary artery in 5-mo old rats maintained for 3 months on CR or AL. MI size was evaluated histologically 24 hrs following coronary ligation. Cardiac remodeling was followed-up via echocardiography. Age-associated changes in 24-mo old rats consisted of 33% increase of fibrosis in the myocardium and more than 2 fold increase of the collagen in the tunica media of the aorta. There was a significant decrease in the density and total number of cardiomyocytes, while their size was increased. These morphological changes were manifested in a decline of systolic and diastolic cardiac function, increase of left ventricular and aortic stiffness, and arterio-ventricular uncoupling. Tachycardic response to dobutamine challenge was absent in the old rats. Compared to AL rats, 24-mo old CR rats had reduced levels of cardiac and aortic fibrosis, increased density of cardiomyocytes that were smaller in size, attenuated diastolic dysfunction, normal

  8. Effect of intermittent versus daily calorie restriction on changes in weight and patient reported outcomes in people with multiple sclerosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An intermittent fasting or calorie restriction diet has favorable effects in the mouse forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) and may provide additional anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective advantages beyond benefits obtained from weight loss alone. We conducted a pilot randomized controlled feeding stud...

  9. One day of moderate energy deficit reduces fasting and postprandial triacylglycerolemia in women: the role of calorie restriction and exercise.

    PubMed

    Maraki, Maria; Magkos, Faidon; Christodoulou, Nektarios; Aggelopoulou, Niki; Skenderi, Katerina P; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Kavouras, Stavros A; Sidossis, Labros S

    2010-08-01

    Fasting and postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia are important cardiovascular risk factors in women. We sought to examine the effects of acute (1 day), moderate ( approximately 2 MJ) energy deficit induced by calorie restriction, exercise, or combination of both on fasting and postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) metabolism in women. Six healthy premenopausal women performed four oral fat tolerance tests in the morning after a day of a) rest (control), b) calorie restriction ( approximately 2 MJ), c) exercise (net deficit of approximately 2 MJ) and d) calorie restriction-plus-exercise (total energy deficit of approximately 2 MJ). All energy deficit trials significantly reduced fasting and postprandial total plasma TAG concentrations by 15-23% and 12-23%, respectively, and triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein TAG concentrations by 37-43% and 25-39%, respectively, compared with the control condition (P<0.05). Postprandial, but not fasting, total TAG concentrations were approximately 12% lower after exercise compared with diet-induced energy deficit (P=0.05). Acute, moderate energy deficit independently of its origin (i.e. diet or exercise or combination of both) reduces fasting and postprandial triacylglycerolemia in women. Exercise elicits a somewhat greater effect than calorie restriction in the postprandial state. The acute effect of diet and exercise should be taken into account when studying the long-term effects of weight loss and exercise training on TAG metabolism. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  10. Calorie-induced ER stress suppresses uroguanylin satiety signaling in diet-induced obesity.

    PubMed

    Kim, G W; Lin, J E; Snook, A E; Aing, A S; Merlino, D J; Li, P; Waldman, S A

    2016-05-23

    The uroguanylin-GUCY2C gut-brain axis has emerged as one component regulating feeding, energy homeostasis, body mass and metabolism. Here, we explore a role for this axis in mechanisms underlying diet-induced obesity (DIO). Intestinal uroguanylin expression and secretion, and hypothalamic GUCY2C expression and anorexigenic signaling, were quantified in mice on high-calorie diets for 14 weeks. The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in suppressing uroguanylin in DIO was explored using tunicamycin, an inducer of ER stress, and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a chemical chaperone that inhibits ER stress. The impact of consumed calories on uroguanylin expression was explored by dietary manipulation. The role of uroguanylin in mechanisms underlying obesity was examined using Camk2a-Cre-ER(T2)-Rosa-STOP(loxP/loxP)-Guca2b mice in which tamoxifen induces transgenic hormone expression in brain. DIO suppressed intestinal uroguanylin expression and eliminated its postprandial secretion into the circulation. DIO suppressed uroguanylin through ER stress, an effect mimicked by tunicamycin and blocked by TUDCA. Hormone suppression by DIO reflected consumed calories, rather than the pathophysiological milieu of obesity, as a diet high in calories from carbohydrates suppressed uroguanylin in lean mice, whereas calorie restriction restored uroguanylin in obese mice. However, hypothalamic GUCY2C, enriched in the arcuate nucleus, produced anorexigenic signals mediating satiety upon exogenous agonist administration, and DIO did not impair these responses. Uroguanylin replacement by transgenic expression in brain repaired the hormone insufficiency and reconstituted satiety responses opposing DIO and its associated comorbidities, including visceral adiposity, glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis. These studies reveal a novel pathophysiological mechanism contributing to obesity in which calorie-induced suppression of intestinal uroguanylin impairs hypothalamic mechanisms

  11. Calorie for Calorie, Dietary Fat Restriction Results in More Body Fat Loss than Carbohydrate Restriction in People with Obesity.

    PubMed

    Hall, Kevin D; Bemis, Thomas; Brychta, Robert; Chen, Kong Y; Courville, Amber; Crayner, Emma J; Goodwin, Stephanie; Guo, Juen; Howard, Lilian; Knuth, Nicolas D; Miller, Bernard V; Prado, Carla M; Siervo, Mario; Skarulis, Monica C; Walter, Mary; Walter, Peter J; Yannai, Laura

    2015-09-01

    Dietary carbohydrate restriction has been purported to cause endocrine adaptations that promote body fat loss more than dietary fat restriction. We selectively restricted dietary carbohydrate versus fat for 6 days following a 5-day baseline diet in 19 adults with obesity confined to a metabolic ward where they exercised daily. Subjects received both isocaloric diets in random order during each of two inpatient stays. Body fat loss was calculated as the difference between daily fat intake and net fat oxidation measured while residing in a metabolic chamber. Whereas carbohydrate restriction led to sustained increases in fat oxidation and loss of 53 ± 6 g/day of body fat, fat oxidation was unchanged by fat restriction, leading to 89 ± 6 g/day of fat loss, and was significantly greater than carbohydrate restriction (p = 0.002). Mathematical model simulations agreed with these data, but predicted that the body acts to minimize body fat differences with prolonged isocaloric diets varying in carbohydrate and fat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Calorie for calorie, dietary fat restriction results in more body fat loss than carbohydrate restriction in people with obesity

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Kevin D.; Bemis, Thomas; Brychta, Robert; Chen, Kong Y.; Courville, Amber; Crayner, Emma J.; Goodwin, Stephanie; Guo, Juen; Howard, Lilian; Knuth, Nicolas D.; Miller, Bernard V.; Prado, Carla M.; Siervo, Mario; Skarulis, Monica C.; Walter, Mary; Walter, Peter J.; Yannai, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Summary Dietary carbohydrate restriction has been purported to cause endocrine adaptations that promote body fat loss more than dietary fat restriction. We selectively restricted dietary carbohydrate versus fat for 6 days following a 5 day baseline diet in 19 adults with obesity confined to a metabolic ward where they exercised daily. Subjects received both isocaloric diets in random order during each of two inpatient stays. Body fat loss was calculated as the difference between daily fat intake and net fat oxidation measured while residing in a metabolic chamber. Whereas carbohydrate restriction led to sustained increases in fat oxidation and loss of 53±6 g/d of body fat, fat oxidation was unchanged by fat restriction leading to 89±6 g/d of fat loss and was significantly greater than carbohydrate restriction (p=0.002). Mathematical model simulations agreed with these data, but predicted that the body acts to minimize body fat differences with isocaloric diets varying in carbohydrate and fat. PMID:26278052

  13. Can alginate-based preloads increase weight loss beyond calorie restriction? A pilot study in obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Georg Jensen, M; Kristensen, M; Astrup, A

    2011-12-01

    This randomized, controlled, 2-week intervention study in 24 obese subjects tested the effect on body weight loss and gastrointestinal tolerance of consuming low viscous alginate fibre-based preloads of 3% concentration (500 ml volume) three times a day as an adjuvant to a calorie-restricted diet. The pilot study showed that intake of the alginate preloads was moderately acceptable to the majority of subjects but did not produce additional body weight loss beyond calorie restriction (-1.42 ± 0.38 kg) (n=12) compared to control group (-1.56 ± 0.21 kg) (n=8). These results do not support that alginate supplementation enhance the weight loss effects of a hypo-caloric diet, but a sufficiently powered long-term study is needed to explore whether alginate could be an aid for improving weight loss during caloric-restriction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Long-term calorie restriction, but not endurance exercise, lowers core body temperature in humans

    PubMed Central

    Soare, Andreea; Cangemi, Roberto; Omodei, Daniela; Holloszy, John O.; Fontana, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Reduction of body temperature has been proposed to contribute to the increased lifespan in calorie restricted animals and mice overexpressing the uncoupling protein-2 in hypocretin neurons. However, nothing is known regarding the long-term effects of calorie restriction (CR) with adequate nutrition on body temperature in humans. In this study, 24-hour core body temperature was measured every minute by using ingested telemetric capsules in 24 men and women (mean age 53.7±9.4 yrs) consuming a CR diet for an average of 6 years, 24 age- and sex-matched sedentary (WD) and 24 body fat-matched exercise-trained (EX) volunteers, who were eating Western diets. The CR and EX groups were significantly leaner than the WD group. Energy intake was lower in the CR group (1769±348 kcal/d) than in the WD (2302±668 kcal/d) and EX (2798±760 kcal/d) groups (P<0.0001). Mean 24-hour, day-time and night-time core body temperatures were all significantly lower in the CR group than in the WD and EX groups (P≤0.01). Long-term CR with adequate nutrition in lean and weight-stable healthy humans is associated with a sustained reduction in core body temperature, similar to that found in CR rodents and monkeys. This adaptation is likely due to CR itself, rather than to leanness, and may be involved in slowing the rate of aging. PMID:21483032

  15. Nutrition modulation of human aging: The calorie restriction paradigm.

    PubMed

    Das, Sai Krupa; Balasubramanian, Priya; Weerasekara, Yasoma K

    2017-11-05

    Globally, the aging population is growing rapidly, creating an urgent need to attenuate age-related health conditions, including metabolic disease and disability. A promising strategy for healthy aging based on consistently positive results from studies with a variety of species, including non-human primates (NHP), is calorie restriction (CR), or the restriction of energy intake while maintaining intake of essential nutrients. The burgeoning evidence for this approach in humans is reviewed and the major study to date to address this question, CALERIE (Comprehensive Assessment of the Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy), is described. CALERIE findings indicate the feasibility of CR in non-obese humans, confirm observations in NHP, and are consistent with improvements in disease risk reduction and potential anti-aging effects. Finally, the mechanisms of CR in humans are reviewed which sums up the fact that evolutionarily conserved mechanisms mediate the anti-aging effects of CR. Overall, the prospect for further research in both NHP and humans is highly encouraging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Recent advances in calorie restriction research on aging.

    PubMed

    Chung, K W; Kim, D H; Park, M H; Choi, Y J; Kim, N D; Lee, J; Yu, B P; Chung, H Y

    2013-10-01

    The extension of both median and maximum lifespan and the suppression of age-related diseases in laboratory animals by reduced food intake, i.e., calorie restriction (CR) are regarded as hallmarks of CR's anti-aging action. The diverse efficacy of CR to counteract aging effects and its experimental reproducibility has made it the gold standard of many aging intervention studies of recent years. Although CR originally was used as a tool to perturb the aging process of laboratory animals as to uncover clues of underlying mechanisms of aging processes, current CR research interests have shifted to the retardation of aging-related functional decline and the prevention of age-related diseases. Advances in CR research on non-human primates and recent endeavors using human subjects offer a promising outlook for CR's beneficial effects in healthy human aging. In this review, several major issues related to CR's anti-aging mechanisms are discussed by highlighting the importance of modulating deleterious chronic inflammation at molecular levels and the impact of epigenetic chromatin and histone modifications by CR at the ultimate control sites of gene expression. The recent research on rapamycin as a CR mimetic is summarized and a brief description of intermittent feeding patterns is reviewed in comparison to the CR effect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Short-term calorie and protein restriction provide partial protection from chemotoxicity but do not delay glioma progression

    PubMed Central

    Brandhorst, Sebastian; Wei, Min; Hwang, Saewon; Morgan, Todd E.; Longo, Valter D.

    2013-01-01

    Short-term starvation (STS) protects normal cells while simultaneously sensitizing malignant cells to high-dose chemotherapeutic drugs in mice and possibly patients. The fasting-dependent protection of normal cells and sensitization of malignant cells depends, in part, on reduced levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and glucose. Calorie restricted diets with defined macronutrient (carbohydrate, protein, fat) ratios were evaluated for the effects on stress sensitization markers and protection in mice treated with high-dose chemotherapy. We show that short-term CR significantly reduced both glucose and IGF-1 levels, but when specific macronutrient deficiencies were tested, only the complete lack of proteins reduced IGF-1 levels. Short-term 50% CR combined with either severe protein-deficiency or ketogenic diets improved chemotoxicity resistance similarly to the standard 50% CR, but did not result in the high protection caused by STS. Notably, a high protein diet reversed the beneficial effects of short-term CR. In a subcutaneous mouse model of glioma, feeding a low protein (4% calories from protein) diet for more than 20 days did not delay tumor progression once the tumor became palpable. Also, cycles of short-term (3 days) 50% CR did not augment the chemotherapy efficacy of cisplatin in a murine breast cancer model. These results indicate that the protection from chemotoxicity and retardation of the progression of certain tumors achieved with fasting is not obtained with short-term calorie and/or macronutrient restriction. PMID:23454633

  18. Micronutrient deficiency in obese subjects undergoing low calorie diet

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies is higher in obese individuals compared to normal-weight people, probably because of inadequate eating habits but also due to increased demands among overweight persons, which are underestimated by dietary reference intakes (DRI) intended for the general population. We therefore evaluated the dietary micronutrient intake in obese individuals compared to a reference population and DRI recommendations. Furthermore, we determined the micronutrient status in obese subjects undergoing a standardized DRI-covering low-calorie formula diet to analyze if the DRI meet the micronutrient requirements of obese individuals. Methods In 104 subjects baseline micronutrient intake was determined by dietary record collection. A randomly assigned subgroup of subjects (n = 32) underwent a standardized DRI-covering low-calorie formula diet over a period of three months. Pre- and post-interventional intracellular micronutrient status in buccal mucosa cells (BMC) was analyzed, as well as additional micronutrient serum concentrations in 14 of the subjects. Results Prior to dietetic intervention, nutrition was calorie-rich and micronutrient-poor. Baseline deficiencies in serum concentrations were observed for 25-hydroxyvitamin-D, vitamin C, selenium, iron, as well as ß-carotene, vitamin C, and lycopene in BMC. After a three-month period of formula diet even more subjects had reduced micronutrient levels of vitamin C (serum, BMC), zinc, and lycopene. There was a significant negative correlation between lipophilic serum vitamin concentrations and body fat, as well as between iron and C-reactive protein. Conclusions The present pilot study shows that micronutrient deficiency occurring in obese individuals is not corrected by protein-rich formula diet containing vitamins and minerals according to DRI. In contrast, micronutrient levels remain low or become even lower, which might be explained by insufficient intake, increased demand

  19. Low salt and low calorie diet does not reduce more body fat than same calorie diet: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hye Jin; Jun, Dae Won; Lee, Seung Min; Jang, Eun Chul; Cho, Yong Kyun

    2018-02-02

    Recent several observational studies have reported that high salt intake is associated with obesity. But it is unclear whether salt intake itself induce obesity or low salt diet can reduce body fat mass. We investigated whether a low salt diet can reduce body weight and fat amount. The randomized, open-label pilot trial was conducted at a single institution. A total of 85 obese people were enrolled. All participants were served meals three times a day, and provided either a low salt diet or control diet with same calorie. Visceral fat was measured with abdominal computer tomography, while body fat mass and total body water was measured with bio-impedance. Reductions in body weight (-6.3% vs. -5.0%, p = 0.05) and BMI (-6.6% vs. -5.1%, p = 0.03) were greater in the low salt group than in the control group. Extracellular water and total body water were significantly reduced in the low salt group compared to the control group. However, changes in body fat mass, visceral fat area, and skeletal muscle mass did not differ between the two groups. Changes in lipid profile, fasting glucose, and HOMA-IR did not differ between the two groups. A two-month low salt diet was accompanied by reduction of body mass index. However, the observed decrease of body weight was caused by reduction of total body water, not by reduction of body fat mass or visceral fat mass.

  20. Exercise Training and Calorie Restriction Influence the Metabolic Parameters in Ovariectomized Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Pósa, Anikó; Kupai, Krisztina; Szalai, Zita; Veszelka, Médea; Török, Szilvia; Varga, Csaba

    2015-01-01

    The estrogen deficiency after menopause leads to overweight or obesity, and physical exercise is one of the important modulators of this body weight gain. Female Wistar rats underwent ovariectomy surgery (OVX) or sham operation (SO). OVX and SO groups were randomized into new groups based on the voluntary physical activity (with or without running) and the type of diet for 12 weeks. Rats were fed standard chow (CTRL), high triglyceride diet (HT), or restricted diet (CR). The metabolic syndrome was assessed by measuring the body weight gain, the glucose sensitivity, and the levels of insulin, triglyceride, leptin, and aspartate aminotransferase transaminase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). The exercise training combined with the CR resulted in improvements in the glucose tolerance and the insulin sensitivity. Plasma TG, AST, and ALT levels were significantly higher in OVX rats fed with HT but these high values were suppressed by exercise and CR. Compared to SO animals, estrogen deprivation with HT caused a significant increase in leptin level. Our data provide evidence that CR combined with voluntary physical exercise can be a very effective strategy to prevent the development of a metabolic syndrome induced by high calorie diet. PMID:25874022

  1. Calorie-induced ER stress suppresses uroguanylin satiety signaling in diet-induced obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, G W; Lin, J E; Snook, A E; Aing, A S; Merlino, D J; Li, P; Waldman, S A

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: The uroguanylin-GUCY2C gut–brain axis has emerged as one component regulating feeding, energy homeostasis, body mass and metabolism. Here, we explore a role for this axis in mechanisms underlying diet-induced obesity (DIO). Subjects/Methods: Intestinal uroguanylin expression and secretion, and hypothalamic GUCY2C expression and anorexigenic signaling, were quantified in mice on high-calorie diets for 14 weeks. The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in suppressing uroguanylin in DIO was explored using tunicamycin, an inducer of ER stress, and tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a chemical chaperone that inhibits ER stress. The impact of consumed calories on uroguanylin expression was explored by dietary manipulation. The role of uroguanylin in mechanisms underlying obesity was examined using Camk2a-Cre-ERT2-Rosa-STOPloxP/loxP-Guca2b mice in which tamoxifen induces transgenic hormone expression in brain. Results: DIO suppressed intestinal uroguanylin expression and eliminated its postprandial secretion into the circulation. DIO suppressed uroguanylin through ER stress, an effect mimicked by tunicamycin and blocked by TUDCA. Hormone suppression by DIO reflected consumed calories, rather than the pathophysiological milieu of obesity, as a diet high in calories from carbohydrates suppressed uroguanylin in lean mice, whereas calorie restriction restored uroguanylin in obese mice. However, hypothalamic GUCY2C, enriched in the arcuate nucleus, produced anorexigenic signals mediating satiety upon exogenous agonist administration, and DIO did not impair these responses. Uroguanylin replacement by transgenic expression in brain repaired the hormone insufficiency and reconstituted satiety responses opposing DIO and its associated comorbidities, including visceral adiposity, glucose intolerance and hepatic steatosis. Conclusions: These studies reveal a novel pathophysiological mechanism contributing to obesity in which calorie-induced suppression

  2. Approaches for quantifying energy intake and %calorie restriction during calorie restriction interventions in humans: the multicenter CALERIE study

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sai Krupa; Bhapkar, Manjushri; Hadley, Evan C.; Roberts, Susan B.; Ravussin, Eric; Pieper, Carl; DeLany, James P.; Kraus, William E.; Rochon, James; Redman, Leanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is a component of most weight loss interventions and a potential strategy to slow aging. Accurate determination of energy intake and %CR is critical when interpreting the results of CR interventions; this is most accurately achieved using the doubly labeled water method to quantify total energy expenditure (TEE). However, the costs and analytical requirements of this method preclude its repeated use in many clinical trials. Our aims were to determine 1) the optimal TEE assessment time points for quantifying average energy intake and %CR during long-term CR interventions and 2) the optimal approach for quantifying short-term changes in body energy stores to determine energy intake and %CR during 2-wk DLW periods. Adults randomized to a CR intervention in the multicenter CALERIE study underwent measurements of TEE by doubly labeled water and body composition at baseline and months 1, 3, and 6. Average %CR achieved during the intervention was 24.9 ± 8.7%, which was computed using an approach that included four TEE assessment time points (i.e., TEEbaseline, months 1, 3, and 6) plus the 6-mo change in body composition. Approaches that included fewer TEE assessments yielded %CR values of 23.4 ± 9.0 (TEEbaseline, months 3 and 6), 25.0 ± 8.7 (TEEbaseline, months 1 and 6), and 20.9 ± 7.1% (TEEbaseline, month 6); the latter approach differed significantly from approach 1 (P < 0.001). TEE declined 9.6 ± 9.9% within 2–4 wk of CR beginning and then stabilized. Regression of daily home weights provided the most reliable estimate of short-term change in energy stores. In summary, optimal quantification of energy intake and %CR during weight loss necessitates a TEE measurement within the first month of CR to capture the rapid reduction in TEE. PMID:22127229

  3. Approaches for quantifying energy intake and %calorie restriction during calorie restriction interventions in humans: the multicenter CALERIE study.

    PubMed

    Racette, Susan B; Das, Sai Krupa; Bhapkar, Manjushri; Hadley, Evan C; Roberts, Susan B; Ravussin, Eric; Pieper, Carl; DeLany, James P; Kraus, William E; Rochon, James; Redman, Leanne M

    2012-02-15

    Calorie restriction (CR) is a component of most weight loss interventions and a potential strategy to slow aging. Accurate determination of energy intake and %CR is critical when interpreting the results of CR interventions; this is most accurately achieved using the doubly labeled water method to quantify total energy expenditure (TEE). However, the costs and analytical requirements of this method preclude its repeated use in many clinical trials. Our aims were to determine 1) the optimal TEE assessment time points for quantifying average energy intake and %CR during long-term CR interventions and 2) the optimal approach for quantifying short-term changes in body energy stores to determine energy intake and %CR during 2-wk DLW periods. Adults randomized to a CR intervention in the multicenter CALERIE study underwent measurements of TEE by doubly labeled water and body composition at baseline and months 1, 3, and 6. Average %CR achieved during the intervention was 24.9 ± 8.7%, which was computed using an approach that included four TEE assessment time points (i.e., TEE(baseline, months 1, 3, and 6)) plus the 6-mo change in body composition. Approaches that included fewer TEE assessments yielded %CR values of 23.4 ± 9.0 (TEE(baseline,) months 3 and 6), 25.0 ± 8.7 (TEE(baseline,) months 1 and 6), and 20.9 ± 7.1% (TEE(baseline, month 6)); the latter approach differed significantly from approach 1 (P < 0.001). TEE declined 9.6 ± 9.9% within 2-4 wk of CR beginning and then stabilized. Regression of daily home weights provided the most reliable estimate of short-term change in energy stores. In summary, optimal quantification of energy intake and %CR during weight loss necessitates a TEE measurement within the first month of CR to capture the rapid reduction in TEE.

  4. Calorie restriction in overweight older adults: Do benefits exceed potential risks?

    PubMed

    Locher, Julie L; Goldsby, TaShauna U; Goss, Amy M; Kilgore, Meredith L; Gower, Barbara; Ard, Jamy D

    2016-12-15

    The evidence regarding recommendations of calorie restriction as part of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention to promote weight loss in obese older adults has remained equivocal for more than a decade. The older adult population is the fastest growing segment of the US population and a greater proportion of them are entering old age obese. These older adults require treatments based on solid evidence. Therefore the purpose of this review is three-fold: 1) to provide a more current status of the knowledge regarding recommendations of calorie restriction as part of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention to promote weight loss in obese older adults, 2) to determine what benefits and/or risks calorie restriction adds to exercise interventions in obese older adults, and 3) to consider not only outcomes related to changes in body composition, bone health, cardiometabolic disease risk, markers of inflammation, and physical function, but, also patient-centered outcomes that evaluate changes in cognitive status, quality of life, out-of-pocket costs, and mortality. Seven randomized controlled trials were identified that examined calorie restriction while controlling for exercise intervention effects. Overall, the studies found that calorie restriction combined with exercise is effective for weight loss. Evidence was mixed regarding other outcomes. The risk-benefit ratio regarding calorie restriction in older adults remains uncertain. Greater long-term follow-up is necessary, and complementary effectiveness studies are needed to identify strategies currently used by obese older adults in community settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Orexin signaling mediates the antidepressant-like effect of calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    Lutter, Michael; Krishnan, Vaishnav; Russo, Scott J; Jung, Saendy; McClung, Colleen A; Nestler, Eric J

    2008-03-19

    During periods of reduced food availability, animals must respond with behavioral adaptations that promote survival. Despite the fact that many psychiatric syndromes include disordered eating patterns as a component of the illness, little is known about the neurobiology underlying behavioral changes induced by short-term calorie restriction. Presently, we demonstrate that 10 d of calorie restriction, corresponding to a 20-25% weight loss, causes a marked antidepressant-like response in two rodent models of depression and that this response is dependent on the hypothalamic neuropeptide orexin (hypocretin). Wild-type mice, but not mice lacking orexin, show longer latency to immobility and less total immobility in the forced swim test after calorie restriction. In the social defeat model of chronic stress, calorie restriction reverses the behavioral deficits seen in wild-type mice but not in orexin knock-out mice. Additionally, chronic social defeat stress induces a prolonged reduction in the expression of prepro-orexin mRNA via epigenetic modification of the orexin gene promoter, whereas calorie restriction enhances the activation of orexin cells after social defeat. Together, these data indicate that orexin plays an essential role in mediating reduced depression-like symptoms induced by calorie restriction.

  6. Short-Term Preoperative Calorie and Protein Restriction Is Feasible in Healthy Kidney Donors and Morbidly Obese Patients Scheduled for Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jongbloed, Franny; de Bruin, Ron W. F.; Klaassen, René A.; Beekhof, Piet; van Steeg, Harry; Dor, Frank J. M. F.; van der Harst, Erwin; Dollé, Martijn E. T.; IJzermans, Jan N. M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Surgery-induced oxidative stress increases the risk of perioperative complications and delay in postoperative recovery. In mice, short-term preoperative dietary and protein restriction protect against oxidative stress. We investigated the feasibility of a calorie- and protein-restricted diet in two patient populations. Methods. In this pilot study, 30 live kidney donors and 38 morbidly obese patients awaiting surgery were randomized into three groups: a restricted diet group, who received a synthetic liquid diet with 30% fewer calories and 80% less protein for five consecutive days; a group who received a synthetic diet containing the daily energy requirements (DER); and a control group. Feasibility was assessed using self-reported discomfort, body weight changes, and metabolic parameters in blood samples. Results. Twenty patients (71%) complied with the restricted and 13 (65%) with the DER-diet. In total, 68% of the patients reported minor discomfort that resolved after normal eating resumed. The mean weight loss on the restricted diet was significantly greater (2.4 kg) than in the control group (0 kg, p = 0.002), but not in the DER-diet (1.5 kg). The restricted diet significantly reduced levels of serum urea and plasma prealbumin (PAB) and retinol binding protein (RBP). Conclusions. A short-term preoperative calorie- and protein-restricted diet is feasible in kidney donors and morbidly obese patients. Compliance is high and can be objectively measured via changes in urea, PAB, and RBP levels. These results demonstrate that this diet can be used to study the effects of dietary restriction on surgery-induced oxidative stress in a clinical setting. PMID:27213441

  7. Beneficial effect of low carbohydrate in low calorie diets on visceral fat reduction in type 2 diabetic patients with obesity.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Yoh; Koide, Nobukiyo; Ohtsuka, Masaki; Ozaki, Hiroshi; Itoh, Yoshiaki; Oyama, Tomokazu; Uetake, Takako; Ariga, Kiyoko; Shirai, Kohji

    2004-09-01

    The adequate composition of carbohydrate and fat in low calorie diets for type 2 diabetes mellitus patients with obesity is not fully established. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low carbohydrate diet on glucose and lipid metabolism, especially on visceral fat accumulation, and comparing that of a high carbohydrate diet. Obese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly assigned to take a low calorie and low carbohydrate diet (n = 11, 1000 kcal per day, protein:carbohydrate:fat = 25:40:35) or a low calorie and high carbohydrate diet (n = 11, 1000 kcal per day, protein:carbohydrate:fat = 25:65:10) for 4 weeks. Similar decreases in body weight and serum glucose levels were observed in both groups. Fasting serum insulin levels were reduced in the low carbohydrate diet group compared to the high carbohydrate diet group (-30% versus -10%, P < 0.05). Total serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels decreased in both groups, but were not significantly different from each other. High-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) increased in the low carbohydrate diet group but not in the high carbohydrate diet group (+15% versus 0%, P < 0.01). There was a larger decrease in visceral fat area measured by computed tomography in the low carbohydrate diet group compared to the high carbohydrate diet group (-40 cm(2) versus -10 cm(2), P < 0.05). The ratio of visceral fat area to subcutaneous fat area did not change in the high carbohydrate diet group (from 0.70 to 0.68), but it decreased significantly in the low carbohydrate diet group (from 0.69 to 0.47, P < 0.005). These results suggest that, when restrict diet was made isocaloric, a low calorie/low carbohydrate diet might be more effective treatment for a reduction of visceral fat, improved insulin sensitivity and increased in HDL-C levels than low calorie/high carbohydrate diet in obese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  8. Minimization of Food Cost on 2000-Calorie Diabetic Diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia, J. D.; Mercado, J.; Tampis, R. L.

    2017-03-01

    This study focuses on minimization of food cost that satisfies the daily nutrients required based on 2000-calorie diet for a diabetic person. This paper attempts to provide a food combination that satisfies the daily nutrient requirements of a diabetic person and its lowest possible dietary food cost. A linear programming diet model is used to determine the cheapest combination of food items that satisfy the recommended daily nutritional requirements of the diabetic persons. According to the findings, a 50 year old and above diabetic male need to spend a minimum of 72.22 pesos for foods that satisfy the daily nutrients they need. In order to attain the minimum spending, the foods must consist of 60.49 grams of anchovy, 91.24 grams of carrot, 121.92 grams of durian, 121.41 grams of chicken egg, 70.82 grams of pork (lean), and 369.70 grams of rice (well-milled). For a 50 year old and above diabetic female, the minimum spending is 64.65 pesos per day and the food must consist of 75.87 grams of anchovy, 43.38 grams of carrot, 160.46 grams of durian, 69.66 grams of chicken egg, 23.16 grams of pork (lean) and 416.19 grams of rice (well-milled).

  9. Intermittent fasting vs daily calorie restriction for type 2 diabetes prevention: a review of human findings.

    PubMed

    Barnosky, Adrienne R; Hoddy, Kristin K; Unterman, Terry G; Varady, Krista A

    2014-10-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF) regimens have gained considerable popularity in recent years, as some people find these diets easier to follow than traditional calorie restriction (CR) approaches. IF involves restricting energy intake on 1-3 d/wk, and eating freely on the nonrestriction days. Alternate day fasting (ADF) is a subclass of IF, which consists of a "fast day" (75% energy restriction) alternating with a "feed day" (ad libitum food consumption). Recent findings suggest that IF and ADF are equally as effective as CR for weight loss and cardioprotection. What remains unclear, however, is whether IF/ADF elicits comparable improvements in diabetes risk indicators, when compared with CR. Accordingly, the goal of this review was to compare the effects of IF and ADF with daily CR on body weight, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese adults. Results reveal superior decreases in body weight by CR vs IF/ADF regimens, yet comparable reductions in visceral fat mass, fasting insulin, and insulin resistance. None of the interventions produced clinically meaningful reductions in glucose concentrations. Taken together, these preliminary findings show promise for the use of IF and ADF as alternatives to CR for weight loss and type 2 diabetes risk reduction in overweight and obese populations, but more research is required before solid conclusions can be reached. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Intermittent calorie restriction enhances epithelial-mesenchymal transition through the alteration of energy metabolism in a mouse tumor model

    PubMed Central

    Kusuoka, Osamu; Fujiwara-Tani, Rina; Nakashima, Chie; Fujii, Kiyomu; Ohmori, Hitoshi; Mori, Takuya; Kishi, Shingo; Miyagawa, Yoshihiro; Goto, Kei; Kawahara, Isao; Kuniyasu, Hiroki

    2018-01-01

    The effect of intermittent calorie restriction (ICR) on cancer is controversial. In this study, we examined the effects of ICR and food content in syngeneic BALB/c mice injected with CT26 mouse colon cancer cells. Mice were subjected to 24-h fasting once a week for 4 weeks, and then provided with a control, high-calorie, or trans fatty acid-rich diet. While ICR resulted in increases in tumor weights, metastasis and in the number of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in the tumors or blood of mice fed the control and high-fat diets, it had no effect on body weight after 4 weeks. In particular, we detected increases in the numbers of CSCs in the tumor or blood on the day after starvation, when food overconsumption was detected. Conversely, continuous calorie restriction had no effect on tumor weight, metastasis, or the number of CSCs in tumors or blood. In the post-starvation period, energy metabolism in the tumor was altered from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis/lactate fermentation, with the acquisition of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype. Hyperglycemia at the post-starvation period induced the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1, hypoxia-induced factor-1α and Nanog, as well as the phosphorylation of Stat3. Taken together, these findings suggest that ICR induces an increase in the number of CSCs and enhances EMT by promoting the Warburg/Crabtree effect following post-fasting food overconsumption. PMID:29345287

  11. Prolonged calorie restriction downregulates skeletal muscle mTORC1 signaling independent of dietary protein intake and associated microRNA expression

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Short-term (5-10 days) calorie restriction (CR) downregulates muscle protein synthesis, with consumption of a high protein-based diet attenuating this decline. Benefit of increase protein intake is believed to be due to maintenance of amino acid-mediated anabolic signaling through the mechanistic ta...

  12. Calorie restriction attenuates cardiac remodeling and diastolic dysfunction in a rat model of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Takatsu, Miwa; Nakashima, Chieko; Takahashi, Keiji; Murase, Tamayo; Hattori, Takuya; Ito, Hiromi; Murohara, Toyoaki; Nagata, Kohzo

    2013-11-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) can modulate the features of obesity-related metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. We have recently characterized DahlS.Z-Lepr(fa)/Lepr(fa) (DS/obese) rats, derived from a cross between Dahl salt-sensitive and Zucker rats, as a new animal model of metabolic syndrome. DS/obese rats develop hypertension and manifest left ventricular remodeling and diastolic dysfunction, as well as increased cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation. We have now investigated the effects of CR on cardiac pathophysiology in DS/obese rats. DS/obese rats were fed either normal laboratory chow ad libitum or a calorie-restricted diet (65% of the average food intake for ad libitum) from 9 to 13 weeks. Age-matched homozygous lean (DahlS.Z-Lepr(+)/Lepr(+) or DS/lean) littermates served as controls. CR reduced body weight in both DS/obese and DS/lean rats, as well as attenuated the development of hypertension in DS/obese rats without affecting blood pressure in DS/lean rats. CR also reduced body fat content, ameliorated left ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis, and diastolic dysfunction, and attenuated cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation in DS/obese rats. In addition, it increased serum adiponectin concentration, as well as downregulated the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensin II type 1A receptor genes in the heart of DS/obese rats. Our results thus show that CR attenuated obesity and hypertension, as well as left ventricular remodeling and diastolic dysfunction in DS/obese rats, with these latter effects being associated with reduced cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation.

  13. Caffeine Treatment Prevented from Weight Regain after Calorie Shifting Diet Induced Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Davoodi, Sayed Hossein; Hajimiresmaiel, Seyed Javad; Ajami, Marjan; Mohseni-Bandpei, Anoushiravan; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Abdulmajid; Dowlatshahi, Kamran; Javedan, Gholamali; Pazoki-Toroudi, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Low calorie diets are always difficult for obese subjects to follow and lead to metabolic and behavioral adaptation. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of caffeine treatment with calorie shifting diet (CSD) on weight loss. Female subjects (n=60; BMI≥25) completed 4-weeks control diet, 6-weeks CSD (3 repeated phases; each 2-weeks) and 4-weeks follow-up diet, with or without caffeine treatment (5 mg/Kg/day). The first 11 days of each phase included calorie restriction with four meals every day and 4 hours intervals. Significant weight and fat loss were observed after 4-weeks of CSD (5.7 ± 1.24 Kg and 4.84 ± 1.53 Kg) or CSD+Caffeine (7.57 ± 2.33 Kg and 5.24 ± 2.07 Kg) which was consistent for one month of the follow-up (CSD: 5.24 ± 1.83 Kg and 4.3 ± 1.62 Kg, CSD+Caffeine: 12.11 ± 2.31 Kg and 9.85 ± 1.6 Kg, p < 0.05 vs CSD group) and correlated to the restricted energy intake (p < 0.05). During three CSD phases, RMR tended to remain unchanged in both groups.While, CSD or CSD + Caffeine treatments, significantly decreased plasma glucose, total-cholesterol, and triacylglycerol (p < 0.05), even during follow-up period (p < 0.05). HDL-cholesterol was not changed by CSD. Feeling of hunger decreased and subject’s satisfaction increased after 4-weeks of CSD (p < 0.05) and remained low to the end of study, while satiety was not affected. Coffeine increased the effect of CSD on feeling of hunger and subject’s satisfaction after week 7 (p < 0.05 vs. CSD). These findings indicated that combination of caffeine treatment with CSD could be an effective alternative approach to weight and fat loss with small changes in RMR and improved tolerance of subjects to the new diet. PMID:25237367

  14. Rapamycin Partially Mimics the Anticancer Effects of Calorie Restriction in a Murine Model of Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lashinger, Laura M.; Malone, Lauren M.; Brown, Graham W.; Daniels, Elizabeth A.; Goldberg, Jason A.; Otto, Glen; Fischer, Susan M.; Hursting, Stephen D.

    2011-01-01

    Etiologic factors for pancreatic cancer, the fourth deadliest malignant neoplasm in the United States, include obesity and abnormal glucose metabolism. Calorie restriction (CR) and rapamycin each affect energy metabolism and cell survival pathways via inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling. Using a Panc02 murine pancreatic cancer cell transplant model in 45 male C57BL/6 mice, we tested the hypothesis that rapamycin mimics the effects of CR on pancreatic tumor growth. A chronic regimen of CR, relative to an ad libitum-fed control diet, produced global metabolic effects such as reduced body weight (20.6±1.6g vs. 29.3±2.3g; p<0.0001), improved glucose responsiveness, and decreased circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 (126±8ng/mL vs. 199±11ng/mL; p=0.0006) and leptin (1.14±0.2 ng/mL vs. 5.05±1.2 ng/mL; p=0.01). In contrast, rapamycin treatment (2.5mg/kg i.p. every other day, initiated in mice following 20 weeks of ad libitum control diet consumption), relative to control diet, produced no significant change in body weight, IGF-1 or leptin levels, but decreased glucose responsiveness. Pancreatic tumor volume was significantly reduced in the CR group (221±107mm3; p<0.001) and, to a lesser extent, the rapamycin group (374±206mm3; p=0.04) relative to controls (550±147mm3), and this differential inhibition correlated with expression of the proliferation marker Ki-67. Both CR and rapamycin decreased phosphorylation of mTOR, p70/S6K and S6 ribosomal protein, but only CR decreased phosphorylation of Akt, GSK-3β, ERK/MAPK, and STAT-3TYR705. These findings suggest rapamycin partially mimics the anticancer effects of calorie restriction on tumor growth in a murine model of pancreatic cancer. PMID:21593197

  15. Effect of calorie restriction on energy expenditure in overweight and obese adult women.

    PubMed

    Jiménez Jaime, Teresa; Leiva Balich, Laura; Barrera Acevedo, Gladys; de la Maza Cave, María Pía; Hirsch Birn, Sandra; Henríquez Parada, Sandra; Rodríguez Silva, Juan; Bunout Barnett, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Energy expenditure (EE) may decrease in subjects on hypocaloric diets, in amounts that exceed body mass loss, favoring weight regain. To verify if a short-term caloric restriction lowers Resting Energy Expenditure (REE) and Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) more than predicted by changes in body composition, and if this reduction of EE is related with compliance to the diet. Twenty-two women aged 23-44 years with a body mass index (BMI) of 25-32 kg/m2, underwent a three-month calorie restriction treatment (20 kcal/kg initial weight) and were encouraged to increase their physical activity. At the beginning and end of the intervention, body composition (DEXA), REE, Physical Activity Energy Expenditure (PAEE) and TEE were assessed, through a combination of indirect calorimetry and actigraphy. Participants, who lost more or equal than 5% of their initial weight were considered compliant with the diet. In the compliant group, REE decreased, when expressed in absolute numbers or when adjusted by fat free mass (FFM) [-164 ± 168 kcal/day (10,6%) and -4,3 ± 4,6 kcal/kg FFM (10,5%)]. This decline was significantly greater than that observed in the non-compliant group [-6,2 ± 1.42 Kcal/day (0.16%) and -0,5 ± 3,4/Kg FFM (0.96%)]. FFM did not change in any of the two groups. At baseline, there was a significant correlation between FFM and REE (r = 0, 56 p < 0,05), which was lost at the end of the intervention. Compliant women showed a significant reduction in both absolute and adjusted REE, which together with the loss of correlation between REE and FFM at the end of the intervention suggests a metabolic adaptation. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  16. Acute effects of exercise and calorie restriction on triglyceride metabolism in women

    PubMed Central

    Bellou, Elena; Siopi, Aikaterina; Galani, Maria; Maraki, Maria; Tsekouras, Yiannis E.; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.; Kavouras, Stavros A.; Magkos, Faidon; Sidossis, Labros S.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms by which exercise reduces fasting plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations in women and the effect of negative energy balance independent of muscular contraction are not known. Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of equivalent energy deficits induced by exercise or calorie restriction on basal very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) TG metabolism in women. Methods Eleven healthy women (age: 23.5±2.7 years, BMI: 21.6±1.4 kg/m2) underwent a stable isotopically labeled tracer infusion study to determine basal VLDL-TG kinetics after performing, in random order, three experimental trials on the previous day: i) a single exercise bout (brisk walking at 60% of peak oxygen consumption for 123±18 min, with a net energy expenditure of 2.06±0.39 MJ (~500 kcal)), ii) dietary energy restriction of 2.10±0.41 MJ, and iii) a control day of isocaloric feeding and rest (zero energy balance). Results Fasting plasma VLDL-TG concentration was ~30% lower after the exercise trial compared to the control trial (P<0.001), whereas no significant change was detected after the calorie restriction trial (P=0.297 vs control). Relative to the control condition, exercise increased the plasma clearance rate of VLDL-TG by 22% (P=0.001) and reduced hepatic VLDL-TG secretion rate by ~17% (P=0.042), whereas hypocaloric diet had no effect on VLDL-TG kinetics (P>0.2). Conclusion (i) Exercise-induced hypotriglyceridemia in women manifests through a different mechanism (increased clearance and decreased secretion of VLDL-TG) than that previously described in men (increased clearance of VLDL-TG only), and (ii) exercise affects TG homeostasis by eliciting changes in VLDL-TG kinetics that cannot be reproduced by an equivalent diet-induced energy deficit, indicating that these changes are independent of the exercise-induced negative energy balance but instead are specific to muscular contraction. PMID:23073216

  17. Acute effects of exercise and calorie restriction on triglyceride metabolism in women.

    PubMed

    Bellou, Elena; Siopi, Aikaterina; Galani, Maria; Maraki, Maria; Tsekouras, Yiannis E; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Kavouras, Stavros A; Magkos, Faidon; Sidossis, Labros S

    2013-03-01

    The mechanisms by which exercise reduces fasting plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations in women and the effect of negative energy balance independent of muscular contraction are not known.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of equivalent energy deficits induced by exercise or calorie restriction on basal VLDL-TG metabolism in women. Eleven healthy women (age = 23.5 ± 2.7 yr, body mass index = 21.6 ± 1.4 kg·m-2; mean ± SD) underwent a stable isotopically labeled tracer infusion study to determine basal VLDL-TG kinetics after performing, in random order, three experimental trials on the previous day: (i) a single exercise bout (brisk walking at 60% of peak oxygen consumption for 123 ± 18 min, with a net energy expenditure of 2.06 ± 0.39 MJ, ∼500 kcal), (ii) dietary energy restriction of 2.10 ± 0.41 MJ, and (iii) a control day of isocaloric feeding and rest (zero energy balance). Fasting plasma VLDL-TG concentration was approximately 30% lower after the exercise trial compared with the control trial (P < 0.001), whereas no significant change was detected after the calorie restriction trial (P = 0.297 vs control). Relative to the control condition, exercise increased the plasma clearance rate of VLDL-TG by 22% (P = 0.001) and reduced hepatic VLDL-TG secretion rate by approximately 17% (P = 0.042), whereas hypocaloric diet had no effect on VLDL-TG kinetics (P > 0.2). (i) Exercise-induced hypotriglyceridemia in women manifests through a different mechanism (increased clearance and decreased secretion of VLDL-TG) than that previously described in men (increased clearance of VLDL-TG only), and (ii) exercise affects TG homeostasis by eliciting changes in VLDL-TG kinetics that cannot be reproduced by an equivalent diet-induced energy deficit, indicating that these changes are independent of the exercise-induced negative energy balance but instead are specific to muscular contraction.

  18. Superimposition of postnatal calorie restriction protects the aging male intrauterine growth- restricted offspring from metabolic maladaptations.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yun; Thamotharan, Shanthie; Garg, Meena; Shin, Bo-Chul; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2012-09-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) results in dysregulated glucose homeostasis and adiposity in the adult. We hypothesized that with aging, these perturbations will wane, and superimposition of postnatal growth restriction (PNGR) on IUGR [intrauterine and postnatal growth restriction (IPGR)] will reverse the residual IUGR phenotype. We therefore undertook hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, energy balance, and physical activity studies during fed, fasted, and refed states, in light and dark cycles, on postweaned chow diet-fed more than 17-month aging male IUGR, PNGR, and IPGR vs. control (CON) rat offspring. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp revealed similar whole-body insulin sensitivity and physical activity in the nonobese IUGR vs. CON, despite reduced heat production and energy expenditure. Compared with CON and IUGR, IPGR mimicking PNGR was lean and growth restricted with increased physical activity, O(2) consumption (VO(2)), energy intake, and expenditure. Although insulin sensitivity was no different in IPGR and PNGR, skeletal muscle insulin-induced glucose uptake was enhanced. This presentation proved protective against the chronologically earlier (5.5 months) development of obesity and dysregulated energy homeostasis after 19 wk on a postweaned high-fat diet. This protective role of PNGR on the metabolic IUGR phenotype needs future fine tuning aimed at minimizing unintended consequences.

  19. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: I. impact of short term calorie and protein restriction on body composition in the C57BL/6 mouse.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Sharon E; Tang, Zhanhui; Kerbois, Celine; Delville, Camille; Konstantopedos, Penelope; Bruel, Aurélie; Derous, Davina; Green, Cara; Aspden, Richard M; Goodyear, Simon R; Chen, Luonan; Han, Jackie J D; Wang, Yingchun; Promislow, Daniel E L; Lusseau, David; Douglas, Alex; Speakman, John R

    2015-06-30

    Faced with reduced levels of food, animals must adjust to the consequences of the shortfall in energy. We explored how C57BL/6 mice withdrew energy from different body tissues during three months of food restriction at graded levels up to 40% (calorie restriction: CR). We compared this to the response to equivalent levels of protein restriction (PR) without a shortfall in calories. Under CR there was a dynamic change in body mass over 30 days and thereafter it stabilized. The time to reach stability was independent of the level of restriction. At the end of three months whole body dissections revealed differential utilization of the different tissues. Adipose tissue depots were the most significantly utilized tissue, and provided 55.8 to 60.9% of the total released energy. In comparison, reductions in the sizes of structural tissues contributed between 29.8 and 38.7% of the energy. The balance was made up by relatively small changes in the vital organs. The components of the alimentary tract grew slightly under restriction, particularly the stomach, and this was associated with a parallel increase in assimilation efficiency of the food (averaging 1.73%). None of the changes under CR were recapitulated by equivalent levels of PR.

  20. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: I. impact of short term calorie and protein restriction on body composition in the C57BL/6 mouse

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Sharon E.; Tang, Zhanhui; Kerbois, Celine; Delville, Camille; Konstantopedos, Penelope; Bruel, Aurélie; Derous, Davina; Green, Cara; Aspden, Richard M.; Goodyear, Simon R.; Chen, Luonan; Han, Jackie J.D.; Wang, Yingchun; Promislow, Daniel E.L.; Lusseau, David; Douglas, Alex; Speakman, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Faced with reduced levels of food, animals must adjust to the consequences of the shortfall in energy. We explored how C57BL/6 mice withdrew energy from different body tissues during three months of food restriction at graded levels up to 40% (calorie restriction: CR). We compared this to the response to equivalent levels of protein restriction (PR) without a shortfall in calories. Under CR there was a dynamic change in body mass over 30 days and thereafter it stabilized. The time to reach stability was independent of the level of restriction. At the end of three months whole body dissections revealed differential utilization of the different tissues. Adipose tissue depots were the most significantly utilized tissue, and provided 55.8 to 60.9% of the total released energy. In comparison, reductions in the sizes of structural tissues contributed between 29.8 and 38.7% of the energy. The balance was made up by relatively small changes in the vital organs. The components of the alimentary tract grew slightly under restriction, particularly the stomach, and this was associated with a parallel increase in assimilation efficiency of the food (averaging 1.73%). None of the changes under CR were recapitulated by equivalent levels of PR. PMID:26079539

  1. The effects of intermittent calorie restriction on metabolic health: Rationale and study design of the HELENA Trial.

    PubMed

    Schübel, Ruth; Graf, Mirja E; Nattenmüller, Johanna; Nabers, Diana; Sookthai, Disorn; Gruner, Laura F; Johnson, Theron; Schlett, Christopher L; von Stackelberg, Oyunbileg; Kirsten, Romy; Habermann, Nina; Kratz, Mario; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kühn, Tilman

    2016-11-01

    Mechanistic studies suggest benefits of intermittent calorie restriction (ICR) in chronic disease prevention that may exceed those of continuous calorie restriction (CCR), even at equal net calorie intake. Despite promising results from first trials, it remains largely unknown whether ICR-induced metabolic alterations reported from experimental studies can also be observed in humans, and whether ICR diets are practicable and effective in real life situations. Thus, we initiated the HELENA Trial to test the effects of ICR (eu-caloric diet on five days and very low energy intake on two days per week) on metabolic parameters and body composition over one year. We will assess the effectiveness of ICR compared to CCR and a control diet over a 12-week intervention, 12-week maintenance phase and 24-week follow-up in 150 overweight or obese non-smoking adults (50 per group, 50% women). Our primary endpoint is the difference between ICR and CCR with respect to fold-changes in expression levels of 82 candidate genes in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies (SATb) during the intervention phase. The candidate genes represent pathways, which may link obesity-related metabolic alterations with the risk for major chronic diseases. In secondary and exploratory analyses, changes in metabolic, hormonal, inflammatory and metagenomic parameters measured in different biospecimens (SATb, blood, urine, stool) are investigated and effects of ICR/CCR/control on imaging-based measures of subcutaneous, visceral and hepatic fat are evaluated. Our study is the first randomized trial over one year testing the effects of ICR on metabolism, body composition and psychosocial factors in humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A high-protein low-fat diet is more effective in improving blood pressure and triglycerides in calorie-restricted obese individuals with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Papakonstantinou, E; Triantafillidou, D; Panagiotakos, D B; Koutsovasilis, A; Saliaris, M; Manolis, A; Melidonis, A; Zampelas, A

    2010-06-01

    There is controversy over dietary protein's effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors in diabetic subjects. It is unclear whether observed effects are due to increased protein or reduced carbohydrate content of the consumed diets. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two diets differing in protein to fat ratios on cardiovascular disease risk factors. A total of 17 obese (body mass index (BMI) ranging from 31 to 45 kg/m(2)) volunteers with type 2 diabetes (DM2), aged 46+/-3 years, consumed two diets, each for 4 weeks, with 3 weeks of washout period in a random, blind, crossover design. The diets were: (1) a high-protein low-fat diet (HP-LF, with 30% protein, 50% carbohydrates and 20% fat) and (2) a low-protein high-fat diet (LP-HF, with 15% protein, 50% carbohydrates and 35% fat). Their effects on fasting glycemic control, lipid levels and blood pressure, and on postprandial glucose and insulin responses after a standard test meal at the beginning and end of each dietary intervention were analyzed. Both diets were equally effective in promoting weight loss and fat loss and in improving fasting glycemic control, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, but the HP-LF diet decreased to a greater extent triglyceride (TG) levels (P=0.04) when compared with the LP-HF diet. HP-LF diet improved significantly both systolic and diastolic blood pressure when compared with the LP-HF diet (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). No differences were observed in postprandial glucose and insulin responses. A protein to fat ratio of 1.5 in diets significantly improves blood pressure and TG concentrations in obese individuals with DM2.

  3. Identification of genes differentially expressed by calorie restriction in the rotifer (Brachionus plicatilis).

    PubMed

    Oo, Aung Kyaw Swar; Kaneko, Gen; Hirayama, Makoto; Kinoshita, Shigeharu; Watabe, Shugo

    2010-01-01

    A monogonont rotifer Brachionus plicatilis has been widely used as a model organism for physiological, ecological studies and for ecotoxicology. Because of the availability of parthenogenetic mode of reproduction as well as its versatility to be used as live food in aquaculture, the population dynamic studies using the rotifer have become more important and acquired the priority over those using other species. Although many studies have been conducted to identify environmental factors that influence rotifer populations, the molecular mechanisms involved still remain to be elucidated. In this study, gene(s) differentially expressed by calorie restriction in the rotifer was analyzed, where a calorie-restricted group was fed 3 h day(-1) and a well-fed group fed ad libitum. A subtracted cDNA library from the calorie-restricted rotifer was constructed using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). One hundred sixty-three expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified, which included 109 putative genes with a high identity to known genes in the publicly available database as well as 54 unknown ESTs. After assembling, a total of 38 different genes were obtained among 109 ESTs. Further validation of expression by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-PCR showed that 29 out of the 38 genes obtained by SSH were up regulated by calorie restriction.

  4. Calorie Restriction on Drinking Days: An Examination of Drinking Consequences among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giles, Steven M.; Champion, Heather; Sutfin, Erin L.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Wagoner, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the association between restricting calories on intended drinking days and drunkenness frequency and alcohol-related consequences among college students. Participants: Participants included a random sample of 4,271 undergraduate college students from 10 universities. Methods: Students completed a Web-based survey…

  5. Drunkorexia: Calorie Restriction Prior to Alcohol Consumption among College Freshman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Sloane C.; Cremeens, Jennifer; Vail-Smith, Karen; Woolsey, Conrad

    2010-01-01

    Using a sample of 692 freshmen at a southeastern university, this study examined caloric restriction among students prior to planned alcohol consumption. Participants were surveyed for self-reported alcohol consumption, binge drinking, and caloric intake habits prior to drinking episodes. Results indicated that 99 of 695 (14%) of first year…

  6. The ketogenic diet: initiation at goal calories versus gradual caloric advancement.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Seema; Cramp, Laura; Blalock, Dan; Zelleke, Tesfaye; Carpenter, Jessica; Kao, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Inpatient initiation of the ketogenic diet has historically involved fasting followed by gradual advancement of calories and/or diet ratio. Complications during this initiation period are common. We sought to determine if the initiation of the diet at goal calories would reduce these complications while maintaining efficacy. Sixty patients were admitted to a tertiary care hospital for elective initiation of the ketogenic diet between October 2007 and January 2013. All patients were placed on a ketogenic diet initiation pathway. In 2010, the pathway was modified from gradual caloric advancement to initiation at goal calories. We selected 30 consecutive patients before and after the change for comparison. Each child's record was reviewed for the occurrence of hypoglycemia, number of days to reach full ketosis (defined as 4 + urine ketones), acidosis requiring commencement of sodium citrate, length of admission, and long-term efficacy. Both methods of initiation had similar rates of dehydration, vomiting, lethargy, and irritability. More patients initiated at goal received sodium citrate (P = 0.005); however, mean daily values of carbon dioxide were not significantly different. Onset of ketosis was slightly delayed (P = 0.009) in patients initiated at goal, but length of stay was not affected (P > 0.1). Hypoglycemia was uncommon and rates were similar between the groups. Efficacy at 3 months was better in patients initiated at full calories (P < 0.05). Initiation of the ketogenic diet full calories is a reasonable alternative to the current standard practice of gradual advancement of calories and/or diet ratio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Food Companies’ Calorie-Reduction Pledges to Improve U.S. Diet

    PubMed Central

    Slining, Meghan M.; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M.

    2013-01-01

    Heretofore, corporate voluntary pledges to improve the health of Americans have been linked neither to explicit measurable commitments nor to a framework for an independent evaluation. The Healthy Weight Commitment Foundation (HWCF), whose members include 16 of the nation’s leading consumer packaged goods food and beverage manufacturers, voluntarily pledged to collectively remove 1 trillion calories from their products by 2012 (against a 2007 baseline), and 1.5 trillion calories by 2015. The pledge is designed to reduce the calorie gap commensurate with the HWCF companies’ role in the U.S. diet. To date, no system exists for documenting the nutritional and public health impacts of industry-led changes in the food supply on individual diets. The current study represents a unique opportunity to understand how the consumer packaged goods food and beverage sector is changing and how these changes are associated with changes in the American diet. It presents data on national caloric sales from this sector, purchases of these goods by various subpopulations, and methods linking these to individual intakes of Americans. Findings show that HWCF companies accounted for approximately 25% of calories consumed in the U.S. in 2007 and that the 1.5 trillion–calorie pledge (about 14 calories/day/capita) accounts for 0.8% of the calories sold across all consumer packaged goods food and beverage brands in 2007. The authors hope that this evaluation will continue to create models and methods for demonstrating the effects of changes in the food supply on individual diets, particularly among those from vulnerable subpopulations. PMID:23332336

  8. Food companies' calorie-reduction pledges to improve U.S. diet.

    PubMed

    Slining, Meghan M; Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M

    2013-02-01

    Heretofore, corporate voluntary pledges to improve the health of Americans have been linked neither to explicit measurable commitments nor to a framework for an independent evaluation. The Healthy Weight Commitment Foundation (HWCF), whose members include 16 of the nation's leading consumer packaged goods food and beverage manufacturers, voluntarily pledged to collectively remove 1 trillion calories from their products by 2012 (against a 2007 baseline), and 1.5 trillion calories by 2015. The pledge is designed to reduce the calorie gap commensurate with the HWCF companies' role in the U.S. diet. To date, no system exists for documenting the nutritional and public health impacts of industry-led changes in the food supply on individual diets. The current study represents a unique opportunity to understand how the consumer packaged goods food and beverage sector is changing and how these changes are associated with changes in the American diet. It presents data on national caloric sales from this sector, purchases of these goods by various subpopulations, and methods linking these to individual intakes of Americans. Findings show that HWCF companies accounted for approximately 25% of calories consumed in the U.S. in 2007 and that the 1.5 trillion-calorie pledge (about 14 calories/day/capita) accounts for 0.8% of the calories sold across all consumer packaged goods food and beverage brands in 2007. The authors hope that this evaluation will continue to create models and methods for demonstrating the effects of changes in the food supply on individual diets, particularly among those from vulnerable subpopulations. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Modeling insulin resistance in rodents by alterations in diet: what have high-fat and high-calorie diets revealed?

    PubMed

    Small, Lewin; Brandon, Amanda E; Turner, Nigel; Cooney, Gregory J

    2018-03-01

    For over half a century, researchers have been feeding different diets to rodents to examine the effects of macronutrients on whole body and tissue insulin action. During this period, the number of different diets and the source of macronutrients employed have grown dramatically. Because of the large heterogeneity in both the source and percentage of different macronutrients used for studies, it is not surprising that different high-calorie diets do not produce the same changes in insulin action. Despite this, diverse high-calorie diets continue to be employed in an attempt to generate a "generic" insulin resistance. The high-fat diet in particular varies greatly between studies with regard to the source, complexity, and ratio of dietary fat, carbohydrate, and protein. This review examines the range of rodent dietary models and methods for assessing insulin action. In almost all studies reviewed, rodents fed diets that had more than 45% of dietary energy as fat or simple carbohydrates had reduced whole body insulin action compared with chow. However, different high-calorie diets produced significantly different effects in liver, muscle, and whole body insulin action when insulin action was measured by the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp method. Rodent dietary models remain an important tool for exploring potential mechanisms of insulin resistance, but more attention needs to be given to the total macronutrient content and composition when interpreting dietary effects on insulin action.

  10. Circadian clocks govern calorie restriction-mediated life span extension through BMAL1- and IGF-1-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sonal A; Chaudhari, Amol; Gupta, Richa; Velingkaar, Nikkhil; Kondratov, Roman V

    2016-04-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) increases longevity in many species by unknown mechanisms. The circadian clock was proposed as a potential mediator of CR. Deficiency of the core component of the circadian clock-transcriptional factor BMAL1 (brain and muscle ARNT [aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator]-like protein 1)-results in accelerated aging. Here we investigated the role of BMAL1 in mechanisms of CR. The 30% CR diet increased the life span of wild-type (WT) mice by 20% compared to mice on anad libitum(AL) diet but failed to increase life span ofBmal1(-/-)mice. BMAL1 deficiency impaired CR-mediated changes in the plasma levels of IGF-1 and insulin. We detected a statistically significantly reduction of IGF-1 in CRvs.AL by 50 to 70% in WT mice at several daily time points tested, while inBmal1(-/-)the reduction was not significant. Insulin levels in WT were reduced by 5 to 9%, whileBmal1(-/-)induced it by 10 to 35% at all time points tested. CR up-regulated the daily average expression ofBmal1(by 150%) and its downstream target genesPeriods(by 470% forPer1and by 130% forPer2). We propose that BMAL1 is an important mediator of CR, and activation of BMAL1 might link CR mechanisms with biologic clocks.-Patel, S. A., Chaudhari, A., Gupta, R., Velingkaar, N., Kondratov, R. V. Circadian clocks govern calorie restriction-mediated life span extension through BMAL1- and IGF-1-dependent mechanisms. © FASEB.

  11. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: VI. Impact of short-term graded calorie restriction on transcriptomic responses of the hypothalamic hunger and circadian signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Derous, Davina; Mitchell, Sharon E; Green, Cara L; Chen, Luonan; Han, Jing-Dong J; Wang, Yingchun; Promislow, Daniel E L; Lusseau, David; Speakman, John R; Douglas, Alex

    2016-04-01

    Food intake and circadian rhythms are regulated by hypothalamic neuropeptides and circulating hormones, which could mediate the anti-ageing effect of calorie restriction (CR). We tested whether these two signaling pathways mediate CR by quantifying hypothalamic transcripts of male C57BL/6 mice exposed to graded levels of CR (10 % to 40 %) for 3 months. We found that the graded CR manipulation resulted in upregulation of core circadian rhythm genes, which correlated negatively with circulating levels of leptin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), insulin, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). In addition, key components in the hunger signaling pathway were expressed in a manner reflecting elevated hunger at greater levels of restriction, and which also correlated negatively with circulating levels of insulin, TNF-α, leptin and IGF-1. Lastly, phenotypes, such as food anticipatory activity and body temperature, were associated with expression levels of both hunger genes and core clock genes. Our results suggest modulation of the hunger and circadian signaling pathways in response to altered levels of circulating hormones, that are themselves downstream of morphological changes resulting from CR treatment, may be important elements in the response to CR, driving some of the key phenotypic outcomes.

  12. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: VI. Impact of short-term graded calorie restriction on transcriptomic responses of the hypothalamic hunger and circadian signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Green, Cara L.; Chen, Luonan; Han, Jing‐Dong J.; Wang, Yingchun; Promislow, Daniel E.L.; Lusseau, David; Speakman, John R.; Douglas, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Food intake and circadian rhythms are regulated by hypothalamic neuropeptides and circulating hormones, which could mediate the anti‐ageing effect of calorie restriction (CR). We tested whether these two signaling pathways mediate CR by quantifying hypothalamic transcripts of male C57BL/6 mice exposed to graded levels of CR (10 % to 40 %) for 3 months. We found that the graded CR manipulation resulted in upregulation of core circadian rhythm genes, which correlated negatively with circulating levels of leptin, insulin‐like growth factor 1 (IGF‐1), insulin, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF‐α). In addition, key components in the hunger signaling pathway were expressed in a manner reflecting elevated hunger at greater levels of restriction, and which also correlated negatively with circulating levels of insulin, TNF‐α, leptin and IGF‐1. Lastly, phenotypes, such as food anticipatory activity and body temperature, were associated with expression levels of both hunger genes and core clock genes. Our results suggest modulation of the hunger and circadian signaling pathways in response to altered levels of circulating hormones, that are themselves downstream of morphological changes resulting from CR treatment, may be important elements in the response to CR, driving some of the key phenotypic outcomes. PMID:26945906

  13. Ghrelin-AMPK Signaling Mediates the Neuroprotective Effects of Calorie Restriction in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bayliss, Jacqueline A.; Lemus, Moyra B.; Stark, Romana; Santos, Vanessa V.; Thompson, Aiysha; Rees, Daniel J.; Galic, Sandra; Elsworth, John D.; Kemp, Bruce E.; Davies, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is neuroprotective in Parkinson's disease (PD) although the mechanisms are unknown. In this study we hypothesized that elevated ghrelin, a gut hormone with neuroprotective properties, during CR prevents neurodegeneration in an 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of PD. CR attenuated the MPTP-induced loss of substantia nigra (SN) dopamine neurons and striatal dopamine turnover in ghrelin WT but not KO mice, demonstrating that ghrelin mediates CR's neuroprotective effect. CR elevated phosphorylated AMPK and ACC levels in the striatum of WT but not KO mice suggesting that AMPK is a target for ghrelin-induced neuroprotection. Indeed, exogenous ghrelin significantly increased pAMPK in the SN. Genetic deletion of AMPKβ1 and 2 subunits only in dopamine neurons prevented ghrelin-induced AMPK phosphorylation and neuroprotection. Hence, ghrelin signaling through AMPK in SN dopamine neurons mediates CR's neuroprotective effects. We consider targeting AMPK in dopamine neurons may recapitulate neuroprotective effects of CR without requiring dietary intervention. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The neuroprotective mechanisms of calorie restriction (CR) in Parkinson's disease are unknown. Indeed, the difficulty to adhere to CR necessitates an alternative method to recapitulate the neuroprotective benefits of CR while bypassing dietary constraints. Here we show that CR increases plasma ghrelin, which targets substantia nigra dopamine to maintain neuronal survival. Selective deletion on AMPK beta1 and beta2 subunits only in DAT cre-expressing neurons shows that the ghrelin-induced neuroprotection requires activation of AMPK in substantia nigra dopamine neurons. We have discovered ghrelin as a key metabolic signal, and AMPK in dopamine neurons as its target, which links calorie restriction with neuroprotection in Parkinson's disease. Thus, targeting AMPK in dopamine neurons may provide novel neuroprotective benefits in Parkinson's disease. PMID

  14. Low-calorie- and calorie-sweetened beverages: diet quality, food intake, and purchase patterns of US household consumers.

    PubMed

    Piernas, Carmen; Mendez, Michelle A; Ng, Shu Wen; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-03-01

    Few studies have investigated the diet quality of consumers of low-calorie-sweetened (LCS) and calorie-sweetened (CS) beverages. The objective was to examine the dietary quality and adherence to dietary purchasing and consumption patterns of beverage consumers from 2000 to 2010. We analyzed purchases for 140,352 households from the Homescan longitudinal data set 2000-2010 and dietary intake from NHANES 2003-2010 (n = 34,393). We defined mutually exclusive consumer profiles as main exposures: LCS beverages, CS beverages, LCS & CS beverages, and non/low consumers. As main outcomes, we explored dietary quality by using total energy and macronutrients (kcal/d). We performed factor analyses and applied factor scores to derive dietary patterns as secondary outcomes. Using multivariable linear (NHANES) and random-effects (Homescan) models, we investigated the associations between beverage profiles and dietary patterns. We found "prudent" and "breakfast" patterns in Homescan and NHANES, "ready-to-eat meals/fast-food" and "prudent/snacks/LCS desserts" patterns in Homescan, and "protein/potatoes" and "CS desserts/sweeteners" patterns in NHANES. In both data sets, compared with non/low consumers, both CS- and LCS-beverage consumers had a significantly higher total energy from foods, higher energy from total and SFAs, and lower probability of adherence to prudent and breakfast patterns. In Homescan, LCS-beverage consumers had a higher probability of adherence to 2 distinct patterns: a prudent/snacks/LCS dessert pattern and a ready-to-eat meals/fast-food purchasing pattern. Our findings suggest that overall dietary quality is lower in LCS-, CS-, and LCS & CS-beverage consumers relative to non/low consumers. Our study highlights the importance of targeting foods that are linked with sweetened beverages (either LCS or CS) in intervention and policy efforts that aim to improve nutrition in the United States.

  15. Low-calorie- and calorie-sweetened beverages: diet quality, food intake, and purchase patterns of US household consumers123

    PubMed Central

    Piernas, Carmen; Mendez, Michelle A; Ng, Shu Wen; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Popkin, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have investigated the diet quality of consumers of low-calorie-sweetened (LCS) and calorie-sweetened (CS) beverages. Objective: The objective was to examine the dietary quality and adherence to dietary purchasing and consumption patterns of beverage consumers from 2000 to 2010. Design: We analyzed purchases for 140,352 households from the Homescan longitudinal data set 2000–2010 and dietary intake from NHANES 2003–2010 (n = 34,393). We defined mutually exclusive consumer profiles as main exposures: LCS beverages, CS beverages, LCS & CS beverages, and non/low consumers. As main outcomes, we explored dietary quality by using total energy and macronutrients (kcal/d). We performed factor analyses and applied factor scores to derive dietary patterns as secondary outcomes. Using multivariable linear (NHANES) and random-effects (Homescan) models, we investigated the associations between beverage profiles and dietary patterns. Results: We found “prudent” and “breakfast” patterns in Homescan and NHANES, “ready-to-eat meals/fast-food” and “prudent/snacks/LCS desserts” patterns in Homescan, and “protein/potatoes” and “CS desserts/sweeteners” patterns in NHANES. In both data sets, compared with non/low consumers, both CS- and LCS-beverage consumers had a significantly higher total energy from foods, higher energy from total and SFAs, and lower probability of adherence to prudent and breakfast patterns. In Homescan, LCS-beverage consumers had a higher probability of adherence to 2 distinct patterns: a prudent/snacks/LCS dessert pattern and a ready-to-eat meals/fast-food purchasing pattern. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that overall dietary quality is lower in LCS-, CS-, and LCS & CS–beverage consumers relative to non/low consumers. Our study highlights the importance of targeting foods that are linked with sweetened beverages (either LCS or CS) in intervention and policy efforts that aim to improve nutrition in the

  16. Short-term very low calorie diet reduces oxidative stress in obese type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Skrha, J; Kunesová, M; Hilgertová, J; Weiserová, H; Krízová, J; Kotrlíková, E

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative stress is higher in obese diabetic than in non-diabetic subjects. This pilot study evaluates oxidative stress during short-term administration of a very low calorie diet in obese persons. Nine obese Type 2 diabetic patients (age 55+/-5 years, BMI 35.9+/-1.9 kg/m2) and nine obese non-diabetic control subjects (age 52+/-6 years, BMI 37.3+/-2.1 kg/m2) were treated by a very low calorie diet (600 kcal daily) during 8 days stay in the hospital. Serum cholesterol, triglycerides, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyrate (B-HB), ascorbic acid (AA), alpha-tocopherol (AT), plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in erythrocytes were measured before and on day 3 and 8 of very low calorie diet administration. A decrease of serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations on day 8 was associated with a significant increase of NEFA (0.30+/-0.13 vs. 0.47+/-0.11 micromol/l, p<0.001) and B-HB (0.36+/-.13 vs. 2.23+/-1.00 mmol/l, p<0.001) in controls but only of B-HB (1.11+/-0.72 vs. 3.02+/-1.95 mmol/l, p<0.001) in diabetic patients. A significant decrease of plasma MDA and serum AT together with an increase of SOD activity and AA concentration (p<0.01) was observed in control persons, whereas an increase of SOD activity (p<0.01) was only found in diabetic patients after one week of the very low calorie diet. There was a significant correlation between NEFA or B-HB and SOD activity (p<0.01). We conclude that one week of a very low calorie diet administration decreases oxidative stress in obese non-diabetic but only partly in diabetic persons. Diabetes mellitus causes a greater resistance to the effects of a low calorie diet on oxidative stress.

  17. High-calorie diet exacerbates prostate neoplasia in mice with haploinsufficiency of Pten tumor suppressor gene.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jehnan; Ramakrishnan, Sadeesh K; Khuder, Saja S; Kaw, Meenakshi K; Muturi, Harrison T; Lester, Sumona Ghosh; Lee, Sang Jun; Fedorova, Larisa V; Kim, Andrea J; Mohamed, Iman E; Gatto-Weis, Cara; Eisenmann, Kathryn M; Conran, Philip B; Najjar, Sonia M

    2015-03-01

    Association between prostate cancer and obesity remains controversial. Allelic deletions of PTEN, a tumor suppressor gene, are common in prostate cancer in men. Monoallelic Pten deletion in mice causes low prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (mPIN). This study tested the effect of a hypercaloric diet on prostate cancer in Pten (+/-) mice. 1-month old mice were fed a high-calorie diet deriving 45% calories from fat for 3 and 6 months before prostate was analyzed histologically and biochemically for mPIN progression. Because Pten (+/-) mice are protected against diet-induced insulin resistance, we tested the role of insulin on cell growth in RWPE-1 normal human prostatic epithelial cells with siRNA knockdown of PTEN. In addition to activating PI3 kinase/Akt and Ras/MAPkinase pathways, high-calorie diet causes neoplastic progression, angiogenesis, inflammation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. It also elevates the expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS), a lipogenic gene commonly elevated in progressive cancer. SiRNA-mediated downregulation of PTEN demonstrates increased cell growth and motility, and soft agar clonicity in addition to elevation in FAS in response to insulin in RWPE-1 normal human prostatic cells. Downregulating FAS in addition to PTEN, blunted the proliferative effect of insulin (and IL-6) in RWPE-1 cells. High-calorie diet promotes prostate cancer progression in the genetically susceptible Pten haploinsufficient mouse while preserving insulin sensitivity. This appears to be partly due to increased inflammatory response to high-caloric intake in addition to increased ability of insulin to promote lipogenesis.

  18. Restoring normoglycaemia by use of a very low calorie diet in long- and short-duration Type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Steven, S; Taylor, R

    2015-09-01

    To establish whether an 8-week very-low-calorie diet could improve glycaemic control in Type 2 diabetes of long duration. A total of 29 people with Type 2 diabetes [short-duration group (diabetes duration < 4 years), n = 15; long-duration group (diabetes duration > 8 years), n = 14] completed an 8-week very-low-calorie diet, with assessments of fasting anthropometry, blood tests and blood pressure at baseline and weeks 1, 4 and 8 of the diet. Similar weight loss was achieved in the short- and long-duration groups (14.8 ± 0.8% and 14.4 ± 0.7% respectively; P = 0.662). The glucose response to acute calorie restriction was heterogeneous in the long-duration group with some responding similarly to those in the short-duration group, some responding, but only slowly, and others not responding at all. Overall, HbA1c concentration in the short- vs. long-duration groups fell to 44 ± 2 vs. 64 ± 6 mmol/l (6.2 ± 0.2 vs. 8.0 ± 0.5%; P = 0.002). Fasting plasma glucose levels decreased to 5.8 ± 0.2 vs. 8.4 ± 1.1 mmol/l (P = 0.024) respectively. A total of 87% of the short-duration group and 50% of the long-duration group achieved non-diabetic fasting plasma glucose levels at week 8. Clinically significant improvements in blood pressure and lipid profile were seen regardless of diabetes duration. In people with Type 2 diabetes of > 8 years' duration, a therapeutic trial of a very-low-calorie diet may be undertaken with a 50% chance of achieving non-diabetic fasting glucose levels off all antidiabetic therapies. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  19. Improvement of metabolic parameters in healthy older adult men following a fasting calorie restriction intervention.

    PubMed

    Teng, Nur Islami Mohd Fahmi; Shahar, Suzana; Rajab, Nor Fadilah; Manaf, Zahara Abdul; Johari, Mohamad Hanapi; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan

    2013-12-01

    Calorie restriction and intermittent fasting are two dietary interventions that can improve aging. Religious fasting also suggested having similar benefit; however, such studies are still scarce. Thus, this study aimed to determine the effect of fasting calorie restriction (FCR) on metabolic parameters and DNA damage among healthy older adult men. A randomized controlled study was done on men, aged 50-70 years in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Subjects were divided into two groups; FCR (reduction of 300-500 kcal/d combined with 2 days/week of Muslim Sunnah Fasting) and control. Assessment was ascertained at three time point; baseline, weeks 6 and 12. Blood samples were analyzed for lipid profile, DNA damage and malondialdehyde (MDA). The FCR group reduced their energy intake for approximately 18% upon completion of the study. A significant interaction effect was found in body weight, body mass index, fat percentage, fat mass, blood pressure, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and the ratio of total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.05). A significant improvement (p < 0.001) in total DNA rejoining cells and MDA (p < 0.05) was also observed in the FCR group. FCR improved metabolic parameters and DNA damage in healthy older adult men. Therefore, there is a need to further examine the mechanism of FCR.

  20. [Effects-of combined calories restriction and polyunsaturated fatty acids on colitis in rats].

    PubMed

    Qian, Yan; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Hui; Wang, Lei; Li, Xiuhua; Qiu, Fubin

    2014-09-01

    To explore the effect of n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids combined with calorie restriction( CR) in DSS induced ulcerative colitis rats. Forty female rats were randomly divided into five groups, control group, model group, CR group, 5:1 PUFA ad libitum group, 5: 1 PUFA CR group. CR groups provided with a limited daily food allotment of 60% of that eaten by the ad libitum animals for 14 weeks. Ulcerative colitis model in rats were given 5. 0% dextran sulfate sodium in their drinking water for 7 days. 5:1 PUFA CR group significantly decreased body weight, disease activity index, macroscopic and histological score compared to model group. In addition, administration of 5: 1 PUFA CR effectively inhibited MPO activity. The levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in the serum with colitis were decreased by 5: 1 PUFA CR (P <0. 05). These results suggest that combination of calories restriction and n-6/n-3 =5:1 PUFA may be more beneficial in attenuating the progression of DSS induced ulcerative colitis.

  1. Acute effects of different diet compositions on skeletal muscle insulin signalling in obese individuals during caloric restriction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cecilia C.L.; Adochio, Rebecca L.; Leitner, J. Wayne; Abeyta, Ian M.; Draznin, Boris; Cornier, Marc-Andre

    2012-01-01

    Objective The cellular effects of restricting fat versus carbohydrate during a low-calorie diet are unclear. The aim of this study was to examine acute effects of energy and macronutrient restriction on skeletal muscle insulin signalling in obesity. Materials/Methods Eighteen obese individuals without diabetes underwent euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp and skeletal muscle biopsy after: (a) 5 days of eucaloric diet (30% fat, 50% carbohydrate), and (b) 5 days of a 30% calorie-restricted diet, either low fat/high carbohydrate (LF/HC: 20% fat, 60% carbohydrate) or high-fat/low carbohydrate (HF/LC: 50% fat, 30% carbohydrate). Results Weight, body composition, and insulin sensitivity were similar between groups after eucaloric diet. Weight loss was similar between groups after hypocaloric diet, 1.3 ± 1.3 kg (p<0.0001 compared with eucaloric). Whole-body insulin sensitivity was unchanged after calorie restriction and similar between groups. However, ex vivo skeletal muscle insulin signalling differed depending on macronutrient composition of calorie-restricted diet. Skeletal muscle of the LF/HC group had increased insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1, decreased insulin-stimulated Ser 307 phosphorylation of IRS-1, and increased IRS-1-associated phosphatidylinositol (PI)3-kinase activity. Conversely, insulin stimulation of tyrosine phosphorylated IRS-1 was absent and serine 307 phosphorylation of IRS-1 was increased on HF/LC, with blunting of IRS-1-associated PI3-kinase activity. Conclusion Acute caloric restriction with a LF/HC diet alters skeletal muscle insulin signalling in a way that improves insulin sensitivity, while acute caloric restriction with a HF/LC diet induces changes compatible with insulin resistance. In both cases, ex vivo changes in skeletal muscle insulin signalling appear prior to changes in whole body insulin sensitivity. PMID:23174405

  2. Alterations in Hepatic Glucose and Energy Metabolism as a Result of Calorie and Carbohydrate Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Jeffrey D.; Weis, Brian; Davis, Jeannie; Satapati, Santhosh; Merritt, Matthew; Malloy, Craig R.; Burgess, Shawn C.

    2009-01-01

    Carbohydrate-restriction is a common weight-loss approach that modifies hepatic metabolism by increasing gluconeogenesis and ketosis. Because little is known regarding the effect of carbohydrate-restriction on the origin of gluconeogenic precursors (gluconeogenesis from glycerol (GNGglycerol) and lactate/amino acids (GNGPEP)) or its consequence to hepatic energy homeostasis, we studied these parameters in a group of overweight/obese subjects undergoing weight-loss via dietary restriction. We used 2H and 13C tracers and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure the sources of hepatic glucose and TCA cycle flux in weight-stable subjects(n=7) and subjects following carbohydrate-(n=7) or calorie-restriction(n=7). The majority of hepatic glucose production in carbohydrate-restricted subjects came from GNGPEP. The contribution of glycerol to gluconeogenesis was similar in all groups despite evidence of increased fat oxidation in carbohydrate-restricted subjects. A strong correlation between TCA cycle flux and GNGPEP was found, though the reliance on TCA cycle energy production for gluconeogenesis was attenuated in subjects undergoing carbohydrate restriction. Together, these data imply that the TCA cycle is the energetic patron of gluconeogenesis. However, the relationship between these two pathways is modified by carbohydrate restriction, suggesting an increased reliance of the hepatocyte on energy generated outside of the TCA cycle when GNGPEP is maximal. In conclusion, carbohydrate-restriction modifies hepatic gluconeogenesis by increasing reliance on substrates like lactate or amino acids but not glycerol. This modification is associated with a reorganization of hepatic energy metabolism suggestive of enhanced hepatic β-oxidation. PMID:18925642

  3. Intermittent fasting combined with calorie restriction is effective for weight loss and cardio-protection in obese women.

    PubMed

    Klempel, Monica C; Kroeger, Cynthia M; Bhutani, Surabhi; Trepanowski, John F; Varady, Krista A

    2012-11-21

    Intermittent fasting (IF; severe restriction 1 d/week) facilitates weight loss and improves coronary heart disease (CHD) risk indicators. The degree to which weight loss can be enhanced if IF is combined with calorie restriction (CR) and liquid meals, remains unknown. This study examined the effects of IF plus CR (with or without a liquid diet) on body weight, body composition, and CHD risk. Obese women (n = 54) were randomized to either the IFCR-liquid (IFCR-L) or IFCR-food based (IFCR-F) diet. The trial had two phases: 1) 2-week weight maintenance period, and 2) 8-week weight loss period. Body weight decreased more (P = 0.04) in the IFCR-L group (3.9 ± 1.4 kg) versus the IFCR-F group (2.5 ± 0.6 kg). Fat mass decreased similarly (P < 0.0001) in the IFCR-L and IFCR-F groups (2.8 ± 1.2 kg and 1.9 ± 0.7 kg, respectively). Visceral fat was reduced (P < 0.001) by IFCR-L (0.7 ± 0.5 kg) and IFCR-F (0.3 ± 0.5 kg) diets. Reductions in total and LDL cholesterol levels were greater (P = 0.04) in the IFCR-L (19 ± 10%; 20 ± 9%, respectively) versus the IFCR-F group (8 ± 3%; 7 ± 4%, respectively). LDL peak particle size increased (P < 0.01), while heart rate, glucose, insulin, and homocysteine decreased (P < 0.05), in the IFCR-L group only. These findings suggest that IF combined with CR and liquid meals is an effective strategy to help obese women lose weight and lower CHD risk.

  4. Intermittent fasting combined with calorie restriction is effective for weight loss and cardio-protection in obese women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Intermittent fasting (IF; severe restriction 1 d/week) facilitates weight loss and improves coronary heart disease (CHD) risk indicators. The degree to which weight loss can be enhanced if IF is combined with calorie restriction (CR) and liquid meals, remains unknown. Objective This study examined the effects of IF plus CR (with or without a liquid diet) on body weight, body composition, and CHD risk. Methods Obese women (n = 54) were randomized to either the IFCR-liquid (IFCR-L) or IFCR-food based (IFCR-F) diet. The trial had two phases: 1) 2-week weight maintenance period, and 2) 8-week weight loss period. Results Body weight decreased more (P = 0.04) in the IFCR-L group (3.9 ± 1.4 kg) versus the IFCR-F group (2.5 ± 0.6 kg). Fat mass decreased similarly (P < 0.0001) in the IFCR-L and IFCR-F groups (2.8 ± 1.2 kg and 1.9 ± 0.7 kg, respectively). Visceral fat was reduced (P < 0.001) by IFCR-L (0.7 ± 0.5 kg) and IFCR-F (0.3 ± 0.5 kg) diets. Reductions in total and LDL cholesterol levels were greater (P = 0.04) in the IFCR-L (19 ± 10%; 20 ± 9%, respectively) versus the IFCR-F group (8 ± 3%; 7 ± 4%, respectively). LDL peak particle size increased (P < 0.01), while heart rate, glucose, insulin, and homocysteine decreased (P < 0.05), in the IFCR-L group only. Conclusion These findings suggest that IF combined with CR and liquid meals is an effective strategy to help obese women lose weight and lower CHD risk. PMID:23171320

  5. One-year calorie restriction impacts gut microbial composition but not its metabolic performance in obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Alicia; Cerdó, Tomás; Jáuregui, Ruy; Pieper, Dietmar H; Marcos, Ascensión; Clemente, Alfonso; García, Federico; Margolles, Abelardo; Ferrer, Manuel; Campoy, Cristina; Suárez, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Recent evidence has disclosed a connection between gut microbial glycosidase activity and adiposity in obese. Here, we measured microbial α-glucosidase and β-galactosidase activities and sorted fluorescently labeled β-galactosidase containing (βGAL) microorganisms in faecal samples of eight lean and thirteen obese adolescents that followed a controlled calorie restriction program during one year. β-galactosidase is a highly distributed functional trait, mainly expressed by members of Blautia, Bacteroides, Alcaligenes, Acinetobacter and Propionibacterium. Only long-term calorie restriction induced clear changes in the microbiota of obese adolescents. Long-term calorie restriction induced significant shifts in total and βGAL gut microbiota, reducing the Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio and enhancing the growth of beneficial microorganisms such as Bacteroides, Roseburia, Faecalibacterium and Clostridium XIVa. Moreover, the structure and composition of βGAL community in obese after long-term calorie restriction was highly similar to that of lean adolescents. However, despite this high compositional similarity, microbial metabolic performance was different, split in two metabolic states at a body mass index value of 25. Our study shows that calorie restriction is a strong environmental force reshaping gut microbiota though its metabolic performance is linked to host's adiposity, suggesting that functional redundancy and metabolic plasticity are fundamental properties of gut microbial ecosystem. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. MTOR signaling and ubiquitin-proteosome gene expression in the preservation of fat free mass following high protein, calorie restricted weight loss

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Caloric restriction is one of the most efficient ways to promote weight loss and is known to activate protective metabolic pathways. Frequently reported with weight loss is the undesirable consequence of fat free (lean muscle) mass loss. Weight loss diets with increased dietary protein intake are popular and may provide additional benefits through preservation of fat free mass compared to a standard protein, high carbohydrate diet. However, the precise mechanism by which a high protein diet may mitigate dietary weight loss induced reductions in fat free mass has not been fully elucidated. Maintenance of fat free mass is dependent upon nutrient stimulation of protein synthesis via the mTOR complex, although during caloric restriction a decrease (atrophy) in skeletal muscle may be driven by a homeostatic shift favouring protein catabolism. This review evaluates the relationship between the macronutrient composition of calorie restricted diets and weight loss using metabolic indicators. Specifically we evaluate the effect of increased dietary protein intake and caloric restricted diets on gene expression in skeletal muscle, particularly focusing on biosynthesis, degradation and the expression of genes in the ubiquitin-proteosome (UPP) and mTOR signaling pathways, including MuRF-1, MAFbx/atrogin-1, mTORC1, and S6K1. PMID:22974011

  7. Improvement in motor and exploratory behavior in Rett syndrome mice with restricted ketogenic and standard diets.

    PubMed

    Mantis, John G; Fritz, Christie L; Marsh, Jeremy; Heinrichs, Stephen C; Seyfried, Thomas N

    2009-06-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a rare X-linked autistic-spectrum neurological disorder associated with impaired energy metabolism, seizure susceptibility, progressive social behavioral regression, and motor impairment primarily in young girls. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of restricted diets, including a ketogenic diet (KD) and a standard rodent chow diet (SD), on behavior in male Mecp2(308/y) mice, a model of RTT. The KD is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that has anticonvulsant efficacy in children with intractable epilepsy and may be therapeutic in children with RTT. Following an 11-day pretrial period, adult wild-type and mutant Rett mice were separated into groups that were fed either an SD in unrestricted or restricted amounts or a ketogenic diet (KetoCal) in restricted amounts for a total of 30 days. The restricted diets were administered to reduce mouse body weight by 20-23% compared to the body weight of each mouse before the initiation of the diet. All mice were subjected to a battery of behavioral tests to determine the influence of the diet on the RTT phenotype. We found that performance in tests of motor behavior and anxiety was significantly worse in male RTT mice compared to wild-type mice and that restriction of either the KD or the SD improved motor behavior and reduced anxiety. We conclude that although both restricted diets increased the tendency of Rett mice to explore a novel environment, the beneficial effects of the KD were due more to calorie restriction than to the composition of the diet. Our findings suggest that calorically restricted diets could be effective in reducing the anxiety and in improving motor behavior in girls with RTT.

  8. Meal replacement with a low-calorie diet formula in weight loss maintenance after weight loss induction with diet alone.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, C; Montagna, C; Alcaraz, F; Balsa, J A; Zamarrón, I; Arrieta, F; Botella-Carretero, J I

    2009-10-01

    Weight loss in obesity can reduce morbidity and mortality and benefits persist as long as weight loss is maintained. Weight maintenance is difficult in the long term and new strategies need to be developed to achieve this goal. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of substituting a low-calorie diet formula for a meal in a weight loss program during the maintenance phase. Randomized paralleled clinical trial including 62 adult patients with at least a 5% weight loss with diet alone for 6 months, randomized to two groups: daily replacement of one meal with a low-calorie diet formula, or dieting alone for another 6 months (weight maintenance phase). Weight maintenance or further weight loss occurred in 83.9% of patients in the intervention group, whereas only in 58.1% in the control group (P=0.025). As a whole, patients in the intervention group lost a further 3.2+/-3.7% of initial weight compared with a 1.3+/-3.6% in the control group (P=0.030). Body fat mass diminished in both groups, with no differences between them (1.6+/-3.5 vs 1.0+/-9.3 kg, respectively, P=0.239), and the same happened with free fat mass (0.9+/-3.3 vs 0.4+/-6.7 kg, respectively, P=0.471). A multivariate logistic regression analysis (R (2)=0.114, P=0.023) retained only the intervention as a predictor of the achievement of weight maintenance with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 3.756 (1.138-12.391). Substitution of a low-calorie diet formula for a meal is an effective measure for weight loss maintenance compared with dieting alone.

  9. CTT1 overexpression increases life span of calorie-restricted Saccharomyces cerevisiae deficient in Sod1.

    PubMed

    Rona, Germana; Herdeiro, Ricardo; Mathias, Cristiane Juliano; Torres, Fernando Araripe; Pereira, Marcos Dias; Eleutherio, Elis

    2015-06-01

    Studies using different organisms revealed that reducing calorie intake, without malnutrition, known as calorie restriction (CR), increases life span, but its mechanism is still unkown. Using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as eukaryotic model, we observed that Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (Sod1p) is required to increase longevity, as well as to confer protection against lipid and protein oxidation under CR. Old cells of sod1 strain also presented a premature induction of apoptosis. However, when CTT1 (which codes for cytosolic catalase) was overexpressed, sod1 and WT strains showed similar survival rates. Furthermore, CTT1 overexpression decreased lipid peroxidation and delayed the induction of apoptotic process. Superoxide is rapidly converted to hydrogen peroxide by superoxide dismutase, but it also undergoes spontaneous dismutation albeit at a slower rate. However, the quantity of peroxide produced from superoxide in this way is two-fold higher. Peroxide degradation, catalyzed by catalase, is of vital importance, because in the presence of a reducer transition metal peroxide is reduced to the highly reactive hydroxyl radical, which reacts indiscriminately with most cellular constituents. These findings might explain why overexpression of catalase was able to overcome the deficiency of Sod1p, increasing life span in response to CR.

  10. Effect of 6-month calorie restriction and exercise on serum and liver lipids and markers of liver function.

    PubMed

    Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Newcomer, Bradley R; Heilbronn, Leonie K; Volaufova, Julia; Smith, Steven R; Alfonso, Anthony J; Lefevre, Michael; Rood, Jennifer C; Williamson, Donald A; Ravussin, Eric

    2008-06-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its association with insulin resistance are increasingly recognized as major health burdens. The main objectives of this study were to assess the relation between liver lipid content and serum lipids, markers of liver function and inflammation in healthy overweight subjects, and to determine whether caloric restriction (CR) (which improves insulin resistance) reduces liver lipids in association with these same measures. Forty-six white and black overweight men and women (BMI = 24.7-31.3 kg/m(2)) were randomized to "control (CO)" = 100% energy requirements; "CR" = 25%; "caloric restriction and increased structured exercise (CR+EX)"= 12.5% CR + 12.5% increase in energy expenditure through exercise; or "low-calorie diet (LCD)" = 15% weight loss by liquid diet followed by weight-maintenance, for 6 months. Liver lipid content was assessed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and computed tomography (CT). Lipid concentrations, markers of liver function (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALK)), and whole-body inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)) were measured in fasting blood. At baseline, increased liver lipid content (by MRS) correlated (P < 0.05) with elevated fasting triglyceride (r = 0.52), ALT (r = 0.42), and hsCRP (r = 0.33) concentrations after adjusting for sex, race, and alcohol consumption. With CR, liver lipid content was significantly lowered by CR, CR+EX, and LCD (detected by MRS only). The reduction in liver lipid content, however, was not significantly correlated with the reduction in triglycerides (r = 0.26; P = 0.11) or with the changes in ALT, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, or markers of whole-body inflammation. CR may be beneficial for reducing liver lipid and lowering triglycerides in overweight subjects without known NAFLD.

  11. Dietary Interventions to Extend Life Span and Health Span Based on Calorie Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Minor, Robin K.; Allard, Joanne S.; Younts, Caitlin M.; Ward, Theresa M.

    2010-01-01

    The societal impact of obesity, diabetes, and other metabolic disorders continues to rise despite increasing evidence of their negative long-term consequences on health span, longevity, and aging. Unfortunately, dietary management and exercise frequently fail as remedies, underscoring the need for the development of alternative interventions to successfully treat metabolic disorders and enhance life span and health span. Using calorie restriction (CR)—which is well known to improve both health and longevity in controlled studies—as their benchmark, gerontologists are coming closer to identifying dietary and pharmacological therapies that may be applicable to aging humans. This review covers some of the more promising interventions targeted to affect pathways implicated in the aging process as well as variations on classical CR that may be better suited to human adaptation. PMID:20371545

  12. The arcuate nucleus and NPY contribute to the antitumorigenic effect of calorie restriction

    PubMed Central

    Minor, Robin K.; López, Miguel; Younts, Caitlin M.; Jones, Bruce; Pearson, Kevin J.; Anson, R. Michael; Diéguez, Carlos; de Cabo, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Summary Calorie restriction (CR) is known to have profound effects on tumor incidence. A typical consequence of CR is hunger, and we hypothesized that the neuroendocrine response to CR might in part mediate CR's antitumor effects. We tested CR under appetite suppression using two models: neuropeptide Y (NPY) knockout mice and monosodium glutamate (MSG)-injected mice. While CR was protective in control mice challenged with a two-stage skin carcinogenesis model, papilloma development was neither delayed nor reduced by CR in the MSG-treated and NPY knockout mice. Adiponectin levels were also not increased by CR in the appetite-suppressed mice. We propose that some of CR’s beneficial effects cannot be separated from those imposed on appetite, and that NPY neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC) are involved in the translation of reduced intake to downstream physiological and functional benefits. PMID:21385308

  13. A randomized pilot study comparing zero-calorie alternate-day fasting to daily caloric restriction in adults with obesity

    PubMed Central

    Catenacci, Victoria A.; Pan, Zhaoxing; Ostendorf, Danielle; Brannon, Sarah; Gozansky, Wendolyn S.; Mattson, Mark P.; Martin, Bronwen; MacLean, Paul S.; Melanson, Edward L.; Donahoo, William Troy

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety and tolerability of alternate-day fasting (ADF) and to compare changes in weight, body composition, lipids, and insulin sensitivity index (Si) to those produced by a standard weight loss diet, moderate daily caloric restriction (CR). Methods Adults with obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2, age 18-55) were randomized to either zero-calorie ADF (n=14) or CR (-400 kcal/day, n=12) for 8 weeks. Outcomes were measured at the end of the 8-week intervention and after 24 weeks of unsupervised follow-up. Results No adverse effects were attributed to ADF and 93% completed the 8-week ADF protocol. At 8 weeks, ADF achieved a 376 kcal/day greater energy deficit, however there were no significant between-group differences in change in weight (mean±SE; ADF -8.2±0.9 kg, CR -7.1±1.0 kg), body composition, lipids, or Si. After 24 weeks of unsupervised follow-up, there were no significant differences in weight regain, however changes from baseline in % fat mass and lean mass were more favorable in ADF. Conclusions ADF is a safe and tolerable approach to weight loss. ADF produced similar changes in weight, body composition, lipids and Si at 8 weeks and did not appear to increase risk for weight regain 24 weeks after completing the intervention. PMID:27569118

  14. The antihypertensive effect of calorie restriction in obese adolescents: dissociation of effects on erythrocyte countertransport and cotransport.

    PubMed

    Weder, A B; Torretti, B A; Katch, V L; Rocchini, A P

    1984-10-01

    Measures of maximal rates of lithium-sodium countertransport and frusemide-sensitive sodium and potassium cotransport have been proposed as biochemical markers for human essential hypertension. The stability of these functions over time within the same individuals has led to the suggestion that maximal transport capacities are genetically determined. The present study confirms the reproducibility of functional assays of countertransport and cotransport in human erythrocytes after overnight storage and over a six-month period in normal volunteers and provides estimates of the magnitude of technical error for each assay. A long-term dietary intervention study in a group of obese adolescents demonstrated marked increases in erythrocyte sodium levels and maximal frusemide-sensitive sodium and potassium fluxes but no changes in cell potassium or water and no effect on lithium-sodium countertransport. A correlation between the decrease in percentage of body fat and the increase in cell sodium content suggests a link between the metabolic effects of dieting and control of erythrocyte cation handling. Although the mechanism linking dietary calorie restriction and changes in erythrocyte cation metabolism is unknown, evaluation of body weight, and especially recent weight loss, is important in studies of erythrocyte transport. Conclusions regarding genetic contributions to the activities of lithium-sodium countertransport and sodium-potassium cotransport systems will be strengthened by clarification of environmental regulators.

  15. A randomized pilot study comparing zero-calorie alternate-day fasting to daily caloric restriction in adults with obesity.

    PubMed

    Catenacci, Victoria A; Pan, Zhaoxing; Ostendorf, Danielle; Brannon, Sarah; Gozansky, Wendolyn S; Mattson, Mark P; Martin, Bronwen; MacLean, Paul S; Melanson, Edward L; Troy Donahoo, William

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the safety and tolerability of alternate-day fasting (ADF) and to compare changes in weight, body composition, lipids, and insulin sensitivity index (Si) with those produced by a standard weight loss diet, moderate daily caloric restriction (CR). Adults with obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) , age 18-55) were randomized to either zero-calorie ADF (n = 14) or CR (-400 kcal/day, n = 12) for 8 weeks. Outcomes were measured at the end of the 8-week intervention and after 24 weeks of unsupervised follow-up. No adverse effects were attributed to ADF, and 93% completed the 8-week ADF protocol. At 8 weeks, ADF achieved a 376 kcal/day greater energy deficit; however, there were no significant between-group differences in change in weight (mean ± SE; ADF -8.2 ± 0.9 kg, CR -7.1 ± 1.0 kg), body composition, lipids, or Si. After 24 weeks of unsupervised follow-up, there were no significant differences in weight regain; however, changes from baseline in % fat mass and lean mass were more favorable in ADF. ADF is a safe and tolerable approach to weight loss. ADF produced similar changes in weight, body composition, lipids, and Si at 8 weeks and did not appear to increase risk for weight regain 24 weeks after completing the intervention. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  16. Intersection of calorie restriction and magnesium in the suppression of genome-destabilizing RNA–DNA hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Karan J.; Chan, Janet N.Y.; Salvi, Jayesh S.; Ho, Brandon; Hall, Amanda; Vidya, Elva; Guo, Ru; Killackey, Samuel A.; Liu, Nancy; Lee, Jeffrey E.; Brown, Grant W.; Mekhail, Karim

    2016-01-01

    Dietary calorie restriction is a broadly acting intervention that extends the lifespan of various organisms from yeast to mammals. On another front, magnesium (Mg2+) is an essential biological metal critical to fundamental cellular processes and is commonly used as both a dietary supplement and treatment for some clinical conditions. If connections exist between calorie restriction and Mg2+ is unknown. Here, we show that Mg2+, acting alone or in response to dietary calorie restriction, allows eukaryotic cells to combat genome-destabilizing and lifespan-shortening accumulations of RNA–DNA hybrids, or R-loops. In an R-loop accumulation model of Pbp1-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae, magnesium ions guided by cell membrane Mg2+ transporters Alr1/2 act via Mg2+-sensitive R-loop suppressors Rnh1/201 and Pif1 to restore R-loop suppression, ribosomal DNA stability and cellular lifespan. Similarly, human cells deficient in ATXN2, the human ortholog of Pbp1, exhibit nuclear R-loop accumulations repressible by Mg2+ in a process that is dependent on the TRPM7 Mg2+ transporter and the RNaseH1 R-loop suppressor. Thus, we identify Mg2+ as a biochemical signal of beneficial calorie restriction, reveal an R-loop suppressing function for human ATXN2 and propose that practical magnesium supplementation regimens can be used to combat R-loop accumulation linked to the dysfunction of disease-linked human genes. PMID:27574117

  17. [Carbohydrate restriction in the larval diet causes oxidative stress in adult insects of Drosophila melanogaster].

    PubMed

    Rovenko, B M; Lushchak, V I; Lushchak, O V

    2013-01-01

    The influence of 20 and 1% glucose and fructose, which were components of larval diet, on the level of oxidized proteins and lipids, low molecular mass antioxidant content as well as activities of antioxidant and associated enzymes in adult fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster were investigated. The restriction of carbohydrates in larval diet leads to oxidative stress in adult insects. It is supported by 40-50% increased content of protein carbonyl groups and by 60-70% decreased level of protein thiol groups as well as by a 4-fold increase of lipid peroxide content in 2-day-old flies of both sexes, developed on the diet with 1% carbohydrates. Oxidative stress, induced by carbohydrate restriction of the larval diet, caused the activation of antioxidant defence, differently exhibited in male and female fruit flies. Caloric restriction increased activity of superoxide dismutase and thioredoxin reductase associating only in males with 2-fold higher activity of NADPH-producing enzymes--glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase. Carbohydrate restriction in the larval diet caused the increase of uric acid content, but the decrease in catalase activity in males. In females the values of these parameters were changed in opposite direction compared with males. The obtained results let us conclude the different involvement of low molecular mass antioxidants, glutathione and uric acid, and antioxidant enzyme catalase in the protection of male and female fruit fly macromolecules against oxidative damages, caused by calorie restriction of larval diet.

  18. Controlled Trial of Very Low Calorie Diet, Behavior Therapy, and Their Combination in the Treatment of Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadden, Thomas A; Stunkard, Albert J.

    1986-01-01

    Assessed the effectiveness of a combined program of very low calorie diet and behavior therapy in treating obesity. Combined treatment and behavior therapy alone subjects maintained weight losses; none of the diet alone subjects met the criterion used to define maintenance. Only those receiving behavior therapy alone and combined treatment showed…

  19. Long-term low-calorie low-protein vegan diet and endurance exercise are associated with low cardiometabolic risk.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Luigi; Meyer, Timothy E; Klein, Samuel; Holloszy, John O

    2007-06-01

    Western diets, which typically contain large amounts of energy-dense processed foods, together with a sedentary lifestyle are associated with increased cardiometabolic risk. We evaluated the long-term effects of consuming a low-calorie low-protein vegan diet or performing regular endurance exercise on cardiometabolic risk factors. In this cross-sectional study, cardiometabolic risk factors were evaluated in 21 sedentary subjects, who had been on a low-calorie low-protein raw vegan diet for 4.4 +/- 2.8 years, (mean age, 53.1 +/- 11 yrs), 21 body mass index (BMI)-matched endurance runners consuming Western diets, and 21 age- and gender-matched sedentary subjects, consuming Western diets. BMI was lower in the low-calorie low-protein vegan diet (21.3 +/- 3.1 kg/m(2)) and endurance runner (21.1 +/- 1.6 kg/m(2)) groups than in the sedentary Western diet group (26.5 +/- 2.7 kg/m(2)) (p < 0.005). Plasma concentrations of lipids, lipoproteins, glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein, blood pressure (BP), and carotid artery intima-media thickness were lower in the low-calorie low-protein vegan diet and runner groups than in the Western diet group (all p < 0.05). Both systolic and diastolic BP were lower in the low-calorie low-protein vegan diet group (104 +/- 15 and 62 +/- 11 mm Hg) than in BMI-matched endurance runners (122 +/- 13 and 72 +/- 9 mmHg) and Western diet group (132 +/- 14 and 79 +/- 8 mm Hg) (p < 0.001); BP values were directly associated with sodium intake and inversely associated with potassium and fiber intake. Long-term consumption of a low-calorie low-protein vegan diet or regular endurance exercise training is associated with low cardiometabolic risk. Moreover, our data suggest that specific components of a low-calorie low-protein vegan diet provide additional beneficial effects on blood pressure.

  20. Calorie restriction extends the chronological lifespan of Saccharomyces cerevisiae independently of the Sirtuins.

    PubMed

    Smith, Daniel L; McClure, Julie M; Matecic, Mirela; Smith, Jeffrey S

    2007-10-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) extends the mean and maximum lifespan of a wide variety of organisms ranging from yeast to mammals, although the molecular mechanisms of action remain unclear. For the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae reducing glucose in the growth medium extends both the replicative and chronological lifespans (CLS). The conserved NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase, Sir2p, promotes replicative longevity in S. cerevisiae by suppressing recombination within the ribosomal DNA locus and has been proposed to mediate the effects of CR on aging. In this study, we investigated the functional relationships of the yeast Sirtuins (Sir2p, Hst1p, Hst2p, Hst3p and Hst4p) with CLS and CR. SIR2, HST2, and HST4 were not major regulators of CLS and were not required for the lifespan extension caused by shifting the glucose concentration from 2 to 0.5% (CR). Deleting HST1 or HST3 moderately shortened CLS, but did not prevent CR from extending lifespan. CR therefore works through a Sirtuin-independent mechanism in the chronological aging system. We also show that low temperature or high osmolarity additively extends CLS when combined with CR, suggesting that these stresses and CR act through separate pathways. The CR effect on CLS was not specific to glucose. Restricting other simple sugars such as galactose or fructose also extended lifespan. Importantly, growth on nonfermentable carbon sources that force yeast to exclusively utilize respiration extended lifespan at nonrestricted concentrations and provided no additional benefit when restricted, suggesting that elevated respiration capacity is an important determinant of chronological longevity.

  1. Reduced-calorie avocado paste attenuates metabolic factors associated with a hypercholesterolemic-high fructose diet in rats.

    PubMed

    Pahua-Ramos, María Elena; Garduño-Siciliano, Leticia; Dorantes-Alvarez, Lidia; Chamorro-Cevallos, German; Herrera-Martínez, Julieta; Osorio-Esquivel, Obed; Ortiz-Moreno, Alicia

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of reduced-calorie avocado paste on lipid serum profile, insulin sensitivity, and hepatic steatosis in rats fed a hypercholesterolemic-high fructose diet. Thirty five male Wistar rats were randomly separated in five groups: Control group (ground commercial diet); hypercholesterolemic diet plus 60% fructose solution (HHF group); hypercholesterolemic diet plus 60% fructose solution supplemented with avocado pulp (HHF+A group); hypercholesterolemic diet plus 60% fructose solution supplemented with reduced-calorie avocado paste (HHF+P group); and hypercholesterolemic diet plus 60% fructose solution supplemented with a reduced-calorie avocado paste plus fiber (HHF+FP group). The A, P, and FP were supplemented at 2 g/kg/d. The study was carried out for seven weeks. Rats belonging to the HHF group exhibited significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher total cholesterol, triglycerides, and insulin levels in serum as well as lower insulin sensitivity than the control group. Supplementation with reduced-calorie avocado paste showed a significant (P ≤ 0.05) decrease in total cholesterol (43.1%), low-density lipoprotein (45.4%), and triglycerides (32.8%) in plasma as well as elevated insulin sensitivity compared to the HHF group. Additionally, the liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase decreased significantly in the HHF-P group (39.8 and 35.1%, respectively). These results are likely due to biocompounds present in the reduced-calorie avocado paste, such as polyphenols, carotenoids, chlorophylls, and dietary fibre, which are capable of reducing oxidative stress. Therefore, reduced-calorie avocado paste attenuates the effects of a hypercholesterolemic-high fructose diet in rats.

  2. A role for neuronal cAMP responsive-element binding (CREB)-1 in brain responses to calorie restriction

    PubMed Central

    Fusco, Salvatore; Ripoli, Cristian; Podda, Maria Vittoria; Ranieri, Sofia Chiatamone; Leone, Lucia; Toietta, Gabriele; McBurney, Michael W.; Schütz, Günther; Riccio, Antonella; Grassi, Claudio; Galeotti, Tommaso; Pani, Giovambattista

    2012-01-01

    Calorie restriction delays brain senescence and prevents neurodegeneration, but critical regulators of these beneficial responses other than the NAD+-dependent histone deacetylase Sirtuin-1 (Sirt-1) are unknown. We report that effects of calorie restriction on neuronal plasticity, memory and social behavior are abolished in mice lacking cAMP responsive-element binding (CREB)-1 in the forebrain. Moreover, CREB deficiency drastically reduces the expression of Sirt-1 and the induction of genes relevant to neuronal metabolism and survival in the cortex and hippocampus of dietary-restricted animals. Biochemical studies reveal a complex interplay between CREB and Sirt-1: CREB directly regulates the transcription of the sirtuin in neuronal cells by binding to Sirt-1 chromatin; Sirt-1, in turn, is recruited by CREB to DNA and promotes CREB-dependent expression of target gene peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α and neuronal NO Synthase. Accordingly, expression of these CREB targets is markedly reduced in the brain of Sirt KO mice that are, like CREB-deficient mice, poorly responsive to calorie restriction. Thus, the above circuitry, modulated by nutrient availability, links energy metabolism with neurotrophin signaling, participates in brain adaptation to nutrient restriction, and is potentially relevant to accelerated brain aging by overnutrition and diabetes. PMID:22190495

  3. Effects of aging and calorie restriction on rat skeletal muscle glycogen synthase and glycogen phosphorylase

    PubMed Central

    Montori-Grau, Marta; Minor, Robin; Lerin, Carles; Allard, Joanne; Garcia-Martinez, Celia; de Cabo, Rafael; Gómez-Foix, Anna M.

    2016-01-01

    Calorie restriction’s (CR) effects on age-associated changes in glycogen-metabolizing enzymes were studied in rat soleus (SOL) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles. Old (24 months) compared to young (6 months) rats maintained ad libitum on a standard diet had reduced glycogen synthase (GS) activity, lower muscle GS protein levels, increased phosphorylation of GS at site 3a with less activation in SOL. Age-associated impairments in GS protein and activation-phosphorylation were also shown in TA. There was an age-associated reduction in glycogen phosphorylase (GP) activity level in SOL, while brain/muscle isoforms (B/M) of GP protein levels were higher. GP activity and protein levels were preserved, but GP was inactivated in TA with age. Glycogen content was unchanged in both muscles. CR did not alter GS or GP activity/protein levels in young rats. CR hindered age-related decreases in GS activity/protein, unrelated to GS mRNA levels, and GS inactivation-phosphorylation; not on GP. In older rats, CR enhanced glycogen accumulation in SOL. Short-term fasting did not recapitulate CR effects in old rats. Thus, the predominant age-associated impairments on skeletal muscle GS and GP activities occur in the oxidative SOL muscle of rats, and CR can attenuate the loss of GS activity/activation and stimulate glycogen accumulation. PMID:19341787

  4. Transcriptional response according to strength of calorie restriction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yae-Lim; Lee, Cheol-Koo

    2008-09-30

    To characterize gene expression that is dependent on the strength of calorie restriction (CR), we obtained transcriptome at different levels of glucose, which is a major energy and carbon source for budding yeast. To faithfully mimic mammalian CR in yeast culture, we reconstituted and grew seeding yeast cells in fresh 2% YPD media before inoculating into 2%, 1%, 0.5% and 0.25% YPD media to reflect different CR strengths. We collected and characterized 160 genes that responded to CR strength based on the rigorous statistical analyses of multiple test corrected ANOVA (adjusted p0.7). Based on the individual gene studies and the GO Term Finder analysis of 160 genes, we found that CR dose-dependently and gradually increased mitochondrial function at the transcriptional level. Therefore, we suggest these 160 genes are markers that respond to CR strength and that might be useful in elucidating CR mechanisms, especially how stronger CR extends life span more.

  5. HMB attenuates muscle loss during sustained energy deficit induced by calorie restriction and endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Park, Bong-Sup; Henning, Paul C; Grant, Samuel C; Lee, Won Jun; Lee, Sang-Rok; Arjmandi, Bahram H; Kim, Jeong-Su

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the efficacy and underlying mechanisms of β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) on body composition, muscle mass and physical performance under catabolic versus normal training conditions. Mice were divided into four groups (n=10/group): (1) ALT=ad libitum+trained (1 h/d for 3 d/wk); (2) ALTH=ALT+HMB (0.5 g/kg BW/d); (3) C=calorie restricted (-30%)+trained (6 h/d, 6 d/wk); and (4) CH=C+HMB. Repeated in vivo assessments included body composition, grip strength and sensorimotor coordination before and after the experimental protocol, while in vitro analyses included muscle wet weights, expression of selected genes and proteins regulating muscle mass, and myofiber cross-sectional area. ANOVAs were used with significance set at p<0.05. ALTH had greater lean mass than ALT and sensorimotor function increased in ALTH, but decreased in ALT under normal training conditions. Grip strength decreased only in C, but was maintained in CH. Gastrocnemius mass and myofiber CSA were greater in CH than C following catabolic conditions. Gastrocnemius atrogin-1 mRNA expression was elevated in C but not in CH compared to all other groups whereas atrogin-1 protein levels showed no significant changes. HMB improves body composition and sensorimotor function during normal training and attenuates muscle mass and strength loss during catabolic conditions. © 2013.

  6. Comparative proteomic analysis of Bombyx mori hemolymph and fat body after calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huiqing; Li, Yijia; Chen, Keping; Yao, Qin; Li, Guohui; Wang, Lin

    2010-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is known to extend life span from yeast to mammals. To gain an insight into the effects of CR on growth and development of the silkworm Bombyx mori at protein level, we employed comparative proteomic approach to investigate proteomic differences of hemolymph and fat body of the silkworm larvae subjected to CR. Thirty-nine differentially expressed proteins were identified by MALDI TOF/TOF MS. Among them, 19 were from the hemolymph and 20 from the fat body. The hemolymph of the CR group contained two down-regulated and 17 up-regulated proteins, whereas the fat body contained 15 down-regulated and five up-regulated ones. These proteins belonged to those functioning in immune system, in signal transduction and apoptosis, in regulation of growth and development, and in energy metabolism. Our results suggest that CR can alter the expression of proteins related to the above four aspects, implying that these proteins may regulate life span of the silkworm through CR.

  7. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: VII. Topological rearrangement of hypothalamic aging networks.

    PubMed

    Derous, Davina; Mitchell, Sharon E; Green, Cara L; Wang, Yingchun; Han, Jing Dong J; Chen, Luonan; Promislow, Daniel E L; Lusseau, David; Speakman, John R; Douglas, Alex

    2016-05-01

    Connectivity in a gene-gene network declines with age, typically within gene clusters. We explored the effect of short-term (3 months) graded calorie restriction (CR) (up to 40 %) on network structure of aging-associated genes in the murine hypothalamus by using conditional mutual information. The networks showed a topological rearrangement when exposed to graded CR with a higher relative within cluster connectivity at 40CR. We observed changes in gene centrality concordant with changes in CR level, with Ppargc1a, and Ppt1 having increased centrality and Etfdh, Traf3 and Abcc1 decreased centrality as CR increased. This change in gene centrality in a graded manner with CR, occurred in the absence of parallel changes in gene expression levels. This study emphasizes the importance of augmenting traditional differential gene expression analyses to better understand structural changes in the transcriptome. Overall our results suggested that CR induced changes in centrality of biological relevant genes that play an important role in preventing the age-associated loss of network integrity irrespective of their gene expression levels.

  8. Longitudinal analysis of calorie restriction on rat taste bud morphology and expression of sweet taste modulators.

    PubMed

    Cai, Huan; Daimon, Caitlin M; Cong, Wei-Na; Wang, Rui; Chirdon, Patrick; de Cabo, Rafael; Sévigny, Jean; Maudsley, Stuart; Martin, Bronwen

    2014-05-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is a lifestyle intervention employed to reduce body weight and improve metabolic functions primarily via reduction of ingested carbohydrates and fats. Taste perception is highly related to functional metabolic status and body adiposity. We have previously shown that sweet taste perception diminishes with age; however, relatively little is known about the effects of various lengths of CR upon taste cell morphology and function. We investigated the effects of CR on taste bud morphology and expression of sweet taste-related modulators in 5-, 17-, and 30-month-old rats. In ad libitum (AL) and CR rats, we consistently found the following parameters altered significantly with advancing age: reduction of taste bud size and taste cell numbers per taste bud and reduced expression of sonic hedgehog, type 1 taste receptor 3 (T1r3), α-gustducin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). In the oldest rats, CR affected a significant reduction of tongue T1r3, GLP-1, and α-gustducin expression compared with age-matched AL rats. Leptin receptor immunopositive cells were elevated in 17- and 30-month-old CR rats compared with age-matched AL rats. These alterations of sweet taste-related modulators, specifically during advanced aging, suggest that sweet taste perception may be altered in response to different lengths of CR.

  9. Adipogenic Signaling in Rat White Adipose Tissue: Modulation by Aging and Calorie Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Min; Lee, Garrick D.; Ding, Liusong; Hu, Jingping; Qiu, Guang; de Cabo, Rafa; Bernier, Michel; Ingram, Donald K.; Zou, Sige

    2007-01-01

    Alterations in adipogenesis could have significant impact on several aging processes. We previously reported that calorie restriction (CR) in rats significantly increases the level of circulating adiponectin, a distinctive marker of differentiated adipocytes, leading to a concerted modulation in the expression of key transcription target genes and, as a result, to increased fatty acid oxidation and reduced deleterious lipid accumulation in other tissues. These findings led us to investigate further the effects of aging on adipocytes and to determine how CR modulates adipogenic signaling in vivo. CR for 2 and 25 months, significantly increased the expression of PPARγ, C/EBPβ and Cdk-4, and partially attenuated age-related decline in C/EBPα expression relative to rats fed ad libitum (AL). As a result, adiponectin was upregulated at both mRNA and protein levels, resulting in activation of target genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and fatty acid synthesis, and greater responsiveness of adipose tissue to insulin. Moreover, CR significantly decreased the ratio of C/EBPß isoforms LAP/LIP, suggesting the suppression of gene transcription associated with terminal differentiation while facilitating preadipocytes proliferation. Morphometric analysis revealed a greater number of small adipocytes in CR relative to AL feeding. Immunostaining confirmed that small adipocytes were more strongly positive for adiponectin than the large ones. Overall these results suggest that CR increased the expression of adipogenic factors, and maintained the differentiated state of adipocytes, which is critically important for adiponectin biosynthesis and insulin sensitivity. PMID:17624709

  10. Longitudinal Analysis of Calorie Restriction on Rat Taste Bud Morphology and Expression of Sweet Taste Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Huan; Daimon, Caitlin M.; Cong, Wei-na; Wang, Rui; Chirdon, Patrick; de Cabo, Rafael; Sévigny, Jean; Maudsley, Stuart; Martin, Bronwen

    2014-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is a lifestyle intervention employed to reduce body weight and improve metabolic functions primarily via reduction of ingested carbohydrates and fats. Taste perception is highly related to functional metabolic status and body adiposity. We have previously shown that sweet taste perception diminishes with age; however, relatively little is known about the effects of various lengths of CR upon taste cell morphology and function. We investigated the effects of CR on taste bud morphology and expression of sweet taste–related modulators in 5-, 17-, and 30-month-old rats. In ad libitum (AL) and CR rats, we consistently found the following parameters altered significantly with advancing age: reduction of taste bud size and taste cell numbers per taste bud and reduced expression of sonic hedgehog, type 1 taste receptor 3 (T1r3), α-gustducin, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). In the oldest rats, CR affected a significant reduction of tongue T1r3, GLP-1, and α-gustducin expression compared with age-matched AL rats. Leptin receptor immunopositive cells were elevated in 17- and 30-month-old CR rats compared with age-matched AL rats. These alterations of sweet taste–related modulators, specifically during advanced aging, suggest that sweet taste perception may be altered in response to different lengths of CR. PMID:24077597

  11. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: VII. Topological rearrangement of hypothalamic aging networks

    PubMed Central

    Derous, Davina; Mitchell, Sharon E.; Green, Cara L.; Wang, Yingchun; Han, Jing Dong J.; Chen, Luonan; Promislow, Daniel E.L.; Lusseau, David; Speakman, John R.; Douglas, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Connectivity in a gene-gene network declines with age, typically within gene clusters. We explored the effect of short-term (3 months) graded calorie restriction (CR) (up to 40 %) on network structure of aging-associated genes in the murine hypothalamus by using conditional mutual information. The networks showed a topological rearrangement when exposed to graded CR with a higher relative within cluster connectivity at 40CR. We observed changes in gene centrality concordant with changes in CR level, with Ppargc1a, and Ppt1 having increased centrality and Etfdh, Traf3 and Abcc1 decreased centrality as CR increased. This change in gene centrality in a graded manner with CR, occurred in the absence of parallel changes in gene expression levels. This study emphasizes the importance of augmenting traditional differential gene expression analyses to better understand structural changes in the transcriptome. Overall our results suggested that CR induced changes in centrality of biological relevant genes that play an important role in preventing the age-associated loss of network integrity irrespective of their gene expression levels. PMID:27115072

  12. Calorie restriction as an anti-invasive therapy for malignant brain cancer in the VM mouse.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Laura M; Huysentruyt, Leanne C; Mukherjee, Purna; Seyfried, Thomas N

    2010-07-23

    GBM (glioblastoma multiforme) is the most aggressive and invasive form of primary human brain cancer. We recently developed a novel brain cancer model in the inbred VM mouse strain that shares several characteristics with human GBM. Using bioluminescence imaging, we tested the efficacy of CR (calorie restriction) for its ability to reduce tumour size and invasion. CR targets glycolysis and rapid tumour cell growth in part by lowering circulating glucose levels. The VM-M3 tumour cells were implanted intracerebrally in the syngeneic VM mouse host. Approx. 12-15 days post-implantation, brains were removed and both ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres were imaged to measure bioluminescence of invading tumour cells. CR significantly reduced the invasion of tumour cells from the implanted ipsilateral hemisphere into the contralateral hemisphere. The total percentage of Ki-67-stained cells within the primary tumour and the total number of blood vessels was also significantly lower in the CR-treated mice than in the mice fed ad libitum, suggesting that CR is anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic. Our findings indicate that the VM-M3 GBM model is a valuable tool for studying brain tumour cell invasion and for evaluating potential therapeutic approaches for managing invasive brain cancer. In addition, we show that CR can be effective in reducing malignant brain tumour growth and invasion.

  13. Epigenetic aging signatures in mice livers are slowed by dwarfism, calorie restriction and rapamycin treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tina; Tsui, Brian; Kreisberg, Jason F; Robertson, Neil A; Gross, Andrew M; Yu, Michael Ku; Carter, Hannah; Brown-Borg, Holly M; Adams, Peter D; Ideker, Trey

    2017-03-28

    Global but predictable changes impact the DNA methylome as we age, acting as a type of molecular clock. This clock can be hastened by conditions that decrease lifespan, raising the question of whether it can also be slowed, for example, by conditions that increase lifespan. Mice are particularly appealing organisms for studies of mammalian aging; however, epigenetic clocks have thus far been formulated only in humans. We first examined whether mice and humans experience similar patterns of change in the methylome with age. We found moderate conservation of CpG sites for which methylation is altered with age, with both species showing an increase in methylome disorder during aging. Based on this analysis, we formulated an epigenetic-aging model in mice using the liver methylomes of 107 mice from 0.2 to 26.0 months old. To examine whether epigenetic aging signatures are slowed by longevity-promoting interventions, we analyzed 28 additional methylomes from mice subjected to lifespan-extending conditions, including Prop1 df/df dwarfism, calorie restriction or dietary rapamycin. We found that mice treated with these lifespan-extending interventions were significantly younger in epigenetic age than their untreated, wild-type age-matched controls. This study shows that lifespan-extending conditions can slow molecular changes associated with an epigenetic clock in mice livers.

  14. Calorie restriction hysteretically primes aging Saccharomyces cerevisiae toward more effective oxidative metabolism.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Erich B; Cunha, Fernanda M; Basso, Thiago O; Della Bianca, Bianca E; Gombert, Andreas K; Kowaltowski, Alicia J

    2013-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is an intervention known to extend the lifespan of a wide variety of organisms. In S. cerevisiae, chronological lifespan is prolonged by decreasing glucose availability in the culture media, a model for CR. The mechanism has been proposed to involve an increase in the oxidative (versus fermentative) metabolism of glucose. Here, we measured wild-type and respiratory incompetent (ρ(0)) S. cerevisiae biomass formation, pH, oxygen and glucose consumption, and the evolution of ethanol, glycerol, acetate, pyruvate and succinate levels during the course of 28 days of chronological aging, aiming to identify metabolic changes responsible for the effects of CR. The concomitant and quantitative measurements allowed for calculations of conversion factors between different pairs of substrates and products, maximum specific substrate consumption and product formation rates and maximum specific growth rates. Interestingly, we found that the limitation of glucose availability in CR S. cerevisiae cultures hysteretically increases oxygen consumption rates many hours after the complete exhaustion of glucose from the media. Surprisingly, glucose-to-ethanol conversion and cellular growth supported by glucose were not quantitatively altered by CR. Instead, we found that CR primed the cells for earlier, faster and more efficient metabolism of respiratory substrates, especially ethanol. Since lifespan-enhancing effects of CR are absent in respiratory incompetent ρ(0) cells, we propose that the hysteretic effect of glucose limitation on oxidative metabolism is central toward chronological lifespan extension by CR in this yeast.

  15. Autophagy and leucine promote chronological longevity and respiration proficiency during calorie restriction in yeast.

    PubMed

    Aris, John P; Alvers, Ashley L; Ferraiuolo, Roy A; Fishwick, Laura K; Hanvivatpong, Amanda; Hu, Doreen; Kirlew, Christine; Leonard, Michael T; Losin, Kyle J; Marraffini, Michelle; Seo, Arnold Y; Swanberg, Veronica; Westcott, Jennifer L; Wood, Michael S; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Dunn, William A

    2013-10-01

    We have previously shown that autophagy is required for chronological longevity in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we examine the requirements for autophagy during extension of chronological life span (CLS) by calorie restriction (CR). We find that autophagy is upregulated by two CR interventions that extend CLS: water wash CR and low glucose CR. Autophagy is required for full extension of CLS during water wash CR under all growth conditions tested. In contrast, autophagy was not uniformly required for full extension of CLS during low glucose CR, depending on the atg allele and strain genetic background. Leucine status influenced CLS during CR. Eliminating the leucine requirement in yeast strains or adding supplemental leucine to growth media extended CLS during CR. In addition, we observed that both water wash and low glucose CR promote mitochondrial respiration proficiency during aging of autophagy-deficient yeast. In general, the extension of CLS by water wash or low glucose CR was inversely related to respiration deficiency in autophagy-deficient cells. Also, autophagy is required for full extension of CLS under non-CR conditions in buffered media, suggesting that extension of CLS during CR is not solely due to reduced medium acidity. Thus, our findings show that autophagy is: (1) induced by CR, (2) required for full extension of CLS by CR in most cases (depending on atg allele, strain, and leucine availability) and, (3) promotes mitochondrial respiration proficiency during aging under CR conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Autophagy and leucine promote chronological longevity and respiration proficiency during calorie restriction in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Aris, John P.; Alvers, Ashley L.; Ferraiuolo, Roy A.; Fishwick, Laura K.; Hanvivatpong, Amanda; Hu, Doreen; Kirlew, Christine; Leonard, Michael T.; Losin, Kyle J.; Marraffini, Michelle; Seo, Arnold Y.; Swanberg, Veronica; Westcott, Jennifer L.; Wood, Michael S.; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Dunn, William A.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that autophagy is required for chronological longevity in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we examine the requirements for autophagy during extension of chronological life span (CLS) by calorie restriction (CR). We find that autophagy is upregulated by two CR interventions that extend CLS: water wash CR and low glucose CR. Autophagy is required for full extension of CLS during water wash CR under all growth conditions tested. In contrast, autophagy was not uniformly required for full extension of CLS during low glucose CR, depending on the atg allele and strain genetic background. Leucine status influenced CLS during CR. Eliminating the leucine requirement in yeast strains or adding supplemental leucine to growth media extended CLS during CR. In addition, we observed that both water wash and low glucose CR promote mitochondrial respiration proficiency during aging of autophagy-deficient yeast. In general, the extension of CLS by water wash or low glucose CR was inversely related to respiration deficiency in autophagy-deficient cells. Also, autophagy is required for full extension of CLS under non-CR conditions in buffered media, suggesting that extension of CLS during CR is not solely due to reduced medium acidity. Thus, our findings show that autophagy is: (1) induced by CR, (2) required for full extension of CLS by CR in most cases (depending on atg allele, strain, and leucine availability) and, (3) promotes mitochondrial respiration proficiency during aging under CR conditions. PMID:23337777

  17. Effect of low-calorie versus low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Talib A; Mathew, Thazhumpal C; Dashti, Ali A; Asfar, Sami; Al-Zaid, Naji; Dashti, Hussein M

    2012-10-01

    Effective diabetic management requires reasonable weight control. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown the beneficial effects of a low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (LCKD) in patients with type 2 diabetes after its long term administration. Furthermore, it favorably alters the cardiac risk factors even in hyperlipidemic obese subjects. These studies have indicated that, in addition to decreasing body weight and improving glycemia, LCKD can be effective in decreasing antidiabetic medication dosage. Similar to the LCKD, the conventional low-calorie, high nutritional value diet is also used for weight loss. The purpose of this study was to understand the beneficial effects of LCKD compared with the low-calorie diet (LCD) in improving glycemia. Three hundred and sixty-three overweight and obese participants were recruited from the Al-Shaab Clinic for a 24-wk diet intervention trial; 102 of them had type 2 diabetes. The participants were advised to choose LCD or LDKD, depending on their preference. Body weight, body mass index, changes in waist circumference, blood glucose level, changes in hemoglobin and glycosylated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, uric acid, urea and creatinine were determined before and at 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 wk after the administration of the LCD or LCKD. The initial dose of some antidiabetic medications was decreased to half and some were discontinued at the beginning of the dietary program in the LCKD group. Dietary counseling and further medication adjustment were done on a biweekly basis. The LCD and LCKD had beneficial effects on all the parameters examined. Interestingly, these changes were more significant in subjects who were on the LCKD as compared with those on the LCD. Changes in the level of creatinine were not statistically significant. This study shows the beneficial effects of a ketogenic diet over the conventional LCD in obese

  18. The experiences of women with polycystic ovary syndrome on a very low-calorie diet

    PubMed Central

    Love, John G; McKenzie, John S; Nikokavoura, Efsevia A; Broom, John; Rolland, Catherine; Johnston, Kelly L

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is variously reported to affect between 5% and 26% of reproductive age women in the UK and accounts for up to 75% of women attending fertility clinics due to anovulation. The first-line treatment option for overweight/obese women with PCOS is diet and lifestyle interventions. However, optimal dietary guidelines are missing, with very little research having been done in this area. This paper presents the findings from a qualitative study (using semistructured interviews) of ten obese women who had PCOS and who had used LighterLife Total (LLT), a commercial weight loss program which utilizes a very low-calorie diet in conjunction with behavioral change therapy underpinned by group support. We investigated the women’s history of obesity, their experiences of other diets compared with LLT, and the on-going impact that this has had on their lives. Findings show that most women reported greater success using this weight loss program in terms of achieving and maintaining weight loss when compared with other diets. Furthermore, all the women nominated LLT as their model weight loss intervention with only a few modifications. PMID:27499648

  19. The experiences of women with polycystic ovary syndrome on a very low-calorie diet.

    PubMed

    Love, John G; McKenzie, John S; Nikokavoura, Efsevia A; Broom, John; Rolland, Catherine; Johnston, Kelly L

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is variously reported to affect between 5% and 26% of reproductive age women in the UK and accounts for up to 75% of women attending fertility clinics due to anovulation. The first-line treatment option for overweight/obese women with PCOS is diet and lifestyle interventions. However, optimal dietary guidelines are missing, with very little research having been done in this area. This paper presents the findings from a qualitative study (using semistructured interviews) of ten obese women who had PCOS and who had used LighterLife Total (LLT), a commercial weight loss program which utilizes a very low-calorie diet in conjunction with behavioral change therapy underpinned by group support. We investigated the women's history of obesity, their experiences of other diets compared with LLT, and the on-going impact that this has had on their lives. Findings show that most women reported greater success using this weight loss program in terms of achieving and maintaining weight loss when compared with other diets. Furthermore, all the women nominated LLT as their model weight loss intervention with only a few modifications.

  20. Effect of 6-Month Calorie Restriction and Exercise on Serum and Liver Lipids and Markers of Liver Function

    PubMed Central

    Larson-Meyer, D. Enette; Newcomer, Bradley R.; Heilbronn, Leonie K.; Volaufova, Julia; Smith, Steven R.; Alfonso, Anthony J.; Lefevre, Michael; Rood, Jennifer C.; Williamson, Donald A.; Ravussin, Eric

    2009-01-01

    objective Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its association with insulin resistance are increasingly recognized as major health burdens. The main objectives of this study were to assess the relation between liver lipid content and serum lipids, markers of liver function and inflammation in healthy overweight subjects, and to determine whether caloric restriction (CR) (which improves insulin resistance) reduces liver lipids in association with these same measures. Methods and Procedures Forty-six white and black overweight men and women (BMI = 24.7-31.3 kg/m2) were randomized to “control (CO)” = 100% energy requirements; “CR” = 25%; “caloric restriction and increased structured exercise (CR+EX)”= 12.5% CR + 12.5% increase in energy expenditure through exercise; or “low-calorie diet (LCD)” = 15% weight loss by liquid diet followed by weight-maintenance, for 6 months. Liver lipid content was assessed by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and computed tomography (CT). Lipid concentrations, markers of liver function (alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALK)), and whole-body inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)) were measured in fasting blood. Results At baseline, increased liver lipid content (by MRS) correlated (P < 0.05) with elevated fasting triglyceride (r = 0.52), ALT (r = 0.42), and hsCRP (r = 0.33) concentrations after adjusting for sex, race, and alcohol consumption. With CR, liver lipid content was significantly lowered by CR, CR+EX, and LCD (detected by MRS only). The reduction in liver lipid content, however, was not significantly correlated with the reduction in triglycerides (r = 0.26; P = 0.11) or with the changes in ALT, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, or markers of whole-body inflammation. Discussion CR may be beneficial for reducing liver lipid and lowering triglycerides in overweight subjects without known NAFLD

  1. Diet matters: Glucocorticoid-related neuroadaptations associated with calorie intake in female rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Jodi R; Diaz, Maylen Perez; Pincus, Melanie; Kovacs-Balint, Zsofia; Feczko, Eric; Earl, Eric; Miranda-Dominguez, Oscar; Fair, Damien; Sanchez, Mar M; Wilson, Mark E; Michopoulos, Vasiliki

    2018-05-01

    Exposure to psychosocial stressors increases consumption of palatable, calorically dense diets (CDD) and the risk for obesity, especially in females. While consumption of an obesogenic diet and chronic stress have both been shown to decrease dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) binding and alter functional connectivity (FC) within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), it remains uncertain how social experience and dietary environment interact to affect reward pathways critical for the regulation of motivated behavior. Using positron emission tomography (PET) and resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance neuroimaging (rs-fMRI), in female rhesus monkeys maintained in a low calorie chow (n = 18) or a dietary choice condition (chow and a CDD; n = 16) for 12 months, the current study tested the overarching hypothesis that the adverse social experience resulting from subordinate social status would interact with consumption of an obesogenic diet to increase caloric intake that would be predicted by greater cortisol, lower prefrontal D2R binding potential (D2R-BP) and lower PFC-NAcc FC. Results showed that the consequences of adverse social experience imposed by chronic social subordination vary significantly depending on the dietary environment and are associated with alterations in prefrontal D2R-BP and FC in NAcc-PFC sub-regions that predict differences in caloric intake, body weight gain, and fat accumulation. Higher levels of cortisol in the chow-only condition were associated with mild inappetence, as well as increased orbitofrontal (OFC) D2R-BP and greater FC between the NAcc and the dorsolateral PFC (dlPFC) and ventromedial PFC (vmPFC). However, increased cortisol release in females in the dietary choice condition was associated with reduced prefrontal D2R-BP, and opposite FC between the NAcc and the vmPFC and dlPFC observed in the chow-only females. Importantly, the degree of these glucocorticoid-related neuroadaptations

  2. Acid-base safety during the course of a very low-calorie-ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Arbelaez, Diego; Crujeiras, Ana B; Castro, Ana I; Goday, Albert; Mas-Lorenzo, Antonio; Bellon, Ana; Tejera, Cristina; Bellido, Diego; Galban, Cristobal; Sajoux, Ignacio; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; Casanueva, Felipe F

    2017-10-01

    Very low-calorie ketogenic (VLCK) diets have been consistently shown to be an effective obesity treatment, but the current evidence for its acid-base safety is limited. The aim of the current work was to evaluate the acid-base status of obese patients during the course of a VLCK diet. Twenty obese participants undertook a VLCK diet for 4 months. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters, and venous blood gases were obtained on four subsequent visits: visit C-1 (baseline); visit C-2, (1-2 months); maximum ketosis; visit C-3 (2-3 months), ketosis declining; and visit C-4 at 4 months, no ketosis. Results were compared with 51 patients that had an episode of diabetic ketoacidosis as well as with a group that underwent a similar VLCK diet in real life conditions of treatment. Visit C1 blood pH (7.37 ± 0.03); plasma bicarbonate (24.7 ± 2.5 mmol/l); plasma glucose (96.0 ± 11.7 mg/l) as well as anion gap or osmolarity were not statistically modified at four months after a total weight reduction of 20.7 kg in average and were within the normal range throughout the study. Even at the point of maximum ketosis all variables measured were always far from the cut-off points established to diabetic ketoacidosis. During the course of a VLCK diet there were no clinically or statistically significant changes in glucose, blood pH, anion gap and plasma bicarbonate. Hence the VLCK diet can be considered as a safe nutritional intervention for the treatment of obesity in terms of acid-base equilibrium.

  3. Appetite and gut peptide responses to exercise and calorie restriction. The effect of modest energy deficits.

    PubMed

    Deighton, Kevin; Batterham, Rachel L; Stensel, David J

    2014-10-01

    Weight loss is the result of a sustained negative energy balance, which is typically achieved by decreasing food intake and/or increasing physical activity. Current evidence suggests that acute energy deficits of ~4820 kJ elicit contrasting homeostatic responses when induced by exercise and food restriction but the response to government-recommended energy deficits is unknown. Twelve healthy men (mean(SD): age 24(5) years, body mass index 23.8(2.7) kg⋅m(-2), maximum oxygen uptake 55.4(9.1) mL⋅kg(-1)⋅min(-1)) completed three 8 h trials (control (Con), exercise-induced energy deficit (Ex-Def) and food restriction (Food-Def)) separated by 1 week. Thirty minutes of cycling at 64.5(3.2)% of maximum oxygen uptake was performed in Ex-Def from 0 to 0.5 h, which induced an energy deficit of 1469(256) kJ. An equivalent energy deficit was induced in Food-Def (1478(275) kJ) by reducing the energy content of standardised test meals at 1 h and 4 h. Appetite ratings, acylated ghrelin and peptide YY3-36 concentrations were measured throughout each trial. An ad libitum meal was provided at 7 h. Appetite was higher in Food-Def than Ex-Def from 4 to 8 h (P = 0.033) and tended to be higher across the entire 8 h trial (P = 0.059). However, energy intake at the ad libitum meal did not differ between trials (P = 0.634; Con 4376 (1634); Food-Def 4481 (1846); Ex-Def 4217 (1850) kJ). Acylated ghrelin was not related to changes in appetite but plasma PYY3-36 concentrations were higher in Ex-Def than Food-Def (P < 0.05) and negatively correlated with changes in appetite across the entire 8 h trial (P = 0.037). An energy deficit of ~1475 kJ stimulated compensatory increases in appetite when induced via calorie restriction but not when achieved by an acute bout of exercise. Appetite responses were associated with changes in plasma PYY3-36 but not acylated ghrelin concentrations and did not influence subsequent energy intake. Copyright

  4. Regulation of Selenoproteins and Methionine Sulfoxide Reductases A and B1 by Age, Calorie Restriction, and Dietary Selenium in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Novoselov, Sergey V.; Kim, Hwa-Young; Hua, Deame; Lee, Byung Cheon; Astle, Clinton M.; Harrison, David E.; Friguet, Bertrand; Moustafa, Mohamed E.; Carlson, Bradley A.; Hatfield, Dolph L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Methionine residues are susceptible to oxidation, but this damage may be reversed by methionine sulfoxide reductases MsrA and MsrB. Mammals contain one MsrA and three MsrBs, including a selenoprotein MsrB1. Here, we show that MsrB1 is the major methionine sulfoxide reductase in liver of mice and it is among the proteins that are most easily regulated by dietary selenium. MsrB1, but not MsrA activities, were reduced with age, and the selenium regulation of MsrB1 was preserved in the aging liver, suggesting that MsrB1 could account for the impaired methionine sulfoxide reduction in aging animals. We also examined regulation of Msr and selenoprotein expression by a combination of dietary selenium and calorie restriction and found that, under calorie restriction conditions, selenium regulation was preserved. In addition, mice overexpressing a mutant form of selenocysteine tRNA reduced MsrB1 activity to the level observed in selenium deficiency, whereas MsrA activity was elevated in these animals. Finally, we show that selenium regulation in inbred mouse strains is preserved in an outbred aging model. Taken together, these findings better define dietary regulation of methionine sulfoxide reduction and selenoprotein expression in mice with regard to age, calorie restriction, dietary Se, and a combination of these factors. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 12, 829–838. PMID:19769460

  5. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: III. Impact of short term calorie and protein restriction on mean daily body temperature and torpor use in the C57BL/6 mouse

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Sharon E.; Delville, Camille; Konstantopedos, Penelope; Derous, Davina; Green, Cara L.; Chen, Luonan; Han, Jing-Dong J.; Wang, Yingchun; Promislow, Daniel E.L.; Douglas, Alex; Lusseau, David; Speakman, John R.

    2015-01-01

    A commonly observed response in mammals to calorie restriction (CR) is reduced body temperature (Tb). We explored how the Tb of male C57BL/6 mice responded to graded CR (10 to 40%), compared to the response to equivalent levels of protein restriction (PR) over 3 months. Under CR there was a dynamic change in daily Tb over the first 30–35 days, which stabilized thereafter until day 70 after which a further decline was noted. The time to reach stability was dependent on restriction level. Body mass negatively correlated with Tb under ad libitum feeding and positively correlated under CR. The average Tb over the last 20 days was significantly related to the levels of body fat, structural tissue, leptin and insulin-like growth factor-1. Some mice, particularly those under higher levels of CR, showed periods of daily torpor later in the restriction period. None of the changes in Tb under CR were recapitulated by equivalent levels of PR. We conclude that changes in Tb under CR are a response only to the shortfall in calorie intake. The linear relationship between average Tb and the level of restriction supports the idea that Tb changes are an integral aspect of the lifespan effect. PMID:26286956

  6. Calorie restriction in mice overexpressing UCP3: evidence that prior mitochondrial uncoupling alters response

    PubMed Central

    Estey, Carmen; Seifert, Erin L.; Aguer, Céline; Moffat, Cynthia; Harper, Mary-Ellen

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Calorie restriction (CR) without malnutrition is the only intervention to consistently increase lifespan in all species tested, and lower age-related pathologies in mammals including humans. It has been suggested that uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, using chemical uncouplers, mimics CR, and that overlapping mechanisms underlie the phenotypic changes induced by uncoupling and CR. We aimed to critically assess this using a unique mouse model of skeletal muscle-targeted UCP3-induced uncoupling (UCP3Tg), and focused our studies mainly on skeletal muscle mitochondria. Compared to ad libitum fed Wt mice, skeletal muscle mitochondria from ad libitum fed UCP3Tg mice showed higher basal uncoupling and lower H2O2 emission, with unchanged maximal oxidative phosphorylation, and mitochondrial content. UCP3Tg CR mice showed some tendency for differential adaptation to CR, with lowered H+ leak conductance and evidence for higher H2O2 emission from skeletal muscle mitochondria following 2 weeks CR, and failure to lower H2O2 emission after 1 month CR. Differential adaptation was also apparent at the whole body level: while UCP3Tg CR mice lost as much weight as Wt CR mice, the proportion of muscle lost was higher in UCP3Tg mice. However, a striking outcome of our studies was the absence of change with CR in many of the parameters of mitochondrial function and content that we measured in mice of either genotype. Overall, our study raises the question of whether CR can consistently modify skeletal muscle mitochondria; alterations with CR may only be apparent under certain conditions such as during the 2 wk CR intervention in the UCP3Tg mice. PMID:22406134

  7. Calorie restriction: A new therapeutic intervention for age-related dry eye disease in rats.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Motoko; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Okada, Naoko; Ogawa, Yoko; Murat, Dogru; Nakamura, Shigeru; Nakashima, Hideo; Shimmura, Shigeto; Shinmura, Ken; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2010-07-09

    A decrease in lacrimal gland secretory function is closely related to aging and leads to an increased prevalence of dry eye syndrome. Since calorie restriction (CR) is considered to prevent functional decline of various organs due to aging, we hypothesized that CR could prevent age-related lacrimal dysfunction. Six-month-old male Fischer 344 rats were randomly divided into ad libitum (AL) and CR (-35%) groups. After 6months of CR, tear function was examined under conscious state. After euthanasia, lacrimal glands were subjected to histological examination, tear protein secretion stimulation test with Carbachol, and assessment of oxidative stress with 8-hydroxy-2 deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) antibodies. CR significantly improved tear volume and tended to increase tear protein secretion volume after stimulation with Carbachol compared to AL. The acinar unit density was significantly higher in the CR rats compared to AL rats. Lacrimal glands in the CR rats showed a lesser degree of interstitial fibrosis. CR reduced the concentration of 8-OHdG and the extent of staining with HNE in the lacrimal gland, compared to AL. Furthermore, our electron microscopic observations showed that mitochondrial structure of the lacrimal gland obtained from the middle-aged CR rats was preserved in comparison to the AL rats. Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time that CR may attenuate oxidative stress related damage in the lacrimal gland with preservation of lacrimal gland functions. Although molecular mechanism(s) by which CR maintains lacrimal gland function remains to be resolved, CR might provide a novel therapeutic strategy for treating dry eye syndrome. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Calorie restriction in mice overexpressing UCP3: evidence that prior mitochondrial uncoupling alters response.

    PubMed

    Estey, Carmen; Seifert, Erin L; Aguer, Céline; Moffat, Cynthia; Harper, Mary-Ellen

    2012-05-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) without malnutrition is the only intervention to consistently increase lifespan in all species tested, and lower age-related pathologies in mammals including humans. It has been suggested that uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, using chemical uncouplers, mimics CR, and that overlapping mechanisms underlie the phenotypic changes induced by uncoupling and CR. We aimed to critically assess this using a unique mouse model of skeletal muscle-targeted UCP3-induced uncoupling (UCP3Tg), and focused our studies mainly on skeletal muscle mitochondria. Compared to ad libitum fed Wt mice, skeletal muscle mitochondria from ad libitum fed UCP3Tg mice showed higher basal uncoupling and lower H(2)O(2) emission, with unchanged maximal oxidative phosphorylation, and mitochondrial content. UCP3Tg CR mice showed some tendency for differential adaptation to CR, with lowered H(+) leak conductance and evidence for higher H(2)O(2) emission from skeletal muscle mitochondria following 2 weeks CR, and failure to lower H(2)O(2) emission after 1 month CR. Differential adaptation was also apparent at the whole body level: while UCP3Tg CR mice lost as much weight as Wt CR mice, the proportion of muscle lost was higher in UCP3Tg mice. However, a striking outcome of our studies was the absence of change with CR in many of the parameters of mitochondrial function and content that we measured in mice of either genotype. Overall, our study raises the question of whether CR can consistently modify skeletal muscle mitochondria; alterations with CR may only be apparent under certain conditions such as during the 2 wk CR intervention in the UCP3Tg mice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Neuroendocrine Factors in the Regulation of Inflammation: Excessive Adiposity and Calorie Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Fontana, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    Acute inflammation is usually a self-limited life preserving response, triggered by pathogens and/or traumatic injuries. This transient response normally leads to removal of harmful agents and to healing of the damaged tissues. In contrast, unchecked or chronic inflammation can lead to persistent tissue and organ damage by activated leukocytes, cytokines, or collagen deposition. Excessive energy intake and adiposity cause systemic inflammation, whereas calorie restriction without malnutrition exerts a potent anti-inflammatory effect. As individuals accumulate fat and their adipocytes enlarge, adipose tissue undergoes molecular and cellular alterations, macrophages accumulate, and inflammation ensues. Overweight/obese subjects have significantly higher plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein and several cytokines, including IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, and TNF-alpha. Experimental animals on a chronic CR regimen, instead, have low levels of circulating inflammatory cytokines, low blood lymphocyte levels, reduced production of inflammatory cytokines by the white blood cells in response to stimulation, and cortisol levels in the high normal range. Recent data demonstrate that CR exerts a powerful anti-inflammatory effect also in non-human primates and humans. Multiple metabolic and neuroendocrine mechanisms are responsible for the CR-mediated anti-inflammatory effects, including reduced adiposity and secretion of pro-inflammatory adipokines, enhanced glucocorticoid production, reduced plasma glucose and advanced glycation end-product concentrations, increased parasympathetic tone, and increased ghrelin production. Measuring tissue specific effects of CR using genomic, proteomic and metabolomic techniques in humans will foster the understanding of the complex biological processes involved in the anti-inflammatory and anti-aging effects of CR. PMID:18502597

  10. Calorie restriction: A new therapeutic intervention for age-related dry eye disease in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kawashima, Motoko; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Okada, Naoko

    A decrease in lacrimal gland secretory function is closely related to aging and leads to an increased prevalence of dry eye syndrome. Since calorie restriction (CR) is considered to prevent functional decline of various organs due to aging, we hypothesized that CR could prevent age-related lacrimal dysfunction. Six-month-old male Fischer 344 rats were randomly divided into ad libitum (AL) and CR (-35%) groups. After 6 months of CR, tear function was examined under conscious state. After euthanasia, lacrimal glands were subjected to histological examination, tear protein secretion stimulation test with Carbachol, and assessment of oxidative stress with 8-hydroxy-2 deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)more » and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) antibodies. CR significantly improved tear volume and tended to increase tear protein secretion volume after stimulation with Carbachol compared to AL. The acinar unit density was significantly higher in the CR rats compared to AL rats. Lacrimal glands in the CR rats showed a lesser degree of interstitial fibrosis. CR reduced the concentration of 8-OHdG and the extent of staining with HNE in the lacrimal gland, compared to AL. Furthermore, our electron microscopic observations showed that mitochondrial structure of the lacrimal gland obtained from the middle-aged CR rats was preserved in comparison to the AL rats. Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time that CR may attenuate oxidative stress related damage in the lacrimal gland with preservation of lacrimal gland functions. Although molecular mechanism(s) by which CR maintains lacrimal gland function remains to be resolved, CR might provide a novel therapeutic strategy for treating dry eye syndrome.« less

  11. Adaptive Stress Response in Segmental Progeria Resembles Long-Lived Dwarfism and Calorie Restriction in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Holcomb, Valerie B; von Lindern, Marieke; Jong, Willeke M. C; Zeeuw, Chris I. De; Suh, Yousin; Hasty, Paul; Hoeijmakers, Jan H. J; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T. J; Mitchell, James R

    2006-01-01

    How congenital defects causing genome instability can result in the pleiotropic symptoms reminiscent of aging but in a segmental and accelerated fashion remains largely unknown. Most segmental progerias are associated with accelerated fibroblast senescence, suggesting that cellular senescence is a likely contributing mechanism. Contrary to expectations, neither accelerated senescence nor acute oxidative stress hypersensitivity was detected in primary fibroblast or erythroblast cultures from multiple progeroid mouse models for defects in the nucleotide excision DNA repair pathway, which share premature aging features including postnatal growth retardation, cerebellar ataxia, and death before weaning. Instead, we report a prominent phenotypic overlap with long-lived dwarfism and calorie restriction during postnatal development (2 wk of age), including reduced size, reduced body temperature, hypoglycemia, and perturbation of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 neuroendocrine axis. These symptoms were also present at 2 wk of age in a novel progeroid nucleotide excision repair-deficient mouse model (XPDG602D/R722W/XPA−/−) that survived weaning with high penetrance. However, despite persistent cachectic dwarfism, blood glucose and serum insulin-like growth factor 1 levels returned to normal by 10 wk, with hypoglycemia reappearing near premature death at 5 mo of age. These data strongly suggest changes in energy metabolism as part of an adaptive response during the stressful period of postnatal growth. Interestingly, a similar perturbation of the postnatal growth axis was not detected in another progeroid mouse model, the double-strand DNA break repair deficient Ku80 −/− mouse. Specific (but not all) types of genome instability may thus engage a conserved response to stress that evolved to cope with environmental pressures such as food shortage. PMID:17173483

  12. Adaptive stress response in segmental progeria resembles long-lived dwarfism and calorie restriction in mice.

    PubMed

    van de Ven, Marieke; Andressoo, Jaan-Olle; Holcomb, Valerie B; von Lindern, Marieke; Jong, Willeke M C; De Zeeuw, Chris I; Suh, Yousin; Hasty, Paul; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T J; Mitchell, James R

    2006-12-15

    How congenital defects causing genome instability can result in the pleiotropic symptoms reminiscent of aging but in a segmental and accelerated fashion remains largely unknown. Most segmental progerias are associated with accelerated fibroblast senescence, suggesting that cellular senescence is a likely contributing mechanism. Contrary to expectations, neither accelerated senescence nor acute oxidative stress hypersensitivity was detected in primary fibroblast or erythroblast cultures from multiple progeroid mouse models for defects in the nucleotide excision DNA repair pathway, which share premature aging features including postnatal growth retardation, cerebellar ataxia, and death before weaning. Instead, we report a prominent phenotypic overlap with long-lived dwarfism and calorie restriction during postnatal development (2 wk of age), including reduced size, reduced body temperature, hypoglycemia, and perturbation of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 neuroendocrine axis. These symptoms were also present at 2 wk of age in a novel progeroid nucleotide excision repair-deficient mouse model (XPD(G602D/R722W)/XPA(-/-)) that survived weaning with high penetrance. However, despite persistent cachectic dwarfism, blood glucose and serum insulin-like growth factor 1 levels returned to normal by 10 wk, with hypoglycemia reappearing near premature death at 5 mo of age. These data strongly suggest changes in energy metabolism as part of an adaptive response during the stressful period of postnatal growth. Interestingly, a similar perturbation of the postnatal growth axis was not detected in another progeroid mouse model, the double-strand DNA break repair deficient Ku80(-/-) mouse. Specific (but not all) types of genome instability may thus engage a conserved response to stress that evolved to cope with environmental pressures such as food shortage.

  13. Predicted national productivity implications of calorie and sodium reductions in the American diet.

    PubMed

    Dall, Timothy M; Fulgoni, Victor L; Zhang, Yiduo; Reimers, Kristin J; Packard, Patricia T; Astwood, James D

    2009-01-01

    To model the potential long-term national productivity benefits from reduced daily intake of calories and sodium. Simulation based on secondary data analysis; quantitative research. Measures include absenteeism, presenteeism, disability, and premature mortality under various hypothetical dietary changes. United States. Two hundred twenty-five million adults. Findings come from a Nutrition Impact Model that combines information from national surveys, peer-reviewed studies, and government reports. We compare current estimates of national productivity loss associated with overweight, obesity, and hypertension to estimates for hypothetical scenarios in which national prevalence of these risk factors is lower. Using the simulation model, we illustrate how modest dietary change can achieve lower national prevalence of excess weight and hypertension. We estimate that permanent 100-kcal reductions in daily intake among the overweight/obese would eliminate approximately 71.2 million cases of overweight/obesity. In the long term, this could increase national productivity by $45.7 billion annually. Long-term sodium reductions of 400 mg in those with uncontrolled hypertension would eliminate about 1.5 million cases, potentially increasing productivity by $2.5 billion annually. More aggressive diet changes of 500 kcal and 1100 mg of sodium reductions yield potential productivity benefits of $133.3 and $5.8 billion, respectively. The potential long-term benefit of reduced calories and sodium, combining medical cost savings with productivity increases, ranges from $108.5 billion for moderate reductions to $255.6 billion for aggressive reductions. These findings help inform public health policy and the business case for improving diet. (AmJ Health Promot 2009;23[6]:423-430.)

  14. Very low-calorie ketogenic diet may allow restoring response to systemic therapy in relapsing plaque psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Castaldo, Giuseppe; Galdo, Giovanna; Rotondi Aufiero, Felice; Cereda, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic disease associated with overweight/obesity and related cardiometabolic complications. The link between these diseases is likely the inflammatory background associated with adipose tissue, particularly the visceral one. Accordingly, previous studies have demonstrated that in the long-term weight loss may improve the response to systemic therapies. We report a case report of a woman in her 40s suffering from relapsing moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis and obesity-related metabolic syndrome, in whom adequate response to ongoing treatment with biological therapy (adalimumab) was restored after only 4 weeks of very low-calorie, carbohydrate-free (ketogenic), protein-based diet. Accordingly, through rapid and consistent weight loss, very low calorie ketogenic diet may allow restoring a quick response to systemic therapy in a patient suffering from relapsing psoriasis. This intervention should be considered in overweight/obese patients before the rearrangement of systemic therapy. Nonetheless, studies are required to evaluate whether very low calorie ketogenic diets should be preferred to common low-calorie diets to improve the response to systemic therapy at least in patients with moderate-to-severe psoriasis. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Reserpine in weight reduction. The effect in obese patients on 1,000-calorie diets: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    SMITH, M C

    1959-10-01

    In a controlled study (the control group receiving pyribenzamine) it was observed that reserpine, in the dosage used, had no effect on weight loss in patients receiving d-amphetamine sulphate (Dexedrine(R)) and methyl cellulose (Cellothyl(R)) while on 1,000-calorie diets as compared with the control group. There was no observable difference in subjective feelings of the patients in the two groups. Reserpine had no effect on the length of time the patients remained on their diets.

  16. Distinct effects of calorie restriction on adipose tissue cytokine and angiogenesis profiles in obese and lean mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity associates with low-grade inflammation and adipose tissue remodeling. Using sensitive high-throughput protein arrays we here investigated adipose tissue cytokine and angiogenesis-related protein profiles from obese and lean mice, and in particular, the influence of calorie restriction (CR). Methods Tissue samples from visceral fat were harvested from obese mice fed with a high-fat diet (60% of energy), lean controls receiving low-fat control diet as well as from obese and lean mice kept under CR (energy intake 70% of ad libitum intake) for 50 days. Protein profiles were analyzed using mouse cytokine and angiogenesis protein array kits. Results In obese and lean mice, CR was associated with 11.3% and 15.6% reductions in body weight, as well as with 4.0% and 4.6% reductions in body fat percentage, respectively. Obesity induced adipose tissue cytokine expressions, the most highly upregulated cytokines being IL-1ra, IL-2, IL-16, MCP-1, MIG, RANTES, C5a, sICAM-1 and TIMP-1. CR increased sICAM-1 and TIMP-1 expression both in obese and lean mice. Overall, CR showed distinct effects on cytokine expressions; in obese mice CR largely decreased but in lean mice increased adipose tissue cytokine expressions. Obesity was also associated with increased expressions of angiogenesis-related proteins, in particular, angiogenin, endoglin, endostatin, endothelin-1, IGFBP-3, leptin, MMP-3, PAI-1, TIMP-4, CXCL16, platelet factor 4, DPPIV and coagulation factor III. CR increased endoglin, endostatin and platelet factor 4 expressions, and decreased IGFBP-3, NOV, MMP-9, CXCL16 and osteopontin expressions both in obese and lean mice. Interestingly, in obese mice, CR decreased leptin and TIMP-4 expressions, whereas in lean mice their expressions were increased. CR decreased MMP-3 and PAI-1 only in obese mice, whereas CR decreased FGF acidic, FGF basic and coagulation factor III, and increased angiogenin and DPPIV expression only in lean mice. Conclusions CR exerts

  17. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: II. Impact of short term calorie and protein restriction on circulating hormone levels, glucose homeostasis and oxidative stress in male C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Sharon E.; Delville, Camille; Konstantopedos, Penelope; Hurst, Jane; Derous, Davina; Green, Cara; Chen, Luonan; Han, Jackie J.D.; Wang, Yingchun; Promislow, Daniel E.L.; Lusseau, David; Douglas, Alex; Speakman, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Limiting food intake attenuates many of the deleterious effects of aging, impacting upon healthspan and leading to an increased lifespan. Whether it is the overall restriction of calories (calorie restriction: CR) or the incidental reduction in macronutrients such as protein (protein restriction: PR) that mediate these effects is unclear. The impact of 3 month CR or PR, (10 to 40%), on C57BL/6 mice was compared to controls fed ad libitum. Reductions in circulating leptin, tumor necrosis factor-α and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were relative to the level of CR and individually associated with morphological changes but remained unchanged following PR. Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were improved following CR but not affected by PR. There was no indication that CR had an effect on oxidative damage, however CR lowered antioxidant activity. No biomarkers of oxidative stress were altered by PR. CR significantly reduced levels of major urinary proteins suggesting lowered investment in reproduction. Results here support the idea that reduced adipokine levels, improved insulin/IGF-1 signaling and reduced reproductive investment play important roles in the beneficial effects of CR while, in the short-term, attenuation of oxidative damage is not applicable. None of the positive effects were replicated with PR. PMID:26061745

  18. A paleolithic diet is more satiating per calorie than a mediterranean-like diet in individuals with ischemic heart disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Mediterranean group. Changes in leptin receptor and free leptin index were not significant. Conclusions A Paleolithic diet is more satiating per calorie than a Mediterranean-like diet. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00419497 PMID:21118562

  19. A paleolithic diet is more satiating per calorie than a mediterranean-like diet in individuals with ischemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, Tommy; Granfeldt, Yvonne; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte; Ahrén, Bo; Lindeberg, Staffan

    2010-11-30

    receptor and free leptin index were not significant. A Paleolithic diet is more satiating per calorie than a Mediterranean-like diet. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00419497.

  20. Rice- or pork-based diets with similar calorie and content result in different rat gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiaozhe; Xu, Wentao; Guo, Mingzhang; Chen, Siyuan; Liu, Yifei; He, Xiaoyun; Huang, Kunlun

    2017-11-01

    Rice is the most important food crop, and pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world. In this study, we compared the gut microbiota of the rats fed with rice or pork mixed diets, which have similar caloric contents. The physiological indices (body weights, hematology, serum chemistry, organ weights and histopathology) of two groups were all within the normal range. Two diets did not induce difference in the diversity of gut bacteria. However, Firmicutes were significantly higher in rice diet group, while Bacteroidetes were enriched in pork diet group. Butyrate and the bacteria enzymes β-glucuronidase, β-glucosidase and nitroreductase in the feces were all drastically higher in pork diet group. This study indicates that different diets with similar calorie and nutritional composition could change the community structure but not the diversity of rat fecal microbiota.

  1. Reduced bone mineral density is not associated with significantly reduced bone quality in men and women practicing long-term calorie restriction with adequate nutrition.

    PubMed

    Villareal, Dennis T; Kotyk, John J; Armamento-Villareal, Reina C; Kenguva, Venkata; Seaman, Pamela; Shahar, Allon; Wald, Michael J; Kleerekoper, Michael; Fontana, Luigi

    2011-02-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) reduces bone quantity but not bone quality in rodents. Nothing is known regarding the long-term effects of CR with adequate intake of vitamin and minerals on bone quantity and quality in middle-aged lean individuals. In this study, we evaluated body composition, bone mineral density (BMD), and serum markers of bone turnover and inflammation in 32 volunteers who had been eating a CR diet (approximately 35% less calories than controls) for an average of 6.8 ± 5.2 years (mean age 52.7 ± 10.3 years) and 32 age- and sex-matched sedentary controls eating Western diets (WD). In a subgroup of 10 CR and 10 WD volunteers, we also measured trabecular bone (TB) microarchitecture of the distal radius using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. We found that the CR volunteers had significantly lower body mass index than the WD volunteers (18.9 ± 1.2 vs. 26.5 ± 2.2 kg m(-2) ; P = 0.0001). BMD of the lumbar spine (0.870 ± 0.11 vs. 1.138 ± 0.12 g cm(-2) , P = 0.0001) and hip (0.806 ± 0.12 vs. 1.047 ± 0.12 g cm(-2) , P = 0.0001) was also lower in the CR than in the WD group. Serum C-terminal telopeptide and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase concentration were similar between groups, while serum C-reactive protein (0.19 ± 0.26 vs. 1.46 ± 1.56 mg L(-1) , P = 0.0001) was lower in the CR group. Trabecular bone microarchitecture parameters such as the erosion index (0.916 ± 0.087 vs. 0.877 ± 0.088; P = 0.739) and surface-to-curve ratio (10.3 ± 1.4 vs. 12.1 ± 2.1, P = 0.440) were not significantly different between groups. These findings suggest that markedly reduced BMD is not associated with significantly reduced bone quality in middle-aged men and women practicing long-term calorie restriction with adequate nutrition.

  2. Effects of anti-obesity drugs, diet, and exercise on weight-loss maintenance after a very-low-calorie diet or low-calorie diet: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Kari; Neovius, Martin; Hemmingsson, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Weight-loss maintenance remains a major challenge in obesity treatment. The objective was to evaluate the effects of anti-obesity drugs, diet, or exercise on weight-loss maintenance after an initial very-low-calorie diet (VLCD)/low-calorie diet (LCD) period (<1000 kcal/d). We conducted a systematic review by using MEDLINE, the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register, and EMBASE from January 1981 to February 2013. We included randomized controlled trials that evaluated weight-loss maintenance strategies after a VLCD/LCD period. Two authors performed independent data extraction by using a predefined data template. All pooled analyses were based on random-effects models. Twenty studies with a total of 27 intervention arms and 3017 participants were included with the following treatment categories: anti-obesity drugs (3 arms; n = 658), meal replacements (4 arms; n = 322), high-protein diets (6 arms; n = 865), dietary supplements (6 arms; n = 261), other diets (3 arms; n = 564), and exercise (5 arms; n = 347). During the VLCD/LCD period, the pooled mean weight change was -12.3 kg (median duration: 8 wk; range 3-16 wk). Compared with controls, anti-obesity drugs improved weight-loss maintenance by 3.5 kg [95% CI: 1.5, 5.5 kg; median duration: 18 mo (12-36 mo)], meal replacements by 3.9 kg [95% CI: 2.8, 5.0 kg; median duration: 12 mo (10-26 mo)], and high-protein diets by 1.5 kg [95% CI: 0.8, 2.1 kg; median duration: 5 mo (3-12 mo)]. Exercise [0.8 kg; 95% CI: -1.2, 2.8 kg; median duration: 10 mo (6-12 mo)] and dietary supplements [0.0 kg; 95% CI: -1.4, 1.4 kg; median duration: 3 mo (3-14 mo)] did not significantly improve weight-loss maintenance compared with control. Anti-obesity drugs, meal replacements, and high-protein diets were associated with improved weight-loss maintenance after a VLCD/LCD period, whereas no significant improvements were seen for dietary supplements and exercise.

  3. Effects of anti-obesity drugs, diet, and exercise on weight-loss maintenance after a very-low-calorie diet or low-calorie diet: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials123

    PubMed Central

    Neovius, Martin; Hemmingsson, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Background: Weight-loss maintenance remains a major challenge in obesity treatment. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the effects of anti-obesity drugs, diet, or exercise on weight-loss maintenance after an initial very-low-calorie diet (VLCD)/low-calorie diet (LCD) period (<1000 kcal/d). Design: We conducted a systematic review by using MEDLINE, the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register, and EMBASE from January 1981 to February 2013. We included randomized controlled trials that evaluated weight-loss maintenance strategies after a VLCD/LCD period. Two authors performed independent data extraction by using a predefined data template. All pooled analyses were based on random-effects models. Results: Twenty studies with a total of 27 intervention arms and 3017 participants were included with the following treatment categories: anti-obesity drugs (3 arms; n = 658), meal replacements (4 arms; n = 322), high-protein diets (6 arms; n = 865), dietary supplements (6 arms; n = 261), other diets (3 arms; n = 564), and exercise (5 arms; n = 347). During the VLCD/LCD period, the pooled mean weight change was −12.3 kg (median duration: 8 wk; range 3–16 wk). Compared with controls, anti-obesity drugs improved weight-loss maintenance by 3.5 kg [95% CI: 1.5, 5.5 kg; median duration: 18 mo (12–36 mo)], meal replacements by 3.9 kg [95% CI: 2.8, 5.0 kg; median duration: 12 mo (10–26 mo)], and high-protein diets by 1.5 kg [95% CI: 0.8, 2.1 kg; median duration: 5 mo (3–12 mo)]. Exercise [0.8 kg; 95% CI: −1.2, 2.8 kg; median duration: 10 mo (6–12 mo)] and dietary supplements [0.0 kg; 95% CI: −1.4, 1.4 kg; median duration: 3 mo (3–14 mo)] did not significantly improve weight-loss maintenance compared with control. Conclusion: Anti-obesity drugs, meal replacements, and high-protein diets were associated with improved weight-loss maintenance after a VLCD/LCD period, whereas no significant improvements were seen for dietary supplements and exercise. PMID:24172297

  4. Effects of low-calorie diet on steatohepatitis in rats with obesity and hyperlipidemia

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jian-Gao; Zhong, Lan; Xu, Zheng-Jie; Tia, Li-Yan; Ding, Xiao-Dong; Li, Min-Sheng; Wang, Guo-Liang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of low calorie diet (LCD) on nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in rats with obesity and hyperlipidemia. METHODS: 29 Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups. The animals in control (n = 9) and NASH group (n = 10) were fed on standard rat diet and high fat diet respectively for 12 weeks, ten rats in LCD group were fed on high fat diet for 10 weeks and then low calorie diet for 2 weeks. At the end of the experiment, body weight, abdominal adipose content, liver function, and hepatopathological changes were examined to evaluate the effect of different feeding protocols on the experimental animals. RESULTS: There was no death of animal in the experimental period. All rats in the NASH group developed steatohepatitis according to liver histological findings. Compared with the control group, body weight (423.5 ± 65.2 vs 351.1 ± 43.0 g, P < 0.05), abdominal adipose content (14.25 ± 1.86 vs 9.54 ± 1.43, P < 0.05), liver index (3.784 ± 0.533 vs 2.957 ± 0.301%, P < 0.01), total serum cholesterol (1.60 ± 0.41 vs 1.27 ± 0.17 mmol/L, P < 0.05) and free fatty acids (728.2 ± 178.5 vs 429.2 ± 96.7 mmol/L, P < 0.01), serum alanine aminotransferase (1257.51 ± 671.34 vs 671.34 ± 118.57 nkat/L, P < 0.05) and aspartic aminotransferse (2760.51 ± 998.66 vs 1648.29 ± 414.16 nkat/L, P < 0.01) were significantly increased in the NASH group. Whereas, when rats were fed on LCD protocol, their body weight (329.5 ± 38.4 g, P < 0.01), abdominal adipose content (310.21 ± 1.52 g, P < 0.05), liver index (3.199 ± 0.552%, P < 0.05), and serum alanine aminotransferase (683.03 ± 245.49 nkat/L, P < 0.05) were significantly decreased, and the degree of hepatic steatosis (P < 0.05) was markedly improved compared with those in the NASH group. However, no significant difference was found in serum lipid variables and hepatic inflammatory changes between the two groups. CONCLUSION: LCD might play a role in the prevention and treatment of

  5. Thidoredxin-2 overexpression fails to rescue chronic high calorie diet induced hippocampal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Yang, Ying; Dong, Hui; Cutler, Roy G; Strong, Randy; Mattson, Mark P

    2016-01-01

    A high calorie diet (HCD) can impair hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive function in animal models. Mitochondrial thioredoxin 2 (TRX-2) is critical for maintaining intracellular redox status, but whether it can protect against HCD-induced impairment of synaptic plasticity is unknown. We found that levels of TRX-2 are reduced in the hippocampus of wild type mice maintained for 8 months on a HCD, and that the mice on the HCD exhibit impaired hippocampal synaptic plasticity (long-term potentiation at CA1 synapses) and cognitive function (novel object recognition). Transgenic mice overexpressing human TRX-2 (hTRX-2) exhibit increased resistance to diquat-induced oxidative stress in peripheral tissues. However, neither the HCD nor hTRX-2 overexpression affected levels of lipid peroxidation products (F2 isoprostanes) in the hippocampus, and hTRX-2 transgenic mice were not protected against the adverse effects of the HCD on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive function. Our findings indicate that TRX-2 overexpression does not mitigate adverse effects of a HCD on synaptic plasticity, and also suggest that oxidative stress may not be a pivotal factor in the impairment of synaptic plasticity and cognitive function caused by HCDs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Very low calorie diet without aspartame in obese subjects: improved metabolic control after 4 weeks treatment.

    PubMed

    Norén, Erik; Forssell, Henrik

    2014-07-28

    Very low calorie diet (VLCD) is routinely used in programs for treatment of obesity and before bariatric surgery in order to reduce risk of postoperative complications. Aspartame, an artificial sweetener, is commonly used in VLCD and is well approved as a food additive without any adverse effects. The development of a new fructose containing VLCD formula without aspartame raises questions as to effects on glucose and lipid control. As part of an ongoing study of a novel bariatric surgery procedure, twenty-five obese subjects with mean body mass index (BMI) 39.8 kg/m2 and mean age of 48.8 years enrolled in a single center observational study. Seven subjects presented with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The subjects underwent four weeks dietary treatment with VLCD Slanka (Slanka). Blood samples including fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, cholesterol and triglycerides were performed at start and after four weeks of diet. Blood pressure and weight were noted. All subjects completed the diet without any adverse events. Mean weight reduction was 8.2 kg with 95% confidence interval 7.1-9.2 kg (p = 0.001). Excess weight (i.e. proportion of weight exceeding BMI 25) loss decreased by median 19.5% (inter quartile range (IQR) 16,8-24,2). Median fasting plasma glucose was at inclusion 5,6 mmol/l (IQR 5,3-6,8) and after diet 4.8 mmol/l (IQR 4,6-5,2) (p = 0.001). Median HbA1c changed from 39 mmol/mol (IQR 37-44) to 37 mmol/mol (IQR 35-43) (p = 0.001). There was also significant reduction in cholesterol and triglyceride levels as well as in systolic blood pressure. Changes in other monitored blood chemistry values were without clinical importance. Four weeks treatment with fructose containing VLCD of obese subjects preparing for bariatric surgery gave a substantial weight reduction without any significant negative metabolic effects.

  7. Very low calorie diet without aspartame in obese subjects: improved metabolic control after 4 weeks treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Very low calorie diet (VLCD) is routinely used in programs for treatment of obesity and before bariatric surgery in order to reduce risk of postoperative complications. Aspartame, an artificial sweetener, is commonly used in VLCD and is well approved as a food additive without any adverse effects. The development of a new fructose containing VLCD formula without aspartame raises questions as to effects on glucose and lipid control. Methods As part of an ongoing study of a novel bariatric surgery procedure, twenty-five obese subjects with mean body mass index (BMI) 39.8 kg/m2 and mean age of 48.8 years enrolled in a single center observational study. Seven subjects presented with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The subjects underwent four weeks dietary treatment with VLCD Slanka (Slanka®). Blood samples including fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, cholesterol and triglycerides were performed at start and after four weeks of diet. Blood pressure and weight were noted. Results All subjects completed the diet without any adverse events. Mean weight reduction was 8.2 kg with 95% confidence interval 7.1–9.2 kg (p = 0.001). Excess weight (i.e. proportion of weight exceeding BMI 25) loss decreased by median 19.5% (inter quartile range (IQR) 16,8-24,2). Median fasting plasma glucose was at inclusion 5,6 mmol/l (IQR 5,3-6,8) and after diet 4.8 mmol/l (IQR 4,6-5,2) (p = 0.001). Median HbA1c changed from 39 mmol/mol (IQR 37–44) to 37 mmol/mol (IQR 35–43) (p = 0.001). There was also significant reduction in cholesterol and triglyceride levels as well as in systolic blood pressure. Changes in other monitored blood chemistry values were without clinical importance. Conclusion Four weeks treatment with fructose containing VLCD of obese subjects preparing for bariatric surgery gave a substantial weight reduction without any significant negative metabolic effects. PMID:25069603

  8. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: IV. Non-linear change in behavioural phenotype of mice in response to short-term calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    Lusseau, David; Mitchell, Sharon E; Barros, Ceres; Derous, Davina; Green, Cara; Chen, Luonan; Han, Jing-Dong Jackie; Wang, Yingchun; Promislow, Daniel E L; Douglas, Alex; Speakman, John R

    2015-08-25

    Animals have to adjust their activities when faced with caloric restriction (CR) to deal with reduced energy intake. If CR is pronounced, allostasis can push individuals into alternate physiological states which can result in important health benefits across a wide range of taxa. Here we developed a new approach to determine the changes in behavioural phenotype associated with different levels of CR. We exposed C57BL/6 male mice to graded CR (from 0 to 40%) for three months and defined their behavioural phenotype using hidden Markov models of their movement and body temperature. All 40% CR mice exhibited a state-shift in behavioural phenotype and only some exposed to 30% CR did. We show for the first time that mice changed their activity characteristics rather than changed their activities. This new phenotyping approach provides an avenue to determine the mechanisms linking CR to healthspan.

  9. The low-methionine content of vegan diets may make methionine restriction feasible as a life extension strategy.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F; Barroso-Aranda, Jorge; Contreras, Francisco

    2009-02-01

    Recent studies confirm that dietary methionine restriction increases both mean and maximal lifespan in rats and mice, achieving "aging retardant" effects very similar to those of caloric restriction, including a suppression of mitochondrial superoxide generation. Although voluntary caloric restriction is never likely to gain much popularity as a pro-longevity strategy for humans, it may be more feasible to achieve moderate methionine restriction, in light of the fact that vegan diets tend to be relatively low in this amino acid. Plant proteins - especially those derived from legumes or nuts - tend to be lower in methionine than animal proteins. Furthermore, the total protein content of vegan diets, as a function of calorie content, tends to be lower than that of omnivore diets, and plant protein has somewhat lower bioavailability than animal protein. Whole-food vegan diets that moderate bean and soy intake, while including ample amounts of fruit and wine or beer, can be quite low in methionine, while supplying abundant nutrition for health (assuming concurrent B12 supplementation). Furthermore, low-fat vegan diets, coupled with exercise training, can be expected to promote longevity by decreasing systemic levels of insulin and free IGF-I; the latter effect would be amplified by methionine restriction - though it is not clear whether IGF-I down-regulation is the sole basis for the impact of low-methionine diets on longevity in rodents.

  10. A Natural Polymorphism in rDNA Replication Origins Links Origin Activation with Calorie Restriction and Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Elizabeth X.; Foss, Eric J.; Tsuchiyama, Scott; Alvino, Gina M.; Kruglyak, Leonid; Kaeberlein, Matt; Raghuraman, M. K.; Brewer, Bonita J.; Kennedy, Brian K.; Bedalov, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Aging and longevity are complex traits influenced by genetic and environmental factors. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control replicative lifespan, we employed an outbred Saccharomyces cerevisiae model, generated by crossing a vineyard and a laboratory strain. The predominant QTL mapped to the rDNA, with the vineyard rDNA conferring a lifespan increase of 41%. The lifespan extension was independent of Sir2 and Fob1, but depended on a polymorphism in the rDNA origin of replication from the vineyard strain that reduced origin activation relative to the laboratory origin. Strains carrying vineyard rDNA origins have increased capacity for replication initiation at weak plasmid and genomic origins, suggesting that inability to complete genome replication presents a major impediment to replicative lifespan. Calorie restriction, a conserved mediator of lifespan extension that is also independent of Sir2 and Fob1, reduces rDNA origin firing in both laboratory and vineyard rDNA. Our results are consistent with the possibility that calorie restriction, similarly to the vineyard rDNA polymorphism, modulates replicative lifespan through control of rDNA origin activation, which in turn affects genome replication dynamics. PMID:23505383

  11. A natural polymorphism in rDNA replication origins links origin activation with calorie restriction and lifespan.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Elizabeth X; Foss, Eric J; Tsuchiyama, Scott; Alvino, Gina M; Kruglyak, Leonid; Kaeberlein, Matt; Raghuraman, M K; Brewer, Bonita J; Kennedy, Brian K; Bedalov, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Aging and longevity are complex traits influenced by genetic and environmental factors. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control replicative lifespan, we employed an outbred Saccharomyces cerevisiae model, generated by crossing a vineyard and a laboratory strain. The predominant QTL mapped to the rDNA, with the vineyard rDNA conferring a lifespan increase of 41%. The lifespan extension was independent of Sir2 and Fob1, but depended on a polymorphism in the rDNA origin of replication from the vineyard strain that reduced origin activation relative to the laboratory origin. Strains carrying vineyard rDNA origins have increased capacity for replication initiation at weak plasmid and genomic origins, suggesting that inability to complete genome replication presents a major impediment to replicative lifespan. Calorie restriction, a conserved mediator of lifespan extension that is also independent of Sir2 and Fob1, reduces rDNA origin firing in both laboratory and vineyard rDNA. Our results are consistent with the possibility that calorie restriction, similarly to the vineyard rDNA polymorphism, modulates replicative lifespan through control of rDNA origin activation, which in turn affects genome replication dynamics.

  12. Assimilation of Endogenous Nicotinamide Riboside Is Essential for Calorie Restriction-mediated Life Span Extension in Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shu-Ping; Kato, Michiko; Lin, Su-Ju

    2009-01-01

    NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) is an essential cofactor involved in various biological processes including calorie restriction-mediated life span extension. Administration of nicotinamide riboside (NmR) has been shown to ameliorate deficiencies related to aberrant NAD+ metabolism in both yeast and mammalian cells. However, the biological role of endogenous NmR remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that salvaging endogenous NmR is an integral part of NAD+ metabolism. A balanced NmR salvage cycle is essential for calorie restriction-induced life span extension and stress resistance in yeast. Our results also suggest that partitioning of the pyridine nucleotide flux between the classical salvage cycle and the NmR salvage branch might be modulated by the NAD+-dependent Sir2 deacetylase. Furthermore, two novel deamidation steps leading to nicotinic acid mononucleotide and nicotinic acid riboside production are also uncovered that further underscore the complexity and flexibility of NAD+ metabolism. In addition, utilization of extracellular nicotinamide mononucleotide requires prior conversion to NmR mediated by a periplasmic phosphatase Pho5. Conversion to NmR may thus represent a strategy for the transport and assimilation of large nonpermeable NAD+ precursors. Together, our studies provide a molecular basis for how NAD+ homeostasis factors confer metabolic flexibility. PMID:19416965

  13. Assimilation of endogenous nicotinamide riboside is essential for calorie restriction-mediated life span extension in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shu-Ping; Kato, Michiko; Lin, Su-Ju

    2009-06-19

    NAD(+) (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) is an essential cofactor involved in various biological processes including calorie restriction-mediated life span extension. Administration of nicotinamide riboside (NmR) has been shown to ameliorate deficiencies related to aberrant NAD(+) metabolism in both yeast and mammalian cells. However, the biological role of endogenous NmR remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that salvaging endogenous NmR is an integral part of NAD(+) metabolism. A balanced NmR salvage cycle is essential for calorie restriction-induced life span extension and stress resistance in yeast. Our results also suggest that partitioning of the pyridine nucleotide flux between the classical salvage cycle and the NmR salvage branch might be modulated by the NAD(+)-dependent Sir2 deacetylase. Furthermore, two novel deamidation steps leading to nicotinic acid mononucleotide and nicotinic acid riboside production are also uncovered that further underscore the complexity and flexibility of NAD(+) metabolism. In addition, utilization of extracellular nicotinamide mononucleotide requires prior conversion to NmR mediated by a periplasmic phosphatase Pho5. Conversion to NmR may thus represent a strategy for the transport and assimilation of large nonpermeable NAD(+) precursors. Together, our studies provide a molecular basis for how NAD(+) homeostasis factors confer metabolic flexibility.

  14. Effects of Popular Diets without Specific Calorie Targets on Weight Loss Outcomes: Systematic Review of Findings from Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Stephen D.; Hida, Azumi; Heekin, Kacey; Sowalsky, Kristen; Karabetian, Christy; Mutchie, Heather; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Manini, Todd M.; Barnett, Tracey E.

    2017-01-01

    The present review examined the evidence base for current popular diets, as listed in the 2016 U.S. News & World Report, on short-term (≤six months) and long-term (≥one year) weight loss outcomes in overweight and obese adults. For the present review, all diets in the 2016 U.S. News & World Report Rankings for “Best Weight-Loss Diets”, which did not involve specific calorie targets, meal replacements, supplementation with commercial products, and/or were not categorized as “low-calorie” diets were examined. Of the 38 popular diets listed in the U.S. News & World Report, 20 met our pre-defined criteria. Literature searches were conducted through PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science using preset key terms to identify all relevant clinical trials for these 20 diets. A total of 16 articles were identified which reported findings of clinical trials for seven of these 20 diets: (1) Atkins; (2) Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH); (3) Glycemic-Index; (4) Mediterranean; (5) Ornish; (6) Paleolithic; and (7) Zone. Of the diets evaluated, the Atkins Diet showed the most evidence in producing clinically meaningful short-term (≤six months) and long-term (≥one-year) weight loss. Other popular diets may be equally or even more effective at producing weight loss, but this is unknown at the present time since there is a paucity of studies on these diets. PMID:28758964

  15. RESERPINE IN WEIGHT REDUCTION—The Effect in Obese Patients on 1,000-Calorie Diets: A Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Maurice C.

    1959-01-01

    In a controlled study (the control group receiving pyribenzamine) it was observed that reserpine, in the dosage used, had no effect on weight loss in patients receiving d-amphetamine sulphate (Dexedrine®) and methyl cellulose (Cellothyl®) while on 1,000-calorie diets as compared with the control group. There was no observable difference in subjective feelings of the patients in the two groups. Reserpine had no effect on the length of time the patients remained on their diets. PMID:13832087

  16. Comparison of High-Protein, Intermittent Fasting Low-Calorie Diet and Heart Healthy Diet for Vascular Health of the Obese

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Li; He, Feng; Tinsley, Grant M.; Pannell, Benjamin K.; Ward, Emery; Arciero, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: It has been debated whether different diets are more or less effective in long-term weight loss success and cardiovascular disease prevention among men and women. To further explore these questions, the present study evaluated the combined effects of a high-protein, intermittent fasting, low-calorie diet plan compared with a heart healthy diet plan during weight loss, and weight loss maintenance on blood lipids and vascular compliance of obese individuals. Methods: The experiment involved 40 obese adults (men, n = 21; women, n = 19) and was divided into two phases: (a) 12-week high-protein, intermittent fasting, low-calorie weight loss diet comparing men and women (Phase 1) and (b) a 1-year weight maintenance phase comparing high-protein, intermittent fasting with a heart healthy diet (Phase 2). Body weight, body mass index (BMI), blood lipids, and arterial compliance outcomes were assessed at weeks 1 (baseline control), 12 (weight loss), and 64 (12 + 52 week; weight loss maintenance). Results: At the end of weight loss intervention, concomitant reductions in body weight, BMI and blood lipids were observed, as well as enhanced arterial compliance. No sex-specific differences in responses were observed. During phase 2, the high-protein, intermittent fasting group demonstrated a trend for less regain in BMI, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and aortic pulse wave velocity than the heart healthy group. Conclusion: Our results suggest that a high-protein, intermittent fasting and low-calorie diet is associated with similar reductions in BMI and blood lipids in obese men and women. This diet also demonstrated an advantage in minimizing weight regain as well as enhancing arterial compliance as compared to a heart healthy diet after 1 year. PMID:27621707

  17. Comparison of High-Protein, Intermittent Fasting Low-Calorie Diet and Heart Healthy Diet for Vascular Health of the Obese.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Li; He, Feng; Tinsley, Grant M; Pannell, Benjamin K; Ward, Emery; Arciero, Paul J

    2016-01-01

    It has been debated whether different diets are more or less effective in long-term weight loss success and cardiovascular disease prevention among men and women. To further explore these questions, the present study evaluated the combined effects of a high-protein, intermittent fasting, low-calorie diet plan compared with a heart healthy diet plan during weight loss, and weight loss maintenance on blood lipids and vascular compliance of obese individuals. The experiment involved 40 obese adults (men, n = 21; women, n = 19) and was divided into two phases: (a) 12-week high-protein, intermittent fasting, low-calorie weight loss diet comparing men and women (Phase 1) and (b) a 1-year weight maintenance phase comparing high-protein, intermittent fasting with a heart healthy diet (Phase 2). Body weight, body mass index (BMI), blood lipids, and arterial compliance outcomes were assessed at weeks 1 (baseline control), 12 (weight loss), and 64 (12 + 52 week; weight loss maintenance). At the end of weight loss intervention, concomitant reductions in body weight, BMI and blood lipids were observed, as well as enhanced arterial compliance. No sex-specific differences in responses were observed. During phase 2, the high-protein, intermittent fasting group demonstrated a trend for less regain in BMI, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and aortic pulse wave velocity than the heart healthy group. Our results suggest that a high-protein, intermittent fasting and low-calorie diet is associated with similar reductions in BMI and blood lipids in obese men and women. This diet also demonstrated an advantage in minimizing weight regain as well as enhancing arterial compliance as compared to a heart healthy diet after 1 year.

  18. An observational study of sequential protein-sparing, very low-calorie ketogenic diet (Oloproteic diet) and hypocaloric Mediterranean-like diet for the treatment of obesity.

    PubMed

    Castaldo, Giuseppe; Monaco, Luigi; Castaldo, Laura; Galdo, Giovanna; Cereda, Emanuele

    2016-09-01

    The impact of a rehabilitative multi-step dietary program consisting in different diets has been scantily investigated. In an open-label study, 73 obese patients underwent a two-phase weight loss (WL) program: a 3-week protein-sparing, very low-calorie, ketogenic diet (<500 kcal/day; Oloproteic(®) Diet) and a 6-week hypocaloric (25-30 kcal/kg of ideal body weight/day), low glycemic index, Mediterranean-like diet (hypo-MD). Both phases improved visceral adiposity, liver enzymes, GH levels, blood pressure and glucose and lipid metabolism. However, the hypo-MD was responsible for a re-increase in blood lipids and glucose tolerance parameters. Changes in visceral adiposity and glucose control-related variables were more consistent in patients with metabolic syndrome. However, in these patients the hypo-MD did not result in a consistent re-increase in glucose control-related variables. A dietary program consisting in a ketogenic regimen followed by a balanced MD appeared to be feasible and efficacious in reducing cardiovascular risk, particularly in patients with metabolic syndrome.

  19. Investigating the effects of negative-calorie diet compared with low-calorie diet under exercise conditions on weight loss and lipid profile in overweight/obese middle-aged and older men.

    PubMed

    Rezaeipour, Mohammadreza; Apanasenko, Gennady Leonidovich; Nychyporuk, Vladimir Ivanovich

    2014-01-01

    Negative-calorie diets (NCDs) are among the popular dieting guides for weight loss; however, there is still little knowledge about this method. The present study aimed to determine the effects of a NCD supplemented with exercise on weight loss and lipid profile, and to compare its efficiency with low-calorie diets (LCDs) with exercise among elderly adult men with abnormal weight gain. Participants included sedentary men (aged 45-75 years) who were overweight or obese (n = 37). They were randomly divided into 2 groups: a group with a NCD and exercise, and a group with a LCD with exercise. Of all 37 participants, 30 completed the treatment. Weight assessment parameters, including changes in weight and body composition and blood sample tests, were performed before and 3 months after intervention. All parameters decreased significantly in both groups. Elevation in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels (P < 0.001) was different between the 2 groups. The decline in the total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio was greater in the LCD than the NCD group. Contrary to expectations, both weight-loss diets were equally efficacious.

  20. Obesity treatment by very low-calorie-ketogenic diet at two years: reduction in visceral fat and on the burden of disease.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Basilio; Crujeiras, Ana B; Bellido, Diego; Sajoux, Ignacio; Casanueva, Felipe F

    2016-12-01

    The long-term effect of therapeutic diets in obesity treatment is a challenge at present. The current study aimed to evaluate the long-term effect of a very low-calorie-ketogenic (VLCK) diet on excess adiposity. Especial focus was set on visceral fat mass, and the impact on the individual burden of disease. A group of obese patients (n = 45) were randomly allocated in two groups: either the very low-calorie-ketogenic diet group (n = 22), or a standard low-calorie diet group; (n = 23). Both groups received external support. Adiposity parameters and the cumulative number of months of successful weight loss (5 or 10 %) over a 24-month period were quantified. The very low-calorie-ketogenic diet induced less than 2 months of mild ketosis and significant effects on body weight at 6, 12, and 24 months. At 24 months, a trend to regress to baseline levels was observed; however, the very low-calorie-ketogenic diet induced a greater reduction in body weight (-12.5 kg), waist circumference (-11.6 cm), and body fat mass (-8.8 kg) than the low-calorie diet (-4.4 kg, -4.1 cm, and -3.8 kg, respectively; p < 0.001). Interestingly, a selective reduction in visceral fat measured by a specific software of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)-scan (-600 g vs. -202 g; p < 0.001) was observed. Moreover, the very low-calorie-ketogenic diet group experienced a reduction in the individual burden of obesity because reduction in disease duration. Very low-calorie-ketogenic diet patients were 500 months with 5 % weight lost vs. the low-calorie diet group (350 months; p < 0.001). In conclusion, a very low-calorie-ketogenic diet was effective 24 months later, with a decrease in visceral adipose tissue and a reduction in the individual burden of disease.

  1. Effect of very low calorie diet on body composition and exercise response in sedentary women.

    PubMed

    Eston, R G; Shephard, S; Kreitzman, S; Coxon, A; Brodie, D A; Lamb, K L; Baltzopoulos, V

    1992-01-01

    The effect of very low calorie diet (VLCD) on fat-free mass (FFM) and physiological response to exercise is a topic of current interest. Ten moderately obese women (aged 23-57 years) received VLCD (1695 kJ.day-1) for 6 weeks. FFM, estimated by four conventional techniques, and heart rate (fc), blood lactate (la(b)), mean arterial pressure (MAP), respiratory exchange ratio (R) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during a submaximal cycle ergometry test 1 week before, in the 2nd and 6th week, and 1 week after VLCD treatment. Strength and muscular endurance of the quadriceps and hamstrings were tested by isokinetic dynamometry. The 11.5-kg reduction in body mass was approximately 63% fat and 37% FFM. The latter was attributed largely to the loss of water associated with glycogen. Whilst exercise fc increased by 9-14 beats.min-1 (P < 0.01), there were substantial decreases (P < 0.01) in submaximal MAP (1.07-1.73 kPa), la(b) (0.75-1.00 mmol.l-1 and R (0.07-0.09) during VLCD. R and fc returned to normal levels after VLCD. Gross strength decreased (P < 0.01) by 9 and 13% at 1.05 rad.s-1 and 3.14 rad.s-1, respectively. Strength expressed relative to body mass (Nm.kg-1) increased (P < 0.01) at the lower contraction velocity, but there was no change at the faster velocity. Muscular endurance also decreased (P < 0.01) by 62 and 82% for the hamstrings and quadriceps, respectively. We concluded that the strength decrease was a natural adaptation to the reduction in body mass as the ratio of strength to FFM was maintained.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Healthy dining. Subtle diet reminders at the point of purchase increase low-calorie food choices among both chronic and current dieters.

    PubMed

    Papies, Esther K; Veling, Harm

    2013-02-01

    There is a growing consensus that our food-rich living environment contributes to rising numbers of people with overweight and obesity. Low-cost, effective intervention tools are needed to facilitate healthy eating behavior, especially when eating away from home. Therefore, we present a field experiment in a restaurant that tested whether providing subtle environmental diet reminders increases low-calorie food choices among both chronic and current dieters. For half of the participants, the menu was supplemented with diet-related words, as reminders of healthy eating and dieting. We recorded customers' choices of low-calorie or high-calorie items from the menu, and we assessed chronic and current dieting. Consistent with our hypotheses, we found that diet reminders increased choices for low-calorie foods, among both chronic and current dieters. After a diet reminder, around half of dieters made a healthy menu choice. This study demonstrates the efficacy of providing subtle diet reminders as a low-cost practical intervention to increase low-calorie food choices among weight-concerned individuals, who are motivated to regulate their eating behavior but have been found to often fail in food-rich environments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Life-long calorie restriction in Fischer 344 rats attenuates age-related loss in skeletal muscle-specific force and reduces extracellular space.

    PubMed

    Payne, Anthony M; Dodd, Stephen L; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2003-12-01

    The decline in muscle function is associated with an age-related decrease in muscle mass and an age-related decline in strength. However, decreased strength is not solely due to decreased muscle mass. The age-related decline in muscle-specific force (force/muscle cross-sectional area), a measure of intrinsic muscle function, also contributes to age-related strength decline, and the mechanisms by which this occurs are only partially known. Moreover, changes in the extracellular space could have a profound effect on skeletal muscle function. Life-long calorie restriction in rodents has shown to be a powerful anti-aging intervention. In this study, we examine whether calorie restriction is able to attenuate the loss of muscle function and elevations in extracellular space associated with aging. We hypothesize that calorie restriction attenuates the age-associated decline in specific force and increases in extracellular space. Measurements of in vitro contractile properties of the extensor digitorum longus (type II) and soleus (type I) muscles from 12-mo and 26- to 28-mo-old ad libitum-fed, as well as 27- to 28-mo-old life-long calorie-restricted male Fischer 344 rats, were performed. We found that calorie restriction attenuated the age-associated decline in muscle mass-to-body mass ratio (mg/g) and strength-to-body mass ratio (N/kg) in the extensor digitorum longus muscle (P < 0.05) but not in the soleus muscle (P > 0.05). Importantly, muscle-specific force (N/cm2) in the extensor digitorum longus, but not in the soleus muscle, of the old calorie-restricted rats was equal to that of the young 12-mo-old animals. Moreover, the age-associated increase in extracellular space was reduced in the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus muscle (P < 0.05) but not in the soleus muscle with calorie restriction. We also found a significant correlation between the extracellular space and the muscle-specific force in the extensor digitorum longus (r = -0.58; P < 0.05) but not in the

  4. Hypercaloric diet prevents sexual impairment induced by maternal food restriction.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, M M; Macrini, D J; Teodorov, E; Bonamin, L V; Dalboni, L C; Coelho, C P; Chaves-Kirsten, G P; Florio, J C; Queiroz-Hazarbassanov, N; Bondan, E F; Kirsten, T B

    2017-05-01

    Prenatal undernutrition impairs copulatory behavior and increases the tendency to become obese/overweight, which also reduces sexual behavior. Re-feeding rats prenatally undernourished with a normocaloric diet can restore their physiological conditions and copulatory behavior. Thus, the present study investigated whether a hypercaloric diet that is administered in rats during the juvenile period prevents sexual impairments that are caused by maternal food restriction and the tendency to become overweight/obese. Female rats were prenatally fed a 40% restricted diet from gestational day 2 to 18. The pups received a hypercaloric diet from postnatal day (PND) 23 to PND65 (food restricted hypercaloric [FRH] group) or laboratory chow (food restricted control [FRC] group). Pups from non-food-restricted dams received laboratory chow during the entire experiment (non-food-restricted [NFR] group). During the juvenile period and adulthood, body weight gain was evaluated weekly. The day of balanopreputial separation, sexual behavior, sexual organ weight, hypodermal adiposity, striatal dopamine and serotonin, serum testosterone, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were evaluated. The FRH group exhibited an increase in body weight on PND58 and PND65. The FRC group exhibited an increase in the latency to the first mount and intromission and an increase in serum TNF-α levels but a reduction of dopaminergic activity. The hypercaloric diet reversed all of these effects but increased adiposity. We concluded that the hypercaloric diet administered during the juvenile period attenuated reproductive impairments that were induced by maternal food restriction through increases in the energy expenditure but not the tendency to become overweight/obese. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Calorie restriction (CR) and CR mimetics for the prevention and treatment of age-related eye disorders.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Motoko; Ozawa, Yoko; Shinmura, Ken; Inaba, Takaaki; Nakamura, Shigeru; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Mitsuhiro; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2013-10-01

    The morbidity of ocular diseases, including macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and dry eye disease, has been gradually increasing worldwide. Because these diseases develop from age-associated ocular dysfunctions, interventions against the aging process itself may be a promising strategy for their management. Among the several approaches to interrupt aging processes, calorie restriction (CR) has been shown to recover and/or slow age-related functional declines in various organs, including the eye. Here, we review interventions against the aging process as potential therapeutic approaches to age-related ocular diseases. The effects of CR and CR mimetics in animal models of age-related eye diseases are explored. Furthermore, we discuss the possibilities of expanding this research to prospective studies to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which CR and/or CR mimetics preserve ocular functions. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Effects of a low calorie vegan diet on disease activity and general conditions in patients with rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Fujita, A; Hashimoto, Y; Nakahara, K; Tanaka, T; Okuda, T; Koda, M

    1999-06-01

    There is little objective information about diet therapy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Japan. We studied 14 patients with RA who stayed in the Koda hospital for 55 days. They basically took a 1200 kcal vegan diet consisting of unpolished rice gruel, juice of raw vegetables, soya bean curd and sesame seeds, and undertook a 3-5-day fast three times. During the 55-day stay, average body weight decreased by 5.1kg. Lansbury index and ESR decreased whereas CRP did not change. WBC decreased and the differential cell counts showed a decrease of neutrophils, eosinophils and monocytes without a change in lymphocytes or basophils. RBC, hemoglobin and MCV increased. LDL-C decreased, while HDL-C increased. There was no change in total protein or albumin. These data suggest that this combination of a low calorie vegan diet and fasting may contribute to improve RA with little undesirable effects on the patient's general conditions.

  7. Metabolic programming effects initiated in the suckling period predisposing for adult-onset obesity cannot be reversed by calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Malathi; Mahmood, Saleh; Patel, Mulchand S

    2013-03-01

    Neonatal rats reared on high-carbohydrate (HC) milk formula developed chronic hyperinsulinemia and adult-onset obesity due to programming of islets and the hypothalamic energy circuitry. In this study, calorie restriction by pair-feeding was imposed on HC male rats (HC/PF) to normalize food intake similar to that of mother-fed (MF) rats from weaning until postnatal day 140. A group of HC/PF rats was switched over to ad libitum feeding (HC/PF/AL) from days 90 to 140. Pair-feeding reduced body weight gains and serum insulin and leptin levels in HC/PF rats compared with HC rats, but these parameters were restored to HC levels in the HC/PF/AL rats after ad libitum feeding. Interestingly, the heightened insulin secretory response of isolated islets from adult HC/PF and HC/PF/ AL rats to glucose, acetylcholine, and oxymetazoline were not significantly different from the responses of islets from HC rats. Similarly, the expression of neuropeptide Y and proopiomelanocortin in the hypothalamus was not significantly different among HC, HC/PF, and HC/PF/AL rats. Expression of the leptin receptor in the hypothalami from the HC, HC/PF, and HC/PF/AL rats mirrored that of serum leptin, whereas suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (Socs3) expression remained high in these three groups. The results indicate that, although calorie restriction resulted in reduction in body weight gain and normalized the serum hormonal pattern, the programed predisposition for the hypersecretory capacity of islets and the hypothalamic hyperphagic response in the HC rats could not be permanently overcome by the pair-feeding imposed on HC rats.

  8. Preferential reductions in intermuscular and visceral adipose tissue with exercise-induced weight loss compared with calorie restriction

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Joan C.; McDaniel, Jennifer L.; Mora, Katherine; Villareal, Dennis T.; Fontana, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) are associated with insulin resistance. We sought to determine whether exercise-induced weight loss (EX) results in greater reductions in IMAT and VAT compared with similar weight loss induced by calorie restriction (CR) and whether these changes are associated with improvements in glucoregulation. Sedentary men and women (50–60 yr; body mass index of 23.5–29.9 kg/m2) were randomized to 1 yr of CR (n = 17), EX (n = 16), or a control group (CON; n = 6). Bilateral thigh IMAT and VAT volumes were quantified using multi-slice magnetic resonance imaging. Insulin sensitivity index (ISI) was determined from oral glucose tolerance test glucose and insulin levels. Weight loss was comparable (P = 0.25) in the CR (−10.8 ± 1.4%) and EX groups (−8.3 ± 1.5%) and greater than in the control group (−2.0 ± 2.4%; P < 0.05). IMAT and VAT reductions were larger in the CR and EX groups than in the CON group (P ≤ 0.05). After controlling for differences in total fat mass change between the CR and EX groups, IMAT and VAT reductions were nearly twofold greater (P ≤ 0.05) in the EX group than in the CR group (IMAT: −45 ±5 vs. −25 ± 5 ml; VAT: −490 ± 64 vs. −267 ± 61 ml). In the EX group, the reductions in IMAT were correlated with increases in ISI (r = −0.71; P = 0.003), whereas in the CR group, VAT reductions were correlated with increases in ISI (r = −0.64; P = 0.006). In conclusion, calorie restriction and exercise-induced weight loss both decrease IMAT and VAT volumes. However, exercise appears to result in preferential reductions in these fat depots. PMID:22016371

  9. Prediabetic nephropathy as an early consequence of the high-calorie/high-fat diet: relation to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Shevalye, Hanna; Lupachyk, Sergey; Watcho, Pierre; Stavniichuk, Roman; Khazim, Khaled; Abboud, Hanna E; Obrosova, Irina G

    2012-03-01

    This study evaluated early renal functional, structural, and biochemical changes in high-calorie/high-fat diet fed mice, a model of prediabetes and alimentary obesity. Male C57BL6/J mice were fed normal (11 kcal% fat) or high-fat (58 kcal% fat) diets for 16 wk. Renal changes were evaluated by histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, Western blot analysis, ELISA, enzymatic assays, and chemiluminometry. High-fat diet consumption led to increased body and kidney weights, impaired glucose tolerance, hyperinsulinemia, polyuria, a 2.7-fold increase in 24-h urinary albumin excretion, 20% increase in renal glomerular volume, 18% increase in renal collagen deposition, and 8% drop of glomerular podocytes. It also resulted in a 5.3-fold increase in urinary 8-isoprostane excretion and a 38% increase in renal cortex 4-hydroxynonenal adduct accumulation. 4-hydroxynonenal adduct level and immunoreactivity or Sirtuin 1 expression in renal medulla were not affected. Studies of potential mechanisms of the high-fat diet induced renal cortex oxidative injury revealed that whereas nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced form oxidase activity only tended to increase, 12/15-lipoxygenase was significantly up-regulated, with approximately 12% increase in the enzyme protein expression and approximately 2-fold accumulation of 12(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, a marker of 12/15-lipoxygenase activity. Accumulation of periodic acid-Schiff -positive material, concentrations of TGF-β, sorbitol pathway intermediates, and expression of nephrin, CAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein, phosphoeukaryotic initiation factor-α, and total eukaryotic initiation factor-α in the renal cortex were indistinguishable between experimental groups. Vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations were reduced in high-fat diet fed mice. In conclusion, systemic and renal cortex oxidative stress associated with 12/15-lipoxygenase overexpression and activation is an early phenomenon caused

  10. Quality of life in type 2 diabetes mellitus after a very low calorie diet and exercise.

    PubMed

    Snel, Marieke; Sleddering, Maria A; Vd Peijl, Inge D; Romijn, Johannes A; Pijl, Hanno; Meinders, A Edo; Jazet, Ingrid M

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate whether the addition of exercise to a very low calorie diet (VLCD) has beneficial short- and long-term effects on health-related quality of life (QoL) in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We included 27 obese, insulin-dependent T2DM patients in a 16-week VLCD study, of whom 13 participated simultaneously in an exercise program (VLCD+E). Before, immediately after and 18 months after the intervention anthropometric measurements, glucoregulation and QoL (SF-36, HADS, NHP and MFI-20) were assessed. Patients were compared to healthy lean and obese (matched for body mass index) controls matched for gender and age. At baseline, T2DM patients had significantly worse QoL scores in 18 and 14 of the 22 subscales of the QoL questionnaires, compared to lean and obese controls, resp. The 16-week VLCD (n=27) decreased bodyweight (-25.4±1.3 kg, p<0.0001, p=0.179 between groups), and improved glucoregulation (HbA1c -1.3±0.3%, p<0.0001, p=0.488 between groups) and 9 (VLCD-only) and 11 (VLCD+E) of the 22 subscales of QoL. After 18 months, in the VLCD+E group the QoL subscales did not differ from those in obese controls and only 4 of the 22 subscales were significantly worse compared to lean controls. However, in the VLCD-only group 17 and 13 of the 22 QoL subscales were significantly worse compared to the lean and obese controls, resp. A 16-week VLCD induces considerable weight loss, metabolic amelioration, and major improvements in QoL in obese T2DM patients. The addition of exercise is of paramount importance for the maintenance of better QoL. Copyright © 2011 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Suplemented restricted diet in old patients with chronic renal disease].

    PubMed

    Teplan, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    In last decades was confirmed remarkable increase in number of old patients with chronic kidney disease. Despide of developments in dialysis technology and kidney transplantation there is a growing number of old patients who are not suitable for these methods. Recently were published data showing long-term effect of protein restricted diet supplemented with keto amino acids in elderly. Based on our results obtained in re-analysis of 3 000 patients we can confirm also good compliance and low risk of malnutrition.Key words: chronic kidney disease - keto amino acids - old age - restricted diet.

  12. System Model Network for Adipose Tissue Signatures Related to Weight Changes in Response to Calorie Restriction and Subsequent Weight Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Montastier, Emilie; Villa-Vialaneix, Nathalie; Caspar-Bauguil, Sylvie; Hlavaty, Petr; Tvrzicka, Eva; Gonzalez, Ignacio; Saris, Wim H. M.; Langin, Dominique; Kunesova, Marie; Viguerie, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Nutrigenomics investigates relationships between nutrients and all genome-encoded molecular entities. This holistic approach requires systems biology to scrutinize the effects of diet on tissue biology. To decipher the adipose tissue (AT) response to diet induced weight changes we focused on key molecular (lipids and transcripts) AT species during a longitudinal dietary intervention. To obtain a systems model, a network approach was used to combine all sets of variables (bio-clinical, fatty acids and mRNA levels) and get an overview of their interactions. AT fatty acids and mRNA levels were quantified in 135 obese women at baseline, after an 8-week low calorie diet (LCD) and after 6 months of ad libitum weight maintenance diet (WMD). After LCD, individuals were stratified a posteriori according to weight change during WMD. A 3 steps approach was used to infer a global model involving the 3 sets of variables. It consisted in inferring intra-omic networks with sparse partial correlations and inter-omic networks with regularized canonical correlation analysis and finally combining the obtained omic-specific network in a single global model. The resulting networks were analyzed using node clustering, systematic important node extraction and cluster comparisons. Overall, AT showed both constant and phase-specific biological signatures in response to dietary intervention. AT from women regaining weight displayed growth factors, angiogenesis and proliferation signaling signatures, suggesting unfavorable tissue hyperplasia. By contrast, after LCD a strong positive relationship between AT myristoleic acid (a fatty acid with low AT level) content and de novo lipogenesis mRNAs was found. This relationship was also observed, after WMD, in the group of women that continued to lose weight. This original system biology approach provides novel insight in the AT response to weight control by highlighting the central role of myristoleic acid that may account for the beneficial

  13. Different protein composition of low-calorie diet differently impacts adipokine profile irrespective of weight loss in overweight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Mateo-Gallego, R; Lamiquiz-Moneo, I; Perez-Calahorra, S; Marco-Benedí, V; Bea, A M; Baila-Rueda, L; Laclaustra, M; Peñalvo, J L; Civeira, F; Cenarro, A

    2018-02-01

    High-protein (HP) diets have shown benefits in cardiometabolic markers such as insulin or triglycerides but the responsible mechanisms are not known. We aimed to assess the effect of three energy-restricted diets with different protein contents (20%, 27%, and 35%; ∼80% coming from animal source) on plasma adipokine concentration and its association with changes in cardiometabolic markers. Seventy-six women (BMI 32.8 ± 2.93) were randomized to one of three calorie-reduced diets, with protein, 20%, 27%, or 35%; carbohydrates, 50%, 43%, or 35%; and fat, 30%, for 3 months. Plasma adipokine (leptin, resistin, adiponectin, and retinol-binding protein 4; RBP4) levels were assessed. After 3 months, leptin concentration decreased in all groups without differences among them, while resistin levels remained unchanged. Adiponectin concentration heterogeneously changed in all groups (P for trend = 0.165) and resistin concentration did not significantly change. RPB4 significantly decreased by -17.5% (-31.7, -3.22) in 35%-protein diet (P for trend = 0.024 among diets). Triglycerides improved in women following the 35%-protein diet regardless of weight loss; RBP4 variation significantly influenced triglyceride concentration change by 24.9% and 25.9% when comparing 27%- and 35%- with 20%-protein diet, respectively. A 35%-protein diet induced a decrease in RBP4 regardless of weight loss, which was directly associated with triglyceride concentration improvement. These findings suggest that HP diets improve the cardiometabolic profile, at least in part, through changes in adipokine secretion. Whether this beneficial effect of HP diet is due to improvements in hepatic or adipose tissue functionality should be elucidated. The clinical trial has been registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (Identifier: NCT02160496). Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of

  14. The influence of dietary fat source on liver and skeletal muscle mitochondrial modifications and lifespan changes in calorie-restricted mice

    PubMed Central

    Villalba, José Manuel; López-Domínguez, José Alberto; Chen, Yana; Khraiwesh, Husam; González-Reyes, José Antonio; del Río, Lucía Fernández; Gutiérrez-Casado, Elena; del Río, Mercedes; Calvo-Rubio, Miguel; Ariza, Julia; de Cabo, Rafael; López-Lluch, Guillermo; Navas, Plácido; Hagopian, Kevork; Burón, María Isabel; Ramsey, Jon Jay

    2015-01-01

    The Membrane Theory of Aging proposes that lifespan is inversely related to the level of unsaturation in membrane phospholipids. Calorie restriction (CR) without malnutrition extends lifespan in many model organisms, which may be related to alterations in membrane phospholipids fatty acids. During the last few years our research focused on studying how altering the predominant fat source affects the outcome of CR in mice. We have established four dietary groups: one control group fed 95% of a pre-determined ad libitum intake (in order to prevent obesity), and three CR groups fed 40% less than ad libitum intake. Lipid source for the control and one of the CR groups was soybean oil (high in n-6 PUFA) whereas the two remaining CR groups were fed diets containing fish oil (high in n-3 PUFA), or lard (high in saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids). Dietary intervention periods ranged from 1 to 18 months. We performed a longitudinal lifespan study and a cross-sectional study set up to evaluate several mitochondrial parameters which included fatty acid composition, H+ leak, activities of electron transport chain enzymes, ROS generation, lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial ultrastructure, and mitochondrial apoptotic signaling in liver and skeletal muscle. These approaches applied to different cohorts of mice have independently indicated that lard as a fat source often maximizes the effects of 40% CR on mice. These effects could be due to significant increases of monounsaturated fatty acids levels, in accordance with the Membrane Theory of Aging. PMID:25860863

  15. Dietary fat composition influences glomerular and proximal convoluted tubule cell structure and autophagic processes in kidneys from calorie-restricted mice.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Rubio, Miguel; Burón, M Isabel; López-Lluch, Guillermo; Navas, Plácido; de Cabo, Rafael; Ramsey, Jon J; Villalba, José M; González-Reyes, José A

    2016-06-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) has been repeatedly shown to prevent cancer, diabetes, hypertension, and other age-related diseases in a wide range of animals, including non-human primates and humans. In rodents, CR also increases lifespan and is a powerful tool for studying the aging process. Recently, it has been reported in mice that dietary fat plays an important role in determining lifespan extension with 40% CR. In these conditions, animals fed lard as dietary fat showed an increased longevity compared with mice fed soybean or fish oils. In this paper, we study the effect of these dietary fats on structural and physiological parameters of kidney from mice maintained on 40% CR for 6 and 18 months. Analyses were performed using quantitative electron microcopy techniques and protein expression in Western blots. CR mitigated most of the analyzed age-related parameters in kidney, such as glomerular basement membrane thickness, mitochondrial mass in convoluted proximal tubules and autophagic markers in renal homogenates. The lard group showed improved preservation of several renal structures with aging when compared to the other CR diet groups. These results indicate that dietary fat modulates renal structure and function in CR mice and plays an essential role in the determination of health span in rodents. © 2016 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Influence of resveratrol on endoplasmic reticulum stress and expression of adipokines in adipose tissues/adipocytes induced by high-calorie diet or palmitic acid.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Wang, Ting; Chen, Guanjun; Wang, Nuojin; Gui, Li; Dai, Fang; Fang, Zhaohui; Zhang, Qiu; Lu, Yunxia

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to determine whether resveratrol treatment alleviates endoplasmic reticulum stress and changes the expression of adipokines in adipose tissues and cells. 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-calorie diet (HCD group) or high-calorie diet supplemented with resveratrol (high-calorie diet  + resveratrol group) for 3 months. Insulin resistance, serum lipids and proinflammatory indices, the size and inflammatory cell infiltration in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues were analyzed. The gene expressions of endoplasmic reticulum stress, adipokines, and inflammatory cytokines were determined. The induced mature 3T3-L1 cells were pretreated with resveratrol and then palmitic acid, and the gene expressions of endoplasmic reticulum stress, adipokines, and inflammatory cytokines were determined. Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues in the high-calorie diet-fed mice exhibited adipocyte hypertrophy, inflammatory activation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Resveratrol alleviated high-calorie diet-induced insulin resistance and endoplasmic reticulum stress, increased expression of SIRT1, and reversed expression of adipokines in varying degrees in both subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues. The effects of resveratrol on palmitic acid-treated adipocytes were similar to those shown in the tissues. Resveratrol treatment obviously reversed adipocyte hypertrophy and insulin resistance by attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation, thus increasing the expression of SIRT1 and inverting the expression of adipokines in vivo and in vitro.

  17. Long-term moderate calorie restriction inhibits inflammation without impairing cell-mediated immunity: a randomized controlled trial in non obese humans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Calorie restriction (CR) inhibits inflammation and slows aging in many animal species, but in rodents housed in pathogen-free facilities, CR impairs immunity against certain pathogens. However, little is known about the effects of long-term moderate CR on immune function in humans. In this multi-cen...

  18. Serum from calorie-restricted animals delays senescence and extends the lifespan of normal human fibroblasts in vitro.

    PubMed

    de Cabo, Rafael; Liu, Lijuan; Ali, Ahmed; Price, Nathan; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Mingyi; Lakatta, Edward; Irusta, Pablo M

    2015-03-01

    The cumulative effects of cellular senescence and cell loss over time in various tissues and organs are considered major contributing factors to the ageing process. In various organisms, caloric restriction (CR) slows ageing and increases lifespan, at least in part, by activating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent protein deacetylases of the sirtuin family. Here, we use an in vitro model of CR to study the effects of this dietary regime on replicative senescence, cellular lifespan and modulation of the SIRT1 signaling pathway in normal human diploid fibroblasts. We found that serum from calorie-restricted animals was able to delay senescence and significantly increase replicative lifespan in these cells, when compared to serum from ad libitum fed animals. These effects correlated with CR-mediated increases in SIRT1 and decreases in p53 expression levels. In addition, we show that manipulation of SIRT1 levels by either over-expression or siRNA-mediated knockdown resulted in delayed and accelerated cellular senescence, respectively. Our results demonstrate that CR can delay senescence and increase replicative lifespan of normal human diploid fibroblasts in vitro and suggest that SIRT1 plays an important role in these processes.

  19. Serum from calorie-restricted animals delays senescence and extends the lifespan of normal human fibroblasts in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Ahmed; Price, Nathan; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Mingyi; Lakatta, Edward; Irusta, Pablo M.

    2015-01-01

    The cumulative effects of cellular senescence and cell loss over time in various tissues and organs are considered major contributing factors to the ageing process. In various organisms, caloric restriction (CR) slows ageing and increases lifespan, at least in part, by activating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent protein deacetylases of the sirtuin family. Here, we use an in vitro model of CR to study the effects of this dietary regime on replicative senescence, cellular lifespan and modulation of the SIRT1 signaling pathway in normal human diploid fibroblasts. We found that serum from calorie-restricted animals was able to delay senescence and significantly increase replicative lifespan in these cells, when compared to serum from ad libitum fed animals. These effects correlated with CR-mediated increases in SIRT1 and decreases in p53 expression levels. In addition, we show that manipulation of SIRT1 levels by either over-expression or siRNA-mediated knockdown resulted in delayed and accelerated cellular senescence, respectively. Our results demonstrate that CR can delay senescence and increase replicative lifespan of normal human diploid fibroblasts in vitro and suggest that SIRT1 plays an important role in these processes. (185 words). PMID:25855056

  20. Effect of exercise intensity on abdominal fat loss during calorie restriction in overweight and obese postmenopausal women: a randomized, controlled trial1234

    PubMed Central

    Nicklas, Barbara J; Wang, Xuewen; You, Tongjian; Lyles, Mary F; Demons, Jamehl; Easter, Linda; Berry, Michael J; Lenchik, Leon; Carr, J Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Background: Exercise intensity may affect the selective loss of abdominal adipose tissue. Objective: This study showed whether aerobic exercise intensity affects the loss of abdominal fat and improvement in cardiovascular disease risk factors under conditions of equal energy deficit in women with abdominal obesity. Design: This was a randomized trial in 112 overweight and obese [body mass index (in kg/m2): 25–40; waist circumference >88 cm], postmenopausal women assigned to one of three 20-wk interventions of equal energy deficit: calorie restriction (CR only), CR plus moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (CR + moderate-intensity), or CR plus vigorous-intensity exercise (CR + vigorous-intensity). The diet was a controlled program of underfeeding during which meals were provided at individual calorie levels (≈400 kcal/d). Exercise (3 d/wk) involved treadmill walking at an intensity of 45–50% (moderate-intensity) or 70–75% (vigorous-intensity) of heart rate reserve. The primary outcome was abdominal visceral fat volume. Results: Average weight loss for the 95 women who completed the study was 12.1 kg (±4.5 kg) and was not significantly different across groups. Maximal oxygen uptake (O2max) increased more in the CR + vigorous-intensity group than in either of the other groups (P < 0.05). The CR-only group lost relatively more lean mass than did either exercise group (P < 0.05). All groups showed similar decreases in abdominal visceral fat (≈25%; P < 0.001 for all). However, changes in visceral fat were inversely related to increases in O2max (P < 0.01). Changes in lipids, fasting glucose or insulin, and 2-h glucose and insulin areas during the oral-glucose-tolerance test were similar across treatment groups. Conclusion: With a similar amount of total weight loss, lean mass is preserved, but there is not a preferential loss of abdominal fat when either moderate- or vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise is performed during caloric restriction. This trial was

  1. Effects of matched weight loss from calorie restriction, exercise, or both on cardiovascular disease risk factors: a randomized intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Edward P; Albert, Stewart G; Reeds, Dominic N; Kress, Kathleen S; McDaniel, Jennifer L; Klein, Samuel; Villareal, Dennis T

    2016-09-01

    Weight loss from calorie restriction (CR) and/or endurance exercise training (EX) is cardioprotective. However CR and EX also have weight loss-independent benefits. We tested the hypothesis that weight loss from calorie restriction and exercise combined (CREX) improves cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors more so than similar weight loss from CR or EX alone. Overweight, sedentary men and women (n = 52; aged 45-65 y) were randomly assigned to undergo 6-8% weight loss by using CR, EX, or CREX. Outcomes were measured before and after weight loss and included maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), resting blood pressure, fasting plasma lipids, glucose, C-reactive protein, and arterial stiffness [carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) and carotid augmentation index (AI)]. Values are means ± SEs. Reductions in body weight (∼7%) were similar in all groups. VO2max changed in proportion to the amount of exercise performed (CR, -1% ± 3%; EX, +22% ± 3%; and CREX, +11% ± 3%). None of the changes in CVD risk factors differed between groups. For all groups combined, decreases were observed for systolic and diastolic blood pressure (-5 ± 1 and -4 ± 1 mm Hg, respectively; both P < 0.0008), total cholesterol (-17 ± 4 mg/dL; P < 0.0001), non-HDL cholesterol (-16 ± 3 mg/dL; P < 0.0001), triglycerides (-18 ± 8 mg/dL; P = 0.03), and glucose (-3 ± 1 mg/dL; P = 0.0003). No changes were observed for HDL cholesterol (P = 0.30), C-reactive protein (P = 0.10), PWV (P = 0.30), or AI (P = 0.84). These changes would be expected to decrease the lifetime risk of CVD from 46% to 36%. Matched weight losses from CR, EX, and CREX have substantial beneficial effects on CVD risk factors. However, the effects are not additive when weight loss is matched. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00777621. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  2. Energy-restricted, high-protein diets more effectively impact cardiometabolic profile in overweight and obese women than lower-protein diets.

    PubMed

    Mateo-Gallego, Rocío; Marco-Benedí, Victoria; Perez-Calahorra, Sofía; Bea, Ana M; Baila-Rueda, Lucía; Lamiquiz-Moneo, Itziar; de Castro-Orós, Isabel; Cenarro, Ana; Civeira, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    High-protein energy-restricted diets have demonstrated efficacy in promoting weight loss in overweight and obesity. However, the protein percentage that achieves optimal efficacy and acceptability remains unknown. We sought to assess the effects of three energy-reduced diets with different percentages of calories from protein (20%, 27%, and 35%) on weight loss and lipids. Secondary outcomes included diet acceptability and compliance. Six-month, randomized study included women aged 18-80 years with BMI of 27.5-45 kg/m 2 and who were not taking lipid-lowering drugs. We randomly assigned 91 women to one of three calorie-reduced diets with: protein, 20%, 27%, or 35% (80% from animal protein); carbohydrates, 50%, 43%, or 35%; fat, 30%. Dietary intervention involved individual visits with a nutritionist every 2 weeks during the first 3 months. We performed a follow-up visit at 6 months. Eighty women aged 44.0 ± 9.08 years with BMI of 37.7 ± 3.39 kg/m 2 completed the study. At 3 months, weight loss was -8.16 ± 4.18 kg, -9.66 ± 5.28 kg, and -10.7 ± 4.28 kg in the 20%, 27%, and 35%-protein groups, respectively (P = 0.16). These figures slightly and homogeneously increased at 6 months. Around 65% of women following 35%-protein diet lost ≥10% of body weight vs. ∼33% in 20%-protein group (P = 0.023). Significant decreases occurred in fat mass, lipids and insulin resistance, especially in the 35%-protein group (P < 0.05 vs. 20% protein). This improvement was not fully explained by weight loss. Triglyceride change was negatively correlated with animal-protein intake. All groups provided similar responses to an acceptance, palatability, and satisfaction questionnaire. An energy-restricted diet with 35% protein, mostly of animal origin, more effectively impacts cardiometabolic profile than an energy-restricted diet with lower protein content although no clear benefit between diets in terms of overall weight loss was observed. The high-protein diet

  3. Hypocholesterolemic effects of low calorie structured lipids on rats and rabbits fed on normal and atherogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Kanjilal, Sanjit; Kaki, Shiva Shanker; Rao, Bhamidipati V S K; Sugasini, Dhavamani; Rao, Yalagala Poornachandra; Prasad, Rachapudi B N; Lokesh, Belur R

    2013-01-01

    The hypocholesterolemic effects of two low calorie structured lipids (SL1 and SL2) containing essential fatty acids, prepared by lipase catalysed interesterification of ethyl behenate respectively with sunflower and soybean oils were studied in rats and rabbits. The feeding experiment conducted on rats as well as rabbits, fed on normal and atherogenic diet containing 10% of SL1 and SL2 (experimental) and sunflower oil (control) indicated no adverse effects on growth and food intake. However, the structured lipids beneficially lowered serum and liver lipids, particularly cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides and also maintains the essential fatty acid status in serum and liver. The lipid deposition observed in the arteries of rabbits fed on atherogenic diets was significantly reduced when structured lipids were included in the diet. These observations coincided with reduced levels of serum cholesterol particularly LDL cholesterol observed in experimental groups. Therefore the structured lipids, designed to have low calorific value also beneficially lower serum lipids and lipid deposition in animals fed on atherogenic diets. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Low Calorie Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Energy and Nutrient Intakes and Diet Quality in British Adults

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Sigrid A.; Horgan, Graham W.; Francis, Lucy E.; Gibson, Amelia A.; Stephen, Alison M.

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear whether consumption of low-calorie beverages (LCB) leads to compensatory consumption of sweet foods, thus reducing benefits for weight control or diet quality. This analysis investigated associations between beverage consumption and energy intake and diet quality of adults in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) (2008–2011; n = 1590), classified into: (a) non-consumers of soft drinks (NC); (b) LCB consumers; (c) sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumers; or (d) consumers of both beverages (BB), based on 4-day dietary records. Within-person data on beverage consumption on different days assessed the impact on energy intake. LCB consumers and NC consumed less energy and non-milk extrinsic sugars than other groups. Micronutrient intakes and food choices suggested higher dietary quality in NC/LCB consumers compared with SSB/BB consumers. Within individuals on different days, consumption of SSB, milk, juice, and alcohol were all associated with increased energy intake, while LCB and tea, coffee or water were associated with no change; or reduced energy intake when substituted for caloric beverages. Results indicate that NC and LCB consumers tend to have higher quality diets compared with SSB or BB consumers and do not compensate for sugar or energy deficits by consuming more sugary foods. PMID:26729159

  5. Low Calorie Beverage Consumption Is Associated with Energy and Nutrient Intakes and Diet Quality in British Adults.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Sigrid A; Horgan, Graham W; Francis, Lucy E; Gibson, Amelia A; Stephen, Alison M

    2016-01-02

    It is unclear whether consumption of low-calorie beverages (LCB) leads to compensatory consumption of sweet foods, thus reducing benefits for weight control or diet quality. This analysis investigated associations between beverage consumption and energy intake and diet quality of adults in the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) (2008-2011; n = 1590), classified into: (a) non-consumers of soft drinks (NC); (b) LCB consumers; (c) sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumers; or (d) consumers of both beverages (BB), based on 4-day dietary records. Within-person data on beverage consumption on different days assessed the impact on energy intake. LCB consumers and NC consumed less energy and non-milk extrinsic sugars than other groups. Micronutrient intakes and food choices suggested higher dietary quality in NC/LCB consumers compared with SSB/BB consumers. Within individuals on different days, consumption of SSB, milk, juice, and alcohol were all associated with increased energy intake, while LCB and tea, coffee or water were associated with no change; or reduced energy intake when substituted for caloric beverages. Results indicate that NC and LCB consumers tend to have higher quality diets compared with SSB or BB consumers and do not compensate for sugar or energy deficits by consuming more sugary foods.

  6. Calorie restriction ameliorates neurodegenerative phenotypes in forebrain-specific presenilin-1 and presenilin-2 double knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pu; Shen, Qian; Dong, Suzhen; Xu, Zhiliang; Tsien, Joe Z; Hu, Yinghe

    2008-10-01

    Conditional double knockout of presenilin-1 and presenilin-2 (cDKO) in forebrain of mice led to brain atrophy, tau hyperphosphorylation, synaptic dysfunction and cognitive deficit. These brain changes recapitulated most of the neurodegenerative phenotypes of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this report, we have investigated the effects of 4-month calorie restriction (CR) regimen on different phenotypes in cDKO mice. We found that CR improved novel object recognition and contextual fear conditioning memory in the cDKO mice. Histological and biochemical analysis showed that CR attenuated ventricle enlargement, caspase-3 activation and astrogliosis. In addition, the induction of tau hyperphosphorylation in the cDKO mice was reduced by CR, possibly through reduction of p25 accumulation and aberrant CDK5 activation. Finally, DNA microarray analysis demonstrated that CR could increase the expression of neurogenesis related genes and decrease the expression of inflammation related genes in the hippocampus of cDKO mice. The possible molecular mechanisms of the CR effects on alleviating AD pathogenesis have been discussed.

  7. Calorie restriction-induced changes in the secretome of human adipocytes, comparison with resveratrol-induced secretome effects.

    PubMed

    Renes, Johan; Rosenow, Anja; Roumans, Nadia; Noben, Jean-Paul; Mariman, Edwin C M

    2014-09-01

    Obesity is characterized by dysfunctional white adipose tissue (WAT) that ultimately may lead to metabolic diseases. Calorie restriction (CR) reduces the risk for age and obesity-associated complications. The impact of CR on obesity has been examined with human intervention studies, which showed alterations in circulating adipokines. However, a direct effect of CR on the human adipocyte secretome remains elusive. Therefore, the effect of a 96h low glucose CR on the secretion profile of in vitro cultured mature human SGBS adipocytes was investigated by using proteomics technology. Low-glucose CR decreased the adipocyte triglyceride contents and resulted in an altered secretion profile. Changes in the secretome indicated an improved inflammatory phenotype. In addition, several adipocyte-secreted proteins related to insulin resistance showed a reversed expression after low-glucose CR. Furthermore, 6 novel CR-regulated adipocyte-secreted proteins were identified. Since resveratrol (RSV) mimics CR we compared results from this study with data from our previous RSV study on the SGBS adipocyte secretome. The CR and RSV adipocyte secretomes partly differed from each other, although both treatment strategies lead to secretome changes indicating a less inflammatory phenotype. Furthermore, both treatments induced SIRT1 expression and resulted in a reversed expression of detrimental adipokines associated with metabolic complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of calorie restriction on growth and development in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Li, Yijia; Chen, Keping; Yao, Qin; Li, Jun; Wang, Yong; Liu, Haijun; Zhang, Chiyu; Huang, Guoping

    2009-07-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) is known to extend the life span in different species from yeast to mammals. In this report, a simple organism silkworm (Bombyx mori) was used to study the effect of moderate CR on the growth and development processes of insects. Here we show that an extension of life span upon moderate CR was observed in the silkworm. The total protein level in the 5th instar larvae hemolymph appeared to decline significantly under CR. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the influence of CR was sex-dependent. The CR effects on female animals were much more significant than on the males. The MALDI-TOF MS study identified 16 proteins that expressed differentially among six groups of the male or female larvae fed at different time frequencies. Four of them, storage protein 1 (SP1), arylphorin (SP2), imaginal disk growth factor (IDGF), and 30-kDa lipoprotein, showed significant differences. It was demonstrated that these four proteins were up-regulated when the larvae were over-fed and down-regulated when the larvae were less-fed. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. [Weight maintenance in humans. Could it mimic calorie restriction of animal models?].

    PubMed

    de la Maza, M Pía C; Vivien, Z Gattás; Zavala, Aquiles R; Cataldo, Vicente D; Guerra, Julio S; Gladys, A Barrera; Laura, B Leiva; Sandra, B Hirsch; Daniel, B Bunout

    2004-10-01

    Energy restriction (ER) extends life span in animals, by decreasing oxidative stress. To compare adiposity, metabolic variables and DNA oxidative damage, among adults, reporting a constant body weight (weight maintainers), versus those reporting a progressive increase (weight gainers). Clinical history, dietary recall, anthropometric measures, abdominal CT scan and fasting blood samples (to measure lipoproteins, glucose and insulin), were obtained in 44 males. These subjects were classified as weight maintainers if they had a change in weight of 3 kg or less in the last 10 years, or weight gainers, if they had a weight increment of more than 6 kg, in the same lapse. Oxidative damage was assessed by 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), in DNA extracted from circulating lymphocytes, in 5 weight maintainers, 8 weight gainers and 5 healthy elders. Energy Intake was 18% higher in weight gainers (p <0.01). Adiposity and central fat were higher among weight gainers (p <0.01). Abdominal fat correlated with serum lipoproteins, glucose and insulin sensitivity, assessed by the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA). 8-OHdG levels did not differ between groups. The analysis of weight change based on the clinical history correlates with actual body composition, thus it may be a reliable indicator of long term energy Intake. This method could be comparable to weight clamp models employed in animals to study aging.

  10. Anxiety-like behaviour in adult rats perinatally exposed to maternal calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    Levay, Elizabeth A; Paolini, Antonio G; Govic, Antonina; Hazi, Agnes; Penman, Jim; Kent, Stephen

    2008-08-22

    Environmental stimuli such as caloric availability during the perinatal period exert a profound influence on the development of an organism. Studies in this domain have focused on the effects of under- and malnutrition while the effects of more mild levels of restriction have not been delineated. Rat dams and their offspring were subjected to one of five dietary regimens: control, CR50% for 3 days preconception, CR25% during gestation, CR25% during lactation, and CR25% during gestation, lactation, and post-weaning (lifelong). The pup retrieval test and maternal observations were conducted during lactation to quantify maternal care. In the pup retrieval test, dams that were concurrently experiencing CR (i.e., from the lactation and lifelong groups) displayed shorter latencies to retrieve all pups than the control and preconception groups and the lactation group constructed better nests than all groups. Adult offspring were tested in three tests of anxiety: the elevated plus maze, open field, and emergence test. No differences were observed in the elevated plus maze; however, in the open field preconception animals made fewer entries and spent more time in the central zone than controls. In addition, preconception offspring exhibited longer latencies to full body emergence, spent less time fully emerged, and spent more time engaged in risk assessment behaviours than all other groups. Offspring from the preconception group were also on average 11% heavier than control rats throughout life and displayed 37% higher serum leptin concentrations than controls. A potential role for leptin in the anxiogenic effect of preconception CR is discussed.

  11. Fos-like immunoreactivity in the circadian timing system of calorie-restricted rats fed at dawn: daily rhythms and light pulse-induced changes.

    PubMed

    Challet, E; Jacob, N; Vuillez, P; Pévet, P; Malan, A

    1997-10-03

    Daily rhythms of pineal melatonin, body temperature, and locomotor activity are synchronized to the light-dark cycle (LD) via a circadian clock located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). A timed caloric restriction in rats fed at dawn induces phase-advances and further phase-stabilization of these rhythms, suggesting that the circadian clock can integrate conflicting daily photic and non-photic cues. The present study investigated the daily expression of Fos-like immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) and light pulse-induced Fos-ir in the SCN, the intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) and the paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT) in calorie-restricted rats fed 2 h after the onset of light and in controls fed ad libitum. A daily rhythm of Fos-ir in the SCN was confirmed in control rats, with a peak approximately 2 h after lights on. At this time point (i.e. just prior to the feeding time), the level of SCN Fos-ir was lowered in calorie-restricted rats. Concomitantly, IGL Fos-ir was higher in calorie-restricted vs. control rats. In response to a light pulse during darkness, Fos-ir induction was found to be specifically (i.e. phase-dependently) lowered in the SCN and IGL of calorie-restricted rats. Observed changes of Fos-ir in the PVT were possibly related to the wake state of the animals. This study shows that repetitive non-photic cues presented in addition to a LD cycle affect the Fos expression in the circadian timing system.

  12. Calorie restriction suppresses subgenomic mink cytopathic focus-forming murine leukemia virus transcription and frequency of genomic expression while impairing lymphoma formation.

    PubMed Central

    Shields, B A; Engelman, R W; Fukaura, Y; Good, R A; Day, N K

    1991-01-01

    Calorie restriction suppresses mammary proviral mRNA expression and protooncogene activation in breast tumor-prone C3H/Ou mice while inhibiting tumor formation. To determine whether the beneficial effects of chronic energy-intake restriction (CEIR) can be extended to an organ site of retrovirus-induced tumorigenesis where the dynamics of growth and sexual maturity are not paramount as they are in breast tissue, calorie restriction of 40% was imposed on thymic lymphoma-prone AKR mice when 4 weeks old. Recombination between various murine leukemia virus (MuLV) mRNAs, resulting in the generation of an 8.4-kilobase genomic-length transcript with mink cytopathic focus-forming (MCF) characteristics, is considered the proximal retroviral event in AKR lymphomagenesis. Thymic expression of subgenomic MCF MuLV mRNA was uniformly suppressed among 6- and 8-week-old CEIR mice (P less than 0.02). This suppression of MuLV transcription preceded a 25% reduction in the appearance of genomic-length MCF transcripts among CEIR mice and a 28% reduction in cumulative lymphoma mortality. The latency to median tumor incidence was extended greater than 3 months by calorie restriction, and median lifespan was extended approximately 50%. Survival curves for the full-fed and CEIR dietary cohorts were found to be significantly different (P less than 0.0001), with full-fed mice experiencing a 3 times greater risk of lymphoma mortality. These findings extend the known range of pathologic states influenced by CEIR in inbred mice and show that retroviral mechanisms involved in generation of lymphoid malignancy can be significantly impaired by calorie restriction. Images PMID:1763029

  13. The effects of a low-calorie diet or an isocaloric diet combined with metformin on sex hormones In obese women of child-bearing age.

    PubMed

    Swora-Cwynar, Ewelina; Kujawska-Łuczak, Magdalena; Suliburska, Joanna; Reguła, Julita; Kargulewicz, Angelika; Kręgielska-Narożna, Matylda; Marcinkowska, Emilia; Kanikowska, Alina; Bielas, Marzena; Grzymisławski, Marian; Bogdański, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    The influence of weight loss treatment on sex hormones profile has been studied mainly in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), but in obese premenopausal women without PCOS it still remains unclear. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of two approaches to obesity treatment on the serum level of sex hormones in obese women of child-bearing age without PCOS. 77 obese Caucasian women (aged 31.2 ±8.3 years) were randomized into two groups: 39 women received a low-calorie diet (LC) and 38 received an isocaloric diet plus metformin (IM), for 12 weeks. Anthropometric parameters, body composition and serum concentrations of estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA-S) sulfate were evaluated at baseline and after the study. Reductions in body weight, body mass index (BMI), waist and body fat content with an increase  in lean body percent were significant and comparable between the LC and IM group after the trial. The concentrations of serum FSH, LH, E2, DHEA and T did not change in either group after treatment. A tendency towards an increase in the E2 concentration in both groups and a decrease in the T level in the LC group  was observed. The correlations between a change in BMI, fat content, waist-hip ratio and a change in T were documented in the LC group. A 12-week low-calorie diet and an isocaloric diet combined with metformin produced comparable and significant weight loss with improvements in body composition. Both interventions did not significantly affect FSH, LH and DHEA sulfate serum concentrations, only a trend towards an E2 increase and a T decrease was observed, stronger in LC group. The significant correlations shown between the changes in anthropometric and body composition parameters and T serum levels in women treated with a low-calorie diet alone show the beneficial effect of a lifestyle intervention on the sex hormone in obese premenopausal women.

  14. A high calorie diet causes memory loss, metabolic syndrome and oxidative stress into hippocampus and temporal cortex of rats.

    PubMed

    Treviño, Samuel; Aguilar-Alonso, Patrícia; Flores Hernandez, Jose Angel; Brambila, Eduardo; Guevara, Jorge; Flores, Gonzalo; Lopez-Lopez, Gustavo; Muñoz-Arenas, Guadalupe; Morales-Medina, Julio Cesar; Toxqui, Veronica; Venegas, Berenice; Diaz, Alfonso

    2015-09-01

    A high calorie intake can induce the appearance of the metabolic syndrome (MS), which is a serious public health problem because it affects glucose levels and triglycerides in the blood. Recently, it has been suggested that MS can cause complications in the brain, since chronic hyperglycemia and insulin resistance are risk factors for triggering neuronal death by inducing a state of oxidative stress and inflammatory response that affect cognitive processes. This process, however, is not clear. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the consumption of a high-calorie diet (HCD) on both neurodegeneration and spatial memory impairment in rats. Our results demonstrated that HCD (90 day consumption) induces an alteration of the main energy metabolism markers, indicating the development of MS in rats. Moreover, an impairment of spatial memory was observed. Subsequently, the brains of these animals showed activation of an inflammatory response (increase in reactive astrocytes and interleukin1-β as well as tumor necrosis factor-α) and oxidative stress (reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation), causing a reduction in the number of neurons in the temporal cortex and hippocampus. Altogether, these results suggest that a HCD promotes the development of MS and contributes to the development of a neurodegenerative process and cognitive failure. In this regard, it is important to understand the relationship between MS and neuronal damage in order to prevent the onset of neurodegenerative disorders. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Short-term calorie restriction feminizes the mRNA profiles of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in livers of mice.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zidong Donna; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2014-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is one of the most effective anti-aging interventions in mammals. A modern theory suggests that aging results from a decline in detoxification capabilities and thus accumulation of damaged macromolecules. The present study aimed to determine how short-term CR alters mRNA profiles of genes that encode metabolism and detoxification machinery in the liver. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed CR (0, 15, 30, or 40%) diets for one month, followed by mRNA quantification of 98 xenobiotic processing genes (XPGs) in the liver, including 7 uptake transporters, 39 phase-I enzymes, 37 phase-II enzymes, 10 efflux transporters, and 5 transcription factors. In general, 15% CR did not alter mRNAs of most XPGs, whereas 30 and 40% CR altered over half of the XPGs (32 increased and 29 decreased). CR up-regulated some phase-I enzymes (fold increase), such as Cyp4a14 (12), Por (2.3), Nqo1 (1.4), Fmo2 (5.4), and Fmo3 (346), and numerous number of phase-II enzymes, such as Sult1a1 (1.2), Sult1d1 (2.0), Sult1e1 (33), Sult3a1 (2.2), Gsta4 (1.3), Gstm2 (1.3), Gstm3 (1.7), and Mgst3 (2.2). CR feminized the mRNA profiles of 32 XPGs in livers of male mice. For instance, CR decreased the male-predominantly expressed Oatp1a1 (97%) and increased the female-predominantly expressed Oatp1a4 (11). In conclusion, short-term CR alters the mRNA levels of over half of the 98 XPGs quantified in livers of male mice, and over half of these alterations appear to be due to feminization of the liver. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Nutritional adequacy of energy restricted diets for young obese women.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Helen; Munas, Zahra; Griffin, Hayley; Rooney, Kieron; Cheng, Hoi Lun; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2011-01-01

    Energy restricted meal plans may compromise nutrient intake. This study used diet modelling to assess the nutritional adequacy of energy restricted meal plans designed for weight management in young obese women. Diet modelling of 6000 kJ/d animal protein based meal plans was performed using Australian nutrient databases with adequacy compared to the Australian Nutrient Reference Values (NRVs) for women (19-30 years). One diet plan was based on the higher carbohydrate (HC) version of the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating for women 19-60 years. An alternative higher protein (HP) plan was adapted from the CSIRO Total Wellbeing Diet. Vegan and lacto-ovo versions of these plans were also modelled and compared to the appropriate vegetarian NRVs. Both animal protein diets met the estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI) for all nutrients analysed. The recommended dietary intake (RDI) was also satisfied, except for iron. HC met 75±30% and HP 81±31% of the iron RDI when red meat and iron fortified cereal were both included three days a week, and remained below the RDI even when red meat was increased to seven days. Iron for the modified vegan (57±5% HC; 66±4% HP) and lacto-ovo (48±6% HC; 59±7% HP) plans was below the RDI and zinc below the EAR for the vegan (76±8% HC; 84±9% HP) plans. The 6000 kJ/d animal protein meal plans met the RDI for all nutrients except iron. Iron and zinc failed to meet the vegetarian RDI and EAR respectively for the vegan plans.

  17. Calorie restriction attenuates astrogliosis but not amyloid plaque load in aged rhesus macaques: a preliminary quantitative imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Aadhavi; Pehar, Mariana; Salamat, M Shahriar; Pugh, Thomas D; Bendlin, Barbara B; Willette, Auriel A; Anderson, Rozalyn M; Kemnitz, Joseph W; Colman, Ricki J; Weindruch, Richard H; Puglielli, Luigi; Johnson, Sterling C

    2013-01-01

    While moderate calorie restriction (CR) in the absence of malnutrition has been consistently shown to have a systemic, beneficial effect against aging in several animals models, its effect on the brain microstructure in a non-human primate model remains to be studied using post-mortem histopathologic techniques. In the present study, we investigated differences in expression levels of glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) and β-amyloid plaque load in the hippocampus and the adjacent cortical areas of 7 Control (ad libitum)-fed and 6 CR male rhesus macaques using immunostaining methods. CR monkeys expressed significantly lower levels (∼30% on average) of GFAP than Controls in the CA region of the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex, suggesting a protective effect of CR in limiting astrogliosis. These results recapitulate the neuroprotective effects of CR seen in shorter-lived animal models. There was a significant positive association between age and average amyloid plaque pathology in these animals, but there was no significant difference in amyloid plaque distribution between the two groups. Two of the seven Control animals (28.6%) and one of the six CR animal (16.7%) did not express any amyloid plaques, five of seven Controls (71.4%) and four of six CR animals (66.7%) expressed minimal to moderate amyloid pathology, and one of six CR animals (16.7%) expressed severe amyloid pathology. That CR affects levels of GFAP expression but not amyloid plaque load provides some insight into the means by which CR is beneficial at the microstructural level, potentially by offsetting the increased load of oxidatively damaged proteins, in this non-human primate model of aging. The present study is a preliminary post-mortem histological analysis of the effects of CR on brain health, and further studies using molecular and biochemical techniques are warranted to elucidate underlying mechanisms. PMID:23473840

  18. Calorie restriction and corticosterone elevation during lactation can each modulate adult male fear and anxiety-like behaviour.

    PubMed

    Govic, Antonina; Bell, Veronica; Samuel, Anil; Penman, Jim; Paolini, Antonio G

    2014-09-01

    Early life events, such as calorie restriction (CR) and elevated glucocorticoids, can calibrate the lifelong behavioural and physiological profile of an individual. Stress reactivity in adulthood is particularly sensitive to early life events; however, the consequence to fear and anxiety-like behaviour is less clear. Consequently, the current study sought to examine the effects of post-natal CR and glucocorticoid elevation, long considered powerful programming stimuli, on the subsequent fear and anxiety behaviour of the adult offspring. Rat dams received either corticosterone (200 μg/ml) supplementation in drinking water (CORT) or a 25% CR from post-natal day (PND) 1 to 11. Responses to the elevated plus maze (EPM), open field and a predator odour (TMT; 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline) were characterised in the adult male offspring. Both treatment conditions resulted in enhanced fear responses to TMT, characterised by heightened risk assessment and increased avoidance of TMT. CORT nursed offspring further demonstrated an anxiogenic profile in the open field. Basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function was unchanged in CORT adult offspring, whilst corticosterone concentration was elevated by post-natal CR. CR and CORT treated dams both exhibited greater anxiety-like behaviour in the EPM. A modest and temporary enhancement of maternal care was observed in CR and CORT treated dams, with CR dams further exhibiting rapid pup retrieval latencies. The results indicate enhanced emotionality in the adult male progeny of dams exposed to CR and corticosterone supplementation during the post-natal period. The modest enhancement of maternal care observed by both treatments is unlikely to have influenced the behavioural profile of the offspring. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Persistence of weight loss and acquired behaviors 2 y after stopping a 2-y calorie restriction intervention.

    PubMed

    Marlatt, Kara L; Redman, Leanne M; Burton, Jeff H; Martin, Corby K; Ravussin, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Background: Calorie restriction (CR) influences aging processes and extends average and maximal life spans. The CALERIE 2 (Comprehensive Assessment of Long-Term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy Phase 2) study was the first randomized clinical trial to examine the metabolic and psychological effects of CR in nonobese humans. Objective: We conducted a 2-y follow-up study of adults who underwent 2 y of CR or ad libitum (control) consumption and determined whether weight loss and acquired behaviors persisted after the study ended when participants determined their own lifestyle behaviors. Design: In this prospective, longitudinal study, we assessed differences in weight, body composition, psychological function, and energy expenditure in 39 nonobese [body mass index (in kg/m 2 ): 22-28] men and women (25% CR: n = 24; control: n = 15) 12 and 24 mo after they completed the CALERIE 2 study at Pennington Biomedical. Results: Of 39 participants who were in the follow-up study, 29 subjects (CR: n = 18; control: n = 11) completed all visits at follow-up months 12 and 24. After the CR intervention, a mean ± SEM weight loss of 9.0 ± 0.6 kg was observed in the CR group, in which only 54% of the weight was regained 2 y later. Despite such a regain, weight, the percentage of body fat, and fat mass remained significantly reduced from baseline throughout follow-up and remained significantly less than in the control group ( P < 0.05). At follow-up, the CR group retained higher degrees of dietary restraint and avoidance of certain foods. Conclusion: After a 2-y intensive CR intervention, ∼50% of CR-induced weight loss was maintained 2 y later, which was probably the result of lasting effects on acquired behaviors and dietary restraint. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00943215. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Placental Glucose and Amino Acid Transport in Calorie-Restricted Wild-Type and Glut3 Null Heterozygous Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Amit; Collis, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) decreased placenta and fetal weights in wild-type (wt) and glucose transporter (Glut) 3 heterozygous null (glut3+/−) mice. Because placental nutrient transport is a primary energy determinant of placentofetal growth, we examined key transport systems. Maternal CR reduced intra- and transplacental glucose and leucine transport but enhanced system A amino acid transport in wt mice. These transport perturbations were accompanied by reduced placental Glut3 and leucine amino acid transporter (LAT) family member 2, no change in Glut1 and LAT family member 1, but increased sodium coupled neutral amino acid transporter (SNAT) and SNAT2 expression. We also noted decreased total and active phosphorylated forms of mammalian target of rapamycin, which is the intracellular nutrient sensor, the downstream total P70S6 kinase, and pS6 ribosomal protein with no change in total and phosphorylated 4E-binding protein 1. To determine the role of placental Glut3 in mediating CR-induced placental transport changes, we next investigated the effect of gestational CR in glut3+/− mice. In glut3+/− mice, a key role of placental Glut3 in mediating transplacental and intraplacental glucose transport was established. In addition, reduced Glut3 results in a compensatory increase of leucine and system A transplacental transport. On the other hand, diminished Glut3-mediated intraplacental glucose transport reduced leucine transport and mammalian target of rapamycin and preserved LAT and enhancing SNAT. CR in glut3+/− mice further reduced transplacental glucose transport and enhanced system A amino acid transport, although the increased leucine transport was lost. In addition, increased Glut3 was seen and preserved Glut1, LAT, and SNAT. These placental changes collectively protect survival of wt and glut3+/− fetuses against maternal CR-imposed reduction of macromolecular nutrients. PMID:22700768

  1. Placental glucose and amino acid transport in calorie-restricted wild-type and Glut3 null heterozygous mice.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Amit; Collis, Laura; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2012-08-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) decreased placenta and fetal weights in wild-type (wt) and glucose transporter (Glut) 3 heterozygous null (glut3(+/-)) mice. Because placental nutrient transport is a primary energy determinant of placentofetal growth, we examined key transport systems. Maternal CR reduced intra- and transplacental glucose and leucine transport but enhanced system A amino acid transport in wt mice. These transport perturbations were accompanied by reduced placental Glut3 and leucine amino acid transporter (LAT) family member 2, no change in Glut1 and LAT family member 1, but increased sodium coupled neutral amino acid transporter (SNAT) and SNAT2 expression. We also noted decreased total and active phosphorylated forms of mammalian target of rapamycin, which is the intracellular nutrient sensor, the downstream total P70S6 kinase, and pS6 ribosomal protein with no change in total and phosphorylated 4E-binding protein 1. To determine the role of placental Glut3 in mediating CR-induced placental transport changes, we next investigated the effect of gestational CR in glut3(+/-) mice. In glut3(+/-) mice, a key role of placental Glut3 in mediating transplacental and intraplacental glucose transport was established. In addition, reduced Glut3 results in a compensatory increase of leucine and system A transplacental transport. On the other hand, diminished Glut3-mediated intraplacental glucose transport reduced leucine transport and mammalian target of rapamycin and preserved LAT and enhancing SNAT. CR in glut3(+/-) mice further reduced transplacental glucose transport and enhanced system A amino acid transport, although the increased leucine transport was lost. In addition, increased Glut3 was seen and preserved Glut1, LAT, and SNAT. These placental changes collectively protect survival of wt and glut3(+/-) fetuses against maternal CR-imposed reduction of macromolecular nutrients.

  2. Effects of ursodeoxycholic acid and/or low-calorie diet on steatohepatitis in rats with obesity and hyperlipidemia

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jian-Gao; Zhong, Lan; Tia, Li-Yan; Xu, Zheng-Jie; Li, Min-Sheng; Wang, Guo-Liang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effects of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and/or low-calorie diet (LCD) on a rat model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). METHODS: Fifty-five Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. The control group (n = 9) was fed with standard rat diet for 12 wk, NASH group (n = 10) was fed with high-fat diet consisted of normal diet, 10% lard oil and 2% cholesterol for 12 wk, UDCA group (n = 10) was fed with high-fat diet supplemented with UDCA at a dose of 25 mg/(kg·d) in drinking water for 12 wk, LCD group (n = 10) was fed with high-fat diet for 10 wk and then LCD for 2 wk, and UDCA+LCD group (n = 15) was fed with high-fat diet for 10 wk, followed by LCD+UDCA for 2 wk. At the end of the experiment, body weight, serum biochemical index, and hepatopathologic changes were examined. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, rats in the NASH group had significantly increased body weight, liver weight, and serum lipid and aminotransferase levels. All rats in the NASH group developed steatohepatitis, as determined by their liver histology. Compared with the NASH group, there were no significant changes in body weight, liver weight, blood biochemical index, the degree of hepatic steatosis, and histological activity index (HAI) score in the UDCA group; however, body and liver weights were significantly decreased, and the degree of steatosis was markedly improved in rats of both the LCD group and the UDCA+LCD group, but significant improvement with regard to serum lipid variables and hepatic inflammatory changes were seen only in rats of the UDCA+LCD group, and not in the LCD group. CONCLUSION: LCD might play a role in the treatment of obesity and hepatic steatosis in rats, but it exerts no significant effect on both serum lipid disorders and hepatic inflammatory changes. UDCA may enhance the therapeutic effects of LCD on steatohepatitis accompanied by obesity and hyperl-ipidemia. However, UDCA alone is not effective in the prevention of

  3. Short-term benefits of an unrestricted-calorie traditional Mediterranean diet, modified with a reduced consumption of carbohydrates at evening, in overweight-obese patients.

    PubMed

    Salvia, Roberto; D'Amore, Simona; Graziano, Giusi; Capobianco, Caterina; Sangineto, Moris; Paparella, Domenico; de Bonfils, Paola; Palasciano, Giuseppe; Vacca, Michele

    2017-03-01

    The Mediterranean diet (MeD) is believed to promote health; nevertheless, changes in the nutritional patterns in the Mediterranean area (increased intake of refined carbohydrates/saturated fats; reduced fibers intake; main calorie load shifted to dinner) led to reduced MeD benefits in recent decades. We retrospectively investigated the effects of a MeD with a low intake of refined carbohydrates in the evening ("MeDLowC") on body weight (BW) and metabolic profile of overweight/obese subjects. According to their adherence to MeDLowC, subjects were classified into 44 (41%) individuals with "excellent" adherence and 63 (59%) with "poor" adherence. Nutritional counseling induced an improvement in BW, glucose metabolism and liver transaminases in both groups, with an increased magnitude of these effects in the "Excellent" adherence group. "Excellent" adherence to MeDLowC improved insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism. In conclusion, MeD with a restriction of carbohydrates in the evening significantly ameliorates obesity and associated metabolic complications.

  4. Development of a bioassay to screen for chemicals mimicking the anti-aging effects of calorie restriction

    SciTech Connect

    Chiba, Takuya, E-mail: takuya@nagasaki-u.ac.jp; Tsuchiya, Tomoshi; Komatsu, Toshimitsu

    2010-10-15

    Research highlights: {yields} We identified four sequence motifs lying upstream of putative pro-longevity genes. {yields} One of these motifs binds to HNF-4{alpha}. {yields} HNF-4{alpha}/PGC-1{alpha} could up-regulate the transcription of a reporter gene linked to this motif. {yields} The reporter system described here could be used to screen candidate anti-aging molecules. -- Abstract: Suppression of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I pathway in Ames dwarf (DF) mice, and caloric restriction (CR) in normal mice extends lifespan and delays the onset of age-related disorders. In combination, these interventions have an additive effect on lifespan in Ames DF mice. Therefore, common signaling pathways regulatedmore » by DF and CR could have additive effects on longevity. In this study, we tried to identity the signaling mechanism and develop a system to assess pro-longevity status in cells and mice. We previously identified genes up-regulated in the liver of DF and CR mice by DNA microarray analysis. Motif analysis of the upstream sequences of those genes revealed four major consensus sequence motifs, which have been named dwarfism and calorie restriction-responsive elements (DFCR-REs). One of the synthesized sequences bound to hepatocyte nuclear factor-4{alpha} (HNF-4{alpha}), an important transcription factor involved in liver metabolism. Furthermore, using this sequence information, we developed a highly sensitive bioassay to identify chemicals mimicking the anti-aging effects of CR. When the reporter construct, containing an element upstream of a secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) gene, was co-transfected with HNF-4{alpha} and its regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) {gamma} coactivator-1{alpha} (PGC-1{alpha}), SEAP activity was increased compared with untransfected controls. Moreover, transient transgenic mice established using this construct showed increased SEAP activity in CR mice compared with ad libitum-fed mice. These

  5. Protein metabolism in obese patients during very low-calorie mixed diets containing different amounts of proteins and carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Pasquali, R; Casimirri, F; Melchionda, N

    1987-12-01

    To assess long-term nitrogen sparing capacity of very low-calorie mixed diets, we administered two isoenergetic (2092KJ) liquid formula regimens of different composition for 8 weeks to two matched groups of massively obese patients (group 1: proteins 60 g, carbohydrate 54 g; group 2: proteins 41 g, carbohydrates 81 g). Weight loss was similar in both groups. Daily nitrogen balance (g) during the second month resulted more a negative in group 2 with respect to group 1. However, within the groups individual nitrogen sparing capacity varied markedly; only a few in group 1 and one in group 2 were able to attain nitrogen equilibrium throughout the study. Daily urine excretion of 3-methylhistidine fell significantly in group 1 but did not change in group 2. Unlike total proteins, albumins, and transferrin, serum levels of retinol-binding protein, thyroxin-binding globulin, and complement-C3 fell significantly in both groups but per cent variations of complement-C3 were more pronounced in the first group. Prealbumin levels fell persistently in group 1 and transiently in group 2. The results indicate that even with this type of diet an adequate amount of dietary protein represents the most important factor in minimizing whole body protein catabolism during long-term semistarvation in massively obese patients. Moreover, they confirm the possible role of dietary carbohydrates in the regulation of some visceral protein metabolism.

  6. Effects of Diet Restriction and Diet Complexity on Life History Strategies in Side-Blotched Lizards (Uta stansburiana).

    PubMed

    Skinner, Heather M; Durso, Andrew M; Neuman-Lee, Lorin A; Durham, Susan L; Mueller, Sarah D; French, Susannah S

    2016-11-01

    Organisms must balance energy invested into self-maintenance, reproduction, and somatic growth over their lifetime. In this study, the effects of diet restriction and diet complexity on side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) were analyzed. Thirty male lizards, housed in the laboratory, were fed either an ad libitum or a restricted diet for 18 days (phase 1). Individuals from both treatments were then assigned to a diet of the same quantity of food that was either simple (only crickets) or complex (crickets, cockroaches, waxworms, and mealworms) for 35 days (phase 2). We evaluated (1) how diet restriction affected life history strategies and (2) how diet complexity affected recovery from diet restriction as measured at the end of phase 2 by body mass, snout-vent length, calculated body condition score, wound healing, tail regrowth, bacterial killing ability, oxidative stress, and plasma testosterone and corticosterone concentrations. Lizards without diet restriction allocated more energy to self-maintenance (i.e., maintaining higher body condition scores, healing wounds more quickly) than lizards with diet restriction. Lizards with diet restriction had higher plasma testosterone concentrations and larger increases in snout-vent lengths than those fed ad libitum, which may reflect allocations toward reproduction and somatic growth. A complex diet resulted in better body condition and faster tail regrowth than a simple diet, suggesting that a complex diet enhanced recovery from diet restriction, although long-term life history choices remained unaltered. Finally, lizards on a complex diet consumed substantially less food while maintaining higher body condition, suggesting that key nutrients may be lacking from a simple diet. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. A study of caloric restriction versus standard diet in overweight men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Jonathan L; Plymate, Stephen; D’Oria-Cameron, Andrea; Bain, Carolyn; Haugk, Kathy; Xiao, Liren; Lin, Daniel W; Stanford, Janet L; McTiernan, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Obese men have an increased risk of prostate cancer (PCa)-specific mortality. Potential mechanisms include insulin and related proteins. We investigate whether a short-term caloric restriction diet in overweight/obese men with newly diagnosed PCa can lead to measurable changes in patient anthropometrics and insulin-related proteins. Methods Overweight and obese PCa patients choosing active surveillance or radical prostatectomy were randomized to a 6-week, caloric-restricted diet or to continue their current diet. Changes from baseline to end of study in anthropometrics, dietary constituents and serum proteins (insulin, c-peptide, IGF-1, adiponectin, IGF-BP3) were compared between the intervention and control groups using a Generalized Estimating Equation model. Results Nineteen patients were randomized to the intervention (N=10) or control (N=9) group. Men in the intervention group had a 1.7% (3.7 lbs.) mean decline in weight vs. 1.0% (2.0 lbs.) in controls (p<0.05), and a reduced intake of calories, total and saturated fat, protein and starch, (all p<0.1 compared to controls). There was a significant difference (p=0.002) in mean serum IGFBP-3 between the intervention (+2.8%) and control group (−6.9%). Other biomarkers changed with the diet intervention to a degree similar to previous weight loss studies but were not statistically significant compared with controls. Conclusion In this small pilot study, a 6-week caloric restricted diet in men with newly diagnosed PCa produced changes in weight, diet and serum proteins possibly related to prognosis. These results support larger-scale trials testing longer-term weight loss effects on potential PCa progression biomarkers. PMID:23775525

  8. Use of the cellular model of body composition to describe changes in body water compartments after total fasting, very low calorie diet and low calorie diet in obese men.

    PubMed

    Siervo, M; Faber, P; Gibney, E R; Lobley, G E; Elia, M; Stubbs, R J; Johnstone, A M

    2010-05-01

    The cellular model of body composition divides the body in body cell mass (BCM), extracellular solids and extracellular fluids. This model has been infrequently applied for the evaluation of weight loss (WL) programmes. (1) To assess changes in body compartments in obese men undergoing fasting, very low calorie diet (VLCD) and low calorie diet (LCD); (2) to evaluate two cellular models for the determination of changes in BCM, fat mass (FM) and body fluids. Three groups of six, obese men participated in a total fast (F) for 6 days, a VLCD (2.5 MJ per day) for 3 weeks or an LCD (5.2 MJ per day) for 6 weeks. Body composition was measured at baseline and after small ( approximately 5%) and moderate ( approximately 10%) WL. FM was measured using a four-compartment model. Total body water (TBW) and extracellular water (ECW) were, respectively, measured by deuterium and sodium bromide dilution and intracellular water (ICW) calculated by difference. Two cellular models were used to measure BCM, FM and body fluids distribution. After about 5%WL changes in TBW were F=-3.2+/-1.2 kg (P<0.01), VLCD=-1.2+/-0.6 kg (P<0.01), LCD=-0.3+/-0.9 kg(n.s.). The contribution of TBW to total body mass loss was indirectly associated with FM loss. ECW increased during fasting (+1.5+/-3.1 kg, n.s.), decreased during the VLCD (-2.0+/-1.5 kg, P<0.05) and remained unchanged at the end of the LCD (-0.3+/-1.6 kg, n.s.). ICW significantly decreased during fasting (-4.7+/-3.9 kg, P<0.05) but did not change in the LCD and VLCD groups. The loss of BCM was more significant in the fasting group and it was directly associated with changes in ICW. After a 6-day period of fasting we observed more ICW losses and less fat mobilization compared with VLCD and LCD. The cellular model of body composition is suitable for the characterization of changes in body fluids distribution during WL.

  9. Nutritional alterations after very low-calorie diet before bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Bennasar Remolar, M Ángeles; Martínez Ramos, David; Ortega Serrano, Joaquín; Salvador Sanchís, José Luis

    2016-03-01

    There has been an alarming worldwide increase of obese people in recent years. Currently, there is no consensus on whether patients that are scheduled to undergo bariatric surgery should lose weight before the intervention. The objective of this research is to analyse the influence of pre-surgery loss of weight in the nutritional parameters of patients. Fifty patients that were scheduled to undergo bariatric surgery followed a very low caloric diet during 4 weeks prior to the surgery. The nutritional parameters were analysed at 3 specific moments: before starting the diet, at the moment of surgery (when the diet was concluded) and one month after the surgery. Average values for hemoglobin, albumina and lymphocytes were kept within the range of normal values at all moments, even though the decrease of those parameters was statistically significant throughout the study (P<.05). By following the very low caloric diet, less than 9.5% of the sample suffered anaemia. Loss of weight prior to surgery does not have a significant influence in the nutritional parameters of the patient. These results would support the indication of losing weight for patients that are considered candidates for bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2014 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Low-Calorie Vegetarian Versus Mediterranean Diets for Reducing Body Weight and Improving Cardiovascular Risk Profile: CARDIVEG Study (Cardiovascular Prevention With Vegetarian Diet).

    PubMed

    Sofi, Francesco; Dinu, Monica; Pagliai, Giuditta; Cesari, Francesca; Gori, Anna Maria; Sereni, Alice; Becatti, Matteo; Fiorillo, Claudia; Marcucci, Rossella; Casini, Alessandro

    2018-03-13

    Only a few randomized dietary intervention studies that investigated the effects of lacto-ovo vegetarian diet (Vd) in clinically healthy omnivorous subjects are available. We randomly assigned to overweight omnivores with a low-to-moderate cardiovascular risk profile a low-calorie Vd compared with a low-calorie Mediterranean diet (MD), each lasting 3 months, with a crossover design. The primary outcome was the difference in body weight, body mass index, and fat mass changes between the 2 groups. Secondary outcomes were differences in circulating cardiovascular disease risk parameters changes between the 2 groups. One hundred eighteen subjects (mean age: 51.1 years, females: 78%) were enrolled. The total participation rate at the end of the study was 84.7%. No differences between the 2 diets in body weight were observed, as reported by similar and significant reductions obtained by both Vd (-1.88 kg) and MD (-1.77 kg). Similar results were observed for body mass index and fat mass. In contrast, significant differences between the 2 interventions were obtained for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and vitamin B 12 levels. The difference between the Vd and MD groups, in terms of end-of-diet values, was recorded at 9.10 mg/dL for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ( P =0.01), 12.70 mg/dL for triglycerides ( P <0.01), and 32.32 pg/mL for vitamin B 12 ( P <0.01). Finally, no significant difference was found between Vd and MD interventions in oxidative stress markers and inflammatory cytokines, except for interleukin-17, which improved only in the MD group. Forty-six participants during the Vd period and 35 during the MD period reached the target values for ≥1 cardiovascular risk factor. Both Vd and MD were effective in reducing body weight, body mass index, and fat mass, with no significant differences between them. However, Vd was more effective in reducing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, whereas MD led to a greater reduction in

  11. Effects of low calorie diet-induced weight loss on post-exercise heart rate recovery in obese men.

    PubMed

    Kim, Maeng Kyu

    2014-06-01

    Heart Rate Recovery (HRR) after maximum exercise is a reactivation function of vagus nerve and an independent risk factor that predicts cardiovascular disease and mortality. Weight loss obtained through dietary programs has been employed as a therapy to reduce risks of cardiovascular disease and obesity. Eighteen subjects of middle aged obese men (age 44.8 ± 1.6 yrs, BMI 29.7 ± 0.5 kg/m(2)) were selected for this study. As a weight loss direction, the nutritional direction of low-calorie diet mainly consisted of carbohydrate, protein, and fat has been conducted for 3 months. Blood pressure was measured after overnight fasting, and blood samples were collected from the antecubital vein before and after weight loss program. All the pre- and post-exercise 'HRR decay constant's were assessed by using values of HRR (heart recovery rate; 2 minutes) and HR measured after reached to the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) exploited the bicycle ergometer. After the completion of weight loss program, body weight and BMI were significantly decreased, but the Heart Rate (HR) after maximum exercise and in steady state were not changed significantly (p > 0.05). The post-exercise HRR after the weight loss did not show significant changes in perspectives of 30 seconds (-16.6 ± 2.3 to -20.2 ± 2.1 beats/min, p > 0.05) and 60 seconds (-33.5 ± 3.4 to -34.6 ± 2.8 beats/min, p > 0.05) respectively but in perspectives of 90 seconds (-40.9 ± 2.6 to -48.1 ± 3.1 beats/min, p < 0.05) and 120 seconds (-48.6 ± 2.6 to -54.3 ± 3.5 beats/min, p < 0.05), they were decreased significantly. Pre-'HRR decay constant's of 0.294 ± 0.02 %/second were significantly increased to post-values of 0.342 ± 0.03 %/second (p = 0.026). Changes in 'HRR decay constant' were significantly correlated with changes in blood glucose (r = -0.471, p < 0.05) and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max, r = 0.505, p < 0.05) respectively. The low-calorie diet directed to obese middle aged men for 3 months significantly

  12. Food anticipatory activity on a calorie-restricted diet is independent of Sirt1.

    PubMed

    Assali, Dina R; Hsu, Cynthia T; Gunapala, Keith M; Aguayo, Antonio; McBurney, Michael; Steele, Andrew D

    2018-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that the Sirtuin family member, Sirt1, is a key integrator of growth, metabolism, and lifespan. Sirt1 directly interacts with and deacetylates key regulators of the circadian clock, positioning it to be an important link between feeding and circadian rhythms. In fact, one study suggests that Sirt1 is necessary for behavioral anticipation of limited daily food availability, a circadian process termed food anticipatory activity (FAA). In their study, mice overexpressing Sirt1 had enhanced FAA, while mice lacking Sirt1 had little to no FAA. Based on the supposition that Sirt1 was indeed required for FAA, we sought to use Sirt1 deletion to map the neural circuitry responsible for FAA. We began by inactivating Sirt1 using the cell-type specific Cre-driver lines proopiomelanocortin, but after observing no effect on body weight loss or FAA we then moved on to more broadly neuronal Cre drivers Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and nestin. As neither of these neuronal deletions of Sirt1 had impaired FAA, we then tested 1) a broad postnatal tamoxifen-inducible deletion, 2) a complete, developmental knockout of Sirt1, and 3) a gene replacement, catalytically inactive, form of Sirt1; but all of these mice had FAA similar to controls. Therefore, our findings suggest that FAA is completely independent of Sirt1.

  13. Benefits of Moderate-Intensity Exercise during a Calorie-Restricted Low-Fat Diet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apekey, Tanefa A.; Morris, A. E. J.; Fagbemi, S.; Griffiths, G. J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Despite the health benefits, many people do not undertake regular exercise. This study investigated the effects of moderate-intensity exercise on cardiorespiratory fitness (lung age, blood pressure and maximal aerobic power, VO[subscript 2]max), serum lipids concentration and body mass index (BMI) in sedentary overweight/obese adults…

  14. Restricting feeding to the active phase in middle-aged mice attenuates adverse metabolic effects of a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Duncan, M J; Smith, J T; Narbaiza, J; Mueez, F; Bustle, L B; Qureshi, S; Fieseler, C; Legan, S J

    2016-12-01

    Time-restricted feeding ameliorates the deleterious effects of a high-fat diet on body weight and metabolism in young adult mice. Because obesity is highly prevalent in the middle-aged population, this study tested the hypothesis that time-restricted feeding alleviates the adverse effects of a high-fat diet in male middle-aged (12months) mice. C57BL6/J mice were fed one of three diets for 21-25weeks: 1) high-fat diet (60% total calories from fat) ad-libitum (HFD-AL), 2) HFD, time-restricted feeding (HFD-TRF), and 3) low-fat diet (10% total calories from fat) ad-libitum (LFD-AL) (n=15 each). HFD-TRF mice only had food access for 8h/day during their active period. HFD-TRF mice gained significantly less weight than HFD-AL mice (~20% vs 55% of initial weight, respectively). Caloric intake differed between these groups only during the first 8weeks and accounted for most but not all of their body weight difference during this time. TRF of a HFD lowered glucose tolerance in terms of incremental area under the curve (iAUC) (p<0.02) to that of LFD-AL mice. TRF of a HFD lowered liver weight (p<0.0001), but not retroperitoneal or epididymal fat pad weight, to that of LFD-AL mice. Neither HFD-AL nor HFD-TRF had any effect on performance in the novel object recognition or object location memory tests. Circulating corticosterone levels either before or after restraint stress were not affected by diet. In conclusion, TRF without caloric restriction is an effective strategy in middle-aged mice for alleviating the negative effects of a HFD on body weight, liver weight, and glucose tolerance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of concentrates restriction on feed consumption, diet digestibility, and nitrogen utilization in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus).

    PubMed

    Das, A; Smith, M L; Saini, M; Katole, Shrikant; Kullu, S S; Gupta, B K; Sharma, A K; Swarup, D

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the effect of concentrates restriction on feed consumption, diet digestibility, and utilization of nitrogen in captive Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), two feeding trials were conducted on three juveniles, four sub-adults, and three adults. During trial I, the conventional zoo diets of juveniles, sub-adults, and adult contained 22, 17, and 16% of concentrates on dry matter (DM) basis, respectively. During trial II, the amount of concentrate was reduced by 50%. A digestion trial of five days collection period was conducted during each period. The animals ate more roughages when concentrates were restricted. Intake of DM (g/kg BW(0.75) /day) was highest in sub-adults, followed by juveniles and adults. Apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP), neutral detergent soluble (NDS), and supply of digestible energy (DE) was highest in juveniles, followed by sub-adults and adults. Based upon the estimated metabolic fecal nitrogen (MFN) and calculated endogenous urinary nitrogen (EUN) and dermal losses, minimum dietary CP required to meet maintenance requirement was estimated to be 6.12, 6.05, and 5.97% in juveniles, sub-adults, and adults, respectively. Restriction of concentrates resulted in decreased (P < 0.05) digestibility of DM and GE, but the diet still supplied adequate amounts of DE and CP to fulfill estimated requirements of energy and protein during the period of experimentation. Thus, the concentrates portion of the diets of captive Asian elephants should be fed in a restricted way so as to reduce the intake of excessive calories and the potential risk of obesity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Troxerutin abrogates mitochondrial oxidative stress and myocardial apoptosis in mice fed calorie-rich diet.

    PubMed

    Geetha, Rajagopalan; Sathiya Priya, Chandrasekaran; Anuradha, Carani Venkatraman

    2017-12-25

    Mitochondrial oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of myocardial apoptosis in metabolic syndrome (MS) patients. In this study, we investigated the effect of troxerutin (TX), an antioxidant on mitochondrial oxidative stress and apoptotic markers in heart of mice fed fat and fructose-rich diet. Adult male Mus musculus mice were fed either control diet or high fat, high fructose diet (HFFD) for 60 days to induce MS. Mice from each dietary group were divided into two on the 16th day and were either treated or untreated with TX (150 mg/kg bw, p.o) for the next 45 days. At the end of the study, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, oxidative stress markers, levels of intracellular calcium, cardiolipin content, cytochrome c release and apoptotic markers were examined in the myocardium. HFFD-feeding resulted in diminution of antioxidants and increased ROS production, lipid peroxidation and oxidatively modified adducts of 8-OHG, 4-HNE and 3-NT. Further increase in Ca 2+ levels, low levels of calcium transporters and decrease in cardiolipin content were noted. Changes in the mitochondrial structure were observed by electron microscopy. Furthermore, cytochrome c release, increase in proapoptotic proteins (APAF-1, BAX, caspases-9 and-3) and decrease in antiapoptotic protein (BCL-2) in HFFD-fed mice suggest myocardial apoptosis. These changes were significantly restored by TX supplementation. TX administration effectively attenuated cardiac apoptosis and exerted a protective role by increasing antioxidant potential and by improving mitochondrial function. Thus, TX could be a promising therapeutic candidate for treating cardiac disease in MS patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of low-carbohydrate vs. low-fat/low-calorie diets in the management of obesity and its comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Hession, M; Rolland, C; Kulkarni, U; Wise, A; Broom, J

    2009-01-01

    There are few studies comparing the effects of low-carbohydrate/high-protein diets with low-fat/high-carbohydrate diets for obesity and cardiovascular disease risk. This systematic review focuses on randomized controlled trials of low-carbohydrate diets compared with low-fat/low-calorie diets. Studies conducted in adult populations with mean or median body mass index of > or =28 kg m(-2) were included. Thirteen electronic databases were searched and randomized controlled trials from January 2000 to March 2007 were evaluated. Trials were included if they lasted at least 6 months and assessed the weight-loss effects of low-carbohydrate diets against low-fat/low-calorie diets. For each study, data were abstracted and checked by two researchers prior to electronic data entry. The computer program Review Manager 4.2.2 was used for the data analysis. Thirteen articles met the inclusion criteria. There were significant differences between the groups for weight, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerols and systolic blood pressure, favouring the low-carbohydrate diet. There was a higher attrition rate in the low-fat compared with the low-carbohydrate groups suggesting a patient preference for a low-carbohydrate/high-protein approach as opposed to the Public Health preference of a low-fat/high-carbohydrate diet. Evidence from this systematic review demonstrates that low-carbohydrate/high-protein diets are more effective at 6 months and are as effective, if not more, as low-fat diets in reducing weight and cardiovascular disease risk up to 1 year. More evidence and longer-term studies are needed to assess the long-term cardiovascular benefits from the weight loss achieved using these diets.

  18. Effect of an advanced glycation end product-restricted diet and exercise on metabolic parameters in adult overweight men.

    PubMed

    Macías-Cervantes, Maciste Habacuc; Rodríguez-Soto, Juana María Dolores; Uribarri, Jaime; Díaz-Cisneros, Francisco José; Cai, Weijingi; Garay-Sevilla, Ma Eugenia

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to review the effect of a low advanced glycation end product (AGEs) diet, exercise, and a combination of both on circulating AGE levels as well as on plasma lipids and anthropometric parameters. Forty-three overweight or obese men (body mass index [BMI] >25 kg/m(2)), 30 to 55 y, participated in a 12-wk study and were randomly assigned to one of three groups: low AGE diet, exercise with habitual food intake, or exercise plus low AGE diet. Exercise was for 45 min at 65% to 75% of their maximum heart rate three times a week. We measured somatometric variables (BMI and waist circumference), blood glucose, lipids, and serum AGEs (N(ε)-[Carboxymethyl]Lysine [CML] and methylglyoxal [MG]) at baseline and at 12 wk. Exercise alone was associated with decreased somatometric variables; the low AGE diet had the same effects and decreased serum CML and MG and when combined with exercise reproduced all these effects, but also decreased triacylglycerols and increased high-density lipoprotein. Correlation analysis showed that both changes of CML and MG correlated with changes in dietary AGEs (P < 0.020 and P < 0.038, respectively); change in maximum oxygen consumption correlated inversely with change in weight and triacylglycerols. Regression analyses, including change in dietary AGEs and in dietary calories, showed that change in dietary AGEs was the independent determinant of change in CML (P < 0.020) and MG (P < 0.038). An AGE-restricted diet reduces serum AGE and indices of body fat. The addition of exercise to the restricted diet has the same effects but also improves lipid profile. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Combination of Recreational Soccer and Caloric Restricted Diet Reduces Markers of Protein Catabolism and Cardiovascular Risk in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Vieira de Sousa, M; Fukui, R; Krustrup, P; Dagogo-Jack, S; Rossi da Silva, M E

    2017-01-01

    Moderate calorie-restricted diets and exercise training prevent loss of lean mass and cardiovascular risk. Because adherence to routine exercise recommendation is generally poor, we utilized recreational soccer training as a novel therapeutic exercise intervention in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. We compared the effects of acute and chronic soccer training plus calorie-restricted diet on protein catabolism and cardiovascular risk markers in T2D. Fifty-one T2D patients (61.1±6.4 years, 29 females: 22 males) were randomly allocated to the soccer+diet-group (SDG) or to the diet-group (DG). The 40-min soccer sessions were held 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Nineteen participants attended 100% of scheduled soccer sessions, and none suffered any injuries. The SDG group showed higher levels of growth hormone (GH), free fatty acids and ammonia compared with DG. After 12 weeks, insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFPB)-3 and glucose levels were lower in SDG, whereas insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1/ IGFBP-3 ratio increased in both groups. After the last training session, an increase in IGF-1/IGFBP-3 and attenuation in ammonia levels were suggestive of lower muscle protein catabolism. Recreational soccer training was popular and safe, and was associated with decreased plasma glucose and IGFBP-3 levels, decreased ammoniagenesis, and increased lipolytic activity and IGF-1/IGFBP-3 ratio, all indicative of attenuated catabolism.

  20. Body weight loss by very-low-calorie diet program improves small artery reactive hyperemia in severely obese patients.

    PubMed

    Merino, J; Megias-Rangil, I; Ferré, R; Plana, N; Girona, J; Rabasa, A; Aragonés, G; Cabré, A; Bonada, A; Heras, M; Masana, L

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is a major underlying mechanism for the elevated cardiovascular risk associated with increased body weight. We aimed to assess the impact of weight loss induced by an intensive very-low-calorie diet (VLCD) on arterial wall function in severely obese patients (SOP). Thirty-four SOP were admitted to the metabolic ward of the hospital for a 3-week period. A VLCD characterized by a liquid diet providing 800 kcal/day was administered. The small artery reactivity to postischemic hyperemia index (saRHI), a surrogate marker of endothelial function, was assessed before and 1 week after hospital discharge. Anthropometry and biochemical parameters were also measured. Obese and non-obese age- and gender-matched groups were recruited for baseline comparisons. SOP had significantly lower saRHI compared with obese and non-obese individuals. SaRHI significantly increased after the intervention in SOP (1.595 ± 0.236 vs. 1.737 ± 0.417, p = 0.015). A significant improvement in glucose (p = 0.026), systolic blood pressure (p = 0.049), LDLc (p < 0.001), and inflammatory parameters was observed. Body weight loss was associated with a higher saRHI (r = -0.385, p = 0.033), and it was the main determinant of saRHI variation independently of confounders (β -0.049, IC 95 % -0.091-0.008, p = 0.021). Weight loss induced by a VLCD in SOP improved small artery reactivity, and it was associated with the amelioration of metabolic and inflammation markers. Endothelial dysfunction may be softened by body weight loss interventions and useful in the management of cardiovascular risk factors in SOP.

  1. Short-term calorie restriction feminizes the mRNA profiles of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in livers of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Zidong Donna; Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: cklaasse@kumc.edu

    2014-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is one of the most effective anti-aging interventions in mammals. A modern theory suggests that aging results from a decline in detoxification capabilities and thus accumulation of damaged macromolecules. The present study aimed to determine how short-term CR alters mRNA profiles of genes that encode metabolism and detoxification machinery in the liver. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed CR (0, 15, 30, or 40%) diets for one month, followed by mRNA quantification of 98 xenobiotic processing genes (XPGs) in the liver, including 7 uptake transporters, 39 phase-I enzymes, 37 phase-II enzymes, 10 efflux transporters, and 5 transcription factors.more » In general, 15% CR did not alter mRNAs of most XPGs, whereas 30 and 40% CR altered over half of the XPGs (32 increased and 29 decreased). CR up-regulated some phase-I enzymes (fold increase), such as Cyp4a14 (12), Por (2.3), Nqo1 (1.4), Fmo2 (5.4), and Fmo3 (346), and numerous number of phase-II enzymes, such as Sult1a1 (1.2), Sult1d1 (2.0), Sult1e1 (33), Sult3a1 (2.2), Gsta4 (1.3), Gstm2 (1.3), Gstm3 (1.7), and Mgst3 (2.2). CR feminized the mRNA profiles of 32 XPGs in livers of male mice. For instance, CR decreased the male-predominantly expressed Oatp1a1 (97%) and increased the female-predominantly expressed Oatp1a4 (11). In conclusion, short-term CR alters the mRNA levels of over half of the 98 XPGs quantified in livers of male mice, and over half of these alterations appear to be due to feminization of the liver. - Highlights: • Utilized a graded CR model in male mice • The mRNA profiles of xenobiotic processing genes (XPGs) in liver were investigated. • CR up-regulates many phase-II enzymes. • CR tends to feminize the mRNA profiles of XPGs.« less

  2. Association of metabolic syndrome with low birth weight, intake of high-calorie diets and acanthosis nigricans in children and adolescents with overweight and obesity.

    PubMed

    Velazquez-Bautista, Marlen; López-Sandoval, Joana Jazmín; González-Hita, Mercedes; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo; Cabrera-Valencia, Iris Zamihara; Torres-Mendoza, Blanca Miriam

    2017-01-01

    The theory of fetal programming suggests that low birth weight (LBW) predisposes to greater food intake and increases the chance of overweight and obesity, which are in turn associated to conditions such as metabolic syndrome (MS) and acanthosis nigricans. The study objective was to ascertain whether an association exists between MS, LBW, intake of high-calorie diets, and acanthosis nigricans in children and adolescents with overweight or obesity. A case-control was conducted on 100 children who attended the overweight and obesity outpatient clinic of the OPD Hospital Civil de Guadalajara "Fray Antonio Alcalde". Subjects were stratified in groups with and without MS based on the criteria of the International Diabetes Federation for children aged less than 16 years. Data on LBW, intake of high-calorie diets for 24-hour dietary recalls (average 2 days a week), and acanthosis nigricans (Simone criteria) were obtained by questioning the parents. Frequencies and logistic regression were calculated using SPSS version 22. The results show that 82% of children and adolescents were obese and 18% overweight, and 73% had MS. MS was associated to LBW (OR: 4.83 [95% CI: 1.9-12.47]), high-calorie diets (OR:136.8 [95% CI: 7.7-2434]), and acanthosis nigricans (OR: 1872 [95% CI: 112.9-31028]). In children and adolescents with overweight and obesity, LBW, high-calorie diets, and acanthosis nigricans are associated to a higher probability of MS. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. High-fat, high-calorie diet promotes early pancreatic neoplasia in the conditional KrasG12D mouse model.

    PubMed

    Dawson, David W; Hertzer, Kathleen; Moro, Aune; Donald, Graham; Chang, Hui-Hua; Go, Vay Liang; Pandol, Steven J; Lugea, Aurelia; Gukovskaya, Anna S; Li, Gang; Hines, Oscar J; Rozengurt, Enrique; Eibl, Guido

    2013-10-01

    There is epidemiologic evidence that obesity increases the risk of cancers. Several underlying mechanisms, including inflammation and insulin resistance, are proposed. However, the driving mechanisms in pancreatic cancer are poorly understood. The goal of the present study was to develop a model of diet-induced obesity and pancreatic cancer development in a state-of-the-art mouse model, which resembles important clinical features of human obesity, for example, weight gain and metabolic disturbances. Offspring of Pdx-1-Cre and LSL-KrasG12D mice were allocated to either a high-fat, high-calorie diet (HFCD; ∼4,535 kcal/kg; 40% of calories from fats) or control diet (∼3,725 kcal/kg; 12% of calories from fats) for 3 months. Compared with control animals, mice fed with the HFCD significantly gained more weight and developed hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, hyperleptinemia, and elevated levels of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). The pancreas of HFCD-fed animals showed robust signs of inflammation with increased numbers of infiltrating inflammatory cells (macrophages and T cells), elevated levels of several cytokines and chemokines, increased stromal fibrosis, and more advanced PanIN lesions. Our results show that a diet high in fats and calories leads to obesity and metabolic disturbances similar to humans and accelerates early pancreatic neoplasia in the conditional KrasG12D mouse model. This model and findings will provide the basis for more robust studies attempting to unravel the mechanisms underlying the cancer-promoting properties of obesity, as well as to evaluate dietary- and chemopreventive strategies targeting obesity-associated pancreatic cancer development.

  4. Weight maintenance and additional weight loss with liraglutide after low-calorie-diet-induced weight loss: the SCALE Maintenance randomized study.

    PubMed

    Wadden, T A; Hollander, P; Klein, S; Niswender, K; Woo, V; Hale, P M; Aronne, L

    2013-11-01

    Liraglutide, a once-daily human glucagon-like peptide-1 analog, induced clinically meaningful weight loss in a phase 2 study in obese individuals without diabetes. The present randomized phase 3 trial assessed the efficacy of liraglutide in maintaining weight loss achieved with a low-calorie diet (LCD). Obese/overweight participants (≥18 years, body mass index ≥30 kg m(-2) or ≥27 kg m(-2) with comorbidities) who lost ≥5% of initial weight during a LCD run-in were randomly assigned to liraglutide 3.0 mg per day or placebo (subcutaneous administration) for 56 weeks. Diet and exercise counseling were provided throughout the trial. Co-primary end points were percentage weight change from randomization, the proportion of participants that maintained the initial ≥5% weight loss, and the proportion that lost ≥5% of randomization weight (intention-to-treat analysis). ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00781937. Participants (n=422) lost a mean 6.0% (s.d. 0.9) of screening weight during run-in. From randomization to week 56, weight decreased an additional mean 6.2% (s.d. 7.3) with liraglutide and 0.2% (s.d. 7.0) with placebo (estimated difference -6.1% (95% class intervals -7.5 to -4.6), P<0.0001). More participants receiving liraglutide (81.4%) maintained the ≥5% run-in weight loss, compared with those receiving placebo (48.9%) (estimated odds ratio 4.8 (3.0; 7.7), P<0.0001), and 50.5% versus 21.8% of participants lost ≥5% of randomization weight (estimated odds ratio 3.9 (2.4; 6.1), P<0.0001). Liraglutide produced small but statistically significant improvements in several cardiometabolic risk factors compared with placebo. Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders were reported more frequently with liraglutide than placebo, but most events were transient, and mild or moderate in severity. Liraglutide, with diet and exercise, maintained weight loss achieved by caloric restriction and induced further weight loss over 56 weeks. Improvements in some

  5. Comparison of a Restricted and Unrestricted Vegan Diet Plan with a Restricted Omnivorous Diet Plan on Health-Specific Measures.

    PubMed

    Bloomer, Richard J; Gunnels, Trint A; Schriefer, JohnHenry M

    2015-07-14

    We have previously noted beneficial health outcomes when individuals follow a dietary restriction plan in accordance with the Daniel Fast (DF). This is true whether individuals eliminate all animal products or include small amounts of meat and dairy in their plan. The present study sought to compare anthropometric and biochemical measures of health in individuals following a traditional DF (i.e., restricted vegan) or modified DF (i.e., restricted omnivorous; inclusive of ad libitum meat and skim milk consumption), with those following an unrestricted vegan diet plan. 35 subjects (six men; 29 women; 33 ± 2 years; range: 18-67 years) completed a 21-day diet plan. Subjects reported to the lab for pre- (day 1) and post-intervention testing (day 22) in a 10 h fasted state. Blood samples were collected and assayed for complete blood count, metabolic panel, lipid panel, insulin, HOMA-IR, C-reactive protein, and oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products, and nitrate/nitrite). Heart rate and blood pressure were measured and body composition was determined via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects' self-reported compliance, mental and physical health, and satiety in relation to the dietary modification were recorded. No interaction effects were noted for our outcome measures (p > 0.05). However, subjects in the traditional DF group reported an approximate 10% increase in perceived mental and physical health, with a 25% reduction in malondialdehyde and a 33% reduction in blood insulin. Systolic BP was reduced approximately 7 mmHg in subjects assigned to the traditional DF, with an approximate 5 mmHg reduction in subjects assigned to the modified DF and the unrestricted vegan plan. A small (2 mmHg) reduction in diastolic BP was noted for subjects in both DF groups; a slight increase in diastolic BP was noted for subjects assigned to the unrestricted vegan group. An approximate 20% reduction was noted in total and LDL cholesterol

  6. Comparison of a Restricted and Unrestricted Vegan Diet Plan with a Restricted Omnivorous Diet Plan on Health-Specific Measures

    PubMed Central

    Bloomer, Richard J.; Gunnels, Trint A.; Schriefer, JohnHenry M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: We have previously noted beneficial health outcomes when individuals follow a dietary restriction plan in accordance with the Daniel Fast (DF). This is true whether individuals eliminate all animal products or include small amounts of meat and dairy in their plan. The present study sought to compare anthropometric and biochemical measures of health in individuals following a traditional DF (i.e., restricted vegan) or modified DF (i.e., restricted omnivorous; inclusive of ad libitum meat and skim milk consumption), with those following an unrestricted vegan diet plan. Methods: 35 subjects (six men; 29 women; 33 ± 2 years; range: 18–67 years) completed a 21-day diet plan. Subjects reported to the lab for pre- (day 1) and post-intervention testing (day 22) in a 10 h fasted state. Blood samples were collected and assayed for complete blood count, metabolic panel, lipid panel, insulin, HOMA-IR, C-reactive protein, and oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products, and nitrate/nitrite). Heart rate and blood pressure were measured and body composition was determined via dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Subjects’ self-reported compliance, mental and physical health, and satiety in relation to the dietary modification were recorded. Results: No interaction effects were noted for our outcome measures (p > 0.05). However, subjects in the traditional DF group reported an approximate 10% increase in perceived mental and physical health, with a 25% reduction in malondialdehyde and a 33% reduction in blood insulin. Systolic BP was reduced approximately 7 mmHg in subjects assigned to the traditional DF, with an approximate 5 mmHg reduction in subjects assigned to the modified DF and the unrestricted vegan plan. A small (2 mmHg) reduction in diastolic BP was noted for subjects in both DF groups; a slight increase in diastolic BP was noted for subjects assigned to the unrestricted vegan group. An approximate 20% reduction was

  7. Moderate caloric restriction in lactating rats programs their offspring for a better response to HF diet feeding in a sex-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Palou, Mariona; Torrens, Juana María; Priego, Teresa; Sánchez, Juana; Palou, Andreu; Picó, Catalina

    2011-06-01

    We aimed to assess the lasting effects of moderate caloric restriction in lactating rats on the expression of key genes involved in energy balance of their adult offspring (CR) and their adaptations under high-fat (HF) diet. Dams were fed with either ad libitum normal-fat (NF) diet or a 30% caloric restricted diet throughout lactation. After weaning, the offspring were fed with NF diet until the age of 15 weeks and then with an NF or a HF diet until the age of 28 weeks, when they were sacrificed. Body weight and food intake were followed. Blood parameters and the expression of selected genes in hypothalamus and white adipose tissue (WAT) were analysed. CR ate fewer calories and showed lower body weight gain under HF diet than their controls. CR males were also resistant to the increase of insulin and leptin occurring in their controls under HF diet, and HF diet exposed CR females showed lower circulating fasting triglyceride levels than controls. In the hypothalamus, CR males had higher ObRb mRNA levels than controls, and CR females displayed greater InsR mRNA levels than controls and decreased neuropeptide Y mRNA levels when exposed to HF diet. CR males maintained WAT capacity of fat uptake and storage and of fatty-acid oxidation under HF diet, whereas these capacities were impaired in controls; female CR showed higher WAT ObRb mRNA levels than controls. These results suggest that 30% caloric restriction in lactating dams ameliorates diet-induced obesity in their offspring by enhancing their sensitivity to insulin and leptin signaling, but in a gender-dependent manner. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Seizure tests distinguish intermittent fasting from the ketogenic diet

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Adam L.; Zheng, Xiangrong; Bergbower, Emily; Kennedy, Michiko; Hardwick, J. Marie

    2010-01-01

    Summary Purpose Calorie restriction can be anticonvulsant in animal models. The ketogenic diet was designed to mimic calorie restriction and has been assumed to work by the same mechanisms. We challenged this assumption by profiling the effects of these dietary regimens in mice subjected to a battery of acute seizure tests. Methods Juvenile male NIH Swiss mice received ketogenic diet or a normal diet fed in restricted quantities (continuously or intermittently) for ~ 12 days, starting at 3–4 weeks of age. Seizures were induced by the 6 Hz test, kainic acid, maximal electroshock, or pentylenetetrazol. Results The ketogenic and calorie-restricted diets often had opposite effects depending on the seizure test. The ketogenic diet protected from 6 Hz–induced seizures, whereas calorie restriction (daily and intermittent) increased seizure activity. Conversely, calorie restriction protected juvenile mice against seizures induced by kainic acid, whereas the ketogenic diet failed to protect. Intermittent caloric restriction worsened seizures induced by maximal electroshock but had no effect on those induced by pentylenetetrazol. Discussion In contrast to a longstanding hypothesis, calorie restriction and the ketogenic diet differ in their acute seizure test profiles, suggesting that they have different underlying anticonvulsant mechanisms. These findings highlight the importance of the 6 Hz test and its ability to reflect the benefits of ketosis and fat consumption. PMID:20477852

  9. Aging and calorie restriction regulate the expression of miR-125a-5p and its target genes Stat3, Casp2 and Stard13.

    PubMed

    Makwana, Kuldeep; Patel, Sonal Arvind; Velingkaar, Nikkhil; Ebron, Jey Sabith; Shukla, Girish C; Kondratov, Roman V Kondratov V

    2017-07-31

    Calorie restriction (CR) is a dietary intervention known to delay aging. In order, to understand molecular mechanisms of CR, we analyzed the expression of 983 MicroRNAs (miRNAs) in the liver of female mice after 2 years of 30% CR using micro-array. 16 miRNAs demonstrated significant changes in their expression upon CR in comparison with age-matched control. mmu-miR-125a-5p (miR-125a-5p) was significantly upregulated upon CR, and in agreement with this, the expression of mRNAs for its three predicted target genes: Stat3, Casp2, and Stard13 was significantly downregulated in the liver of CR animals. The expression of precursor miRNA for miR-125a-5p was also upregulated upon CR, which suggests its regulation at the level of transcription. Upon aging miR-125a-5p expression was downregulated while the expression of its target genes was upregulated. Thus, CR prevented age-associated changes in the expression of miR-125a-5p and its targets. We propose that miR-125a-5p dependent downregulation of Stat3, Casp2, and Stard13 contributes to the calorie restriction-mediated delay of aging.

  10. A Randomized Trial of Lorcaserin and Lifestyle Counseling for Maintaining Weight Loss Achieved with a Low-Calorie Diet

    PubMed Central

    Tronieri, Jena Shaw; Wadden, Thomas A.; Berkowitz, Robert I.; Chao, Ariana M.; Pearl, Rebecca L.; Alamuddin, Naji; Leonard, Sharon M.; Carvajal, Ray; Bakizada, Zayna M.; Pinkasavage, Emilie; Gruber, Kathryn A.; Walsh, Olivia A.; Alfaris, Nasreen

    2017-01-01

    Objective Improving the maintenance of lost weight remains a critical challenge, which can be addressed by long-term behavioral and/or pharmacological interventions. Methods This study investigated the efficacy of combined behavioral and pharmacological treatment in facilitating weight loss maintenance (WLM) in 137 adults (86.1% female, 68.6% black, BMI=37.0±5.6 kg/m2) who had lost ≥5% of initial weight during a 14-week, low-calorie diet (LCD) program (mean=9.3±2.9%). Participants were randomly assigned to lorcaserin (10 mg BID) or placebo and provided 16 group WLM counseling sessions over 52 weeks. Results At 24 weeks post-randomization, more lorcaserin- than placebo-treated participants maintained ≥5% loss (73.9% vs 57.4%; p=.033), and the former participants lost an additional 2.4±0.8 kg versus a 0.6±0.8 kg gain for placebo (p=.010). However, at week 52, groups did not differ on either co-primary outcome; 55.1% and 42.6%, respectively, maintained ≥5% loss (p=0.110), with gains from randomization of 2.0±0.8 and 2.5±0.8 kg (p=0.630), respectively. From the start of the LCD, groups maintained reductions of 7.8% and 6.6%, respectively (p=0.318). Conclusion Combined behavioral-pharmacologic treatment produced clinically meaningful long-term weight loss in this group of predominantly black participants. Lorcaserin initially improved upon weight loss achieved with WLM counseling, but this advantage was not maintained at 1 year. PMID:20379151

  11. Effect of aerobic exercise training followed by a low-calorie diet on metabolic syndrome risk factors in men.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, T; So, R; Shimojo, N; Tanaka, K

    2015-09-01

    Whether low-volume, high-intensity, interval training (HIIT) is an adequate exercise method for improving metabolic risk factors is controversial. Moreover, it is not known if performing a short-term, low-calorie diet intervention (LCDi) after a HIIT program affects risk factors. This study investigated how an 8-week, 3 times/week exercise intervention (EXi) incorporating either HIIT or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) followed by a 4-week LCDi affects risk factors. Twenty-six male workers with metabolic risk factors (47.4 ± 7.1 years; cardiorespiratory capacity (VO2peak) of 28.5 ± 3.9 ml/kg/min) were randomly assigned to either the HIIT (3 sets of 3-min cycling with a 2-min active rest between sets, 180 kcal) or MICT (45 min, 360 kcal) group. After the EXi, all subjects participated in a 4-week LCDi (4 counseling sessions). During the EXi, VO2peak improved more (P < 0.05) through HIIT (25.4 ± 14.6%) than through MICT (14.9 ± 12.8%), whereas improvements in body fat and HDL cholesterol were similar. During the LCDi, some risk factors improved further (P < 0.05) without any group differences, while VO2peak in the HIIT group decreased (P < 0.05) to the same level as in the MICT group. VO2peak increased more with HIIT than with MICT during the EXi despite HIIT having a lower exercise volume than MICT, but this advantage of HIIT promptly disappeared through detraining. An intervention strategy consisting of 8 weeks of either HIIT or MICT followed by a 4-week LCDi has a positive effect on metabolic risk factors. UMIN11352. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Moderate Aerobic Exercise Combined With Calorie Restriction on Circulating Estrogens and IGF-I in Premenopausal Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    significantly either, indicating that chronic exercise and dieting do not result in favorable changes in two hormonal biomarkers for breast cancer. 14...physical activity and or diet in the risk of breast cancer, the battery of metabolic hormones that comprise the proposed method must be amenable to...new and important information regarding the degree to which an exercise and diet program that results in an energy deficit will reduce the risk of

  13. Effect of PGX, a novel functional fibre supplement, on subjective ratings of appetite in overweight and obese women consuming a 3-day structured, low-calorie diet.

    PubMed

    Kacinik, V; Lyon, M; Purnama, M; Reimer, R A; Gahler, R; Green, T J; Wood, S

    2011-12-12

    Dietary factors that help control perceived hunger might improve adherence to calorie-reduced diets. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of supplementing a three-day, low-calorie diet with PolyGlycopleX (PGX), a highly viscous fibre, on subjective ratings of appetite compared with a placebo. In a double-blind crossover design with a 3-week washout, 45 women (aged 38±9 years, body mass index 29.9±2.8 kg m(-2)) were randomised to consume a 1000-kcal per day diet for 3 days, supplemented with 5 g of PGX or placebo at each of breakfast, lunch and dinner. Subjective appetite was assessed using 100 mm visual analogue scales that were completed daily before, between and after consumption of meals. Thirty-five women completed the study. Consumption of PGX compared with placebo led to significantly lower mean area under the curve for hunger on day 3 (440.4 versus 375.4; P=0.048), prospective consumption on day 3 (471.0 versus 401.8; P=0.017) and the overall 3-day average (468.6 versus 420.2; P=0.026). More specifically, on day 3 PGX significantly reduced total appetite, hunger, desire to eat and prospective consumption for 2.5 and 4.5 h after lunch and before dinner times, with hunger also being reduced 2.5 h after dinner (P<0.05). The results show that adding 5 g of PGX to meals during consumption of a low-calorie diet reduces subjective ratings of prospective consumption and increases the feelings of satiety, especially during afternoon and evening. This highly viscous polysaccharide may be a useful adjunct to weight-loss interventions involving significant caloric reductions.

  14. Glycyrrhizic acid prevents high calorie diet-induced metabolic aberrations despite the suppression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hong Sheng; Yaw, Hui Ping; Ton, So Ha; Choy, Siew Mei; Kong, Joana Magdelene Xiao Fang; Abdul Kadir, Khalid

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the effects of glycyrrhizic acid supplementation on glucose and lipid metabolism in rodents consuming a high-fat, high-sucrose diet. Twenty-four male, 8-week old Sprague Dawley rats with an initial weight of 160 to 200 g were randomised into three groups (n = 6 for each group): groups A (standard rat chow), B (high-fat, high-sucrose diet), and C (high-fat, high-sucrose diet + 100 mg/kg/d of glycyrrhizic acid via oral administration). The rats were treated accordingly for 4 wk. Glycaemic parameters, lipid profile, stress hormones, and adiponectin levels were measured after the treatment. Relative gene expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α and γ, lipoprotein lipase as well as gluconeogenic enzymatic activities in different tissues were also determined. Consumption of high-fat, high-sucrose diet triggered hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia, which were effectively attenuated by supplementation with glycyrrhizic acid. Glycyrrhizic acid supplementation also effectively reduced circulating adrenaline, alleviated gluconeogenic enzymes overactivity, and promoted the upregulation of lipoprotein lipase expression in the cardiomyocytes and skeletal muscles. A high calorie diet also triggered hypoadiponectinaemia and suppression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression, which did not improve with glycyrrhizic acid treatment. Supplementation with glycyrrhizic acid could alleviate high calorie diet-induced glucose and lipid metabolic dysregulations by reducing circulatory stress hormones, normalizing gluconeogenic enzyme activities, and elevating muscular lipid uptake. The beneficial effects of these bioactivities outweighed the adverse effects caused by diet-induced repression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression, resulting in the maintenance of lipid and glucose homeostasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Calorie Restriction and Fiber Type on Glucose Uptake and Abundance of Electron Transport Chain and Oxidative Phosphorylation Proteins in Single Fibers from Old Rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiyan; Arias, Edward B; Yu, Carmen S; Verkerke, Anthony R P; Cartee, Gregory D

    2017-11-09

    Calorie restriction (CR; reducing calorie intake by ~40% below ad libitum) can increase glucose uptake by insulin-stimulated muscle. Because skeletal muscle is comprised of multiple, heterogeneous fiber types, our primary aim was to determine the effects of CR (initiated at 14 weeks old) and fiber type on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by single fibers of diverse fiber types in 23-26-month-old rats. Isolated epitrochlearis muscles from AL and CR rats were incubated with [3H]-2-deoxyglucose ± insulin. Glucose uptake and fiber type were determined for single fibers dissected from the muscles. We also determined CR-effects on abundance of several key metabolic proteins in single fibers. CR resulted in: (a) significantly (p < .05 to .001) greater glucose uptake by insulin-stimulated type I, IIA, IIB, IIBX, and IIX fibers; (b) significantly (p < .05 to .001) reduced abundance of several mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) and oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) proteins in type I, IIA, and IIBX but not IIB and IIX fibers; and (c) unaltered hexokinase II abundance in each fiber type. These results demonstrate that CR can enhance glucose uptake in each fiber type of rat skeletal muscle in the absence of upregulation of the abundance of hexokinase II or key mitochondrial ETC and OxPhos proteins. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. A Randomized Trial of Lorcaserin and Lifestyle Counseling for Maintaining Weight Loss Achieved with a Low-Calorie Diet.

    PubMed

    Shaw Tronieri, Jena; Wadden, Thomas A; Berkowitz, Robert I; Chao, Ariana M; Pearl, Rebecca L; Alamuddin, Naji; Leonard, Sharon M; Carvajal, Ray; Bakizada, Zayna M; Pinkasavage, Emilie; Gruber, Kathryn A; Walsh, Olivia A; Alfaris, Nasreen

    2018-02-01

    Improving the maintenance of lost weight remains a critical challenge, which can be addressed by long-term behavioral and/or pharmacological interventions. This study investigated the efficacy of combined behavioral and pharmacological treatment in facilitating weight loss maintenance (WLM) in 137 adults (86.1% female; 68.6% black; BMI = 37.0 ± 5.6 kg/m 2 ) who had lost ≥ 5% of initial weight during a 14-week low-calorie diet (LCD) program (mean = 9.3 ± 2.9%). Participants were randomly assigned to lorcaserin (10 mg twice a day) or placebo and were provided 16 group WLM counseling sessions over 52 weeks. At 24 weeks post randomization, more lorcaserin-treated than placebo-treated participants maintained a ≥ 5% loss (73.9% vs. 57.4%; P = 0.033), and the lorcaserin-treated participants lost an additional 2.4 ± 0.8 kg versus a 0.6 ± 0.8 kg gain for placebo (P = 0.010). However, at week 52, groups did not differ on either co-primary outcome; 55.1% and 42.6%, respectively, maintained ≥ 5% loss (P = 0.110), with gains from randomization of 2.0 ± 0.8 kg and 2.5 ± 0.8 kg (P = 0.630), respectively. From the start of the LCD, groups maintained reductions of 7.8% and 6.6%, respectively (P = 0.318). Combined behavioral and pharmacological treatment produced clinically meaningful long-term weight loss in this group of predominantly black participants. Lorcaserin initially improved upon weight loss achieved with WLM counseling, but this advantage was not maintained at 1 year. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  17. Hungry for life: How the arcuate nucleus and neuropeptide Y may play a critical role in mediating the benefits of calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    Minor, Robin K; Chang, Joy W; de Cabo, Rafael

    2009-02-05

    Laboratory studies consistently demonstrate extended lifespan in animals on calorie restriction (CR), where total caloric intake is reduced by 10-40% but adequate nutrition is otherwise maintained. CR has been further shown to delay the onset and severity of chronic diseases associated with aging such as cancer, and to extend the functional health span of important faculties like cognition. Less understood are the underlying mechanisms through which CR might act to induce such alterations. One theory postulates that CR's beneficial effects are intimately tied to the neuroendocrine response to low energy availability, of which the arcuate nucleus in the hypothalamus plays a pivotal role. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a neurotransmitter in the front line of the arcuate response to low energy availability, is the primary hunger signal affected by CR and therefore may be a critical mechanism for lifespan extension.

  18. Hungry for Life: How the arcuate nucleus and neuropeptide Y may play a critical role in mediating the benefits of calorie restriction

    PubMed Central

    Minor, Robin K.; Chang, Joy W.; de Cabo, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory studies consistently demonstrate extended lifespan in animals on calorie restriction (CR), where total caloric intake is reduced by 10–40% but adequate nutrition is otherwise maintained. CR has been further shown to delay the onset and severity of chronic diseases associated with aging such as cancer, and to extend the functional health span of important functions including cognition. Less understood are the underlying mechanisms through which CR might act to induce such alterations. One theory postulates that CR’s beneficial effects are intimately tied to the neuroendocrine response to low energy availability, of which the arcuate nucleus in the hypothalamus plays a pivotal role. Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a neurotransmitter in the front line of the arcuate response to low energy availability, is the primary hunger signal affected by CR and therefore may be a critical mechanism for lifespan extension. PMID:19041366

  19. Blood cell transcriptomic-based early biomarkers of adverse programming effects of gestational calorie restriction and their reversibility by leptin supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Konieczna, Jadwiga; Sánchez, Juana; Palou, Mariona; Picó, Catalina; Palou, Andreu

    2015-01-01

    The challenge of preventing major chronic diseases requires reliable, early biomarkers. Gestational mild undernutrition in rats is enough to program the offspring to develop later pathologies; the intake of leptin, a breastmilk component, during lactation may reverse these programming effects. We used these models to identify, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), transcriptomic-based early biomarkers of programmed susceptibility to later disorders, and explored their response to neonatal leptin intake. Microarray analysis was performed in PBMCs from the offspring of control and 20% gestational calorie-restricted dams (CR), and CR-rats supplemented with physiological doses of leptin throughout lactation. Notably, leptin supplementation normalised 218 of the 224 mRNA-levels identified in PBMCs associated to undernutrition during pregnancy. These markers may be useful for early identification and subsequent monitoring of individuals who are at risk of later diseases and would specifically benefit from the intake of appropriate amounts of leptin during lactation. PMID:25766068

  20. Anti-diabetic activity of fused PPARγ-SIRT1 ligands with limited body-weight gain by mimicking calorie restriction and decreasing SGK1 expression.

    PubMed

    Pirat, Celine; Dacquet, Catherine; Leclerc, Veronique; Hennuyer, Nathalie; Beucher-Gaudin, Monique; Zanirato, Ghislaine; Géant, Anne; Staels, Bart; Ktorza, Alain; Farce, Amaury; Caignard, Daniel-Henri; Berthelot, Pascal; Lebegue, Nicolas

    2017-09-08

    A series of benzothiazol-2-one containing α-ethoxyphenylpropionic acid derivatives incorporating resveratrol or butein scaffolds were designed as fused full PPARγ agonist ligands and SIRT1-activating compounds for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its complications. Compound 14d displayed the best in vitro pharmacological profile with full PPARγ agonist activity (Emax = 98%, EC 50  = 200 nM), SIRT1 enzymatic activation (+128%) and SGK1 expression inhibition (- 57%) which is known to limit side effects as fluid retention and body-weight gain. Compound 14d showed high efficacy in an ob/ob mice model with significant decreases in serum triglyceride, glucose and insulin levels but mostly with limited body-weight gain by mimicking calorie restriction (CR) and inhibiting SGK1 expression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. A randomized controlled trial comparing a standard postoperative diet with low-volume high-calorie oral supplements following colorectal surgery.

    PubMed

    Sharma, M; Wahed, S; O'Dair, G; Gemmell, L; Hainsworth, P; Horgan, A F

    2013-07-01

    Postoperative oral nutritional supplementation is becoming a part of most patient care pathways. This study examined the effects of low-volume high-calorie prescribed supplemental nutrition on patient outcome following elective colorectal surgery. Patients undergoing elective colorectal resections were randomized to a prescribed nutritional supplementation group (SG) [standard diet + 6 × 60 ml/day of Pro-Cal (60 ml = 200 kcal + 4 g protein)] or conventional postoperative diet group (CG) (standard diet alone). Preoperative and daily postoperative hand-grip strengths were measured using a grip dynamometer after randomization. Daily food intake, return of bowel activity, nausea score for the first 3 days and postoperative length of hospital stay (LOS) were prospectively recorded. Micro-diet standardized software was used to analyse food diaries. Nonparametric tests were used to analyse the data. Fifty-five patients were analysed (SG 28, CG 27). There was no difference in median preoperative and postoperative handgrip strengths at discharge within each group (SG 31.7 vs 31.7 kPa, P = 0.932; CG 28 vs 28.1 kPa, P = 0.374). The total median daily calorie intake was higher in SG than CG (SG 818.5 kcal vs CG 528 kcal; P = 0.002). There was no difference in median number of days to first bowel movement (SG 3 days vs CG 4 days, P = 0.096). The median LOS was significantly shorter in SG than CG (6.5 vs 9 days; P = 0.037). Prescribed postoperative high-calorie, low-volume oral supplements in addition to the normal dietary intake are associated with significantly better total daily oral calorie intake and may contribute to a reduced postoperative hospital stay. Colorectal Disease © 2013 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  2. Clinical trial experience with fat-restricted vs. carbohydrate-restricted weight-loss diets.

    PubMed

    Klein, Samuel

    2004-11-01

    It is unlikely that one diet is optimal for all overweight or obese persons. Both low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets have been shown to induce weight loss and reduce obesity-related comorbidities. Low-carbohydrate diets cause greater short-term (up to 6 months) weight loss than low-fat diets, but the long-term clinical safety and efficacy of these diets has not been studied.

  3. Short-term safety, tolerability and efficacy of a very low-calorie-ketogenic diet interventional weight loss program versus hypocaloric diet in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Goday, A; Bellido, D; Sajoux, I; Crujeiras, A B; Burguera, B; García-Luna, P P; Oleaga, A; Moreno, B; Casanueva, F F

    2016-09-19

    Brackground:The safety and tolerability of very low-calorie-ketogenic (VLCK) diets are a current concern in the treatment of obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Evaluating the short-term safety and tolerability of a VLCK diet (<50 g of carbohydrate daily) in an interventional weight loss program including lifestyle and behavioral modification support (Diaprokal Method) in subjects with T2DM. Eighty-nine men and women, aged between 30 and 65 years, with T2DM and body mass index between 30 and 35 kg m(-)(2) participated in this prospective, open-label, multi-centric randomized clinical trial with a duration of 4 months. Forty-five subjects were randomly assigned to the interventional weight loss (VLCK diet), and 44 to the standard low-calorie diet. No significant differences in the laboratory safety parameters were found between the two study groups. Changes in the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio in VLCK diet were not significant and were comparable to control group. Creatinine and blood urea nitrogen did not change significantly relative to baseline nor between groups. Weight loss and reduction in waist circumference in the VLCK diet group were significantly larger than in control subjects (both P<0.001). The decline in HbA1c and glycemic control was larger in the VLCK diet group (P<0.05). No serious adverse events were reported and mild AE in the VLCK diet group declined at last follow-up. The interventional weight loss program based on a VLCK diet is most effective in reducing body weight and improvement of glycemic control than a standard hypocaloric diet with safety and good tolerance for T2DM patients.

  4. Short-term safety, tolerability and efficacy of a very low-calorie-ketogenic diet interventional weight loss program versus hypocaloric diet in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Goday, A; Bellido, D; Sajoux, I; Crujeiras, A B; Burguera, B; García-Luna, P P; Oleaga, A; Moreno, B; Casanueva, F F

    2016-01-01

    Brackground: The safety and tolerability of very low-calorie-ketogenic (VLCK) diets are a current concern in the treatment of obese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Objective: Evaluating the short-term safety and tolerability of a VLCK diet (<50 g of carbohydrate daily) in an interventional weight loss program including lifestyle and behavioral modification support (Diaprokal Method) in subjects with T2DM. Methods: Eighty-nine men and women, aged between 30 and 65 years, with T2DM and body mass index between 30 and 35 kg m−2 participated in this prospective, open-label, multi-centric randomized clinical trial with a duration of 4 months. Forty-five subjects were randomly assigned to the interventional weight loss (VLCK diet), and 44 to the standard low-calorie diet. Results: No significant differences in the laboratory safety parameters were found between the two study groups. Changes in the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio in VLCK diet were not significant and were comparable to control group. Creatinine and blood urea nitrogen did not change significantly relative to baseline nor between groups. Weight loss and reduction in waist circumference in the VLCK diet group were significantly larger than in control subjects (both P<0.001). The decline in HbA1c and glycemic control was larger in the VLCK diet group (P<0.05). No serious adverse events were reported and mild AE in the VLCK diet group declined at last follow-up. Conclusions: The interventional weight loss program based on a VLCK diet is most effective in reducing body weight and improvement of glycemic control than a standard hypocaloric diet with safety and good tolerance for T2DM patients. PMID:27643725

  5. Phylloquinone and Menaquinone-4 Tissue Distribution at Different Life Stages in Male and Female Sprague-Dawley Rats Fed Different VK Levels Since Weaning or Subjected to a 40% Calorie Restriction since Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Ferland, Guylaine; Doucet, Isabelle; Mainville, Dominique

    2016-03-04

    Whether through the vitamin K-dependent proteins or the individual K vitamers, vitamin K (VK) is associated with a number of age-related conditions (e.g., osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, cognitive decline). In light of this, we investigated the influence of lifetime dietary VK exposure on the tissue distribution of phylloquinone (K₁) and menaquinone-4 (MK-4) vitamers in 3-, 12- and 22-month-old male and female rats fed different K₁ diets since weaning or subjected to a 40% calorie restricted diet (CR) since adulthood. Dietary K₁ intakes around the minimal amount required for normal blood coagulation had no significant influence on body weights of both male and female rats at different life stages. Tissue contents of the K vitamers differed according to organs, were generally higher in females than in males, and increased with K₁ intake. The MK-4/total VK ratios tended to be increased in old age possibly reflecting an increased physiological demand for MK-4 during aging. Our study also confirmed the greater susceptibility of male rats to low VK containing diet, notably at a younger age. Despite lifelong higher K₁ intakes per unit body weight, tissue K₁ and MK-4 contents at 20 months were generally lower in CR rats compared to their ad libitum (AL) counterparts. Whether the lower tissue MK-4 content is the result of lower synthesis from K₁ or greater tissue utilization remains to be determined. However, the more youthful coagulation profile observed in old CR rats (vs. AL rats) tends to support the notion that CR is associated with greater utilization of the K vitamers to sustain physiological functions.

  6. Phylloquinone and Menaquinone-4 Tissue Distribution at Different Life Stages in Male and Female Sprague–Dawley Rats Fed Different VK Levels Since Weaning or Subjected to a 40% Calorie Restriction since Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Ferland, Guylaine; Doucet, Isabelle; Mainville, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Whether through the vitamin K-dependent proteins or the individual K vitamers, vitamin K (VK) is associated with a number of age-related conditions (e.g., osteoporosis, atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, cognitive decline). In light of this, we investigated the influence of lifetime dietary VK exposure on the tissue distribution of phylloquinone (K1) and menaquinone-4 (MK-4) vitamers in 3-, 12- and 22-month-old male and female rats fed different K1 diets since weaning or subjected to a 40% calorie restricted diet (CR) since adulthood. Dietary K1 intakes around the minimal amount required for normal blood coagulation had no significant influence on body weights of both male and female rats at different life stages. Tissue contents of the K vitamers differed according to organs, were generally higher in females than in males, and increased with K1 intake. The MK-4/total VK ratios tended to be increased in old age possibly reflecting an increased physiological demand for MK-4 during aging. Our study also confirmed the greater susceptibility of male rats to low VK containing diet, notably at a younger age. Despite lifelong higher K1 intakes per unit body weight, tissue K1 and MK-4 contents at 20 months were generally lower in CR rats compared to their ad libitum (AL) counterparts. Whether the lower tissue MK-4 content is the result of lower synthesis from K1 or greater tissue utilization remains to be determined. However, the more youthful coagulation profile observed in old CR rats (vs. AL rats) tends to support the notion that CR is associated with greater utilization of the K vitamers to sustain physiological functions. PMID:26959054

  7. Caloric Restriction and Diet-Induced Weight Loss Do Not Induce Browning of Human Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue in Women and Men with Obesity.

    PubMed

    Barquissau, Valentin; Léger, Benjamin; Beuzelin, Diane; Martins, Frédéric; Amri, Ez-Zoubir; Pisani, Didier F; Saris, Wim H M; Astrup, Arne; Maoret, Jean-José; Iacovoni, Jason; Déjean, Sébastien; Moro, Cédric; Viguerie, Nathalie; Langin, Dominique

    2018-01-23

    Caloric restriction (CR) is standard lifestyle therapy in obesity management. CR-induced weight loss improves the metabolic profile of individuals with obesity. In mice, occurrence of beige fat cells in white fat depots favors a metabolically healthy phenotype, and CR promotes browning of white adipose tissue (WAT). Here, human subcutaneous abdominal WAT samples were analyzed in 289 individuals with obesity following a two-phase dietary intervention consisting of an 8 week very low calorie diet and a 6-month weight-maintenance phase. Before the intervention, we show sex differences and seasonal variation, with higher expression of brown and beige markers in women with obesity and during winter, respectively. The very low calorie diet resulted in decreased browning of subcutaneous abdominal WAT. During the whole dietary intervention, evolution of body fat and insulin resistance was independent of changes in brown and beige fat markers. These data suggest that diet-induced effects on body fat and insulin resistance are independent of subcutaneous abdominal WAT browning in people with obesity. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A moderate diet restriction during pregnancy alters the levels of endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-related lipids in the hypothalamus, hippocampus and olfactory bulb of rat offspring in a sex-specific manner

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-López, María Teresa; Vázquez, Mariam; Lomazzo, Ermelinda; Hofmann, Clementine; Blanco, Rosario Noemi; Alén, Francisco; Antón, María; Decara, Juan; Arco, Rocío; Orio, Laura; Suárez, Juan; Lutz, Beat; Gómez de Heras, Raquel; Bindila, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Undernutrition during pregnancy has been associated to increased vulnerability to develop metabolic and behavior alterations later in life. The endocannabinoid system might play an important role in these processes. Therefore, we investigated the effects of a moderate maternal calorie-restricted diet on the levels of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), arachidonic acid (AA) and the N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) anandamide (AEA), oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) in the brain of newborn rat offspring. We focused on brain structures involved in metabolism, feeding behavior, as well as emotional and cognitive responses. Female Wistar rats were assigned during the entire pregnancy to either control diet (C) or restriction diet (R), consisting of a 20% calorie-restricted diet. Weight gain and caloric intake of rat dams were monitored and birth outcomes were assessed. 2-AG, AA and NAE levels were measured in hypothalamus, hippocampus and olfactory bulb of the offspring. R dams displayed lower gain weight from the middle pregnancy and consumed less calories during the entire pregnancy. Offspring from R dams were underweight at birth, but litter size was unaffected. In hypothalamus, R male offspring displayed decreased levels of AA and OEA, with no change in the levels of the endocannabinoids 2-AG and AEA. R female exhibited decreased 2-AG and PEA levels. The opposite was found in the hippocampus, where R male displayed increased 2-AG and AA levels, and R female exhibited elevated levels of AEA, AA and PEA. In the olfactory bulb, only R female presented decreased levels of AEA, AA and PEA. Therefore, a moderate diet restriction during the entire pregnancy alters differentially the endocannabinoids and/or endocannabinoid-related lipids in hypothalamus and hippocampus of the underweight offspring, similarly in both sexes, whereas sex-specific alterations occur in the olfactory bulb. Consequently, endocannabinoid and endocannabinoid

  9. A moderate diet restriction during pregnancy alters the levels of endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-related lipids in the hypothalamus, hippocampus and olfactory bulb of rat offspring in a sex-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-López, María Teresa; Vázquez, Mariam; Lomazzo, Ermelinda; Hofmann, Clementine; Blanco, Rosario Noemi; Alén, Francisco; Antón, María; Decara, Juan; Arco, Rocío; Orio, Laura; Suárez, Juan; Lutz, Beat; Gómez de Heras, Raquel; Bindila, Laura; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Undernutrition during pregnancy has been associated to increased vulnerability to develop metabolic and behavior alterations later in life. The endocannabinoid system might play an important role in these processes. Therefore, we investigated the effects of a moderate maternal calorie-restricted diet on the levels of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG), arachidonic acid (AA) and the N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) anandamide (AEA), oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) in the brain of newborn rat offspring. We focused on brain structures involved in metabolism, feeding behavior, as well as emotional and cognitive responses. Female Wistar rats were assigned during the entire pregnancy to either control diet (C) or restriction diet (R), consisting of a 20% calorie-restricted diet. Weight gain and caloric intake of rat dams were monitored and birth outcomes were assessed. 2-AG, AA and NAE levels were measured in hypothalamus, hippocampus and olfactory bulb of the offspring. R dams displayed lower gain weight from the middle pregnancy and consumed less calories during the entire pregnancy. Offspring from R dams were underweight at birth, but litter size was unaffected. In hypothalamus, R male offspring displayed decreased levels of AA and OEA, with no change in the levels of the endocannabinoids 2-AG and AEA. R female exhibited decreased 2-AG and PEA levels. The opposite was found in the hippocampus, where R male displayed increased 2-AG and AA levels, and R female exhibited elevated levels of AEA, AA and PEA. In the olfactory bulb, only R female presented decreased levels of AEA, AA and PEA. Therefore, a moderate diet restriction during the entire pregnancy alters differentially the endocannabinoids and/or endocannabinoid-related lipids in hypothalamus and hippocampus of the underweight offspring, similarly in both sexes, whereas sex-specific alterations occur in the olfactory bulb. Consequently, endocannabinoid and endocannabinoid

  10. Intermittent fasting dissociates beneficial effects of dietary restriction on glucose metabolism and neuronal resistance to injury from calorie intake

    PubMed Central

    Anson, R. Michael; Guo, Zhihong; de Cabo, Rafael; Iyun, Titilola; Rios, Michelle; Hagepanos, Adrienne; Ingram, Donald K.; Lane, Mark A.; Mattson, Mark P.

    2003-01-01

    Dietary restriction has been shown to have several health benefits including increased insulin sensitivity, stress resistance, reduced morbidity, and increased life span. The mechanism remains unknown, but the need for a long-term reduction in caloric intake to achieve these benefits has been assumed. We report that when C57BL/6 mice are maintained on an intermittent fasting (alternate-day fasting) dietary-restriction regimen their overall food intake is not decreased and their body weight is maintained. Nevertheless, intermittent fasting resulted in beneficial effects that met or exceeded those of caloric restriction including reduced serum glucose and insulin levels and increased resistance of neurons in the brain to excitotoxic stress. Intermittent fasting therefore has beneficial effects on glucose regulation and neuronal resistance to injury in these mice that are independent of caloric intake. PMID:12724520

  11. [Total energy value and percentage contribution of calories from macronutrients in the diet of elderly individuals from Fortaleza, state of Ceará, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Menezes, Tarciana Nobre de; Marucci, Maria de Fátima Nunes

    2012-01-01

    Describe the total energy value and percentage contribution of calories from macronutrients in the diet of elderly individuals living in Fortaleza/CE. This is a population-based, cross-sectional domiciliary study, which included 458 elderly individuals (66.6% women). The variables evaluated were total energy value (TEV) and the percentage contribution of calories from proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. The results are shown as mean, standard deviation, and percentile distribution (P5, P10, P25, P50, P75, P90, P95). The Student's t-test and analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA) with LSD post-hoc tests were used to determine the statistical significance of means between two groups and among three or more groups, respectively. When comparing the mean values of TEV among categories of socioeconomic and demographic variables, statistically significant differences were found between women for ethnicity, years of schooling and socioeconomic level. Among men, differences were found for years of schooling and socioeconomic level. The mean energy value of men's diet was significantly higher than that of women (1475.8 kcal and 1236.4 kcal, respectively). The mean values of calorie percentage contribution from proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids were similar between men and women. The elderly of this study showed significant differences in mean values of TEV between sexes and between the categories years of schooling and socioeconomic level. Women also showed significant differences between the ethnic categories. The mean relative contribution of macronutrients in TEV was similar between genders and age groups.

  12. Body-composition changes in the Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy (CALERIE)-2 study: A 2-y randomized controlled trial of calorie restriction in nonobese humans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Calorie restriction (CR) retards aging and increases longevity in many animal models. However, it is unclear whether CR can be implemented in humans without adverse effects on body composition. We evaluated the effect of a 2-year CR regimen on body composition including the influence of sex and body...

  13. Effects of 2-year calorie restriction on circulating levels of IGF-1, IGF-binding proteins and cortisol in non-obese men and women: a randomized clinical trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Young-onset calorie restriction (CR) in rodents decreases serum IGF-1 concentration and increases serum corticosterone levels, which have been hypothesized to play major roles in mediating its anti-cancer and anti-aging effects. However, little is known on the effects of CR on the IGF-1 system and c...

  14. Economic impact of feeding a phenylalanine-restricted diet to adults with previously untreated phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Brown, M C; Guest, J F

    1999-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the direct healthcare cost of managing adults with previously untreated phenylketonuria (PKU) for one year before any dietary restrictions and for the first year after a phenylalanine- (PHE-) restricted diet was introduced. The resource use and corresponding costs were estimated from medical records and interviews with health care professionals experienced in caring for adults with previously untreated PKU. The mean annual cost of caring for a client being fed an unrestricted diet was estimated to be 83 996 pound silver. In the first year after introducing a PHE-restricted diet, the mean annual cost was reduced by 20 647 pound silver to 63 348 pound silver as a result of a reduction in nursing time, hospitalizations, outpatient clinic visits and medications. However, the economic benefit of the diet depended on whether the clients were previously high or low users of nursing care. Nursing time was the key cost-driver, accounting for 79% of the cost of managing high users and 31% of the management cost for low users. In contrast, the acquisition cost of a PHE-restricted diet accounted for up to 6% of the cost for managing high users and 15% of the management cost for low users. Sensitivity analyses showed that introducing a PHE-restricted diet reduces the annual cost of care, provided that annual nursing time was reduced by more than 8% or more than 5% of clients respond to the diet. The clients showed fewer negative behaviours when being fed a PHE-restricted diet, which may account for the observed reduction in nursing time needed to care for these clients. In conclusion, feeding a PHE-restricted diet to adults with previously untreated PKU leads to economic benefits to the UK's National Health Service and society in general.

  15. Mechanism of protection of moderately diet restricted rats against doxorubicin-induced acute cardiotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, Mayurranjan S.; Donthamsetty, Shashikiran; White, Brent

    Clinical use of doxorubicin (Adriamycin (registered) ), an antitumor agent, is limited by its oxyradical-mediated cardiotoxicity. We tested the hypothesis that moderate diet restriction protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity by decreasing oxidative stress and inducing cardioprotective mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-275 g) were maintained on diet restriction [35% less food than ad libitum]. Cardiotoxicity was estimated by measuring biomarkers of cardiotoxicity, cardiac function, lipid peroxidation, and histopathology. A LD{sub 100} dose of doxorubicin (12 mg/kg, ip) administered on day 43 led to 100% mortality in ad libitum rats between 7 and 13 days due to higher cardiotoxicity and cardiac dysfunction, whereasmore » all the diet restricted rats exhibited normal cardiac function and survived. Toxicokinetic analysis revealed equal accumulation of doxorubicin and doxorubicinol (toxic metabolite) in the ad libitum and diet restricted hearts. Mechanistic studies revealed that diet restricted rats were protected due to (1) lower oxyradical stress from increased cardiac antioxidants leading to downregulation of uncoupling proteins 2 and 3, (2) induction of cardiac peroxisome proliferators activated receptor-{alpha} and plasma adiponectin increased cardiac fatty acid oxidation (666.9 {+-}14.0 nmol/min/g heart in ad libitum versus 1035.6 {+-} 32.3 nmol/min/g heart in diet restriction) and mitochondrial AMP{alpha}2 protein kinase. The changes led to 51% higher cardiac ATP levels (17.7 {+-} 2.1 {mu}mol/g heart in ad libitum versus 26.7 {+-} 1.9 {mu}mol/g heart in diet restriction), higher ATP/ADP ratio, and (3) increased cardiac erythropoietin and decreased suppressor of cytokine signaling 3, which upregulates cardioprotective JAK/STAT3 pathway. These findings collectively show that moderate diet restriction renders resiliency against doxorubicin cardiotoxicity by lowering oxidative stress, enhancing ATP synthesis, and inducing the JAK/STAT3 pathway.« less

  16. The effect of calorie restriction on the presence of apoptotic ovarian cells in normal wild type mice and low-plasma-IGF-1 Laron dwarf mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It is known that caloric restriction extends lifespan and can minimize age-related dysfunction of the reproductive system. We became interested in how caloric restriction influences apoptosis, which is a crucial process that maintains ovarian cell homeostasis. Methods We examined ovarian cells in: 2.5-year-old wild type mice on caloric restriction (CR) or fed ad libitum (AL) and Laron dwarf mice (GHR-KO) at the same ages on CR or fed AL. Apoptosis was assessed by histochemical analysis on paraffin sections of ovarian tissue. Results Morphological and histochemical analysis revealed that CR improved reproductive potential in 2.5-year-old WT littermates and GHR-KO female mice, as indicated by the increased number of ovarian follicles. The level of apoptosis in ovarian tissue was higher in WT mice on a CR diet compared with WT mice on the AL diet. In GHR-KO mice, the level of apoptosis in ovaries was similar for mice on CR and on AL diets and bigger than in WT mice on CR. Conclusions Morphological and histochemical analysis revealed a younger biological age of the ovaries in 2-year-old WT littermates and GHR-KO female mice on CR compared with animals fed AL. PMID:24063422

  17. Time-restricted feeding reduces adiposity in mice fed a high-fat diet

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Disruption of the circadian rhythm contributes to obesity. The present study investigated the effects of time-restricted feeding (TRF) of a high-fat diet on adiposity in male C57BL/6 mice. Three-week-old mice were fed a low-fat or high-fat diet (16% or 45% of energy from corn oil) ad libitum (ad l...

  18. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, but not calorie restriction, reduces plasma branched-chain amino acids in obese women independent of weight loss or the presence of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lips, Mirjam A; Van Klinken, Jan B; van Harmelen, Vanessa; Dharuri, Harish K; 't Hoen, Peter A C; Laros, Jeroen F J; van Ommen, Gert-Jan; Janssen, Ignace M; Van Ramshorst, Bert; Van Wagensveld, Bart A; Swank, Dingeman J; Van Dielen, Francois; Dane, Adrie; Harms, Amy; Vreeken, Rob; Hankemeier, Thomas; Smit, Johannes W A; Pijl, Hanno; Willems van Dijk, Ko

    2014-12-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been associated with increased levels of circulating branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) that may be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. However, weight loss has not been consistently associated with the reduction of BCAA levels. We included 30 obese normal glucose-tolerant (NGT) subjects, 32 obese subjects with T2DM, and 12 lean female subjects. Obese subjects underwent either a restrictive procedure (gastric banding [GB], a very low-calorie diet [VLCD]), or a restrictive/bypass procedure (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass [RYGB] surgery). Fasting blood samples were taken for the determination of amine group containing metabolites 4 weeks before, as well as 3 weeks and 3 months after the intervention. BCAA levels were higher in T2DM subjects, but not in NGT subjects, compared with lean subjects. Principal component (PC) analysis revealed a concise PC consisting of all BCAAs, which showed a correlation with measures of insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. Only after the RYGB procedure, and at both 3 weeks and 3 months, were circulating BCAA levels reduced. Our data confirm an association between deregulation of BCAA metabolism in plasma and insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Three weeks after undergoing RYGB surgery, a significant decrease in BCAAs in both NGT as well as T2DM subjects was observed. After 3 months, despite inducing significant weight loss, neither GB nor VLCD induced a reduction in BCAA levels. Our results indicate that the bypass procedure of RYGB surgery, independent of weight loss or the presence of T2DM, reduces BCAA levels in obese subjects. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  19. Impact of restrictive diets on the risk of undernutrition in a free-living elderly population.

    PubMed

    Zeanandin, Gilbert; Molato, Omar; Le Duff, Franck; Guérin, Olivier; Hébuterne, Xavier; Schneider, Stéphane M

    2012-02-01

    Elderly subjects are at risk for undernutrition. Restrictive diets may increase this risk. The aim was to evaluate the impact of restrictive diets on undernutrition and its risk in free-living elderly. Ambulatory patients over age 75 and under a restrictive diet (low salt, low cholesterol, diabetic) were included prospectively, along with age- and gender-matched controls. Weight and height were measured, and the short-form of the Mini Nutritional Assessment was scored. Groups were compared to determine variables associated with a low MNA-SF(®). 95 patients in the diet group (62 F, 33 M, 80 ± 4 y) and 95 controls (57 F, 38 M, 82 ± 5 y) were included. Restrictive diets (low salt n = 33, diabetic n = 19, low cholesterol n = 15, combination n = 27) had been followed since 11.0 ± 5.9 years. Using the cut-off of 12 for MNA-SF(®), 44 patients in the diet group were at risk vs. 22 among controls (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, a restrictive diet increased the probability of having an MNA-SF(®) < 12 (OR = 3.6, (95%)CI = 1.8-7.2, P < .001). Restrictive diets in patients over 75 increase the risk of undernutrition. On an individual level, these diets may need reassessment. Society guidelines should promote specific recommendations for the elderly. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of 2-year calorie restriction on circulating levels of IGF-1, IGF-binding proteins and cortisol in nonobese men and women: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Luigi; Villareal, Dennis T; Das, Sai K; Smith, Steven R; Meydani, Simin N; Pittas, Anastassios G; Klein, Samuel; Bhapkar, Manjushri; Rochon, James; Ravussin, Eric; Holloszy, John O

    2016-02-01

    Young-onset calorie restriction (CR) in rodents decreases serum IGF-1 concentration and increases serum corticosterone levels, which have been hypothesized to play major roles in mediating its anticancer and anti-aging effects. However, little is known on the effects of CR on the IGF-1 system and cortisol in humans. To test the sustained effects of CR on these key hormonal adaptations, we performed a multicenter randomized trial of a 2-year 25% CR intervention in 218 nonobese (body mass index between 22 and 27.8 kg m(-2) ) young and middle-aged (20-50 years age range) men and women. Average CR during the first 6 months was 19.5 ± 0.8% and 9.1 ± 0.7% over the next 18 months of the study. Weight loss averaged 7.6 ± 0.3 kg over the 2-years period of which 71% was fat mass loss (P < 0.0001). Average CR during the CR caused a significant 21% increase in serum IGFBP-1 and a 42% reduction in IGF-1:IGFBP-1 ratio at 2 years (P < 0.008), but did not change IGF-1 and IGF-1:IGFBP-3 ratio levels. Serum cortisol concentrations were slightly but significantly increased by CR at 1 year only (P = 0.003). Calorie restriction had no effect on serum concentrations of PDGF-AB and TGFβ-1. We conclude, on the basis of the present and previous findings, that, in contrast to rodents, humans do not respond to CR with a decrease in serum IGF-1 concentration or with a sustained and biological relevant increase in serum cortisol. However, long-term CR in humans significantly and persistently increases serum IGFBP-1 concentration. © 2015 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. A 5-day high-fat, high-calorie diet impairs insulin sensitivity in healthy, young South Asian men but not in Caucasian men.

    PubMed

    Bakker, Leontine E H; van Schinkel, Linda D; Guigas, Bruno; Streefland, Trea C M; Jonker, Jacqueline T; van Klinken, Jan B; van der Zon, Gerard C M; Lamb, Hildo J; Smit, Johannes W A; Pijl, Hanno; Meinders, A Edo; Jazet, Ingrid M

    2014-01-01

    South Asians (SAs) develop type 2 diabetes at a younger age and lower BMI compared with Caucasians (Cs). The underlying cause is still poorly understood but might result from an innate inability to adapt to the Westernized diet. This study aimed to compare the metabolic adaptation to a high-fat, high-calorie (HFHC) diet between both ethnicities. Twelve healthy, young lean male SAs and 12 matched Cs underwent a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp with skeletal muscle biopsies and indirect calorimetry before and after a 5-day HFHC diet. Hepatic triglyceride content (HTG) and abdominal fat distribution were assessed using magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. At baseline, SAs had higher insulin clamp levels than Cs, indicating reduced insulin clearance rate. Despite the higher insulin levels, endogenous glucose production was comparable between groups, suggesting lower hepatic insulin sensitivity in SAs. Furthermore, a 5-day HFHC diet decreased the insulin-stimulated (nonoxidative) glucose disposal rate only in SA. In skeletal muscle, no significant differences were found between groups in insulin/mammalian target of rapamycin signaling, metabolic gene expression, and mitochondrial respiratory chain content. Furthermore, no differences in (mobilization of) HTG and abdominal fat were detected. We conclude that HFHC feeding rapidly induces insulin resistance only in SAs. Thus, distinct adaptation to Western food may partly explain their propensity to develop type 2 diabetes.

  2. Preoperative weight loss program involving a 20-day very low-calorie diet for obesity before laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Kentaro; Yoshiuchi, Sawako; Yoshida, Mika; Nakamura, Natsuko; Nakajima, Sachiko; Kitamura, Akiko; Mouri, Keiko; Michiura, Taku; Mukaide, Hiromi; Ozaki, Takashi; Miki, Hirokazu; Yanagimoto, Hiroaki; Satoi, Sohei; Kaibori, Masaki; Hamada, Madoka; Kimura, Yutaka; Kon, Masanori

    2018-03-25

    The increased visceral fat in patients with obesity can increase the technical difficulty of surgery. This study was performed to evaluate a preoperative 20-day very low-calorie diet for obesity before laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer. This prospective single-center study involved patients with obesity who were planning to undergo laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Obesity was defined according to the Japanese criteria: BMI ≥25 kg/m 2 or waist circumference ≥85 cm in men and ≥90 cm in women. The patients underwent a preoperative 20-day very low-calorie diet and received nutritional counseling. Weight loss, body composition, visceral fat mass, and operative outcomes were evaluated. Thirty-three patients were enrolled from September 2013 to August 2015. Their median age was 71 years, and 78.8% were men. Their median bodyweight and BMI were 72.3 kg (range, 53.8-82.5 kg) and 26.0 kg/m 2 (range, 23.5-31.0 kg/m 2 ), respectively. The patients achieved a mean weight loss of 4.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.8-5.1), corresponding to 3.2 kg (95%CI: 2.7-3.7 kg). Body fat mass was significantly decreased by a mean of 2.5 kg (95%CI: 1.9-3.1), whereas skeletal muscle mass was unaffected (mean: -0.20 kg [95%CI: -0.55-0.15]). The visceral fat mass reduction rate was high as 16.8% (range, 11.6%-22.0%). All patients underwent laparoscopic gastrectomy as planned. Severe postoperative morbidity (Clavien-Dindo grade ≥III) was seen in only one patient (3.0%). The preoperative 20-day very low-calorie diet weight loss program is promising for the treatment of obesity before laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer. © 2018 The Authors. Asian Journal of Endoscopic Surgery published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force.

  3. Atypical hematological response to combined calorie restriction and chronic hypoxia in Biosphere 2 crew: a possible link to latent features of hibernation capacity.

    PubMed

    Paglia, Donald E; Walford, Roy L

    2005-01-01

    Eight humans were isolated for 2 years in Biosphere 2, a sealed airtight habitat with recycled air, food, water, and wastes. A combination of conditions led to selective decline of oxygen (O2) in the internal atmosphere from 21% to 14%, inducing symptoms of high-altitude sickness but with little or no compensatory increase in red cell production. All crew members exhibited significant decreases in both erythrocyte 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG) concentrations and P50 [partial pressure of O2 for 50% hemoglobin (Hb) saturation] values, changes opposite those expected in adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia. Lower P50 with increased Hb-O2 affinity induced by low 2,3-BPG is a characteristic of hibernating species and could be advantageous in O2-impoverished environments. The mechanisms underlying these changes in the Biosphere 2 crew remain obscure but could be related to low-calorie diet (1750-2100 kcal/day). Because the combination of hypoxia and limited caloric intake is also characteristic of hibernation, this unusual response may represent a cross-adaptation phenomenon in which certain features of hibernation capability are expressed in humans.

  4. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: XI. Evaluation of the main hypotheses underpinning the life extension effects of CR using the hepatic transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Derous, Davina; Mitchell, Sharon E; Wang, Lu; Green, Cara L; Wang, Yingchun; Chen, Luonan; Han, Jing-Dong J; Promislow, Daniel E L; Lusseau, David; Douglas, Alex; Speakman, John R

    2017-07-31

    Calorie restriction (CR) may extend longevity by modulating the mechanisms involved in aging. Different hypotheses have been proposed for its main mode of action. We quantified hepatic transcripts of male C57BL/6 mice exposed to graded levels of CR (0% to 40% CR) for three months, and evaluated the responses relative to these various hypotheses. Of the four main signaling pathways implied to be linked to the impact of CR on lifespan (insulin/insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-ĸB), mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and sirtuins (SIRTs)), all the pathways except SIRT were altered in a manner consistent with increased lifespan. However, the expression levels of SIRT4 and SIRT7 were decreased with increasing levels of CR. Changes consistent with altered fuel utilization under CR may reduce reactive oxygen species production, which was paralleled by reduced protection. Downregulated major urinary protein (MUP) transcription suggested reduced reproductive investment. Graded CR had a positive effect on autophagy and xenobiotic metabolism, and was protective with respect to cancer signaling. CR had no significant effect on fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) transcription but affected transcription in the hydrogen sulfide production pathway. Responses to CR were consistent with several different hypotheses, and the benefits of CR on lifespan likely reflect the combined impact on multiple aging related processes.

  5. The effects of graded levels of calorie restriction: XI. Evaluation of the main hypotheses underpinning the life extension effects of CR using the hepatic transcriptome

    PubMed Central

    Derous, Davina; Mitchell, Sharon E.; Wang, Lu; Green, Cara L.; Wang, Yingchun; Chen, Luonan; Han, Jing-Dong J.; Promislow, Daniel E.L.; Lusseau, David; Douglas, Alex; Speakman, John R.

    2017-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) may extend longevity by modulating the mechanisms involved in aging. Different hypotheses have been proposed for its main mode of action. We quantified hepatic transcripts of male C57BL/6 mice exposed to graded levels of CR (0% to 40% CR) for three months, and evaluated the responses relative to these various hypotheses. Of the four main signaling pathways implied to be linked to the impact of CR on lifespan (insulin/insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), nuclear factor-kappa beta (NF-ĸB), mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and sirtuins (SIRTs)), all the pathways except SIRT were altered in a manner consistent with increased lifespan. However, the expression levels of SIRT4 and SIRT7 were decreased with increasing levels of CR. Changes consistent with altered fuel utilization under CR may reduce reactive oxygen species production, which was paralleled by reduced protection. Downregulated major urinary protein (MUP) transcription suggested reduced reproductive investment. Graded CR had a positive effect on autophagy and xenobiotic metabolism, and was protective with respect to cancer signaling. CR had no significant effect on fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) transcription but affected transcription in the hydrogen sulfide production pathway. Responses to CR were consistent with several different hypotheses, and the benefits of CR on lifespan likely reflect the combined impact on multiple aging related processes. PMID:28768896

  6. Deep sequencing identifies circulating mouse miRNAs that are functionally implicated in manifestations of aging and responsive to calorie restriction.

    PubMed

    Dhahbi, Joseph M; Spindler, Stephen R; Atamna, Hani; Yamakawa, Amy; Guerrero, Noel; Boffelli, Dario; Mote, Patricia; Martin, David I K

    2013-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) function to modulate gene expression, and through this property they regulate a broad spectrum of cellular processes. They can circulate in blood and thereby mediate cell-to-cell communication. Aging involves changes in many cellular processes that are potentially regulated by miRNAs, and some evidence has implicated circulating miRNAs in the aging process. In order to initiate a comprehensive assessment of the role of circulating miRNAs in aging, we have used deep sequencing to characterize circulating miRNAs in the serum of young mice, old mice, and old mice maintained on calorie restriction (CR). Deep sequencing identifies a set of novel miRNAs, and also accurately measures all known miRNAs present in serum. This analysis demonstrates that the levels of many miRNAs circulating in the mouse are increased with age, and that the increases can be antagonized by CR. The genes targeted by this set of age-modulated miRNAs are predicted to regulate biological processes directly relevant to the manifestations of aging including metabolic changes, and the miRNAs themselves have been linked to diseases associated with old age. This finding implicates circulating miRNAs in the aging process, raising questions about their tissues of origin, their cellular targets, and their functional role in metabolic changes that occur with aging.

  7. Calorie restriction enhances insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and Akt phosphorylation in both fast-twitch and slow-twitch skeletal muscle of 24-month-old rats.

    PubMed

    Sequea, Donel A; Sharma, Naveen; Arias, Edward B; Cartee, Gregory D

    2012-12-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) induces enhanced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in fast-twitch (type II) muscle from old rats, but the effect of CR on slow-twitch (type I) muscle from old rats is unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and phosphorylation of key insulin signaling proteins in isolated epitrochlearis (fast-twitch) and soleus (slow-twitch) muscles from 24-month-old ad libitum fed and CR (consuming 65% of ad libitum, intake) rats. Muscles were incubated with and without 1.2 nM insulin. CR versus ad libitum rats had greater insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and Akt phosphorylation (pAkt) on T308 and S473 for both muscles incubated with insulin. GLUT4 protein abundance and phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (Y1162/1163) and AS160 (T642) were unaltered by CR in both muscles. These results implicate enhanced pAkt as a potential mechanism for the CR-induced increase in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by the fast-twitch epitrochlearis and slow-twitch soleus of old rats.

  8. Incidence of pancreatic cancer is dramatically increased by a high fat, high calorie diet in KrasG12D mice.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hui-Hua; Moro, Aune; Takakura, Kazuki; Su, Hsin-Yuan; Mo, Allen; Nakanishi, Masako; Waldron, Richard T; French, Samuel W; Dawson, David W; Hines, O Joe; Li, Gang; Go, Vay Liang W; Sinnett-Smith, James; Pandol, Stephen J; Lugea, Aurelia; Gukovskaya, Anna S; Duff, Michael O; Rosenberg, Daniel W; Rozengurt, Enrique; Eibl, Guido

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiologic data has linked obesity to a higher risk of pancreatic cancer, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. To allow for detailed mechanistic studies in a relevant model mimicking diet-induced obesity and pancreatic cancer, a high-fat, high-calorie diet (HFCD) was given to P48+/Cre;LSL-KRASG12D (KC) mice carrying a pancreas-specific oncogenic Kras mutation. The mice were randomly allocated to a HFCD or control diet (CD). Cohorts were sacrificed at 3, 6, and 9 months and tissues were harvested for further analysis. Compared to CD-fed mice, HFCD-fed animals gained significantly more weight. Importantly, the cancer incidence was remarkably increased in HFCD-fed KC mice, particularly in male KC mice. In addition, KC mice fed the HFCD showed more extensive inflammation and fibrosis, and more advanced PanIN lesions in the pancreas, compared to age-matched CD-fed animals. Interestingly, we found that the HFCD reduced autophagic flux in PanIN lesions in KC mice. Further, exome sequencing of isolated murine PanIN lesions identified numerous genetic variants unique to the HFCD. These data underscore the role of sustained inflammation and dysregulated autophagy in diet-induced pancreatic cancer development and suggest that diet-induced genetic alterations may contribute to this process. Our findings provide a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the obesity-cancer link in males and females, and will facilitate the development of interventions targeting obesity-associated pancreatic cancer.

  9. Effect of DHA supplementation in a very low-calorie ketogenic diet in the treatment of obesity: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    de Luis, Daniel; Domingo, Joan Carles; Izaola, Olatz; Casanueva, Felipe F; Bellido, Diego; Sajoux, Ignacio

    2016-10-01

    A VLCK diet supplemented with DHA, commercially available, was tested against an isocaloric VLCK diet without DHA. The main purpose of this study was to compare the effect of DHA supplementation in classic cardiovascular risk factors, adipokine levels, and inflammation-resolving eicosanoids. A total of obese patients were randomized into two groups: a group supplemented with DHA (n = 14) (PnK-DHA group) versus a group with an isocaloric diet free of supplementation (n = 15) (control group). The follow-up period was 6 months. The average weight loss after 6 months of treatment was 20.36 ± 5.02 kg in control group and 19.74 ± 5.10 kg in PnK-DHA group, without statistical differences between both groups. The VLCK diets induced a significant change in some of the biological parameters, such as insulin, HOMA-IR, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, C-reactive protein, resistin, TNF alpha, and leptin. Following DHA supplementation, the DHA-derived oxylipins were significantly increased in the intervention group. The ratio of proresolution/proinflammatory lipid markers was increased in plasma of the intervention group over the entire study. Similarly, the mean ratios of AA/EPA and AA/DHA in erythrocyte membranes were dramatically reduced in the PnK-DHA group and the anti-inflammatory fatty acid index (AIFAI) was consistently increased after the DHA treatment (p < 0.05). The present study demonstrated that a very low-calorie ketogenic diet supplemented with DHA was significantly superior in the anti-inflammatory effect, without statistical differences in weight loss and metabolic improvement.

  10. Dieting in bulimia nervosa is associated with increased food restriction and psychopathology but decreased binge eating.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Michael R; Witt, Ashley A; Grossman, Stephanie L

    2013-08-01

    The cognitive behavioral model of bulimia nervosa (BN) suggests that dieting is central to the maintenance of binge eating. However, correlational and experimental studies suggest that additional clarification is needed about the nature of this relationship. Dieting, weight, eating disorder psychopathology, and depression were assessed at admission among 166 patients with BN presenting for residential treatment. As in past research, a significant fraction (43%) of patients with BN reported not currently dieting. A comparison of weight loss dieters and non-dieters found greater food restriction and eating disorder psychopathology among weight loss dieters. However, dieters reported less frequent binge eating. There were no significant group differences in depression. Results suggest that 1) while many individuals with BN are attempting to restrict their food intake, the goal of losing weight fundamentally alters the effect of such restriction on binge eating, and 2) treatment may benefit from helping patients to establish a healthier approach to achieving long-term weight stability. © 2013.

  11. Antioxidant-restricted diet reduces plasma nonesterified fatty acids in trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Watson, Trent A; Blake, Robert J; Callister, Robin; Garg, Manohar L

    2005-04-01

    Nonesterified FA (NEFA) are a major fuel source for humans at rest and during moderate exercise. The effect of dietary antioxidant restriction on plasma NEFA levels and exercise performance in trained athletes was examined. Seventeen athletes followed a 2-wk restricted-antioxidant (R-AO) diet, which resulted in a threefold reduction in antioxidant intake (ascorbic acid, 139 to 49 mg; beta-carotene, 5093 to 1142 microg) and a significant (P = 0.001) reduction in the plasma NEFA. The amount and types of fat consumed were not different between the R-AO and habitual diets. Exercise time to exhaustion was not affected by the R-AO diet, but rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was significantly (P = 0.03) elevated. The increase in RPE may have occurred as a result of the R-AO diet and subsequent reduction in plasma NEFA; however, further research is required to confirm this conclusion.

  12. Very low-calorie diet mimics the early beneficial effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on insulin sensitivity and β-cell Function in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Jackness, Clifton; Karmally, Wahida; Febres, Gerardo; Conwell, Irene M; Ahmed, Leaque; Bessler, Marc; McMahon, Donald J; Korner, Judith

    2013-09-01

    Marked improvement in glycemic control occurs in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus shortly after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) and before there is major weight loss. The objective of this study was to determine whether the magnitude of this change is primarily due to caloric restriction or is unique to the surgical procedure. We studied eleven subjects who underwent RYGB and fourteen subjects mean-matched for BMI, HbA1c, and diabetes duration who were admitted to our inpatient research unit and given a very low-calorie diet (VLCD) of 500 kcal/day with a macronutrient content similar to that consumed by patients after RYGB. Frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance tests were performed before and after interventions. Both groups lost an equivalent amount of weight over a mean study period of 21 days. Insulin sensitivity, acute insulin secretion after intravenous glucose administration, and β-cell function as determined by disposition index improved to a similar extent in both groups. Likewise, changes in fasting glucose and fructosamine levels were similar. Based on these data, VLCD improves insulin sensitivity and β-cell function just as well as RYGB in the short term.

  13. Immediate and long-term effects of addition of exercise to a 16-week very low calorie diet on low-grade inflammation in obese, insulin-dependent type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Snel, Marieke; van Diepen, Janna A; Stijnen, Theo; Pijl, Hanno; Romijn, Johannes A; Meinders, A E; Voshol, Peter; Jazet, Ingrid M

    2011-12-01

    To assess the short- and long-term effects of addition of exercise to a very low calorie diet (VLCD) on low-grade inflammation in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Twenty seven obese, insulin-dependent T2DM patients followed a 4-month VLCD with (n=13) or without (n=14) exercise and were followed up to 18 months. Anthropometric measurements, metabolic and inflammatory parameters were assessed before, directly after the intervention and at 6 and 18 months follow-up. The same measurements were performed only once in 56 healthy lean and 56 healthy obese controls. At baseline hsCRP, IL10 and IL8 were significantly elevated in obese T2DM compared to lean healthy controls. After 4 months, despite substantial weight loss (-25.4 ± 1.3 kg), neither the VLCD nor VLCD+exercise had an effect on plasma cytokines. At 6 months, in the weight-stabilizing period, measures of low-grade inflammation had decreased substantially and equally in both intervention groups. Despite subsequent weight regain, beneficial effect was sustained up to 18 months in both groups, except for IL1 and hsCRP which had returned to baseline in the VLCD-only group. Our findings suggest that severe caloric restriction increases cytokine production by adipose tissue macrophages and that the beneficial effects of weight loss become apparent only in the eucaloric state. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Resveratrol prevents high-calorie diet-induced learning and memory dysfunction in juvenile C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bao-Lei; Zhang, Hui; Ma, Li-Na; Dong, Wen; Zhao, Zhi-Wei; Zhang, Jing-Shuang; Wang, Yu-Lan; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Rong

    2018-05-24

    Because resveratrol (RSV) has been shown to improve learning and memory, so we investigated the potential benefit of RSV on learning and memory deficits in juvenile mice fed with a HC diet and explored the molecular mechanisms underlying this process. Six-week-old C57BL/6J mice were divided into three different diet groups: control, HC diet, and HC + RSV diet. Serum insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Protein expression was examined by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Administration of RSV daily (30 mg/kg) prevented the HC diet-induced increase in juvenile animal body weight but did not improve any other physiological conditions, including fasting blood glucose and serum cholesterol, triglyceride, insulin, and IGF-1 levels. However, RSV did prevent learning and memory deficits in the HC group. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) was downregulated in the CA1 region of the hippocampus in both the HC and HC + RSV groups, but the reduction was significantly greater in the HC + RSV group (P < .01 compared with the HC group). Moreover, although the HC diet reduced the number of p16-positive neurons, the HC + RSV diet significantly upregulated p16 expression in the CA1 region of the hippocampus (P < .01 compared with the HC group). RSV protected against learning and memory impairments in juvenile animals fed with a HC diet, possibly via upregulation of p16 or downregulation of PPARγ in the hippocampal CA1 region.

  15. "Calories in, calories out" and macronutrient intake: the hope, hype, and science of calories.

    PubMed

    Howell, Scott; Kones, Richard

    2017-11-01

    One of the central tenets in obesity prevention and management is caloric restriction. This perspective presents salient features of how calories and energy balance matter, also called the "calories in, calories out" paradigm. Determinants of energy balance and relationships to dietary macronutrient content are reviewed. The rationale and features of the carbohydrate-insulin hypothesis postulate that carbohydrate restriction confers a metabolic advantage. According to this model, a large amount of fat intake is enabled without weight gain. Evidence concerning this possibility is detailed. The relationship and application of the laws of thermodynamics are then clarified with current primary research. Strong data indicate that energy balance is not materially changed during isocaloric substitution of dietary fats for carbohydrates. Results from a number of sources refute both the theory and effectiveness of the carbohydrate-insulin hypothesis. Instead, risk for obesity is primarily determined by total calorie intake. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Restrictive Diet Control as a Means of Child Abuse.

    PubMed

    Kudek, Matthew R; Luyet, Francois; Herringa, Ryan J; Knox, Barbara L

    2018-03-01

    We have recently encountered a series of cases where an obese caretaker is juxtaposed to a severely starved, malnourished dependent. The cases described all share a common characteristic: that the primary perpetrator was an obese caretaker who tried to exert absolute control over their victim's daily life in a way that included either a severe restriction or complete denial of food. Because the pathophysiology of both child abuse and obesity are incredibly complex and multifactorial, these cases are presented to encourage further discussion and more rigorous investigation into the validity of a hypothesis that has been derived from this set of cases: that the obesity of a child's caretaker may be an additional risk factor for child maltreatment by starvation.

  17. Major food sources of calories, added sugars, and saturated fat and their contribution to essential nutrient intakes in the U.S. diet: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2003-2006).

    PubMed

    Huth, Peter J; Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Park, Keigan; Auestad, Nancy

    2013-08-08

    The risk of chronic disease cannot be predicted simply by the content of a single nutrient in a food or food group in the diet. The contribution of food sources of calories, added sugars and saturated fat (SFA) to intakes of dietary fiber and micronutrients of public health importance is also relevant to understanding the overall dietary impact of these foods. Identify the top food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA in the U.S. diet and quantify their contribution to fiber and micronutrient intakes. Single 24-hour dietary recalls (Day 1) collected from participants ≥2 years (n = 16,822) of the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA/NHANES 2003-2006) were analyzed. All analyses included sample weights to account for the survey design. Calorie and nutrient intakes from foods included contributions from disaggregated food mixtures and tabulated by rank order. No one food category contributes more than 7.2% of calories to the overall U.S. diet, but half of the top 10 contribute 10% or more of total dietary fiber and micronutrients. Three of the top 10 sources of calories and SFA (beef, milk and cheese) contribute 46.3% of the calcium, 49.5% of the vitamin D, 42.3% of the vitamin B12 as well as other essential nutrients to the American diet. On the other hand, foods categorized as desserts, snacks, or beverages, contribute 13.6% of total calories, 83% of added sugar intake, and provide little or no nutritional value. Including food components of disaggregated recipes more accurately estimated the contribution of foods like beef, milk or cheese to overall nutrient intake compared to "as consumed" food categorizations. Some food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA make major contributions to American dietary fiber and micronutrient intakes. Dietary modifications targeting reductions in calories, added sugar, or SFA need to take these key micronutrient sources into account so as not to have the unintended

  18. Major food sources of calories, added sugars, and saturated fat and their contribution to essential nutrient intakes in the U.S. diet: data from the national health and nutrition examination survey (2003–2006)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The risk of chronic disease cannot be predicted simply by the content of a single nutrient in a food or food group in the diet. The contribution of food sources of calories, added sugars and saturated fat (SFA) to intakes of dietary fiber and micronutrients of public health importance is also relevant to understanding the overall dietary impact of these foods. Objective Identify the top food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA in the U.S. diet and quantify their contribution to fiber and micronutrient intakes. Methods Single 24-hour dietary recalls (Day 1) collected from participants ≥2 years (n = 16,822) of the What We Eat in America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (WWEIA/NHANES 2003–2006) were analyzed. All analyses included sample weights to account for the survey design. Calorie and nutrient intakes from foods included contributions from disaggregated food mixtures and tabulated by rank order. Results No one food category contributes more than 7.2% of calories to the overall U.S. diet, but half of the top 10 contribute 10% or more of total dietary fiber and micronutrients. Three of the top 10 sources of calories and SFA (beef, milk and cheese) contribute 46.3% of the calcium, 49.5% of the vitamin D, 42.3% of the vitamin B12 as well as other essential nutrients to the American diet. On the other hand, foods categorized as desserts, snacks, or beverages, contribute 13.6% of total calories, 83% of added sugar intake, and provide little or no nutritional value. Including food components of disaggregated recipes more accurately estimated the contribution of foods like beef, milk or cheese to overall nutrient intake compared to “as consumed” food categorizations. Conclusions Some food sources of calories, added sugars and SFA make major contributions to American dietary fiber and micronutrient intakes. Dietary modifications targeting reductions in calories, added sugar, or SFA need to take these key micronutrient

  19. Vitamin D-restricted high-fat diet down-regulates expression of intestinal alkaline phosphatase isozymes in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Nakaoka, Kanae; Yamada, Asako; Noda, Seiko; Goseki-Sone, Masae

    2018-05-01

    Intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) is expressed at a high concentration in the brush border membrane of intestinal epithelial cells. Intestinal alkaline phosphatase controls bacterial endotoxin-induced inflammation by dephosphorylating lipopolysaccharide and is a gut mucosal defense factor. Previously, we reported that IAP activity in the duodenum was significantly decreased in male rats receiving a high-fat diet with vitamin D restriction. Here, we tested the hypothesis that IAP is also regulated by a vitamin D-restricted high-fat diet in an animal model of menopause. Twenty-four female rats were ovariectomized (OVX), and another 6 female rats were sham operated. The OVX rats were divided into 4 groups and fed experimental diets: a basic control diet, a basic control diet with vitamin D restriction, a high-fat diet, and a high-fat diet with vitamin D restriction. After 28days of the experimental diets, the vitamin D-restricted high-fat diet decreased alkaline phosphatase activity in the duodenum of the OVX groups. The vitamin D-restricted high-fat diet down-regulated mRNA expressions of IAP isozymes in the duodenum of the OVX groups. These findings support the hypothesis that the expression of IAP is suppressed by a vitamin D-restricted high-fat diet in OVX rats. An adequate vitamin D intake and prevention of low vitamin D levels may be important for IAP expression in gut homeostasis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Absence of uncoupling protein-3 leads to greater activation of an adenine nucleotide translocase-mediated proton conductance in skeletal muscle mitochondria from calorie restricted mice.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Lisa; Seifert, Erin L; Estey, Carmen; Gerrits, Martin F; Harper, Mary-Ellen

    2010-08-01

    Calorie restriction (CR), without malnutrition, consistently increases lifespan in all species tested, and reduces age-associated pathologies in mammals. Alterations in mitochondrial content and function are thought to underlie some of the effects of CR. Previously, we reported that rats subjected to variable durations of 40% CR demonstrated a rapid and sustained decrease in maximal leak-dependent respiration in skeletal muscle mitochondria. This was accompanied by decreased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation and increased uncoupling protein-3 protein (UCP3) expression. The aim of the present study was to determine the contribution of UCP3, as well as the adenine nucleotide translocase to these functional changes in skeletal muscle mitochondria. Consistent with previous findings in rats, short-term CR (2 weeks) in wild-type (Wt) mice resulted in a lowering of the maximal leak-dependent respiration in skeletal muscle mitochondria, without any change in proton conductance. In contrast, skeletal muscle mitochondria from Ucp3-knockout (KO) mice similarly subjected to short-term CR showed no change in maximal leak-dependent respiration, but displayed an increased proton conductance. Determination of ANT activity (by measurement of inhibitor-sensitive leak) and protein expression revealed that the increased proton conductance in mitochondria from CR Ucp3-KO mice could be entirely attributed to a greater acute activation of ANT. These observations implicate UCP3 in CR-induced mitochondrial remodeling. Specifically, they imply the potential for an interaction, or some degree of functional redundancy, between UCP3 and ANT, and also suggest that UCP3 can minimize the induction of the ANT-mediated 'energy-wasting' process during CR. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Initiation of calorie restriction in middle-aged male rats attenuates aging-related motoric decline and bradykinesia without increased striatal dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Salvatore, Michael F.; Terrebonne, Jennifer; Fields, Victoria; Nodurft, Danielle; Runfalo, Cori; Latimer, Brian; Ingram, Donald K.

    2015-01-01

    Aging-related bradykinesia affects ~15% of those reaching age 65 and 50% of those reaching their 80s. Given this high risk and lack of pharmacological therapeutics, non-invasive lifestyle strategies should be identified to diminish its risk and identify the neurobiological targets to reduce aging-related bradykinesia. Early-life, long-term calorie restriction (CR) attenuates aging-related bradykinesia in rodents. Here, we addressed whether CR initiation at middle age could attenuate aging-related bradykinesia and motoric decline measured as rotarod performance. A 30% CR regimen was implemented for 6 months duration in 12-month old male Brown-Norway Fischer 344 F1 hybrid rats after establishing individual baseline locomotor activities. Locomotor capacity was assessed every 6 weeks thereafter. The ad libitum (AL) group exhibited predictably decreased locomotor activity, except movement speed, out to 18 months of age. In contrast, in the CR group, movement number and horizontal activity did not decrease during the 6-month trial and aging-related decline in rotarod performance was attenuated. The response to CR was influenced by baseline locomotor activity. The lower the locomotor activity level at baseline, the greater the response to CR. Rats in the lower 50th percentile surpassed their baseline level of activity, whereas rats in the top 50th percentile decreased at 6 weeks and then returned to baseline by 12 weeks of CR. We hypothesized that nigrostriatal dopamine tissue content would be greater in the CR group and observed a modest increase only in substantia nigra with no group differences in striatum, nucleus accumbens, or ventral tegmental area. These results indicate initiation of CR at middle age may reduce aging-related bradykinesia and, furthermore, subjects with below average locomotor activity may increase baseline activity. Sustaining nigral DA neurotransmission may be one component of preserving locomotor capabilities during aging. PMID:26610387

  2. Calorie restriction in overweight males ameliorates obesity-related metabolic alterations and cellular adaptations through anti-aging effects, possibly including AMPK and SIRT1 activation.

    PubMed

    Kitada, Munehiro; Kume, Shinji; Takeda-Watanabe, Ai; Tsuda, Shin-ichi; Kanasaki, Keizo; Koya, Daisuke

    2013-10-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is accepted as an experimental anti-aging paradigm. Several important signal transduction pathways including AMPK and SIRT1 are implicated in the regulation of physiological processes of CR. However, the mechanisms responsible for adaptations remain unclear in humans. Four overweight male participants were enrolled and treated with 25% CR of their baseline energy requirements for 7weeks. Characteristics, including body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), %fat, visceral fat area (VFA), mean blood pressure (MBP) and VO2 max, as well as metabolic parameters, such as insulin, lipid profiles and inflammatory makers and the expression of phosphorylated AMPK and SIRT1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs), were determined at baseline and then after 7weeks. In addition, we assessed the effects of the serum collected from the participants on AMPK and SIRT1 activation and mitochondrial biogenesis in cultured human skeletal muscle cells. After CR, BW, BMI, %fat, VFA and MBP all significantly decreased, while VO2 max increased, compared to those at baseline. The levels of fasting insulin, free fatty acid, and inflammatory makers, such as interleukin-6 and visfatin, were significantly reduced, whereas the expression of phosphorylated AMPK and SIRT1 was significantly increased in PBMNCs collected after CR, compared to those at baseline. The skeletal muscle cells that were cultured in serum collected after CR showed an increase in AMPK and SIRT1 activity as well as mitochondrial biogenesis. CR is beneficial for obesity-related metabolic alterations and induces cellular adaptations against aging, possibly through AMPK and SIRT1 activation via circulating factors. © 2013.

  3. Effects of calorie restriction plus fish oil supplementation on abnormal metabolic characteristics and the iron status of middle-aged obese women.

    PubMed

    Utami, Fasty Arum; Lee, Hsiu-Chuan; Su, Chien-Tien; Guo, Yu-Ru; Tung, Yu-Tang; Huang, Shih-Yi

    2018-02-21

    The increasing prevalence of obesity and sedentary lifestyles has led to a higher incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) worldwide as well as in Taiwan. Middle-aged women are at a greater risk of MetS, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease than men because they have more subcutaneous fat and larger waist circumferences compared with men with equal visceral fat levels. In this study, we investigated the effects of calorie restriction (CR) and fish oil supplementation (CRF) on middle-aged Taiwanese women with MetS. An open-label, parallel-arm, controlled trial was conducted for 12 weeks. A total of 75 eligible participants were randomly assigned to the CR or CRF group. Both the dietary intervention groups were further divided into two age groups: ≤45 and >45 years. Changes in MetS severity, inflammatory status, iron status, and red blood cell fatty acid profile were evaluated. A total of 71 participants completed the trial. Both dietary interventions significantly ameliorated MetS and improved the participants' inflammatory status. CR significantly increased the total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) whereas CRF increased hepcidin levels in women aged >45 years. Furthermore, CRF significantly increased the n-6/n-3 and arachidonic acid/docosahexaenoic acid ratios. Both interventions improved the anthropometric and MetS characteristics, including body weight, blood glucose and triglyceride levels, and the score of the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index. In conclusion, the 12-week dietary interventions improved the abnormal metabolic status of middle-aged obese women. CRF was demonstrated to be more effective in ameliorating postprandial glucose level and TIBC in women aged >45 years than in those aged ≤45 years.

  4. Clinical efficacy of a medically supervised outpatient high-protein, low-calorie diet program is equivalent in prediabetic, diabetic and normoglycemic obese patients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Z; Tseng, C-h; Li, Q; Deng, M L; Wang, M; Heber, D

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) affects approximately 10% of Americans, while 79 million Americans are estimated to have glucose intolerance or prediabetes (pre-DM). The present study was designed to determine whether obese patients with pre-DM or T2DM would lose weight as effectively as obese normoglycemic patients, in a medically supervised high-protein, low-calorie-weight management program. Method: Patients enrolled in a self-paid, university-based, outpatient weight loss program using prescribed very-low-calorie diet (VLCD) (500–800 cal per day) or LCD diet (800–1200 cal per day), recommended exercise and group behavioral counseling were studied retrospectively. Patients entering the program for the first time and attending weekly clinic visits for more than 4 weeks were included in the analysis. Results: A total of 2093 obese patients, of whom 583 patients with pre-DM (fasting glucose ⩾100 and <126 mg dl−1), 367 patients with T2DM and 1143 normoglycemic patients entered the program from 1991 to 2010, who met all the inclusion criteria were included in the analysis. The body weight at baseline was 104.0±20.0 kg for DM, 101.4±18.4 for pre-DM and 99.0±18.8 kg for non-DM. Weight loss and percent of weight loss within 12 months were analyzed using a linear mixed-effects model. There was no significant difference in weight loss between DM vs non-DM (P=0.4597) and pre-DM vs non-DM (P=0.6006) in 12 months. The length of enrollment in the program was positively correlated to weight loss rates in all patients (P<0.001). Conclusion: This study demonstrates that obese, pre-DM and DM patients all lost weight as effectively with VLCD or LCD over 12 months. Given the impact of weight loss on the progression of comorbid conditions, these data support the hypothesis that medically supervised diets, including VLCD and LCD, should be more widely used in the prevention and treatment of obese patients with pre-DM or T2DM. PMID:24513578

  5. Calorically restricted diets decrease PCSK9 in overweight adolescents.

    PubMed

    Levenson, A E; Milliren, C E; Biddinger, S B; Ebbeling, C B; Feldman, H A; Ludwig, D S; de Ferranti, S D

    2017-04-01

    Nutritional therapy is the first line approach to treatment of hyperlipidemia in childhood. Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a key regulator of plasma cholesterol levels and a target of novel lipid-lowering pharmacotherapies. We examined the effects of an intensive nutritional intervention on PCSK9 levels in overweight adolescents with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Twenty seven obese and overweight adolescents with CVD risk factors were assigned to either a low fat or low glycemic load diet. During an 8-week "Intensive Phase," assigned meals were delivered to the home, and all participants received weekly in-person home nutrition counseling and phone calls. The subjects then underwent a 4-month "Maintenance Phase" without food provision and with no in-person contact. Anthropometric measurements, laboratory data, and serum PCSK9 protein levels were measured at baseline, 8 weeks, and 6 months. PCSK9 decreased by 16.5% at 8 weeks (201.2 ± 56.3 vs 165.6 ± 58.4 ng/mL; p < 0.001); PCSK9 levels returned to baseline levels at 6 months, after the Maintenance Phase. Change in PCSK9 was associated with change in fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and AUC insulin, independent of weight loss. PCSK9 decreased in youth participating in an intensive dietary intervention. Change in HOMA-IR was associated with change in PCSK9, independent of weight loss, suggesting an important relationship with insulin sensitivity. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01080339. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Short-Term Very Low Calorie Diet on Intramyocellular Lipid and Insulin Sensitivity in Non-diabetics and Type 2 Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lara-Castro, Cristina; Newcomer, Bradley R; Rowell, Jennifer; Wallace, Penny; Shaughnessy, Sara M; Munoz, A Julian; Shiflett, Alanna M; Rigsby, Dana Y; Lawrence, Jeannine C; Bohning, Daryl E; Buchthal, Steven; Garvey, W Timothy

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of a short-term very-low calorie diet (VLCD) on intramyocellular lipid (IMCL), total body fat, and insulin sensitivity in a group of obese non-diabetic and Type 2 Diabetic (T2DM) patients. Research Methods and Procedures Seven untreated T2DM and 5 obese non-diabetic individuals were studied before and after a 6-day VLCD using proton-magnetic resonance spectroscopy to quantify IMCL, DXA to assess body fat, and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps to measure peripheral insulin sensitivity. Results In both groups, decrements in total body fat mass and BMI were small but statistically significant. In contrast, the diet resulted in a pronounced reduction in IMCL compared to baseline values in non-diabetics (56% decrease) and T2DM (40% decrease), P<0.05, and this was accompanied by an overall 9.3% increase in maximally-stimulated glucose disposal rate (P<0.01). IMCL was significantly correlated with insulin sensitivity, (r=−0.69; P<0.01) and waist circumference (r = 0.72 and 0.83, baseline and post-diet respectively, both P < 0.01), but neither IMCL nor insulin sensitivity was related to measures of general adiposity such as BMI, % body fat, or total body fat (P=NS). Conclusions Short-term VLCD is accompanied by small decrements in general adiposity, marked decrease in IMCL, and an increase in insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic and T2DM subjects. Therefore, rapid amelioration of insulin resistance by VLCD can be partially explained by loss of IMCL in both non-diabetics and in T2DM in the absence of substantial changes in total body fat. These observations are consistent with the idea that insulin resistance is more directly related to IMCL rather than body fat per se. PMID:18078853

  7. The Effects of Extra Virgin Olive Oil on Alanine Aminotransferase, Aspartate Aminotransferase, and Ultrasonographic Indices of Hepatic Steatosis in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Patients Undergoing Low Calorie Diet.

    PubMed

    Shidfar, Farzad; Bahrololumi, Samaneh Sadat; Doaei, Saeid; Mohammadzadeh, Assieh; Gholamalizadeh, Maryam; Mohammadimanesh, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is the most common cause of death in the patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Studies have shown that there is a strong relation between the increase in the aminotransferase levels and fat accumulation in the liver with cardiovascular complications, independent of all aspects of the metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to examine the effect of virgin olive oil on alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and the severity of steatosis in the NAFLD patients undergoing a weight-loss diet. This clinical trial was carried out on 50 patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver (mean age of 45.91 ± 9.61 years, mean BMI of 29.7 ± 0.58 Kg/m 2 ) and the subjects were randomly assigned to the olive oil group (receiving the equivalent of 20% of their total daily energy requirement from olive oil) or the control group (with normal consumption of oil) for 12 weeks. All the patients received a hypocaloric diet during the study. At the beginning and the end of the study, the serum levels of ALT and AST and liver steatosis were measured. A significant decrease in the level of ALT enzymes was observed in the control group at the end of the study ( P = 0.004). In the olive oil group, both enzymes decreased compared to baseline measurements ( P < 0.01). There were significant differences in the ALT and AST levels between the two groups ( P < 0.02). The severity of liver steatosis did not change significantly during the study. The consumption of a low calorie diet enriched with olive oil, along with slight weight reduction, reinforces the desired effects of weight loss in improving the levels of the hepatic enzymes.

  8. Morphofunctional Changes After Sleeve Gastrectomy and Very Low Calorie Diet in an Animal Model of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Talavera-Urquijo, Eider; Rodríguez-Navarro, Sarai; Beisani, Marc; Salcedo-Allende, Maria Teresa; Chakkur, Aisha; Arús-Avilés, Marc; Cremades, Manel; Augustin, Salvador; Martell, María; Balibrea, José M

    2018-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent chronic liver disease and is found in 70% of obese people. The evidence available to date suggests that bariatric surgery could be an effective treatment by reducing weight and also by improving metabolic complications in the long term. This work aimed to compare, in a diet-induced NAFLD animal model, the effect of both sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and very-low calorie diet (VLCD). Thirty-five Wistar rats were divided into control rats (n = 7) and obese rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). After 10 weeks, the obese rats were subdivided into four groups: HFD (n = 7), VLCD (n = 7), and rats submitted to either a sham operation (n = 7) or SG (n = 7). Both liver tissue and blood samples were processed to evaluate steatosis and NASH changes in histology (Oil Red, Sirius Red and H&E); presence of endothelial damage (CD31, Moesin/p-Moesin, Akt/p-Akt, eNOS/p-eNOS), oxidative stress (iNOS) and fibrosis (αSMA, Col1, PDGF, VEGF) proteins in liver tissue; and inflammatory (IL6, IL10, MCP-1, IL17α, TNFα), liver biochemical function, and hormonal (leptin, ghrelin, visfatin and insulin) alterations in plasma. Both VLCD and SG improved histology, but only SG induced a significant weight loss, improved endothelial damage, and a decreased cardiovascular risk by reducing insulin resistance (IR), leptin, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. There were no relevant variations in the inflammatory and fibrosis markers. Our study suggests a slight superiority of SG over VLCD by improving not only the histology but also the IR and cardiovascular risk markers related to NAFLD.

  9. Increase in skeletal muscle fatty acid binding protein (FABPC) content is directly related to weight loss and to changes in fat oxidation following a very low calorie diet.

    PubMed

    Blaak, E E; Glatz, J F; Saris, W H

    2001-11-01

    There is increasing evidence that intracellular fatty acid binding proteins (FABPc's; 15 kD) function as vehicles of cytosolic fatty acid transport. We studied skeletal muscle cytosolic FABPc, and enzymes reflecting beta-oxidation and oxidative capacity (3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, HAD, and citrate synthase, CS) in relation to weight loss and changes in substrate utilisation in a group of 35 obese women and obese men with Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus (women = 27, men = 8). Muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis), and measurements of body composition, resting energy expenditure and respiratory exchange ratio were taken before and after dietary intervention (by means of a very low calorie diet). Muscle FABPc tended to increase after diet (178 +/- 13 vs 204 +/- 12 mg x gww(-1), p = 0.06), whereas there were no changes in CS (10.5 +/- 0.7 vs 11.1 +/- 0.6 U x gww(-1)) and HAD (11.2 +/- 0.7 vs 11.7 +/- 0.6 U x gww(-1)). There was a positive relation between the increase in FABPc as result of diet and the amount of weight lost (p < 0.01; adjusted R2, 15.4 %), even when adjusted for mean body weight, and changes in CS and in HAD by partial regression analysis. Interestingly, the increase in FABPc was positively related to increases in resting fat oxidation (adjusted R2, 24 %), even when adjusted for mean resting fat oxidation, and changes in CS and in HAD. In conclusion, the ability to increase muscle FABPc could be directly related to weight loss and to changes in fat oxidation following dietary intervention in obesity and Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus.

  10. Physiogenomic comparison of human fat loss in response to diets restrictive of carbohydrate or fat

    PubMed Central

    Seip, Richard L; Volek, Jeff S; Windemuth, Andreas; Kocherla, Mohan; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Kraemer, William J; Ruaño, Gualberto

    2008-01-01

    Background Genetic factors that predict responses to diet may ultimately be used to individualize dietary recommendations. We used physiogenomics to explore associations among polymorphisms in candidate genes and changes in relative body fat (Δ%BF) to low fat and low carbohydrate diets. Methods We assessed Δ%BF using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 93 healthy adults who consumed a low carbohydrate diet (carbohydrate ~12% total energy) (LC diet) and in 70, a low fat diet (fat ~25% total energy) (LF diet). Fifty-three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected from 28 candidate genes involved in food intake, energy homeostasis, and adipocyte regulation were ranked according to probability of association with the change in %BF using multiple linear regression. Results Dieting reduced %BF by 3.0 ± 2.6% (absolute units) for LC and 1.9 ± 1.6% for LF (p < 0.01). SNPs in nine genes were significantly associated with Δ%BF, with four significant after correction for multiple statistical testing: rs322695 near the retinoic acid receptor beta (RARB) (p < 0.005), rs2838549 in the hepatic phosphofructokinase (PFKL), and rs3100722 in the histamine N-methyl transferase (HNMT) genes (both p < 0.041) due to LF; and the rs5950584 SNP in the angiotensin receptor Type II (AGTR2) gene due to LC (p < 0.021). Conclusion Fat loss under LC and LF diet regimes appears to have distinct mechanisms, with PFKL and HNMT and RARB involved in fat restriction; and AGTR2 involved in carbohydrate restriction. These discoveries could provide clues to important physiologic mechanisms underlying the Δ%BF to low carbohydrate and low fat diets. PMID:18254975

  11. Adherence to diet and fluid restriction of individuals on hemodialysis treatment and affecting factors in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Efe, Dilek; Kocaöz, Semra

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine adherence to diet and fluid restriction in hemodialysis-treated individuals and the affecting factors in Turkey. This descriptive study was conducted between 15 October 2010 and 15 January 2011 in subjects who voluntarily agreed to participate in the study from three dialysis centers in a city located in the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey. One hundred and twenty-one individuals treated with hemodialysis made up the study sample. The data were collected using a questionnaire consisting of 41 questions and the Dialysis Diet and Fluid Non-adherence Questionnaire. The data were evaluated with percentage, median, Mann-Whitney U-test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Student's t-test in independent samples and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. The authors found that 98.3% of the individuals experienced non-adherence to diet and 95.0% with fluid restriction. The authors found a weak and negative relationship between calcium levels and non-adherence to fluid restriction, a weak relationship between phosphorus levels and diet non-adherence frequency and degree and the fluid non-adherence frequency scores, and a moderate positive relationship between phosphorus levels and fluid restriction non-adherence degree scores (P < 0.05). Based on these results, regular training and information regarding diet and fluid restriction must be provided to individuals aged 21-35 years with no one in the family to help with their care, those who consumed salted food, or had interdialytic weight gain of 4.5 kg or more. © 2014 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2014 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  12. Parental restriction and children's diets. The chocolate coin and Easter egg experiments.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Jane; Cordey, Phillipa; Cutler, Laura; Thomas, Hayley

    2013-02-01

    Two naturalistic experiments are reported exploring the impact of parental restriction on children's diets. For study 1, 53 parents gave 75 g of chocolate coins to their child over a weekend. For study 2, 86 parents were recruited prior to the 2 week Easter break when their children would be receiving chocolate Easter eggs. For both studies, parents were randomly allocated to either the non-restriction or restriction conditions and rated their child's preoccupation with the target food and other sweet foods (demanding and eating) at the start and end of the interventions. Perceived and actual food intake was assessed. Children in the restriction conditions consumed fewer chocolate coins and Easter eggs. All children showed decreased preoccupation with chocolate coins or Easter eggs over the course of the studies yet by the end the restriction group were more preoccupied with the target food. In contrast, all children showed an increased preoccupation with other sweet foods as the studies progressed which was greater in the non-restriction group for the chocolate coins study. Overall, restriction resulted in reduced intake but relative increased preoccupation with the food being restricted. Non-restriction resulted in a greater preoccupation with other sweet foods once the target foods had been consumed. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Very Low-Calorie Diet and 6 Months of Weight Stability in Type 2 Diabetes: Pathophysiological Changes in Responders and Nonresponders.

    PubMed

    Steven, Sarah; Hollingsworth, Kieren G; Al-Mrabeh, Ahmad; Avery, Leah; Aribisala, Benjamin; Caslake, Muriel; Taylor, Roy

    2016-05-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is generally regarded as an irreversible chronic condition. Because a very low-calorie diet (VLCD) can bring about acute return to normal glucose control in some people with T2DM, this study tested the potential durability of this normalization. The underlying mechanisms were defined. People with a T2DM duration of 0.5-23 years (n = 30) followed a VLCD for 8 weeks. All oral agents or insulins were stopped at baseline. Following a stepped return to isocaloric diet, a structured, individualized program of weight maintenance was provided. Glucose control, insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and hepatic and pancreas fat content were quantified at baseline, after return to isocaloric diet, and after 6 months to permit the primary comparison of change between post-weight loss and 6 months in responders. Responders were defined as achieving fasting blood glucose <7 mmol/L after return to isocaloric diet. Weight fell (98.0 ± 2.6 to 83.8 ± 2.4 kg) and remained stable over 6 months (84.7 ± 2.5 kg). Twelve of 30 participants achieved fasting plasma glucose <7 mmol/L after return to isocaloric diet (responders), and 13 of 30 after 6 months. Responders had a shorter duration of diabetes and a higher initial fasting plasma insulin level. HbA1c fell from 7.1 ± 0.3 to 5.8 ± 0.2% (55 ± 4 to 40 ± 2 mmol/mol) in responders (P < 0.001) and from 8.4 ± 0.3 to 8.0 ± 0.5% (68 ± 3 to 64 ± 5 mmol/mol) in nonresponders, remaining constant at 6 months (5.9 ± 0.2 and 7.8 ± 0.3% [41 ± 2 and 62 ± 3 mmol/mol], respectively). The responders were characterized by return of first-phase insulin response. A robust and sustainable weight loss program achieved continuing remission of diabetes for at least 6 months in the 40% who responded to a VLCD by achieving fasting plasma glucose of <7 mmol/L. T2DM is a potentially reversible condition. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited

  14. Strict vegan, low-calorie diet administered by caregiving daughter to elderly mother--is this elder abuse?

    PubMed

    Marcus, E L; Fassberg, C Wasserstein; Namestnik, J; Guedj, D; Caine, Y

    2005-06-01

    We present a case in which a 40 year old woman, who was the primary care-giver of her 78 year-old mother, provided a strict vegan diet which caused the mother severe malnutrition. The mother was hospitalized with severe functional deterioration and, while eating a proper diet during hospitalization, gained weight and her condition improved. The case was reported to the Welfare Officer and the mother was released under the supervision of the Welfare Officer. Cases of severe malnutrition and even death of infants who were fed a strict vegan diet have been reported. This case raises some ethical and legal issues. Should a guardian or a caregiver be allowed to make decisions regarding the way of life and medical treatment of the person in his/her charge which are likely to endanger that person's health and when is it appropriate for society to intervene in individual freedom? The paper includes a review of some reported cases of child and elder abuse or neglect which illustrate these issues.

  15. Calorie restriction inhibits relapse behaviour and preference for alcohol within a two-bottle free choice paradigm in the alcohol preferring (iP) rat.

    PubMed

    Guccione, Lisa; Djouma, Elvan; Penman, Jim; Paolini, Antonio G

    2013-02-17

    Among its many beneficial effects, calorie restriction (CR) has also been found to reduce anxiety related behavior in the rodent. With heightened levels of stress and anxiety implicated as a key precipitating factor of relapse and alcohol addiction, it was found that a 25% CR in addition to inducing anxiolytic effects also had the capacity to reduce intake of alcohol and inhibit relapse within a model of operant self-administration. The aim of this study was to investigate if a 25% CR would also display similar effects in a two-bottle free choice paradigm, whereby 24 h ad libitum access to both 10% ethanol and water is provided. All animals were initially tested on the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field test prior to commencing the two-bottle free choice paradigm. Differences between control and CR25% animals demonstrated the anxiolytic effects of CR, with the CR25% group displaying greater percentage of open arm/total arm duration and open arm/total arm entries in the EPM. During the acquisition phase of the two-bottle free choice paradigm, CR25% animals showed a reduced intake of 10% ethanol in ml/kg, in comparison to the control group. Whilst control animals displayed a strong preference for 10% ethanol, the CR25% group consumed both 10% ethanol and water equally with no differences found in total fluid intake between groups. Similarly this was also the case following forced deprivation. In addition to reduced intake and lack of preference for 10% ethanol, CR 25% animals unlike controls failed to display a typical alcohol deprivation effect following abstinence. Taken collectively the results of this study suggest that CR may act as a protective factor against addiction and relapse in the alcohol preferring (iP) rat. In addition, given CR25% animals did not display a preference for 10% ethanol, results also suggest that CR may be altering the hedonic impact of ethanol within this group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dietary energy restriction reduces high-fat diet-enhanced metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Obesity is a risk factor for cancer. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary energy restriction on high-fat diet-enhanced spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed an AIN93G diet or a high-fat diet (16% or 45% of energy fro...

  17. Master Amino acid Pattern as substitute for dietary proteins during a weight-loss diet to achieve the body's nitrogen balance equilibrium with essentially no calories.

    PubMed

    Lucà-Moretti, M; Grandi, A; Lucà, E; Muratori, G; Nofroni, M G; Mucci, M P; Gambetta, P; Stimolo, R; Drago, P; Giudice, G; Tamburlin, N

    2003-01-01

    Results of this multicentric study have shown that by giving 10 g (10 tablets) of Master Amino acid Pattern (MAP) as a substitute for dietary proteins, once a day, to 114 overweight participants undergoing the American Nutrition Clinics/Overweight Management Program (ANC/OMP), the participants' nitrogen balance could be maintained in equilibrium with essentially no calories (MAP 1 g=0.04 kcal), thereby preserving the body's structural and functional proteins, eliminating excessive water retention from the interstitial compartment, and preventing the sudden weight increase after study conclusion commonly known as the yo-yo effect. Study results have shown that the use of MAP, in conjunction with the ANC/OMP, has proven to be safe and effective by preventing those adverse effects associated with a negative nitrogen balance, such as oversized or flabby tissue, stretch marks, sagging of breast tissue, increased hair loss, faded hair color, and fragile or brittle nails. Also preventing those anomalies commonly associated with weight-loss diets, such as hunger, weakness, headache caused by ketosis, constipation, or decreased libido, the use of MAP, in conjunction with the ANC/OMP, allowed for mean weight loss of 1.4 kg (3 lb) per week.

  18. The Availability of Slow and Fast Calories in the Dutch Diet: The Current Situation and Opportunities for Interventions.

    PubMed

    van den Boer, Janet; Werts, Melanie; Siebelink, Els; de Graaf, Cees; Mars, Monica

    2017-10-02

    Choosing foods that require more time to consume and have a low energy density might constitute an effective strategy to control energy intake, because of their satiating capacity. The current study assessed the eating rate of Dutch food, and investigated the associations between eating rate and other food properties. We also explored the opportunities for a diet with a low energy intake rate (kJ/min). Laboratory data on the eating rate of 240 foods-representing the whole Dutch diet-was obtained. The results show a wide variation in both eating rate (from 2 g/min for rice waffle to 641 g/min for apple juice) and energy intake rate (from 0 kJ/min (0 kcal/min) for water to 1766 kJ/min (422 kcal/min) for chocolate milk). Eating rate was lower when foods were more solid. Moreover, eating rate was positively associated with water content and inversely with energy density. Energy intake rate differed substantially between and within food groups, demonstrating that the available foods provide opportunities for selecting alternatives with a lower energy intake rate. These findings offer guidance when selecting foods to reduce energy intake.

  19. Heterozygous Hfe gene deletion leads to impaired glucose homeostasis, but not liver injury in mice fed a high-calorie diet.

    PubMed

    Britton, Laurence; Jaskowski, Lesley; Bridle, Kim; Santrampurwala, Nishreen; Reiling, Janske; Musgrave, Nick; Subramaniam, V Nathan; Crawford, Darrell

    2016-06-01

    Heterozygous mutations of the Hfe gene have been proposed as cofactors in the development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Homozygous Hfe deletion previously has been shown to lead to dysregulated hepatic lipid metabolism and accentuated liver injury in a dietary mouse model of NAFLD We sought to establish whether heterozygous deletion of Hfe is sufficient to promote liver injury when mice are exposed to a high-calorie diet (HCD). Eight-week-old wild-type and Hfe(+/-) mice received 8 weeks of a control diet or HCD Liver histology and pathways of lipid and iron metabolism were analyzed. Liver histology demonstrated that mice fed a HCD had increased NAFLD activity score (NAS), steatosis, and hepatocyte ballooning. However, liver injury was unaffected by Hfe genotype. Hepatic iron concentration (HIC) was increased in Hfe(+/-) mice of both dietary groups. HCD resulted in a hepcidin-independent reduction in HIC Hfe(+/-) mice demonstrated raised fasting serum glucose concentrations and HOMA-IR score, despite unaltered serum adiponectin concentrations. Downstream regulators of hepatic de novo lipogenesis (pAKT, SREBP-1, Fas, Scd1) and fatty acid oxidation (AdipoR2, Pparα, Cpt1) were largely unaffected by genotype. In summary, heterozygous Hfe gene deletion is associated with impaired iron and glucose metabolism. However, unlike homozygous Hfe deletion, heterozygous gene deletion did not affect lipid metabolism pathways or liver injury in this model. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  20. Effects of short-term very low-calorie diet on intramyocellular lipid and insulin sensitivity in nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects.

    PubMed

    Lara-Castro, Cristina; Newcomer, Bradley R; Rowell, Jennifer; Wallace, Penny; Shaughnessy, Sara M; Munoz, A Julian; Shiflett, Alanna M; Rigsby, Dana Y; Lawrence, Jeannine C; Bohning, Daryl E; Buchthal, Steven; Garvey, W Timothy

    2008-01-01

    The study aimed to analyze the effects of a short-term very low-calorie diet (VLCD) on intramyocellular lipid (IMCL), total body fat, and insulin sensitivity in a group of obese nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects. Seven untreated type 2 diabetic and 5 obese nondiabetic individuals were studied before and after a 6-day VLCD using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to quantify IMCL, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry to assess body fat, and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps to measure peripheral insulin sensitivity. In both groups, decrements in total body fat mass and body mass index were small but statistically significant. In contrast, the diet resulted in a pronounced reduction in IMCL compared with baseline values in nondiabetic subjects (56% decrease) and type 2 diabetic subjects (40% decrease) (P < .05), and this was accompanied by an overall 9.3% increase in maximally stimulated glucose disposal rate (P < .01). Intramyocellular lipid was significantly correlated with insulin sensitivity (r = -0.69, P < .01) and waist circumference (r = 0.72 and 0.83, baseline and postdiet, respectively; both P < .01), but neither IMCL nor insulin sensitivity was related to measures of general adiposity such as body mass index, percentage of body fat, or total body fat (P = not significant). In conclusion, short-term VLCD is accompanied by small decrements in general adiposity, marked decrease in IMCL, and an increase in insulin sensitivity in nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects. Therefore, rapid amelioration of insulin resistance by VLCD can be partially explained by loss of IMCL both in nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects in the absence of substantial changes in total body fat. These observations are consistent with the idea that insulin resistance is more directly related to IMCL rather than to body fat per se.

  1. Proteomic analysis in type 2 diabetes patients before and after a very low calorie diet reveals potential disease state and intervention specific biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Sleddering, Maria A; Markvoort, Albert J; Dharuri, Harish K; Jeyakar, Skhandhan; Snel, Marieke; Juhasz, Peter; Lynch, Moira; Hines, Wade; Li, Xiaohong; Jazet, Ingrid M; Adourian, Aram; Hilbers, Peter A J; Smit, Johannes W A; Van Dijk, Ko Willems

    2014-01-01

    Very low calorie diets (VLCD) with and without exercise programs lead to major metabolic improvements in obese type 2 diabetes patients. The mechanisms underlying these improvements have so far not been elucidated fully. To further investigate the mechanisms of a VLCD with or without exercise and to uncover possible biomarkers associated with these interventions, blood samples were collected from 27 obese type 2 diabetes patients before and after a 16-week VLCD (Modifast ∼ 450 kcal/day). Thirteen of these patients followed an exercise program in addition to the VCLD. Plasma was obtained from 27 lean and 27 obese controls as well. Proteomic analysis was performed using mass spectrometry (MS) and targeted multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and a large scale isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) approach. After the 16-week VLCD, there was a significant decrease in body weight and HbA1c in all patients, without differences between the two intervention groups. Targeted MRM analysis revealed differences in several proteins, which could be divided in diabetes-associated (fibrinogen, transthyretin), obesity-associated (complement C3), and diet-associated markers (apolipoproteins, especially apolipoprotein A-IV). To further investigate the effects of exercise, large scale iTRAQ analysis was performed. However, no proteins were found showing an exercise effect. Thus, in this study, specific proteins were found to be differentially expressed in type 2 diabetes patients versus controls and before and after a VLCD. These proteins are potential disease state and intervention specific biomarkers. Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN76920690.

  2. Low glycemic index vegan or low-calorie weight loss diets for women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized controlled feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Davidson, Charis R; Wingard, Ellen E; Billings, Deborah L

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this randomized pilot was to assess the feasibility of a dietary intervention among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) comparing a vegan to a low-calorie (low-cal) diet. Overweight (body mass index, 39.9 ± 6.1 kg/m(2)) women with PCOS (n = 18; age, 27.8 ± 4.5 years; 39% black) who were experiencing infertility were recruited to participate in a 6-month randomized weight loss study delivered through nutrition counseling, e-mail, and Facebook. Body weight and dietary intake were assessed at 0, 3, and 6 months. We hypothesized that weight loss would be greater in the vegan group. Attrition was high at 3 (39%) and 6 months (67%). All analyses were conducted as intention-to-treat and presented as median (interquartile range). Vegan participants lost significantly more weight at 3 months (-1.8% [-5.0%, -0.9%] vegan, 0.0 [-1.2%, 0.3%] low-cal; P = .04), but there was no difference between groups at 6 months (P = .39). Use of Facebook groups was significantly related to percent weight loss at 3 (P < .001) and 6 months (P = .05). Vegan participants had a greater decrease in energy (-265 [-439, 0] kcal/d) and fat intake (-7.4% [-9.2%, 0] energy) at 6 months compared with low-cal participants (0 [0, 112] kcal/d, P = .02; 0 [0, 3.0%] energy, P = .02). These preliminary results suggest that engagement with social media and adoption of a vegan diet may be effective for promoting short-term weight loss among women with PCOS; however, a larger trial that addresses potential high attrition rates is needed to confirm these results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Proteomic Analysis in Type 2 Diabetes Patients before and after a Very Low Calorie Diet Reveals Potential Disease State and Intervention Specific Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Dharuri, Harish K.; Jeyakar, Skhandhan; Snel, Marieke; Juhasz, Peter; Lynch, Moira; Hines, Wade; Li, Xiaohong; Jazet, Ingrid M.; Adourian, Aram; Hilbers, Peter A. J.; Smit, Johannes W. A.; Van Dijk, Ko Willems

    2014-01-01

    Very low calorie diets (VLCD) with and without exercise programs lead to major metabolic improvements in obese type 2 diabetes patients. The mechanisms underlying these improvements have so far not been elucidated fully. To further investigate the mechanisms of a VLCD with or without exercise and to uncover possible biomarkers associated with these interventions, blood samples were collected from 27 obese type 2 diabetes patients before and after a 16-week VLCD (Modifast ∼450 kcal/day). Thirteen of these patients followed an exercise program in addition to the VCLD. Plasma was obtained from 27 lean and 27 obese controls as well. Proteomic analysis was performed using mass spectrometry (MS) and targeted multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and a large scale isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) approach. After the 16-week VLCD, there was a significant decrease in body weight and HbA1c in all patients, without differences between the two intervention groups. Targeted MRM analysis revealed differences in several proteins, which could be divided in diabetes-associated (fibrinogen, transthyretin), obesity-associated (complement C3), and diet-associated markers (apolipoproteins, especially apolipoprotein A-IV). To further investigate the effects of exercise, large scale iTRAQ analysis was performed. However, no proteins were found showing an exercise effect. Thus, in this study, specific proteins were found to be differentially expressed in type 2 diabetes patients versus controls and before and after a VLCD. These proteins are potential disease state and intervention specific biomarkers. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN76920690 PMID:25415563

  4. Time-restricted feeding of a high-fat diet reduces diet-induced obesity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reducing obesity may alleviate many medical complications including diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. It has been suggested that obesity is contributed by the disruption of the circadian rhythms in addition to increased caloric intake. Restricting feeding to particular times of the day ma...

  5. Body-mass, survival, and pairing consequences of winter-diet restriction in wood ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demarest, D.W.; Kaminski, R.M.; Brennan, L.A.; Boyle, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    We conducted feeding experiments with captive, wild-strain wood ducks (Aix sponsa) during winters 1990-91 and 1991-92 to test effects of increasing levels of food restriction on body mass dynamics, mortality, and pair formation. Male and female wood ducks fed restricted diets (i.e., 5, 10, 15, or 20% less food [g] than consumed on the previous day by a control group fed ad libitum) weighed less (P ??? 0.037) than birds fed ad libitum; those on 15 and 20% restricted diets weighed least. Increased mortality and decreased pair formation occurred only within the 20% restricted group (P ??? 0.049). We concluded that food restriction ranging between 15 and 20% of ad libitum intake may signify a threshold above which survival and reproduction of captive wood ducks may be impaired. Because energy costs of free living are greater than in captivity, a lower threshold may exist for wild wood ducks. Research is needed to validate the threshold theory for free-ranging wood ducks and other waterfowl, and to evaluate its potential application for conservation of winter foraging habitat. Conservation of bottomland hardwood ecosystems, which provide important foraging habitat for migrating and wintering wood ducks, should be encouraged to prevent potential negative effects on wood duck life-cycle events.

  6. [Influence of non-sodium restricted diet with diuretics on plasma rennin, renal blood flow and in patients with cirrhotic ascites].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yin-fang; Gu, Xi-bing; Zhu, Hong-ying; Yang, Xiao-juan; Wang, Dong; Yu, Ping

    2013-02-01

    To explore influence of sodium restricted diet and non-sodium restricted diet on plasma rennin (PRA), angiotensin II (All), ALD, renal blood flow (RBF) and subside of ascites in patients with cirrhotic ascites. Eighty cases of hepatitis B with cirrhotic ascites were randomly divided into sodium restricted diet group and non-sodium restricted diet group. 39 cases were in non-sodium restricted diet group, taking sodium chloride 6500-8000 mg daily; 41 cases were in sodium restricted diet group, taking sodium chloride 5000 mg daily. Both groups received diuretics furosemide and spironolactone. Blood sodium, urine sodium, PRA, AII, ALD, RBF ascites subsiding were compared after treatment. In non-sodium restricted diet group, blood sodium and urine sodium increased 10 days after treatment compared with those before treatment, and compared with those of sodium restricted diet group 10 days after treatment, P <0. 01. RBF increased compared with that before treatment, and compared with that of sodium restricted diet group 10 days after treatment, P < 0. 01. Renal damage induced by low blood sodium after treatment was less in non-sodium restricted diet group than that in sodium restricted diet group, P <0. 05. Ascites disappearance upon discharge was more in sodium restricted diet group than that in non-sodium restricted diet group, P <0. 01. Time of ascites disappearance was shorter in non-sodium restricted diet group than that in sodium restricted diet group, P < 0. 01. Compared with sodium restricted diet, while using diuretics of both groups, non-sodium restricted diet can increase level of blood sodium, thus increasing excretion of urine sodium and diuretic effect. It can also decrease levels of PRA, AII and ALD, increase renal blood flow and prevent renal damage induced by low blood sodium and facilitate subsiding of ascites.

  7. Targeting energy metabolism in brain cancer with calorically restricted ketogenic diets.

    PubMed

    Seyfried, Thomas N; Kiebish, Michael; Mukherjee, Purna; Marsh, Jeremy

    2008-11-01

    Information is presented on the calorically restricted ketogenic diet (CRKD) as an alternative therapy for brain cancer. In contrast to normal neurons and glia, which evolved to metabolize ketone bodies as an alternative fuel to glucose under energy-restricted conditions, brain tumor cells are largely glycolytic due to mitochondrial defects and have a reduced ability to metabolize ketone bodies. The CRKD is effective in managing brain tumor growth in animal models and in patients, and appears to act through antiangiogenic, anti-inflammatory, and proapoptotic mechanisms.

  8. Effect of Feeding an Iodine-Restricted Diet in Cats with Spontaneous Hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Hui, T Y; Bruyette, D S; Moore, G E; Scott-Moncrieff, J C

    2015-01-01

    Exclusive feeding of an iodine-restricted diet has been proposed as a method for controlling clinical manifestations of hyperthyroidism in hyperthyroid cats. To determine the effect of feeding an iodine-restricted diet on TT4 concentrations and clinical signs in cats with spontaneous hyperthyroidism. Forty-nine client-owned cats with spontaneous hyperthyroidism. Retrospective case series. Hyperthyroid cats were exclusively fed a commercially available iodine-restricted diet. Clinical response was assessed by change in weight and heart rate and serum TT4, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine concentrations at various times during dietary management (21-60 days, 60-180 days). Serum TT4 normalized in 20/48 cats (42%) and 39/47 cats (83%) at 21-60 days and 61-180 days, respectively. Cats in which the TT4 concentrations were still above reference range at 21-60 days had a significantly higher starting TT4 than those that normalized their TT4 levels during the same time period (P = .038). Body weight did not significantly increase (P = .34) nor heart rate decrease (P = .64) during the study. There was a significant decrease in serum creatinine (P = .028). Cats in the low reference range for serum TT4 concentrations did not have a significant increase in body weight (P = .41) nor creatinine (P = .54) when compared to those with high reference range. Restricted-iodine diets were effective at maintaining serum TT4 concentrations within reference ranges for a majority of cats with spontaneous hyperthyroidism over 1 year, although not all clinical signs of hyperthyroidism improved. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  9. Low-Fat Diet With Caloric Restriction Reduces White Matter Microglia Activation During Aging.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhuoran; Raj, Divya D; Schaafsma, Wandert; van der Heijden, Roel A; Kooistra, Susanne M; Reijne, Aaffien C; Zhang, Xiaoming; Moser, Jill; Brouwer, Nieske; Heeringa, Peter; Yi, Chun-Xia; van Dijk, Gertjan; Laman, Jon D; Boddeke, Erik W G M; Eggen, Bart J L

    2018-01-01

    Rodent models of both aging and obesity are characterized by inflammation in specific brain regions, notably the corpus callosum, fornix, and hypothalamus. Microglia, the resident macrophages of the central nervous system, are important for brain development, neural support, and homeostasis. However, the effects of diet and lifestyle on microglia during aging are only partly understood. Here, we report alterations in microglia phenotype and functions in different brain regions of mice on a high-fat diet (HFD) or low-fat diet (LFD) during aging and in response to voluntary running wheel exercise. We compared the expression levels of genes involved in immune response, phagocytosis, and metabolism in the hypothalamus of 6-month-old HFD and LFD mice. We also compared the immune response of microglia from HFD or LFD mice to peripheral inflammation induced by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Finally, we investigated the effect of diet, physical exercise, and caloric restriction (40% reduction compared to ad libitum intake) on microglia in 24-month-old HFD and LFD mice. Changes in diet caused morphological changes in microglia, but did not change the microglia response to LPS-induced systemic inflammation. Expression of phagocytic markers (i.e., Mac-2/Lgals3, Dectin-1/Clec7a, and CD16/CD32) in the white matter microglia of 24-month-old brain was markedly decreased in calorically restricted LFD mice. In conclusion, LFD resulted in reduced activation of microglia, which might be an underlying mechanism for the protective role of caloric restriction during aging-associated decline.

  10. The Availability of Slow and Fast Calories in the Dutch Diet: The Current Situation and Opportunities for Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Werts, Melanie; Siebelink, Els; de Graaf, Cees

    2017-01-01

    Choosing foods that require more time to consume and have a low energy density might constitute an effective strategy to control energy intake, because of their satiating capacity. The current study assessed the eating rate of Dutch food, and investigated the associations between eating rate and other food properties. We also explored the opportunities for a diet with a low energy intake rate (kJ/min). Laboratory data on the eating rate of 240 foods—representing the whole Dutch diet—was obtained. The results show a wide variation in both eating rate (from 2 g/min for rice waffle to 641 g/min for apple juice) and energy intake rate (from 0 kJ/min (0 kcal/min) for water to 1766 kJ/min (422 kcal/min) for chocolate milk). Eating rate was lower when foods were more solid. Moreover, eating rate was positively associated with water content and inversely with energy density. Energy intake rate differed substantially between and within food groups, demonstrating that the available foods provide opportunities for selecting alternatives with a lower energy intake rate. These findings offer guidance when selecting foods to reduce energy intake. PMID:28974054

  11. Orange juice allied to a reduced-calorie diet results in weight loss and ameliorates obesity-related biomarkers: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Carolina; Dourado, Grace; Cesar, Thais

    2017-06-01

    Assumptions have linked orange juice (OJ) consumption with weight gain and adverse effects on health due to its sugar content; however, epidemiologic studies have not shown increased risk for overweight or obesity with the consumption of 100% OJ. The aim of this study was to verify whether the combination of a reduced-calorie diet (RCD) and 100% OJ contribute to weight loss, promote changes in glucose and lipid metabolism, and improve diet quality in obese individuals. A randomized controlled trial with 78 obese patients (age 36 ± 1 y, body mass index [BMI] 33 ± 3 kg/m 2 ) were enrolled in two groups: Individuals in the OJ group submitted to an RCD that included OJ (500 mL/d), and individuals in the control group submitted to an RCD without OJ. Body composition, biochemical biomarkers, and dietary intake were analyzed over a 12-wk period. Both treatments had similar outcomes regarding body weight (-6.5 kg; P = 0.363), BMI (-2.5 kg/m 2 ; P = 0.34), lean mass (-1 kg; P = 0.29), fat mass (-5 kg; P = 0.58), body fat (-3%; P = 0.15), and waist-to-hip ratio (-0.1; P = 0.79). Insulin levels in the OJ group decreased by 18% (P = 0.05), homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance by 33% (P = 0.04), total cholesterol by 24% (P = 0.004), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol by 24% (P ≤ 0.001), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels by 33% (P = 0.001) compared with the control group. Consumption of energy and nutrients was similar between the two groups, but vitamin C and folate increased by 62% (P ≤ 0.015) and 39% (P = 0.033), respectively, after OJ intervention. When consumed concomitantly with an RCD, OJ does not inhibit weight loss; ameliorate the insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, or inflammatory status, or contribute nutritionally to the quality of the diet. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Calorie Restriction on Mood, Quality of Life, Sleep, and Sexual Function in Healthy Nonobese Adults: The CALERIE 2 Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Martin, Corby K; Bhapkar, Manju; Pittas, Anastassios G; Pieper, Carl F; Das, Sai Krupa; Williamson, Donald A; Scott, Tammy; Redman, Leanne M; Stein, Richard; Gilhooly, Cheryl H; Stewart, Tiffany; Robinson, Lisa; Roberts, Susan B

    2016-06-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) increases longevity in many species and reduces risk factors for chronic diseases. In humans, CR may improve health span, yet concerns remain about potential negative effects of CR. To test the effect of CR on mood, quality of life (QOL), sleep, and sexual function in healthy nonobese adults. A multisite randomized clinical trial (Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy Phase 2 [CALERIE 2]) was conducted at 3 academic research institutions. Adult men and women (N = 220) with body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) of 22.0 to 28.0 were randomized to 2 years of 25% CR or an ad libitum (AL) control group in a 2:1 ratio favoring CR. Data were collected at baseline, 12 months, and 24 months and examined using intent-to-treat analysis. The study was conducted from January 22, 2007, to March 6, 2012. Data analysis was performed from July 18, 2012, to October 27, 2015. Two years of 25% CR or AL. Self-report questionnaires were administered to measure mood (Beck Depression Inventory-II [BDI-II], score range 0-63, higher scores indicating worse mood, and Profile of Mood States [POMS], with a total mood disturbance score range of -32 to 200 and higher scores indicating higher levels of the constructs measured), QOL (Rand 36-Item Short Form, score range 0-100, higher scores reflecting better QOL, and Perceived Stress Scale, score range 0-40, higher scores indicating higher levels of stress), sleep (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI], total score range 0-21, higher scores reflecting worse sleep quality), and sexual function (Derogatis Interview for Sexual Function-Self-report, total score range 24-188, higher scores indicating better sexual functioning). In all, 218 participants (152 women [69.7%]; mean [SD] age, 37.9 (7.2) years; mean [SD] BMI, 25.1 [1.6]) were included in the analyses. The CR and AL groups lost a mean (SE) of 7.6 (0.3) kg and 0.4 (0.5) kg

  13. Tyramine content of previously restricted foods in monoamine oxidase inhibitor diets.

    PubMed

    Walker, S E; Shulman, K I; Tailor, S A; Gardner, D

    1996-10-01

    Traditional monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) remain an important class of drugs for a variety of psychiatric conditions, including depressive illnesses, anxiety, and eating disorders. It was the objective of this study to refine the MAOI diet by determining the tyramine content of a variety of untested and "controversial" foods that continue to appear on MAOI diet-restricted food lists. A secondary objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of freshness on the tyramine content of some foods. Fifty-one food samples were evaluated for tyramine content by liquid chromatography. Food samples included a selection of sausages, beverages, sliced meat products, including chicken liver, and some fruits, including raspberries, bananas, and banana peels. Foods that were found to have dangerously high concentrations of tyramine (> or = 6 mg/serving) included chicken liver aged 9 days (63.84 mg/30 g), air-dried sausage (7.56 g/30 g), soy sauce (0.941 mg/ml), and sauerkraut (7.75 mg/250 g). Of the foods analyzed in this study, only those with high tyramine content per serving should continue to be absolutely restricted. All other foods are either safe for consumption or safe in moderation. The data provided should be combined with the data from other similar analytical studies to develop a list of foods that should be absolutely restricted. A more accurate list of restricted foods may enhance patient dietary compliance.

  14. Knowledge of Recommended Calorie Intake and Influence of Calories on Food Selection Among Canadians.

    PubMed

    McCrory, Cassondra; Vanderlee, Lana; White, Christine M; Reid, Jessica L; Hammond, David

    2016-03-01

    To examine knowledge of recommended daily calorie intake, use of calorie information, and sociodemographic correlates between knowledge and use. Population-based, random digit-dialed phone surveys. Canadian adults (n = 1,543) surveyed between October and December, 2012. Knowledge of recommended calorie intake and use of calorie information when purchasing food. Regression models, adjusting for sociodemographics and diet-related measures. Overall, 24% of participants correctly stated their recommended daily calorie intake; the majority (63%) underestimated it, whereas few (4%) overestimated it. Females, younger participants, those with a higher income and more education, and those who consumed fruits and vegetables at least 5 times daily were significantly more likely to state recommended intake correctly. Most respondents (82%) reported considering calories when selecting foods. Respondents considered calories more often if they were female, had a higher income and more education, perceived themselves to be overweight, were actively trying to control their weight, reported a healthier diet, or consumed fruits and vegetables at least 5 times daily. Although most Canadians reported using calorie information to guide their food choices, few knew their daily recommended calorie intake. To promote healthy weights, policy initiatives, including education regarding daily calorie intake and changes to the Nutrition Facts table, may help consumers make better choices about food. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Diet as a system: an observational study investigating a multi-choice system of moderately restricted low-protein diets.

    PubMed

    Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara; Nazha, Marta; Capizzi, Irene; Vigotti, Federica Neve; Scognamiglio, Stefania; Consiglio, Valentina; Mongilardi, Elena; Bilocati, Marilisa; Avagnina, Paolo; Versino, Elisabetta

    2016-12-07

    There is no single, gold-standard, low-protein diet (LPD) for CKD patients; the best compliance is probably obtained by personalization. This study tests the hypothesis that a multiple choice diet network allows patients to attain a good compliance level, and that, in an open-choice system, overall results are not dependent upon the specific diet, but upon the clinical characteristics of the patients. Observational study: Three LPD options were offered to all patients with severe or rapidly progressive CKD: vegan diets supplemented with alpha-ketoacids and essential aminoacids; protein-free food in substitution of normal bread and pasta; other (traditional, vegan non supplemented and tailored). Dialysis-free follow-up and survival were analyzed by Kaplan Meier curves according to diet, comorbidity and age. Compliance and metabolic control were estimated in 147 subjects on diet at March 2015, with recent complete data, prescribed protein intake 0.6 g/Kg/day. Protein intake was assessed by Maroni Mitch formula. Four hundreds and forty nine patients followed a LPD in December, 2007- March, 2015 (90% moderately restricted LPDs, 0.6 g/Kg/day of protein, 10% at lower targets); age (median 70 (19-97)) and comorbidity (Charlson index: 7) characterized our population as being in line with the usual CKD European population. Median e-GFR at start of the diet was 20 mL/min, 33.2% of the patients were diabetics. Baseline data differ significantly across diets: protein-free schemas are preferred by older, high-comorbidity patients (median age 76 years, Charlson index 8, GFR 20.5 mL/min, Proteinuria: 0.3 g/day), supplemented vegan diets by younger patients with lower GFR and higher proteinuria (median age 65 years, Charlson index 6, GFR 18.9 mL/min; Proteinuria: 1.2 g/day); other diets are chosen by an intermediate population (median age 71 years, Charlson index 6; GFR 22.5 mL/min; Proteinuria: 0.9 g/day); (p <0.001 for age, Charlson index, proteinuria, GFR

  16. Intermittent Moderate Energy Restriction Improves Weight Loss Efficiency in Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Seimon, Radhika V.; Shi, Yan-Chuan; Slack, Katy; Lee, Kailun; Fernando, Hamish A.; Nguyen, Amy D.; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Shu; Enriquez, Ronaldo F.; Lau, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    Background Intermittent severe energy restriction is popular for weight management. To investigate whether intermittent moderate energy restriction may improve this approach by enhancing weight loss efficiency, we conducted a study in mice, where energy intake can be controlled. Methods Male C57/Bl6 mice that had been rendered obese by an ad libitum diet high in fat and sugar for 22 weeks were then fed one of two energy-restricted normal chow diets for a 12-week weight loss phase. The continuous diet (CD) provided 82% of the energy intake of age-matched ad libitum chow-fed controls. The intermittent diet (ID) provided cycles of 82% of control intake for 5–6 consecutive days, and ad libitum intake for 1–3 days. Weight loss efficiency during this phase was calculated as (total weight change) ÷ [(total energy intake of mice on CD or ID)–(total average energy intake of controls)]. Subsets of mice then underwent a 3-week weight regain phase involving ad libitum re-feeding. Results Mice on the ID showed transient hyperphagia relative to controls during each 1–3-day ad libitum feeding period, and overall ate significantly more than CD mice (91.1±1.0 versus 82.2±0.5% of control intake respectively, n = 10, P<0.05). There were no significant differences between CD and ID groups at the end of the weight loss or weight regain phases with respect to body weight, fat mass, circulating glucose or insulin concentrations, or the insulin resistance index. Weight loss efficiency was significantly greater with ID than with CD (0.042±0.007 versus 0.018±0.001 g/kJ, n = 10, P<0.01). Mice on the CD exhibited significantly greater hypothalamic mRNA expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) relative to ID and control mice, with no differences in neuropeptide Y or agouti-related peptide mRNA expression between energy-restricted groups. Conclusion Intermittent moderate energy restriction may offer an advantage over continuous moderate energy restriction, because it induces

  17. Intermittent Moderate Energy Restriction Improves Weight Loss Efficiency in Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Seimon, Radhika V; Shi, Yan-Chuan; Slack, Katy; Lee, Kailun; Fernando, Hamish A; Nguyen, Amy D; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Shu; Enriquez, Ronaldo F; Lau, Jackie; Herzog, Herbert; Sainsbury, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent severe energy restriction is popular for weight management. To investigate whether intermittent moderate energy restriction may improve this approach by enhancing weight loss efficiency, we conducted a study in mice, where energy intake can be controlled. Male C57/Bl6 mice that had been rendered obese by an ad libitum diet high in fat and sugar for 22 weeks were then fed one of two energy-restricted normal chow diets for a 12-week weight loss phase. The continuous diet (CD) provided 82% of the energy intake of age-matched ad libitum chow-fed controls. The intermittent diet (ID) provided cycles of 82% of control intake for 5-6 consecutive days, and ad libitum intake for 1-3 days. Weight loss efficiency during this phase was calculated as (total weight change) ÷ [(total energy intake of mice on CD or ID)-(total average energy intake of controls)]. Subsets of mice then underwent a 3-week weight regain phase involving ad libitum re-feeding. Mice on the ID showed transient hyperphagia relative to controls during each 1-3-day ad libitum feeding period, and overall ate significantly more than CD mice (91.1±1.0 versus 82.2±0.5% of control intake respectively, n = 10, P<0.05). There were no significant differences between CD and ID groups at the end of the weight loss or weight regain phases with respect to body weight, fat mass, circulating glucose or insulin concentrations, or the insulin resistance index. Weight loss efficiency was significantly greater with ID than with CD (0.042±0.007 versus 0.018±0.001 g/kJ, n = 10, P<0.01). Mice on the CD exhibited significantly greater hypothalamic mRNA expression of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) relative to ID and control mice, with no differences in neuropeptide Y or agouti-related peptide mRNA expression between energy-restricted groups. Intermittent moderate energy restriction may offer an advantage over continuous moderate energy restriction, because it induces significantly greater weight loss relative to energy

  18. Feed restriction and a diet's caloric value: The influence on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity of rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The influence of feed restriction and different diet's caloric value on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity is unclear in the literature. Thus, the objectives of this study were to determine the possible influences of two diets with different caloric values and the influence of feed restriction on the aerobic (anaerobic threshold: AT) and anaerobic (time to exhaustion: Tlim) variables measured by a lactate minimum test (LM) in rats. Methods We used 40 adult Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups: ad libitum commercial Purina® diet (3028.0 Kcal/kg) (ALP), restricted commercial Purina® diet (RAP), ad libitum semi-purified AIN-93 diet (3802.7 Kcal/kg) (ALD) and restricted semi-purified AIN-93 diet (RAD). The animals performed LM at the end of the experiment, 48 h before euthanasia. Comparisons between groups were performed by analysis of variance (p < 0,05). Results At the end of the experiment, the weights of the rats in the groups with the restricted diets were significantly lower than those in the groups with ad libitum diet intakes. In addition, the ALD group had higher amounts of adipose tissue. With respect to energetic substrates, the groups subjected to diet restriction had significantly higher levels of liver and muscle glycogen. There were no differences between the groups with respect to AT; however, the ALD group had lower lactatemia at the AT intensity and higher Tlim than the other groups. Conclusions We conclude that dietary restriction induces changes in energetic substrates and that ad libitum intake of a semi-purified AIN-93 diet results in an increase in adipose tissue, likely reducing the density of the animals in water and favouring their performance during the swimming exercises. PMID:22448911

  19. Serum preadipocyte factor-1 concentrations in females with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus: the influence of very low calorie diet, acute hyperinsulinemia, and fenofibrate treatment.

    PubMed

    Kavalkova, P; Touskova, V; Roubicek, T; Trachta, P; Urbanova, M; Drapalova, J; Haluzikova, D; Mraz, M; Novak, D; Matoulek, M; Lacinova, Z; Haluzik, M

    2013-10-01

    Appropriate differentiation capacity of adipose tissue significantly affects its ability to store lipids and to protect nonadipose tissues against lipid spillover and development of insulin resistance. Preadipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1) is an important negative regulator of preadipocyte differentiation. The aim of our study was to explore the changes in circulating Pref-1 concentrations in female subjects with obesity (OB) (n=19), females with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (n=22), and sex- and age-matched healthy control subjects (C) (n=22), and to study its modulation by very low calorie diet (VLCD), acute hyperinsulinemia during isoglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, and 3 months' treatment with PPAR-α agonist fenofibrate. At baseline, serum Pref-1 concentrations were significantly higher in patients with T2DM compared to control group, while only nonsignificant trend towards higher levels was observed in OB group. 3 weeks of VLCD decreased Pref-1 levels in both OB and T2DM group, whereas 3 months of fenofibrate treatment had no significant effect. Hyperinsulinemia during the clamp significantly suppressed Pref-1 levels in both C and T2DM subjects and this suppression was unaffected by fenofibrate treatment. In a combined population of all groups, circulating Pref-1 levels correlated positively with insulin, leptin and glucose levels and HOMA (homeostasis model assessment) index. We conclude that elevated Pref-1 concentrations in T2DM subjects may contribute to impaired adipose tissue differentiation capacity associated with insulin resistance in obese patients with T2DM. The decrease of Pref-1 levels after VLCD may be involved in the improvement of metabolic status and the amelioration of insulin resistance in T2DM patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Less fat reduction per unit weight loss in type 2 diabetic compared with nondiabetic obese individuals completing a very-low-calorie diet program.

    PubMed

    Baker, Scott T; Jerums, George; Prendergast, Luke A; Panagiotopoulos, Sianna; Strauss, Boyd J; Proietto, Joseph

    2012-06-01

    The objective was to compare weight loss and change in body composition in obese subjects with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus during a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD) program. Seventy weight-matched subjects with diabetes or normal fasting glucose (controls) participated in a 24-week VLCD study. Primary end points were changes in anthropometry, body composition, and fasting plasma insulin and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations. Fifty-one subjects (24 with diabetes) completed the study. No difference in weight loss between the 2 groups at 24 weeks was found by intention-to-treat analysis. Both groups completing the study per protocol had near-identical weight change during the program, with similar weight loss at 24 weeks (diabetes: 8.5 ± 1.3 kg vs control: 9.4 ± 1.2 kg, P = .64). Change in fat mass index correlated with change in body mass index (BMI) in both groups (diabetes: r = 0.878, control: r = 0.920, both P < .001); but change in fat mass index per unit change in BMI was less in the diabetic group compared with controls (0.574 vs 0.905 decrease, P = .003), which persisted after adjusting for age, sex, and baseline BMI (P = .008). Insulin concentrations remained higher and peak β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were lower in the diabetic compared with the control group. While following a 24-week VLCD program, obese subjects with and without diabetes achieved comparable weight loss; but the decrease in adiposity per unit weight loss was attenuated in diabetic subjects. Hyperinsulinemia may have inhibited lipolysis in the diabetic group; however, further investigation into other factors is needed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Association of Diet With Skin Histological Features in UV-B-Exposed Mice.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Tapan K; Hsia, Yvonne; Weeks, David M; Dixon, Tatiana K; Lepe, Jessica; Thomas, J Regan

    2017-09-01

    Long-term exposure to solar radiation produces deleterious photoaging of the skin. It is not known if diet can influence skin photoaging. To study the influence of a calorie-restricted diet and an obesity diet in mice exposed to long-term UV-B irradiation to assess if there is an association between diet and histopathological response to UV-B irradiation. In this animal model study in an academic setting, the dorsal skin of SKH1 hairless mice receiving normal, calorie-restricted, and obesity diets was exposed to UV-B irradiation 3 times a week for 10 weeks and were compared with corresponding controls. The mice were placed in the following groups, with 8 animals in each group: (1) intact control (C) with regular diet and no UV-B exposure, (2) intact control with UV-B exposure (CR), (3) calorie-restricted diet (CrC), (4) calorie-restricted diet with UV-B exposure (CrR), (5) obesity diet (OC), and (6) obesity diet with UV-B exposure (OR). The experiment was conducted during October through December 2013. Tissue processing and histological analysis were completed in 2016. Histomorphometric analysis was performed on paraffin-embedded skin sections stained by histological and immunohistochemical methods for estimation of epidermal thickness, epidermal proliferating cell nuclear antigen index, collagen I, elastic fibers, fibroblasts, mast cells, dermal cellularity, and adipose layer ratio. Changes in wrinkles were noted. Hairless female mice (age range, 6-8 weeks) were obtained. With a normal diet, changes from UV-B irradiation occurred in epidermal thickness, epidermal proliferating cell nuclear antigen index, collagen I, elastic fibers, fibroblasts, and mast cells, which were modestly influenced by an obesity diet. Calorie restriction influenced the skin in nonirradiated control animals, with higher values for most variables. After UV-B exposure in animals with calorie restriction, epidermal thickness was increased, but other variables were unaffected. Animals

  2. Association of Diet With Skin Histological Features in UV-B–Exposed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hsia, Yvonne; Weeks, David M.; Dixon, Tatiana K.; Lepe, Jessica; Thomas, J. Regan

    2017-01-01

    Importance Long-term exposure to solar radiation produces deleterious photoaging of the skin. It is not known if diet can influence skin photoaging. Objectives To study the influence of a calorie-restricted diet and an obesity diet in mice exposed to long-term UV-B irradiation to assess if there is an association between diet and histopathological response to UV-B irradiation. Design, Setting, and Participants In this animal model study in an academic setting, the dorsal skin of SKH1 hairless mice receiving normal, calorie-restricted, and obesity diets was exposed to UV-B irradiation 3 times a week for 10 weeks and were compared with corresponding controls. The mice were placed in the following groups, with 8 animals in each group: (1) intact control (C) with regular diet and no UV-B exposure, (2) intact control with UV-B exposure (CR), (3) calorie-restricted diet (CrC), (4) calorie-restricted diet with UV-B exposure (CrR), (5) obesity diet (OC), and (6) obesity diet with UV-B exposure (OR). The experiment was conducted during October through December 2013. Tissue processing and histological analysis were completed in 2016. Main Outcomes and Measures Histomorphometric analysis was performed on paraffin-embedded skin sections stained by histological and immunohistochemical methods for estimation of epidermal thickness, epidermal proliferating cell nuclear antigen index, collagen I, elastic fibers, fibroblasts, mast cells, dermal cellularity, and adipose layer ratio. Changes in wrinkles were noted. Results Hairless female mice (age range, 6-8 weeks) were obtained. With a normal diet, changes from UV-B irradiation occurred in epidermal thickness, epidermal proliferating cell nuclear antigen index, collagen I, elastic fibers, fibroblasts, and mast cells, which were modestly influenced by an obesity diet. Calorie restriction influenced the skin in nonirradiated control animals, with higher values for most variables. After UV-B exposure in animals with calorie

  3. The Effects of Graded Levels of Calorie Restriction: XIII. Global Metabolomics Screen Reveals Graded Changes in Circulating Amino Acids, Vitamins, and Bile Acids in the Plasma of C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Green, Cara L; Soltow, Quinlyn A; Mitchell, Sharon E; Derous, Davina; Wang, Yingchun; Chen, Luonan; Han, Jing-Dong J; Promislow, Daniel E L; Lusseau, David; Douglas, Alex; Jones, Dean P; Speakman, John R

    2018-04-30

    Calorie restriction (CR) remains the most robust intervention to extend life span and improve health span. Using a global mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach, we identified metabolites that were significantly differentially expressed in the plasma of C57BL/6 mice, fed graded levels of calorie restriction (10% CR, 20% CR, 30% CR, and 40% CR) compared with mice fed ad libitum for 12 hours a day. The differential expression of metabolites increased with the severity of CR. Pathway analysis revealed that graded CR had an impact on vitamin E and vitamin B levels, branched chain amino acids, aromatic amino acids, and fatty acid pathways. The majority of amino acids correlated positively with fat-free mass and visceral fat mass, indicating a strong relationship with body composition and vitamin E metabolites correlated with stomach and colon size, which may allude to the beneficial effects of investing in gastrointestinal organs with CR. In addition, metabolites that showed a graded effect, such as the sphinganines, carnitines, and bile acids, match our previous study on liver, which suggests not only that CR remodels the metabolome in a way that promotes energy efficiency, but also that some changes are conserved across tissues.

  4. Differential effect of weight loss with low-fat diet or high-fat diet restriction on inflammation in the liver and adipose tissue of mice with diet-induced obesity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We studied the effects of weight loss induced by either a low-fat normal diet or restriction of high-fat diet on hepatic steatosis, inflammation in the liver and adipose tissue, and blood monocytes of obese mice. In mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity, weight loss was achieved by switching from ...

  5. Pre-pubertal diet restriction reduces reactive oxygen species and restores fertility in male WNIN/Obese rat.

    PubMed

    Dinesh Yadav, D M; Muralidhar, M N; Prasad, S M V K; Rajender Rao, K

    2018-03-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial disorder associated with increased body adiposity, chronic oxidative stress which contributes to impaired fertility in males. Diet restriction and anti-oxidant supplementations are known to protect obese subjects from oxidative stress and improves fertility. However, the role of oxidative stress and the age of intervention in restoring male fertility are poorly understood. This study was aimed to assess the effect of diet restriction on fertility with respect to the age of intervention, body composition and oxidative stress using WNIN/Ob obese mutant rat strain. Unlike lean and carrier phenotypes, obese rats are hyperphagic, hyperlipaemic and infertile. Male obese rats aged for 35, 60 and 90 days were fed either ad libitum or diet restricted for 6 weeks. Upon diet restriction mean body weight, total body fat percentage, circulatory lipids and oxidative stress markers were significantly reduced and it follows the order as 35 < 60 < 90 days. Diet-restricted males of the three age groups were allowed to mate with female carrier rats, and fertility was restored only in 35-day group. Diet restriction in male obese WNIN/Ob rats lowered the rate of body weight gain, with reduced oxidative stress overall and fertility restoration in groups intervened at pre-pubertal stages. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Effects of dietary carbohydrate restriction versus low-fat diet on flow-mediated dilation.

    PubMed

    Volek, Jeff S; Ballard, Kevin D; Silvestre, Ricardo; Judelson, Daniel A; Quann, Erin E; Forsythe, Cassandra E; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Kraemer, William J

    2009-12-01

    We previously reported that a carbohydrate-restricted diet (CRD) ameliorated many of the traditional markers associated with metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk compared with a low-fat diet (LFD). There remains concern how CRD affects vascular function because acute meals high in fat have been shown to impair endothelial function. Here, we extend our work and address these concerns by measuring fasting and postprandial vascular function in 40 overweight men and women with moderate hypertriacylglycerolemia who were randomly assigned to consume hypocaloric diets (approximately 1500 kcal) restricted in carbohydrate (percentage of carbohydrate-fat-protein = 12:59:28) or LFD (56:24:20). Flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery was assessed before and after ingestion of a high-fat meal (908 kcal, 84% fat) at baseline and after 12 weeks. Compared with the LFD, the CRD resulted in a greater decrease in postprandial triacylglycerol (-47% vs -15%, P = .007), insulin (-51% vs -6%, P = .009), and lymphocyte (-12% vs -1%, P = .050) responses. Postprandial fatty acids were significantly increased by the CRD compared with the LFD (P = .033). Serum interleukin-6 increased significantly over the postprandial period; and the response was augmented in the CRD (46%) compared with the LFD (-13%) group (P = .038). After 12 weeks, peak flow-mediated dilation at 3 hours increased from 5.1% to 6.5% in the CRD group and decreased from 7.9% to 5.2% in the LFD group (P = .004). These findings show that a 12-week low-carbohydrate diet improves postprandial vascular function more than a LFD in individuals with atherogenic dyslipidemia.

  7. Time-restricted feeding of a high-fat diet reduces adiposity and inflammatory cytokine production in mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Disruption of the circadian rhythms contributes to obesity. Restricting feeding to particular times of the day may reset the circadian rhythms and reduce obesity and resulting complications. The present study investigated the effects of time-restricted feeding (TRF) of a high-fat diet on adiposity...

  8. Effects of adding exercise to a 16-week very low-calorie diet in obese, insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Snel, Marieke; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Ouwens, D Margriet; Hesselink, Matthijs K C; Schaart, Gert; Buzzigoli, Emma; Frölich, Marijke; Romijn, Johannes A; Pijl, Hanno; Meinders, A Edo; Jazet, Ingrid M

    2012-07-01

    Reduction of 50% excess body weight, using a very low-calorie diet (VLCD; 450 kcal/d) improves insulin sensitivity in obese type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. The objective of the study was to evaluate whether adding exercise to the VLCD has additional benefits. This was a randomized intervention study. The study was conducted at a clinical research center in an academic medical center. Twenty-seven obese [body mass index 37.2 ± 0.9 kg/m(2) (mean ± sem)] insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Patients followed a 16-wk VLCD. Thirteen of them simultaneously participated in an exercise program (E) consisting of 1-h, in-hospital training and four 30-min training sessions on a cycloergometer weekly. Insulin resistance was measured by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Insulin signaling, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content, and intramyocellular lipid content was measured in skeletal muscle biopsies. Baseline characteristics were identical in both groups. Substantial weight loss occurred (-23.7 ± 1.7 kg VLCD-only vs. -27.2 ± 1.9 kg VLCD+E, P = NS within groups). The exercise group lost more fat mass. Insulin-stimulated glucose disposal increased similarly in both study groups [15.0 ± 0.9 to 39.2 ± 4.7 μmol/min(-1) · kg lean body mass (LBM(-1)) VLCD-only vs. 17.0 ± 1.0 to 37.5 ± 3.5 μmol/min(-1) · kg LBM(-1) in VLCD+E], as did phosphorylation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-protein kinase B/AKT insulin signaling pathway. In contrast, skeletal muscle mtDNA content increased only in the VLCD+E group (1211 ± 185 to 2288 ± 358, arbitrary units, P = 0.016 vs. 1397 ± 240 to 1196 ± 179, P = NS, VLCD-only group). Maximum aerobic capacity also only increased significantly in the VLCD+E group (+6.6 ± 1.7 ml/min(-1) · kg LBM(-1) vs. +0.7 ± 1.5 ml/min(-1) · kg LBM(-1) VLCD-only, P = 0.017). Addition of exercise to a 16-wk VLCD induces more fat loss. Exercise augments maximum aerobic capacity and skeletal muscle mtDNA content. These changes are

  9. The effects of beta-adrenergic blockade on body composition in free-fed and diet-restricted rats.

    PubMed

    Ji, L L; Doan, T D; Lennon, D L; Nagle, F J; Lardy, H A

    1987-04-01

    The effects of the non-selective beta-adrenergic blocking agent propranolol (known for its anti-lipolytic activity) on body composition were investigated in growing male rats on normal unrestricted diet (N = 7) and on diet restriction (N = 7, 95% of controls). Three animals in each group were injected i.p. with 30 mg propranolol per kg body weight (bw) dissolved in saline, 5 days/week. This dose attenuates exercising heart rate by 25% and exercise training-induced enzyme activity. The remaining animals received saline. Fat, glycogen, moisture and non-ether extractable residue were determined in the homogenized residue of the whole animal. After 9 weeks on the experimental regimen, bw gain was significantly lower in the diet restricted rats, whereas propranolol had no effect on the bw gain. The percentage of fat, moisture and non-ether extractable residue were unchanged by either propranolol or diet restriction. However, glycogen content was significantly lower in the beta-blocked rats either with or without diet restriction. These data indicated that neither beta-adrenergic blockade nor minimal diet restriction influences the percentage body fat, whereas body glycogen content is decreased under both conditions.

  10. Diet and exercise in management of obesity and overweight.

    PubMed

    Fock, Kwong Ming; Khoo, Joan

    2013-12-01

    According to World Health Organization, in 2010 there were over 1 billion overweight adults worldwide with 400 million adults who were obese. Obesity is a major risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal disorders, obstructive sleep apnea, and cancers (prostate, colorectal, endometrial, and breast). Obese people may present to the gastroenterologists with gastroesophageal reflux, non-alcoholic fatty liver, and gallstones. It is important, therefore, to recognize and treat obesity. The main cause of obesity is an imbalance between calories consumed and calories expended, although in a small number of cases, genetics and diseases such as hypothyroidism, Cushing's disease, depression, and use of medications such as antidepressants and anticonvulsants are responsible for fat accumulation in the body. The main treatment for obesity is dieting, augmented by physical exercise and supported by cognitive behavioral therapy. Calorie-restriction strategies are one of the most common dietary plans. Low-calorie diet refers to a diet with a total dietary calorie intake of 800-1500, while very low-calorie diet has less than 800 calories daily. These dietary regimes need to be balanced in macronutrients, vitamins, and minerals. Fifty-five percent of the dietary calories should come from carbohydrates, 10% from proteins, and 30% from fats, of which 10% of total fat consist of saturated fats. After reaching the desired body weight, the amount of dietary calories consumed can be increased gradually to maintain a balance between calories consumed and calories expended. Regular physical exercise enhances the efficiency of diet through increase in the satiating efficiency of a fixed meal, and is useful for maintaining diet-induced weight loss. A meta-analysis by Franz found that by calorie restriction and exercise, weight loss of 5-8.5 kg was observed 6 months after intervention. After 48 months, a mean of 3-6 kg was maintained. In conclusion, there is evidence

  11. High-intensity exercise and carbohydrate-reduced energy-restricted diet in obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Sartor, Francesco; de Morree, Helma M; Matschke, Verena; Marcora, Samuele M; Milousis, Athanasios; Thom, Jeanette M; Kubis, Hans-Peter

    2010-11-01

    Continuous high glycemic load and inactivity challenge glucose homeostasis and fat oxidation. Hyperglycemia and high intramuscular glucose levels mediate insulin resistance, a precursor state of type 2 diabetes. The aim was to investigate whether a carbohydrate (CHO)-reduced diet combined with high-intensity interval training (HIIT) enhances the beneficial effects of the diet alone on insulin sensitivity and fat oxidation in obese individuals. Nineteen obese subjects underwent 14 days of CHO-reduced and energy-restricted diet. Ten of them combined the diet with HIIT (4 min bouts at 90% VO(2peak) up to 10 times, 3 times a week). Oral glucose insulin sensitivity (OGIS) increased significantly in both groups; [diet-exercise (DE) group: pre 377 ± 70, post 396 ± 68 mL min(-1) m(-2); diet (D) group: pre 365 ± 91, post 404 ± 87 mL min(-1) m(-2); P < 0.001]. Fasting respiratory exchange ratio (RER) decreased significantly in both groups (DE group: pre 0.91 ± 0.06, post 0.88 ± 0.06; D group: pre 0.92 ± 0.07, post 0.86 ± 0.07; P = 0.002). VO(2peak) increased significantly in the DE group (pre 27 ± 5, post 32 ± 6 mL kg(-1) min(-1); P < 0.001), but not in the D group (pre 26 ± 9, post 26 ± 8 mL kg(-1) min(-1)). Lean mass and resistin were preserved only in the DE group (P < 0.05). Fourteen days of CHO-reduced diet improved OGIS and fat oxidation (RER) in obese subjects. The energy-balanced HIIT did not further enhance these parameters, but increased aerobic capacity (VO(2peak)) and preserved lean mass and resistin.

  12. Protein- and tryptophan-restricted diets induce changes in rat gonadal hormone levels.

    PubMed

    Del Angel-Meza, A R.; Feria-Velasco, A; Ontiveros-Martínez, L; Gallardo, L; Gonzalez-Burgos, I; Beas-Zárate, C

    2001-04-01

    The release of gonadotrophic hormones starts at puberty and, along with the subsequent estral cyclicity, is subject to hormonal feedback systems and to the action of diverse neuroactive substances such as gamma amino butyric acid and catecholamines. This study shows the effect of the administration during 40 days of protein-restricted and corn-based (tryptophan- and lysine-deficient) diets on the serotonin concentration in medial hypothalamic fragments as well as in follicle-stimulating luteinizing hormones, 17-beta-estradiol and progesterone serum levels, and estral cyclicity in 60- and 100-day-old rats (young, mature, and in gestation). In young rats, a delay in vaginal aperture development, and a lengthening of the estral cycle to a continuous anestral state was observed, mainly in the group fed corn. This group showed a 25% decrease in the serotonin concentration compared with the protein-restricted group, which exhibited an increase of 9% over the control group. Luteinizing hormone levels decreased in 16% and 13%, whereas follicle-stimulating hormone increased in 13% and 5% in the young animals of restricted groups, respectively, compared with the control group. Serum progesterone levels decreased only in young restricted versus control animals, and no differences were seen among adult and gestational rats. Serum levels of 17-beta-estradiol in restricted animals showed different concentration patterns, mainly in the corn group, which was higher at the 20th gestational day, falling drastically postpartum. The results obtained in this study show serotonin to be a very important factor in the release of gonadotrophic hormones and the start of puberty.

  13. Diuretic or sodium-restricted diet for obstructive sleep apnea-a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Fiori, Cintia Zappe; Martinez, Denis; Montanari, Carolina Caruccio; Lopez, Pedro; Camargo, Rodrigo; Sezerá, Lauren; Gonçalves, Sandro Cadaval; Fuchs, Flavio Danni

    2018-04-01

    Interventions that decrease leg fluid retention reduce obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity in nonrandomized experiments. We aimed to investigate in a randomized trial the effect of interventions that reduce fluid volume on OSA severity. Men diagnosed with severe OSA were randomized to receive daily spironolactone 100 mg + furosemide 20 mg or nutritional counseling to sodium-restricted diet plus placebo pill or placebo pill. All participants underwent home sleep apnea testing at baseline and after 1 week follow-up. The change in apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was the primary outcome. The study included 54 participants and all were assessed at follow-up. The average baseline value of the AHI was similar among groups and from baseline to follow-up the AHI reduced 14.4 per cent (δ value -7.3 events per hour; 95% confidence interval, -13.8 to -0.9) in the diuretic group, 22.3 per cent (-10.7; 95% CI, -15.6 to -5.7) in the diet group, and 0.8 per cent (0.4; 95% CI, -2.5 to 3.2) in the placebo group (p = .001 for time × group interaction). None of the patients had their AHI returned to normal. The reduction in the total body water was 2.2 ± 2.2 L in the diuretic group (p < .001) and 1.0 ± 1.6 l in the low salt diet group (p = .002). Sleepiness and neck circumference were significantly reduced only in the diet group (p = .007 and p < .001 for the time × group interactions, respectively). Interventions to reduce bodily fluid content in men with severe OSA promoted a limited decrease of apnea frequency. This finding suggests that rostral fluid displacement affects only partially the OSA severity and/or that other factors prevail in determining pharyngeal collapsibility. Sodium-Restricted Diet and Diuretic in the Treatment of Severe Sleep Apnea (DESALT), https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01945801 ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01945801.

  14. Effects of energetic restriction diet on butyrylcholinesterase in obese women from southern Brazil - A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Santos, Willian Dos; Tureck, Luciane Viater; Saliba, Louise Farah; Schenknecht, Caroline Schovanz; Scaraboto, Débora; Souza, Ricardo Lehtonen R; Furtado-Alle, Lupe

    2017-01-01

    Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity has been associated with obesity, lipid concentrations, and CHE2 locus phenotypes. This, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an energetic restriction diet intervention on anthropometrical and biochemical variables and on absolute and relative BChE activity in CHE2 C5+ and CHE2 C5- individuals. One hundred eleven premenopausal obese women from Southern Brazil participated in an energetic restriction diet intervention (deficit of 2500 kJ/day) for 8 weeks. Their anthropometric and biochemical parameters were evaluated before and after the intervention. Plasma BChE activity was measured, and BChE bands in plasma and CHE2 locus phenotypes were detected by electrophoresis. The dietetic intervention decreased anthropometric and biochemical parameters as well as absolute BChE activity and relative activity of the G4 band. The CHE2 C5+ phenotype presented a different effect when compared with the CHE2 C5- phenotype. The CHE2 C5+ phenotype showed an effect in absolute BChE activity and in the relative activity of the G4 form, maintaining higher BChE activity regardless of the metabolic changes. In our study, 8 weeks was not sufficient time to lower the body mass index to normal, but it was enough to significantly reduce the absolute BChE activity, which became similar to the levels in nonobese individuals. CHE2 C5+ individuals were resistant to the decrease in BChE activity compared to CHE2 C5- individuals. This shows that the diet did not affect the CHE2 and G4 fraction complex and that the products of the CHE2 locus in association with BChE have a role in energy metabolism, maintaining high levels of enzymatic activity even after dietary intervention.

  15. Low-calorie cocktails

    MedlinePlus

    ... mixes. Use herbs or fruit or vegetables to add flavor. Have a plan for ordering low-calorie cocktails at restaurants. Bring your own low-calorie mixes to parties and event where you will be drinking. Make half drinks, ...

  16. Medicare's Search for Effective Obesity Treatments: Diets Are Not the Answer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Traci; Tomiyama, A. Janet; Westling, Erika; Lew, Ann-Marie; Samuels, Barbra; Chatman, Jason

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity and its associated health problems have increased sharply in the past 2 decades. New revisions to Medicare policy will allow funding for obesity treatments of proven efficacy. The authors review studies of the long-term outcomes of calorie-restricting diets to assess whether dieting is an effective treatment for obesity.…

  17. Protein-restriction diet during the suckling phase programs rat metabolism against obesity and insulin resistance exacerbation induced by a high-fat diet in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Martins, Isabela Peixoto; de Oliveira, Júlio Cezar; Pavanello, Audrei; Matiusso, Camila Cristina Ianoni; Previate, Carina; Tófolo, Laize Peron; Ribeiro, Tatiane Aparecida; da Silva Franco, Claudinéia Conationi; Miranda, Rosiane Aparecida; Prates, Kelly Valério; Alves, Vander Silva; Francisco, Flávio Andrade; de Moraes, Ana Maria Praxedes; de Freitas Mathias, Paulo Cezar; Malta, Ananda

    2018-04-03

    Protein restriction during the suckling phase can malprogram rat offspring to a lean phenotype associated with metabolic dysfunctions later in life. We tested whether protein-caloric restriction during lactation can exacerbate the effect of a high-fat (HF) diet at adulthood. To test this hypothesis, we fed lactating Wistar dams with a low-protein (LP; 4% protein) diet during the first 2 weeks of lactation or a normal-protein (NP; 23% protein) diet throughout lactation. Rat offspring from NP and LP mothers received a normal-protein diet until 60 days old. At this time, a batch of animals from both groups was fed an HF (35% fat) diet, while another received an NF (7% fat) diet. Maternal protein-caloric restriction provoked lower body weight and fat pad stores, hypoinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, higher insulin sensitivity, reduced insulin secretion and altered autonomic nervous system (ANS) function in adult rat offspring. At 90 days old, NP rats fed an HF diet in adulthood displayed obesity, impaired glucose homeostasis and altered insulin secretion and ANS activity. Interestingly, the LP/HF group also presented fat pad and body weight gain, altered glucose homeostasis, hyperleptinemia and impaired insulin secretion but at a smaller magnitude than the NP-HF group. In addition, LP/HF rats displayed elevated insulin sensitivity. We concluded that protein-caloric restriction during the first 14 days of life programs the rat metabolism against obesity and insulin resistance exacerbation induced by an obesogenic HF diet. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of two energy-restricted diets containing different fruit amounts on body weight loss and macronutrient oxidation.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M Cristina; Parra, M Dolores; Marques-Lopes, Iva; De Morentin, Blanca E Martínez; González, Alvaro; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2005-12-01

    The consumption of specific foods in energy-restricted diets may affect the weight loss process. The purpose of this research was to evaluate whether obese women following two hypocaloric diets with distinct fruit content differ in weight loss and metabolic responses. Fifteen obese women were included, who were randomly assigned to follow a low or a high-fruit energy-restricted diet for 8 weeks. The main outcome variables were weight and fat losses. Metabolic measurements concerning macronutrient oxidation were also assessed by using (13)C labelled fructose and indirect calorimetry. The induced weight loss was similar for both diets (6.9 +/- 2% vs. 6.6 +/- 2%, p = 0.785). Both experimental diets similarly improved the lipid plasma profile in the participants, but the cholesterol fall was higher in obese subjects receiving the diet containing more fruit. No statistical differences in lipids carbohydrates and (13)C labelled fructose utilisation were observed, but protein oxidation was differently affected by the experimental diets. The compensatory effects of the associated fibre/fructose intake may explain the lack of a specific effect of the fruit amount on hypocaloric diets designed to weight loss, although the increased fibre content from enriched fruit diets may be involved in the favourable effects on cholesterol plasma levels.

  19. Effect of a Low Iodine Diet vs. Restricted Iodine Diet on Postsurgical Preparation for Radioiodine Ablation Therapy in Thyroid Carcinoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chi Young; Kim, Jung-Yeon; Yoon, Mi-Jin; Chang, Hang Seok; Park, Cheong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The radioiodine ablation therapy is required for patients who underwent a total thyroidectomy. Through a comparative review of a low iodine diet (LID) and a restricted iodine diet (RID), the study aims to suggest guidelines that are suitable for the conditions of Korea. Materials and Methods The study was conducted with 101 patients. With 24-hour urine samples from the patients after a 2-week restricted diet and after a 4-week restricted diet, the amount of iodine in the urine was estimated. The consumed radioiodine amounts for 2 hours and 24 hours were calculated. Results This study was conducted with 47 LID patients and 54 RID patients. The amounts of iodine in urine, the 2-week case and 4-week case for each group showed no significant differences. The amounts of iodine in urine between the two groups were both included in the range of the criteria for radioiodine ablation therapy. Also, 2 hours and 24 hours radioiodine consumption measured after 4-week restrictive diet did not show statistical differences between two groups. Conclusion A 2-week RID can be considered as a type of radioiodine ablation therapy after patients undergo a total thyroidectomy. PMID:26069126

  20. Effect of a Low Iodine Diet vs. Restricted Iodine Diet on Postsurgical Preparation for Radioiodine Ablation Therapy in Thyroid Carcinoma Patients.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chi Young; Kim, Jung-Yeon; Yoon, Mi-Jin; Chang, Hang Seok; Park, Cheong Soo; Chung, Woong Youn

    2015-07-01

    The radioiodine ablation therapy is required for patients who underwent a total thyroidectomy. Through a comparative review of a low iodine diet (LID) and a restricted iodine diet (RID), the study aims to suggest guidelines that are suitable for the conditions of Korea. The study was conducted with 101 patients. With 24-hour urine samples from the patients after a 2-week restricted diet and after a 4-week restricted diet, the amount of iodine in the urine was estimated. The consumed radioiodine amounts for 2 hours and 24 hours were calculated. This study was conducted with 47 LID patients and 54 RID patients. The amounts of iodine in urine, the 2-week case and 4-week case for each group showed no significant differences. The amounts of iodine in urine between the two groups were both included in the range of the criteria for radioiodine ablation therapy. Also, 2 hours and 24 hours radioiodine consumption measured after 4-week restrictive diet did not show statistical differences between two groups. A 2-week RID can be considered as a type of radioiodine ablation therapy after patients undergo a total thyroidectomy.

  1. Disability is associated with nonadherence to diet and fluid restrictions in end-stage renal disease patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Mollaoğlu, Mukadder; Kayataş, Mansur

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate nonadherence to diet and fluid restrictions and its relation with the level of disability in patients on chronic hemodialysis (CH). The study design was a descriptive survey. The data were obtained from 186 patients in hemodialysis centers in Turkey. Descriptive statistics including mean scores, standard deviations and frequencies, and correlations analysis and logistic regression were conducted. Data were collected by using a personal information form, the Dialysis Diet and Fluid and Brief Disability Questionnaire. A great majority of hemodialysis patients showed nonadherence to diet and fluid restrictions. In total, 124 patients (66.7 %) reported mild to very severe nonadherence to diet, and 128 patients (68.8 %) reported mild to very severe nonadherence to fluid restrictions. Most of the patients with CH (69.9 %) experienced disability. The results of this study showed that nonadherence was more common among older age, females, low-educated patients and those with higher levels of disability. The results of this study showed that the prevalence of nonadherence to diet and fluid restrictions was high in hemodialysis patients. The significant predictors for diet and fluid nonadherence were: older age, high interdialytic weight gain, and severe disability. Medical professionals must be aware of nonadherence and related factors and assist patients in developing strategies to prevent and respond to this.

  2. Testing food-related inhibitory control to high- and low-calorie food stimuli: Electrophysiological responses to high-calorie food stimuli predict calorie and carbohydrate intake.

    PubMed

    Carbine, Kaylie A; Christensen, Edward; LeCheminant, James D; Bailey, Bruce W; Tucker, Larry A; Larson, Michael J

    2017-07-01

    Maintaining a healthy diet has important implications for physical and mental health. One factor that may influence diet and food consumption is inhibitory control-the ability to withhold a dominant response in order to correctly respond to environmental demands. We examined how N2 amplitude, an ERP that reflects inhibitory control processes, differed toward high- and low-calorie food stimuli and related to food intake. A total of 159 participants (81 female; M age = 23.5 years; SD = 7.6) completed two food-based go/no-go tasks (one with high-calorie and one with low-calorie food pictures as no-go stimuli) while N2 amplitude was recorded. Participants recorded food intake using the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Dietary Recall system. Inhibiting responses toward high-calorie stimuli elicited a larger (i.e., more negative) no-go N2 amplitude; inhibiting responses toward low-calorie stimuli elicited a smaller no-go N2 amplitude. Participants were more accurate during the high-calorie than low-calorie task, but took longer to respond on go trials toward high-calorie rather than low-calorie stimuli. When controlling for age, gender, and BMI, larger high-calorie N2 difference amplitude predicted lower caloric intake (β = 0.17); low-calorie N2 difference amplitude was not related to caloric intake (β = -0.03). Exploratory analyses revealed larger high-calorie N2 difference amplitude predicted carbohydrate intake (β = 0.22), but not protein (β = 0.08) or fat (β = 0.11) intake. Results suggest that withholding responses from high-calorie foods requires increased recruitment of inhibitory control processes, which may be necessary to regulate food consumption, particularly for foods high in calories and carbohydrates. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  3. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in rats progressively decreases the proportion of fat calories selected from a palatable cafeteria diet

    PubMed Central

    Mathes, Clare M.; Letourneau, Chanel; Blonde, Ginger D.; le Roux, Carel W.

    2016-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) decreases caloric intake in both human patients and rodent models. In long-term intake tests, rats decrease their preference for fat and/or sugar after RYGB, and patients may have similar changes in food selection. Here we evaluated the impact of RYGB on intake during a “cafeteria”-style presentation of foods to assess if rats would lower the percentage of calories taken from fat and/or sugar after RYGB in a more complex dietary context. Male Sprague-Dawley rats that underwent either RYGB or sham surgery (Sham) were presurgically and postsurgically given 8-days free access to four semisolid foods representative of different fat and sugar levels along with standard chow and water. Compared with Sham rats, RYGB rats took proportionally fewer calories from fat and more calories from carbohydrates; the latter was not attributable to an increase in sugar intake. The proportion of calories taken from protein after RYGB also increased slightly. Importantly, these postsurgical macronutrient caloric intake changes in the RYGB rats were progressive, making it unlikely that the surgery had an immediate impact on the hedonic evaluation of the foods and strongly suggesting that learning is influencing the food choices. Indeed, despite these dietary shifts, RYGB, as well as Sham, rats continued to select the majority of their calories from the high-fat/high-sugar option. Apparently after RYGB, rats can progressively regulate their intake and selection of complex foods to achieve a seemingly healthier macronutrient dietary composition. PMID:26864811

  4. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in rats progressively decreases the proportion of fat calories selected from a palatable cafeteria diet.

    PubMed

    Mathes, Clare M; Letourneau, Chanel; Blonde, Ginger D; le Roux, Carel W; Spector, Alan C

    2016-05-15

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) decreases caloric intake in both human patients and rodent models. In long-term intake tests, rats decrease their preference for fat and/or sugar after RYGB, and patients may have similar changes in food selection. Here we evaluated the impact of RYGB on intake during a "cafeteria"-style presentation of foods to assess if rats would lower the percentage of calories taken from fat and/or sugar after RYGB in a more complex dietary context. Male Sprague-Dawley rats that underwent either RYGB or sham surgery (Sham) were presurgically and postsurgically given 8-days free access to four semisolid foods representative of different fat and sugar levels along with standard chow and water. Compared with Sham rats, RYGB rats took proportionally fewer calories from fat and more calories from carbohydrates; the latter was not attributable to an increase in sugar intake. The proportion of calories taken from protein after RYGB also increased slightly. Importantly, these postsurgical macronutrient caloric intake changes in the RYGB rats were progressive, making it unlikely that the surgery had an immediate impact on the hedonic evaluation of the foods and strongly suggesting that learning is influencing the food choices. Indeed, despite these dietary shifts, RYGB, as well as Sham, rats continued to select the majority of their calories from the high-fat/high-sugar option. Apparently after RYGB, rats can progressively regulate their intake and selection of complex foods to achieve a seemingly healthier macronutrient dietary composition. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Diet Coke or Not?

    PubMed

    Ralph-Edwards; Deitel; Deitel

    1992-08-01

    Many obese patients are attempting to diet. Furthermore, many gastric restrictive procedures permit the ready flow of liquids, and the individual may want to be assured that the liquid is in the "non-calorie" form. Many obese patients have diabetes, and an incorrect or misrepresented beverage can result in elevated plasma glucose with a disruption in glycemic control. The studies below have been extended for orange-flavored carbonated beverages (Orange Crush, Fanta Orange, etc.) with the same findings-no color change with the diet drink and immediate brown color change with the regular drink on the Diastix.

  6. Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome by fish: Not necessarily a restricted diet.

    PubMed

    Infante, S; Marco-Martín, G; Sánchez-Domínguez, M; Rodríguez-Fernández, A; Fuentes-Aparicio, V; Alvarez-Perea, A; Cabrera-Freitag, P; Morales-Cabeza, C; Zubeldia, J M; Zapatero, L

    2018-03-01

    Food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) is a non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food hypersensitivity usually due to cow's milk or soy. Recent researches show that fish is 1 of the most important triggers of FPIES in the Mediterranean countries. Due to the risk of multiple-food FPIES, avoiding foods in the same category or that often occur together may be reasonable. The aim of this study was to evaluate the evolution and follow-up of FPIES related to fish over a period of 20 years. We describe the clinical features of our population, discuss different approaches to oral food challenges, and analyze the possibility of introducing the culprit fish or other nonrelated fish to avoid unnecessary restricted diets. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  7. 'For me it's about not feeling like I'm on a diet': a thematic analysis of women's experiences of an intermittent energy restricted diet to reduce breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Donnelly, L S; Shaw, R L; Pegington, M; Armitage, C J; Evans, D G; Howell, A; Harvie, M N

    2018-06-21

    Weight-loss programmes requiring intermittent energy restriction offer an alternative to continuous energy restriction programmes that typically have low adherence. We reported greater weight loss, better adherence and spontaneous reduced energy intake on healthy eating days with intermittent as opposed to continuous energy restriction. The present study aims to explore why intermittent energy restriction diets exert these positive effects. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 13 women aged 39-62 years, who followed a 4-month intermittent energy restriction (2 days of low energy/low carbohydrate, 5 days of healthy eating). Nine of the 13 women successfully lost >5% of their total body weight. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. The intermittent regimen redefined the meaning of dieting and normal eating. Women reconceptualised dieting as only two low energy days per week, even though this often differed from their pre-diet eating patterns. Women reported that they could adhere more closely to the rules of the intermittent diet compared to previously attempted continuous diets. They found that the intermittent diet was less cognitively demanding because the restrictive and clear rules of the intermittent diet were easier to understand and easier to follow than with continuous dieting. Many participants found intermittent dieting preferable to previous experiences of continuous dieting. The findings provide some insight into the ways in which intermittent dieting is successful, and why it could be considered a viable alternative to continuous energy restriction for weight loss. © 2018 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  8. Components of an Anticancer Diet: Dietary Recommendations, Restrictions and Supplements of the Bill Henderson Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Mannion, Cynthia; Page, Stacey; Bell, Laurie Heilman; Verhoef, Marja

    2010-01-01

    The use of complementary and alternative medicines including dietary supplements, herbals and special diets to prevent or treat disease continues to be popular. The following paper provides a description of an alternative dietary approach to the self-management and treatment of cancer, the Bill Henderson Protocol (BHP). This diet encourages daily intake of raw foods, a combination of cottage cheese and flaxseed oil and a number of supplements. Some foods and food groups are restricted (e.g., gluten, meat, dairy). Early background theory that contributed to the protocol’s development is presented as is a summary of relevant evidence concerning the anti-cancer fighting properties of the individual components. Supplement intake is considered in relation to daily recommended intakes. Challenges and risks to protocol adherence are discussed. As with many complementary and alternative interventions, clear evidence of this dietary protocol’s safety and efficacy is lacking. Consumers of this protocol may require guidance on the ability of this protocol to meet their individual nutritional needs. PMID:22254073

  9. The Relationship between Reading Beauty and Fashion Magazines and the Use of Pathogenic Dieting Methods among Adolescent Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Steven R.; Weber, Michelle M.; Brown, Lora Beth

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between reading women's fashion magazines and the use of pathogenic dieting methods among 502 high school females. Reading these magazines does influence a female's decision to restrict calories or take diet pills. Further research is needed to examine factors that are antecedent to reading the magazines to…

  10. Weight loss for women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome following a very low-calorie diet in a community-based setting with trained facilitators for 12 weeks

    PubMed Central

    Nikokavoura, Efsevia A; Johnston, Kelly L; Broom, John; Wrieden, Wendy L; Rolland, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects between 2% and 26% of reproductive-age women in the UK, and accounts for up to 75% of anovulatory infertility. The major symptoms include ovarian disruption, hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, and polycystic ovaries. Interestingly, at least half of the women with PCOS are obese, with the excess weight playing a pathogenic role in the development and progress of the syndrome. The first-line treatment option for overweight/obese women with PCOS is diet and lifestyle interventions; however, optimal dietary guidelines are missing. Although many different dietary approaches have been investigated, data on the effectiveness of very low-calorie diets on PCOS are very limited. Materials and methods The aim of this paper was to investigate how overweight/obese women with PCOS responded to LighterLife Total, a commercial very low-calorie diet, in conjunction with group behavioral change sessions when compared to women without PCOS (non-PCOS). Results PCOS (n=508) and non-PCOS (n=508) participants were matched for age (age ±1 unit) and body mass index (body mass index ±1 unit). A 12-week completers analysis showed that the total weight loss did not differ significantly between PCOS (n=137) and non-PCOS participants (n=137) (−18.5±6.6 kg vs −19.4±5.7 kg, P=0.190). Similarly, the percentage of weight loss achieved by both groups was not significantly different (PCOS 17.1%±5.6% vs non-PCOS 18.2%±4.4%, P=0.08). Conclusion Overall, LighterLife Total could be an effective weight-loss strategy in overweight/obese women with PCOS. However, further investigations are needed to achieve a thorough way of understanding the physiology of weight loss in PCOS. PMID:26508882

  11. Weight loss for women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome following a very low-calorie diet in a community-based setting with trained facilitators for 12 weeks.

    PubMed

    Nikokavoura, Efsevia A; Johnston, Kelly L; Broom, John; Wrieden, Wendy L; Rolland, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects between 2% and 26% of reproductive-age women in the UK, and accounts for up to 75% of anovulatory infertility. The major symptoms include ovarian disruption, hyperandrogenism, insulin resistance, and polycystic ovaries. Interestingly, at least half of the women with PCOS are obese, with the excess weight playing a pathogenic role in the development and progress of the syndrome. The first-line treatment option for overweight/obese women with PCOS is diet and lifestyle interventions; however, optimal dietary guidelines are missing. Although many different dietary approaches have been investigated, data on the effectiveness of very low-calorie diets on PCOS are very limited. The aim of this paper was to investigate how overweight/obese women with PCOS responded to LighterLife Total, a commercial very low-calorie diet, in conjunction with group behavioral change sessions when compared to women without PCOS (non-PCOS). PCOS (n=508) and non-PCOS (n=508) participants were matched for age (age ±1 unit) and body mass index (body mass index ±1 unit). A 12-week completers analysis showed that the total weight loss did not differ significantly between PCOS (n=137) and non-PCOS participants (n=137) (-18.5±6.6 kg vs -19.4±5.7 kg, P=0.190). Similarly, the percentage of weight loss achieved by both groups was not significantly different (PCOS 17.1%±5.6% vs non-PCOS 18.2%±4.4%, P=0.08). Overall, LighterLife Total could be an effective weight-loss strategy in overweight/obese women with PCOS. However, further investigations are needed to achieve a thorough way of understanding the physiology of weight loss in PCOS.

  12. Long-term beneficial effects of the phenylalanine-restricted diet in late-diagnosed individuals with phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Koch, R; Moseley, K; Ning, J; Romstad, A; Guldberg, P; Guttler, F

    1999-06-01

    The potential benefits to society of treating late-diagnosed mentally retarded persons with phenylketonuria were investigated. In order to ascertain the effects of late dietary intervention, the charts of 124 adults with PKU seen in the metabolic service at the Childrens Hospital of Los Angeles were reviewed. Fifty-nine were diagnosed later than 3 months of age and were over the age of 18 years. They were followed up with medical, psychological, and nutritional assessments. Genotyping was also performed. Twenty-eight have remained on a phenylalanine-restricted diet during the intervening years. All but 3 of the 28 late-diagnosed PKU persons who remained on a restricted diet showed significant intellectual improvement. Seven are able to attend college, 9 are employed, and 12 are attending workshops and/or day care programs. The result of treatment with the phenylalanine-restricted diet was that these individuals could participate in society and were able to arrest the neurodegenerative course characteristic of persons with mutations classified as severe in the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene. We conclude that society could benefit substantially by providing a phenylalanine-restricted diet for late-diagnosed mentally retarded persons with phenylketonuria. Eighteen of 28 such persons who otherwise would have required residential care are living independently. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  13. Effects of Vitamin D Restricted Diet Administered during Perinatal and Postnatal Periods on the Penis of Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes-Lima, Flávia; Gregório, Bianca M.; Nascimento, Fernanda A. M.; Costa, Waldemar S.; Sampaio, Francisco J. B.

    2018-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is common in pregnant women and infants. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of vitamin D restricted diet on the Wistar rats offspring penis morphology. Mother rats received either standard diet (SC) or vitamin D restricted (VitD) diet. At birth, offspring were divided into SC/SC (from SC mothers, fed with SC diet) and VitD/VitD (from VitD mothers, fed with VitD diet). After euthanasia the penises were processed for histomorphometric analysis. The VitD/VitD offspring displayed metabolic changes and reduction in the cross-sectional area of the penis, corpus cavernosum, tunica albuginea, and increased area of the corpus spongiosum. The connective tissue, smooth muscle, and cell proliferation percentages were greater in the corpus cavernosum and corpus spongiosum in the VitD/VitD offspring. The percentages of sinusoidal spaces and elastic fibers in the corpus cavernosum decreased. The elastic fibers in the tunica albuginea of the corpus spongiosum in the VitD/VitD offspring were reduced. Vitamin D restriction during perinatal and postnatal periods induced metabolic and structural changes and represented important risk factors for erectile dysfunction in the penis of the adult offspring. These findings suggest that vitamin D is an important micronutrient in maintaining the cytoarchitecture of the penis. PMID:29850540

  14. Effect of restriction vegan diet's on muscle mass, oxidative status, and myocytes differentiation: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Vanacore, Daniela; Messina, Giovanni; Lama, Stefania; Bitti, Giuseppe; Ambrosio, Pasqualina; Tenore, Giancarlo; Messina, Antonietta; Monda, Vincenzo; Zappavigna, Silvia; Boccellino, Mariarosaria; Novellino, Ettore; Monda, Marcellino; Stiuso, Paola

    2018-01-10

    This study was conceived to evaluate the effects of three different diets on body composition, metabolic parameters, and serum oxidative status. We enrolled three groups of healthy men (omnivores, vegetarians, and vegans) with similar age, weight and BMI, and we observed a significant decrease in muscle mass index and lean body mass in vegan compared to vegetarian and omnivore groups, and higher serum homocysteine levels in vegetarians and vegans compared to omnivores. We studied whether serum from omnivore, vegetarian, and vegan subjects affected oxidative stress, growth and differentiation of both cardiomyoblast cell line H9c2 and H-H9c2 (H9c2 treated with H 2 O 2 to induce oxidative damage). We demonstrated that vegan sera treatment of both H9c2 and H-H9c2 cells induced an increase of TBARS values and cell death and a decrease of free NO 2- compared to vegetarian and omnivorous sera. Afterwards, we investigated the protective effects of vegan, vegetarian, and omnivore sera on the morphological changes induced by H 2 O 2 in H9c2 cell line. We showed that the omnivorous sera had major antioxidant and differentiation properties compared to vegetarian and vegan sera. Finally, we evaluated the influence of the three different groups of sera on MAPKs pathway and our data suggested that ERK expression increased in H-H9c2 cells treated with vegetarian and vegan sera and could promote cell death. The results obtained in this study demonstrated that restrictive vegan diet could not prevent the onset of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases nor protect by oxidative damage. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Effect of restricted protein diet supplemented with keto analogues in chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zheng; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Yang, Lichuan; Li, Zi; Qin, Wei

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the restricted protein diet (low or very low protein diet) supplemented with keto analogues in the treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The Cochrane library, PubMed, Embase, CBM and CENTRAL databases were searched and reviewed up to April 2015. Clinical trials were analyzed using RevMan 5.3 software. Seven random control trials, one cross-over trial and one non-randomized concurrent control trial were selected and included in this study according to our inclusion and exclusion criteria. The changes of eGFR, BUN, Scr, albumin, PTH, triglyceride, cholesterol, calcium, phosphorus and nutrition indexes (BMI, lean body mass and mid-arm muscular circumference) before and after treatment were analyzed. The meta-analysis results indicated that, comparing with normal protein diet, low protein diet (LPD) or very low protein diet (vLPD) supplemented with keto analogues (s(v)LPD) could significantly prevent the deterioration of eGFR (P < 0.001), hyperparathyroidism (P = 0.04), hypertension (P < 0.01) and hyperphosphatemia (P < 0.001). No differences in BUN, Scr, Albumin, triglyceride, cholesterol, hemoglobin, calcium and nutrition indexes were observed between different protein intake groups. Restricted protein diet supplemented with keto analogues (s(v)LPD) could delay the progression of CKD effectively without causing malnutrition.

  16. Neuron-restrictive silencer factor is not required for the antiepileptic effect of the ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao-Ling; Cheng, Xuewen; Fei, Jian; Xiong, Zhi-Qi

    2011-09-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) has been used as an effective antiepileptic treatment for nearly a century. Inhibition of glycolysis and increased levels of ketone bodies are both known to contribute to the antiepileptic effects of the KD. Neuron-restrictive silencer factor (NRSF), also known as RE-1 silencing transcription factor (REST), is implicated in the antiepileptic effects of the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG). Glycolytic inhibition is a common feature of the KD and 2DG treatment, leading to the hypothesis that NRSF might also be involved in the antiepileptic effect of the KD. To test this hypothesis, the present study was designed to investigate the role of NRSF in the antiepileptic effect of 2DG, the KD, and acetone in vivo. Kindling was used as a model to test the antiepileptic effects of 2DG, the KD, and acetone on control and NRSF conditional knockout mice (NRSF-cKO; from the intercross of CamKIIα-iCre and NRSF exon 2 floxed mice). After recovery from electrode implantation, adult mice were stimulated twice a day at afterdischarge threshold (ADT) current intensity. In the 2DG- (500 mg/kg) and acetone- (10 mmol/kg) treated groups, drugs were injected intraperitoneally 20 min before each stimulus. In the 2DG group, mice were pretreated with intraperitoneal injections for 3 days in addition to the injections administered before the regular kindling stimulation. In the KD group, mice were fed the KD instead of a control diet until the end of stimulations. Compared with control mice, the antiepileptic effect of 2DG was abolished in NRSF-cKO mice, indicating that NRSF is required for the antiepileptic effect of 2DG. In the KD-fed group, kindling development was retarded in both control and NRSF-cKO mice. In the acetone-treated group, inhibition of kindling-induced epileptogenesis was observed in both control and NRSF-cKO mice, similar to the action of the KD. These findings imply that NRSF repression complex is not essential for the antiepileptic

  17. Diet restriction in Ramadan and the effect of fasting on glucose levels in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Baynouna Al Ketbi, Latifa Mohammad; Niglekerke, Nico J D; Zein Al Deen, Sanna M; Mirghani, Hisham

    2014-06-24

    Maternal diet restriction might be associated with adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes due to metabolic changes. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of changes in glucose levels due to Ramadan fasting in Emirati pregnant women. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of 150 women from the United Arab Emirates, (76 during Ramadan and 74 after Ramadan), with uncomplicated pregnancies at a gestational age between 20 and 36 weeks. The two groups of pregnant women had similar physiological parameters. Using the oral glucose tolerance test, the mean random blood glucose level after 1 hour of breaking the fast was significantly higher (p = 0.002) in the Ramadan fasting group than in the control group, and this was not affected by the number of fasting days. In 50% of patients after Ramadan and 70.5% during Ramadan, this value was more than 6.7 mmol/l, which is high and not an acceptable postprandial level in pregnancy. Caregivers need to consider the 1-hour postprandial glucose level response after fasting in Muslim pregnant women. Research of an interventional design is required to determine remedial actions for this issue.

  18. Diet restriction in Ramadan and the effect of fasting on glucose levels in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal diet restriction might be associated with adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes due to metabolic changes. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of changes in glucose levels due to Ramadan fasting in Emirati pregnant women. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of 150 women from the United Arab Emirates, (76 during Ramadan and 74 after Ramadan), with uncomplicated pregnancies at a gestational age between 20 and 36 weeks. Results The two groups of pregnant women had similar physiological parameters. Using the oral glucose tolerance test, the mean random blood glucose level after 1 hour of breaking the fast was significantly higher (p = 0.002) in the Ramadan fasting group than in the control group, and this was not affected by the number of fasting days. In 50% of patients after Ramadan and 70.5% during Ramadan, this value was more than 6.7 mmol/l, which is high and not an acceptable postprandial level in pregnancy. Conclusion Caregivers need to consider the 1-hour postprandial glucose level response after fasting in Muslim pregnant women. Research of an interventional design is required to determine remedial actions for this issue. PMID:24962444

  19. Myostatin induces insulin resistance via Casitas B-lineage lymphoma b (Cblb)-mediated degradation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) protein in response to high calorie diet intake.

    PubMed

    Bonala, Sabeera; Lokireddy, Sudarsanareddy; McFarlane, Craig; Patnam, Sreekanth; Sharma, Mridula; Kambadur, Ravi

    2014-03-14

    To date a plethora of evidence has clearly demonstrated that continued high calorie intake leads to insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes with or without obesity. However, the necessary signals that initiate insulin resistance during high calorie intake remain largely unknown. Our results here show that in response to a regimen of high fat or high glucose diets, Mstn levels were induced in muscle and liver of mice. High glucose- or fat-mediated induction of Mstn was controlled at the level of transcription, as highly conserved carbohydrate response and sterol-responsive (E-box) elements were present in the Mstn promoter and were revealed to be critical for ChREBP (carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein) or SREBP1c (sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c) regulation of Mstn expression. Further molecular analysis suggested that the increased Mstn levels (due to high glucose or fatty acid loading) resulted in increased expression of Cblb in a Smad3-dependent manner. Casitas B-lineage lymphoma b (Cblb) is an ubiquitin E3 ligase that has been shown to specifically degrade insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1) protein. Consistent with this, our results revealed that elevated Mstn levels specifically up-regulated Cblb, resulting in enhanced ubiquitin proteasome-mediated degradation of IRS1. In addition, over expression or knock down of Cblb had a major impact on IRS1 and pAkt levels in the presence or absence of insulin. Collectively, these observations strongly suggest that increased glucose levels and high fat diet, both, result in increased circulatory Mstn levels. The increased Mstn in turn is a potent inducer of insulin resistance by degrading IRS1 protein via the E3 ligase, Cblb, in a Smad3-dependent manner.

  20. The effect of vitamin D supplementation in combination with low-calorie diet on anthropometric indices and androgen hormones in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jafari-Sfidvajani, S; Ahangari, R; Hozoori, M; Mozaffari-Khosravi, H; Fallahzadeh, H; Nadjarzadeh, A

    2018-05-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is known as the most common endocrine disorder in reproductive age women. The aim of this studywas to evaluate the effects of vitamin D supplementation in combination with low-calorie diet on anthropometric indices, reproductive hormones and menstrual regularity in overweight and obese PCOS women. In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 60 PCOS women with vitamin D insufficiency were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of either (1) weight-loss intervention + 50,000 IU/week oral vitamin D3 or (2) weight-loss intervention + placebo. At the beginning and end of the study, the anthropometric indices, body composition, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, total testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and free androgen index (FAI) were measured and regularity of menses was compared among the two groups. After 12-week intervention, median of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 significantly increased from 18.5 (10.75-20) ng/ml to 42.69 (34-53.25) ng/ml in vitamin D group compared to placebo group (p < 001). Moreover, there was a significant improvement in frequency regular menstrual cycle (p = 0.01). Mean of weight, body mass index, fat mass, waist and hip circumference and waist-to-hip ratio significantly decreased in both groups, but was not different between two groups. Mean of total testosterone insignificantly decreased from 0.7 to 0.5 ng/ml in vitamin D group (p = 0.18). In addition, we did not observe significant differences regarding DHEAS, FAI and SHBG between two groups. In women with PCOS, androgen profile did not change with vitamin D supplementation when combined with low-calorie diet, but menstrual frequency significantly improved. IRCT2016062710826N19.

  1. [Influence of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in combination with a 500 calorie diet on clinical and laboratory parameters in premenopausal women with and without hormonal contraception].

    PubMed

    Rabe, T; Richter, S; Kiesel, L; Zaloumis, M; Runnebaum, B

    1987-07-01

    82 premenopausal, healthy, nonpregnant volunteers were treated with a 500 kcal reduction diet for 28 days. They were randomized into 2 groups--OC and non-OC users. In addition, 1 of the subgroups in each main group was treated with hCG injections (250 IU/day im for 21 days. The non-OC users (both with and without hCG injections) consisted of 24 subjects each. In the groups of OC users, 13 patients were treated with hCG, 16 were not treated; 5 volunteers discontinued their diet. All groups experienced strong sensations of hunger during the 1st week of the diet (9-16%) which decreased slowly thereafter. No differences between the individual groups could be found. Diet adjustment improved more greatly in those groups who had not received hCG (15-20%) than in the groups with hCG (2-12%). No change was found during the dieting among the subgroups. Serum electrolytes, urea, uric acid, creatinine, and liver enzymes did not change during the dieting. Slight changes were observed in serum cholesterol and triglycerides. Side effects were seen in 2 volunteers from the hCG group, 1 of whom suffered from severe headache and the other who suffered from ovarian cysts which were punctured by laparoscopy. The success of the diet was based on motivation and good information, rather than on the hCG administration. (author's modified)

  2. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial to Determine the Effectiveness and Safety of a Thermogenic Supplement in Addition to an Energy-Restricted Diet in Apparently Healthy Females.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Kristina L; Hyde, Parker N; Fairman, Ciaran M; Hollaway, Kaitlyn M; Mumford, Petey W; Haun, Cody T; Mobley, Brooks; Kephart, Wesley C; Tribby, Aaron C; Kimber, Dylan; Moon, Jordan R; Beck, Darren T; Roberts, Michael D; Young, Kaelin C

    2017-11-02

    The increasing interest in weight loss has seen a concurrent rise in the supplemental use of thermogenics to aid weight loss efforts. To date, the effectiveness and safety of supplemental proprietary blend thermogenics, in conjunction with high-protein energy-restricted diets have not been thoroughly evaluated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a low-calorie, high-protein diet with and without the concomitant use of a thermogenic supplement on body weight and body composition in apparently healthy females. Subjects were divided into three groups, Bizzy Diet+FitMiss Burn (BURN, N = 12), Bizzy Diet+Placebo (PLA, N = 13), and Control (CON, N = 14), and underwent two testing sessions separated by approximately 3 weeks. Resting blood pressure (BP), resting heart rate (RHR), clinical safety markers, body weight (BW), and body composition were assessed during each testing session. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed a significant effect for time relative to BW, total body fat mass (FM), leg FM, and trunk FM. Post hoc analysis revealed that the BURN and PLA groups experienced significant decreases in both BW and total body FM compared to CON (p <.05). There were no significant interactions for BP, RHR, or clinical safety markers over the course of the study. The Bizzy Diet, both with and without the addition of FitMiss Burn thermogenic, appears to be safe for short-term use and may lead to greater improvement in body composition and BW in an apparently healthy female population.

  3. The effect of reduced calorie diets, with and without fat, and the use of xylanase on performance characteristics of broilers between 0 and 42 days.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, H V Masey; Mathis, G; Lumpkins, B S; Bedford, M R

    2012-06-01

    When decreasing the energy value of broiler diets, nonstarch polysaccharide degrading enzymes, such as xylanase, are often used. In doing so, they are assigned an energy value and considered to contribute energy to the diet. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of decreasing energy in a broiler diet by 100 kCal/kg on performance and whether the expected drop in performance could be recovered with the use of xylanase. Two formulations were used to provide decreased energy diets, both with and without supplementary fat. Six hundred 1-d-old male Cobb broilers were placed in a 2 × 3 full factorial design in 5 randomized complete blocks. The treatments were enzyme dose at 0 or 16,000 U/kg, and the 3 different diets [positive control (PC), negative control 1, without fat (NC1), and negative control 2 with fat (NC2)]. At no point were there any interactions between diet type and enzyme inclusion; where there was an effect of xylanase, it was consistent regardless of the diet type. There was a significant effect of diet type on feed intake between d 0 to 35; NC1 and NC2 had significantly increased feed intake compared with the PC (P = 0.006). The feed conversion ratio was significantly increased in birds fed the negative control diets during 0 to 35 d and 0 to 42 d (P = 0.003 and P = 0.002, respectively). However, feed conversion ratio was significantly improved by the addition of enzyme during periods 0 to 35 d and 0 to 42 d. There were no significant main effects between d 0 and 21 (all responses P > 0.1). Liveability was not affected by any of the treatments (P > 0.1). Decreasing energy in broiler diets results in worsened performance. The use of xylanase may improve feed conversion ratio. The use of some fat may help, so the whole diet composition should be considered in conjunction with enzyme dose to achieve the best advantage.

  4. High fat diet and food restriction differentially modify the behavioral effects of quinpirole and raclopride in rats.

    PubMed

    Baladi, Michelle G; France, Charles P

    2009-05-21

    Nutritional status can impact dopamine systems in a manner that might be important to understanding possible common neurobiological mechanisms that mediate abnormal compulsive food (e.g., obesity) and drug taking. Limiting food intake, for example, can increase sensitivity to the behavioral effects of indirect-acting dopamine receptor agonists. Much less is known regarding possible diet-induced changes in sensitivity to direct-acting dopamine receptor drugs. The present study investigated the effects of a high fat diet and of food restriction on sensitivity of rats to the behavioral effects of a direct-acting dopamine receptor agonist and a dopamine receptor antagonist. Free access to high fat chow increased sensitivity to quinpirole-induced yawning without changing sensitivity to raclopride-induced catalepsy or quinpirole-induced hypothermia. Food restriction (10 g/day) decreased sensitivity to quinpirole-induced yawning and raclopride-induced catalepsy without affecting sensitivity to quinpirole-induced hypothermia. Free access to a standard chow restored sensitivity to the behavioral effects of both drugs in rats that were previously food-restricted but not in rats that previously ate a high fat diet. These data confirm that food restriction can decrease sensitivity to behavioral effects of direct-acting dopamine receptor drugs, they provide evidence (i.e., no change in hypothermic effects) indicating that these changes are not due to pharmacokinetic mechanisms, and they provide initial evidence showing enhanced sensitivity to behavioral effects of dopamine receptor drugs in rats eating a high fat diet. These changes in sensitivity of dopamine systems could be relevant to understanding the impact of nutrition on therapeutic and recreational drug use.

  5. High fat diet and food restriction differentially modify the behavioral effects of quinpirole and raclopride in rats

    PubMed Central

    Baladi, Michelle G; France, Charles P

    2009-01-01

    Nutritional status can impact dopamine systems in a manner that might be important to understanding possible common neurobiological mechanisms that mediate abnormal compulsive food (e.g., obesity) and drug taking. Limiting food intake, for example, can increase sensitivity to the behavioral effects of indirect-acting dopamine receptor agonists. Much less is known regarding possible diet-induced changes in sensitivity to direct-acting dopamine receptor drugs. The present study investigated the effects of a high fat diet and of food restriction on sensitivity of rats to the behavioral effects of a direct-acting dopamine receptor agonist and a dopamine receptor antagonist. Free access to high fat chow increased sensitivity to quinpirole-induced yawning without changing sensitivity to raclopride-induced catalepsy or quinpirole-induced hypothermia. Food restriction (10 g/day) decreased sensitivity to quinpirole-induced yawning and raclopride-induced catalepsy without affecting sensitivity to quinpirole-induced hypothermia. Free access to a standard chow restored sensitivity to the behavioral effects of both drugs in rats that were previously food-restricted but not in rats that previously ate a high fat diet. These data confirm that food restriction can decrease sensitivity to behavioral effects of direct-acting dopamine receptor drugs, they provide evidence (i.e., no change in hypothermic effects) indicating that these changes are not due to pharmacokinetic mechanisms, and they provide initial evidence showing enhanced sensitivity to behavioral effects of dopamine receptor drugs in rats eating a high fat diet. These changes in sensitivity of dopamine systems could be relevant to understanding the impact of nutrition on therapeutic and recreational drug use. PMID:19327348

  6. The effect of abdominal resistance training and energy restricted diet on lateral abdominal muscles thickness of overweight and obese women.

    PubMed

    Noormohammadpour, Pardis; Kordi, Ramin; Dehghani, Saeed; Rostami, Mohsen

    2012-07-01

    The role of transabdominal muscles (external oblique, internal oblique and transversus abdominis) on core stability has been shown previously. Energy restricted diet and abdominal resistance training are commonly used by overweight and obese people to reduce their weight. In this study we investigated the impact of 12 weeks concurrent energy restricted diet and abdominal resistance training on the thickness of the lateral abdominal muscles of 19 obese and overweight women employing ultrasonography in resting and drawing-in maneuvers. The results showed significant increase of the muscle thicknesses during drawing-in maneuver after 12 weeks intervention. Based on our findings, it can be concluded that 12 weeks concurrent abdominal resistance training and energy restricted diet in addition to weight loss lead to improvement of transabdominal muscles thickness in obese and overweight people. Considering the role of these muscles in core stability, using this therapeutic protocol in obese people, particularly in those who have weakness of these muscles might be helpful. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Local recruitment experience in a study comparing the effectiveness of a low glycaemic index diet with a low calorie healthy eating approach at achieving weight loss and reducing the risk of endometrial cancer in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    PubMed

    Atiomo, William; Read, Anna; Golding, Mary; Silcocks, Paul; Razali, Nuguelis; Sarkar, Sabitabrata; Hardiman, Paul; Thornton, Jim

    2009-09-01

    Feasibility of a clinical-trial comparing a low-glycaemic diet with a low-calorie healthy eating approach at achieving weight loss and reducing the risk of endometrial cancer in women with PCOS. A pilot Randomised-Controlled-Trial using different recruitment strategies. A University Hospital in the United Kingdom. Women seen at specialist gynaecology clinics over a 12 month period in one University Hospital, and women self identified through a website and posters. Potential recruits were assessed for eligibility, gave informed consent, randomised, treated and assessed as in the definitive trial. Eligibility and recruitment rates, compliance with the allocated diet for 6 months and with clinical assessments, blood tests, pelvic ultrasound scans and endometrial biopsies. 1433 new and 2598 follow up patients were seen in 153 gynaecology clinics for over 12 months. 441 (11%) potentially eligible women were identified, 19 (0.4%) of whom met the trial entry criteria. Eleven consented to take part, of which 8 (73%) completed the study. Planned future trials on over-weight women with PCOS should be multicentre and should incorporate primary care. This data will help other researchers plan and calculate the sample size and potential recruitment rates in future clinical trials in PCOS. The results will also be useful for inclusion in future meta-analyses.

  8. Perceptions of university students regarding calories, food healthiness, and the importance of calorie information in menu labelling.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Ana Carolina; de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Rodrigues, Vanessa Mello; Fiates, Giovanna Medeiros Rataichesck; da Costa Proença, Rossana Pacheco

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated Brazilian university students' perceptions of the concept of calories, how it relates to food healthiness, and the role of calorie information on menus in influencing food choices in different restaurant settings. Focus groups were conducted with 21 undergraduate students from various universities. Transcriptions were analysed for qualitative content, by coding and grouping words and phrases into similar themes. Two categories were obtained: Calorie concept and connection to healthiness; and Calorie information and food choices in restaurants. Calories were understood as energy units, and their excessive intake was associated with weight gain or fat gain. However, food healthiness was not associated to calorie content, but rather to food composition as a whole. Calorie information on restaurant menus was not considered enough to influence food choices, with preferences, dietary restrictions, food composition, and even restaurant type mentioned as equally or more important. Only a few participants mentioned using calorie information on menus to control food intake or body weight. Students' discussions were suggestive of an understanding of healthy eating as a more complex issue than calorie-counting. Discussions also suggested the need for more nutrition information, besides calorie content, to influence food choices in restaurants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Eating extra calories when sick - children

    MedlinePlus

    Getting more calories - children; Chemotherapy - calories; Transplant - calories; Cancer treatment - calories ... Change your children's eating habits to help them get more calories. Let your child eat when hungry, not just at mealtimes. ...

  10. Effect of exercise and caloric restriction on DMBA induced mammary tumorigenesis and plasma lipids in rats fed high fat diets

    SciTech Connect

    Magrane, D.

    1991-03-15

    Female Sprague-Dawley rats were given a single 10 mg dose of 7, 12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and grouped as follows: (1) low fat-sedentary (LF-SED), (2) low fat-exercised (LF-EX), (3) high fat-sedentary (HF-SED), (4) high fat-exercised (HF-EX), (5) high fat-caloric restricted (HF-RES). Diets were isocaloric and contained 3.9% (LF) and 19.4% (HF) of corn oil. Group 5 was fed a 25% caloric restricted diet but with 24.6% fat content to equalize fat intake to HF-SED. After 12 weeks of diet or treadmill exercise, tumor data and plasma lipid profiles were determined. Results show that rats on HF-EX had more total tumors, % ofmore » tumors and tumors per tumor bearing rat than rats on HF-SED. The effect of exercise was also evident in LF-EX rats, when compared to LF-SED. Average tumor size and tumor volumes were not affected. The HF-RES group showed reduced tumor profiles compared to HF-SED. HDL, LDL, triglycerides and total cholesterol were unaffected by HF or LF diets or exercise. These data suggest that tumorigenesis is increased by moderate and constant exercise.« less

  11. Exercise and caloric restriction alter the immune system of mice submitted to a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Wasinski, Frederick; Bacurau, Reury F P; Moraes, Milton R; Haro, Anderson S; Moraes-Vieira, Pedro M M; Estrela, Gabriel R; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar J; Barros, Carlos C; Almeida, Sandro S; Câmara, Niels O S; Araujo, Ronaldo C

    2013-01-01

    As the size of adipocytes increases during obesity, the establishment of resident immune cells in adipose tissue becomes an important source of proinflammatory mediators. Exercise and caloric restriction are two important, nonpharmacological tools against body mass increase. To date, their effects on the immune cells of adipose tissue in obese organisms, specifically when a high-fat diet is consumed, have been poorly investigated. Thus, after consuming a high-fat diet, mice were submitted to chronic swimming training or a 30% caloric restriction in order to investigate the effects of both interventions on resident immune cells in adipose tissue. These strategies were able to reduce body mass and resulted in changes in the number of resident immune cells in the adipose tissue and levels of cytokines/chemokines in serum. While exercise increased the number of NK cells in adipose tissue and serum levels of IL-6 and RANTES, caloric restriction increased the CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio and MCP-1 levels. Together, these data demonstrated that exercise and caloric restriction modulate resident immune cells in adipose tissues differently in spite of an equivalent body weight reduction. Additionally, the results also reinforce the idea that a combination of both strategies is better than either individually for combating obesity.

  12. Reduced signaling of PI3K-Akt and RAS-MAPK pathways are the key targets for weight loss-induced cancer prevention by dietary calorie restriction and/or physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Standard, Joseph; Jiang, Yu; Yu, Miao; Su, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Zhihui; Xu, Jianteng; Chen, Jie; King, Brenee; Lu, Lizhi; Tomich, John; Baybutt, Richard; Wang, Weiqun

    2014-01-01

    Weight control through either dietary calorie restriction (DCR) or exercise has been associated with cancer prevention in animal models. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully defined. Bioinformatics using genomics, proteomics, and lipidomics were employed to elucidate the molecular targets of weight control in a mouse skin cancer model. SENCAR mice were randomly assigned into 4 groups for 10 weeks: ad lib-fed sedentary control, ad lib-fed exercise (AE), exercise but pair-fed isocaloric amount of control (PE), and 20% DCR. Two hours after topical TPA treatment, skin epidermis was analyzed by Affymetrix for gene expression, DIGE for proteomics, and lipidomics for phospholipids. Body weights were significantly reduced in both DCR and PE but not AE mice versus the control. Among 39,000 transcripts, 411, 67, and 110 genes were significantly changed in DCR, PE, and AE, respectively. The expression of genes relevant to PI3K-Akt and Ras-MAPK signaling was effectively reduced by DCR and PE but not AE as measured through GenMAPP software. Proteomics analysis identified ~120 proteins, with 27 proteins significantly changed by DCR, including upregulated apolipoprotein A-1, a key antioxidant protein that decreases Ras-MAPK activity. Of the total 338 phospholipids analyzed by lipidomics, 57 decreased by PE including 5 phophatidylinositol species that serve as PI3K substrates. Although a full impact has not been determined yet, it appears the reduction of both Ras-MAPK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways are cancer preventive targets that have been consistently demonstrated by three bioinformatics approaches. PMID:25283328

  13. Reduced signaling of PI3K-Akt and RAS-MAPK pathways is the key target for weight-loss-induced cancer prevention by dietary calorie restriction and/or physical activity.

    PubMed

    Standard, Joseph; Jiang, Yu; Yu, Miao; Su, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Zhihui; Xu, Jianteng; Chen, Jie; King, Brenee; Lu, Lizhi; Tomich, John; Baybutt, Richard; Wang, Weiqun

    2014-12-01

    Weight control through either dietary calorie restriction (DCR) or exercise has been associated with cancer prevention in animal models. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully defined. Bioinformatics using genomics, proteomics and lipidomics was employed to elucidate the molecular targets of weight control in a mouse skin cancer model. SENCAR mice were randomly assigned into four groups for 10 weeks: ad-libitum-fed sedentary control, ad-libitum-fed exercise (AE), exercise but pair-fed isocaloric amount of control (PE) and 20% DCR. Two hours after topical TPA treatment, skin epidermis was analyzed by Affymetrix for gene expression, DIGE for proteomics and lipidomics for phospholipids. Body weights were significantly reduced in both DCR and PE but not AE mice versus the control. Among 39,000 transcripts, 411, 67 and 110 genes were significantly changed in DCR, PE and AE, respectively. The expression of genes relevant to PI3K-Akt and Ras-MAPK signaling was effectively reduced by DCR and PE but not AE as measured through GenMAPP software. Proteomics analysis identified ~120 proteins, with 27 proteins significantly changed by DCR, including up-regulated apolipoprotein A-1, a key antioxidant protein that decreases Ras-MAPK activity. Of the total 338 phospholipids analyzed by lipidomics, 57 decreased by PE including 5 phophatidylinositol species that serve as PI3K substrates. Although a full impact has not been determined yet, it appears that the reduction of both Ras-MAPK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways is a cancer preventive target that has been consistently demonstrated by three bioinformatics approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Combination of exercise training and diet restriction normalizes limited exercise capacity and impaired skeletal muscle function in diet-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Suga, Tadashi; Kinugawa, Shintaro; Takada, Shingo; Kadoguchi, Tomoyasu; Fukushima, Arata; Homma, Tsuneaki; Masaki, Yoshihiro; Furihata, Takaaki; Takahashi, Masashige; Sobirin, Mochamad A; Ono, Taisuke; Hirabayashi, Kagami; Yokota, Takashi; Tanaka, Shinya; Okita, Koichi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    Exercise training (EX) and diet restriction (DR) are essential for effective management of obesity and insulin resistance in diabetes mellitus. However, whether these interventions ameliorate the limited exercise capacity and impaired skeletal muscle function in diabetes patients remains unexplored. Therefore, we investigated the effects of EX and/or DR on exercise capacity and skeletal muscle function in diet-induced diabetic mice. Male C57BL/6J mice that were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks were randomly assigned for an additional 4 weeks to 4 groups: control, EX, DR, and EX+DR. A lean group fed with a normal diet was also studied. Obesity and insulin resistance induced by a HFD were significantly but partially improved by EX or DR and completely reversed by EX+DR. Although exercise capacity decreased significantly with HFD compared with normal diet, it partially improved with EX and DR and completely reversed with EX+DR. In parallel, the impaired mitochondrial function and enhanced oxidative stress in the skeletal muscle caused by the HFD were normalized only by EX+DR. Although obesity and insulin resistance were completely reversed by DR with an insulin-sensitizing drug or a long-term intervention, the exercise capacity and skeletal muscle function could not be normalized. Therefore, improvement in impaired skeletal muscle function, rather than obesity and insulin resistance, may be an important therapeutic target for normalization of the limited exercise capacity in diabetes. In conclusion, a comprehensive lifestyle therapy of exercise and diet normalizes the limited exercise capacity and impaired muscle function in diabetes mellitus.

  15. Calcium homeostasis and bone metabolic responses to protein diets and energy restriction: a randomized control trial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Despite some beneficial effects on bone, high protein diets are conventionally considered a primary dietary risk factor for osteoporosis and bone fracture due to the acid load associated with protein catabolism. To test the hypothesis that high dietary protein diets do not negatively affect calcium ...

  16. Macronutrients and obesity: revisiting the calories in, calories out framework.

    PubMed

    Riera-Crichton, Daniel; Tefft, Nathan

    2014-07-01

    Recent clinical research has studied weight responses to varying diet composition, but the contribution of changes in macronutrient intake and physical activity to rising population weight remains controversial. Research on the economics of obesity typically assumes a "calories in, calories out" framework, but a weight production model separating caloric intake into carbohydrates, fat, and protein, has not been explored in an economic framework. To estimate the contributions of changes in macronutrient intake and physical activity to changes in population weight, we conducted dynamic time series and structural VAR analyses of U.S. data between 1974 and 2006 and a panel analysis of 164 countries between 2001 and 2010. Findings from all analyses suggest that increases in carbohydrates are most strongly and positively associated with increases in obesity prevalence even when controlling for changes in total caloric intake and occupation-related physical activity. Our structural VAR results suggest that, on the margin, a 1% increase in carbohydrates intake yields a 1.01 point increase in obesity prevalence over 5 years while an equal percent increase in fat intake decreases obesity prevalence by 0.24 points. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. "A calorie is a calorie" violates the second law of thermodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Feinman, Richard D; Fine, Eugene J

    2004-01-01

    The principle of "a calorie is a calorie," that weight change in hypocaloric diets is independent of macronutrient composition, is widely held in the popular and technical literature, and is frequently justified by appeal to the laws of thermodynamics. We review here some aspects of thermodynamics that bear on weight loss and the effect of macronutrient composition. The focus is the so-called metabolic advantage in low-carbohydrate diets – greater weight loss compared to isocaloric diets of different composition. Two laws of thermodynamics are relevant to the systems considered in nutrition and, whereas the first law is a conservation (of energy) law, the second is a dissipation law: something (negative entropy) is lost and therefore balance is not to be expected in diet interventions. Here, we propose that a misunderstanding of the second law accounts for the controversy about the role of macronutrient effect on weight loss and we review some aspects of elementary thermodynamics. We use data in the literature to show that thermogenesis is sufficient to predict metabolic advantage. Whereas homeostasis ensures balance under many conditions, as a general principle, "a calorie is a calorie" violates the second law of thermodynamics. PMID:15282028

  18. "A calorie is a calorie" violates the second law of thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Feinman, Richard D; Fine, Eugene J

    2004-07-28

    The principle of "a calorie is a calorie," that weight change in hypocaloric diets is independent of macronutrient composition, is widely held in the popular and technical literature, and is frequently justified by appeal to the laws of thermodynamics. We review here some aspects of thermodynamics that bear on weight loss and the effect of macronutrient composition. The focus is the so-called metabolic advantage in low-carbohydrate diets--greater weight loss compared to isocaloric diets of different composition. Two laws of thermodynamics are relevant to the systems considered in nutrition and, whereas the first law is a conservation (of energy) law, the second is a dissipation law: something (negative entropy) is lost and therefore balance is not to be expected in diet interventions. Here, we propose that a misunderstanding of the second law accounts for the controversy about the role of macronutrient effect on weight loss and we review some aspects of elementary thermodynamics. We use data in the literature to show that thermogenesis is sufficient to predict metabolic advantage. Whereas homeostasis ensures balance under many conditions, as a general principle, "a calorie is a calorie" violates the second law of thermodynamics.

  19. Soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products as a potential biomarker to predict weight loss and improvement of insulin sensitivity by a very low calorie diet of obese human subjects.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Imke; Schulte, Dominik M; Müller, Nike; Martinsen, Jessica; Türk, Kathrin; Hedderich, Jürgen; Schreiber, Stefan; Laudes, Matthias

    2015-06-01

    Obesity is associated with low-grade systemic inflammation which is thought to trigger the development of comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes. The soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) belongs to the innate immune system and has been linked to obesity, recently. The aim of the present study was to examine whether serum sRAGE concentrations are related to the grade of weight loss and improvement of insulin resistance due to a very low calorie diet (VLCD). 22 severe obese subjects (Median Body Mass Index (BMI): 44.5kg/m(2)) were included in a dietary intervention study of 6month, consisting of a very low calorie formula diet phase (VLCD: 800kcal/d) for 12 weeks and a following 12 week weight maintenance phase. Fasting glucose, fasting insulin, adiponectin, leptin and sRAGE were determined from sera. Insulin sensitivity was estimated by Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) index and leptin-to-adiponectin-ratio (LAR). Mean body weight reduction by VLCD accounted to 21.7kg with a significant improvement of insulin resistance. At baseline, sRAGE serum levels were significantly inversely related to BMI (rS=-0.642, p=0.001) and HOMA (rS=-0.419, p=0.041). Of interest, sRAGE serum levels at baseline were significantly lower in study subjects with greater reduction of BMI (p=0.017). In addition, a significantly greater HOMA reduction was observed in subjects with lower sRAGE serum levels at baseline (p=0.006). Finally, correlation analysis revealed, that changes of sRAGE serum levels were significantly correlated to changes of BMI (rS=-0.650, p=0.022) during intervention. Anti-inflammatory sRAGE might be a potential future biomarker to predict weight loss and improvement of insulin resistance by a VLCD whereby lower baseline sRAGE serum levels indicate a better outcome of the dietary intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Impact of a 6-week non-energy-restricted ketogenic diet on physical fitness, body composition and biochemical parameters in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Urbain, Paul; Strom, Lena; Morawski, Lena; Wehrle, Anja; Deibert, Peter; Bertz, Hartmut

    2017-01-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) is a very low-carbohydrate, high-fat and adequate-protein diet that without limiting calories induces different metabolic adaptations, eg, increased levels of circulating ketone bodies and a shift to lipid metabolism. Our objective was to assess the impact of a 6-week non-energy-restricted KD in healthy adults beyond cohorts of athletes on physical performance, body composition, and blood parameters. Our single arm, before-and-after comparison study consisted of a 6-week KD with a previous preparation period including detailed instructions during classes and individual counselling by a dietitian. Compliance with the dietary regimen was monitored by measuring urinary ketones daily, and 7-day food records. All tests were performed after an overnight fast: cardiopulmonary exercise testing via cycle sprioergometry, blood samples, body composition, indirect calorimetry, handgrip strength, and questionnaires addressing complaints and physical sensations. Forty-two subjects aged 37 ± 12 years with a BMI of 23.9 ± 3.1 kg/m 2 completed the study. Urinary ketosis was detectable on 97% of the days, revealing very good compliance with the KD. Mean energy intake during the study did not change from the habitual diet and 71.6, 20.9, and 7.7% of total energy intake were from fat, protein, and carbohydrates, respectively. Weight loss was -2.0 ± 1.9 kg ( P  < 0.001) with equal losses of fat-free and fat mass. VO 2 peak and peak power decreased from 2.55 ± 0.68 l/min to 2.49 ± 0.69 l/min by 2.4% ( P  = 0.023) and from 241 ± 57 W to 231 ± 57 W by 4.1% ( P  < 0.001), respectively, whereas, handgrip strength rose slightly from 40.1 ± 8.8 to 41.0 ± 9.1 kg by 2.5% ( P  = 0.047). The blood lipids TG and HDL-C remained unchanged, whereas total cholesterol and LDL-C increased significantly by 4.7 and 10.7%, respectively. Glucose, insulin, and IGF-1 dropped significantly by 3.0, 22.2 and 20

  1. The Effects of a Hypocaloric Diet on Diet-Induced Thermogenesis and Blood Hormone Response in Healthy Male Adults: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Shunsuke; Osaki, Noriko; Shimotoyodome, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Calorie restriction is a common strategy for weight loss and management. Consumption of food and nutrients stimulates diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT), as well as pancreatic and gastrointestinal hormone secretion that may regulate energy metabolism. Yet, little is known about the impact of hypocaloric diets on energy metabolism-related parameters. In this study, we assessed the effects of hypocaloric diets on hormonal variance in relation to DIT in healthy adults. Ten healthy male adults were enrolled in a randomized crossover study comprising three meal trials. Each subject was given a meal of 200 (extremely hypocaloric), 400 (moderately hypocaloric), or 800 kcal (normocaloric). Postprandial blood variables and energy expenditure were measured for 4 h (after the 200- and 400-kcal meals) or 6 h (after the 800-kcal meal). DIT and postprandial changes in blood pancreatic peptide and ghrelin were significantly smaller after the extremely or moderately hypocaloric diet than after the normocaloric diet but were similar between the hypocaloric diets. Postprandial blood insulin, amylin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide type-1 (GLP-1) increased in a calorie-dependent manner. Thermogenic efficiency (DIT per energy intake) was negatively correlated with the maximum blood level (Cmax) (p=0.01) and incremental area under the curve (p=0.01) of the blood GIP response. Calorie restriction thus leads to hormonal responses and lower DIT in healthy adults. Extreme calorie restriction, however, led to greater thermogenic efficiency compared with moderate calorie restriction. The postprandial GIP response may be a good predictor of postprandial thermogenic efficiency.

  2. A practical guide to fad diets.

    PubMed

    Porcello, L A

    1984-07-01

    This discussion of fad diets may be concluded by comparing the 14 selected diets with the standards previously outlined for desirable weight reducing plans. Many of the popular diets supply large quantities of saturated fat and cholesterol, which are dietary components that have been associated with cardiovascular disease. Ketogenic diets are not appropriate for athletes because of problems with secondary dehydration and hyponatremia. Almost all of the diets are nutritionally inadequate. The rate of anticipated weight loss will vary according to the age, sex, weight, basal energy requirement, and activity level of an individual. However, it is expected that weight loss will be excessively rapid if a competitive athlete consumes a diet of less than 1000 calories per day. These hypocaloric diets cannot meet the training demands of athletes and will promote loss of lean body mass and carbohydrate stores. Many of the ketogenic diets do not restrict calories; therefore, weight loss will depend upon individual daily caloric consumption. The Cambridge Diet and starvation diets produce weight loss far in excess of that desired for an athlete in training. Long-term eating patterns to maintain weight loss are not encouraged in any of the 14 selected fad diets. In fact, most of these diets promote patterns of poor nutrition. Not one of the diets provides options or choices for dieters to use in accommodating food preference and lifestyle patterns. Some of the diets are fairly easy to comply with and others require special foods and supplements. None of the 14 diets reviewed fulfull all of the standards for a sound weight reduction diet plan.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Restricted diet delays accelerated ageing and genomic stress in DNA-repair-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Vermeij, W P; Dollé, M E T; Reiling, E; Jaarsma, D; Payan-Gomez, C; Bombardieri, C R; Wu, H; Roks, A J M; Botter, S M; van der Eerden, B C; Youssef, S A; Kuiper, R V; Nagarajah, B; van Oostrom, C T; Brandt, R M C; Barnhoorn, S; Imholz, S; Pennings, J L A; de Bruin, A; Gyenis, Á; Pothof, J; Vijg, J; van Steeg, H; Hoeijmakers, J H J

    2016-09-15

    Mice deficient in the DNA excision-repair gene Ercc1 (Ercc1 ∆/- ) show numerous accelerated ageing features that limit their lifespan to 4-6 months. They also exhibit a 'survival response', which suppresses growth and enhances cellular maintenance. Such a response resembles the anti-ageing response induced by dietary restriction (also known as caloric restriction). Here we report that a dietary restriction of 30% tripled the median and maximal remaining lifespans of these progeroid mice, strongly retarding numerous aspects of accelerated ageing. Mice undergoing dietary restriction retained 50% more neurons and maintained full motor function far beyond the lifespan of mice fed ad libitum. Other DNA-repair-deficient, progeroid Xpg -/- (also known as Ercc5 -/- ) mice, a model of Cockayne syndrome, responded similarly. The dietary restriction response in Ercc1 ∆/- mice closely resembled the effects of dietary restriction in wild-type animals. Notably, liver tissue from Ercc1 ∆/- mice fed ad libitum showed preferential extinction of the expression of long genes, a phenomenon we also observed in several tissues ageing normally. This is consistent with the accumulation of stochastic, transcription-blocking lesions that affect long genes more than short ones. Dietary restriction largely prevented this declining transcriptional output and reduced the number of γH2AX DNA damage foci, indicating that dietary restriction preserves genome function by alleviating DNA damage. Our findings establish the Ercc1 ∆/- mouse as a powerful model organism for health-sustaining interventions, reveal potential for reducing endogenous DNA damage, facilitate a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of dietary restriction and suggest a role for counterintuitive dietary-restriction-like therapy for human progeroid genome instability syndromes and possibly neurodegeneration in general.

  4. Weight loss on an energy-restricted, low-fat, sugar-containing diet in overweight sedentary men.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Sandra; Dixon, Kathryn; Griffin, Jane; De Looy, Anne

    2004-06-01

    With the increasing prevalence of obesity in the United Kingdom, the search for an effective weight reducing diet is a priority in helping to reverse this trend. A 12-week dietary intervention study was carried out to test the effectiveness of an energy-restricted, low-fat, sugar-containing diet on weight loss in sedentary overweight men. The study also aimed to assess eating behaviour, to measure change in attitude towards sugar-containing foods and to measure the impact of the study on perceived quality of life. Subjects were recruited from three UK cities; Edinburgh, Birmingham and London. Seventy-six men, aged between 25 and 60 years, completed the study. Baseline diets were assessed by a 7-day diet diary. Compliance to the subsequent dietary advice was measured on four occasions post intervention, by 4-day diaries. Measures of body weight status were also monitored. Eating behaviour, attitudes towards sugar-containing foods and quality of life were assessed by questionnaire. Significant reductions in body weight (5.2%), body fat (11.2%) and waist:hip ratio (3%) were observed following reported dietary changes that included a reduction in reported energy intake of 3.2 MJ/day (770 kcal/day), a reduction in the percent energy from fat (from 38.1% to 26.2%), an increase in the percent energy from total carbohydrate (from 44.4% to 54%) and from protein (from 17.3% to 20.6%). Subjects scored relatively highly for dietary restraint and emotional eating, and were strongly influenced by external eating cues. On completion of the 12-week study, subjects had a more positive attitude towards sugar-containing foods and perceived an improved quality of life. It is concluded, therefore, that including sugar-containing foods in a weight-reducing diet may be an effective strategy to achieve a palatable, low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet, which promotes weight loss in overweight individuals.

  5. Restricted feeding of a high-fat diet reduces spontaneous metastases of Lewis lung carcinoma in C57BL/6 mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Obesity is a risk factor for cancer. We previously reported that consumption of a high-fat diet enhances metastasis in mice (Yan, Clin Exp Metastasis 2010). The present study investigated the effects of restricted feeding of a high-fat diet on spontaneous metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) i...

  6. Plasma concentrations and subcutaneous adipose tissue mRNA expression of clusterin in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus: the effect of short-term hyperinsulinemia, very-low-calorie diet and bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Kloučková, J; Lacinová, Z; Kaválková, P; Trachta, P; Kasalický, M; Haluzíková, D; Mráz, M; Haluzík, M

    2016-07-18

    Clusterin is a heterodimeric glycoprotein with wide range of functions. To further explore its possible regulatory role in energy homeostasis and in adipose tissue, we measured plasma clusterin and its mRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) of 15 healthy lean women, 15 obese women (OB) and 15 obese women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who underwent a 2-week very low-calorie diet (VLCD), 10 obese women without T2DM who underwent laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and 8 patients with T2DM, 8 patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 8 normoglycemic patients who underwent hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (HEC). VLCD decreased plasma clusterin in OB but not in T2DM patients while LSG and HEC had no effect. Clusterin mRNA expression in SCAT at baseline was increased in OB and T2DM patients compared with controls. Clusterin mRNA expression decreased 6 months after LSG and remained decreased 12 months after LSG. mRNA expression of clusterin was elevated at the end of HEC compared with baseline only in normoglycemic but not in IGT or T2DM patients. In summary, our data suggest a possible local regulatory role for clusterin in the adipose tissue rather than its systemic involvement in the regulation of energy homeostasis.

  7. Serum concentrations and subcutaneous adipose tissue mRNA expression of omentin in morbid obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus: the effect of very-low-calorie diet, physical activity and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Urbanová, M; Dostálová, I; Trachta, P; Drápalová, J; Kaválková, P; Haluzíková, D; Matoulek, M; Lacinová, Z; Mráz, M; Kasalický, M; Haluzík, M

    2014-01-01

    Omentin is a novel adipokine with insulin-sensitizing effects expressed predominantly in visceral fat. We investigated serum omentin levels and its mRNA expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) of 11 women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), 37 obese non-diabetic women (OB) and 26 healthy lean women (C) before and after various weight loss interventions: 2-week very-low-calorie diet (VLCD), 3-month regular exercise and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). At baseline, both T2DM and OB groups had decreased serum omentin concentrations compared with C group while omentin mRNA expression in SCAT did not significantly differ among the groups. Neither VLCD nor exercise significantly affected serum omentin concentrations and its mRNA expression in SCAT of OB or T2DM group. LSG significantly increased serum omentin levels in OB group. In contrast, omentin mRNA expression in SCAT was significantly reduced after LSG. Baseline fasting serum omentin levels in a combined group of the studied subjects (C, OB, T2DM) negatively correlated with BMI, CRP, insulin, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and leptin and were positively related to HDL-cholesterol. Reduced circulating omentin levels could play a role in the etiopathogenesis of obesity and T2DM. The increase in circulating omentin levels and the decrease in omentin mRNA expression in SCAT of obese women after LSG might contribute to surgery-induced metabolic improvements and sustained reduction of body weight.

  8. DNA Methylation and Hydroxymethylation Levels in Relation to Two Weight Loss Strategies: Energy-Restricted Diet or Bariatric Surgery.

    PubMed

    Nicoletti, Carolina Ferreira; Nonino, Carla Barbosa; de Oliveira, Bruno Affonso Parenti; Pinhel, Marcela Augusta de Souza; Mansego, Maria Luisa; Milagro, Fermin Ignacio; Zulet, Maria Angeles; Martinez, José Alfredo

    2016-03-01

    Weight loss can be influenced by genetic factors and epigenetic mechanisms that participate in the regulation of body weight. This study aimed to investigate whether the weight loss induced by two different obesity treatments (energy restriction or bariatric surgery) may affect global DNA methylation (LINE-1) and hydroxymethylation profile, as well as the methylation patterns in inflammatory genes. This study encompassed women from three differents groups: 1. control group (n = 9), normal weight individuals; 2. energy restriction group (n = 22), obese patients following an energy-restricted Mediterranean-based dietary treatment (RESMENA); and 3. bariatric surgery group (n = 14), obese patients underwent a hypocaloric diet followed by bariatric surgery. Anthropometric measurements and 12-h fasting blood samples were collected before the interventions and after 6 months. Lipid and glucose biomarkers, global hydroxymethylation (by ELISA), LINE-1, SERPINE-1, and IL-6 (by MS-HRM) methylation levels were assessed in all participants. Baseline LINE-1 methylation was associated with serum glucose levels whereas baseline hydroxymethylation was associated with BMI, waist circumference, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. LINE-1 and SERPINE-1 methylation levels did not change after weight loss, whereas IL-6 methylation increased after energy restriction and decreased in the bariatric surgery group. An association between SERPINE-1 methylation and weight loss responses was found. Global DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation might be biomarkers for obesity and associated comorbidities. Depending on the obesity treatment (diet or surgery), the DNA methylation patterns behave differently. Baseline SERPINE-1 methylation may be a predictor of weight loss values after bariatric surgery.

  9. Body-composition changes in the Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy (CALERIE)-2 study: a 2-y randomized controlled trial of calorie restriction in nonobese humans.

    PubMed

    Das, Sai Krupa; Roberts, Susan B; Bhapkar, Manjushri V; Villareal, Dennis T; Fontana, Luigi; Martin, Corby K; Racette, Susan B; Fuss, Paul J; Kraus, William E; Wong, William W; Saltzman, Edward; Pieper, Carl F; Fielding, Roger A; Schwartz, Ann V; Ravussin, Eric; Redman, Leanne M

    2017-04-01

    Background: Calorie restriction (CR) retards aging and increases longevity in many animal models. However, it is unclear whether CR can be implemented in humans without adverse effects on body composition. Objective: We evaluated the effect of a 2-y CR regimen on body composition including the influence of sex and body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ) among participants enrolled in CALERIE-2 (Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy), a multicenter, randomized controlled trial. Design: Participants were 218 nonobese (BMI: 21.9-28.0) adults aged 21-51 y who were randomly assigned to 25% CR (CR, n = 143) or ad libitum control (AL, n = 75) in a 2:1 ratio. Measures at baseline and 12 and 24 mo included body weight, waist circumference, fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), and appendicular mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; activity-related energy expenditure (AREE) by doubly labeled water; and dietary protein intake by self-report. Values are expressed as means ± SDs. Results: The CR group achieved 11.9% ± 0.7% CR over 2-y and had significant decreases in weight (-7.6 ± 0.3 compared with 0.4 ± 0.5 kg), waist circumference (-6.2 ± 0.4 compared with 0.9 ± 0.5 cm), FM (-5.4 ± 0.3 compared with 0.5 ± 0.4 kg), and FFM (-2.0 ± 0.2 compared with -0.0 ± 0.2 kg) at 24 mo relative to the AL group (all between-group P < 0.001). Moreover, FFM as a percentage of body weight at 24 mo was higher, and percentage of FM was lower in the CR group than in the AL. AREE, but not protein intake, predicted preservation of FFM during CR ( P < 0.01). Men in the CR group lost significantly more trunk fat ( P = 0.03) and FFM expressed as a percentage of weight loss ( P < 0.001) than women in the CR group. Conclusions: Two years of CR had broadly favorable effects on both whole-body and regional adiposity that could facilitate health span in humans. The decrements in FFM were commensurate with the reduced body mass; although men in the CR group lost

  10. Body-composition changes in the Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy (CALERIE)-2 study: a 2-y randomized controlled trial of calorie restriction in nonobese humans123

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Susan B

    2017-01-01

    Background: Calorie restriction (CR) retards aging and increases longevity in many animal models. However, it is unclear whether CR can be implemented in humans without adverse effects on body composition. Objective: We evaluated the effect of a 2-y CR regimen on body composition including the influence of sex and body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) among participants enrolled in CALERIE-2 (Comprehensive Assessment of Long-term Effects of Reducing Intake of Energy), a multicenter, randomized controlled trial. Design: Participants were 218 nonobese (BMI: 21.9–28.0) adults aged 21–51 y who were randomly assigned to 25% CR (CR, n = 143) or ad libitum control (AL, n = 75) in a 2:1 ratio. Measures at baseline and 12 and 24 mo included body weight, waist circumference, fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), and appendicular mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; activity-related energy expenditure (AREE) by doubly labeled water; and dietary protein intake by self-report. Values are expressed as means ± SDs. Results: The CR group achieved 11.9% ± 0.7% CR over 2-y and had significant decreases in weight (−7.6 ± 0.3 compared with 0.4 ± 0.5 kg), waist circumference (−6.2 ± 0.4 compared with 0.9 ± 0.5 cm), FM (−5.4 ± 0.3 compared with 0.5 ± 0.4 kg), and FFM (−2.0 ± 0.2 compared with −0.0 ± 0.2 kg) at 24 mo relative to the AL group (all between-group P < 0.001). Moreover, FFM as a percentage of body weight at 24 mo was higher, and percentage of FM was lower in the CR group than in the AL. AREE, but not protein intake, predicted preservation of FFM during CR (P < 0.01). Men in the CR group lost significantly more trunk fat (P = 0.03) and FFM expressed as a percentage of weight loss (P < 0.001) than women in the CR group. Conclusions: Two years of CR had broadly favorable effects on both whole-body and regional adiposity that could facilitate health span in humans. The decrements in FFM were commensurate with the reduced body mass; although men in the CR

  11. Effects of the dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet alone and in combination with exercise and caloric restriction on insulin sensitivity and lipids.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, James A; Babyak, Michael A; Sherwood, Andrew; Craighead, Linda; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Johnson, Julie; Watkins, Lana L; Wang, Jenny T; Kuhn, Cynthia; Feinglos, Mark; Hinderliter, Alan

    2010-05-01

    This study examined the effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet on insulin sensitivity and lipids. In a randomized control trial, 144 overweight (body mass index: 25 to 40) men (n=47) and women (n=97) with high blood pressure (130 to 159/85 to 99 mm Hg) were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: (1) DASH diet alone; (2) DASH diet with aerobic exercise and caloric restriction; or (3) usual diet controls (UC). Body composition, fitness, insulin sensitivity, and fasting lipids were measured before and after 4 months of treatment. Insulin sensitivity was estimated on the basis of glucose and insulin levels in the fasting state and after an oral glucose load. Participants in the DASH diet with aerobic exercise and caloric restriction condition lost weight (-8.7 kg [95% CI: -2.0 to -9.7 kg]) and exhibited a significant increase in aerobic capacity, whereas the DASH diet alone and UC participants maintained their weight (-0.3 kg [95% CI: -1.2 to 0.5 kg] and +0.9 kg [95% CI: 0.0 to 1.7 kg], respectively) and had no improvement in exercise capacity. DASH diet with aerobic exercise and caloric restriction demonstrated lower glucose levels after the oral glucose load, improved insulin sensitivity, and lower total cholesterol and triglycerides compared with both DASH diet alone and UC, as well as lower fasting glucose and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with UC. DASH diet alone participants generally did not differ from UC in these measures. Combining the DASH diet with exercise and weight loss resulted in significant improvements in insulin sensitivity and lipids. Despite clinically significant reductions in blood pressure, the DASH diet alone, without caloric restriction or exercise, resulted in minimal improvements in insulin sensitivity or lipids.

  12. Evaluation of dogs with genetic hyperuricosuria and urate urolithiasis consuming a purine restricted diet: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Westropp, Jodi L; Larsen, Jennifer A; Johnson, Eric G; Bannasch, Dannika; Fascetti, Andrea J; Biourge, Vincent; Queau, Yann

    2017-02-08

    Urate urolithiasis is a common problem in breed homozygous for the mutation that results in hyperuricosuria. Low purine diets have been recommended to reduce purine intake in these dogs. A higher protein, purine restricted diet with water added was evaluated in dogs with genetic hyperuricosuria and a history of clinical urate urolithiasis over a one year time period. Dogs were evaluated at baseline and 2, 6, and 12 months after initiating the test diet. Bloodwork, urinalysis, abdominal ultrasound, body composition, and 24-h urinary purine metabolite analyses were performed. Transient, mild, self-limited lower urinary tract signs were noted in only one dog on a single day, despite variable but usually mild and occasionally moderate amounts of echogenic bladder stones (<2-3 mm in size) in almost every dog at each visit. No significant differences were noted in urine specific gravity, urine pH, lean body condition score or body composition. Urinary uric acid concentration was lower on the test diet (p = 0.008), but 24-h uric acid excretions were similar (p = 0.220) compared to baseline. Significant differences between least squares mean plasma amino acid concentrations measured at the 0 and 12-month visits were found only for valine (p = 0.0119) and leucine (p = 0.0017). This study suggests the use of a low purine, higher protein diet with added water may be beneficial as part of the management of dogs with genetic hyperuricosuria and history of clinical urate urolithiasis.

  13. Relatively high-protein or 'low-carb' energy-restricted diets for body weight loss and body weight maintenance?

    PubMed

    Soenen, Stijn; Bonomi, Alberto G; Lemmens, Sofie G T; Scholte, Jolande; Thijssen, Myriam A M A; van Berkum, Frank; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2012-10-10

    'Low-carb' diets have been suggested to be effective in body weight (BW) management. However, these diets are relatively high in protein as well. To unravel whether body-weight loss and weight-maintenance depends on the high-protein or the 'low-carb' component of the diet. Body-weight (BW), fat mass (FM), blood- and urine-parameters of 132 participants (age=50 ± 12 yr; BW=107 ± 20 kg; BMI=37 ± 6 kg/m(2); FM=47.5 ± 11.9 kg) were compared after 3 and 12 months between four energy-restricted diets with 33% of energy requirement for the first 3 months, and 67% for the last 9 months: normal-protein normal-carbohydrate (NPNC), normal-protein low-carbohydrate (NPLC); high-protein normal-carbohydrate (HPNC), high-protein low-carbohydrate (HPLC); 24h N-analyses confirmed daily protein intakes for the normal-protein diets of 0.7 ± 0.1 and for the high-protein diets of 1.1 ± 0.2g/kg BW (p<0.01). BW and FM decreased over 3 months (p<0.001): HP (-14.1 ± 4 kg; -11.9 ± 1.7 kg) vs. NP (-11.5 ± 4 kg; -9.3 ± 0.7 kg) (p<0.001); LC (-13.5 ± 4 kg; -11.0 ± 1.2 kg) vs. NC (-12.3 ± 3 kg; -10.3 ± 1.1 kg) (ns). Diet × time interaction showed HPLC (-14.7 ± 5 kg; -11.9 ± 1.6 kg) vs. HPNC (-13.8 ± 3 kg; -11.9 ± 1.8 kg) (ns); NPLC (-12.2 ± 4 kg; -10.0 ± 0.8 kg) vs. NPNC (-10.7 ± 4 kg; -8.6 ± 0.7 kg) (ns); HPLC vs. NPLC (p<0.001); HPNC vs. NPNC (p<0.001). Decreases over 12 months (p<0.001) showed HP (-12.8 ± 4 kg; -9.1 ± 0.8 kg) vs. NP (-8.9 ± 3 kg; -7.7 ± 0.6 kg) (p<0.001); LC (-10.6 ± 4 kg; -8.3 ± 0.7 kg) vs. NC (11.1 ± 3 kg; 9.3 ± 0.7 kg) (ns). Diet × time interaction showed HPLC (-11.6 ± 5 kg ; -8.2 ± 0.7 kg) vs. HPNC (-14.1 ± 4 kg; -10.0 ± 0.9 kg) (ns); NPNC (-8.2 ± 3 kg; -6.7 ± 0.6 kg) vs. NPLC (-9.7 ± 3 kg; -8.5 ± 0.7 kg) (ns); HPLC vs. NPLC (p<0.01); HPNC vs. NPNC (p<0.01). HPNC vs. all other diets reduced diastolic blood pressure more. Relationships between changes in BW, FM, FFM or metabolic parameters and energy percentage of fat in the diet

  14. It's Not All About Calories

    Cancer.gov

    Losing weight is about balancing calories in (food and drink) with calories out (exercise). Sounds simple, right? But if it were that simple, you and the millions o